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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

THE 

AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL. II. 
ASHES-BOL. 



53 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



tojwto jfirti 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME II. 
ASHES-BOL. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 651 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BEITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY in the 
)f the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTEBED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY i 
the Office of tho Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



/if- 



/% 




Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Second Volume of the Revised 
f Edition are the following : 



HEXRT CAEEY BAIBD, Philadelphia. 

BASK. 

WILLABD BARTLETT. 

BENARES. 
BENGAL. 

Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

BASCOM, HENRY BLDLEMAN, D.D., LL. I). 
BENSON, JOSEPH. 

JULIUS BING. 

BECKET, THOMAS A, 
BERLIN, 
BISMARCK, PRINCE, 

and other articles In history and geography. 

FRANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

BENEDICT, SIE JULIUS. 

BENNETT, 9m WILLIAM STERN-DALE.- 

WILLIAM T. BBIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 

BAMBOO, 
BANANA, 
BARE, 

and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BUBLINGAME, Ph. D. 

ATTICA, 

AUGUSTUS, 

and articles in history, biography, and geography. 

J. C. OABPENTEB, Baltimore. 

" BALTIMORE. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

BELLADONNA, 

and other articles of matcria medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

BAIL, 
BANKRUPT, 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. 0. DALTON, M. D. 

BLACKMAN, GEORGE CURTIS, M. D., 

and various medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 
AUGCSTA, GA., 

and other articles in American geography. 

B. A. FlNKELSTEIN. 
BAGDAD. 
BASHAN. 
BEDOUINS. 
BESSARABIA. 

ALFRED II. GUERNSEY. 

ASSYRIA. 

BABYLON. 

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., MASSACRE op. 

BEECHER FAMILY. 

BLAKE, WILLIAM. 

J. W. HA WES. 

ATLANTA, GA., 

BIRMINGHAM, CONS., PA., AND ENG., 

BLOOMINOTON, ILL. AND IND., 

and other articles in American geography. 



CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

BLASTING. 
BLIND, THE. 
BOILING POINT. 

Prof. T. STEBBY HUNT, LL.D., Mass. Tech. 
Inst., Boston. 

BLOOMARY. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 
ASPHALTUM, 
BARIUM, 

BISMUTH, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., 
Boston. 

BACTERIUM, 
BLACK FLY, 
BLIND FISH, 

and other articles in natural history. 

JAMES F. LYMAN. 

BENTON, THOMAS HART. 
BEBNADOTTE, JEAN BAPTISTS JULES. 

Count L. F. DE POUBTALES, U. 8. Coast 
Survey. 

ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

E. A. PROCTOR, M. A., London. 

ASTRONOMY. 
AURORA BOREALIS. 

Prof. K. H. RICHARDS, Mass. Tech. Inst, Boston. 
ASSAYING. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY. 
BAVARIA. 

Jonx G. SHEA, LL. D. 

Articles on American Indians. 

G. W. SOBEN, Esq. 
ASSAULT, 
ATTAINDER, 
ATTORNEY GENERAL, 
and other legal articles. 

P. H. VANDEB WEYDE, M. D. 

ATMOSPHERE. 
ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

AYMARAS, 
BOGOTA, 

and other articles in South American geography. 

C. 8. WEYMAN. 

BATEMAN, KATE JOSEPHINE. 
BIEESTADT, ALBERT. 

Gen. JAMES GRANT WILSON. 

BAYARD, JAMES ASHETON, AND FAMILY. 

Prof. E. L. YOTTMANS. 

ATOMIC THEORY. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



ASHES 



A SHES, the solid remains after the burning of 
J\. combustible substances. When a vegeta- 
ble or animal substance is burned with free ac- 
cess of air, part of it is resolved into volatile 
compounds, chiefly water, carbonic acid, and 
free nitrogen, while the other and generally the 
smaller portion is left as incombustible residue 
or ash. If the substance be decomposed with 
exclusion of the air, a different set of compounds 
results; and the residue may be charcoal, bone 
black, or some other substance, depending upon 
the nature of the material taken for the ex- 
periment. Of wood ashes, even the different 
parts of the same plant furnish different quanti- 
ties, and ashes of different compositions. The 
soil itself has an influence upon the kind and 
amount of materials taken up by the plants. 
Nearly all the substances found in the soil enter 
into the composition of vegetable matters, and 
are found in their ashes. Alumina is, however, 
very rarely met with. No inorganic substances 
found in the ashes of plants come from any 
other source but the soil. Of the portion of 
wood ashes soluble in water, and removed from 
them by leaching or lixiviatipn, the greater part 
consists of the carbonate, silicate, sulphate, and 
chloride of potassium. Of the insoluble portion 
(leached ashes), carbonate of lime commonly 
forms about one half; the remainder is mostly 
silicate and phosphate of lime, oxide of iron, and 
salts of magnesia. . It is not supposed that the 
bases were combined with carbonic acid in the 
plants, but with organic acids, and that these 
were replaced by carbonic acid in the process 
of combustion. Plants that grow in and near 
salt water contain soda instead of potassa, 
deriving it from sea salt. The following ex- 
amples show how the quantity of ashes varies 
with the wood : From 1,000 parts by weight 
of oak, well dried, Kirwan obtained of ashes 
13-5 parts ; from elm, 23 -5 ; willow, 28 ; poplar, 
12-2; ash, 5'8; pine, 3-4. The bark furnishes 
more ashes than the solid wood, and the 
branches than the trunk. Peat and coal ashes 



contain a large proportion of alumina ; oxide of 
iron, carbonate and sulphate of lime, are also 
found in them. The principal uses of wood 
ashes are for making soaps and for enriching 
land. The soluble salts of potash are dissolved 
out from them, and oil or fatty matters added 
to the alkali, to produce the soap. The residue 
is a valuable manure, but evidently inferior to 
the ashes before the potash was extracted. Pot 
and pearl ashes are the salts of potash extract- 
ed from wood ashes. The name potash is 
traced to the method of its preparation from the 
extract of the ashes boiled down in iron pots. 
Barilla, or soda ash, is a similar product of sea 
plants, soda replacing the potash. It was for- 
merly largely imported into this country, but 
is now excluded by cheaper preparations of 
soda direct from sea salt. Ashes are some- 
times used with lime and sand to increase the 
strength of mortar, and prevent its cracking. 
Bone ashes contain much phosphate of lime, 
the cause of the fertilizing properties of bones. 
Phosphoric acid and phosphorus are prepared 
from these ashes. They are also used to make 
the cupels in which argentiferous lead is melt- 
ed and oxidized for obtaining the pure silver. 
The cupels are merely bone ashes made into a 
paste with water, or beer and water, and then 
moulded and dried. In distilleries, ashes find 
an extensive use for the rectification of the 
alcoholic liquors, the alkaline matters neutral- 
izing any acids that may be present, and thus 
preventing then- volatilization. It is a com- 
mon impression that their great consumption 
in American distilleries is to give strength to 
the liquors after their dilution with water, and 
this is confirmed by the violent caustic quality, 
not unlike that of the ley of ashes, for which 
much of the common whiskey of the country 
is remarkable. Ashes mixed with salt make a 
strong cement for iron pipes. Cracked pipes 
repaired with it bear as heavy pressure as 
new pipes. The cement sets on application of 
heat of 600. Shower of Ashes, a phenomenon 



6 



ASHFORD 



which frequently accompanies the eruption of 
a volcano. Quantities of matter resembling 
fine gray or black ashes are thrown aloft from 
the crater to prodigious heights, and borne by 
the winds to an astonishing distance. On the 
eruption of the volcano Tomboro, in the island 
of Sumbawa, east of Java, in the year 1815, a 
shower of ashes fell for 19 hours in succession. 
An English cruiser, 100 m. away from the 
island, was surrounded by the cloud, and re- 
ceived from it an addition to its freight of 
several tons' weight, and a Malayan ship was 
covered 3 feet deep. The ashes fell upon the 
islands of Amboyna and Banda, the latter 800 
m. to the eastward, and this apparently in the 
face of the S. E. monsoon, which was then 
blowing, but really carried by a counter cur- 
rent, the existence of which in the higher re- 
gions of the atmosphere was then first estab- 
lished. A similar phenomenon was observed 
in the eruption, in January, 1835, of the vol- 
cano Ooseguina, on the S. side of the gulf of 
Fonseca in Guatemala. Its ashes were carried 
to the eastward, over the current of the trade 
winds, and fell at Truxillo, on the shores of 
the gulf of Mexico. Ashes from Etna were 
deposited in Malta in 1329 ; and in A. D. 79 the 
cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, which had 
16 years before been visited by an earthquake, 
were buried beneath the showers which fell 
from the neighboring volcano of Vesuvius. 
Volcanic ash is a mechanical mixture of min- 
erals and rocks abraded by trituration against 
each other, and consequently exhibits great 
difference of structure and composition. Not 
being a product of combustion, it can hardly 
be called a true ash. 

ASHFORD, a town of Kent, England, 45 m. 
S. E. of London; pop. 5,500. It has damask 
manufactories, and the population is' rapidly 
increasing in consequence of the favorable 
situation of the town at the junction of three 
railroad lines. 

AS11L A\l>. I. A N. E. county of Ohio ; area, 
340 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 21,933. It is crossed 
by the Ohio and Pennsylvania and the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago railroads. 
Its surface is hilly and undulating, and the soil 
is of unsurpassed fertility. In 1870 the county 
produced 467,684 bushels of wheat, 537,798 of 
Indian corn, 551,245 of oats, 117,416 of pota- 
toes, 83,674 tons of hay, 344,187 Ibs. of wool, 
668,473 of butter, 418,011 of cheese, 733,855 
of flax, and 110,742 of maple sugar. Capital, 
Ashland. II. A new N. W. county of Wis- 
consin, bounded N. by Lake Superior, and 
separated on the N. E. from Michigan by the 
Montreal river ; area, about 1,500 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 221. The county is drained in its 
southern portion by affluents of the Chippewa 
river. Iron ore is found in a ridge called Iron 
mountain, which is 1,200 feet high. 

ASIILEY, a S. E. county of Arkansas, border- 
ing on Louisiana, bounded W. by the Sabine and 
Washita rivers, and intersected in the west by 
Bayou Bartholomew ; area, 870 sq. m. ; pop. 



ASHMUN 

in 1870, 8,042, of whom 3,764 were colored. 
The surface is undulating and highly fertile. 
In 1870 the county produced 201,905 bushels 
of Indian corn, 34,269 of sweet potatoes, and 
7,856 bales of cotton. Capital, Fountain Hill. 

ASOMOLE, Elias, an English antiquary, found- 
er of the Ashmolean museum at Oxford, born 
in Lichfield, May 23, 1617, died in London, 
May 18, 1692. He was a chancery solicitor. 
In the civil war he quitted London and settled 
at Oxford, adopted the royalist cause and be- 
came captain in Lord Ashley's regiment of 
horse, and after the battle of Worcester with- 
drew to Cheshire. On the restoration Charles 
II. bestowed upon him the offices of Windsor 
herald, commissioner of excise, and secretary 
of Surinam, with other appointments. He was 
for a tune the intimate associate of the astrol- 
ogers and alchemists Lilly, Booker, Sir Jonas 
Moore, and Wharton, and in 1650 translated 
and published Dr. Dee's Fasciculus Chymicus 
and Arcanum (on the Hermetic philosophy, 
&c.). He compiled a collection of the various 
unpublished writers on chemistry, which in 
1652 he published under the title of Theatriim 
Chymicum Britannicum. In 1658 he an- 
nounced that he had abandoned astrology and 
alchemy in his "Way to Bliss," a treatise on 
the philosopher's stone. In 1650 he had made 
a catalogue of the coins in the Bodleian libra- 
ry, and in 1659 obtained from the younger 
Tradescant the museum of coins and curiosi- 
ties which he and his father had collected at 
their house in Lambeth. In 1672 he presented 
to the king a history of the order of the gar- 
ter, for which he received a grant of 400. 
He was also the author of " History and An- 
tiquities of Berkshire," and of an autobiogra- 
phy. In 1679 his chambers in the Temple were 
burned, and the greater part of his library, 
with 9,000 ancient and modern coins, de- 
stroyed. The rest of his valuable collection 
of coins was presented to the university of 
Oxford, which prepared a suitable building for 
them in 1682. His books were transferred to 
the same institution according to his will. 

ASHMl \, Jehndi, agent of the American col- 
onization society, horn, in Champlain, N. Y., 
in April, 1794, died in New Haven, Conn., 
Aug. 25, 1828. He graduated at Burlington 
college in 1816, and after preparing for the 
ministry was chosen a professor in the theologi- 
cal seminary at Bangor. Removing soon after 
to the District of Columbia, he engaged in the 
service of the colonization society, at first as 
editor of a monthly journal, but sailed for Af- 
rica, June 19, 1822, to take charge of a reen- 
forcement for the colony of Liberia. Upon 
his arrival he found himself called upon to act 
as the supreme head of a small and disorgan- 
ized community surrounded by enemies. In a 
short time he reanimated the spirit of the col- 
onists, and restored their discipline. Three 
months after his arrival, by the aid of some 
fortifications he had constructed, and his own 
extraordinary bravery and conduct, they re- 



NOR-pH AMERICA-- 

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1 




ASHTABULA 



ASIA 



pelled a surprise from a party of 800 savages, 
and defeated them entirely a few days later. 
When obliged by ill health to abandon the 
country, March 26, 182S, he left a community 
of 1,200 freemen. 

isilT \l!l U, a N. E. county of Ohio, border- 
ing on Lake Erie and Pennsylvania ; area, 420 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 32,517. The surface is 
level, the soil clayey and adapted to grazing 
purposes. It is drained by Grand and Conne- 
aut rivers, and traversed by two railroads. In 
1870 the county produced 190,191 bushels of 
wheat, 557,632 of oate, 382,556 of Indian corn, 
363,957 of potatoes, 58,678 tons of hay, 197,- 
464 Ibs. of wool, 1,134,877 of butter, 1,193,089 
of cheese, and 146,306 of maple sugar. Capi- 
tal, Jeft'erson. 

ASHT01V-OIDER-LYNE, a manufacturing town 
and parish of Lancashire, England, on the 
Tame, 6 m. E. S. E. of Manchester; pop. in 
1871, 32,030. The extensive factories for cot- 
ton spinning and weaving, calico printing, and 
other branches of the manufacture of cotton 
goods, employ more than 15,000 hands. 

ASHTORETII (plur. Ashtaroth; called by the 
Babylonians Mylitta, by the Assyrians Ishtar, 
and by the Greeks Astarte, and nearly identical 
with the Egyptian Athor or Hathor), the great 
female deity of the ancient Semitic nations on 
both sides of the Euphrates, and chiefly of Phoe- 
nicia. By Ashtoreth was originally meant the 
moon "the queen of heaven" and subse- 
quently the planet Venus. Under her name is 
supposed to have been worshipped the principle 
of conception and production, in contradistinc- 
tion to that of generation, variously represent- 
ed by Baal, Belus, or Jupiter. According to 
many critics, she is identical with the Asherah 
of the Scriptures, the divinity of happiness. 
In Phoenicia she was at first represented by a 
white conical stone ; afterward with the head 
of a bull or a cow ; and ultimately as a human 
being with a thunderbolt in one hand and a 
sceptre in the other. Ashtoreth was some- 
times worshipped in groves, sometimes in tem- 
ples. Cakes made in the shape of a crescent, 
and male kids, are said to have been the offer- 
ings in which she most delighted. Eunuchs 
dressed in feminine attire, or women, were her 
favorite priests ; and many of the rites in which 
they indulged at her altars were of the most 
lascivious character. The dove, the crab, and 
the lion among animals, and the pomegranate 
among fruits, were sacred to Ashtoreth. Stat- 
ues and groves consecrated to her were very 
numerous in Syria. In Bashan a town of Og 
was named from her worship, Ashtaroth Kar- 
naim (horned Astartes). The idolatry of Ash- 
toreth was introduced into Israel in the days 
of the judges, and was not finally extirpated 
till the reign of Josiah. 

ASH WEDNESDAY, the first day of Lent, 
called by the fathers of the church caput je- 
junii, the beginning of the fust, or dies cine- 
rum, ash day, in allusion to the custom of 
sprinkling the head with ashes. In the Roman 



Catholic church, on this day the priest marks 
the sign of the cross with ashes on the fore- 
heads of the people, repeating the words, Me- 
mento, homo, quod pulvis es, et in puherem 
reverteru: "Remember, man, that thou art 
dust, and unto dust shalt return." 

ASIA, the largest of the recognized conti- 
nental divisions of the globe. The name, 
which was originally used in a much more 
limited sense than at present, comes to us 
from the Greeks, though believed by many to 
be of Semitic origin ; its import is still a mat- 
ter of question. The estimates of the area of 
Asia differ very considerably. That of Elis6e 
Reclus gives the extent of the continents aa 
follows, in square miles : Asia, 16,771,879; 
America, 14,902,989; Africa, 11,244,958; Eu- 
rope, 3,822,320 ; Australia, 2,972,916 ; to- 
tal, 49,725,062. Thus, considering Australia a 
continent, Asia comprehends almost exactly 
one third of the solid land of the globe, exclu- 
sive of the great groups of islands called 
Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. In this 
estimate the Japanese islands are regarded as 
belonging to Asia, although separated from the 
continent by considerable channels. Asia, thus 
considered, is bounded by the Arctic ocean, 
the Pacific, the Indian ocean, the Red sea, the 
Mediterranean, the Archipelago, the Black and 
Caspian seas, and European Russia. On the ex- 
treme N. E. it is cut off from America only by 
the narrow Behring strait. Between Asia and 
Africa the only connection is the isthmus of Suez. 
The separation between Europe and Asia is 
rather geographical than physical or political, 
the low range of the Ural mountains, which for 
the greater part forms the nominal line, being 
little more than a watershed, and running 
almost midway through the Russian empire. 
Europe is physically a corner arbitrarily cut 
off from the northwest of the great Asian con- 
tinent. The bulk of Asia forms a solid square 
lying between the Arctic circle and the tropic 
of Cancer, and Ion. 65 and 120 E. Among 
the projections from this solid square on the 
west are the peninsulas of Asia Minor and 
Arabia; on the north, the Siberian capes; on 
the east, the N. E. extremity of Siberia, with 
its southern prolongation of Kamtchatka and 
the peninsula of Corea; on the south, India 
and the Malay peninsula. Asia as a whole 
forms a great trapezium, its main axis running 
N. E. to S. W., chiefly through Siberia, the 
intersecting line passing N. and S., nearly on 
the meridian of 100, from Siberia on the 
north, in lat. 78, to the S. extremity of the 
Malay peninsula on the south, almost under 
the equator. Including the Japanese islands, 
and a few others which may be properly con- 
sidered as belonging to the continent, Asia 
thus extends from lat. 78 N. to the equa- 
tor ; or, including the islands of Sumatra and 
Java, and some minor insular prolongations 
of the Malay peninsula, to lat. 10 S. ; and 
from Ion. 26 E. to 190 E., equivalent, count- 
ed in the other direction, to 170 W. Asia 



8 



ASIA 



thus includes every climate of the globe, and 
all varieties of soil and production. The coast 
is deeply indented on every side. On the 
west it is cut into by the Mediterranean and 
the Black sea ; on the north by numerous bays 
and gulfs of the Arctic ocean ; on the east by 
the Okhotsk sea, the sea of Japan, the Yel- 
low sea, and the gulf of Tonquin; on the 
south by the gulfs of Tonquin and Siam, the 
bay of Bengal, and -the Arabian sea, and its 
prolongation, the Persian gulf. Its entire 
coast line is somewhat more than 33,000 m. ; 
Eeclus puts it at 35,886 in. The great moun- 
tain ranges, which contain many of the lofti- 
est summits on the globe, are arranged in the 
form of knots, from, the central point of which 
ranges radiate in various directions. There are 
four grand systems, the Altai, the Hindoo 
Koosh, the Himalaya, and the Armenian, 
which divide the whole continent into a series 
of plains and plateaus of greater or less eleva- 
tion. The central point of the Altai group is in 
the geographical centre of the continent, about 
lat. 50 N., Ion. 90 E. Half way across the 
continent its median line runs E. and W. upon 
the parallel of 50 N., splitting into various 
folds. It sends a branch S. W., which unites 
with the Belur Tagh and the Hindoo Koosh ; 
and one N. E., which under the names of the 
Yablonnoi and Stanovoi runs to the Arctic 
ocean. The Altai range separates the great 
northern plain of Siberia from the steppes of 
Mongolia and Mantchooria. The centre of the 
Hindoo Koosh range lies in about lat. 35 N., 
Ion. 73 E. It branches eastward, under the 
names of the Kuen-lun and Karakorum, into 
Chinese Tartary, and westward to the 8. 
shore of the Caspian, where the range receives 
the name of Elburz and approaches the Arme- 
nian group. The Hindoo Koosh, with its pro- 
longations, separates the great desert of Gobi 
from China and Thibet, and divides the steppes 
of Turkistan from the plateau of Iran. The 
Himalaya, from the extreme western point, 
where the Indus cuts through it, to the eastern 
extremity, where the hills fail altogether on 
the right bank of the Brahmapootra, measures 
2,000 m. in length, with an average breadth of 
180 m. The western Himalaya, around the val- 
ley of Cashmere, has no peaks exceeding 16,000 
or 18,000 ft. in height. In the middle of the 
range rise the stupendous peaks of Gaurisan- 
kar or Mt. Everest, 29,002 ft. above the level 
of the sea, Dhawalagiri, 26,826 ft., and Kinchin- 
junga, 28,156 ft. Aconcagua in Chili, now 
held to be the highest peak of the Andes, is 
22,422 ft. ; its head is therefore a mile and a 
quarter below that of Mt. Everest. Northward, 
under the name of Belur Tagh, the Himalaya 
range is continued between Independent and 
Chinese Tartary, where it is joined by theThian- 
shan mountains, which stretch into the desert 
of Gobi and the upland plains of Mongolia, 
and here and there connect with the Altai 
system. The eastern extremity of the Hima- 
laya is connected with at least five chains, 



which radiate fanwise, traversing parts of 
China and Further India. The Armenian 
group, of which Ararat is the culminating 
point, lies in parallel folds at the head of the 
peninsula of Asia Minor, between the Caspian, 
the Black sea, and the Mediterranean. It con- 
nects N. with the Caucasus, a somewhat iso- 
lated chain between the Caspian and Black 
seas, and in the west forms the Taurus ; of its 
southern branches, the one, Libanus, follows the 
course of the Mediterranean ; the other, running 
southeastwardly, forms the eastern boundary of 
the Mesopotamian plain. Besides these main 
groups are many ranges which claim mention. 
Among these are the Chang-pe Shan, a coast 
chain of Mantchooria ; the Khingan Oola, on 
the E. border of the desert of Gobi ; the Pe- 
ling, Nan-ling, Yun-ling, and Yun-nan in Chi- 
na proper ; and the Vindhya and Eastern 
and Western Ghauts in Hindostan. In 8. W. 
Asia there is the chain of the Arabian penin- 
sula, joining on to Libanus. A notable chain 
branches off in the far northeast, near the 
arctic circle, traverses the coast of the penin- 
sula of Kamtchatka, and disappears under the 
ocean, its summits appearing in the Kurile, 
Japanese, and Loo Choo islands. It forms the 
ocean rampart of the continent, enclosing be- 
tween it and the mainland the seas of Okhotsk 
and Japan. Apart from the mountain ranges 
Asia may be considered as consisting of two vast 
upland plateaus and six great lowland plains. 
The eastern plateau is a tract nearly as large 
as the whole of Europe, including the table 
land of Thibet and the desert of Gobi, ex- 
tending N. to the Altai, and 8. E. to the gulf 
of Tonquin. It is separated from Hindostan 
by the Himalaya range, some of the passes 
through which are higher than the loftiest 
peaks of the Alps. Cultivation is here car- 
ried on as high as 10,000 ft., and pasturage 
is found 2,000 ft. higher. On the southeast 
this table land is bounded by the Yun-nan and 
other almost unknown alpine ranges of China. 
On the north it is separated by the Altai 
mountains from the great plain of Siberia. 
The western plateau, or Iranian table land, has 
a general elevation of about 5,000 ft., rising 
sometimes to 7,000, or sinking to 2,000 or 
1,200. It may be divided into three parts : 
Iran proper or Persia, Armenia, with Azer- 
bijan and Kurdistan, and Asia Minor. Persia 
has a mean elevation of 3,000 ft. A large part 
of its surface consists of salt plains covered 
with sand and gravel. In the Armenian divis- 
ion, the table land is compressed to half its 
more eastern width. Asia Minor, the western 
division, is bounded along the shores of the 
Black sea by wooded mountains which rise to 
the height of 6,000 or 7,000 ft. These sections 
present many diversities of soil and scenery. 
A considerable part of Persia is barren and 
arid, but interspersed with beautiful valleys. 
The coasts of the Persian gulf are generally 
sandy and sterile. A large portion of Khora- 
san and the adjoining regions is a desert of 



ASIA 



9 



clayey soil, impregnated with salt and nitre, 
varied here and there with patches of verdure. 
Beloochistan is mostly an arid plain covered 
with coarse rod sand. The mountainous re- 
gion of Armenia, extending toward the Black 
sea, abounds in fertile valleys set among rugged 
hills. There are several smaller and detached 
plateaus. Imbedded in the Ural mountains is 
a large plain rich in minerals. The highlands 
of Syria rise gradually from the neighboring 
deserts to an elevation of above 10,000 ft., 
and slope by a succession of terraces down 
to the narrow coast plain of Palestine, with 
a deep depression, the valley of the Dead 
sea, 1,300 ft. below the level of the ocean. 
In India the plateau of the Deccan rises to 
the height of 1,500 or 2,000 ft., shut off by 
the Western Ghauts from the level coast of 
Malabar, by the Eastern Ghauts from that 
of Coromandel, and by the Vindhya and 
Malwa mountains from the low plains of 
Hindostan. There are six great Asian low- 
lands: 1. That' of Siberia on the north, which 
stretches from the northern declivities of the 
Altai mountains to the shores of the Arc- 
tic ocean. It is mostly cold, barren, and 
gloomy, hardly fitted for the abode of man. 
2. The lowland near the Caspian sea and the 
Aral, a sterile waste, much of it lying below 
the level of the ocean. 3. The Syro-Arabian 
lowland, the southern and western parts a 
desert, with few green spots. But wherever 
there is water this lowland is wonderfully 
productive. Its N. E. section, lying between 
the Euphrates and the Tigris, known formerly 
as Mesopotamia and Babylonia, once support- 
ed powerful nations. Though now sterile 
and almost uninhabited, it needs only the res- 
toration of the ancient system of irrigation 
from the two great rivers to render it one 
of the most productive regions of the earth. 
4. The lowlands of Hindostan, comprising 
the great Indian desert, in the northwest, 
together with the fertile plains of Bengal, a 
region not exceeded even by China for capacity 
to support a dense population. 5. The Indo- 
Chinese lowlands, comprising the long levels 
of Burmah, watered by the Irrawaddy, and 
the low alluvial regions of Cambodia and Siam. 
6. The immense Chinese lowlands, commencing 
in lat. 40 N"., and spreading southward to the 
tropic of Cancer. This plain, containing an 
area of about 200,000 sq. m., nearly that of 
France, supports a population of more than 
100,000,000, in proportion double that of Eng- 
land, more by half than that of Belgium, and 
much more than twice that of any other coun- 
try in the world, except a portion of India. 
The hydrography of Asia is regulated by its 
mountain ranges. There are six main river 
systems: 1. That of Siberia comprises the 
Obi, the Yenisei, and the Lena, each, roughly 
speaking, about 2,500 m. long. These carry 
off the waters of the Altai chain into the Arc- 
tic ocean. The Obi, the most western of the 
great Siberian rivers, is formed by two rivers 



rising in the Altai range. In lat. 61, a little 
N. of the parallel of St. Petersburg, it receives 
its great affluent the Irtish, and the stream 
falls into the Arctic ocean in lat. 67. The 
double basin of the Obi occupies a third of the 
area of Siberia. The Yenisei drains an area 
of about 800,000 sq. m., receiving in its course 
many large branches. It debouches in lat. 72 
into the gulf of Yenisei. The Lena, draining 
about 700,000 sq. m., rises in the mountains 
N. of Lake Baikal, runs N. E. for half its course 
to Yakutsk, receives in lat. 63 the Aldan, its 
greatest tributary, and thence runs between 
masses of frozen mud, in which are found the 
remains of extinct species of the elephant 
and rhinoceros, falling into the ocean near 
lat. 73, nearer to the pole than the month 
of any other great river. The Obi is the 
only Siberian river navigable for any dis- 
tance ; but, like all the others, it is frozen over 
for a great part of the year. 2. The Chinese 
river system comprises four minor divisions. 
The Hong-kiang or Si-kiang, rising in the 
province of Yun-nan, after an E. S. E. course of 
1,000 m., falls into the bay of Canton. The 
Yang-tse-kiang descends in several streams 
from the Pe-ling mountains, which divide China 
proper from Tartary. Its length is nearly 3,000 
m., a fifth part of which is navigable for large 
ships. In volume of water it is exceeded only 
by the Amazon and the Mississippi. It divides 
China proper into two nearly equal parts, 
passing through the most populous provinces. 
Its course is very winding, the general direction 
being first southeasterly and then northeasterly. 
It falls into the Yellow sea in lat. 32 N. The 
Hoang-ho or Yellow river, 2,500 m. long, has 
its source near that of the Yang-tse-kiang, but 
for a long distance the rivers are separated 
by mountain chains which border the table 
land. They then approach, and in 1851 their 
mouths were only 100 m. apart. In that year 
the Hoang-ho burst through its northern 
banks, and in 1853 its lower course had wholly 
changed, its present mouth in the gulf of Pe- 
chi-li being 260 m. N. of the former one. Nine 
similar changes are recorded within 2,500 years, 
the various mouths ranging over a coast line 
of nearly 350 m. Nearly all of the Chinese 
rivers are tributaries of these two great streams, 
the principal exceptions being the Hong-kiang 
and the Pei-ho or White river, which have 
their own basins. The Pei-ho, rising near 
the great wall, becomes navigable a few miles 
E. of Peking, and is an important channel for 
trade. It is also connected with the great 
canal. The Amoor, having its source in Mon- 
golia, for a great part of its course separates 
Chinese Mantchooria from the Russian Amoor 
Country. Its lower course is wholly within 
the Russian dominions. Its length measured 
along its windings is nearly 2,400 m., or about 
1,600 in a direct line. It falls into the sea of 
Okhotsk, in lat. 53. 3. Of the Indo-Chinese 
system, the principal rivers are the Irrawaddy 
and the Salwen, which water Burmah ; the 



10 



ASIA 



Menam, which traverses Siam; and the Me- 
kong, or Cambodia, which flows through 
Anam. These rivers traverse regions little 
known. 4. The Brahmapootra and the Gan- 
ges form a double system. The Brahmapoo- 
tra, according to the still doubtful assumption 
which makes the Dzang-botziu its upper 
course, rises in the lofty table land of Thibet, 
its head waters being not far from those of the 
Indus. After watering the long valley of 
Thibet, it makes a sudden bend to the south, 
cuts through the Himalaya chain near its E. 
end, and falls into the bay of Bengal, its waters 
near the mouth sometimes interlocking with 
those of the Ganges. The latter rises on the 
southern side of the Himalaya, and after run- 
ning S. E. through the plains of Bengal, and 
receiving in its course 12 large rivers, falls into 
the bay of Bengal. The Brahmapootra and the 
Ganges drain an area of about 500,000 sq. m., 
and there is scarcely a spot in Bengal more 
than 20 m. distant from one of their tributary 
streams, navigable even in the dry season. 6. 
The Indus rises near the head waters of the 
Dzang-botziu, but breaks through the Hima- 
layan chain toward the N. W. end, and after 
a course of 1,800 m. falls into the Arabian sea, 
on the opposite side of the peninsula of Hin- 
dostan. It drains about 350,000 sq. m. 6. 
The Euphrates and the Tigris, rising in the 
mountains of Armenia, flow for some distance 
close to each other, but after descending into 
the plain diverge to a distance of more than 
100 m., again approach, and finally unite, falling 
into the Persian gulf under the name of the 
Shat-el-Arab. The region between them is 
the Mesopotamia of the ancients. The length 
of the Euphrates is about 1,800 m. ; that of the 
Tigris, which pursues a more direct course, 
about 1,150. The basin of the Euphrates and 
Tigris occupies about 250,000 sq. m. The 
lakes of Asia are of less importance than those 
of America or Africa. The Caspian and the 
Aral, however, commonly called seas, may 
more properly be regarded as lakes. The for- 
mer, 700 m. long and 200 broad, lies 83 ft. 
below the level of the Black sea. Although 
it receives the waters of the Volga, the largest 
river of Europe, it has no outlet, and its wa- 
ters are salt. The Aral, 300 m. long and at 
its centre 150 broad, lies about 40 ft. above 
the same level ; its waters are salt, but less so 
than those of the Caspian. It is probable that 
these two lakes were once united. Lake Bai- 
kal, in S. Siberia, has an area of about 13,000 sq. 
m., being, next after Superior, Michigan, and 
Huron, the largest body of fresh water on the 
globe, and lies about 1,400 ft. above the ocean 
level. Lake Balkash, or Tenghiz, 250 in. long 
and 70 broad, has an area of upward of 8,000 
sq. m., approaching that of Erie. China 
has six considerable lakes, of which the two 
largest, Po-yang and Thung-thing, have each 
an area of about 3,000 sq. m., a third of that 
of Erie. The Tengrinoor in Thibet is of about 
the same dimensions. In Turkish Armenia 



is the great salt lake of Van. In Persia are 
the large salt lake of Urumiah, the small 
fresh-water lake of Hamun, and the little salt 
lake of Bakhtegan. Lake Asphaltites, or the 
Dead sea, in Palestine, is notable for its great 
depression and the exceeding saltness of its wa- 
ters. The proportion of Asia practically unin- 
habitable, either on account of extreme cold or 
the absence of water, is very great. A consid- 
erable part of Siberia lies north of the zone of 
cultivation. The great sand plain of Gobi, 
larger than France and England, is practically 
a desert. E. of the Caspian lies the large 
sandy desert of Khiva in Turkistan ; and a still 
larger one occupies the centre of Iran. The 
great peninsula of Arabia is mainly a desert, 
which stretches northward and includes a con- 
siderable part of the plain of the Euphrates, 
having altogether an area of nearly 1,000,000 
sq. m. Between the plains of Hindostan and 
the left bank of the Indus lies the Indian des- 
ert, 400 m. broad. Probably fully a quarter 
of Asia may be considered a desert region. 
The climate of Asia embraces every general 
variety and every local incident : the rainless 
and riverless plains of Gobi, and the super- 
abundant moisture of the Indian seacoast ; the 
extremes of heat and cold in Siberia and the 
steppes; the more equable and agreeable cli- 
mate of Asia Minor ; gradations of temperature 
indicated both by a latitude ranging from the 
equator almost to the pole, and by a range of 
elevation from several hundred feet below the 
level of the sea to 29,000 feet above it. In no 
part of the earth's surface are the modifications 
of temperature, and consequently of products, 
more strongly marked ; while in some spots 
the inhabitants behold at one view in their 
valleys and hillsides the animal and vegetable 
life of the tropics, of the temperate, and of 
the frigid zone. The vast plains of Siberia are 
exposed to the extremes of temperature. In 
Tobolsk the thermometer for weeks during 
the summer remains at from 80 to 90, while 
the mean winter temperature is below zero. 
At Yakutsk the mean annual temperature is 
13'43, while in the summer it rises to 80. The 
reason for this extreme variation is the distance 
of these plains from the ocean. The veil of 
mist which in more equable climates moderates 
the intensity of the rays of the summer sun is 
wanting ; while in the winter no breeze laden 
with moisture is present to temper the extreme 
cold natural to the high latitude. The prevalent 
winds are from the southwest. These reach 
eastern Siberia after having traversed wide 
stretches of land covered with ice and snow, 
and being thus deprived of their caloric and 
moisture, they become cold land winds. This 
applies to the whole of Asia N. of lat. 35. 
Compared with the maritime portions of Eu- 
rope, the difference is striking. In Peking, 
lat. 39 54', the mean annual temperature is 
9 lower than at Naples, which lies a little to 
the north; and 4 -5 lower than at Copenha- 
gen, which is 17 nearer the pole. The rain- 



ASIA 



11 



less plain of Gobi, just N. of and considerably 
less elevated than Thibet, is exposed to such 
extremes of temperature that only the hardiest 
shrubs can exist. The western plateau is also 
excessively cold in winter and excessively hot 
in summer. In northern India the great dif- 
ferences in elevation occasion great variations 
of climate within very moderate distances. 
Over an immense region one may pass in a 
single day through all the range of climates ; 
torrid at the foot of the mountains, temperate 
on their sides, arctic at the top. In southern 
India regular rainy and dry seasons, occasioned 
by the monsoons, greatly modify the climate. 
The direction of the prevailing winds also affects 
the temperature. On the southern declivity 
of the Himalayas, in lat. 30 45', the snow line 
begins at the elevation of 12,982 ft. ; on the 
northern declivity the warm winds from the 
Thibetan plateau raise the snow line to 16,630 
ft. Asia is rich in minerals. Gold is widely 
diffused in the Ural and Altai mountains, Chi- 
na, Persia, and Japan; silver in Siberia, Co- 
chin China, and India ; copper and iron in very 
many localities ; mercury in China, Japan, and 
India. The island of Bauca vies with Corn- 
wall in the production of tin. Coal has been 
found in northern China and Japan ; the area 
of its production is not ascertained. Petro- 
leum, in its various forms, is abundant in 
parts of China and India, in Siam and the val- 
ley of the Euphrates, and on the shores of the 
Caspian. Salt is common all over the conti- 
nent. Precious stones are more widely dif- 
fused in Asia than in any other part of the 
globe, every variety being found. The mines 
of India have produced nearly all the great 
diamonds discovered. The most valuable 
pearls are those found on the coasts of Ceylon 
and of the Persian gulf. The geological fea- 
tures of Asia are considered under the special 
heads of the different countries and mountain 
ranges. The continent presents fewer traces 
than any other of volcanic action. Volcanoes 
are confined mainly to the peninsula of Kam- 
tchatka, many of the mountains of which are 
only masses of lava. The peninsula of Cutch 
and the delta of the Indus present here and 
there traces of volcanic action, and are often 
agitated by subterranean forces. Mt. Ararat 
is also a volcanic peak. But the long line of 
islands forming a prolongation of the Asiatic 
continent is the great volcanic region ; and the 
Japanese islands are also volcanic. The bro- 
ken isthmus which connects the Indo-Chinese 
peninsula with Australia is a great line of fire. 
From Papua to Sumatra every large island is 
pierced with one or more volcanic outlets. 
Java has the largest number. The flora of 
Asia, while in general similar to that of the 
other continents in corresponding latitudes, 
yet presents some peculiarities. Asia is espe- 
cially the land of spices, odoriferous gums, and 
medicinal plants. North of the 60th parallel, 
the ground is perpetually frozen at a very 
small depth below the surface. Here and 



there trees are found as high as 70 ; but for 
the most part the soil is covered with snow 
and ice for nine or ten months of the year. 
When this melts the plains are clothed with 
mosses and lichens, mixed with dwarf willows, 
and the swamps and morasses with coarse 
grass, sedges, and rushes. In the far north the 
plants live between the air and the earth, their 
tops scarcely rising above the soil, while their 
roots creep upon the very surface. The few 
woody plants trail along the ground, rarely 
rising an inch or two above it. The alix la- 
nata, the giant of these miniature forests, never 
grows more than 5 inches high, while its stem, 
10 or 12 feet long, lies hidden among the 
protecting moss. Somewhat further south, a 
beautiful flora makes its appearance in the 
brief hot summer. Potentillas, gentians, saxi- 
frages, ranunculi, artemisias, and many others 
spring up, blossom, ripen their seed, and die 
in a few weeks. The Siberian steppes are 
bounded on the south by forests of pine, birch, 
and willow. The upper courses of the great 
rivers are bordered with poplars, elms, and 
maples. The Siberian pine, with edible seeds, 
reaches the height of 126 feet; the pinut cem- 
Jra grows around Lake Baikal almost np to 
the line of perpetual snow. The greater part 
of Thibet is sterile. Frost begins early in Sep- 
tember and continues till May. In some parts 
snow falls every month of the year. There 
are, however, many sheltered spots, heated by 
radiation from the bare mountain flanks, where 
grains and fruits of every kind flourish. Wheat, 
barley, buckwheat, and rice are native ; maize 
has been introduced, and is successfully culti- 
vated. There are olives, pears, apples, peach- 
es, apricots, grapes, mulberries, and currants; 
the various species of melons are noteworthy 
for their quality and quantity. The Himalayan 
mountains form a distinct botanical district. 
Immediately below the snow line the vegetation 
is of an arctic character; lower down there 
are forests of pine, oak, walnut, and maple; 
the flowers are mainly species of rhododen- 
dron. At an altitude of about 5,000 feet the 
transition from a temperate to a tropical flora 
takes place. The transition zone lies between 
the 35th and 27th parallels of N". latitude, where 
the tropical flora becomes mixed with that of 
the temperate zone. The prevailing plants on 
the Chinese low grounds are glycine, hydran- 
gea, camphor, laurel, the wax tree, cleroden- 
dron, rose of China, thuja, and olea fragrans, 
the flowers of which are used to flavor the 
finest teas. The India pride, paper mulberry, 
and other plants cover many of the hills. Of 
the tea plant there are two main species. The 
one, bearing small leaves, furnishes the tea 
consumed at home and exported to Europe and 
America; the other, with larger leaves, fur- 
nishes the brick tea consumed mainly in Thibet 
and N. E. Siberia; as used it is mixed with 
butter, forming a soup rather than a beverage. 
Rice is here the most important cereal. The 
plains of Ilindostan are so completely sheltered 



12 



ASIA 



from the cold northern winds, and heated and 
watered by the monsoons, that the vegetation 
early assumes a tropical character. In the 
jungles among the lower ridges of the Hima- 
laya ferns and orchidaceous plants abound. 
Trees of the fig tribe are a special characteris- 
tic. Some, as the banian, throw off shoots 
from their branches, which take root on 
reaching the ground, and become independent 
trunks, sending off other branches, which also 
take root, until a forest is formed around the 
parent stem. Palms of many kinds abound in 
India ; of some species every part is useful to 
man. Cotton is of spontaneous growth. The 
native fruits of India are numerous. The 
orange, the plantain, the banana, the mango, 
and the date, areca, palmyra, and cocoanut 
palms, are all of Indian origin. The flowers 
are notable for their brilliancy of color. The 
island of Ceylon, which may be regarded as 
the southern extremity of the Indian penin- 
sula, is the home of those species of laurel of 
which the bark constitutes cinnamon and cas- 
sia. The flora of Arabia is peculiar, being 
chiefly marked by the number of the plants 
producing odoriferous and medicinal gums. 
Oceans of barren sand, dotted here and there, 
wherever water is found, with oases, like isl- 
ands, cover a great part of Arabia and the ad- 
jacent Syria. The prevalent vegetation con- 
sists of grasses growing under the shade of the 
date palms; while plants of the acacia tribe 
spring up scantily in the arid sand. Coffee, 
originally brought from Abyssinia to Arabia, 
has thence been widely diffused ; the produc- 
tion in Arabia is small compared with the 
whole amount. The chief features of the Asia- 
tic flora, excluding the arctic regions, may be 
thus summed up: The principal forest trees 
are aloes, bamboo, birch, chestnut, cypress, 
ebony, fir, gutta percha, ironwood, larch, 
mangrove, maple, myrtle, oak, palm, pine, 
poplar, rosewood, sandalwood, teak, and wil- 
low. The fruits are almond, apple, apricot, 
banana, banian, betel, cashew, citron, cocoa, 
date, fig, grape, guana, guava, lemon, lime, 
mangosteen, mulberry, olive, orange, pandanus, 
peach, pear, plantain, plum, pomegranate, shad- 
dock, tamarind, and walnut. The most im- 
portant spices and condiments are camphor, 
cassia, cinnamon, clove, mace, and nutmeg. 
The tea and coffee plants furnish the bulk of 
the non-alcoholic beverages of the world. The 
leguminous plants, such as the bean, pea, and 
lentil, present a great variety of species. The 
yam supplies the place of the potato. Cereals 
are widely diffused in their proper localities. 
Tobacco has been introduced, and is extensive- 
ly cultivated. The sugar cane is indigenous. 
Hemp and flax are produced in large quanti- 
ties. Among the native drugs are aloes, anise, 
camphor, datura, jalap, myrrh, opium, and 
sarsaparilla, The zoology of Asia covers a 
wide field. It includes the whole class of do- 
mesticated animals. The ass, camel, goat, hog, 
horse, and ox came from Asia. Of the deer 



tribe there are many species, from the antelope 
to the reindeer. The Asiatic elephant differs 
considerably from its African congener. Be- 
sides some special anatomical peculiarities, it 
is distinguished by the smaller size of the ears 
and tusks, the latter being often entirely want- 
ing. In Africa the elephant has probably 
never been domesticated ; in Asia it has from 
time immemorial been made the servant of man 
in peace and war. Of oxen there are at least 
four distinct species : the Indian ox (bos In- 
dian), remarkable for its large hump, and held 
sacred by the Hindoos ; the yak (bos grun- 
niens) of central Asia, used as a beast of burden 
rather than of draught, notable for its silky* 
tail ; the buffalo (bos bubalm), often found wild, 
but capable of domestication; and the gayal 
(bos gavaus) of Indo-China. Among goats, that 
of Cashmere is famous for its silky hair, from 
which the costly shawls improperly styled 
camel's hair are made. Persia has a peculiar 
variety of sheep with a fatty tail. Many varie- 
ties of dogs exist; among the nobler species 
are the mastiff of Thibet, used for carrying 
burdens, and the Persian greyhound. Gen- 
erally the dog is accounted an unclean ani- 
mal, but a small species is fattened for food in 
China, the hams being considered a great 
delicacy. In India the pariah dog is the prin- 
cipal scavenger. Of the greater carnivora, the 
lion, leopard, and tiger are the chief. The 
Asiatic lion is smaller than the African, and 
lacks the flowing mane which forms the strik- 
ing feature of the male of the African species. 
A species of leopard, the cheetah, has been 
partially tamed, and is used in hunting. The 
tiger is peculiar to Asia, abounding in the 
warm plains of the south and east, never cross- 
ing the deserts which separate India from 
Persia, but sometimes straying as far north as 
Siberia. Wolves and foxes are numerous in 
the colder, hyeenas and jackals in the warmer 
regions. There are numerous species of bears ; 
those of the cold regions are large and fero- 
cious; those of the warmer parts are small 
and inoffensive, living mainly upon insects, 
fruits, and honey. Among about 422 species 
of quadrupeds found in Asia, 288 are stated to 
be peculiar to that continent. The tropical 
portions abound in monkeys, of which the 
species are numerous; some have long tails, 
some short ones, others none at all ; but none 
have the prehensile tails of some American 
species. The birds of Asia include eagles, vul- 
tures, and falcons, of the predatory orders, 
with nearly all the varieties of game and 
domestic fowls, except the turkey. Lizards 
and other saurian reptiles are numerous in 
the rivers of the warmer parts of the conti- 
nent; the gavial is the largest of its species. 
Pythons and other large serpents are found 
in the jungles. Of the larger venomous ser- 
pents, the cobra de capello is the most dread- 
ed. Of fishes, the salmonidm are abundant 
in the northern rivers, constituting the chief 
food of the natives and their train dogs. The 



ASIA 



13 



gold fish is a native of China. Of molluscous 
animals, the pearl oyster claims special notice, 
found chiefly in the Persian gulf and on the 
coasts of Oeylon. Russian Asia includes the 
whole of the continent north of about 50, with 
considerable southern extensions in the ex- 
treme east and in the west, reaching beyond 
39, the chief of which is a strip between the 
Black sea and the Caspian, including Cauca- 
sia and some territory acquired from Persia. 
Russia is slowly extending her domination 
among the independent tribes toward India, 
which it threatens to reach at no very distant 
date. Chiefly between lat. 50 and 40 lie 
Turkistan, Mongolia, and Mantchooria, in- 
habited by tribes which are more or less in- 
dependent. Chiefly between lat. 40 and 30 
lie Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, and Thibet, 
with China at the east, extending southward 
to a little below 20, and the main Japanese 
islands. Between lat. 30 and 20 lie Arabia, 
extending southward beyond 18, southern 
Persia, Beloochistan, and the northern por- 
tions of Hindostan and Further India. South 
of lat. 20 are the main parts of the Indian 

Eeninsulas, the eastern including Burmah, 
lain, and Anam, with the Malay peninsula, 
reaching southward almost to the equator. 
The population of Asia is estimated at abont 
790,000,000, or nearly three fifths of the entire 
inhabitants of the globe. It is very unequally 
distributed over the continent. China proper 
and British India, with an area of less than 
2,500,000 sq. m., have upward of 500,000,000; 
while Siberia, with about 5,000,000 sq. m., has 
less than 4,000,000. At least half the popula- 
tion of the globe is concentrated in China and 
India. Ethnologists usually group the inhab- 
itants of Asia into three great classes : 1. The 
Mongolian race embraces almost all the peoples 
of the north, east, and southeast, including 
Siberia, Tartary, China, Thibet, and the Indo- 
Chinese peninsula, besides the dominant peo- 
ple of Turkey. But while the physical char- 
acteristics of the Chinese are similar to those 
of the Tartars, so great is the distinction be- 
tween their languages that many have consid- 
ered them as of a wholly distinct race. 2. The 
Aryan race embraces the main populations of 
Hindostan, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Persia, 
and Caucasia, besides Russians, Greeks, Ar- 
menians, and others in Siberia, Turkey, and 
elsewhere. 3. The Semitic race includes the 
Syrians and Arabians, besides Jews in various 
parts. The Malay race appears on the con- 
tinent only in the peninsula of Malacca. (See 
ETHXOLOGY.) Only a small part of the in- 
habitants of Asia can be properly designated 
as barbarous, for most of them have from 
time immemorial possessed a literature and 
established forms of government. Nor can 
they be called half civilized with much more 
propriety than the term might be applied 
to the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, 
and Romans. Their civilization, however, as- 
sumes a type presenting marked differences 



from that of Europe and America. Up to 
a certain point, and in certain directions, the 
Asiatics made great advances in every de- 
partment of thought and culture; but that 
point once reached, the progress of develop- 
ment was checked. In China the laws, litera- 
ture, art, and industry have remained almost 
fixed for ages. So, too, although in a some- 
what less degree, in India. The changes which 
have been wrought have sprung from without, 
from the pressure of foreign races or the in- 
fluence of a new religion, rather than from a 
principle of growth from within. Their very 
languages show a lack of progressiveness. The 
Chinese language now is the Chinese of 2,000 
years ago. The Arabic of the Koran is the 
Arabic of to-day. The religions of Asia fall 
mainly within three great classes: Buddhism 
in China and Japan, respectively modified by 
and mingled with Confucianism and Sintoism ; 
Brahminism in India; and Mohammedanism 
existing in almost every region, but especially in 
the Turkish dominions, Persia, and the smaller 
states of western Asia. The pagans on the one 
hand, and the Christians and Jews on the 
other, are too few to be taken into the gen- 
eral account. The Greek church may nom- 
inally number 7,500,000, the Roman Catholic 
4,500,000, the Protestant 500,000. Religion 
seems to be almost the only changeable thing 
in Asia. In two centuries Buddhism became 
the predominant religion of 300,000,000 peo- 
ple; in half that time Islamism spread from 
Arabia to Persia, Hindostan, and Tartary; 
and within a few years Babism, a new religion, 
has sprung up in western Asia, and is rapidly 
spreading in Persia, Turkey, and India. (See 
BABISM.) The political institutions of Asia 
present a variety of forms, among which the 
republican and constitutional are not to be 
found. Strict absolutism is the prevailing 
form. In many parts of Arabia and Tartary 
various nomadic tribes have a patriarchal 
government, under their own chiefs, although 
they nominally recognize a higher author- 
ity. In the true sense, only Turkey, Persia, 
Afghanistan, China, Japan, Burmah, Siam, 
and Anam can be called independent coun- 
tries. All others are more or less dependent 
upon the great empires of Asia or Europe. 
In China the government is an absolute mon- 
archy. More than a third of the continent is 
under the government of Russia and England. 
The most extraordinary foreign conquest is 
that by the British, which in a century and a 
quarter has made England mistress of more 
subjects than were ever ruled by any Roman 
emperor. Compared with the British posses- 
sions, those of the French in Cochin China 
and the Portuguese in India and at Macao in 
China are quite insignificant, while Holland 
and Spain possess only islands near the conti- 
nent. Turkey should be considered an Asiatic 
power with possessions in Europe, rather than 
a European power with possessions in Asia. 
Great Britain, Russia, France, and Portugal 



ASIA 



are therefore the only European powers who 
hold any portion of Asia. The principal polit- 
ical divisions of Asia may be classified as fol- 
lows, placing the independent powers first in 
the order of their importance, and grouping 
some of the minor ones together : 1 . China 
proper, with the islands of Formosa and Hai- 
nan. Chinese dependencies : Thibet, Chinese 
Tartary, Mongolia, Mantchooria, and Corea. 2. 
Turkey in Asia : Asia Minor, Turkish Arme- 
nia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and part 
of Arabia. 3. Japan. 4. Persia. 5. Arabia. 
6. Afghanistan, Herat, Beloochistan. 7. Fur- 
ther India : kingdoms of Anam, Burmah, and 
Siam. 8. Turkistan : khanates of Bokhara, 
Khiva, Kokan, and Koondooz. 9. Russian 
Asia : Siberia, Amoor Country, Russian Tur- 
kistan, Caucasia. 10. British India and na- 
tive states under British influence. 11. French 
possessions: Cochin China, Pondicherry. 12. 
Portuguese possessions : Goa, Macao. Only 
roughly approximate statements of the area 
and population of most of these divisions 
can be given, for which reference is made to 
the separate articles upon them. Asia is re- 
garded as the birthplace of mankind. It is 
the cradle of all the great religious move- 
ments of Hindoo pantheism and Buddhism, 
Hebrew monotheism and Persian dualism, 
Christianity and Mohammedanism and the 
earliest seat of science and literature. Here 
flourished in hoary antiquity the secluded em- 
pire of China, and the Aryan communities 
which produced Zoroaster and the Vedas, and 
reared the stupendous monuments of Hindo- 
stan. Asia was the seat of the Assyrian, Chal- 
dean, Median, Persian, Syrian, and Parthian 
empires. The names of Babylon and Nineveh, 
of Jerusalem, Sidon, Tyre, Palmyra, and Anti- 
och, of Susa, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Ctesiphon, 
and Seleucia, of Sardis, Ephesus, and Miletus, 
keep before our minds the ancient glories of 
Asiatic power and culture ; while in after ages 
Bagdad, Bassorah, Damascus, Aleppo, and even 
the distant Samarcand and Balkh in the wilds 
of central Asia, bespeak the progress of Asi- 
atic civilization and intelligence. Phoenicia 
was the great teacher of Greece and the oth- 
er countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 
When western civilization had been developed, 
Asia Minor was the theatre where Asia and 
Europe met. Persia and Hellas for a century 
and a half wrestled for supremacy, until semi- 
Hellenic Macedonia established her sway over 
both. The Seleucidse of Syria became the suc- 
cessors of Alexander in the East, but finally 
yielded to the Parthians on one side and the 
Romans on the other. Rome extended her 
power to the Euphrates, and Asian Nicomedia 
was for a time a favorite seat of her emperors. 
In neighboring Niccea Constantino had the dog- 
mas of her new religion, received from Jeru- 
salem, established. But Arabia produced a 
new faith and a new race of conquerors, and 
the caliphs triumphed over the Ctesars of the 
East, and restored power to its ancient seats 



on the Euphrates, Tigris, and Orontes. Rees- 
tablished Persia was merged in their dominions. 
Sultan Mahmoud of Ghuzni conquered Afghan- 
istan, and carried Mohammedanism beyond the 
Indus. In the west of Asia the cross, about a 
century later, began a deadly struggle with the 
crescent, which lasted for ages, and terminated 
with the total discomfiture of the crusaders. 
Turkish tribes, Seljuks and others, had in the 
meanwhile become the chief rulers of Moslem 
Asia. But now a vast human flood, under 
Genghis Khan, surged in from the plains of 
eastern Asia, overwhelmed China, India, and 
western Asia, and rolled on as far as the centre 
of Europe, thus renewing the devastations of 
the Huns and other northern Asiatic tribes 
who desolated the West-Roman empire before 
its fall. The Mongols retired from Germany, 
but their yoke remained firmly fixed on Russia, 
where the Golden Horde held sway for more 
than 200 years. In Bagdad they terminated 
the dynasty of the Abbasside caliphs. At the 
same epoch they established the successors of 
Genghis Khan on the throne of Afghanistan 
and northern India, and thus gave rise to the 
great empire of which Delhi afterward be- 
came the capital. The great body of the Mon- 
gols themselves embraced Buddhism. The 
Mongols of India adopted Mohammedanism. 
By the same irruptive movement, the native 
dynasty of the Chinese was displaced, and a 
Mongol line of sovereigns set up in their stead, 
of whom Kublai Khan was the first and ablest. 
The conquests of these fierce tribes, which had 
penetrated from the Chinese wall to Silesia 
and the shores of the Mediterranean, induced a 
feeling of terror in Christendom. Attempts 
were made by missionaries, sent into the heart 
of Asia, to establish friendly relations with the 
Mongols. Marco Polo also travelled in central 
Asia and Mongolia, and, after residing for a 
period at the court of Kublai Khan, the con- 
queror of China, brought home admirable ac- 
counts of central Asia, China, and India. The 
vast Mongolian empire of Genghis had, after 
a few generations, crumbled into pieces. The 
tribes from whom the guards of the throne and 
persons of the caliphs had been chosen had as- 
sumed the position of independent conquerors, 
and had founded the Ottoman empire. In 
1299 Othman led his followers into the ancient 
province of Bithynia, nearly opposite Constanti- 
nople, and made Brusa his capital. Amurath 
and his son Bajazet soon overran the provinces 
of Asia Minor, and crossing into Europe pos- 
sessed themselves of the Byzantine provinces. 
A new invasion of the Mongols under Tamer- 
lane now swept over Asia and overthrew 
Bajazet (1402), but Amurath II. restored the 
Ottoman power, and his successor Mohammed 
II. established himself in Constantinople (1453). 
Under Solyman the Magnificent (1520-'66), the 
Ottoman empire reached its present limits, 
comprising Asia Minor, Syria, the country as far 
as the Tigris, and a part of Arabia. A quar- 
ter of a century after the permanent establish- 



ASIA 



15 



ment of Mohammedanism in Constantinople, 
Bernardo Diaz doubled the Cape of Good Hope 
(I486). Two years later Vasco da Gama ar- 
rived at Calicut, and afterward Almeida and 
Albuquerque were sent out and formed Por- 
tuguese settlements, Goa being captured and 
made their capital (1510). At this period 
China was in the hands of a Chinese dynasty, 
which had been established in 1358 by the ex- 
tirpation of the Tartar rulers. In central Asia 
the thrones of Samarcand, Ispahan, Afghan- 
istan, and Khorasan were filled by descendants 
of Genghis or Tamerlane. A number of petty 
chiefs maintained their independence ; and the 
Uzbecks, the successors to the country of the 
Turks, harassed all the territories within their 
reach. In Persia the first of the Sufi dynasty 
had just ascended the throne. Albuquerque 
directed a successful expedition against Ma- 
lacca, where he received the submission of 
Pegu and Siam. He also seized Ormuz at the 
mouth of the Persian gulf. A Portuguese 
embassy was sent to China, and the Portuguese 
having gained the favor of the court of Peking 
by extirpating a band of pirates that infested 
the coast, permission was given them to settle 
at Macao. From this point and from Goa they 
directed their operations, and in 50 years were 
masters of the Spice Islands, and monopolized 
the whole trade of the eastern ocean. The 
subjugation of northern India by the emperor 
Baber in 1526, and a succession of able princes, 
consolidated the empire of the Moguls in India. 
Abbas the Great, shah of Persia (1587-1628), 
raised the Persian empire to its highest pitch 
of modern greatness. The brilliant successes 
of the Portuguese in India inspired adventurers 
of other nations with hopes of wealth. But it 
was not till 1600 that the English East India 
company was formed, and in 1612 English 
factories were established by leave of the 
native authorities at Surat, Ahmedabad, Cam- 
bay, and Gogo. In 1644 the native dynasty 
of the Chinese was terminated by the rebellion 
of the mandarin Li-tse-ching, and the Man- 
tchoo Tartars again ruled the vast empire of 
China. About the same time the settlement 
of Madras was founded by the East India com- 
pany, and subsequently the factory at Cal- 
cutta; and in 1661 the Portuguese ceded to 
the English the island of Bombay. The East 
India company, which had been unsuccessful 
as a trading undertaking, was reorganized, and 
in 1708 a new body of adventurers was formed, 
and admitted to a participation in its rights 
and privileges. This body was destined before 
the lapse of a century to acquire and con- 
solidate a larger and more powerful empire 
than had ever been governed by the Moguls in 
India. Dutch and French trading companies 
had also obtained a footing in India. On the 
death of Aurunszebe in 1707, the affairs of the 
empire had rapidly fallen into confusion. The 
various rajahs became virtually independent,, 
and the Mahrattas, who first appeared as free- 
booters during the reign of Aurungzebe, ex- 
54 VOL. ii. 2 



tended their dominions across the peninsula. 
In 1746, war having broken out between Eng- 
land and France, Labonrdonnaie, the French 
governor of Mauritius, conducted an expedi- 
tion against Madras, the chief British settle- 
ment in India, which capitulated on the under- 
standing that it should be ransomed. Dupleix, 
governor of the French settlement of Pondi- 
cherry, conceived the scheme of consolidating 
the states of Hindostan into one mighty empire, 
and with the aid of native allies was at first 
successful against the English ; but Clive saved 
the menaced existence of the East India com- 
pany, and by 1760 the British had subdued the 
finest provinces of Bengal, Behar, and part of 
Orissa. From that time the limits of the 
British empire in India have steadily increased. 
A great revolt of the natives was put down 
in 1857-'8, and the government was imme- 
diately afterward transferred from the East 
India company directly to the crown. In the 
north a few Cossacks brought Siberia under 
Russian dominion toward the close of the 16th 
century, and Peter the Great obtained a foot- 
hold in central Asia by assisting the shah of 
Persia against the Afghans. A plot concocted 
with Turkey for the dismemberment of the 
Persian kingdom was defeated by the energy 
of the usurper Nadir Shah, who for a brief 
space restored the waning glories of the Persian 
name, and passing the Indus pursued a career 
of conquest as far as Delhi. During his return 
he was murdered by mutineers (1747), and again 
the Persian empire was dismembered, Afghan- 
istan being erected into an independent king- 
dom by Ahmed, one of Nadir's followers. The 
Russians have during the present century 
gradually extended their power, consolidating 
their rule over the Caucasian regions, and ac- 
quiring new possessions on the Aras, the 
Amoor, and the Jaxartes. Turkey has had 
conflicts with Russia, Persia, and her own 
vassal, Mehemet AH of Egypt, but has es- 
caped without a considerable loss of terri- 
tory. Persia has been constantly declining, 
and has lately suffered a terrible depopulation 
from famine. China has seen foreign enemies 
in her capital, and half her territory ravaged 
by a powerful insurrection. Japan has been 
compelled to open her ports and cities to the 
abhorred occidentals. Afghanistan has been 
torn by foreign and domestic wars. Arabia 
has witnessed the overthrow of the Wahabites, 
and several minor conflicts, but is on the whole 
as isolated and unsubdued as ever. What was 
formerly Independent Tartary is now half re- 
duced by Russia. The political influences of 
Asia are balanced by British supremacy in the 
south and Russian in the north. These two 
great powers have long antagonized each other 
at the court of Persia, the key to central Asia 
and northern India. In China, Russian influ- 
ence is perhaps greater than that of any other 
nation. In the west, Turkey keeps up the ap- 
pearance of a great power, but her influence in 
general Asiatic affairs is a cipher. 



16 



ASIAGO 



ASIA MINOR 



ASIAGO, a town of N. E. Italy, in the province 
and 17 m. N. of Vicenza; pop. 5,140. It has 
manufactories of straw hats. Asiago is the 
foremost among the " seven German commu- 
nities " of Venetia. 

ASIA MINOR, a peninsula at the western ex- 
tremity of Asia, forming a large part of Asiatic 
Turkey, between lat. 36 and 42 N. and Ion. 
26 and 41 E., and bounded N. W. by the 
Dardanelles (the Hellespont of the ancients), 
N. by the sea of Marmora (Propontis), the Bos- 
porus, and the Black sea (Pontus Euxinus), E. 
by the Armenian mountains and their S. W. 
prolongations to the gulf of Iskanderun (of 
Issus), S. by the Mediterranean, and W. by the 
Archipelago (vEgean sea) ; area, about 212,000 
sq. m. The eastern portion of the district 
consists of an elevated plateau from which 
rise mountain ranges of considerable height, 



among them the Taurus and Antitaurus (see 
TAURUS), culminating in the extinct volcano 
of Arjish Dagh (Argteus), about 13,000 ft. 
above the sea, and more than 9,000 above the 
plain. Between the abrupt edges of the high 
table land and the sea N. and S. of the penin- 
sula intervenes only a narrow strip of low, 
level coast land. But on the west this strip 
is wider, forming an extensive and very fertile 
plain that portion of the country to which 
the name of the Levant was several centuries 
ago first and properly applied, though the 
term has since been indefinitely used, often of 
the whole peninsula. The rivers are small; 
the chief are the Sakaria (Sangarius), Kizil 
Irmak (Ilalys), and Yeshil Irmak (Iris), which 
flow into the Black sea, and the Sarabat 
(Hermus) and Meinder (Maaander), which 
empty into the Archipelago. On the bar- 



ANCIENT 

ASIA MINOE 




ren plateau the climate is dry and very hot 
in summer, but in winter cold ; the N. and S. 
coasts are less subject to extremes of tem- 
perature ; while the coast plain has one of the 
pleasantest climates in the world. The fruits 
of the fertile strip of land along the coast were 
celebrated in ancient times, and are still the 
most important productions of the country. 
During the earliest period of its history Asia 
Minor appears to have been inhabited by a 
number of different tribes, and even by entirely 
different races. The names of these tribes 
gave rise to. most of the designations afterward 
given to the divisions of the peninsula. The 
boundaries of these were not well denned until, 
under the successors of Alexander, they be- 
came separate states, generally under the rule 



of Macedonians and Greeks. The divisions 
on the N. coast were as follows : Bithynia, 
with the towns of Prusa (now Brusa), Nico- 
media (Ismid), and Nicsa (Isnik), a country 
first inhabited by the Bebryces, a Mysian or 
Phrygian tribe, and afterward conquered by 
the Bithyni, who, according to Herodotus, 
came from Thrace ; Paphlagonia, with its chief 
city Sinope (founded by a Greek colony), 
named from the Paphlagonians, from whom 
it was conquered by the Lydians, after which 
it was ruled successively by Persians, Mace- 
donians, and Greeks ; and finally Pontus, with 
Trapezus (Trebizond), first occupied by savage 
tribes of which little is known, then colonized 
liy the Greeks, and afterward the kingdom 
of the famous Mithridates. On the W. coast 



ASIA MINOR 



ASMONEANS 



17 



were three other divisions : Mysia, including 
the plain of Troy and the royal city of Per- 
gamus, in the district of Teuthrania; Lydia 
(capital, Sardis), whose fonnders, the Lydi- 
ans, were probably a Semitic people, who 
established the first enduring empire of which 
we have authentic record in Asia Minor ; and 
Caria, settled, according to Herodotus, by col- 
onists from the islands of the ^Egean. On the 
W. coast also, and within the boundaries of 
the three divisions just named, were the famous 
Greek colonies of JJolis, lying principally in 
S. W. Mysia, Doris in southern Caria, and be- 
tween the two Ionia, with its confederation of 
twelve cities (Phocoea, Smyrna, Ephesus, Mile- 
tus, &c.), peopled by Greek colonists, accord- 
ing to tradition emigrants from Attica in the 
obscure time of Codrus, who here maintained 
the reputation of their race for progress and 
civilization. On the S. coast were Lycia ; 
Pamphylia, so called from the number of tribes 
composing its inhabitants (n.a/i$vfoi, people of 
all races); Pisidia, parallel with and just N. of 
the narrow coast strip of Pamphylia ; and Cili- 
cia, with the city of Tarsus, in ancient times 
peopled by the most formidable pirates of 
the East. The inland districts were Phrygia, 
whose inhabitants claimed to be autochtho- 
nous ; Galatia, named after the Gauls who de- 
serted the army of the later Brennus to settle 
here; Cappadocia (capital, Mazaca, now Kai- 
sariyeh), first ruled by the Medes, afterward 
by the Persians ; Isauria, peopled by a tribe 
of mountaineers dreaded as daring robbers ; 
and Lycaonia, first mentioned by Xenophon, 
and inhabited by an ancient tribe from whom 
it took its name. In reviewing its history Asia 
Minor cannot be treated as a united whole; 
for details concerning its different divisions the 
titles just given are referred to. The follow- 
ing outline, however, may serve to show how 
inextricably its fortunes are complicated with 
those of the great nations which for 3,000 
years contended for its dominion. Though the 
traditions regarding its first settlement are ob- 
scure, it appears that the Lydians, coming from 
the east, were among the first inhabitants of the 
country. Their government is at all events the 
first of which we have any detailed record. It 
flourished until King Croesus was defeated by 
Cyrus, and the Persian empire gained the do- 
minion of the peninsula, holding it from about 
554 to 333 B. C. The campaign which in the 
last-mentioned year ended with the battle of 
Issus now added the country to the conquests 
of Alexander. It remained under his various 
successors until the victories of L. Scipio (190) 
and Manlius (189), followed by the treaty with 
Antiochus in 188, the bequest of the kingdom 
of Pergamus to Rome by Attains III. (133), 
and the overthrow of Mithridates (65 B. C.) 
gave the territory to the Romans, in whose 
hands, and those of their followers of the By- 
zantine empire, it continued till its conquest by 
the Turks in the 13th century. Asia Minor 
now forms a part of Turkey in Asia ; its larger 



portion constitutes the district called Anatolia, 
or Natolia, from the old Greek name given to 
Asia Minor 'Avaro/l^, the east or land of the 
rising sun. Officially, it includes several eya- 
lets, but the name Anatolia is generally applied 
to the whole region. For details as to its 
present condition, see TUBKET. 
ASIXAIS, a tribe of Indians on Trinity river, 
Texas, frequently mentioned in accounts of 
La Salle's expedition and early Louisiana his- 
tory under the name of Cenis. They were a 
branch of the confederation known as the Tex- 
as, were sedentary, cultivating rudely maize, 
beans, squashes, melons, and tobacco, and mak- 
ing mats and earthenware. They lived in large 
beehive-shaped cabins, each holding 15 or 20 
families, and at a very early day procured 
horses from the Spaniards to use in war and 
hunting. La Salle visited them in 1686, and 
the French subsequently, under La Harpe and 
St. Denis, tried to gain them; but the Span- 
iards established missions and posts among 
them in 1715. Before the close of the century 
they ceased to he noticed as a separate tribe, 
and are now apparently extinct, unless they 
are represented by the Arapahoes. 

ASKEW, Aseongh, or Avseongb, Anne, an Eng- 
lish Protestant lady, a native of Lincolnshire, 
who was burned at Smithfield, July 16, 1546. 
Her husband, named Kyme, was a'Strong Cath- 
olic, and turned her out of doors because she 
embraced the principles of the reformers. She 
went to London to sue for a separation, and at- 
tracted the sympathy of the queen, Catharine 
Parr, and many of the court ladies. Her denial 
of the corporeal presence of Christ's body in 
the eucharist caused her arrest and committal 
to prison. Burnet says that after much pains 
she signed a recantation, but this did not save 
her. She was recommitted to Newgate, and 
asked to disclose who were her correspondents 
at court. She refused to reply, though she 
was racked in the presence of the lord chan- 
cellor. As she was not able to stand after the 
torture, she was carried in a chair to the stake, 
and suffered along with four others, under- 
going this last trial with signal fortitude. 

ASMANNSHAUSEN, a village of Prussia, prov- 
ince of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the 
Rhine, 2 m. below Rudesheim ; pop. about 600. 
It is famous for the wine of Asmannshausen, 
one of the best red Rhenish wines. 

.ts.MOIi.EI'S, or Asmodl (Heb. Ashmedai, from 
shamad, to destroy), an evil demon mentioned 
in the later Jewish writers. In the book of 
Tobit he is described as murdering the seven 
husbands of Sarah t one after the other. In 
consequence of this he has been facetiously 
termed the evil spirit of marriage, or the de- 
mon of divorce. In the Talmud he figures as 
the prince of demons, and is said to have driven 
Solomon out of his kingdom. Tobit got rid of 
him by prayer and fasting. Asmodaeus is the 
hero of Le Sage's novel Le diable lioite>/.r. 

ASMONEANS, or llnsmoncans (Heb. 'tttwhmo- 
naim), the name of a Jewish priestly family 



18 



ASKIERES 



which, under its founder Mattathias, the great- 
grandson of Asmonffius, and his five sons, lib- 
erated Judea from the yoke of Antiochus Epi- 
phanes and his successors, and subsequently 
held both the high-priestly and the princely 
dignity, until supplanted by Herod. They are 
also known, though not properly, as Macca- 
bees. Mattathias raised the standard of revolt 
in 167 B. C., dying soon after. His fifth son 
Jonathan, and his grandson John Hyrcanus, 
fully established the independence of the coun- 
try ; and the son of the latter, Aristobulns I., 
assumed the royal title (106). The rivalry of 
Hyrcanns II. and his brother Aristobulus II., 
nephew of Aristobulus I., brought about the 
intervention of Rome, and the disguised sub- 
jection to her under Herod. Antigonus, the 
son of Aristobulus, who was the last to fight 
for the rights of his house, perished by the 
hand of the Romans (37), and Herod succes- 
sively extirpated the rest of the house, inclu- 
ding his own wife Mariamne and his two sons 
by her. (See HEBREWS.) 

ASMKRKS, a village of France, in the depart- 
ment of the Seine, on the railroad from Paris to 
St. Germain, nearly 4 m. N. W. of Paris ; pop. 
in 1866, 5,455. The kings of France formerly 
had a castle here. The place, with its sur- 
roundings, was very conspicuous in the fights 
of the Paris communists with the government 
troops in the early days of April, 1871. 

ASOPDS. I. A river of Boaotia, now called 
the Oropo. It rises about 6 m. N. of Mt. Ela- 
tea (anc. Citharori), flows E. through Boeotia, 
and empties into the channel of Egripo in the 
territory of Attica, near the town of Oropus; 
length about 25 m. II. A river of Pelopon- 
nesus, now called the Hagios Georgios (St. 
George). It flows from the mountains S. of 
Phlius N". E. through Argolis into the bay of 
Corinth. III. A river god, identified in legend 
with each of the above described rivers. The 
legends connecting him with the Asopus in 
Peloponnesus trace his descent from Neptune. 
He married Metope, daughter of Ladon, and 
by her had two sons and twelve or twenty 
daughters. Jupiter bore off his daughter ^Egi- 
na, whereupon Asopus revolted, bnt was struck 
by a thunderbolt and reduced to submission. 

ASP, a name given to more than one species 
of the venomous serpents. By naturalists it is 
confined to the vipera aspis (Sohl.), which is a 
native of the European Alps. The historical 
asp, with which Cleopatra is believed to have 
destroyed herself after the death of Antony, is 
generally supposed to have been the cerastes 
Hasselqiiittii. From many circumstances, how- 
ever, and more especially from the description 
of Pliny, it is evident that the asp of the Ro- 
man writers generally, and therefore doubtless 
the asp of Cleopatra, is the common and cele- 
brated Egyptian species, the naya haye of the 
modern Arabs. This reptile was chosen by 
the ancient Egyptians as the emblem of the 
good deity, Cneph, and as the mark of regal 
dignity. It is closely allied with the cobra de 



ASPARAGUS 

capello, naia tripvdians, called nag by the 
Hindoos, which is still worshipped in some of 
the temples in India. The Hindoos believe 




that, in sagacity and its malicious tenacity in 
treasuring up a wrong to avenge it, this ser- 
pent is in no wise inferior to a man. The 
naya is of a dark greenish hue marked with 
brownish ; is hooded like the cobra when it 
expands itself in rage, but wants the peculiar 
mark on the back of the neck which character- 
izes the Asiatic species, and which has been 
compared to a pair of spectacles. It varies in 
length from three to five feet, and is one of the 
deadliest serpents known. The bite produces 
acute local pain in the first instance ; then a 
sense of deadly sickness ; after which the suf- 
ferer falls into a comatose state, with convul- 
sive fits, each less violent than the preceding 
one. In the last of these he dies, usually not 
many minutes after being struck. Owing to 
the almost instantaneous dispersion of the poi- 
son through the blood, it is not believed that 
excision could be of the slightest utility ; nor is 
any certain antidote known against the deadly 
fluid when once in the veins. 

ASPARAGUS, a genus of perennial plants, 
of the natural order liliacea and the sub- 
order asparagece, and differing only in the 
fruit from the 
asphodeletK. The 
genus is distin- 
guished by tube- 
rous root stocks, 
branching steins, 
thread-like leaves, 
join ted pedicels, a 
G-partedperumtli. 
small greenish- 
yellow or white 
flowers, and a 
spherical berry. 
It embraces 2(5 
species, many of 
which become 
hardy shrubs, and 
climb with their 
spiny branches as 
if by tendrils. A 
few of them are 
common in the 
East Indies and 

Common Asparagus (Asparagus nrnnnd tho Afprii 
officinalis). Root, Fruit Flow- 
er, Shoot, and Mature Sprig. terranean ; most 




ASPASIA 



ASPHALT UM 



19 



of them are rare and of little importance, and 
none are natives of America. Of the wild spe- 
cies, the most widely spread are the A. aeutifo- 
lius and albus, the needle-leaved and the white, 
the former of which is common in France, 
Spain, Barbary, and the Levant ; the latter is 
found in the same countries, France excepted, 
and is remarkable for its white flexuous boughs 
and green caducous leaves ; the young shoots of 
both are eaten by the Arabs and Moors. The 
best known member of the genus is A. offici- 
nalu, the common or garden asparagus, es- 
teemed as a delicate culinary herb from the 
time of the ancient Greeks. It is thought to 
be native both on the shores of England and 
in rocky and sterile districts in Europe and 
Asia, and when it has attained its full develop- 
ment is an elegant plant, from 3 to 4 feet high, 
with numerous branches loaded with fine and 
delicate leaves, and covered with small, green- 
ish-yellow, bell-shaped, and almost solitary 
flowers. The young and tender shoots of the 
plant, cut when but a few inches from the 
ground, before ramification, are served for the 
table. It loves a dry, deep, and .powerfully 
manured soil, and -is raised from seeds either 
planted in seed beds in the spring and trans- 
planted the next year, or planted at first where 
they are to remain. During the first two years 
the young heads should not be cut; half of 
them may be cut in the third, and after that 
the full crop. The supply will begin to dimin- 
ish after 10 or 12 years. The beds for aspara- 
gus are usually a^out 4 feet broad, and should 
be manured and trenched at least 2 feet deep. 
The plants are in rows about a foot apart, and 
are thinned out till they stand about 6 inches 
from each other in the row, and in growing a 
cluster of heads branch from each root. The 
crop may be reaped as often as it appears, be- 
ing cut from a little below the surface of the 
ground; yet the plant degenerates by being cut 
late in the season. The bed should be annually, 
in the autumn, replenished with manure, dug 
in between the rows as deeply as possible with- 
out injuring the roots, and covered with pulve- 
rized manure, seaweed, or other litter during 
the winter, as a protection from the frost. 
Asparagus is easily forced by the use of hot- 
beds, but the process of transplanting always 
injures or destroys the roots; and if, instead 
of transplanting, the bed bo covered and the 
trenches filled with hot dung, which mode is 
sufficient to forward the crop one or two weeks, 
care must be taken to give the plants time to 
rest and recover in the later part of the season. 
ASPASI1, a Milesian woman who fixed her 
residence at Athens about the middle of the 
5th century B. 0. By her great eloquence, 
political and literary ability, and personal fas- 
cination, she at once obtained a commanding 
position among the leaders of the state, and 
gained the affection of Pericles so far that he 
separated himself from his wife and made As- 
pasia his consort as well in private life as in 
political affairs. The fact that the laws of 



Athens conferred no rights upon foreign wom- 
en, and allowed no actually legitimate marriage 
with them, has given rise to the impression 
that Aspasia was a courtesan. The many ene- 
mies of Pericles, especially the satirists of the 
time, also conveyed this idea by their attacks, 
but it seems to have been without foundation ; 
she was held in universal esteem, and her union 
with Pericles was as close as the Athenian law 
allowed, and continued through his life. The 
enemies of Pericles attributed to her influence 
the outbreak of the war with Samos and of the 
Peloponnesian war; but the best historians 
deny this. She is also said with obvious exag- 
geration to have instructed Pericles in oratory ; 
but it is certain that she assisted him greatly in 
the government, and that her own eloquence 
was remarkable. When the Athenians named 
Pericles the Olympian Zeus, Aspasia was called 
Hera (Juno). Her house was the resort of all the 
leading statesmen and philosophers of Athens ; 
and in many of their works her great abilities 
are celebrated. After the death of Pericles 
(429) she attached herself to a cattle dealer 
named Lysicles, whom she instructed in oratory 
and by her influence raised in position. Her 
son by Pericles took his father's name, being 
legitimated by a popular decree, and became 
a general of high rank. He was put to death 
with five others in consequence of the unsuc- 
cessful result of the battle of Arginusae (406). 

ASI'K.V. See POPLAR. 

ASPEKN AND ESSLING, two villages lying 
about a league apart, on the N. side of the 
Danube, a short distance below Vienna, which 
were the principal strategic points in a despe- 
rate battle to which they have given a name, 
fought May 21 and 22, 1809, between Na- 
poleon's army and the Anstrians under the 
archduke Charles. The Austrians attacked 
while the two bodies of the French force were 
separated by the river, inflicting a severe de- 
feat, and finally compelling Napoleon to re- 
treat to the island of Lobau. Mass6na, who 
secured the retreat by the defence of Essling, 
received from it his title of duke of Essling. 
The Austrian loss was 4,000 killed and 16,000 
wounded; Napoleon's loss 8,000 killed and 
30,000 wounded. Marshal Lannes was among 
the mortally wounded. The success of the 
Austrians was more than counterbalanced soon 
after by their defeat at Wagram (July 5, 6). 

ASPli ALTITKS LAWS. See DEAD SKA. 

ASPHALTUM, or Asphalt (Gr. do^aArof), a mix- 
ture of different hydrocarbons, some of which 
contain oxygen, by the majority of chemists and 
geologists supposed to be of vegetable origin, 
while others derive it from the remains of ani- 
mals. It is also called bitumen, mineral pitch, 
and Jews' pitch (from Lacus Asphaltites). (See 
BITUMEN.) It is more bituminous than the coals, 
and when pure is of the consistence of resin ; 
but the consistence varies with the tempera- 
ture and with the amount of liquid bitumen or 
petroleum which may be mixed with it, hold- 
; ing the more solid asphaltura in solution. It 



20 



ASPHALTUM 



is often intermixed with stony substances, and 
sometimes even contains 80 per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime. Pure asphnltum is soluble in oil 
of turpentine, naphtha, and carbonates of the 
alkalis, but insoluble in water; alcohol dissolves 
out of it about 5 per cent, of a resinous sub- 
stance, and ether takes up 20 per cent, of an- 
other resin that is not affected by the alcohol. 
It yields also a volatile oil. The remainder is 
a substance named by M. Boussingault atphal- 
tene, the composition of which is 0H0. 
Asphaltum burns readily, with a red smoky 
flame, and leaves no ashes except those due to 
its impurities. Its specific gravity ranges from 
1 to 1'8; its color is black and dark brown, 
and it does not soil the fingers. It melts at 
the temperature of boiling water, and conse- 
quently is unfit for use as fuel, and cannot be 
economically used for gas. Most of the geo- 
logical formations contain it, but it is particu- 
larly common in the secondary and tertiary 
calcareous and sandy strata. In the primary 
rocks it is found only in small veins. It is ob- 
tained in large quantities on the shores of the 
Dead sea, rising to the surface, where it forms 
solid lumps which are thrown on the shore. 
Some of the other noted localities are a lake on 
the island of Trinidad, \^ m. in circumference, 
which is hot at the centre, but is solid and cold 
toward the shores, and has its borders over a 
breadth of three fourths of a mile covered with 
the hardened pitch, with trees flourishing over 
it. The inhabitants powder the asphaltum 
and drive it by a blast upon burning coals; 
thus used it gives out as much heat as an equal 
weight of the best English coal. It is thrown 
over bagasse or wood fuel in the manufacture 
of sugar. At various places in South America 
are similar lakes, as at Caxatambo and Beren- 
gela, Peru, where it is used for pitching boats; 
in California, near the coast of Santa Barbara. 
It occurs in smaller quantities, disseminated 
through shale and sandstone rocks, and occa- 
sionally limestones, or collected in cavities or 
seams in these rocks, in Derbyshire, Cornwall, 
and the French department of Landes ; and at 
Val de Travers, Neufchatel, impregnating a 
bed in the cretaceous formation, and serving 
as a cement to the rock, which is used for 
buildings. Grahamite from West Virginia, 
described by Prof. Wurtz of New York in 1865, 
resembles asphaltum in its pitch-black lustrous 
appearance. A rigorous analysis applicable to 
all asphaltum cannot be given, as each bed 
may present different results. The following 
ultimate analyses have been made : 

Carbon. Hydrogen. Ojyiren. Nhmcen. Ash. 

1. Bastennes, 78-50 8-SO 2-60 1-65 8-45 

2. Auvergne, 77'64 7-86 8-85 1-02 6-18 
8. Cuba, 82-84 9-10 6-26 1-91 0'40 

Nos. 1 and 2 were by Ebelman, No. 3 by Weth- 
erill. The action of heat, alcohol, ether, 
naphtha, and oil of turpentine, as well as the 
above analyses, show that the so-called as- 
phaltum from different localities is very vari- 
ous in composition, and that the true composi- 



tion of any one of them is not known. They 
contain volatile oils, heavy oils, resins soluble 
in alcohol, solids soluble in ether but not in 
alcohol, other solids not soluble either in alco- 
hol or ether, and nitrogenous substances. 
Asphaltum was used by the ancient Egyptians 
in embalming, and appears to have been em- 
ployed in the construction of the walls of Baby- 
lon. It is now used for pavement, for making 
water-tight tanks, as a coating for tubes of 
glass and iron used for conveying gas or water, 
and for various other purposes of like nature. 
Asphalt is used in Paris in two different forms : 
first, the natural rock, unalloyed, with which 
streets are paved; second, a mixture of asphalt 
with bitumen and fine gravel for the construc- 
tion of sidewalks. The rock is found princi- 
pally at Seyssel and Val de Travers, and is 
transported to Paris by canal and rail. Pure 
asphaltic rock is preferred for streets and 
roads. When this is heated to near 300 F., 
it crumbles to a mass of brown powder, which 
when compressed in a mould and allowed to 
cool recovers its original hardness and appear- 
ance. If the hot powder, instead of being 
placed in a mould, be spread about two inches 
thick on a hard foundation and pressed or 
packed by a hot iron pestle or roller and al- 
lowed to cool, the surface will immediately 
solidify, forming a crust identical with the 
original rock. The discovery of this applica- 
tion was due to accident. Fragments of as- 
phaltum, dropping from the carts which trans- 
ported it from the quarries along the road, 
became heated by the sun and were crushed to 
powder and compacted by the continual pas- 
sage of carts, until they formed a hard, smooth 
track. The matter was investigated, and led 
to the present method of asphaltum road 
making. The sidewalks of Paris are made of 
mastic of asphaltum, with an addition of bitu- 
men and fine gravel, and can be more properly 
described under PAVEMENT. Artificial Asphaltum 
is made from bitumen or the refuse tar of the 
gas house. Coal tar is heated to a degree that 
renders it hard and brittle; of this 25 parts 
are mixed with 50 parts slaked lime in fine 
powder and 75 parts river gravel. These in- 
gredients are thoroughly incorporated in a 
cast-iron boiler, heated for two hours, and 
drawn off into moulds. The blocks thus ob- 
tained are treated subsequently like mastic of 
asphalt for sidewalks, except that the temper- 
ature is carried higher. Another patent gives 
the following proportions : Residue of tar con- 
taining considerable non-volatile oil, 25 to 50 
per cent. ; carbonate of lime in dry powder, 
50 per cent. ; silica and clay, 25 per cent. This 
is stirred in a boiler over a slow fire for ten 
hours and run off into moulds. The mineral 
constituents must be previously strongly heated 
to expel air and moisture, in order to facilitate 
the thorough incorporation with the pitch. 
Artificial asphaltum is used for coating gas 
pipes to protect them from corrosion ; also 
for sidewalks, roofing, flooring, especially for 



ASPHODEL 



ASPLAND 



21 



stables, and water-tight tanks. A concrete 
prepared of 95 Ibs. asphaltum, 5 Ibs. bitumen, 
and 150 Ibs. broken stone, has been employed 
in France for marine constructions. The use 
of prepared asphaltum in the United States 
has been largely increased since the discovery 
of petroleum and of a deposit of a solid hydro- 
carbon called Grahamite, and also in conse- 
quence of the great extension of gas manufac- 
ture by which the supply of raw material has 
become practically inexhaustible. 

ASPHODEL (risphodelug), a genus of orna- 
mental perennial plants belonging to the nat- 
ural order liliacea, and to the sub-order 
attphcdelece. They are all natives of the old 
world, and are found abundantly in Greece, 
Sicily, Asia, and Barbary. The genus com- 
prises 12 species, all of which have a bulbous 
root, erect undivided stem, long leaves, and 
showy flowers arranged in clusters, which in 
most of the species are spikes. The luteiw, or 
common yellow species, is an old inhabitant 
of European gardens, into which it was intro- 
duced from the shores of the Mediterranean. 
It is branchless, about 2^ feet high, has scat- 
tered and almost pili- 
form leaves sheath- 
ing the stalk, and 
flowers of a beauti- 
ful golden yellow. 
It blossoms during 
six weeks in mid- 
summer. The ramo- 
sui, or white arfd 
branched asphodel, 
has a naked stem 
with ramifications 
near the summit, 
each of which is ter- 
minated by a spike 
of white star-shaped 
flowers having their 
petals streaked with 
purple. The an- 
cients had a su- 
perstition that the 
manes of the dead 
were nourished upon its roots, and they there- 
fore planted it in the neighborhood of sepul- 
chres, and made it sacred to Proserpine. It 
till covers the hills and valleys of Apulia, where 
it furnishes nourishment to the sheep. The 
albvs, or upright asphodel, differs from the 
preceding by having a branchless stem, and 
also by having its flowers a little smaller and 
nearer together. The other species of asphodel 
are much less frequently cultivated in gardens. 

ASPHYXIA (Gr. aa<fiv!;ia, from a privative and 
e-0iif(f, pulse), literally, a temporary or a final 
suspension of the motion of the heart, and 
the pulsation of the arteries. The word is 
now used exclusively to signify a condition of 
imperfect or suspended respiration, in which 
the blood is no longer arterialized by the in- 
fluence of the air, irrespective of the motion 
of the heart, which may continue some time 




Asphodelus ramosus. 



after respiration ceases. The immediate bane- 
ful .effects of the suspension of respiration 
arise from the privation of oxgen, and from 
the retention of the carbonic acid previously 
formed, which becomes a blood poison. If the 
circulation be disproportionately augumented, 
carbonic acid is formed, and being morbidly 
retained, convulsion and death ensue. If the 
respiration is unduly and disproportionately 
augumented, the subject is cooled, for mere 
pulmonary respiration is a cooling process, by 
the difference of temperaature of the inspired 
and expired air ; and in this case also the sub- 
ject dies, but now from loss of temperature. 
This latter is the case in the asphyxiated pa- 
tient, if the respiratory movements be unduly 
hastened. On the other hand, if in the as- 
phyxiated we excite the circulation, without 
simultaneously and proportionately inducing 
the respiratory movements, we destroy the 
patient by carbonic acid, formed in the course 
of that circulation, and uneliminated by respi- 
ration. This statement explains the injurious 
and fatal tendency of the warm bath which 
was formerly recommended in asphyxia, for it 
is injurious, and has doubtless of itself proved 
fatal in cases in which the patient without it 
would have spontaneously recovered. 

ASPIJTWALL, or Colon, a city and seaport of 
the United States of Colombia, the Atlantic 
terminus of the Panama railway, situated on 
the island of Manzanilla in Limon or Navy bay, 
in lat. 9 21' 23" N., Ion. 79 63' 52" W., 47 m. 
by rail N. N. W. of Panama; pop. in 1872, 
about 6,500. The island of Manzanilla (area, 
650 acres) was in 1852 ceded to the railway 
company for ever. The harbor of Aspinwall 
is one of the best on the coast. The town was 
founded by the railway company in 1850, and 
was originally intended to serve merely as a 
port of transit ; but it has become a centre of 
supply for many neighboring towns. The office 
and freight depot of the railway company, the 
former of brick and the latter a massive stone 
structure 300 by 80 ft., are the only edifices 
worthy of note. The railway company's wharf, 
40 ft. wide, extends out from the shore upon a 
coral reef nearly 1,000ft. Theformerinsalubrity 
of the place has been in great part remedied by 
raising its level and by thorough drainage. The 
port is now (1872) visited monthly by three 
steamers from New York, four from English, 
two from German, and two from French ports. 

ASPLAND, Hubert, an English dissenting min- 
ister, born in Cambridgeshire, Jan. 23, 1782, 
died Dec. 80, 1845. In 1799 he entered the 
university of Aberdeen, but in the following 
year he resigned his scholarship on account of 
the change in his theological opinions, which 
prevented him from remaining longer a bene- 
ficiary upon a Calvinistic endowment. For a 
year or two he tried to occupy himself with 
trade, but he soon resumed his theological 
pursuits, and in 1801 was ordained pastor of 
the General Baptist congregation at Newport, 
Isle of Wight, with liberty to preach Unitarian 



ASPROMONTE 



ASS 



doctrines. He was then not 20 years old. 
In 1805 he was installed pastor of the Gravel 
Pit chapel, Hackney, where he continued until 
his death. Mr. Aspland stood for years at the 
head of the active Unitarian clergy of England. 
In 1806 he established a religious magazine, 
the "Monthly Repository," and took the lead 
in founding the Unitarian fund society for the 
support of popular preaching and the relief 
of indigent ministers. In 1815 he established 
the " Christian Reformer," a monthly magazine 
of considerable influence. The list of his pub- 
lications numbers 50, and since his death a vol- 
ume of sermons and several pamphlets from 
his pen have been edited by his son. 

ASPROMONTE, a mountain in the 8. "W. corner 
of Italy, near Reggio, celebrated for the battle 
of Aug. 28, 1862, between the Italian troops 
under Pallavicini and the volunteers of Gari- 
baldi. The latter, who had crossed over from 
Sicily to march on Rome, against the warn- 
ings of the royal government, was defeated, 
wounded in the foot, and taken prisoner with 
the larger portion of his men. 

ASPKOPOTUHO. See ACHELOTJS. 

ASS (equus asinus), the humblest member 
of the horse family, known to be of eastern 
origin. He is first mentioned in Genesis, in 
the history of Abraham, who, when he went 
down to Egypt on account of the famine in 
Palestine, found that Pharaoh was possessed 
of " sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and man 
servants, and maid servants, and she asses, and 
camels." At that time, probably, as was the 
case during all the historic ages of Greece, a 
species of ass was wild on the mountains of 
Syria, Asia Minor, and throughout Persia ; and 
in the latter country and Armenia, in the re- 
gion about the sources of the Tigris and the 
Euphrates, and the shores of Lake Van, it exists 
in a state of nature to the present day. Asses 
are mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis as occur- 
ring in great numbers in parts of Mesopotamia. 
These animals, which he simply terms wild 
asses (&VOL a-ypcoi, of which words the specific 
Latin name onager is merely a corruption), 
were in company with ostriches, antelopes, 
and bustards; they were eagerly pursued by 
the horsemen of the army, and are described 
as being possessed of extraordinary speed and 
endurance. The wild asses of the same country 
are still possessed of the same characteristics. 
They have always been the special quarry of 
the Persian monarchs, and Nadir Shah was in- 
defatigable in his pursuit of them, and consid- 
ered the running down of one with his grey- 
hound a feat equal to the winning of a battle 
or conquering a province. The flesh was con- 
sidered the most exquisite of venison. The 
wild ass of Xenophon, and that, probably iden- 
tical with it, hunted by the shahs of Persia, is 
presumably the dziggetai, or equus hemionus of 
Pallas, which, as its specific name (hemionw, 
half-ass) indicates, possesses as much of the 
horse as of the ass in its character and quali- 
ties. The best breed of ass comes from the 



East, where he has been long carefully culti- 
vated as a saddle animal. The rocky nature 
of the soil and mountainous face of the country 
in Palestine favored the employment of this 




Wild Ass (Dziggetai). 

hard-hoofed, sure-footed, patient, and endur- 
ing animal, as much as it discouraged that of 
the delicate, fine-limbed, high-bred courser of 
Syria and Arabia. Lieut. Col. Smith, who has 
devoted much attention to the equine families 
of the East, found near Bassorah a breed of 
white asses, remarkable for their excellence, 
which he had reason to believe are of a breed 
as ancient as the time of the kings of Judah. 
The characteristics of the ass, as distinguish- 
ing him from the horse, are : 1, inferiority in 
size, although doubtless this in European coun- 
tries is in great part in consequence of centu- 
ries of cruel treatment, scanty fare, and want 



- t tea 




Ass (Asinus vulgaris). 

of attention in breeding, the animal having 
been for ages regarded only as the drudge of 
the poor ; 2, a rougher and more shaggy coat, 
capable, however, of much improvement by 
warm keeping and a little grooming; 3, the 
shortness and stiffness of his pastern .joints, 
and the hard solidity of his sound upright 
hoofs, which seem almost incapable of lame- 
ness, and render him the safest and most sure- 
footed of animals in difficult mountain passes; 
4, the extraordinary length of his ears, resem- 
bling those of the hare more than those of his 
own race ; 5, the peculiar cross which he bears 
on his back, formed by a longitudinal dark 
stripe along the course of the spine, and a 
transverse bar across the shoulders, which in- 



ASSAB 



ASSAM 



23 






dicates his family connection with the untama- 
ble members of his race, the zebra and qiiagga, 
who are yet more conspicuously striped, and 
of whose character and disposition the ass pos- 
sesses many points. The usual color of the ass 
is gray, mouse-colored, or black; and as be 
tends to bay, dun, or chestnut, the horse colors, 
the quality deteriorates. The dental system 
of the ass assimilates that of the horse, and 
in like manner indicates the age of the animal 
by the changes and murks of the teeth. The 
inalj ass is capable of propagation at two 
^ears, the female somewhat earlier ; the latter 
carries her foal 11 months, producing it in the 
beginning of the 12th. The sexual vigor in 
both sexes is excessive, which may explain the 
fact that in the hybrids of the ass and horse 
the offspring are much nearer, as well in organ- 
ization as in temper and appearance, to the 
former than to the latter progenitor. In all 
cases the mule is an ass modified by a strain 
of the horse ; not a horse modified by a cross 
with the ass. The hybrid foal of the male ass 
and the mare is the true mule ; that of the stal- 
lion and the she ass, tlie hinny the latter be- 
ing less strongly tinctured with the blood and 
having less of the form of the ass, owing to the 
superior influence of the male in the physical 
form and external organization of the progeny. 
The mule, like the ass, brays, owing to a pe- 
culiar construction of the larynx; while the 
hinny neighs, like its sire. There is no doubt 
but that with careful^breeding, grooming, sta- 
bling, and nutritious feeding, the ass might be 
improved at least as much as any other domes- 
tic animal. As it is, he is admirably adapted 
for a beast of burden in cold, mountainous 
countries, in which, on a quarter of the food 
required by a horse, he will safely carry bur- 
dens under which the more generous animal 
would break down, over places in which the 
other could not keep its footing. Under kind 
treatment, he is hardly inferior in docility to 
the horse or the dog. The female is exces- 
sively fond of her young, and both sexes are 
susceptible of strong attachment to their owner. 
In elevated countries, where the soil is light, 
asses are serviceable in an agricultural point of 
view ; although in the United States, to which 
they were first introduced by Gen. Washing- 
ton, they are little used except for the propa- 
gation of mules. The best asses are obtained 
either from Smyrna, the island of Cyprus, or 
from Spain, where the race has been particular- 
ly cultivated, as it has also in Peru, with a 
view to the business of mule-raising, which in 
both these countries is important. 

ASSAB, or Saha, a bay in the Red sea, on 
the coast of Africa, 40 m. N. W. of the strait 
of Bab-el-Mandeb, in lat. 12 55' N., Ion. 42 
45' E., 16 m. long and 5 m. wide. It is bor- 
dered on the W. by high table land, and in 
its front are the coral islands of Darmabah 
and Darmahie, the last forming near Cape Lu- 
ma a safe harbor for small craft. The neigh- 
boring inhabitants are the Danakil, who are 



virtually governed by their own sultan, though 
the khedive of Egypt claims to be their legiti- 
mate ruler. The bay of Assab was purchased 
in 1869 by an Italian steamboat company as 
a coaling station on the voyage from Italy to 
Egypt through the Suez canal to India. 

ASSAM, a province at the N. E. extremity of 
British India, presidency of Bengal, between 
lat. 25 50' and 28 20' N., Ion. 90 40' and 
97 30' E., bounded N. by Bhotan and Thi- 
bet, N. E. by Thibet, E. and S. by Burrnah, 
and S. W. by Bengal; area, 21,800 sq. m.; 
pop. variously estimated at from 200,000 to 
700,000, the smaller number being probably 
more nearly correct. The country lies between 
two mountain ranges, branches of the Hima- 
laya, which are joined at its eastern end, and 
rise both on its northern and southern side to 
the height of nearly 20,000 feet. These send 
out offshoots along the sides of the valley 
which forms the province, and which consists 
of a long and level plain, studded here and 
there with groups of hills. The number of 
considerable streams exceeds 60, so that Assam 
is supposed to contain more rivers than any 
other equal extent of territory in the world. 
The Brahmapootra is the chief of these, flow- 
ing through the centre of the country from E. 
to W. The 1 soil is fertile, and the climate 
temperate and agreeable. A regular rainy 
season, like that of the tropics, lasts from March 
till October, swelling the rivers and flooding 
great districts of the plain, obliging the inhabi- 
tants to construct high causeways between the 
towns and villages. Earthquakes are frequent, 
but seldom severe. The country is rich hi 
minerals, containing coal and petroleum, iron, 
and gold dust in some of the river sands. Tea, 
silk, sugar, tobacco, and ivory form leading ar- 
ticles of trade. The tea plant is indigenous 
here, and is largely cultivated under the aus- 
pices of the English "Assam Tea Company," 
more than 17,000 acres of tea plantations hav- 
ing been under cultivation within the last few 
years. Tigers, leopards, bears, deer, and other 
wild animals abound, and elephants are very 
numerous. The Assamese are akin to the Hin- 
doo races. They are lithe and active, though 
generally slight in frame; they are almost 
beardless, and have unusually smooth skin. 
They live in huts of bamboo and mats, and 
lead rather indolent lives, carrying on few and 
unimportant industries. The most widespread 
religion is Brahminism, but there are also many 
Mohammedans. Assam was governed by a se- 
ries of kings, concerning whose origin and reigns 
little is known, until the 17th century, when a 
formidable attempt was made by the Mogul 
emperors to attach it to their dominions. This 
was defeated ; but from that time the country 
became the prey of revolutions, and gradually 
declined in power till 1770, when the British 
troops interfered hi a revolution against the 
rajah, and occupied a portion of the territory. 
In 1826, in the war with Burmah, the British 
finally took possession of the country. 



ASSASSINS 



ASSASSINS (Arab, ffashashin, hashish smok- 
ers), a secret political society in Persia, Syria, 
and Arabia, in the middle ages, a branch of the 
Ismaelians, so called from the imam Ismael hen 
Jafar. It took its origin in Persia about A. D. 
840 from Abdallah, son of Maimun Kadah, a 
believer in the ancient Magian worship, who 
undertook by the preaching of his dais or mis- 
sionaries to reestablish the old religion, or at 
least to overthrow the power of the Abbas- 
side caliphs. His followers were sometimes 
called Ibabie, "indifferents," and sometimes 
Ismaelians, because they favored the preten- 
sions of the descendants of Mohammed ben 
Ismael, of the house of All. One of his 
disciples, Ahmed, called Karmath, raised the 
standard of revolt, and for a whole century 
the East was involved in wars. Another par- 
tisan of the sect, the dai Abdallah, who 
styled himself a descendant of Mohammed ben 
Ismael, escaped from prison, where he had 
been confined by the caliph Motadhad, and 
succeeded in seating himself on the throne of 
Africa under the name of Obeidallah Mahdi, 
A. D. 909. This person was the founder of 
the dynasty of the Egyptian caliphs, who, 
tracing their descent to Ismael ben Jafar Sadik, 
and from him to Fatima, the prophet's daugh- 
ter, are known by the name of Fatimites or 
eastern Ismaelians. The secret policy of this 
sect was to overthrow the Abbasside caliphate. 
In the reign of Hakem-biamr-illah a lodge was 
instituted at Cairo called Dar el-Hikmet, house 
of wisdom. Access to this lodge, and the use 
of the books and mathematical instruments 
kept in it, as well as instruction by the profes- 
sors, who were paid by the government, were 
free to all. In this lodge were taught nine se- 
cret doctrines deduced from those of Abdallah 
ben Maimun Kadah. In the first degree the 
mind of the novice was purposely perplexed, 
and a hidden meaning of the text of the Koran 
was suggested. After an oath of unconditional 
obedience the pupil was initiated into the sec- 
ond degree, which inculcated the recognition 
of divinely appointed imams, who were the 
source of all knowledge. The third degree 
taught their number, which could not exceed 
seven; these were Ali, Hassan, Hossein, Ali 
Seinolabidin, Mohammed el-Bakir, Jafar es- 
Sadik, and Ismael his son. The fourth grade 
taught that since the beginning of the world 
there have been seven divine lawgivers, or 
speaking apostles of God, each of whom had 
by command of heaven altered the doctrine of 
his predecessor. Each of these had seven 
coadjutors in succession, who, as they did not 
appear openly, were called mutes (samit). The 
first of the mutes was named Sus, and the 
seven speaking prophets were Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, Muses, Jesus, Mohammed, and Is- 
mael hen Jafar. The fifth degree taught that | 
each of the seven mute prophets had twelve 
apostles for the extension of the true faith, the 
number twelve being the most excellent after 
seven. After these five degrees the precepts 



of Islamism were examined, and it was shown 
that all positive religious legislation must be 
subordinate to the general and philosophical. 
The dogmas of Plato, Aristotle, and Pythago- 
ras were adduced as proofs and laid down as 
axioms. In the seventh the student passed 
from philosophy to mysticism. In the eighth 
the pupil was perfectly enlightened as to the 
superfluity of all prophets and apostles, the 
non-existence of heaven and hell, the indiffer- 
ence of all actions, for which there is neither 
punishment nor reward either in this world or 
the next; and thus was he matured for the 
ninth and last degree, in which he became the 
blind instrument of his superior. This lodge 
was closed by the general of the caliph Amer 
Biakim-illah, but was soon reopened. One 
of the initiated dais was Hassan ben Sabah, 
who became the founder of the eastern branch 
of Ismaelians, the Assassins. Banished from 
Egypt, he went to Aleppo, Bagdad, and Persia, 
preaching his doctrine and making proselytes. 
Partly by stratagem and partly by force, he 
got possession of the almost impregnable castle 
of Alamut (eagle's nest) in the Persian province 
of Ghilan, strengthened it, and made it the seat 
of the central power of the Assassins. The 
basis of his political and religious system was : 
"Nothing is true, and everything is lawful." 
The knowledge of all the degrees was to be 
imparted only to a chosen few. The bulk of his 
followers were only initiated far enough to con- 
fuse their minds and leave them dependent up- 
on their leaders, and the observance of all the 
precepts of Islamism was most strictly enjoin- 
ed. At Alamut, and when their power was 
extended in other places also, the Assassins had 
splendid walled gardens with flower beds and 
fruit trees of every description, limpid streams, 
luxurious halls, and porcelain kiosks, adorned 
with Persian carpets and Grecian stuffs, drink- 
ing vessels of gold and silver and crystal, and 
charming maidens and handsome boys. A 
youth who was deemed worthy by his strength 
and resolution to he initiated, was invited to 
the table and conversation of the grand mas- 
ter; he was then intoxicated with hashish and 
carried into the garden, which on awakening 
he believed to be paradise. Sleeping again, he 
was carried back to the side of the master ; 
and when the effect of the drug had passed 
away he believed that he had actually had a fore- 
taste of the bliss of paradise, and henceforth 
blindly devoted himself to the will of .his mas- 
ter, eagerly seeking an opportunity to sacrifice 
himself in order to attain eternal life. Later, 
when -one of the grand masters allowed the en- 
joyment of every pleasure to all, the sect fre- 
quently intoxicated themselves with hashish, 
whence their name Hashashin, corrupted by the 
crusaders into Assassins, which, in view of their 
bloody deeds, came to signify men who practise 
secret murder in general. Jelal ed-Din Malek, 
sultan of the Seljuks, having sent an ambassador 
to the grand master to require his obedience and 
fealty, Hassan ben Sabah called into his presence 



ASSASSINS 



25 



s.-voral of his followers. Beckoning to one of 
them, he said, " Kill thyself," and he instantly 
stabbed himself; to another, " Throw thyself 
from the rampart," and the next moment 
he lay a mutilated corpse in the moat. Then 
turning to the envoy, the grand master said, 
" Go tell thy lord, in this way I am obeyed by 
70,000 faithful subjects." The grand master 
was called seyed, the lord, or more commonly 
iheikh el-je.bel, chief of the mountain region 
(incorrectly translated old man of the moun- 
tnm), because the order always maintained 
itself in castles among the mountains in Per- 
sia, Irak, and Syria. He never assumed the 
title of sultan or emir, and preached not in 
his own name, but in that of the invisible 
imam who was to appear at a future period. 
Immediately under the grand master were 
the duah el-leibar, grand recruiters or pri- 
ors, his lieutenants in the three provinces to 
which his order extended. Under these were 
the duah or dais, the religious nuncios and po- 
litical emissaries, the initiated masters. Then 
followed the refits, fellows, who were advanc- 
ing to the mastership through the several 
grades of initiation into the secret doctrine. 
Next came the sedavi, the 'guards of the order, 
the warriors, and devoted murderers ; then the 
sassik (aspirants), the novices; and finally the 
profane or the people. Hassan laid down for 
his dais seven rules of conduct : 1. The ash- 
inai-ruk (knowledge of the calling) comprised 
the maxims for the judgment of character 
necessary in selecting subjects. 2. The teenit 
(gaining confidence) taught them to gain over 
candidates by flattering their inclinations and 
passions. 3. As soon as they were won, it was 
necessary to involve them by doubts and ques- 
tions on the religious commands and absurd- 
ities of the Koran. 4. The alid, or oath, bound 
the aspirant in the most solemn manner to in- 
violable silence and submission. 5. The candi- 
dates were taught how their doctrines agreed 
with those of the greatest men in church and 
state. 6. The tessis (confirmation) recapitulated 
rill that preceded. 7. The teevil (allegorical 
instruction), in opposition to the tensil or liter- 
al sense of the divine word, was the principal 
essence of the secret doctrine, reserved only to 
a few of the initiated. Hassan ben Sabah was 
speedily attacked by the sultan Malek, but he 
sustained himself, and even gained new strong- 
holds. The practice of assassination by which 
he became the terror of eastern monarchs was 
first tried upon his early friend the grand vizier 
Nizam ul-Mulk. The death of the sultan, ap- 
parently by poison, soon followed, and- then 
ensued a fearful series of murders and repri- 
sals. Fakhr ul-Mulk Abul-Mosaffar, who had 
succeeded his father Nizam ul-Mulk as grand 
vizier, and another of the royal family, were 
assassinated. One of Sultan Sanjar's slaves, 
who had been won over to the Assassins, stuck 
a dagger into the ground near his master's 
head while the latter was asleep. Some days 
after the sultan received a letter from Alamut, 



j saying, ''Had we not been well disposed to- 
ward the sultan, we might have plunged the 
dagger into his heart instead of the ground." 
Peace was then concluded between the parties, 
and many privileges were granted to the Assas- 
sins. Hassan ben Sabah survived all his nearest 
relations and most faithful disciples. He slew 
two of his sons without any apparent cause. 
He died in 1124, at the age of 90 years, and 
was succeeded by his general and chief dai, Kia 
Busurg-Omid, in whose time hostilities were 
renewed by Sultan Sanjar, and great numbers 
of the Assassins were put to death. The vizier 
of Damascus gave them the castle at Banias, 
near the source of the Jordan, which became 
the centre of their power in Syria. In 1118 
Abul-Wefa, the prior there, entered into a 
treaty with Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, by 
which he bound himself to put the city of Da- 
mascus into his power in return for the city of 
Tyre ; but the plot was discovered by the sul- 
tan, and the greater part of the Assassins and 
the crusaders were attacked and cut to pieces. 
At Cairo the Fatimite caliph Abu Ali Mansour 
fell by the dagger of an Assassin, and shortly 
after (1135) the Abbasside caliph was assassi- 
nated at Bagdad. The Assassins now spread 
all over the western part of Asia, from the 
confines of Khorasan to the mountains of Sy- 
ria, from the Caspian to the southern shores 
of the Mediterranean. In 1171 the last of the 
Fatimite dynasty died, and the lodge at Cairo 
was overthrown. Saladin, who became sultan 
of Egypt, proved a formidable enemy to the 
Assassins. In the month of Ramazan, 1163, 
Hassan II., the fourth grand master, summoned 
the inhabitants of the province to Alamut, 
where he addressed the multitude, announced 
the day of resurrection or revelation of the 
imam, and commanded them to break the fast 
and give themselves up to all kinds of pleas- 
ure. A similar proclamation was made through- 
out the country, and was received by a majority 
of the people with joy. In 1175 the Assassins 
made two futile attempts on Saladin's life, and 
he in return ravaged their territory, and only de- 
sisted from completely annihilating their power 
on condition of his being in the future safe from 
their daggers. About 1191 Conrad, lord of Tyre 
and marquis of Montfort, a near relation of 
Leopold, duke of Austria, was murdered by two 
Assassins, said to have been hired for that pur- 
pose by Richard I. of England ; and it seems 
that the imprisonment of the latter by Leopold 
was in reprisal for the death of his kinsman. Has- 
san III. prohibited everything that his grand- 
father and father had allowed, and again enforc- 
ed the observance of the precepts of Islamism ; 
and no assassinations were committed in his 
reign. By this prudent conduct he acquired 

i the good will of the Moslem princes, and re- 

j ceived from the caliph of Bagdad the title of 
sovereign prince, a favor never granted to anj 

[ of his predecessors. Under his successor, Ala- 
din Mohammed, the use of the dagger was re- 
sumed. About 1252 Hulaku, monarch of the 



26 



ASSAULT 



Mongols, captured Roknedin, the last of the 
grand masters, in his castle of Maimundis. 
Roknedin and his whole race were condemned 
to massacre; 12,000 captives were assembled 
and slaughtered at once ; troops went through 
the provinces to execute the sentence, and many 
of the castles were demolished. In 1270 Sultan 
Bibars overthrew their authority in Syria. 
For about a century longer the Ismaelians were 
numerous in Persia, but with diminished power. 
Assassins are said to remain still in some parts 
of the Lebanon and Persia, but only as a heret- 
ical sect of Islamism, and they seem to have 
lost all remembrance of their former power 
and murderous tactics. Some of their doc- 
trines and practices are also traced in those 
of the Druses. The Persian Ismaelians con- 
sider their grand master as an incarnation 
of the Deity. A few years- since the fact of 
the existence of the order in India, widely dif- 
fused, was disclosed through a suit brought in 
the English courts for the possession of its rec- 
ords by a person claiming to be grand master. 

ASSAULT, any wilful and unlawful attempt 
or offer, with force or violence, to do a corpo- 
ral hurt to another. In New York it has been 
added to a definition of substantially the same 
import, that the assault may consist of any act 
tending to such corporal injury, accompanied 
with such circumstances as denote at the time 
an intention coupled with the present ability 
of using actual violence against the person. 
But this illustration is not quite correct, for to 
cover the cases of pointing firearms, though 
they are not loaded, at persons, the ability to 
do the injury need not be actual, hut it is suf- 
ficient if it be only apparent. Nor need there 
be an actual intention to do the violent act ; 
for if the assaulter causes it to be believed that 
lie has such an intent, though he has not in 
fact, the assault may be committed. There 
must be some exhibition or threatening appear- 
ance of force, and this must ordinarily be of 
physical force. A threat alone is not an as- 
sault; yet such threat, spoken under circum- 
stances which of themselves, so to speak, im- 
port restraint or force, may constitute the 
offence. One who, having an open knife in 
his hand, and being within striking distance 
of another, demanded with threatening words 
the surrender of a certain paper, was held 
guilty of an assault. Force may be exhibited 
by the raising of the hand or a weapon as if to 
strike, or to hurl something ; or by the point- 
ing of a gun or pistol within the range of the 
arm, as if to shoot with it, and even though it 
is not loaded, if it is reasonably supposed to be 
loaded by the person assaulted ; or by wilfully 
riding a horse so near a foot passenger, or driv- 
ing or attempting to drive a carriage against 
the carriage of another, or even by driving it 
toward the other, so as in any of these cases to 
excite reasonable fear of injury; or by pursu- 
ing another with a dangerous weapon, and 
coming so near him that he may reasonably 
apprehend danger. But an assault may be 



ASSAYING 

committed, even though the violent show of 
force is not actually within reaching distance, 
provided it be so near as to excite a fear of im- 
mediate harm in a person of fair firmness. 
Thus, where one was approaching another 
with clenched fist, as if to hit him, but was 
stopped by bystanders just before he got near 
enough to do so, he was held guilty of an 
assault. The force, and thus the assault, may 
exist to the eye of the law, even though it is 
not apparent on the face of the facts, and 
where from the submission or consent of the 
victim it seems that it could not have existed. 
This is illustrated by those cases in which 
schoolmasters or physicians have, by virtue of 
the authority or the trust reposed in them in 
these relations, induced young girls to submit 
to indecent maltreatment. In such cases the 
consent is regarded by the law as neither in- 
telligent nor voluntary. Further, the force 
must be unlawful. Therefore it is not an as- 
sault when a father or a schoolmaster, for good 
reasons, chastises a child within proper limits. 
Certain assaults are described as aggravated 
assaults. Such are assaults upon magistrates 
in courts of justice, or against other officers 
of the law. But it seems that to constitute 
such an offence, the person assaulted must be 
known to be such an official, or there must be 
grounds upon which it can fairly be presumed 
that he was known to be so. Assault is a mis- 
demeanor; that is to say, it is of an inferior 
degree of criminality, and is ordinarily punish- 
able by fine or imprisonment, or by both. 
Assault must be distinguished from battery. 
The words are commonly used together, for 
the reason that the two offences are usually 
committed together ; but they are in fact dis- 
tinct and separate. Battery is the actual in- 
fliction of the threatened violence. But the 
law will not permit even the threat of it, and 
therefore makes that a substantial offence, 
namely, an assault. (See BATTERY.) 

ASSAY'E, or Assye, a village of Hindostan, in 
the Nizam's dominions, 43 m. N. E. of Aurung- 
abad, near which in September, 1803, the 
duke of Wellington (then Gen. Wellesley), with 
2,000 British troops and 2,500 sepoys, defeated 
the much more numerous combined force of 
Scindia and the rajah of Nagpoor. 

ASSAYING (old Fr. asaier, mod. Fr. essayer, 
to try), the chemical examination of an ore, a 
metal, or an alloy, to determine the proportions 
of its ingredients. The assay of a gold ore, to 
obtain the amount of gold present, consists of 
several operations. Fifty grammes of the ore 
are mixed with 80 grms. of oxide of lead, 20 
of carbonate of soda, 4 of charcoal dust, and 
12 of powdered glass. If the ore contains much 
silica, the glass may be left out ; if much sul- 
phur, 2 grms. of nails should be added. The 
mixture is placed in a Hessian sand crucible, 
covered by a layer of salt, and heated in a fur- 
nace for half an hour at a gentle heat, and then 
for half an hour at a white heat. When this 
, crucible is taken out of the furnace and allowed 



ASSAYING 



27 



to cool and then broken open, a button or 
globule of lead will be found at the bottom, 
covered by a dark glassy slag and a layer of 
salt. This button contains the gold and most 
of the silver of the original 50 grms. of ore. 
The oxide of lead, the quartz, and carbonate 
of potash form a fusible glassy slag which ab- 
sorbs earthy impurities. The oxide of lead 
and nitre unite to drive off the sulphur as sul- 
phurous acid. The coal dust reduces a portion 
of oxide of lead to a fine spray of metallic lead, 
which m settling alloys the gold and silver, 
carrying them to the bottom of the crucible. 
The button usually contains, besides lead, gold, 
and silver, some copper, nickel, antimony, and 
sulphur, if these substances were present in 
the ore. The process of separating gold and 
silver from the other metals with which they 
are alloyed depends on the principle that they 
cannot be converted into oxides when heated 
in the air, while the other metals with which 
they are generally alloyed can be oxidized at 
a high temperature, especially when a large 
quantity of lead is present. The lead button 
is placed in an earthenware dish made of fire 
clay, called a scorifier (scoria, slag). A wind 
furnace containing a muffle is used for heating 
the assay in this and in the succeeding opera- 
tion. The fuel generally employed is coke or 
anthracite; charcoal is sometimes used when 
the other cannot be obtained. The muffle is a 
flat-bottomed earthen vessel, 8 or 10 in. long, 
3 or 4 in. wide, and 2J or 3 in. high, its top 
arched over, one end open, the other closed ; 
in fact it is half a cylinder open only at one 
end. In its roof and sides are little apertures 
through which the air drawn in at the open 
end can pass. It is set in the furnace, in the 
front of which is an opening corresponding to 
the open end of the muffle. Coals are heaped 
around and upon it to expose it to the full heat 
of the furnace. In the scorifier, when heated 
to a bright red heat, the so-called baser metals 
are oxidized and form a slag, leaving a small 
quantity of pure lead alloyed with silver and 
gold. This alloy while in the molten state is 
poured into a cooling mould, hammered to free 
it from slag, and is then ready for the next 
operation, which is called cupellation, and is 
performed in a little cup called a cupel. The 
cupels should be prepared of bone ashes well 
burnt, ground, and washed, and then shaped 
into cylindrical forms an inch or so high and 
2 in. in diameter, their tops having a shallow 
depression to hold the metal. These cupels 
have the property of absorbing the oxides of 
metals and of holding those that will not oxi- 
dize ; but as they cannot absorb a greater 
weight than their own of oxide of lead or 
litharge, not quite so much of this metal should 
be put into any one cupel as its own weight. 
At the mints the assayer is mostly called upon 
to practise his art upon coin and bullion, alloys 
of copper, lead, gold, and silver, or containing 
two or more of these metals. In this case the 
previous operations of fusion in the crucible 



and slagging in the scorifier are omitted, and 
the assay begins at this point. The alloy to 
be assayed is carefully weighed in a delicate 
balance. It may be from 2 or 3 grammes, or 
even less, if already considerably alloyed. A 
proper quantity of lead, known to contain no 
silver, is put with it, and the two are placed 
by means of small tongs in the cupel, which 
with the muffle has been brought to a full red 
heat in the furnace. It is convenient to carry 
on several of these operations at once, and 
therefore a number of the cupels are usually 
introduced together on the floor of the muffle. 
The metals when placed in the hot cupel im- 
mediately melt and form a bright globule, 
which spins around and keeps in continual mo- 
tion. The air drawing in through the muffle 
oxidizes its surface, and fumes of the oxide of 
lead are carried off by the draft. At the same 
time a floating scum of the oxide is constantly 
flowing down the sides of the globule and 
sinking into the cupel, while freshly formed 
oxide replaces it. Any copper that is present 
is oxidized with the lead and absorbed into the 
cupel. Thus the operation goes on till it ter- 
minates by all the lead being oxidized, which 
is indicated by a sudden brightening up and 
subsequent darkening of the little globule, and 
the cessation of the appearance of the fumes 
and scum of oxide. This little globule, which 
is pure silver, pure gold, or an alloy of the two 
metals, shows by its weight the quantity that 
was in the sample. Care should be taken to 
avoid too intense heat, as this may volatilize 
a portion of the silver; and the globule should 
not be cooled suddenly, as the pure metal ab- 
sorbs oxygen when melted, and gives it out in 
cooling. If the change is sudden, some silver 
is apt to be ejected with the gas. By a little 
experience and care this operation is made so 
perfect that no sensible difference should be 
detected in the weight of two buttons obtained 
from two assays of equal weights, when tested 
by a balance that turns with ^ of a milli- 
gramme. The quantity of lead that should bo 
added is a matter that can only be determined 
by experience. Too little lead for the oxi- 
dation of impuVities prevents the formation 
of a clean button of silver, free of oxide, 
and too much lead is apt to carry down with 
it into the cupel a small quantity of silver. 
This operation is often performed with the 
blowpipe, and small cupels adapted to its uses. 
The weight of the little button is ascertained 
by the size of the round hole, of a graduated 
series of such holes in a brass plate, which it 
fits, the weight of a button of silver or one 
of gold for each hole having been previously 
ascertained. In skilful hands this is conducted 
very expeditionsly, and with considerable accu- 
racy. It is especially adapted to the testing 
of argentiferous lead ores, to determine ap- 
proximately their percentage in silver. The 
lead also may be quantitatively determined by 
the reducing process with the blowpipe, that 
must precede the cupelling. If the button 



28 



ASSAYING 



when taken from the cupel proves to be pure 
silver, it shows at once the value of the sam- 
ple of ore or bullion ; but if it contains gold, 
as in the gold assay, the amount of gold must 
be found out and subtracted from the weight 
of the button, and the amount of each metal 
will then be known. To this end the alloy 
of these metals is separated by the process 
called parting, or quartation, as it is usually 
conducted upon an alloy made to contain at 
least three parts of silver to one of gold. If 
the silver is in larger proportion, the gold cor- 
net will crumble; but when of small amount 
compared with the gold, it is shielded by the 
gold from the action of the dilute nitric acid 
which is used to dissolve out the silver. To 
insure a perfect union of the gold and silver 
added to it, it is well to melt them with lead, 
and then separate the lead by cupelling. More 
heat may be safely applied than when silver is 
cupelled without gold, as the alloy of these 
cannot waste by volatilization. The button is 
hammered out, heated red-hot, and annealed, 
and then rolled into a thin plate, which is 
coiled up of the size of a quill, and called a 
cornet. This is put into a parting glass, and 
two or three times its weight of pure nitric 
acid is poured upon it. Some heat is applied, 
when red fumes of hyponitric acid are given off, 
and in a short time the silver is dissolved, and 
the gold is left, still retaining the form of the 
coil, but forming a brittle, spongy, brown mass. 
The solution of silver is poured off, and a 
strong acid is added to the gold, and heated to 
dissolve out the last traces of silver. This is 
poured off, and the gold is washed with hot 
distilled water. It is carefully taken out, put 
in a crucible, and heated, when it shrinks to- 
gether and regains its metallic lustre and the 
fine color of gold, with its softness and flexi- 
bility. Being now weighed, the process is fin- 
ished by the calculation of the quantity lost. 
The silver is recovered by precipitating it from 
the solution by the introduction of bright sheets 
of copper, for which metal the acid has a 
greater affinity than for the silver. It is ascer- 
tained that in this process the silver is never 
entirely taken up by the nitric acid, and that 
some gold is dissolved by the strong acid, 
as is found by preserving for years the same 
acid to extract the last traces of silver. The 
inside of the bottle containing it becomes at 
last coated with fine gold. This has been no- 
ticed in the British mint, and full 30 grains of 
gold have been collected from bottles thus used. 
Very small errors are thus involved in estimat- 
ing the quantities of silver and gold by this 
process. Assayers and metallurgists at the 
present time prefer what is termed the wet 
method, performed by the aid of acids and so- 
lutions, and called wet in contradistinction to 
the dry or furnace assay, for the determination 
of the amount of iron, zinc, copper, and anti- 
mony in the ores of these metals. The esti- 
mation of the amount of iron in an ore is per- 
formed by the aid of a solution of perman- 



ganate of potassium. When a solution of this 
salt, which is of a beautiful violet color, is 
added to a solution of protoxide of iron, the 
protoxide is immediately converted into the 
peroxide, and the solution loses its color. If, 
however, the permanganate of potassium is 
added with constant stirring until all the pro- 
toxide is converted into peroxide, and one 
drop too much added, that one drop will color 
the whole iron solution very distinctly. It is 
found that the same amount of iron always 
requires the same amount of permanganate of 
potassium to give the first color. The per- 
manganate of potassium is termed a standard 
solution. If then 0'2 grm. of iron is dissolved 
in acid (muriatic), and the standard solution 
added from a measuring tube, we can deter- 
mine the amount of solution needed for 0'2 
grm. iron ; and when an ore is dissolved, and 
changed to protoxide by dissolving zinc in it, 
and the standard solution added, we obtain the 
amount of the solution needed for the amount of 
iron in the ore. And the problem is solved by 
this proportion : as first amount of standard is 
to second amount of standard, so is 0'2 grm. 
of iron to the amount of iron in the ore. The 
dry method of assaying iron ores is still used 
to assist the masters of iron furnaces in plan- 
ning the proportions of ingredients to be used 
in the blast furnace for the production of iron. 
It is based upon the same principles as the re- 
ducing them in the blast furnace. The oxygen 
with which the metal is combined must be 
taken up by presenting to it some substance 
for which it has stronger attractions than for 
iron, and the earthy impurities must have such 
substances added to them that the product of 
their union will be a glassy fluid, through which 
the globules of metallic iron can easily sink 
and collect together in a button. Charcoal is 
the substance for deoxidizing the ore in the 
blast furnace and in the crucible. The matters 
for aiding the fusion, called the flux, vary ac- 
cording to the earthy ingredients of the ore. 
The desired glassy fluid is a silicate of lime and 
alumina, and it may be of magnesia. If the 
ores already contain much silica, carbonate of 
lime, with the addition of some alumina or 
common clay, constitutes the proper flux. Ores 
deficient in silica require an addition of it. Some 
ores contain such a mixture of proper fluxing 
ingredients, that they melt easily without any 
addition of these matters. In the crucible, a 
little borax increases very much the fusibility 
of the mixture. The ore and fluxes should be 
thoroughly ground and mixed together, and 
placed in a brasqued crucible, that is, one care- 
fully filled and rammed with fine charcoal, moist- 
ened with water to a paste, and out of the top of 
J which a cavity is excavated for holding the as-. 
I say sample. The crucible is to be placed in a 
j wind furnace, and gradually heated for half an 
| hour, when the whole force of the blast is 
| to be applied for half an hour longer. A but- 
| ton of cast iron will be found in the bottom of 
i the crucible when it has cooled. The wet as- 



ASSAYING 



ASSEMANI 



29 



say of copper is performed by dissolving a 
weighed amount of ore in nitric acid, and re- 
moving sulphur if present by an addition of 
chlorate of potassium. Muriatic acid is added, 
and the nitric acid removed by evaporation. 
The residue is dissolved in water and muriatic 
acid and filtered; the copper is precipitated 
from this solution by pure zinc or iron, and the 
resulting copper sponge is washed by decant- 
ing the liquid and replacing it by distilled 
water, nd then quickly dried and weighed as 
metallic copper; from this weight the value 
of the ore is easily calculated. The dry assay 
of copper is still in use in Cornwall, at Swan- 
sea, and at some other places. It is, as con- 
ducted by metallurgists, often an empirical 
process, the fluxes being added with very vague 
ideas as to their true effect. The ores are prop- 
erly classified into those which contain no sul- 
phur, arsenic, or any foreign metals but iron ; 
those which contain sulphur, iron, arsenic, an- 
timony, &c. Ores of the first class, containing 
over 3 per cent, of copper, are reduced in a 
crucible by the addition of three parts of black 
flux. Poorer ores may be assayed in the wet 
way. The second class are sulphates or sul- 
phurets. The former are easily decomposed 
by heat in a platinum crucible, when they may 
be treated as substances of the first class. The 
sulphurets, under which general head are in- 
cluded most of the workable ores of commerce, 
are treated in a great variety of ways. The 
first operation, after reducing them to fine 
powder, is to roast or calcine them, to expel 
the sulphur. This process requires care and 
experience, and is most thoroughly effected, 
according to Mitchell, by adding one tenth of 
their weight of carbonate of ammonia to the 
roasting mass in the crucible, constantly stir- 
ring it in as the calcining goes on. Sulphate 
of copper is produced by the roasting ; and on 
addition of carbonate of ammonia, by double 
decomposition, sulphate of ammonia forms, 
which being volatile can be expelled by heat. 
The ore is then thoroughly mixed in a mortar 
with 25 per cent, of its original weight of lime, 
and 10 to 20 per cent, of fine charcoal, and 1J 
time its weight of dry carbonate of soda. The 
whole is to be placed in the same crucible in 
which the roasting was done, and covered with 
its weight of glass of borax. It is then sub- 
jected to a moderate heat for a quarter of 
un hour, and to a bright red heat as much 
longer. On cooling, and breaking the crucible, 
the button of copper will be found in the bot- 
tom. It is well to make two parallel assays 
of these ores, that one may confirm or dis- 
prove the other. The varieties of lead ores 
which are most commonly subjected to assay 
are the sulphurets (galena) and the carbonates. 
The former is treated by taking 400 or 500 
grains, coarsely powdered, and mixing with it 
one fourth its weight of black flux, one fourth 
of iron nails, and one eighth of cream of tar- 
tar. The crucible should be large enough to 
contain double the quantity, and the charge 



should be covered with common salt half an 
inch deep. After being exposed to a high heat 
for ten minutes, the lead may bo poured out, 
or suffered to cool in the crucible. If the ore 
contain much earthy or pyritous matter, a less 
proportion of iron filings should be used, and 
\ a little fluor spar and borax be added. Galena 
j is conveniently assayed in an iron crucible, the 
crucible itself furnishing the material for desul- 
phurizing the ore. The usual quantity, say 
400 or 500 grains, is mixed with 2 timesjts 
weight of carbonate of soda, and put in an 
iron crucible, which is covered. The galena is 
decomposed, and sulphuret of iron formed. 
The lead is poured out into an ingot mould, 
and the crucible well tapped to obtain all the 
lead. Another sample is immediately put in 
while the crucible is hot, and the operation 
repeated as long as the crucible lasts. The 
carbonates are assayed with half their weight 
of black flux, and a little cream of tartar, 
with a superficial covering of salt. 

ASSELYJf, Jan, a landscape painter, born in 
1610, died in Amsterdam in 1660. He studied 
under Jan Miel and Isaiah Vandervelde at 
Antwerp, and under Peter van Laer (Bamboc- 
cio) at Rome. In his landscapes taken from 
the vicinity of Rome, which are enriched with 
ruins of edifices, and decorated with figures 
and cattle in the style of Berghem, he imitates 
the manner of Claude Lorraine. lie also paint- 
ed battle pieces of considerable merit. He was 
surnamed Jfralbetje (little crab, crab-like) by 
the Dutch artists at Rome, on account of a con- 
traction in his fingers. 

Asso AM. I. Joseph Simon, a Syrian oriental- 
ist, born at Tripoli (Tarablus) in 1087, died in 
Rome, Jan. 14, 1768. After spending many 
years in the study of eastern languages, he was 
employed to collect oriental manuscripts for 
the library of the Vatican, and finally appoint- 
ed custodian of the collection, which he large- 
ly increased. His principal works are : Biblio- 
theca Orientalis Clementine- Vaticana (Rome, 
1719-'28); Kalendaria Ecclesia Universes 
(1755-'7); Bibliotheca Juris Orientalis Cano- 
nici et Ciuili* (1762-'4). He edited also an 
edition of the Opera Ephraemi Syri (1732-'46). 
II. Stephan Evodius, nephew of the preceding, 
born at Tripoli in 1707, died Nov. 24, 1782. 
Like his uncle he devoted himself to the study 
of oriental languages, and like him was made 
custodian of that department of the library 
of the Vatican, from which post he was ap- 
pointed archbishop of Apamea. His investi- 
gations among oriental manuscripts were em- 
bodied in his two works, Bibliotheece Mediceo- 
Laurentinas et Palatines Codices Manuscripts 
Orientales (Florence, 1742), and Acta Sanc- 
torum Martyrum Orientalium et Occidenta- 
lium (Rome, 1748). III. Joseph iloyslos, broth- 
er of the preceding, born at Tripoli about 1710, 
died in Rome, Feb. 9, 1782. Pursuing the 
same studies as his uncle and brother, he was 
appointed professor in the Sapienza at Rome. 
His works are : Codex Liturgicus Eccletia 



30 



ASSEN 



ASSIGNATIONS 



Universal (Rome, 1749), and He Catholicis 
seu Patriarchis Chaldaorum Nestorianorum 
(Rome, 1775). IV. Simon, a distant relative of 
the preceding, born at Tripoli, Feb. 20, 1752, 
died in Padua, April 8, 1821. In 1785 he was 
appointed professor of oriental languages at 
Padua, and acquired fame as a student of 
oriental numismatics, on which subject he 
published his Museo cufico Naniano illustrate 
(Padua, 1787-'8), and other works. 

ASSEN, a town of the Netherlands, capital of 
the province of Drenthe, 14 m. S. of Gronin- 
gen, on the Horn-Diep, which is connected by 
means of a canal with the Zuyder-Zee ; pop. in 
1867, 6,443. Near the town are celebrated 
giants' graves. 

ASSKU, or Asstrlns Menevensls, a monk of St. 
David's or Menevia, in Wales, died about 910. 
At the request of Alfred the Great he left his 
monastery for a part of each year to visit the 
court, where he read Latin with the king asd 
corrected his translations. Alfred gave him 
many ecclesiastical preferments. Some au- 
thorities say he became bishop of Sherborne. 
Asser's great work is his "Life of Alfred," in 
Latin. The earliest edition is that of Arch- 
bishop Parker, at the end of Walsingham's 
" History " (1574). The best edition is that of 
Wise (Oxford, 1722), entitled Annales Rerum 
Gestarum jElfredi Magni. This is our chief 
authority for the events of Alfred's public and 
private life from his birth to 889, and conveys 
much incidental intelligence about the laws, 
manners, and general civilization of Wessex. 
Thomas Wright, in the Biographia Britannica 
Literaria, maintains that this life was written 
at a later date, and Asser's name affixed to it. 

ASSIENTO (Sp. asiento, treaty), a term used 
to designate the treaties made by Spain with 
foreign countries for the supply of negro slaves 
to her South American provinces. The Span- 
ish government, having no settlements on the 
African coast, encouraged adventurers to sup- 
ply slaves by securing to them a monopoly of 
the trade, with other commercial privileges. 
The Flemish merchants received the contract 
from Charles V. ; Philip II. gave it to the 
Genoese, under whose title the traffic was 
chiefly carried on by British traders ; and Philip 
V. to a French company. The terms of this 
last assiento were the privilege of sending a ship 
of 500 tons with merchandise free of duty to 
Spanish America, and the payment of a sum 
on each imported negro, the minimum number 
of slaves being fixed at 4,800 annually. This 
contract was transferred by the same king to 
the South sea company, but abrogated shortly 
after at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. It never 
gave satisfaction to Spain ; and the contrac- 
tors always lost money, their local factors 
and agents reaping the profits. 

ASSIGNATS, the paper currency of the French 
revolution, first issued in the spring of 1790, to 
be redeemed by the sale of the confiscated 
property of the clergy and the emigrants. The 
assignats kept their value above 90 per cent. 



till 1792, but from that time they began to 
droop. The original issue of 1,200,000,000 
francs was increased to 45,578,000,000, besides 
which there were in circulation a great num- 
ber of counterfeit notes manufactured abroad. 
Great efforts were made to prop the market, 
and stringent laws were enacted to fix prices 
and force the people to accept the notes at their 
nominal value ; but they soon fell to 60 per 




cent., and in 1795 were worth only 18 per cent. 
In 1796 they were redeemed at ^ of their face 
in mandate, entitling the holder to enter at 
once upon possession of the public lands at an 
estimated price. The mandats soon fell to -fa 
of their nominal value, and in July, 1796, a 
law was passed authorizing the circulation of 
mandats at their current value, which resulted 
in the speedy disappearance of the notes. 

ASSIGNATIONS, Russian paper money, intro- 
duced early in the reign of Catharine II., about 
the year 1770, principally to carry on the wars 
against the Turks. The standard currency was 
then as now the silver ruble, and the paper 
assignations on the banks likewise founded 
by Catharine were to represent in full the 
standard silver coin. But they soon fell until 
the assignation ruble was worth only one half, 
one third, and finally one fourth of the original 
value ; and thus it became necessary to specify 
the nature of the ruble in all transactions. 
From 1787 the use of assignations as currency 
was general. In the reign of Paul I. the mer- 
chants of St. Petersburg, foreign and domestic, 
refused to receive assignations at the govern- 
ment standard in payment. Stringent ukases 
for facilitating the circulation of assignations 
all over the empire proved unsuccessful, and at 
the death of Paul (1801), and during the greater 
part of the reign of Alexander I., the assig- 
nation ruble was generally worth one fourth 
of the silver. During the wars against Napo- 
leon the issue of assignations increased exces- 
sively, but no considerable additional deprecia- 
tion took place. With peace the assignations 
rose, and finally the government fixed the 
standard at 3 rubles 60 copecks, either of cop- 
per or assignations, for a silver ruble, one as- 
signation ruble equalling 100 copecks copper, 
and four copecks copper making one of silver. 
On account of the facility of carrying large 



ASSIGNMENT 



ASSINIBOINS 



31 



amounts in paper, the assignations soon came 
into such demand as to be worth a premium. 
This premium naturally increased with the dis- 
tance inland, and the fluctuations were so irreg- 
ular that in 1839 a ukase regulated the value 
of the assignations at 3 to 1 silver, and order- 
ed that henceforth the silver ruble should be 
the legal unit in all negotiations and legal doc- 
uments ; that a new paper money, called " bills 
of credit," should be issued, and the old assig- 
nations gradually withdrawn from circulation 
and destroyed. This was accomplished. 

ASSIGNMENT, in law, the making over or 
transferring of any species of property. It also 
signifies the deed or instrument by which the 
transfer is operated. The assignment of a 
lease is the transfer of the assignor's whole 
estate in the term created by the original lease. 
The difference between an assignment and an 
underlease is that the underlease retains the 
reversion, whereas the assignment parts with 
it. Assignment in commercial law was for- 
merly much restricted. Bills of lading and 
bills of exchange were not assignable. All in- 
terests in personal property, of which a man 
has not the actual possession, but merely the 
right to recover, are choses in action. Thus a 
debt, whether specialty or simple contract, is a 
chose in action, a something to be recovered. 
These were not assignable. These restraints 
were, however, evaded 'by a license to use the 
name of the legal creditor. Even under a bill 
of sale of goods, the property in them does not 
pass unless by actual delivery and possession as 
against bonajide creditors. Both by the Eng- 
lish and French law, property in the power 
and disposition of a debtor may by process of 
law be transferred to his creditor. 

ASSIBfG. I. Rosa Maria, a German poetess, 
sister of Vanrtiagen von Ense, born in Dussel- 
dorf, May 28, 1783, died Jan. 22, 1840. The 
outbreak of the French revolution obliged her 
family to take up their residence in Strasburg, 
and in 1796 they removed to Hamburg. After 
the death of her father in 1799 she became a 
teacher. In 1816 she married Dr. Assing, a 
physician of Konigsberg, who on her account 
removed to Hamburg, where his house became 
a favorite place of literary reunion. The poet 
Chamisso was a frequent visitor. Rosa's poems 
have been published, with a memoir of her 
life, under the title of Rosa Maria's poetiseher 
Naehlast (Altona, 1841). II. Lndmilla, daugh- 
ter of the preceding, born at Hamburg, Feb. 
22, 1827. After the death of her parents 
she resided in Berlin with her uncle, the 
celebrated Varnhagen von Ense, occupying a 
daughter's place in his house, and receiving an 
unusually complete education. She first pub- 
lished essays in newspapers and reviews, and 
in 1857 produced a biography of the countess 
Elisa von Ahlefeldt. Several other biographies 
followed from her pen. On the death of her 
uncle she edited the unpublished portion of his 
Denlcwurdigkeiten, issuing the 8th and 9th vol- 
umes in 1859. In 18fiO she also published Alex- 
55 VOL. ii. 3 



ander von Humboldt's letters to her uncle, and 
in 1861-'2 the diaries of Varnhagen von Ense 
himself. The manner in which political events 
are treated in this collection brought her into 
disfavor with the court, and in May, 1862, an ac- 
tion was begun against her in Berlin she hav- 
ing in the autumn of 1861 taken up her residence 
in Florence which resulted in her conviction 
as a traducer of the king, queen, and various 
personages, and in her sentence to eight months' 
imprisonment. A similar trial, and sentence to 
two years' imprisonment, followed the publica- 
tion of the remaining volumes of the collec- 
tion in 1864; but she never actually under- 
went these punishments. She has since trans- 
lated much from the Italian. 

ASSIMHOI.\, a river of British North Amer- 
ica, rising in lat. 51 40' N. and about Ion. 
105 W., and joining the Red river of the North 
at Fort Garry, Manitoba, in lat. 49 54' N. 
Its course is a distance of over 400 m. At a 
point 22 m. above Fort Garry it is 120 ft. wide, 
and has here in summer a mean depth of about 
6 ft. ; 140 m. from its mouth its breadth be- 
comes 230 ft. and its mean depth over 8 ft. ; at 
280 m. its depth increases to over 11 ft. with 
a width of 135 ft. It receives in its course 
the waters of the Little Souris, Qn'appelle or 
Calling river, the Rapid river or the Little 
Saskatchewan, White Sand river, and Beaver 
creek. At its junction with the Little Souris, 
140 m. from Fort Garry, the volume of water 
is 12,899,040 gallons an hour ; while at Lane's 
Post, 118 m. lower down, this volume is di- 
minished, Mr. Hind asserts, more than one 
half; a result which he attributes to evapora- 
tion. At Fort Ellice the secondary banks are 
240 ft. high, forming an eroded valley nearly 
a mile and a half wide. Parts of its course 
are bordered by inconsiderable forests of oak, 
ash, elm, maple, birch, poplar, and aspen. 

VSMMIions. a tribe of Indians of the Da- 
kota family, in Montana territory, United 
States, and in Manitoba and the region round 
about in British America. They were a part 
of the Yankton Sioux, but after a bitter quar- 
rel about women separated from the mass of 
the nation about the beginning of the 17th 
century, and the two parties have since been 
hostile. Their own distinctive name is never 
used : the neighboring Algonquin tribes called 
them Assinipwalak, Stone Sioux, or Stone 
Warriors, as some infer from the nature of 
their country near the Lake of the Woods. 
The adventurous French missionaries reported 
them as a nation as early as 1840, and at a 
very early period they traded furs on Hudson 
bay. In the British provinces they are divid- 
ed into Assiniboins of the prairies, who are 
tall, vigorous, and thievish, and Assiniboins of 
the woods, who are wretchedly poor. They 
extend from Souris or Mouse river to the 
Athabasca, and number some 5,000. There 
are Roman Catholic and Methodist missions 
among them at Lake Ste. Anne and Pigeon 
lake. They are friends and allies of the Crees, 



ASSISI 



ASSUMPSIT 



and live intermixed with them. In the United 
States the Red Stone Assiniboins and Upper As- 
siniboins were estimated in 1871 at 4,850 souls. 

ASSISI (anc. Asiaium), a town of Italy, in 
the province and 13 m. E. S. E. of Perugia, pic- 
turesquely situated on the declivity of a steep 
hill ; pop. about 6,200. It is especially noted 
as the birthplace of St. Francis, the founder 
of the order of Franciscans, and contains 12 
monasteries of that order. Here are the 
church and monastery in which St. Francis is 
buried, and about 2 m. from the town is the 
celebrated Portiuncnla or church where Fran- 
cis began the preaching of his ascetic life. As- 
sisi was once a Roman municipium of some im- 
portance, having a temple of Minerva, of which 
several Corinthian columns still stand. The 
region around abounds in mineral waters. 

ASSIZE, a term of the common law, having 
reference to several distinct subjects. Its most 
general uses are to designate an ordinance for 
regulating the sale of provisions, and the peri- 
odical sittings held by the judges of England 
and law officers in the various circuits of Eng- 
land and Wales, for the trial of lawsuits as 
well civil as criminal. The term is of uncer- 
tain derivation. It may be either from Lat. 
aisido, to assess, or assideo, to sit near or to- 
gether, both of which are incident to the func- 
tions discharged at assizes. Suits for the re- 
covery of land were anciently tried by writ 
of right, or of assize. On these occasions the 
sheriff impanelled four knights and twelve as- 
sistants to try the matters in dispute. This 
assize could only be held before a judge of 
the principal courts at Westminster, whereby 
enormous expense was entailed on the jurors, 
the parties, and the witnesses. To remedy 
this grave inconvenience, provision was made 
by Magna Charta that an assize should be held 
annually by a judge in each county. This dec- 
laration was enlarged by the statute of West- 
minster (13 Edward I., c. 3), which gave juris- 
diction to the judges to sit in the grand assize, 
not only for the purpose of settling disputes as 
to land, but also for the adjudication of all civil 
actions. The sittings thus held are familiarly 
known as sittings at nisi prius. This term 
originated from the form of the process for 
summoning and impanelling the jury, which, 
following the words of the statute of West- 
minster, directs the sheriff to summon a jury 
to be at Westminster on the first day of term, 
unless before (nisi prim) a judge shall come 
to try issues in the county. The criminal juris- 
diction of the court at the assizes is derived 
from a commission of oyer and terminer and 
general jail delivery. Courts for these purposes 
are held at each assize. Two assizes a year 
are held throughout England and Wales, and 
in the metropolitan and some other counties 
which comprise populous districts. Three as- 
sizes are held under modern statutes. Courts 
of quarter sessions are also held in the several 
counties, cities, and boroughs. The sessions 
despatch business of a quasi-judicial character, 



as ale-house licenses, poor-law questions, or ap- 
peals under certain statutes ; and of late years, 
with a view of relieving the pressure of assize 
business, jurisdiction has been given to county 
magistrates sitting in sessions to decide certain 
criminal causes of minor importance. Under 
the statute, the assizes are held by two judges 
of the superior courts of Westminster, one of 
whom usually presides in the criminal, the 
other in the civil court. All reserved points 
of law, exceptions, and other purely legal 
questions arising out of the proceedings at the 
trial, are argued subsequently at Westminster 
before the full court. Final judgment cannot be 
entered up until after the first four days of the 
term next after the assizes, which gives oppor- 
tunity to move the court above for new trials, 
to set aside verdicts, or to stay judgment for 
any cause assigned. To obviate the evils of the 
delay thus afforded by common law, a recent 
statute gives discretion to the judge at nisi 
prim to certify for immediate execution, in all 
cases of simple contract debts. The bar at the 
assizes, or " upon circuit," as the more correct 
phrase is, is composed of the same barristers 
who argue at Westminster, each in his partic- 
ular circuit, selected at the beginning of his 
career, and from which by etiquette he cannot 
deviate except in extraordinary cases. Assize 
of Bread, or provisions (ctssisw venalium), in 
England, was the ordinance of a royal officer, 
or of the municipality, fixing the price and 
quality of bread, beer, meat, fish, coals, and 
other necessaries. This was anciently fixed by 
the clerk of the market of the king's house- 
hold. By some municipal charters this power 
was delegated to the corporation. The earliest 
distinct notice of such an assize bears date 
1203. All regulations of the kind were abol- 
ished for London and its vicinity 'in 1815, and 
they have everywhere fallen into disuse. As- 
sizes of Jerusalem were the laws made in 1099 
by Godfrey of Bouillon, and his princes and 
clergy, for the regulation of the kingdom of 
Jerusalem, formed in the first crusade. 

ASSPAY. See ASUAT. 

ASSOIPSIT (Lat., he undertook), in law, the 
compendious title under which an extensive 
class of actions are included. After stating 
the cause of action, the pleadings state that 
thereupon " the defendant promised to pay." 
Assumpsit may be either special or common, 
also called indebitatus assumpsit. Under the 
former are included actions upon written con- 
tracts or agreements of all kinds ; actions for 
derelictions of duty by professional men, car- 
riers, or warehousemen ; in short, under every 
circumstance where a contract is in actual ex- 
istence or can be predicated from the relations 
of the parties. Common assumpsit is an ac- 
tion brought for goods sold and delivered, 
money lent, &c. Theoretically all actions of 
assumpsit are brought to recover compensation 
in the nature of damages ; but, where those 
damages can be immediately ascertained by 
the acts of the parties, as for goods sold and 



ASSUMPTION 



ASSYRIA 



33 



delivered, where a price has been agreed upon, 
then it is common assumpsit. 

ASSUMPTION, a festival of the Roman Catho- 
lic church, instituted to commemorate the as- 
cent of the Virgin Mary into heaven. From a 
very early period it has been a belief in the 
western and oriental churches that after her 
death the Virgin was taken up, body and soul, 
into heaven. This event is called in the ancient 
ecclesiastical writings the " assumption," " pas- 
sage," or " repose," and is mentioned by vari- 
ous early authors, among whom are St. Greg- 
ory of Tours in the 6th century, and Andrew 
of Crete at the beginning of the 8th. The 
date of the institution of the festival is un- 
known, but it is mentioned as having been 
celebrated with great solemnity before the 6th 
century, in both Greek and Latin churches. It 
falls on Aug. 15. 

ASSUMPTION, a S. E. parish of Louisiana, W. 
of the Mississippi river, having within its limits 
Lake Verret and a part of Bayou La Fourche ; 
area, 320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 13,234, of 
whom 6,984 were colored. The soil is very 
fertile, and the parish is one of the most pro- 
ductive sugar districts in the United States. 
In 1870 it produced 246,929 bushels of Indian 
corn, 17,229 Ibs. of rice, 9,558 hhds. of sugar, 
and 499,135 gallons of molasses. Capital, As- 
sumption. 

ASSUMPTION, a city of South America. See 
ASUNCION. 

ASSUMPTION, one of the Ladrone gronp of 
islands in the Pacific ocean, lat. 19 41' N., 
Ion. 145 27' E. It is of volcanic origin, rises 
to the height of about 2,000 feet, and is nearly 
10 miles in circumference. It produces cocoa- 
nuts, rice, oranges, and breadfruit. 

ASSURANCE. 1 See INSURANCE. 

ASSWAN, or Assura (anc. Syene ; in the Hebrew 
Scriptures, Seveneh), a town on the southern 
border of Egypt, on the right bank of the 
Nile, opposite the island of Elephantine, in 
lat. 24 5' N., a little below the first cataract, 
where the river is first navigable ; pop. about 
4,000. The tropic of Cancer was anciently 
but erroneously drawn here. The surrounding 
country is sandy and desolate, and, with the 
exception of a few palm groves, is almost des- 
titute of vegetation. The inhabitants are 
Egyptians, Nubians, and the descendants of 
Bosnian troops garrisoned there by Sultan 
Selim I., the conqueror of Egypt, in 1517. 
Asswan has considerable commerce in dates, 
senna, wicker baskets, ivory, ostrich feathers, 
tamarinds, coffee, and slaves. On the S. side 
are the ruins of an ancient Saracen town, 
where during the middle ages 20,000 persons 
died by one visitation of the plague. 

ASSYRIA (Gr. 'Aaavpia ; Heb. Ashshur), an 
ancient country in Asia, lying upon both banks 
of the Tigris, the seat of one of the great mon- 
archies of antiquity, and now comprised with- 
in the easternmost dominions of the Turkish 
empire. The name conies from Asshur, a 
son of Shem and grandson of Noah, probably 



a leader in one of the great early migrations, 
who was deified and recognized as the tutelary 
divinity of the country occupied by the de- 
scendants of the clan of which he was the 
chief. In its earlier and most limited sense, 
Assyria was a narrow territory, mainly on the 
E. bank of the Tigris, including the triangle 
formed by that river and the Greater Zab (the 
Zabatus or Lycus of the classical writers), a 
district especially known as Aturia; the dis- 
trict of Adiabene, between the Greater Zab 
and the Lesser (the Caprus of the Greeks and 
Romans) ; and some regions to the southeast 
of the latter. Assyria was thus bounded N. 
by the snowy Niphates range, which separated 
it from Armenia, and E. by the Zagros moun- 
tains of Kurdistan, which separated it from 
Media, and on the S. and W. it bordered on 
Susiana, Babylonia, and western Mesopotamia. 
It was mountainous in the north and east, a 
rolling plain in most other parts, and east of 
the Tigris well watered. Later, when Assyria 
became the predominant power in the region, 
the name came to embrace also all northern 
Mesopotamia. Still later, and in the widest 
sense, Assyria denoted the entire plain wa- 
tered by the Euphrates and the Tigris, to- 
gether with the countries to the west, north, 
and east, which became subjects of or tribu- 
tary to the great Assyrian empire. There is 
no record of the time when the country was 
first peopled. Berosus, whose chronology from 
the commencement of the historic period is 
confirmed from various sources, makes a pe- 
riod of 36,000 years before the capture of 
Babylon by Cyrus (538 B. C.) ; but of this, 
34,080 years belong to a mythical dynasty of 
86 kings. This number is merely assumed to 
make up the grand Chaldean cycle of 36,000 
years. His historic chronology begins at 2458 
B. 0., a short period before the time when, ac- 
cording to the Scriptural narrative, Nimrod es- 
tablished his reign in " Babel, and Erech, and 
Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," out 
of which land "went forth Asshur, and builded 
Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 
and Resen between Nineveh and Calah," all 
cities on or near the upper Tigris. From this 
time for fully 1,000 years there is no record 
of Assyria in the Hebrew writers ; and down 
to about 1850, when the inscriptions of Nin- 
eveh and Calah had been unearthed and deci- 
phered by Botta, Layard, and others, there 
was absolutely nothing known of the true his- 
tory of this great empire, which lasted more 
than 1,000 years, except as it was for a brief 
space connected with that of the kingdoms 
of Israel and Judah. The legends of Ninus, 
Semiramis, Ninyas, and Sardanapalus have no 
other foundation than that among the Assy- 
rian kings was one named Asshur-bani-pal, 
or similarly, and a queen Sammuramit ; that 
Nineveh was taken by a revolt in which the 
Medes took part ; and that the final destruc- 
tion of the great palace was by fire. The 
earliest known native document of Assyrian 



ASSYRIA 



history is impressed upon three clay cylinders 
found by Layard at Kileh-sherghat, the ear- 
lier Asshur, one of the capitals, the only one 
situated on the right bank of the Tigris. It 
forms the records of King Tiglatli-pileser I., 
whose date is by other records fixed at about 
1130 B. C. From this and other monuments 
it appears that for many centuries there were 
in the lands on the Tigris and Euphrates 
two rival kingdoms, Babylonia and Assyria, 
each in turn superior to the other; and that 
about 1250 Assyria had come to be a pow- 
erful and compact kingdom, under a single 
monarch, surrounded on the north and east 
by scattered tribes, who sometimes coalesced 
into temporary alliances, but were one by one 
beaten down and rendered tributary. The 
Assyrian capital was at Kileh-sherghat, the 
old Asshur, some 60 m. below Nineveh, and on 
the opposite bank of the Tigris. On the west 
it reached the Euphrates; on the south was 
the rival kingdom of Babylonia. For the next 
two centuries the history of Assyria is almost 
a blank. During this period a compact king- 
dom of Israel was founded by David. The do- 
minion of David and Solomon stretched beyond 
the range of Lebanon, nominally reaching quite 
across the desert to the banks of the Euphra- 
tes ; but it is clear that neither David nor Sol- 
omon ever came into contact with the Assyrian 
power. This power seems indeed to have then 
become enfeebled ; and when, after the sepa- 
ration into Israel and Judah, the Hebrews 
were pressed back within their old limits, the 
new kingdom of Damascus had arisen. When 
our record is resumed, the residence of the 
Assyrian kings had been removed 40 m. up the 
Tigris to Calah (now Nimrud), on the E. bank 
of the river. At the angle formed by the junc- 
tion of the Upper or Greater Zab, Calah was 
only 20 m. below the site now recognized as 
that of Nineveh, and possibly was considered 
a part of that great city. The monarch whose 
reign was from 886 to 858 appears on the in- 
scriptions as Asshur-nasir-pal (or, according 
to other readings, Asshur-izir-pal or Asshur- 
idanni-pal), "the great king, the powerful 
king, king of hosts, king of Assyria." He 
overran the mountain region of Armenia and 
Kurdistan, and his furthest expedition was 
through Lebanon and the valley of the Orontes 
to the Mediterranean shore, where he received 
the submission of the chief cities of Phoenicia. 
From Lebanon he brought back the cedar 
which was used to ornament his palace at 
Calah or Nimrud. The sculptures from this 
palace are among the most striking of all the 
Assyrian remains. He was succeeded by his 
son Shalmuneser II., whose reign lasted from 
858 to 823. He is known as the "black 
obelisk king," from an obelisk 7 feet high and 
22 inches wide, now in the British museum, 
upon the four sides of which is portrayed, 
pictorially and literally, the history of his 27 
campaigns. These were carried on upon the 
middle Euphrates, in Babylonia, in the moun- 



tains of Kurdistan and Armenia, upon both 
slopes of Lebanon, down the valley of the 
Orontes, and in the kingdom of Israel. Among 
the prostrate figures is one described as Jehu 
the son of Omri, the king of Israel. The As- 
syrian king moved down the Mediterranean 
coast, leaving Judah on his left untouched, but 
receiving tribute from the Phoenician cities of 
Tyre, Sidon, and Byblus. Five years before 
his death Shalmaneser was dethroned by a 
revolt headed by his eldest son. This revolt 
was put down by a younger son, Shamas- 
iva, who reigned 13 years (823-810), carried 
his arms into Media and Babylonia, and was 
succeeded by his son Iva-lush, who married 
Sammuramit, a Babylonian princess who, as the 
only female ruler recorded in Assyrian history, 
furnished the Greek fabulists with the name 
of Semiramis. Babylonia and Assyria seem 
now to have been formally united ; the govern- 
ment of the former being specially put into 
the hands of a member of the royal Assyrian 
family, who acted as viceroy. Nineveh, the 
main ruins of which are now visible at Koyun- 
jik and Nebbi-Yunus, opposite Mosul, had 
now become the Assyrian capital. The book 
of Jonah, who is believed to have lived dur- 
ing this period, is of historical value from 
the glimpse which it affords of the extent of 
that great city in its palmiest days. If we 
assume that the 120,000 persons who " knew 
not their right hand from their left," that is, 
children, is an approximation to the census, 
the population of the city would be about 
600,000. It is mentioned as a city of three 
days' journey, containing also " much cat- 
tle " ; other authorities say it was 17 in. long 
and 10 broad. The probability is that Nineveh, 
like Babylon, was a district, about as large as 
our District of Columbia, enclosed with high 
walls, containing pastures, fields, and gardens, 
besides several strongly fortified points. Three 
other reigns fill up the interval from 781 to 
745. With the last of these the reigning 
dynasty seems to have come to a close ; for 
in 745 we find Tiglath-pileser II., apparently a 
usurper, on the throne, with his capital at 
Calah. The duration of the new dynasty, 
known as the lower monarchy, is variously 
estimated at 120 or 139 years 745 to 625 or 
606. The names of five out of the seven kings 
of the last dynasty are familiar from their oc- 
currence in the Hebrew records. The first of 
these was Tiglath-pileser II. His accession 
(745) coincides closely with one of the great 
eras of history. The first Greek Olympiad 
began a generation earlier (776); Rome was, 
according to her traditions, founded eight 
years before (753) ; the Babylonian era of 
Nubonassar is synchronous within two years 
(747). Thus the last and most splendid age 
of the Assyrian empire coincides with the in- 
j fanoy of Greek and Roman civilization. The 
records of this Tiglath-pileser are fragment- 
ary, for Esar-haddon, his fourth successor, un- 
i dertook to destroy all the palaces of his pre- 



ASSYRIA 



35 



decessor, and to use the materials for the con- 
struction of new ones of his own. The work 
was incomplete when the Assyrian kingdom 
came to an end. When Tiglath-pileser came 
to the throne he found all the tributary nations 
in a state of revolt. In reducing them he 
struck first at the nearest ones, Babylonia and 
Ohaldea ; these were soon reduced to submis- 
sion, lie then Tiad to turn to Syria and Pales- 
tine. Hitherto the kingdom of Judah had been 
able to keep aloof from the quarrels of its 
neighbors ; but now Pekah, king of Israel, and 
Rezin, king of Syria, entered into a league 
against Ahaz, the new king of Judah, who ap- 
plied to Tiglath-pileser for assistance, and paid 
him tribute. The Assyrian reduced Syria, 
overran Israel, and began that series of de- 
portations which we know as the captivities, 
carrying away the people of the northern dis- 
tricts of Israel. Ahaz was now summoned to 
Damascus to pay homage to his protector and 
to satisfy his exactions. The Hebrew chronicle 
records : " Ahaz made Judah naked, and Tig- 
lath-pileser distressed him, but strengthened 
him not." The next Assyrian king was Shal- 
maneser IV., of whose short reign (727-721) 
no mention is found in the Assyrian records 
yet discovered ; but from the Hebrew records 
we know that he carried on the war against 
Israel, whose king Hoshea refused to pay the 
tribute levied upon him. Samaria was be- 
leaguered, 'and captured after a siege of three 
years, and her king was " cut off as the foam 
upon the face of the water." Shalmaneser 
died during this siege, leaving an infant son. 
The war was carried on by the tartan, or 
general-in-chief, who soon assumed the gov- 
ernment, taking the name of Sargon, or, as 
the inscriptions are read, Sargina or Sar- 
yukin. This Sargon, though only once men- 
tioned in the Hebrew records, is shown by 
the Assyrian inscriptions to have been a great 
ruler. He had to finish the war in Palestine. 
How he did this he tells: "I besieged, took, 
and occupied the city of Samaria, and carried 
away 27,280 people who dwelt in it. I changed 
the former establishments of the country, and 
set over them my lieutenants." A strong pow- 
er was now again established in Egypt, which 
was trying to spread itself to the east. Sabaco, 
the Egyptian king, had already entered into an 
alliance with Hoshea of Israel, and was march- 
ing to his aid. Sargon, having taken Samaria, 
moved to meet Sabaco, marching down the 
Mediterranean coast. The encounter took 
place at Raphia, near Gaza. The Egyptians 
were defeated, and Sargon in time came into 
possession of all the strong places on the 
Phoenician coasts, though lie seems to have 
been foiled in an attack upon Tyre. All these 
wars occupied a space of ten years. From 
them Sargon was recalled by troubles nearer 
home. Babylonia had asserted its indepen- 
dence under a king called Merodach-baladan, 
who sought to strengthen himself by alli- 
ances with Elam (Susiana) on the east, the 



Arabs, Damascus, and Judah on the west, and 
even with Egypt and Ethiopia. In Judah the 
national spirit had revived under Hezekiah, 
who received the messengers from Merodach- 
baladan with favor, and made an ostentatious 
display of his resources, but did not formally 
join the league. Sargon attacked the con- 
federates in detail, routed the Elamites on 
the plains of Chaldea and marched upon Baby- 
lon, defeated Merodach-baladan, took him 
prisoner, and assumed his kingdoms but spared 
his life. He then overran Damascus, pushed 
down the seacoast, and sent a successful ex- 
pedition over sea to Cyprus. Merodach-bala- 
dan took occasion to revolt, and recovered his 
throne. A conspiracy was formed at home, 
and Sargon was assassinated (704). His resi- 
dence was originally at Culah ; he rebuilt the 
walls of Nineveh ; but his chief ambition 
was to replace that capital by a new city on 
a beautiful site 10 m. N. of Nineveh. This 
royal residence was named Hisr Sargina, " the 
house of Sargon." From the rnins of this 
palace, at Khorsabad, have come many of the 
most valuable of the Assyrian relics. Sargon 
was succeeded by his son Sennacherib, the 
greatest of the Assyrian kings (704-680). The 
disasters of the last few years of Sargon had 
reduced the dominions of his son to little more 
than Assyria proper. Babylonia was in open 
revolt. In the third year of his reign Sen- 
nacherib undertook its reconquest, which was 
effected in a single brief campaign. The next 
year he made successful expeditions against 
Media and Armenia. Hezekiah of Judah had 
renounced his allegiance to Assyria, conquered 
Philistia, and formed an alliance with Egypt 
and Ethiopia. In the fourth year of his reign 
(701) Sennacherib regained all Hezekiah's 
conquests, defeated the Egyptians, and shut 
up Hezekiah in Jerusalem. The Assyrian 
bass-reliefs are full of scenes of this war. 
Hezekiah offered his submission, and, accord- 
ing to Sennacherib, sent a tribute of 30 tal- 
ents of gold, 800 of silver, and a vast quantity 
of other gifts. To raise this tribute he was 
forced to strip the temple of its treasures, and 
to cut off the golden ornaments from the build- 
ing itself. Sennacherib, having left a detach- 
ment under his general-in-chief (tartan), chief 
eunuch (raJi-sarif), and chief cup-benrer (rab- 
shakeh) to receive the submission of Jerusa- 
lem, was besieging Lachish, then a strong town 
on the road to Egypt. Meanwhile a great 
army under Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, was 
advancing to the aid of Judah. Hezekinh, 
encouraged by Isaiah, refused to surrender. 
Sennacherib broke up the siege of Lachish 
and moved to Libnah to meet the Ethiopians. 
But on the night before the day when bat-: 
tie was to be given occurred that great dis- 
aster, of which the Assyrian records contain 
no mention, but of which the Hebrew account 
is : " The angel of the Lord went forth 
and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 
185,000." Whatever may have been the na- 



36 



ASSYRIA 



tnre of tins disaster, there can be no doubt 
that Sennacherib looked upon it as an indi- 
cation of divine displeasure; for during the 
remaining 20 years of his reign he made no 
new attempt upon Judah, although he held on 
to his conquests in Phoenicia. He was there- 
after engaged in numerous and for the most 
part successful wars. Merodach-baladan again 
revolted, and was finally crushed in lower 
Chaldea. Again the combined rulers of Baby- 
lon and Elam, aided by the Arabs on the mid- 
dle Euphrates, attempted to make head against 
Assyria, but were defeated in a great battle on 
the Tigris. Three times more Babylonia re- 
volted, and at the close of the last revolt Baby- 
lon was captured and sacked (683). The annals 
of Sennacherib are silent as to the last three 
years of his reign, from which it may be in- 
ferred that they were years of disaster to 
his kingdom. He was assassinated in the 
temple of Nisroch by two of his sons, who fled 
to Armenia. His great work was the restora- 
tion and embellishment of Nineveh, of which 
his palace at Koynnjik, the most magnificent 
of the Assyrian ruins, was a part. Sennache- 
rib was succeeded by his fourth son, Esar- 
haddon (680-667). He appears to have re- 
conquered Babylonia, and to have been ap- 
pointed viceroy. Esar-haddon is the only 
Assyrian king who ruled also over Baby- 
lonia during his whole reign. He pushed 
his conquests far and wide, extending them 
to Cilicia on the west and across the sea 
to Cyprus, and on the east he advanced into 
Media further than any of his predecessors 
had done. He overran Judah, and carried 
King Manasseh a captive to Babylon, which 
seems to have been his joint capital with 
Nineveh. He was the first Assyrian king 
who actually invaded Egypt, and assumed the 
title of king of Egypt and Ethiopia. He 
built two great palaces at Nineveh and Baby- 
lon, and began another at Oalah. In this un- 
finished palace the slabs which line the walls 
were torn from the palaces of former kings, 
their sculptured faces placed toward the wall, 
and the backs smoothed preparatory to being 
carved with the king's own exploits. Toward 
the close of his reign he divided the empire, 
placing one of his sons as viceroy over Babylo- 
nia. Asshur-bani-pal, whom some consider the 
Sardanapalus of the Greek romances, ascended 
the throne in 667, and reigned till 660, or ac- 
cording to others till 647. He was also a great 
conqueror; but his chief glory is that during 
his reign, and under his patronage, Assyrian 
art and literature reached their highest point. 
He established what may properly be called a 
great public library. In his palace of Koyunjik 
were found three chambers the floors of which 
were covered a foot deep with tablets of clay 
of all sizes from an inch long to nine inches, 
covered with inscriptions, many of them so mi- 
nute as to be read only by the aid of a magni- 
fying glass. The letters had been punched 
into the moist clay, which was afterward 



burned. Most of these tablets were broken 
into fragments ; but as there were four copies 
of each, many of them have been pieced to- 
gether, so that they have been deciphered. 
These partially restored tablets are among the 
most precious of the cuneiform inscriptions, 
and contain the annals of the first seven years 
(which some suppose to be the whole) of the 
reign of Asshnr-bani-pal. (See CUNEIFORM IN- 
SCRIPTIONS.) His first campaign was in Egypt, 
against Tirhakah, who had broken the treaty 
by which he had agreed to confine himself to 
his own country of Ethiopia. The Assyrian 
drove him out of Egypt, of which he took pos- 
session, but left the petty rulers in actual gov- 
ernment. He had scarcely returned to Nine- 
veh when these rulers allied themselves again 
with Tirhakah. Asshur-bani-pal went back 
and took summary vengeance. Memphis, Sals, 
and other cities were stormed and their peo- 
ple put to the sword. Thebes was taken 
and sacked to its foundations. When Asshur- 
bani-pal died, Assyria seemed at the summit 
of its greatness. But its fall was close at 
hand. Of his successor nothing remains but a 
few bricks inscribed with a name which has 
been read Asshur-emit-ilin. He commenced a 
palace at Nimrud, the inferiority of which to 
earlier structures bears witness to the decline, 
while its unfinished state indicates the sudden 
downfall of the kingdom. No Assyrian rec- 
ords describe the fall of Nineveh or the events 
which led to it. Its very time is uncertain, 
some placing it in 625, others in G06. It is not 
certain that Asshiir-cmit-ilin was the last king, 
for a fragment attributed to Berosus gives Sa- 
racus as the name of the ruler under whom the 
kingdom fell. The account gathered from sev- 
eral writers is this : The Medes, having estab- 
lished their independence and power, made war 
upon Assyria. The Babylonians, Chaldeans, 
and Susianians revolted, and joined the Medes. 
Saracus sent against them his general Nabo- 
polassar, who turned traitor, and, having be- 
trothed his son Nebuchadnezzar to a daugh- 
ter of the Median king, led the Babylonians 
upon Nineveh. When Saracus learned this, 
he burned himself in his palace, as told in the 
legend of Sardanapalus. Assyria ceased to be 
a kingdom, not even being embraced within 
the brief but splendid empire of Babylon, 
which comprised Babylonia, Chaldea, Susiana, 
and the region along the Euphrates. All that 
was properly Assyria fell to the share of the 
Medes. The Assyrians were undoubtedly a 
homogeneous people of Semitic stock, while 
the Babylonians were a mixed race, embracing 
Hamite, Aryan, and Turanian elements. The re- 
ligion of the Assyrians was apparently in general 
similar to that of the Babylonians, distinguished 
mainly by the greater predominance of Asshur, 
the national deity. He was the " great god," the 
" king of all the gods," " he who rules supreme 
over the gods." He was from first to last the 
main object of worship, never confounded with 
the personified or individualized deities : Sha- 



ASSYRIA 



ASTER 



37 



mas, the sun ; Sin, the moon ; Nergal, the god 
of war; Nin, the god of hunting; Iva, the 
wielder of the thunderbolt ; and the like. The 
great temple at Asshur is the only one yet dis- 
covered specially dedicated to him ; from 
which some hav% inferred that instead of sepa- 
rate temples he had the first place in the fanes 
of all the other divinities. It is more probable 
that in Assyrian mythology he occupied the 
place of Brahma in that of the Hindoos. After 
this supreme god, the source of all being, and 
the supreme arbiter of all events, came a series 
of secondary gods, arranged in two series of 
double triads, male and female. The first con- 
sists of Ann, masculine, Anat, feminine Pluto ; 
Bel, m., Bilit, f. Jupiter; Hea, m., Daokina, f. 
Neptune. The second triad is Sin, the moon ; 
Shamas, the sun ; Iva, the air : in this triad 
the moon occupies the place of precedence. 
Then there is a secondary group of five plane- 
tary divinities : Ninip, Saturn ; Merodach, Ju- 
piter; Nergal, Mars; Ishtar, Venus; Nebo, 
Mercury. This pentad in time seems to have 
superseded in popular esteem the older triads, 
Nebo, like Hermes and Mercury, being the espe- 
cial patron of learning and eloquence, and the 
symbol of royal authority. The two triads 
and the pentad constituted the 12 great deities 
of the Assyrian pantheon, below which there 
was a host of inferior divinities, prominent 
among whom was Nisroch or Salman, the eagle- 
headed and winged god, whose figure appears 
so frequently in the sculptures. How little 
these religious notions served to raise the 
moral character of the nation, and chiefly of 
its rulers, is best proved by the sculptural rec- 
ords of the latter, whose greatest and constant 
boast is the successful hunting of men and 
beasts, the burning of cities, and flaying and 
mangling of captives. The monuments of Nine- 
veh more than justify the bitterest invectives of 
the Hebrew prophets against " the bloody city," 
which was " full of lies and robbery," with " a 
multitude of slain " and " no end of corpses." 
In certain departments of science the Assyrians 
attained to considerable eminence. Their system 
of astronomy was in advance of that of the Egyp- 
tians. They knew the synodical period of the 
moon, the true length of the year, and even, 
though not quite accurately, the precession of 
the equinoxes ; they made it 30" instead of 50", 
so that their great cosmical year was 43,200 
years instead of 26,000, its true length. They 
ascribed solar eclipses to their true cause, and 
calculated lunar eclipses with great accuracy. 
They must therefore have been acquainted with 
the golden cycle of 223 lunations, after which 
eclipses recur in the same order. They fixed 
this period at 18 years and 10 days, which is 
within less than 8 hours of the true period. 
For further particulars relating to the geogra- 
phy and history of Assyria, see the articles 
BABYLON, BABYLONIA, CUNEIFORM INSCRIP- 
TIONS, KURDISTAN, MESOPOTAMIA, NINEVEH, and 
TURKEY. The principal authorities are : Rich's 
"Journey to the Site of Babylon" (London, 



1839) ; Botta and Flandin's Monument de 
Ninive (5 vols. fol., Paris, 1849-'50) ; Layard's 
" Nineveh and its Remains " (2 vols., London, 
1849), "Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh 
and Babylon" (London, 1853), and "Monu- 
ments of Nineveh" (1849, and continued for 
several years); Vaux's "Nineveh and Perse- 
polis " (London, 1850) ; Brandis's UeJ>er den 
historischen Gewinn aus der Entzifferung der 
Assyrigchen Imchriften (Berlin, 1856) ; M. 
von Niebnhr's Geschichte Assurs und Babels 
seit Phul (Berlin, 1857) ; G. Rawlinson's " Five 
Great Monarchies of the Ancient World " (vol. 
i., London, 1862) ; Oppert's Let inscriptions 
assyriennes des Sargonides (Versailles, 1863) ; 
Philip Smith's "Ancient History of the East" 
(London, 1870). 

ASTARTE. See ASHTOHETH. 

ASTER (Gr. aarfp, a star), a genus of plants 
of the great family of composites, so widespread 
as to induce Lindley to give its name to the 




China Aster, Doable. 

whole family, asteraeea. The plants popularly 
called asters belong to several genera, but the 
typical genus is by far the richest in species. 
Although many parts of the world, as China, 
the Cape of Good Hope, the Alps, and Siberia, 
furnish species, many of great beauty, Amer- 
ica, and especially New England, seems most 
amply supplied. Of nearly 200 species cul- 
tivated in Europe, 150 are natives of North 
America. They are mostly annuals, with co- 
rymbed, panicled, or racemose heads; flowers 
radiate, the rays white, purple, or blue, and 
fertile, the disk yellow or reddish. In the cul- 
tivated species the disk flowers give place to 
repeated series of ray flowers, and assume the 
appearance of the well known China asters. 
The finest American species are : A. Nona 
Anglia, whose erect, narrow-leafed stem, 3 
to 8 feet high, crowned with large corymbed 
heads of violet-purple flowers, is often seen by 
the roadsides; A. ptmiceus, with a purplish 



38 



ASTER 



stem, serrate leaves, purple or blue flowers in 
panicles, found with the preceding, but taller, 
6 to 10 feet; A. l<evis, macrophylhui, specta- 
lilit, horizontals, Oalifornicus, and mutabilu 
versicolor, all worth cultivating; the last two 
change color with age. In England they are 
all called Christmas or Michaelmas daisies. The 
Chinese pay special attention to the cultivation 
of many species of this genus, and the results 
of their skill have been introduced in America 
and are favorites with horticulturists. The 
first China asters were brought to Europe early 
in the 18th century. Asters require a free, 
rich soil, and moderate exposure to the sun. 
The Chinese cultivate them almost exclusively 
in pots. A. argyrophyllus, a native of New 
Holland, is a shrubby species, growing to the 
height of 10 feet; the flowers are very nu- 
merous in little heads, whitish gray with yel- 
low disk, and smelling strongly of musk ; this 
species is half-hardy in southern England. A. 
calestis, from the Cape of Good Hope, is a hot- 
house plant, blooming the whole year; the 
flowers sky-blue, disk yellow. 

ASTER. I. Ernst Ladwlg von, a German mil- 
itary engineer, born in Dresden in November, 
1T78, died in Berlin, Feb. 10, 1855. In 1794 
he entered the corps of engineers in the Saxon 
army, iii which his father had held high rank. 
He was made lieutenant in 1800, and captain 
in 1809. A plan made by him for the fortifica- 
tion of Torgau attracted the attention of Na- 
poleon, who adopted it ; the fortress was fin- 
ished under Aster's superintendence, and after 
the Russian campaign, in which he took {>art, 
he was appointed its commander. Soon after 
this he left the Saxon for the Russian service. 
He fought at- Bautzen and Leipsic, and distin- 
guished himself by several expeditions with a 
detachment of Cossacks which he commanded. 
In 1813 he reentered the Saxon service, and in 
1814 was made colonel. In 1815 he entered the 
Prussian engineer corps, and took part in the 
battles of Ligny and "Waterloo and in several 
sieges. In the same year he was made a gen- 
eral, and inspector of the Prussian fortifica- 
tions. He now established his reputation as a 
master of his art by the construction of the 
great fortresses of Coblentz and Ehrenbreit- 
stein. Of these he was appointed commander 
in 1825, still holding the office of inspector 
general. He became a lieutenant general in 
1827, and in 1842 general of infantry. He 
was also made a councillor in 1837. He left a 
collection of essays and volumes, published 
together after his death, under the title Nach- 
gelassene Schriften (5 vols., Berlin, 1856-'61). 
See also the work of Eiler, Betrachtungen und 
Urtheile E. L. von Aster's uber die politi- 
schen, kirchlichen -and padagogischen Partei- 
bewegungen misers Jahrhunderts (2 vols., Saar- 
brucken, 1858-'9). II. Karl Hclnrlch von, broth- 
er of the preceding, born in Dresden, Feb. 4, 
1782, died there, Dec. 23, 1855. He entered 
the Saxon artillery corps in 1796, and took 
part in the battle of Jena. He was soon after- 



ASTEROIDS 

ward temporarily assigned to a professorship 
in the military school at Dresden, and was 
made lieutenant colonel in 1831. He retired 
in 1834, and received the honorary rank of 
colonel in 1844. He wrote many military 
works, and his Lehre vom Festungskriege (2 
vols., Dresden, 1812; 3d ed., 1835) is a text 
book on the subject of fortifications in the 
Prussian military schools, and has been trans- 
lated into several languages. 

ASTERABAD. See ASTBABAD. 

ASTEKIAS. See STAB FISH. 

ASTEROIDS, a ring of small planets travel- 
ling between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 
It had long been noticed that no empirical law 
of planetary distances would give an account 
of the wide disparity between the distance sepa- 
rating the orbits of the earth and Mars and 
that which separates the paths of Mars and 
Jupiter. When Sir W. Herschel's discovery 
of Uranus in 1781 had confirmed Bode's em- 
pirical law, astronomers were led to search for 
a planet travelling in the orbit which, accord- 
ing to that law, should lie between the paths 
of Mars and Jupiter. On Jan. 1, 1801, such a 
planet was discovered by Piazzi, who called it 
Ceres. In March, 1802, while looking for the 
new planet, Olbers discovered another, travel- 
ling at about the same distance from the sun. 
He called it Pallas. Two others discovered 
before 1808 were called Juno and Vesta. In 
1845 Hencke of Prussia discovered a fifth. 
Since then the progress of discovery has scarce- 
ly been interrupted by a single barren year. 
Luther in Germany, Goldschmidt in France, 
Watson in America, Hind in England, and De 
Gasparis in Italy were until 1873 the most suc- 
cessful asteroid seekers. Recently Prof. Peters 
of the Litchfield observatory, Clinton, N. Y., has 
shared their honors, having thus far discovered 
more asteroids than any other astromomer save 
Luther. He discovered three new asteroids in 
July and August, 1872, and two more in Feb- 
ruary, 1873, raising the known number to 130. 
Olbers endeavored to explain the existence of 
the zone of asteroids by the theory that a planet 
which had once travelled between the paths of 
Mars and Jupiter had exploded, and that the as- 
teroids are its fragments. But Prof. Newcomb 
has shown, by an elaborate investigation of the 
asteroidal motions, that " although there are 
some peculiarities which might favor Olbers's 
hypothesis, there are a far greater number of 
cases which undoubtedly negative the assump- 
tion." Prof. Kirkwood has shown that when 
the mean distances of the asteroids are arranged 
in order, certain gaps can be recognized ; that 
in fact "there are no asteroids having mean 
distances lying near certain definite values." 
He shows how these gaps by their position in- 
dicate the probability that the asteroidal zone 
was formed from scattered cosmical matter 
travelling around the sun under the perturb- 
ing influence of the planet Jupiter. Leverrier, 
from an analysis of the motions of Mars, has 
shown that the combined mass of all the aste- 



ASTHMA 



ASTLEY 



roids probably falls far short of one fourth of 
the earth's mass. More than a third of the 
known asteroids have been discovered iu the 
two months April and September, and less than 
a third in the six months January, February, 
June, July, November^and December. 

ASTHMA (Gr. dofya, from aeiv, to blow), a 
disease characterized by an extreme difficulty 
of respiration, which is worse at certain sea- 
sons of the year and particular periods of the 
day, being generally most severe at night. 
The difficulty of breathing is increased by vio- 
lent emotions, damp atmosphere, excess of any 
kind, strong exercise, running, walking quickly, 
or ascending a flight of stairs. It is also more 
laborious in a horizontal position, and hence 
more distress is felt in bed at night ; the warmth 
of the bed also excites increased secretion of 
the mucous follicles, and this blocks up the air 
passages more completely, causing paroxysms 
to be more frequent than during the day. The 
patient seeks relief by sitting upright in bed, 
or bending his body forward, and endeavoring 
to expand the chest mechanically by every pos- 
sible means. Old persons are more liable to the 
disease than young. Some writers describe the 
disease mainly as a nervous affection ; others as 
the result of organic lesion of the heart and blood 
vessels ; while others again attribute it to dila- 
tation of the air vesicles of the lungs. All 
these and many other complications may exist. 
It is now believed that spasmodic asthma is 
caused by a spasm of the muscular fibres en- 
circling the bronchial tubes, especially the 
smaller branches. The existence of these 
fibres is placed beyond a doubt by microscopic 
examination. In common asthma the lining 
membrane of the air passages is more or less 
affected as in chronic bronchitis, but the af- 
fection of the mucous membrane extends 
further down into the lungs, the air cells 
are more obstructed, and the conformation of 
the chest itself is often somewhat contracted 
and defective. The action of the diaphragm 
is imperfect, a3 well as that of the walls of the 
chest ; and hence it is that, from want of in- 
nervation and free action in these parts, the 
disease is commonly deemed nervous, as distin- 
guished from chronic bronchitis, which affects 
the bronchial mucous membrane chiefly. In 
spasmodic asthma, the nerves are still more 
deeply implicated; their action seems de- 
fective in the respiratory organs, as stammer- 
ing shows imperfect nervous action in the or- 
gans of speech ; and in both cases the diffi- 
culty is increased by physical or moral excite- 
ment. Chronic asthma seldom shortens life, 
where patients carefully avoid all violent emo- 
tions, exercise, and excess, although spasmodic 
paroxysms may endanger life at any time where 
these precautions are neglected. Attacks of 
spasmodic asthma generally occur during the 
first sleep, soon after midnight, or very early 
in the morning. The patient suddenly awakea 
with a sense of suffocation, tightness of the 
chest, and difficulty of breathing. The respi- 



ration is wheezing and laborious, the shoulders 
are raised, and every effort made to enlarge the 
chest. The pulse is usually quick, weak, and 
irregular ; the lower extremities cold. When 
cough and expectoration come on, the patient 
is relieved. The spasm, however, may con- 
tinue half an hour or more, and even as much 
as three or four hours. Asthma is often com- 
plicated with diseases of the heart or with 
chronic bronchitis, acting as a source of per- 
manent congestion, predisposing the parts to 
be more easily thrown into a state of spasm. 
Sometimes severe attacks of dry catarrh are 
aggravated by spasm, as in the "bronchial 
asthma" of Andral. The most common con- 
sequences or concomitants of the disease are 
chronic inflammation and dilatation of the 
bronchi ; emphysema and oedema of the lungs ; 
haemoptysis ; tubercular deposits ; hypertrophy 
and dilatation of the cavities of the heart; 
effusions into the pericardium, the pleura, 
and sometimes congestion and effusions in the 
head, giving rise to coma or apoplexy. The 
treatment of the paroxysm consists in admin- 
istering narcotics and antispasmodics, to be 
given if possible as soon as the first sensations 
are felt. Strong coffee, laudanum, and ether 
are among the best ; and stramonium smoked 
as tobacco is often very useful, but should be 
used with caution where the heart is diseased. 
Those medicines are most effectual which pro- 
duce expectoration. 

ASTI (anc. Aita Pompeia), a city of N. Italy, 
in the province of Alessandria, 36 m. by rail E. 
S. E. of Turin; pop. in 1872, 31,033. In the 
middle ages it was the capital of the republic 
of Asti, which maintained its independence 
from 1098 to 1155, in which latter year the 
city was burned by Frederick Barbarossa. Old 
walls surround it, and it contains several cele- 
brated buildings. Near the city is made the 
wine which bears its name. Asti is the birth- 
place of Alfieri. 

AS'I'IK, Jean Frederic, a French writer, born 
in 1822. He was for some time pastor in New 
York city, and subsequently professor of phi- 
losophy at Lausanne. Among his works are : 
Le reveil religieux des fitati-Unis, 1857-'8 
(Lausanne, 1859), and ffutoire de la republique 
des &tats- Unii depute V etablissement dei pre- 
mi&res colonies jusgu'A Selection du president 
Lincoln, 1620-1860 (2 vols., 1865). 

ASTLET, Philip, an English equestrian, born 
at Newcastle-under-Lyne in 1742, died in Paris, 
Oct. 20, 1814. He served seven years in the 
light horse, and receiving an honorable dis- 
charge supported himself for some time by ex- 
hibitions of horsemanship. He at length ac- 
quired sufficient means to build a circus or 
amphitheatre, which he conducted successfully 
for many years, though it was several times 
partially burned and rebuilt. In 1804 he leased 
it to his son. He also built for his own use 
19 theatres in London, Paris, find Dublin, and 
in connection with Antoine Franconi assisted 
to establish the "Olympic Circus." He pub- 



ASTOLPHUS 



ASTORIA 



lished " Remarks on the Duty and Profession 
of a Soldier" (1794); "Description and His- 
torical Account of the Places near the Theatre 
of War in the Low Countries " (1794) ; " Ast- 
ley System of Equestrian Education" (1801). 

ASTOLPHCS, or Astulplms, called by the Ger- 
mans Aistulf, king of the Lombards in northern 
Italy, succeeded his brother Rachis in 749, and 
died in 756. After having seized the exar- 
chate of Ravenna, he threatened Rome. Pope 
Stephen II. fled to France and demanded aid 
from King Pepin, who crossed the Alps in 754 
with an army, defeated Astolphus, and be- 
sieged Pavia. The Lombard obtained peace 
on condition of surrendering Ravenna and all 
his other conquests ; but on Pepin's withdrawal 
he burst forth again, laid siege to Rome, and 
ravaged all the surrounding country. The 
pope again supplicated Pepin, who crossed the 
Alps and shut Astolphus up in Pavia. Astol- 
phus was preparing for a new war, but fell 
from his horse while hunting, and died three 
days afterward without leaving male heirs. 

ASTOR, John Jwob, a merchant of the city of 
New York, born at Walldorf. near Heidelberg, 
July 17, 1763, died in New York, March 29, 
1848. lie was the youngest of the four sons 
of a peasant, and his boyhood was passed in 
work upon his father's farm. Two of his 
brothers hud left their home, one of them to 
establish himself as a maker of musical instru- 
ments in London, and the other to settle in 
America. At the age of 16 Astor accepted an 
invitation from the former to join him in his 
business, and he, walking to the coast of Hol- 
land, embarked for London in a Dutch smack. 
In London he worked industriously till 1783, 
when, a few months after the recognition of 
the independence of the United States by 
Great Britain, he sailed for Baltimore, taking 
with him a few hundred dollars' worth of 
musical instruments to dispose of on commis- 
sion. On the voyage he made acquaintance 
with a furrier, in accordance with whose sug- 
gestions he exchanged his musical instruments 
in New York for furs, with which he hastened 
back to London, where he disposed of them to 
great advantage. He soon returned to New 
York and established himself there in the fur 
trade, prospering so fast that in a few years he 
was able to send his furs to Europe and the 
East in his own ships, which brought back 
cargoes of foreign produce to be disposed of in 
New York. At the beginning of the century 
he was worth $250,000, and he now began to 
revolve colossal schemes of supplying with furs 
all the markets of the world, and of planting 
towns and spreading civilization in the wilds 
of the western continent. It was his aim to 
organize the fur trade from the lakes to the 
Pacific by establishing numerous trading posts, 
making a central depot at the mouth of the 
Columbia river, and then, by obtaining one of 
the Sandwich islands as a station, to supply 
the Chinese and Indian markets with furs sent 
directly from the Pacific coast. In prosecuting 



this gigantic scheme it is said that he expected 
only outlay during the first 10 years, and un- 
profitable returns during the second 10, but af- 
ter that a net annual result of about $1,000,000. 
The settlement of Astoria was founded in 1811, 
but the scheme was never fully carried out. 
Astor early began to make investments in real 
estate in New York, and in the rapid growth 
of the city the value of some portions of his 
property nearly centupled. He erected many 
handsome private and public buildings. His 
fortune has been estimated at $20,000,000. 
During his whole career he hardly made a mis- 
step through defect of his own judgment, and 
his memory retained for years the minutest 
details. He lived during nearly a quarter of a 
century in retirement, in the society of his 
family and of eminent practical and literary 
men, his mind retaining its vigor after his 
bodily strength had become greatly enfeebled. 
He gave many liberal donations during his life- 
time, and his will contained numerous charita- 
ble provisions. One of these was $50,000 for 
the benefit of the poor of Walldorf, his native 
village. Among his most useful bequests was 
that of $400,000 to found the Astor library 
in the city of New York, the fruit of a long 
cherished purpose, and of much consultation in 
the latter part of his life. (See ASTOK LIBRARY.) 

ASTORGA (anc. Asturica Augusta), a city of 
Spain, in the province and 30 m. by rail W. S. 
W. of Leon, is situated on an elevated plain 
2 m. from the river Tuerto ; pop. 5,000. It is 
surrounded by ruined walls, and has an ancient 
Gothic cathedral with a high altar of great 
beauty, an old castle, and some Roman remains. 
Napoleon made Astorga his headquarters dur- 
ing the pursuit of Sir John Moore, at the be- 
ginning of 1809. In 1810 it was taken after 
an obstinate defence by Junot, and in 1812 
retaken by the Spaniards. 

ASTORGA, Emmannde d', a Sicilian musical 
composer, born at Palermo, Dec. 11, 1681, died 
in Bohemia, Aug. 21, 1736. ,111s father, a 
Sicilian of rank, in command of a band of mer- 
cenary troops, resisted the union of Sicily with 
Spain ; but his soldiers betrayed him, and he 
was executed in the presence of his wife and 
son. The former immediately died of grief, 
and Emmanuele was for a time almost idiotic 
and helpless. Recovering, he entered a con- 
vent at Astorga, from which town he took his 
surname. Here he speedily developed a re- 
markable musical talent, and in 1 704 became a 
court musician and composer at Parma. Soon 
afterward he attached himself to the suite of 
the emperor Leopold, and after his death in 
1705 travelled extensively, but at last entered 
a convent in Bohemia, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. His principal work is his 
Stabat Mater, of which the original MS. is pre- 
served in the library of Oxford. 

ASTORIA, a town of Clatsop county, Oregon, 
near the mouth of the Columbia river; pop. in 
1870, 039. It was for a long time the depot 
of the fur trade for all the country west of tho 



ASTOR LIBEAEY 



ASTRABAD 



41 






Rocky mountains, and was formerly a port of 
entry. The difficulties in the entrance to the 
Columbia have, however, opposed a great im- 
pediment to its development. It was founded 
by the Pacific fur company^jn 1811, and named 
in honor of John Jacob Astor, the chief pro- 
prietor. Its early history is described by 
Washington Irving in his " Astoria." 

ASTOR LIBRARY, an institution founded 
under the will of John Jacob Astor, who be- 
queathed $400,000 " for the establishment of a 
public library in the city of New York." By 
a provision of the will, the government of the 
library was vested in 11 trustees, in whose 
keeping were placed all the property and 
effects of the institution ; in them existed all 
power to invest and expend the funds, and to 
manage the affairs of the library. Among 
the first trustees named by the testator were 
Washington Irving, William B. Astor, Joseph 
G. Cogswell, Fitz-Greene Halleck, besides 
five other gentlemen, and the mayor of 
New York and the chancellor of the state 
ex officio. By a subsequent codicil, Charles 
Astor Bristed, the testator's grandson, was 
appointed an additional trustee. A pro- 
vision of the will designated, as the land 
whereon to erect a suitable building for the 
purposes of the library, a lot situated upon the 
east side of Lafayette place, measuring 80 ft. 
in front by 120 ft. deep. As early as 1839 Mr. 
Astor had purchased a number of volumes, 
aided by Dr. Cogswell, with the ultimate in- 
tention expressed in his will. In May, 1848, 
the trustees of the library met for the first 
time, and in accordance with the desire of Mr. 
Astor, appointed Dr. Cogswell superintendent 
He went to Europe in the autumn of 1848, 
authorized to purchase books to the amount 
of $20,000. During an absence of four months 
he collected 20,000 volume^ which were tem- 
porarily placed in a building rented for the 
purpose. A second and third visit by the su- 
perintendent increased the number of volumes 
to 70,000, with which the first building was 
opened, Jan. 9, 1854. The Astor library is 
built in. the Byzantine style of architecture, 
richly ornamented with brown stone mould- 
ings and an imposing entablature. Its dimen- 
sions are in accordance with Mr. Astor's will, 
the height being about 70 ft. The library 
room is 100 ft. in length by 64 in width, and 
50 in height ; this is reached by a flight of 36 
marble steps. The lower rooms are chiefly 
used for the deposit of public documents and 
for the meetings of the trustees. Since the 
erection of this building the number of volumes 
has increased to nearly 150,000, not quite fill- 
ing the second building, which has since been 
erected. The books are arranged according to 
subjects. In the selection of books Dr. Cogs- 
well, upon whom devolved the whole of this 
labor and responsibility, chose only such works 
as his experience and knowledge of bibliog- 
raphy taught him would be most useful to a 
young and growing country. Particular atten- 



tion was paid to the department of technology, 
in which the library is unusually rich. Bibliog- 
raphy also received a large share of Dr. Cogs- 
well's attention, his own private collection 
having been early added to the library. It is 
designed to render the department of American 
history as full as possible, as works of this class 
are more and more required by the American 
public. In linguistics, particularly oriental, 
the Astor library is unsurpassed by any in this 
country. The natural sciences are also fully 
represented, comprising about 7,000 volumes, 
many of them rare and costly. In January, 
1856, the first building having become filled, 
and the necessity tor more room obviously ex- 
isting, Mr. William B. Astor, eldest son of the 
founder of the library, made a donation to the 
trustees of an adjacent piece of land 80 ft. 
wide and 120 ft. deep. Upon this a building 
similar to the first was erected in 1859, and 
formally opened to the public on the 1st of 
September in that year. Both edifices, capable 
of containing 200,000 volumes, will soon be 
filled. In December, 1866, William B. Astor 
made a further donation to the library of $50,- 

000, $20,000 of which he directed to be ex- 
pended in buying books, and the remainder to 
be added to the general funds of the library. 
The catalogue of the Astor library, as prepared 
by Dr. Cogswell, comprises five octavo volumes 
of 500 pages each, four volumes containing the 
alphabetical list of authors' names, the fifth 
the supplemental list np to 1866, and the an- 
alytical index of subjects to the whole. The 
present superintendent is Dr. E. R. Straznicky, 
formerly first assistant librarian, his two pre- 
decessors, the late Dr. Cogswell and Mr. Fran- 
cis Schroeder, having resigned, the former Jan. 

1, 1862, and the latter July 1, 1871. 
ASTRABA1), or Astenbad. I. A northern 

province of Persia, lying along the 8. coast of 
a large bay of the same name, which forms 
the 8. E. extremity of the Caspian sea. The 
surface is generally hilly, but near the prin- 
cipal rivers, the Gurgan and the Attruk, are 
considerable plains. The soil is fertile, and ex- 
cellent fruit is everywhere produced. Large 
parts of the province, especially the plains near 
the rivers, form the favorite camping grounds 
and cattle pastures of the Goklan, Yamud, 
and other nomadic tribes. The climate is mild 
and equable. II. A town, capital of the pre- 
ceding province, in lat. 86 50' N., Ion. 54 45' 
E., 15 m. S. E. of the Caspian sea, and 190 m. E. 
N. E. of Teheran ; pop. about 10,000. A wall 
about two miles in circumference encircles it. 
The buildings are low and insignificant, and 
the trade and industries are unimportant. The 
town is exceedingly unhealthy, as the marshes 
and bodies of water near it send up malarious 
vapors of the most dangerous character. It is 
commonly known as "the city of the plague," 
and in the summer is almost deserted by its 
inhabitants. Astrabad was formerly the resi- 
dence of the Kajar princes, the ancestors of the 
present Persian dynasty. 



ASTR^EA 



ASTROLOGY 



1STRSA (Gr. aarpala, starry), a genus of 
radiate animals of the polyp family, which at- 
tach themselves to marine bodies, and are 
often found collected together into a globular 
or hemispherical mass, known as one of the 
forms of coral. The upper surface of these 
masses is entirely covered with little cavities of 
stellar form, each one of which is the recep- 
tacle of a polyp, and in the centre is its mouth, 
from which radiate its numerous tentacula or 
arms. These cavities are either in close con- 
tact or separated by intervening spaces; and 
this feature is made the basis for dividing the 
genus into two sections, the first of which is 
represented by the common East India species, 
A.favosa, and the other by the A. rotulosa of 
the West Indies. 

ASTRAKHAN, or A t radian. I. A government 
of S. E. Russia, on the N. W. shore of the Cas- 
pian sea; area, 85,010 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 
573,954, including 134,000 Kirghizes. The 
Volga, flowing from N. W. to S. E., divides it 
into two arid steppes of nearly equal size, with a 
few fertile tracts, pasture lands, and grain fields 
along the banks of the river. The whole coun- 
try seems to have once been covered by the 
Caspian, and the soil abounds with saline in- 
gredients. Salt lakes and marshes are abun- 
dant. Rock salt and gypsum are found. There 
are few trees. The climate is extremely hot 
in summer and cold in winter, and unwhole- 
some to strangers. Cattle, goats, and a poor 
breed of horses are raised, and the goat skins 
are used for the manufacture of morocco leath- 
er. The most valuable industry is fishing, the 
fisheries of the Volga being extraordinarily 
productive. The principal rivers besides the 
Volga are the Akhtnba, Sarpa, and Kuma. 
The most important towns, besides the capital, 
are Krasnoi-Yar, Tchernoi-Yar, and Tzarev. 
The population is composed of Kalmucks, Kir- 
ghizes, Tartars these three being nomadic 
tribes and Russians, Armenians, Persians, 
Hindoos, and Germans. Astrakhan was an- 
ciently a khanate of the Golden Horde of Tar- 
tars, and embraced, besides Astrakhan proper, 
Saratov, Orenburg, and the Caucasus. It was 
annexed to Russia by the czar Ivan the Ter- 
rible in 1554. II. The capital of the preced- 
ing government, situated on an island formed 
by one of the branches of the Volga, about 20 
m. from the sea; pop. in 1867, 47,839. The 
houses are partly of brick, partly of wood, and 
the streets are crooked, unpaved, and dirty. 
The population is composed of all nations of 
Europe and Asia, and of nearly all creeds. 
There are mosques for the Mohammedans and 
sanctuaries for the Hindoos, as well as Chris- 
tian churches. The city has a naval academy, 
several public schools, a Greek theological sem- 
inary, Greek and Armenian archbishops, and 
a printing office for the Kalmuck language. 
About 100 small manufacturing establishments 
produce cashmere shawls, silk and cotton fab- 
rics, furs, dyes, powder, and salt. The salt 
works are very extensive, and its fisheries in 



the Volga and Caspian are, next to those of 
Newfoundland, the most important in the 
world. Astrakhan is an entrepot of the Rus- 
sian oriental trade, and the raw produce from 
the remoter regions, consisting principally of 
hides, sheepskins, and grease, is brought there. 
The Volga is its great channel of inland nnvi- 
gation, and in 1863 its imports were valued at 
$997,976, and its exports at $215,448. The 
trade of the Caspian, with Astrabad and other 
Persian ports on the S. and Tartary on the E., 
belongs almost wholly to Astrakhan and Baku. 
The harbor of Astrakhan, however, is much 
obstructed by sand. 

ASTRINGENTS (Lat. aetringcre, to bind), 
agents which have the power to contract the 
animal tissues, diminish the amount of their 
fluids, and increase their density. They seem 
to act partly by a direct coagulation of albu- 
minous and gelatinous structures, and partly 
by diminishing the size of the blood vessels and 
consequently the amount of blood. An exam- 
ple of the first mode is seen in the formation 
of leather by tanning, which, however, is a 
degree of action far beyond what can take 
place in the living body. Astringents diminish 
both the absorbing and secreting functions of 
mucous membranes, and coagulate the secre- 
tions already formed. They excite a peculiar 
feeling of dryness and puckering in the mouth. 
They are used to check bleeding and excessive 
discharges from mucous membranes, to pro- 
mote the healing of ulcerated surfaces, and to 
restore lax and flabby tissues to their normal 
firmness. Some of them are absorbed, and, 
after passing through the blood, are excreted 
by the kidneys. The vegetable astringents, 
nutgalls, oak and hemlock bark, kino, catechu, 
rhatany, logwood, crane's-bill, ui-a urti, Tvin- 
tergreen, and a large number of others, con- 
tain more or less of the different forms of tan- 
nic and gallic acids. The chief mineral astrin- 
gents are acetate of lead, the different alums, 
persalts of iron, nitrate of silver, and the sul- 
phates of copper and zinc. Some astringents, 
as tannic acid, alum, and lead, find a useful ap- 
plication in the arts of dyeing and tanning. 

ASTROLOGY (Gr. aar/mv, star or constellation, 
and /Wyof, discourse), a system of rules for dis- 
covering future events by studying the positions 
of the heavenly bodies, which was received for 
ages as a science, but lias now lost all credit 
in civilized nations. It was divided into two 
kinds : judicial; by which the fate and acts of 
men and nations might be foreknown ; and 
natural, by which the events of brute and in- 
animate nature, such as the changes of the 
weather, &c., might be predicted. The etymo- 
logical meaning of the word astrology is almost 
the same as that of astronomy ; and there was 
no clear distinction made between the two 
branches until the time of Galileo. Previously, 
most students of the movements of the heav- 
enly bodies had been more or less astrologers. 
The invention of the telescope and the gen- 
eral establishment of the Copernican system 






ASTRONOMY 



43 



first gradually displaced astrology for the ben- 
efit of true scientific knowledge. Astrology 
was early developed in Egypt, but chiefly 
flourished in Chaldea, whose " star-gazers and 
monthly prognosticators " weVe so famous that 
the name Ohaldee came to be used as identical 
with astrologer, not only in the Scriptures, but 
also by the classical writers. In the East it still 
has its votaries. It was much practised in im- 
perial Rome. It was forbidden by Augustus, 
and the edict was often reenacted by later em- 
perors, but was apparently not much regarded. 
The Arabs revived astrology with astronomy. 
The Moors in Spain held it in great respect, 
and by their influence it was made popular 
among the Gothic nations of western Europe. 
The astronomical tables of Alfonso X. in the 
13th century were in great part intended for 
astrological purposes. Astrology continued to 
increase in credit till the middle of the 16th 
century, was still practised at European courts 
at the end of the 17th, and had a few votaries' 
till the end of the 18th, even in England. It 
was in high repute at the court of Catharine 
de' Medici ; it was considered a science even 
by Kepler ; and Lilly, the last of the famous as- 
trologers, was called before a committee of the 
house of commons in the reign of Charles II. 
to give his opinion of future events. The gen- 
eral method of procedure in finding the fate of 
any man or enterprise was to draw a horo- 
scope, representing the position of the stars 
and planets, either in the whole heaven, or 
within one degree above the eastern horizon, 
at the time of birth of the individual or the in- 
ception of the undertaking. Arbitrary signifi- 
cations were given to different heavenly bodies, 
as they appeared singly or in conjunction ; and 
according to these significations, the horoscope 
was interpreted. The presence of Venus fore- 
told love; Mars, war; Jupiter, power; the 
Pleiades, storms at sea, &c. The system of a 
reputable astrologer in the 16th century re- 
quired years for its mastery ; and absurd as its 
fundamental principles now appear, its details 
were not inconsistent with each other, and the 
whole system has a completeness which ap- 
pears very singular in a scheme so visionary. 

ASTRONOMY (Gr. aarpov, a star, and v<i//oc, 
law), the science which deals with the move- 
ments, distribution, and physical character- 
istics of the heavenly bodies. That astronomy 
is the most ancient of all the sciences, save 
agriculture, can scarcely be questioned. In the 
earliest ages men must have required measures 
of time, and such measures could only be ob- 
tained from the study of the motions and ap- 
pearances of the celestial bodies. The origin 
of astronomy has been referred to several 
nations. The evidence in favor of the Chal- 
deans seems on the whole the strongest. We 
find in Ptolemy's Almagest the records of ob- 
servations of considerable accuracy made at 
Babylon at a very early epoch. Some of the 
observations which were transmitted to Aris- 
totle by Callisthenes were made about 2250 



years B. C. The Chaldean investigations of 
the motions of the moon were in many respects 
remarkable. In particular their invention of 
the saros indicates not merely very accurate 
observation and a careful discussion of the re- 
sults, but considerable ingenuity. They were 
also acquainted with the art of dialling; they 
had discovered the precession of the equinoxes, 
and had determined the length of the tropical 
year to within less than half a minute of its 
true value. There are even reasons for believ- 
ing that they were acquainted with the true 
system of the universe ; and we learn from 
Diodorus Siculus and Apollonius Myndius that 
the Chaldean astronomers regarded comets as 
bodies travelling in extended orbits, and even 
in some instances predicted the return of these 
objects. Indian astronomy does not appear to 
have been by any means so accurate as that 
taught by the Chaldeans. The Indian system 
seems indeed to have belonged to a more 
northerly latitude than Benares, the chief seat 
of Hindoo learning. Accordingly M. Bailly 
was led to ascribe the origin of the system to a 
nation which had inhabited higher latitudes; 
and he even went so far as to invent a nation 
for the occasion, the Atlantides, and to ascribe 
to that apocryphal nation a wholly incredible 
degree of learning. It may be inferred that the 
want of agreement between celestial phenom- 
ena in India and the Indian system of astron- 
omy, instead of justifying M. Bailly's argument, 
shows rather that the Indian astronomers 
were but imperfectly acquainted with the phe- 
nomena of the heavens. Nor is it easy to ac- 
cept the opinion of Prof. Smyth, astronomer 
royal for Scotland, that the ancient Egyptians, 
the architects of the great pyramid, were ac- 
quainted with all the facts which he conceives 
to have been symbolized in that remarkable 
edifice. That the pyramid was erected for 
astronomical purposes may be admitted; and 
we may accept Prof. Smyth's conclusion that 
the building of the pyramid corresponded to 
the time when the star a Draconis at its upper 
transit was visible (as well by day as by night) 
through the long inclined passage which forms 
one of the characteristic features of the pyra- 
mid. This would set the epoch about the year 
2170 B. C. And it is a remarkable fact that, 
as Prof. Smyth points out, the Pleiades were 
at that time in a most peculiar position, well 
worthy of being monumentally commemorated ; 
" for they were actually at the commencing 
point of all right ascensions, or at the very be- 
ginning of running that great round of stellar 
chronological mensuration which takes 25,868 
years to return into itself again, and has 
been called elsewhere, for reasons derived from 
far other studies than anything hitherto con- 
nected with the great pyramid, the 'great 
year of the Pleiades.' " But although we may 
thus set the astronomical system of the early 
Egyptians in a far antiquity, it seems unsafe 
to follow Smyth in believing that the builders 
of the great pyramid were acquainted with 



44 



ASTRONOMY 



the sun's distance, with the true length of the 
precession al period, and with other astronomi- 
cal elements the discovery of which has re- 
warded the exact methods and the profound 
mathematical researches of modern times. As 
to Chinese astronomy, we have abundant evi- 
dence to show that it was inexact, though un- 
doubtedly very ancient. Its antiquity may be 
inferred from the circumstance that the em- 
peror Chwen-hio adopted as an epoch a con- 
junction of the planets Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn, which has been shown by M. Bailly 
to have occurred no less than 2449 years B. 0. 
In a remarkable work on the subject of Chinese 
astronomy, recently published by Mr. Williams, 
assistant secretary of the astronomical society 
of England, we are told that the instruments 
at present used by Chinese astronomers, as 
well as their principal methods of calculation, 
were introduced by Jesuit missionaries. Yet 
the ancient Chinese must have possessed some 
familiarity with the celestial motions. They 
could calculate eclipses ;. .for we learn that " in 
the reign of the emperor Chow-kang, the chief 
astronomers Ho and Hi were condemned to 
death for failing to announce a solar eclipse 
which took place 21 69 B. C. ; " a clear proof 
that the prediction of eclipses was a part of the 
duty of the imperial astronomers. The Chinese 
were also acquainted with the Metonic and 
Callippic cycles. The earliest Greek school of 
astronomy was that founded by Thales of Mi- 
letus (600 B. C.) and termed the Ionian school. 
Thales appears to have been acquainted with 
the motions of the sun and moon, with the ex- 

Elanation of seasonal changes, and with the 
sngth of the year. It has been said that he 
taught mariners to regard the Lesser Bear 
rather than the Greater as the polar constel- 
lation; but Manilius ascribes the selection of 
the Lesser Bear as the cynosure to the Phoe- 
nicians. To Pythagoras, who also belonged to 
the Ionian school, a knowledge of the true 
theory of the earth has been ascribed, though 
on insufficient grounds. According to the 
statement of his pupil Philolaus, he taught that 
" the earth and planets move in oblique circles 
(or ellipses) about fire, as the sun and moon do " 
a statement which certainly does not as it 
stands indicate exact knowledge respecting the 
constitution of the solar system. Nicetas of 
Syracuse is said in like manner to have taught 
that the diurnal motions of the celestial bodies 
are caused by the rotation of the earth upon 
her axis. 'Theophrastus," says Cicero, "nar- 
rates that Nicetas of Syracuse held that the 
sun, moon, and stars are at rest, and the earth 
alone moves, turning about its axis, by which 
the same phenomena are produced as if the 
contrary were the case." Eudoxus of Cnidus 
first endeavored to explain the looped paths of 
the planets, solving the problem by the inven- 
tion of the theory of concentric spheres. But 
it was by the Alexandrian school, founded 
under the Ptolemies, that exact and systematic 
observation of the celestial bodies was first 



undertaken. Hipparchns of Nictea (160 B. C.) 
surpassed all the astronomers of antiquity in 
skill and acumen. He made the first catalogue 
of the stars, and was the first to calculate the 
motions of the sun and moon. He also made a 
series of observations of the planets, and rep- 
resented their motions by the famous theory 
of epicycles a theory which, though unsound, 
was in so far in advance of previous ideas, that 
it was intended to be brought into comparison 
with the real motions of the celestial bodies. 
Hipparchus also invented plane and spherical 
trigonometry. Ptolemy is another distinguished 
member of the Alexandrian school. Some of 
the theories and observations which have been 
ascribed to him were indeed due to the labors 
of Hipparchus. Thus the Ptolemaic system 
of astronomy was wholly based on the theories 
of his predecessor ; and the star places indi- 
cated in his works seem to have been simply 
deduced from Hipparchus's catalogue of 1,081 
stars by introducing a correction for precession. 
Yet Ptolemy's labors were unquestionably im- 
portant. He detected the inequality in the 
moon's motions called the evection, and was 
the first to recognize the effect of refraction in 
altering the apparent places of the heavenly 
bodies. His work, the Almagest (or the Syn- 
taxis), contains nearly all that we know of 
the astronomy of the ancients. The school of 
Alexandria ceased to exist when Egypt was 
invaded and conquered by the Mohammedans, 
and the celebrated Alexandrian library de- 
stroyed, in the 7th century. The Arabians, 
however, formed no contemptible astronomers. 
They even surpassed the Greeks in the depart- 
ment of practical astronomy ; and they handed 
down to the Europeans the system which they 
had derived from their predecessors. In the 
13th century European astronomy may be said 
to have had its origin or revival, though nearly 
two centuries elapsed before any important 
advance was effected. Toward the close of the 
15th century the labors of Purbach and Regio- 
montanus prepared the way for the work of 
Copernicus, the founder of the true system of 
astronomy; while Waltherus revived the art 
of astronomical observation, and thus indi- 
rectly supplied the means of establishing the 
theories of Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton. 
Copernicus (born in 1473) found that by pla- 
cing the sun instead of the earth at the centre 
of the scheme, there resulted a simple and 
rational explanation of all the chief motions 
of the planets. He was not able to show, 
however, that the epicycles of Hipparchus and 
Ptolemy could be wholly removed. According- 
ly, many astronomers, who might have been 
attracted to the Copernican system if it could 
have been presented as it is known in our day, 
were found in the ranks of its opponents. 
Among these was Tycho Brahe, the Dane, 
who pointed out that the apparent fixity of 
the stars is opposed to the Copernican theory, 
unless the distances of all the stars be assumed 
to exceed enormously the distance of the earth 



ASTRONOMY 



45 



from the sun. He therefore adopted a modifi- 
cation of a system once held by the Egyptians, 
regarding the earth as the centre around which 
the sun revolves, while the j>laiiets revolve 
around the sun as a subordinate centre. Al- 
though this was a retrogression, astronomy 
owes a debt of gratitude to Tycho Brahe for 
the observations by which lie endeavored to 
put the Copernican theory to the test. His 
observations of Mars, in particular, enabled 
Kepler to remove for ever from astronomy the 
cycles and epicycles, centrics and eccentrics of 
the old systems. Endeavoring to explain the 
motions of Mars on the Copernican theory, 
Kepler found himself baffled so long as he ad- 
hered to circular and uniform motions so com- 
bined as to produce epicyclic paths. He was 
thus led to try whether the ellipse would bet- 
ter explain the movements of Mars. After 
long and patient study ho was able in 1609 to 
establish his first two laws, and nine years later 
his third law. The three laws are as follows: 
1. Every planet describes an ellipse about the 
sun, this orb occupying one focus of each such 
ellipse. 2. If a line be supposed continually 
drawn from the sun to any given planet, this 
line will sweep over equal areas in equal times. 
3. The squares of the periodic times of the 
planets are proportional to the cubes of their 
mean distances. In the mean time the telescope 
had been invented, and when less than one 
year had passed after the publication of the 
first two laws of Kepler, Galileo had made a 
series of observations tending to illustrate if 
not even to demonstrate the truth of the Co- 
pernican system. In particular his discovery 
of the satellites of Jupiter, and the recognition 
of the motions of these orbs around their pri- 
mary, was felt even by the enemies of the new 
theory to be strikingly in its favor. Here was 
a system in which the motions of the earth 
and planets around the sun seemed pictured in 
miniature. The discovery of the phases of Ve- 
nus was also regarded as a serious blow to the 
Ptolemaic system. The invention of the tele- 
scope supplied also the means of determining 
the places and therefore the motions of the 
celestial bodies with a degree of accuracy 
which had hitherto been unattainable. He- 
velius indeed endeavored to make a stand 
against the innovation, adhering until the end 
of his career to the methods used by the an- 
cients. But gradually the telescope prevailed, 
and the way was thus prepared for the re- 
searches of Newton, whose discovery of the 
law of gravitation would never have been ad- 
mitted but for the evidence in its favor attained 
by means of telescopic observations. In par- 
ticular, the measurement of the earth's dimen- 
sions with the requisite accuracy could not 
have been accomplished without telescopic ob- 
servations of star places ; and Newton would 
have been unable to show that the moon is re- 
tained in her orbit by the same force which 
draws objects to the earth's surface, had not 
accurate measurements of the earth been ob- 



tained by Picard. We know in fact that New- 
ton was led by erroneous ideas of the earth's 
dimensions to abandon the theory of gravita- 
tion for nearly 20 years. Returning to his re- 
searches in 1680, when news of Picard's results 
had reached him, Newton was able to establish 
the theory of gravitation on a firm and stable 
basis. He showed that the moon is drawn to 
the earth by terrestrial gravity, diminished at 
the moon's distance in the same degree that 
the square of that distance exceeds the dis- 
tance of points on the earth's surface from the 
earth's centre. He proved that when the force 
of attraction diminishes according to the law 
of the inverse square, the attracted body will 
obey all the laws of Kepler in its motions 
around the attracting orb. Then he extended 
his inquiries to the mutual perturbations of 
bodies so moving. Taking the moon as an in- 
stance of the effects of perturbation, he showed 
how several peculiarities in her motions which 
had hitherto seemed inexplicable are caused by 
the sun's perturbing action on the moon, that 
is, by the excess or defect of his action on the 
moon in different parts of her orbit, as com- 
pared with his action on the earth. Pursuing 
his researches, he showed how the precession 
of the equinoxes can be accounted for by the 
law of gravitation ; he formed and discussed 
two theories of the tides ; he solved the prob- 
lem presented by the oblateness of the earth's 
figure. Half a century passed before any at- 
tempts were made to extend the reasoning of 
the Principia, or to develop the views of its 
author. During this half century British 
mathematicians were chiefly engaged in de- 
fending, continental mathematicians in attack- 
ing, the principle of universal gravitation. 
But in 1745 Euler and Clairaut began to ap- 
ply the new methods of mathematical anal- 
ysis to the problems discussed by Newton. 
Clairaut succeeded in explaining the lunar 
evection, which had foiled Newton ; and this 
success encouraged continental astronomers to 
devote their powers to the investigation of the 
problems presented by the celestial motions. 
They mastered one after another the difficulties 
of the lunar and planetary perturbations. The 
analytical researches of Lagrange and Laplace, 
and in particular the discovery (independently 
made by both) of the great laws on which the 
stability of the planetary system depends, are 
only inferior to the discovery of the law of 
gravitation itself in interest and importance. 
It would be difficult to say which of these two 
geometers displayed the greater powers of 
analytical research. If the genius of Lagrange 
was the more profound, yet Laplace's labors 
led to more important practical results, and in 
discovering the real interpretation of the " long 
inequality " of Jupiter and Saturn he mastered a 
problem which had foiled his great rival. Yet 
another noble achievement of Laplace's must 
be mentioned hJs interpretation of the secu- 
lar acceleration of the moon's mean motion. 
In recent times it has been shown indeed by 



ASTRONOMY 



Adams that Laplace's investigation of the sub- 
ject was imperfect ; yet undoubtedly he placed 
his finger on the true cause of that part of the 
acceleration which is due to the ordinary forms 
of perturbation, nor has the cause of the re- 
maining part of the moon's acceleration been 
hitherto ascertained. Finally, we may regard 
the publication of his Mecanique celeste as form- 
ing a veritable epoch in the history of physical 
astronomy. Passing over many important con- 
tributions to the theory of gravitation, we may 
point to the achievement of Adams and Lever- 
rier in the discovery of the planet Neptune as 
perhaps the most conclusive of the evidences 
yet adduced in support of Newton's theory. 
A planet hitherto unseen was made known to 
us, not as in the case of Uranus by a happy 
chance, but by a study of the deviations of a 
known planet from the path calculated for it 
by mathematicians. It may be added that the 
discovery of Neptune led to the recognition 
of the mastery which American astronomers 
and mathematicians had obtained over the 
more recondite departments of analysis. It has 
been remarked by Prof. Grant of Glasgow 
that "the results which have been deduced 
from Bond's observations of the satellite of 
Neptune, and the mathematical researches of 
Walker and Peirce, unquestionably exhibit a 
degree of consistency with the actual observa- 
tions of Uranus and Neptune which has not been 
paralleled by any similar efforts in Europe; 
while at the same time they tend to throw 
much interesting light on the theory of both 
planets." Among the more recent contribu- 
tions to the mathematics of astronomy must be 
mentioned Adams's discussion of the moon's 
secular acceleration and the researches to 
which that discussion led, Delaunay's exten- 
sion of the lunar theory, and the inquiries of 
Prof. Newcomb into the same subject. 
While mathematical astronomy had been thus 
advancing, observational astronomy made sim- 
ilar progress. The discovery of Saturn's ring 
and largest satellite by Huyghens was soon 
followed by the discovery of four other satel- 
lites. Later Sir W. Herschel discovered two 
other Saturnian satellites, while in compara- 
tively recent times Bond in America and Las- 
sell in England discovered an eighth. Uranus 
was added to the planetary system by Sir W. 
Herschel in 1781, and at sundry times fourUra- 
nian satellites have since been discovered, while 
four others are by some supposed to have been 
seen by Sir W. Herschel. Neptune and his 
satellite constitute two other known members 
of the planetary scheme. But to these must 
be added 130 small planets (see ASTEROIDS) 
which travel between the paths of Mars and 
Jupiter ; while the observations and researches 
of Bond and Peirce in America and Maxwell 
in England tend to show that the rings of 
Saturn are composed of multitudinous small 
satellites. Apart from these' discoveries, the 
complexity of the scheme ruled over by the 
sun has been indicated by the discovery 



of the fact that multitudes of meteoric sys- 
tems exist within the confines of the solar 
domain, and that the component members of 
these systems must be counted by millions. 
The recent observations of Profs. Newton and 
Kirkwood in the United States, Prof. Alex- 
ander Herschel and Mr. Glaisher in England, 
Quetelet in Belgium, Schmidt in Athens, Heis 
in Germany, and Secchi in Rome, have added 
largely to our knowledge respecting meteors ; 
while the mathematical researches of Schiapa- 
relli, Adams, Leverrier, and others, have re- 
vealed the interesting fact that these bodies 
are intimately associated with comets. The 
telescopic study of the starry depths, though it 
has been prosecuted laboriously by the Her- 
schels, Struve, Argelander, Madler, and others, 
must be regarded as still (owing to the vastness 
of the domain to be explored) in its infancy. 
The elder Herschel first conceived the daring 
idea of gauging the celestial depths ; but as a 
matter of fact the regions surveyed by the 
two Herschels amount to but a minute portion 
of the heavens. On the other hand, though 
Argelander's survey extended over a complete 
hemisphere, yet the telescopic power employed 
was but small. Dr. Gould, an American astron- 
omer, is extending Argelander's system of sur- 
vey to the southern heavens ; and the result can- 
not fail to be of the utmost interest and value. 
We owe to the Herschels nearly all our present 
knowledge of the strange objects called nebulas 
or star cloudlets. Of these only 16 were known 
in Halley's time, and barely 200 when Sir W. 
Herschel began his telescopic labors. He and 
his son added between them nearly 5,000 neb- 
ulae to the list of known objects of this class. 
At present some 5,700 nebula? are known in 
all. The theoretical considerations by which 
the Herschels have endeavored to interpret the 
scheme of the universe are too important to 
pass unnoticed in this brief sketch of the his- 
tory of astronomy. They have presented the 
galaxy to our contemplation as a scheme of 
suns, many equalling and many surpassing our 
own sun in magnitude and splendor, while they 
have taught that many of the star cloudlets 
are schemes of suns resembling the galaxy in 
extent and constitution. If some, as Whewell, 
Herbert Spencer, and others, do not regard 
these views as demonstrated or even demon- 
strable, yet we cannot but contemplate with 
admiration the activity of mind which enabled 
the Herschels, after completing unrivalled series 
of observational researches, to propound theo- 
ries so magnificent respecting the myriads of 
orbs which they had examined. The spectro- 
scopic analysis of the sun and other celestie? 
bodies, in the hands of Kirchhoff, Huggins, 
Young, Secchi, Zollner, Lockyer, and Respighi, 
has revealed many facts of importance. It has 
been shown that in the sun many of our famil- 
iar elements exist in the form of vapor. In 
the planetary atmospheres known vapors, and 
especially the vapor of water, have been de- 
tected. The stars have been proved to bo 



ASTRONOMY 



ASTUEIAS 



suns, many closely resembling our sun in ele- 
mentary constitution, others formed very dif- 
ferently, but all incandescent orbs as he is, and 
surrounded by the glowing vaftors of many ele- 
mentary substances. The application of the 
analysis to nebulae has led to the surprising dis- 
covery that while many of these objects shine 
with a light resembling that of our own sun, 
so that they may be considered to be formed 
by the aggregation together of many stars, 
others consist almost wholly of glowing gas, 
nitrogen and hydrogen forming their chief con- 
stituent elements. The observations of recent 
solar eclipses have been rewarded by many 
interesting discoveries respecting the physical 
constitution of the sun, the colored prominences 
surrounding him, and the corona which lies be- 
yond the prominences. In these discoveries, 
Huggins, Young, Janssen, Lockyer, Eespighi, 
and Secchi have borne the principal part. 
The progress of practical astronomy, and par- 
ticularly the application of the telescope to 
the determination of the exact position of the 
celestial bodies, has proceeded pari passu with 
the progress of mathematical analysis and di- 
rect telescopic observation. The invention of 
the equatorial, the transit instrument, the mu- 
ral circle, and other instruments of exact obser- 
vation, belongs to the comparatively early his- 
tory of modern astronomy. In the present 
day these instruments are constructed with a 
degree of perfection, and with a multiplicity of 
contrivances for improving their performance 
or extending their application, which are truly 
surprising. Nor have the achievements of in- 
strumental astronomy fallen short of the prom- 
ise afforded by the qualities of the instruments. 
It would be sufficient to point out that the 
telescope has revealed the greater number of 
those minute inequalities of planetary motion 
which have afforded the material for the ana- 
lytical researches above referred to; but we 
may add that we owe to the telescope the 
recognition of the aberration of light, the dis- 
covery of the proper motions of the stars, the 
determination of the sun's distance, and the 
partial solution of the most difficult problem 
yet attacked by astronomers, the determina- 
tion of the distances of the stars. Lastly, 
the spectroscope promises to play an impor- 
tant part in instrumental researches, since 
already it has been applied to the determi- 
nation of the velocity with which stars are 
approaching us or receding from us, and to 
the measurement of movements taking place 
within the solar atmospheric envelopes. For 
a popular view of astronomy, Sir John Her- 
schers "Outlines" may be recommended; and 
full details respecting practical astronomy will 
be found in the treatise on that subject by Prof. 
Loomis of New York, justly described by Prof. 
Nichol as "the best work of the kind in the 
English language." A thorough knowledge of 
physical astronomy would require an acquaint- 
ance with such works as Laplace's Mecanique 
celeste, translated by Bowditch, Gauss's The- 
66 VOL. ii. 4 



oria Motus Corporum Ccelestium, translated by 
Admiral C. H. Davis, U. S. N. (Boston, 1858), 
Delambre's Astronomie, orPeirue's "Analytical 
Mechanics " and "Celestial Mechanics." For 
the history of astronomy, see Whewell's " His- 
tory of the Inductive Sciences," Grant's "His- 
tory of Physical Astronomy," Jahn's Geschichte 
der Astronomic, and Delambre's Histoire de 
Vastronomie. For full information concern- 
ing the modern history of astronomy, Zach's 
Monatliche Correspondenz, Lindenau's Zeit- 
sclirift, Schumacher's AstronomucJie NacJiricJi- 
ten, continued by Dr. Peterson, and Gould's 
" Astronomical Journal " (Boston) must be 
consulted; also, the French Connaissances des 
temps, which contain Leverrier's discussions 
that led to the discovery of Neptune, the Berlin 
Jahrbuch, the Milan Effemeridi, and the Amer- 
ican " Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac." 

ASTRIIC, Jean, a French physician, born at 
Sauve, March 19, 1684, died May 5, 1766. He 
was a graduate and became a professor of the 
medical college of Montpellier as a substitute 
of Chirac, on whose death he succeeded him in 
the professorship, after having filled for some 
time the. chair of anatomy in Toulouse. In 
1730 he became regent and professor of the 
faculty of medicine at Paris, and was also phy- 
sician to the king. His most celebrated work 
is De Morlis Venereis Libri sex (2d ed., 2 
vols., 1740; translated into French and other 
languages) ; and he was regarded as a high 
authority on venereal and female diseases and 
obstetrics, though he excelled rather by his 
prodigious memory than by inventive genius. 
Among his many other writings are Traite des 
maladies des femmei (6 vols., 1761 '5), and a 
posthumous work, ISart d'aeeoucher reduit a 
ses principes (1 vol., 1768). 

ASTIJRIAS, a former province of N. W. Spain, 
bordering on the bay of Biscay, bearing the 
title of principality, and still commonly known 
by its ancient name, although since 1833 it 
constitutes the province of Oviedo ; area, 4,088 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 588,031. The surface is 
irregular and hilly, the country being intersect- 
ed by offshoots of the Cantabrian mountains, 
a chain varying in height from 6,000 to 10,000 
feet. The scenery is picturesque and wild, and 
the coast is almost everywhere bold and high. 
The rivers are few and generally unimportant, 
the Nalon being the chief. The province is 
rich in coal, and in the north many mines are 
worked ; the coal is shipped from Aviles and 
Gijon. Maize, wheat, potatoes, and fruits are 
the chief productions. The horses of Asturias 
are celebrated for strength and endurance. 
The inhabitants are of simple habits, retaining 
many old Spanish customs and peculiarities of 
dress that have elsewhere disappeared. They 
are proud of the freedom of their race from the 
admixture of Jewish and Arab blood found in 
the other provinces, and affect a superiority to 
other Spaniards. The herdsmen (raqueros) 
among them form a separate and nomadic class, 
spending the winter on the coast and the sum- 



ASTYAGES 



ASUNCION 



mer in the mountains.^Astnrias is famous in 
Spanish history as the refuge and stronghold to 
which the Christian Visigoths and their lead- 
ers fled when the Moors had gained possession 
of nearly all the rest of the peninsula, and had 
routed the Christian army in the battle of the 
Guadalete, in 711. The Christians held the 
province until, under the leadership of Pelayo, 
they gained a victory in 718, and, aided by 
the Prankish successes elsewhere, gradually 
drove back the Moors. Pelayo founded the 
kingdom of Asturias, over which he and his 
descendants ruled till 757, after which they 
were called kings of Oviedo. In 914 the court 
was transferred to Leon, that large district 
having been generally freed from Moorish 
rule and joined with Asturias. The title king 
of Leon was now borne by the reigning sover- 
eign, and the history of Asturias became iden- 
tical with that of the larger territory. The 
title of prince of Asturias was created for the 
Spanish heir apparent by John I. in 1388, at the 
wish of the duke of Lancaster, whose daughter 
the prince was about to marry ; and the crown 
prince of Spain was thus designated until the 
expulsion of the Bourbon dynasty in 1868. 

ASTYAGES, son of Cyaxares, the last king of 
Media and grandfather of Cyrus, by whom, ac- 
cording to Herodotus, he was dethroned after a 
reign of 35 years (594-559 B. 0.). (See CYRUS.) 

ASliAY, or A/,n:iy, the largest of the three 
departments of Ecuador, occupying the whole 
eastern and southern portions of the country, 
between lat. 1 N. and 5 S., and Ion. 68 and 
80 W. ; area, about 200,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 
250,000. In the western portion is an ele- 
vated desert, called the Paramo or desert of 
Asuay, being a plateau formed by the intersec- 
tion of the Andes by two chains of mountains 
running E. and W. The eastern parts, however, 



are fertile, being well watered by the Napo, 
Putumayo, and other affluents of the Amazon ; 
and the inhabitants here are engaged in agricul- 
ture and cattle breeding. On the edges of the 
western table land grow cinchona trees, whose 
bark forms one of the few exports of the coun- 
try. The principal towns are Cuenca and Loja. 
ASUNCION, \ ni'slra Sefiora de la Asuncion, or As- 
sumption, the capital of the republic of Paraguay, 
on the E. bank of the river Paraguay, in lat. 
25 16' S., Ion. 57 42' W., 650 m. N. of Buenos 
Ayres ; pop. in 1857, including suburbs, 48,000. 
It was founded in 1536 by Juan de Ayolas, and 
until 1620 was the capital of all the Spanish pos- 
sessions on the Rio de la Plata. The streets are 
regularly laid out, but unpaved, and only a few 
of them have narrow flagged sidewalks. The 
dwellings are mostly of a single story, the bet- 
ter class built of adobes, with tiled roofs and 
projecting eaves. In building the ordinary 
nouses, posts are driven into the ground to 
support the beams and rafters, then strips of 
bamboo are placed transversely, and the whole 
chinked and plastered with mud. The finest pub- 
lic building is the cathedral, rebuilt in 1842-'5. 
There are two other churches, in one of which 
the dictator Francia was buried, but one night 
his monument was destroyed, and his bones 
removed, no one knows whither. The cahildo 
or city hall, in which the congress meets, is a 
respectable structure; the government palace 
is a building of one story with a double front 
and portico. There is a stone quay bordering 
the river, upon which stand the arsenal and 
some workshops, mainly for ship building. The 
principal suburbs are La Eecoleta and Lam- 
barfi, where are the cemeteries ; but until re- 
cently the dead were buried in the churches. 
The climate is healthy, although in summer the 
thermometer frequently rises above 100. In 




I _- 



Asuncion 



ASYLUM 



ATAOAMA 



49 



the neighborhood are many pleasant residences. 
Asuncion is connected by railway with Villa 
Rica, about 145 in. distant, and is favorably 
situated for commerce with tBre interior and 
upon the river. The population has, like that 
of all Paraguay, suffered much diminution in 
consequence of the war of 1865-'70 with Bra- 
zil, the Argentine Confederation, and Uruguay, 
shortly before the close of which the allied 
forces took possession of the city. 

ASYLUM (Gr. aavtov), formerly, a place of 
refuge, from which persons who fled to it could 
not be taken without sacrilege. The Jew- 
ish cities of refuge established by Moses and 
Joshua are the earliest examples of the cus- 
tom of which we possess historical evidence. 
These were six in number, three on each side 
of the Jordan. There the involuntary homi- 
cide might escape the vengeance of the rela- 
tives of the deceased. In Greece, the temples, 
groves, altars, and sometimes the precincts of 
the temple, were asylums to men convicted or 
indicted for civil or criminal offences. Yet it 
was lawful to surround the temple, and let the 
fugitive die of hunger, and even in some cases 
to set fire to the building. In the later days 
of Rome, the eagles of the legions, and the stat- 
ues and palaces of the emperors, were also 
asylums. The strongest religious sanction was 
thrown around these places of refuge. In- 
solvent debtors and runaway slaves resorted 
to them in great numbers. As law became 
more powerful under the Roman government, 
these asylums came to be regarded as nui- 
sances; and at last an edict of the emperor 
Tiberius swept most of them away, both legal 
and pretended. With the barbarian incursions 
in the East and West, the necessity for asy- 
lums again arose. The new right of asylum 
fell to the churches. Under Constantino the 
Great, all Christian churches were asylums ; the 
younger Theodosius extended the privilege to 
all courts, gardens, walks, and houses belonging 
to the church. The Franks in France and the 
Visigoths in Spain permitted it. Many of the 
popes favored this right. All convents, and 
even bishops' houses, became asylums. Opposed 
to the right were the temporal lords, whose 
jurisdiction was curtailed by the asylums. 
Several popes, in particular Gregory XIV. and 
Benedict XIII., restricted the right as nar- 
rowly as possible. All highway robbers, vol- 
untary homicides, horse or sheep stealers, pro- 
fessional thieves, heretics under inquisition 
process, those who laid violent hands on nobles, 
forgers, false coiners, and duellists, were ex- 
cluded from the privilege. In Germany, where 
the temporal power was strong, the right 
of asylum was never very effective. Some- 
times, however, the German barons would 
themselves set up the right of asylum in their 
castles. The German emperors never regard- 
ed the ecclesiastical asylum, and it was entire- 
ly swept away by the Protestant princes. In 
England, in 1487, the right was for the first time 
restrained by a bull of Pope Innocent VIII. 



In 1534, after the reformation had commenced, 
persons accused of treason were debarred the 
right of sanctuary, which word is more com- 
monly used in English law than asylum, and 
hence the phrase, "to take sanctuary," is 
equivalent to take refuge. In the time of 
Queen Elizabeth the right of asylum was de- 
nied to all criminals, but reserved to debtors. 
In 1697 the right of asylum was at length taken 
away from insolvent debtors. To Macduff, thane 
of Fife, who contributed to the overthrow of 
Macbeth, and to his descendants, was given by 
Malcom Kenmore, on the recovery of the throne 
of his ancestors, the privilege for any one of 
the clan Macduff who committed unpremedi- 
tated homicide, to have his punishment remit- 
ted for a fine, payable to the injured family, if 
he could get safe to Macduff's cross, which 
stood in Fifeshire. Many similar privileges were 
granted by charter in Scotland. To this day, 
Holyrood palace, as an ancient royal residence, 
continues to retain this right with respect to 
the persons of debtors. The boundaries of 
this place of refuge are liberal ; the debtors 
find lodgings in a short street, the privileged 
part of which is divided from the unprivileged 
by a gutter running across it. This is the only 
existing sanctuary in the British empire. In 
the United States of America, no civil or eccle- 
siastical asylum ever existed. The right of 
asylum endured longest in Italy, and was first 
put an end to by the French occupation at the 
end of the last century. The houses of the 
clergy and graveyards became asylums in Italy 
in course of time ; and the houses of the car- 
dinals at Rome had this privilege, at least in 
theory, as long as the temporal power lasted. 

ASYMPTOTE, a line (straight or curved) tan- 
gent to a curve, but having its point of con- 
tact with the curve at an infinite distance. If 
a weight were hung upon a cord, the ends of 
which were fastened to pins at unequal heights, 
the weight would slide to a point nearer the 
lower pin. Let now the cord gradually yield 
to the weight, and be stretched to an indefinite 
length, the weight, sliding constantly toward 
the middle of the cord, would move in a curve ; 
and a vertical line midway between the pins 
would be an asymptote to that curve. 

ATACAMi. I. A S. W. department of Bolivia, 
bounded by Peru, the Bolivian department of 
Potosi, the Argentine Confederation, Chili, and 
the Pacific ocean ; area, about 70,000 sq. m. ; 
pop. about 8, 000. The greater portion of the de- 
partment is a dry sandy desert entirely uninhab- 
ited, which is supposed to have been for ages 
the burial place of the aboriginal Peruvians. 
There are a few fertile valleys in the north. 
Anhydrous sulphate of soda is abundant in 
almost every part of the department, and large 
masses of solid iron have also been found in 
different localities. Gold, silver, copper, salt, 
and alum are also among the mineral produc- 
tions. The capital is Cobija, or Puerto de 
la Mar, the only seaport which Bolivia pos- 
sesses, lit The most northern province of 



50 



ATAHUALLPA 



Chili, including the portion of the desert 
of Atacama lying S. of the preceding de- 
partment, the separating line being the par- 
allel of lat. 24 S., according to the treaty of 
1866, and bounded E. by the Argentine Con- 
federation, S. by the province of Coquimbo, 
and W. by the Pacific; area, about 38,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1868, 81,615. The province is 
divided into the departments of Caldera, Co- 
piapo, Freirina, and Vallemar. It abounds in 
mineral wealth, including perhaps the richest 
silver and copper mines in the world. Of 
the former it has 247 and of the latter 994 
which are now worked. The silver mines 
were discovered as lately as 1832, by a shep- 
herd, Juan Godoy, and they have yielded since 
then ores to the value of over $100,000,000, fully 
one third of which amount has been derived 
from the mines of Chattarcillo. A village of 
over 1,500 inhabitants, which contains a free 
school, a church, a hospital, and a post office, 
now marks the spot of the discovery, and is 
named Juan Godoy. It is situated on the 
Chafiarcillo hills, 51 m. S. E. of Copiapo, the 
capital of the department, with which city it 
is connected by railroad. Within a circuit of 
25 leagues from Copiapo are 19 silver-mining 
districts, of which those of Chafiarcillo, Tres 
Puntas, and Agua Amarga are the most im- 
portant. The metal is found in a variety of 
combinations, of which sulphurets, chlorides, 
and chloro-bromides are the most important. 
A railway 101 m. long, the first ever built in 
South America (1850), connects the port of 
Caldera, one of the best on the whole coast of 
Chili, with Copiapo and with the mining dis- 
tricts further east. 

ATAHUALLPA, or Atabalipa, inca of Peru at 
the time of the invasion of the Spaniards, died 
Aug. 29, 1533. He was the son of Huayna 
Capac. The laws of Peru required that the 
principal wives of the incas should be blood 
relations, and that no children of other parent- 
age should be legitimate. Atahuallpa's mother 
had been a princess of Quito ; nevertheless, at 
the request of his father, the heir to the throne, 
Huascar, consented to divide the kingdom with 
Atahuallpa, on condition only that he should 
render homage to him, and not make conquests 
beyond his own dominions. This liberal con- 
duct was infamously requited by Atahuallpa, 
who, having secretly got together a large army, 
attacked Huascar in Cuzco, took him prisoner, 
loaded him with chains, and exterminated all 
his adherents, putting his family and immedi- 
ate dependants to death in the most atrocious 
tortures. Such is the story told by Spanish 
annalists, whose testimony is doubtful, seeing 
that the murder of Huascar, their pseudo-ally, 
and the tyranny of Atahuallpa were among the 
causes of his own execution. Pizarro and his 
followers were now in Peru, and Atahuallpa 
opened negotiations with them. His proposals 
were received in a friendly manner by Pizarro, 
and an interview was arranged (1532), which 
Atahuallpa attended, followed by a very large 



ATAULPHUS 

number of unarmed subjects. Father Vicente 
de Valverde explained to him, through an in- 
terpreter, the mysteries of religion, and that on 
account of their heathenism the pope had 
granted his kingdom to the Spaniards. Ata- 
huallpa professed not to understand the tenor 
of this discourse, and would not resign his 
kingdom ; whereupon a massacre of the assem- 
bled crowd was at once commenced by the 
Spanish soldiers, who seized Atahuallpa and 
threw him into prison. On the arrival of Al- 
magro the cupidity of the adventurers was ex- 
cited by the magnificent proposals that Ata- 
huallpa made for his ransom, and with a de- 
sire of seizing the whole it was determined to 
put him to death. During his imprisonment 
Atahuallpa gave orders for the execution of 
Huascar, which were obeyed. This was one 
of the charges against him on the court martial 
by which he was tried, and being found guilty, 
he was sentenced to be burned, a penalty com- 
muted for strangulation by the garrote on his 
accepting baptism at the hands of the priests 
accompanying the invaders. See Prescott's 
" Conquest of Peru," vol. i. 

ATALANTA, a mythical personage, a native 
of Arcadia, or according to a less generally 
adopted legend, which gives her story with 
some variations, of Bceotia. She was the 
daughter of Jasus, who, having prayed to the 
gods for a son, was displeased at her birth, and 
as a mark of his displeasure exposed her on the 
Parthenian mount. Here she was nurtured by 
a she bear, and grew up' to womanhood, retain- 
ing her virginity, and becoming the most swift- 
footed of mortals. She vanquished the Cen- 
taurs, who sought to capture her, participated 
in the Calydonian boar hunt, and engaged in 
the Pelian games. In course of time her father 
was reconciled to her ; but when he urged her 
to choose a husband, she insisted that every 
suitor who aspired to win her should first con- 
tend with her in running. If he vanquished 
her, he was to receive her hand ; if vanquished, 
he was to be put to death. Milanion overcame 
her by artifice : as he ran he dropped three 
golden apples, the gift of Venus, which Ata- 
lanta delayed to pick up. 

ATASCOSA, a S. county of Texas, watered 
by the San Miguel river and Atascosa creek, 
branches of the Nueces; area, 1,262 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 2,915. It is a stock-raising county, 
and about three fourths of the surface is prairie. 
The soil is sandy and easy of cultivation ; and 
the climate is particularly healthy. In 1870 
the county produced 36,371 bushels of corn, 
11,839 of sweet potatoes, and 22,877 Ibs. of 
wool. There were 97,622 cattle, 6,370 horses, 
8,187 sheep, and 13,590 hogs. Capital, Pleas- 
onton. 

ATAUAI, Hawaiian Islands. See KAUAI. 

ATACLPHl'S, or AtanJf (ADOLPHUS), king of 
the Visigoths, as successor to Alaric (410), to 
whom his sister was given in marriage, died 
in 415. He joined Alaric in Italy with an army 
of Goths and Huns, and aided him in the siege 



ATBARA 



ATHA BEN HAKEM 



51 



of Rome. After the death of his brother-in- 
law, Ataulphus marched into Gaul, carrying 
with him captive Placidia, the si^fcer of the em- 
peror Ilonorius. The Gallic provinces of the 
empire were then in dispute hetween Jovinus 
and Honorius. Ataulphus offered to treat with 
Jovinus, but being repulsed made similar pro- 
posals to Ilonorius, and defeated and slew Jo- 
vinus. Honorius, however, would not be rec- 
onciled with the abductor of his sister, and 
Constantius, to whom Placidia had been es- 
poused, harassed the Gothic kingdom, until in 
414 the barbarians were compelled to with- 
draw, burning Bordeaux as they left, and cross- 
ing the Pyrenees into Spain. Ataulphus was 
assassinated by one of his equerries. 

ATBARA, the principal eastern affluent of 
the Nile, rising in Abyssinia. (See NILE, and 
ABYSSINIA.) 

ATCUAFALAYA, a river and bayou of Louisi- 
ana, connecting with the Mississippi near the 
mouth of the Red river, but receiving very 
little of its waters except in time of flood. Its 
course is nearly south to Lake Chetimaches 
or Grand lake, through which it passes, and 
from which, in a greatly enlarged stream, it 
discharges itself into Atchafalaya bay. Its 
name signifies lost river, and it is supposed by 
geographers to have formed the old bed of the 
Red river. The Teche and Courtableau are its 
principal tributaries. Its whole course is about 
260 m. 

ATCHISON. I. A county forming the N. W. 
extremity of Missouri, lying along the left bank 
of the Missouri river, bounded E. by the Noda- 
way and drained by the Tarkeo and Nishna- 
batona rivers; area, 675 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
8,440, of whom 34 were colored. In 1870 
the county produced 45,117 bushels of wheat, 
1,312,030 of Indian corn, 69,666 of oats, 18,266 
Ibs. of wool, 127,826 of butter, and 6,110 gal- 
lons of wine. Capital, Rockport. II. A N. E. 
county of Kansas, separated from Missouri by 
the Missouri river ; area, 424 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 15,507. In 1870 the county produced 
123,745 bushels of wheat, 619,447 of Indian 
corn, 96,012 of oats, 78,721 of potatoes, 23,239 
tons of hay, 513,864 Ibs. of butter, 207,839 of 
tobacco, and 201,593 of wool. Building stone 
is abundant. The central branch of the Union 
Pacific railroad passes through the county. 
Capital, Atchison. 

ATCHISON, a city of Kansas, capital of Atchi- 
son co., situated on the W. bank of the Mis- 
souri river, at the extreme point of the " Great 
Western Bend," about 25 m. above Leaven- 
worth ; pop. in 1870, 7,054. It is an important 
railway centre, being the terminus of four 
roads : the Central Branch of the Union Pacific ; 
the Missouri Pacific ; the Kansas City, St. Jo- 
seph, and Council Bluffs, connecting it with the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph ; and the Atchison 
and Nebraska. The city contains 5 churches, 
9 schools, 3 banks, 2 newspaper offices, a large 
furniture manufactory, flour mills, and planing 
mills. The central school building, just com- 



pleted at a cost of $45,000, is one of the finest 
in the state. 

ATCHISON, David R., an American politician, 
born at Frogtown, Fayette county, Ky., Aug. 
11, 1807. He was a lawyer in Clay county, 
Mo., when he was elected to the state legis- 
lature in 1834, and in 1841 was made .judge 
of the circuit court for Platte county. From 
1841 to 1855 he was a member of the United 
States senate, at first acting with the party 
opposed to the extension of slavery into the 
northern territories, but suddenly changing his 
policy in 1849. In 1854 he became prominent 
in the legislation for the organization of Kan- 
sas and Nebraska, advocating the repeal of 
the Missouri compromise. After the expira- 
tion of his term in the senate he became a pro- 
slavery leader in the conflict on and near the 
Kansas border in 1856-'7. Since that time 
Mr. Atchison has not appeared in public life. 

ATE, a Greek deity, daughter of Eris or of 
Zeus. In the tragic poets she is the punisher 
of those who perpetrate crime ; in the epic 
she is the instigator of gods and men to deeds 
which superinduce misfortunes. In this char- 
acter she persuaded Jupiter to take an oath, 
which afterward enabled Juno to transfer to 
Eurystheus the power that had been intended 
for Hercules. When Jupiter perceived what 
he had done, he cast Ate from Olympus. 

ATELLA, an ancient Oscan town of Cam- 
pania, midway between Naples and Capua, 
the inhabitants of which were executed, sold 
as slaves, or expelled by the Romans in 211 B. 
C., for having been the first to declare for the 
Carthaginians after the battle of Cannae. In 
the days of Cicero the town had recovered its 
prosperity, though it was classed by Strabo 
among the smaller towns of Campania. In 
early Christian times it became an episcopal 
see, and continued as such till the 9th cen- 
tury, but was then much dilapidated. In 1030 
the inhabitants were removed to the neighbor- 
ing town of Aversa, near which some remains 
still exist. Atella is celebrated in Roman liter- 
ature through the Atellana fabulce, also called 
ludi Osci, farces or comedies in the Oscan dia- 
lect. They were at one time highly popular in 
Rome. No entire play has come down to us. 

ATH, or ,'Elh. a city of Belgium, in the prov- 
ince of Hainault, on the river Dender, 30 m. W. 
S. W. of Brussels; pop. in 1866, 8,260. It has 
a tower built in 1150, a handsome town hall, 
a college, orphan asylum, &c. It has manu- 
factures of linen, woollen, and cotton fabrics, 
of hats and gloves, bleaching and dyeing es- 
tablishments, and breweries ; and it is the seat 
of a considerable trade. It once had fortifica- 
tions, but they were demolished in 1830. 

ATHA BEN III k m. or Alhakem ibn Alia, sur- 
named Mokanna (the veiled), a Moslem im- 
postor, born at Merv, Khorasan, killed about 
780. He was by trade a fuller. He pretended 
to be the embodiment of the living spirit of 
God, and by his knowledge of philosophy and 
chemistry was enabled to perform wonders 



52 



ATIIA MELIK 



ATHANASIAN CREED 



which drew about him a large band of fol- 
lowers. He always wore a veil, declaring that 
no one could behold his face and live ; but the 
real reason of his doing so is supposed to have 
been to hide the loss of an eye. The caliph 
Mahdi having sent an army against him, he 
shut himself up in the castle of Keh, north of 
the Oxus, and when no longer able to stand a 
siege put himself to death. According to some, 
he set fire to his castle and threw himself into 
the flames, followed by many of his disciples. 
Others state that he poisoned himself and his 
followers; and again others that he threw 
himself into a cauldron of corrosive acid, in 
the hope that his complete destruction would 
follow, causing the belief that he had been re- 
moved by divine agency. Mokanna is the hero 
of Moore's poem, "The Veiled Prophet of 
Khorassan." 

ATHA JIELIK, \la ed-Din, a Persian historian 
and statesman, born in Khorasan about 1227, 
died at Bagdad in 1282. He enjoyed the favor 
of the Mongol princes of Persia, and was for 
many years governor of Bagdad. His history 
of the Mongols, entitled " Conquest of the 
World," has been highly valued. 

ATHABASCA, or Athapescow. I. A lake of 
British North America, in lat. 59 N., and be- 
tween Ion. 106 and 112 W., about midway 
between the Rocky mountains and Hudson 
bay. It is about 20 m. wide from N. to S. and 
230 m. long. Forts Chipewyan and Fond du 
Lac are on its N. shore. At the W. end it 
receives the Athabasca and Peace rivers, and 
discharges the Slave river, which flows N. into 
Great Slave lake, whence there is communica- 
tion by the Mackenzie river with the Arctic 
ocean. The Black river issues from its E. ex- 
tremity, and forms part of the channel through 
which, by Black, Manito or Wollaston, Deer, 
and Indian lakes, and the Churchill river, it 
is connected with Hudson bay. II. A river 
which rises in the Rocky mountains, near Mt. 
Brown, in lat. 52 10' N., Ion. 116 30' W., and 
has a tortuous N. and N. E. course, receiving 
the overflow of the Lesser Slave and several 
other lakes, and entering Athabasca lake. Its 
length is about 600 m. A shoal several miles 
in extent is formed by the debris and drift 
timber which it brings into the lake. 

ATHABASCAS, a family of American Indians, 
comprising two large divisions : one bordering 
on the Esquimaux in the northwest, and ex- 
tending from Hudson bay to the Pacific ; the 
other on the Mexican frontier, extending from 
the gulf of California to Texas, with smaller 
bands scattered along the Pacific from Cook's 
inlet to Umpqua river, Oregon. The north- 
ern district contains a variety of tribes, the 
more important being the Tinne (called Chipe- 
wyans by the Crees), the Tahkali or Carriers, 
Sicaunies, Kutchin or Loucheux, Dog Ribs, 
Mauvais Monde, Slaves, Beaver Indians, and 
Yellow Knives, with the Sursee on the Sas- 
katchewan. Their numbers have not been ac- 
curately computed, but are estimated by Kirby 



at 32,000. The scattered tribes are the Ke- 
naians or Tnaina on Cook's inlet, numbering 
about 25,000 ; the Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai, 
about 100 each, on the Columbia ; and the 
Umpquas, about 400 in number, on the river 
of that name. These tribes are all repre- 
sented as timid, mild, and gentle in man- 
ner, peaceable and industrious. The southern 
district includes the sedentary Navajos, who 
cultivate the soil and weave blankets; the 
fierce, wandering Apaches, the most trouble- 
some of tribes ; and the more quiet Lipans 
of Texas. These number about 17,000. The 
name of the family is derived from Lake Ath- 
abasca, but the word is taken, not from their 
language, but from the Cree, meaning cords of 
hay according to some. They are easily dis- 
tinguished from other families, having square 
massive heads, short hands and feet, and a 
quantity of beard quite unusual in American 
tribes. They profess to have come from a dis- 
tant country in the west, over a series of islands 
amid ice and snow. Some writers trace strong 
Tartar resemblances in them, and Turner found 
curious analogies between their language and 
that of Thibet. 

ATIIALIAH, queen of Judah, daughter of 
Ahab, king of Israel. She was sought by Je- 
hoshaphat, king of 3udah, in marriage for his 
son Jehoram. This marriage was the occasion 
of the introduction of idolatry into Judah, and 
of an interruption in the Judean dynasty. Af- 
ter the death of Jehoram, and the short reign 
and destruction of her son Ahaziah (884 B. 0.), 
Athaliah caused all the male members of the 
royal line, as she supposed, to be slain, and 
mounted the throne of Judah herself. But 
after she had reigned six years, the high priest 
Jehoiada produced her grandson, the young 
Joash, who had been saved from the massacre 
and reared in the temple, caused him to be an- 
ointed as king, and ordered the punishment 
of Athaliah by the armed Levites. 

ATHA5IAS, in Greek legendary history, a son 
of ^Eolus, married Nephele, who, discovering 
that he preferred Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, 
vanished from the earth. Ino endeavored to 
destroy Phrixus and Ilelle, his children by Ne- 
phele, but they were rescued by their mother 
and transported to Colchis on the back of the 
ram with the golden fleece. Juno, to punish the 
infidelity of Athamas, afflicted him with mad- 
ness. While in this condition he killed Lear- 
chus, one of his sons by Ino, and the latter 
cast herself into the sea with her other son, 
Melicertes. Athamas now fled from Boeotia, 
and was commanded by an oracle to remain 
wherever he should be hospitably received by 
savage beasts. After much wandering he ar- 
rived at a place where wolves were devouring 
sheep ; they fled at his approach, and left their 
prey at his disposal. Athamas settled there, 
and called his new territory Athamania. 

ATHANASIAJf CREED, a symbol chiefly com- 
posed of precise theological definitions of the 
doctrines of the Trinity and incarnation. The 



ATHANASIUS 



ATHELSTAN 



53 



first notices of it are from the 7th century, and 
do not mention the author. It made its ap- 
pearance first in France, in the Latin language, 
became generally known througfkmt the West, 
and was adopted last of all in the East. The 
Greek writers immediately succeeding St. Ath- 
anasius make no mention of it. In the MS. 
editions of his works it is usually not found at 
all, or, if it is, with the remark, "commonly" 
or "incorrectly ascribed to St. Athanasius." 
Subsequently, however, it was ascribed to him 
by all ecclesiastical writers. Durandus (1287) 
states that it was composed by St. Athanasius 
at Treves during his exile in the West, and 
Mayer thinks this account not improbable. 
Modern critics generally suppose that it was 
drawn up as a summary of the doctrine of 
St. Athanasius, from which circumstance it ob- 
tained the name of Athanasian creed, and in 
process of time was attributed to the great 
Alexandrian doctor. It has been attributed, 
on conjectural grounds, to Hilary of Aries and 
Venantius Fortnnatus, to Vincent of Lerins, 
and to Vigilius, bishop of Thapsus in Africa. 
This creed is an authoritative formulary of faith 
in the Roman and Greek churches. Its author- 
ity does not rest on the presumption that it 
was composed by St. Athanasius, but on its 
general acceptance as a correct enunciation of 
Catholic faith. In the Roman Catholic church 
it is recited at the office of prime on Sundays, 
when the office is dominical. In the church 
of England it is accepted as of equal authority 
with the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, and or- 
dered to be recited on certain festivals at the 
morning prayer. In the 39 articles of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church of the United States 
all mention of it is omitted, and the creed itself 
has no place in the prayer book. 

ATHANASIl'S, Saint, patriarch of Alexandria 
and doctor of the eastern church, died there 
in 373. He was born at Alexandria about 296, 
of Christian parents, was educated under the 
direction of Alexander, afterward bishop of 
the city, and spent some time in the desert as 
a disciple of the hermit St. Anthony. At the 
age of 23 he received deacon's orders, and in 
the discharge of his office so signalized himself 
as a foe to every kind of heresy, that he was 
chosen by Alexander to accompany him to the 
council of Nice (325). To the subtlety, learn- 
ing, and eloquence of Athanasius in that coun- 
cil was principally attributed the condemnation 
of Arianism. His bearing on this occasion, 
not less than the dying request of Alexander, 
secured his election as bishop of Alexandria in 
32G. His uncompromising orthodoxy subjected 
him to bitter persecution from the adherents of 
Arius. The emperor Constantine summoned 
him before a synod at Tyre in 335 and declared 
him deposed. A synod at Jerusalem the next 
year confirmed this sentence and banished him 
to Treves. Constantius recalled him in 338. 
An Arian council at Antioch condemned him 
again in 341 ; but a larger orthodox council at 
Alexandria sustained him, and another at Sar- 



dis, with the Roman bishop at its head, replaced 
him in his episcopal chair in 349. Deposed 
for a third time, through the influence of Con- 
stantine, by the synods of Aries (353) and Milan 
(355), he was dragged from the altar by a band 
of soldiers, and fled into the desert with a price 
upon his head. Under Julian the Apostate he 
was again exiled, and spent some time in the 
wilderness of the Thebaid ; and under Valens 
he suffered his fifth banishment, concealing 
himself four months in his father's tomb. He 
was finally restored to his see and died in peace. 
His festival is kept in both the Greek and Latin 
churches on May 2, and in the Greek church 
also on Jan. 18. The life of Athanasius has 
historical importance mainly from its connec- 
tion with the Arian controversy, and the estab- 
lishment and defence of the Nicene creed. 
With the exception of his "Discourse against 
the Pagans " and his treatise on " The Incar- 
nation," all his writings have a direct bearing 
upon Arianism. His style has the merits of 
strength, clearness, conciseness of expression, 
and exact logical order. It is praised even by 
Erasmus, the most fastidious of critics, above 
the style of Chrysostom and Gregory. What 
it lacks of finished grace it makes up in nervous 
vigor. Bold, unbending, confident even to 
dogmatism, severe against what he believed, to 
be heresy, suspicious of the promises and pro- 
fessions of all who were not friends of the truth, 
he was yet courteous, kind to the poor, pious, 
just, and patient. The best edition of his 
works is that of Paris, 1627-'8, 3 vols. folio. 

ATHELING. See ANGLO-SAXONS. 

ATHELXEY, Isle of, a tract of about 100 acres 
in Somersetshire, England, 7 m. S. E. of Bridge- 
water. In the time of Alfred the Great it was 
an island at the junction of the Tone and Par- 
ret rivers. Alfred concealed himself among its 
marshes during the Danish invasion, and after- 
ward founded an abbey there, about 888. 

ATHELSTAN, the first who called himself king 
of the English, born about 895, died at Glou- 
cester, Oct. 25, 941. He was a grandson of 
Alfred the Great, and illegitimate son of Ed- 
ward the Elder ; but as the only legitimate son 
of Edward who was of age died a few days 
after the death of his father, Athelstan was 
preferred by the witenagemote to his legiti- 
mate brothers, who were"under age, and he was 
crowned king of the Anglo-Saxons at Kingston 
on the Thames in 925. He annexed the terri- 
tory of Cornwall and Devon, and exacted trib- 
ute from Howel Dda, pendragon of Wales. 
When Sigtric, king of Northumbria, died, 
Athelstan seized upon his territory also. Au- 
laf, the son of Sigtric, obtained the assistance 
of the Danes and Norwegians, and was aided 
also by the Irish, Scots, and Welsh, who saw 
with dislike the increase of the power of the 
South Saxon king ; but Athelstan signally de- 
feated the allies at Brunanburg or Brunsbury 
in Northumbria. After this event Athelstan 
enjoyed great consideration on the continent 
of Europe. His sisters were given in marriage 



ATHENA 



ATHENS 



to the king of France, the emperor of Ger- 
many, and a Norse king. He was succeeded 
by his brother Edmund. Atlielstan added 
much to the code left by Alfred. One of his 
decrees was, that any merchant who made 
three voyages on his own account beyond the 
British channel, or narrow seas, should be en- 
titled to the privileges of a thane. He favored 
learning, built .monasteries, collected books, 
and encouraged the translation of the Scrip- 
tures into the vernacular. Two of his books 
are believed to be extant among the Cottonian 
manuscripts in the British museum. 

ATHENA. See MINERVA. 

ATHEMEUS, a Greek writer of the early part 
of the 3d century of the Christian era, born at 
Naucratis in Egypt. He is chiefly known as 
the author of the Deipnosophista (" Banquet 
of the Learned "), a voluminous work of ima- 
ginary table talk on almost every conceivable 
subject, especially gastronomy, between certain 
learned men while enjoying themselves at sup- 
per in the house of an imaginary Roman named 
Laurentius, with Galen the physician and 
Ulpian the jurist among the guests. It con- 
sisted of 15 books, but only the 1st and 2d, 
and parts of the 3d, llth, and 15th, are now 
extant in an epitome, of which we know nei- 
ther the date nor the compiler. Notwithstand- 
ing its many literary and artistic defects, the 
great mass of information which it contains, 
and the light which it throws on the manners 
of the ancients, will ever cause the Deipnoso- 
pJiixtw to be prized by the scholar and the an- 
tiquary. The best edition of this work is that 
of Dindorf (3 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1827). 

ATHKNAGOKAS, a Greek philosopher of the 
2d century, who became a convert to Chris- 
tianity, and flourished probably in the reigns 
of Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus. 
It is said that he was a native of Athens, and 
first master of the catechetical school at Alex- 
andria. Intending to write against the Chris- 
tians, he applied himself to the study of the 
Scriptures, became convinced of their truth, 
and addressed an apology to one of the em- 
perors in behalf of the Christians. He also 
wrote a treatise in defence of the doctrine of 
the resurrection. These works of Athenagoras 
are still extant. Their style is Attic and ele- 
gant. The best edition is that of the Benedic- 
tines (Paris, 1742). 

ATHENS (Gr. 'ABijvai), anciently the principal 
city of Attica, and now the capital of the king- 
dom of Greece, situated in lat. 37 56' N., Ion. 
23 44' E., about 4 m. from the E. coast of the 
Saronic gulf, and 4^ m. from the port town of 
Piraeus. It was built round a central rocky 
height, called the Acropolis, an elevation about 
300 ft. above the average level of the town, 
and 600 ft. above the Mediterranean. Grouped 
near it are several smaller elevations, with val- 
leys between. N. W. of the Acropolis is a 
moderate height on which stands the temple 
of Theseus. At a short distance from the N. 
W. angle is the Areopagus; and over against 



the Areopagus is the hill of the Pnyx, with 
the hill of the Nymphs a little north, and the 
Museum, or hill of the Muses, at a short dis- 
tance to the south. N. E. of the city rises the 
conical hill of Lycabettus. The plain itself in 
which the city stands is bounded N. by Mt. 
Parnes, which separates it from Boeotia ; N. E. 
by Mt. Pentelicus; S. E. by Mt. Hymettus, 
which descends to the sea; 8. W. and W. by 
the Saronic gulf; and N. W. by Mt. JSgaleos. 
A sketch of the history of Athens is neces- 
sary to the understanding of any description 
either of the ancient or modern city. No 
doubt a stronghold on the rock, afterward 
called the Acropolis, was the germ from which 
it grew. When or by whom this was founded 
is unknown. According to the legends, Cecrops, 
sometimes represented as an Egyptian settler, 
sometimes as an autochthonous Pelasgian hero, 
first took possession of the rock, which from him 
was called Cecropia. He was succeeded by a 
line of 16 kings, bearing the names of Cranaus, 
Amphictyon, Erechtheus I. or Erichthonius, 
Pandion I., Erechtheus II., Cecrops II., Pan- 
dion II., -iEgeus, Theseus, Menestheus, Demo- 
phon, Oxyntes, Aphidas, Thymcetes, Melan- 
thus, and Codrus. In the reign of the second 
or third king the city is said to have received 
its name from the geddess Athena (Minerva). 
Erechtheus is said to have built a temple to 
Athena on the Acropolis, where he placed the 
statue of the goddess, made of olive wood. The 
temple was called, from this legend, the Erech- 
theum. Theseus is said to have united the 12 
communities, or cities, into which Attica was 
hitherto divided, into one political body. Me- 
nestheus led the 50 dark ships of the Athenians 
in the Trojan war, and is pronounced by Homer 
the first of warriors, except Nestor. The 17th 
and last king of Athens was Codrus, who sacri- 
ficed himself for his country in a war with the 
Peloponnesian invaders, who, according to an 
oracle, were to be victorious if they did not 
slay the king of the Athenians. After him no 
one, so the legend says, was permitted to bear 
the title of king: His son Medon succeeded 
him under the name of archon, or ruler, hold- 
ing the office, however, upon the hereditary 
principle, and for life. A line of life archons 
continued to rule through 12 reigns, Alcmseon 
being the last. During the government of his 
predecessor, ^Eschylus, commenced the era of 
the Olympic games, celebrated at intervals of 
four years, at Olympia in Elis. This date the 
earliest fixed point in Greek chronology has 
been satisfactorily established at 776 B. C. 
After Alemason, a series of seven decenninl 
archons carried on the government till 683, 
when the office was made annual, its various 
functions were distributed among nine col- 
leagues, and the right of election was extended 
to the entire class of the eupatrida or nobles. 
One of these, the head of the college, bore the 
title of "the archon," and was designated 
as the eponyrrms a magistrate in whose name 
the transactions of the year were dated and 



ATHENS 



55 



recorded. The office of archon lasted until 
long after the independent political existence 
of Athens and Greece had come to an end. 
The only important political bo8y existing in 
Athens at the time of the first appointment 
of life archons was the senate or council of the 
Areopagus, which appears to have been in its 
earliest constitution the representative of the 
Homeric boule, and until the time of Solon was 
called simply the boule, or senate. In the 
course of time the oppressions and abuses of 
the eupatridce gave rise to popular discontents, 
and Draco was appointed in 624 to draw up 
a code of written laws. He made no change 
in the political forms, but merely attempted to 
introduce a code the severity of which made 
it impossible to execute it. Twelve years after 
Draco's legislation Oylon, a member of the 
eupatrid order, attempted to usurp the supreme 
power of the state, but failed. Cylon escaped, 
and his partisans, who had taken refuge, some 
at the altar of Athena, others at the altar of 
the Eumenides, were put to death by the di- 
rection of Megacles, the representative of the 
house of the Alcmfflonidse. This act was sup- 
posed to have brought upon that race the 
curse of the gods, and they were expelled from 
the city in 597. Epimenides, the Cretan sage, 
was invited to purify the city from the pollu- 
tion of sacrilege by expiatory rites. His visit 
is placed in 596. The glory of Athens as a 
political commonwealth dates from the age of 
Solon, a liaeal descendant of King Codrus, born 
about 638 B. 0. At a tune of great political 
disturbance, resulting in part from the oppres- 
sions of the eupatridse, he was chosen archon 
in 594, and vested with unlimited power to 
make any changes that might seem necessary 
in the constitution of the state. He framed a 
new constitution, changing the title to politi- 
cal power from birth to property. He divided 
the citizens into four classes: 1. The pente- 
cosiomedimni, or those whose annual revenue 
was equal to 500 medimni of corn and upward. 
2. The hippela, or knights, whose income 
ranged between 300 and 500 medimni, and 
who were sufficiently wealthy to furnish a war 
horse. 3. The zeugita, whose income ranged 
between 200 and 300 medimni, and who were 
able to keep a yoke of oxen. 4. The thetes, 
whose income fell short of 200 medimni. The 
4th class were exempt from taxation and ex- 
cluded from public office, but they served as 
light troops in the army. Only the first class 
were eligible to the higher offices of the state ; 
the 2d and 3d classes filled the inferior offices ; 
the 2d class served in the army as horsemen, 
and the 3d as heavy-armed foot soldiers. All 
classes had the right of voting in the public 
assembly, which elected the archons and other 
magistrates. He established another legislative 
body, called the senate or council of the four 
hundred, elected by the assembly, 100 being 
taken from each of the four ancient tribes, into 
which the people were divided long before So- 
lon. The court of the Areopagus was endowed 



with enlarged powers, and with the general 
supervision of the conduct and lives of the citi- 
zens and the institutions of the state. Solon's 
kinsman Pisistratus made himself master of 
Athens in 560, adorned the city with many pub- 
lic works, collected a public library, and called 
around him the most distinguished poets, ar- 
tists, and scholars from every part of Greece. 
He died in 527, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Hippias and Hipparchus. By the con- 
spiracy of Harmodius and Aristogiton, Hip- 
parchus was slain in 514, and Hippias was 
compelled to quit Athens for Asia in 510. 
Olisthenes and Isagoras were now rivals for 
power, and the constitution of Solon went for 
a time into full operation ; but Clisthenes soon 
reorganized the people of Attica by dividing 
them into ten tribes, instead of the old Ionic 
four tribes; and these ten tribes were local, 
and were subdivided into districts or town- 
ships called demes (iy/ioi). It was. customary 
to designate every citizen by affixing to his 
name the epithet indicating the deme to which 
he belonged. The senate was also changed, 
and -its powers and duties were greatly in- 
creased ; it now consisted of 500 members, 50 
being taken from eacii tribe. The general con- 
trol exercised by the people over the affairs 
of government, through the ecclesia, was also 
greatly enlarged. The judicial powers of the. 
people were regulated by the establishment of 
the heliastic courts, of which ten were organ- 
ized, either by Olisthenes, or soon after his 
time. The new arrangement of the tribes led 
to a new arrangement of the military service, 
the administration of which was placed in the 
hands of ten generals, one being chosen from 
each tribe. With them was associated, how- 
ever, the polemarch, or third archon, who 
under the old constitution held the exclusive 
military command. The ostracism was also 
introduced by Clisthenes. The prosperity of 
Athens excited the jealousy of the Spartans, 
who soon made several attempts to overthrow 
the growing democracy. Their first plan was 
to establish Isagoras, the rival of Clisthenes, 
as tyrant of Athens ; but the expedition set on 
foot for the purpose failed. They next planned 
the restoration of the exiled Hippias ; and thus 
began that series of events which resulted in 
the Persian invasions of Greece, in repelling 
which the Athenians, under their generals Mil- 
tiades, Themistocles, and Aristides, took so con- 
spicuous a part. The history of Athens in this 
struggle is completely identified with that of 
Greece until the battle of Plataea, in 479, when 
the Persians were finally vanquished. The con- 
duct of the Athenians in meeting the invaders 
had given Athens the leadership of the coun- 
try; and this was now acknowledged in the 
formation of the so-called confederacy of Delos, 
a union of numerous states under the Athenian 
hegemony. The rebuilding <>f Athens on a 
larger scale, and with stronger defences, ex- 
cited the jealousy of the ^Eginetans and the 
Spartans, and attempts were made to interfere. 



56 



ATHENS 



These were frustrated by the policy of The- 
mistocles. The city was surrounded by mas- 
sive walls, the fleet was increased, and the 
harbors of Piraeus and Munychia were forti- 
fied with walls and towers, vast ruins of 
which remain to this day. The progress of 
Athens in letters and arts in the time of her 
hegemony was wonderful ; but her most bril- 
liant period was that of Pericles, who came 
forward as a popular leader in 469. With slight 
interruptions, his administration lasted from 469 
till his death in 429, though he held no perma- 
nent office. The names of ^Eschylus, Sopho- 
cles, Euripides, and Aristophanes in dramatic 
poetry, of Phidias and his school in plastic 
art, and of Anaxagoras and Socrates in philos- 
ophy, are connected with this period. The 
treasury of Delos was removed to Athens, and 
the amount of contributions increased beyond 
the assessment of Aristides. Public buildings 
of extraordinary splendor were erected. The 
great structures of the Periclean age were the 
Odeon, finished in 444 ; the Parthenon, 387 ; 
the Propyleea, 432 ; and the Erechtheum, 
which was not quite completed at the break- 
ing out of the Peloponnesian war. This mag- 
nificent system of public works was under the 
general superintendence of the sculptor Phidias. 
The architects of the Parthenon were Ictinus 
and Callicrates. Mnesicles was the builder 
of the Propylsaa. The Peloponnesian war 
broke out in 431. The Lacedemonian troops 
ravaged the plain of Athens, and the inhabit- 
ants of the country crowded into the city. In 
the next year a second invasion took place, 
and the plague carried off not less than a 
fourth of the inhabitants. The disasters in 
the field were accompanied by violent changes 
in the city. (See GREECE.) After the defeat 
of the Athenians at ^Egospotami and the sur- 
render of the city in 404 to the Spartan 
general Lysander, the democracy, which had 
been restored, was again abolished, and a 
government of thirty established, under the 
control of Sparta, known in history as the 
thirty tyrants. The walls of Athens were 
demolished by the Lacedsemonians, and the 
arsenals and docks at Piraeus destroyed. The 
Spartan rule was overthrown by a body of 
exiles, headed by Thrasybulus, who restored 
the reign of the ancient laws. But Athens 
never regained her leadership in Greece. The 
period between 403 and 360 B. C., usually 
designated as that of the Spartan and Theban 
supremacy, is signalized by the adventures of 
Xenophon, the Athenian, in the expedition 
of Cyrus the Younger, and the retreat of the 
10,000; the war of the Lacedsemonians, under 
Agesilaus, in Asia Minor ; the Corinthian war ; 
the peace negotiated by Antalcidas and bear- 
ing his name in history, 387; the partial re- 
organization of the Athenian confederacy on 
the basis of the confederacy of Delos ; and 
by numerous distant expeditions, both by the 
Lacedemonians and the Athenians. In 361 a 
general peace was concluded by consent of all 



parties except the Lacedaemonians ; but in the 
following year the Athenians went to war 
with the Olynthians for the possession of Am- 
phipolis, and this war brought them into 
collision with Macedonia under the lead of 
Philip, and after his death under that of his 
son Alexander. As the Macedonian successes 
increased, a party grew up in Athens which 
favored a conciliation of the conquerors. Until 
the death of Philip and the accession of Alex- 
ander, Demosthenes and the true Athenian 
patriots of his school were able to make a 
vigorous opposition to this movement ; but 
when Alexander destroyed Thebes, and the 
Athenians could only protect themselves 
against him by almost complete submission, 
the Macedonian party triumphed, and in spite 
of the efforts of the great orator Athens sank 
into entire subjection to the invaders. A tran- 
quil period, one of the most inglorious in the 
political history of the city, now ensued. When 
the news of Alexander's death arrived (323), a 
fresh attempt was made to overturn the Mace- 
donian supremacy. Leosthenes, the Athenian, 
defeated the army of Antipater, the Mace- 
donian general, at Lamia, a short distance N. 
of the pass of Thermopylae ; but the defeat of 
the Greek forces at Crannon m Thessaly once 
more placed the Macedonians in the ascendant. 
The Lamian war closed with the unconditional 
surrender of Athens to Antipater. From this 
time Athens became the victim of the con- 
tending chiefs of Macedonia. Demetrius Pha- 
lereus ruled the city ten years, supported by a 
Macedonian garrison ; but in 307 Demetrius 
Poliorcetes was sent from Ephesus by his fa- 
ther, and compelled his namesake, the Pha- 
lerean, to surrender the city. The conqueror 
announced to the people the restoration of 
their ancient constitution, and was the object 
of extraordinary honors, though he did nothing 
to really elevate Athens, and his rule only 
added to her degradation. Athens continued 
under the Macedonian influence down to the 
conquest of Greece by the Romans, though 
nominally governed by her own laws, and pre- 
serving her ancient customs, rites, and cere- 
monies of every description. In 200 the last 
Philip of Macedon was involved in a war 
with Rome, and Athens, having taken sides 
with the Romans, suffered from his barbarism. 
The city was relieved by a Roman fleet ; but 
before Philip withdrew from the siege he laid 
waste the gardens and suburbs, including the 
lyceum and the tombs of the Attic heroes, and 
destroyed the temples that stood on the Attic 
plain. Philip was defeated at the battle of 
Cynoscephalse in 197, and in the following year 
Greece was declared free by the Roman consul 
Flamininus, at tlie Isthmian games. War was 
renewed by Perseus, and the Macedonian em- 
pire was finally overthrown by Lucius ^Emilius 
Paulus in 168. In 147 war broke out between 
the Achaean league and Rome, but it was 
closed with the capture and sack of Corinth 
by the consul Mummius in the following year, 






ATHENS 



57 



which saw the whole of Greece reduced to a 
Roman province, under the name of Achaia. 
Under the Romans Athens was prosperous and 
respected. Her schools of eloquence and phi- 
losophy were open to the civilized world, and 
the sons of distinguished Roman citizens were 
sent there to complete their education. Her 
splendid temples remained uninjured ; the 
magnificence of the city had been increased by 
the liberality of foreign potentates. Athens 
occasionally suffered during the civil wars. 
She took part with Mithridates, and was be- 
sieged and captured by Sulla, who destroyed 
the long walls and the fortifications, annihilated 
the commerce of Piraaus, and left the city crip- 
pled in all her resources. The groves of the 
academy and the lyceum were cut down, and 
columns were carried off from the temple of 
Olympian Zeus to adorn some public building 
at Rome. The establishment of the empire 
made but little difference in the condition of 
Athens, and she continued the centre of the 
world of literature and art down to the com- 
mencement of the Christian era. St. Paul vis- 
ited the city, and delivered his discourse on 
Mars Hill, probably about the middle of the 
1st century. The emperor Hadrian, in the first 
part of the 2d century, finished the temple of 
Olympian Zeus, established a public library, 
and built a pantheon and gymnasium. Marcus 
Aurelius increased the number of the Athe- 
nian schools and the salaries of the teachers. 
About the middle of the 3d century the Goths, 
crossing the Hellespont and ^Egean, descended 
upon Attica. Athens made a brave defence 
under the inspiration of the scholar and phi- 
losopher Dexippus, and suffered but little from 
the invasion before the enemy were driven 
back. In A. D. 258, a few years before the 
arrival of the Goths, the walls, which had been 
in a ruinous condition since the siege of Sylla, 
were repaired by Valerian. In 396 Alaric 
advanced upon Athens ; but. not willing to 
undergo the delay of a siege, he accepted the 
hospitalities of the magistrates, and retired, 
leaving the city and Attica unharmed. For 
more than 100 years after this Athens enjoyed 
great prosperity as the chief seat of learning 
and culture ; and we hear of her principally 
through the many learned men of the time 
who received their education in the city. In 
the 5th century the beautiful Athenais, daugh- 
ter of the Athenian philosopher Leontius, be- 
came a Christian, was baptized at Constanti- 
nople under the name of Eudocia, married the 
emperor Theodosius II., and did much by the 
influence of her example, and by building 
churches, to promote Christianity in Athens, 
the local government having recently author- 
ized, by direction of an imperial rescript, the 
public recognition of Christianity there. The 
temple of Olympian Zeus was consecrated 
to Christ the Saviour ; the Parthenon to the 
Holy Wisdom (St. Sophia), afterward chang- 
ing the designation to the Panagia and the 
Mother of God ; and the temple of Theseus 



to St. George of Cappadocia. After Justinian 
in the 6th century had broken up the schools, 
we scarcely hear of the city for nearly 400 
years. In the 12th century Athens was taken 
and plundered by Roger, king of Sicily. The 
fourth crusade again brought the name of 
Athens to the notice of Europe. Greece 
was parcelled out among the Frankish princes 
after the capture of Constantinople in 1204. 
Otho de la Roche was made duke of Athens in 
1205, and four successors of his family held 
the dukedom till 1308. Walter de Brienne 
succeeded, and was overthrown by the Grand 
Catalan company, whose aid he had invoked. 
A duke of the Sicilian branch of the house of 
Aragon was invested with the dignity by the 
Catalans, and in this line the dukedom re- 
mained till near the end of the 14th cen- 
tury. Six dukes of the Florentine family of 
Acciajuoli followed, ruling Athens till 1456. 
The ducal court of Athens was one of the 
most brilliant in Europe. In 1456, when it 
was captured by Mohammed II., Athens ap- 
pears to have been prosperous, and the num- 
ber of its inhabitants is said to have exceeded 
50,000. In 1467 the Venetians went to war 
with the Turks, and, invading Greece with a 
powerful fleet, landed at Piraeus, and expelled 
the Turks from Athens after a bloody battle. 
Athens remained under the Venetians till 1470, 
when the sultan entered Greece with a large 
army and retook the city. He placed Athens 
under a waywode, who held his office from the 
chief eunuch of the harem. The external affairs 
of the city were managed by the waywode ; a 
cadi, or judge, decided the controversies be- 
tween the Ottomans, without interfering in 
those of the Christians. The garrison on the 
Acropolis was under the command of the Turk- 
ish disdar. The proper municipal affairs of 
the city were managed by magistrates elected 
from the principal families by the people, and 
called by the ancient name of archons. This 
form of administration remained unchanged 
from 1470 to 1687. In the latter year Mo- 
rosini, the Venetian admiral, having gained 
brilliant victories in the war between the 
republic and Turkey, captured Athens, and 
obliged most of the Turks to leave the city. 
But an epidemic sickness and a fresh muster 
of the Turks compelled him to withdraw in 
March, 1688. A large number of the citizens 
fled, some to Salamis, ^Egina, and other islands, 
some to Corinth, some to Nauplia, and others 
I to Cephalonia. The city remained deserted 
till the following year, when the Turks en- 
tered it and committed a large part of the 
houses to the flames. The Athenians, how- 
ever, began gradually to return. The sultan 
granted them a free pardon, and remitted the 
tribute for three years. From 1690 to 1754 
the Athenians lived quietly, under a political 
organization essentially the same as that al- 
ready described. Between 1754 and 1777 
Athens was frequently harassed by Albanian 
incursions. In the latter year a battle was 



58 



ATHENS 



fought at Calandria, near Athens, by the 
Athenian Turks and Greeks, under the way- 
wode, named Chasekes, against these barbari- 
ans, commanded by the deli pasha, and a de- 
cisive victory gained. In 1778 Chasekes forti- 
fied Athens with a wall, using materials taken 
from many of the ancient structures. The con- 
duct of Ohasekes gained him so much popu- 
larity, that his reappointment was solicited 
and obtained of the Porte, and finally he was 
appointed waywode for life. Having secured 
his end, he threw off the mask, and 'showed 
himself to be a tyrant. The tide of popular 
feeling turned against him, and he was ban- 
ished ; but by intrigue and bribery he was 
again restored. The contest continued 22 
years, during which the game was repeated 
five times; and finally, in 1795, he was be- 
headed in Cos, the place of his exile. In this 
period the prosperity of Athens declined. Her 
population and wealth greatly diminished. A 
pestilence ravaged the city in 1789 and again 
in 1792 ; about 1,200 perished in the former, and 
1,000 in the latter. In the movement toward a 
revival of Greek independence, which distin- 
guished the close of the last century and the be- 
ginning of the present, Athens played a promi- 
nent part. New schools were established, and 
the whole influence of all her educational insti- 
tutions was on the side of Greek freedom. The 
actual war of independence commenced in 
1821. The fortunes of Athens were variously 
affected during the seven years of its continu- 
ance. The Turkish garrison was besieged in 
the Acropolis April 28, bat after many tragical 
scenes was relieved July 20, and the Greek 
troops were compelled to retreat by the Turks 
under Omer Pasha, Briones, and Omer Bey. 
Many of the inhabitants were slain, and the 
city was plundered and burned. Many of the 
Athenians fled to Salamis and ^Egina, and 
some of them joined the troops concentrating 
at the isthmus of Corinth. In September, 
1821, Omer Pasha retired from Athens with 
the greater part of his forces, and his lieuten- 
ant soon afterward with the remainder. The 
Acropolis was again left in the hands of the 
resident Turks, and the Athenians, returning 
from their places of refuge, besieged them, and 
compelled them to surrender, June 21, 1822, 
1,160 prisoners being taken. Before these 
could be conveyed to a place of safety, a ru- 
mor of a new invasion spread through the city, 
and caused the Athenians such alarm that they 
fell upon the Turks and put to death about 
400, in violation of the terms of the surrender. 
During the next two years violent dissensions 
between the Greek leaders delayed the pro- 
gress of the war ; but in spite of the treachery 
of Odysseus, a leading general, who joined the 
enemy and made hostile movements against 
Athens, the body of the troops and citizens 
faithfully supported Gnras, the commander 
of the city, and finally gained a decisive vic- 
tory, capturing Odysseus, who was put to 
death. Early in 1826 the Turkish forces, un- 



der Kiutahi Pasha and Omer Pasha, overran 
Attica. Numerous conflicts occurred in the 
neighborhood of Athens. On Aug. 15 the Turks 
forced their way into the city, and the Greeks 
retired into the Acropolis, where they were 
long besieged, suffering great hardships. Gu- 
ras was killed in an outwork. During the 
siege the Greek forces outside the city, under 
the command of the English Lord Cochrane, 
Gen. Church, and others, strove to relieve 
the garrison. In May a bloody and decisive 
battle was fought, and the Greeks were en- 
tirely defeated. Cochrane and Church were 
compelled to seek refuge on board their ships, 
and the posts in the neighborhood of Piraus 
were abandoned. The citadel was compelled 
to surrender June 5. More than 2,000 men 
and 500 women were marched down from the 
Acropolis, and transported to Salamis, yEgina, 
and Poros. Thus, after a siege of 11 months, 
Athens was again placed under Turkish domi- 
nation. The city remained in the possession of 
the Turks till 1832, when the intervention of 
the great powers had secured independence to 
the Greeks under a republican form of govern- 
ment, with President Capo d'Istria at its head. 
During these last years almost all the modern 
buildings of the city had been demolished. 
Scarcely a private dwelling was uninjured, and 
the remains of antiquity shared in the general 
calamity. The city recovered slowly, and had 
little prosperity until subsequent events drew 
back to it some part of its former population. 
Capo d'Istria was assassinated in 1831. In 
August, 1832, Otho, the second son of the king 
of Bavaria, who had been selected by the great 
powers, England, France, and Russia, was pro- 
claimed king at Nauplia. He arrived at the 
end of January, 1833. The king, only 17 years 
old when he was chosen, attained his majority, 
which was fixed at 20, in 1835. In that year 
the seat of government was transferred from 
Nauplia to Athens, and from this date recom- 
mences the history of Athens as a new centre 
of civilization in that quarter of the world. Its 
prosperity now quickly revived. A new liberal 
constitution, drawn up by an assembly con- 
vened at the demand of the people, and for- 
mally accepted March 16, 1844, made great 
changes in the government of Greece, of 
which the city speedily felt the favorable 
results. Since 1844 there have been few 
events of importance in the history of Ath- 
ens. In 1854, during the Crimean war, revolu- 
tionary movements having broken out against 
the Turks, Athens was occupied by a garrison 
of French and English troops, which was not 
wholly withdrawn till 1857. In 1854 also 
the Asiatic cholera visited the city, causing 
terrible suffering and a very great number of 
deaths. Our knowledge of the appearance 
and topography of ancient Athens is derived 
from several sources : from the ruins now vis- 
ible in the modern city, from which almost 
alone scholars have been able to ascertain the 
positions of many walls and buildings; from 



ATHENS 



59 



the casual references and allusions of ancient 
historians, orators, and dramatists ; but most 
of all from the detailed account of Pausanias, 
who visited Athens in the tin^ of the An- 
tonines, a period of great splendor. By the 
aid of these means of information, interpreted 
and arranged by many eminent scholars 
among whom Ool. Leake and the German 
philologist Forchhammer are prominent as 
having established the principal points almost 
beyond a doubt a very accurate idea has been 
formed of the ancient capital, its fortifications 
and environs. In describing it, we shall, after 
a few necessary explanations, follow the route 
taken by Pausanias, using his descriptions in 
their order, and filling the gaps left by him with 
information derivable from other sources. 
Athens that is, all the district lying within 
the fortifications consisted of three parts : 

1. The Acropolis, often called simply the Polls. 

2. The Asty, or upper town, as distinguished 
from the port towns, and therefore really in- 




Plan of Athens and the Port Towns. 

eluding the Acropolis. 3. The port towns, 
Pirsous, Munychia, and Phalerum. The Acro- 
polis was in itself a citadel ; the Asty was 
surrounded by walls ; and three similar walls, 
the two long walls and the Phaleric wall, con- 
nected the Asty with the port towns. About 
the position of these last three there has been 
little doubt ; but the questions concerning the 
walls of the Asty itself have been matter for 
controversy. For a long time the views of Ool. 
Leake on this point were considered the true 
ones ; but Forchhammer's theory is now gen- 
erally adopted as correct. The wall around 
the Asty measured 60 stadia; that around 
Piraeus (with Munychia) the same ; the length 
of each of the long walls was 40 stadia, and 
that of the Phaleric wall 35. The walls of 
Pira3us, and probably the others also, were 60 
feet in height. Between the long walls, which 
were 550 feet apart, ran a carriage road from 
the Asty to Piraeus ; and this was probably 
lined with houses, so that the city was contin- 
ued through the whole distance. Although 
some kind of fortifications probably surround- 



ed the Asty from the earliest times, the great 
wall around it, to which we have alluded, was 
built by Themistocles as soon as possible after 
the battle of Salamis. The port towns, though 
also slightly fortified by him, were first regular- 
ly walled and laid out under Pericles, by whose 
advice they were connected with the Asty by 
the northern long wall and the Phaleric wall. 
The southern long wall was not built until 
about the beginning of the Peloponnesian war ; 
the Phaleric wall then became comparatively 
useless, and was allowed to decay. The posi- 
tion of the gates in the wall of the Asty has 
been a matter of much doubt. The locations 
given in the accompanying map are those 
agreed upon by the best authorities, though 
many of them are still uncertain. Pausanias 
apparently entered the city by the Piraic gate, 
and his first mention is of the Pompeium, 
a building used as a depository of certain very 
valuable sacred vessels (no/tiri: la) when not in use. 
Here were several statues, among them one of 
Socrates. Beyond this, in passing toward the 
Acropolis, were the temples of Demeter (Ceres), 
Hercules, and several minor deities ; then the 
gymnasium of Hermes (Mercury) ; all these 
were on the road leading toward Pirffius, and 
passing between the hills of the Museum and the 
Pnyx. The former of these, lying on the his- 
torian's right, and S. W. of the Acropolis, was 
a considerable elevation, crowned by a fortress, 
and probably covered with houses. Upon it 
was the monument of Philopappus, which still 
remains in a ruined state. The hill of the Pnyx, 
the height lying to the left of Pausanias, was 
one of the famous localities of Athens. Here 
was the bema, or pulpit of stone, from which 
the great Athenian orators spoke to the assem- 
bled people, gathered in a semicircular level 
area of large extent, which was the Pnyx proper 
(n.vi>S-). The bema and traces of the levelled 
area still remain. Beyond the Pnyx, to the 
northeast, was the Areopagus, or hill of Ares 
(Mars), on the S. E. summit of which the famous 
court or council of the Areopagus held its sit- 
tings. N. W. of the Pnyx was still another 
hill, that of the Nymphs. Along the road 
taken by Pausanias colonnades extended, proba- 
bly forming the entrances to dwellings in the 
rear. Pausanias next entered the district of 
the Asty called the inner Oeramicus (the outer 
Oeramicus lying outside the walls), at that 
prominent point of Athens, the Agora, or 
i market place. This was a square surrounded 
by colonnades, temples, and public buildings, 
decorated with statues and paintings. On the 
right, as Pausanias entered it, stood the Stoa 
Basileius (royal colonnade), in which was held 
the court of the archon basileus. Upon its 
roof and near it were numerous statues, which 
Pausanias describes. Next this stoa was an- 
other, the Stoa Eleutherius, decorated with 
paintings by Euphranor. Near this, again, 
stood the temple of Apollo Patrons, that of 
the Mother of the Gods, and the council house 
of the 500. According to the account of the 



60 



ATHENS 




1. ireoWAnim. 2. Pmpylata. 1 Temple of Nike Aptem. 4. Temple of Ara. 5. Sanchinry of Semna. 6. (Wool o/ Herodet. 
7. Theatre of Dionytm. 8. S!oa ibmeiwa. 9. JfonumerU o/ ijwicrofc*. 

Plan of Ancient Athens. 



historian, the Tholus, a circular stone edifice 
dedicated to the gods, the temple of Aphro- 
dite Pandemus, the altar of the Twelve Gods, 
and a very great number of statues of gods 
and heroes, also stood around the market place ; 
and on the fourth side were the Stoa Poecile, the 
temples of Aphrodite Urania and Hephsestus, 
and the Eurysaceum, a temple to the memory 
of Eurysaces, a son of Ajax. In the Agora 
was also an enclosure where the votes for os- 
tracism were received. Many of these things 
are not mentioned until later in the historian's 
account, for Pausanias now changed his route, 
passed down the road continuing the street of 
the Ceramicus on the other side of the Agora and 
leading to the Ilissus, and only returned to the 
Agora after describing much of the remainder 
of the city. Near the end of the long street, 
which was generally lined with private houses, 
he found the Odeon, first built for a public the- 
atre, but afterward used as a granary, and near 
it the Enneacrunus, or fountain of Callirhoe, 
the only supply of fresh running water in an- 
cient Athens, the rest used by the inhabitants 
having been drawn from wells. Beyond these 
were several smaller temples. Returning to 
the Agora, and describing those parts of it not 
alluded to before, Pausanias now began a new 



excursion, passing up the Ceramicus toward 
the gate, noticing the gymnasium of Ptolemy 




Present Appearance of the Theseuni. 



and the temple of Theseus, or Theseum. This 
edifice, at this day the best preserved mon- 
ument of the splendor of ancient Athens, was 



ATHENS 



61 



a structure of Pentelic marble, a peripteral 
hexastyle of the Doric order of architecture, 
104 ft. long, 45 broad, and 33| high to the 
summit of the pediment. Its sifles and pedi- 
ments were adorned with sculptures, some of 
which remain, though much injured. Many 
of these, as well as parts of the building, 
were painted. They set forth incidents in the 
lives of Theseus and Hercules. Pausanias 
turns to the right at the Theseum, and visits 
the temple of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), 
the Aglaurium or sacred enclosure dedicated 
to Aglaurus, and the Prytaneura, an edifice in 
which were deposited the laws of Solon. The 
Olympienm, S. E. of the Acropolis, was the 
largest and must have been in some respects 
the most magnificent of all the Athenian tem- 



ples. It was begun by Pisistratus and finished 
by the emperor Hadrian, so that its construc- 
tion was continued at intervals through a 
period of TOO years. It was 350 ft. long, 
171 broad, and of great height, surrounded 
by a peristyle comprising 160 columns, 16 of 
which remain standing ; they are 6 ft. 6 in. in 
diameter, and more than 60 ft. high. Several 
minor buildings are next noticed by Pausanias, 
among them the Pythium and the Delphinium, 
both temples of Apollo. After visiting certain 
gardens which appear to have been in this 
quarter of the city, he describes the Cynosar- 
ges and the Lyceum, both outside the walls; 
the former a place sacred to Hercules, the latter 
the famous gymnasium in which Aristotle ex- 
pounded his doctrines. Pausanias returned 




General View of the Acropolis at the Present Day. (From a recent Photograph.) 



along the Ilissus, passing several lesser altars 
and sanctuaries, and his account makes its 
next important subject the Panathenaic Sta- 
dium, a partly natural amphitheatre in the 
hills, in ancient times furnished with mar- 
ble seats from which an immense multitude 
could witness the games below. The terraces 
of this amphitheatre are still to be traced. 
The historian returns to the Prytaneum, notices 
the Ohoragic Monument of Lysicrates, which 
still exists, among the most beautiful of the 
smaller relics of Athenian art, and enters the 
sacred enclosure of Dionysus, in which stood 
two temples, and near which was the Diony- 
siac theatre. Near the theatre, again, stood the 
Odeon of Pericles, the roof of which is said 
to have been formed in imitation of the tent of 
Xerxes. Passing westward along the base of 
the Acropolis, Pausanias mentions the tomb of 
Talos, the temple of ^Esculapius (Asclepieum), 
and several other monumental tombs and tem- 
ples, which were here clustered together. In 



following his description of the Acropolis we 
are aided by the magnificent ruins still remaining 




Ground Plan of the Acropolis. 



ATHENS 



of the temples that covered its summit, and 
may safely supply many details of the account. 
The principal buildings on the summit of the 
Acropolis were the Propylffia, the Erechtheum, 
and the Parthenon. The Propyleea served at 
once at an architectural embellishment and a 
military defence. Among the ancients it was 
more admired than even the Parthenon, for 
the skill with which the difficulties of the 
ground were overcome, and for the grandeur 
of the general effect. The approach was a 
flight of 60 marble steps, and was 70 ft. broad. 
At the top of the steps was a portico of six 
fluted Doric columns, 5 ft. in diameter and 29 
ft. high. The side wings, on platforms, 78 ft. 
apart, had three Doric colums in antig front- 
ing upon the grand staircase. The north wing 
contained the Pinacotheca, a hall 35 ft. by 30 ; 
the hall of the south wing was 27 ft. by 16. 
Behind the Doric hexastyle was a magnificent 
hall 60 ft. broad, 44 deep, and 39 high, with 




Ruins of the Propytea. 

a marble ceiling resting on enormous beams, 
supported by three Ionic columns, on each side 
of the passage. At the east end of this hall 
was the wall, through which there were five 
entrances, with doors or gates. The central 
opening, through which the Panathenaic pro- 
cession passed, was 13 ft. wide and 24 ft. high ; 
those next the central are, on each side, 9 ft. 
wide, and the smallest 5 ft., the height varying 
in proportion. These gates were the only public 
entrance into the Acropolis. Within the wall, 
on the eastern side, was another hall, 19 ft. 
deep, its floor elevated about 4^ ft. above the 
western, and terminated by another Doric por- 
tico of six columns. The pediments and ceil- 
ings of this structure have been destroyed. 
Most of the columns remain, some of them en- 
tire, with heavy fragments of the architraves. 
Passing through the Propylsea, one came to the 
Erechtheum, on the left or north side of the 
Acropolis, and the Parthenon on the right, 
near the southern or Cimonian wall. The 



form of the Erechtheum was oblong, with a 
portico of six Ionic columns at the east end, 
and a kind of transept at the west, a portico 
of four columns on the north, and the portico 
of the caryatides, standing on a basement 8 
ft. high, on the south. At the western end 




Portico of the Erechtheum, with Caryatides. 

there is a basement, on which are four Ionic 
columns half engaged in the wall, and support- 
ing a pediment. The eastern and western di- 
visions of the temple are on different levels, 
the eastern being 98 ft. higher than the west- 
ern. Enough remains of this extraordinary 
and beautiful temple to give a correct idea of 
its outward form ; but the interior is in so 




Ruins of the Erechtheum. 

ruinous a condition that the distribution and 
arrangement of the divisions are subject to 
the greatest doubt. There remains to be 
described the Parthenon, the noblest mon- 
ument in Athens. It was built of Pentelic 
marble, under the superintendence of Phidias, 



ATHENS 



63 



by Ictinus and Callicrates. It stands on a 
basis approached by three steps, each 1 ft. 
9 in. high, 2 ft. and about 4in. wide. Its 
breadth, on the upper step, is 1 01-34 ft. ; its 
length, 228 ft. ; the height to the top of the 
pediment from the upper step of the stylobate, 
59 ft., and with the stylobate, 64 ft. The tem- 
ple is Doric, oetostyle, or with eight columns 
at each end, and peripteral, or colonnaded all 
round, there being 15 columns on each side, 
not counting those at the corners 40 in all. 
The length of the secos, or body of the temple, 
is 193 ft., and its breadth 71 ft., omitting frac- 
tions. The space between the peristyle and 
the wall is 9 ft. wide at the sides and 11 ft. at 
the fronts. The body is divided by a trans- 
verse wall into two unequal portions : the east- 
ern was the naos proper, an apartment for the 
statue of the goddess, 98 ft. in length ; the 
western, the opisthodomos, which was com- 
monly used as the treasury of the city, 43 ft. 
long. Within the peristyle, at each end, were 
eight columns, 33 ft. high, on a stylobate of 
two steps. Within the naos was a range of 
ten Doric columns on each side, and three at 
the west end, forming three sides of a quad- 
rangle ; above them, an architrave supported 
an upper range of columns, which Wheeler, at 
the time of whose visit they were still stand- 
ing, calls a kind of gallery ; 14 ft. distant from 
the western columns is the pavement of Piraic 
stone, on which the great chryselephantine 
statue of Athena was placed. Besides the in- 
ternal decorations, the outside of the temple 
was ornamented with three classes of sculpture : 
1. The sculptures of the pediments, being inde- 
pendent statues resting upon the deep cornice. 
The subject of those on the eastern pediment 
was the birth of Athena ; of those on the west- 
ern, the contest between Poseidon and Athe- 
na for the possession of Attica. 2. The groups 
in the metopes, 92 in number, representing 
combats of Hercules and Theseus, the Centaurs 
and Amazons, and perhaps some figures of the 
Persian war. These groups were executed in 
high relief. 3. The frieze round the upper 
border of the cella of the Parthenon contained 
a representation in low relief of the Panathe- 
nnic procession. All these classes of sculpture 
were in the highest style of the art, executed 
by Phidias himself, or under his immediate di- 
rection. Most of them were in place when 
Wheeler visited Athens, in 1670 ; and drawings 
of the figures in the pediments were made in 
1674 by Carrey, a French architect in the suite 
of the marquis de Nointel, minister of France 
at the Porte. The interior of the temple was 
thrown down in 1G87, by the explosion of a 
bomb in the Turkish powder magazine. The 
front columns of the peristyle escaped, but 
eight on the north side and six on the south 
were overthrown. Morosiui, in endeavoring to 
remove some of the figures on the pediments, 
broke them, and otherwise did great mischief. 
At the beginning of the present century, Lord 
Elgin dismantled a considerable part of the 
57 VOL. H. 5 



' Parthenon of the remaining sculptures, which 
form the most precious treasures of the Brit- 
ish museum at the present moment. A ques- 

' tioii has been much discussed as to whether 
any portion of the exterior of the temple was 
decorated with painting. It is hardly possi- 
ble to doubt the fact, after a personal exami- 
nation. Many of the mouldings have traces 
of beautifully drawn patterns. Under the cor- 
nices there are delicate tints of blue and red, 
and of blue in the triglyphs. Architraves and 
broader surfaces were tinged with ochre. All 
these figures were executed so delicately and 
exquisitely, that it is impossible to accept the 
theory sometimes advanced of their being the 
work of subsequent barbarous ages. There 
are other traces of colors on the inner surface 
of the portion of the walls still standing, which 
evidently belong to a period after the stone- 
cutters Eulogius and Apollos converted the 
Parthenon into' a church. Among the inscrip- 
tions there is one, found in 1836, containing 




Buins of the Parthenon. 

a record of money paid for polychromatic 
decorations. The Parthenon was built in the 
best period of architecture, and under the in- 
spiration of the highest genius in art. Its as- 
pect is simple, but scientific investigation has 
not yet exhausted its beauties and refinements. 
Unexpected delicacies of construction have not 
ceased to be discovered in it. In 1837 Penne- 
thorne, an English traveller, noticed the incli- 
nation of the columns. Hotter, 8chaubert,and 
others have examined the subject, and pub- 
lished their observations upon the inclination 
of the columns and the curved lines of the sty- 
lobate and architraves. Mr. Penrose, an Eng- 
lish scholar and architect, visited Athens in 
1845, and was afterward sent by the society of 
dilettanti to complete the investigations he had 
already commenced. The results were pub- 
lished in a splendid folio, in 1851. They may 
be briefly summed up thus: The lines which 
in ordinary architecture are straight, in the 



ATHENS 



Boric temple at Athens are delicate curves. 
The edges of the steps and the lines of the en- 
tablatures are convex curves, lying in vertical 
planes and nearly parallel, and the curves are 
conic sections, the middle of the stylobate ris- 
ing several inches above the extremities. The 
external lines of the columns are curved also, 
forming a hyperbolic entasis. The axes of the 
columns incline inward, so that opposite pairs, 
if produced sufficiently far, would meet. The 
spaces of the intercolumniations and the size 
of the capitals vary slightly, according to their 
position. From the usual points of view these 
variations and curves are not perceptible, but 
they produce by their combination the effect 
of perfect harmony and regularity ; and the ab- 
sence of these refinements is the cause of the 
universal failure of buildings constructed in 
modern times according to what have been 
supposed to be the principles of Hellenic archi- 
tecture. This subject is treated by Mr, Penrose 
in great detail, and with remarkable precis- 
ion; also by M. Beule, in ISAcropole cTAthenes 
(Paris, 1853-'5). Besides these famous build- 
ings, there were on the Acropolis others of less 
size, but great beauty. Such were the temple 
of Nike Apteros (the Wingless Victory), the 
remains of which have been discovered and 
restored, the temple of Rome and Augustus, 
and the temple of Artemis Brauronia. Among 
the celebrated statues and works of art on the 
summit of the Acropolis was the colossal statue 
of Athena Promachus, which represented the 
goddess holding a spear and in full armor. It 
was of such height that it could be seen at a 
considerable distance from the coast, above the 
Parthenon and the other highest buildings of 
the city. The population of ancient Athens 
has been a subject of much controversy ; but 
the results reached by different authorities differ 
by only a few thousands from the estimate of 
Leake, who supposes the city, including the 
port towns, to have contained about 192,000 
inhabitants. Of these, all who corresponded 
to our laboring classes were slaves; a large 
proportion of the remainder were metmci, or 
residents of foreign birth ; while the actual 
Athenian citizens, freemen in the enjoyment 
of all the civic rights, formed the smallest class 
of all. This statement uses the word citizen in 
a narrow sense, applying only to those within 
the walls; but the political privileges of an 
Athenian citizen were extended to all free-born 
and properly qualified citizens of Attica. They 
were generally divided into eupatridae, or pa- 
tricians, geomori, or landholders, and demiurgi, 
or tradespeople. (See ATTICA.) The govern- 
ment of Athens in the time of its prosperity 
was in the hands of three bodies : the nine 
archons, elected annually ; the boule, or coun- 
cil of state (of 400 members under Solon's con- 
stitution, 500 under Clisthenes, and after the 
year 306 B. 0. increased to 600 members) ; and 
the assembly of the people (ecclesia). Among 
the archons were divided special departments 
of the executive power. (See AECHON.) The 



boule debated important measures previous to 
bringing them before the assem^iy of the peo- 
ple, received reports, decided to what courts 
certain appeals should be made, &c. Its mem- 
bers held office for one year, and it held daily 
meetings. The ecclesise were of three kinds : 
assemblies of the people held on fixed days, at 
intervals of about a month ; those called on 
extraordinary occasions by committees (as we 
should call them) of the boule ; and those which 
in important cases included not only the citi- 
zens of the city but of all Attica. These as- 
semblies had the ultimate power of decision in 
all cases without appeal, made war and con- 
cluded peace, passed laws and made alliances, 
and confirmed or censured the acts of officials. 
Their meetings, usually held in the Agora, on 
the Pnyx, or in the theatre of Dionysus, were 
conducted with many ceremonies. The chief 
court of the Athenians was that of the Areop- 
agus, the origin of which is lost in prehistoric 
legends. Men who had held the rank of archon 
composed it. Its jurisdiction extended over 
all cases of treason and special cases of murder, 
serious assault, and arson. (See ABEOPAGUS.) 
Next stood the court of the ephori, who num- 
bered 50, chosen from the citizens, who tried 
ordinary cases of murder and assault. There 
were several other courts of less importance. 
There were few taxes in ancient Athens. The 
state derived a great part of its income from 
the rent of its lands to private citizens. The 
taxes, including harbor dues, market taxes, 
taxes paid by foreign residents, the tax set 
upon public prostitutes (after the time of Peri- 
cles), and a few others, were farmed out. 
Upon the actual citizens there fell almost no 
burden of taxation. The fines imposed by the 
courts were also a considerable source of in- 
come for the state, and of course the largest 
sums of all were those extorted from enemies 
and foreign allies of the city. The ceremonies 
connected with religious worship at Athens 
were perhaps more magnificent than in any 
other city of the ancient world. The chief 
among the great solemnities were the Pana- 
thencea, the Dionysiac festival, and the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries. (See BACCHANALIA, ELErsis, 
and PAKATHEN^EA.) The rites and temples 
were under the charge of priests, whose offices 
were generally hereditary. Immense sums 
were annually expended by the state in beau- 
tifying the temples, sacred enclosures, and 
monuments of the gods, and the days dedica- 
ted to them were celebrated with magnificent 
ceremonies. The private life of the Athenians 
in the most ancient days of the city was sim- 
ple; but with the administration of Pericles, 
or even before it, their customs became extrav- 
agant and sensual. The magnificent Athenian 
banquets of this and subsequent periods sur- 
passed almost all others of the time. The 
guests reclined on couches about the tables, 
while dancers of both sexes, musicians, and 
the songs of hired slave girls accompanied the 
most extravagant feasts. These ended with sym- 



ATHENS 



65 



posia, or drinking bouts, generally scenes of 
the wildest license. The education of the citi- 
zen before this period of luxury fois as follows : 
After having his name inscribed by his father 
or other relative in the catalogue of his phratry 
(see ATTICA) when he was but three or four 
years old, the young Athenian was brought 
up during the next few years in the part of 
the house devoted to the women (gynceceum). 
At seven his actual education was begun under 
a pedagogue or tutor, under whose guidance 
he visited the schools and places of public ath- 
letic exercises, pursuing courses of rhetoric, 
mathematics, music, philosophy, and also of 
manly arts riding, spear-throwing, wrestling, 
&c. Women and girls were scarcely allowed 



by decorum any social intercourse, nor were 
any facilities furnished them for education. 
This accounts for the fact that the most intel- 
ligent and brilliant women of Athens were 
found among the hetarte, a term which is 
wrongly translated by our word prostitutes; 
for these women, though actually hired mis- 
tresses, were generally an orderly, highly educa- 
ted class, and only obeyed customs which were 
sanctioned by the age. An Athenian could 
marry at or after the age of 14. Heiresses were 
compelled by law to marry their next of kin, 
outside the natural limits of course, that the 
property might not pass to another gens. Di- 
vorce was obtained by the simple consent of 
both parties ; adultery was severely punished. 




General View of Modern Athens. (From a recent Photograph.) 



The Athenian private houses were generally 
small frame buildings, witli tiled roofs: the 
streets between them were narrow and crooked. 
Only as late as the time of Olisthenes were fine 
private houses constructed, and the custom 
once begun, it increased so fast that Demos- 
thenes severely reprimanded certain citizens for 
building houses far surpassing the public edi- 
fices ; no ruins remain to give us an idea of these. 
The dress of the Athenians was very simple. 
The older men wore white robes or Mmatia, the 
younger the saffron-colored Mamys or tunic. 
The women wore the chiton, a long woollen 
robe ; over it a cloak or wrapping, the diploi- 
don ; and outside this again a simple shoulder 
cloak or cape, the hemidiploidon. This dress 



varied little in times of festival. In the present 
political division of the kingdom of Greece, 
Athens is the capital of the nomarchy of At- 
tica and Boeotia, as well as of the entire king- 
dom. Its population in 1871, after a slow in- 
crease for several years, was 48,107. It is the 
residence of the king and court, and the seat 
of several important institutions of learning, 
art, and public charity. Among these are the 
university, employing more than 50 professors 
and instructors, and having a free library of 
more than 90,000 volumes ; an observatory and 
botanical garden; two gymnasia on the Ger- 
man system; a military school, schools for the 
special education of priests and teachers, a 
polytechnic school, a seminary for girls, &c. 



66 



ATHENS 



ATHIAS 



An "American female school " founded by Rev. 
J. H. Hill, is also maintained in the city ; it 
was for a long time under the direct patronage 
of the government. The grammar and pri- 
mary schools are excellent, and instruction is 
generally sought and widely ditfused. Among 
the institutions of art is an association for the 
promotion of the study of the fine arts, and 
there are several museums in which the 
scattered relics of the old splendor of the 
city have been brought together and care- 
fully arranged. Under the head of public 
charities fall un asylum for the blind and a 
hospital, both of considerable size. Among 
the public buildings are the palace, a fine 
building of three stories, near Mount Lycabet- 
tus, the chamber of deputies, the barracks, 
mint, theatre, and extensive structures intend- 
ed for the assemblies of the national academy, 
and for the museum and polytechnic school. 
There are also about 100 churches, some of 
them admirable specimens of architecture. The 
largest is that of St. Nicodemus, built during 
the middle ages, in the Byzantine style. Like, 
most of the others, it is not of great size, and 
depends for its effect on the beauty of its 
construction. The general appearance of the 
modern city is not especially attractive on near 
approach, though the magnificent height of the 
Acropolis, crowned with the ruins we have 
noticed above, and the pleasant situation of the 
town itself, give it a picturesque aspect when one 
views it from some distant point. Parts of the 
city have the dirt and squalor peculiar to nearly 
all towns of southeastern Europe ; but its con- 
dition has been gradually improved since it 
became the royal residence, and now there are 
several broad streets and squares, well kept 
and clean. The hotels, shops, cafes, &c., are 
among the indications of the improvement of 
the city, and the local trade is active, though 
there is comparatively little commerce with 
foreign ports. See Forchhammer's Topogra- 
phie von Athen (in the Kieler philologisclie 
Studien for 1841, Kiel), and his essay in de- 
fence of his views in the Zeitschrift f&r Alter- 
thumswissenschaft (1843, Nos. 69, 70) ; Leake's 
" Researches in Greece " (London, 1814), 
and especially his "Topography of Athens" 
(1821); also his work "On some Disputed 
Questions of Ancient Geography" (1857); 
Wordsworth's "Athens and Attica" (London, 
1836); Stuart and Revett's "Antiquities of 
Athens" (London, 1825-'7); Mure's "Journal 
of a Tour in Greece" (Edinburgh, 1842); 
Kruse's Hellas (Leipsic, 1826); K. O. Muller's 
Attika (in Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopa- 
dif, English translation by Lockhart, London, 
1842) ; Prokesch's Denlcwurdigkeiten (Stutt- 
gart, 1836); the article "Athenee" in Smith's 
" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography " 
(London, 1854); Bockh's "Public Economy 
of the Athenians" (translated by Lamb, Bos- 
ton, 1857); Wessenberg's "Life in Athens in 
the Time of Pericles" (London, no date); 
Prof. Felton's "Greece, Ancient and Modern" 



(Boston, 1867) ; Tuckerman's " Greeks of To- 
day" (New York, 1873). 

ATHENS, a S. E. county of Ohio, on the Ohio 
river; area, 430 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 23,768. 
It has railroad communication with Marietta, 
Columbus, and Cincinnati. The surface is well 
wooded and extremely fertile, and abounds in 
iron ore and coal ; and large quantities of salt 
are manufactured throughout the county. The 
Hocking river intersects the county, and the 
Hocking canal extends from its centre to the 
Ohio canal. In 1870 the county produced 
133,745 bushels of wheat, 96,012 of oats, 619,- 
447 of Indian corn, 78,721 of potatoes, 23,239 
tons of hay, 207,839 Ibs. of tobacco, 513,864 
of butter, and 201,593 of wool. There were 
57,399 sheep and 15,097 hogs. Capital, Ath- 
ens, on Hocking river and the Marietta and 
Cincinnati and Hocking Valley railroads, 70 m. 
S. E. of Columbus. 

ATHENS, a city, capital of Clarke county, Ga.. 
on the Oconee river, at the end of the Athens 
branch of the Georgia railroad; pop. in 1860, 
3,848, of whom 1,893 were colored; in 1870, 
4,251, of whom 1,967 were colored. It is the 
centre of a large cotton-growing region, and 
has several cotton factories. The university 
of Georgia, a state institution founded in 1801, 
is situated here. In 1868 it had 5 instructors, 
76 students, 256 alumni, and a library of 7,500 
volumes. The law department had 4 profes- 
sors and 14 students. The city has three weekly 
newspapers, besides two periodicals. 

ATHERTON, Charles G., an American senator, 
born at Amherst, N. H., July 4, 1804, died 
Nov. 15, 1853. He was elected a member of 
congress in 1837, and on Dec. 11, 1838, intro- 
duced under a suspension of the rules a series 
of resolutions, declaring that "congress has 
no jurisdiction over the institution of slavery 
in the several states of the confederacy;" and 
that "every petition, memorial, resolution, 
proposition, or paper, touching or relating in 
any way or to any extent whatever to slavery, 
or to the abolition thereof, shall, on the pres- 
entation thereof, without any further action 
thereon, be laid on the table without being 
debated, printed, or referred." These resolu- 
tions were passed, under the previous question, 
by a vote of 126 to 78, and formed the basis 
of the 21st rule of the next congress, by which 
all such petitions, upon presentation, were 
considered as objected to, and the question of 
their reception laid on the table. Mr. Ather- 
ton continued in the house of representatives 
till 1843, when he was elected to the senate, 
where he remained till 1849. He was again 
elected in 1852. 

ATHIAS, Joseph, a learned Jewish printer in 
Amsterdam, died about 1700. He is princi- 
pally noted for having published two editions 
of the Old Testament in Hebrew in 1661 and 
1667, on which, on account of their correct- 
ness, most of the modern editions are founded. 
They are remarkable for being the first in 
which the verses were marked with Arabic 



ATI! LONE 



ATKINSON 



67 



figures. In acknowledgment of his merits the 
states general conferred upon Athias a chain 
of gold and a medal. * 

ATHLOXE, a market town and parliament- 
ary borough of Ireland, on both sides of the 
river Shannon, near its entrance into Lough 
Ree, partly in Westnieath and partly in Ros- 
coramon, 68 m. W. of Dublin ; pop. in 1871, 
6,617. The opposite shores of the river are 
here united by a handsome bridge, and a canal 
has been formed to avoid the rapids at this 
point, thus making navigation practicable for 
70 miles higher up the stream. The castle on 
the right bank of the river, with its outworks, 
covers 15 acres. It is connected by railway 
with Dublin and Galway, and an active trade 
is carried on by steamers with Limerick and 
Shannon harbor, and with Dublin by the Grand 
and Royal canals. After the battle of the 
Boyne William III. besieged Athlone unsuc- 
cessfully, but it was taken by Gen. Ginkell, 
June 30, 1691. 

ATHOL, Athole, or Atholl, a district in the 
northern part of Perthshire, Scotland, em- 
bracing about 450 sq. m. It is picturesque 
and mountainous, some of the summits attain- 
ing an elevation of more than 3,000 feet. It 
contains several lakes and beautiful valleys, 
among which is the pass of Killiecrankie, 
where Graham of Claverhonse gained a victory 
and met his death in 1689. Agriculture is 
carried on in the valleys, while on the hills 
sheep and cattle are pastured. 

ATHOS (mod. Gr. Hag ion Oros, holy moun- 
tain ; Turk. Aineros), the easternmost of the 
three peninsulas projecting from ancient Chal- 
cidice, in the N. W. part of the ^Egean sea, 
now included in the Turkish eyalet of Salonica, 
about 30 m. long and from 4 to 7 broad. It 
is mountainous, and cut by numerous ravines. 
At its extremity stands the mountain from 
which it takes its name. Mt. Athos is about 
6,350 ft. high, with a peak of white limestone, 
while its lower rocks are of gneiss and argil- 
laceous slate. The sides of the mountain are 
flanked with vast forests of pines, oaks, and 
chestnuts, the pines growing to an immense 
size. Various kinds of aromatic herbs grow 
here in abundance, out of which the monks ex- 
tract the oils and essence and use them for 
medicinal purposes, perfumery, and ingredients 
in incense. It was across the isthmus which 
connects the peninsula of Athos with the main- 
land that Xerxes cut a canal for his ships, in 
his invasion of Greece. The remains of this 
canal, according to the best authorities, are 
still distinctly visible through most of its ex- 
tent. Near the middle of its course it is not 
discernible, having been filled up. Athos was 
so called from the giant of that name who in 
the Grecian mythology hurled the mountain 
at the gods. The peninsula in ancient times 
contained several flourishing cities and a tem- 
ple of Jupiter ; and in the middle ages it was 
dotted over with hermitages and monasteries, 
20 of which still remain. Most of these mon- 



asteries were founded by Byzantine princes. 
It was here that ambitious malcontents of the 
court of Constantinople, favorites in disgrace, 
and even private individuals, retired to await 




Athoa. 

a change of ati'airs or return to favor. The 
monks at present number about 6,000, from 
Greece, Bulgaria, Roumania, and Russia, in all 
of which countries the convents of Athos pos- 
sess estates. No female is permitted to enter 
the peninsula. The monks are ruled by an ad- 
ministrative assembly (protaton), composed of 
delegates from the various convents chosen for 
a term of four years. The administration of 
justice and the management of the revenue are 
also vested in this body. The assembly has 
its seat at Karias, the capital of the peninsula. 
A Turkish aga resides in Athos and collects an 
annual tribute from the convents. In the mid- 
dle ages these convents were the seat of Greek 
science and the centre of Byzantine Christian 
knowledge, and possessed many large libraries. 
There are still to be found there old and beau- 
tiful manuscripts, several of which have been 
photographed and deposited in the museum of 
Moscow. 

VII 1 1. \ V or Milan, a lake of Central Amer- 
ica, about 20 m. in length and 8 to 10 m. in 
breadth, situated in the department of Solola, 
Guatemala. It appears, from the geological 
formations about it, to lie in the crater of 
an ancient volcano, and it is of extraordinary 
depth, no soundings, it is said, being obtain- 
able with a line of 1,800 ft. Although several 
small streams flow into it, no outlet has been 
discovered. The scenery in its neighborhood 
is remarkably picturesque ; high cliffs surround 
it, with but little vegetation. On the southern 
bank of the lake is a small Indian town of the 
same name, having barely 2,000 inhabitants. 

ATKINSON, Thomas Witlam, an English artist 
and traveller, born in Yorkshire, March 6, 



ATLANTA 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



1799, died at Lower W aimer, Kent, Aug. 13, 
1861. He excelled by his architectural designs 
and in landscape gardening, and wrote " Gothic 
Ornaments of English Cathedrals." He trav- 
elled extensively, and published " Oriental and 
Western Siberia, a Narrative of seven years' 
Explorations and Adventures in Siberia, Mon- 
golia, the Kirghis Steppes, Chinese Tartary, 
and part of Central Asia" (London, 1857), 
and " Travels in the Regions of the Upper and 
Lower Amoor" (1860), both works illustrated 
from his own designs. 

ATLANTA, a city, capital of Georgia, and also 
of Fulton county, and next to Savannah the 
largest and most important city in the state, 
101 m. N. W. of Macon and 171 m. W. of Au- 
gusta ; pop. in 1860, 9,554 ; in 1870, 21,789, of 
which 9,929 were colored. It is an important 
railway centre, the Atlanta and West Point, 
Atlanta and Richmond, Western and Atlantic, 
Georgia, and Macon and Western railroads con- 
necting here. There is also a street railroad 
company. Atlanta lies nearly 1,100 ft. above 
the sea, and is built upon hilly ground. It is 
laid out in the form of a circle, about 3 m. in 
diameter, the union passenger depot occupying 
the centre. Oglethorpe park, at the terminus 
of Marietta street, about 2 m. from the depot, 
contains fine drives, lakes, &c. The chief pub- 
lic buildings are the state capitol, the city hall, 
the first Methodist church (South), the opera 
house, and the Kimball house, one of the lar- 
gest hotels in the South. The principal manu- 
factories are a rolling mill, three founderies, 
three planing mills, several flour mills, two 
railway shops, a brewery, and several tobacco 
factories. The business of the city amounts to 
about $35,000,000 annually. The valuation of 
property in 1872 was $13,545,585. There are 
two national banks, with a capital of $400,000, 
a loan and trust company, and two savings 
banks. The city is governed by a mayor and a 
hoard of 14 councilmen (two from each ward). 
The police force consists of 55 oificers and pri- 
vates. There are three steam fire engines, two 
hand engines, and a hook and ladder company. 
Atlanta contains a branch of the Baptist or- 
phans' home and a ladies' relief society. Steps 
were taken in the autumn of 1869 to establish 
a public school system, and in 1872 three 
school houses had been erected, and 29 teachers 
were employed. Other institutions of learning 
are the North Georgia female college, Atlanta 
medical college, Oglethorpe college, Atlanta 
university (colored), two business colleges, an 
English and German select school, an orphans' 
free school, and a colored school. Oglethorpe 
college has a library of 5,000 volumes; the 
young men's library association possess about 
3,000 volumes ; and the state library contains 
16,000 volumes. Three daily and two weekly 
newspapers and three monthly periodicals are 
published. There are 28 churches, viz. : 6 Bap- 
tist (1 colored), 1 Roman Catholic, 1 Christian, 
1 Congregational, 2 Episcopal, 1 Jewish, 1 Lu- 
theran, 13 Methodist (9 Southern and 3 colored), 



and 2 Presbyterian. Atlanta was incorporated 
as a city in 1847. During the civil war it ac- 
quired great importance as the chief entrepot 
of trade between the western and Atlantic 
and gulf states, the principal manufacturing 
town in the south, and the seat of various gov- 
ernment works of the confederacy. It was 
then strongly fortified. Gen. Sherman began 
an advance upon it from Chattanooga at the 
beginning of May, 1864, with 98,000 men and 
254 guns. The defence was intrusted to Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston, with about 50,000 men, 
occupying a position at Dalton. By a series 
of flank movements, and some severe fighting, 
particularly at Resaca, New Hope church, and 
Kenesaw and Lost mountains, Johnston, though 
skilfully manoeuvring, was forced to retire from 
position to position, to the very defences of At- 
lanta, which he reached before the middle of 
July. On the 17th he was superseded by Gen. 
Hood, who assumed the offensive, making three 
heavy attacks on the federal forces (July 20, 
22, and 28). These were repulsed with great 
loss, and Atlanta was besieged till Sept. 1, when 
Hood was compelled to evacuate it by a flank 
movement of Sherman's army which covered 
the lines of railroad in the rear of the con- 
federates. Before abandoning the city, to fall 
back on Macon, Gen. Hood set fire to all the ma- 
chinery, supplies, and munitions of war which 
he could not remove. The federal losses from 
Chattanooga to the occupation of Atlanta were 
30,400 men and 15 cannon. The confederate 
losses amounted to about 42,000 men, 40 or 50 
guns, and 25,000 stand of small arms. Both 
armies had been reenforced during the four 
months' contest. When Sherman moved his 
base of supplies to Chattanooga in November, 
the machine shops, depots, government build- 
ings, &c., were set on fire. After the recon- 
struction of the state and the adoption of the 
constitution of 1868, Atlanta became the capital, 
since which time it has increased in population 
with remarkable rapidity. 

ATLANTIC, a S. S. E. county of New Jersey ; 
area, 620 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,093. The 
Atlantic ocean borders it on the S. E., where 
it is indented by Great Egg harbor, Absecum 
and several other bays, studded with islands 
and planted with oysters. It is intersected by 
Great Egg Harbor river. The surface is low 
and flat ; it is marshy near the coast, and the 
soil further inland is light and sandy. In 1870 
the county produced 7,198 bushels of wheat. 
47,488 of Indian corn, 31,702 of Irish and 
18,514 of sweet potatoes, 4,675 tons of hay, 
and 5,020 gallons of wine. Capital, May's 
Landing. 

ATLANTIC OCEAN, that branch of the gen- 
eral ocean which separates the continents of 
Europe and Africa from America. Its oldest 
name among the ancients was simply the 
Ocean (6 'ttKeav6f) ; it was afterward named 
the Atlantic ocean from Mount Atlas, which 
rises near its shores. It was known and navi- 
gated by the Phoenicians long before the be- 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



ginning of Greek historical records. Some of 
their colonies on its coasts are said to have 
been founded as early as 1100 B. ^., and their 
commerce extended to the British islands and 
the Baltic. To the south they went equally 
far, and are believed to have even circumnavi- 
gated Africa six centuries before Christ, about 
the same time that the more timid Greeks re- 
corded the passage of the first navigator of their 
nation through the strait of Gibraltar. But the 
real importance of this ocean as the great high- 
way of modern civilization dates from the 14th 
and loth centuries, when the outlying groups of 
islands, the Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores, 
were first visited, and finally Columbus, cutting 
loose from coasting voyages, struck across its 
unknown waste to the discovery qf a new 
world. I. GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION. The 
limits of the Atlantic ocean have been taken 
rather arbitrarily, generally between the Arc- 
tic circle and a line drawn from Cape Horn to 
the Cape of Good Hope. In physical geog- 
raphy it is a brancli of the great southern 
ocean, forming a deep gulf of which the Arctic 
ocean is the blind end. Taken as a whole, the 
Atlantic has the shape of an irregular broad 
canal running north and south, with a deep 
bend to the west in the middle of its course. 
The projecting angles of the bordering conti- 
nents are said by Humboldt to correspond to 
the reentering ones on the opposite side. But 
in reality this correspondence is somewhat dis- 
torted, and thus narrows are formed by which 
the Atlantic is divided into three principal 
basins: the southern or Ethiopic, from the 
Antarctic ocean to the narrows between Cape 
San Roque and Senegambia ; the middle or At- 
lantic proper, from the same narrows to the 
range of islands formed by the British and 
Faroe islands and Iceland ; and the northern or 
Arctic. The Atlantic proper contrasts strongly 
with the Ethiopic by the great development of 
its shore line and the number of lateral arms 
or mediterranean seas in communication with 
it. Such are the Caribbean sea, the gulfs of 
Mexico and of St. Lawrence, Baffin and Hud- 
son bays, the Baltic, the North sea or German 
ocean, the Irish sea, and the Mediterranean 
with its dependencies the Adriatic and the 
Black sea. In the Ethiopic ocean, on the con- 
trary, the coasts are very uniform, with few 
indentations or bays, and no inland seas at all. 
The watershed of the continents bordering on 
the Atlantic basin is of remarkable extent, nil 
the other oceans of the earth put together re- 
ceiving but a fraction of the fresh-water drain- 
age in comparison. Several rivers of Asia and 
one or two in northwestern America can alone 
bear a comparison with those of the Atlantic 
basin. The number of islands in the Atlantic 
ocean is small when compared with those of 
the Pacific. Leaving aside those islands which 
are merely detached parts of the continents, we 
can count scarcely more than a dozen groups. 
Like most of that class, they are principally 
of volcanic origin. Of coral islands, so numer- 



ous in the Pacific, there are but two groups, 
the Bermudas and the Bahamas. II. DEPTH, 

"AND FIGUKE OF THE BOTTOM. The means em- 
ployed for ascertaining the depth are general- 
ly modifications of the old-fashioned lead and 
line. In moderate depths this method suffices 
in its simplest form. In great depths, however, 
its indications are apt to be untrustworthy, 
because the shock of the lead on the bottom 
ceases to be felt, and the line continues to run 
by its own weight or is carried off by currents 
without sensibly slackening. Sounding with 
a small line or twine, to be abandoned to- 
gether with the weight at each cast, was tried, 
but failed for want of means to determine when 
the bottom was reached. No sounding being 
now considered trustworthy unless a specimen 
of bottom is brought up as a proof that the 
lead has touched, it was found desirable to be 
relieved of the labor of hauling up the weight, 
and to bring up only the small apparatus and 
to collect the mud or sand. This was first 
accomplished by Lieut. Brooke's apparatus, a 
perforated cannon ball suspended in a sling 
which unhooks itself when the tension is re- 
lieved ; an iron rod passing through the hole in 
the ball is provided with a contrivance to bring 
up a specimen, and is the only weight remain- 
ing on the line. Lieut, (now Admiral) Sands 
substituted two hemispheres for the solid shot, 
falling off on each side of the central rod, thus 
allowing a larger specimen cup to be employed. 
An original method proposed by Prof. Tro\v- 
bridge consists in paying out the line (a small 
but strong twine) from a coil carried down 
with the weight, thus avoiding the friction of 
the line in passing through the water. The 
depth is registered by a screw similar to Mas- 
sey's. Propositions for sounding without line 
have been numerous, the weight carrying down 
a float which is released on the bottom and re- 
turns to the surface ; but none have been suc- 
cessful. In the United States coast survey 
deep-sea soundings are now usually made with 
a strong line and a heavy weight ; detaching 
the latter is not considered of great importance, 
since the hauling up is done by steam. The 
depth is registered by Massey's indicator, 
based on the principle of a propeller screw, 
free to revolve in passing downward, and com- 
municating its motion to a set of wheels regis- 
tering the number of revolutions. It is clamped 
loosely to a spindle so as to be free from the 
torsion of the line, and is carefully tested and 
its error determined in moderate depths. The 
Atlantic ocean in its northern basin is better 
known with regard to depth than any of the 
others ; nevertheless, there is need of more 
soundings before we can form a true idea of 
the figure of its bottom. Most of our knowl- 

j edge of it has been acquired during the last 30 
years. Before that, a few soundings, now 
mostly considered untrustworthy, and some 
theoretical speculations, were the sum of our 
knowledge. Dr. Young deduced, chiefly from 
the theory of tides, a depth of about 15,000 ft. 



70 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



for the Atlantic, which is probably not far from 
the truth. Laplace supposed the mean depth 
of the ocean to be of the same order as the 
mean elevation of the land. But his supposed 
mean height of the land, 3,000 ft. (Humboldt 
estimated it more correctly at 1,000), was 
much too small to represent the mean depth of 
the ocean. Among the first connected series 
of deep-sea soundings were those made by the 
United States coast survey in connection with 
the exploration of the Gulf stream, those of 
Capt. Lee and Capt. Berryman in the brig 
Dolphin, of Sir Leopold McClintock in the 
Bulldog, and others. When the projects for 
laying submarine telegraph cables across the 
ocean began to assume importance, a sudden 
impetus was given to deep-sea sounding ; com- 
plete sections across the ocean were explored 
in different directions, and the whole subject 
appeared much less formidable than before. 
After such feats as finding and grappling suc- 
cessfully a broken cable in mid-ocean and in 
nearly two thousand fathoms, the mere fact of 
sounding to obtain the depth appeared very 
simple. In late years a new scientific interest 
has arisen in the study of the deep-sea bottom 
by means of the dredge, and numerous sound- 
ings have been taken in connection with it 
in Europe and America. In studying a chart of 
the ocean containing many soundings it will be 
observed that on leaving the shore, in the 
greater number of cases, the depth does not 
increase regularly or according to a uniform 
slope, but that the bottom forms as it were a 
terrace around the continents, sloping very 
gradually down to a certain depth, from which 
there is a much more rapid descent into deep 
water. This depth we may assume at about 
100 fathoms, and that line is generally marked 
on the maps ; but it is really somewhat less, 
probably in the neighborhood of 80 fathoms. 
We may, for instance, find that we must sail 
100 m. from the shore to find 100 fathoms 
depth ; but in 10 m. more the lead would sink 
to 1,000. Hence, should the level of the ocean 
sink 100 fathoms, a large addition of territory 
would be made to the continents; 100 fathoms 
more would increase this addition by a mere 
narrow strip, very steep toward the sea. This 
terrace probably marks the ancient margin of 
the continents, and has been gradually formed 
by the encroachment of the ocean on the land. 
Hence it is as a rule wider on coasts formed 
of materials easily disintegrated than on those 
formed of hard rocks. The terrace is narrow 
on the coast of Spain and Portugal, and widens 
largely from the bay of Biscay northward, ex- 
tending from 50 to 100 m. outside of the Brit- 
ish islands, which it embraces together with 
the whole North sea. It is narrow along the 
coast of Norway, but extends from Spitzbergen 
half way to Cape North. On the coast of 
North America it is very wide, though inter- 
rupted at several points, from Newfoundland 
to Cape Cod, embracing all the banks. South 
of Cape Cod it is from 60 to 100 m. broad, 



narrowest at Cape Hatteras and tapering off 
toward Florida, but wide again on the W. 
side of this peninsula. The West Indies gen- 
erally rise out of deep water. The terrace 
along the coast of South America varies gen- 
erally from (iO to 100 m. in breadth, but be- 
comes much wider S. of the Rio de la Plata, 
so as to include the Falklands. At the Cape 
of Good Hope it extends about 100 m. S. It 
has not yet been developed by observation 
along the W. coast of Africa. With regard to 
the depth of the trough of the South Atlantic 
ocean, we have little information. Some of 
the supposed deepest soundings on record, from 
7,000 to 8,000 fathoms, were made off the coast 
of South America, but they are entirely dis- 
credited now. From a few trustworthy ones 
it is fair to suppose this basin to have what is 
probably the average depth of all oceans, viz., 
from 2,000 to 3,000 fathoms. (It may be stated 
in passing, that for the Pacific ocean the aver- 
age depth between Japan and California, de- 
duced from the velocity of earthquake waves, 
was found a little over 2,000 fathoms, between 
Chili and the Sandwich Islands 2,500, and be- 
tween Chili and New Zealand only 1,500 fath- 
oms.) Of the North Atlantic more is known 
than of any other ocean. The lines of sound- 
ings taken from England and France to New- 
foundland, for the telegraph cables, show that 
no depth in that part exceeds 2,400 fath- 
oms. From these and other soundings it ap- 
pears that the bed of the North Atlantic con- 
sists of two valleys separated by a broad ridge 
running from the Azores to Iceland. The depth 
over the ridge is always less than 2,000 fath- 
oms, generally about 1,500; it widens and 
shoals toward the north, forming there a wide 
plateau embracing both Iceland and the Faroe 
islands, with a depth of little more than 300 
fathoms. The eastern valley varies between 
2,000 and 2,500 fathoms, seems to extend to 
the equator, and shoals and tapers toward the 
north, turning at the same time toward the 
northeast, until it is reduced to the narrow 
channel between the Shetland and Faroe isl- 
ands, with 600 fathoms. Beyond this point 
it cannot be followed for want of data. The 
western valley is not well known in its south- 
ern and middle part. It is probably very 
broad in the great bay formed between the 
West Indies, the United States, and Newfound- 
land, depths of over 3,000 fathoms being re- 
ported S. of the Bermudas. Very deep water, 
4,580 fathoms, is said to have been found a 
short distance S. of the Grand Bank of New- 
foundland, but this has not yet been corrobora- 
ted by additional soundings. The valley then 
passes E. of the banks, gradually shoaling, and, 
after sending an offset into Davis strait, passes 
into the Arctic ocean through the narrow pas- 
sage between Iceland and Greenland, having 
there a probable depth of a little more than 
1,000 fathoms. Of the seas communicnting 
with the Atlantic, the Mediterranean in its 
two basins reaches a depth of about 1,600 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



71 



fathoms in the western and 2,200 in the east- 
ern ; and the Black sea a depth of 00 to 900 
fathoms. The whole Mediterranean'system is 
separated from the Atlantic by a barrier of 
150 to 200 fathoms at the strait of Gibraltar. 
The Caribbean sea is deep, reaching to about 
2,500 fathoms in some parts, and the passages 
between the Windward Islands are in some 
places more than 1,000 fathoms. The passage 
through the strait of Yucatan has about the 
same depth, and the gulf of Mexico may reach 
2,000 fathoms in its central part. Its com- 
munications with the Atlantic through the 
strait of Florida and the Old Bahama channel 
do not exceed 400 or 500 fathoms. From 
what we know at present of the Atlantic ocean 
bottom, it appears to be entirely destitute of 
any submarine chains of mountains analogous 
to those we have on land ; there are no steep 
valleys, no bare rocks, in fact none of that 
variety of surface which on dry land contrib- 
utes so much to the beauty of the scenery. For 
incalculable ages a slow but permanent shower 
of organic debris has been descending from the 
surface, which, mingling at the bottom with 
the skeletons of its inhabitants, has formed a 
uniform layer of a soft calcareous ooze of un- 
known thickness, covering the accidents of the 
bottom as a snowstorm levels the hillocks and 
ditches of our fields. Being entirely unaffected 
by changes of temperature and of moisture, the 
ocean bottom cannot show the effects of weath- 
er or of erosion, the magnitude of which on 
the terrestrial relief is as yet greatly under- 
rated even by many geologists. It is only in the 
northern parts of the ocean (and probably in 
the southern also) that in a certain sense the 
traces of atmospheric action on the surface of 
the bottom can be found, but only mediately. 
The banks of Newfoundland are, if not formed, 
at least increased by the sand and pebbles an- 
nually brought down, though in small quanti- 
ties, from the arctic regions by the icebergs, 
of which this is the great melting ground. The 
rounded pebbles of basalt found by Wallich be- 
tween the Faroe islands and Iceland, and the 
gruvel and pebbles observed by Carpenter in 
the deep-sea dredgings off the Faroes, have 
probably also an arctic origin, drift ice having 
been seen, though rarely, very nearly in the 
same localities. The foregoing remarks apply 
of course only to the deep-sea basin. On the 
terrace fringing the continents the force of tidal 
and other currents has had more effect in shap- 
ing the bottom ; rocks and coral reefs lift their 
heads to or above the surface ; in a word, there 
is more superficial variety, but even here it is sel- 
dom comparable to many of the subaerial reliefs. 

III. CONSTITUTION OF THE OCEAN BED. It has 

always been the practice in navigation to arm 
the sounding lead, i. e., to fill a cavity at its 
base with tallow (the arming). Particles of 
sand, stones, shells, &c., remain attached to 
it after a cast, and give, by their proportions, 
color, or size, indications of the position of a 
ship, frequently of great value. Hydrogruphers 



have devised more convenient means of bring- 
ing up specimens of the bottom. In France the 
sounding lance is mostly used, a pointed bar 
of iron projecting under the lead, and provided 
with notches or barbs in which the sand or 
mud remains. In the United States coast 
survey the characteristic specimens of bottom 
are preserved with care, in the first place as 
vouchers of the correctness of the data given 
on the charts, and secondly for purposes of 
scientific investigation. Lieut. Stellwagen, U. 
S. N., while on coast survey duty, proposed a 
simple instrument for bringing up specimens, 
which, under the name of the Stellwagen cup, 
has been extensively and satisfactorily used. 
It consists in a conical iron cup, screwed into 
a rod projecting from the base of the lead, and 
having its opening covered by a loose leather 
valve. When the lead strikes, the cup is 
driven into the bottom and fills, and the pres- 
sure of the water afterward keeps the cover 
down while hauling up. A slightly different 
sounding cup was invented by Admiral Sands, 
in which the opening into the cup is at the 
side and kept closed by a spring, which opens 
only when the cup is penetrating into the soil. 
In Brooke's sounding apparatus, before men- 
tioned, the cavity at the end of the rod was 
at first filled with quills in which the mud 
lodged ; later a valve was provided which 
was pressed over the opening by the sliding 
off of the cannon ball. The quantity brought 
up in that way was, however, always very 
small. The greater part of the extensive col- 
lection of specimens of soundings in the coast 
i survey office in Washington have been pro- 
j cured with the Stellwagen and the Sands cups. 
In England the Bulldog machine, so called, has 
been successfully used for some years. It is 
a modification of Capt. Ross's clams, and con- 
sists of a pair of scoops closing against each 
other and thus bringing up a considerable 
quantity of material. The results obtained by 
these different methods have been laid down 
in maps, in France by M. Delesse and in Ame- 
rica by Mr. Pourtales, and thus a general 
idea of the geology of the bottom of the ocean 
has been obtained, or rather of its lithology, as 
M. Delesse has called it ; for under water it is 
only the superficial layer which is brought to 
our knowledge ; of its thickness, superposition, 
&c., the sounding lead can give us no idea. 
From these researches it appears that on the 
coast terrace there is, as might be expected, a 
great variety in the constitution of the bottom. 
It reflects as it were the geological formations 
of the adjacent shore, but with this difference, 
that the movement of the water produces a 
sifting action when agitated by the tides, winds, 
or currents, the heavier and harder particles 
remaining alone in some localities, while the 
lighter and finer materials are transported and 
deposited in others. This accounts in part for 
the immense preponderance of silicious sand in 
the deposits of the terrace, since it is the result 
of the decomposition of most of the primitive 



72 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



rooks and of the sifting out of many of the 
secondary and tertiary formations. Limestones, 
being generally soft, are reduced to impalpable 
powder and form deposits of calcareous mud ; 
while argillaceous mud results from the decom- 
position of clay slates, marl, and true clay beds. 
Large pebbles or shingle are rare at a distance 
from the shore, though common enough on the 
beaches. They seem to be covered by finer 
materials, except where swept by currents, as 
for instance in the British channel, where sev- 
eral banks of flints from the decomposed chalk 
beds are known to exist. But besides the de- 
posits of which we have spoken, resulting from 
decomposition or remodelling of preexisting 
ones, there are real formations on a very large 
scale now going on. The lime dissolved in the 
sea water is assimilated by organized beings, 
animals or plants, secreted in solid form, prin- 
cipally as a carbonate, and, after having per- 
formed a short duty in the organic world, con- 
tributes in the form of a new inorganic body to 
the increase of the earth crust. Thus we see in 
the vicinity of coral reefs the bottom composed 
of calcareous mud or sand formed by the disper- 
sion of corals, shells, and echinoderms, and in 
shoaler parts largely by the decomposition of 
lime-secreting seaweeds. This mud or sand 
often consolidates into hard limestone rock, 
but more frequently when exposed to the at- 
mosphere than when it remains under water. 
But it is chiefly in the deep-sea bed that lime 
deposits produced by organized beings assume 
gigantic proportions, at least in horizontal ex- 
tent. The entire bed of the ocean as far as ex- 
plored, outside of the coast terrace, is covered 
by a uniform layer of soft calcareous mud, 
called ooze by sailors, and composed chiefly of 
foraminifera, low organisms forming minute 
chambered shells, and living partly on the bot- 
tom and partly near the surface, whence they 
sink after death. With them are mixed the 
shells of floating mollusks, such as pteropods, 
of other mollusks inhabiting the bottom itself, 
the tubes of worms, the remains of bryozoa, 
echinoderms, corals, &c. Some silica is con- 
tributed, but in smaller proportions, by anal- 
ogous process performed by sponges, polycys- 
tince, and diatomacece. It is, in a word, chalk 
in process of formation, and has been found 
throughout the tropical and temperate regions ; 
in the arctic seas observations are still wanting. 
Along the coast of the United States the terrace 
is principally sand. Mud is found in the deep 
gulf between Cape Cod and Cape Sable, S. of 
Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Block isl- 
and, for a distance of nearly 80 m. (Block island 
soundings), in the so-called mudholes off the 
entrance to New York harbor, and in a few 
other localities. A few rocky patches of small 
extent are found off the New England coast, 
near New York, and along the coast of the 
Carolinas. At Cape Florida the sand is re- 
placed by the coral formation which envelops 
the southern extremity of the peninsula, and 
which may be divided into two, the reef for- 



mation and the deep-sea coral formation ; the 
former extends from the shores to a depth of 
about 90 fathoms, but receives its supplies al- 
most solely from a region between the surface 
and 10 or 15 fathoms, where the reef-building 
corals live. The second or deep-sea coral for- 
mation extends from 90 fathoms to about 300. 
Beyond this depth, and sometimes even from 
100 fathoms downward, the deep-sea ooze or 
foraminifera mud is found everywhere. IV. 
CURRENTS. Columbus, according to Dr. Kohl's 
"History of the Gulf Stream," was the first 
navigator who observed ocean currents, having 
noticed that in sounding in the Sargasso sea 
the lead appeared to be carried away from 
the ship, a fact which he rightly interpreted 
by the ship being drifted away from the lead 
by a surface current. In some of his later 
voyages he also observed the rapid flow of 
water through the passages among the Antilles, 
and the strong currents in the Caribbean sea 
and on the coast of Honduras. Sebastian 
Cabot noticed the Labrador current about the 
same time. The first notice of the Gulf stream, 
the most important of the currents of the At- 
lantic, is found in the journal of Alaminos, the 
pilot of Ponce de Leon in the expedition which 
led to the discovery of Florida in 1513. Ala- 
minos, making use of his discovery, led the 
way in sailing down stream through the strait 
of Florida when carrying Cortes's despatches 
from Vera Cruz to Spain. In the narratives 
of the navigators of the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies frequent mention is made of the ocean 
currents, and in particular of the Gulf stream ; 
it is therefore not a little singular that their 
details were so imperfectly known as late as 
the second half of the 18th century that they 
were rather an impediment than a help to nav- 
igation, at least for the intercourse between 
Europe and the northern parts of America. 
The New England whalers at that time were 
the best acquainted with the limits of the 
Gulf stream, and from one of them Benjamin 
Franklin obtained the information which he 
published in his chart of that current, intended 
to point out the most favorable routes between 
the North American colonies and the mother 
country. Franklin and Blagden also pointed 
out the difference between the temperature of 
the water in the Gulf stream and outside of it. 
Pownall and Jonathan Williams extended our 
knowledge of this current; Capt. Strickland 
remarked its extension further N. and E. than 
was before suspected, and first argued the exist- 
ence of the N. E. branch of the Gulf stream, 
about which there has been so much contro- 
versy of late. Humboldt and Scoresby also 
paid much attention to ocean currents, and 
particularly to the Gulf stream. Finally, Major 
Rennel undertook the discussion of all the ob- 
servations of currents, and published the results 
of his generalizations under the title of " In- 
vestigations of the Currents of the Atlantic 
Ocean," a work which remains to this day the 
principal source of information on the subject. 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



73 



The circulation of the water in the Atlantic 
ocean can be stated in very general terms to 
consist of two gigantic eddies orVrevolving 
streams, the one in the northern Atlantic, the 
other in the southern or Ethiopia basin ; the 
former revolving from left to right, the other 
from right to left ; both giving out offshoots of 
greater or less importance on their outer cir- 
cumference. Both originate in the equatorial 
current, which consists of two parallel parts, the 
northern and southern, separated by a narrower 
return current, called the Guinea current. The 
southern equatorial current, starting from the 
coast of Africa and striking the coast of South 
America at Cape San Roque, divides itself into 
two branches. The southern one follows the 
coast of Brazil under the name of the Brazil- 
ian current, dividing about the latitude of the 
tropic of Capricorn into two branches, the 
smaller one following the coast, but gradually 
growing narrower and weaker, nearly as far as 
the extremity of South America. The larger 
and wider portion strikes toward the southeast 
in the direction of the Cape of Good Hope, 
under the name of the southern connecting 
current ; a short distance west of this cape the 
current turns north and follows the coast of 
Africa, under the name of the South Atlantic 
current, toward the equator, where the cir- 
cuit is completed. This current is accom- 
panied in its northern course, and between it 
and the coast, by a branch of the cold An- 
tarctic current, the waters of which can be 
traced for a long distance by their temperature. 
The northern branch of the south equatorial 
current follows the coast of South America 
from Cape San Roque to the Antilles, where it 
penetrates into the Caribbean sea, jointly with 
the larger north equatorial current. Thus a por- 
tion of the waters of the South Atlantic is carried 
into the North Atlantic, for which apparently 
no return is made as far as surface currents 
are concerned. After entering the Caribbean 
sea, the current is driven through the straits 
of Yucatan into the gulf of Mexico. The prin- 
cipal mass of the water then turns to the east- 
ward along the northern coast of Cuba, while 
a smaller and less known branch is said to fol- 
low the western and northern coasts of the 
gulf, ultimately falling in again with the for- 
mer. After passing the southern extremity of 
Florida the current receives the name of the 
Gulf stream, and passes north through the nar- 
rows of Bernini between Florida and the Ba- 
hama banks into the Atlantic ocean. It now 
follows the coast of the United States at a 
somewhat variable distance to about the lati- 
tude of Chesapeake bay, when it turns east. 
On the S. side of the banks of Newfoundland 
it is pressed in by the polar current, and ac- 
cording to some authors ceases to exist as a 
.special current. It is most probable that a por- 
tion of its waters continues its course eastward 
across the ocean, bending south between the 
Azores and the coast of Portugal, and finally 
returning along the coast of Africa to the equa- 



torial current, and thus completing the circuit. 
A small offset enters the Mediterranean through 
the strait of Gibraltar. Another small branch 
separates at Cape Finisterre, sweeps around 
the bay of Biscay in a northerly direction, and 
dies out finally on -the coast of Ireland. This 
is Rennel's current, named so after its dis- 

I coverer. From the region east of the banks 
"of Newfoundland, the waters of the Gulf 
stream or of the general ocean drift (the ques- 
tion being disputed) move northward toward 
the coasts of northern Europe, to which they 
carry their heat, passing the North Cape, and 

j reaching nearly to Nova Zembla. Interweav- 
ing with the polar current, a branch passes up 
the N. coast of Spitzbergen, another around 
the west to the N. coast of Iceland, another 
along the W. coast of Greenland into Davis 
strait. A polar current, carrying large quan- 
tities of ice at certain seasons, descends along 
the W. shore of Davis strait and the coasts 
of Labrador and Newfoundland, and passes, 
part of it under the Gulf stream, and part be- 
tween that stream and the coast of the United 
States. -Cause of currents. The various theo- 
ries propounded to explain the circulation of 
the water in the ocean have been based 1, on 
the effect of permanent winds; 2, on differ- 
ences of density due to evaporation ; 3, on dif- 
ferences of density due to temperature ; 4, on 
the rotation of the earth ; 5, on difference of 
barometric pressure ; and finally, on combina- 
tions of these causes. The first author to leave 
a theory of currents was Kepler, who attributed 
them to the rotation of the earth, remarking 
that as the water is only in loose contact with 
the earth, it cannot follow the rotation east- 
ward as fast, and remains behind. He was 
followed and sustained by Varenius in 1650. 
Vossius and Fournier a little later adopted the 
heat and evaporation theories, but in a rather 
extravagant form, the former supposing the 
heat of the sun to expand and attract the water 
of the ocean into a kind of long mountain ridge, 
which, following the sun, broke on the coast 
of America, producing the currents running 
along the shore ; a curious glimpse of the usual 
tidal theory. Fournier supposed, on the con- 
trary, a hollow or valley formed by evapora- 
tion in the ocean in the tropics, causing a con- 
stant rush of the polar waters to fill it up. 
Coming down to Franklin, we find him an ad- 
vocate of the trade-wind theory for the Gulf 
stream, while, later, Humboldt explained the 
phenomenon by the rotation of the earth. 
Major Rennel, in his work on ocean currents, 
divides the currents into two classes. Drift 
currents, according to him, are the effect of the 
permanent winds on the surface of the water, 
by which the superficial layers are set in mo- 
tion ; when a drift current meets with an ob- 
stacle, the general surface is raised by accumu- 
lation, and the water in trying to return to its 
level produces a deeper and generally more 
rapid fiow called a stream current. The equa- 
torial current is an example of the former, the 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



Gulf stream of the latter. It would take too 
much space to detail all the theories of modern 
authors, but a few must still be mentioned. 
Capt. M. F. Maury gave an exaggerated weight 
to differences of density of sea water in north- 
ern and southern parts of the ocean. Sir John 
Herschel, in his article on physical geography 
in the " Encyclopsedia Britannica," attributed 
the currents to the effect of the trade winds. 
Before his death he seems to have fallen in 
with the views of Prof. Carpenter mentioned 
under the head of Gulf stream. Dr. Muhri of 
Gottingen, in his work on ocean currents, gives 
the following conclusions: 1. There are in 
ocean circulation two great movements per- 
pendicular to each other, the one following 
the equator, the other the direction of the me- 
ridians. 2. The equatorial circulation results 
from the inertia of water with regard to the 
rotation of the earth ; the meridional or ther- 
mometric circulation is caused by the difference 
of temperature between the polar and equato- 
rial regions. 3. The meridional as well as the 
equatorial circulations exhibit two motions in 
contrary directions, which compensate each 
other and are superposed to each other in part 
in the thermometric circulation, on account of 
their unequal density. 4. The unequal distri- 
bution of the continents impedes the regularity 
of the great movements of circulation, and, in 
conjunction with the unequal relief of the bot- 
tom and the action of the winds, induces sec- 
ondary currents disturbing the general motion. 
Gulf stream. The importance of this great 
current to the commerce and navigation of 
North America, to which reference has been 
made before, the great scientific interest it pre- 
sents by its size, temperature, and influence on 
climate, have made it, in the words of Prof. 
Bache, " the great hydrographic feature of the 
United States coast." Under the superinten- 
dence of the late Prof. Bache, the United States 
coast survey has accumulated a large number of 
observations of that part of the stream comprised 
between its entrance into the straits of Florida 
and the region where it leaves the coast after 
having changed its course to the east. The 
observations were directed chiefly toward the 
determination of the depth, the figure and con- 
stitution of the bottom, and the temperature 
from the surface down through the whole 
depth. The instruments used for temperature 
have been of various construction. Metallic 
thermometers in the watch form were used, 
enclosed in strong brass vessels ; they answered 
well enough, and were employed to a consider- 
able extent in the earlier researches ; but in 
several instances the brass box was crushed by 
the pressure. Self-registering thermometers 
in glass globes were used also, but they had 
the inconvenience of experiencing the changes 
of temperature too slowly. Six's self-register- 
ing thermometers were used extensively, up to 
about 100 fathoms, beyond which they are 
liable to be crushed ; and in all cases their in- 
dications are rendered very erroneous by the 



pressure. For great depths Saxton's metallic 
thermometer has been of great service. This 
instrument consists in a ribbon of two metals 
of different expansion, soldered together and 
! rolled in a cylindrical spiral around a spindle, 
j to which the movement of expansion or con- 
traction is communicated, and by it transferred 
to a hand or 'needle moving an index over a 
graduated dial. The whole is enclosed in a suit- 
able case perforated for the passage of the water. 
It works well, but is affected by pressure in a 
manner not easily explained. At present the 
Miller-Casella protected thermometer is used, 
and proves an excellent and trustworthy instru- 
ment. It is in the main a Six's self-registering 
maximum and minimum thermometer, the bulb 
of which is protected from pressure by an outer 
bulb blown over it and sealed round the neck, 
a space being left between the two bulbs, par- 
tially filled with alcohol, in order to communi- 
cate the temperature more rapidly to the inner 
bulb. The observations were made at a num- 
ber of stations in lines or sections at right angles 
to the stream. The thermometer was observed 
at the surface and at different depths, generally 
at every ten fathoms as far as 50, and at every 
hundred fathoms in greater depths. When the 
change of temperature was very rapid, the 
number of sections, stations, and observations 
was multiplied to keep pace with it. The re- 
sults were arranged afterward in diagrams, 
where the changes of temperature were repre- 
sented by curves, thus giving at a glance the 
distribution of heat throughout the stream. 
From these observations the following general 
deductions were made : In the sections between 
Florida and Cuba the highest temperatures 
were found near the Cuban coast, where also 
the greatest depth was recorded. It was ob- 
served by Mr. Mitchell that very near the 
coast of that island the stream had a uniform 
velocity and constant course for a depth of 600 
fathoms, although in this depth the temperature 
varied 40. The stratum of warm water was 
found to be of much greater thickness or depth 
toward the middle of the straits than nearer 
shore; thus at a distance of 6 or 7 m. from 
Havana the layer of water above the tempera- 
ture of 70 extended only to a depth of about 
70 fathoms, while some 30 m. off the co.'ist 
its thickness was about 180 fathoms. The 
slope of the bottom is very abrupt on the 
Cuban coast, but much more gradual on the 
Florida side, where the current is also more 
irregular, taking sometimes even the shape of a 
counter current running west. It is also here 
affected by the winds and tides. The same 
character as in this section is maintained 
throughout the straits of Florida to the narrows 
of Bernini. No permanent current was found 
j in the St. Nicholas and Santarest channels, 
I sometimes regarded as partial feeders of the 
Gulf stream. Toward the narrows of Bernini 
the breadth and depth of the straits diminish 
and reach their minimum, the breadth being 
only 44 m. and the greatest depth 370 fathoms. 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



75 



The bottom presents here some inequalities 
in the shape of longitudinal ridges^the effect 
of which is to press the cold watier of the 
bottom toward the surface, by which the first 
indication is produced of those alternate bands 
of warmer and colder water noticed further 
north. The warmest water is still found nearer 
the eastern or right bank of the stream ; but 
after leaving the straits, and when the stream 
has gradually widened, the warmest water 
is on the left or western edge. The stream 
now runs parallel to the coast, distant from 
it about 70 or 80 m., turning gradually to the 
N. E. from the due N. course it had on leav- 
ing the narrows. It approaches nearest to the 
land at Cape Hatteras, takes there a slightly 
more northern direction, and shortly after turns 
sharply to the east, its rather variable western 
edge being then about lat. 38. The space 
between the shore and the stream is occupied 
by the cold water of the polar current, and the 
contrast between it and the warm water be- 
comes more and more abrupt, particularly at 
some depth, so that the plane of separation 
received from Lieut. Bache, who first noticed 
it, the name of the cold wall. At the surface 
the warm water overflows the cold, forming a 
thinned-out superficial layer, the limits of which 
vary somewhat according to the seasons and 
prevailing winds, certainly much more than 
the main body of the stream. The bands of 
cold and warm water increase in number, from 
three warm ones when coming out of the 



narrows to six or seven in the section off Sandy 
Hook ; it must however be remarked that sev- 
eral of them are very vaguely defined and far 
from constant. In the same section the depth 
of the stream is still very considerable, its limits 
being nearly as well marked by the difference 
of temperature at 400 fathoms as it is nearer 
the surface. In the following tables the tem- 
peratures of the water at different depths are 
given in a form nearly as plain as in a diagram 
tor two of the sections. The first is for the 
section between Cape Florida and the Bernini 
islands. The full line represents the surface ; 
above it are given the distances from Cape 
Florida. The depths are given on the side, and 
are indicated across the table by dotted lines 
for every hundred fathoms. The figures of the 
first line give the temperature from the average 
of the observations taken at the surface and at 
5, 10, 20, and 30 fathoms; of the second line 
the average at 50, 70, 100, and 150 fathoms ; 
and in the third are combined the temperatures 
at 200 and 300 fathoms. The figures arranged 
vertically over each other represent observa- 
tions taken at the same station. Table II. is a 
similar arrangement of the observations in the 
section off Sandy Hook (New York). The first 
line gives the temperatures at the same depths 
as the first line of Table I. ; the second line gives 
the averages of the observations at 40, 60, 80, 
and 100 fathoms; the third of the same at 200 
and 300 fathoms ; and the fourth the observa- 
tions at 400 fathoms : 



TABLE L 





100 
200 

800 



10 



MILES FROM CAPE FLORIDA. 
2O 



40 



78 



74 



77 



78 



78 



T9 
78 



79 
70 



80 
75 



44 



44 



47 



43 



64 



- ( : i , .11. -I depth. 



TABLE II. 



FATHOMS. 


100 
200 

300 
400 


100 


M 1 I.I * FROM 

200 


6ANDY HOOK. 


800 




400 






500 


64 

50 


67 

H 


65 66 
50 52 


67 
61 


66 

50 


77 
60 


82 
72 


79 
68 


80 
68 


75 
64 


78 
67 






41 


48 


42 42 


48 


48 


60 


68 


69 


00 


60 


61 




87 


40 


8S 89 


40 


40 


48 


52 


56 


67 


67 


66 







Both tables show the difference of temperature 
between the Gulf stream and the inshore cold 
water or polar current to be distinctly traceable 
down to 400 fathoms at least ; indeed, in both 
cases the actual difference is greater near the 
bottom than at the surface, being in the nar- 
rows of 10 at 250 fathoms against 7 at the 
surface, and off Sandy Hook of about 18 at 



400 fathoms, while at the surface it is only 14 
or 15. The surface differences would of 
course var.' with the seasons, but it is proper 
to call attention here to the fact that the stratum 
of water above 60 is still nearly 300 fathoms 
thick in this latitude. The theory frequently 
propounded that the polar current underlies 
the Gulf stream and penetrates through the 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



straits of Florida into the gulf of Mexico, is 
rendered very improbable by Mr. Mitchell's 
observations cited above, and by the volume of 
water necessarily passing through these straits 
to supply as large a cross section as we find 
otf New York. It is much more probable that 
the cold water at the bottom of the gulf of 
Mexico reaches it by a much longer circuit, 
and perhaps a very small portion by the coun- 
ter currents at Cape Florida. The surface ve- 
locity of the Gulf stream appears to be vari- 
able, being probably aifected by the wind ; but 
although we have as yet no observations of the 
velocity at various depths, it is safe to assume 
a much greater constancy for the bulk of its 
waters. According to the chart of the Atlantic 
ocean published by the hydrographic office in 
Washington, the rate of the current in the 
straits of Florida is from 1 to 4 m. per hour ; in 
the narrows of Bernini, from 1 to 5 m. ; off the 
coast of Georgia, 1 J to 4 m. ; off Cape Fear and 
Cape Hatteras, 1 to 3f ; off Chesapeake bay, 
4 m. ; and in the longitudes of Nova Scotia 
and Newfoundland, between 2 and 3 m. Mr. 
Findlay estimates it rather less: about 2f m. 
per hour in the narrows of Bernini, 2 off 
Charleston, H to 2 off Nantucket, and a little 
over 1 m. S. of the Newfoundland banks. Ac- 
curate observations at all seasons and at va- 
rious depths, though difficult to make, are very 
much needed. The further course of the Gulf 
stream after passing the banks of Newfound- 
land is involved in some doubt, as has been 
mentioned in speaking of the general sys- 
tem of currents of the Atlantic ocean. That 
water of a higher temperature than is due 
to the latitude reaches the northern and 
eastern shores of the Atlantic appears to be 
universally admitted. Capt. Strickland seems 
to have been the first to attribute this fact 
to the extension of the Gulf stream, and was 
supported in this opinion by the authority 
of Humboldt and Scoresby, the latter having 
made a large number of observations of tem- 
perature in the Arctic ocean. Leopold von 
Buch, struck during his travels along the coast 
of Norway with the luxuriance of the vegeta- 
tion in so high a latitude, the high level of the 
line of permanent snow, the freedom from ice 
of the harbor during the greater part of the 
winter, &c., attributed to the Gulf stream the 
office of bringing heat to these coasts ; and his 
reasoning appeared to Humboldt " perfectly 
convincing." Gen. Sabine, during one of his 
voyages for pendulum experiments, made nu- 
merous observations in the Gulf stream proper, 
and in its supposed extension across the ocean, 
and along the coasts of Europe, south of Eng- 
land and Africa, and was convinced that both 
were one and the same system. Rennel was 
the first to shake this belief, at the time almost 
universal, attributing the whole easterly and 
northerly movement of the waters to a super- 
ficial drift produced by the prevailing S. W. 
winds. It must be remarked that he ignores 
entirely the effect of the rotation of the earth, 



and of the heating and cooling of the waters 
at the equator and pole, joint causes which 
Arago was probably the first to exhibit, with- 
out, however, entering into their discussion. 
In very recent times the partisans of both 
opinions have shown a renewed activity, 
partly in connection with arctic, and partly 
with deep-sea explorations. It was in ref- 
erence to the former that Dr. Petermann 
gave his opinion as follows: "Instead of a 
weak and insignificant drift from Newfound- 
land toward Europe, as heretofore represent- 
ed, I consider the northern part of the 
Gulf stream one of the mightiest currents of 
the world, although comparatively slow, not 
very perceptible on the surface of the ocean, 
and therefore of no great moment to naviga- 
tion. I do so because ocean currents have to 
perform other functions than merely those of 
a strong surface stream. In that view I con- 
ceive the Gulf stream to be a deep, perma- 
nently warm current from Newfoundland to 
the coasts of France, Great Britain, Scandina- 
via, and Iceland, up to Bear island, Jan Mayen, 
and Spitzbergen; and along the western coa>t 
of the latter up to the 80th degree of north 
latitude, thence to Nova Zembla into the polar 
sea, passing the northernmost capes of Siberia 
and the New Siberian islands, where it appears 
on the charts as the Polynia of the Russians, 
... its influence being felt perceptibly even as 
far east as Cape Yakan." Numerous opponents 
have risen against these assertions, among 
them Mr. Findlay, who contends that the 
Gulf stream proper has not sufficient width 
and depth to reach the coast of Europe ; that 
at its slow rate of progress it must lose all its 
heat during the passage; that after reaching 
Newfoundland it is totally annihilated by the 
Polar stream, and cannot be perceived beyond ; 
that the Gulf stream has nothing to do with 
the climate of northwestern Europe, which is 
affected only by the general drift of the North 
Atlantic ocean. To this Dr. Petermann re- 
plies that the Gulf stream is no doubt rein- 
forced by a drift corresponding to it in direc- 
tion, in the same way that a river is swelled 
by tributaries, without for all that losing its 
individuality and its name. Prof. Carpenter, 
in discussing the results of his deep-sea tem- 
perature observations, doubts if the Gulf 
stream sends any but a very small and super- 
ficial contribution to the northern seas, and is 
supported by the companion of his researches, 
Mr. Jeffreys, on zoological grounds, the latter 
rather premature, since we are still at the dawn 
of our knowledge of the deep-sea fauna. Dr. 
Petermann now took a very important step in 
the question ; the differences of opinion resting 
chiefly on belief and theory, he undertook to 
collect all the observations of temperature of 
the water in the North Atlantic and construct 
charts of isotherms for every month in the 
year. The large amount of materials buried in 
Maury's wind and current charts were in.-nk 
available by much labor ; the observations pub- 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



77 






lished by the Dutch government and by the 
Scottish and Norwegian meteorolojjical socie- 
ties, the records of sea temperatures of some 
of the transatlantic steamship lines, those of 
the Danish ships sailing to Iceland and Green- 
land, collected by Admiral Irminger, and those 
of various arctic expeditions, furnished a consid- 
erable array of data. Of the twelve monthly 
charts contemplated, two only have been pub- 
lished, those for January and July. The chart 
for July exhibits the core of the Gulf stream 
at a temperature of 81 '5 extending northward 
as high as lat. 38, and with a temperature but 
slightly decreased as high as lat. 40, and as 
far east as Ion. 43. That it is not a mere drift 
is shown by the lower temperatures south of 
this tongue, which in January is shortened as 
might be expected. At Newfoundland the 
curves show the inroad made by the polar cur- 
rent, but in a less marked manner in winter 
than in summer. In July the polar current 
brings water at a temperature of 45 '6 down 
to lat. 50, while further east the Gulf stream 
water has still 65 in the same latitude. To the 
east of Newfoundland the isotherms set tow- 
ard the north with two bends more marked in 
summer than in winter. In July the isotherm 
of 54'5 advances toward Iceland and the Faroe 
islands to lat. 61. The wanner water follows 
not only the W. coast of Iceland, but passes 
round to the N. side of it, while on the E. and 
S. coast the polar current preponderates, pro- 
ducing a temperature lower by 5 or 6. Be- 
tween Iceland and the Faroe islands warm and 
cold bands of water alternate, the result of the 
struggle between the Gulf and polar streams, 
the latter carrying drift ice much further south 
in this region than anywhere else east of Ice- 
land, and reducing the temperature of the 
water at the Faroe islands to a lower point 
than it has on the W. coast of Iceland, where 
the winter climate is not as severe as it is in 
many parts of New England. The isotherm of 
36, which touches Iceland in winter, extends 
at the same season beyond North cape ; the 
sea at Fruholm, North cape, is in January 
still at a mean temperature of 37'9. Ob- 
servations are wanting to show the further 
extension of the Gulf stream toward the north- 
east. It is met by a polar current running 
in the opposite direction, and cut by it into 
two branches, of which one runs along the 
W. side of Spitzbergen, the other eastward 
of Bear island. The further progress of this 
branch, which is the main one, is not known. 
The branch of the polar stream separating the 
two arms sets toward the coast of Greenland, 
where it is said to form a bight in the drift and 
field ice, reaching nearly to the coast. In high 
latitudes deep-sea temperatures show in many 
localities an anomaly in this, that the coldest are 
observed near the surface, and that there is an 
increase of temperature with depth. Observa- 
tions in the Antarctic ocean have shown the 
same phenomenon. It is frequently explained 
by comparison with the same phenomenon in 



fresh water, the maximum density of which is 
7'2 higher than the freezing point. Although 
with regard to salt water the question appears 
still unsettled, the weight of evidence seems to 
point to an increase of density in the latter 
down to the freezing point. In that case the 
colder surface temperature might be attributed 
to the stratum of water from melting ice, float- 
ing over warmer layers because of less density. 
Some light has been afforded as to the course 
and origin of the currents in the northern seas 
by the driftwood and other materials thrown 
by them on the shores. The northern coast of 
Spitzbergen is covered with immense accumu- 
lations of driftwood, bark, pumice stone, &c. ; 
' among them Torrel found a large bean of en- 
tada gigalobium, a product of tropical Ameri- 
ca found on all the shores washed by the Gulf 
stream, from Florida to Norway. These beans 
are found even in the Danish colonies on the 
W. coast of Greenland, where they are known 
under the name of vettenyrer or witches' kid- 
neys. The seeds of mucuna ureru and mimosa 
scandens are generally found with the former. 
The driftwood was pronounced by botanists to 
be nearly all Siberian larch, thus proving that 
the sea is open in summer as far as the mouths 
of the great Siberian rivers, and that in the 
locality mentioned the waters of the Gulf 
stream mix with those of the polar current. 
The saltness of the water in different parts of 
the ocean, as determined by Prof. Forchham- 
mer, was laid down on a chart by Dr. Peter- 
mann, and found to agree remarkably well with 
his temperature charts, the warmer or Gulf 
stream water being more salt than the colder or 
polar stream. From all the points discussed 
in his paper, Dr. Petermann draws the follow- 
ing conclusions: 1. The Gulf stream extends 
along the North American coast with a tem- 
perature of 77 and upward as far as lat. 37 ; 
a temperature in winter higher than the tem- 
perature of the air in Africa under the same 
latitude, and higher than the temperature of 
the water at any time under the equator. 2. 
The Gulf stream turns away from the Ameri- 
can coast in lat. 37 to 38 toward the east be- 
yond the banks of Newfoundland to Ion. 40 
W., where it still has a temperature of about 
75 in July and about 66 in January. From 
there it proceeds to the northeast, surround- 
ing Europe to the Arctic and the White sea 
with a permanent current of warm water, still 
having a temperature of 37'8 in a latitude 
in which in Asia and America the mercury 
remains frozen for months. 3. The velocity 
and strength of the stream are still imperfectly 
known. Findlay estimates the time for the 
water to travel from Florida to Europe at one 
or two years ; Dr. Petermann, at two months. 
4. The Gulf stream must be a deep and volu- 
minous body of water, keeping away the polar 
ice from the coasts of Europe. The polar cur- 
rent presses at three places against it, E. of 
Newfoundland, E. of Iceland, and at Bear isl- 
and. 5. These polar currents make a much 



78 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



deeper impression in the Gulf stream in sum- 
mer than in winter, fi. In winter the Gulf 
stream is out in upon much less. The polar 
streams are then less powerful, the polar ice 
being fast in the north. This is shown by Mr. 
RednehTs observations on the drift ice off 
Newfoundland. Of 100 cases of ice seen, 87 
occurred in April, May, June, and July ; of the 
remaining 13, there were 7 in March, 3 in 
August, 2 in February, and 1 in January ; none 
at all in September, October, November, and 
December. 7. The relations of temperature 
within the Gulf stream itself are about the 
same in winter and in summer; the fluctua- 
tions between its maximum and minimum 
would be only about 9. The thermometrical 
results of the deep-sea expeditions in the Eu- 
ropean seas in the steamers Lightning and Por- 
cupine in 1868, '69, and '70, have been used by 
Prof. Carpenter, under whose charge the ob- 
servations were made, for a theory of ocean cur- 
rents based on the heating and cooling of the wa- 
ter at the equator and pole respectively. The re- 
markable fact was brought out during the first 
cruise that in the channel between the Faroe 
islands and the N. coast of Scotland a warm 
nrea exists on the bottom in close proximity 
to a very cold one. The warm area, S. W. of the 
Faroe islands, had a temperature of 41 '4 at a 
depth of 767 fathoms ; the cold area, only 20 
m. distant, between the Faroe and Shetland 
islands, only 29'7 at 640 fathoms, the surface 
temperature being the same. Near the Rock- 
all bank off the W. coast of Ireland the tem- 
perature of 41 was found to extend to 775 
fathoms, with a bottom temperature of 37'4 
at 1,400 fathoms, and oft' the bay of Biscay 
to 800 fathoms, with a bottom temperature 
at 2,435 fathoms of 36-5. Prof. Carpenter 
remarked on these results that the elevation 
of temperature in the warm area above the 
isotherm of its latitude could only be attrib- 
uted to a supply of water from the south- 
west ; and that the Gulf stream, meaning the 
warm water coming through the narrows of 
Florida, if it reached this locality at all, which 
he considers very doubtful, could only affect 
the most superficial stratum; and that the 
same could be said of the surface drift caused 
by southwesterly winds. He comes to the 
conclusion that the presence of the body of 
water ranging from 100 to 600 fathoms in 
depth, and the range of temperature of which 
is frqm 48 to 42, can scarcely be accounted for 
on any other hypothesis than that of a great 
general movement of equatorial water toward 
the polar area, of which the Gulf stream con- 
stitutes a peculiar case modified by local con- 
ditions. The arctic stream in the cold area is 
also a peculiar case of the general movement 
of the polar water toward the equator ; for it 
is forced to pass through this, the deepest 
channel between Iceland and Europe, and 
pressed toward its S. E. shore on account of 
the channel's oblique position with regard to 
the N. and S. flow of the water. Prof. Car- 



i penter is inclined to think that the Arctic 
ocean is insufficient to supply cold water 
enough for so great a reduction of tempera- 
ture as is found in the body of water below 
1,000 fathoms in the Atlantic basin, and thinks 
that antarctic water may also flow in past the 
equator as far PS the tropic of Cancer ; a ques- 
tion rather difficult to settle in the present state 
of our knowledge, since all we know is that 
under the equator bottom temperatures havo 
been observed of 35 - 2 at 1,806 fathoms, and 
33-(> at 2,306 fathoms. The best evidence 
adduced by Prof. Carpenter for the flow of 
polar water on the bottom toward lower lati- 
i tudes is based on his deep-sea temperatures of 
the Mediterranean. This closed body of water 
i communicates with the Atlantic through the 
strait of Gibraltar alone, and that is too shal- 
low to allow of a communication between the 
deep waters of the two basins. The Mediter- 
ranean goes down in some parts to 2,000 
fathoms. The surface is hot in summer, as 
high as 78 sometimes, but the hot layer is 
shallow, 10 or 15 being lost in the first 30 
fathoms. At 100 fathoms the temperature is 
generally 54 or 55 ; beyond that depth no 
further reduction was observed ; " whatever 
the temperature was at 100 fathoms, that it 
was at the bottom;" and this temperature is 
found to be the permanent temperature of the 
surface of the earth in that latitude. The same 
observer concludes that the ocean is subjected 
to two different circulations : a horizontal one 
produced by the action of the wind, the Gulf 
stream being an example of it ; and a vertical 
circulation dependent on opposition of tem- 
perature. V. LIFE IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 
1. Vegetation. The flora of the ocean, or 
nereis, as it has been called, is confined to a 
narrow belt along the shores and to the surface 
layer of water in mid-ocean, a strong light 
being necessary to its existence. With the ex- 
ception of a few species of the family of zoste- 
racecE (eelgrass, turtlegrass, grasswrack), the 
whole submarine vegetation belongs to the 
algse, plants of low organization. The limits 
of depth to which certain families, genera, or 
species are confined, are much more definite 
than they are for animals ; they have been 
called zones by Edward Forbes, characterized 
by the prevailing types growing in each. Com- 
mencing at the surface, he called littoral zone 
the region between high and low water, which 
on rocky shores is characterized by a luxuriant 
growth of fucaceas principally, of which dif- 
I ferent species form further subdivisions of the 
I zone, according to their preferences for a" 
j longer or shorter exposure to the air. Below 
l low-water mark the laminarian zone begins, 
and extends to 4 or 5 fathoms : in it are found 
in abundance the chondrm cri-spiis or carra- 
geen, the thong weed (himanthalia), and the 
tangle or devil's apron (laminaria). In the 
! lower part of this zone are found the red and 
purple seaweeds, many of them of great dfli- 
; cacy and beauty. The next zone is that of the 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



79 



corallines, so named from a family of seaweeds 
having their tissues filled with limer^and simu- 
lating small corals. As a general rule sea- 
wwds do not grow much deeper than 8 or 10 
fathoms, though there are exceptions; thus the 
gigantic macrocystis pyrifera, found growing 
in 40 fathoms, and rising to the surface at 
an angle of 45, and streaming on it for a 
distance of several ships' lengths, has been 
estimated to have a total growth of 700 feet. 
Low forms of corallines have been found at 
more than 200 fathoms, and diatomacea at all 
explored depths. The geographical distribu- 
tion of seaweeds depends much on tem- 
perature and currents. The luminaries, for 
instance, prefer cold water, the sargasso, the 
warmest. The largest forms are found in 
colder water, as the laminarice in the north, 
the macrocystis, Lessonia, Durvillea, &c., in the 
south. As examples of the influence of cur- 
rents on the distribution, we may take padina 
pavoiiia, a West Indian species, not found in 
America N. of the Florida keys, but carried to 
the S. shore of England probably by the Gulf 
stream. The macrocystis and other large an- 
tarctic seaweeds luxuriate about Tierra del 
Fuego and the Falkland islands ; they are car- 
ried far toward the equator by the Peruvian 
current on the W. coast of South America, 
while they are kept back on the E. coast by 
the southerly extension of the Brazilian cur- 
rent. A very remarkable feature of ocean 
vegetation is the Sargasso sea. This name is 
commonly used to designate a region of the 
Atlantic covered by a peculiar floating sea- 
weed, either in tangled masses of considerable 
extent, compared by some writers to floating 
prairies or submerged meadows, or simply in 
scattered sprigs. Columbus, as is well known, 
passed through these fields of seaweed in his 
first voyage, to the great alarm of his com- 
panions, who from previous association would 
naturally imagine a connection between sea- 
weeds and rocks or shoals. Since that time, 
for nearly four centuries, observation has shown 
that the geographical position and the abun- 
dance of these plants remain essentially un- 
changed. Ilumboldt found that the gulf weed, 
as it is generally called, because found also 
in the Gulf stream, was distributed in two 
principal masses, the largest situated a little 
to the west of the meridian of Fayal and 
between the parallels of 25 and 36 N. North- 
west winds are said to carry it sometimes to 
the latitudes 24 to 20. The second or lesser 
bank is less known, according to the same 
author, and occupies a space between the Ba- 
hamas and Bermudas. Capt. Leps of the 
French navy has investigated the subject more 
recently, and places the principal bank between 
Ion. 29 and 45 W., and lat. 21 and 33 N., 
with smaller scattered masses extending 
several degrees beyond these limits on all 
sides. The smaller bank he found not so well 
defined, the denser portion forming a band ex- 
tending to the N. E. of Porto Rico and to the 
58 VOL. ii. 6 



latitude of Bermuda. The Sargasso sea corre- 
sponds to the great centre or eddy of the North 
Atlantic system of currents, of which the Gulf 
stream forms so important a part. The botani- 
cal name of the gulf weed is sarga&sum bacci- 
ferum (Agardh), not sargassum natans, as it is 
usually called in books of navigation, which is 
a species growing on rocks in the West Indies. 
It is generally found in sprigs a few inches 
long, with a main stem branching into secon- 
dary ones ; the main stem has frequently a de- 
caying end, while the other gives rise to fresh- 
growing leaves ; but there is never any trace 
of root or place of attachment. Between the 
leaves, which are elongated and sharply ser- 
rate, small round air vessels, the size of 
currants, are supported on short peduncles. 
These air vessels or floats are vulgarly taken 
for the seeds or fruits ; hence the name, de- 
rived from a Portuguese word meaning grapes, 
and the French names of raisins de mer and 
raisins du tropique (sea grapes and tropic 
grapes). Far from being seeds, it is a sin- 
gular fact that the plant has never been ob- 
served to produce a fructification, and that it 
propagates only by division. Prof. Agassiz has 
observed that deprived of its floats the plant 
sinks. Humboldt, in his personal narrative, 
thought it might possibly grow on an undis- 
covered bank of 40 or 60 fathoms depth. This 
opinion he afterward abandoned ; but as it is 
still current among some persons, it may be 
stated here that such a bank in mid-ocean 
would have revealed itself by discoloration of 
the water before now, and to produce the im- 
mense masses of floating weed would have to 
be of considerable size ; besides, soundings in 
different parts of the Sargasso sea have re- 
vealed a very great depth of the ocean in that 
part. It is furthermore well known that fu- 
coids grow only in very moderate depths, the 
greater number of species being confined be- 
tween tide marks. Humboldt in later works 
adopted the more probable supposition that 
the gulf weed originates and propagates where 
it is found. To this he was led by the ob- 
servations of Meyen, who examined several 
thousand specimens during a voyage across the 
Sargasso sea, and found them uniformly desti- 
tute of roots or fructifications. Robert Brown, 
however, thought the question of origin still 
obscure, but that the theory of propagation by 
ramification and division was highly probable. 
He thought it possible that it might have origi- 
nated from some nearly allied species in the 
gulf of Florida, fucus natans for instance, 
afterward permanently modified by the cir- 
cumstances in which it had been placed for 
ages. Harvey, a high authority in the knowl- 
edge of seaweeds, who explored the shores of 
Florida and examined the fresh gulf weed, is 
also clearly of the opinion that it propagates 
only by division, whatever may have been the 
origin of the species. The gulf weed harbors 
a peculiar fauna consisting of fishes, Crustacea, 
mollusks, and polyps. Among the fishes, a 



80- 



ATLANTIC OCEAN 



small chironecte* is most abundant, which con- 
structs a peculiar nest for its eggs, by fasten- 
ing several sprigs of gulf weed together. It 
has been said that no similar accumulation of 
floating seaweed was known in any other part 
of the world ; but a Sargasso sea, bearing the 
same relations to the North Pacific currents 
which the Atlantic one bears to the Gulf 
stream, is found to the northward of the Sand- 
wich islands, and appears to occupy a still 
larger space. It is, however, very little known. 
2. Animals. The cold seas seem to be more 
favorable to the development of mammalia 
than the warmer ones. Thus the highest in 
the scale among those inhabiting the ocean, 
the polar bear, is found in the furthest 
north, and is only an occasional visitor of 
the shores of the Atlantic proper, when car- 
ried along by the ice. The seal family is also 
most numerously represented in the arctic re- 
gions ; the North Atlantic and Arctic harbor- 
ing only earless seals, the South Atlantic eared 
seals likewise. One or two imperfectly known 
species are reported in the West Indies, and 
one in the Mediterranean. Of the manatees, 
which are more fresh-water than marine ani- 
mals, two species are found on the American 
tropical shores and one in Africa. The walrus 
retreats from persecution further north every 
year, so that its original distribution is uncer- 
tain. The same may be said of some of the 
whales, particularly of the right whales, two 
species of which have been described from the 
north, the one confined to the frozen ocean, 
the other, almost extinct, inhabiting the region 
between this and lat. 40. No right whales 
are found in the tropics, but a third species is 
found south of the tropic of Capricorn. The 
finback whales appear to frequent all the 
oceans except the frozen regions. The sperm 
whale is found chiefly in the warmer seas, S. 
of lat. 45 N. ; it is said to pass Cape Horn, 
but not the Cape of Good Hope. Of the 
smaller cetaceans known as porpoises, the 
genus phoc&na is chiefly northern, delphinus 
almost universal. Of the families of birds fre- 
quenting the Atlantic ocean, the ducks have 
their greatest development in the far north, 
visiting the temperate regions in winter ; they 
are much more scantily represented in the 
South Atlantic. The auks and divers are also 
northern birds, and are in a great measure re- 
placed by the penguins in the southern cold 
regions. The pelican family flourishes best in 
the tropics, where it has its large representa- 
tives, the pelicans, frigates, phaetons, &c. ; 
while cormorants and gannets extend as far as 
the cold temperate zone. The petrels, the most 
pelagic of birds, are seen in all latitudes, but 
with a strong preponderance in the southern 
cold region. The giant of the tribe, the alba- 
tross, visits the coast of South America as far 
X. as the Rio de la Plata. The gulls and terns 
are seen everywhere. Of reptiles, the Atlan- 
tic has only four species of turtles, inhabiting 
the wanner seas, and only occasionally carried 



ATLAS 

to higher latitudes by warm currents. Marine 
snakes, common in the Pacific, are entirely ab- 
sent in the Atlantic. The North Atlantic is 
perhaps of all seas the best provided with use- 
ful fishes. The gadoids or cod family, the 
pleuronects (halibut, turbot, &c.), the her- 
rings and mackerels are nowhere else in such 
abundance and excellence as on both sides of 
that ocean. In the tropics the large serrani 
(gropers) are a characteristic group. The 
bright-colored tropical fishes, such as cheto- 
donts and others, seem to be confined to the 
same limits as the corals, the coasts of America 
bached by the equatorial current. Large repre- 
sentatives of the mackerel tribe, the corypha-- 
nti, improperly called dolphin, and the flying 
fishes, are the most common inhabitants of the 
high seas. Of Crustacea peculiar to the At- 
lantic, the king or horseshoe crab of North 
America deserves mention, only one other 
species of the genus being known, in the Mo- 
lucca islands. The mollusks are nearly all dif- 
ferent in the Atlantic from those in the other 
oceans, even when so slender a barrier as the 
isthmus of Panama is interposed. In the Fue- 
gian and South African provinces alone is 
there a gradual merging through a common 
fauna with that of the Pacific and Indian 
oceans. Similar remarks might be made with 
regard to most of the radiates. Most of the 
known living crinoids inhabit the Atlantic. The 
corals are distributed altogether in accordance 
with the warm current. The W. coast of Af- 
rica, washed by comparatively cold currents, has 
scarcely any. The coast of South America, re- 
ceiving warm water from the equatorial current, 
has a greater abundance, though their growth 
is checked by the fresh water and mud of the 
great rivers. But they flourish in the West 
Indies and as far north as Bermuda, under the 
influence of the Gulf stream and other warm 
water currents. The West Indian coral fauna 
is destitute of trnafungm and of pocillipora, 
both so common in the Pacific. It has on the 
other hand a great abundance of gorgoniacece 
(sea fans, sea feathers). For ocean life at 
great depths, see DKEDGING. 

ATLANTIS, according to the tradition of the 
Greek geographers (in which some recognize a 
vague knowledge of America), a large island 
in the Atlantic ocean, to the west of the N. W. 
coast of Africa and the pillars of Hercules. It 
was fabled to possess a numerous population, 
begotten by Neptune of mortal women. The 
sea kings of Atlantis were said to have invaded 
the west of Europe and of Africa, and to have 
been defeated by the Athenians and their 
allies. The inhabitants finally became despe- 
rately wicked, and the island was swept away 
by a deluge. Plato mentions the island in his 
Timseus. On the old Venetian maps, Atlantis 
is put to the west of the Azores and Canaries. 

ATLAS, in Greek mythology, son of Japetus 
and Clymene, and brother of Epimetheus and 
Prometheus. Defeated with the other Titans 
by Jupiter, he was condemned to bear heaven 






ATLAS 



ATMOSPHERE 



81 



on his head and hands. Some stories repre- 
sent him as a great astronomer, king, and demi- 
god, who first taught man that heav?n had the 
form of a globe. Ovid relates that Perseus, 
having been refused shelter by Atlas, changed 
him by means of the head of Medusa into 
Mount Atlas, on which rested the firmament. 

ATLAS (Moorish, Adrar, Dir, Jebel Tidla, 
or Jebel Adla), a mountain system of N. W. 
Africa, forming the watershed between the 
Mediterranean sea and the Sahara. It ex- 
tends under various names from Cape Ghir 
on the Atlantic to the gulf of Cabes (or Lesser 
Syrtis), about 1,200 m. It is generally divi- 
ded into the Greater and Lesser Atlas, and 
a middle table land. The Lesser Atlas is the 
range nearest the seacoast ; the Greater bor- 
ders on the desert. But this division, originated 
by Ptolemy, is unknown to the natives, and no 
real line of division can be ascertained. In 
Morocco the Atlas is a continuous chain from 
which the country slopes N. W. and S. E. 
toward -the sea and the desert ; and here it 
attains its greatest altitude, some of the peaks, 
as Jebel Miltzin, approaching, and others ex- 
ceeding 12,000 ft. in height. The height of 
the mountains generally diminishes toward the 
east. The middle part in Algeria is divided 
into the range of the Tell, between the Medi- 
terranean and the Shott plateau or salt swamps, 
and the range of the Sahara, between the pla- 
teau and the desert. The Tell consists of single 
groups of mountains separated from each other 
by wide valleys, of which 11 are counted from 
W. to E. In Algeria the highest point is Jebel 
Sheliha, S. of Constantino, upward of 7,000 ft. ; 
and Jurjura or Jerjera, between Algiers and 
Constantine, is upward of 6,000. The chain 
mainly follows a direction parallel to the coast, 
but then turns S. E., and takes the name of 
Jebel Aures, and approaching the coast again, 
it penetrates into the territory of Tunis. There 
are several passes, of which the chief is in the 
Jurjura, the famous Biban, a long, narrow val- 
ley bordered by rocks rising precipitously 150 to 
200 yards. In the western part of the range 
is the Bebaoum pass, leading to Tarudant in 
Morocco, also bounded by perpendicular rocks 
and precipices. Another defile, frequented by 
caravans, leads from Fez to Tafilet. East of 
the city of Morocco snow covers the summits 
nil the year; in Algeria it falls in September 
and melts in May. The climate is generally 
very salubrious. The sides of the mountains 
are covered with forests of oak, cedar, pine, 
pistachio, cypress, olive, and oleander. The 
Kabyles occupy the habitable parts of the At- 
las. The wild animals are the lion, panther, 
guepard, hyama, boar, and bear; and several 
-p'Ties of monkey are also found. None of the 
rivers are navigable, and many are only winter 
torrents. The Tensift and Draa flow into the 
Atlantic; the Tafilet is lost in the sands; the 
Shelliif, the Seybuse, the Kebir, the Rumel, 
and the Mejerda flow into the Mediterranean. 
According to a description of a branch of the 



I Greater Atlas from S. to N. near Jebel Miltzin 
given by the English naturalist Washington, 
the geological constitution of this part of the 
range is gneiss, schist, red sandstone, transition 
limestone, and marl. Capt. Rozet gives the 

j following description of the Lesser Atlas after 

I a careful study : The country of Algeria, cover- 
ed by branches or plateaus of the Lesser Atlas, 

' is composed of transition schist, gneiss, blue 
limestone similar to English lias, deposits of 
alluvium, trachytic porphyry, diluvium, and 

! other deposits. The prevailing rock is a whi- 
tish green or blue schist in deformed layers, 
broken up into numerous fissures filled with 
white quartz and oxidized iron. The limestone 
enclosed in the schist is of a saccharoid texture, 
and of a gray or dark blue color ; it forms con- 
siderable masses in the mountains of Algeria. 
The schistose stratum contains garnet and 
anthracite ; it gradually changes to mica schist 
and then to gneiss. The alluvium is composed 
of horizontal strata of clay, marl, and rounded 
pebbles. The mineral wealth of the Atlantic 
Atlas is but imperfectly known. The Greater 
Atlas seems to be crossed by veins of copper, 
iron, tin, antimony, and perhaps gold and sil- 
ver. The Lesser Atlas has mines of lead and 
iron; silver, copper, mercury, and plumbago 
are also found. There are many mineral 
springs in different parts. 

ATMOSPHERE (Gr. ar/i6f, vapor, and o<j>aipa, 
sphere), or Air, the gaseous envelope of a celes- 
tial body or of the earth. At present we know 
that the sun and planets possess atmospheres, 
and the revelations of the spectrum begin to 
show what these atmospheres consist of. That 
of the sun contains, besides hydrogen and other 
gases, the vapors of solids and liquids, so highly 
heated that iron vapor is one of its principal 
constituents. The atmospheres of Venus and 
Mars appear similar to that of the earth ; those 
of Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, dif- 
fer so much from our terrestrial atmosphere, 
that it is highly probable that these planets 
possess so high a temperature as not only to 
keep many solids in the state of vapor, but 
even to be slightly self-luminous. The moon 
shows no trace of an atmosphere. When we 
consider the great amount of oxygen and 
water combined with the solid portions of 
our earth's surface, it is highly probable that 
the volcanic scoria? and lavas of the moon 
have long ago absorbed all the air and water 
which may once have enveloped it. The at- 
mosphere has been the principal agent in 
transforming the surface of our earth into 
what it is: first by disintegrating the rocks; 
then, in connection with solar heat, starting 
vegetation ; then causing the decay of organic 
substances, and so forming soil for more pro- 
fuse organic growth, giving sustenance for the 
animal kingdom; and finally fulfilling all the 
functions necessary for the development of all 
forms of life. The functions of the atmosphere 
are : to act as the principal conductor of sound 
waves; to moderate the solar heat, admitting 



82 



ATMOSPHERE 



its reception during the day, and preventing 
too rapid a loss of it during the night ; to carry 
the waters of the ocean in the form of clouds 
or vapors over the land ; to serve as a mechani- 
cal force ; and last, but not least, to diffuse the 
element, oxygen, which sustains the life of all 
conscious beings. 1. Mechanical properties. 
The first property of the air is weight ; hence 
it is attracted by the earth, and therefore it 
exerts a pressure, not only downward, but, 
according to the law of fluids, sideways, up- 
ward, &c., as by the mobility of fluid particles 
any pressure is transmitted in all directions. 
The direct proof of the fact that the air has 
weight is, that when it is compressed in a 
strong flask, the flask is heavier than before. 
If this flask has a capacity of 100 cubic inches, 
and 100 more cubic inches of air are pressed 
in by means of a compression pump, the flask 
will be found to have gained 31 grains in 
weight. This is the result when the barometer 
stands at 30 inches, and the thermometer at 
60 F. ; but as the air expands 3 V P al 't f r 
every inch of decrease in the barometer, and 
-ffa part for every degree of increase of the 
thermometer, the weight will be so much less 
if the barometer is lower or the thermometer 
higher, and vice vena. The atmosphere having 
weight, and being perfectly elastic, causes the 
lower strata to be denser than the upper. Con- 
sequently, if the experiment described be per- 
formed on the top of a high mountain, we shall 
find the weight of the 100 cubic inches of air 
considerably less than 31 grains; at a height of 
14,282 feet the air will weigh only half as 
much ; at twice that height it will weigh only 
one quarter ; at three times, one eighth, &c. 
In general the law is, that while the height 
increases in an arithmetical ratio, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
the weight, and consequently the pressure, de- 
crease in a geometrical ratio, , , ^, ^ &c. 
On this property is founded the system of 
estimating heights by determining the pressure 
of the air, either by weighing by the barometer, 
or by noticing the temperature at which water 
boils. Near the surface of the ocean water 
boils at 212 ; if we go 550 feet upward, it will 
boil at 211 ; 1,100 feet, at 210 ; 5,500 feet, at 
202; 11,000 feet, at about 192. The cause 
of this difference is, that in order to boil water 
the heat must be great enough to cause the 
expansive force of the vapor or steam to over- 
come the atmospheric pressure, and that thus 
in ascending, this pressure becoming less, a less 
amount of heat is required. This method, 
however, is only a rough approximation, and 
is now abandoned for more delicate methods. 
The atmosphere, like all gaseous bodies, pos- 
sesses elasticity in a most remarkable degree. 
The effect of this elasticity is seen in the un- 
roofing of houses and bursting outward of 
windows in hurricanes. A partial vacuum 
being produced by the rotary motion of the 
hurricane, the air within expands and lifts off 
the roof, or bursts open the doors and win- 
dows. A similar effect is observed in the ex- 



pansion of air confined in a bladder, arid taken 
from a low level to a great height. The ex- 
ternal pressure being reduced, the air within 
tends to expand to the same degree of rarity 
as that without, and with such force us to 
burst the bladder. It is this property, pos- 
sessed in the greatest perfection by the gasc. u- 
bodies, that renders air so excellent a material 
for springs, air beds, &c. The impenetrability 
of air is its property of preventing another 
body occupying the space where it is. The 
diving bell is a good illustration of it, as also of 
its elasticity ; for when sunk to the depth of 
34 feet, the water will be forced in, so as to 
half fill it; at the depth of 100 feet it will be 
three quarters filled ; on drawing it up the air 
will expand and drive out the water again. 
This also shows that air may be condensed and 
expanded by mechanical force. A remarkable 
law prevails, called after its discoverer the law 
of Mariotte, to the effect that the volume of 
the air is inversely proportional to the pressure 
employed, and therefore also to the reacting 
pressure exerted by the air on the vessels in 
which it is confined. This pressure, which in 
the ordinary condition of the atmosphere 
amounts near the surface of the ocean to about 
15 pounds to the square inch, is thus doubled 
or tripled if we introduce double or triple 
the amount of air ill the same space, as in the 
experiment above referred to for weighing the 
air. Mariotte's law, however, does not hold 
for excessive pressures, say of 25 or 50 atmos- 
pheres, when the volume is not exactly inversely 
proportional to the pressure; our atmospheric 
air and most other gases are condensed more 
for a given pressure, while hydrogen gas forms 
an exception, and is condensed less than the 
amount required by Mariotte's law. The shape 
of the atmospheric envelope of our planet is of 
course spheroidal like the earth, only it is im >st 
likely that its upper surface is still more de- 
pressed at the poles than the earth itself, 
while the air is there colder, consequently more 
condensed and heavier, than at the equator. 
The attempts to determine the absolute height 
of the atmosphere have given different results. 
according to the different data taken as the basis 
of the calculation. The most trustworthy data 
are those founded on the time that on a clear 
evening the last twilight reaches the zenith, 
in connection with the laws of refraction and 
reflection of light; this has given as result a 
height of about 40 miles for the extreme traces 
of atmospheric air, in so far as these laws of 
refraction act in an appreciable manner. It 
is most likely, however, that the rarefaction 
expands much further, till at the utmost limit 
of some thousands of miles it mingles and be- 
comes identical with the interplanetary medium 
or so-called ether, which, according to some of 
the latest opinions, is only infinitely rarefied 
atmospheric air, or inversely, our atmospheric 
air is nothing but the interplanetary medium, 
condensed by gravitation on the surface of our 
planet. The pressure of the atmosphere is 



ATMOSPHERE 



83 



also made apparent by removing the air from 
the interior of any tube, the lo\^r end of 
which is immersed in water or any o'ther fluid. 
This fluid will be pressed up the tube to a 
height corresponding to the pressure upon its 
surface. If this be at the level of the sea, 
water will rise 33 feet and mercury 29 inches. 
The common suction pump is but such a tube, 
furnished merely with a piston for lifting out the 
air, and then the water follows it. The power 
required is of course equal to the weight of the 
column of water to be lifted. The pressure of 
the air is also well illustrated by the common 
leather toy "sucker" a disk of soft leather, 
with a string knotted at one end passed through 
its centre. When moistened and applied to 
any smooth surface, care being taken to expel 
the intervening air, it is attracted to it by the 
external pressure. By the same principle the 
patella or limpet, and some other shell fish, hold 
fast upon the smooth rock. So great is this 
pressure, that the force exerted upon the body 
of a moderate-sized man must be about 15 tons 
sufficient to crush him, as it inevitably would, 
if applied to only a portion of the body, but 
quite harmless when pressing with perfect 
elasticity everywhere alike, from the external 
parts inwardly, and from those within outward. 
Let the pressure be taken off from any portion, 
as by the cupping instrument, and one is im- 
mediately sensible of the power that is exerted 
npon the parts around, painfully pressing them 
into the vacant space of the instrument ; or 
if taken from the whole body, as is the case 
with an aeronaut in a balloon at great height, 
the result may by the expansion of internal 
organs prove fatal. Inversely, a great increase 
of atmospheric pressure may be equally inju- 
rious and even fatal, as experienced by divers 
at great depth under water, or by the work- 
men engaged in labor in the caissons now em- 
ployed in forming a foundation for subaqueous 
structures. 2. Physical properties. The most 
important physical property of the atmosphere 
is its expansion by heat and contraction by cold. 
The amount of this expansion or contraction is 
f^g of its bulk at 32 F. for every degree of 
temperature above or below that point. At 
very low degrees of temperature, however, this 
law does not hold, and cannot do so, as is 
evident from the fact that if it were absolute 
the air when cooling to 492 below 32, that 
is, at 460 F., would be condensed to nothing. 
The latter temperature has for this reason been 
accepted by C16ment and Desormes as that of 
absolute cold, while according to Pouillet the 
temperature of the outermost limits of our at- 
mosphere is equal to that of the interplan- 
etary space beyond, being about 230 below 
zero. The expansion of air by heat is easily 
exemplified by heating air confined in a blad- 
der. Its expansion soon swells the bladder and 
ranges it to burst. As its bulk increases, its 
density diminishes. The colder and heavier 
air around it lifts it up. On this principle were 
constructed the first balloons. It is this prin- 



ciple also that gives rise to the currents of air 
or wind, the colder air flowing along the surface 
to fill the spaces left by the ascending warm 
air. Thus the trade winds blow from the 
temperate regions toward the torrid equato- 
rial belt. The whirling tornado, and all the 
phenomena of the winds, owe their origin to 
local heating and rarefaction of the atmosphere. 
The rays of the sun pass through the upper 
strata of the atmosphere, imparting to them 
little heat. This the air receives chiefly near 
the surface. As we ascend, the temperature 
diminishes one degree for every 300 or 400 ft. 
Near the equator perpetual snow covers the 
mountains at the height of 15,207 ft. ; in lat. 
60 it is found at 3,818 ft., and in 75 at 1,016 
ft. The main cause of this is not that the solar 
rays possess less heat in the higher regions, as 
the contrary has been proved, but that the 
portions of the earth's crust projecting far up 
into the atmosphere, as is the case with high 
mountains, possess less of the interior heat of 
the earth, being more subject to cooling by 
radiation, which has caused their temperature 
to descend to such a very low degree, that even 
a inidday tropical sun cannot raise it to 32 F. 
Another physical property of the atmosphere 
is its refraction and reflection of light. If 
the sun's rays did not illuminate the mass of 
the atmosphere, it would be of a black color ; 
but a partial refraction of the most refrangible 
rays takes place, and this gives the blue color 
to the sky, while that of the clouds comes from 
the reflection of the light upon the particles 
of vapor floating in the atmosphere. This blue 
color is too faint to be perceived in any small 
quantity of air ; it is only the great depth of the 
atmosphere that makes it visible, as the color 
of the ocean is only apparent when the waters 
are seen in mass. 3. Chemical properties. 
The atmosphere consists chiefly of a mixture 
of three gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic 
acid, with a very variable quantity of watery 
vapor. The normal quantities are by weight 
23'2 per cent, oxygen, 76'7 nitrogen, and about 
O'l carbonic acid, while the watery vapor varies 
from almost utter absence to saturation or 
more than 80 per cent., according to locality, 
climate, season, and other circumstances. To 
this must he added the fact that the atmos- 
pheric oxygen is found in two different condi- 
tions according to circumstances, one being the 
neutral state or ordinary oxygen, the other 
its active condition, when it is called ozone. 
This differs from ordinary oxygen, first, by 
being more condensed so as to be one half 
heavier, 100 cubic inches of ordinary oxygen 
weighing 32 grains, while the same bulk of 
ozone has a weight of 48 grains ; secondly, by 
i causing many chemical reactions which ordi- 
nary oxygen is incapable of producing. It is 
also a most powerful disinfectant, one part of 
ozone purifying 3,000,000 parts of putrid air, 
by burning up as it were the miasmatic exhala- 
tions. In the arts it has already been applied 
as a bleaching and purifying agent. Its great 



ATMOSPHERE 



ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE 



chemical activity makes it, when present in 
large quantity, hurtful to animal lite, by its 
very irritating action on the respiratory organs. 
A heat of 500 F. reconverts it into ordinary 
oxygen. Nature produces it continually by 
the electric discharges during thunderstorms, 
by the odors of flowering plants under the 
influence of light, by vegetation in general, and 
by some kinds of decay. Its formation is 
chemically explained by the fact that the 
molecule of oxygen consists of a double atom, 
while in the molecule of ozone three atoms 
occupy the same space. (See OZONE.) In 
unhealthy localities little or no ozone is present, 
but in the vicinity of large cities ammonia is 
found, and nitric acid and nitrate of ammonia 
are generated in thunderstorms by the chemical 
combination of nitrogen and oxygen induced 
by the electrical spark. These, which may be 
regarded as accidental impurities, are soon dis- 
sipated in the great bulk of the atmosphere, 
precipitated upon the earth, washed down by 
the rain, and decomposed by the ozone. The 
proportions of the three elements of the air 
hardly vary, whether this is taken from the 
summits of the highest mountains, or from ex- 
tensive plains ; nor are they affected by season, 
climate, or weather. In closely confined places, 
exposed to putrescent exhalations, the purity 
of the air is necessarily much affected ; the pro- 
portion of oxygen diminishes, and mephitic 
gases, as sulphuretted hydrogen and more car- 
bonic acid, are introduced. Prof. Nicol gives 
an analysis of air collected in a filthy lane in 
Paris, in which the oxygen constitutes 13 '79 
per cent, only, instead of 23 per cent. ; nitrogen 
was present to the amount of 81-24 per cent. ; 
carbonic acid, 2'01 ; sulphuretted hydrogen, 
2 '99 per cent. Such air contains also many 
other vapors, inorganic as well as organic, 
which formerly escaped detection, but which 
at present, by the modern refinements in the 
analysis of gases, may be determined. That 
the air is a simple mixture and not a chemical 
compound of its elements, is proved by the 
fact that water, long exposed to the atmos- 
phere, contains in solution the three gases in 
quite different proportions from those in the 
air ; such water will ordinarily contain most car- 
bonic acid, oxygen in the next largest propor- 
tion, and nitrogen in the least, because nitrogen 
is much less soluble in water than the other 
gases. When carbonic acid gas is increased in 
the air to an amount not exceeding 5 to 6 per 
cent., it is, according to Berzelius, still probably 
harmless. Man may even live for a time in an 
atmosphere containing 30 per cent, of carbonic 
acid. But if carbonic oxide, which is the pro- 
duct of imperfect combustion of carbon and 
contains only half the amount of oxygen of the 
carbonic acid, be present even to the amount of 
only 1 per cent., it may prove fatal. Carbonic 
acid is the product of perfect combustion of car- 
bon, and of the breathing of animals. In breath- 
ing, the oxygen in part unites with carbon in 
the system, and the air expired contains 4| per 



1 cent, of carbonic acid gas. This is immediately 
dispersed through the atmosphere by the prop- 
erty of diffusibility, possessed in such a remark- 
able degree by the gases; but if confined in 
close places, it soon accumulates, contaminates 
the air, and makes it unfit for breathing. Mini 
requires from 212 to 353 cubic feet of pure air 
per hour, containing 50 cubic feet or about 
four pounds of oxygen. Growing plants are 
the compensating agents, which, besides gene- 
rating ozone, counteract the noxious influences 
of combustion and the breathing of animals. 
Plants as well as animals breathe the air, but 
the effect of this respiration is just the reverse 
of that of animals. The carbonic acid gas is 
decomposed in the laboratory of their leaves, 
the solid carbon is added to their structure, 
and the pure oxygen is expired. This action 
takes place only by the influence of daylight, 
while in the dark the plants give some of the 
carbonic acid back to the atmosphere ; there- 
fore plants should not be kept in sleeping apart- 
ments. Oxygen is thus the life-sustaining ele- 
ment of the air for animals, and carbonic acid 
for plants, while the chief function of nitrogen 
appears to be for dilution ; but undoubtedly it 
is also the source of the nitrogen in some plants, 
and consequently in animals. Water, in the 
form of vapor, has already been noticed as one 
of the constituents of the atmosphere. It 
manifests its presence by condensing in visible 
moisture and drops upon cold surfaces. When 
the air is warm, its capacity of holding water 
is great; as it becomes cool, this capacity dimin- 
ishes, and the water that is now in excess 
appears as dew, or mist, or rain. The atmos- 
phere is said to be dry when it has not so 
much moisture in it as it is capable of holding 

| at its temperature ; evaporation then takes 
place. But let the temperature fall, and the 
same air will be damp without the absolute 
quantity of vapor having changed. The degree 
of heat at which air is saturated with the water 
it contains is called the dew point. If it is 
high, the absolute quantity of vapor in the air 
is great; if low, there is little vapor in it. 

ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE. Under this name 
was formerly understood an engine operated 
by the simultaneous pressure of cold air on a 
small piston and hot air on a large piston, the 
air being heated and expanded during its pas- 
sage from the small cylinder into the large one. 
Since, however, engines have been built to 
work by the pressure of the air alone, without 
the addition of heat, engines operated by the 
latter force have been called caloric engines. 
(See CALOHIO EIMUNK.) The use of ordinary 
atmospheric pressure as a primary source of 
power has long been a delusion of persons of 
the class who still seek for perpetual motion. 
All that has been accomplished in this way has 
been by making use of the continual changes in 
the atmospheric pressure, as for instance to 
move the mercurial column in a syphon barom- 
eter of which the two vertical tubes were very 
far apart, and the whole balanced on a central 



ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE 



ATOMIC THEORY 



85 



pivot. An increase in atmospheric pressure 
would drive more mercury into thejong closed 
vnd, and cause this to descend; a Decrease in 
atmospheric pressure would cause the mercury 
to return to the short open end, and cause this 
in its turn to descend ; while wheelwork was 
so arranged as to produce motion by a descent 
either way. Such a contrivance, however, or 
any other based on the same principle of the 
changes in atmospheric pressure, even when 
constructed on the largest practicable scale, can 
only produce a weak power. It is evident that 
in order to produce an available motive power , 
by the application of atmospheric pressure, this 
pressure ought to be made as strong as steam 
pressure; for which purpose the air must be | 
compressed by mechanical means, or at least a 
vacuum created. In this way, however, the 
air can only be employed for the transmission 
of power, and this is actually the case in all 
atmospheric engines. None of them are prime : 
movers, but the air which drives them is | 
compressed by another power either steam, 
falling water, or animal force. There are ! 
several ways of using this compressed air. 
One is to fill with it a large strong cylin- 
der, the equivalent of a locomotive boiler, and 
use this compressed air to work the piston, in 
the same way as steam is used. This is only 
applicable upon cars traversing short distances, 
so that the engine can periodically receive new 
supplies. It is argued that a very large steam 
engine, creating the power for a great number 
of small engines, by compressing air in large 
reservoirs, to supply all the engines of a city 
line of railroad cars, is very economical in com- 
parison with several scores of small indepen- 
dent motors, each with its furnace and boiler. 
Another method of supplying atmospheric 
pressure from one prime motor to different | 
small engines, is to conduct the air in tubes ' 
from the former to the latter. This was sue- j 
cessfully employed by Soimneiller in the con- 
struction of the Mont Cenis tunnel ; the hy- 
draulic power of a cataract near the entrance 
of the tunnel being used as a prime motor 
to compress the air in reservoirs, whence it 
was conducted by flexible tubes to the rock- ! 
boring machines. This method is now exten- 
sively in use in the United States, the prime 
motor being ordinarily steam power. One of 
the chief advantages of atmospheric engines 
of this class is that, in place of heat and steam 
escaping, as is the case with steam engines, pure 
atmospheric air escapes, which by its expan- 
sion becomes cold, and thus supplies the end 
of the mining shaft with pure and cool air, 
securing a most perfect ventilation ; while the 
use of steam in such a locality, even if a pro- 
vision were made to carry off the escaping 
steam, would raise the temperature to such a 
degree as to make further work impossible. It 
is now acknowledged that the boring of such 
tunnels as the Mont Cenis, the St. Gothard, 
and the Hoosac would be impracticable but for 
drill* worked by atmospheric engines. When 



the boring is performed by percussion of steel 
drills, the atmospheric pressure moves a piston 
connected with them. When the boring is 
performed by rotation, as is the case with the 
diamond drill, the atmospheric engine may be 
either a rotary or a reciprocating one. In 
fact' the- arrangement of all atmospheric engines 
is nearly identical with that of non-condensing 
steam engines. As atmospheric pressure may 
be easily transmitted through tubes in any 
direction, and therefore also the power of a 
prime motor, it is expected that in the course 
of time the power of large cataracts will be 
utilized in this way to drive atmospheric en- 
gines for several miles around. A piston may 
also be propelled through a very long tube by 
atmospheric pressure or by a vacuum ; this has 
been applied to transmitting small packages, 
and also to the propulsion of railroad trains. 
(See PNEUMATIC DESPATCH, and PNEUMATIC 
RAILWAY.) 

ATNAHS, or Atenis, an Indian tribe of British 
America, called also Shoushwap or Chin In- 
dians. They are a Selish tribe on Frazer and 
Salmon rivers, an energetic, industrious people, 
manufacturing blankets of good quality from 
the wool of a native goat or sheep. Another 
tribe called Atnas is mentioned in the early 
accounts of the northwest as living on Copper 
river, Alaska, and seems to be now included in 
the Koloshians. 

ATOLL, the Malay name of a peculiar form 
of coralline island common in Polynesia and 
the Indian ocean, which consists of a circular 
reef, seldom more than a few hundred yards 
wide, enclosing a sheet of water connected 
with the ocean by an open passage. These la- 
goons are sometimes 30 m. in diameter and 
from 100 to 400 feet deep, and afford safe har- 
bors, the opening never being on the windward 
side. The reefs generally support vegetation, 
and are sometimes inhabited. 

ATOMIC THEORY, the doctrine that matter 
consists of ultimate particles or atoms incapable 
of division. This idea was first maintained 
speculatively in opposition to the notion that 
matter is capable of being divided to infinity. 
Modern science has adopted this idea, not 
merely as a speculation which cannot be veri- 
fied, but as a proposition which interprets and 
harmonizes a wide range of experimental facts. 
Inasmuch as it offers an explanation of the 
facts and principles of chemistry, these require 
to be noticed before we can understand the 
use and necessity of the theory. Modern 
chemistry took its rise with the abandonment 
of the old notion of phlogiston, and the eluci- 
dation of the principles of combustion by La- 
voisier. He introduced the balance as a fun- 
damental instrument of chemical inquiry, and 
thus placed the science upon a firm quantitative 
basis. As weighing became general and ac- 
curate, it was soon discovered that chemical 
combination is definite, and chemical compo- 
sition constant. A certain weight of alkali, for 
example, combines with a given weight of acid 



86 



ATOMIC THEORY 



to produce a salt, which therefore has a fixed 
numerical constitution. A great number of ex- 
periments showed that chemical union always 
takes place in this manner, and thus was estab- 
lished the fundamental law of definite propor- 
tions. It was next discovered that' combina- 
tion may take place between the same sub- 
stances in different proportions, and that when 
this is the case these proportions have simple 
numerical relations to each other. Thus, if 
two elements A and B are capable of uniting 
in several proportions, they may be represented 
as A+ B, A+ 2B, A+ 3B, A + 4B, &c. The 
relations are not always so simple as this, but 
the principle is general, and is known as the 
law of multiple proportions. Again, it was 
found that if two elements which combine 
with each other combine also with a third, the 
proportions in the first combination are pre- 
served also in the second. If a body A unites 
with certain other bodies B, C, D, then the 
quantities B, 0, D, which combine with A, or 
certain simple multiples of them, represent for 
the most part the proportions in which they 
can unite among themselves. This is known 
as the law of equivalent proportions or chem- 
ical equivalence. It having thus been found 
that chemical actions follow strict numerical 
methods, and that each body has its fixed 
measure, it became important to determine ex- 
actly what these measures are. This resulted in 
the scale of combining numbers or equivalents, 
or, as they are now more commonly termed, 
atomic weights, which constitute the founda- 
tion of the science and are given in all text 
books. But if all kinds of matter in their 
chemical transformations are ruled by these 
numerical principles, we should expect that 
other material properties would be affected by 
them, and such is the fact. The combining 
weights of those elements which are known to 
exist in the state of gas or vapor are, with one 
or two exceptions, proportional to their specific 
gravities in the same state. Thus, the specific 
gravity of hydrogen being 1, that of oxygen is 
16, sulphur vapor 32, chlorine 35-5, iodine 
vapor 127 ; but the figures represent also the 
combining numbers of these elements. Mr. 
Watts thus expresses the law of combination 
by volume : " If the smallest volume of a gase- 
ous element that can enter into combination 
be called the combining volume of that element, 
the law of combination may be expressed as 
follows : The combining volumes of all elemen- 
tary gases are equal, excepting those of phospho- 
rus and arsenic, which are only half those of the 
other elements in the gaseous state ; and those of 
mercury and cadmium, which are double those 
of the other elements." Gay-Lussac showed 
that combinations by volume take place in defi- 
nite and multiple proportions, and that the vol- 
ume of a compound gas always bears a simple 
ratio to the volumes of its elements, thus: 

1 vol. hydrogen and 1 chlorine form 2 vols. hydrochloric acid. 

2 vols. " 1 oxyiren " 2 " watery vapor. 

" 1 nitrogen " 2 " ammonia. 



Again, it is found that in many cases two or 
more compounds which are supposed to contain 
equal numbers of equivalents of their respective 
elements crystallize in the same or in very simi- 
lar forms, and such compounds are said to be 
isomorphous. Accordingly, these isoinorphoiis 
relations are often appealed to for the purpo-e 
of fixing the constitution of compounds, and 
thence deducing the atomic weights of their 
elements, in cases which would otherwise be 
doubtful. It has also been established that 
substances having different properties may 
have the same relative proportion of constitu- 
ents, and such are said to be isomeric. More- 
over, something analogous to this is seen among 
the elements themselves : they are capable of 
assuming different states, which capability is 
called allotropism. In both cases we are com- 
pelled to assume that their constituent parts 
are subject to differences of arrangement. Com- 
bining quantities are also intimately related to 
heat. This relation is thus stated by Mr. Watts : 
" The atomic weights of the elements, deter- 
mined according to their modes of combina- 
tion, are for the most part inversely propor- 
tional to their specific heats ; so that the pro- 
duct of the specific heat into the atomic weight 
is a constant quantity. The same quantity of 
heat is required to produce a given change of 
temperature in 7 grains of lithium, 56 of iron, 
207 of lead, 108 of silver, 196-7 of gold." Final- 
ly, the law of combining proportions is impli- 
cated with the electrical relations of matter. 
Prof. Faraday proved that an equivalent of an 
element consumed in a battery gives rise to a 
definite quantity of electricity, which will pro- 
duce exactly an equivalent of chemical decom- 
position. For example, the consumption of 32 
grains of zinc in a battery excites a current 
which will set free from combination 1 grain 
of hydrogen, 108 of silver, and 39 of potassium ; 
these being the combining numbers of the re- 
spective elements. The facts above stated are 
independent of all hypothesis, and are the re- 
sults of pure experiment. They demonstrate 
that in its ultimate and minutest form matter 
is in some way numerically constituted. How 
it is constituted was a question which the 
human mind could not escape. It was neces- 
sary to frame some clear conception of its ul- 
timate constitution that would connect and in- 
terpret the known facts. This was done by 
Dr. John Dalton of Manchester, England, in 
constructing the atomic theory. He was aware 
of the law of definite proportions, and he dis- 
covered the law of multiple proportions by in- 
vestigation of the compounds of carbon and 
hydrogen, of oxygen and carbon, and of nitro- 
gen and oxygen. To account for these laws, 
he assumed, first, that all matter consists of 
indivisible, unchangeable atoms of extreme 
minuteness ; second, that all the atoms of the 
same element have the same weight, but that 
in different elements they have different 
weights ; third, that these relative weights. 
correspond with the combining numbers. 



ATOMIC THEORY 



87 



which may therefore be called atomic weights; 
fourth, that these different atoms have mutual 
attractions and combine to form chSmical com- 
pounds, not by interpenetration of their sub- 
stance, but by atomic juxtaposition. If this 
idea be admitted, the principles of chemical 
constancy and definite proportions follow as 
inevitable consequences. The definite pro- 
portions in which bodies combine represent 
the constant ratio between the weights of the 
combining atoms. The principle of multiple 
proportions is equally explained, for the suc- 
cessive additions must be made by whole 
atoms, and therefore by whole numbers. One 
atom of carbon unites with one atom of oxy- 
gen to form carbon monoxide, and with two 
atoms of oxygen to form carbon dioxide. That 
the atomic weights of compounds must equal 
the sum of the atomic weights of their ele- 
ments follows with equal certainty. Moreover, 
in the rearrangement of atoms in a body, with- 
out addition or subtraction of elements, we 
have a ready explanation of isomeric and allo- 
tropic changes. The relations of chemical 
changes to heat, now expressed by the phrase 
"atomic heat," and their relation to volume, 
indicated by the phrase "atomic volume," be- 
come in like manner capable of explanation 
on the assumptions of the atomic theory. It 
is a merit and a test of this theory that its re- 
sources have kept pace with the rapid extension 
of the science, but it has required to be itself 
developed for this purpose. In the hands of 
Dalton it was applied to a few simple funda- 
mental facts ; it now embraces facts of many 
orders and of greater complication. At pres- 
ent the conception of the molecule or the 
group of combined atoms plays a much more 
important part than it did at first. Even the 
atoms of the elements (as will be presently 
explained) are now conceived not to exist 
separately, or as units, hut as combined with 
each other in a molecular condition. An atom 
is defined as the smallest particle of simple 
matter that can enter into the composition of 
a molecule. A molecule is defined as a group 
of atoms held together by chemical force, and is 
the smallest particle of any substance that can 
exist in a free or uncombined state in nature. 
Molecules are of two kinds : elemental mole- 
cules, in which the atoms are alike, and com- 
pound molecules, in which the atoms are un- 
like. Molecular structure, the outgrowth of 
the conception of atoms, is now the funda- 
mental idea by which chemistry and physics 
are connected. The doctrine of Dalton at 
first seemed to aft'ord an easy explanation of 
chemical equivalents, by which one body may 
replace another, or be substituted for it by 
simple exchange of atoms. But recent dis- 
coveries have shown that it fails here and re- 
i|iiires extension. It was formerly supposed 
that when one element replaces another in 
a combination, the substitution always takes 
place atom for atom, and hence the terms atom 
and equivalent were regarded as synonymous. 



But it is now known that this is only true for 
certain elements, which are accordingly class- 
ed as monogenic elements. There are others 
which always take the place of two or more 
atoms of a monogenic element, and these are 
termed polygenic elements. This brings us 
to the new conception of atomicity, which has 
now become the fundamental idea of the 
science. To understand it properly, it will be 
necessary to glance at the steps of chemical 
theory by which it has been reached. The 
name of Lavoisier is intimately associated 
with the first general theory of chemical com- 
bination. This was the binary or dual system 
of chemistry. An acid was held to result from 
the union of a simple body (generally non-me- 
tallic) with oxygen; an oxide resulted from 
the combination of oxygen with a metal ; a 
salt was produced by the union of an acid 
with an oxide, and this pairing of doubles rep- 
resents its constitution. In all combinations 
affinity is assumed to he exerted upon two ele- 
ments, simple or compound, which attract one 
another and unite by virtue of opposite proper- 
ties, all chemical compounds being therefore 
binary. This is dualism, and the chemical 
nomenclature was constructed upon the idea. 
The view proposed by Lavoisier was ably 
enforced by Berzelius. Electro-chemistry, by 
which bodies were decomposed into pairs that 
appeared at opposite poles of the battery, lent 
powerful aid to the binary theory ; and Berze- 
lius carried it out by arranging the elements 
on a scale of antithesis as electro-positive and 
electro-negative. In 1816 he also devised a 
new notation, now in general use, by which 
letters symbolize the elements, and composi- 
tion can be compendiously represented to the 
eye by means of formulas. Prof. Wurtz, in his 
" History of Chemical Theory," says : " By the 
arrangement of these formulas in which the acid 
appeared on one side with the train of oxygen 
atoms belonging to it, and the metallic base on 
the other with the oxygen united to the metal, 
Berzelius gave to the dualistic system a degree 
of precision unknown before his time." But 
a true scientific theory must embrace all orders 
of facts to which it is applicable. Dualism 
was well fortified in mineral chemistry, but it 
was not easy to bring the complexities of or- 
ganic chemistry into harmony with it. Berze- 
lius, however, made this his great task. There 
were organic acids, organic bases, and organic 
salts ; and these were represented on the bina- 
ry plan. Organic radicals were also discovered 
compounds which played the part of simple 
elements; and these were subordinated to the 
binary system. By this theory of compound 
radicals dualism was extended to organic 
chemistry, and chemical theory was apparent- 
ly unified. Yet the victory was far from com- 
plete. The deeper study of organic compounds 
led eminent chemists to question the validity 
of the dual hypothesis as applied to them. A 
school arose led by Dumas, Laurent, and Ger- 
hardt, which took a new view of the constitu- 



88 



ATOMIC THEORY 



tion of organic bodies. Its first idea was the 
doctrine of substitutions, and in its application 
a breacli was made at the outset in the electro- 
chemical theory. It was found that chlorine, 
a powerful electro-negative element, could re- 
place hydrogen, a strong electro-positive ele- 
ment, in an organic compound, playing the 
same part and not altering the character of 
the compound. The new view, rejecting dual- 
ism, regarded organic bodies as units, or as 
unitary structures ; and their changes by sub- 
stitution were likened to the alteration of an 
edifice by successively removing its individual 
bricks and stones and replacing them by 
others. Laurent compared organic compounds 
to crystals, whose angles and edges may be 
replaced by new atoms or groups of atoms, 
while the typical form is preserved. Thus 
to the dualistic point of view was opposed 
the unitary system ; to the idea of combination 
resulting from addition of elements was op- 
posed that of compounds formed by substitu- 
tion of elements. An acid is changed to a salt 
by substituting a metal for its hydrogen, with- 
out destroying its molecular structure. A salt 
is no longer to be regarded as a binary com- 
pound, containing an acid on the one side and 
an oxide on the other ; it is a whole, a single 
group of atoms, among which are one or more 
atoms of metal capable of being exchanged for 
other metallic atoms or for hydrogen. This 
view led to the theory of chemical types, in 
which certain substances are taken as patterns 
of molecular structure with which analogous 
bodies are classified. Thus we have the water 
type, the hydrogen type, and the ammonia 
type, under which bodies are grouped with no 
reference to their former relationships. The 
binary theory here disappears, and substances 
are brought together not so much on the prin- 
ciple of composition or atomic arrangement, as 
by analogies of reaction and decomposition. 
But the doctrine of types was transitional, and 
soon developed into the completer theory of 
atomicity, by which is meant combining capa- 
city. For example, there are some acids which 
require for saturation only one equivalent of a 
certain base; there are others which require 
two equivalents of the same base to saturate 
them ; and others still which demand three. 
Now these acids are clearly not equivalents of 
each other, their capacities of combination va- 
rying as 1, 2, 3 ; and they are therefore said to 
have different atomicities. This conception of [ 
the varying combining powers of bodies, as a 
controlling chemical principle, was worked out 
in the field of organic chemistry ; but it is now 
extended to the inorganic elements, and offers 
a new system of classification and a new chem- 
ical method. In the new chemistry the ele- 
ments are arranged into six groups, although 
some add a seventh. These are named mo- j 
nads, dyads, triads, tetrads, pentads, and hex- ! 
ads terms expressive of their several combin- ; 
ing capacities. Monads, of which hydrogen, 
chlorine, and potassium are examples, are 



monogenic, that is, they can combine only 
with single atoms. All the rest are polygenic, 
that is, they can combine with 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 
monogenic elements or their equivalents. Mole- 
cules are also designated as monatomic, di- 
atomic, triatomic, tetratomic, pentatomic, and 
hexatomic. For equivalence, which represent- 
ed the old idea, the term valence is coming 
into use; and a series of words is derived from 
it describing the groups as univalent, bivalent, 
trivalent, quadrivalent, quinquivalent, and sexi- 
valent, while the atomicities above univalence 
are termed multivalent. The varying equiva- 
lence, valence, or combining power of atoms 
is represented in several ways by which the 
idea is made clear. The graphic symbol of an 
atom is a circle with lines radiating from it, 
called bonds, which indicate the valence or 
atomicity. They are represented as follows, 
the first line giving their names, the second 
their symbols, and the third examples : 

Monad. Dyad. Triad. Tetrad. Pentad. Hexaci. 




Hydrogen. Oxygen. Boron. Carbon. Nitrogen. Sulphur. 

Water, OHj, would be thus represented by 



graphic formula: 



Hydrogen 



has as it were but a single pole of attraction, 
represented by a single bond, while oxygen has 
two poles and two bonds. The attractions of 
the two atoms of monatomic hydrogen are 
satisfied by the two attractions of diatomic 
oxygen. So carbon-dioxide, CO S , may be 

Here the 



represented thus : 

four attractions of tetratomic carbon are satu- 
rated by those of the two atoms of diatomic 
oxygen. Marsh gas, CH<, is thus represented : 
The circle may be omitted, 
H ) and the bonds connected di- 

rectly with the letters, thus, 

II, -O-, C-, it being 

immaterial how the bonds 
are arranged. The compo- 
sition of water will then be represented 
thus, H O H, and carbon-dioxide O = C=O. 
The atomicity is often represented as follows 
by dashes : H', O", B'", C"", N'"", 8""" ; or 
again thus by Roman numerals : HP, 0", B m , 
O lv , N T , S VI . In chemical changes and the 
formation of new compounds all attractions 
require to be satisfied every bond engaged. 
This fact fixes a limit to combination, for cer- 
tain groupings become impossible. One atom 
of a monad cannot unite with one atom of a 
dyad, because one attraction cannot neutralize 
two. It takes two atoms of a monad to form 
a compound with an atom of a dyad ; four 
atoms of a monad or two atoms of a dyad 
are required to saturate a tetrad ; but in each 
case all the polarities have to be provided for. 




ATRATO 



ATREUS 



89 



There are seeming exceptions to this law. 
Two atoms of a monad element, a%j>otassium, 
may unite with one, two, three, four, or five 
atoms of a polyad element, as sulphur. By 
an examination of the graphic formulas of 
these compounds, K S K, K S S K, 
K S S S K, &c., it is seen that any 
number of atoms of a polyad element may 
unite with two atoms of a monad, provided 
they be interposed between the latter. When 
thus placed, they are said to perform a linking 
function in the compound. The atomicity of 
an element is its highest equivalence, and the 
compound form is then said to be normal or 
saturated. Yet the equivalence of atoms is 
not always the same ; an atom may form sev- 
eral compounds of the same substance. Ele- 
ments of even equivalence, in which the atomic 
poles are in pairs, are called artiads; those of 
uneven equivalence, in which the poles are 
odd, are termed perissads. Prof. Barker states 
that the equivalence " always increases or di- 
minishes by two ; so that an atom of the same 
element may in different compounds have an 
equivalence of 1, 3, 5, or 7, or of 2, 4, or 6. A 
perissad atom can never become an artiad atom 
by such a change, nor can an artiad become 
a perissad." This variation of atomic equiva- 
lence is accounted for on the hypothesis that 
the bonds of an atom are capable of saturating 
each other in pairs. A pentad may thus be- 
come a triad and a monad successively, and a 
hexad may be converted into a tetrad or into 
;i dyad, as follows: 



Pentad. Triad. Monad. Hexad. Tetrad. 



Dyad. 



It follows from this view that only the atoms 
of those free elements can be considered as 
existing separately in which the number of 
bonds is even. The others can only exist in 
combination with each other, forming poly- 
atomic molecules. Free hydrogen cannot be 
H, because its bond is unsatisfied ; it must 
therefore be H H, that is, united with itself, 
forming what we might call hydride of hydro- 
gen. Chlorine is not Cl , but 01 Cl, and 
free oxygen is not O , but O=O. Com- 
pounds are formed by replacement, and chem- 
ical science thus becomes rooted in atomic ca- 
pacity. While therefore in the last quarter of 
a century chemical philosophy has undergone 
a total revolution, the atomic theory has not 
only been maintained and strengthened, but it 
is doubtful if the advance could have been 
made without its assistance. 

ATRATO, a river of Colombia, South America, 
rises near lat. 5 20' N. and Ion. 76 50' W., and 
flows nearly due N. for about 250 m. to the 
gulf of Darien. The bar at its mouth being 
crossed, it has a wide channel not less than 35 
ft. deep for the first 96 in., with a fall not ex- 
crcding 2J inches to the mile; and for 4-2 m. 



further a channel exceeding 18 ft. in depth can 
he cleared ; while the distance across to the 
Pacific ocean, from which the river is separated 
by one of the lowest ranges of the Andes, does 
not exceed 50 m., and western branches of the 
Atrato are said to almost meet rivers from the 
Pacific having their source in this dividing 
ridge. Examinations have been made with the 
view of determining the practicability of con- 
structing a ship canal by this river, to connect 
the Caribbean sea with the Pacific. The latest 
was by the United States government in 1871. 
The route which promised the least difficulty 
between the middle branch of the Atrato and 
the Jurador, emptying into the Pacific, would 
require 48 m. of canal ; the height of the water- 
shed, which must be excavated or tunnelled, 
being more than 500 ft. The Atrato for nearly 
its whole length runs through a low swampy 
region, which is entirely overflowed by fresh- 
ets. Quibdo, on its upper course, is the only 
town of any consequence on the river. It is 
a miserable place of 1,500 inhabitants, mostly 
blacks, with some Indians and a few whites. It 
is situated on several isolated hillocks of gravel 
and clay, in the midst of the swampy region 
which extends all around. The temperature 
of the region is close and sultry, and the rainy 
season continues all the year. Gold is found 
in tine dust in the bed and banks of the Atrato, 
at and above Quibdo, and also of the different 
branches of the river. Some portions of the 
country are described as highly auriferous. 
Above Quibdo the Atrato receives several 
branches, of which the Quito is the most im- 
portant. Were it not for the incessant fluctua- 
tions of this stream, which within a few hours 
frequently reduce it from its ordinary ample 
channel depth of 7 ft. or more to 5 or 6 It. or 
even less, the Quito would present with the 
Atrato an uninterrupted steamboat thorough- 
fare of no less than 252 m. from the gulf of 
Darien. The Quito is wholly in the gold re- 
gion, and its branches appear to lie in the rich- 
est portion of it. The caoutchouc tree abounds. 
ATREBATES, or Atrebatii, a people of Belgic 
Gaul, whose name appears in the modern 
Artois. They joined a confederation against 
Caesar, and furnished a contingent of 15,000 
troops. A colony of them settled in Britain, 
in the modern Berkshire and Wiltshire. 

\TKKI S, a legendary hero of Greece, son 
of Pelops and Hippodamia. On the death of 
his son Plisthenes, Atreus married his widow 
Aerope, who was or became the mother of 
Agamemnon and Menelaus, commonly known 
as the Atridse. She was seduced by Thy- 
estes, the brother of Atreus, and the latter 
slew the twin offspring of this adultery and 
served them at a banquet to the seducer. 
Atreus afterward married his brother's daugh- 
ter Pelopia, who was already pregnant with 
/Egisthus by her own father. The child was 
I exposed, but miraculously preserved, and the 
mother committed suicide. The crimes and 
misfortunes of the family, springing from the 



.VIKII'M 



ATTACIIMKNT 



murder of M'-rciiry'M nori MyrtihiM by I'elopn, 
.illoided '-inn. them'- l'ii- il.'- ol* i'- poeta. 

VI KIIH. I. In Uoman MI-. -hitccliii-c. theeen- 
Inil room i if Hi'- IIOIIHC., itlHii culled r.ii.r,u.m 
Odium. In tbh room Hi'-. family lived aii'l atf 

illl'l here stood I In- /;v Illl'l fif/iillKH. Til': 

mom Wilt iliiriivrril ill tin- c. litre, towiinl 
which Mm roof sloped, to l.lirow tin; ruin water ! 
ml. i :. . i I., in in thii lloor, iiroiiml which ntood 
MM hoiixchold deities. II. Tin: Ion-court of a 
Icmpl. . 'I he ;itrniMi ..I Mi- l'-ni|ili- of l.ilii-rt.v 

,-.l frequently iiii-iil.ioni-il. III. In i ' ' 
asticul nrrliil'-rhii-i-, mi "pen N|III(!<> before u 
church, making part of MM- narthcx, or tuite- 
ii-in|.|i-. 1'i-nitiint.H iiii'l othcrM utood in the 
iiiriiini to Molir.it the prayera of the pioun. 

VHtOIMTKlVB. Hee AZKBHI./AN. 

ATKOI'IIV (C-r. ttr//ft, hunger, 1'roin pri- 
:mil T/^//, nourishment), iii iiirdii-ini-, 
I In: wanting away of liny organ or portion of 
the hody from want of nutrition in the part, 
IrreHpoctlve of Mm general nutrition of the 
body. Tim |.rinri|ili- of vitality dccreaHC.H in 
Mm organ when it,M functions am suspended, 
;iil nutrition MlackuiiM where the. vital principle 

inilk- 



iniirt. Tin- inaiiiinary glandM or inil 
ecrdhi(.r organs, in the liriniHl.H of WOIIH-II wlio 
have passed the age of <>hilil bearing, am Kotne- 
tlineH HO inili'.h iilro|>liii-d Mint traces of them 
oidy '-mi I"- I'. uii'l iNiin'.lil. il in large lohcH of 
inli|ioH(i tlHMiie or Cut. In cotitniHt with al.ro 
I.II.Y in hypertrophy, or executive nutrition ami 
i foment of nu organ or Met of organs in 
(In- hody. Any limb or portion ><\ :< limb arti- 
Ili-ially comressed for along time will be de- 



In il.M vitality, and hick the power to 
appropriate nutrition from the, blood; it will 
gradually diniiliiHh in M'I/H anil force, ami lieroine 
atrophied, llisuso alone, williout comproMMion, 
will i-aiiMi- atrophy In the upper or the lower 
limbs, or even ill the whole body ; for many 
pei-Noim wiiMto away from morbid inactivity, 
birli liriiiKH on by di't/n-i--. I'liiiirialioii and 
debilily, ri'NidtiiiK ii; decay of the whole HyHtcm. 
I'aralyMiN, by iirevent.in natural exereinu in 
I he limliH, may depreHM the vil.alily of the piirl.H, 
and diinini li Iheir power.M of imti-ition. Tin 
will eairie nli-o|iliy, or a falling away of the 
; i .! .il limb. The d'lMlocalion of a .joint, 

il ii.-i'lrrlril, limy, bv nHIMin^ pf(>KNIire on the 

nerves, cut. oil' a portion of Ibe iimervation ne- 
i-'-'.Miii-y lo niiiini ,n Ibi- in-live I'unel ioim of nu- 
trition in MM parts below, mid thnsib-|,i. 
\ilalil \ :in.l l.rinn on atrophy. In rbildreii of 
a Heroluloii : iliiilln i , ,h ,. : i ... n ||,,. Li|, jn'mt 
oll'-n all'ei'1 i Ibe nervt'M of the purls ami Ibr 
Mtidilv ol Ib.- u bole lltnb, dimini'<liiiiK the 
IIOHI-I-I nl 1 uiih-il.ioM, and caimltiK Ihi- b-^ to 
dHiiidle in .IIIII|I:H i mi \vil.li tin ..... i- \\hieh is 
ii"l n Hi Tin I. In Ib. ,r i n ..< |||,- al.ropliy is of a 

iiiMibb- oaton , for MM- i-lui'-nl muNeloM \\ i.- 

IIVMIV, nil. I Ibe lionc'l decay in |, M |-|, brforr Ibe 

Iniil. In -i-.nm to dwindle in il i ^i-Mei-al |iro|mr 
lion-i Ir ..... Ibe u eaKi-iird POM ei- 1 nf mi I ri I ion. 

YI'KOm, or \li.i|,inr ((, i- 'A., ------- , DM "f 

Ib.- l''ntes|, a \- ...... table alkaloid of bi^blv pm 



Minoil" |ropi-i-ti<- tr:i'-t-'l from Ib'- //<;/"' 
/ 11,1,1,,,,,:, i '< deadly iii;'bt-lni<le. Il i ob 
I lim .! liom the "ii'-i- '.], r'---. "I Irom all |.;ill - 
of the, plant, but more particularly from tb" 
leaven. It cryMtalli/.ns in white silky pri~m~, 
which have a bitter taHte, but no smell. Tln-y 
pOMteHM an alkaline n-action, i-'-dd'-nint' lilmu- 
pup' i ; they me.lt at MM' 1'., and are volalili/.ed 
lit 2M4' 1 . their ''. mpo itio n i : . -ai lion, 70-itH ; 
oxy'!ii, l ( >' : ! ( >; hydrogen, 7-HIi ; and nitr..- 
4 -Hit. Atropia forms erystallixablc Halts with 
acidn, the Miiliihate bcin coiihiderably used in 
medicine. When in solution it K'IVC a lemon 
yellow precipitate with terchloride of (.'old. 
It WftH flrHt obtained by Mein, a (iernian KN 
eeary, by dii:st.itm the roots, powdered ex- 
lrem-ly line, for several days in alcohol, and 
afterward hC|iaratiii(.' the other ili(.'i-edienl 
vnrioiiH precijiitationti. From 12 ounces of the 
root be ohlained '^0 (.Tains of pure alkali. 
Chloroform and pofa.ssu are also used for ob- 
taining its solution. (See P,I,I.I.AI>ONNA.) 

ATKOI'OS, one of the Kate i l/w, l,at. /<// 
r<r) of (ircek mytholoKy, who cut the thread 
of life. She ii represented with a pair of 
HcaleM, or a MUD dial, or a culling instrument. 

ATTACIINKNT (Kr. <ittui-l,,<\ to Mtze), in law, 
the Heiztjre of tin per "ii or properly. The 
writ, of attachment is of two kinds: I. 



the person, in the nature of a criminal 
proceeding for contempt of court. Il may In- 
iMHiied itKiiiiiNt uttorneyH, MolicitorH, Hherill's, and 
other ollieers of court, for any misconduct or 
neglect of duty. The object of the atim h 
rnent in in MUCH cases to bring the. offending 
party personally into court, to answer for the 
alleged contempt, and unless he can clear liim- 
ell le i p.. 111 h.-ilile by line or imprisonment.. 
Jurisdiction has formerly been e.xerci -.cd by 

i-olirl o .1 .: .el-s l.'M'-n cl;| of CIISCS, allll II" 

precise limit has been lixed to the power. The 
statute of New York continues the jurisdic- 
tion to the same extent that has been hi-re- 
toliu-c used. In the famous case of Yale-, in 
New York, in IHIu, who was committed to 
priHon by the chancellor for misconduct as a 
master, the ipiestion was agitated but ii"l 
dclinilively Hett.led wln-lher then- \\.-r. any r. 
lief upon habeas corpus from such inipri mi 
mcnf. (I'eople /-. YaleH, -I .lohnson's lU'p. 317, 
U id. '':'':';.} '2. A writ us lo contempt to enforce 
the civil remedies of parlies to suils, or to pro 
ted. the richl-i of such parties. In the Kn;'!i li 
eh ...... cry this wns the only process for en 

foreinv it., ordci . and decrees. In Ibis coun- 
Irv il hie- been rc-.orled to by all the eoml lo 
enforce interlocutory orders. It is, however. 
no longer used in New York for tin- eolle.lh n 
of costs or any money demand, except, a-'.-nn i 
allorneys, solicitors, and oilier ollieers ol 
court. (Act of IHIV.) Attachment against 
property was an old mode of proceeding in 
Kn;'lisli practice to compel the appearance .'I 
a defendant in nn action. To ibis bead l>. 
loligH also Ibe proceeding Lnown as force-n 
at.tiiebnienl, a process under which tin- prop 



ATTAIN I >KK 



crty dC u foreign or absent dclitdi 1 is seized. 
Tlic proceeding liuil its origin ii^n custom 
ot' I lie city nl' London, (>!' wliirli we lilld some 
Holier in the hooks as curly as the reign of 
l-'.dward IV. By this custom, mi action hav- 
ing been brought in the mayor's court against 
\. and the writ having liccn returned nihil 
(that is to say, that nothing could lie found 
as a distress to compel appearance of defen- 
dant), and lhcrcu|ioii it being IdggMted \ty the 
|il:iintiir that another person residing in I -on 
don is iudehted to A, a writ is issued to warn 
such delitor, who is thereafter in the proceed 
inns culled "g'lrnishec; " and if ho does not 
deny that he is iudehted, the dcht is hy virtue 
o! such writ attached in his hands to answer 
the judgment which shall he recovered against 
A. Cowell detines a foreign iittachliielit to he 
an attachment of foreign (foods found within 
a liherty or city in the hands of a third person 
for the satisfaction of some citi/.en to whom the 
said foreigner o\\ elh money." Kut there is no 
trace of such proceeding in any other place in 
Kngland than London. This proceeding has 
hccii introduced into our eastern states and 
-.oine others, and is a common mode of collect- 
ing a dcht duo by a non-resident who has prop 
erty within the state, such property, whether 
lands, chattels, or debts duo to him, being 
.sei/ed at the commencement of the action to 
\ the judgment which shall ho recovered. 
It is soinetinies called trustee process, the per- 
son who is indebted or holds property of the 
non resident defendant being designated as trus- 
tee. In \e York an attachment may by the 
code issue against the property of a non-resi- 
denl dcfeiidaiit who cannot lie served with 
process, hut the proceeding is Illoro simple 
than the trustee process of the eastern states. 
There is also a distinct proceeding for the at- 
tachment of property of absconding, concealed, 
absent, or non-resident debtors, which is not 
an action hut a sort of insolvent proceeding for 
the hem-lit of all the creditor* of the person 
vv lio-e property i- attached. 

ATTAINDER (Kr. trinitn; I, at. linger*, to 
stain I, in old English law, the extinction of 
civil rights, and the forfeiture of estate which 
followed, when a person was condemned to 
death for treason or felony, or where judgment 
ol outlawry had been pronounced against, him 
lor not appearing to answer to a capital ('rime. 
It might, also lake place by act of parliament, 
called bill of attainder. In the case of high 
tiva-ou the clfecl was forfeiture of real and 
personal eitate, and corruption of blood, so as 
to interrupt hereditary de-cent of any civil 
right. For capital crimes le-,-, than high Ircu 
son, there was a forfeiture of personal property 
absolutely, and of the profits of freehold estates 
during life ; and after the death of the criminal 
all bis lands in fee \\cnl to the crown for a 

year and a dav. The corruption of hi I can .ed 

also an escheat of lands. Kut in its operation 
escheat was subordinate to forfeit lire. In high 
treason the forfeiture in|ei-\ ened to defeat the 



escheat altogether, and in the lesser otfenccs 
it interrupted it for the sovereign's year and 
day. Kut the escheat did not take place mere 
ly in respect to the lauds held by the olfender. 
Thus if a father was seized in fee, and his son 
committed treason and was attainted, and then 
the father died, the father's lands even in that 
case escheated, because at bis death the son 
was incapable of inheriting them, and the son's 
heirs could not take them because they could 
only deduce their title through the son. Hut 
I here was no forfeiture in such a case, because 
the criminal never had the lands. This cor- 
ruption of blood and its consequences could 
not be remedied save by act of parliament. 
Ky statute T Anne, eh. 21 (the operation of 
which was suspended at first during the life of 
the pretender, and afterward during the lives 
of his .on-, but which suspension was repealed 
by !t!l (loorgo III., cb. !).'(), it was enacted that 
no attainder for treason should extend to tho 
disinheriting of any heir, or to the prejudice of 
any person other than the traitor himself. Ky 
the statute f>4 George 111., eh. 145, it was pro- 
\idcd that no attainder for a felony, except 
treason or murder, should extend to the dis 
inheriting of any person, nor to the prejudice 
of the right or title of any person other than 
the olfender himself, during his natural life 
only; and any person who might otherwise in- 
herit, might on his death claim his land. There 
have been several subsequent enactments of a 
similar tendency. A bill of attainder was a 
legislative conviction for alleged crimes with 
judgment of death. The great act of attainder 
passed in lliHN by the parliament of James II., 
by which more than 2,000 persons wore at- 
tainted and their property itiscaled, is one 

of the most noteworthy illustrations of thin 
sort of legislative convictions. Other acts of 
the same character were those relating to the 
earl of Stratford in 1(1-1 1, to Sir John Ken wick in 
hi'.nl, to Lord Clarendon in Kill!), and to Bishop 
Atterbury in 1728. The so-called bills of pains 
and penalties were of tho same character, 
though of a milder form, indicting punishment 
less than that of death. Not only probably on 
account of the mere injustice of all legislative 
acts of this character, lint a well in the fear 
that the power to intlict such punishments in- 
trusted to the legislature of a democratic state 
might lead to unusual excesses and abuse in 
times of political excitement, the founders of 
onr government by a distinct constitutional 
provision prohibited the enactment of any such 
laws here. The constitution of the 1'nitcd 
Stales declares that no bill of attainder shall 
be passed either by congress or by any stale. 
Kut as it. still remained competent for the jn 
diciary to convict of I reason or to declare at 
tainders, the constitution, still further to guard 
against this odious form of enactments, also 
provided (art. '!, sec. )!) that, congress should 
have power to declare the punishment of trea- 
son, but thai no alt ainder oft reason should work 
complete corruption of blood or forfeiture c\ 



92 



ATTAKAPAS 



cept during the life of the person attainted. In 
the cases familiarly known as the test oath 
cases, Cummings v. Missouri, and ex parte Gar- 
land, reported "in 4th Wallace, U. 8. Supreme 
Court Reports, pp. 277 to 399, where all these 
constitutional provisions were very fully dis- 
cussed, it was held by the court that within the 
meaning of the constitution bills of pains and 
penalties are included in the prohibition of bills 
of attainder. The former case involved the 
oath of loyalty prescribed by the constitution 
of Missouri adopted in 1865. Under the several 
sections of the second article of that instru- 
ment priests and clergymen (and the plaintitf 
fell within this description) were required, in 
order that they might continue to exercise 
their functions as such, to take this oath of loy- 
alty, which was to the effect that they had not 
committed certain designated acts of disloyalty 
to the United States, some of them being at 
the time of their commission offences involving 
penalties, and others innocent in themselves; 
and it was held that these provisions constituted 
a bill of attainder within the meaning of the 
federal constitution. The case of Garland in- 
volved an act of congress of Jan. 24, 1865, 
which provided that after its passage no per- 
son should be admitted as a counsellor to the 
bar of the supreme court, and after March 4, 
1865, to the bar of any circuit or district court 
of the United States, unless he should first have 
taken the oath required by the act of July 2, 
1862. This oath was much like that in Cum- 
mings's case, and was to the effect generally 
that the affiant had never been guilty of any 
disloyalty to the United States; and it was 
held that exclusion from the practice of the 
law in the federal courts for past misconduct 
was punishment for such conduct ; that the ex- 
action of the oath was the means provided for 
ascertaining the persons on whom the act was 
intended to operate ; and that for these reasons 
the act partook of the nature of a bill of pains 
and penalties, and was within the constitu- 
tional inhibition of bills of attainder. The 
court in both these cases consisted of nine 
judges, and in each four of the judges, including 
the chief justice, dissented ; and the prevailing 
opinion of the court has not commanded the 
concurrence of some of our ablest jurists. 

ATTAKAPAS, a large and fertile section of 
southwestern Louisiana, including several par- 
ishes. Though often mentioned in commercial 
reports, it is not the legal appellation of any 
subdivision of the state. Great quantities of 
sugar and molasses are produced in the district 
and shipped at Franklin, St. Mary's parish. 

ATTAKAPAS, an Indian tribe of southern Lou- 
isiana, who have left that name to a district 
of the state. Their real name is not known ; 
they were called Attakapas or Men-Eaters by 
the Choctaws. They were first made known 
to the French by the adventures of Belleisle, 
who was left on shore by a ship, and was long 
in their hands. They aided the French against 
the Natchez and Chickasaws. In 1803 there 



ATTALUS 

were about 100 dispersed through the Atta- 
kapas district, chiefly on Bayou Vermilion ; 
but in less than 20 years after that they ceuM-d 
to be enumerated at all. Their language was 
peculiar, abounding in harsh monosyllables. 

VITAL I. a central county of Missis.-ippi. 
bounded W. by Big Black river ; area, 750 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,776, of whom 5,948 wen- 
colored. Its surface is undulating, and the soil 
in some parts fertile. In 1870 the county pro- 
duced 9,544 bushels of wheat, 337,402 of Indian 
corn, 35,150 of sweet potatoes, and 8,912 bales 
of cotton. Capital, Kosciusko. 

ATTALUS. I. A general of Philip of Mace- 
don, and uncle of Cleopatra, whom Philip mar- 
ried, killed about 336 B. C. At the wedding 
festivities of his niece, he called upon the com- 
pany in the presence of Philip and Alexander 
to beg of the gods a legitimate successor to the 
throne. This Alexander violently resented, 
and a brawl ensued, in which Philip took the 
part of his general and drew his sword upon 
his son. Alexander and his mother Olympias 
then withdrew from the kingdom. The assas- 
sination of Philip by Pausanias was the con- 
sequence of an outrage committed by Attalus 
which Philip refused to punish.- Attalus, who 
was then in Asia, entered into a conspiracy 
against Alexander, but soon made overtures 
for submission, which the king disregarded. 
Hecataius was sent into Asia with orders either 
to bring Attalus to Macedonia or assassinate 
him, and the latter course was adopted. II. 
Altai us I., king of Pergamus, reigned from 241 
to 197 B. C. He was the first ruler of Per- 
gamus who bore the title of king, assuming 
that dignity after a victory over the Gauls. 
' He made himself master of a large portion 
: of Asia Minor, but was driven back to Per- 
gamus by Seleucus Ceraunus and Achieus. 
He was afterward an ally of Antiochus the 
Great against Acheeus, and of the Romans and 
Rhodians against Philip of Macedon. The 
i Macedonians invaded his territory, but failed 
| to capture Pergamus. III. Attains II., king of 
Pergamus, surnamed Philadelphia, second son 
of the preceding, born in 200 B. C., succeeded 
his brother Eumenes II. in 159, died in 138. 
! He adhered to the Roman alliance, founded 
Philadelphia in Lydia, and encouraged the arts 
and sciences. IV. Attains III., king of Perga- 
! mus, surnamed Philometor, son of Eumenes II. 
and Stratouice, succeeded his uncle Attains II. 
in 138 B. C., died in 133. On his accession 
he murdered many of his relatives and friends. 
After a short reign of disorder he was seized 
with remorse and melancholy, withdrew from 
public affair^, and devoted himself to sculpture 
and gardening. He bequeathed his kingdom to 
the Romans. V. Flavins Priscus Attains, emperor 
of the West in 409-'10. He was born in Ionia, 
brought up as a pagan, and baptized by an Arian 
\ bishop. Being a senator and prefect of Rome 
\ at the time of the second siege of the city by 
Alaric, lie was declared emperor by the barba- 
! rians in place of Honorins, and sent a message 



ATTAMAN 



ATTERBURY 



to Honorius, commanding him to cut off his 
hands and feet and retire to a desert island. 
At the end of a year he was deposed by Alaric 
on the plain of Ariminum. After the death of 
Alaric he was again put forward by Ataulphus 
as a claimant of the purple ; but he was taken 
prisoner and sentenced by Honorius to lose a 
thumb and forefinger and suffer banishment in 
the island of Lipari. 

ATTAMUV, the title of the supreme chief of 
the Cossacks, now retained only by those of 
the Don. The attaman was elected by the 
people in a general public meeting ; the mode 
of election was by throwing their fur caps at 
the favorite, and he who had the largest heap 
of caps was chosen. When in the 16th century 
the Cossacks submitted to the Poles, the elec- 
tion of the attaman was confirmed by the 
Polish king. After the secession of the Cos- 
sacks from Poland and their submission to 
Russia in the 17th century, the attamans pre- 
served the same rights until after the insurrec- 
tion of Mazeppa, when the office was sup- 
pressed. In 1750 it was restored in the person 
of Count Razutnovsky. When Catharine II. 
destroyed the organization of the Cossacks of 
the Ukraine, the dignity of attaman was con- 
fined to those of the Don. The last elective 
attaman of these Cossacks was Platoff, after 
whose death the emperor Nicholas made the 
dignity of attaman hereditary in the cesare- 
vitch. The commanders of various other Cos- 
sack organizations in Russia bear the title of 
attaman, but only by custom and courtesy. 
From the word attaman was derived the word 
hetman, in ancient Poland the title of the com- 
mander of all the military forces of the nation. 

ATTAR or Otto of Roses, a delicious perfume 
extracted from the petals of the rose. It is 
a volatile oil, of soft consistency, nearly col- 
orless, and deposits a crystallizable substance 
partially soluble in alcohol. The best is pre- 
pared at Ghazipoor in Hindostan ; but it is apt 
to be much adulterated with sandalwood and 
other oils. It is obtained from rose water by 
setting it out during the night in large open 
vessels, and early in the morning skimming off 
the essential oil, which floats at the top. It is 
estimated that 200,000 well grown roses are 
required to produce half an ounce of the oil ; 
and the value of this when it is manufactured 
is about $40. If warranted genuine at the 
English warehouses, it sells for about $50, or 
$100 per ounce. 

\ II I:KI:O)|. Peter Daniel Amadens, a Swedish 
poet, born Jan. 19, 1790, died in Upsal, July 
21, 1855. At the university of Upsal he was 
one of several students who formed the " Au- 
rora" association, with the purpose of eman- 
cipating Swedish literature from French in- 
fluence. His essays published in the society's 
magazine, the "Phosphorus," and directed 
against the academy and the prominent literary 
party of the day, provoked a feud in which he 
was the chief object of attack. But he grad- 
ually gained adherents, and in 1819, after a tour 



of two years in Germany and Italy, he was 
made German tutor to Prince Oscar, the future 
king of Sweden. Subsequently he became pro- 
fessor at Upsal, and in 1839 was received as 
member of the academy, which he had as- 
sailed in the "Phosphorus." The best of his 
satirical contributions to that magazine was a 
| drama in prose entitled K imarbandet, "League 
of the Rhymers." As founder and for many 
years editor of the Poetisk Kalender, he exert- 
ed a marked influence upon aesthetic culture in 
Sweden. His lyrical poems are contained in 
his Samlade Dikter (2 vols., Upsal, 1836-'7). 
His Skrifter or confessions (1835) treat of histo- 
ry and philosophy. The most important of his 
other works, Svensfca Siare och Skalder (" The 
Seers and Poets of Sweden "), is a review of 
Swedish literature. The 6th and last volume 
of this work appeared in 1856. A posthumous 
work, Poesiens ffistoria, was published at Ore- 
bro in 1862. The best complete edition of his 
works appeared there in 1858. 

ATTERBURY, Francis, an English theologian 
and politician, born at Milton, near Newport- 
Pagnell, Buckinghamshire, March 6, 1 662, died in 
Paris, Feb. 15, 1732. He was the son of a clergy- 
man, and was educated at Westminster school, 
and at Christ Church college, Oxford, where 
he took his bachelor's degree in 1684. In 1687 
appeared his controversial work, " A Reply to 
' Considerations on the Spirit of Martin Luther 
and the Original of the Reformation,' " a pam- 
phlet written by Obadiah Walker, a Roman 
Catholic, master of University college. Atter- 
bury's defence of Protestantism was long classed 
among the best of such arguments. He now 
acted for several years as tutor to young Boyle, 
afterward earl of Orrery. Taking orders in 
1691, his eloquence as a preacher procured him 
several offices in the church, and finally the 
appointment of chaplain to the king and queen. 
He was constantly involved in controversies 
on theological and literary subjects. He ac- 
quired special notoriety from a work written 
principally by him, but published in 1698 under 
the name of Charles Boyle, who was then a 
student at Christ Church, in which great wit 
but little learning was used in a violent attack 
upon Richard Bentley, who had declared the 
reputed letters of Phalaris, previously publish- 
ed by Boyle, to be entirely spurious. This was 
one of the most famous literary controversies 
of the time, and before it closed it had enlisted 
much of the talent of the two universities on 
one side or the other. In 1700 Atterbury en- 
gaged on the side of the clergy in a discussion 
of the rights of convocation, and received the 
thanks of the lower house of convocation, and 
the degree of D. D. from Oxford. In 1702 he 
was appointed a chaplain in ordinary to Queen 
Anne, in 1704 dean of Carlisle, and in 1707 
canon in Exeter cathedral. During several 
years he engaged in an intricate theological 
dispute with Benjamin Hoadley. In 1710 he 
was made prolocutor to the lower house of 
convocation, in 1712 dean of Christ Church 



ATTICA 



ATTICUS 



(but removed on account of his quarrelsome 
temper), and in 1713, on the recommendation 
of Lord Oxford, bishop of Rochester. It has 
been asserted, though never proved, that on 
the death of Queen Anne Atterbury proposed 
an immediate attempt in favor of the preten- 
der, James ; at all events be soon showed him- 
self on the side of the Stuarts, and vigorously 
opposed the measures of the government. He 
was finally convicted of participation in a 
treasonable plot for the forcible restoration of 
the fallen dynasty, and after making an elo- 
quent defence before the lords, he was sen- 
tenced in May, 1723, to expulsion from all his 
offices and to perpetual exile. In June he left 
England for France, with his daughter Mrs. 
Morrice, and resided in Paris during the re- 
mainder of his life. For several years of his 
exile he continued to work secretly in the in- 
terest of James ; but he lost favor with that 
prince on account of certain differences of 
opinion, and, though afterward reconciled to 
him, he was never his active partisan after 
1727, when he wrote to him a letter of with- 
drawal. He was buried in Westminster ab- 
bey, though without public ceremony; and the 
government afterward caused bis coffin to be 
opened, in search for treasonable papers sup- 
posed to be hidden in it. 

ATTICA (Gr. 'Amnf/, probably a corruption 
of 'AKTIKJ/, from <JKT#, shore or coast), one of 
the political divisions of ancient Greece, occu- 
pying a triangular peninsula, bounded N. by 
Boeotia, E. by the ^Egean sea, S. W. and W. 
by the Saronic gulf and Megaris ; area, about 
840 sq. m. It is intersected by several moun- 
tain ranges, having their centre and highest 
point in the great group called by the ancient 
Greeks Cithaaron (the modern Elatea, the moun- 
tain of firs), which rises at the N. W. extrem- 
ity of the country, and a little E. of the Corin- 
thian gulf, to the height of 4,630 feet. From 
this extend to the eastward the Parnes moun- 
tains, forming part of the boundary and an 
almost impassable barrier between Attica and 
Boeotia ; and to the southward several smaller 
ranges, the westernmost separating Attica from 
Megaris, while the others divide the country 
into districts anciently known by the following 
names (mentioned in their order from west to 
east) : the Eleusinian plain, N. E. of the bay of 
Eleusis ; the Athenian plain, having its centre 
near Athens ; the Mesogaaa or midland district, 
an undulating plain, enclosed by Mt. Hymettus, 
Mt. Pentelicus, the sea, and a range of hills 
running across Attica from the promontory of 
Zoster ; the Paralia or coast district, including 
all the southern part of the peninsula, below 
the promontory of Zoster on the W. and Brau- 
ron on the E. ; and finally, the Diacria or high- 
lands, bounded by the Parnes range, Pentelicus, 
and the sea, in which district lies the plain of 
Marathon. The rivers of Attica are insignifi- 
cant, and in summer nearly dry. The Cephis- 
sus and Ilissus, the two watering the Athe- 
nian plain, are those most frequently mentioned 



in history. The soil is light ; in ancient times 
it appears, by careful culture, to have produced 
a large amount of grain, and figs and olives, 
the excellence of which was famous in Greece ; 
but in modern days agriculture is neglected, and 
the products are inconsiderable. The ancient 
inhabitants of Attica belonged to the Ionic 
race; of their origin even tradition conveys n<> 
information. They claimed that their ances- 
tors had sprung directly from the soil of the 
country. At the beginning of authentic Attic 
chronology, placed by Grote at the archonship 
of Creon, 683 B. C., they were divided into 
four tribes or classes (0t>/ia/), Geleontes, Hop- 
letes, ^Egikores, and Argades. The origin of 
these is uncertain, some traditions attributing 
the quadruple division to Cecrops, others to 
Pandion, and one to an ancient king, Ion. 
Grote does not share the belief of many writers 
that the names of the tribes were derived from 
their occupations, like those of the Egyptian 
castes, as Hopletes, the warriors, ^Egikores, 
the goatherds, &c. ; and he says of both tribes 
and titles, " Neither the time of their introduc- 
tion nor their primitive import are ascertain- 
able matters." In historic times each tribe 
was, divided into three phratries (<f>paTplcu or 
<t>fi6Tpat), and each phratry generally into 30 
gentes; later another division seems to have 
been made purely for political and military 
convenience and without destroying the former 
of each tribe into three trittys (Tpirrvef), and 
of each trittys into four naukraries (vampdpiai). 
This classification of the people continued 
till the revolution of Clisthenes, in 509 B. C. ; 
but Solon (about 594), without destroying it. 
made another division into four classes, on the 
basis of property. Clisthenes entirely abol- 
ished both methods of classification, and divid- 
ed the people anew into ten tribes (ijw'Xa.i) 
Erechtheis, ^Egeis, Pandionis, Leontis, Aca- 
mantis, (Eneis, Cekropis, Hippothoontis, Man- 
tis, and Antiochis named from old Attic he- 
roes. Each of these was subdivided into a 
certain number of demes (HHi^oi) or cantons, 
every considerable place constituting a deme, 
and the larger towns including several. The 
whole number of demes in Attica appears to 
have been 174, of 160 of which the names arc 
known. To the ten tribes of Clisthenes two 
more were afterward added for political pur- 
poses. For the account of the system of gen- 
eral government of Attica under the archons 
and other rulers, and for the history of the 
country, see ATHENS, and GREECE. Works es- 
pecially devoted to Attica are Leake's "Demi 
of Attica" (2d ed., London, 1841), and Ross's 
Demen ton Attika (Halle, 1846). Joined with 
Bo3otia, Megaris, and the adjoining islands, 
Attica as an eparchy now helps to form one 
of the nomarchies of the kingdom of Greece, 
called Attica and Boeotia ; area, 2,481 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 136,804. Capital, Athens. 

ATTICIS, Titns Pomponins, a Roman knight, 
born in 109 B. C., died in 32. During the 
civil wars between Sylla and Marius he re- 



ATTICUS HEEODES 



ATTIRET 



95 



mpved to Athens, where he spent 20 years 
and rendered many services to the, citizens, 
who raised statues in his honor. Retailed hy 
Sulla in 65 B. C., he resided in Rome, and was 
celebrated for his hospitality, numbering among 
his friends Hortensius, Pompey, Caesar, Brutus, 
and above all Cicero. He had no ambition, 
iiade a generous use of his great wealth, and 
during the civil wars was able to be on friendly 
terms with men of all parties. He starved 
himself to death to avoid other physical suffer- 
ings. He possessed a very extensive library, 
and employed his slaves to copy MSS., selling 
the copies. His annals, a general history ex- 
tending over 700 years, were highly prized by 
classical writers, but have not come down to 
us. His name has been preserved by the let- 
ters addressed to him by Cicero, and by a 
biography written by Cornelius Nepos. 

ATTICdS IIKUonilS, Tiberias Claudius a rich 
citizen of Athens, born about A. D. 104, died 
probably in 180. He opened a school of 
rhetoric at Athens and afterward at Rome, 
having Marcus Aurelius for one of his pupils. 
His speeches are^said to have excelled those 
of all contemporary orators, but none of them 
are now extant. He was consul in 143, and 
for a time administrator of the free towns of 
Asia. Having inherited an immense fortune, 
he adorned Athens with magnificent public 
buildings, constructed a theatre at Corinth, 
aqueducts at Olympia and Canusium, a race 
course at Delphi, and a bath at Thermopylfe, 
and restored several decayed cities of the 
Peloponnesus. 

ATTIKAMEGl ES, or Whitefish Indians, an Al- 
gonquin tribe residing inland back of Three 
Rivers, Canada, closely allied in language to 
the Kilistenons or Crees. They were noted 
for their singular care and veneration for the 
dead. War and disease swept them away about 
1058. Father Jacques Buteux, the great mis- 
sionary of the tribe, was killed among them in 
May, 1652. 

ATTILA (Magyar, Etele ; Ger. Etzel), king 
of the Huns, died in 453 or 454. About 434, 
with Bleda, his brother, he succeeded Roas, his 
uncle, in the leadership of the nation, which 
then included or swayed the northern tribes 
from the Rhine to the Volga. The brothers 
threatened to invade the eastern empire, but 
Theodosius II. obtained peace by the surrender 
of territory south of the Danube and the pay- 
ment of an annual tribute. Attila assured the 
Huns that he had discovered the sword of the 
Scythian god of war, with which he was to 
procure for them the dominion of the world. 
Ho called himself the scourge of God, and 
his subjects looked on him with superstitious 
awe. In 444 he ordered the murder of his 
brother as a dictate of the divine will, and the 
fratricide was celebrated as a victory. He in- 
vaded the Persian dominions, but being defeated 
in Armenia, he turned toward the eastern em- 
pire. With an army of upward of half a mil- 
lion men, mostly cavalry, he overran Illyria and 
69 VOL. ii. 7 



all the region between the Black sea and the 
Adriatic. Theodosius II. was overpowered in 
three battles. Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece 
were devastated, and more than 70 of the most 
flourishing cities destroyed. Theodosius ob- 
tained peace again only by an enormous ran- 
som. About 451 Attila turned west toward 
Gaul, marched through Germany, crossed the 
Rhine, the Moselle, and the Seine, and en- 
camped before Orleans. The inhabitants, en- 
couraged by their bishop Anianus, resisted the 
first attacks of the assailants, and were soon 
relieved, on June 14, by the approach of the 
army of Aetius, the commander of the Ro- 
mans, with their allies the Visigoths under. 
Theodoric, the Franks under Meroveus, the 
Burgundians, the Alans, and other barbarians. 
Attila retired into Champagne, and took his 
stand in the Catalaunian plains where Chalons- 
sur-Marne is now situated, and there fought 
about the end of June the most murderous 
battle ever known in European history. (See 
AETIUS.) Attila was defeated, and recrossed 
the Rhine, but in the next year again assailed 
the empire, invading Italy. He destroyed 
Aquileia, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, and other 
cities, whose fugitives afterward founded Ven- 
ice ; pillaged Pavia and Milan, and established 
his camp at the confluence of the Mincio and 
the Po, near Mantua. Rome was saved by the 
personal mediation of Pope Leo I., who visited 
the barbarian in his camp, and is said to have 
awed him by his sacred character. The chron- 
iclers say the spirits of the apostles Peter 
and Paul appeared to him with menaces, a le- 
gend immortalized by Raphael. In July, 452, 
Attila, having concluded a truce, returned to 
the Danube, meditating for the next year a 
new invasion of the eastern empire, or, as some 
maintain, a return to Italy. But he died in his 
capital or camp in Pannonia, the night of his 
nuptials with the beautiful Ildico, whom he 
had married in addition to the many wives he 
already possessed. The courtiers found him in 
the morning dead, either through sudden ill- 
ness, or, as some suspected, through the treach- 
ery of Ildico, whose people, the Burgundians, 
had suffered much at his hands. His body was 
put in a coffin of iron, over which was one of 
silver, and a third of gold. He was buried se- 
cretly at night together with a mass of treas- 
ure and arms, and the prisoners who dug the 
grave were killed. He is also celebrated as a 
kind of national hero by the Hungarians. 

ATTIRET, Jean Denis, a French Jesuit and 
painter, born at Dole in 1702, died in Peking 
in 1768. He studied at Rome, and had already 
produced some good pictures when he entered 
the society of the Jesuits at Avignon. In 1737 
he went to Peking, at the solicitation of the 
French Jesuit missionaries stationed there, and 
was employed by the emperor Kien Lung. 
He produced an immense number of paintings 
and drawings, mostly in water colors, accurate- 
ly depicting Chinese physiognomy, dress, and 
habits, as well as triumphs, festivals, and pro- 



96 



ATTIWANDARONK 



ATTORNEY GENERAL 



cessions. A series of drawings, representing 
Chinese battles, were engraved in France, so 
gratifying the emperor that he appointed the 
artist a mandarin. 

ATTIWANDAROIVK, a tribe of Indians of the 
same family as the Hurons and Iroquois, liv- 
ing in early times on both banks of the Ni- 
agara river, but chiefly on the Canada side. 
They were called Atirhagenratha by the Iro- 
quois, and by the French the Neutral Nation, 
as they at first took no part in the war between 
the Iroquois on one side and the Hurons, Tio- 
nontatez, Algonquins, and Montagnais on the 
other. They were however at war with the 
Mascoutins beyond Lake Michigan. Their ter- 
ritory was an area of about 150 sq. m. They 
were first visited by the Recollect father Dail- 
lon in 1627, and by Brebeuf and Chaumonot 
in 1642,; but no missions or posts were estab- 
lished. On the fall of the Hurons they were 
attacked by the Iroquois (1651-'3), and after 
severe losses a part submitted and joined the 
Senecas ; the rest fled west and joined the rem- 
nant of the Hurons on Lake Superior. 

ATTLEBOROCGH, a township of Bristol coun- 
ty, Mass., 31 m. S. 8. W.of Boston, and 11 m. 
N. N. E. of Providence, R. I. ; pop. in 1871, 
6,769. It has very extensive manufactures of 
jewelry, printed calicoes, metal buttons, and 
clocks, for which there is abundant water 
power in Mill river. 

ATTOCK, or Atak, a fortified town of India, 
in the Punjaub, on the Indus, nearly opposite 
the mouth of the Cabool, in lat. 33 54' N., 
Ion. 72 20' E., 40 m. E. S. E. of Peshawer ; 




pop. about 2,000. The Indus is here about 
800 feet wide, and from 30 to 70 feet deep ac- 
cording to the season, with high banks and a 
rapid current. The fort was built by Akbar 
to command the passage, this being the route 
by which invasions from the northwest have 
generally entered India. Runjeet Singh took 
it from the Afghans by treache'ry, and it came 
into the possession of the British by the con- 
quest of Sinde. The town has gone to decay 

ATTORNEY. See LAWYER. 

ATTORNEY GENERAL, a law officer of state. 
In England he is the counsel to the crown. He 



may be required by either of the houses of par- 
liament to institute prosecutions for offences 
against the honor and dignity of the houses, or 
against the public laws of the nation, and by cus- 
tom may prosecute for misdemeanors by infor- 
mation without first procuring an indictment. 
He may also file information in civil causes, 
under penal statutes, and he is charged by 
special statutes with other duties in the public 
interest. The attorney general of the United 
States is the first law officer of the govern- 
ment. The judiciary act of 1789, which first 
defined his office, provided that there should 
be appointed a meet person, learned in the 
law, whose duty it should bo to prosecute and 
conduct all suits in the supreme court in which 
the United States should be concerned, and to 
give his advice and opinion upon questions of 
law when required by the president or by the 
heads of any of the departments touching any 
matters which concerned the affairs of their 
offices. By an act of 1830 the attorney gen- 
eral was required to consult and advise with 
the solicitor general of the treasury as to the 
conduct of suits and other proceedings pertain- 
ing to the revenue ; and by an act of 1861 he 
was charged with a general supervision and 
direction of the district attorneys and marshals 
of the United States, and of their discharge of 
their duties ; and they were required to report 
to him an account of their proceedings and 
the condition of their offices. In practice also 
it has been conceded that either house of con- 
gress may call upon the attorney general for 
information on any matter within the scope of 
his office, and that it is his duty 
to communicate such informa- 
tion. He has also conducted all 
suits of the United States in the 
supreme court. It has been al- 
ways understood that the opin- 
ion of the attorney general is not 
conclusive upon the president or 
the secretaries ; but it has been 
the practice, for the sake of pre- 
serving harmony and uniformity 
of decision and action in the 
different departments, to gov- 
ern the 'administration of their 
affairs according to the attor- 
ney general's advice. The opin- 
ions of the attorneys general 
from the earliest period have 
thus come to be a body of precedents on 
questions of public law which have a cer- 
tain authority, of the same character, though 
not of the same imperative force, as the adju- 
dication of courts of justice. It is a settled 
rule, in construction of the functions of this 
officer, that he has no right to give an opinion 
in any other cases than those in which the 
statutes make it his duty to give it. There- 
fore he will not give an opinion to any subor- 
dinate officer of any of the departments; nor 
will he give an opinion to individuals in re- 
spect to their claims against the government ; 



ATTORNEY, POWER OF 



97 



nor will he advise upon speculative or hypo- 
thetical cases, nor upon any point of^law un- 
less it has actually arisen in a case presented 
for the action of a department. An act of 
June 22, 1870, established an executive depart- 
ment of the government, called the department 
of justice, and made the attorney general the 
head of it. The statute provides for the ap- 
pointment of a solicitor general and of assist- 
ants to the attorney general, and transfers to 
the department the solicitors of the treasury, 
of the navy, and of the internal revenue, the 
naval judge advocate, and the clerks and as- 
sistants of these officers. It authorizes the at- 
torney general to refer questions submitted to 
him to his assistants, and their opinions ap- 
proved by him have the force of his own. He 
may direct the solicitor general to argue causes 
in the court of claims in which the United 
States is interested, and appeals from that 
court to the supreme court in such cases as are 
committed to him and to the solicitor general. 
The secretaries of the war and navy depart- 
ments may also by this act require opinions 
from the attorney general on questions of law 
the cognizance of which is not given by stat- 
ute to other officers. The duties of the attor- 
ney general of a state are denned by constitu- 
tional or statutory provisions. They are gen- 
erally to prosecute and defend all kinds of 
actions in the event of which the people of the 
state are interested ; to recover for the state 
escheated lands or forfeited estates ; to test 
the right of any person who is charged with 
unlawfully holding or exercising any public 
office or any franchise within the state, or the 
right of persons who are alleged to be acting 
as a corporation without authority; to bring 
actions for the purpose of vacating the charters 
or revoking the franchises of corporations for 
violations of the provisions of the acts which 
created them, or when they have incurred for- 
feiture of their charters by nonuser of their 
franchises, or the assumption of privileges not 
conferred upon them. It is also his function 
to give legal advice to the governor and to 
other officers of the state ; to prepare legal in- 
struments for the use of the state; and at the 
request of the governor or other state officials 
to indict and prosecute persons accused by such 
officers of violations of the laws which they are 
charged with enforcing. 

ATTORNEY, Power of, an authority by which 
one person is empowered to act in the place 
or as the attorney of another. The one who 
confers the power is called the constituent or 
the principal, and the one to whom it is given 
is called the attorney in fact, that is to say, in 
faction or for a special purpose, and by way 
of general distinction from a professional at- 
torney at law. All persons except those who 
have not a legal capacity to act for themselves, 
such as married women and infants, may ap- 
point an attorney in fact. But under the recent 
acts which give married women separate estates 
and independent powers over them, they also 



may, as to such property at least, probably 
appoint attorneys. All persons who have suffi- 
cient intelligence may be made attorneys in fact, 
including even some who are disqualified from 
acting for themselves, such as married women 
and minors, provided they are of sufficient age 
and discretion. The power of attorney may 
for many purposes be created by parol, but 
usually it is reduced to writing. If the power 
contemplates the making of a deed by the 
attorney, his authority must also be by deed, 
that is to say, by writing under seal, and must 
be executed and acknowledged with the same 
formalities which are required in the case of 
deeds. In the interpretation of powers of at- 
torney they are to be construed strictly, and 
this rule should be kept in view in framing 
such instruments. The power may be broad 
or narrow. It may be general, extending to 
all the affairs of the constituent, or it may be 
special, and limited to some particular subject 
or to some particular class of the affairs of the 
principal. In view of the rule of construction 
just suggested, a special power should be very 
explicit, enumerating as minutely as is prac- 
ticable all the acts which the attorney may 
perform, although all acts will be sustained 
which are fairly within the scope and design 
of the power, even though they are not spe- 
cifically named. And the power had best be 
thus special and particular, if possible, rather 
than general ; for the courts incline to construe 
even general powers narrowly rather than 
broadly, and even the general clause usually 
inserted in special powers, as for example, to 
do all other acts which the constituent might 
do in the premises, is usually interpreted with 
reference to the special matters enumerated, 
and is held to authorize only such acts as are 
fairly required in the performance of them. A 
general authority to make and indorse notes, 
the power being apparently conferred to enable 
the attorney to carry on the business of his 
principal in his absence, would be limited to 
notes to be used in that business ; an authority 
to collect all demands, and to accomplish a 
complete adjustment of all the principal's af- 
fairs, would not authorize the attorney, in the 
course and for the purposes of such a general 
settlement, to give a note in the name of the 
principal ; and it has been held that an author- 
ity to endorse notes does not empower the at- 
torney to receive notices of protest, and that 
a general power given by a member of a firm 
to his copartner to transact all his business, 
whether relating to him as a partner or as an 
individual, does not authorize the attorney to 
transfer the individual property of the princi- 
pal to a trustee for the payment of his debts. 
So a power to sell or convey lands does not 
give a power to mortgage, nor does it authorize 
such other dealing with the lands as a license 
to enter and cut timber. If the power looks 
to conveyance of real estate- and to the giving 
of deeds, it should state expressly whether the 
attorney may exchange or lease or mortgage 



98 



ATTRACTION 



the lands as well as convey them absolutely ; 
and if the attorney is to give deeds, whether 
he may give deeds with full covenants ; or if 
he is to make a mortgage, whether he may 
give with it a power of sale; though it has 
been held in New York that such an author- 
ity is fairly implied in a power to mortgage, 
because there a power of sale is a usual and 
virtually essential incident of a good mort- 
gage, but it is not or may not be so in all 
the states. The power conferred may be a 
mere naked authority to the attorney, in 
which case it is revocable at the will of the 
constituent, and necessarily expires with his 
death ; or it may be coupled with an interest 
in the attorney, as the phrase is, and in that 
case the power cannot be revoked by the prin- 
cipal, nor does his death annul it. Thus a mere 
power to collect debts due the principal is such 
a naked and revocable power. But if by as- 
signment or by virtue of an agreement with 
the principal, or in any other way, the attor- 
ney has an interest in the very debts them- 
selves, the power is then coupled with an in- 
terest, and the attorney cannot be compelled 
by the constituent to surrender it. A mere 
recital in the instrument that it is irrevocable 
will not make it so, unless one or other of 
these conditions exist. All conditions in the 
power must be strictly observed; as for ex- 
ample, if the consent of third persons is re- 
quired, it must be procured; and if the con- 
sent of several persons were required, the 
death of one of them would prevent the ex- 
ecution of the power, for the consent even 
of all the survivors is not the consent that 
the power calls for. It is a general rule of 
law that an authority given to one person 
cannot be delegated by him to another; and 
accordingly, when it is desired to give an 
authority to the contrary to the attorney, 
it must be expressly set forth in the power. 
Such a power, commonly called a power of 
substitution and revocation, is visually inserted 
in powers of attorney. When an attorney 
having such a power has appointed another 
attorney in his stead, his death annuls the 
power of his substitute. The death of the 
principal cancels the power of the attorney at 
once. And his power is annulled upon an 
actual revocation by the principal when the 
revocation is communicated to him, and as to 
third persons when it is made known to them. 
In executing the power, the attorney should act 
in the name of his principal. For example, if 
he gives a deed, the deed should run in the 
name of the principal, and be signed first with 
his name, the attorney adding his name and 
authority afterward. 

ATTRACTION. See ADHESION, COHESION, 
GEAVITY, and MAGNETISM. 

ATTliCKS, Crlspus, a mulatto, or half-Indian, 
resident of Framingham, Mass., one of the per- 
sons killed on the evening of March 5, 1770, in 
the affray known as the " Boston Massacre." 
John Adams, in his defence of the soldiers, 



AUBER 

accuses him of having been the principal leader 
of the attack on the British troops. His body 
was placed with that of Caldwell in Faneuil 
hall, and from that building it was borne witli 
great ceremony by the people, and buried in 
the city burial ground, in one vault with the 
other victims of the riot. 

ATTWOOD, Thomas, an English composer, 
born in 1767, died in 1838. At the age of 
16 he attracted the favorable notice of the 
prince of Wales, who sent him to Italy to be 
educated. At Vienna he was the pupil of Mo- 
zart till 1786, when he returned to England. 
He wrote operas, songs, glees, trios, and in the 
latter part of his life sacred music. His works 
are marked by knowledge of orchestral effects, 
and are vigorously written. 

ATYS, or Attys, in Greek mythology, a son of 
Nana, a nymph, according to some legends, by 
a Phrygian king. The traditions differ about 
the fate of Atys, the most current ones making 
him beloved by Cybele, who made him her 
priest on his taking a vow of perpetual chas- 
tity ; this he broke, and was punished by the 
goddess with madness, in which he castrated 
himself and attempted suicide; but the goddess 
restored him to his senses, and allowed him to 
continue in her service, decreeing at the same 
time that all her priests thereafter should be 
eunuchs. A festival was annually celebrated 
in memory of Atys at Pessinus. The myth is 
supposed by many writers to typify, in the 
powerlessness, death, and subsequent revival 
of Atys, the death of nature in the winter, 
and its revival in the spring through the agency 
of superior power. 

Al'BAGNE, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Bouches-du-Rh6ne, 10 m. E. of Mar- 
seilles; pop. in 1866, 7,408. The town is 
known for its excellent red wines. Near it the 
abb6 Barthelemy was born. 

Al I!AIM., Right of (low Lat. albanm, a cor- 
ruption of alibi natus, foreign born). See 
ALIEN, vol. i., p. 313. 

Al'BE, a department of France, in Cham- 
pagne, bounded by Marne, Haute-Marne, C6te 
d'Or, Yonne, and Seine-et-Marne ; area, 2,145 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 255,687. The surface is 
mostly level; the soil in the southeast is pro- 
ductive, but in the remaining portions it is 
poor. It is traversed by the Seine and its east- 
ern affluent the Aube, which rises in the plateau 
of Langres in Haute-Marne. The department 
has manufactories of pottery, tiles, and glass. 
It is divided into the arrondissements of Troyes, 
Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Seine, 
and Nogent-sur-Seine. Capital, Troyes. 

\ri!K.V\s, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Ardeche, situated on the right bank of 
the Ardeche and at the foot of the Cevennes, 
13 m. S. W. of Privas; pop. in 1866, 7,694. It 
has a college and a theological seminary, and 
is the centre of the wine and corn trade of the 
department. 

AlBER, Daniel Francois Esprit, a French com- 
poser, born at Caen, Jan. 29, 1782, died in 



AUBERT 



AUBURN 



99 



Paris, May 13, 1871. His father, a print- 
seller at Paris, in prosperous circumstances, 
allowed him to devote much attention to the 
study of music, merely as an amusement or an 
elegant accomplishment. After a brief expe- 
rience in mercantile life in London, he returned 
to Paris, and devoted himself to music, giving 
forth a number of little compositions, vocal and 
instrumental, including a new arrangement of 
the opera Julie. After a course of study with 
Cherubini, he produced in 1813 the opera of 
Sejour militaire, which failed ; and its recep- 
tion so discouraged him that for several years 
he abandoned the art. The death of his father, 
however, compelled him seriously to devote 
himself to it as a means of support, and in 1819 
he produced at the op6ra comique Le testament 
et let billets-doux, an opera in one act, which 
was likewise unsuccessful. Next he wrote 
La bergere chdtelaine, which was produced in 
the same theatre in the early part of the year 
1820, and completely turned the tables in his 
favor. From this time forward he produced a 
great number of works, almost all of which 
were well received, while some are among 
the most successful operas now represented 
on the stage. An imitator of Rossini at the 
outset, he gradually acquired greater inde- 
pendence of style, and in La muette de Por- 
tiei (also known as Masanlello) he formed a 
Btyle of his own. In addition to the works 
mentioned, Le chenal de bronze, Fra Diavolo, 
Le domino noir, Les diamanU de la couronne, 
L 'elixir tfamour, Le dieu et la bayadere, Gtts- 
tave, La sirene, and Haydee are among his 
most popular operas. Many of them have 
been translated into English and German, and 
almost all into Italian, and their melodies are 
familiar wherever music is known. Marco 
Spada was produced when he was 71 years 
of age ; La Circassienne when he was 79 ; La 
fiancee du roi de Garbe when he was 82 ; and 
his last work, Le premier jour de bonheur, at 
the age of 86. The successful production of this 
opera in February, 1868, was made the occa- 
sion of enthusiastic demonstrations of the old 
maestro's popularity. He wrote a march for 
the opening of the world's exhibition in Lon- 
don in 1862. He was elected to the French 
institute in 1829, became a chevalier of the le- 
gion of honor in 1825 and grand officer in 1861, 
and succeeded Cherubini as director of the 
conservatory in 1842. The characteristics of 
Auber's music are sprightliness and grace, with 
clearness and simplicity in dramatic effect. 

AlBKRT, Constance. See ABBANTES. 

AUBERVILLIERS, a village of France, in the 
department of the Seine, 1 m. N. of the en- 
ceinte of Paris ; pop. in 1806, 9,240. E. of it 
is a fort of the same name, built in 1842. 
The village church formerly possessed a pic- 
ture of the Virgin which was believed to be 
miraculous, and on that account was called 
Notre Dame des Vertus. 

AUBIGNE, J. II. Merle d'. See MERLE o'Au- 
BIOXE. 



ore Agrippa d', a French Prot- 
estant soldier and historian, born at St. Maury, 
Feb. 8, 1550, died in Geneva, April 29, 1630. 
Even as a child his attachment to his religion 
attracted the attention of the Roman Catholics, 
and his refusal to abjure it caused him to be 
sentenced to death before he was 13 years of 
age. Aided by a friend, the boy escaped, and 
was present at the siege of Orleans. This end- 
ed, he went to pursue his studies at Geneva ; 
but in 1567 he joined the Huguenot army under 
the prince of Conde, and served nearly two 
years with such bravery and ability as to se- 
cure the marked favor of the young Henry 
of Navarre, the future Henry IV. of France, 
whose service he subsequently entered, remain- 
ing with him through the war, and living at 
court after the peace. But he quarrelled with 
the king, his blunt candor and rude sarcasm 
constantly giving offence, and several times 
left or was compelled to leave Henry's service, 
though the king trusted him, and at one time 
bestowed offices of some honor upon him. He 
produced during his residence at court Circe, 
a tragedy, abounding in sarcasm directed 
against the king and various members of the 
royal family. After the king's death he pub- 
lished his first three volumes of the history of 
his time (from 1556 to 1601). The third vol- 
ume was seized and burned by order of parlia- 
ment, and he fled to Geneva, thus escaping the 
sentence of death that was soon pronounced 
against him. While under this condemnation, 
he offered his hand to a Genevese lady of the 
name of Burlamaqui, who did not hesitate to 
accept him as husband after he had revealed 
his dangerous position with his wonted candor. 
By a former marriage he had one son, Con- 
stantine, who became the father of the cele- 
brated Madame de Mamtenon. D'Aubigne' 
was buried in the church of St. Ren6 at Ge- 
neva. Besides those already mentioned, he 
wrote many less noteworthy works. 

Al I!I >, a town of France, in the department 
of Aveyron, 16m. N. E. of Villefranche ; pop. 
in 1866, 8,863. It is the centre of a rich coal 
region, which has of late been yielding about 
5,000,000 quintals of coal annually. The neigh- 
boring village of Le Gua has five furnaces for 
the smelting of iron. 

AUBLET, Jean Baptist* Chrlstophe Fnsec, a 
French botanist, born at Salon, in Provence, 
in 1720, died in Paris in 1778. He is cele- 
brated for his botanical labors in Mauritius 
and in French Guiana. His herbarium was 
purchased by Sir Joseph Banks, and is now in 
the possession of the British museum. 

AUBURN, a city and the county seat of Cayuga 
county, N. Y., 174 m. by rail W. of Albany, and 
2 m. N. of Owasco lake, the outlet of which 
intersects the town ; pop. in 1860, 10,986 ; in 
1870, 17,225. It stands on high, uneven ground, 
and is handsomely built, with wide streets 
planted with shade trees. It has 16 churches, 
of which 3 are Methodist, 4 Presbyterian, 3 
Roman Catholic, 2 Episcopal, 2 Baptist, 1 Dis- 



100 



AUBURN 



ciples', and 1 Universalist ; and it is the seat of 
a Presbyterian theological seminary founded in 
1821. To this has been recently added a large 
building for a library, the gift of William E. 
Dodge of New York and E. B. Morgan of Au- 
rora. Auburn also has an orphan asylum, a 
home for the friendless, a young men's Chris- 
tian association with reading-rooms, one high 
school, six district schools, and a young ladies' 
institute, eight banks, several hotels, and two 
opera houses. Two daily newspapers, four 
weeklies, and one monthly are published hee. 
Water works on the Holley plan supply the 
city. The Auburn state prison, founded in 
1816, is conducted on the " silent system." It 
is a fine massive structure of limestone, cover- 
ing, with its cells, yards, and workshops, 12 
acres. The prison buildings are arranged in 
the form of a hollow square, standing at a dis- 
tance from the outer wall, which surrounds 
them. This wall, which is 3,000 ft. long, 4 ft. 
thick, and 12 to 35 ft. high, is manned night 




Auburn State Prison. 

and day by guards. The prison has usually 
over 1,000 convicts (in 1872, 1,100), who are 
employed in a variety of manufactures, the 
proceeds of which are generally sufficient to 
defray the expenses of the institution. Each 
convict on arrival is assigned to work at the 
trade with which he is familiar, or, if ignorant 
of any, is taught one. Among the principal of 
these are the hame shop, tailors', shoemakers', 
cloth and carpet weaving, cabinet, sash and 
blind, cooper, stone-cutters', tool, axletree, 
smith, and machine shops. The convicts make 
such articles as they use, and build such struc- 
tures as they occupy. They sleep in separate 
cells, but at meals and in the shops are together. 
No communication by word or sign is allowed. 
In an adjoining enclosure of nine acres is the 
state asylum for insane criminals, founded in 
1857. It has usually 80 to 100 inmates. The 
Owasco lake supplies one of the best water 
powers in the state, which is utilized by nine 



AUBUSSON 

dams, the river falling within the city limits 
160 ft. There are upward of 20 factories and 
mills, the chief of which are those of cotton and 
woollen fabrics, carpets, agricultural imple- 
ments (many of which are exported to Europe), 
machine shops and tool factories, flouring mills, 
and breweries. These manufactories employ 
a capital of from $4,000,000 to $5,000,000. 
Valuable limestone quarries are worked within 
the city limits. One of the two branches of 
the New York Central railroad runs through 
Auburn. The Southern Central railroad also 
passes through it, connecting it with Lake On- 
tario and the Pennsylvania coal mines. Au- 
burn, formerly called Hardenburgh's Corners, 
was first settled by Capt. John L. Hardenburgh 
in 1793. At a short distance from the court 
house stands an elevation called Fort Hill, 
in the forest on the summit of which were 
found the ruins of an ancient Indian fortifica- 
tion and relics of its former occupants, such as 
arrow-heads, tomahawks, and pottery. It is 
now the site of a cemetery, 
- - - , prominent among whoso monu- 
ments is one to the memory of 
Logan, the Cayuga chief. 

Al l!l SS<, a town of central 
France, capital of an arrondis- 
sement of the department of 
Creuse, built in a picturesque 
gorge near the river Creuse, 20 
m. S. E. of Gu6ret; pop. in 
1866, 6,625. It is celebrated 
for its manufacture of carpets, 
which employs the majority of 
the inhabitants. Woollen and 
cotton goods are also made, and 
there are dye houses, tan yards, 
and factories of various kinds. 
The town was founded in the 
8th century, and was subject to 
a feudal lord, the ruins of whose 
castle are still visible. 

A! IJISSOX Pierre d', grand 
master of the hospitallers, or 
knights of St. John of Jerusalem, born at La- 
marche, France, in 1423, died in 1503. He 
is said to have first served in the Hungarian 
armies against the Turks. In 1444 he accom- 
panied the dauphin, afterward Louis XI., in 
his campaign against the Swiss. He next re- 
paired to the island of Rhodes, where he was 
admitted as a knight of St. John. He soon 
became a prominent member of the order, and 
on the death of the grand master Des Ursins 
he was unanimously elected his successor. 
When Mohammed II. threatened Italy, D'Au- 
busson had Rhodes strongly fortified, at the 
same time forming an alliance with the bey of 
Tunis and sultan of Egypt. Mohammed sent 
against Rhodes a fleet of 160 sail, carrying an 
army of 100,000 men, under the command 
of the apostate Misach Palseologus (Messih 
Pasha). The Turks invested the town of 
Rhodes at the end of May, 1480. D'Aubnsson, 
who made an admirable defence, was so se- 



AUCH 



AUCKLAND 



101 






Terely wounded that his life was despaired of; 
but he compelled the Turks to raise,the siege 
after two months. He now became 'active in 
the intrigues that troubled the court of Con- 
stantinople. He received at Rhodes Zizim or 
Jem, the brother of Sultan Bajazet, who be- 
came in his hands a powerful instrument of in- 
fluence on the Turkish court. Zizim was first 
transferred to France, then delivered to Pope 
Innocent VIII., who rewarded D'Aubusson 
with the title of cardinal and the office of legate 
of the holy see in Asia. But the failure of a 
plan he had long cherished for the union of 
Europe against the Turks, together with other 
disappointments, caused him to retire from 
affairs, and his last years were spent in Rhodes. 

AUCH, an old city in southern France, capital 
of the department of Gers, on the river Gers, 
41 m. W. of Toulouse; pop. in 1866, 12,500. Its 
upper part is situated on a high hill crowned 
by an old Gothic cathedral, and connected 
with the lower by a long bridge of stairs. 
Auch is the seat of an archbishopric, a tribunal 
of commerce, and a college. It has manufac- 
tures of thread and cotton stuffs, and carries 
on a considerable trade, particularly in the 
brandies of Armagnac. 

AUCHMCTY. I. Robert, an American lawyer, 
born probably in England, died in Boston in 
April, 1750. He was of Scotch descent, set- 
tled at Boston early in the 18th century, at- 
tained a high position in his profession, and 
was appointed judge of the court of admiralty 
in 1733. In 1741 he was in England as agent 
for the colony, and published there a pamphlet 
entitled " The Importance of Cape Breton to 
the British Nation, and a Plan for Taking the 
Place." II. Robert, son of the preceding, died 
in London in 1788. He was distinguished as 
an advocate and jury lawyer at Boston, and in 
1767 was appointed judge of the court of ad- 
miralty, which office he exercised as long as 
the royal authority was recognized ; but in 
1776, being a zealous tory, he went to England. 
He was associated with John Adams in the 
defence of Capt. Preston. III. Samuel, an 
American clergyman, brother of the preceding, 
born in Boston, Jan. 26, 1722, died in New 
York, March 6, 1777. He graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1742, and went to England to 
study for holy orders. After his ordination he 
was appointed by the society for the propaga- 
tion of the gospel an assistant minister of Trin- 
ity church, New York, and in 1764 succeeded 
to the charge of all the churches in the city. 
When the American troops took possession of 
New York in 1775, he was forbidden by Lord 
Stirling to read the prayer for the king; but 
he persisted in doing so, although his church 
was entered by a company of soldiers with 
drums beating and with the threat of pulling 
him out of the pulpit. He then shut up the 
church and chapels and took the keys with 
him to New Jersey, leaving orders that the 
churches should not be opened until the lit- 
urgy could be read without interruption. New 



York being again in the British possession, he 
attempted to return, and succeeded after great 
hardships only to find his church and parson- 
age burnt, and his papers and the records of 
the church destroyed. The next Sunday he 
preached for the last time in St. Paul's. The 
various trials he had undergone brought on an 
illness which carried him off in a few days. 
IV. Sir Samuel, a British general, son, of the 
preceding, bora in New York, June 22, 1758, 
died in Dublin, Aug. 11, 1822. He graduated 
at Columbia college in 1775, and the next year 
entered the army under Sir William Howe, and 
took part in three campaigns. From 1783 to 
1796 he served in India, and was at the siege 
of Seringapatam in command of a company 
under Lord Cornwallis. He was adjutant gen- 
eral in the expedition to Egypt in 1800. In 
1806 he took command of the troops ordered 
to South America, with the rank of brigadier 
general, and in 1807 carried the strongly forti- 
fied city of Montevideo by assault. On his re- 
turn he was made lieutenant general. In 1810 
he was commander-in-chief in the Carnatic, 
and in 1811 took possession of the Dutch col- 
onies of Java and Sumatra. On his return to 
Europe in 1813 he was appointed commander 
of the forces in Ireland. 

Alt kUM>. I. William Eden, baron, a British 
diplomatist, born about 1750, died in 1814. In 
1778 he was employed with Lord Carlisle in 
the attempt at a settlement of the rupture be- 
tween the British government and the Ameri- 
can colonies. He entered parliament, was sec- 
retary of Ireland, and was sent to the court of 
Louis XVI., where he negotiated a commercial 
treaty. On the breaking out of the revolution 
of 1789 he was sent to the Netherlands as envoy 
extraordinary ; and for the manner in which he 
discharged his duties there he was called to an 
account by the house of commons on his return. 
He was created a baron in the Irish peerage 
in 1789, and also in the British peerage in 
1793. He wrote "Principles of the Penal 
Laws " (1771), and various pamphlets, includ- 
ing one on the " State of the Poor in England." 
II. George Eden, earl of, son of the preceding, 
born in August, 1784, died Jan. 1, 1849. He 
was president of the board of trade under 
Earl Grey in 1830, and first lord of the ad- 
miralty under Lord Melbourne in 1834. The 
next year he went to India as governor general. 
During his administration of this office the 
opium war with China broke out, and the dis- 
astrous expedition against Afghanistan took 
place. Lord Auckland's chief personal action 
was exercised upon a system of native free 
schools, and an improved administration of 
justice. In 1841 he was succeeded by Lord 
Ellenborough, and on his return was created 
earl of Auckland and Baron Eden. 

AUCKLAND. I. A province of New Zealand, 
occupying the north and centre of North isl- 
and; area, about 30,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
62,335, besides 16,000 Maoris. II. A city, cap- 
ital of the preceding province and formerly of 



102 



AUCKLAND ISLANDS 



AUCTION 




Auckland, New Zealand. 



New Zealand, on the S. shore of Waitemafa har- 
hor, in lat. 36 51' S., Ion. 174 45' E. ; pop. in 
1871, 12,937 ; with suburbs, 18,000, chiefly Eng- 
lish, Irish, Scotch, and Germans. The town was 
founded in 1840, and became a borough in 1851. 
It includes an area of 16 by 7 m., is surrounded 
by four villages for pensioned soldiers, and di- 
vided into 14 wards, 11 of which are outside 
of the town. The streets are well laid out. 
There are several churches, including an Eng- 
lish cathedral. St. John's college is 4 m. from 
the town. The number of registered vessels 
is upward of 100. Gold was first discovered 
near Auckland in 1852, but the mines are not 
as productive as those in other parts of New 
Zealand. Coal fields and petroleum were found 
in 1859 and 1867. The chief exports are gold, 
wool, and gum ; the imports are manufactured 
goods, tea, tobacco, sugar, wine, spirits, and 
beer. Emigration to Auckland is checked by 
the insurrection of the Maoris, who in Novem- 
ber, 1871, committed several murders in the 
province, including that of Bishop Patterson. 
The seat of the colonial government has within 
a few years been removed to Wellington. 

AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a group lying between 
lat. 50 24' and 51 4' S., and Ion. 163 46' and 
164 3' E., 180 m. S. of New Zealand, and 900 
m. S. E. of Tasmania. They were discovered 
Aug. 16, 1806, by Abraham Briseoe, master of 
Messrs. Enderby's English whaler Ocean, and 
called after Lord Auckland. They are of vol- 
canic formation, and consist of three principal 
islands, the largest of which is Auckland pro- 
per, 30 m. long and 15 m. wide, with an area 
of 100,000 acres and a mountain 1,350 feet 
high. Port Ross, at the \V. extremity of the 
island, contains an inlet called Laurie harbor, 
the station of the southern whale-fishing com- 



pany of the Messrs. Enderby, to whom the 
islands were granted by the British government, 
and who obtained a charter for this company 
in 1849 ; but the establishment was broken up 
in 1852. The most northerly of the group are 
called Enderby islets. The island of Ichaboe 
contains guano deposits. The soil of the Auck- 
land islands is very productive. 

AUCTION (Lat. auctio, the act of increasing), 
a public sale, whereat persons openly compete, 
the property being sold to him who will give 
the most for it. In Holland, and at what are 
called Dutch auctions elsewhere, this process 
is reversed, the seller naming a price beyond 
the value of his goods, which is gradually low- 
ered until some one closes with the offer. 
Rome, so far as is known, invented the auction, 
which was at first held for the sale of military 
spoils among the soldiers behind a spear stuck 
in the ground, whence it was called auctio 
mb Jtaita (under the spear), or subhattatio. 
The signal of the spear was afterward put up 
at all sorts of auctions, and the name was re- 
tained long after the signal was disused. After 
the death of Pertinax, A. D. 193, the prreto- 
rian guards put up the Roman empire at auc- 
tion, which, after a number of bids by Sulpician 
and Didius Julianus, the sole competitors, was 
knocked down to the latter for 6,250 drachms 
(about $1,000) to each soldier. In England sales 
"by the candle" or "by the inch of candle," 
which are still occasionally advertised, derive 
their name from an ancient practice of measur- 
ing the time within which the biddings must be 
completed by a candle, the highest bidder at the 
moment the inch burns out becoming the pur- 
chaser. The minimum price at which the 
owner was willing to part with his property 
was sometimes put under a candlestick " can- 



AUDE 



AUDOUIN 



103 



dlestick biddings ; " and in the north of Eng- 
land still occur sales where the bidders do not 
know each other's offers "dumb biddings." 
In point of law, the auctioneer is the seller's 
agent, and as such has a special property in the 
goods, a lien upon them or upon the purchase 
money, where he is authorized to receive it, 
for his commission, the auction duty, and the 
charges of the sale. If he exceed his authority, 
or refuse to give the name of his principal, he 
renders himself personally liable. In sales of 
real estate he is usually authorized to receive 
the deposit, but not the residue of the purchase 
money. The conditions of sale and the plans 
and description of the property, if printed or 
written, control the oral statements of the auc- 
tioneer. Slight inaccuracies of description do 
not, but substantial ones do avoid the sale. A 
bid at an auction may be retracted before the 
hammer is down, and, in cases where a written 
entry is required to complete the sale, before 
that is made. For a bid is only an offer, which 
does not bind either party until assented to. 
Fraud upon either side avoids the sale. The 
employment of bidders by the owner is or is 
not illegal, according as circumstances tend to 
show bad or good faith. To employ them in 
order to prevent a sacrifice by buying in the 
property is, except where the sale is adver- 
tised as being "without reserve," allowable; 
but it is a fraud to use them for the purpose of 
enhancing the price through a fictitious com- 
petition. On the other hand, the sale is void 
if the purchaser prevails upon others to desist 
from bidding by appeals to their sympathy or 
false representations. 

Al'DE, a maritime department of France, in 
Languedoc, bounded by the Mediterranean and 
the departments of Pyr6nees-Orientales, Ari6ge, 
Haute-Garonne, Tarn, and Herault; area, 
2,437 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 285,927. It is sub- 
ject to violent gales. The surface is mountain- 
ous and hilly, the soil generally productive. 
The canal of Languedoc intersects the northern 
part of the department from W. to E., and the 
canal of Robine or Narbonne crosses the east- 
ern portion from N. to 8. Corn and wine are 
abundant, and are exported. The river Aude 
rises near its S. border in Pyr6n6es-Orientales, 
flows N". as far as Carcassonne, and then along 
the S. bank of the Languedoc canal to Nar- 
bonne, a few miles E. of which it falls into the 
Mediterranean. The Lers, an affluent of the 
Ariege, flows along the W. border. The de- 
partment is divided into the arrondissements 
of Carcassonne, Castelnaudary, Limonx, and 
Narbonne. It has manufactures of woollen 
cloths, paper, iron ware, brandy, salt, and 
earthenware. Capital, Carcassonne. 

AUDEBERT, Jean Baptist*, a French painter 
and naturalist, born at Rochefort in 1759, died 
in 1800. He studied painting in Paris, and be- 
came distinguished for his miniatures. Haying 
been employed to paint some specimens of 
natural history, he acquired an absorbing in- 
terest in the science. A journey through 



England and Holland furnished materials for a 
number of admirable designs, which appeared 
shortly afterward in Olivier's Histoire des in- 
sectes. The artist next prepared his Histoire 
naturelle des singes, des makis et des galeopi- 
theques (Paris, 1800), containing 16 colored 
plates, and showing an equal facility in the 
author as designer, engraver, and writer. The 
splendor of his coloring had never been equalled, 
and by certain ingenious processes, such as the 
application of gold leaf variously tinted, he was 
enabled to reproduce the most gorgeous plu- 
mage of birds and insects. His substitution of 
oils for water colors is also considered a great 
improvement in the art of animal illustration. 
His other works, Histoire generate des colibrix, 
des oiseaux-mouches, des jacamars et des pro- 
merops (Paris, 1802), and Histoire naturelle des 
ffrimpereaux et des oiseaux de paradis, were 
published after his death, and are still among 
the most esteemed of their kind. 

AUDLEY, Thomas, lord, lord chancellor of 
England in the reign of Henry VIII., supposed 
to have been born at Earl's Colne, in Essex, 
died at his London residence in 1544. In 1529 
he was made speaker of the house of commons 
in that long parliament which broke up the 
smaller religious houses throughout the king- 
dom. In 1532 he was knighted, and succeeded 
Sir Thomas More as keeper of the great seal, 
and on Jan. 26, 1533, became lord chancellor 
of England, which office he retained until his 
death. Audley presided at the trial of Sir 
Thomas More. In the distribution of the church 
lands, the priory of the canons of the Holy 
Trinity, usually called Christ church, in Lon- 
don, with all the real estate of the establish- 
ment, and the great abbey of Walden in Essex, 
fell to his share. The former he altered into a 
town residence for himself. In 1538 he was 
created Baron Audley of Walden. In 1542 he 
gave certain lands toward the support of the 
institution then known as Buckingham college, 
Oxford, which was thereupon incorporated 
under the name of St. Mary Magdalen. 

AUDOUARD, Olyntpe, a French traveller and 
writer, born about 1830. Having separated 
from her husband, who was a notary of Mar- 
seilles, she visited Egypt, Turkey, Russia, and 
the United States, contributing to newspapers 
and delivering lectures in New York (1868) 
and in Paris (1869). Her principal works are : 
Comment aiment les hommes (1861 ; 3d ed., 
1865) ; Les mysteres du serail et des harems 
turcs (1863) ; Les mysteres de VEgypte devoiles 
(1865) ; Guerre aux hommes (1866) ; V Orient, 
et ses peupladei (1867) ; Lettre aux deputes, 
les droits de la femme (1867); and A trotters 
VAmerique du Nord (Paris, 1871). 

AtDOUIlV, Jean Victor, a French entomologist, 
born in Paris, April 27, 1797, died Nov. 9, 
1841. He married the daughter of Alexandre 
Brongniart, with whom and with Dumas he 
established in 1824 the Annales des sciences 
naturelles. He succeeded Latreille as profes- 
sor of entomology at the museum, obtained his 



104 



ATIDRAIN 



AUDUBON 



diploma as a physician in 1826, became sub- 
director of the library of the institute, founder 
and president of the entomological society, 
and in 1838 member of the academy. At the 
request of the government he investigated the 
injury caused by insects to the silk and vine 
culture, and published the results of his obser- 
vations in the annals of the academy and of 
the entomological society. He described Sa- 
vigny's zoological designs in the great work 
on Egypt published under the auspices of the 
government, contributed to various cyclopaedias, 
and published with Milne-Edwards, his colla- 
borator in many other works, Eecherches pour 
aenir d Vhistoire naturelle du littoral de la 
France (2 vols., Paris, 1830) ; and with Milne- 
Edwards and Blanchard, Histoire de insectes 
nuisilles d la viyne, et partieulierement de la 
pyrale, qui devatte les vignolles (Paris, 1842). 

AUDRAIN, a X. E. county of Missouri ; area, 
680 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 12,307, of whom 
1,070 were colored. The surface is level or 
undulating; the soil is generally fertile and 
suitable for grazing. In 1870 the county pro- 
duced 44,545 bushels of wheat, 648,963 of In- 
dian corn, 292,435 of oats, 12,226 tons of hay, 
6,850 Ibs. of tobacco, 28,223 of wool, and 241,- 
855 of butter. Capital, Mexico, on the North 
Missouri railroad. 

AI'DKA.V the name of a celebrated family of 
French engravers, all descending from Louis 
Audran, an officer of the wolf-hunt under Hen- 
ry IV., whose son CLAUDE, born in 1592, set- 
tled at Lyons, became professor of engraving 
at the academy of that city, and died in 1677. 
GERARD, son of Claude, born at Lyons in 1640, 
studied three years at Rome under Carlo Ma- 
ratti, and acquired fame by his engraving of a 
portrait of Pope Clement IX. Colbert invited 
him to Paris, where he, with almost unparal- 
leled ability, engraved for Louis XIV. the best 
pictures of Le Brun. He was also the author 
of a work on the proportions of the human 
figure, published in folio, with 27 plates of 
ancient statues. He died in Paris in 1703. 
JEAN, brother of Gerard, born about 1667, had 
his studio in the Gobelins, and left a number 
of fine works of art, the most celebrated of 
which is his engraving of the Enlevem.ent des 
Salines, after Poussin. He died in 1756. Sev- 
eral others of the family attained considerable 
distinction. 

AUDUBON,a 8. W. county of Iowa; area, 630 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,212. It is intersected 
by an affluent of the Missouri. In 1870 the 
county produced 26,174 bushels of wheat, 98,- 
150 of Indian corn, 7,100 of oats, and 3,457 
tons of hay. Capital, Exira. 

AI'Dl li<. John James, an American ornithol- 
ogist, born on a plantation in Louisiana, May 
4, 1780, died in New York, Jan. 27, 1851. He 
was the son of an officer in the French navy. 
When very young he showed the greatest 
fondness for birds, keeping many as pets. He 
made sketches of these, and, disclosing con- 
siderable talent as a draughtsman, was taken 



to France to be educated, and placed in the 
studio of the celebrated painter David. He 
was 17 years old when he returned to his 
native country, and he afterward became pos- 
sessed of a fine farm on the banks of the 
Schuylkill in Pennsylvania. His researches 
into the habits of birds, and his drawings of 
them, absorbed his attention, and though un- 
successful at first in bringing his drawings be- 
fore the public, he laid during the years of his 
life in Pennsylvania the foundations of the 
great work which he afterward produced. A 
severe trial befell him when, after having ac- 
cumulated a large stock of the most carefully 
executed designs, he discovered that the whole 
of them had been destroyed by mice. After 
10 years' residence in Pennsylvania, he removed 
to Henderson, Kentucky, where he embarked 
in trade. In 1810 he made the acquaintance 
of the Scotch ornithologist Alexander Wilson, 
who was then prosecuting his own researches 
in the American wilderness, and accompanied 
him in his excursions. The next year Audubon 
visited the bayous of Florida, gathering with 
his rifle and pencil new subjects for study. In 
1824 he went to Philadelphia and New York, 
to make arrangements for the publication of 
the results of his labors ; and for the same pur- 
pose he sailed for England in 1826. He was 
everywhere received by learned societies and 
scientific men with the utmost cordiality and 
enthusiasm. Among his warmest admirers in 
Great Britain were Jeffrey, John Wilson, and 
Sir Walter Scott ; and in Paris, Cuvier, Geoft'roy 
St.-Hilaire, and Humboldt. Of the 170 sub- 
scribers at $1,000 each to his splendid volume, 
the "Birds of America," nearly one half camo 
from England and France. This volume was 
issued in numbers, containing five plates each, 
every object being of the size of life. By Nov. 
11, 1828, eleven numbers of the work had ap- 
peared, with nearly 100 plates. In 1829 he re- 
turned to the United States, where he gathered 
materials for a new work, which he termed 
his "Ornithological Biographies." In 1832 he 
made another visit to England, where in the 
course of two years the second volume of the 
" Birds of America " was published, and a sec- 
ond volume also of the " Ornithological Biog- 
raphies." In 1833, having returned for the 
last time to this country, he established him- 
self in a beautiful residence on the banks of 
the Hudson, near the city of New York, where 
he commenced a new edition of the " Birds of 
America," in imperial octavo. This was finished 
in seven volumes in 1844. During this interval 
Audubon exhibited in the hall of the New York 
lyceum of natural history a collection of his 
original drawings containing several thousand 
specimens of birds and animals, all of which 
had been gathered by his own hand, all drawn 
as large as life, and all represented in their 
natural habitats or localities. He next pro- 
jected a work on the " Quadrupeds of America," 
on the same imperial scale with that on the 
birds. For this purpose he began, in company 



AUENBRUGGER 



AUERSPERG 



105 



with his sons, Victor Gilford and John Wood- 
house, wlio both inherited much of bis talent 
as an artist as well as a naturalist^ a new 
course of travel. But the approach of old age 
induced his friends to dissuade him from the 
more toilsome expeditions which he thought 
necessary to complete this scheme. A great 
deal of the labor was performed for him by his 
friend Dr. Bachman, of Charleston, S. 0., and 
he was largely assisted in the other depart- 
ments by his sons. He died before the work 
was ended. His sons completed and published 
the "Quadrupeds of America," in folio and 
imperial octavo volumes, uniform with the two 
editions of the " Birds," but died without exe- 
cuting their cherished design of writing a biog- 
raphy of their father. Mrs. Audubon, now 
(1873) upward of 80 years of age, prepared, 
with the aid of a friend, a memoir which ap- 
peared in New York in 1869, entitled " The 
Life of John James Audubon the Naturalist," 
accompanied by a portrait after Henry Inman's 
well known picture, and a view of Audubon's 
residence. The work was also published in 
London. Audubon was a fellow of the Lin- 
noean and zoological societies of London, of the 
natural history society of Paris, of the Wer- 
nerian society of Edinburgh, of the lyceum of 
natural history at New York, and an honorary 
member of the society of natural history at 
Manchester, of the royal Scottish academy of 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, and of 
many other scientific bodies. 

AI KMSIU <.<;KK vo.\ AIEVBRIG (often called 

AVENBBDGGEB), Leopold, the inventor of the 
method of investigating internal diseases by 
percussion, borninGratz, Styria, Nov. 19, 1722, 
died in Vienna, May 18, 1809. He was physi- 
cian to the Spanish hospital in Vienna, and 
first made known his discovery in a treatise 
entitled Inventum Novum ex Percusiione Tho- 
racic Humani Interni Pectoris Morbos Dete- 
gendi (Vienna, 1761), which was translated into 
French by Roziere (1770), and again by Cor- 
visart (1808), and into English by Dr. John 
Forbes (1824.) (See AUSCULTATION.) 

\l Klti: U II, Berthold, a German author, of 
Jewish parentage, born at Nordstetten in the 
Black Forest, Feb. 28, 1812. He studied theol- 
ogy and jurisprudence at Tubingen, and phi- 
losophy and history at Munich and Berlin. His 
earliest historical novels treat of Judaism, as 
Spinoza (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1837), and Dichter 
und Kitnfmann (2 vols., 1839); and in 1841 
he published a German translation of Spinoza's 
works in 5 vols., with a highly appreciative 
biographical notice. Subsequently he became 
celebrated by his descriptions of German vil- 
lage life, remarkable for an abundance of phil- 
osophical reflections and poetical feeling, es- 
pecially by his Schwarzwalder Dorfgesehichten 
(-t vols., 1843-'54; English translation, "Black 
Forest Village Stories, " 1869) ; his popular polit- 
ical almanac, Der G-evattersmann (1845-'8; re- 
published in Schatzkaatlein des Gevattertmanns, 
1856) ; Schrift und Volk (1846) ; Neues Leben 



(1851) ; and still more by his SarfAssele (1856 ; 
English translation, "Little Barefoot," 1867); 
Joseph im ScJinee (I860 ; English translation, 
"Joseph in the Snow," 1867); Edelweiss 
(1861 ; English translation, 1869) ; Avf der 
Hohe (1865 ; English translation, " On the 
Heights," 1868) ; and Das Landhaus am Rhein 
(1869), of which there are several English 
translations under the titles of " Villa Eden " 
and "Villa on the Rhine." The tale, Die 
Frau Professorin (1848 ; English translation, 
"The Professor's Lady," new ed., 1871), used 
by Madame Birch-Pfeiffer in her drama, Dorf 
und Stadt, is regarded as one of his most 
characteristic works. A number of his tales 
were published in an English translation in 
1869 under the title of " German Stories," and 
in French in 1853 under that of Contes d 1 Auer- 
bach. There are various other translations 
from his works in English, French, Dutch, 
and Swedish. He has also written a tragedy, 
Andree Hofer (Leipsic, 1850), and a drama, 
Der Wahlspruch (1856), but they were not as 
successful as his tales. His principal political 
work is Tagebuch aus Wien (Breslau, 1849 ; 
English translation, " Events in Vienna," Lon- 
don, 1849). Since 1858 he has edited in Ber- 
lin a popular almanac, Deutscher VolksTcalen- 
der, and he chiefly resides in that city. A 
new edition of his complete works was pub- 
lished in Stuttgart in 1871. During the Franco- 
German war he accompanied for some time one 
of the German princes, and wrote letters for a 
German newspaper. 

AUERBACH, Heinrich, a medical professor and 
senator in Leipsic, born in 1482, died in 1543. 
His real name was Stromer, but he adopted 
the name of his native town, Auerbach, in Ba- 
varia, and in 1530 erected a large building in 
Grimma street, Leipsic, which is still known as 
the Auerbachshof. Auerbach was a friend of 
Luther, and when the discussions between the 
reformer and Eck took place at Leipsic, he of- 
fered to his friend the use of his house and 
table. A principal feature of the Auerbachs- 
hof is the cellar in which Luther drank, and 
out of which, according to popular tradition, 
Dr. Faust rode upon a barrel, an event illus- 
trated by a painting which still decorates the 
subterranean walls. 

AUERSPERG, Anton Alexander, count (popular- 
ly known as ANASTASIUS GBUN, his nom de 
plume), a German poet, born at Laybach, April 
11, 1806. He belongs to an ancient family 
which originated in Swabia, and subsequently 
settled in Carniola, where it acquired extensive 
estates. He early became prominent in the lib- 
eral party of Austria, was a member of the 
Frankfort preliminary parliament, and of the 
national assembly in the same city (1848), in 
which he was esteemed eloquent, and took a 
conspicuous part in the diet of Carniola from 
1861 to 1867, after which his ultra-German ten- 
dencies made his position in that assembly so 
unpleasant that he procured his election to 
the diet of Styria. Since 1861 he has been a 



106 



AUERSPERG 



AUGIER 



life member of the upper house of the Aus- 
trian Reichsrath, and in 1868 he was unani- 
mously chosen first president of the Cisleithan 
delegation. The degree of doctor of philoso- 
phy was conferred upon him in 1865, on oc- 
casion of the 500th anniversary of the univer- 
sity of Vienna. He holds a high rank among 
the lyrical and epic poets of Germany, espe- 
cially excelling as a humorist and a politi- 
cal satirist. Among his most renowned works 
are: Der letzte Bitter (Stuttgart, 1830; Eng- 
lish version by John O. Sargent, New York, 
1871), Spaziergange eines Wiener Poeten (Ham- 
burg, 1831), Schutt (Leipsic, 1835), and Oe- 
dichte (1837). 

Al ERSPERG, Carlos, prince, an Austrian states- 
man, born May 1, 1814. Thougn the head of 
the principal branch of his family, one of 
the oldest in the empire, he lived in retire- 
ment on his estates till the reestablishment of 
constitutional government by the imperial pat- 
ent of February, 1861. He was appointed by 
Schmerling president of the upper chamber of 
the Vienna Reichsrath, and has since in vari- 
ous capacities, in that assembly and as represen- 
tative of the Bohemian landed nobility at the 
diet of Prague, performed a very conspicuous 
part in defence of the constitutional system 
against clerical and feudal reaction, of the in- 
terests of the German nationality against the 
Czechs, and of the unity of the empire against 
federation. He readily accepted, however, 
the dualistic platform of 1867, and cooperated 
in establishing and maintaining the new order 
of things in Austro-Hungary. Early in 1868 
he became president of the so-called " citizens' 
cabinet" in Cisleithan Austria, but the trans- 
actions of Count Beust, the imperial chancellor, 
with the Czechs obliged him to retire in the 
autumn of the same year. He remained in 
opposition during the administrations of Count 
Potocki and Hohenwart, and is now (1873) a 
zealous supporter of the liberal cabinet headed 
by his brother Adolph (born July 21, 1821). 

AlERSTADT, a village of Thuringia, in the 
Prussian province of Saxony, 10 m. W. of 
Naumburg, famous for Davoust's great victory 
over the Prussian army under the duke of 
Brunswick on the same day on which Napo- 
leon defeated the main army of Frederick Wil- 
liam III. at Jena, Oct. 14, 1806. Davoust, 
with 35,000 men, beat 50,000, and Napoleon 
made him duke of Auerstadt. (See JENA.) 

AUGEiS, or Anglas, a mythical king of Elis, 
the cleansing of whose stables was one of the 
12 labors of Hercules. (See HEECULES.) When 
the hero demanded the stipulated reward, Au- 
geas refused to give it to him ; whereupon Her- 
cules slew him and all his sons save Phyleus, 
whom he made king in the room of his father. 

AUGER. See BOEING. 

AIGEREAU, Pierre Francis Charles, duke of 
Castiglione, a French soldier, born in 1757, 
died in June, 1816. At an early age he entered 
the Neapolitan army, in which he continued a 
private until he was 30 years old, when he set- 



tled at Naples, and gained his livelihood by 
teaching fencing, until, being suspected of rev- 
olutionary principles, he was ordered to quit 
Italy. Entering the French republican army 
of the south, he rose rapidly from grade to 
grade, merely by intrepidity, for he had no 
military genius. His numerous and contemp- 
tible vices made him everywhere hated, but he 
had great physical courage. In 1794 he was 
made brigadier general in the army of the east- 
ern Pyrenees, and afterward general of divi- 
sion. Oft the peace with Spain he was ap- 
pointed to the army of Italy, and served in 
all its campaigns under Bonaparte. By his 
charge at Lodi he decided the victory, and he 
still more distinguished himself by storming 
the position of Castiglione (1796). On the 
overthrow of the directory, on the 18th 
Fructidor (1797), he expected the succession 
to one of the expelled directors; but being 
disappointed, he affected the severe republican, 
and on Bonaparte's return from Egypt held 
aloof from him until after the revolution of 
Brumaire (1798). Shortly after the establish- 
ment of the empire he was rewarded with the 
baton of a marshal, and created duke of Casti- 
glione (1805). He fought bravely in the wars 
with Austria and Prussia (1805 and 1806), es- 
pecially at Jena. At Eylau (1807), when so ill 
that he could hardly sit upright, he compelled 
his servants to tie him to his saddle, and thus 
led his column into the fight. Being wounded, 
however, he was compelled to fall back, his 
men were thrown into disorder, and Napoleon 
unjustly sent him home in disgrace. In 1810 
he served in Spain, and in 1813 distinguished 
himself at Leipsic ; and when France was in- 
vaded in 1814, he was intrusted with the 
defence of Lyons, which he pledged himself 
to maintain to the last; but failing through 
want of means to make good his word, he was 
again unjustly disgraced. While in retirement 
at Valence, a proclamation appeared in his 
name stigmatizing the emperor as "an odious 
despot, and a mean coward, who knew not 
how to die as becomes a soldier;" and al- 
though the authenticity of the document has 
been denied by his defenders, Napoleon believ- 
ed in it. On the way to Elba, Napoleon met 
his ex-marshal, on the road near Valence ; and 
both descending from their carriages, an inter- 
view followed, which terminated in an alterca- 
tion. Angereau gave in his adhesion to Louis 
XVIIL, received the cross of St. Louis and 
the command of the 14th division, and was 
appointed a peer of France. On the return 
of Napoleon from Elba, he remained inactive 
until the emperor was actually in Paris, when 
he would have returned to his party, but Na- 
poleon would not trust him. On the second 
restoration of the Bourbons, he would again 
have made his peace with the king; but finding 
no encouragement, he retired to his seat at La 
Houssaye, where he died. 

AIMER, Gnlllanme Victor Kniilo, a French 
playwright, born in Valence, Sept. 17, 1820. 



AUGITE 



AUGSBURG 



107 



He produced his first play, La eigue, in 1844. 
His comedy Gabrielle (1849) placed b^m at the 
head of the so-called common-sense school of 
dramatists. Many of his subsequent comedies 
were of a lower tone, hut more brilliant. 
Among the most successful are : Le gendre de 
M. Poirier (jointly with M. Sardou, 1855), 
Le mariage (TOlympe (1855), Lea effrontei 
(1861), and Maitre Guerin (1864). He suc- 
ceeded Salvandy as member of the French acad- 
emy, Jan. 2, 1858. 

Al'GITK, a mineral species synonymous with 
pyroxene ; also used by Prof. Dana to designate 
a section or group of species of the class of anhy- 
drous silicates. (See PYROXENE.) 

Al I.LAI/K, a W. county of Ohio ; area, 399 
q. m. ; pop. in 1870, 20,041. The Miami canal 
and the Dayton and Michigan railroad pass 
through the county. Near the western boun- 



dary is a reservoir 9 m. long, formed to supply 
the canal, and occupying the most elevated 
site between the channel of the Ohio river and 
Lake Erie. It is drained in part by Auglaize 
river, a tributary of the Maumee at Defiance. 
The surface is nearly level, well wooded, and 
the soil is good. In 1870 the county produced 
269,756 bushels of wheat, 13,046 of rye, 245,- 
277 of oats, 34,584 of barley, 379,015 of Indian 
corn, 14,694 tons of hay, 76,650 ibs. of wool, 
and 246,085 of butter. There were 29,678 
sheep and 18,867 hogs. Capital, Wapakoneta. 
AUGSBURG, a city of Bavaria, situated be- 
tween the rivers Wertach and Lech, at their 
confluence, 83 m. N. AT. of Munich ; pop. in 
1871, 51,284. It is one of the most ancient 
German cities. Augustus, having conquered 
the Vindelicians in 12 B. 0., established there 
a colony called Augusta Vindelicorum, on a 




Augsburg. 



spot, according to some, already inhabited and 
called Damasia. The Huns destroyed it in the 
5th century ; and during the wars between 
Thassilo, duke of Bavaria, and Charlemagne, 
it suffered much. In 1276, having become 
rich by trade and industry, the city bought 
its freedom from the duke of Swabia. Its 
prosperity increased continually. It was the 
principal emporium for the trade between 
northern Europe, the countries on the Medi- 
terranean, and the East, previous to the dis- 
covery of America and the doubling of the 
Cape of Good Hope. Its merchants, includ- 
ing the celebrated Fuggers, possessed vessels 
on all the seas then known. Its greatest 
prosperity was toward the end of the loth 
and the first part of the 16th century. The 
arts had here their focus, and the Holbeins 
and other names known in the history of Ger- 



man art belonged to it. After the war against 
the league of Smalcald the decline of Augsburg 
began. Here on June 25, 1530, the Protestant 
princes submitted to Charles V. the confession 
of their faith, which bears in history the name 
of the "Confession of Augsburg." In 1555 
the religious peace between that emperor and 
the Protestants was concluded here. At the 
dissolution of the German empire, Augsburg 
lost its privileges as a free city, and was incor- 
porated with Bavaria. It is now the capital of 
the circle of Swabia and Neuburg, and is the 
seat of various superior administrative, judicial, 
and clerical boards. In Augsburg is published 
the Allgemeine Zeitung, one of the foremost 
political and literary journals of the world, issued 
by the great publishing house of Cotta. The city 
possesses a large public library, which is in- 
creasing daily. The collection of various manu- 



108 AUGSBURG CONFESSION 



AUGURS 



scripts, records, and official documents in the 
archives of the city, is of great importance, 
chiefly for the history of the reformation. In 
1870 there were 10 book-printing establish- 
ments, 34 publishing houses, 5 great cotton 
factories, 74 breweries, and manufactories of 
gold and silver wares, machinery, paper, &c. 
Among the new public buildings is a syna- 
gogue opened in 1867. Augsburg is a consid- 
erable commercial and financial centre, having 
24 bankers. The history of the ancient free 
city is contained in vols. iv. and v. of the Chro- 
niken der deutachen St&dte (Leipsic, 1865-'7). 

VI t;sitl K<; CONFESSION, the first Protestant 
confession of faith, and the basis of the present 
faith in Protestant Germany. Charles V., soon 
after his accession to the throne of Germany, 
eummoned Luther to the diet of Worms (1521), 
and afterward issued an edict of outlawry 
against him and his adherents. But the insur- 
rection in Castile and the war with France and 
Italy called him away. The edict of outlawry 
was inefficiently enforced, and the influence of 
the Lutherans was permitted to increase dur- 
ing the nine years of the emperor's absence. 
The diet of Spire (1529) had issued a decree 
for the purpose of conciliating the Lutherans 
by a proposed Roman Catholic reform, and 
uniting them against the Sacramentarians and 
Anabaptists. The Lutherans protested (hence 
Protestants), and made an unsuccessful effort 
to unite with Zwingli. At this juncture the 
emperor returned (1530). The German princes 
and estates were summoned to convene in diet 
at Augsburg in June. The summons called for 
aid against the Turks, making no reference to 
the religious difficulties of the kingdom, fur- 
ther than to promise at no distant time a 
speedy adjustment of them. On the 25th of 
the month a confession, prepared by Melanch- 
thon and approved by Luther, was read in the 
diet. Two days later it was delivered to the 
Roman Catholic theologians for a reply. This 
was read in the diet on the 3d of August fol- 
lowing, and called forth from Melanchthon a 
defence (Apologia Confessionis), which was 
afterward enlarged and published in Latin, and 
then in German. The object of the Augsburg 
Confession was not attained, and the edict of 
the emperor (Sept. 22) gave the Lutherans until 
the following April to bring themselves into 
conformity with the requirements of the church, 
and demanded their cooperation with the throne 
against the Zwinglians and Anabaptists. The 
Augsburg Confession and Melanchthon's de- 
fence were generally circulated in western Eu- 
rope, and became a rallying point among the 
reformers. About 1540 Melanchthon made 
some important changes in the Confession. 
This form, known as the Confenio variata (the 
" altered Confession "), was received until 1580, 
when the Confessio intariata (the " unaltered 
Confession ") was formally adopted as the stan- 
dard of the Lutheran churches. The Augsburg 
Confession comprises two parts, besides the 
appended Apologia, or defence. Part I. com- 



prises 21 articles, of the contents of which the 
following is an abstract : 1 treats of God and the 
Trinity, in accordance with the Nicene creed ; 
2 asserts that all men since the fall are born 
with sin ; 3 treats of the person and mediation of 
Christ, in accordance with the Apostles' creed. 
4. Justification is the effect of faith, exclusive 
of good works. 5. The Word of God and the 
sacraments are the means of conveying the 
Holy Spirit, but never without faith. 6. Faith 
must produce good works, but not to merit 
justification. 7. The true church consists only 
of the godly. 8. Sacraments are valid though 
the administrators are evil. 9. Infant baptism 
is necessary. 10. The real presence in the 
eucharist exists only during the period of re- 
ceiving ; the sacrament to be received in both 
kinds. 11. Absolution is necessary, but not 
particular confession. 12 is against the Ana- 
baptists. 13. All who receive the sacraments 
must have actual faith. 14. No one can teach 
in the church or administer the sacraments 
without having been lawfully called. 15. Holy 
days and church ceremonies to be observed. 
16. Of civil matters and marriage. 17. Of the 
resurrection, last judgment, heaven, and hell. 
18. Of free will. 19. God is not the author 
of sin. 20. Good works are not wholly un- 
profitable. 21 forbids the invocation of saints. 
Part II. comprises seven articles : 1 enjoins 
communion in both kinds, and forbids the car- 
rying out of the sacramental elements ; 2 con- 
demns the law for the celibacy of priests ; 3 
condemns private masses, and directs that some 
of the congregation shall always cominunicate 
with the priest ; 4 denies the necessity of 
auricular confession; 5 is against tradition 
and human ceremonies ; 6 condemns monastic 
vows ; 7 discriminates between civil and reli- 
gious power, the power of the church consist- 
ing only in preaching and administering the 
sacraments. The Apologia consists of 16 arti- 
cles, treating of original sin, justification by 
faith, fulfilment of the law, penitence, repent- 
ance, confession, satisfaction, sacraments, ordi- 
nances, invocation of saints, communion in both 
kinds, celibacy, monastic vows, and ecclesias- 
tical jurisdiction.- Gieseler's "Church His- 
tory," edited by Prof. II. B. Smith, vol. iv., p. 
432 (New York, 1861), furnishes a summary of 
documents relating to the Augsburg Confession. 

AL'GUR, Hezeklah, an American sculptor, born 
in New Haven, Conn., Feb. 21, 1791, died 
there, Jan. 10, 1858. In early life he produced 
several works of statuary, of which his " Jeph- 
thah and his Daughter," in the Trumbull gal- 
lery of Yale college, is the best. In addition 
to his skill as a sculptor, he possessed much 
mechanical genius. His most celebrated achieve- 
ment is his invention of the carving machine, 
which is at the present day in general and 
successful operation. 

U I.I KS. diviners among the Romans. The 
practice of divination flourished in Chaldea 
and Egypt ; from the latter country it passed 
to Greece, whence the Romans received it 



AUGUST 



AUGUSTA 



109 



In Greece and Rome astrology proper ceased 
to have the importance in augury which it had 
maintained in Chaldea, while, as lite word 
augury (avigerium) itself would indicate, the 
preeminence had been given to omens taken 
from the flight of birds. Both among the 
Greeks and Romans much of the art of augury 
depended on the cardinal points of the com- 
pass. The Greek augurs always faced the 
north, while the Roman augurs faced the 
south. Omens in the east were generally 
lucky, while those in the west were unlucky. 
Hence the Greek had his right hand synony- 
mous with good fortune, the Roman originally 
his left. Later in Roman history, however, 
sinister (left) became a synonyme for bad for- 
tune, and dexter (right) for good. Auguries were 
made both from the flight and cries of birds. 
Lightning was also observed by the augurs, as 
well as other striking phenomena, such as 
meteors, winds, and eclipses. The direction 
in which a bird flew, the crowing of a cock, 
the line of the electric flash, and the manner 
in which a cooped chicken picked his corn, 
were prominent augurial elements. Some even 
more trivial and accidental occurrences were 
reckoned ominous, such as an animal crossing 
one's path, a fit of sneezing or sudden melan- 
choly, the spilling of salt on the table, or of 
wine upon one's clothes. The power of the 
Greek and Roman augurs was very great. 
They held their offices for life, regardless of 
character. In Rome they were at first three 
in number, and were chosen one from each of 
the three tribes of the patricians. They were 
elected by the comitia euriata, a patrician as- 
sembly, until the Ogulnian law (300 B. C.) 
admitted the plebeians and enlarged the num- 
ber of augurs, then four, to nine, subsequent- 
ly increased to 15. Every election had to 
bo ratified by the college itself. This original 
power of veto afterward resulted in the usur- 
pation by the college of the right to elect 
its own members by cooptation (452 B. 0.), 
which right they retained, with the exception 
of the first election of plebeian augurs, for 
348 years, until the passage of the Domitian 
law (104), which removed the power of elec- 
tion to the tribes. The most authoritative 
enactments of the comitia were repeatedly an- 
nulled by the entrance of an augur into the 
assembly, pronouncing the words Alia die 
("On another day"). The order of augurs 
gradually declined after the admission of the 
plebeian element, until it was abolished, with 
paganism in general, by Theodosius the Great, 
about A. D. 390. 

AUGUST, the 8th month of the year, derived 
from the Roman calendar. The Romans called 
it originally Sextilis, or the 6th month of their 
year, which began with March. Julius Caesar 
made it 30 days in length, and Augustus in- 
creased it to 31. As it was the month in 
which Augustus Csesar had entered upon his 
first consulship, had celebrated three triumphs 
in the city, had received the allegiance of the 



soldiers who occupied the Janiculum, had sub- 
dued Egypt, and put an end to civil war, the 
senate, in order to flatter him, changed the 
name of the month to Augustus, in the same 
way that Quinctilis had been changed to 
Julius under Julius Caesar. The Flemings and 
Germans have adopted the word August to 
signify harvest. Thus oogst maend (Flemish) 
is the harvest month; so the German Augst- 
wagen, a harvest wagon ; and the Dutch 
oogsten, to gather corn from the field. The 
Spaniards use the verb agostar, to gather in 
harvest; and the French and Spaniards have 
the phrases faire Paotit and hacer su augusta, 
to signify harvesting. The Saxons in Britain 
named August the weed month. The old Ger- 
mans named it Weinkoch, the wine-press month. 

AUGUST FRIEDRICH EBERHAKD, prince of 
Wilrtemberg, uncle of King Charles I., a Prus- 
sian general of cavalry, born Jan. 24, 1813. He 
entered the Prussian service in 1830, became 
in 1858 commanding general of the Prussian 
guards, and took part in the wars against Aus- 
tria (1866) and France (1870), favorable men- 
tion of his name being made in the reports of 
the battles of Gravelotte and Sedan. 

AUGUST WILHELM, prince of Prussia, brother 
of Frederick the Great, and general of the 
Prussian army, born in Berlin in 1722, died in 
1758. He took an active part in the Silesian 
campaigns, and distinguished himself at the 
battle of Hohenfriedberg (June, 1745) ; but 
in the seven years' war, owing to the fatal 
retreat of Zittau in 1756, he incurred the dis- 
pleasure of his brother, and withdrew from 
the army. This conflict between the two 
brothers led to a corresp'ondence, which was 
published in 1769. 

AUGUSTA, a N. W. county of Virginia, border- 
ing on West Virginia and the Blue Ridge ; 
area, 900 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 28,763, of 
whom 6,737 were colored. It was distin- 
guished for its loyalty to the revolutionary 
cause, for which it was commended by Wash- 
ington. The surface is elevated and uneven; 
the soil, which is drained by the sources of the 
Shenandoah and James rivers, is calcareous, 
and one of the most fertile in the state. In 
1870 the county produced 463,276 bushels of 
wheat, 29,835 of rye, 280,380 of Indian corn, 
234,492 of oats, 19,671 tons of hay, 23,291 Ibs. 
of wool, and 353,335 of butter. The quantity 
of hay was greater than in any other county of 
the state, and of wheat and butter than in any 
other except Loudon. Fine limestone under- 
lies much of the surface. The celebrated 
Weyer's or Wier's cave, Madison cave, and 
the Chimneys are in this county. Capital, 
Staunton. 

AUGUSTA, a city of Maine, capital of the state 
and of Kennebec county, situated at the head 
of sloop navigation on the Kennebec river, 43 
m. from its mouth, 63 m. by railroad N. N. E, 
of Portland, 72 ra. S.W. of Bangor, and 171 
m. N. N. E. of Boston ; pop. in 1860, 7,609 ; in 
1870, 7,808. The city lies on both sides of the 



110 



AUGUSTA 



river, which is spanned by a bridge 520 ft. 
long. It is well laid out, and has many hand- 
some buildings and a great abundance of shade 
trees and shrubbery. The state house, built 
of white granite, is considered the handsomest 
in New England except that of Montpelier, 
Vt. ; the court house is the best and most con- 
venient in the state ; and the Maine insane 
asylum is a splendid granite structure, over- 
looking a landscape of peculiar beauty. The 
United States arsenal is on the E. side of the 
river. Just above the city a dam 1,000 ft. 
long provides an immense water power, while 
canals at the E. end render the river navigable 
N. of Augusta. The Maine Central railroad 
(Augusta division) runs through the city. There 
are 8 churches, 7 hotels, 5 newspapers (1 daily 
and 4 weekly), 3 banks, and 2 savings institu- 
tions. Lumber forms the chief manufacturing 
interest. An extensive cotton factory has re- 
cently been erected here. 

AUGUSTA, a city of Georgia, capital of Rich- 
mond county, at the head of navigation on the 
Savannah river, 132 m. by railroad N. N. W. 
of the city of Savannah, and 137 m. N. W. 
of Charleston, S. C. ; pop. in 1860, 12,493, of 
whom 4,049 were colored ; in 1870, 15,386, of 
whom 6,390 were colored. It was laid out in 
1735, and became an important point in mili- 
tary operations during the revolutionary war, 
being alternately in the possession of the royal 
troops and the Americans. The city was in- 
corporated in 1798, and the chief magistrate 
bore the appellation of intendant until 1818, 
when the first mayor was elected. The city 
is very handsomely laid out on an extended 
plain on the W. bank of the Savannah river, 
with wide streets crossing each other at right 
angles. The principal business thoroughfare, 
Broad street, is 2 m. long and 165 ft. wide. 
Greene street, the most beautiful in the city, is 
168 ft. wide, and has a row of stately shade 
trees on either side along its entire length. 
The principal buildings are the city hall, ma- 
sonic hall, odd fellows' hall, and the opera 
house. The city hall was completed in 1824 
at a cost of $100,000. In front of it stands a 
granite monument 45 ft. high, erected by the 
city in 1849 to the memory of Hall, Gwinnett, 
and Walton, signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. An orphan asylum, 178 ft. by 78, 
is building at a cost of $150,000. The medical 
college of Georgia, situated here, in 1868 had 
8 professors, 97 students, and a library of 4,000 
volumes. The city water works were com- 
pleted at a heavy cost in 1861. The water is 
drawn from the canal and forced into a tank 
holding 185,000 gallons in a cylindrical brick 
tower standing 115 ft. above the general level 
of the city. The Augusta canal, 9 m. long, 
brings the waters of the Savannah river near 
the city, some 40 ft. above the level, and thus 
affords inexhaustible power for factories. Chief 
among these is the "Augusta Factory," with 
508 looms, employing 500 hands and producing 
in 1871 8,527,728 yards of cloth. There are 5 



extensive flouring mills, which in 1871 con- 
sumed about 409,000 bushels of corn and 
wheat. In 1871 the city contained 6 banks, 4 
founderies (besides the extensive foundery and 
machine shops of the Georgia railroad), 2 to- 
bacco factories, 4 hotels, 21 churches (8 ef 
which are for colored people), 2 academies, an 
arsenal, several hospitals, and many benevo- 
lent societies. There were 700 white and 500 
colored pupils enrolled in the public schools. 
There are 2 daily newspapers, 2 weekly, 1 
semi-monthly, and 1 monthly published here. 
In 1869 the assessed value of real estate, ex- 
elusive of the Augusta factory property, was 
$6,300,000, and in 1871, $6,593,420. For the 
year ending April 1, 1869, the sales of cotton 
amounted to $8,246,867, and for the year end- 
ing April 1, 1871, $11,575,846. The bonded 
debt of the city on Jan. 1, 1871, was $1,355,- 
250, while the assets amounted to $1,302,610. 
Augusta has railroad communication with all 
the leading markets of the country. The Cen- 
tral railroad extends from Augusta to Savan- 
nah and Macon ; the Charlotte, Columbia, and 
Augusta, from Augusta to Charlotte, N. C., 
via Columbia, S. C., being an important link 
in the great short passenger route between 
New York and New Orleans ; the main line of 
the Georgia railroad extends from Augusta to 
Atlanta, with branches to Washington, War- 
renton, and Athens. The Macon and Augusta 
railroad affords connection with the former 
city, and the South Carolina railroad connects 
Augusta with Charleston, Columbia, and Cam- 
den, and with the Wilmington and Manchester 
railroad at Kingville. Several other railroads 
are projected, the most important of which is 
the Port Royal railroad to Port Royal, S. C., a 
distance of 110 m., which will give Augusta a 
shorter route to the seaboard. The arsenal at 
Augusta was seized by the confederate authori- 
ties Jan. 24, 1861. 

ACGl'STA, John, a Bohemian theologian, born 
in Prague in 1500, died Jan. 13, 1575. He 
studied theology at the school of Waclaw Ko- 
randa. On the death of this master Augusta 
went to Wittenberg, and entered into close 
communion with Luther and Melanchthon. He 
became later bishop of the Bohemian Brethren, 
brought about an agreement between that sect 
and the Protestants, and induced the Brethren 
to refuse their cooperation to Ferdinand I. in 
the Smalcaldic war against the Protestants ; a 
contumacy which Ferdinand avenged after the 
war was over by banishing the whole sect and 
arresting the principal preachers. Augusta, 
who had attempted to escape in the garb of a 
peasant, was taken in chains to Prague, and 
thrown into prison. He was offered his liberty 
on condition of making public recantation and 
becoming either a Catholic or a Utraquist. He 
was ready to profess himself a Utraquist, but 
not to recant in public, and he accordingly re- 
mained in prison 16 years. The death of Fer- 
dinand (1564) released him, but he was obliged 
to promise not to preach again. 



AUGUSTA HISTORIA 



AUGUSTIN 



111 



AUGUSTA HISTORIA, the name gwen to a 
series of Roman biographers of the ?mperors 
from the accession of Hadrian (117) to the 
death of Carinus (385), the predecessor of Dio- 
cletian. The writers included in this collection 
are /Elins Spartianus, Julius Capitolinns, ./Elius 
Latnpridius, Vulcatius Gallicanus, Trebellius 
Pollio, and Flavius Vopiscus of Syracuse. Some 
editors have included others, as Eutropius and 
Paulus Diaconus. There is a break in the Au- 
r/'tnta Hiatoria in the absence of the lives of 
Philippus, Deems, and Gallus. The Bipontine 
edition is the best. 

AUGUSTA, Maria Louisa Catharine, empress of 
Germany and queen of Prussia, born in Wei- 
mar, Sept. 30, 1811. She is the daughter of 
the grand duke Charles Frederick of Saxe- 
Weimar (died July 8, 1853), and her mother 
(died June 23, 1859) was a daughter of Paul I., 
emperor of Russia. She was brought up at 
the court of her grandfather Charles Augustus, 
the friend of Goethe, who speaks in one of his 
letters of the " many-sided and harmonious cul- 
ture of the princess Augusta." Her elder sis- 
ter Maria married Prince Charles of Prussia, 
and she married the prince's brother, the pres- 
ent Emperor William, June 11, 1829. She 
attended personally to the education of her 
two children, the present crown prince and 
the princess Louisa, since 1856 grand duchess 
of Baden. She is much respected for her love 
of science, letters, and art, and for her benevo- 
lent disposition, displayed especially in 1870-'71 
in labors for the relief of the wounded soldiers. 
In 1872 she founded at Charlottenburg a semi- 
nary for the education of orphan daughters of 
officers who fell in the war, and has designed 
buildings for the poor in Berlin after the plan 
of those of Mr. Peabody in London. 

AUGUSTAN AGE, the Roman literary epoch 
which culminated in the reign of Augustus 
Csesar. During this period Cicero, Horace, 
Ovid, Virgil, Catullus, Tibullus, and other writ- 
trs flourished; also great patrons of literature 
like Maecenas. The purest Latinity belongs to 
the authors of the Augustan age. In English 
literature it was common in the last century to 
apply the phrase " Augustan age of English lit- 
erature " to the times of Addison, Steele, Swift, 
and Defoe, and the writers during the reign of 
Queen Anne. The gitcle (CAvgwteof French 
literature is the latter years of the reign of 
Louis XIV. This metaphor has no modern ap- 
plication beyond the literature of France and 
England. 

AUGUSTEXBURG, a village on the formerly 
Danish and now German island of Alsen; pop. 
about 500. It grew up round the palace of the 
same name, built in 1651 by Duke Ernst Gun- 
ther, and rebuilt in the latter part of the 
18th century on a magnificent scale by Fried- 
rich Christian the elder, duke of Schleswig- 
Holstein-Sonderburg-Aufrnstenburg, whose son 
Christian August (bom July 9, 1708, died May 
28, 1810) was in 1810 adopted by the childless 
King Charles XIII. of Sweden, and was suc- 
60 VOL. ii. 8 



ceeded by Bernadotte as crown prince. The 
male lineage of the ancient royal Holstein-Den- 
mark dynasty became extinct in 1863, and its 
female lineage has since been known as the Hol- 
stein-Sonderburg family, the present king of 
Denmark belonging to the junior or Schleswig- 
Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg branch, and 
the dukes of Augustenburg to the senior or 
Schleswig-Holstein - Sonderburg -Augustenburg 
branch. Prominent among the latter was Chris- 
tian Karl Friedrich August (born July 19, 1798, 
died March 11, 1869). His father was the duke 
Friedrich Christian the younger, and his 
mother was a daughter of Christian VII. of 
Denmark. He sold his hereditary estates to 
Denmark in 1852, and in 1863 relinquished his 
claims to the succession in the duchies of 
Schleswig and Holstein, which were unsuccess- 
fully revived during the Schleswig-Holstein 
war by his elder son Friedrich Christian Au- 
gust (born July 6, 1829), who has since the 
annexation of his former possessions to Prussia 
chiefly resided in Gotha. His eldest son, Au- 
gust, was born in 1858. 

AUGUST!, Johann Christian Wilhelm, a German 
theologian, born at Eschenberg, in Gotha, about 
1772, died in Coblentz in 1841. He studied 
at Jena, became professor of philosophy and 
oriental languages in that university, was ap- 
pointed professor of theology in 1812 at Bres- 
lau and in 1819 at Bonn, and some years later 
was placed at the head of the ecclesiastical 
affairs of the Rhenish province of Prussia as 
director of the consistory of Coblentz. The 
most important of his numerous works is the 
Denkwurdiglceiten aus der christlichen Archa- 
ologie(\1 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1817-'31). As an 
oriental scholar he was eminent. In doctrine 
he was an orthodox Lutheran. 

AUGCSTIN, or Austin, Saint, archbishop of 
Canterbury, sometimes called the apostle of the 
English, born probably in the first half of the 
6th century, died at Canterbury between 604 
and 614. He was a Benedictine monk in the 
monastery of St. Andrew at Rome, when he 
was selected by Pope Gregory I. with other 
monks to convert the Saxons of England to 
Christianity. He landed in the dominions of 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, in 596 or 597, and 
was hospitably received and allowed to preach 
to the people, although the king himself firm- 
ly refused to forsake the gods of his fathers. 
The influence of his wife, a Christian princess, 
aided by the preaching of Augustin, finally pre- 
vailed, and Ethelbert was baptized, after which 
the efforts of the missionaries were crowned 
with complete success throughout the whole 
Saxon heptarchy. The ascetic habits of Au- 
gustin and his brethren, a reputation for mirac- 
ulous power in the restoration of sight and even 
of life, the example of the king, and the fact 
that the southern races of Europe which had 
embraced Christianity were far before them in 
civilization and prosperity, made a deep im- 
pression upon the Saxon people, never very 
devotedly attached to their national religion, 



112 



AUGUSTINE 



and their conversion seems to have been gen- 
eral ; it is said that 10,000 persons were bap- 
tized in a single day. Their temples were 
dedicated to the new faith and used as churches, 
and many of their rude festivals were converted 
into religious feasts, without losing their origi- 
nal social character. Augustin, it is said, al- 
lowed no coercive measures to be used in prop- 
agating the gospel. His success caused him to 
be appointed by the pope archbishop of Canter- 
bury, with supreme authority over the churches 
of England. The see of York was soon after- 
ward established, and a number of other bish- 
oprics. Augustin wished to establish conform- 
ity of religious customs over the whole of Brit- 
ain, and for that purpose appointed several 
conferences with the British bishops of Wales, 
who were successors of converts of the 2d cen- 
tury, and had declared their independence of 
the church of Rome. The conferences, how- 
ever, failed of any result. A number of Welsh 
monks were soon after put to death, and Au- 
gustin has been charged with the deed, but on 
no very good authority. His relics were pre- 
served in the cathedral at Canterbury. 

AUGUSTINE (AtJEELius AUGUSTINUS), Saint, 
a doctor of the Latin church, born at Tagaste, 
a small town of Numidia in Africa, not far 
from Carthage, Nov. 13, 354, died Aug. 28, 
430. His father, Patricius, was a pagan noble- 
man of moderate fortune, while his mother, 
Monica, who has been canonized by the church, 
was an earnest Christian. Augustine was sent 
to the best schools of Madaura and Carthage. 
His own " Confessions " tell us that his con- 
duct at this period of his life was far from 
exemplary. His studies, chiefly in the heathen 
poets, were more favorable to the develop- 
ment of his fancy and his style than to his 
Christian growth. The death of his father, 
which threw him upon his own resources, and 
the influence of some philosophical works, es- 
pecially the Hortensius of Cicero, roused him 
to a diligent search after Jruth. Unable to 
find this in the writings of the Greek and Ro- 
man sages, and dissatisfied with what seemed 
to him the crude and fragmentary teachings 
of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, he 
adopted the dualism of the Manichans. At 
the age of 29 he went to Rome. There his repu- 
tation as a teacher of eloquence soon rivalled 
that of Symmachus, then at the height of his 
renown. On the recommendation of that ora- 
tor, he was called to Milan as a teacher of 
rhetoric. Ambrose was then bishop of Milan, 
and Augustine's first care was to know so 
famous a preacher. After repeated interviews 
with Ambrose, the conversion of his own ille- 
gitimate son, and the entreaties of his mother, 
he resolved to embrace Christianity. The history 
of his conversion forms the most striking chap- 
ter in his " Confessions." After eight months 
of seclusion, which he spent with his mother 
and brother and son, preparing for his confir- 
mation in the church, and maturing his plans 
for the future, Augustine in the Easter week 



of 387 was baptized, together with his son and 
brother, by the hand of Ambrose. He at once 
set out on his return to Africa. On the way 
his mother died, and a small chapel among the 
ruins of Ostia marks the traditional spot of her 
burial. The death of his son, which took place 
soon after his return, confirmed his inclination 
to the monastic life. He retired to Tagaste, and 
passed nearly three years in studious seclusion, 
varied only by occasional visits to the neigh- 
boring towns. On one of these visits, when 
he was present at the church in Hippo, a ser- 
mon which the bishop Valerius delivered, ask- 
ing for a priest to assist him in his church," 
turned all eyes toward this famous scholar. 
No refusals were allowed, and Augustine was 
ordained. Preaching was soon added to his 
duties, an exception being made in his case to 
the usual rule, and the periods of the African 
orator, in harsh Latin or the harsher Punic 
tongue, were received with vehement applause. 
He was soon called to be assistant bishop, and 
then, on the death of the elder prelate, the 
whole charge of the church of Hippo was in- 
trusted to his care. He retained the office un- 
til his death, a period of 35 years. The details 
of his episcopal life are minutely related by his 
friend Possidius. He preached every day and 
sometimes twice in the day ; was frugal in his 
domestic arrangements, being a strict ascetic, 
and requiring of his attendant priests and dea- 
cons an equal simplicity of diet and dress; 
given to hospitality, yet without display; 
warmly interested in every kind of charity; 
courteous in his bearing, welcoming even in- 
fidels to his table ; bold against all wickedness 
and wrong, whatever the rank of the trans- 
gressor; and untiring in his visits to widows 
and orphans, to the sick and the afflicted. 
He disputed with Manichojans, Arians, the 
followers of Priscillian, of Origen, and Tertul- 
lian, the Donatists, and the Pelagians, and al- 
lowed no doubtful utterance of doctrine to pass 
without his questioning. To his industry in 
controversy must be added his vast corre- 
spondence with emperors, nobles, doctors, mis- 
sionaries, bishops, in every quarter of the globe, 
on questions of dogma, of discipline, and of 
policy his solid works of commentary, criti- 
cism, morality, philosophy, and theology, and 
even his poetry, for to him are attributed sev- 
eral of the sweetest hymns of the Catholic an- 
thology. The titles alone of the works of Au- 
gustine make a long catalogue. The single 
volume of " Sermons " contains nearly 700 
pieces, shorter indeed and less ornate than the 
celebrated sermons of Basil and Chrysostom, 
but justifying Augustine's reputation for sa- 
cred oratory. The volume of "Commenta- 
ries on the P.salms " is more rich in practical 
remarks than in accurate learning. His re- 
marks upon the "Four Gospels" are more 
valuable. His work on the " Care that should 
be taken for the Dead" contains some striking 
views concerning the relation of the living to 
disembodied souls. The volume of his "Epis- 



AUGUSTINE 



AUGUSTOWO 



113 



ties" is remarkable, as illustrating his best 
style and the finest traits in his chardfcter. The 
name of Augustine, in the dogmatic history of 
the church, is best known in connection with 
the heresy of Pelagius ; but his works which 
are most widely known are the " Confessions " 
and " The City of God." In the former, writ- 
ten just after his conversion, he gives a history 
of his life up to that time, not so much in its 
outward circumstance as in its inward expe- 
rience and change. It has been translated into 
every Christian tongue, and is classed with the 
choicest memorials of devotion, both in Catho- 
lic and Protestant oratories. His treatise on 
" The City of God " (De Civitate Dei) is the 
monument of highest genius in the ancient 
church, and in its kind has never been surpassed. 
Its immediate purpose was to vindicate the 
faith of the gospel against the pagans, who had 
just devastated Rome. The first five books 
confute the heathen thesis that the worship of 
the ancient gods is essential to human pros- 
perity, and that miseries have only come since 
the decline of this worship. The five following 
books refute those who maintain that the wor- 
ship of pagan deities is useful for the spiritual 
life. The remaining twelve books are employed 
in setting forth the doctrines of the Christian 
religion, under the somewhat fanciful form of 
" two cities," the city of the world and the 
city of God. The influence of Augustine upon 
his own age, and upon nil succeeding ages of 
Christian history, cannot be exaggerated. It 
is believed that he was at once one of the 
purest, the wisest, and the holiest of men ; 
he was equally mild and firm, prudent and fear- 
less ; at once a philosopher and a mystic, a stu- 
dent and a ruler. Of his singular humility 
manifold instances are recorded. His severe 
self-discipline matches the strictest instances 
of the hermit life. In his " Retractations," be- 
gun after the close of his 70th year, he reviews 
his writings, taking back whatever is doubtful 
or extravagant, and harmonizing discordant 
opinions. The aid of a coadjutor relieved Au- 
gustine in his latter years of a portion of his 
responsibility ; yet questions of conscience were 
constantly presented to him. When Genseric 
and his Vandals showed themselves on the 
coasts of Africa, the question was put to him 
if it were lawful for a bishop at such a season 
to fly and leave his flock. The answer which 
he made was illustrated by his own course. He 
calmly waited for the threatened approach, 
and when the fleet of the foe was in the bay of 
Hippo, and the army was encamped before the 
walls, exerted himself only to quiet the fears 
and sustain the faith of his brethren. He died 
of fever before the catastrophe. The bishop 
Possidius, who watched at his bedside, gives 
an edifying account of his last days, and of the 
grief of the people at his loss. His relics were 
transported to Italy, and mostly rest at present 
in the cathedral of Pavia. Within the present 
century the bone of his right arm has, with 
solemn pomp, been returned to the church of 



Bona in Algeria, which occupies the site of an- 
cient Hippo. The best edition of Augustine's 
works is that of the Benedictines, published at 
Paris and at Antwerp at the close of the 17th 
century, in 11 vols. folio. An edition in 11 
volumes was also published in Paris in 1836-'9. 
An additional volume of sermons, before un- 
published, found at Monte Casino and Florence, 
was published at Paris in 1842. An English 
translation by various hands has been under- 
taken at Edinburgh, under the editorship of 
the Rev. Marcus Dods, the 3d and 4th vol- 
umes of which appeared in 1872. 

VI <;i STIMA>s, or Hermits of St. Angnsttoe, a 
religious order in the Roman Catholic church, 
which traces its origin to the great bishop of 
Hippo, and professes to have received its rule 
from him, although many Catholic writers dis- 
pute the fact. St. Augustine in the year 388, be- 
fore his ordination, erected a kind of hermitage 
on a little farm belonging to himself near Ta- 
gaste, where with several friends he passed his 
time in seclusion. After he became a priest at 
Hippo he established a similar retreat in a gar- 
den presented to him by the bishop, and dur- 
ing his episcopate he had his clergy living with 
him in his house, under a kind of monastic 
rule. From these circumstances he has been 
looked upon as the founder and special patron 
of a certain class of religious communities, and 
many of their rules have been drawn from his 
writings. The present order of Hermits of St. 
Augustine was formed by uniting several socie- 
ties previously distinct. This was done by 
Alexander IV. in the year 1256, and a rule was 
given them attributed to St. Augustine. In 
1567 the Augustinians were enrolled among 
the mendicant orders. In England they were 
usually called Black Friars, from the color of 
their habit. There are several distinct branch- 
es of Augustinians whose rule is more severe 
than that of the principal body ; they are gov- 
erned by vicars general, who are subordinate 
to the general. Rome is the chief seat of the 
order. The number of convents in 1862 was 
271, with about 4,000 members; but since 
then their number has been greatly reduced 
by the suppression of monastic orders in Italy. 
There is a large and beautiful church belonging 
to the Augustinians, with a convent adjoining, 
in Philadelphia ; also a college, with a monas- 
tery and a well cultivated farm adjoining, at 
Villanova, Delaware county, Pa., about 15 m. 
from Philadelphia. Angnstlnlan Canons are a 
separate body of canons regular attached to the 
Lateran basilica and a few other churches. 
Several religious orders of females belong also 
to the Augustinian family. 

AUCCSTOWO. I. Formerly the X. E. govern- 
ment of the Russian kingdom of Poland. Its 
territory now forms the government of Suwal- 
ki and a part of Lomza. II. A city in the pres- 
ent government of Suwalki, from which the 
preceding government received its name, on a 
tributary of the Karew, near a considerable 
lake, and 140 m. K E. of Warsaw ; pop. in 1867, 



AUGUSTDLUS 



AUGUSTUS 



9,364. It has an extensive trade in cattle and 
woollen and cotton goods. It was founded in . 
lotiO by King Sigismund Augustus, from whom 
it was named. The canal of Augustowo con- 
nects the Narew with the Niemen, making a 
continuous navigation between the upper Vis- 
tula and the mouth of the Niemen in the Bal- 
tic. It is 150 m. long and 5 to 6 ft. deep. 

Al U'sTI I.I s. Komulns, the last Roman em- 
peror of the West. He was placed on the 
throne A. D. 475, by his father Orestes, a na- 
tive of Pannonia, who had been a favorite of 
the emperor Julius Nepos, but who at last 
succeeded in usurping the power of his patron, 
and conferring it upon his son. The young 
man was remarkable only for his weakness and 
the beauty of his person. On the defeat of 
Orestes by Odoacer at Pavia, and his subse- 
quent execution (470), Augustulus was ban- 
ished to the castle of Lucullus in Campania, 
where he received yearly 6,000 pieces of gold. 

1 1 (. I sil s, Cains Jnlins Caesar Oetavianns (named 
at his birth simply Caius Octavius), first emperor 
of Rome, born at Velitraa, Sept. 23, 63 B. C., 
died at Nola, Aug. 19, A.D. 14. lie was the 
son of Oaius Octavius, a rich senator, who in 
60 B. C. was appointed prater of Macedonia, 
and of Atia, a daughter of Julia, the young- 
er sister of Julius Omar. His father dying 
just after retiring from his prajtorship, Octa- 
vius was educated in Rome at the wish of his 
mother, and afterward under the superinten- 
dence of Lucius Marcius Philippus, who became 
his stepfather. He soon attracted the notice 
of his great-uncle Julius Ccesar, who treated 
him as his own son, and by his will made him 
his principal heir. On March 15, 44, when 
the dictator was assassinated at Rome, Octa- 
vius was at Apollonia on the W. coast of Epirus 
Nova, pursuing his studies. The news of the 
murder and of his own adoption as heir reached 
him almost immediately. Against the warn- 
ing of friends, he went at once to Rome, chang- 
ing his name Octavius to Octavianus, and de- 
manded his inheritance, which Mark Antony, 
who had possessed himself of the principal 
power in the state, after some hesitation was 
obliged to yield. Octavius, who was now 
universally known by the name of Csar, 
began a struggle with Antony for the control 
of Rome. Each tried every means to gain the 
favor of the people. Octavius was already 
beginning to gain the advantage, when Antony 
left Rome to secure for himself the legions in 
Cisalpine Gaul. Octavius took advantage of his 
rival's absence to win still further the popular 
favor, and was aided by the refusal of Decimus 
Brutus, preetor in Cisalpine Gaul, to give up 
that province to Antony. Cicero now came 
forward in Octavius's favor, thinking thus to 
advance the cause of a freer government. The 
senate, the people, and the soldiers were soon 
won. In January, 43, having received the rank 
of praetor and been appointed to the command 
of those troops whose good will he had se- 
cured, he went with the two consuls to the as- 



sistance of Decimus Brutus, whom Antony was 
besieging in Mutina (Modena). Antony was 
defeated and driven beyond the Alps. But the 
senate, dreading any increase of the power of 
the successful general, and relieved of their fear 
of Antony, now made a change of policy, ap- 
pointed Decimus Brutus to the chief command 
of the army, and denied Octavius a triumph. 
The latter thereupon began to treat with Anto- 
ny for a reconciliation and division of power, 
Antony having in the mean time allied himself 
with Lepidus and recrossed the Alps. First 
of all Octavius secured the consulship, which 
the senate was persuaded almost against its 
will to permit him to assume. He paid the 
people the sums left by the will of Caesar, and 
secured for himself the command of an army 
to be sent against Brutus and Cassius, against 
whom a decree of outlawry was passed. Under 
the guise of moving first against Antony, Octa- 
vius marched his army into northern Italy and 
met Antony and Lepidus at Bononia (Bologna). 
Here an open reconciliation took place, and he 
formed with them the triumvirate, agreeing to 
merge his own power in this equal division of 
the empire among the three. The triumvirs 
returned to Rome immediately, though they 
entered the city separately. In the general 
proscription and massacre of their enemies 
which followed, Octavius displayed cruelty 
fully equal to that of his associates. After an 
unsuccessful attempt to take Sicily from Sex- 
tus Pompey, who had an excellent fleet, and 
with whom many Romans took refuge, Octa- 
vius and Antony turned their arms against 
Brutus and Cassius, whom they defeated at 
Philippi (42). On his return to Rome Antony 
now being with Cleopatra in Egypt Octavius 
found that Fulvia, Antony's wife, aided by 
Antony's brother, Lucius Antonius, had en- 
deavored to excite 'popular feeling against him 
by declaring that a new proscription was about 
to begin, and by other means. Antonius had 
even assembled an army. Octavius put a 
speedy end to this revolt by taking Perusia 
(Perugia), where Lucius Antonius had fortified 
himself, rind cruelly putting to death 400 Peru- 
sians as a sacrifice to the manes of Cajsar (40). 
Fulvia's death prevented a renewal of the war, 
and Octavius and Antony were reconciled at 
Brundusium, Octavia, Octavius's sister, being 
given in marriage to his fellow triumvir. Sex- 
tus Pompey, however, still held Sicily, the grain 
storehouse of Rome, and Octavius was obliged 
to bribe him by the offer of Sicily, Sardinia, Cor- 
sica, and the province of Achaia, to make peace 
and supply Rome with food. No sooner had 
Octavius thus secured Pompey than he IK pm 
to seek for a pretext to recapture the provinces 
given him. Alleging that Pompey allowed 
piracy near his coasts, Octavius declared war 
against him (38). Antony at first refused his 
aid, but was persuaded by the mediation of 
Octavia, and sent a considerable fleet to join 
that of Octavius. After some vicissitudes, 
Agrippa, the commander of the navy, ended 



AUGUSTUS 



115 



the war by an overwhelming defeat of Pompey, 
who fled to Asia (36). Lepidus, the pnly one of 
the triumvirs who had actually succeeded in 
landing in Sicily, now aspired to the govern- 
ment of that island ; but Octavius won over 
his troops, and he suffered himself to be called 
to Rome and consigned to submissive quiet by 
the appointment of pontifex maximus. Octa- 
vius now divided among his soldiers the lands 
taken from his enemies. He was received with 
the greatest honors at Rome, but, with his 
wonted hypocrisy, assumed a modest and lib- 
eral mien; he improved the city, and even 
talked of fully restoring the republican forms. 
But while gaining for himself the favor of the 
people, he steadily undermined the influence 
of his only remaining rival, Antony, whom he 
pretended to support. Much of his time in the 
two years that followed (35-34) was occupied 
in the suppression of revolts in various parts 
of the Roman provinces. The repudiation by 
Antony of his wife Octavia served to widen 
the breach between the triumvirs ; and soon 
afterward the arrogant and dangerous assump- 
tions of Cleopatra, who now held Antony as 
her complete slave, afforded Octavius the pre- 
text he desired. Convincing the people of the 
dangerous designs of the Egyptian queen, he 
brought about a declaration of war, defeated 
her and Antony in the battle of Actiutn in 
September, 81, rapidly followed up this vic- 
tory, and by the succeeding events, ending in the 
death of this only remaining opponent (30), he 
was left sole ruler of Rome, and celebrated his 
victories by a three days' triumph. He had 
some thought of laying aside his power, but in 
counsel with his friends Agrippa and Maecenas, 
the advice of the latter prevailed, probably 
coinciding more nearly with his own wishes, 
and he kept his rulership. Rome was now in 
complete peace. Octavius, although himself 
supreme, reestablished many of the old repub- 
lican forms, and benefited the city by numer- 
ous wise measures. In his seventh consulship 
(27), he astonished the senate by proposing to 
lay down the chief power and to restore en- 
tirely the old order of things. The senators 
begged him to retain his position, and he, pre- 
tending great reluctance, consented. This ruse 
was several times repeated during his life. 
On Jan. 16, 27, he received from the Roman 
people and the senate the name Augustus (the 
venerated or sanctified), and by this title he 
was generally known from this time forth. 
Within the next few years the powers of tri- 
bune, pontifex maximus, and of many other 
magistrates, were gradually assumed by Augus- 
tus, with the consent of the senate, and he be- 
came finally the absolute ruler of the empire. 
In 26 and 25 he established order in Spain, 
defeating the rebellious Astures and Can- 
tabri, who, however, afterward revolted, and 
were not finally subdued till 19. In 21, after 
four years spent at Rome, during which sev- 
eral conspiracies had been discovered against 
his life, he visited Sicily and the eastern part 



of the empire, establishing order everywhere. 
He left Agrippa, who married his daughter Ju- 
lia, as governor of Rome in his absence. Dur- 
ing this journey he visited Athens and Samos. 
In 20 he made a treaty with the Parthians, by 
which they peacefully restored standards and 
captives taken from Crassus (53) and Antony 
(36). In 16 he went to Gaul, where he re- 
mained three years, and established many colo- 
nies. Agrippa died in 12, leaving two sons, 
who had been adopted by Augustus and called 
Caius and Lucius Csesar. Within the year Julia 
was married again to her stepbrother Tiberius, 
the son of the crafty Livia, who in this year 
also was sent against the Pannonians and de- 
feated them. In 10 Augustus went again to 
Gaul, and at the same time sent his step- 
son Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius, 
against the western German tribes. Drusus 
conquered them, but was killed by an acci- 
dent, and Augustus pronounced his funeral ora- 
tion in the senate (9). In 8 B. C. the senate 
flattered Augustus on his victories by nam- 
ing after him the month of August, before 
called Sextilis. A short time after this Au- 
gustus sent into exile his daughter Julia, whose 
dissolute life had become an open scandal. 
Her two sons had now assumed the toga viri- 
lis, and were looked upon as the heirs of the 
emperor. But Lucius died at Massilia in A. D. 
2, and Caius in Lycia in 4 ; and Augustus, 
upon whom these family misfortunes made a 
deep impression, adopted Tiberius, thus fulfil- 
ling the desire of Livia, and sent him to con- 
duct a campaign against the Germans. Tibe- 
rius was victorious, but in the year 9 the 
overwhelming defeat of the Roman general 
Varus by Arminius lessened the value of these 
conquests. A period of peace now followed, 
and Augustus turned his attention to the af- 
fairs of the city, which he administered wisely 
and with the popular favor. In 14 his health 
suddenly declined, and just after taking the 
census, the third during his administration, 
he died at Nola, whither he had gone on ac- 
count of his illness. The period of Augustus 
is one of the most important in Roman history. 
In it flourished those men who have caused 
it to be named the "Augustan age of litera- 
ture " Catullus, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, 
Tibullus, the great patron of art and letters 
Maecenas, and others. Augustus himself wrote 
several works, of which only fragments re- 
main. These have been collected, and a good 
edition of them was published by Weichert 
(Grimma, 1841). The emperor's rule was 
most beneficial to the city. He boasted that 
he had found it of brick and left it of marble. 
He encouraged all useful arts, and his laws in 
matters of municipal government were gen- 
erally admirable. In person Augustus was of 
middle height, with a well knit and fine fig- 
ure, and a quiet face, with much dignity and 
firmness of expression. His hair was light, his 
eyes large and clear. In his character tho 
crafty traits predominated, but he displayed in 



116 



AUGUSTUS I. 



AUK 



the latter part of his life much generosity. 
See the life of Augustus in Suetonius, Plu- 
tarch's life of Antony, and the histories of Ar- 
nold, Merivale, and Ihne. 

Al'Gl'STl'S I. (as king, II.) FREDERICK, sur- 
named the Strong, elector of Saxony and king of 
Poland, second son of the elector John George 
III., bora in Dresden, May 12, 1670, died in 
Warsaw, Feb. 1, 1733. After a careful educa- 
tion he visited all the countries and courts of 
Europe, Rome alone excepted. During these 
journeys he began the collection of pictures 
and other objects of art composing the gallery 
in Dresden, which, increased by his son, became 
one of the most celebrated in Europe. After 
the death of his father hi 1691, and of his elder 
brother, John George IV., in 1694, he became 
sovereign of Saxony ; and after the death 
of John Sobieski, king of Poland, in 1696, 
he was elected as his successor by the nobil- 
ity of that country. To obtain this election 
he changed his religion from Protestantism to 
Catholicism. To restore to Poland some prov- 
inces wrested by Sweden, Augustus attacked 
Charles XII. jointly with Denmark and with 
Peter the Great of Russia ; but after a long 
struggle, in which both Poland and Saxony suf- 
fered terribly, he was obliged at the bidding of 
Charles XII. to give up the royal crown, which 
the victor gave to Stanislas Leszczynski (July 
12, 1704), and to give his own consent formally 
to this act, in the peace of Altranstadt (Sept. 
24, 1706). When Charles was defeated at Pol- 
tava, July 8, 1709, Augustus renewed his alli- 
ance with Peter the Great, broke the peace 
with Sweden, entered Poland with an army, 
expelled Leszczynski, and recovered the crown. 
His reign was one of great luxury and splen- 
dor, his court a scene of uninterrupted festiv- 
ity, with artists, adventurers, alchemists, and 
numberless beautiful women, one of whom, the 
celebrated Countess Konigsmark, was by Au- 
gustus the mother of that Maurice so celebrated 
at the court of Versailles and in the history of 
France under the name of Marshal Saxe. Au- 
gustus was elegant, affable, and of extraor- 
dinary bodily strength, but without any trait 
of real excellence. He impoverished Saxony 
and corrupted Poland. Augustus II. (III.) Fred- 
erick, son of the preceding, born in 1696, died 
Oct. 5, 1763. He succeeded his father in both 
Saxony and Poland, in the first by inheritance, 
in the second by election, though he was op- 
posed by Stanislas Leszczynski, whose claims 
were supported by Louis XV. and a portion 
of the Polish nobles. Augustus continued the 
gorgeous reign of his father, his greatest pas- 
sion being hunting and festivities. His reign 
over Poland was quiet, but in every respect 
demoralizing. Count Bruhl, his favorite, ruled 
in the sovereign's name. Augustus, being 
married to an Austrian princess, had no other 
policy than subserviency to Austria, and he be- 
came entangled in the wars against Frederick 
the Great of Prussia. In 1742 he concluded 
an alliance offensive and defensive with Maria 



Theresa, and promised afterward to bring into 
the field 50,000 men. This army, united with 
the Austrians, was beaten at the battle of 
Hohenfriedberg in Silesia, June 4, 1745, when 
Frederick invaded Saxony and entered Dres- 
den, while Augustus fled to Poland, which was 
at peace with Prussia. By a treaty concluded 
at the close of the same year he was restored 
to his electorate. In the seven years' war, 
however, Augustus, as elector of Saxony, again 
participated on the side of Austria. At the 
beginning his Saxon army was compelled to 
surrender to Frederick (October, 1756), and 
he himself fled to Warsaw, persisting in his 
alliance with Austria, and resided there until 
the pacification by the treaty of Hubertsburg 
(1763), when he returned to Dresden. 

AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, prince of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland, duke of Sussex, the 6th son 
of George III. of England, born in Bucking- 
ham palace, Jan. 27, 1773, died in Kensington 
palace, April 21, 1843. He studied at Gottin- 
gen, and subsequently travelled in Italy. While 
at Rome in 1 793 he married Lady Augusta Mur- 
ray, daughter of the Catholic earl of Dunmore ; 
but as there were some doubts as to the valid- 
ity of the marriage, the wedding ceremony was 
repeated in London, Dec. 5, 1793. This mar- 
riage was annulled, however, by the preroga- 
tive court of Canterbury, as contrary to the act 
12 George III., cap. 3, which declared that no 
descendant of George II. should marry with- 
out the consent of the crown. Lady Augusta 
separated from the duke immediately after 
the publication of this sentence, having borne 
him a son and daughter, who took the name 
D'Este. In 1801 the prince was made a peer, 
and received a parliamentary grant of 12,000 
per annum, which was subsequently increased 
by the addition of 9,000. In the house of 
lords the duke took the liberal side on most 
public questions, as the abolition of the slave 
trade, Catholic and Jewish emancipation, the 
reform bill, and free trade. In 1810 he was 
elected grand master of the freemasons ; in 
1816, president of the society for the encourage- 
ment of the useful arts; and in 1830, president 
of the royal society. He was a munificent 
patron of literature and art, and possessed one 
of the finest libraries of England. His lib- 
eral opinions in politics, and the part which 
he took in favor of Queen Caroline, made him 
unpopular at court, but before the death of 
George IV. a reconciliation took place between 
them. 

AUK, the name of certain sea birds of the 
family aleadce, including the subgenera alca, 
Jratercula, mergulus, and phaleru. The true 
auks (alca) are strictly ocean birds, and scarcely 
ever leave the water, except to build their nests 
and breed in immense flocks in caverns and 
crannies of rocks, laying one disproportionately 
large egg. The young are fed from the crops 
of their parents, even after they can move 
about freely and shift for themselves. This 
genus contains but two species, the great auk 



AUK 



AULAF 



lit 



and the razor bill. The former (A. impennis, 
Linn.) is remarkable for the imperfect develop- 
ment of its wings, which are totally unfit for 
flving. They are set very far baci on the 
body, and not mucli more than rudimental; 
but they are used by the bird as oars, and in 
conjunction with its feet it plies them with such 
power and velocity that it has been known to 
escape from a six-oared barge pulled by vigor- 
ous oarsmen. It rarely leaves the arctic circle 
and the waters adjoining, nor is it often seen 
off soundings, but dwells in great numbers 
about the Faro islands and Iceland, and it has 
been asserted that it breeds in Newfoundland. 
In summer all the upper parts of this bird's 
plumage nre of a deep sooty black, which is 
changed in winter to white on the cheeks, the 
sides of the neck, and the throat. It breeds in 
June and July, and lays one large yellowish 
egg, as big as a swan's, irregularly dashed with 
black marks, which have been compared to 
Chinese characters. It has a large decurved 




Great Auk (Alca impennis). 

bill with sharp cutting edges; and its feet 
being situated at the extremity of its body, it 
stands or sits erect, propped up by its short 
stiff tail, after the manner of the penguins, 
which it not a little resembles. The black- 
billed auk, razor bill, or mnrre (A. torda, Linn.) 
belongs to the northern latitudes, in the ex- 
treme height of which these birds swarm in 
multitudes during the breeding season, afford- 
ing food and clothing to the Esquimaux, who 
place on them their chief dependence. The 
bill of the black auk has a sharp hook at its 
extremity, and a denticulated process at about 
two thirds of its length, which is of great use 
in securing its slippery prey. Its general color 
is dusky above and white below ; it flies suffi- 
ciently well, but, like the species last described, 
uses its wings as oars in diving, which it does 
to perfection. It is very abundant on all the 
rocky coasts of Great Britain, where it sits in 
long horizontal rows on the steps or ledges of 
the crags, towering one above the other. The 
genus fratercula, consists of a single species, 



the Labrador auk, common puffin, or coulter- 
neb (F. arctica), this last name being admira- 
bly descriptive of its strong massive beak, the 
mandibles of which, when separated, especially 
the upper one, almost exactly resemble the 
coulter of a plough. The upper parts of this 
bird are dusky, its cheeks and belly white. It 
has a black collar, legs and feet orange, beak 
broad, cutting-edged, bluish gray next to the 
head, but scarlet thence to its obtuse point. 
Although it extends to the high arctic regions, 
it is in England only a summer visitor, breed- 
ing in the low sandy islands in rabbit bur- 
rows, of which it dispossesses their legitimate 
owners ; or, where there are no rabbits, bur- 
rowing itself. In rocky places, as Dover cliffs, 
Flamborough head, and the Bass rock, at all 
which places these birds abound, they lay their 
single egg in the crevices of the rocks. When 
they have reared their young, they 'pass from 
England to the southern coasts of France and 
Spain, where they winter. Their burrows are 
curiously excavated, by means of their bills, 
to the depth of two or three feet, and often 
have two entrances for escape in case of sur- 
prise. The length of the puffin is about 12 
inches. The mergulus .has likewise but one 
representative, the little auk, common rotche, 
or sea dove (M. melaru>leucos), which is the 
smallest of the family, and a native of the very 
highest latitudes, congregating in large flocks 
near the arctic circle ; Greenland, Spitzbergen, 
and Melville island being its favorite stations. 
Its plumage is black and white ; and in winter 
the front of the neck, which is black in sum- 
mer, turns white. It lays but a single egg, of 
pale bluish green, on the most inaccessible 
ledges of the precipices which overhang the 
ocean. It is about 9 or 10 inches long. The 
last division, phaleris, contains also but a sin- 
gle species, the paroquet auk (P.'psittacula), 
an extreme northern bird, about 11 inches 
long. Its head, neck, and upper parts are 
black, blended into ash color on the forward 
parts of the neck ; the breast and belly white ; 
the legs are yellowish, the beaks in the adults 
red. This bird swims and dives admirably, 
and is said to be of a singularly unsuspicious 
character, and easily captured. About mid- 
summer it lays one large egg, nearly of the 
size of a hen's, with brown or dusky spots, on 
a whitish or yellowish ground. 

\l I.\K. or Anlaf, a name borne by several 
Northumbrian kings of Danish origin, about the 
second half of the 10th century. I. A North- 
umbrian petty king and a pagan, died in 
980. His family having been expelled from 
Northumbria by Athelstan, he fled into Ire- 
land, fought against the native tribes in that 
island, in 937 endeavored to recover Northum- 
bria, but was repulsed by Athelstan, returned 
to Ireland, and ravaged Kilcnllen. After the 
death of Athelstan, Northumbria fell away 
from the English crown, and Aulaf recovered 
his inheritance after defeating Edmund at 
Tamworth and Leicester. Edred, the Eng- 



118 



AULIC COUNCIL 



AUMALE 



lish king, successor of Edmund, made him 
do homage and embrace Christianity. In 952 
Aulaf was driven out by the Christian North- 
umbrians, and, tired of struggling against the 
English, he went over to lead the Ostmen of 
Dublin against the Irish. He defeated Mur- 
doch, king of Leinster, in 956, and put him 
to death the next year. Two more Leinster 
princes suffered the same fate in 977. At this 
time he called himself king of Ireland and the 
Isles. In 980 Aulaf lost his son and heir, Regi- 
nald or Regnell, in an engagement against the 
Hibernian aborigines, and in the same year, 
heart-broken, he went on a pilgrimage to lona, 
where he died, after a stormy life. II. Son of 
Guthfrith, and uncle of the preceding, lived in 
the latter half of the 10th century. He joined 
in the wars of his nephew against the Saxons 
in south Britain and the Celts of Erin. He 
ravaged Armagh in 932, and Kilcullen in 938. 
In 939 he was obliged to shut himself up in 
Dublin. He made an irruption into England 
with his nephew, conquered Edmund, the suc- 
cessor of Athelstan, in 943, and recovered 
Northumbria. He lived and died a pagan and 
a hater of the Christian clergy. 

AILIC COUNCIL (Lat. aula, a court or hall ; 
Ger. Heichihofrath), a tribunal under the old 
German empire, standing at its first institution 
next in authority to the supreme imperial 
chamber (Reichslcammergerichf), to which it 
was afterward made equal in power. It was 
formed in 1501 by the emperor Maximilian, 
chiefly from members of his tribunal for the 
administration of justice in the Austrian do- 
minions, and, as ultimately organized, con- 
sisted of a president, vice president, and 18 
councillors, all appointed and paid by the 
emperor. The authority of the aulic council 
was confirmed at the peace of Westphalia, 
made equal to that of the chamber, and 
sharply defined in the decrees concerning 
it (ReichsJiofratJis-Ordnungeri) of 1559 and 
1654. Six of the councillors must be of the 
Protestant religion, and the unanimous vote of 
these six could not be entirely overruled by the 
others, no matter what their majority. The 
council was divided into two sections, one of no- 
bles (Graf en und fferren), the other of legal 
scholars or experts (Gelehrte), all equal in rank, 
though the last named class received higher 
salaries than the others. The vice chancellor 
appointed by the electorate of Mentz also had 
a seat in the council. This tribunal had ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over feudal affairs con- 
nected with the empire, appeals in criminal 
cases in the states immediately subject to the 
emperor, and questions concerning the im- 
perial government itself. The members of the 
council held office, except in extraordinary 
cases, during one reign ; each emperor, imme- 
diately on his accession, appointing new ones. 
The council passed out of existence with the 
old German empire itself in 1806. 

H US, in ancient geography, a town of Hel- 
las, in Boiotia, situated on the strait of Euripus, 



which separates Bceotia and Euboea ; it had a 
temple of Diana. Here Agamemnon assem- 
bled his fleet preparatory to crossing the 
^Egean sea to Troy, and here his daughter 
Iphigenia was presented as a sacrifice to Di- 
ana. In the time of Pausanias only a few 
potters inhabited it. 

AILNAY Hi: CHAKMSE, Charles de Monou, sei- 
gneur d', a French proprietor, who figured large- 
ly in the history of Acadia or Nova Scotia, died 
in 1650. He was sent out about 1632 by Com- 
mander Isaac de Razilly, the proprietor of Aca- 
dia, and on his death acted as agent for his 
brother Claude de Razilly, whose rights he 
purchased in 1642. A civil war broke out soon 
after between him and La Tour, a neighboring 
proprietor, in which both parties committed 
excesses, and both sought the aid of New Eng- 
land. D'Aulnay secured the favor of the 
French government, and, after capturing Ma- 
dame de la Tour in her fort in 1645, was appoint- 
ed governor. His authority extended to the 
Kennebec. His widow, Jeanne Motin, married 
his old rival La Tour. 

AUMALE (formerly Albemarle), a town of 
France, in the department of Seine-Inf6rieure, 
40 m. N. E. of Rouen ; pop. in 1866, 2,929. In 
1592 a battle was fought here between the 
French and the Spaniards, in which Henry IV. 
was wounded. In the beginning of the 16th 
century Aumale was a county belonging to 
Claude de Lorraine, 5th son of Ren6 II., duke of 
Lorraine, who was afterward created duke of 
Guise by Francis I. of France, and became the 
head of the illustrious family of that name. It 
was raised to the rank of a duchy by Henry II., 
and held as such by Claude II., 3d son of Claude 
I., and brother of the celebrated Francis of 
Guise. This duke of Aumale distinguished 
himself during the war of the French against 
the emperor Charles V., was one of the pro- 
moters of the St. Bartholomew massacre, and 
was killed by a cannon ball before La Rochelle 
in 1573. His son Charles de Lorraine fought 
against Henry IV., assisting the duke of llay- 
enne in the battles of Arques and Ivry, where the 
troops of the league were defeated. The title of 
duke of Aurnale, after being extinct for years, 
was given to HENBI EUGENE PHILIPPE Louis 
D'ORLEANS, 4th son of Louis Philippe, born in 
Paris, Jan. 16, 1822. Like his brothers, he was 
educated at one of the public colleges of Paris. 
In 1839 he was appointed captain in the 4th 
regiment of the line ; he took part in the Afri- 
can expedition of M6d6ah, served a second 
campaign in Algeria, and returned to France 
in 1841 on account of ill health. While enter- 
ing Paris, Sept. 13, 1841, at the head of the 
17th regiment, of which he had been appointed 
colonel, a man of the name of Quenisset dis- 
charged a gun at him, but missed his aim. In 
1842 he was made brigadier general, and com- 
mander of the district of Med6ah. On May 16, 
1843, he attacked and routed Abd-el-Kader, 
and as a reward was made lieutenant general 
and commander of the province of Constantino. 



AUXGERVYLE 



AUEELLE 



119 



In 1847 he was appointed governor of Algeria 
in place of Marshal Bugeaud, and soon after- 
ward received Abd-el-Kader's surreVler. In 
1848, on hearing of the revolution in Paris, he 
exhorted the population to wait calmly for fur- 
ther developments ; and on March 3 he resigned 
and joined the other members of his family in 
England. On the outbreak of the Franco- 
German war in 1870 he offered his services to 
the government, but they were not accepted. 
After the downfall of Napoleon III. lie returned 
to France, and in 1872 took his seat as a mem- 
ber of the national assembly. His eldest son, 
prince de Conde, died in Australia in 18G6, 
aged 21, and his wife, a Neapolitan princess, in 
18G9. His only remaining child, the duke de 
Guise, born Jan. 5, 1854, died in Paris, July 25, 
1872. He inherited a large fortune from the 
Conde family. In 1872 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the French academy. Besides pamph- 
lets and articles on political and military mat- 
ters, he is the author of Histoire des princes de 
Conde (2 vols., Paris, 18G9), translated into 
English by the Rev. K. Brown-Borthwick (2 
vols., London, 1872). 

Al.NGERV YLE, Richard (known in history as 
Richard de Bury), an English statesman and 
bibliographer, born near Bury St. Edmunds in 
1287, died at Bishop's Auckland, April 24, 1345. 
He was educated at Oxford, appointed tutor 
of the prince of Wales, and after the accession 
of his pupil to the throne as Edward III. re- 
ceived successively the appointments of coiffeur 
to tlie king, treasurer of the wardrobe, and 
keeper of the privy seal. In 1333 he was con- 
secrated bishop of Durham. In 1334 he suc- 
ceeded Archbishop Stratford as lord high 
chancellor of England, which office he resigned 
in 1335 for that of treasurer. lie went several 
times abroad as ambassador, once to Rome and 
thrice to Paris. Aungervyle was a diligent 
purchaser of rare and costly books, and when 
bishop of Durham his collection was one of the 
largest in England. He founded also for the 
use of the students at Oxford a library, which 
was then the best in the kingdom. The latter 
part of his life he gave up entirely to books. 
He left a Latin treatise on bibliography (the 
earliest by any English writer), entitled Philo- 
billon (Cologne, 1473 ; English translation by 
J. B. Inglis, London, 1832) ; Epistolas Familia- 
rium, including some letters to his friend 
Petrarch ; and Orationes ad Principes. 

VI UKI.I \\ (Lucius DOMITICS AUBELIANUS), a 
Roman emperor, born in Pannonia, or accord- . 
ing to some authorities on the southern con- 
fines of Dacia, in the early part of the 3d cen- 
tury, assassinated between Heraclea and By- 
zantium, A. D. 275. His parents were poor 
and of the lowest class. He entered a Roman 
legion at an early age, and by his bravery and 
the remarkable feats of arms which bis almost 
gigantic stature and great strength enabled 
him to perform he secured rapid promotion, 
anil great personal popularity with the soldiers, 
among whom he was designated as Aurelianus 



manw ad ferrvm (Aurelian Sword-in-Hand). 
He distinguished himself under Valerian and 
Claudius II. in campaigns against the Goths; 
and when Claudius died, although his brother 
Quintillus' assumed the purple as his heir, Au- 
relian was proclaimed emperor by the army of 
the Danube, of which he was then in command 
(270). Qnintiilus committed suicide after a 
nominal reign of several weeks, and Aurelian 
took the throne without opposition. He drove 
the Goths beyond the Danube, carried on suc- 
cessful campaigns against the Alemanni and 
other German tribes, and to protect Rome 
against them built a line of strong walls, the 
ruins of which may still be traced about the 
city. He next undertook a war against Palmyra, 
then a magnificent city in the height of its 
prosperity, ruled by Zenobia, the widow of 
King Odenathus. He captured the city after 
one of the ablest defences in history, treated 
the people with comparative kindness, and re- 
fused to put Zenobia to death, though his 
troops demanded her execution. After his 
departure the Palmyrenes rose and massa- 
cred the Roman garrison; upon this he re- 
turned, destroyed the city, and put the people 
to the sword (273). Zenobia was carried to 
Rome, and appeared in the emperor's triumph. 
Aurelian next defeated an attempt at rebellion 
made by the Egyptians under their Roman 
governor. Tetricus, who had made himself 
the independent ruler of the greater part of 
Gaul, now surrendered after little more than 
the threat of a war ; and the Roman empire 
resumed something of its old territorial im- 
portance. The senate bestowed upon Aurelian 
the title of " restorer of the empire." After ef- 
fecting many improvements in the government 
of the city, the discipline of the army, and the 
condition of the people, the emperor was assas- 
sinated while on the way to a campaign against 
the Persians, at the instigation of his secretary, 
whom he had threatened with punishment. 

AIRELUS, Marcos. See ANTONINUS. 

AURELLE (or D'AITRELLE) DE PALADINES, a 
French soldier, born in 1803. lie distinguished 
himself in the Crimean war. Before the out- 
break of the war with Germany in 1870 he 
was commander of the 5th military division of 
France, at Metz. After the fall of the empire 
he was charged by the provisional government 
at Tours with the formation of the army of 
the Loire. After a battle near Coulmiers, he 
drove Gen. von der Tann from Orleans (Nov. 
9-10), winning the first French victory over 
the Germans. For this he was appointed 
(Nov. 15) commander-in-chief of the army 
of the Loire. On Nov. 28 he attacked the 
left wing of Prince Frederick Charles at 
Beaune-la-Rolande, but encountered a severe 
repulse. On Dec. 2 he was beaten by the 
grand duke of Mecklenburg at Artenay, and 
on Dec. 3 Frederick Charles drove him back 
to the forest of Orleans, renewing the at- 
tack the next day and taking possession of 
the town at midnight, after brisk fighting. 



120 



AUEICH 



AURORA 



On the same day the French had been thor- 
oughly routed by another detachment of Fred- 
erick Charles's army near Chevilly and Chil- 
leurs, and driven either across or along the 
Loire above Orleans, thus splitting the army 
of the Loire into two portions. D'Aurelle 
was removed from his command. He refused 
the command of the camp of Cherbourg, as 
well as the appointment of successor to Gen. 
Chanzy. As member of the national assembly 
at Bordeaux he opposed the continuation of 
the war, and was one of the committee of fif- 
teen appointed to assist Thiers and Favre in 
arranging the preliminaries of the treaty of 
peace. He became commander-in-chief of the 
national guard of the department of the Seine, 
and in 1872 a member of the court martial 
for'the trial of Marshal Bazaine. 

Al ItH'll, a town of Germany, in the Prussian 
province of Hanover, capital of an administra- 
tive division of the same name, and formerly 
capital of the principality of East Friesland, 
60 m. N. W. of Bremen; pop. in 1871, 4,261. 
It has a castle which was formerly the resi- 
dence of the prince of East Friesland, a college 
(gymnasium), and a normal school. 

AURIFABER, the Latinized name of JOHANN 

GOLDSOHMIED, Or GOLDSOHMIDT, OU6 of the 

companions of Luther, born near Mansfeld in 
1519, died at Erfurt in 1579. He studied at 
Wittenberg, and became Luther's amanuensis 
in 1545. In the Smalcaldic war he was chap- 
lain to a Saxon regiment, and in 1551 court 
chaplain of the elector of Saxony, but he be- 
came involved in theological disputes and was 
removed in 1562. He collected the unpub- 
lished manuscripts of Luther, and was one of 
the collaborators of the Jena edition of the re- 
former's works. He edited the Epistolce Lu- 
theri and the "Table Talk." In 1566 he be- 
came pastor at Erfurt. 

Al HILL AC, a town of southern France, capi- 
tal of the department of Cantal, in a valley on 
the Jourdanne, here spanned by a fine bridge, 
about 60 m. S. by W. of Clermont ; pop. in 
1866, 10,998. It is well built, with wide 
streets, kept clean by the overflowing of a 
large reservoir, into which two fountains dis- 
charge. The old buildings include the castle 
of St. Stephen, the church of St. G6raud, the 
church of Notre Dame of the 13th century, and 
the college, which contains a valuable library 
and a cabinet of mineralogy. The manu- 
factures are copper utensils, jewelry, woollen 
stuffs, blondes, laces, and paper. Aurillac was 
founded in the 9th century. The wall former- 
ly surrounding it has been destroyed. The 
town suffered much in the wars of the 14th, 
15th, and 16th centuries. 

AI'BIOL, a French borough in the depart- 
ment of Bouches-du-Rhone, 16 m. N. E. of 
Marseilles; pop. in 1866, 5,182. It has manu- 
factories of flags, and near it are coal mines. 

Al KIVII.LII s, Karl, a Swedish orientalist, 
born at Stockholm in 1717, died in 1786. He 
mastered the Syriac, Arabic, Sanskrit, and 



other oriental languages. After 1754 he re- 
sided at Upsal, at first giving private instruc- 
tion in the poetry of different nations, and in 
1772 was appointed professor of oriental lan- 
guages in the university. He succeeded Lin- 
naaus as member of the academy of sciences in 
Upsal, and was an active member of the com- 
mission for preparing a new translation of the 
Bible into Swedish. 

AUROCHS, the bos luon of Europe, one of 
the contemporaries of the mammoth (elephat 
primigeniwi), an animal of the ox family, once 
abundant, but now existing only in the forests 
of Lithuania belonging to the czar of Russia, 
and possibly in the Caucasus. It would long 
ago have become extinct but for the protection 
of man. The ure-ox (B. uriis or B. primi- 
genius), found in the post-tertiary deposits, is 




believed to be the same as was described by 
Csesar in his Commentaries as abounding in 
the forests of Germany ; it existed in Switzer- 
land as late as the 16th century. Both species 
are found abundantly in the post-tertiary of 
Europe, and corresponding species in America, 
and no doubt furnished a large share of the 
food of prehistoric man. 

AURORA (in Greek, Eos), the goddess of the 
morning, was the daughter of Hyperion and 
Thia, the wife of Astrteus, and the mother of 
the winds. She carried off Orion to the island 
of Ortygia, and detained him there till he was 
slain by Diana. She bore away Cephalus, and 
had by him a son named Phnethon. To Ti- 
thonus, son of Laomedon, king of Troy, she 
bore Memnon and yEmathion. Aurora is some- 
times represented in a saffron-colored robe, 
with a wand or torch in her right hand, 
emerging from a golden palace, and ascending 
her chariot ; sometimes in a flowing veil, which 
she is in the act of throwing back, opening the 
gates of morning ; and sometimes as a nymph, 
wearing a garland and standing in a chariot 
drawn by winged horses, with a torch in one 
hand and flowers in the other, which she scat- 
ters as she goes. 



AURORA 



AURORA BOREALIS 



121 



ACRORA, a city of Kane county, 111., on Fox 
river and the Chicago, Burlington, andyuincy 
railroad, 40 m. W. by S. of Chicago; pop. in 
1860, 6,011 ; in 1870, 11,162. It contains 14 
churches, a handsome city hall, a college, and 
many important manufactories, the power for 
which is furnished by the Fox river. The 
construction and repair shops of the railway 
situated here employ about 700 men. A semi- 
weekly newspaper, and 3 weeklies, one of 
which is German, are published here. 

AURORA BOREALIS (more correctly Aurora 
Polaris, since the phenomenon is not confined 
to northern latitudes), called also NOETHERN 
STREAMERS and NORTHERN LIGHTS, a luminous 
appearance, associated with energetic disturb- 
ances of the earth's magnetism and electrical 
condition. It is seldom seen save in high lati- 
tudes, though occasionally the tropics are visit- 
ed by auroral displays. . In polar regions au- 
roras are very common, and usually far more 
brilliant than in the temperate zones. Hum- 
boldt gives the following description of the 
appearances presented when the auroral phe- 
nomena are fully developed, although it must be 
understood that there is considerable variety in 
these displays : " An aurora borealis is always 
preceded by the formation of a sort of nebular 
veil which sl'owly ascends to a height of four, six, 
eight, or even to ten degrees. It is toward the 
magnetic meridian of the place that the sky, 
at first pure, commences to become brownish. 
Through this obscure segment, the color of 
which passes from brown to violet, the stars 
are seen as through a thick fog. A wider arc, 
but one of brilliant light, at first white, then yel- 
low, bounds the dark segment. Sometimes the 
luminous arc appears agitated for entire hours 
by a sort of effervescence and by a continual 
change of form, before the rising of the rays 
and columns of light, which ascend as far as 
the zenith. The more intense is the emission 
of the polar light, the more vivid are its colors, 
which from violet and bluish white pass through 
all the intermediate shades to green and purple 
red. Sometimes the columns of light appear 
to come out of the brilliant arc mingled with 
blackish rays similar to a thick smoke. Some- 
times they rise simultaneously in different parts 
of the horizon; they unite themselves into a 
sea of flames, the magnificence of which no 
painting could express, and at each instant 
rapid undulations cause their form and bril- 
liancy to vary. Motion appears to increase 
the visibility of the phenomenon. Around the 
point in the heavens which corresponds to the 
direction of the dipping needle produced, the 
rays appear to assemble together and form a 
boreal corona. It is rare that the appearance 
is so complete and is prolonged to the forma- 
tion of the corona; but when the latter ap- 
pears, it always announces the end of the phe- 
nomenon. The rays then become more rare, 
shorter, and less vividly colored. Shortly 
nothing more is seen on the celestial vault than 
wide, motionless nebulous spots, pale or of an 



ashen color ; these disappear while the traces 
of the dark segment whence the phenomenon 
originated remain still on the horizon." Al- 
though auroras are more commonly seen in high 
latitudes than near the tropics, it is not toward 
the true poles of the earth that the increase 
takes place, nor does the increase continue 
after certain high latitudes have been reached. 
Thus the frequency of auroras is different at 
different stations in the same latitude ; and in 
passing poleward from places in a given lati- 
tude, the region of maximum frequency is 
reached more quickly in some longitudes than 
in others. Thus an inhabitant of St. Peters- 
burg would have to travel to lat. 71 N. before 
reaching the place of greatest auroral activity ; 
while an inhabitant of Washington need travel 
northward only to lat. 56 to reach the region 
where auroral displays are most frequent. The 
zone on the earth's northern hemisphere where 
auroras occur most commonly and attain their 
greatest splendor, may be represented by con- 
structing a ring of card or paper, of such di- 
mensions as to agree with the 60th parallel of 
north latitude, and then pushing the ring south- 
ward on the side of America and northward 
on the side of Asia, until it passes through the 
most southerly part of Hudson bay and the 
most northerly part of Siberia. The position 
of the corresponding zone in the southern 
hemisphere has not yet been determined ; but 
it is believed that the southern zone of maxi- 
mum auroral frequency is nearly antipodal to 
the northern zone. From what we kno.w of 
the connection between the occurrence of au- 
roras and disturbances of the earth's magnet- 
ism, we have every reason to believe that as 
the magnetic poles of the earth are slowly 
shifting, so the zone of maximum auroral fre- 
quency must also change in position. It can- 
not be doubted, for example, that in the 17th 
century, when the northern magnetic pole lay 
between England and the north pole, terrestrial 
conditions were more favorable for the occur- 
rence of auroras in England than they now 
are, or than they then were in corresponding 
latitudes in North America. At present, on 
the contrary, the northern magnetic pole lies 
between the north pole and the northwestern 
extremity of the American continent; hence 
auroras are more frequent and more brilliant 
in North America than in corresponding lati- 
tudes iA Europe. To the description given by 
Humboldt we should add that sometimes in 
high latitudes, instead of extending from the 
horizon, the auroral arch appears in the form 
of a complete oval. Hansteen relates that at 
Christiania he twice saw the auroral arch in 
this form. Sometimes more than one arch has 
been seen. Thus the observers who were sent 
by the French government to winter at Bos- 
sekop in Finland, saw on one occasion no fewer 
than nine arches, separated by dark spaces, 
" and resembling in their arrangement magnifi- 
cent curtains of light, hung behind and below 
each other, their brilliant folds stretching com- 



122 



AURORA BOREALIS 



pletely across the sky." The position of the 
luminous region is not known. Arago was of 
opinion that each observer sees his own aurora, 
somewhat as each observer of a rainbow sees 
the luminous arc differently placed. Sir John 
Herschel says " no one can doubt that the light 
of the aurora originates nowhere but in the 
place where it is seen." But it has been con- 
sidered that the most favorable conditions for 
the determination of the height of auroral 
gleams are presented when the auroral corona 
is formed. Now this corona always surrounds 
the point toward which the magnetic dip- 
ping needle points. Yet the magnetic dipping 
needles at different stations are not directed 
toward one and the same point ; so that what- 
ever the auroral corona may be, it does not 
seem to hold a definite place, in such sort that 
its distance can be determined by simultaneous 
observations ; for it is the essential principle of 
the method of simultaneous observations that 
the lines of sight should be directed to one and 
the same point. Nor is it easy, on Herschel's 
theory, to interpret the fact that the auroral 
corona has been seen at stations distant more 
than 1,000 miles from each other, and always 
around the part of the heavens pointed to by 
the magnetic dipping needle. For a point im- 
mediately overhead at one station, and 100 
miles from the earth's surface, would be be- 
low the horizon of a station 1,000 miles dis- 
tant. We seem forced to adopt the conclusion 
that though there is no analogy whatever be- 
tween the aurora and the rainbow, yet Arago 
was right when he asserted his belief that as 
each observer sees his own rainbow, so each 
observer sees a different aurora. We should 
thus be led to consider whether the nature of 
the luminous emanations the direction, for in- 
stance, of the luminous flashes composing them 
may not explain the formation of the auroral 
corona. In this case the position of the observer 
would affect the appearance of the phenomenon. 
If we assume that reliance can be placed on 
the observations by means of which the height 
of the auroral arch has been estimated, we 
must assign a considerable elevation to many 
of these lights. On Oct. 17, 1819, an aurora 
was observed simultaneously at Gosport, Kes- 
wick, and Newtown Stewart, in Great Britain ; 
and from the calculations made by Dalton the 
meteorologist, the arch was estimated to be 
101 or 102 miles above the earth. More re- 
cently Sir John Herschel estimated that the 
arch in the aurora of March 9, 1861, was 83 
miles above the earth. But he remarks that 
"the auroral light has been seen below the 
clouds, as in the polar seas by Parry, Sherer, 
and Ross, on Jan. 27, 1825 ; near the chain of 
the Rocky mountains on Dec. 2, 1850, by liar- 
disty ; and at Alford in Scotland on Feb. 24, 
1842, by Farquharson ; nay, even habitually 
seen as if hovering over the Coreen hills in the 
last-mentioned neighborhood, at a height of 
from 4,000 to 6,000 miles." Herr Galle, from 
observations made during the aurora of Feb. 



4, 1872, estimates the height of the auroral 
corona on that occasion at 2fi5 miles above the 
sea level. Prof. Olmsted's conclusion that the 
auroral arch is seldom below 70 miles in height 
or above 160 miles, would thus appear to be 
negatived. But probably all such estimates 
must be abandoned, and "our meteorological 
catalogues," as Arago advised, " must be disen- 
cumbered of a multitude of determinations of 
height, though due to such great names as Mai- 
ran, Halley, Krafll, Cavendish, and Dalton. "- 
The extent of the earth's surface over which 
the same aurora has been visible has some- 
times been remarkable. Kamtz mentions that 
on Jan. 5, 1769, a splendid aurora was seen 
simultaneously in France and in Pennsylvania ; 
and that the remarkable aurora of Jan. 7, 1831, 
was seen from all parts of central and northern 
Europe, in Canada, and in the northern parts 
of the United States. But even these instances, 
and others of the same kind which might be 
cited, are surpassed in interest by the circum- 
stance that auroras of great brilliancy occur 
simultaneously over the major part of both the 
northern and southern hemispheres. Kamtz 
mentions that when Capt. Cook's observations 
are analyzed, it appears that on every occasion 
when he observed an aurora 'australis an aurora 
borealis had been seen in Europe, or else the 
agitation of the magnetic needle proved that 
around the northern magnetic pole an auroral 
display must have been in progress. The 
aurora of Feb. 4, 1872, was seen not only in 
America and Europe, and over the northern 
hemisphere generally, as far S. as lat. 14 N., 
but in Mauritius, in South Africa, in Australia, 
and probably over the greater part of the south- 
ern hemisphere (for Mauritius is much further 
north than southern auroras are ordinarily seen). 
Mairan and Cassini were the first to point 
out that auroras do not occur at all times with 
equal frequency or in equal splendor. The 
former mentions that a great number of auroras 
were seen at the beginning of the IGth century 
(a misprint probably for the 17th, as the con- 
text seems to imply) to beyond the year 1624, 
after which nothing more was heard of them 
till 1686. Kamtz mentions that between 1707 
and 1790 there was a remarkable increase fol- 
lowed by decrease of auroral action, the max- 
imum frequency being attained in 1790. Prof. 
Olmsted considered that there was sufficient evi- 
dence to establish a period of 20 years during 
which auroral displays are frequent, precede " 
and followed by intervals of from 60 to 65 year 
during which few are witnessed. But it is open 
to question whether the existence of this long 
period is as yet established. The actual fri 
quency of auroras cannot be inferred from ob- 
servations made in temperate latitudes, where 
alone hitherto any attempt has been made 
to determine long periods. The longest 
riod which lias been thoroughly established 
one of about 11 years. This period is associ- 
ated with the occurrence of magnetic disturb- 
ances in cycles of 11 years. The connection 



AURORA BOEEALIS 



123 



between auroral action and disturbances of the 
earth's magnetism appears to have ben dem- 
onstrated, though doubt still remains as to the 
exact nature of the association. The perturba- 
tions of the magnetic needle undoubtedly attain 
their maximum extent at intervals separated by 
about 11 years. The researches of Sabine, La- 
mont, and Wolf appear to have established 
that fact beyond dispute. Hence we may infer 
that the auroral action waxes and wanes with- 
in the same period. A remarkable associa- 
tion also appears to exist between disturbances 
of the earth's magnetism and the occurrence 
of spots on the sun. It has been demonstrated 
that the solar spots increase and diminish in 
a period of about 11 years; and that this peri- 
odicity corresponds exactly with the periodicity 
of the magnetic perturbations. A great solar 
outburst witnessed by Carrington and Hodg- 
son, Sept. 29, 1859, was not only accompanied 
by extensive magnetic disturbances, but on the 
same day remarkable auroras occurred in both 
hemispheres. Telegraphic communication was 
interrupted on all the principal lines ; the ope- 
rators at Washington and Philadelphia received 
sharp electric shocks ; and the pen used in 
Bain's system of telegraphy was followed by a 
flame. Some doubt has been thrown on the 
supposed connection between these circum- 
stances and the solar outburst, in consequence 
of the failure of observers to obtain any corrob- 
orative evidence during the past 13 years; but 
the connection between the condition of the so- 
lar surface and the earth's magnetic state, and 
therefore the connection between the solar 
spot period and auroral displays, has been thor- 
oughly established. The following table ex- 
hibits the number of auroras seen in each 
month, in America and Europe, according to 
the observations of Prof. Loomis of Yale college 
and Kamtz of Germany. These observations, 
however, must not be looked upon as indi- 
cating the relative frequency of auroras in 
America and Europe, because the observations 
of Loomis and Kamtz range over a different 
number of years : 



January. .. 


Loomii. 

... 173 


Kamtz. 
229 


July 


LoomU. 

.. 244 


Kamtz. 

87 


February . . 


... 210 
240 


807 

440 


August . . . 


.. 233 
293 


217 
405 




267 


812 




236 






im 


1S4 




215 


2S5 


.... 

June . . . 


.. 179 


65 




.. 159 


2'25 






In each case there is a double maximum, the 
two equinoxes being the epochs at which auro- 
ras are most frequent ; and it is noteworthy that 
in these mouths the solar poles are most inclined 
toward the earth, the southern pole in March, I 
the northern pole in September ; so that the 
southern spot zone is nearer to the centre of 
the sun's face in March than at any other time, 
while the northern spot zone holds a cor- 
responding position in September. As to the 
electrical character of the phenomenon no 
question can be entertained, though there are 
few problems of greater difficulty than the 
determination of the exact manner in which 



the electrical action is excited. It has been 
held by some that the aurora is due to elec- 
trical discharges from the earth. Through 
some cause the earth, regarded as a vast mag- 
net, becomes overcharged (according to this 
theory) with electrical energy, and it is as this 
energy is gradually dissipated that the splen- 
dors of the aurora are displayed. It has been 
noticed that whenever the earth's magnetism 
is unusually intense an auroral display is to be 
expected. As soon as the aurora has made its 
appearance the intensity of the magnetic force 
begins to diminish. The more brilliant the 
aurora, the more rapidly is the extra energy 
of the earth's magnetism dissipated. " It has 
also been observed by .operators of the Bain 
or chemical telegraph, that very singular effects 
are produced by the aurora upon the telegraph 
wires. The atmospheric electricity generated 
during thunderstorms passes from the wire to 
the chemically prepared paper, emitting a 
bright spark and a sound like the snapping of 
a pistol. It never remains long upon the 
wires, though it travels sometimes 40 or 50 
miles before discharging itself. But the elec- 
tricity produced by the aurora passes along the 
wires in a continuous stream with no sudden 
discharge, effecting the same result as that by 
the galvanic battery. A colored mark upon 
the paper is made by the positive current of 
the aurora as by the positive pole of the bat- 
tery; the negative current, on the contrary, 
produces a bleaching effect. Preceding tho 
appearance of the aurora faint blue lines appear 
on the paper, which gradually become stronger 
and darker so as to burn through several thick- 
nesses of it. The effect then disappears, and is 
soon followed by the bleaching process, which 
entirely overcomes the artificial current of the 
batteries. When these effects have been ob- 
served, the aurora follows, and presents some 
of its most beautiful displays along the lines 
of these telegraphs ; and so familiar have the 
operators become with the disturbance which 
the aurora causes, that they can predict its ap- 
pearance with much certainty. They regard 
the electricity generated by it as precisely that 
of the electro-galvanic battery, which is dis- 
tinguished by its voluminous current without 
intensity of action, differing from atmospheric 
electricity or the kind developed by friction, 
which may be dissipated by placing a wire 
conductor leading to the ground in close prox- 
imity to the line of wires." Capt. McClintock 
observed in the arctic regions that the aurora 
was never visible above ice fields, but that 
whenever an aurora was in progress the light 
appeared always to be gathered over the sur- 
face of tho open water. Water being, as is 
well known, an excellent conductor of elec- 
tricity, while ice is a non-conductor, we may 
infer that the peculiarity observed by McClin- 
tock was due to this difference in tho conduct- 
ing powers of ice and water. In fact, on the 
theory that the aurora is due to electrical dis- 
charges from the earth, these discharges were 



124 



AURORA BOREALIS 



AURUNGABAD 



interrupted by the fields of ice. The study of 
the aurora with the spectroscope hus revealed 
some important facts, though it has as yet 
thrown no light on the nature of the phe- 
nomenon. Angstrom of Sweden, in the 
winter of 1867-'8, recognized the existence of 
a bright yellow-green line in the auroral spec- 
trum ; and Otto Struve of Russia presently 
confirmed this result. It was at the time sup- 
posed that this line constituted the whole of 
the spectrum ; and Dr. Huggins, commenting 
on the discovery, remarked in 1868 that the 
result seemed surprising when the ordinarily 
ruddy hue of the aurora was taken into ac- 
count. " But Gen. Sabine tells me," he adds, 
" that in his polar expeditions he lias frequently 
seen the aurora tinged with green, and this 
appearance corresponds with the position of 
the line seen by M. Struve." Later observa- 
tions, however, and especially those made by 
Prof. Winlock in this country, have shown that 
the auroral spectrum is far more complex 
than had been supposed, and that it is also 
variable. It would appear that the bright 
green line is always present, and that it is 
nearly always the brightest line of the spec- 
trum. But there is also a band in the red 
which, though usually much less intense, yet 
becomes even brighter than the yellow-green 
line when the red streamers of the aurora are 
exceptionally brilliant. The wave lengths of 
the green and red light correspond respectively 
to 558 and 635. Besides these there are faint 
greenish and bluish lines corresponding to wave 
lengths 544, 531, 522, 518, 501, and 485. Two 
other bands in the blue and violet between the 
lines F and G (one of them very close to G) 
have been detected in the spectrum of white 
parts of the aurora. They disappear or be- 
come faint in the parts having an intense red 
tint. During the great auroral display of 
Feb. 4, 1872, Father Perry of the Stonyhurst ob- 
servatory (England) remarked that " the green 
line could always be detected, even where the 
unassisted eye failed to notice any trace of 
auroral light. This," he adds, " might sug- 
gest the advisability of a daily observation 
with a small hand spectroscope for those who 
are desirous of forming a complete list of 
auroral phenomena. Magnetic disturbances 
are a sure guide in the case of grand manifesta- 
tions of aurora ; but might not a very slight 
aurora be observable without the magnetic 
needle being sensibly affected ? " One of the 
most remarkable circumstances hitherto ascer- 
tained respecting the aurora is the partial 
agreement of its spectrum with that of the 
solar corona. It is not indeed the case, as is 
sometimes stated, that the principal line in the 
coronal spectrum (known as the 1474 line, be- 
cause agreeing with the corresponding line of 
KirchhofFs scale) coincides with the bright 
yellow-green auroral line ; but another and 
fainter auroral line agrees with Kirchhoff s 1474, 
and there is sufficient general resemblance be- 
tween the coronal and auroral spectra to 



justify the theory that a real resemblance 
exists between the aurora and the solar corona. 
This theory was first worked out and published 
by Prof. W. A. Norton of Yale college ; but 
Prof. Winlock of Cambridge also formed and 
published a similar theory. Some doubt seems 
still to prevail on the question whether the 
bright green line of the auroral spectrum be- 
longs also to the spectrum of the zodiacal 
light. Angstrom and Respighi have asserted 
that this is the case ; but others deny that the 
auroral green line is ever seen in the zodiacal 
spectrum save when an aurora is in progress. 
Mr. Webb observes of the zodiacal light, Feb. 
2, 1872 : " It seemed to show a ruddy tinge 
not unlike the commencement of a crimson 
aurora borealis ; this may have been a decep- 
tion, but it was certainly redder or yellower 
than the galaxy. At 7 I examined it with a 
pocket spectroscope which shows very dis- 
tinctly the greenish band of the aurora ; but 
nothing of the kind was visible, nor could any- 
thing be traced beyond a slight increase of 
general light, which in closing the slit was ex- 
tinguished long before the auroral band would 
have become imperceptible." M. Liais also, 
who has for several years studied the zodiacal 
light in tropical countries, finds its spectrum 
to be ordinarily continuous. Yet undoubtedly 
the yellow-green line is seen in the spectrum 
received from the region occupied by the zodi- 
acal, during auroral displays; though whether 
it is then simply the auroral line seen in the 
direction of the zodiacal as well as in others, 
or partly received from the zodiacal itself, re- 
mains an open question. In the latter case it 
would follow, of course, that there is an intimate 
connection, as Mairan long ago suspected, 
between the zodiacal light, which is undoubt- 
edly a cosmical phenomenon, and the aurora, 
which is as undoubtedly a terrestrial manifesta- 
tion, though not improbably of cosmical origin. 
Prof. Olmsted had several years ago assigned 
to the aurora an interplanetary origin. " The 
nebulous matter," he reasoned, "like that 
which furnishes the material of the meteoric 
showers or the zodiacal light, and is known to 
exist in the interplanetary spaces, is probably 
the cause of the auroral displays. The peri- 
odical return of the phenomena indicates such 
a position ; so too its rapid motion, which ex- 
ceeds that of light or electricity, and the ex- 
tent of surface over which the phenomenon is 
seen at the same time." It should be added 
that during the months of January, February, 
and March, 1872, when auroras occurred witli 
unusual frequency, the zodiacal light shone with 
exceptional brilliancy. 

AURUNGABAD, a city of western Hindostan, 
in the native state of Hyderabad or the terri- 
tory of the Nizam, on the Doodna, a small 
tributary of the Godavery, 175 m. E. N. E. of 
Bombay. It was an unimportant village called 
Gurka until the time of Aurungzebe, who 
made it a favorite residence, and built here 
a mausoleum to the memory of his daugh- 



AURUNGZEBE 



AUSCULTATION 



125 



tor. The town is well laid out,.but the 
buildings are in a dilapidated condition, and 
the climate is unhealthy. The population was 
estimated in 1825 at 60,000, hut is now much 
smaller. Water is supplied by means of con- 
duits and pipes, and a considerable trade is 




Mosque of Aurungzebe. 

carried on. The town was formerly the capi- 
tal of a province of the same name, contain- 
ing about 60,000 sq. m., which was incorpo- 
rated with the Mogul empire in 1633. In more 
recent periods it belonged partly to the Mahrat- 
tas and partly to the Nizam, but is now mostly 
under British rule. 

AURUNGZEBE, or Annmgzeb, the last great 
emperor of the Mogul dynasty in India, born 
Oct. 22, 1618, died at Ahmednuggur, Feb. 
21, 1707. He was appointed by his father, 
Shah Jehan, to be viceroy of the Deccan. Here, 
while affecting an entire indifference for world- 
ly things, he acquired military experience and 
amassed great wealth. In 1657 the emperor 
was taken suddenly ill, and Dara, the heir ap- 
parent and eldest brother of Arungzebe, as- 
sumed the administration. Aurungzebe united 
with a younger brother in defeating Dara, and 
soon succeeded by his energy and treachery in 
putting to death all his brothers and their sons. 
His father, having meantime recovered, was 
confined for the rest of his life as a prisoner 
in his own palace, and Aurungzebo grasped the 
imperial power. His reign was the most bril- 
liant period of the domination of the race of 
Akbarin India, and his empire included nearly 
all the peninsula of Hindostan, with Cabool on 
the west and Assam on the east. The first 10 
years of his administration were marked by a 
profound peace, and his wisdom was especially 
signalized in the measures which he took in 
anticipating and assuaging a famine, and in sup- 
pressing an insurrection of Hindoo devotees 
lieaded by a female aaint. A greater misfor- 
tune to him was the rise of the Mahratta em- 



pire, the foundation of which had been almost 
imperceptibly laid by an adventurer named 
Sevajee. Against this leader Aurungzebe sent 
in vain his most experienced generals, and he 
therefore marched into the Deccan himself to 
superintend the war. He resided in the Dec- 
can 22 years, subduing the Carnatic and ruling 
an empire which hi wealth and population was 
probably unsurpassed by that ever held by any 
other monarch. The proper name of Aurung- 
zebe was Mohammed, and that by which he 
is commonly known, meaning the "orna- 
ment of the throne," was given him by his 
grandfather. He himself preferred the title 
of Alum-Geer, "conquerer of the world," 
and he was accustomed to have carried before 
him a globe of gold as his symbol. Yet to 
show that he as yet held but three fourths of 
the earth, he used to tear off a corner from 
every sheet of paper which he used in his cor- 
respondence. India owes to him several of 
her finest bridges, hospitals, and mosques. In 
his personal habits he was remarkable for an 
ascetic simplicity ; and in his zeal for the Mo- 
hammedan faith he became a persecutor of 
the Hindoos. 

AUSCHWITZ (Pol. Oswiecim), a town of 
western Galicia, in Austria, 32 m. W. of Cra- 
cow, and about 3 m. from the frontier of Prus- 
sian Silesia; pop. 3,600. It is the principal 
town of the former, originally Polish, then 
Silesian, and then again Polish, duchies of Au- 
schwitz und Zator, with an area of about 1,000 
sq. m., which in 1564 were united into one 
duchy by King Sigismund Augustus, and in 
1773 incorporated with Austria. Although 
belonging to Galicia, the territory of the duchy 
was in 1818 declared by Austria to belong to 
the Germanic confederation. Only about one 
tenth of the population of the duchy speak 
German. In the war of 1866 there was an 
engagement at Auschwitz on June 27 between 
Prussian and Austrian troops. 

AUSCULTATION (Lat. augcultare, to listen), 
a branch of medical art by which the states 
and motions of internal organs are discerned 
through the sounds which they produce. Pulsa- 
tions, respirations, and the vibratory move- 
ments in the body produce sounds which may 
be distinctly heard by placing the ear upon 
the walls of the chest, or other parts of the 
external frame. The heart beats strongly 
many times per minute, and each pulsation 
gives a shock to the surrounding parts, and also 
produces a double sound within the heart itself. 
At every breath the air is first drawn into the 
lungs, and again passes out by expiration. The 
passage of the air into the lungs produces one 
kind of sound peculiar to the act of inspiration, 
and its exit another peculiar to expiration. In a 
state of healthy action, the sounds of the heart 
and those of the lungs and air passages are of 
a peculiar nature, and a little practice enables 
the ear to become familiar with each special 
sound. In a diseased state, the action of both 
heart and lungs is modified to some extent, and 



12G 



AUSONES 



AUSTERLITZ 



the sounds produced are also modified in a pecu- 
liar manner. To assist the ear in distinguishing 
these sounds, Laennec constructed the stetho- 
scope (Gr. <T7T70of, chest or breast, and OKOTTCIV, to 
examine), by the aid of which all the sounds of 
the heart and lungs may be distinctly heard, 
and the differences between healthy and dis- 
eased action readily discerned and classified. 
The art of auscultation has since then made 
rapid progress. Auscultation is very useful in 
obstetrics, as well as in diseases of the heart 
and lungs. In difficult cases of parturition, it 
is often necessary to know whether the child 
is dead or alive in the womb before delivery. 
After the fifth month of pregnancy the pulsa- 
tions of the foetal heart may be distinctly heard, 
and the " placental murmur," caused by the 
uterine circulation of the blood, may also be 
distinguished by the ear. Percussion is a 
branch of auscultation by which artificial 
sounds are obtained as a means of discerning 
the state of the parts from which these sounds 
proceed, particularly in regard to the presence 
or absence of air or liquids. The art of auscul- 
tation is of comparatively recent date, but it 
was long believed to be a useful aid in diag- 
nosis. In the middle of the 17th century 
Hooke observed that " there may be a possibil- 
ity of discovering the internal motions and ac- 
tions of bodies by the sounds they make. ... I 
have been able to hear very plainly the beating 
of a man's heart." In 1761 Leopold Auenbrug- 
ger, a Gernjan physician residing at Vienna, 
published a small volume in Latin explaining 
an artificial method of producing sounds in 
various regions of the body, by which the phy- 
sician might judge of the state of the subja- 
cent parts. This method was percussion. The 
book remained almost unknown till 1808, 
when Corvisart translated it into French, and 
made the method known to all the countries of 
Europe. The practice of percussion has since 
become general, and in many cases is found 
highly useful. The method of studying dis- 
eases from sounds made by percussion led to 
the method of observing sounds made nat- 
urally, by the action of the heart and lungs. 
Corvisart took up the subject with great zeal, 
and three of his disciples, Double, Bayle, and 
Laennec, continued the same course, resulting 
in the discovery of the stethoscope, and the 
general use of auscultation. 

ACSONES, the name of one of the most an- 
cient tribes of Italy, whose origin is unknown. 
Tradition made them descendants of Auson, 
son of Ulysses and Calypso. They are held 
by Niebuhr to have been a portion of the great 
Oscan nation. From them the southern part 
of Italy, later known as Magna Gracia, was 
called Ausonia. 

Al'SO.MUS, Decimns Ma?nns, a Latin poet and 
grammarian, born at Burdigala (Bordeaux) 
about A. D. 310, died about 39-t. He practised 
law for a time in his native town, and afterward 
became a teacher of grammar and rhetoric. In 
307 he was selected by the emperor Valentinian 



to be tutor to his son Gratian, whom he accom- 
panied into Germany the following year. He 
rose successively to the honorary titles and dig- 
nities of count of the empire, qua;stor, gover- 
nor of Gaul, Libya, and Latium, and lastly, in 
379, of consul. His poetry is characterized 
by extreme licentiousness and pruriency, and is 
bald of invention and redundant in ornament. 
There has been much discussion whether Au- 
sonins was a Christian or a pagan. The best 
editions of Ansonius are : a very rare one by 
Tollius (Amsterdam, 1671), with a commen- 
tary of Scaliger, and selected notes by various 
critics ; the Delphin edition ; and the Bipont 
of 1783, which is correct and of authority. 

AISSIG, a town of Bohemia, in the circle of 
Leitmeritz, at the junction of the Bila with the 
Elbe, 44 m. (direct) N. N. W. of Prague, with 
which it is connected by railway ; pop. in 1869, 
10,933. It was formerly strongly fortified, but 
in 1426 it was destroyed by the Hussites, and 
in 1639 it was seized by the Swedish general 
Baner. It has a church said to have been built 
in 826, containing a Madonna by Carlo Dolce, 
presented to the town by the father of Raphael 
Mengs, who was born here. The town has an 
active trade in fruit, mineral waters, timber, 
and especially in coal. The battlefield of Kulm 
is in the vicinity. 

AUSTEN, Jan*, an English novelist, born at 
Steventon, in Hampshire, Dec. 16, 1775, died 
in Winchester, July 18, 1817. She was edu- 
cated by her father, who was rector of Steven- 
ton. It is not known at what time she com- 
menced authorship. In her youth she was 
beautiful and graceful, but a disappointment in 
love determined her against marriage. " North- 
anger Abbey" (which was published with 
" Persuasion " after her death) was the earliest 
and weakest of her works, all of which, except 
the posthumous ones, appeared anonymously. 
" Sense and Sensibility " was published in 1811, 
and immediately obtained popularity. " Pride 
and Prejudice," "Mansfield Park, ""and "Em- 
ma" succeeded at regular intervals the la*t 
in 1816. Her father was compelled by ill 
health to pass-his latter years in Bath, and on 
his death his widow and two daughters return- 
ed to Hampshire, and removed in May, 1817, to 
Winchester. Her novels have long been popu- 
lar as " distinct delineations of English domes- 
tic life, with a delicate discrimination of female 
character." Her own opinion was that one of 
her novels was " a little bit of ivory two inches 
wide," on which she "worked with a brush so 
j fine as to produce little effect after much 
j labor." Her life has been written by J. E. 
Austen-Leigh (London, 1871). 

ACSTERLITZ, a town of Moravia, in the circle 
and 12 m. E. of Brunn on the Littawa river; 
pop. about 2,400. It owes its celebrity to the 
battle won here by Napoleon over the united 
Austrian and Russian armies, Dec. 2, 1805. 
After the capture of the Austrian general 
Mack at Ulm, Oct. 17, and the occupation of 
1 Vienna by the French, Nov. 13, the Austrian 



AUSTIN 



127 



and Russian forces were concentrated near 
Olmutz, and tinder command of the pz&r ad- 
vanced upon Napoleon, whose forced were 
ranged in a semicircle having its centre near 
Brunn. The allies chose their position wrongly ; 
and Napoleon, perceiving their error, ordered 
an instant attack, and routed them after a most 
severe contest. The allies lost about 30,000 
killed, wounded, and prisoners. Austria was 
compelled to make the peace of Presbnrg ; the 
emperor of Russia to return to his dominions ; 
and the campaign ended leaving a large part 
of central Europe subject to Napoleon. The 
news of this disastrous battle is said to have 
hastened the death of William Pitt. 

AUSTIN, a S. E. county of Texas, intersected 
by Brazos river ; area, 1,024 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 15,087, of whom 6,574 were colored. 
The Texas Central railroad passes through the 
county. Stock-raising is carried on to a largo 
extent. Timber is abundant. In 1870 the 
county produced 444,544 bushels of Indian 
corn, 65,745 of sweet potatoes, 11, 967 bales of 
cotton, and 19,362 Ibs. of wool. There were 
60,058 cattle, 5,768 horses, 7,554 sheep, and 
15,657 hogs. Capital, Bellville. 

AUSTIN, a city of Texas, capital of the state 
and of Travis county, on the Colorado river, 
160 m. (direct) from its mouth, and 200 m. N. 
W. of Galveston ; pop. in 1860, 3,494 ; in 1870, 
4,428, of whom 1,615 were colored. The 
Colorado is navigable to this point in winter by 
steamboats. Austin is built on an amphithea- 
tre of hills, and overlooks the valley of the Col- 
orado and the rich prairies beyond. The pub- 
lic buildings are of a white stone called marble, 
but too soft to admit of polish. An artesian 
well has been sunk just north of the capitol, to 
the depth of 1,300 feet, from which a small 
stream constantly issues. The water is im- 
pregnated with lime, and has some medicinal 
qualities. It has been proposed to supply the 
city with water from the Colorado by an aque- 
duct. There are 8 or 10 churches in the city, and 
about 20 schools. The first free public schools 
in Texas were opened at Austin in 1871 . There 
are 2 weekly newspapers published here, 1 tri- 
weekly, and 3 daily. The western division of 
the Houston and Texas Central railroad con- 
nects the city by way of Hempstead with 
Houston and the diverging railroads. 

AUSTIN, Jonathan Luring, secretary and treas- 
urer of Massachusetts, born in Boston, Jan. 2, 
1748, died May 10, 1826. He graduated at 
Harvard college in 1766, was a merchant and 
secretary of the board of war in Massachusetts, 
and in 1777 was sent to Paris to the American 
commissioners with the news of Burgoyne's 
capture. Dr. Franklin made him an additional 
private secretary, and sent him as his agent to 
England, where he resided in the family of 
Lord Shelburne. On his return with de- 
spatches in May, 1779, he was liberally re- 
warded by congress. In 1780, in his passage 
to Spain as agent of the state, he was taken 
and carried to England, but soon liberated. 
61 VOL. ii. 9 



He was afterward state secretary and treasurer 
of Massachusetts. 

AUSTIN, Moses, an American pioneer, born in 
Durham, Conn., died June 10, 1821. He led 
an adventurous life, engaged in lead-mining in 
Virginia and Missouri, and in 1820 went to 
Bexar, Texas, where he obtained from the 
Mexican authorities permission to colonize 300 
families in some part of Texas. He died soon 
after, and the plan was carried out by his son. 
(See AUSTIN, STEPHEN F.) 

AUSTIN, Samuel, D. D., an American clergy- 
man, born at New Haven, Conn., Oct. 7, 1760, 
died at Glastenbury, Dec. 4, 1830. He gradu- 
ated at Yale college in 1783, and, after study- 
ing divinity two years, was ordained as pastor 
of the church in Fairhaven, Conn. In 1790 he 
became the minister of the first Congregational 
society in Worcester, and in 1815 president of 
the university of Vermont. After holding that 
office for six years, he removed to Newport, 
R. I., and thence at the end of four years re- 
turned to Worcester. During the last three 
years of his life his reason was clouded. He 
left several controversial and other works. 

AUSTIN, Sarah, an English authoress, born in 
1793, died at Weybridge, Aug. 8, 1867. She 
was one of the famous Taylor family of Nor- 
wich, and the wife of Mr. John Austin, a Lon- 
don barrister. Her reputation rests upon the 
unusual ability of her translations from Ger- 
man authors. Her first and most remarkable 
achievement in this kind was her version of 
the travels of Prince Pflckler-Muskau, pub- 
lished under the title of " The Travels of a Ger- 
man Prince in England." The idiomatic paint- 
ing and fluent ease of this translation were so 
admirable that for a long time it was difficult to 
persuade many persons that the work was not 
the composition of an English author. The 
first work which Mrs. Austin gave to the world 
under her own name was a translation of Falk's 
" Characteristics of Goethe " (1833), with many 
additions by herself. This book won an imme- 
diate and deserved success. She afterward 
published translations of Carov6's " Story with- 
out an End," and Ranke's "History of the 
Popes," a "Collection of Fragments from the 
German Prose Writers," an excellent treatise 
on "Education," and "Sketches of Germany 
from 1760 to 1814." 

AUSTIN, Stephen F., founder of the first Ameri- 
can colony in Texas, son of Moses Austin, died 
Dec. 27, 1836. Setting out from Natchitpches, 
July 5, 1821, to follow up the grant previously 
issued to his father authorizing the formation 
of a colony, he went to the city of Mexico,- 
where it was specially confirmed Feb. 18, 
1823. By it he was clothed with almost abso- 
lute power over the colonists, and only obliged 
to report to the captain general. The colony, 
since become Austin, the capital of Texas, of 
which he selected the site after a careful re- 
connoitring of the country, had been previ- 
ously organized by him upon the basis of 
giving to each man 640 acres of land, 820 for a 



128 



AUSTIN 



AUSTRALIA 



wife, 160 for each child, and 80 acres for each 
slave; and the immigrants being made up in 
great part of young unmarried men, he in- 
duced them to unite in pairs, making one of 
them the head of the family thus constituted, 
which singular arrangement is said to have re- 
sulted to the satisfaction of all concerned. In 
spite of frequent trouble with the Indians, the 
colony prospered, and, being followed by a con- 
siderable number of similar associations, the in- 
flux of Americans was so large that they met 
March 1, 1833, without the concurrence of the 
Mexican population, in a convention to form a 
constitution for the as yet Mexican state of 
Texas. Austin was one of the delegates chosen 
to carry the result of their deliberations to the 
central government at Mexico, and obtain its 
ratification. The delays and frequent revolu- 
tions at Mexico leading him to despair of suc- 
cess in his mission, he addressed a letter to 
the people of Texas, recommending a union of 
all the municipalities to organize a state. For 
this he was arrested and kept in prison three 
months, until released by Santa Anna, who 
continued to hold him as a sort of hostage. In 
September, 1835, he returned to Texas, took 
part with the revolutionary party, which had 
been forming in his absence, and was put in 
command of their little army. His first act 
was to send into eastern Texas for Gen. Hous- 
ton, who was soon elected to the chief com- 
mand, Austin being appointed a commissioner 
to the United States. Here he acted with 
prudence, and was very successful in prepar- 
ing the public mind for the independence and 
annexation of the new republic. After spend- 
ing some time in advocating this measure, he 
returned to Texas in July, 1836 ; and he died 
while still engaged in negotiations. 

AUSTIN, William (BILLY), the reputed natural 
son of Queen Caroline. He was known as a 
poor lad of Deptford, near London, who bore 
a striking resemblance to the queen ; and 
though her majesty was judicially acquitted in 
1808 of the charge of being his mother, she in- 
sisted upon keeping him near her person. In 
1830 he was sent to a lunatic asylum at Milan, 
and remained there till 1845. Being then 
brought back to England and subjected to a 
medical examination at the request of his 
guardians, the Right Hon. S. Lushington and 
Sir J. P. Wilde, he was transferred to a private 
asylnm in London. 

AUSTRALASIA (South Asia), the S. "W. division 
of Oceania, extending from the equator to lat. 
47 S., and from about Ion. 112 to about 170 
E. It embraces Australia, Tasmania or Van 
Diemen's Land, New Zealand, and Chatham 
isle, on the west and south ; Papua, the Ad- 
miralty isles, New Ireland, and the Solomons 
archipelago on the north; Queen Charlotte's 
isles, the New Hebrides, and New Caledonia, 
on the east ; and all the interjacent islands. On 
account of the black color of its natives, Aus- 
tralasia is also called Melanesia, chiefly by 
French geographers. (See OCEANIA.) 



AUSTRALIA, formerly called NEW HOLLAND, 
an island, classed as a continent by most geogra- 
phers, lying S. E. of Asia and the Sunda islands, 
between the Indian and the Southern Pacific 
oceans, and extending from lat. 10 43' to 39 
9' S., and from Ion. 113 to 153 E. From its 
western extremity, Steep point, to its extreme 
eastern point, Cape Byron, its length is 2,500 
m. ; and its breadth, from Cape York, its 
northernmost point, to its southern extremity 
at Cape Wilson, is 1,900 m. Its entire coast 
line embraces a circuit of 8,000 m., and its area 
is estimated at 3,000,000 sq. m. The configura- 
tion of the Australian coast displays little irreg- 
ularity ; there are but two or three large penin- 
sulas, and although small bays are found along 
almost the whole coast line, the gulf of Carpen- 
taria, and the large inlet leading to Cambridge 
gulf and Queen's channel on the north, and 
Spencer and St. Vincent gulfs on the south, 
are the only deep indentations. A long curve 
of the southern coast forms the vast bay called 
the Great Australian bight, but this is only a 
portion of the open ocean. From the N. E. 
extremity of the continent, where the long, 
triangular peninsula of York lies between the 
gulf of Carpentaria and the Pacific, its northern 
extremity only separated from New Guinea by 
the narrow Torres strait, the coast trends 
southeastward for more than 1,400 m. to Cape 
Byron, where its direction suddenly changes to 
southwest. Along the greater part of this 
N. E. stretch of coast, from Cape York nearly 
to the Great Sandy island, lie the Great Barrier 
reefs, the most extensive range of coral reefs 
known in the world. Frequent though often 
dangerous passages through this barrier permit 
the entrance of vessels into the sea lying be- 
tween it and the mainland, a body of water 
varying in breadth from its southern entrance, 
where it is a broad open sea, the reefs lying at 
a great distance from the coast, to its central 
point at Cape Tribulation, where it hardly 
affords even a passage. Further N. it again 
stretches away from the coast, extending across 
the E. end of Torres strait. Near the southern 
entrance of the sea thus enclosed, and a little 
N. of Sandy island, are numerous good harbors. 
The coast is here made up of high and precip- 
itous cliff's, and this formation continues to 
characterize its whole extent, as far as its 
southern extremity, with the exception of a 
small portion S. of Cape Howe. Below Cape 
Byron, where it trends to the southwest, it 
contains some of the best harbors in the world, 
chief among them that of Port Jackson at Syd- 
ney. The S. coast, from Cape Wilson W. to 
the beginning of the Great Australian bight, is 
also celebrated for its excellent harbors ; only a 
short strip of coast E. of Encounter hay is with- 
out good shelter. But with the Australian 
bight begins a long uniform line of cliffs with- 
out refuge of any kind for vessels, steep and 
rugged, and continuing W. as far as the Re- 
cherche archipelago. West of this are a few safe 
ports. The W. and N. W. coasts are the least 



longitude We*t l&f Itom tfaiilii 



I..' 



vt 




.n^ituatf East UtT froii 



/ 'JM : 

.C ARVK N TAJRJA 

U e*- 




AUSTRALIA 



129 



favorable of all to navigators ; they aje gener- 
ally destitute of harbors, only a few really use- 
ful ones being found near the Buccaneer archi- 
pelago. The N. W. coast is high and rocky, 
the western low and sandy. The N. coast, 
made most irregular of all by the two peninsu- 
las of Arnhem Land and York, and by the gulf 
of Carpentaria, has in its western part some of 
the best harbors of the continent, though they 
are not as well known as the southern ports. 
The gulf of Carpentaria itself has a sandy, low, 
and dangerous E. coast, but its western side has 
numerous sheltered bays and safe navigation. 
That portion of the Indian ocean which washes 
this coast, extending between New Guinea and 
Australia to the Torres strait, is called the Ara- 
fura sea. The interior has been only partially 
explored. It seems to have the character of 
a table land of moderate height studded with 
groups of small mountains, and hi the interior 
sometimes sinking into low swampy valleys; 
while on the general level of the table land 
itself are vast plains, sometimes fertile, but 
oftener sandy, or covered with the long stiff 
grass called spinifex. There are many swamps, 
but few ponds or useful watercourses. Large 
desert tracts, covered with stones or low shrub- 
bery, are frequently found. Near the coasts, 
however, greater and sometimes luxuriant fer- 
tility prevails, and here the varied surface 
of the country displays some of the most 
beautiful scenery in the world. The south- 
eastern and eastern portions of Australia are 
all that have thus far been thoroughly and scien- 
tifically explored. Along the whole E. side of 
the continent lie ranges of mountains of con- 
siderable height, sometimes actually touching 
the coast, but generally in their southern por- 
tion lying at an average distance of 40 to 50 m. 
from it, while in the north they are still more 
distant. These are often considered as a single 
range, but are more correctly divided into sev- 
eral distinct portions. The Australian Pyrenees 
and the Grampian Hills, which run parallel to 
the S. coast E. and W. of Melbourne, may be con- 
sidered a western offshoot from the southern 
extremity of this system. Their summits are 
generally low, but in two or three places near 
their junction with the principal range they at- 
tain a height of between 5,500 and 6,000 ft. 
The first of the main chain of the E. coast, be- 
ginning at Cape Wilson, are the highest moun- 
tains of the country, the Australian Alps, hav- 
ing their principal peaks, according to Peter- 
mann's map of 1872, in Mt. Kosciusko, 7,176 
ft. high, the loftiest peak yet discovered in 
Australia, and Mt. Ilotham, 6,414 ft. In the 
neighborhood of these mountains lies the grand- 
est scenery of the continent. Ragged cliffs of 
great height, crowned with forests, hem in the 
fertile valley of the Murray river, which has 
its source in this range. These rugged Al- 
pine features characterize the entire chain, and 
the smaller parallel ranges and offshoots are 
scarcely less picturesque. N. of the Austra- 
i Alps and W. of Sydne 



lian Alps j 



, of Sydney are the Blue moun- 



tains, the next group in the chain. They no- 
where reach a greater height than 4,100 ft., 
but the same wild scenery prevails through 
their whole extent. N. of these again lies 
the Liverpool range, trending toward the east, 
where the somewhat isolated Mt. Sea View 
rises to the height of 6,000 ft., and lying al- 
most at right angles to the general direction 
of the system. W. of the Blue mountains are 
two other chains, offshoots of the main forma- 
tion the Honeysuckle range and the Canobo- 
las group, the latter of greater height than any 
peaks of the Blue mountains themselves. N. 
of the Liverpool range the mountains become 
more scattered, extending E. and W., and no 
longer preserving the narrow and regular line 
their principal peaks have heretofore kept. In 
this irregular mountain region the principal 
summit is Mt. Lindsay, S. W. of Brisbane, 5,700 
ft. high. From this point the same wide and 
irregular formation extends to the north, at 
least into York peninsula, and probably even 
to its extremity. It appears, from such explo- 
rations as have been made, to attain its greatest 
height in the S. E. part of the peninsula. 
Along the S. coast, near the head of Spencer 
gulf, are low chains of mountains little more 
than 3,000 ft. high. The Darling, Herschel, 
and Victoria ranges, which have been discov- 
ered on the S. W. coast, have seldom a height. 
of more than 2,000 ft. One peak, however, Mt. 
Bruce, near King George's sound, is a little 
more than 3,100 ft. high. No considerable 
mountains have been discovered in the inte- 
rior of the continent. Very few of the rivers 
of Australia are navigable, and in most of 
them running water is only found during a 
small portion of the year. The most remark- 
able peculiarity of these streams is the sudden- 
ness with which, even when full of water, they 
disappear into a quicksand or marsh. Thus, 
although these creeks and rivers are almost 
innumerable, they fail to irrigate the soil. 
Only a few exceptions to this rule are found. 
Among these the chief is the Murray or Goolwa, 
which rises in the Australian Alps, and flows 
about W. N. W. for more than 500 m., when, 
by a sharp turn in its course, called the Great 
Bend of the Murray, it changes direction to the. 
S., and empties 100 m. further into Lake Alex- 
andrina, a basin connected with the sea. The 
Murray and its tributaries, the Murrumbidgee 
and Lachlan, are lasting streams; but of its 
other tributaries there are none which do not 
become partially dry in the summer. Even 
the Darling, a river of considerable size flowing 
into the Murray from the north, shares this 
peculiarity. The other permanent streams of 
Australia are short and of comparatively little 
importance ; the best known are those which 
flow from the coast ranges directly into the 
sea. Among them are the Hawkesbury, Hun- 
ter, Clarence, Brisbane, Fitzroy, and Burdekin, 
on the eastern coast; the Glenelg, Hopkins, 
Yarra-Yarra, and others, on the southern ; the 
Swan, Murchison, Gascoyne, and Fortescue, on 



130 



AUSTRALIA 



the western ; and on the northern, the Vic- 
toria, Alligator, Roper, and Flinders. The 
lakes of Australia consist, during the greater 
part of the year, of swamps full of weeds and 
grass, or of mere heds of mud or sand. This 
applies even to the largest inland bodies of 
water yet discovered, which lie grouped to- 

f ether near the centre of the 8. coast, N. of 
pencer gulf. Here is Lake Torrens, ahout 
140 m. in length, hut very narrow, lying about 
40 m. from the head of the gulf; and 50 m. 
further N., Eyre lake, still larger. E. of this is 
Lake Gregory, which might be more correctly 
called Gregory lakes, since it is divided into nu- 
merous parts, between which no considerable 
communication has been discovered. TV. of 
Lake Torrens lies the extensive Lake Gairdner, 
and E. of it Lake Frome. The water of this group 
of lakes contains a large proportion of salt, and 
salt also abounds in the marshes and innumera- 
ble swampy ponds which lie in this region. 
The geological structure of Australia has not 
been thoroughly ascertained. It appears, how- 
ever, that the main table land rests on terti- 
ary sandstone, directly overlying the primary 
rocks, the fact that no traces of a secondary 
formation have been found forming one of the 
most remarkable features of Australian geol- 
ogy. The mountains rising from the table 
land in the interior ace, on the contrary, gen- 
erally of volcanic structure. In the range 
of the 8. W. coast primary rocks are most 
prominent granite, syenite, &c. ; and all the 
greater coast ranges probably resemble these. 
In several of the great valleys in the S. E. part 
is found a limestone containing numerous fossils. 
Bituminous coal is abundant near Newcastle at 
the mouth of Hunter river in the eastern part of 
New South Wales, and large mines are already 
worked there. Rich deposits of copper are 
also found at Burra-Burra, Wallaroo, and Ka- 
punda in South Australia that at Burra-Bur- 
ra being probably the richest in the world. 
The famous gold fields are in the Bathurst dis- 
trict and the N. W. part of Victoria. Every 
indication shows that only in the latest geo- 
logical period has Australia risen from the sea. 
The recent deposits following directly on the 
primary rocks, the salt lakes, the whole con- 
struction of the continent, indicate this; and 
geologists affirm that the southern coast is still 
in process of imperceptible but constant up- 
heaval. The climate of Australia is exceed- 
ingly hot, but dry and healthy in such southern 
parts as are already colonized, where it appears 
favorable to European constitutions, and re- 
sembles in many particulars the climate of 
Spain. In the extreme north, beyond the tro- 
pic of Capricorn, which crosses the continent 
near its centre, the heat is more oppressive, 
and the absence of large streams gives almost 
the arid climate of a desert. Here, however, 
the tropical rainy season brings relief with un- 
failing regularity, lasting from November till 
April; while in the south the rains, though 
of tropical violence, are irregular, occurring at 



intervals between March and September, and 
often leaving the country exposed to long 
droughts. There appears to be almost no rain 
in certain portions of the central continent, 
and these have become deserts, from which 
bot winds blow toward the coast, carrying 
clouds of sand. Extraordinary variations of 
temperature are among the most remarkable 
phenomena of the country. Falls in the mer- 
cury of 20 to 30 F. in half an hour are com- 
mon on the coast, especially in the summer; 
and comparing the reading of the thermometer 
in the sun at noon with the same at midnight, 
a variation of 99 in the 12 hours has been 
observed. The average height of the ther- 
mometer for the year on the N. coast is about 
80 ; at Port Macquarie on the E. coast, 68 ; 
at Port Jackson (Sydney), 66 ; at Melbourne, 
on the S. coast, 61 ; at Perth, on the TV. coast, 
64. In summer, however, the mercury often 
rises to 100, or even 120. One traveller 
(William Howitt) has even stated his experi- 
ence at 139. The animals of Australia are 
peculiar, not less in themselves than in their 
distribution. The carnivora are few, and the 
only really destructive beast of prey is the 
dingo, an animal in size between a fox and a 
wolf, and resembling a dog. The dingoes roam 
about in packs and attack sheep, killing and 
wounding many, but eating few. Ruminating 
animals and pachyderms are unknown. But 
while Australia is thus deficient in the classes 
of animals most abundant in other parts of the 
world, its fauna consists very largely of a class 
elsewhere but sparingly represented the mar- 
supialia or pouched animals. Of these the 
largest and perhaps the most common is the 
kangaroo. A smaller species of this animal is 
called the wallaby. The opossum, the petau- 
rus or flying opossum, and the dasyurus (a car- 
nivorous pouched animal) are the other species 
most frequently met with. Another peculiar 
family inhabiting Australia are the monotre- 
mata, including the two curious species echid- 
na, or porcupine ant-eater, and ornithorhyn- 
ehiw. The latter species is a water animal 
shaped like a beaver, but has web feet, a bill 
like that of a duck, and in the case of the 
male spurs upon the hind feet. (See MONO- 
TEEMATA.) There arefive species of rodents, 
four small and insignificant, and one somewhat 
larger and resembling the beaver in its habits. 
The birds include several of the largest species 
of eagles, falcons, and owls. Parrots of the 
most brilliant plumage, birds of paradise, and 
orioles are abundant ; while among the pecu- 
liar birds are the emu, the black swan, the ibis, 
and the "laughing jackass" or "bushman's 
clock," a large kingfisher, with a remarkable 
voice. The marine animals include the dngong, 
found along the northern shore between More- 
ton bay and Cape York. Sharks abound on 
all the coasts. The amphibious animals are 
few and small. Few of the serpents are ven- 
omous, and none are of great size. The in- 
sects, however, include several species whose 



AUSTRALIA 



131 



bite is poisonous the scorpion, centipede, and 
several kinds of spiders. Ants of all sizes 
abound ; some are found an inch long, living 
in immense hills, and really formidable from 
their swarming attack and painful bite. It is 
said that nine tenths of the 8,000 species of 
plants found in Australia are unknown else- 
where, and are entirely unconnected vflih the 
forms of vegetation of any other division of the 
world. The great majority of these belong to 
two genera, the eucalypti (a genus of the myr- 
tle family) and the acacias. Of the former more 
than 100 varieties are known, spread over the 
whole continent. Many of the trees of this genus 
attain the height of 200 ft., with a girth at the 
base of 30 or 40 ft. Of the acacias, too, more 
than 100 species have been discovered. Cedars 
and casuarina are the chief representatives 
of the conifer. Xanthorrfaece are abundant, 
and near the coast grow to a height of 300 ft., 
the principal kind being called by the colonists 
the black boy or grass gum tree. Only a few 
palms are found. The principal Australian 
trees, the eucalypti and many of the acacias, 
have some remarkable peculiarities. Both 
have their leaves perpendicular to the sur- 
face of the earth the edges of the leaves 
turned toward the ground instead of their flat 
sides. Many of the eucalypti shed their bark, 
but their leaves do not change, remaining 
green and on the tree through the whole year. 
Among the other curiosities of the Australian 
flora are the arborescent ferns, which attain 
the perfection of trees, putting forth branches 
eight to twelve feet long ; the giant lily (dory- 
anthemum), an object of great beauty ; the tea 
tree (leptospermum grandiflorum) ; and the 
remarkable stench plant (hydrocotyle densi- 
flora). In the interior of the continent the 
giant kangaroo grass, so high as to conceal 
cattle, or even a horse and rider, is found cov- 
ering great plains; while the more sterile 
tracts are covered with the hard, sharp spini- 
fex {triodm pungeni). The brilliant flowers 
of Australia have little fragrance, but the 
leaves of several kinds of trees are highly aro- 
matic. Though the continent has few indige- 
nous fruits or useful vegetable products, nearly 
all those of other countries thrive in its cli- 
mate. On the N. E. coast, in the Moreton Bay 
settlement, the Japanese loquot, the date palm, 
and the prickly pear, cotton, sugar, coffee, and 
tobacco have been naturalized ; while bananas, 
oranges, and lemons grow here, as well as on 
the W. coast In New South Wales, Victoria, 
and South Australia, the cereals flourish with 
unsurpassed productiveness, and 64 Ibs. to the 
bushel has been produced in Australian wheat. 
All kinds of garden produce are of supe- 
rior character ; almonds, figs, apricots, melons, 
grapes, quinces, apples, pears, and plums are 
produced in great quantities. The mineral 
wealth of Australia, even if we consider only 
that portion already developed, is remarkable. 
It has been known from very early times to 
possess iron and other minerals. The gold ex- 



isting in pure masses does not seem to depend 
on stratification, but has probably been up- 
heaved along with other matter, and washed 
down by surface or subterranean currents. All 
that can be safely predicated of the materials 
in company with which gold is found, is that 
quartz and pipe clay are very generally asso- 
ciated with it. The quartz is abundant, and is 
found from minute pebbles worn smooth by 
attrition to huge blocks of many tons' weight 
which crop out from the surface in irregular 
and fantastic forms. It is usually milk-white 
and opaque, but occasionally attains a semi- 
crystalline transparency. Besides this, how- 
ever, gold is found intermixed with sandstone, 
ironstone, and white and blue clay. The range 
over which gold extends is altogether undeter- 
mined. Recent accounts announce its discov- 
ery at the furthest limits of exploration. The 
profitable diggings have until recently been 
confined to the Bathurst district, in the north 
of New South Wales, and to the hill country 
in the north and northwest of Victoria; but 
the new diggings in Queensland, especially at 
Gympie, are yielding very richly. In minute 
portions gold has been found all over the colo- 
nies. It was at first met with in small pieces 
on the actual surface ; as the surface supply 
became exhausted, it was found at a short dis- 
tance down, and the diggings have increased 
in depth as they have decreased in general 
richness. At Ballarat, near Geelong, where 
the most valuable lumps of gold have been 
procured (28, 60, and 136 Ibs. in weight), the 
shafts are sunk to a depth of more than 100 
feet. The gold has never been found otherwise 
than in detached pieces or particles, varying in 
size from minute globules to weighty masses ; 
and where its close contiguity has assumed the 
character of a vein, it is only that the deposit 
has been washed together into a subterranean 
channel or gutter. The copper mines of Burra- 
Burra and other localities, and the coal de- 
posits in various quarters, have already been 
referred to. Tin, lead, silver, and precious 
stones of various kinds have also been discov- 
ered in the search for gold, and passed over 
for the present. The aborigines of Australia 
are of a distinct race from that inhabiting the 
Indian archipelago. They are found only in 
the Australian islands, in New Guinea, the 
New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and the Solo- 
mon islands. The New Zealanders are akin to 
the inhabitants of Polynesia. The Australians 
are black, with some slight variety of shade 
from brown-black to jet. They have curly 
hair, but not the crisp wool of the negro. Their 
faces are well developed, broad at the base, 
their lips less protruding than those of the ne- 
gro; their bodies are deficient in muscularity 
and strength, but capable of great endurance. 
They are superior in native intelligence to the 
Tierra del Fnegans, and they readily adopt 
European habits. They seldom build huts or 
other fixed dwellings, but content themselves 
with a strip of bark or a large bough as a 



132 



AUSTRALIA 



shelter from the wind. Whether they knew 
the use of fire is uncertain ; they now kindle 
fires by rubbing two dry sticks together. But 




Australian Man and Woman. (From Photographs.) 

they frequently eat their food raw, and their 
cooking is performed by making a hole in the 
ground, lighting a fire in it, putting in the slain 
animal, and covering it with earth until the 
fire is out, when it is considered sufficiently 
cooked. In the wild districts they go entirely 
naked ; in the vicinity of settlements they wear 
sheepskins, or the blankets and clothing dis- 
tributed to them by the settlers. They have 
not the use of the bow, but are expert with 
the spear, which they fling TO or 80 yards 
with the greatest nicety. They use the club 
or waddy ; and they have the boomerang, a 




Aboriginal Shelters. 



peculiar missile, resembling a double-edged 
wooden sword, bent to an ellipse ; on being 
thrown into the air it strikes the ground at a 



distance and rebounds toward the thrower. 
The several tribes are engaged in frequent 
feuds with each other, but are not usually 
courageous in the presence of the whites. In 
the early times of the colony, however, they 
frequently exhibited great pertinacity in their 
attacks on out-stations. Their temper is gener- 
ally pacific and friendly. Their numbers are 
very limited ; the highest recent estimate is 
50,000, and even this is probably much over 
the mark. The use of ardent spirits has made 
great ravages among them. They are subject 
to cutaneous diseases, attributable to their ex- 
tremely filthy habits. They are polygamists, 
and their marriages are entirely without cere- 
mony, the bridegroom merely carrying away 
the bride, with or without her consent. Their 
burials, on the contrary, are accompanied by 
certain superstitious observances ; the dead 
are buried in the exact places in which they 
died, and these spots are never inhabited again 
by members of the dead men's tribe. The 
names of the dead are never pronounced, and 
those bearing the same names are obliged to 
change them. Their religious opinions are 
simple ; they believe in a good and a bad 
spirit. They believe that white men are the 
reanimated souls of blacks. Many efforts for 
their conversion to Christianity have been 
made, but without permanent success. All 
the colonial governments keep up native 
schools. In New South Wales a black police 
was at one time formed, whose services were 
very valuable in tracking depredators, from 
their native skill in following a trail. Some 
few of the blacks are occasionally employed as 
stockmen or shepherds ; but they are, like all 
savages, averse to regular labor of any kind. 
They are rapidly decreasing in number, and 
in a few decades will probably be almost ex- 
tinct. The political divisions of Australia, the 
dates of their official organization as colonies, 
their areas (chiefly estimated), and their pop- 
ulation in 1871, are as follows: 



DIVISIONS. 


Date of 
Organi- 
zation. 


Area in 
square miles. 


Population 
in 1871. 




1788 


823,487 


501,611 


Victoria 


1851 


88,681 


729,868 




1S86 


383,828 


188,995 




1859 


678.000 


115.567 




1829 


978,000 


24,785 


Northern Territory (not yet or- 




523,681 


201 










Xotal 




2,978,127 


1,561,027 











The rapid growth of the colonies may be seen 
from the fact that New South Wales in 1821 
only numbered 29,783 inhabitants ; Victoria in 
1836,224; South Australia in 1838, 6,000. The 
majority of the inhabitants of each colony are 
of British descent ; the number of natives of 
Germany is 9,000 in New South Wales, with a 
smaller number in the other colonies. The 
number of Chinese is about 70,000 (17,000 in 
Victoria), and it is steadily increasing. The 



AUSTRALIA 



133 



largest cities and towns of Australia are Mel- 
bourne (Victoria), pop. 190,000 ; Sydney (Xew 
South Wales), 135,000; Ballarat (Victoria), 
74,000; Sandhurst (Victoria), 34,000; Ade- 
laide (South Australia), 27,000; and Geelong 
(Victoria), 22,000. In the early days of the 
Australian colonies clergymen were (nerely 
chaplains to the convict establishments. Sub- 
sequently an act was passed for the support of 
Episcopal churches and schools, to which one 
seventh of the crown lands was to be devoted. 
Sir Richard Bourke prevailed upon the English 
government to assist all denominations of 
Christians in building places of worship and 
supporting their ministers. In Queensland an 
act was passed in 1860 abolishing state aid to 
religion altogether, and the other colonies are 
likewise more or less approaching the volun- 
tary system. Thus the most populous colony, 
Victoria, has reduced the state aid to an an- 
nual subsidy of 50,000. ' The number of Ro- 
man Catholics in 1871 was estimated at 250,- 
000; of Jews, 5,500; of Mohammedans and 
pagans, about 42,000. A few thousand belong 
to no religion ; the remainder are Protestants, 
more than one half being connected with the 
church of England. This church has nine 
bishops, namely, of Sydney, Newcastle, Bath- 
urst, Adelaide, Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, 
Goulburn, and Grafton and Armidale. The 
Roman Catholic church in 1871 had one arch- 
bishop (in Sydney) and ten bishops. The 
cause of education has made great progress. 
Each of the colonies has its board or council 
of education, consisting of a number of mem- 
bers appointed by the government. The system 
of public education is more or less assimilated 
to the national system in Ireland. The gov- 
ernment provides, under conditions which dif- 
fer in the several colonies, for the establish- 
ment of common schools, and also grants aid 
to schools not established by the government 
on their complying with certain regulations. 
The state also assists the formation and main- 
tenance of educational establishments of a 
more advanced character. In several colonies 
education lias been made compulsory. In 1871 
the number of schools under the control of the 
government boards amounted to about 3,640, 
with 255,000 pupils under 6,600 teachers. 
Nearly all the colleges, of which there are 
many, bear a denominational character. Syd- 
ney and Melbourne have universities. The 
revenues of the colonies are chiefly derived 
from duties, public lands, the post office, rail- 
roads and telegraphs, stamp duties, and li- 
censes. The public debts have been chiefly 
contracted for the establishment of railroads, 



COLONIES. 


Importi. 


Exports. 


New South Wales . . 


7 757 281 


7 991 088 


Victoria 


12 468 757 


12 470 014 




2029798 


2 419 487 


Western Australia 


232 590 


204447 


Queensland , . ... . , 


1 586,799 


2006685 








Total 


24,010 220 


25 091 621 









COLONIES. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 


Public Debt. 


New South Wales... 
Victoria 


2,442,640 
8 070 959 


2,602,979 
261K018 


9,6*1,180 

1 :'*') 900* 


South Australia 
Western Australia.. 
Queensland 


6(U,ft 
08,181 

748063 


786,160 
112,905 
771 991 


1,9*4,700 
No debt. 
8459 750* 












:-*a. 







ports, and other public works. The forego- 
ing table exhibits the revenue, expenditures, 
and public debt of each of the colonies in 1870. 
Gold still constitutes the chief article of ex- 
port. The aggregate value of precious metals 
exported from Australia amounted in 1869 to 
10,870,000. Next to gold the most impor- 
tant article of export is wool, the value of which 
in 1869 was estimated at 8,161,000. South 
Australia exports large quantities of wheat 
(866,870 in 1869) and copper (622,681). 
The breeding of cattle has become an impor- 
tant occupation of the colonists. The colonies 
had in 1871 about 22,100,000 sheep, 2,600,000 
horned cattle, and 732,000 horses. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the imports and exports of 
the colonies in 1870 : 



The merchant navy of the colonies consisted 
on Jan. 1, 1871, of 1,192 vessels, with an ag- 
gregate of 169,000 tons. The entries and 
clearances in the Australian ports in 1869 rep- 
sented an aggregate of 3,774,909 tons. All 
the colonies had railroads at the close of 1871, 
with the exception of "Western Australia, 
where their introduction was expected at an 
early date. The greatest progress in this re- 
spect has been made in New South Wales, 
which in 1871 had 431 m. of railroads. The 
aggregate length of the Australian railroads 
at the close of 1871 was about 1,110 m., and a 
very considerable extension of the railroad sys- 
tem was about taking place in several colonies. 
The electric telegraph has been introduced into 
each of the colonies. The length of the wires 
in 1871 was 5,053 m. in New South Wales, 
3,368 in Victoria, and about 13,400 in all the 
colonies. All the colonies except Western Aus- 
tralia are connected with each other by tele- 
graph, and since 1869 by a submarine cable 
with Tasmania. Telegraphic connection be- 
tween Australia and England, by means of a 
submarine cable connecting Java and Port Dar- 
win, was nearly completed at the beginning of 
1872. The government in each colony con- 
sists of a governor appointed in England, a 
legislative council, and a legislative assembly 
elected by universal suffrage. Australia first 
became known to Europeans in the beginning 
of the 17th century. Though a vague out- 
line of land in this portion of the southern 
ocean appears upon the map of some Por- 
tuguese navigators dated 1542, the first real 
discovery was probably made by the Dutch in 
1606, when the captain of the yacht Duyfken, 
sent out from Bantam to explore a part of the 
coast of New Guinea, saw the northern shore 
of the continent at a distance. In the same 



13-t 



AUSTRALIA 



year Torres strait was named from a Portu- 
guese navigator who sailed through it. In 
1616 Hartog, a Dutch captain, came upon the W. 
coast of Australia and called it Endracht's Land, 
from the name of his ship. From this time 
other parts of the W. coast were discovered. 
In 1622 the Leeuwin discovered the S. coast at 
Cape Leeuwin, and shortly after Van Nuyts 
sailed from that cape on the 8. coast to Spen- 
cer's gulf. De Witt's Land and Carpentaria, in 
North Australia, were also discovered by Dutch 
traders. Capt. Cook in 1770 discovered New 
South Wales and Botany Bay, which was so 
called by Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist of the 
expedition, from the wonderful floral display 
which its plains afforded. In 1788 the first 
English colony was established in New South 
Wales, at first as a penal settlement. The 
original design of the British government was 
to make this penal station at Botany Bay it- 
self; but a better locality was found at Sydney, 
and Capt. Phillip was sent out with a squadron 
having on board 850 convicts and a guard of 
200 men and officers. In this convict colony, 
placed as it was under the absolute control of 
a governor with almost unlimited power, every 
kind of abuse and vice grew up ; and of these 
the free colonists who afterward began to 
settle in the district felt the effects in many 
ways. A conflict grew up between them and 
the government on the question of abolishing 
the transportation system ; and after endeavor- 
ing, under a long succession of governors, to 
devise some means of keeping up the two 
plans of a convict colony and a free colony to- 
gether, the government was obliged to yield, 
principally by the efforts of the " Anti-Trans- 
portation League " formed against its measures, 
and to issue an order in council in 1837 abol- 
ishing transportation to New South Wales, 
and restricting it to Van Diemen's Land ; even 
here it was abolished in 1853. From this time 
the attention of the English was more and 
more attracted toward Australia, and explora- 
tions of the other coasts and even of the in- 
terior followed in rapid succession. In 1798 
and 1799 Flinders and Bass, two Englishmen, 
carefully surveyed the S. and E. coasts. In 
1800-'! Grant and Murray explored the west- 
ern part of the S. coast, and their work was 
continued both to the eastward and northward 
during the next three years by Baudin, Frey- 
cinet, and Flinders. During the period from 
1788 to 1791, explorations in the interior were 
also undertaken by Phillip, Tench, and Dawes. 
In 1796 Hunter penetrated to the mountains 
called by his name. In 1813 Wentworth, 
Blaxland, and Lawson crossed the Blue moun- 
tain and discovered the Bathurst plains, which 
in 1815 became the seat of a branch colony. 
In the same- year Evans explored the valley of 
the Lachlan. In the succeeding five years 
Jefferies, Kelly, and King completed the sur- 
vey of the coasts. Oxley, who travelled 
through the eastern mountain system in 1818, 
Hovell and Hume, who explored the region of 



the Australian Alps from 1818 to 1824, and 
Cunningham, who spent the six years from 
1823 to 1829 in the northern part of the same 
district, were the next noteworthy explorers. 
In 1828 and the years following Sturt made 
several expeditions of importance, and in 1829 
he discovered the Darling river. In 1829 also 
was founded the second of the chief colonies 
that which still bears the name of Western 
Australia. The first settlement was at Perth. 
In 1832 Bennett, and in 1835 and the suc- 
ceeding year Major Mitchel, explored southern 
Australia, and the latter followed the Darling 
to its confluence with the Murray, besides dis- 
covering the Grampian hills, and making other 
noteworthy additions to the knowledge of the 
interior. In 1835 also the first settlement in 
the future colony of Victoria was made at Port 
Phillip. In the mean time several attempts 
to colonize other parts of the coast had failed ; 
a settlement had been made in Arnhem's Land 
in 1824, and several others in subsequent years 
on the W. side of the island, but none of these 
endured more than a few years. In 1836, 
however, a successful colony was begun in 
South Australia, at Adelaide. In 1839 and 
the three following years Stokes made a series 
of important exploring expeditions along the 
coast. The interior, chiefly between the Pa- 
cific and the gulfs of Carpentaria and Spen- 
cer, was explored in the following three dec- 
ades by those of Eyre, Leichhardt, Sturt, the 
brothers Gregory and Helpman, Kennedy, 
Austin, Stuart, Babbage, the brothers Demp- 
ster, Burke and Wills, Landsborough, McKin- 
lay, Lefroy, Mclntyre, Forrest, Brown, and 
others, several of whom became the victims 
of their zeal and boldness. Emigration to the 
newly founded colonies was very slow ; large 
numbers of discouraged settlers left Australia 
for the South American coast or for other 
countries; and in 1850, after all the attempts 
made during 60 years of colonization, the Eu- 
ropean population was estimated at only 50,000. 
An event now occurred which suddenly changed 
the whole condition and prospects of the con- 
tinent. This was the discovery of gold in 1851, 
in the Bathurst district of New South Wales, 
by a gentleman returned from California, Mr. 
Hargraves. Count Strzelecki had previously 
announced the existence of gold in Australia, 
and Sir Eoderick Murchison, examining a piece 
of Australian quartz, had inferred it from his 
knowledge of the gold washings in the Ural 
mountains. The discovery of gold in quantities 
on the Turon river, in New South Wales, early 
in the year, first drew a number of diggers to 
that district. In the latter end of 1851, how- 
ever, diggings of far greater value were dis- 
covered in Victoria, and then commenced an 
influx of immigrants which, as in the case of 
California, produced results that set all fore- 
sight and calculation at defiance. In a year 
after the discovery the population was 250,- 
000, notwithstanding the distance from Europe 
and the expense of the voyage. Ordinary busi- 



<H Loutfi!u<i>- Kasl !t.Y troin Washintftou 




AUSTRASIA 



AUSTRIA 



135 



ness of all kinds was momentarily suspended. 
Agriculture was for that year almost aban- 
doned. Every article of food and clothing was 
imported from Europe, labor and merchandise 
advanced to prices to which there seemed to 
be no probability of a limit, and much time 
was required to bring Australian affair^ into 
their ordinary channel. Among the indus- 
tries which have grown up, the raising of 
sheep has the most prominent place. The 
great sheep runs, occupying immense tracts of 
land, have become a principal feature of the 
country. Merino and other fine breeds, im- 
ported early into the colonies, have increased 
with great rapidity in Queensland alone from 
three to nine million head in the last ten years 
and the statistics show the extraordinary 
amount of wool annually yielded, and nearly 
all exported. The recent progress of the coun- 
try has been uninterrupted and rapid. The 
era of speculation seems to have nearly passed 
away, and the affairs of the colonies are grad- 
ually assuming the settled aspect of those of 
older states. Explorations are constantly made 
in the interior, and the large tracts still un- 
settled near the coast are attracting a consid- 
erable immigration, which, now that the re- 
sources of the continent are properly devel- 
oped, is not likely to be discontinued. For 
more specific information, see the articles on 
the different colonies. 

Al STR isi I (old Ger. Oesterrych, i. e., Oett- 
reich), the eastern kingdom of the Franks of 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, under the Me- 
rovingians, comprising in its flourishing period 
the countries on both sides of the Rhine, from 
the Marne to the Saale and from the North sea 
to the Danube (the ancient kingdoms or duchies 
of Metz, Champagne, Thuringia, Alemannia, 
Frisia, and others). The first king was Sieg- 
bert, to whom this territory fell in 561 on the 
partition of the dominions of his father Clo- 
taire I., king of the Franks. Austrasia was in 
conflict with Neustria, the western Frankish 
kingdom, and with the Burgundians. Among 
celebrated Austrasian rulers were Queen Brnne- 
haut or Brunehilde (567-613), King Dagobert 
(628-'38), whose successors are called lea row 
faineants (idle kings), and the mayor of the 
palace Pepin of He'ristal, who was succeeded in 
714 by his natural son Charles Martel. In 752 
Charles's son Pepin the Short became sovereign 
of both the eastern and western Prankish king- 
doms, and Austrasia ceased to play a distinct 
part in history. Under Charlemagne's succes- 
sors most of the former Austrasian countries 
were merged into Germany, and those of Neus- 
tria into France. See Hutoire du royaume 
merovingien d'Austrasie, by Haguenin (Paris, 
1863). 

\ I STKI I (Ger. Oestreieh or Oesterreieh, east- 
ern empire), officially designated since 1868 as 
the AusTBo-HuNOABiAN MONABCHY, an empire 
of southern central Europe, bounded N. by the 
German empire and Russia, E. by Russia and 
European Turkey, S. and S. W. by Turkey, the 



Adriatic sea, and Italy, and W. by Switzerland 
and the German empire. It now consists of 
two main divisions, Austria proper and Hungary, 
each of which has its own special legislation 
and administration, though they are united 
under one monarch and have a single ministry 
for all matters of common interest. As the 
river Leitha constitutes a part of the frontier, 
Austria is also called Cisleithania, and Hungary 
Transleithania. But while in the higher polit- 
ical sense the Austro-Hungarian monarchy con- 
sists of these two divisions, the term is in fact 
the collective designation of several states, com- 
prising a number of distinct nationalities, all 
under the rule of the house of Hapsburg. It is 
only since the accession to the throne of the em- 
peror Francis Joseph that these countries have 
been actually consolidated. The centralizing 
policy of the crown was, however, partly de- 
feated by the resistance of the Hungarians, 
who demanded and finally obtained the recog- 
nition of the historical rights of the Hungarian 
monarchy. In this article we shall treat only 
of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as a whole, 
and of the Cisleithan half of the empire. For 
the rest, see HUNGARY. The total area of the 
empire is 240,381 sq. m., extending from lat. 
42 10' to 51 4' N., and from Ion. 9 35' to 26 
35' E. Its population, according to the census 
of 1869, amounted to 35,904,435. The empire 
is a continuous territory, only two districts 
(Cattaro and Ragusa) being separated from the 
main body by small strips of Turkish territory. 
Of the 21 states or provinces (Kronla/nder or 
crown lands) which, according to the reorgan- 
izing statutes of 1849 and 1851, were to con- 
stitute the united Austrian monarchy (Oestrei- 
chische Gesammtmonarchie), the following 14, 
according to the new arrangement made in 
1867, belong to the " countries represented in 
the. Reichsrath," or to the Cisleithan provinces : 

1, the archduchy of Lower Austria (Oestreieh 
unter der Enng), 7,655 sq. m., pop. 1,990,708; 

2, the archduchy of Upper Austria (Oestreich 
ob der Ennt), 4,633 sq. m., pop. 736,557; 

3, the duchy of Salzburg, 2,767 sq. m., pop. 
153,159; 4, the duchy of Styria (Steiermark), 
8,671 sq. m., pop. 1,137,990; 5, the duchy of 
Carinthia (Karnthen), 4,006 sq. m., pop. 337,- 
694 ; 6, the duchy of Carniola (rain), 3,857 
sq. m., pop. 466,334 ; 7, the Coastland or Lit- 
torale, embracing the counties of Gorz and 
Gradisca, the margraviate of Istria, and the 
district of Trieste, 8,085 sq. m., pop. 600,525 
(the three last-named provinces form the king- 
dom of Illyria) ; 8, the county of Tyrol with 
Vorarlberg, 11,325 sq.m., pop. 885,789; 9, the 
kingdom of Bohemia (Sohmen), 20,064 sq. m., 
pop. 5,140,544; 10, the margraviate of Mora- 
via (ifahren), 8,585 sq. m., pop. 2,017,274; 11, 
theduchy of Silesia (Schlesien), 1,988 sq. m., pop. 
513,352 (these 11 states were until 1866 mem- 
bers of the German confederation) ; 12, the king- 
dom of Galicia, including the former republic 
of Cracow (annexed by Austria in 1846), and 
the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, both of 



136 



AUSTRIA 



which belonged until 1866 to the German con- 
federation, 30,313 sq. m., pop. 5,444,689 ; 13, 
the duchy of Bukowina, 4,036 sq. m., pop. 
513,404; 14, the kingdom of Dalmatia, 4,940 
sq. m., pop. 456,961. Total area of the 14 
provinces represented in the Reichsrath, 115,- 
925 sq. m. ; total population, 20,394,980. This 
includes 177,449 soldiers, deducting whom the 
civil population amounts to 20,217,531. The 
aggregate population of these 14 provinces in 
1830 was 15,588,142; in 1850, 17,534,950; in 
1857, 18,224,500. At the close of the year 
1871 the civil population was officially calcu- 
lated at 20,555,370. Of the remaining seven 
provinces, Lombardy and Venetia have been 
ceded to Italy in consequence of the wars of 
1859 and 1866; and the kingdom of Hungary, 
the kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the way- 
wodeship of Servia, the grand duchy of Tran- 
sylvania, and the Military Frontier now belong 
to the lands of the Hungarian crown (the way- 
wodeship of Servia having however ceased to 
be a separate crown land and been incorporated 
with Hungary proper). About five sevenths 
of the Austrian territory are mountainous. 
There are three principal chains of mountains, 
each of them sending off many branches, viz. : 
1. The Alps (Rhffitian, Noric, Oarnic, Julian, 
and Dinaric), covering almost the entire south- 
ern belt of the German provinces, as well as 
Illyria and Dalmatia (see ALPS) ; their highest 
peaks are the Ortler (12,852 ft.) and the Gross- 
Glockner (12,776 ft.). 2. The Carpathians, 
about 800 m. long, beginning at the confluence 
of the Danube and the March, near Presbnrg, 
sweeping in an arc to the confluence of the 
Danube and Cserna, on the confines of Walla- 
chia and Servia. (See CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS, 
and HUNGARY.) The bold and rugged granite 
cliffs of the Carpathians, in N. Hungary and E. 
Transylvania, rise to a height of more than 
8,000 ft. above the level of the sea. 3. The 
Sudetic mountains, with the Bohemian forest 
and the Ore mountains (Erzgebirge, between 
Bohemia and Saxony), forming together an 
almost uninterrupted chain of granite and 
gneiss formation. The highest section of this 
chain, the Giant mountains or Riesengebirge, 
between Bohemia and Prussian Silesia, rises in 
the Schneekoppe, or Snow peak, to an elevation 
of upward of 5,000 ft. above the level of the 
sea. Besides these three great chains there are 
several parallel ranges of considerable height. 
Thus on both sides of the Alps there extend 
limestone ranges, the northern ones towering up 
to the height of 9,840 ft. (the Dachstein, or 
Roof peak, on the boundary line of Salzburg and 
Styria), while the southern ones, reaching to 
the height of 10,903 ft., cover nearly the whole 
territory of Illyria and Dalmatia. Again, the 
Carpathians are surrounded by sandstone moun- 
tains, which almost fill up the territory of 
Transylvania. Of large plains there are only 
two : the great Hungarian basin, covering about 
40,000 sq. m., and the Galician basin, which 
is interrupted by several ranges of hills and 



covers about 20,000 sq. m. The seacoast of 
Austria extends from the head of the gulf of 
Venice to the S. point of Dalmatia, on the E. 
side of the Adriatic, 1,036 m. Austria belongs 
to four of the great river systems of Europe, 
those of the Black sea, the Baltic, the German 
ocean, and the Mediterranean. Among the 
numerous streams the Danube is by far the 
most important ; it is, in fact, the main artery 
of the Austrian empire, and may at no very dis- 
tant period become for a large portion of south- 
ern Europe what the Mississippi is for the United 
States. The Danube, being the largest Euro- 
pean river after the Volga, enters Austria from 
Bavaria as a stream navigable at all seasons, 
but its channel formerly offered serious im- 
pediments to navigation, all of which have 
been removed or are in process of removal. 
(See DANITBE.) Steamboats were first intro- 
duced on the Danube in 1830. Since 1835 the 
Austrian steam navigation company has in- 
creased their number from year to year, until 
in 1869 it maintained 146 steamboats and pro- 
pellers, besides 550 barges, scows, &c. The en- 
tire length of the Danube in Austria is nearly 
900 m., and its average width 600 ft. Most of 
its tributaries are navigable for small craft, 
and steam has been introduced on several. The 
river Theiss, in Hungary, the most consider- 
able of them all, said also to have a greater 
abundance of fish than any other European 
river, is navigated by steamboats from Tokay 
down to the Danube ; it has a length of up- 
ward of 600 m. The Save, which enters 
the Danube near Belgrade, is navigable for a 
large part of its course. Steamboats also ply 
on the Inn, on the Bavarian frontier, and since 
1857 even on the Salzach, a smaller stream, 
emptying into the Inn. The other important 
tributaries of the Danube, in their geographi- 
cal order, are the Traun, the Enns, the March 
or Morava, the Raab, the Waag, the Neutra, 
the Gran, the Eypel, and the Drave or Drau, 
all of which are navigable. The Moldau, trib- 
utary to the Elbe, in Bohemia, is also navi- 
gated by steamboats. The Vistula, Dniester, 
and Pruth rise within the Austrian empire 
in Galicia, the Elbe in Bohemia, and the 
Adige in Tyrol. The lakes of Austria are nu- 
merous, though not very large. The Flatten 
or Balaton lake in S. W. Hungary has a surface 
of about 400 sq. m. The only salt lake in 
Austria is the Neusiedler lake in W. Hungary, 
nearly 20 m. long, and from 5 to 7 m. wide. 
The Czirknitzer lake, in Carniola, is remarkable 
as containing a number of subterranean cavi- 
ties, through which its waters from time to 
time disappear and again flow in. The climate 
of Austria is temperate and very wholesome. 
From the southern boundary tip to lat. 46, 
the average temperature is 54J F. ; from lat. 
46 to lat. 49", it is 50 to 52 ; beyond lat. 49 
it is 48. The winter is very severe in the moun- 
tainous districts, but sudden changes of temper- 
ature are not frequent. Nature has endowed 
Austria with a greater variety of p'roductions 



AUSTRIA 



137 



than any other European state. Platina ex- 
cepted, all metals abound. Gold is produced 
in Hungary and Transylvania ; silver and the 
best quality of European copper in Hungary ; 
quicksilver in Carniola (the mine at Idria used 
to yield 12,000 c'wt. per annum) ; tin in Bohe- 
mia; lead in Carinthia; iron almost , every- 
where (a single mine in Styria yields* over 
15,000 tons annually). The following are pro- 
duced in smaller quantities : zinc (about 44,000 
cwt. in 1869), arsenic (1,376 cwt.), antimony 
(11,786 cwt.), chrome, bismuth, and manganese. 
Black tourmaline, alabaster, serpentine, gyp- 
sum, black lead, slates, flint, and marble abound 
in many portions of the empire. The precious 
stones found in Austria are : the Bohemian car- 
buncle, the Hungarian opal, chalcedony, ruby, 
emerald, jasper, amethyst, topaz, carnelian, 
chrysolite, beryl. The coal beds of Austria are 
considered almost inexhaustible. Of rock salt 
there is a bed several hundred miles in length in 
Galicia, of which only a small portion is worked 
at the gigantic mine of Wieliczka, near Cra- 
cow, a perfect subterranean city, or rather four 
cities, one below the other, extending in a 
labyrinth of galleries, and hewn into the salt 
rock 9,000 ft. from N. to 8., and 4,000 ft. from 
E. to W. Of mineral springs Austria contains 
upward of 1,600, of which the most celebra- 
ted are at Carlsbad, Marienbad, Teplitz, and 
Franzensbad, in Bohemia; Ischl, in Upper 
Austria ; Baden, in Lower Austria ; Gastein, 
in Salzburg; Gleichenberg, in Styria; Bartfeld, 
Trentschin, and Parad, in Hungary ; Mehadia, 
in the Military Frontier district. The vegetable 
kingdom of Austria shows the same variety as 
the mineral. Wheat is the staple produce of 
the German provinces and of Hungary ; buck- 
wheat is raised in the sandy regions ; Indian 
corn, rice, and kidney beans are raised in 
Hungary; the finest varieties of apples and 
pears in Bohemia, Austria proper, and Tyrol ; 
of plums, in Hungary. Hungary produces im- 
mense quantities of cucumbers, melons, water- 
melons, pepper, anise, licorice, poppies, chic- 
cory, sweet-flag, ginger, flax, hemp, and tobac- 



co. Cotton is raised in Dalmatia, hops in Bo- 
hemia, saffron and woad in Lower Austria. 
The Hungarian wine (more than one half of 
the entire wine product of Austria) is an ex- 
cellent article, some brands being justly count- 
ed among the very best wines of the world 
(Tokay, Menes, &c.). About 68,000 sq. m. 
of the Austrian territory are covered with 
forests, mostly oak, pine, and hemlock, in 
the northern, and maple, stone pine, olive, 
laurel, myrtle, and chestnut trees, in the south- 
ern provinces. Horses are raised everywhere, 
but only those of the Bukovvina are of a supe- 
rior stock ; sheep and horned cattle in Hungary 
and Galicia (buffaloes in Croatia and Transylva- 
nia) ; goats and hogs in Hungary. The silkworm 
has been introduced in Tyrol, Croatia, Slavo- 
nia, Illyria, and Dalmatia. Game is plentiful, 
deer, wild boars, and hares being found almost 
everywhere ; black bears, chamois, lynxes, 
wolves, and beavers, only in some districts. 
Pearl mussels are frequently found in several 
rivers and creeks of Hungary. The increase 
of the population of the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy from 1850 to 1869 has been on an 
average 0'84 per cent. According to the gen- 
eral census of 1857, the monarchy had 37,754,- 
856 inhabitants. Since then it has lost two 
provinces, Lombardy and Venetia, with a pop- 
ulation of about 5,000,000; but the natural 
increase from 1857 to 1869 has nearly made 
up this loss. The inhabitants of the empire 
live in 927 cities, 2,039 boroughs, and 73,252 
villages. Of the cities, one (Vienna) has up- 
ward of 600,000 inhabitants; two, Pesth and 
Prague, have more than 150,000; 12 above 
40,000; 6 above 30,000; 35 above 20,000; and 
97 above 10,000. In no country in the world 
has the nationality question at present so great 
a political importance as in Austria. No offi- 
cial census of the nationalities has been taken 
since 1850. The following estimates of the 
strength of all the important nationalities of 
the empire in 1869 is taken from Schmitt's 
Statistik des osterreichisch-unffarischen Kai- 
serstaates (4th ed., 1872) : 



NATIONALITIES. 


Totsl number 
in 

Cisleithania. 


Per cent. 
Cisleithania. 


Tot'l nnmb'r in 
Transleitha- 
nia. 


Per cent, in 
Tranilel- 
thania. 


Total number 
In 
Monarchy. 


Per cent, 
in 
Monarchy. 




7,108,900 


85-16 


1,894,800 


12-30 


9.003.7110 


25-27 


Czechs and Slovaks 


4,118,800 


28-84 


1,841,100 


11-95 


6,659.900 


18-41 


Poles 


2.443,600 


12-09 






2,448,500 


6-86 




2,584,600 


12-80 


448,000 


2-91 


3,082.600 


8-51 




1,196,200 


6-92 


58,000 


0-87 


1,254,200 


8-52 




522.400 


2-58 


2,408,700 


15-60 


2,928,100 


8-22 




17,700 


0-09 


6,688,100 


86-89 


5,705,800 


16-01 


Italians 


B87.500 


2-91 


600 




588,100 


1-M 




207,900 


1-02 


2,477,700 


18-08 


2,685.600 


7-54 




820,200 


4-08 


652,100 


8-58 


1,872,300 


8-86 

















Of the Cisleithan provinces only Upper Austria 
and Salzburg are wholly German ; in the other 
provinces the numerical relation of the princi- 
pal nationalities, according to the same author- 
ity, was in 1869 as follows: Lower Austria 
Germans 90 per cent., Czechs 6 ; Styria Ger- 
mans 63, Slovens 36 ; Carinthia Germans 69, 



Slovens 31; Carniola Germans 6, Slovens 
93; Littorale Germans 4, Slovens 42, Cro- 
ats 21, Italians 31; Tyrol Germans 60, Ital- 
ians 39; Bohemia Germans 38, Czechs 60; 
Moravia Germans 26, Czechs 71 ; Silesia 
Germans 51, Czechs 19, Poles 29 ; Galicia 
Germans 3, Poles 42, Ruthenians 44, Jews 



138 



AUSTRIA 



11; Bukowina Germans Y, Ruthenians 40, 
Roumans 39, Jews 9; Dalmatia Croats and 
Serbs 87, Italians 13. Thus the Germans 
may always be expected to control, when the 
nationality question is at stake, the provincial 
diets of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Salz- 
burg, Carinthia, and Silesia. The Czechs pre- 
vail in Bohemia and Moravia, the Slovens (or 
Winds) in Carniola, the Croats and Serbs in 
Dalmatia. In Galicia, according to the above 
table, the Ruthenians exceed the Poles in num- 
ber ; but the Poles, to whom the higher classes 
of society belong, have an undisputed control 
of the diet, and in general of the province as a 
whole. The Germans, though only 35 per cent, 
of the population of the Cisleithan provinces, 
are the ruling race in this part of the mon- 
archy, while the Magyars dominate in the lands 
of the Hungarian crown, although they like- 
wise embrace no more than about 37 per cent, 
of the entire population. The number of lan- 
guages or dialects spoken in Austria exceeds 
20, but German is the highest official language 
in the Cisleithan, and Magyar in the Trans- 
leithan provinces. It is a significant fact that 
at a Panslavic congress held at Prague in 1848, 
the delegates of the different Slavic nationali- 
ties found themselves under the necessity of 
using the German language, being unable to 
understand the different dialects of their own 
tongue. The density of population is very un- 
equal, but is generally greater in the eastern 
than in the western portions of the empire. 
The extremes are Lower Austria, which con- 
tains Vienna (259 to the sq. m.), and Salzburg 
(55 to the sq. m.). More than three fourths 
of the entire population of Austria acknowl- 
edge the religious supremacy of Rome; of 
these, in 1869, 23,954,233 were Roman Catho- 
lics proper, 3,941,796 United Greeks, and 8,279 
Armeno-Catholics. The population connected 
with the Greek Oriental church amounts to 
3,050,830 ; and that belonging to the Armenian 
proper (Gregorian) to 1,854. The Reformed 
church has 2,143,178 professors; the Lutheran, 
1,365,835 ; the Unitarians, 55,070. The Jews 
number 1,372,300. The remainder belong to 
minor sects. The Roman Catholic church in 
Austria has 11 archbishoprics and 42 bishop- 
rics ; 2 archbishoprics and 7 bishoprics belong 
to the United Greek, and 1 archbishopric to the 
Anneno-Catholic. The Greek Oriental church 
has 3 archbishoprics and 10 bishoprics. In 
1869 the number of Roman Catholic convents 
in Austria was 965, containing 8,743 monks 
and 5,671 nuns. By the concordat with the 
pope, concluded in September, 1855, the Ro- 
man Catholic church in Austria received great 
prerogatives ; but these were rescinded by the 
reform laws of 1868, and in consequence of the 
promulgation of papal infallibility as a doctrine 
of the church, the Austrian government in 1870 
declared the concordat abrogated. The affairs 
of the Lutheran and Reformed churches are 
administered in the Cisleithan provinces by the 
evangelical supreme church council at Vienna 



and two general synods, one Lutheran and one 
Reformed. The Lutheran church is divided 
into 4 superintendencies and subdivided into 
15 seniorates; the Reformed church consists 
of 4 superintendencies, which are divided into 
6 seniorates. The Jews have about 500 rabbis 
in the entire monarchy. Public education has 
been in the course of thorough reorganization 
since 1848. In the Cisleithan provinces, it is 
chiefly regulated on the basis of the law of 
May 14, 1869. The number of common or 
primary schools has been steadily increased, 
until in 1869 it was 31,218, or one for every 
1,159 inhabitants. The common schools are 
of two grades. In those of the lower grade 
reading, writing, ciphering, religion, the ele- 
ments of history and natural history, singing, 
and gymnastic exercises are taught; in those 
of the higher grade (Burgerscfiulen), composi- 
tion, arithmetic, geometry, bookkeeping, and 
drawing are added. In 1869, 2,852,843 children 
out of 3,624,295 went to the common schools. 
Education is compulsory, and in the Cisleithan 
provinces children are bound to attend school 
from their 6th to their 14th year. Nearly all 
the children of this age attended school in 1869 
in Upper and Lower Austria, in Salzburg, Sty- 
ria, Tyrol, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; but 
in Galicia, Bukowina, and Dalmatia, only one 
out of three children received an education. The 
number of normal schools for the education of 
teachers was for the whole empire about 100. 
The middle schools (Mittelschulen) are divided 
into Gymnasien (colleges), whioh prepare their 
pupils for the universities ; Realschulen, which 
prepare them for the technical high schools; 
and Healgymnasien, recently instituted, which 
combine both courses. The monarchy in 1870 
had 241 gymnasien, 20 realgymnasien, and 74 
realschulen ; the Cisleithan provinces 99 gym- 
nasien, 19 realgymnaisen, and 49 realschulen. 
In 1871 Austria had 7 universities (Vienna, 
Prague, Pesth, Lemberg, Innspruck, Gratz, and 
Cracow), to which in 1872 a new one was 
added at Klausenburg in Transylvania, and 
8 technical high schools (Technische HocJi- 
schuleri), most of which have been recently 
reorganized so as to comprise a number of 
special schools. The universities in 1870 had 
707 professors and 10,877 students; the tech- 
nical high schools, 265 professors and 3,010 
students. To the last-mentioned class of in- 
stitutions may be added 2 mining academies, 
1 agricultural academy, 4 commercial acad- 
emies, and the academy for commerce and 
navigation at Trieste. Not included in the 
above statement are a number of special schools 
for theology, for law and political economy, 
for surgery, midwifery, and veterinary sur- 
gery, for commerce, trade, and navigation, for 
agriculture, for mining, the art schools, the 
schools for the education of military officers, 
and a large number of private schools. The 
largest of the public libraries are the imperial 
library at Vienna, numbering 410,000 volumes ; 
the university library at Vienna, containing up 



AUSTRIA 



139 



ward of 200,000 vols. ; the university libraries 
of Pesth, Cracow, and Prague ; and that of the 
national museum of Pesth. There are many 
museums, cabinets of science and art, galleries 
of paintings, &c., in the principal cities of the 
empire. Several splendid collections belong- 
ing to private individuals are always ojien to 
the public. Before 1848 the most rigorous 
censorship rendered a well regulated public 
press an impossibility. During the revolution 
in 1848 these restraints were removed, but in 
1852 a law for the regulation of the press 
gave the police absolute control over the 
political press, and restored the censorship 
in all but the name. In 1862 the govern- 
ment again found it necessary to grant free- 
dom of the press; arid after the reorganization 
of the empire in 1867, it was again confirmed 
by a law of Oct. 15, 1868. In 1870 there 
were published in Austria 185 political news- 
papers and 578 non-political. Of the former, 
100 are in German, 17 in Bohemian, 11 in Polish, 
5 in other Slavic languages, 11 in Italian, 32 in 
Hungarian, 4 in Roumanian, 2 in Greek, 2 in 
Hebrew, and 1 in French ; of the latter, 836 in 
German, 121 in the Slavic languages, 20 in Ital- 
ian, 91 in Hungarian, 5 in Roumanian, 3 in 
Hebrew, 1 in Latin, and 1 in French. Some 
of the large daily papers published in Vi- 
enna and Trieste are among the best and 
most influential of the continental journals. 
In 1869 the number of public hospitals in Cis- 
leithan Austria was 408; of lunatic asylums 
there were 15; lying-in establishments, 19; 
foundling hospitals, 15; institutions for the 
sustenance of old and indigent persons, 979; 
poorhouses, 6,648. The number of foundlings 
provided for by the government exceeds 65,000. 
The immense hospitals of Vienna, established 
by Joseph II., are perhaps the best regulated in 
the world. There are besides a number of hos- 
pitals connected with the convents, where over 
20,000 persons are relieved annually, without 
distinction of creed or nationality. In the mili- 
tary hospitals 181,976 persons were received in 
1869. Every provincial capital has an imperial 
loan office for the poor, the profits of which 
are made over to the treasury of the almshonse 
department. The total value of the mineral 
produce of Austria in 1869 was set down at 
89,415,465 florins (the florin is equal to 47 
cents). Of this sum, more than one third 
(32,446,603) was the value of the salt pro- 
duced. The yield of the gold mines in 1869 
was 56,752 oz., that of the silver mines 1,339,- 
712 oz., that of copper 53,957 cwt., of lead 
102,000 cwt. The total quantity of salt pro- 
duced in 1869 was as follows: rock salt, 3,872,- 
424 cwt.; spring salt, 2,804,823; sea salt, 
77,571; industrial salt, 861,988. The most 
remarkable increase has taken place in the 
production of iron and coal. The latest sta- 
tistics, published in 1869, showed the produc- 
tion of raw or pig iron to be 6,087,830 cwt., 
and that of cast iron 753,563. The coal pro- 
duced in Austria, which in 1838 netted only 



some 4,000,000 cwt., and in 1854 and 1855 full 
30,000,000, in 1869 reached 146,000,000 cwt. 
The Austrian empire may, as regards its 
agriculture, be divided into four sections : 1, the 
Alpine countries Austria proper, Salzburg, 
Tyrol, Oarniola, Oarinthia, Styria, and the Lit- 
torale ; 2, the eastern provinces Hungary, Cro- 
atia, Slavonia, the Military Frontier, and Tran- 
sylvania ; 3, the northern provinces Moravia, 
Bohemia, Silesia, Galicia, and Bukowina ; 4, the 
southern province of Dalmatia. In the Alpine 
countries the density of the population compels 
the farmer to till even the steepest hillsides. The 
narrow plains yield potatoes, barley for brew- 
ing, and fodder; on the sunny sides of the 
mountains the grape is cultivated extensively. 
The production of breadstuffs in these coun- 
tries is not equal to the consumption. The agri- 
cultural condition of those portions of the east- 
ern provinces covered by the Carpathian moun- 
tains is similar to that of the Alpine countries ; 
but the scanty products of these territories are 
largely made up by the surplus of the level 
country, which, with very few exceptions, is 
of extraordinary fertility, especially in the 
river bottoms. A large portion of the pasture 
land is entirely capable of cultivation, and 
would be put under plough but for want of 
labor. The most fertile regions, although thin- 
ly populated, produce a large surplus for ex- 
portation to the Alpine countries. The ex- 
tensive pastures are used for cattle-raising. 
Draught cattle are exported to nearly all ad- 
joining regions; beef cattle mostly to the 
Alpine provinces. Hog fattening is carried on 
upon a very large scale. The Hungarian wine 
and tobacco are noted for their excellent qual- 
ity. In the northern provinces but few places 
are adapted to the culture of the grape. Mo- 
ravia, belonging to the basin of the Danube, 
has some large and fertile plains, but Bohemia 
is hilly to a great extent, Silesia entirely so, 
while Galicia, descending as it does from the 
Carpathians to the courses of the large streams, 
shows every variety of formation. Grain and 
potatoes are the staple produce of these coun- 
tries, supplying the domestic demand. Brew- 
eries, distilleries, and beet sugar factories are 
numerous in these provinces. The following 
table shows the area in square miles of the 
productive soil, and of the arable, wine, mea- 
dow, pasture, and wood land, both of the 
Cisleithan provinces and of the entire mon- 
archy, in 1869 : 





<!.<!. ithnni:!. 


Entire 
Monarchy. 




87,786 


75.798 


Wine land 


792 


2259 




15,020 


80,872 




1 ^ Oft! 


84436 


Woodland 


86262 


6S416 








Productive soil 


106 862 


211 981 


Unproductive soil 


9,062 


28,460 








Total 


116924 


240,881 









140 



AUSTRIA 



The aggregate value of the agricultural pro- 
duce of Austria was estimated in 1857 by Herr 
von Kleyle, assistant secretary of state, at 
2,500,000,000 fl., and in 1871 by Prof. Brachelli 
at 2,400,000,000 fl. The government of Fran- 
cis Joseph has endeavored to promote agricul- 
ture and cattle-breeding by agricultural fairs, 
exhibitions of implements, premiums for im- 
proved stock, the introduction of new branches 
of agriculture, and other measures ; and partic- 
ular attention has been paid to the American 
improvements of agricultural implements and 
machinery. The culture of some American 
plants has also been introduced, broom corn 
among others. The number of horses in Aus- 
tria in 1869 was 3,578,513 ; of horned cattle, 
12,515,212; of sheep, 19,905,398; of goats, 
1,569,104; of swine, 7,051,473. Austrian man- 
ufactures, whose existence may be said to date 
only from the reign of Joseph II., are now 
striving to rival those of every other European 
nation, England excepted. The number of 
hands employed in the manufacturing estab- 
lishments in 1869 was 2,273,316 ; the value 
of their annual produce, 1,500,000,000 fl. Of 
this sum, 80,000,000 fl. is the estimated value 
of the iron ware, 50,000,000 that of chemical 
preparations, and 20,000,000 that of glassware 
and looking glasses (equal in quality to the 
French). Hemp and flax are manufactured 
into goods worth 150,000,000 fl. The value of 
the woollen fabrics is upward of 140,000,000 fl. 
The number of cotton spindles in Austria in 
1870 was 1,581,000; the total value of cotton 
goods produced, 120,000,000 fl. The quantity 
of cotton manufactured in Austria in 1850 was 
five times as large as in 1831. Since then the 
progress of this branch of industry has been 
comparatively slow. The manufacture of to- 
bacco is monopolized by the government (the 
monopoly having been extended over Hungary, 
which formerly was excepted from it, in 1850). 
The most numerous and extensive industrial 
establishments are in Austria proper (chiefly in 
Vienna) and Bohemia, the fewest and smallest 
in Dalmatia and the Military Frontier. There 
are three principal centres of industry : Vienna, 
for the manufacture of all objects of luxury 
and musical instruments ; Moravia, Silesia, and 
Bohemia, for linen and woollen fabrics and 
glassware ; Styria and Carintkia, for iron goods 
and hardware. The government endeavors to 
promote the growth of Austrian industry by 
establishing schools of mechanical arts, trade 
unions, industrial exhibitions, &c. In order to 
encourage inventors, the patent laws were en- 
tirely remodelled in 1852. The commerce of 
Austria has since 1816 gradually grown into 
importance, although crippled until 1850 by a 
prohibitory tariff, and by the political organi- 
zation of the empire, being at that time merely 
a dynastic union of different states, rendering 
the provincial boundary lines so many bar- 
riers against internal intercourse. At an early 
period the Austrian government took care to 
pread a perfect network of excellent commer- 



cial roads over the whole empire. The roads 
over the Alps, the Stilfser Joch, the Splugen, 
the Semmering, and others, are justly counted 
among the most remarkable works of modern 
times. The first railway in Germany was built 
on Austrian territory, connecting Budweis and 
Linz (1832). The aggregate length of railroads 
(inclusive of horse railroads), on Jan. 1, 1871, 
was 6,324 m. Telegraph lines have been con- 
structed in all directions. In 1870 there were 
in Austria 16,504 m. of electro-magnetic tele- 
graph, with an aggregate length of wires of 
50, 876 m. The number of post offices in all Aus- 
tria was 4,767. The most important canal for 
commerce is the emperor Francis's canal, con- 
necting the Danube and Theiss, and saving a 
circuit of 220 m. On July 1, 1851, the customs 
line between Austria proper and Hungary was 
abolished; on Feb. 1, 1852, a new tariff was 
published, by which the protective system was 
introduced in lieu of the previous prohibition, 
which was now limited to three articles of gov- 
ernment monopoly, viz., salt, gunpowder, and 
tobacco. In 1852 the river duties on the Elbe, 
Po, and Danube were abolished. A postal 
union was concluded with most of the German 
states in 1850, and was followed in 1853 by a 
commercial treaty between Austria and the 
German Zollverein. On April 11, 1865, a new 
customs and commercial treaty was concluded 
with the German Zollverein, which, by con- 
siderable reduction of duties and the establish- 
ment of uniformity of regulations, greatly in- 
creased the commerce of Austria with the 
states of the Zollverein. Other important 
commercial treaties were concluded with the 
United States, Mexico, Persia (1857), Turkey 
(1862), Great Britain (1865 and 1869), France 
(1866), Belgium (1867), the Netherlands (1867), 
Italy (1867), the states represented in the Ger- 
man Zoll parliament (1868), and Switzerland 
(1868). Chambers of commerce and industry 
were introduced in Austria in 1850. Their 
rights and functions in the Cisleithan provinces 
were regulated by the law of June 29, 1868. 
In 1871 there were in Cisleithan Austria 42 
chambers. According to a treaty concluded 
in 1867 between the governments of Cislei- 
thania and Hungary, both these divisions of 
the empire constitute with regard to customs 
and commercial intercourse one territory, en- 
circled by one customs boundary line, from 
which are only excluded Dalmatia, which con- 
stitutes a customs territory by itself, Istria and 
the Quarnero islands, the free ports of Trieste, 
Buccari, Zengg, Portore, Carlopago, the town 
of Brody in Galicia, and the commune of Jung- 
holz in Tyrol. The commercial intercourse 
between the two divisions according to this 
treaty is entirely free, and the goods carried 
from the one into the other can be subjected to 
only those burdens which may be imposed up- 
on the products of the producing division itself. 
All treaties with foreign powers regulating com- 
mercial relations are concluded by the imperial 
government for both divisions of the empire. 



AUSTRIA 



141 



Among the large moneyed institutions the 
Austrian national bank of Vienna (established 
in 1816) maintains the highest rank, although 
its importance is much more due to its inti- 
mate connection with the financial adminis- 
tration of the empire than to its commercial 
transactions. In 1869 it had 23 branches, nine 
of which were in the lands of the Hungarian 
crown. A most powerful institution is the 
Austrian Lloyd, at Trieste, a joint-stock com- 
pany established by Von Bruck in 1833, and 
unrivalled in the variety of its enterprises. It 
is divided into three sections : one devoted to 
the insurance business and the collection of 
statistics for the maritime trade, the second 
(established in 1857) to ocean-steamship navi- 
gation, the third (established in 1849) to the 
promotion of literature and art. This company 
has gradually been developed into gigantic pro- 
portions, almost monopolizing the Levant trade 
on the eastern portion of the Mediterranean. 
It has established regular steamship lines be- 
tween Trieste and almost every port on the 
Adriatic, ^Egean, and Black seas. The number 
of its steamships in 1853 was 56; in 1870, 70. 
Another great institution is the Danube steam 
navigation company. The first river steamboat 
in Europe built on the American pattern was 
built for this company in 1854. Early in 1856 
the Credit- Anatalt at Vienna, an imitation of the 
Paris soeietede credit mob ilier, went into opera- 
tion, the subscription to its stock having reach- 
ed the enormous amount of 640,000,000 flor- 
ins, or upward of $300,000,000; but the strong 
impulse given by this institution to speculation 
and stock-jobbing led at the beginning of the 
year 1857 to a violent financial revulsion. An 
extraordinary impulse was given to the devel- 
opment of large moneyed institutions in 1862 
and the following years. The Statutischeg 
Jakrbwh fur das Jahr 1870 (Vienna, 1872) 
enumerates 44 institutions of this kind in the 
Cisleithan provinces, all of which, with the 
exception of five, were established after 1862, 
and no fewer than 21 in 1869. The aggregate 
paid-up capital of these institutions amounted 
in 1870 to 231,800,000 florins. The following 
institutions had the largest capital: Austrian 
National bank, 90,000,000 fl. ; Austrian Credit 
Institution, 40,000,000; Austrian Land Credit 
Institution (established in 1864), 9,000,000; 
Anglo-Austrian bank (1863),14,000,000; Fran- 
co-Austrian bank (1869), 8,000,000; Austro- 
Egyptian bank (1869), 4,000,000 ; Union hank 
(1870), 12,000,000. The number of savings 
banks in the Cisleithan provinces at the close 
of 1870 was 184, with deposits amounting to 
285,300,000 fl. The total value of the com- 
mercial movement of Austria (exclusive of 
precious metals) in 1870 is shown as follows : 



YEARS. 


Veueh. 


Toni. 


Men. 


1841 


5,574 


215,598 


27,886 


1S49 


6,088 


259,5s} 




1856 


10,006 


3SO 469 


86,802 


1S71 


7,348 


875,822 


28,244 













Imports. 


Export!. 


Anstro-Hungarian Customs 
Territory 


Florin*. . 
416,100,000 


Florins. 
880,200.000 


Customs Territory of Dalmatia 


8,600,000 


6,700,000 


Total 


424,700 000 


895900000 









In 1869 the imports into Austria from the Ger- 
man states represented a value of 301,900,000 
fl. ; the exports from Austria into the German 
states, 241,000,000 fl. The development of the 
shipping of Austria since 1841 is shown by the 
following table : 



Of these 5,767, carrying 267,134 tons, were 
ocean vessels ; 91, carrying 49,977 tons, and 
17,749 horse power, steamships. The appar- 
ent decrease during the period from 1856 to 
1871 is due to the loss of the Italian provinces. 
In 1870 the maritime commerce of Trieste 
amounted to 226,290,000 fl., viz. : imports, 
125,870,000; exports, 100,420,000. Trieste is 
by far the most important seaport of Austria, 
and, besides Marseilles, perhaps the only one 
on the European continent which has advanced 
at a very remarkable rate. The following ta- 
ble shows the most important among the other 
ports of the empire : 



PORTS. 


Entrlei In !86. 


Tom. 


Pols 


2,588 


260,489 


Zara 


828 


191,837 




640 


160,791 




2,646 


189 566 




1,250 


129.193 




2,720 


126,004 


Spalato 


1,984 


119,106 




688 


105,196 









The fundamental law which divides the mon- 
archy into two states or divisions bears the 
date of Dec. 21, 1867. According to this law, 
each of the two divisions (the " countries repre- 
sented in the Reichsrath " and the " countries 
of the Hungarian crown ") has its own consti- 
tution, but they are united under the same 
monarchy and have in common an imperial 
ministry (Reichsministerium) for the adminis- 
tration of those affairs which have been con- 
stitutionally defined as common to both parts 
of the empire. Such are the foreign affairs, 
nearly the whole department of war, inclu- 
sive of the navy, and the finances of the joint 
monarchy. Several other subjects, though not 
defined as common affairs, are to be equally 
treated according to principles from time to 
time agreed upon by the two legislatures. In 
this class belongs legislation on duties, on cer- 
tain indirect taxes, and on railways in which 
both divisions are interested. For the coun- 
tries represented in the Reichsrath the fol- 
lowing fundamental laws are specially recog- 
nized as valid : 1, the " Pragmatic Sanction " 
of the emperor Charles VI. of Dec. 6, 1724, 
which regulates the order of succession and de- 
clares the indivisibility of the empire ; 2, the 
diploma of Francis Joseph I. of Oct. 20, 1860, 
which introduces the constitutional form of 
government ; 3, the six fundamental laws of 



112 



AUSTRIA 



Dec. 21, 1867, regulating the representation of 
the people, defining the general rights of citi- 
zens, the judicial, administrative, and execu- 
tive power, and appointing an imperial court 
(Rewhsgerieht). The Austro-Hungarian mon- 
archy is an empire hereditary in the Hapsburg- 
Lorraine dynasty. After the entire extinction 
of the male line, the crown may be inherited 
hy female descendants. The emperor attains 
his majority when 18 years old, and must be- 
long to the Roman Catholic church. On en- 
tering upon the government, he must take an 
oath to support the constitution. He is ad- 
dressed as imperial and royal apostolical ma- 
jesty, and has three different titles, the short- 
est of which is emperor of Austria, king of 
Bohemia, &c., and apostolical king of Hun- 
gary. The emperor shares the legislative 
power with the representative assemblies of 
Cisleithania and of Hungary, and with the 
provincial diets. Without the consent of these 
bodies no law can be made, altered, or abol- 
ished. With regard to the affairs common to 
the whole empire, the Austrian Reichsrath 
and the Hungarian diet exercise their legisla- 
tive rights through two delegations, consisting 
each of 60 members, one third chosen from the 
upper and two thirds from the lower house. 
The delegations serve only one year, and meet 
alternately at Vienna and at Pesth. The mem- 
bers of the imperial ministry for the common 
affairs of the empire, namely, the ministers 
of foreign affairs, of war, and of the imperial 
finances, are responsible to the delegations. 
The Reichsrath of the Cisleithan provinces 
consists of a house of lords (fferrenhaus) and a 
house of deputies (Abgeordneten-Haus). The 
upper house embraces all imperial princes who 
are of age, the chiefs of a number of noble 
families who have been declared hereditary 
members of the house, all the archbishops and 
prince-bishops, and an unlimited number of 
distinguished men whom the emperor may ap- 
point as life members. The house of deputies 
in 1872 consisted of 203 members, chosen by 
the provincial diets from their own members 
for a term of six years. Their term ceases 
sooner, however, if they cease to be members 
of the provincial diet. If a provincial diet 
does not send delegates to the Reichsrath, 
the emperor has the right to order direct elec- 
tions. The provincial diets exercise a legisla- 
tive right with regard to subjects which have 
not expressly been reserved for the Reichsrath. 
These diets consist of the archbishops and 
bishops of the province, of the rector of the 
university, and of delegates chosen by the hold- 
ers of large estates, by towns and other places, 
by the chambers of commerce and industry, 
and by the rural communities. Both the 
Reichsrath and the provincial diets are con- 
voked annually. The ministers of Cisleithania 
are responsible to the Reichsrath, which may 
impeach them. The decision in such a case is 
given by a special state court organized by the 
Reichsrath. Every citizen 30 years of age is 



eligible to the provincial diet, but the right of 
voting is made contingent on the payment of 
a tax, the amount of which is fixed by law. 
The particular ministry of Cisleithania con- 
sists of seven sections, namely: interior, wor- 
ship and education, commerce, agriculture, the 
defence of the country, justice, and finances. 
The provinces or crown lands are governed by 
governors (Statthalter), or provincial presidents 
(Landetpr&iidenten). Municipal officers are 
elected in accordance with the imperial law of 
March 5, 1862, by citizens possessing a cer- 
tain amount of property and paying a certain 
amount of taxes. The administration of jus- 
tice was reorganized in 1851, and again by the 
fundamental laws of 1867. All privileged ju- 
risdiction has been entirely abolished. There 
are three degrees of jurisdiction. The district 
courts and district collegiate courts (894 in 
1869) have original jurisdiction in civil suits 
up to a certain value, and in petty criminal 
cases, and the county courts (Landesgerichte), 
of which there were 62 in 1869, have original 
jurisdiction in all other civil cases and in all 
criminal cases ; they have also appellate juris- 
diction in cases tried by the district courts. 
Offences of the press are, according to the law 
of March 9, 1869, tried by juries. The provin- 
cial courts (Oberlandesfferichte), of which there 
are 9 in Cisleithania, are the courts of last re- 
sort for cases tried by the district courts, and of 
second resort for civil cases tried by the county 
courts. The highest tribunal of the monarchy 
is the court of appeals (Olerster GerichU- vnd 
Caasationshof), at Vienna. The civil law is ad- 
ministered according to the code of 1811. The 
criminal code of 1804 was amended in 1852. 
The number of persons sentenced for crime 
in Cisleithan Austria in 1869 was 25,665, or 1 
for every 787 of the population. The finances 
have at all times been the sore point of the 
Austrian administration. Having been utterly 
prostrated by the Napoleonic wars, their con- 
dition was slowly improving when the revolu- 
tions of 1848, and the consequent wars in Italy 
and Hungary, again brought Austria near the 
verge of bankruptcy. The government paper 
currency fell some 20 per cent, below par. The 
prospect had begun to brighten when the east- 
ern war and the position of armed neutrality 
maintained by Austria once more destroyed 
every hope of bringing the income and the ex- 
penditure to balance each other. The income 
has been steadily increasing, but so has the 
expenditure. By keeping a separate account 



YEARS. 


Income. 


Expenditure. 


Deficiency. 




Florini. 


Florins. 


Fiorina. 


1848. 


121,819,815 


186,679,486 


64,857.871 


1849. 


144,018,753 


289,468,0*3 


145,454,290 


1860. 


191,296,467 


268,458,060 


77.161,608 


1861. 


228,252,038 


278,420,470 


55.168,482 


1858. 


287,186,998 


298,960,628 


56,828.685 


1854. 


245,888,724 


294529,681 


49.195,957 


1856. 


268.508,796 


821.877.664 


52.868.868 


1882. 


898,657.965 


610,859,852 


111,701,887 


1S6. 


495,004,288 


535,148,884 


40,139,146 



AUSTRIA 



143 



of the " extraordinary expenditure," the Aus- 
trian government organs showed an apparent 
improvement of the financial condition, but 
this was an illusion. The foregoing table 
shows the excess of expenditures over re- 
ceipts in some of the years following the 
revolutionary movements of 1848. Since the 
reorganization of the empire in 1867, there 
are separate budgets for the common atfairs 
of the whole empire and for each of the 
two large divisions. In the budget for 1872 
the amount needed for the common affairs of 
the empire is estimated at 110,647,498 florins, 
of which 95,165,007 were to be devoted to 
the army and 11,254,690 to the navy. From 
the receipts of the ministry of war, the excess 
of duties, and the incomes of the consulates, 
17,208,883 were to be obtained; of the balance, 
93,438,615, the Cisleithan provinces were to 
furnish 65,145,402, and the Transleithan prov- 
inces 28,293,213. The budget of the countries 
represented in the Reichsrath for 1871 fixes 
the revenue at 338,084,609, the largest items 
being 80,200,000 from direct taxes, 187,073,546 
from indirect taxes, 33,461,058 from the state 
domain and from state institutions. The ex- 
penses were to amount to 349,811,642 fl. 
(99,984,711 fl. interest on the public debt). 
Thus there would again be a deficit of 11,727,- 
033. The consolidated debt of Austria on 
Dec. 31, 1870, amounted to 2,572,733,402 fl. ; 
the entire debt to 2,593,269,591, being an in- 
crease over 1869 of 3,000,000 fl. The aggre- 
gate debt of the provinces amounted in June, 
1870, to 243,979,690 fl. The army of the en- 
tire' monarchy was reorganized in 1868. Ac- 
cording to the new regulations the liability to 
military service is universal, begins with the 
completion of the 20th year, and must be ren- 
dered personally. The army is divided into 
the standing army, the navy, the landwehr, 
the reserve, and the landsturm. In the Cislei- 
than provinces military duty lasts 10 years (3 
years in the line, 7 in the reserve). In the 
landwehr those who have been in the line and 
in the reserve have to remain 2, all others 12 
years. The standing army and the navy are 
placed under the imperial minister of war for 
the common affairs of the empire ; the land- 
wehr and the landsturm (which is to com- 
prise all men capable of doing military duty 
until the 50th year of age, but was not yet 
generally organized in 1871) are in each divi- 
sion of the empire placed under the minister 
for the defence of the country. The standing 
army numbered in August, 1871, 254,041 men 
on the peace footing ; in time of war the army, 
including the reserve, would number 820,811 
men ; while the landwehr numbered in addi- 
tion 219,471 men. The subdivisions are: 1. 
Infantry : 80 regiments of the line, 14 regiments 
of frontier men, 1 regiment of Tyrol riflemen, 
33 battalions of riflemen. 2. Cavalry: 14 regi- 
ments of dragoons, 13 regiments of uhlans, 14 
regiments of hussars. 3. Artillery: 12 regi- 
ments of field artillery, 12 battalions of for- 
62 vol. H. 10 



tress artillery. 4. Two regiments of engineers 
and one regiment of pioneers. 5. Five corps 
for military transportation. Among the for- 
tresses of Austria, Comorn, Olmutz, Peterwar- 
dein, and Temesvar are the strongest. The 
best naval ports are Pola, Trieste, and Cattaro. 
The Austrian navy in 1871 consisted of 47 
steamers, among which were 11 ironclads, 20 
sailing vessels, and 6 tenders; in all 72 vessels, 
carrying 522 guns. The corps of naval officers 
embraces 2 vice admirals, 5 rear admirals, 16 
captains of ships of the line, 17 captains of frig- 
ates, and 18 captains of corvettes. The present 
archduchy of Austria, anciently inhabited by 
the Celtic tribe of the Taurisci, afterward called 
Norici, was conquered by the Romans in 14 
B. 0. During the first centuries of the Chris- 
tian era that portion of Austria north of the 
Danube belonged to the possessions of the 
Marcomanni and Quadi ; part of Lower Austria 
and Styria, including the municipium of Vin- 
dobona (Vienna), to Pannonia; the rest of 
Lower Austria and Styria, with Carinthia and 
part of Carniola, to Noricum; Tyrol to Rhsetia. 
After the middle of the 6th century the river 
Enns constituted the boundary between the 
Teutonic nation of the Boioarii (Bavarians) and 
the Turanian Avars. Charlemagne annexed 
the country of the Avars to the German em- 
pire in 791. It was then called Avaria or Mar- 
chia Orientalis (eastern territory), and subse- 
quently Austria, constituting since 843 the 
easternmost district of Germany. Having been 
conquered by the Magyars in 900, it was ulti- 
mately reannexed to Germany by Otho I. in 
955. In 983 Leopold of Babenberg was ap- 
pointed margrave of Austria. His dynasty re- 
mained in possession for 263 years, adding 
largely to its territory by the annexation of 
Styria and Carniola, by conquests from the 
Slavic tribes, and by inheritance. Under the 
reign of Henry Jasomirgott Austria was erected 
into a hereditary duchy in 1156. On the death 
of Frederick II., the last of the Babenberg dy- 
nasty (1246), the German emperor Frederick II. 
claimed Austria as a vacant fief of the imperial 
crown. But neither he nor his son Conrad IV. 
succeeded in establishing his authority, and in 
1251 the Austrian states elected Ottocar, sec- 
ond sou of the Bohemian king Wenceslas, duke 
of Austria and Styria. Having refused to ac- 
knowledge Rudolph of Hapsburg as German 
emperor, Ottocar was defeated by him in 1276, 
and compelled to surrender to the victor all his 
possessions except those belonging to the Bohe- 
mian crown. From that time up to the present 
day the house of Hapsburg, whose original pos- 
sessions were in Switzerland, has ruled in Aus- 
tria. Rudolph's son and successor Albert ob- 
tained in 1301 the Swabian margraviate. At 
his death in 1308 Austria had already an area 
of 26,000 sq. m. Of his five sons, Leopold was 
defeated at Morgarten in 1315, while attempt- 
ing to resubdue the revolted Swiss cantons, 
and Frederick III., surnamed the Handsome, 
was vanquished by Louis the Bavarian in his 



AUSTRIA 



fight for the imperial crown in 1322. The pos- 
sessions of their house, which were divided by 
them, were finally united in the hands of the 
fourth brother, Albert II. But another divi- 
sion took place among the heirs of the latter, 
when Albert III. got Austria proper, and Leo- 
pold all the rest. Leopold was slain in battle 
against the Swiss at Sempach in 1386, but his 
descendants remained in possession of Styria, 
and inherited the duchy of Austria in 1457, 
when Albert's line became extinct. Frederick 
IV. of Austria, having been elected German 
emperor, elevated Austria to the rank of an 
archduchy. His son Maximilian I., who suc- 
ceeded him in 1493, obtained the Netherlands 
by marrying Mary, the heiress of Charles the 
Bold of Burgundy, and Tyrol by inheritance ; 
and by marrying his son Philip to the daugh- 
ter of Ferdinand and Isabella he brought the 
Hapsburg family upon the throne of Spain. 
Philip's son, Charles I. of Spain, became, under 
the name of Charles V., German emperor in 
1519. In 1520 and 1521 the latter ceded the 
Austrian possessions to his brother Ferdinand 
I., who subsequently also succeeded him in the 
empire. Ferdinand obtained the kingdoms of 
Hungary and Bohemia as successor, by family 
treaties as well as elections, to his brother-in- 
law, King Louis II., who fell in the disastrous 
battle of Mohacs against the Turks (1526). 
Thus elevated to the rank of one of the great 
European powers, the house of Austria pos- 
sessed an area of 114,000 sq. m. But the pos- 
session of Hungary was not undisputed. John 
Zapolya, waywode of Transylvania, aided by the 
Turks, tried to wrest the crown of St. Stephen 
from Ferdinand ; and in 1529 Sultan Solyman 
had already invested Vienna, when the prudent 
generalship of Count Salm compelled him to 
retire. By a treaty concluded in 1538, Zapolya 
got eastern Hungary and the title of king, 
while the possession of Transylvania was guar- 
anteed to his descendants. Even after Zapol- 
ya's death (1540) Ferdinand could reenter into 
possession of lower Hungary only by paying an 
annual tribute of 30,000 ducats to the Turks. 
The war with the latter had soon to be re- 
newed, however, and Hungary remained a bat- 
tlefield for more than a century. (See HUN- 
GARY.) In 1564 Austria was once more divid- 
ed among Ferdinand's sons, Maximilian II. 
(German emperor 1564-'76) obtaining Lower 
Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia; Ferdinand, 
Tyrol and Upper Austria ; Charles, Styria, Ca- 
rinthia, Carniola, and Gorz. The final reunion 
took place about 100 years later. Rudolph II., 
successor to his father Maximilian (1576-1612), 
one of the feeblest and worst emperors Ger- 
many ever had, was compelled to cede Bo- 
hemia, Hungary, and Austria to his brother 
Matthias, under whose reign (1612-'19) the 30 
years' war originated, by the revolt of the Bo- 
hemian Protestants against the Hapsburg dy- 
nasty. Ferdinand II. of Styria, cousin of Mat- 
thias (emperor 1619-'37), having defeated the 
rival king elected by the Bohemians, Frederick 



of the Palatinate (1620), led a war of exter- 
mination against the Protestants of Bohemia 
and Moravia, expelled them by thousands from 
his dominions, and annulled all ancient privi- 
leges of the states. In the course of the war, 
Ferdinand, shortly after the assassination of 
Wallenstein, was compelled to cede Lusatia 
to Saxony (1635). Ferdinand III. (1637-'57) 
brought the war to an end by the peace of 
Westphalia (1648). His son, Leopold I. (1657 
-1705), by his misrule drove the Hungarians 
into alliance with the Turks. In 1683 Kara 
Mustapha besieged Vienna, which was saved 
only by the timely arrival of a Polish army, 
led by John Sobieski. Leopold's armies hav- 
ing reconquered Hungary, it was converted 
from an elective kingdom into an hereditary 
one (1687). Transylvania, too, was occupied. 
In 1699 Turkey, defeated in many sanguinary 
battles by Prince Eugene, ceded, by the peace 
of Carlovitz, the country between the Danube 
and Theiss rivers to Austria. Leopold's design 
to obtain the succession in Spain for his second 
son, Charles, was frustrated by the diplomacy 
of Louis XIV. of France. This occasioned, on 
the death of Charles II. of Spain (1700), the 
war of the Spanish succession, hi which Eng- 
land, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Savoy 
took sides with the emperor against France, 
while Louis XIV.. was aided by a powerful in- 
surrection in Hungary, under Rak6czy. The 
victories of Eugene and Marlborough rendered 
success certain when, by the death of Leopold 
and of his eldest son Joseph I. (1711), his 
brother Charles became monarch of Austria. 
The allies, fearing the preponderance of Aus- 
tria if the crowns of Spain, Naples, and Ger- 
many should be united again, desisted from 
their efforts against France, and a peace was 
concluded at Utrecht in 1713, by which the 
Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples, and Sar- 
dinia (exchanged for Sicily in 1720) fell to Aus- 
tria, while Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis 
XIV., was acknowledged as king of Spain. 
By this treaty the area of Austria was increased 
to 191,000 sq. m. The treaty of Passarowitz 
(1718) secured new advantages on the Turkish 
border. Having once more waged war with 
France and Spain, Charles VI. lost Naples, 
Sicily, and a portion of Milan (1735); while 
the peace of Belgrade (1739) deprived him of 
nearly all the fruits of Prince Eugene's vic- 
tories over the Turks. All these sacrifices 
Charles consented to, principally from a desire 
to obtain the general recognition of the so- 
called "pragmatic sanction," by which his 
daughter, Maria Theresa, was declared the 
heiress of the Austrian monarchy. Yet, im- 
mediately after his death (1740), her right 
of succession was contested by the leading 
powers, England excepted. Frederick II. of 
Prussia seized Silesia, which formed a part of 
the Bohemian dominions of Austria, and the 
elector of Bavaria assumed the title of archduke 
of Austria, and was elected German emperor, 
j under the name of Charles VII. (1742). Noth- 



AUSTRIA 



145 



ing but the fidelity of the Hungarians saved 
Maria Theresa. By the treaties of Breslau 
and Dresden (1742 and 1745), she resigned her 
claims to Silesia; by that of Aix-la-Chapelle 
(1748), to Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, and part 
of Milan. In the mean -time the emperor 
Charles VII. had died (1745), and Maria^he- 
resa's husband, Francis Stephen, grand duke 
of Tuscany, belonging to the ducal family of 
Lorraine, had been elected German emperor, 
as Francis I. In order to get Silesia back from 
Prussia, Maria Theresa conspired with France, 
Russia, Saxony, and Sweden against Frede- 
rick ; but the seven years' war, in which Fred- 
erick covered himself with glory, resulted only 
in the reaffirmation of the status quo. Francis, 
who died in 1765, was succeeded as emperor by 
his son Joseph II., who in Austria acted only as 
assistant regent until the death of his mother 
(1780). During this period eastern Galicia and 
Lodomeria were taken forcibly from Poland 
(1772), the Bukowina was obtained from Tur- 
key (1777), and some smaller possessions were 
acquired in Germany by the peace of Teschen 
(1779), increasing the Austrian dominions 
altogether to an area of 233,741 sq. m. Joseph 
II., reversing the traditional policy of his pre- 
decessors, granted religious liberty to Protes- 
tants, discontinued the censorship of the press, 
reorganized public education, abolished 900 
convents, and developed industry by a protec- 
tive tariff; but his arbitrary measures exas- 
perated the Hungarians, and drove the Austrian 
Netherlands into rebellion. The latter he tried 
to exchange for Bavaria, a project which was 
frustrated by the efforts of Frederick of Prus- 
sia. No less unfortunate in his war against 
Turkey, Joseph died from grief (or, as some 
believed, from poison) in 1790. His brother, 
Leopold II. (1790-'92), reconciled Hungary and 
the Netherlands, made peace with Turkey, and 
entered into the coalition against revolutionary 
France, but was unable to rescue his sister, 
Marie Antoinette. Thus his son Francis (1792 
-1835) was, immediately on his accession to 
the throne, drawn into the whirlpool of the 
revolutionary wars. By the peace of Campo 
Formio (1797) he lost Lombardy and the Neth- 
erlands, but obtained in exchange a large por- 
tion of Venetia. Two years before he had ob- 
tained western Galicia by the third partition 
of Poland. In 1799 Austria, allied with Rus- 
sia, declared war against the French republic 
for the second time, but was compelled by Bo- 
naparte to accept the peace of Lun6ville (1801), 
by which his brother, the archduke Ferdinand, 
was deprived of Tuscany, being compensated 
by Salzburg, Passau, Eichstadt, and the title 
of prince-elector. The public debt of Austria 
had now increased to 1,200,000,000 florins. 
On Aug. 11, 1804, Francis proclaimed himself 
hereditary emperor of Austria (as such Francis 
I.), uniting all his dominions under the name of 
the Austrian empire. In the next year, having 
again gone to war with France, he was forced 
by the defeat at Austerlitz to sign a most igno- 



minious peace at Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805). 
When, by the organization of the Rhenish con- 
federation (Rhinebund), under the auspices of 
Napoleon (1806), the integrity of the German 
empire had been destroyed, Francis laid down 
the imperial crown of Germany (Aug. G, 1806). 
A fourth time he determined upon a war 
against Napoleon, aided only by England 
(1809), but the result was most disastrous. 
The peace of Vienna (Oct. 14, 1809) took away 
from Austria about 42,000 sq. m. of territory, 
with 3,500,000 inhabitants. Utterly prostrated 
and driven into bankruptcy, Francis did not 
dare to withhold his consent when Napoleon 
proposed to marry his daughter Maria Louisa 
(1810), and in 1812 he even entered into alli- 
ance with Napoleon against Russia. But when 
the Russian campaign had broken Napoleon's 
power, and Prussia had risen against him, 
Austria joined in the alliance of England, Rus- 
sia, Prussia, and Sweden (1813), and took a 
conspicuous part in the overthrow of the French 
empire. By the peace of Paris (1814) the Lom- 
bard and Venetian territories, now united into 
a kingdom, and all former possessions returned 
to Austria. In 1815 Francis, with Alexander 
of Russia and Frederick William III. of Prus- 
sia, formed the " holy alliance," for the resto- 
ration of the old monarchical system, Vienna 
having in the preceding year become the seat 
of the congress convoked for the purpose of re- 
constructing Europe. The suppression of lib- 
eral ideas and movements throughout Europe 
appeared to be thenceforth the principal object 
of the Austrian government, of which Prince 
Metternich was the soul. Austria quelled the 
popular insurrections in Naples and Piedmont 
(1820 and 1821), aided by its diplomacy in the 
suppression of the popular movement in Spain 
(1823), favored Turkey in its struggle with 
the Greeks, and crushed the insurrections 
which in Italy followed close upon the French 
revolution of 1830. In the interior new at- 
tempts were made, though without success, to 
subvert the constitution of Hungary. The 
death of Francis, who was succeeded by his 
son Ferdinand (1835), made no change in the 
Austrian administration. At an interview of 
Ferdinand with the monarchs of Russia and 
Prussia the holy alliance was reaffirmed. In 
the oriental imbroglio of 1840, Austria sided 
with England and Russia. Unrelenting rigor 
was exercised in Italy. The Polish insurrec- 
tion in Cracow (which in consequence was an- 
nexed to Austria) was accompanied by an at- 
tempt at rising in the adjoining parts of Galicia 
(February, 1846) ; but the government suc- 
ceeded in quelling the movement by instigating 
the wrath of the peasants against the noble- 
men, many of whom were massacred. In the 
Italian provinces the opposition was fostered 
by the political reforms of Pope Pius IX., and 
the concessions to popular opinion wrung from 
the other Italian governments. In Hungary 
the former parliamentary opposition of the diet 
had gradually grown into national enmity, es- 



146 



AUSTRIA 



pecially so since the death of the palatine, 
Archduke Joseph (1847); similar movements 
appeared in Bohemia, while even in Austria 
proper the states insisted upon some participa- 
tion at least in the administration of the gov- 
ernment. From all these elements a storm 
arose in 1848 which brought the entire Aus- 
trian monarchy very near its ruin. On March 
13, shortly after the revolution in Paris which 
drove Louis Philippe from his throne, the 
people of Vienna rose against the ministry, 
which made but a feeble show of resistance; 
Metternich was compelled to resign, and the 
emperor pledged himself to convoke an assem- 
bly of representatives of the people, to form 
a constitution for the empire. But at the 
same time the Hungarian diet, led by Kossuth, 
demanded and obtained an independent con- 
stitutional government, leaving merely a dy- 
nastic union with Austria. Outbreaks in Italy 
followed closely; Radetzky was driven from 
Milan, and Palfly surrendered Venice to the 
people. While thus momentarily successful in 
the provinces, the revolution created the direst 
confusion in the centre of the empire. Of the 
revolutionists, some were in favor of uniting 
those provinces in which the German national- 
ity predominates to Germany, leaving Hungary 
to herself, and favoring the union of the Ital- 
ian states under a national government ; while 
others were unwilling to hazard the position 
of Austria as one of the great powers, against 
the vague hope of a reconstruction of Germany. 
In Vienna the ministry of Count Ficquelmont, 
which had succeeded Metternich, proved its 
incapacity to grapple with the pending difficul- 
ties, and the political power fell into the hands 
of a central committee of the national guard 
and the students' legion. The emperor, un- 
willing to resort to extreme measures, fled to 
Innspruck (May 17). Another unsuccessful at- 
tempt of the ministry to break the power of the 
students led to the organization of a committee 
of public welfare (May 25), which, until the 
meeting of an Austrian parliament (July 22), 
exercised an almost unlimited control, compel- 
ling the ministry to make room for successors 
more subservient to the masses (July 8). When 
utterly prostrated in the capital, the imperial 
power began to gather strength in the prov- 
inces. A popular outbreak at Prague was 
suppressed, after a bombardment of the city 
(June 15-16), by Prince Windischgratz. In 
Lombardy, Radetzky, who had retired to Ve- 
rona, opened an aggressive campaign in June, 
captured Vicenza, Padua, and other important 
places, and routed the Sardinian army (the 
king of Sardinia, Charles Albert, having taken 
sides with the revolted provinces) near Custoz- 
za, July 25. The national Hungarian ministry 
of Batthyanyi and Kossuth. preparing the way 
for an independent Magyar kingdom, awakened 
the fears and national antipathies of the Slavic 
races which would necessarily have formed 
part of this kingdom. Jellachich, the governor 
(ban) of Croatia, strengthened by the conni- 



vance of the imperial court, pronounced against 
the Hungarian government. Count Lamberg, 
the imperial commissioner despatched to Pesth, 
was there killed by the people (Sept. 28). Im- 
mediately the emperor ordered the dissolution 
of the Hungarian diet, and appointed Jellachich 
supreme military commander of Hungary. The 
diet, denying the authority of the emperor, 
organized a committee of safety, with Kossuth 
at its head. When the garrison of Vienna 
(Oct. 6) was departing for Hungary, the people 
of the capital, sympathizing with the Hun- 
garians, rose once more. They took the ar- 
senal, and hung the secretary of war, Count 
Latour, at the window of his office. The par- 
liament declared itself permanent, and sent an 
address to the emperor asking for a new min- 
istry and the removal of Jellachich. The em- 
peror, who in June had returned from Inns- 
pruck to Vienna, again fled to Olmutz. The 
masses of the capital armed themselves under 
the leadership of the Polish general Bern, pre- 
paring to resist the impending attack of the 
army. The garrison, joined outside the city by 
the remnants of the army of Jellachich, which 
had been beaten near Bnda, and by the army 
corps of Prince Windischgratz, assaulted Vien- 
na, Oct. 23 ; but the people made a desperate 
resistance until the 31st, when, the Hungarians 
having the day before been defeated almost 
before its gates, the city was taken by storm 
with immense slaughter. Many of the popular 
leaders were shot, among others Robert Blum, 
member of the parliament of. Frankfort, Mes- 
senhauser, commander of the national guard, 
and Jellinek, editor of the "Radical." On 
Nov. 22 a new ministry was formed, of which 
Prince Felix Schwarzenberg was president. 
The emperor Ferdinand was induced to resign, 
Dec. 2, 1848, in favor of his nephew, Francis 
Joseph, a youth of 18 years, whose mother, 
the archduchess Sophia, had been the leading 
spirit of the counter-revolutionary movement. 
The campaign against Hungary was com- 
menced at once, but carried to a successful 
termination only by the powerful intervention 
of Czar Nicholas, the Hungarian main army, 
under Gorgey, surrendering (Aug. 13, 1849) 
to the Russians at Vilagos. (See HUNGARY.) 
Hungary, which had declared its indepen- 
dence, was treated as a conquered country. 
Many military and parliamentary leaders 
were shot or hung, and the prisons crammed 
with the unhappy victims of imperial re- 
venge. Simultaneously with these occurren- 
ces the war in Italy had been terminated. 
Within a few days Gen. Radetzky routed the 
Sardinian army twice, at Mortara (March 21, 
1849) and Novara (March 23), and obtained a 
peace by which Sardinia was obliged to reim- 
burse Austria for the expenses of the war 
(15,000,000 livres). Venice, where an inde- 
pendent republican government had been or- 
ganized under the lead of Manin, was invested 
by Radetzky, and forced to surrender, Aug. 
23, 1849. The revolution having been con- 



AUSTKIA 



147 



quered, the Austrian government commenced 
the arduous task of reorganizing the monarchy 
upon a firmer basis than before. The parlia- 
ment, which after the bloody struggle at Vienna 
had been adjourned to Kremsir in Moravia, 
was dissolved March 4, 1849, and a constitu- 
tion promulgated by the free will of thg em- 
peror, of which only the reactionary parts 
went into operation. The efforts of the nation- 
al parliament at Frankfort to reconstruct the 
German empire, excluding Austria from it, 
were violently opposed by the Austrian gov- 
ernment, and Frederick William IV. of Prussia 
durst not defy this opposition, backed as it was 
by that of Russia and France, by accepting 
the imperial crown offered by the Frankfort 
assembly. Still, by assuming the leadership of 
the counter-revolutionary movements in Ger- 
many, and aiding the petty princes to put 
down the people, Prussia obtained a prepon- 
derating influence in northern Germany, and 
made some efforts to centralize the confedera- 
cy, all of which were prostrated by the ener- 
getic policy of Prince Schwarzenberg. In 
1850 the diplomatic conflict between Austria 
and Prussia seemed to point to a crisis ; armies 
were put in motion, and a fight among some 
outposts had already taken place near Bronzell 
in Hesse-Oassel (Nov. 8, 1850), when at the last 
moment Prussia, in a ministerial meeting at 01- 
mutz (Nov. 29), submitted to the demands of 
Austria, and the German diet at Frankfort was 
reestablished the same as it was before 1848; 
Austria, on her part, renouncing for the time 
being the idea of entering into the Germanic 
confederation with all her possessions. The 
energy displayed in the management of for- 
eign relations was manifested by the Austrian 
minister of the interior, Bach, in the admin- 
istration of the internal affairs of the empire. 
All remnants of the revolutionary period 
were annihilated, with one exception only, the 
abolition of socage. The constitution of 1849 
was annulled Jan. 1, 1852 ; trial by jury was 
abolished; the public press crushed down with 
the utmost severity; and the influence of the 
clergy reestablished. Extraordinary efforts 
were made to develop the resources of the 
monarchy by encouraging agriculture, industry, 
and commerce. A new tariff was adopted, and 
negotiations were commenced with other Ger- 
man states for the establishment of a complete 
customs union with the Zollverein. Prussia, 
fearing lest her influence might be outweighed 
by that of Austria, opposed this movement; 
but several of the Zollverein states took sides 
against her, and the moment seemed to be 
near at hand when her objections would have 
been overborne, when Schwarzenberg's sudden 
death (April 5, 1852) brought on a change in 
the policy of Austria. His successor, Count 
Buol-Schauenstein, declined to press the prop- 
ositions made by Schwarzenberg, and con- 
tented himself with the conclusion of a com- 
mercial treaty between Austria and the Zoll- 
verein (1853). The reconciliation with Prussia 



was completed at a personal interview of the 
emperor and Frederick William IV. On Feb. 
6, 1853, another popular outbreak occurred at 
Milan, but was suppressed without difficulty. 
A diplomatic rupture with Switzerland, where 
the Italian revolutionists had taken refuge, was 
the consequence. On Feb. 18 an attempt was 
made against the emperor's life by a young 
Hungarian, Lib6nyi. These events were im- 
portant only so far as they tended to perpet- 
uate the severe military rule. When, toward 
the end of 1852, the Montenegrins rose against 
the Turks, Austria sided with them, and Count 
Leiningen, who was sent to Constantinople 
(February, 1853), obtained full redress of their 
grievances. At the time of the complications 
which led to the Crimean war, Austria pro- 
claimed her neutrality, and on April 20, 1854, 
a treaty was concluded by Austria and Prussia, 
both pledging themselves to take an active 
part in the war only whenever the interests of 
Germany should appear to be endangered. 
The czar, indignant at what seemed to him 
base ingratitude on the part of Austria, en- 
deavored by flattery to incite the smaller Ger- 
man states against her, and went even so far 
as to threaten an appeal to the Slavic races. 
Thus Austria was forced to change her neutral- 
ity pure and simple into an armed one. She 
agreed with Turkey to occupy the Danubian 
principalities, advanced an army of 300,000 men 
toward the Polish frontier, and proposed to 
Russia the four points which afterward became 
the basis of peace. This proposition having 
been rejected, Austria assumed an attitude so 
threatening that the Russians were obliged to 
retire from Turkish territory. An Austrian 
army under Gen. Coronini entered Wallachia, 
and the war on the Danube was virtually at an 
end. By promising to the western powers an 
active support whenever they would pledge 
themselves to carry on the war in such a man- 
ner as effectually to cripple the Russian power, 
Austria induced them to determine upon the 
Crimean expedition. Now, at last, the active 
cooperation of Austria seemed to be certain ; 
indeed, a treaty to that effect was agreed to by 
her Dec. 2, 1854; but in consequence of the 
tardy success of the allied armies before Se- 
bastopol and the unwillingness of the other 
German powers to accede to the treaty, she 
again fell back upon her former vague promises, 
merely offering her good offices to the contend- 
ing parties. Not even when the Russians once 
more invaded Turkish territory did she move 
against them. Plenipotentiaries of the belli- 
gerent powers met at Vienna in March, 1855, 
but were unable to agree upon a basis of 
peace, and finally adjourned. During the prog- 
ress of the negotiations Austria had distinctly 
pledged herself to go to war if Russia should 
remain obstinate, when all at once she began 
to reduce her army on the frontier. Financial 
embarrassments and the cholera, which within 
a few months destroyed 25,000 soldiers, were 
the ostensible cause for this unexpected move- 



148 



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ment, the real cause being probably the assur- 
ance given by Russia that in any case she would 
adhere to those of the four points which involved 
the special interests of Austria. The emperor of 
the French, who formerly had been anxious to 
secure the friendship of Austria on any terms, 
began to look toward Russia, and eagerly 
seized the first opportunity of concluding peace 
(1856). During the war the work of central- 
ization had been carried on by the Austrian 
government with apparent success. By the con- 
cordat with the holy see (1855) Austria gave 
back to the Roman Catholic clergy all the priv- 
ileges and influence which had been wrested 
from them since the time of Joseph II. By 
stimulating public enterprise and promoting 
the material interests of all classes of the popu- 
lation, the government was earnestly endeavor- 
ing to make the people forget the events of 1848 
and 1849. The military rule was somewhat re- 
laxed, and a general amnesty was proclaimed 
for political offences. The progress of internal 
reforms was soon again interrupted by foreign 
complications. At the beginning of 1859 the 
Austrian statesmen learned from some omi- 
nous words addressed on new year's day by the 
French emperor to Baron Hubner that Oavour 
had succeeded in gaining over Louis Napoleon 
to the designs of Victor Emanuel, and that they 
must be prepared for a war not only against Sar- 
dinia but against France. In this new complica- 
tion the sympathies of Prussia and the other 
German states were strongly enlisted in favor of 
Austria, and even England and Russia showed 
a readiness to shield her from the impend- 
ing danger. The diplomatic efforts of the neu- 
tral powers were, however, thwarted by an 
ultimatum which Austria hastened to address 
to Sardinia. This ultimatum not being ac- 
cepted, Austria declared war, and appointed 
one of her most incompetent generals, Count 
Gyulay, commander-in-chief. The hope of the 
Austrians that they could overpower the Sar- 
dinian army before the French could come to 
its aid was not fulfilled. The Sardinian terri- 
ritory, which Count Gyulay had invaded on 
April 29, had soon to be evacuated. The vic- 
tory of the united French and Sardinian ar- 
mies at Magenta, June 4, compelled the Aus- 
trians to abandon also Lombardy and to retire 
upon their famous quadrilateral, Mantua, Ve- 
rona, Peschiera, and Legnago. After a second 
defeat at Solferino, June 24, the Austrians 
deemed it best to make peace with Louis Na- 
poleon. An offer of Prussia to take up arms 
as an ally of Austria, in defence of the treaties 
of 1815, was regarded as unacceptable because 
Prussia insisted on having in this case the chief 
command of all the non- Austrian German con- 
tingents. Austria consented in the preliminary 
peace of Villafranca (July 11), and in the de- 
finitive peace of Zurich (Nov. 10), to the cession 
of Lombardy. Napoleon, to whom the cession 
was made, transferred it in the peace of Zurich 
to Sardinia. The promises made by Sardinia 
that the dethroned dynasties of Tuscany, Mo- 



dena, and Parma should be restored, and that 
the Italian states should form a confederation 
into which Austria should be admitted on ac- 
count of Venetia, were never fulfilled. The 
disastrous issue of the war was followed by 
new convulsions in the interior. Public opin- 
ion seemed generally to be agreed that the 
empire was in an untenable condition, and 
that sweeping reforms were needed. The min- 
isters of foreign affairs and of the interior, 
Count Buol-Schauenstein and Bach, who were 
regarded as the chief representatives of the 
ruling policy, had to resign, but no other 
changes of importance were made. The finan- 
cial troubles again made themselves felt, and a 
new loan of 200,000,000 fl., which was to be 
raised by a national subscription, proved a com- 
plete failure. A first attempt to reorganize 
the administration of the empire was made 
by the imperial patent of March 5, 1860, which 
gave to the Reichsrath a limited right of coop- 
eration in the legislation and in the control of 
the finances. When the Reichsrath, the number 
of whose members had been increased, met in 
June, its majority agreed with the new minister 
of the interior, Count Goluchowski, in advising 
the abandonment of the centralizing and the 
adoption of a federalistic policy. The emperor 
fulfilled this wish by the publication of the im- 
perial diploma of Oct. 20, 1860 (the October- 
Hiplom), which conferred upon the diets of the 
several crown lands the right of legislation on 
all affairs save those expressly reserved for the 
Reichsrath. The latter class embraced only the 
finances of the empire, and the foreign, war, 
and commercial affairs. The Reichsrath was 
in future to consist of 100 members elected 
by the provincial diets, and of the members 
appointed by the emperor. The novel consti- 
tution which Austria was to receive by this 
diploma failed to be acceptable to any party. 
To the Poles of Galicia and the Czechs of Bo- 
hemia, who demanded complete autonomy, it 
did not go far enough in the direction of fed- 
eralism. Hungary insisted on the unconditional 
restoration of its constitution. The German 
liberals demanded, on the one hand, a more 
popular composition of the Reichsrath, and on 
the other, a greater centralization, as the ex- 
cessive rights conferred upon the crown lands 
must in the natural course of development lead 
to a dissolution of the empire. Their argu- 
ments made an impression upon the court ; 
Count Goluchowski was dismissed in Decem- 
ber, 1860, and succeeded by Schmerling, who 
in 1848, as minister of the German empire 
during the regency of the archduke John, had 
acquired the reputation of an able and liberal 
statesman. The imperial patent of Feb. 26, 
1861 (the Februar-Fatent), which soon follow- 
ed the appointment of Schmerling, resumed the 
work of welding all the discordant provinces of 
the polyglot empire into a strongly consolidated, 
truly constitutional monarchy. The Reichsrath, 
which received all the usual rights of parlia- 
ments, was to consist of a Herrenhaus or house 



AUSTRIA 



149 



of lords, and a house of deputies numbering 
343 members. Affairs common to the non- 
Hungarian provinces were to be acted upon 
by the non-Hungarian members as "limited 
Reichsrath " (Engerer ReichraiK). The first 
session of the new Reichsrath (May, 1861) 
was attended by deputies from all the Qerman 
and most of the Slavic provinces ; but Hungary, 
Croatia, Transylvania, and Venetia were not 
represented. All the efforts of the government 
to induce these crown lands to send deputies 
proved fruitless. In Hungary, in particular, 
all parties united for a "passive resistance." 
The Saxons and Roumans of Transylvania 
were prevailed upon in 1863 to take part in 
the Reichsrath ; but soon the Czechs of Bohe- 
mia and Moravia refused a further attendance. 
The proceedings of the Reichsrath did not 
make a favorable impression upon the public 
mind, and the annual deficits continued to swell 
the public debt to a fearful amount. Schmer- 
ling finally saw the impossibility of carrying 
through his plans, and resigned in June, 1865. 
The prominent feature of the foreign pol- 
icy of Austria during the administration of 
Scbmerling was the struggle for her contin- 
ued ascendancy in the German confederation, 
which appeared to be threatened by the 
growing power of Prussia. Schmerling en- 
deavored to secure the admission of all the 
dominions of Austria into the German confed- 
eration and the German Zollverein, but in vain. 
In order to gain the sympathy of the liberals 
throughout Germany, who it was thought had 
been alienated from Prussia by the policy of 
Bismarck, the Austrian government proposed 
a liberal reformation of the federal diet. An 
invitation from the emperor Francis Joseph to 
the German princes and the burgomasters of 
the free cities to assemble in Frankfort on Aug. 
17, 1863, for the discussion of this question, 
was accepted by all those invited except the 
king of Prussia, whose opposition proved suffi- 
cient to foil the plan. Notwithstanding these 
repeated humiliations by Prussian diplomacy, 
the Austrian minister of foreign affairs, Count 
Rechberg, soon after accepted a proposition 
from Prussia that the Schleswig-Holstein diffi- 
culty be regulated by the two great German 
powers, and not, as the national party in Ger- 
many desired, by the federal diet. Austria ac- 
cordingly took part in the Schleswig-Holstein 
war, finally terminated on Oct. 30, 1864, by 
the peace of Vienna, in which Christian IX. of 
Denmark ceded the duchies of Schleswig, Hoi- 
stein, and Lauenburg to the emperor of Aus- 
tria and the king of Prussia. Soon, however, 
the Austrian court became suspicious of the 
Prussian alliance, which not only alienated the 
middle states from Austria, but threatened her 
with new diplomatic humiliations. A falling 
out of the two powers, and even the outbreak 
of hostilities, was seriously feared ; but it was 
for a time averted by the Gastein convention of 
Aug. 14, 1865, according to which Lauenburg 
was incorporated with Prussia, Holstein occu- 



pied by Austrian and Schleswig by Prussian 
troops. Meanwhile the liberal Schmerling 
cabinet had been succeeded by one consist- 
ing of a combination of feudal federalists 
and old conservative Hungarians, with Count 
Belcredi, a Czech, as president. One of the 
first acts of the new ministry was the sus- 
pension of the constitution of February, 1861, 
under the pretext that a new attempt was to 
be made to come to a full understanding with 
Hungary. When the diets of the German and 
Slavic provinces were convoked in November, 
those of Galicia and Bukowina, as well as the 
Czech majority of the Bohemian diet, voted 
addresses of thanks to the emperor ; while all 
the German diets, with the single exception of 
that of Tyrol, which was under the control of 
the "Catholic" party, demanded the recogni- 
tion of the continued legal existence of the 
constitution of February. The Slavs gener- 
ally rallied for the support of the new ministry, 
and the conflict between the Slavic and Ger- 
man nationalities assumed dimensions previous- 
ly unknown. The negotiations with Hungary 
did not have the desired effect. Although the 
emperor on Dec. 14, 1865, opened himself the 
Hungarian diet, and although the Hungarians 
received him and the empress, who soon came 
likewise to Pesth, with unbounded enthusiasm, 
the majority of the diet insisted on greater de- 
mands than the emperor thought it compatible 
with the interests of the dynasty to concede. 
Before an understanding had been arrived at, 
the complications with Prussia reached a crisis. 
The governments of both Austria and Prussia 
were fully aware of the grave dangers connect- 
ed with the solution of the Schleswig-Holstein 
question. Prussia meant to take the duchies 
herself; Austria supported the duke of Au- 
gustenburg. Early in 1866 both began to arm 
and to prepare for war. Austria endeavored 
to recover the sympathy of the middle states 
of Germany ; Prussia, on April 8, concluded a 
defensive and offensive alliance with Italy. 
A motion of Austria in the federal diet of Ger- 
many (June 1, 1866) to have the claim of the 
prince of Augustenburg to Schleswig-Holstein 
decided by the federal diet, was declared by 
Prussia to be a violation of the Gastein con- 
vention. Prussian troops were immediately 
marched into the duchy of Holstein, which the 
Austrian commander, Gen. von Gablenz, yield- 
ing to superior numbers, hastened to evacuate. 
The majority of the federal diet, regarding 
these steps as disloyal demonstrations against 
the authority of the confederation, ordered 
(June 14), on motion of Austria, the mobiliza- 
tion of the entire army of the confederation 
with the exception of the Prussian corps. 
Prussia declared that this decree was a radical 
subversion of the fundamental principle of the 
confederation, and that she now considered the 
original pact as broken. Regarding the resolu- 
tion as a declaration of war on the part of all 
the states which had voted for it, Prussia at once 
began its military operations. Feldzeugmeister 



150 



AUSTRIA 



Benedok was appointed commander-in-cMef of 
the northern and Archduke Albrecht of the 
southern armies of Austria. The Prussians ad- 
vanced with a rapidity for which Austria and 
her allies were not prepared, and the troops 
of the smaller states proved as of old entirely 
inefficient. The Prussian progress through Sax- 
ony was undisputed, and the first serious en- 
counter took place on Austrian soil. The mil- 
itary superiority of the Prussians soon became 
apparent ; one Austrian corps after another was 
beaten, until on July 3 the bulk of their army 
suffered a crushing defeat at Sadowa near Ko- 
niggratz in Bohemia. This victory of Prussia 
filled the army of Austria, as well as the gov- 
ernment and the population, with consterna- 
tion. No halt was made in the retreat, and 
all the provinces north of Vienna were aban- 
doned to the enemy. The government re- 
lieved Benedek of the chief command, which 
was transferred to the archduke Albrecht, 
who in the meanwhile had been entirely suc- 
cessful in the campaign in Venetia, having de- 
feated the Italian army at Custozza (June 24) 
and driven it back across the Mincio. With 
him a part of his army was called to the north- 
ern seat of war. Hoping to detach Italy from 
the alliance with Prussia, the Austrian govern- 
ment had, moreover, on the day after the battle 
of Sadowa, ceded Venetia to Louis Napoleon, 
and requested his friendly mediation for bring- 
ing about peace. Italy declined to follow the 
advice of Napoleon, and, while the Prussians 
marched upon Vienna, again invaded Venetia 
and some districts of Tyrol. A naval victory 
of the Austrian admiral Tegetthoff at the island 
of Lissa (July 20) did not change the general 
prospects of the war, and had no influence 
upon the progress of the peace negotiations, 
which through the mediation of France had 
began at Nikolsburg. A preliminary peace 
was concluded on July 26, which on Aug. 23 
was followed by the definitive peace of Prague. 
Austria consented to the establishment of the 
North German confederation under the lead- 
ership of Prussia, and to the incorporation of 
Hanover, Hesse-Oassel, Nassau, Frankfort, and 
Schleswig-Holstein with the Prussian domin- 
ions. Between Austria and Italy a truce was 
concluded on Aug. 12, and a definitive peace on 
Oct. 3 at Vienna. Austria recognized the union 
of Venetia, which Napoleon had ceded to Vic- 
tor Emanuel, as well as of Lombardy with the 
kingdom of Italy, while the Italian govern- 
ment agreed to assume the debt of Lombardy 
and Venetia, and 35,000,000 florins of the gen- 
eral Austrian debt, and also promised to re- 
store to the dethroned princes of Tuscany and 
Modena, who were relatives of Francis Jo- 
seph, their private movable and immovable 
property. Count Mensdorflf, the minister of 
foreign affairs, and Count Maurice Esterhazy, 
who was believed to be the chief adviser of the 
emperor, resigned their places in the ministry 
on Oct. 30. Mensdorff was succeeded by Baron 
Beust, who, as the representative of Saxony 



in the federal diet, had gained the reputa- 
tion of being the ablest opponent of the Prus- 
sian policy among the statesmen of the middle 
states. Beust soon submitted a novel plan for 
the reconstruction of Austria. He was as much 
opposed to the centralism of Schmerling as to 
the feudal federalism of Belcredi, and in the 
place of both recommended a strictly dualistic 
basis as the best remedy for the evils which 
had brought Austria to the Lrink of an un- 
fathomable abyss. As the hope of Belcredi 
and his old conservative Hungarian friends to 
effect a reconciliation with Hungary was dis- 
appointed, Beust found a favorable hearing for 
his ideas. The main point of his programme 
was a lasting reconciliation with Hungary, 
and to that end the adoption of the proposi- 
tions which Deak, the recognized leader of 
the majority of the Hungarian diet, had 
made to Belcredi. Beust advised the em- 
peror to appoint at once a Hungarian minis- 
try, and to obtain through it the consent of 
the Hungarian diet to the draft of the agree- 
ment between Cisleithan and Transleithan 
Austria, as proposed by Deak ; to call then, in 
accordance with the constitution of February, 
1861, a meeting of the "limited Keichsrath" 
of Cisleithania, lay before it the agreement 
with Hungary as an accomplished fact, and to 
propose to it such changes in the constitution 
of February as the concession made to Hungary 
would require. The advice was accepted; 
Belcredi resigned, and on Feb. 7, 1867, Beust 
was appointed prime minister. Within one 
month the most important points had been 
settled. Hungary abandoned the idea of a 
purely "personal union," and agreed to have 
the army and the foreign affairs in common 
with Cisleithania; it also promised a revision 
of the laws of 1848. On the other hand, the 
subordination of Croatia to the Hungarian 
ministry and the reincorporation of Transylva- 
nia with Hungary were readily conceded. The 
Hungarians were notified of the accomplished 
agreement and of the appointment of a respon- 
sible Hungarian ministry, of which Count Ju- 
lius Andrassy was the president, by rescripts 
dated Feb. 17, 1867, and signed by Francis 
Joseph as "king of Hungary." On the next 
day, Feb. 18, the provincial diets of all the 
German and Slavic crown lands were opened. 
The German diets generally declared them- 
selves satisfied with the settlement of the Hun- 
garian question ; most of the Slavic diets showed 
themselves at least not irreconcilable ; but the 
Czechs of Bohemia so violently opposed the 
projects of the government that the Bohemian 
diet had to be dissolved. The Czech leaders 
were so incensed at the new turn of Austrian 
politics that they used the so-called ethnograph- 
ical exhibition at Moscow (May, 1867) as a wel- 
come occasion for an ostentatious display of 
Panslavistic tendencies. The Reichsrath of the 
German and Slavic provinces, which was opened 
on May 22, 1867, formally approved the agree- 
ment concluded with Hungary, but at the 



AUSTRIA 



151 



same time declared that the Cisleithan prov- 
inces would not be fully satisfied until they 
should receive the same guarantee of their 
constitutional rights which had been given to 
the Hungarians. The majority of the Reichs- 
rath demanded, in particular, a revision of the 
concordat, which in the opinion of the fcberal 
party gave to the pope and the bishops privi- 
leges not compatible with a constitutional mon- 
archy. The numerous manifestations for and 
against a revision of the concordat produced 
a profound agitation ; but, though Beust un- 
mistakably leaned toward the side of the lib- 
erals, he prevented definite action on the sub- 
ject. On June 8 Francis Joseph was solemnly 
crowned as constitutional king of Hungary in 
the ancient capital, Buda. The relations with 
foreign powers remained peaceful ; neither the 
publication of the secret treaties which Prussia 
after the peace of Prague had concluded with 
the south German states, nor the visit of the 
French emperor (August, 1867) at Salzburg, 
who desired to bring about an anti-Prussian 
alliance, could shake Beust's conviction that 
the preservation of peace was indispensably 
necessary for completing the work of reorgan- 
ization at home. The greatest difficulty in the 
negotiations between the two delegations which 
had been appointed by the Keichsrath and by 
the Hungarian diet for regulating the relations 
between the two great divisions of the empire, 
was the proportionate distribution among them 
of the expenditures for the common affairs of 
the empire and of the public debt. The agree- 
ment finally arrived at, according to which 70 
per cent, of the expenditures anil debt was to 
be borne by the Cisleithan provinces, and 30 
per cent, by Hungary, met with a strong op- 
position in the Reichsrath, as it was regarded 
to be too partial to Hungary ; hut the convic- 
tion that a full understanding with Hungary 
was necessary for the definite reconstruction 
of Cisleithan Austria upon a constitutional 
basis outweighed all other considerations, and 
in December, 1867, all the propositions of the 
two delegations were agreed to. Both houses 
of the Reichsrath in the meanwhile (the lower 
house on Oct. 17, the upper on Dec. 2) had 
adopted four fundamental laws of the state 
(Staatsgrundgesetze), which in many points 
modified the constitution of February, 1861, 
and secured to the Cisleithan provinces a truly 
constitutional form of government. The laws 
were sanctioned by the emperor on Dec. 21 ; 
and then the reconstitution of the empire on 
the dualistic basis of a division into Cisleithan 
and Transleithan provinces was completed. 
On Dec. 24 the emperor appointed an impe- 
rial ministry (ReichsrninMerium) for the com- 
mon affairs of the empire, consisting of Count 
Beust as minister of foreign affairs, Herr von 
Becke as minister of finance, and Gen. von 
John as minister of war. The first ministry 
of Cisleithania was announced in the official 
gazette of Vienna on Jan. 1, 1868. Prince 
Carlos Auersperg was its president, and among 



its members it counted some of the prominent 
leaders of the liberal party in the Reichsrath, 
such as Dr. Giskra, minister of the interior, 
Dr. Herbst, minister of justice, and Dr. Bres- 
tel, minister of finance. Beust, upon whom 
the emperor in recognition of his services had 
conferred the titles of count and chancellor 
of the empire, remained for nearly four years 
(December, 1867, to November, 1871) at the 
helm of the foreign affairs of the empire. 
During all this time the peaceable relations 
with other powers were not disturbed, and 
Beust gained at home and abroad the reputa- 
tion of being one of the ablest statesmen of 
Europe. In July, 1870, the peaceable policy 
of Austria was put to a severe test by the out- 
break of the war between France and Ger- 
many. The ministry of the empire, whose 
meetings at this time were also attended by 
the prime ministers of Cisleithania and Hun- 
gary, and presided over by the emperor, de- 
clared on July 18 in favor of an attentive neu- 
trality, which, as Beust explained, did not ex- 
clude the duty of watching for the safety of 
the monarchy, and of providing against all 
possible dangers. The continuance of peace 
enabled the ministers of Cisleithania and of 
Hungary to devote their whole attention to 
internal reforms. One of the first acts of the 
Cisleithan ministers was to demand from all 
public officers an oath to support the constitu- 
tion. The gaps which still existed in the con- 
stitution were gradually filled up. A law on 
the responsibility of the ministry was adopted 
by a large majority of both houses. The mili- 
tary offices which had been directly dependent 
upon the emperor were abolished. Thus the 
archduke Albrecht was relieved from the chief 
command of the army, and as inspector of the 
standing army placed under the minister of 
war. The command of the navy was taken 
from Archduke Rainer and conferred upon 
Admiral Tegetthoff. One of the most impor- 
tant reforms was the reorganization of the army 
on a basis substantially identical with that of 
the military organization of Prussia. The law, 
which passed the house of deputies by the large 
majority of 118 votes against 29 (Nov. 18, 1868), 
provided in particular for a general liability of 
all classes of the people to military service, 
and regulated the appointment to military 
offices. The financial condition of the empire 
steadily improved, and although the annual 
budgets were not yet free from deficits, the 
productivity and taxability of the country so 
rapidly advanced as to diffuse everywhere 
new confidence in the financial future of the 
empire. But in spite of so much that looked 
encouraging, two great conflicts never ceased 
to darken the horizon of Cisleithan Austria. 
One of these concerned the regulation of the 
religious and school affairs. On May 25, 1868, 
the government sanctioned three laws adopted 
by both houses of the Reichsrath, which, in 
accordance with the views of the liberal party, 
abolished the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical 



152 



AUSTRIA 



courts over the marriage relations of Catholics, 
transferred the supreme direction and superin- 
tendence of the entire department of instruction 
and education to the state, and regulated the 
relations of the churches recognized hy the state 
on the basis of equal rights. The papal nuncio 
in Vienna protested against these laws as a vio- 
lation of the concordat, and the pope declared 
them to be null and void ; but the government, 
while endeavoring to conciliate the bishops as 
much as possible, carried them through. An- 
other important victory was gained by the lib- 
eral party in 1870, when the government declar- 
ed the concordat of 1855 to be no longer valid. 
Still more important than this religious conflict 
was that between the different nationalities 
represented in the Eeichsrath. The Czechs of 
Bohemia and Moravia demanded for the lands 
of "the crown of St. Wenceslas," by which 
they understood the provinces of Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Silesia, an autonomy equal or at 
least similar to that of Hungary, and including 
in particular a Czech parliament in the place 
of Czech deputies to the Vienna Reichsrath. 
The Silesian diet almost unanimously protested 
against these schemes; but in Bohemia and 
Moravia the Czech population gave them an 
enthusiastic support. As the Germans in 
1868 controlled the diets of both Bohemia and 
Moravia, the Czech members in August re- 
signed their seats, and presented to the presi- 
dents of the diets a declaration fully setting 
forth their views and plans. At the new 
election for the Bohemian diet all the 81 
signers of the declaration, with but one ex- 
ception, were reflected. They again refused 
to attend the diet convoked in September, 
1869, as the German members were again in 
. the majority. The Vienna government was 
willing to enter into negotiations with the 
Czechs; but the leaders of the latter, Rieger 
and Sladkowsky, declined to attend the con- 
ference which had been proposed by Giskra, 
and the representatives of the Czech nation- 
ality whom Count Potocki in April, 1870, 
called to Vienna, were equally unwilling to 
make any concessions. The success of Hun- 
gary and the Czech agitation strengthened the 
hope of the Poles of Galicia that they also 
might be able to obtain for the Polish parts of 
the empire an autonomy like that of Hungary, 
and that thus Galicia might become the nucleus 
of a restored Polish realm. Accordingly the 
diet, on Sept. 16, 1868, resolved to petition the 
emperor to give to the former kingdoms of Ga- 
licia and Lodomeria and to the grand duchy 
of Cracow a separate government, under the 
direction of a chancellor or special minister, 
who should be responsible to the diet. When 
the committee of the Vienna Reichstag de- 
clared the Polish demands to be inadmissible, 
the Polish members of the Reichsrath resigned, 
and their example was soon followed by the 
majority of all the Slavic deputies. An insurrec- 
tion which in October, 1869, broke out in the 
Slavic province of Dalmatia, in the district of 



Cattaro, had no connection with the nation- 
ality movements. The people of this district, 
which is separated from the remainder of Dal- 
matia by a high mountain ridge, and who num- 
ber only 30,000 souls, had formerly been ex- 
empt from military service, and therefore made 
a forcible resistance to an attempt to enroll 
them, in accordance with the new military law, 
in the landwehr. After several bloody encoun- 
ters, in which the imperial troops suffered se- 
vere losses, the insurgents submitted in Jan- 
uary, 1870, when several concessions were 
made to them. In view of the alarming dimen- 
sions which the nationality conflicts assumed, 
the members of the Cisleithan ministry were 
themselves divided in their opinion as to the 
best policy to be pursued. The majority, to 
which the ministers Plener, Giskra, Herbst, 
Hasner, and Brestel belonged, were unwilling to 
make further concessions to the Czechs, Poles, 
and other non-German nationalities, and de- 
sired to strengthen the authority of the central 
Reichsrath by a reform of the electoral law. 
The three other ministers, Taafe, Berger, and 
Potocki, favored concessions to the nationali- 
ties and to federalism. As the majority of 
both houses of the Reichsrath, which was 
opened on Dec. 13, 1869, sympathized with the 
majority of the ministry, the emperor in Jan- 
uary, 1870, accepted the resignation of the 
minority. Soon, however, when the emperor 
refused to sanction several measures pro- 
posed by the new ministry which had been 
formed by Plener, a new ministerial crisis oc- 
curred, and Count Potocki was on April 4 
commissioned to form another ministry. The 
overtures made by Count Potocki to the leaders 
of the Czechs and Poles, and the dissolution of 
the Reichsrath (May 23) and all the diets, pro- 
duced an immense agitation, but the further 
development of the conflict was adjourned by 
the outbreak of the Franco-German war. The 
German centralists were not only dissatisfied 
with the cabinet of Potocki, but also with the 
chancellor, Count Beust, whom they likewise 
charged with making undue concessions to the 
nationalities. After the outbreak of the Fran- 
co-German war, the Austrian government gave 
new offence to the German Austrians hy check- 
ing their enthusiastic demonstrations of sympa- 
thy with the cause of Germany. The Czechs 
and the Poles, on the other hand, made dem- 
onstrations in favor of France ; and the leader 
of the Czechs, Dr. Rieger, even went so far as 
to make Napoleon a direct offer of an alliance 
between France and the Czechs, on condition 
that Napoleon should aid the Czechs in restor- 
ing the independent kingdom of Bohemia. 
The new kingdom was at once to embrace the 
Austrian provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and 
Austrian Silesia, to which subsequently Prus- 
sian Silesia, Lusatia, and the Slovak districts 
of northern Hungary were to be added. In 
the new Reichsrath, which was opened on 
Sept. 5, the German liberals again controlled 
a majority of both houses. The provincial 



AUSTRIA 



153 



diet of Bohemia, however, in which the united 
Czechs and federalists had a majority, declined 
to elect delegates to the Reichsrath. Although 
an imperial rescript of Sept. 29 made, in reply 
to an address from a Czech deputation of the 
Bohemian diet, promises of large concessions, 
such as the coronation of the Austrian emeerors 
with the Bohemian crown and the indivisibility 
of the country, the Czechs persisted in their 
refusal. The government then ordered direct 
elections, hy which 24 Germans and liberals 
and 36 adherents of the " declaration " were 
deputed to Vienna. The latter at once resigned 
their seats ; but as both houses of the Reichs- 
rath had a quorum, they soon passed a resolu- 
tion declaring want of confidence in the minis- 
try, which consequently tendered its resigna- 
tion on Nov. 23. The emperor accepted the 
resignation, but the formation of a new cabinet 
was not accomplished until the beginning of 
the year 1871. The Czech leaders on Dec. 8 
addressed, in the name of the " political na- 
tion of the Bohemians," a memoir to the Aus- 
trian chancellor, in which they explained their 
views on the foreign policy of Austria, and in 
particular declared their sympathy with Rus- 
sia in the eastern question. On Dec. 14 the 
chancellor returned the memoir, informing the 
Czechs that the expression of such views ex- 
ceeded their rights. On the other hand, a 
diplomatic correspondence of the most friendly 
character was begun in December with the 
government of Prussia, Austria waiving all op- 
position to the reconstruction of the German 
empire under the leadership of Prussia. The 
expected reorganization of the' ministry took 
place on Feb. 7, 1871, under the presidency of 
Count Hohenwart. The new ministry leaned 
on the support of the Slavs and the feudal and 
Catholic parties. The Reichsrath declared it- 
self dissatisfied with the policy of making con- 
cessions to the nationalities, but the emperor 
in stern words declared his approval. The 
majority of the Reichsrath, being divided in 
their opinions as to the best policy now to be 
pursued, granted the appropriations demanded 
by the ministry, and found some consolation 
in the fact that Chancellor Beust in the Ger- 
man as well as the Roman questions appeared 
to sympathize with the liberals. On the ad- 
journment of the Reichsrath, on July 11, Count 
Hohenwart made some important concessions 
to the Czechs and the Poles. The latter ap- 
peared to be contented ; but the Czechs insist- 
ed on the adoption of the whole of their de- 
mands. In August the ministry dissolved all 
the provincial diets in which the German cen- 
tralists had a majority, and ordered new elec- 
tions for the Reichsrath. The result gave to 
Count Hohenwart the assurance that now all 
the demands of the Czechs would be substan- 
tially granted, and the constitution as far as 
necessary be altered by the new Reichsrath. 
An imperial rescript to the Bohemian diet, 
which acknowledged " the rights of the Bohe- 
mian kingdom," caused unbounded enthusiasm 



among the Czechs. A deputation from the 
Bohemian diet officially presented in Vienna 
the fundamental laws on which they desired 
the Ausgleich (agreement) to be based. This 
presentation brought on a new crisis. A crown 
council, composed of the Cisleithan ministers, 
the ministers common to the whole empire, and 
Count Andrassy, was called to advise the em- 
peror. Both Count Beust and Count Andrassy 
so energetically opposed the policy of Hohen- 
wart that the emperor took sides with them. 
As the Czech leaders refused to consent to any 
modification of their programme, Hohenwart 
resigned on Oct. 25. A month later a new 
Cisleithan cabinet favorable to the German cen- 
tralists was appointed, under the presidency 
of Prince Adolph Auersperg. Again the diets 
opposed to the new ministry were dissolved and 
new elections for the Reichsrath ordered ; and 
again the ministry succeeded in securing a min- 
isterial majority in the new Reichsrath. The 
speech with which the emperor on Dec. 27 
opened the Reichsrath announced that the 
government would accede to the wishes of Ga- 
licia in so far as they were compatible with the 
interests of the empire, and that measures 
would be taken to make the Reichsrath a com- 
pletely representative body. On Feb. 20, 1872, 
the ministry and constitutional party ( Verfas- 
sungspartei) gained a great triumph, as the 
Reichsrath by 104 against 49 votes adopted an 
additional clause to the electoral law which 
authorized the government to order direct elec- 
tions if delegates elected by provincial diets 
should resign their seats or be prevented from 
entering the Reichsrath. Another great tri- 
umph was obtained by the ministry in Bohemia, 
where it controlled a considerable majority in 
the new provincial diet. Of the 54 delegates 
whom the new diet sent to the Reichsrath, 40 
were supporters of the ministry, which could 
now rely on a two-thirds majority in the Reichs- 
rath even if the Poles should not vote for it. 
The session of the diet was closed on June 
23. The two great reforms, the introduction 
of which had been regarded as the chief task 
of the ministry, the substitution of direct elec- 
tion to the Reichsrath for the indirect election 
of the delegates by the provincial diets, and the 
Ausyleich (agreement) with the Poles, were 
not yet carried through. The ministry offered 
to the Poles far-reaching concessions, but at 
the same time declared that nothing would be 
conceded incompatible with the dualistic basis 
of the entire empire. The Poles in turn prom- 
ised that in their struggle for an autonomy like 
that of Hungary they would keep within the 
hounds of the present constitution of the em- 
pire. (See GALIOIA, and HUNGARY.) Among 
the best historical works on Austria are Mai- 
lath, ffeschichte des osterreichiseJien Kaiser- 
stoats (5 vols., Hamburg, 1834-'50) ; Lichnow 
sky, Geschiehte des JTauses Habsburg (8 vols., 
Vienna, 1836-'44) ; Springer, Geschichte Oes- 
terreichs seit dem Wiener Frieden (2 vols., 
Leipsic, 1864-'5); Bidermann, Geschichte der 



154 



AUSTRIA 



ditreichUcJien GesammUtaatsidee (vol. i., Inn- 
spruck, 1867); Rogge, Von Vilagos lis zur 
Gegenwart (vol. i., Leipsic, 1872); Archm fur 
Kunde der osterreichischen Gesehichtsguellen 
(published by the Vienna academy of science, 
vols. i. to xliv., Vienna, 1848-71). 

AUSTRIA, an archduchy in the western half 
of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, bounded 
N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, 
' 8. by Styria and Salzburg, and W. by Salzburg 
and Bavaria; area, 12,288 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
2,736,224. It is divided into two provinces or 
crown lands Upper Austria (Oestreicli oft der 
Enni) in the west, and Lower Austria (Oest- 
reich unter der Enni) in the east, the river Enns 
forming part of the boundary between them. 
UPPEE AUSTHIA has an area of 4,633 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 735,622. The principal rivers 
are the Danube, which divides the province 
into two portions, the Enns, the Traun, and the 
Inn, tributaries of the Danube, and the Salz- 
ach, which flows into the Inn. In the S. W. 
are numerous Alpine lakes, some of them of 
considerable size. Mineral springs are found 
in various parts of the province, but few of 
them are of great value. The surface is moun- 
tainous. S. of the Danube the Noric Alps 
overspread the country, rising, in the group 
near Hallstadt, to the height of more than 
9,500 ft. N. of the Danube the mountain sys- 
tem of Bohemia extends into the province, but 
attains no considerable altitude. The soil is 
exceedingly fertile in the valleys of the Danube 
and its tributaries, but elsewhere stony and 
dry. Even on the mountain slopes, however, 
the inhabitants have made it productive. The 
climate is bracing and cool, from the moun- 
tainous nature of the country. Agriculture 
and cattle-breeding are the principal occupa- 
tions of the people. The salt works at Ischl 
and Hallstadt furnish an important industry, 
but the manufactures are not extensive, and 
consist chiefly of iron articles and cotton goods. 
Capital, Linz. LOWEE AUSTRIA has an area 
of 7,655 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 2,000,602. The 
principal rivers are the Danube, Enns, Leitha, 
Krems, March, and Thaya. The S. portion is 
occupied by a part of the Koric Alps, with 
their branches; the chief of these are the 
groups of the Wienerwald or Kahlengeberg, a 
spur of which, the Schneeberg, is 6,760 ft. above 
the sea. N. of the Danube chains of hills ex- 
tend into the country from Bohemia, but there 
are no considerable peaks. The valley of the 
Danube is here broad and fertile, and the 
smaller valleys of its tributaries, especially in 
the northern part of the province, also furnish 
large tracts of arable land. The climate is 
somewhat warmer than that of Upper Austria. 
Agriculture is not carried to the perfection 
attained in that province ; but the manufac- 
tures are much more numerous and flourishing. 
They include machines of many kinds, car- 
riages, wagons, optical, musical, and mathe- 
matical instruments, metal wares, articles of 
leather work, silk, woollen, and cotton goods. 



AUTOLYCUS 

Most of these are carried on in the neighbor- 
hood of Vienna. The province is intersected by 
several lines of railway, and there is a brisk trade 
with the neighboring states. Capital, Vienna. 
The archduchy of Austria was the nucleus 
around which the empire of Austria (now the 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy) grew up. Lower 
Austria was founded as a margraviate in the 
time of Charlemagne; in 1156, joined with 
Upper Austria, it became a duchy, and in 1453 
an archduchy. From this time the Hapsburgs 
steadily added to its territory, and it was soon 
merged in their increasing possessions. 

U s I Ito-lll M. AIUA> MONARCHY. See Aus- 

TEIA. 

Al'TAI'CA, a central county of Alabama, 
bounded S. by the Alabama river ; area, about 
650 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,623, of whom 
7,292 were colored. The Selma, Rome, and 
Dalton, and South and North Alabama rail- 
roads pass through the county. The surface 
is uneven and the soil fertile. In 1870 the 
county produced 191,158 bushels of Indian 
corn, 36,660 of sweet potatoes, and 7,965 bales 
of cotton. There were two cotton factories and 
a cotton gin factory, producing articles to the 
value of $681,733. Capital, Kingston. 

AITIIK.YI'K'S, a Latin translation of the No- 
vella of Justinian, so called by early writers 
from its being a literal translation of the origi- 
nal. The term was afterward applied to ex- 
tracts of decisions from the Novella by which 
previous decisions or definitions contained in 
the Pandects or the Codex were modified or 
set aside. These extracts were made by doc- 
tors of the law and inserted in the Corpus 
Juris, but had no authority. The German 
emperors Frederick II. and III. issued in their 
names authentics, and ordered the civilians of 
Bologna to intercalate them in the code of Jus- 
tinian. These last had a practical authority. 

AUTO DA Fl (Port., act of faith; Span., auto 
de fe), a public, day held by the inquisition for 
the punishment of heretics and the absolution of 
the innocent accused. The term is also applied 
to the sentence of the inquisition read to the con- 
demned just before execution, and to the session 
of the court of inquisition. (See INQUISITION.) 

AtTOLYCCS. I. In Greek legend, a son of 
Mercury and Chione, father of Anticlea, and 
thus maternal grandfather of Ulysses, who 
spent part of his youth at his residence on Mt. 
Parnassus. He was renowned for his cunning 
as a robber and a liar, and possessed the pow- 
er of metamorphosing both himself and the 
things stolen. But Sisyphus overmatched him 
in cunning ; for Autolycus having stolen his 
sheep and transformed them, he identified 
them by marks which he had made under their 
feet and compelled him to restore them. II. 
A mathematician of Pitane in .lEolis, lived 
about 350 B. C. His treatises on the " Motion 
of the Sphere " and on the " Risings and Set- 
tings of the Fixed Stars " are the oldest extant 
Greek works on mathematics. Three MSS. of 
each exist at Oxford, but no complete edition 



AUTOMATON 



155 



has been published. A Latin translation ap- 
peared at Rome in 1587-'8 ; and a full account 
of them is given by Delambre in his HMoire 
de Pastronomie ancienne. 

AUTOMATON (Gr. airrff, self, and fideiv, to 
move), a self-moving machine, or one which 
contains within itself the moving power. This 
description would make the term applicable 
to watches, musical boxes, &c., but it is gen- 
erally used to designate only those machines 
which are made to imitate the motions of men 
and animals. Those constructed to imitate men 
are sometimes called androides. Probably the 
earliest allusion to self-moving machines in his- 
tory is to the tripods moved on living wheels, 
and instinct with life, which Homer describes 
Vulcan as having contrived. Then come the 
walking statues, female dancers, and wooden 
cow of Dredalus, whose invention appears to 
have been wonderfully prolific in automatons. 
Archytas constructed his wonderful dove 400 
years before Christ. In later times we have 
Friar Bacon's brazen head which spoke, and 
the eagle and iron fly of Regiomontanus, the 
former of which is said to have flown from the 
city, saluted the emperor, and returned; and 
the latter after flying round the room returned 
to its master. But the love of the marvellous 
has no doubt greatly improved upon the feats 
of the earlier inventors. The first androides 
which acquired any celebrity was made by Al- 
bertus Magnus, in the 13th century; it moved 
like a man and even spoke. Thomas Aquinas 
is said to have been so alarmed by it, that he 
broke it in pieces with his staff, to the great 
grief of the unfortunate inventor, who exclaim- 
ed that he had destroyed the work of 30 years. 
Another similar invention of Descartes, which 
he named his daughter Francina, shared a sim- 
ilar fate ; the captain of a vessel on board of 
which it was placed, thinking the devil must 
be in a machine that moved so like a human 
being, had it thrown overboard. Charlemagne 
received from Haroun al-Rashid a present of a 
water clock, in the dial of which a door opened 
at each hour, and when at noon the 12 doors 
were all thrown open, as many knights on 
horseback issued out, paraded round the dial, 
and then returning shut themselves in again. 
Similar contrivances are still extant in some 
ancient European cities, as Nuremberg in Ger- 
many and Heusden in Holland. A very amus- 
ing automaton group was constructed by M. 
Comus for Louis XIV., consisting of a coach 
and horses, a coachman, a page, and a lady in- 
side. The figures all performed their appro- 
priate parts ; the coach was driven up to the 
king and stopped, and the lady, let out by the 
page, presented a petition, and rentering the 
carriage was driven off. Next to Daedalus, 
Vaucanson, who lived in Paris in the early 
part of the last century, appears to have been 
possessed of the greatest skill in this depart- 
ment. He exhibited in 1738 a flageolet and 
tambourine player, which is probably the most 
perfect androides ever constructed, as his duck 



is no doubt the most perfect automaton. It 
played the flageolet with the left hand and 
beat the tambourine with the right, executing 
many pieces of music with wonderful accuracy. 
He also exhibited a duck in 1741, which moved, 
ate, drank, and even apparently digested and 
evacuated its food like a live duck. The figure 
would stretch out its neck to take food from 
the hand, and then would swallow it with the 
natural avidity of a duck, even the motion of 
the muscles of the neck being perceptible. It 
would rise up on its feet, walk, swim, dabble 
in the water, and quack, wonderfully imitating 
the natural actions of the duck. In its mecha- 
nism it was constructed in many parts as in 
the wings as nearly like those parts of the 
bird as possible. Vaucanson undertook, near 
the close of his life, to construct an automaton 
which would display all the mechanism of the 
circulation of the blood, the veins and arteries 
in which were to be of gum elastic ; but the 
art of working this material was not then well 
understood, and there being long delay in the 
arrival of an anatomist sent by the king to 
attend to the work, Vaucanson became dis- 
couraged and gave it up. A father and son 
named Droz had the same remarkable talent. 
The former made a figure of a child, which sat 
at a desk, dipped its pen in the ink, and wrote 
in French. The latter, born in 1752, went to 
Paris at the age of 22 with a female figure 
which played different tunes on the harpsichord, 
following with its eyes and head the notes in 
the music book, and rising at the close and 
saluting the company. About the same time 
the abb6 Mical made several automaton fig- 
ures, some in a group, which played different 
instruments of music. He also exhibited at the 
academy of sciences two heads, which articu- 
lated syllables. Malzel in the early part of the 
present century exhibited a famous automaton 
trumpeter at Vienna, which played many of the 
French and Austrian marches, and for many 
years afterward was exhibited by a travelling 
troupe in most of the cities of Europe. Still 
later is the automaton of the ingenious Swiss 
mechanic Maillardet, a female figure that per- 
forms 18 tunes on the piano, with the natural 
movements of the fingers and eyes and heaving 
of the bosom. It continues in action for an hour. 
With it are an automaton magician ; a boy that 
writes and draws ; a little dancing figure that 
moves to music from the glass case it is in ; a 
humming bird that comes out of a box, sings, 
and returns ; a steel spider ; and a hissing ser- 
pent. Kempelen's automaton chess-player was 
no true automaton, but constructed to contain 
a person, by whose intelligence the movements 
were controlled and the game played. The 
doors of the machine were opened apparently 
to expose the whole interior ; but they were 
never all opened at the same time. A person 
could thus move from one part of the interior 
to another, keeping himself concealed. Such 
a one, known to be a skilful chess-player, trav- 
elled with the exhibition, and was never seen 



156 



AUTOPLASTY 



AUTUN 



during the continuance of the game. A very 
ingenious automaton clarinet player was made 
by Van Oeckelen in Holland, and exhibited in 
New York about 1860. It performed operatic 
and classical selections, with accompaniment 
of other instruments played by living perform- 
ers; it took the instrument from its mouth, 
moved its head and eyes, and bowed before the 
audience. It was wound up like a clock, and a 
drum, like that of a hand organ, was placed in 
its chest, a different one for every piece of 
music. The most perfect and latest is perhaps 
the speaking automaton of Faberman of Vien- 
na, exhibited in New York in 1872. It is the 
result of a thorough physiological study of the 
human organs of speech, and their close imita- 
tion by the materials and mechanical arts of 
the present day. As these contrivances have 
no practical utility, serving only to display the 
ingenuity of the maker, their construction in 
the United States is confined to children's toys. 
AUTOPLASTY (Gr. avrtf, self, and vMaaeiv, to 
shape or form), a surgical operation by which 
the nose or other superficial portion of the 
body, being destroyed by accident or by dis- 
ease, may be renewed or replaced by a portion 
of skin taken from another part of the same 
body. This art is said to have been practised 
in India from time immemorial. It was a cus- 
tom to punish crime by cutting off the nose, or 
the lips, or the ears of the criminal ; and for a 
time the parts were immediately replaced and 
found to grow again. To prevent this the ex- 
cised parts were destroyed by fire ; but the fact 
of the natural part adhering after it had been 
excised, and healing as a common wound, sug- 
gested the idea that a portion of skin removed 
from any other part of the body, and applied 
immediately to the mutilated part, might heal 
and become a natural substitute for the part re- 
moved. When the nose was cut off by the ex- 
ecutioner, the surgeon cut a triangular portion 
of skin from the forehead, leaving it still attach- 
ed by a small pedicle over the root of the nose, 
and, twisting it round, reversed it over the na- 
sal region to supply the place of the nose which 
had been cut off. The skin adhered and the 
deformity was lessened, but a scar remained 
upon the forehead where the skin had been 
removed. This method was adopted in other 
countries, where the nose, the eyelids, or any 
portion of the face had been injured by accident 
or by disease. Celsus speaks of nasal and labial 
autoplasty. In the 15th century this art was 
practised in Calabria by the Branca family of 
surgeons, who introduced the practice of taking 
a portion of skin from the arm to replace a de- 
formity in the face, instead of turning over a 
piece of skin from the immediate neighborhood 
of the part repaired, leaving a scar close by al- 
most as bad as the original deformity. In the 
following century Lanfranc, an Italian surgeon, 
practised the art of nasal autoplasty with suc- 
cess in Paris ; and the celebrated Gasparo Ta- 
gliacozzi (Taliacotius) practised the same art in 
Italy, and wrote his work on the art of autoplas- 



tic surgery, which is still in good repute. The 
last-named surgeon improved the operation to 
such an extent, and did so much to bring it 
permanently into recognition, that the restora- 
tion of the nose or other lost parts, when per- 
formed according to his method, received his 
name, and became known as the " Taliacotian 
operation." In the beginning of the present 
century this art was revived by the celebrated 
English surgeon Carpue, and has been much 
improved by Grafe, Dzondi, Delpech, Cooper, 
Dupuytren, Roux, Lisfranc, Blandin, Velpeau, 
Lallemand, Dieffenbach, and other celebrated 
surgeons of the present time. New methods 
have been introduced, and almost any superfi- 
cial portion of the body may be now repaired 
by autoplastio surgery. Three methods are 
adopted, the Indian, the Italian, and the 
French, and one or the other is preferred ac- 
cording to the parts involved. The Indian 
method, already described, consists in turning 
over a contiguous portion of skin to repair the 
deformity ; the Italian method consists in tak- 
ing a portion of skin from the arm, or from a 
distant portion of the body ; the French meth- 
od consists in loosening the skin on either side 
of the injury, so as to detach it from the parts 
beneath, drawing it together until it covers 
the lost part, and then uniting the borders, by 
suture pins and ligatures, until the parts ad- 
here and grow together. This is far the best 
wherever it is practicable. The resources of 
this art are now very considerable, but skill is 
required to operate well, and judgment to de- 
cide whether it will be practically useful ; for, 
where the general health of the patient is unfa- 
vorable, the operation may be unadvisable. 
Different names are given to the operation, ac- 
cording to the parts repaired by this method : 
it is termed " blepharoplasty " when applied to 
the eyelids ; " otoplasty " when applied to the 
ears ; " rhinoplasty " when applied to the nose ; 
" cheiloplasty " in reference to the lips ; " pal- 
atoplasty " for the roof of the mouth ; and 
" bronchoplasty " for the trachea. 

AUTUMN (Lat. autummts), the third season 
of the year. In the northern temperate zone 
it begins when the sun in its apparent de- 
scent to the southern hemisphere crosses the 
equatorial line, and ends at the period of the 
sun's greatest southern declination, or when 
he enters Capricorn. This astronomical au- 
tumn begins about Sept. 23, and lasts till about 
Dec. 21. But in popular language in the Uni- 
ted States autumn comprises the months of 
September, October, and November; in Eng- 
land, August, September, and October. In the 
southern hemisphere, the autumn takes place 
at the time of our spring. 

AUTUN (anc. Hibracte, afterward Avgmtodu- 
num), a town of France, in Burgundy, depart- 
ment of Sa6ne-et-Loire, on the Arroux, 50 m. N. 
N. W. of Macon; pop. in I860, 12,389. It lies 
at the foot of a range of well wooded hills ; the 
surrounding country is rich in vineyards and 
corn fields. The town contains many antiqui- 



AUVERGNE 



AUZOUX 



157 



ties. Massive and curious fragments of the 
ancient Roman walls still stand ; also tlie so- 
called temple of Janus, of imposing proportions 
and solidity. Besides these there are two cu- 
rious Roman gates, the remains of an amphi- 
theatre, and just without the gate a pyramidal 
mass of architecture, built probably for,sepul- 
chral purposes, but in whose honor antiquaries 
are in doubt. The town contains several fine 
specimens of church architecture, among them 
the cathedral of St. Lazare, Romanesque in 
style, and the chapelle St. Nazarre, interesting 
for its richly painted glass. Near Autun are 
the valuable coal basins of Epinac and Creuzot. 
The episcopal see of this city was once held 
by Talleyrand. The town figures in the his- 
tory of Gaul as the capital of the ^Edui. Un- 
der the Romans and the Franks it was often 
exposed to the ravages of war. Its vicinity 
witnessed considerable fighting in the war of 
1870-'71, chiefly between the troops of Gari- 
baldi and tbose of Gen. Werder. An attack 
on the town by the latter was gallantly re- 
pulsed Nov. 30, 1870. 

AUVERGJfE, an old province of France, now 
forming the departments of Cantal, Puy-de- 
Dome, and part of Haute-Loire. It is divided 
into two parts, very different in their climate 
and productions. Upper Auvergne, which in- 
cludes chiefly the departments of Cantal and 
Puy-de-D6me, is a mountainous, wild, and pic- 
turesque cattle-raising district. The mountains 
which intersect it are a branch of the C6 ven- 
nes, and lie in confused groups, sending up 
several summits to the height of 6,000 feet, 
some of which are extinct volcanoes. Mont 
Dore, the highest of them, is an almost isolated 
cone, and has its sides covered with scorise. 
Lower Auvergne extends along both banks of 
the Allier, and presents a continual succession 
of towns and villages, and of the most fertile 
hills and valleys of France, which produce 
abundantly the vine, grains, and fruits. The 
province takes its name from the ancient Ar- 
verni, one of the most powerful tribes of Gaul 
in Cesar's time, of whom the present Auver- 
gnats are supposed to be the almost unmixed 
descendants. Though their province has con- 
tributed a number of distinguished names to 
the history of their country, the Auvergnats are 
often spoken of as the Boaotians of France. 

\\\ CAYKS, or Leg Caves, a seaport town on 
the S. W. coast of Hayti, capital of a depart- 
ment, situated on the bay of Cayes, in lat. 
18" 11' N., Ion. 73 50' W., 92 m. W. 8. W. of 
Port-au-Prince ; pop. about 8,000, chiefly ne- 
groes and mulattoes. The exports embrace 
sugar, cotton, and coffee, and the trade is prin- 
cipally in the hands of British merchants. In 
the vicinity are many rum distilleries. A con- 
siderable smuggling trade is carried on with 
Jamaica. The hurricane of Aug. 12, 1831, de- 
stroyed part of the town, killing several thou- 
sand persons. The civil wars since 1868 have 
also proved injurious to Aux Oayes. The cli- 
mate is unwholesome. 



ArXERRE, a city of France, capital of the de- 
partment of Yonne, on the left bank of the 
river Yonne, 90 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 
1866, 15,497. Its wines are much esteemed. 
Its manufactures are calicoes, cloths, serges, 
druggets, earthenware, violin strings, &c. It 
has a college, a secondary ecclesiastical school, 
a museum of antiquities, a public library of 
about 25,000 volumes, a cathedral with a fine 
flamboyant Gothic facade, and the quaint 
church of St. Germain, with curious crypts, in 
which lie buried the mediaeval counts of Aux- 
erre and its vicinity (Auxerrois). 

AUXONNE, a fortified town of France, in the 
department of C6te d'Or, on the left bank of 
the SaOne, 17 m. S. E. of Dijon ; pop. in 1866, 
5,911. It has an arsenal and barracks, with 
manufactures of woollen cloth and nails. 

AUZOUT, Adrien, a French mathematician 
and astronomer, born in Rouen, died in Rome 
about 1693. In conjunction with Picard, he 
applied the telescope to the mural quadrant. 
He invented and applied to the telescope a 
movable wire micrometer, on which he pub- 
lished a treatise in 1667. By the aid of this 
instrument he observed and measured the di- 
urnal variation of the moon's diameter, first 
explained by Kepler. Auzout was an efficient 
optician and maker of telescopes. His obser- 
vation and calculations of the comet of 1664 
suggested to Louis XIV. the first idea of found- 
ing an observatory at Paris, and he was one 
of the original members of the academy of sci- 
ences, founded hi 1666. 

AlIZODX, Theodore Louis, a French physician 
and anatomist, bora at St. Aubin d'Ecroville, 
department of the Eure, about 1797. He is 
celebrated as the inventor of a new method of 
making permanent models of anatomical prep- 
arations in papier mach6, an art known under 
the French name of anatomie clastique. The 
advantages of this method are : 1st, that the 
material used is light, not easily broken, and 
unaffected by the atmosphere at all ordinary 
temperatures ; 2d, that minute parts can be 
represented in enlarged dimensions, and colored 
to imitate nature; and 3d, that the pieces 
representing the different parts of an organ 
and the different organs of the body can be 
separated from each other and put together at 
will. Dr. Auzoux completed his invention by 
1825, and established a manufactory at St. 
Aubin for the production of anatomical mod- 
els. He obtained a gold medal for his ana- 
tomical preparations at the French exposition 
of 1834, honorable mention in 1839 and 1844, 
and a second gold medal in 1849. He received 
the cross of the legion of honor in 1834. At 
one time he gave annual courses of lectures 
upon anatomy and physiology, illustrated by 
the aid of his own preparations. His published 
works are : Considerations generates sur Vana- 
tomie ; Memoire sur le cholera-morbus, &c. 
(Paris, 1832) ; Lefons elementaires d'anatomie 
et de phyriologie (1839; 3d ed., 1858); Dee 
tares molles et osseutes dans le cheval (1853); 



158 



AVA 



AVARS 



Insuffisance des chevaux forts et leger } du che- 
tal de guerre et de luxe, &c. (1860). 

AVA (Burmese, Ang-wa, a fish pond, so called 
because the original town was built around 
one), formerly the capital of the Burman em- 
pire, styled in the official documents of the 
country Ratanapura, the city of gems, situa- 
ted on an island formed by the Irrawaddy riv- 
er on the N., the Myit-nge on the E., and the 
Myit-tha, an offset of the Myit-nge, on the S., 
and on the S. E. angle by a canal, through 
which the waters of the Myit-nge flow, dug to 
defend that face of the city ; lat. 21 58' N., Ion. 
95 58' E. The population was formerly from 
30,000 to 50,000, but is now much less. Ava 
is divided into upper and lower, or inner and 
outer towns. Exclusive of suburbs, the whole 
place is about 5 m. in circumference, and is 
enclosed with a brick wall 15^ ft. high and 10 
ft. thick ; an embankment of earth supports 
this wall on the inner side, and there is a small 
ditch on the outside. The inner town includes 
the palaces, royal pagodas, and other public 
buildings. The houses of the outer town are for 
the most part wretched huts of bamboos and 
mats thatched with grass. The residences of 
the chiefs and wealthy men are generally con- 
structed of planks, and tiled ; but the town is 
now decayed and desolate. Ava was first made 
the capital about 1364 ; and since then the 
Burman kings have shifted the capital eight or 
nine times. In 1839 every substantial edifice 
in Ava was destroyed by an earthquake; in 
consequence of which Monchobo, the birth- 
place of Alompra, and once the seat of the 
court, again became temporarily the capital of 
the Burman empire. Afterward both Amara- 
pura and Ava were honored by the preference 
of the kings, until within a few years, when 
the capital was fixed at Mandelay. 

AVA, Kingdom of. See BURMAH. 

AVALANCHE (Fr. avalanche or avalange), a 
mass of snow precipitated from mountain sides 
to the lower levels. Avalanches are common 
in the Alps and Apennines, and several differ- 
ent forms of them are described. The drift 
avalanche is the light, dry snow swept from 
the mountains by strong winds, and accumu- 
lated in the valleys, sometimes to such depths 
as to bury the villages it falls upon. More de- 
structive is that formed by the damp, cohering 
snow, which, beginning in a small rolling body, 
gathers with every turn increased proportions 
and velocity, and taking up in its progress 
loose rocks and earth, or the shattered limbs 
of trees, sweeps off not only houses and villages, 
but the very lands on which they stand. It 
is said that in the year 1500 100 men were 
buried by such an avalanche in the Great St. 
Bernard ; and in 1624, in Italian Switzerland, 
300 soldiers were thus engulfed, many of 
whom, however, were afterward dug out alive. 
The villages in the high valleys of the Rh6ne 
have been particularly exposed to these dis- 
asters. In 1827 the village of Briel in Valais 
was almost entirely covered with an avalanche. 



The rolling avalanches sometimes change in 
their descent to sliding masses, and these take 
in their progress every movable body, down to 
the solid rock of the mountains. Hills of grav- 
el and loose rocks, covered with forests and 
dwellings, are thus carried down to lower lev- 
els, and in cases of vineyards thus removed, 
intricate questions of proprietorship have aris- 
en. Ice avalanches are produced by the break- 
ing of masses of ice from moving glaciers. 
(See GLACIEB.) 

AVALLON, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Yonne, on the Cousin, 26 m. S. E. of 
Auxerre; pop. in 1866, 6,070. It is surround- 
ed by a country renowned for fertility and 
beauty. It has considerable trade in wine, 
leather, and horns, and manufactures of wool. 

AVALOS, Ferdlnando Francesco d', marquis of 
Pescara, an Italian general of Charles V., born 
in Naples in 1490, died in Milan, Nov. 4, 1525. 
His ancestors came from Spain to Naples in 
the middle of the 15th century. In early child- 
hood he was affianced to Vittoria Colonna, 
who was then only four years old, and he mar- 
ried her while he was still a mere lad. He 
distinguished himself at the battle of Ra- 
venna, where he was wounded and captured. 
While in prison he dedicated to his wife a 
poem entitled " Dialogue of Love." Ransomed 
through the influence of a favorite of Louis 
XII., he distinguished himself at the battle 
of Vicenza in 1513 ; at Milan, which city 
he took from the French in 1521 ; and at 
Como, which he sacked contrary to his prom- 
ise. In 1522 he took an active part against 
the French at Pavia, La Bicocca, and Lodi, 
and brought about the capitulation of Piz- 
zighettone and Cremona, and the capture and 
sacking of Genoa. The decisive victory over 
Francis I. at Pavia (Feb. 24, 1525) was chiefly 
ascribed to the valor of Avalos, who was 
wounded, and received the congratulations of 
friends and foes. He was made generalissimo, 
but became unpopular because, after having 
joined the league of the duke of Milan for the 
expulsion of the Spaniards and G ermans from 
Italy, he subsequently betrayed the scheme to 
Charles V. The crown of Naples, however, 
which was offered to him by the Italian princes 
in reward of his treachery, he refused by the 
advice of his wife. 

A\ ARIS, a stronghold of the Hyksos in Lower 
Egypt. See EGYPT, vol. vi., p. 460. 

AVARS, a tribe of Turanian origin, who first 
appear in European history about the mid- 
dle of the 6th century, when the bulk of them 
left their abodes between the Caspian and the 
Don, penetrated to the Danube, and settled in 
Dacia. They served in the army of Justinian, 
allied themselves with the Longobards against 
the Gepidas, and finally occupied Pannonia and 
other parts of modern Hungary, and established 
their dominion over the Slavs north and south 
of the Danube. Their sovereigns were called 
khans. The mightiest among them was Baian 
(570-630), whose dominions extended from the 



AVATAR 



AVELLANEDA 



159 



Elbe to the Black sea, and to whom the By- 
zantine emperors paid tribute. The Avars 
seized Dalmatia, and made inroads into Italy 
and into the heart of Germany. In 640 the 
Slavs revolted, and the dominion of the Avars 
over them came to an end ; but they still main- 
tained themselves in Pannonia. They%allied 
themselves with Thassilo, duke of Bavaria, 
against Charlemagne ; but that monarch finally 
broke their power (791 and 796). One of the 
Avar khans, Tudun, joined Charlemagne, and 
was baptized at Aix-la-Chapelle, but subse- 
quently abandoned the emperor and fought 
against him until he was taken prisoner and be- 
headed. About 827 the Avars disappear wholly 
from history. They have been confounded with 
their forerunners the Huns, and with their suc- 
cessors the Magyars. The modern Avars of 
Lesghistan in the Caucasus have also been 
erroneously considered their kindred. Re- 
mains of the long-walled camps of the medise- 
val Avars are still to be seen near the Danube 
in Hungary. 

AVATAR, a Sanskrit word, signifying " a de- 
scending," usually applied in a religious sense, 
and in reference to the incarnation of the Hin- 
doo deities. Whence the doctrine of the ava- 
tar is derived is a point that has received no 
satisfactory solution. The most important ava- 
tars of Vishnu, one of the persons of the Hin- 
doo trinity, are: 1, that of the fish, in which 
he preserved Manu, the first man, during a 
deluge ; 2, the tortoise, when Vishnu supported 
the earth while the gods and the Asuras ex- 
tracted the immortal drink (amrita) from the 
sea; 3, the boar, in which he slew the chief of 
the Asuras, the opponents of the gods ; 4, the 
lion-man, in which he killed the deceased 
Asura chief's brother; 5, the dwarf, in which 
form he played a trick on King Bali, of whom 
he asked as much ground as he could measure 
in three strides, and the king having granted 
the request, the god, at once manifesting him- 
self, strode over earth, air, and heaven ; 6, the 
man Parasurama, the son of Jamadagni and 
Renuka, when he rescued the Brahmans from 
the tyranny of the Kshatriyas; 7, Rama, the 
son of King Dasaratha, when he destroyed va- 
rious demons by exploits described in the San- 
skrit epic of Ramayana ; 8, Krishna, the great- 
est of the avatars, when he assisted the family 
of the Pandavas against the Kooroos, and con- 
quered the wicked of the earth the subject 
of the Mahabharata ; 9, Buddha,- in which he 
persuaded the Asuras, the ancient enemies of 
the gods, to abandon their faith in the Vedas ; 
10, Kalki, the name of the avatar of Vishnu 
when he shall come again to restore peace and 
purity on earth. 

AVATCHA, Mount (Russ. AvatcUnskaya Sop- 
lea), a volcano in Kamtchatka, near the S. E. 
coast, in lat. 53 15' N. and Ion. 158 50' E., 
rising to an elevation of nearly 9,000 ft. It 
has a crater at its summit several hundred 
yards in circumference, and another on its side 
at an elevation of 5,000 ft. Among the last 
63 VOL. n. 11 



recorded eruptions are those of 1837 and 1855, 
when it discharged with great violence vast 
quantities of lava, stones, and water. S. of 
the mountain is the bay of Avatcha, on which 
lies the town of Petropavlovsk. 

AVEBtJRY, a village in .Wiltshire, England, 5 
m. W. of Marlborough, notable as the site of 
the remains of the largest Druidical temple in 
Europe. In an open plain, free from trees, 
650 blocks of stone, varying from 5 to 20 ft. 
above the ground, and 3 to 12 in breadth and 
thickness, were brought together. One hun- 
dred of these were set on end around an area 
1,400 ft. in diameter ; and these were enclosed 
by a ditch and mound with two breaks for 
openings. The area within the bank is over 
28 acres. From the arrangements it has been 
conjectured that there were within this great 
circle two smaller circular temples, besides two 
avenues of great stones leading to the entrances 
from a distance of more than a mile. The re- 
mains have been almost entirely destroyed of 
late years, all that was capable of removal 
having been gradually carried away. 

AVEIRO, a seaport town of Portugal, in the 
province of Beira, S. of the mouth of the 
Vouga, on a bay called the Barra de Aveiro, 
37 m. S. of Oporto ; pop. in 1863, 6,557. It is 
an episcopal see, and has an extensive trade 
in sea salt. In the 16th century it was a com- 
mercial place of great importance. 

AVELLANEDA, Alonso Fernando de, the real or 
assumed name of the author of the spurious 
Segunda parte del ingenioso Hidalgo D. Qui- 
xote (Tarragona, 1614; French translation by 
Le Sage, Paris, l704-'6). Though Avellaneda 
seems to have been known in an obscure man- 
ner to his contemporaries and to Cervantes 
himself, the authorship of the book, which 
appeared under his name many years in ad- 
vance of the real second part of " Don Quix- 
ote," has been assigned, but without conclusive 
authority, to Luis de Aliaga, the king's con- 
fessor, and also to Juan Blanco de Paz, a 
Dominican friar. Cervantes refrained from 
noticing the publication until the 59th chapter 
of his own second part. Mr. Ticknor, in his 
"History of Spanish Literature," says of Ave- 
llaneda's book that, " if not without merit in 
some respects, it is generally low and dull, and 
would now be forgotten if it were not con- 
nected with the fame of Don Quixote." 

AVELLANEDA, Gertrndis Gomes de, a Spanish 
poetess and novelist, born at Puerto Principe, 
Cuba, in 1816, died in Seville in June, 1864. 
Her father was a Spanish naval officer, after 
whose death she went to Spain, where her first 
drama, Leoncia, was favorably received at Ma- 
drid in 1840. In 1845 she was crowned with 
laurel in the presence of the court and received 
a prize for a poem exalting the clemency of 
the queen. In 1846 she married Pedro Saba- 
dor, a young Spanish politician, who died in 
the same year. She afterward led a secluded 
life at Madrid and Seville. Her 2 vols. of lyrical 
poetry (2d ed., Mexico, 1852), her 16 dramas, 



160 



AVELLINO 



AVERAGE 



and her 8 vols. of prose writings secured for 
her a high reputation. 

AVELLINO, a. fortified town of S. Italy, capi- 
tal of the province of Principato Ulteriore, 28 
m. E. of Naples; pop. about 15,000. It has 
a cathedral, several fine public buildings, and a 
public granary. It is celebrated for its filberts, 
which are largely produced in the vicinity, and 
are hence called in Latin nuees Avellcmce, and 
in French cmelinet. There is also a large trade 
in chestnuts and grain, and manufactures of 
hats and cloth. At the village of Atripalda, 2 
m. distant, are the remains of the ancient town 
of Abellinum, which being destroyed in the 
wars between the Greeks and Lombards, the 
inhabitants settled on the present site. The 
town has suffered much from earthquakes. 

AVE MARIA, a short prayer much used in the 
Roman and Greek Catholic churches. The 
first clause is the salutation of St. Elizabeth to 
the Blessed Virgin, with the names "Maria" 
and "Jesus" added. The second clause is an 
acclamation employed by the fathers of the 
council of Ephesus and the people generally, 
to express their joy at the decision of the 
question raised by Nestorius whether Mary is 
truly the mother of God. It is usually joined 
with the Pater Noster. 

AVESBRliGGER, Leopold. See AUENBEUGGEE. 

AVENTINUS, fflons. See ROME. 

AVENTURBfE, a variety of quartz, and also 
one of feldspar. The peculiarity in each, for 
which the name is given, is the play of reflect- 
ed or refracted light from numerous points in 
the mass of the stone the reflections being 
bright and sparkling, and of different colors, 
while the ground may be translucent with little 
brilliancy, and of a dull color. The effect is 
probably produced by the crystalline faces hi 
the structure of the stone refracting the light 
differently. There are, however, some varie- 
ties, called also aventurine, in which the play 
of colors results from the presence of numerous 
little scales of mica, or other foreign ingre- 
dients, each of which reflects the light, and all 
together produce a similar effect to that of the 
true varieties of aventurine. An artificial glass 
of this name is manufactured at Venice, which 
is well adapted to ornamental purposes, being 
even more beautiful than the natural minerals. 
Within the glass are substances apparently 
vitreous, of great brilliancy, of the color of 
copper, and in very small crystals of the form 
of tetrahedrons. It is said to h'ave been dis- 
covered by a workman in Murano through 
accident (aventuro) letting fall brass filings 
into molten glass. 

AYENZOAR (properly IBN ZOHK), Abu Mr- 
wan, an Arabian physician, born at Pefiaflor in 
Spain about 1072, died in 1162. He began 
the study of medicine at the age of 10 under 
the direction of his father, who imposed upon 
him an oath never to make use of poisons. He 
was the preceptor of Averroes. Avenzoar tried 
to bring medicine within the range of experi- 
mental science. Several of his works, translated 



into Latin, have been published. His Rectifi- 
catio Medicationis et Regiminis was published 
at Venice in 1490 and 1496, with the remarks 
of Averroes in 1514, and at Lyons in 1851. 

AVERAGE. I. General (sometimes called gross 
or extraordinary), in mercantile law, the con- 
tribution made by all the parties concerned in 
a sea adventure to make good an expense or 
loss sustained by one or more of them for the 
benefit of all. The fundamental principle of 
the law of general average, as expressed in 
Justinian's Pandects, and adopted by all com- 
mercial nations, though with considerable di- 
versity of practice, comes from the Rhodian 
law, the first known system of marine law, 
which thus stated the rule: "If goods are 
thrown overboard in order to lighten a ship, 
the loss incurred for the sake of all shall be 
made good by the contribution of all." It 
would be difficult to set forth the essentials of 
a case for general average more clearly than 
they have been stated in the supreme court of 
the United States (Barnard v. Adams, 10 How. 
270), Mr. Justice Grier delivering the opin- 
ion : " In -order to constitute a case for gen- 
eral average, three things must concur: 1. A 
common danger, or a danger in which ship, 
cargo, and crew all participate a danger im- 
minent and apparently inevitable, except by 
voluntarily incurring the loss of a portion of 
the whole to save the remainder. 2. There 
must be a voluntary jettison, jaetus, or casting 
away of some portion of the joint concern for 
the purpose of avoiding this imminent peril; 
or, in other words, a transfer of the peril from 
the whole to a particular portion of the whole. 
3. This attempt to avoid a common peril must 
be successful. The right to contribution is not 
made to depend on any real or presumed inten- 
tion to destroy the thing cast away, but on the 
fact that it has been selected to suffer the peril 
in place of the whole that the remainder may 
be saved." Not only the value of the property 
destroyed, but what follows as a necessary con- 
sequence of its destruction, as injuries to other 
goods, expenses of refitting, and the wages and 
provisions of the crew in the port of relief, are 
subjects of contribution. So is also ransom 
paid to a pirate, by both the common and 
civil law (the rule of which on this point 
has been repealed in England), and in gene- 
ral whatever necessary and voluntary loss or 
expense is incurred by a part for the good of 
all. Goods -finally saved must contribute for 
loss sustained in procuring temporary safety. 
By the French ordinance, goods stowed upon 
deck are expressly excluded from the benefit 
but not from the burden of general average,- 
since they are supposed to hamper the vessel 
and increase the danger ; and such is the general 
tenor of both the English and American law. 
In the courts of all three countries, however, 
an established usage to carry upon deck, as 
with small coasting vessels, is allowed to take a 
case out of the operation of the rule. Both the 
continental and the American law is somewhat 



AVERNO 



AVESNES 



161 



more liberal than the English as regards the sub- 
jects of general average, but the difference con- 
sists not in the nature but in the application of 
principles. The victuals and ammunition of a 
ship do not contribute in a case of general aver- 
age, nor whatever is necessary to the persons of 
those on board, as wearing apparel, &c., no,r the 
passengers for their own safety, nor the crew for 
their wages, lest apprehension of personal loss 
should deter them from personal sacrifice. The 
rule of the civil law that "those things alone 
which pay freight contribute" is, with slight 
limitations, the general law on this point. The 
rate of contribution is in proportion to the 
safety obtained, according to value, not weight. 
The rules upon which this adjustment is made 
differ in different countries, and are not well 
settled anywhere. It is a matter of such nice 
calculation, that in most commercial ports the 
computation and adjustment of general average 
constitute a special branch of business, attended 
to by a special class of men. By the civil law, 
the master of the vessel was required to see to 
this ; and the provisions of the French ordinance 
are somewhat similar, but are practically dis- 
used, the work being performed by depecheurs, 
as they are called. II. Particular, an almost 
obsolete barbarous expression, used to signify a 
partial loss, which must be borne by the imme- 
diate loser alone. III. Petty Averages are sun- 
dry small charges borne in common by the own- 
ers of a ship and cargo, like pilotage, towage, 
anchorage, light money, quarantine, &c. 

AVERNO (anc. Avernus), a lake in Italy, 
about 8 m. W. of Naples, and near the ruins of 
ancient Cumaa. It lies in the crater of an ex- 
tinct volcano, and, though less than 2 m. in 
circumference, is of great depth. It has no 
natural outlet, but an artificial passage for its 
waters into the gulf of Baiee was made by 
Agrippa, who also connected it with the Lu- 
crine lake. This latter passage was closed by 
a volcanic convulsion which in 1538 cast up 
a hill of considerable height in the place of 
the latter lake. No attempt has been made 
to reopen the communication thus obstructed ; 
and as the subterranean tunnel which con- 
nected Averno directly with the sea has also 
been blocked up, the lake is again without 
an outlet. In ancient times, Avernus, with 
the wild and gloomy scenery about it, the 
pestilent vapors rising from its volcanic shores, 
and the prevailing belief in its unfathomable 
depth, was reputed the entrance to Hades, and 
was made sacred to Proserpine. By this path 
Ulysses, according to the legend, visited the 
ghosts of the dead, and here was also a famous 
oracle. The lake retains few of its ancient 
characteristics; the dense woods which an- 
ciently covered its banks were cut down before 
the time of Strabo, and the volcanic phenome- 
na appear to have entirely ceased. The ruins 
of a Roman edifice, probably a bath, are on 
the S. E. border of the lake. 

AVERROES, or Averrhoes (a corruption of IBN 
ROSHD), an Arabian philosopher, born in Cor- 



dova about 1120, died in Morocco, Dec. 12, 1198. 
Educated by eminent masters, he became, like 
his father, distinguished for his varied knowl- 
edge, and succeeded him in the office of mufti 
or chief judge in Andalusia, and subsequently 
held the same position in Morocco. He stood 
high in the esteem of successive rulers, espe- 
cially of Al-Mansour ; but the latter, yielding to 
those who could not reconcile the philosophy 
of Averroes with his professed devotion to the 
Koran, and perhaps also impelled by personal 
animosity, banished him for several years, hut 
finally restored him to his office. He wrote 
on astronomy, particularly on the spots of the 
sun, and on many other scientific subjects ; but 
he is chiefly celebrated as a commentator upon 
Aristotle and Plato. He grasped the ideas of 
the Greek philosophers, though he had no 
knowledge of the Greek language. The first 
complete edition of his works was published in 
Latin at Venice in 11 vols. (1552-'60), the 
commentaries filling 8 volumes, and 3 volumes 
containing his refutation of Algazzali's work 
against Greek philosophy, his great medical 
work, Kulliyat or improperly Colliget (of 
which several editions have been published), 
and miscellaneous treatises. As a philosopher 
he tended toward pantheism and materialism. 
His professed disciples were called Averroists. 
Leo X. issued a bull against his doctrines after 
they had been denounced by the university of 
Paris. Renan, in his Averrhote et VAverrho- 
isme (Paris, 1 852), gives a full notice of his life 
and works, and characterizes him as' the chief 
representative in the middle ages of the Peri- 
patetic philosophy and of freedom of thought, 
and as exempt from all purely dogmatic and 
religious bias. Among other recent works 
relating to his doctrines is Muller's Philosophie 
und Theologie t>on Averrhoes (Munich, 1859). 

AVERSA, a town of Italy, in the province 
of Terra di Lavoro, situated in a remarkably 
fertile region, 8 m. N. of Naples ; pop. in 1872, 
21,176. It contains a cathedral and many 
churches and convents, a foundling hospital, 
and a lunatic asylum founded by Murat, which 
was among the first to attempt curing the 
insane by occupation and recreation. The 
sparkling white Asprino wine of Aversa is 
often sold as champagne, and its sweetmeats, 
especially almond cakes, are great delicacies. 
Aversa was settled by the Normans, and grant- 
ed in 1029 to Rainulf, one of their leaders, who 
received from the emperor Conrad II. the title 
of count of Aversa. In 1030 the inhabitants 
of the ancient city of Atella, the site of which 
is still visible in the vicinity, were removed 
hither. In 1061 the- county was annexed to 
the principality of Capua, then a papal fief. 

AVESNES, a town of France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Le Nord, 
on the Helpe, 50 m. S. E. of Lille; pop. 
in 1866, 3,787. It is one of the fortresses 
which protect France on the east, built under 
the reign of Louis XIV. according to the sys- 
tem of Vauban. It was bombarded immedi- 



162 



AVEYRON 



ately after the battle of Waterloo, almost de- 
stroyed by the explosion of a magazine, and 
for some time occupied by the allies. 

AVEYRON, a S. department of France, form- 
ing a part of the old province of Guienne, 
bounded by Oantal, Lozere, Gard, Herault, 
Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, and Lot; area, 3,375 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 402,474. It is named 
from an affluent of the Tarn, which rises in the 
department near its E. border, flows W. as far 
as Villefranche, and then S. to the confines of 
the department of Tarn. The Lot flows on 
the N. W. border. Aveyron is one of the 
most mountainous districts of France. It has 
mines of copper, lead, silver, zinc, iron, and 
coal ; those of coal are among the most valu- 
able in the country. Cattle are raised in great 
numbers. The famous Roquefort cheese is 
largely exported. The department is divided 
into the arrondissements of Kodez, Villefranche, 
Espalion, Millaud, and Saint-Affrique. Capi- 
tal, Eodez. 

AVEZAC. See D'AVEZAO. 

AVICEBRON, or ATeneebrol. See SOLOMON 
BEN GABIROL. 

AVICENNA (a corruption of IBN SINA), an 
Arabian physician and philosopher, born in a 
village of Bokhara in 
980, died in 1036 or 
1037. He was educa- 
ted at Bokhara, where 
he devoted himself to 
study with such extra- 
ordinary zeal that be- 
fore he reached man- 
hood he was already 
famous as a physician, 
and at 21 he had writ- 
ten an encyclopaedia 
of science to which 
he gave the name of 
"Book of the Sum To- 
tal." He afterward 
wrote a series of com- 
mentaries on this work. 
He delivered public lec- 
tures on logic and as- 
tronomy in the house 
of a rich patron of 
learning at Jorjan in 

Khorasan, and afterward became vizier to the 
emir of Hamadan, at whose court he taught 
philosophy and medicine, closing his lectures 
every evening with feasting and dancing. In- 
volved after the death of this prince in a secret 
correspondence with the ruler of Ispahan, he 
was thrown into prison, but made his escape 
to that city, and there spent the latter part 
of his life in prosperity. Before his death he 
reformed the excesses of his conduct, freed his 
slaves, and gave his fortune to the poor. . His 
medical writings, which number over 60 dis- 
tinct works, were long held in the highest es- 
teem, and the most important of them, the 
Kanun (" Canon "), was for many centuries the 
standard authority even in Europe. It gave 



AVIGNON 

an excellent synopsis of the views of the 
ancient Greek physicians. It was published 
in Latin as early as 1473 (Padua), in Hebrew 
in 1492 (fol., Naples), and in the original Ara- 
bic in 1593 (fol., Rome). There were about 
30 Latin editions of the "Canon" during the 
loth and 16th centuries. Avicenna's principal 
philosophical work, the Ash-Shefa, or " Rem- 
edy," has never been printed. 

AVIGLIANO, a town of S. Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Basilicata, 11 m. N. W. of Potenza; 
pop. about 10,000. It has a handsome colle- 
giate church, a royal college, and several con- 
vents. A portion of the town was destroyed 
by a land slide in 1824. 

AVIGNON (anc. Avenio), a town of S. E. 
France, in Provence, department of Vaucluse, 
365 m. S. S. E. of Paris, situated on the Rh6ne, 
which is here crossed by an elegant suspension 
bridge built in 1844; pop. in 1866, 36,407. It 
is an archiepiscopal see, and has a lyceum, a 
seminary, a public library, museums of anti- 
quities, paintings, and natural history, a bo- 
tanical garden, an agricultural society, and an 
association called the academy of Vaucluse. 
Its industry is active, especially in the cultiva- 
tion of madder, in the manufacture of silks, 




AvigDon, France. 

colored cloths, and taffetas, and in copper, lead, 
and iron works. It carries on an extensive 
trade in the various productions of Provence, 
particularly in grains and highly esteemed red 
wines. The town is generally well built, in 
the form of an almost regular oval, and its 
walls, rather beautiful than strong, are flanked 
with towers, adorned with battlements, and 
surrounded by handsome boulevards. The 
streets are narrow, but there are magnificent 
wharfs along the Rhone and numerous ancient 
and remarkable edifices. Among the latter is 
the palace of the popes, a sombre Gothic struc- 
ture of the 12th century, now transformed into 
a prison and barracks. This city was the capi- 
tal of the Gallic tribe of the Cavares prior to 



IVILA 



AVOIRDUPOIS 



163 



the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar. It re- 
mained under Roman domination till the 5th 
century, when the Burgundians took possession 
of it. From the Burgundians it was taken by 
the Goths, who in turn yielded it to the Franks. 
The Saracens captured it twice, shortly before 
and after the battle of Poitiers (732), and^oth 
times were forced to abandon it by Charles 
Martel. It was a Carlovingian city for about 
a century and a half; then several times ex- 
changed its masters, became a republic under 
the protection of the German empire, adhered 
to the Albigensian heresy, and was captured 
by Louis VIII. in 1226, who made it the com- 
mon inheritance of two sons, through one of 
whom, Charles of Anjou, it became attached 
to the crown of Naples. In 1309 Pope Clement 
V., at the request of Philip the Fair, established 
himself at Avignon. The city and its depen- 
dencies were purchased by the supreme pontiff 
from Joanna of Naples, and all the popes from 
Clement V. to Gregory XL (1309-'77) made 
their residence here. The last-named pope re- 
stored the papal see to Rome, but during the 
great schism, from 1378 to 1418, several of the 
rival popes resided in Avignon. The 14th cen- 
tury was thus the period of the town's great- 
est splendor. It then numbered about 100,000 
inhabitants. Petrarch was among its many 
distinguished residents. After the close of the 
schism Avignon with its environs, which then 
formed the comtat de Venaissin, was governed 
by the legates of the pope, till in 1791 France 
succeeded, after various attempts, in reclaiming 
it. Twenty-one councils of the church were 
held in Avignon, from 1050 to 1725. 

AVILi. I. A province of Spain, forming 
the S. W. part of Old Castile, and bordering 
on New Castile and Estremadura; area, 2,981 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 176,769. The northern 
portion of the province is generally level, of 
moderate fertility, and the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in agriculture. The southern part is in- 
tersected by numerous rocky mountain ranges, 
with verdant valleys between. Here the rais- 
ing of cattle is the most important branch of 
industry. The Alberche and the Adaja, re- 
spectively affluents of the Tagus and the 
Douro, are the principal rivers. Two centuries 
ago the province was wealthy and populous, 
but it has gradually decayed, in consequence 
of the burdensome manorial and feudal privi- 
leges, and the laws of entail and mortmain. 
Merino wool is the chief article of production. 
Besides the capital, it contains no town of 
importance. II. The capital of the preced- 
ing province, an episcopal city, situated on 
the Adaja, 53 m. W. N. W. of Madrid ; pop. 
about 7,000. It had formerly a flourishing 
university and extensive woollen manufactures, 
but its ancient prosperity has departed. The 
city is encompassed by a wall, still in good re- 
pair, with towers of great strength. It has a 
fine old cathedral and a Dominican convent, 
both of which contain some beautiful monu- 
ments. The church of San Vicente, without 



the walls, said to have been erected in 313, is 
an interesting object. 

AVLONA (anc. Avion), a fortified town of 
Turkey, the best seaport of Albania, in the pa- 
shalic of Janina, on the gulf of Avlona ; pop. 
about 8,000. The Christian part of its inhab- 
itants are chiefly employed in commerce. The 
Turks manufacture woollen fabrics and arms. 

AVOCET, or Unset (recurmrostra), a bird of 
the order of the grallatores. There is but one 
European and one American species, which are 
very closely connected, and would at first sight, 
by an unpractised eye, be pronounced identical. 
The bill is long, slender, and reflected upward 
at the extremity. The bird is webfooted, but 
does not swim easily or willingly, though it 
wades quite up to the breast, for which it is 
admirably qualified by its long legs, which are 
naked up to the head of the thigh. The pal- 
mated webs of its feet enable it to stand and 
run, without sinking, over the soft mud of the 
seashore. It feeds on aquatic animals, such as 
the smaller conchifers and mollusks, and on 
the spawn of fishes. The American avocet, 
recurmrostra Americana, is thus described by 
Giraud in his " Birds of Long Island " : Loral 




Avocet. 

space white ; neck and fore part of the breast 
reddish buff; lower parts, back and tail white; 
wings black, with a broad band of white 
formed by the tips of the secondary coverts. 
Lower portion of the tibia naked. Legs blue. 
Length 18 inches; wing, 9. A few breed at 
Egg Harbor, where they are known as the 
"blue-stocking." It builds its nest of sea- 
wrack and dried sedge among tufts of long 
grass by the edge of some salt pool. It is com- 
mon in all parts of the United States, especially 
in the fur countries. 

AVOIRDUPOIS (Fr. avoir du poids, to have 
weight ; or, possibly, as it was formerly spelled 
averdupois, from the old Fr. verb cmerer, to 
verify), a standard of weight, to which articles 
of merchandise sold by weight are referred, 
except the precious metals, gems, and medi- 
cines. The pound avoirdupois contains 7,000 
grains; the pound troy contains 5,760. The 
ounces do not retain the same proportions, 
there being 16 to the pound avoirdupois, and 
12 to the pound troy. The ounce avoirdupois 
is supposed to be the same as the Roman uncia, 
which, according to Dr. Arbuthnot, contained 
the same number of grains, viz., 437i ; but it 



164 



AVOLA 



is very unlikely that these small weights have 
been preserved uniformly the same for so long a 
period. The old term avoirdupois is first met : 
with in 1532, in some orders of Henry VIII. ; 
and in 1588 a pound of this weight was depos- 
ited, by order of Queen Elizabeth, in the ex- 
chequer, as a standard. This, when examined 
in 1758 by the committee appointed by the gov- 
ernment, was found to be li grain deficient in 
weight; and the troy weight was thereafter 
made the standard. The standard grain, pre- 
scribed by act of parliament in the reign of 
George IV., is such that " a cubic inch of dis- 
tilled water weighed in air by brass weights, 
at the temperature of 62 Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer, the barometer being at 30 inches, is 
equal to 252-458 grains." 

AVOLA (anc. Abolla), a town of Sicily, on 
the E. coast, 13 m. S. W. of Syracuse; pop. 
about 8,000. It was rebuilt after its destruc- 
tion by the earthquake of 1693. The exquisite 
honey, so renowned in antiquity as honey of 
Hybla, is still produced in its vicinity. Avola 
has a tunny fishery and a refinery for home- 
grown sugar. 

AVON, the name of several English rivers, 
the most important of which, the Upper Avon, 
rises near Naseby, in Northamptonshire, flows 
through the counties of Leicester, Warwick, 
and Worcester, and entering Gloucestershire, 
empties into the Severn near Tewkesbury, after 
a course of about 100 m. Stratford, the birth- 
place of Shakespeare, is situated on the bank 
of this stream. 

AVON SPRINGS, a village of Avon township, 
Livingston co., N. Y., 19 m. S. S. W. of Roches- 
ter ; pop. about 900. It is situated on a terrace 
100 feet above the Genesee river, commanding 
beautiful views in all directions, and is reached 
by the Erie and New York Central railroads. 
The place is visited by large numbers in sum- 
mer for its mineral waters, which are deemed 
beneficial in rheumatism, dyspepsia, and cuta- 
neous diseases. 

AVOYELLES, a parish of Louisiana, intersected 
by Bed river, which joins the Mississippi near 
its S. E. angle ; area, 800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
12,926, of whom 6,175 were colored. The sur- 
face is nearly level and is subject to inundation. 
The western portion is fertile. In 1870 the 
parish produced 175,330 bushels of Indian corn, 
24,985 of sweet potatoes, 78,385 Ibs. of rice, 
10,139 bales of cotton, 325 hhds. of sugar, and 
25,600 gallons of molasses. Capital, Marksville. 

AVRANCHES, a town of France, in Normandy, 
capital of an arrondissement in the department 
of La Manche, situated on the S(5e, within 3 m. 
of the sea and 66 m. S. of Cherbourg ; pop. in 
1866, 8,642. It stands upon a hill looking 
toward the Channel islands, and contains the 
remains of a fine cathedral, consecrated in 
1121, and possessing the stone on which Hen- 
ry II. of England knelt to do penance for the 
murder of Becket. The cheapness of living 
and attractive scenery of the town have made 
it a resort for English families. In the 14th 



AXAYACATL 

century it came into the possession of the 
English, who retained it till 1450. Avranches 
has several public institutions, including a libra- 
ry, and some manufactures of lace and blonde. 
AWE, Loeh, a lake in Argyleshire, Scotland, 
8 m. N. W. of Inverary. It is 24 m. long, and 
in few places more than 1 m. wide, encircled 
by rugged and precipitous mountains, the lof- 
tiest, Ben Cruachan, 3,670 feet in height. Its 
surface is dotted with small islands. On In- 
nishail are the remains of a small Cistercian 
nunnery, and a churchyard containing many 
curious old tombstones. On Innis Fraoch are 
some traces of an ancient castle, formerly the 
residence of the chief of the M'Naughtons. 
Innish Chounel was for several centuries the 
residence of the Argyll family. The castle of 
Kilchurn, whose square tower was built in 
1440 by one of the Campbells, the founder 
of the Breadalbane family, stands on a rocky 
point of land, near the head of the lake. It 
was garrisoned as late as 1745 by the king's 
troops, but is now deserted. Several small 
streams flow into Loch Awe, one of which 
connects it with Loch Avich, and another 
with Loch Etive, an arm of the sea. The lake 
is celebrated for its trout and salmon. 

AX, a town of S. France, in the department 
of Ariege, 21 m. S. E. of Foix ; pop. 1,679. 
It is situated at the foot of the Pyrenees, over 
2,000 feet above the level of the sea, in the 
midst of granitic mountains and at the junction 
of three valleys out of which flow the sources 
of the Ari6ge. It is celebrated for picturesque 
scenery, and especially for containing the 
greatest number and the hottest sulphurous 
springs in the Pyrenees. Near the hospital is 
a bath established in 1200 for the cure of lep- 
rosy, and still called leper's basin. Ax has been 
widely known as a watering place nearly 100 
years, and contains now a number of. bathing 
establishments, the so-called gun spring being 
the hottest. Over 50 springs issue from the junc- 
tion of the slate and limestone with the gran- 
ite, varying in temperature from a little over 
100 to nearly 200 F. ; and they burst forth so 
abundantly on all sides that the place has been 
figuratively described as being built over a sub- 
terranean reservoir of boiling water. 

AXAYACATL, a Mexican emperor, died about 
1477. He was the father of Montezuma II., and 
reigned 14 years. He was already famous as a 
warrior when he became emperor of the Az- 
tecs, and inaugurated his reign by a successful 
expedition against Tehuantepec, and in 1467 
conquered anew the cities of Cotasta and 
j Tochtepec. A little later he repelled the tribes 
i who strove to get possession of the Mexican 
capital, and maintained a vigorous warfare 
against his neighbors. He was defeated by the 
natives of Michoacan, whom he attacked with 
inferior forces, and on his return to Mexico 
celebrated funeral solemnities. He was pre- 
paring another expedition when he died sud- 
denly and prematurely. The palace of Axaya- 
catl, a gigantic pile of stone buildings, became 



AXE 



AXLE 



165 



50 years later the barracks of the Spaniards. 
His treasures were discovered by Cortes within 
a concealed door, and the chronicler of the 
conquest exclaims that " it seemed as if all the 
riches in the world were in that room." They 
consisted of gold and silver in bars and in the 
ore, many jewels of value, and numerous rich 
and beautiful articles of curious workmanship, 
as imitations of birds, insects, or .flowers. 

AXE, an instrument for cutting down trees 
and chopping wood, usually formed of iron and 
steel, with a handle or helve, of suitable size 
and length for wielding with both hands, in- 
serted in an eye running horizontally through 
the head. Smaller instruments of similar form, 
for use with one hand, are called hatchets (Fr. 
hachette, diminutive of hache, axe). The axe 
is one of the earliest tools suggested by the 
needs of man, and among all antique relics we 
find almost invariably some species of axe. The 
bone and flint tool of different Indian races; 
the metallic axe, mixed copper and tin, of 
South America and Mexico, sufficiently hard 
to cut porphyry and granite ; the similar tool 
of the Romans ; the Druidical copper axe, and 
the rough iron instrument of northern nations, 
all witness the primitive use of this implement. 
The increased science of more recent times con- 
structs the axe of iron edged with steel; but 
anciently the use and combination of these 
metals were comparatively unknown. With the 
progress of civilization, the increasing wants 
of the race, and the colonization of new and 
fertile countries, the use of axes has propor- 
tionately increased with that of various other 
edge tools. In the most recent American pro- 
cesses, the iron used in making axes is ham- 
mered bar iron, the bars of different lengths, 
but definite sizes, differing for different tools ; 
it is heated to a red heat, cut of the requisite 
length, and the eye which is to receive the 
handle punched through it ; it is then reheated, 
and pressed between concave dies till it assumes 
the proper shape. The Spanish axe is made by 
the old process of hammering out the bar and 
turning it in a loop to make the eye, as this 
kind of axe has no head. The axe is now 
heated and grooved upon the edge, receiving 
in that groove the piece of steel which forms 
the sharp edge ; borax is used as a flux, and at 
a white heat the axe is welded and drawn out 
to a proper edge by trip-hammers. The next 
process is hammering off the tool by hand 
or machinery, restoring the shape lost in draw- 
ing out ; it is then ground to form a finer edge. 
The axe is now hung upon a revolving wheel 
in a furnace, over a small coal fire, at a pecu- 
liar red heat, judged by the eye, afterward 
cooled in salt and water, then in fresh water, 
and removed to another furnace, where it re- 
ceives the last temper at the hands of skilled 
workmen. Then it is ground upon stones of a 
finer grain than before, and is ready for the 
polishing wheel. Next it is polished to a finish 
that shows every flaw, and enables it to resist 
rust and enter wood easily ; next it is stamped, 



the head blacked with a mixture of turpentine 
and asphaltum to prevent rust, and finally 
weighed, labelled, and packed for sale. For- 
merly the consumer depended upon the rude 
forges and limited skill of blacksmiths to supply 
axes, but since the increased demand there are 
many small manufactories in different parts of 
Europe and America. The largest establish- 
ment in the world for manufacturing axes and 
edge tools is that of the Collins company, 
situated on the Farmington river, at Collins- 
ville, Connecticut. Here, by means of machi- 
nery invented for the company by Mr. E. K. 
Root, the processes of axe-making are brought 
to extreme perfection. The establishment was 
begun in 1826, on a small scale, by Messrs. S. 
W. and D. 0. Collins. After some years it 
passed into the hands of a company, known 
now as the Collins company. The amount of 
capital invested here is $1,000,000. Eighteen 
hundred tons of iron, 350 tons of cast steel, and 
7,000 tons of coal are consumed annually ; from 
450 to 500 men are employed; 13 large water 
wheels and two engines supply the motive 
power of the machinery; and from 1,500 to 
2,000 edge tools and other implements are made 
daily. The largest American manufacturers 
after the Collins company are the Douglas axe 
company of East Douglas, Mass., and those of 
Cohoes, N. Y. 

AXEL. See ABSALON. 

A\ni. a town of Africa, coast of Guinea, at 
the mouth of the Ancober, 73 m. W. of Cape 
Coast Castle. Until the year 1642 it was oc- 
cupied by the Portuguese, when it was taken 
from them by the Dutch, who were confirmed 
in their possession by the treaty of Westphalia, 
and in 1872 ceded it with the remainder of 
their possessions in Guinea to Great Britain. 

AXINITE, a mineral occurring in flat, prismatic 
crystals, with sharp edges, like an axe. It 
consists chiefly of silica, alumina, lime, and 
oxide of iron. 

AXLE, a piece of timber or a bar of iron 
which supports the body of a car, carriage, or 
wagon, and is itself supported on two wheels, 
in the hubs or naves of which its ends are in- 
serted. A great change was introduced about 
45 years ago in the shape of axles for carriages, 
by the English invention of air-tight closed 
boxes, which with slight modifications has been 
adopted all over the world. The wheels of 
carriage axles are prevented from falling out 
.by means of a collar on the axle, which enters 
*the hub on the inside, and not by a nut and 
pin on the outside, as usual in common vehicles. 
The introduction of railroads has made another 
change necessary. Axles for railroads, instead 
of revolving in the hubs of the wheels, are 
strongly keyed in them, and journals are turn- 
ed on the portions outside the wheels. These 
journals pass through and revolve in boxes 
attached to the frame of the cars. This arrange- 
ment has been found to resist vibrations and 
jerks resulting from high velocity much better 
than the old plan. It was, moreover, necessary 



166 



AXMINSTER 



AXOLOTL 



to insure a distance between the rims of the 
wheels invariably equal to that of the rails. It 
has been attempted to divide axles in the centre, 
the inner ends of the two half axles being main- 
tained in boxes fixed in slides on a frame, and 
the body of the carriage acting as a lever on a 
small mechanism, and bringing each axle per- 
pendicular to the curve of the road. One wheel 
has also been made to revolve around the axle, 
which was fixed to the other wheel, and turned 
with it ; in this way railroad cars would turn 
a short curve without straining the axle. Such 
arrangements, however, have never been ex- 
tensively introduced, as the disadvantages from 
complexity and loss of strength outweigh the 
advantages gained in turning curves. In horse 
cars running on city railroads, the difficulty 
of turning street corners, through curves of 
very short radius, is simply met by causing 
the outer wheel to run on its flange on a flat 
rail ; it thus acts as a larger wheel and passes 
through a greater distance with the same num- 
ber of revolutions as the inner wheel, and thus 
describes a curve, notwithstanding the wheels 
are all immovably connected with the axles. 
The difficulty of turning curves is not only in 
the straining of the axles immovably fixed to 
the wheels, but also in the rigid parallellism 
of the forward and rear axles, which opposes 
the turning of a curve the more in proportion 
as the car is longer ; and as American passenger 
cars are very long and curves very common, 
the so-called truck system was adopted, con- 
sisting in a frame turning on a vertical axle or 
pivot, and supported by four or six wheels, of 
which the axles are parallel. Such a four or 
six-wheeled frame or truck is placed at each 
end of the car ; and in going around curves the 
trucks adapt themselves by turning on the cen- 
tral vertical pivot. In Europe, where curves 
are more avoided regardless of expense, and 
cars are shorter, this system has not been 
adopted, except in a few exceptional localities, 
where curves of short radius could not be 
avoided in the construction of the road. The 
only kind of locomotive where the wheels are 
not immovably connected with the axle are 
those lately built for common roads, in some 
of which the connection is ingeniously made 
with a gearing, so that notwithstanding both 
wheels act as driving wheels, they are not 
compelled to make the same number of revo- 
lutions, and thus are able to turn any short 
curve in a common road. 

A \ M I NSTKK, a town in the county of Devon, 
England, on the left bank of the Axe, 24 m. E. 
by N. of Exeter ; pop. 2,900. It is well known 
on account of its rich and beautiful carpets, 
woven in one piece, which rivalled those of 
Turkey and Persia ; but the manufacture has 
now ceased. The town is mentioned in Domes- 
day Book, and is believed to have existed from 
very early times. An action was fought near 
Axminster in the civil wars in 1644. 

\\OI.OTI,, the Mexican name of an amphibi- 
ous reptile, described by naturalists as siredon. 



This tadpole-formed reptile has the vertebrae 
biconcave, and the body elongated and formed 
for swimming. The feet are four, the anterior 
being four-toed, the posterior five-toed; the 
sides of the body are marked by several small 
furrows, and an imperfect lateral line is con- 
tinued from the gills to the tail. The head is 
flattened, with a rounded or truncated snout, 
near the end. of which are the nostrils; the 
eyes are small, and about midway between the 
angle of the mouth and the nose ; the tail 
is elongated and compressed, and tapers to a 
point. A thin membrane commences near the 
back of the head, rising gradually to the mid- 
dle of the tail, and diminishing again toward 
the tip ; underneath, it extends from behind 
the vent to the tip, reaching its greatest height 
at its anterior third. The axolotl belongs to 
the perennibranchiate order, or those whose 
gills remain through, life, coexisting with rudi- 
mentary lungs; hence its respiration is always 
aquatic. The gill openings are large, and the 
gill covers are continuous beneath the throat, 
so as completely to separate the head from tile 
breast. The gills consist of four semicircular 
cartilaginous arches, serrated internally like 
those of fishes, and externally provided with 




Axoloti. 

fine branchial fringes, occupying thickly the 
lower edge of the flaps, and a few on the tip 
of the upper edge. The fringes are flattened, 
tapering, and disposed in a double row. A 
generic character is the presence of four ex- 
ternal flaps, provided with respiratory fringes. 
There are two rows of teeth in the upper and 
lower jaw. There are three species described : 
siredon Mexicanw, Shaw ; S. maculatw, Ow- 
en; and S. lichenoides, Baird. It is probable 
that other species exist, as there are many local- 
ities in Mexico, New Mexico, and Texas where 
" fish with legs " are common. The axolotl is 
about 10 inches long, of a dark brown color, 
with blackish spots. Great numbers are taken 
in the month of June from a lake about 3 m. 
from the city of Mexico, at an elevation of 
more than 8,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, and from water whose temperature is never 
below 60 F. At this time they form the prin- 
cipal food of the peasantry. From the experi- 
ments of Prof. O. 0. Marsh, it appears that the 
axolotl is the larval condition of the salaman- 
droid batrachian amblystoma, usually regarded 



AXUM 



AYACUCHO 



167 



as belonging to a distinct family. During an 
excursion in August, 1868, Prof. Marsh obtain- 
ed from Lake Como, a small brackish sheet of 
water in Wyoming territory, several specimens 
of siredon lichenoides (Baird). On bringing 
them to New Haven, they went through a 
metamorphosis similar to that previously no- 
ticed by Dumeril in the Mexican axolotl. The 
first indication of the change was the appear- 
ance of dark spots on the sides of the tail, fol- 
lowed soon by the disappearance by absorp- 
tion of the membrane along the back and 
below the tail. Then the external branchiaa 
began to be absorbed, and the animal came 
more frequently to the surface of the water for 
air. The spots gradually extended over the 
body, the external branchias and branchial arch- 
es disappeared, and the openings on the neck 
were closed by the adhesion of the opercular 
flap. The body diminished in size; the head 
became more rounded above and more oval in 
outline ; the eyes became more convex and 
prominent; the opening of the mouth grew 
larger, and the tongue considerably increased 
in size; changes took place in the teeth and 
in other parts of the structure, and finally the 
animal escaped from the water a true anibly- 
stoma, not to be distinguished from A. mavor- 
tium (Baird). The rapidity of these changes 
was greatly affected by light and temperature ; 
under the most favorable circumstances the 
entire series of transformations took place in 
about three weeks. It is not known that 
these changes occur in Lake Como, which is 
about 7,000 feet above the sea ; and the crea- 
ture no doubt breeds in its siredon or larval 
state. This leads to the belief that all siredons 
are merely larval salamanders, and to the sus- 
picion that many other so-called perennibran- 
chiate batrachians, as menobranchus, siren, and 
proteus, may be the undeveloped young of other 
well known species. 

\\lll. or U no in (anc. Auxume), a city of 
Abyssinia, in the province of Tigr6, formerly 
capital of a kingdom, in lat. 14 5' N., Ion. 38 
27' E., 12m. W. of Adowa; pop. about 4,000. 
It is 7,200 ft. above the level of the sea. Par- 
kyn visited this city in 1843. There stands in 
it a church considered the most sacred build- 
ing in all Abyssinia, " around which lie scat- 
tered unfinished and broken columns, pedes- 
tals, and other remnants of the civilization of 
former ages." This church is about 200 years 
old. Near it is a square enclosure, with a pil- 
lar at each angle, and a seat and footstool in 
the centre, all of granite. Another footstool, 
standing apart, about 30 yards distant, has be- 
come celebrated for its Greek and Ethiopic 
inscriptions, the latter in such minute charac- 
ters and so indistinct that the traveller Salt 
could transcribe but little of it. They give a 
list of tribes under the dominion of the king of 
Axum, and indicate the existence of an exten- 
sive and powerful kingdom in Abyssinia, where 
arts and arms were well known and cultivated. 
There were originally 55 obelisks at Axum. 



One of the most remarkable of these, a single 
shaft of granite, 60 ft. high, is still standing 
in good preservation. It is destitute of hiero- 
glyphics, and, instead of ending in a pyramid 
like the Egyptian obelisks, terminates in a kind 
of patera, indicating that it is of Greek rather 




Eoyal Seat, Axum. 

than of Egyptian origin. Tradition says it was 
erected in the time of the emperor Aizanas (the 
middle of the 4th century). In ecclesiastical 
history there is preserved a letter of Constan- 
tius, addressed to Aizanas and Sazanas joint- 
ly, calling them the " Axumite princes." The 
stone also gives the name of the Abyssinian 




Obelisk of Axum. 

monarch as Aizanas, and mentions Sazanas. 
Axum was probably the first place in Abyssinia 
into which Christianity was introduced. It 
was formerly the centre of the ivory trade. 

ATACIICHO. I. An interior central depart- 
ment of Peru, lying mainly on the eastern slope 
of the Andes, watered by the rivers Mantaro 



168 



AYALA 



AYESHA 



(which partly bounds it N.), Pampas, and Apu- 
ri'mac; area, about 35,000 sq. m. ;' pop. about 
150,000. Consisting partly of elevated plains 
and partly of deep valleys, it has a varied cli- 
mate, cold in the one and excessively hot in 
the other. It is only partly included in the 
great metalliferous region ; yet gold and silver 
are found in parts. Agriculture and bee-keep- 
ing are the principal industries ; and there are 
many horses, cattle, sheep, llamas, and vicunas. 
The department derives its name from a battle 
fought Dec. 9, 1824, near the hamlet of Ayacn- 
cho, between the Spaniards and South Ameri- 
cans, in which the former, though 9,310 strong, 
while their enemies numbered only 5,780, were 
totally routed, with a loss of 2, 600 killed, wound- 
ed, and prisoners, the South Americans losing 
less than a thousand. The Spanish viceroy 
and commander, Laserna, was captured, and 
on the following day Gen. Canterac, who suc- 
ceeded to the command, surrendered the rest of 
the army in the field, Laserna signing a capit- 
ulation, which delivered up all the Spanish 
troops, posts, and munitions of war in Peru. 
The South Americans were commanded by 
Gen. Sucre. This battle, which lasted only a 
few hours, virtually secured the independence 
of all the Spanish possessions in South Amer- 
ica. IL A town, the capital of the preced- 
ing department, formerly called Huamanga or 
Guamanga, 220 m. S. E. of Lima, in a valley 
about 9,000 ft. above the level of the sea ; pop. 
with suburbs, about 25,000. It was founded 
by Pizarro in 1539. The houses are general- 
ly of massive construction surrounded by gar- 
dens. The cathedral is a fine structure, and 
there are 23 other churches and chapels. It 
is one of the handsomest and most thriving 
cities in South America. 

ATiLA, Pedro Lopez de, a Spanish poet, chron- 
icler, and soldier, born at Murcia in 1332, died 
at Oalahorra in 1407. He held high offices 
under successive kings of Castile, was one of 
the supporters of Henry of Trastamare, and at 
the battle of Najera, in 1367, where he bore 
the banner of that leader, was made prisoner 
by Edward the Black Prince, and carried to 
England. He there wrote in prison his Ri- 
mada de Palacio, or " Rhyme of the Court." 
Having obtained his liberty, he returned to 
Spain, and was first minister of state, until in 
1385 he was again taken captive in the battle 
of Aljubarota and carried prisoner to Portugal. 
He wrote a chronicle which begins at 1350, 
where that of Alfonso XI. ends, and embraces 
46 years. 

AYAMONTE, a city of Spain, in the province 
and 24 m. "W. of the city of Huelva, near the 
mouth of the Guadiana; pop. about 6,000. 
The town is strongly fortified, but difficult of 
access, owing to the bar at the month of the 
river. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in 
the sardine, tunny, and cod fisheries. 

AYE-AYE, a curious animal discovered by 
Sonnerat in Madagascar, constituting the ge- 
nus cheiromys of Sonnini. The common name 



seems to have been derived either from an ex- 
clamation of the natives or the cry of the ani- 
mal ; the generic name, meaning " handed 
mouse," implies its resemblance to a large rat, 
with feet like hands. Cuvier placed it among 
the rodents, near the flying squirrels, but he rec- 
ognized the mouse-like structure of the head ; 
Shaw, Schreber, and later Owen, ranked it 
among the lower quadrumana, the lemurida ; 
while Van der Hoeven regarded it as a link be- 
tween the monkeys and the rodents. Its prob- 
able place is among the quadrumana, near the 
lemurs, though it has interesting affinities to 
the rodents and bats. The incisor teeth are 
like those of rodents in number, position, and 
length of root, though more compressed later- 
ally and sharp-pointed ; the canines are absent ; 
the molars are 4 above and 3 below on each 
side. In its head and general shape it resem- 
bles the galagos of the lemur family ; the large, 
flat, erect, and naked ears are like those of the 
bats ; the last two joints of the middle finger 
of the fore feet are very long, slender, and bare, 
useful in picking larva? out of holes in trees, 
and perhaps in climbing ; all the feet have 5 
fingers, the thumbs of the hind feet being op- 




Aye-Aye (Cheiromys Madagascaricus). 

posable to the others, as in the monkeys ; the 
head is rounded, and the muzzle short and 
pointed; the tail is long, heavily furred, and 
trails upon the ground. The color is rusty 
brown above, the cheeks, throat, and under 
parts light gray ; paws nearly black ; the hair 
is thick and downy, of a golden tint at the 
roots. It is about the size of a hare, the tail 
being as long as the body. The movements 
are slow, but more active than those of the 
loris. The eyes are large, yellow, and sensitive 
to light, as in all nocturnal creatures. It is 
believed to be a burrower, though it is also 
found on trees. The food is probably both 
fruits and insects, as in the lemur family; it 
thrives in captivity on boiled rice. It sleeps by 
day, curled up in the hollow of a tree or other 
dark place. Unlike the quadrumana, this ani- 
mal has the mammse on the lower part of the 
abdomen, instead of upon the breast. 

AYASALOOK, or Aiasalnk. See EPHESOT. 

AYESHA, or Aisha, the favorite wife of Moham- 
med, born at Medina in 611, died there about 
678. She was the daughter of Abubekr, and 
was but nine years old when she was betrothed 



AYLESBUKY 



AYMAR-VERNAY 



169 



to the prophet, who cherished an especial re- 
gard for her, though she hore him no children. 
The 24th chapter of the Koran was written by 
the prophet expressly to silence those cynics 
who doubted Ayesha's purity. She survived 
Mohammed about 46 years, and had an active 
part in the contest against Ali, who toolfcher 
prisoner with arms in her hands, but pardoned 
her. Her opinion was sought sometimes on 
difficult points in the Koran, and had the force 
of law with good Sunnis. 

AYLESBURY, a market town, parish, and par- 
liamentary borough of England, county seat 
of Buckinghamshire, 37 m. N. W. of London ; 
pop. of the borough in 1871, 28,760. The town 
is very old and irregularly built, but well 
paved, and lighted with gas. Straw plaiting is 
extensively carried on, and ducks are raised in 
great numbers for the London market. The 
manufacture of lace, formerly an important in- 
dustry, has diminished greatly of late years. 
There is one silk factory. 

AYLMKR, John, bishop of London, born at 
Tilney in Norfolk in 1521, died June 3, 1594. 
He was sent to Cambridge by the marquis of 
Dorset, afterward duke of Suffolk, but gradu- 
ated in divinity at Oxford, after which he be- 
came the duke's chaplain and tutor to his 
daughter, Lady Jane Grey. On the accession 
of Queen Mary, in 1553, Aylmer was compelled 
to give up the archdeaconry of Stow in Lin- 
colnshire, to which he had just been appointed, . 
and fled to Switzerland. In his exile he pub- 
lished a reply to John Knox's "First Blast," 
against the propriety of' women holding the 
sovereign sway, and complimented Elizabeth. 
Returning to England after the accession of 
the latter, he manifested much zeal in favor 
of the reformed faith, was made archdeacon 
of Lincoln in 1562, and was a member of the 
synod which reformed and settled the doctrine 
and discipline of the Anglican church. He was 
made bishop of London in 1576, and in this ca- 
pacity became so unpopular, on account of his 
intolerance toward the Catholics and the Puri- 
tans, that the privy council rebuked his se- 
verity. He was a ripe scholar and a popular 
preacher, but published nothing except his 
courtly answer to John Knox. 

AYMARAS, the name of the earliest known 
inhabitants of the Alpine valleys of S. E. Peru 
and N. W. Bolivia, whose descendants, save a 
few in the Peruvian province of Puno, are 
now to be found only in the Bolivian provinces 
of La Paz and Oruro. They claim descent 
from the Collaguas, who at a very remote 
period migrated from the north, and consti- 
tuted the sacred isle in Lake Titicaca the cen- 
tre of their government and religion. Though 
distinct in language, they physically resemble 
the Indians of the great Quichuan or Inca fam- 
ily, who were indebted to them for a part of 
their religious rites and the knowledge of the 
arts. They worked skilfully in gold and silver, 
tilled the ground, built splendid edifices orna- 
mented with sculpture and painting, and were 



somewhat versed in astronomy. Their poetry 
and religion were spiritualistic ; their priests 
were bound to celibacy, and the dead were 
held in religious veneration. Their skin is of 
an olive-brown color ; their features, though 
regular, are strongly marked, the cranium ca- 
pacious, and the general cast of the counte- 
nance thoughtful and melancholy. The wo- 
men are rarely handsome. The Aymaras have 
embraced Christianity, and are zealous obser- 
vers of all the rites of the Roman Catholic 
faith, in the performance of which, however, 
they introduce some relics of paganism. Their 
chief occupation is husbandry. As the Incas 
grew in power they gradually subdued the Ay- 
maras, and ultimately overran their whole ter- 
ritory. The Aymaras probably number 200,- 
000 at the present day. In early times they 
were accustomed to mould the craniums of 
infants to a conical shape. They worshipped 




Aymaras, and an Aymara Tomb. 

the sun, and believed the present luminary to 
be the fifth, and that, after a long period of 
darkness, it emerged from the sacred island in 
the lake. The monuments of Tiaguanaco, re- 
mains of many of which are still standing, in- 
dicate a much higher civilization than do those 
of Palenque. (See TITICACA.) Their tombs, 
sometimes large square buildings with a single 
opening through which the body was intro- 
duced, contained 12 bodies placed feet to feet 
around a confined cavity, sitting in their 
clothes. Some of these tombs are small houses 
of sunburnt bricks; some are square towers 
of several stories, containing each a body ; but 
whatever be the size, they are always joined 
in groups, with the opening facing the east. 

AYMAR-VERNAY, Jatqnes, a French peasant 
of Dauphiny, a pretended diviner, born at St. 
Veran, Sept. 8, 1662; time of death unknown. 
He was originally a mason, but early abandoned 
that occupation, and began using the divining 



170 



AYR 



AYRSHIRE 



rod, employing it at first in discovering springs, 
mines, and hidden treasures, and finally in re- 
claiming stolen property and in detecting the 
thief. He acquired a great reputation in this 
way, and at length in 1692, a vintner and his 
wife having been murdered at Lyons, he was 
employed to follow up the murderer, and finally 
charged the crime upon a hunchback in the 
jail at Beaucaire, who confessed his complicity 
and was broken on the wheel. The country 
rang with these events, and innumerable pam- 
phlets were written on the subject in 1692 and 



1693. Aymar was invited to Paris by the- 
! prince de Cond6 to display his skill, but failed 
completely in everything he attempted, and at 
length admitted that he was an impostor. The 
mystery of the hunchback was never entirely 
cleared up. 

AYR, the county town of Ayrshire, Scotland, 
1 on the frith of Clyde, near the mouth of the 
river Ayr, 30 m. S.W. of Glasgow ; pop. in 1871. 
I 17,851. The town is well built, and has com- 
modious public buildings, a large fish market, 
and several pleasant squares. The Ayr is here 




The Brigs of Ayr. 



crossed by two bridges, celebrated by Burns in 
one of his best known poems. A good har- 
bor is formed by the mouth of the river, but 
the town has little commerce, though it was 




Robert Bnrns'B Cottage, near Ayr. 



formerly largely engaged in the importation of 
wine from France. The principal industries 
are fishing, rope and sail making, and iron 
founding. Ship building is also carried on to a 
small extent. About two miles from Ayr, in 
what was formerly the parish of Alloway, is 
the small cottage in which Burns was born in 
1759. A monument has been erected to the 
poet on a hill not far off. 

AYRER, Jakob, a German poet who flourished 
at Nuremberg, died in 1605. He is the author 
of up ward of 60 comedies, tragedies, burlesques, 
and carnival plays, which were published at 
Nuremberg in 1618, under the title of Opus The- 
atrieum. Tieck inserted five of these plays in 
the first volume of his Deutsches Theater. 

AYRSHIRE, a county in the S. W. of Scot- 
land, bounded W. by the frith of Clyde, and 
landward by the counties of Renfrew, Lanark, 
Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Wigtown; area, 
1,149 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 200,745. It is 
hilly on the southern and eastern sides, the 
principal hills rising to nearly 2,000 feet. It 
is intersected by several small rivers. About 
10 m. off the coast lies the craig of Ailsa, the top 
of a submarine mountain with basaltic column? 



AYSODE 



AYUNTAMIENTO 



171 



similar to those of Staffa. The county abounds 
in coal, particularly that known as blende coal, 
which is found in a state of coke ; iron, lead, 
antimony, and various kinds of building stone 
are also found ; and there is a granite valued for 
mill stones, and a black stone used in build- 
ing ovens. The county is remarkable fdk its 
fine crops and for the general prosperity of its 
farmers. The manufactures are considerable 
in linens, woollens, cottons, leather, and other 
articles. The relics of antiquity, Druidical and 
Roman, are numerous, while there are also 
many ruins of buildings of the middle ages. 
One of the most notable of these in point of 
interest is Turnberry castle, the ancestral resi- 
dence of the Bruce. Capital, Ayr. 

AYSCUE, Sir George, an English admiral, born 
about 1616, died about 1676. He entered the 
navy early, and was knighted by Charles I. 
In the civil war, siding with the parliament, 
he had command as admiral in the Irish seas. 
In 1651 he reduced Barbadoes and Virginia, 
which had held out for the king. In 1652 he 
seconded Blake in his contest with Van Tromp 
and De Kuyter. In June, 1666, in the mem- 
orable naval battle of the four days, he com- 
manded a squadron, but his ship (the Royal 
Prince, the largest ship then afloat) running on 
the Galoper sands, his men forced him to sur- 
render, and the Dutch captured his vessel. He 
was held a prisoner for several years. 

AYTOJf, or Aytoun, Sir Robert, a Scottish poet, 
private secretary to the queens of James I. and 
Charles I., born at Kinaldie, Fifeshire, in 1570, 
died in the palace of Whitehall in March, 
1638. When James VI. of Scotland' became 
king of England, Ayton was rewarded for a 
very eulogistic Latin poem by knighthood, and 
several lucrative offices. His Latin poems, 
chiefly panegyrical, were published in his life- 
time, and much esteemed. His English poems, 
principally preserved by tradition, were scarcely 
known until the Ballantyne club at Edinburgh 
printed a collection of them in their " Miscel- 
lany." Some years later a manuscript contain- 
ing Ayton's poems was picked up at a sale, 
and the whole, edited by C. A. Pryor, were 
published in 1844. Burns greatly admired 
such of Ayton's poems as he had seen among 
them the original of "Auld Lang Syne." 
Ayton was intimate with Ben Jonson and the 
leading literary men of his time. 

AYTOPf, William Edmondstonne, a Scottish poet, 
born in Fifeshire in 1813, died in Edinburgh, 
Aug. 4, 1865. He was educated in the schools 
of Edinburgh, where he gained distinction in 
English and Latin composition. A prize poem, 
"Judith" (1831), received the applause of 
Prof. Wilson, whose daughter he afterward 
married ; and encouraged by him he published 
his first volume, entitled "Poland and other 
Poems," which attracted but little attention. 
Mr. Aytoun was called to the bar in 1840, 
and became well known as a wit and as 
an advocate in criminal cases. In 1845 he 
succeeded Mr. Moir as professor of rhetoric 



! and belles-letters in the university of Edin- 
burgh, and the lectures which he delivered 
there were celebrated for their pithy treatment 
of topics and their brilliant style. He aban- 
doned the liberal political views toward which 
he tended in his youth, and after the death of 
Prof. Wilson was the most prominent among 
the contributors to " Blackwood's Magazine." 
In this periodical first appeared his celebrated 
national ballads, " Lays of the Scottish Cava- 
liers and other Poems " (London and Edinburgh, 
1849 ; 10th ed., 1857). Prof. Aytoun lectured 
with great success in London in 1853 upon 
poetry and dramatic literature, and in 1854 
published " Firmilian, a Spasmodic Tragedy, 
by T. Percy Jones," designed to ridicule the 
raptures of some of the young poets of the day. 
He also took part in the " Book of Ballads," 
edited under the pseudonyme of " Bon Gaul- 
tier." His last poem was "Bothwell" (2d 
ed., 1856). He was one of the most effective 
of British political writers, and in reward for 
his services to the conservative party he was 
in 1852 appointed by Lord Derby sheriff and 
vice admiral of Orkney. Theodore Martin, 
one of his colaborers, has published a memoir 
of his life (1868). 

AYIINTAMIEIVTO, the name of village and 
town councils in Spain. During the wars be- 
tween the Moors and Christian Spaniards it 
was the policy of the sovereigns to induce inhab- 
itants and cultivators to settle in the depopu- 
lated country as fast as it was recovered. As 
an incentive they granted to the villages and 
towns municipal privileges of a character de- 
rived from Roman antiquity, and totally an- 
tagonistic to the spirit of the feudal law. The 
town councils were to be composed of the 
judge, the mayor, the regidores or clerks, the 
jurados, and the personeros or deputies; all 
these were elective officers, except the judge 
or corregidor, who was appointed by the king. 
The only qualification for a citizen was Span- 
ish birth, residence, and to be the head of a 
family. These privileges were consonant with 
the most ancient rights of the Spaniards and 
their Gothic conquerors, but now they were con- 
firmed by fueros or charters. The only liabil- 
ity under which the districts thus organized 
were placed was that of paying a tax to the 
king, and of serving in arms in defence of the 
country, under their own alcalde. Their elec- 
tions were by ballot ; persons soliciting a vote 
or using undue influence were disfranchised. 
The king himself might not interfere with the 
proceedings of the ayuntamiento, which had 
supreme control of all local expenditure and 
taxation. All the citizens in these districts 
had equal rights. Noblemen had to lay aside 
their rank and exclusive privileges if they de- 
sired to reside in the district. There were no 
special privileges; all men and all religions 
were equal before the law. These regulations 
continued in force for centuries ; but under 
the house of Austria and the early Bourbons 
they were frequently encroached upon, until at 



172 



AZAlS 



AZALEA 



the period of the French invasion, while the 
municipal organizations of the villages and un- 
important towns had preserved their integrity, 
the charters of most of the great towns and 
cities of the kingdom had been violated, and 
the rights of the people abridged. During 
that invasion the constitution of 1812, recog- 
nizing and restoring all the ancient fueros, was 
adopted by the people. This constitution was 
abrogated by Ferdinand VII. on his restora- 
tion, revived by the revolution of 1820, and 
again suppressed in 1823. The constitution of 
1837, however, restored the ayuntamientos. 
In 1840, in consequence of the check which 
this system of local government gave to the 
policy of the court, Queen Christina, by the 
advice of the French government, introduced 
a measure intended to restrain the political 
action of the ayuntamientos. This, although 
it at the time led to disturbances, was sub- 
stantially carried out in 1844. 

AZAIS, Pierre Hyadnthe, a French philosopher, 
born in Sorreze, Languedoc, March 1, 1766, died 
in Paris, Jan. 22, 1845. He was educated at the 
Benedictine college of Sorreze, where his father 
was teacher of music, and at the college of the 
Oratorians at Toulouse, and afterward became 
secretary to the bishop of Oleron, but lost this 
position on refusing to take orders. He was 
at first a partisan of the revolution, but having 
published a pamphlet against its excesses, he 
was condemned to transportation. He found 
a refuge, however, in the hospital of the sisters 
of charity at Tarbes, where he served as sec- 
retary and bookkeeper. There he wrote his 
"Discourses of the Soul with the Creator," 
and his " Religious Inspirations, or the Eleva- 
tion of the Soul to the Spirit of God." In 
these works he first put forth his ideas of 
eternal justice, and the natural and necessary 
balance of good and evil in the universe and 
in the destinies of men. After remaining 18 
months concealed in this hospital, he retired 
to Saint-Sauveur, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 
and there wrote his book on the " Misfortunes 
and the Happiness of Life." Here he remained 
six years, engaged in writing his philosophical 
" System of Compensations," the best known 
of his works. He then went to Paris, married 
the widow of an officer, and was appointed 
professor of geography in the military school 
of Saint-Cyr. This office he resigned when 
the school was removed to La Fleche, and 
was afterward appointed inspector of booksell- 
ing at Avignon, where he published his great 
work, Le gysteme universel(2 vols. 8vo, 1812). 
The following year he went to Nancy in the 
same capacity, and commenced a work on the 
destiny of man. At the downfall of Napoleon 
he lost his place, and retired again to Paris, 
where he lived some time in poverty ; but his 
friends at length obtained for him a pension. 
He lectured publicly at the Athenee Royal in 
Paris, and attracted large audiences; and in 
1827-'8 he held conferences in his garden in 
the suburbs of Paris, which were attended by 



the elite of both sexes. In 1826 he published 
his Explication universelle ; in 1829, Principes 
de morale et de politique ; in 1833, Cours 
d' 'explication universelle ; in 1834, Idee precise 
de la, verite premiere; in 1835, De la vraie 
medecine, and De la vraie morale; in 1836, 
Physiologic du Men et du mal, for which the 
French academy awarded a prize of 5,000 
francs ; in 1839, De la phrenologie, du ma- 
gnetisme et de la folie ; in 1840, La constitu- 
tion de Vunivers et Vexplication generale des 
moutements politiques, for which the academy 
awarded another prize of 2,000 francs. 

AZALEA (Gr. dfaAfof, arid), a genus of plants 
belonging to the natural order ericacece, and to 
the sub-order rhodorete, named in allusion to 
the dry places in which many of the species 
grow, and consisting of upright shrubs with 
large, handsome, and fragrant flowers, often 
cultivated in gardens. The genus comprises 
more than 100 species, most of them natives of 
China or North America, having profuse nm- 




Azalea viscosa 

belled clusters of white, orange, purple, or 
variegated flowers, some of which have long 
been the pride of the gardens of Europe. The 
general characteristics of the genus are a 
5-parted calyx, a 5-lobed, funnel form, slightly 
irregular corolla, 5 stamens, a 5-celled pod, and 
alternate, oblong, entire, and ciliated leaves, 
furnished with a glandular point. The species 
may be classified into those which have gluti- 
nous flowers, and those whose flowers are but 
slightly or not at all glutinous; each of which 
classes may be subdivided into those which 
have short stamens, and those which have 
stamens much longer than the corolla. Of 
those which have a glutinous corolla and short 
stamens are the vixcosa and the glauca, very 
nearly resembling each other, found native in 
North America from Maine to Georgia, grow- 
ing from 4 to 10 feet high, and having many 
varieties of flowers, either white or tinged with 



AZARA 



AZEGLIO 



173 



rose color. Of those which have a glutinous 
corolla, with long stamens, are the nitida, his- 
pida, and pontica, the first two being Ameri- 
can species and found in mountainous regions 
in the middle states, the last a native of 
Turkey and the northern borders of the Black 
sea, and distinguished by its brilliant yellow 
corolla. Of those whose flowers are smooth 
or but slightly glutinous, and have long sta- 
mens, are the periclymena, or upright honey- 
suckle, found on hillsides in all the woods of 
North America; the canescens, with a white 
flower which has a red tube, an early and 
tender American species ; and the arborescens, 
a rare and beautiful shrub, with elegant foli- 
age and very fragrant rose-colored blossoms, 
found about the Blue Ridge mountains of 
Pennsylvania. Of those whose flowers are not 
glutinous, and which have short stamens, are 
the sinengis, nearly resembling the pontica ; 
the indiea, a Chinese species, with brilliant 
variegated flowers, cultivated in Europe and 
America as a greenhouse plant ; and the ledi- 
folia, also a native of China, with evergreen 
leaves, and larger flowers than those of the 
preceding. All the American species are de- 
ciduous. In cultivation the azaleas love the 
shade and a soil of sandy peat or loam. 

AZARA, Felix de, a Spanish naturalist, born in 
Aragon, May 18, 1746, died there in 1811. He 
became a brigadier general in the Spanish 
army, and was wounded in the warfare against 
the Algerine pirates (1775). In 1781 he went 
to South America as one of the commissioners 
for the settlement of the boundary between 
the Spanish and Portuguese possessions, and 
the researches which he prosecuted till 1801, 
despite the vexatious proceedings of the local 
Spanish officials, gave him distinction as an 
authority on the natural and political history 
of Paraguay and the Plata region. His JSmai 
gur VhMoire naturelle des qnadrupedes de la 
province du Paraguay was first published in 
French (Paris, 1801), and afterward in Span- 
ish (Madrid, 1802) under the auspices of his 
brother, the chevalier Josii NICOLAS DE AZAEA 
(born in 1731, died in Paris in 1804), Spanish 
ambassador to France, favorably known by a 
Spanish translation of Middleton's Cicero and 
by other literary achievements. Felix de Aza- 
ra's masterpiece, Voyage daw VAmerique me- 
ridionale depuis 1781 jusqu'en 1801 (4 vols., 
Paris, 1809), containing a narrative of the dis- 
covery and conquest of Paraguay and the Pla- 
ta river, and in the last two volumes ornitho- 
logical descriptions translated by Sonnini, was 
edited by the French naturalist Walckenaer, 
whose commentaries as well as those of Son- 
nini and Cuvier impart additional value to the 
work. A Spanish translation by Varela has 
been published at Montevideo. 

AZARIAH (Heb. 'Azaryah, orAzaryahu, helped 
of Jehovah), a very common name among the 
Hebrews. Uzziah, king of Judah, is also called 
Azariah. It was the Hebrew name of the 
friend of Daniel whose Chaldee name was 



Abednego. Apart from these, the most prom- 
inent persons bearing the name are a prophet 
who met Asa after his victory over Zerah, king 
of Ethiopia, and exhorted him to put away 
idolatrous worship ; and a high priest who 
aided Hezekiah in reforming the temple wor- 
ship. In its Greek form, Azarias, several per- 
sons of this name are mentioned in the apocry- 
phal books, one of them being one of the gen- 
erals of Judas Maccabfflus, who suffered defeat 
by Gorgias. 

AZEGLIO, Massimo Taparelli, marquis <!', an 
Italian statesman, artist, and author, born in 
Turin, Oct. 2, 1798, died there, Jan. 15, 1866. 
In his youth, as he says himself in his memoirs, 
he was a swaggering soldier and a companion 
of scamps. His father being appointed in 1814 
Sardinian ambassador in Rome, he accompanied 
him and remained there almost uninterruptedly 
for eight years, acquiring distinction as a pain- 
ter, and for a time living the life of an artistic 
hermit in the outskirts of the Roman Apen- 
nines. After his father's death in 1830 he 
married a daughter of Manzoni, and after her 
death he married Louisa Blondel of Geneva. 
He was now a man of serious thought and 
strict virtue, and a decided liberal. His cele- 
brated romances, Ettore Fieramosca (Milan, 
1833) and Nieold de' Lapi (1841), contributed 
to rouse the national spirit of independence 
and to establish his literary fame. In his Degli 
ultimi cast di Jtomagna (Florence, 1846), as 
well as by his personal influence with Pius IX., 
he advocated a liberal policy, while his politi- 
cal writings (collected in 1 vol., Turin, 1851) 
fostered a reformatory spirit in Sardinia and 
paved the way for coming changes. In 1848 
he was aide-de-camp of Durando, who com- 
manded the papal troops against Austria ; but 
when the latter were recalled he joined the 
patriot volunteers in fighting the battle of 
Vicenza against Radetzky, and was severely 
wounded. After the restoration of peace he 
was chosen to the chamber of deputies. Vic- 
tor Emanuel on ascending the throne appointed 
him (May 11, 1849) premier and minister of 
foreign aifairs, and it was mainly his influence 
which saved constitutional institutions and 
paved the way for the work of Cavour. He 
dissolved the chambers twice on account of 
their opposition to the treaty of peace with 
Austria, which he caused to be ratified Jan. 9, 
1850. Despite Azeglio's sympathies with pro- 
gressive measures, he was considered as over- 
conservative for the new order of things ; and 
he finally succumbed to the combined influ- 
ence of Count Cavour and Ratazzi and the 
opposition in the chambers, retiring Oct. 80, 
1852. He had already tendered his resigna- 
tion five months before, and continued in 
office only at the urgent request of the king. 
After the outbreak of the war of 1859, he 
contributed, as the king's commissioner in 
Bologna, to the preservation of order in the 
Romagna, and subsequently was for a short 
time prefect of Milan, his impaired health re- 



174: 



AZEBBIJAN 



quiring his retirement and obliging him to 
have his speeches in the senate read by others. 
A man of independent character and political 
opinions, he severely criticised Oavour, Maz- 
zini, and other liberal leaders, and among other 
popular measures opposed the intended trans- 
fer of the capital to Eome. His daughter, the 
marchioness Eicci, has published his autobi- 
ography, or, as he designates it, his "moral 
autopsy," entitled / miei ricordi (2 vols., 2d 
ed., Florence, 1867 ; German translation, 1869). 
A supplementary volume of correspondence 
between Azeglio and Torelli has been edited 
by Paoli (Milan, 1870). In 1867 appeared in 
Paris his Italic de 1847-1865, and his Cor- 
respondance politique, edited by E. Eendu. 
Oarcano published at Milan in 1870 Azeglio's 
Lettere a SIM moglie Luisa Blondel ; and Bar- 
bera of Florence has lately published his Scritti 
inediti. His brother Ltnoi, who died in Eome 
Sept. 24, 1862, was an eminent member of 
the order of Jesuits, editor of the ultra-clerical 
Oimlta cattolica, and the author of a work on 
natural and one on international law. His 
eldest brother, EOBBETO, who died in Turin, 
Dec. 24, 1862, published some excellent works 
on art, and was a promoter of political re- 
forms toward the close of the reign of Charles 
Albert, a senator, and director of the royal 
gallery of paintings. The son of the latter, 
the marquis VITTOBIO EMMANUELS TAPARBLLI 
D' AZEGLIO, an accomplished artist, especially in 
statuary, was ambassador of Sardinia and after- 
ward of Italy in London from 1850 to 1868. 

AZERBIJAN, or Azerbaijan, a N. W. province 
of Persia, bounded N. and N. E. by the Eus- 
sian dominions, E. by the Persian province of 
Ghilan, S. by Irak-Ajemi and Persian Kurdis- 
tan, and W. by Turkish Kurdistan and Arme- 
nia ; area, about 30,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated 
at 2,000,000. It nearly corresponds to the 
ancient Median province of Atropatene, from 
which its modern name is derived. The country 
is mountainous, with fertile valleys and small 
plains. Mt. Savalan, apparently once a volca- 
no, is upward of 12,000 feet high. The chief 
rivers are the Aras (the ancient Araxes), which 
flows along the N. border, and its affluent, the 
Karasu. The salt lake of Urumiah is in this 
province. The climate is generally healthy; 
the summers are very hot and the winters 
very cold. In the plains the pomegranate and 
olive thrive in the open air. The mineral re- 
sources of the province are not developed; 
but there are mines of iron, lead, and copper. 
The inhabitants are chiefly Mohammedans, but 
there are some settlements of Nestorian Chris- 
tians. Capital, Tabriz. 

AZEVEDO H I IMIO, .low Juaquim da Cnnha 
a Portuguese bishop, and the last inquisitor 
general of Portugal and Brazil, born at Cam- 
pos dos Goitacazes, in Brazil, Sept. 8, 1742, 
died Sept. 12, 1821. He studied at Coimbra 
in Portugal, received orders, and soon became 
prominent both in the church and in Brazilian 
politics. He published in 1792 a work entitled 



AZOEES 

Ensaio economico sobre o commercio de Portu- 
gal e suas colonias. In 1794 he was made 
aishop of Pernambuco. He published in Lon- 
don, in 1798, a pamphlet against the proposi- 
;ion to abolish the slave trade. Shortly before 
iis death he was elected to the cortes as a rep- 
presentative of the province of Eio de Janeiro. 
He was named bishop of Elvas, but declined, 
and in 1818 was appointed inquisitor general. 
He wrote a memoir on the conquest of Eio 
de Janeiro by Duguay-Trouin in 1711. 

AZEVEDO Y ZINIGA, Gaspard de, count of 
Monterey, and viceroy of Peru and Mexico, died 
March 16, 1606. He succeeded Luis de Velas- 
co in the viceroyalty in 1603. He equipped a 
fleet to search for the great southern continent, 
which, under the command of Pedro Fernan- 
dez de Quiro, discovered several islands. 

AZINCOCRT. See AGINOOURT. 

AZKAR I lAKIk. See TTJAEIKS. 

AZOF. See Azov. 

AZOIC AGE, the period in the earth's history 
preceding the appearance of vegetable and 
animal life. A few years ago life was not 
known to have existed below the lower Silu- 
rian rocks, in the Cambrian of England, or in 
the Taconic (Laurentian and Huronian) of this 
country. If, however, eozoon be admitted as 
an animal form, the first appearance of life is 
carried back in time very much ; and now 
American geologists are disposed to admit an 
eozoic age between the Silurian and azoic. 

AZORES, or Western Islands, a group of islands 
belonging to Portugal in the N. Atlantic, be- 
tween lat. 36 55' and 39 44' N., and Ion. 25 
10' and 31 16' W., about 800 m. from the coast 
of Portugal; area, over 1,100 sq. m. ; pop. about 
250,000. They comprise three minor groups, 
the N. W. consisting of Flores and Corvo, the 
central of Terceira, San Jorge, Pico, Fayal, and 
Graciosa, and the S. E. of San Miguel and Santa 
Maria ; and they extend from S. E. to N. W. 
about 400 m. The largest, San Miguel, is 50 m. 
long, and from 5 to 12 m. broad. They are all 
of volcanic origin, and have suifered severely 
from eruptions and earthquakes. A volcano 
rose suddenly to the height of 3,500 ft. in San 
Jorge in 1808, and burned for six days, deso- 
lating the entire island. In 1811 a volcano rose 
from the sea near San Miguel, and after vomit- 
ing ashes and stones disappeared. The peak 
of Pico, on the island of the same name, is 
7,613 ft. high. All the islands are rugged and 
picturesque, with steep shores. The climate is 
moist but agreeable, and vegetation is luxuri- 
ant, fruits abounding, as well as the sugar cane, 
coffee, and tobacco. The principal exports are 
wine, brandy, oranges, lemons, beef, pork, and 
coarse linens, and their value is about $1,200,- 
000 annually. The imports, valued at $1,700- 
000, comprise woollen and cotton goods, iron, 
glass, pitch, timber, rum, sugar, tea, coffee, fish, 
&c. The tonnage entered in 1867 was 119,271 ; 
cleared, 117,690. There are no good harbors, 
the least exposed being Angra, on the island of 
Terceira. The Azores were laid down on the 



AZOTE 



AZTECS 



175 



maps of the 14th century, but little was known 
of them till 1432, when they were occupied hy 
the Portuguese, being then uninhabited, and 
were named Afores from the great number of 
hawks (Port, afor, hawk) observed on them. 

AZOTE. See NITROGEN. 

AZOV, or Azof, a town and fortress of Rij^sia, 
in the government of Yekaterinoslav, on the 
river Don, about 7 m. from its entrance into 
the sea of Azov, 24 m. S. E. of Taganrog ; pop. 
about 6,000. Built in a remote time near the 
ancient Greek colony named Tanais, it carried 
on an extensive commerce with the northern 
peoples ; but the silt deposited by the river has 
blocked up the port, and its commerce has 
been transferred to Taganrog. In the 13th 
century Azov was taken by the Genoese, who 
called it Tana; they were driven out in 1392 
by Tamerlane. In 1471 it was taken by the 
Turks, who gave it its present name. In 1696 
it was captured by Peter the Great. During 
the next century it changed hands several times 
between the Russians and the Turks; but in 
1774 it finally fell into the hands of the Rus- 
sians. It was bombarded and almost destroyed 
by the allies in 1855. 

AZOV, or Azof, Sea of (anc. Pains Mceotis), an 
inland sea of southern Russia, lying between 
lat. 45 20' and 47 20' N., and Ion. 35 and 39 
E. The Turks call it Balik-Denghis, or Fish 
sea, from the abundance of fish in its waters. 
Its extreme length from N. E. to S. W. is about 
235m.; breadth about 110 m. ; area, 14,000 sq. 
m. The waters are nearly fresh, very shallow, 
encumbered with sand banks, and navigable 
only by vessels of small draught. The sea is 
properly a gulf of the Black sea, with which it 
is connected on the south by the strait of Yeni- 
kale or of Kertch (anc. Bosporus Cimmeriiui), 
about 30 m. long. For four months it is fro- 
zen over, the navigation opening early in April 
and closing late in November. The Siwash, 
or Putrid sea, a western continuation of the 
sea of Azov, is cut off by a long narrow slip of 
land called the tongue of Arabat, and entered 
by the strait of Genitchi, at the north of the 
tongue. It is separated from the Black sea by 
the isthmus of Perekop. The Putrid sea is 
little more than a long reach of swamps. The 
Don is the largest river emptying into the sea 
of Azov. 

AZTECS, properly the name of one only of 
the various tribes or nations who at the time 
of the conquest in the 16th century occupied 
the plateau of Anahuac or Mexico, though 
generally used as synonymous with Mexicans. 
These tribes were the Xochimilcos, Ohalcos, 
Tepanecas, Acolhuas, Tezcucans, Tlascaltecas, 
and Aztecas, which collectively bore the name 
of Nahuatlecas, and their language was called 
Nahuatl. Tradition variously represents these 
families as emerging from seven caverns in a 
region called Aztlan (from the Nahuatl words 
Aztatl, heron, and tlan or titlan, place or place 
of), or as wandering away from their fellows 
subsequently to a grand cataclysm, and after a 
64 VOL. n. 12 



distribution of tongues. These traditions, how- 
ever, do not fall within the domain of history, 
and critical writers have generally preferred to 
confine their researches within the period fixed 
by the Mexican paintings or records. Several 
of these are in existence, and although differing 
considerably in their chronology, they do not 
carry back the history of the Aztecs and their 
affiliated tribes beyond the llth and 12th cen- 
turies of our era. There is abundant evidence, 
nevertheless, that the plateau of Mexico was 
occupied for many ages anterior to the arrival 
of the Nahuatlecas by a people of much higher 
culture, of whose civilization that of the Az- 
tecs was but a rude reflection. (See TOLTECS.) 
The locality of the traditional Aztlan has been a 
subject of much speculation. By some writers 
it has been supposed that this primitive seat 
of the Nahuatlecas was in Asia, and that the 
paintings, all of which depict the passage over 
a body of water in canoes or on rafts, represent 




Aztec Warriors. (From a Mexican Sculpture.) 

a migration to America from that continent. 
Most, however, imagine Aztlan to have been 
somewhere to the north of Mexico, beyond the 
river Gila, the so-called casas grandee found 
there having been erroneously thought to be 
the work of the Aztecs. (See CASAS GEANDES.) 
But it is worthy of remark that no native his- 
tory, chronicle, or known hieroglyphic of the 
Mexicans assigns a northern origin to the Aztec 
tribes, except the relation of Ixtlilxuchitl, who 
wrote a considerable time after the conquest, 
and who in this matter only followed the 
Spanish authors who had preceded him. In 
the painting representing the migration of the 
Aztecs, originally published by Gemelli Oar- 
rera in his Giro del Mondo, the sign or hiero- 
glyphic of Aztlan is accompanied by the repre- 
sentation of a teocalli or temple, by the side 
of which stands a palm tree a circumstance 
which excited the astonishment of the cautious 
Huinboldt, as opposed to the opinion that Azt- 



176 



AZTECS 



Ian was to be looked for in a northern latitude. 
The palm certainly points southward as the 
direction whence the traditional migration took 
place ; and this indication is supported by the 
fact that a people speaking the same language 
with the Aztecs (the Nahuatl), and having 
identical habits, laws, and religious observances, 
existed as far south as Nicaragua, and at the 
time of the conquest occupied nearly the whole 
of the present state of San Salvador in Central 
America. The next question concerns the date 
of the departure of the seven tribes from Azt- 
lan. According to Gemelli's painting, this event 
happened in the year 1038 of our era ; accord- 
ing to the astronomer Gama, in 1064. Veytia 
follows Gama; but Clavigero fixes the period 
nearly a century later, in 1160. But great un- 
certainty is attached to all dates previous to 
the foundation of the city of Tenochtitlan or 
Mexico, which all accounts concur in fixing 
in the year 1324 or 1325. Tradition and the 
paintings represent that various halts and stop- 
pages took place after leaving Aztlan, before 
the seven tribes reached the valley of Mexico ; 
and the time occupied is variously estimated 
from 56 to 163 years. According to the paint- 
ing obtained by Boturni representing this mi- 
gration, they made not less than 22 stoppages, 
varying from 4 to 28 years in length alto- 
gether occupying 162 years, before reaching 
Chapultepec. It does not appear that the va- 
rious tribes all arrived at the same time in the 
valley of Mexico, but came in and took up their 
positions successively. They found the coun- 
try rich and attractive, and occupied by only a 
remnant of an anterior and powerful people, 
who had left numerous monuments of their 
greatness. From these they learned many of 
the arts of life, the cultivation of the soil, and 
the working of metals. At first they seem' to 
have lived in harmony with each other ; but 
gradually the stronger tribes began to encroach 
upon the weaker, which led to combinations 
for defence among the latter, and to a long se- 
ries of bloody forays and wars. The Mexicans 
(subsequently so called from Mexi, one of their 
war chiefs) ranked as the seventh tribe, and 
seem to have assumed the name of Aztecas 
par excellence. They were established first at 
Chapultepec, but gradually encroached upon 
the Ohalcos, and finally, under the lead of a 
succession of military chiefs, became the most 
powerful tribe in Anahuac, and established their 
imperial city in the lake of Chalco. This event 
took place in 1324 or 1325, under the reign of 
Tenuch, and the city was called Tenochtitlan, 
the place or seat of Tenoch or Tenuch. The 
site, like that of Venice a few low islands in 
a great lake was admirably chosen for de- 
fence, and the Mexicans exhausted their art in 
strengthening the position. It could only be 
approached over long and narrow causeways, 
easily defended, and which even the Spaniards 
were not successful in forcing. Commanding 
the lake with numerous fleets of boats, they 
were unassailable from the water. From this 



stronghold they gradually reduced their neigh- 
bors, their companions from Aztlan, or forced 
them into a kind of dependent alliance, which 
served still further to build up their power and 
influence ; so that, at the time of the arrival of 
Cortes, the Mexican emperor exercised a qual- 
ified dominion over nearly all the aboriginal 
nations embraced within the present bounda- 
ries of the republic of Mexico. This power 
was often exercised without mercy, and many 
thousands of their captured enemies were 
sacrificed on the altars of their sanguinary 
divinities. How severely their yoke was felt, 
and how eagerly it was thrown off, is shown 
by the readiness with which the Tlascalans, 
their own kindred, joined the Spaniards in 
their attack on the Mexican capital. The 
form of government among the Mexicans was 
an elective monarchy ; and the legislative 
power resided wholly with the king. The ad- 
ministration of the laws belonged to certain 
judicial tribunals, and was conducted with 
great regularity and with Draconic sternness. 
Their religion was sanguinary in most of its 
practices ; yet it combined the elements of a 
milder system, probably, than that of their 
Tulhuatecan predecessors, whose religion was 
closely allied to the Buddhist system of India. 
As essentially a warlike nation, they made the 
highest beatitudes of their faith the rewards 
of the bravest soldiers ; and while the soul of 
the common citizen after death was believed 
to be subject to a purgatorial existence, that 
of the warrior who fell in battle was caught 
up at once to the abode of the gods, to the 
bosom of the sun, the heaven of eternal de- 
lights. In the arts, and especially in their 
architecture, the Mexicans achieved an advance 
corresponding with their numerical and politi- 
cal growth ; and the islands, which at the out- 
set supported only rude huts of cane and thatch, 
came finally to be covered with imposing edi- 
fices of stone and lime. Metallurgy was ex- 
tensively practised, and gold and silver, cop- 
per, and a species of brass were well known 
and elaborately worked ; but iron, except in its 
meteoric form, was unknown. For accounts 
of the political, social, and religious practices, 
customs, and organization of this interesting 
people, whose subversion forms the most dra- 
matic incident in the history of this continent, 
see the works of Sahagun, Solis, Clavigero, 
Prescott, and Baldwin. The following chro- 
nological table is from an unpublished Mexican 
painting or MS., hi the possession of Mr. E. G. 
Squier : 

Aztecs leave Aztlan A. D. 1164 

Arrive in Valley of Mexico 1216 

Tenotzinlatoani. founder of Mexico, commences to reign 13 

Acamapichtle, second king 1373 

Huitzilihuitzin 1394 

Chimalpopoca 1415 

Itzcohuatzin 1423 

Hue Monctecumatzin (Montezuma I.) 1438 

Axayacatzin, king 1471 

Ticocicatzin (' Tizoc ") 1480 

Ahuitzotzin 1484 

Monctecumatzin (Montezuma II.) 1502 

Entry of the Spaniards 1519 



AZURAKA 



BAAL 



177 



A/I K IK A. Gomez Eanncs de, a Portuguese his- 
torian, born at Azurara, died in the latter part 
of the 15th century. Although he was early 
made a monk and admitted into the order of 
Christ, he passed his youth as a soldier, and in 
1459 was appointed to reform the archives of 
the state. His principal work was a chrcjnicle 
of the discovery and conquest of Guinea. This 
was discovered in .the bibliothdque royale of 
Paris in 1837, and published (8vo, Paris, 1841) 
by the Portuguese ambassador at the French 
court, the visconde de Carreira, who transcribed 
the MS. with his own hand. 

AZTMITES (Gr. a, not, and &/ai, leaven), a po- 
lemical term, applied to the western church by 
the eastern or Greek branch. About 1025 a con- 
troversy sprung up as to the kind of bread that 



ought to be used in the eucharist. The Latin 
church maintained that unleavened bread only 
was allowable, since, as they affirmed, the 
Lord's last supper having been held on the day 
before the Hebrew passover, unleavened bread 
was the only kind procurable. The Greek 
church endeavored to prove that the last sup- 
per did not take place on the day before the pass- 
over, and consequently that unleavened bread 
could not be had ; moreover, they charged that 
the use of unleavened bread was a relic of 
Judaism. The term azymites was at first used 
as one of reproach, but was adopted as honor- 
able by those to whom it was applied. The 
controversy raged long and high, the parties 
calling themselves azymites and prozymites, 
anti-leaveners and pro-leaveners. 



B 



BTHE second letter in all languages whose 
, alphabets have a Phoenician origin, as He- 
brew, Greek, Latin, English, French, German, 
Italian, Spanish, and Russian. In English, 
French, and German it is strictly a palato- 
labial, the sound being produced by compress- 
ing the air within the mouth, vocalizing it by 
the vibrations of the membranes forming the 
palate or roof of the mouth, the uvula at the 
game time closing the nasal orifices. The 
sound can be imperfectly formed and prolonged 
while the lips are tightly closed. The perfect 
sound is produced at the commencement of a 
syllable by a sudden opening of the lips for 
the passage of the vocalized breath; at the 
close of a syllable by suddenly closing the lips 
upon the vocalized current. It differs from P 
in that in sounding the latter the breath passes 
out without compression and vocalization. In 
Spanish, in later Latin and modern Greek, the 
prevalent sound of B is nearly identical with 
that of V, produced by pressing the upper 
teeth upon the lower lip, causing only a par- 
tial closure of the mouth, so that the sound 
can be indefinitely prolonged. Thus in modern 
Greek (as perhaps in the ancient), /JooUedf is 
pronounced vasilefs, the v having its conso- 
nantal sound. The Greek B sometimes, though 
not always, represented the Latin V; thus 
Virgilius was written Rip-yihiof or Ovip-yifaof. 
The Hebrew beth has the sound of V except 
when a diacritical point indicates that it is 
softened to B. In the passage of a word from 
one language to another an interchange not un- 
frequently takes place between B and P, F (ph), 
V, and less frequently M. For example : Lat. 
J, Gr. cnr6, Eng. off ; Gr. /}por6f, Lat. mor[t]s. 
In German, B, chiefly at the end of words, is 
often pronounced like P; thus, ab like op. 
The sound of B, being formed with the mouth 
closed, is wanting in many of the dialects of 
the American Indians, who enuaciate almost 



wholly with the lips open. In the calendar B 
is the second dominical letter. In music it is 
the seventh degree of the diatonic scale of 0, 
and the 12th of the diatonic-chromatic scale. 
According to the tempered system of tuning, 
the ratio of B to the fundamental note is -fa. 
In the ancient diatonic scale B was not used 
as a key-note, its fifth, F, being imperfect. In 
the German notation our B is called H, B flat, 
half a tone lower than B, being called B. As 
a numeral, /3 among the Greeks represented 2, 
and with a stroke beneath 2,000; among the 
Romans B was occasionally used to denote 300, 
and with a line above it 3,000. 

BAADER, Franz \a\cr Ton, a German mystic, 
born in Munich, March 27, 1765, died there, 
May 23, 1841. After extensive studies he was 
appointed by the Bavarian government inspec- 
tor general of mines, and in 1826 he became 
professor of philosophy and speculative theol- 
ogy at the newly established university of Mu- 
nich. He was a devoted follower of Bohme, 
whose mysticism predominated in his philo- 
sophical theories and in his devout interpreta- 
tion of Roman Catholic theology. He wrote on 
the natural sciences and technology, but his 
principal writings are metaphysical. In his 
Fermenta Cognitionii he extols Bohme as the 
greatest of thinkers. His chief disciple, Franz 
Hoflmann of Wurzburg, has endeavored to re- 
duce Baader's mystic aphorisms to a system, 
and has edited his complete philosophical works 
(16 vols., Leipsic, 1850-'60). 

BAAL, a Semitic word signifying owner, lord, 
or master, and in the highest sense denoting 
the deity. The Hebrews never used it as a 
designation of their deity, but always to dis- 
tinguish some god of the surrounding nations. 
In this sense, with some adjunct appended, it 
indicated several local deities : Baal-zebub was 
the fly god of the Ekronites, corresponding to 
the Zet)f and/ivioc of the Greeks ; Baal-peor an- 



178 



BAALBEK 



Bwered to the Roman Priapus; Baal-benth, 1 
Covenant Baal, to ZCT? SPMOC and deus Mi- 
us of the Greeks and Romans. With the 
article prefixed, 
it designated the 
Baal or chief de- 
ity of the Phce- 
nicians. Strictly 
Baal meant the 
highest male god 
(the sun or the 
planet Jupiter), as 
Ashtoreth or As- 
tarte did the high- 
est goddess (the 
moon or Venus), 
divinities from 
whom all things 
visible and invis- 
ible had their ori- 
gin. The Greeks 
and Romans, however, sought and found anal- 
ogies between the several Baals and some of 
their subordinate deities, as Mars and Her- 
cules. The Bel or Bil of the Babylonians 
is closely related to the Baal of the Phoeni- 
cians, the former name being a contraction of 




Baal. 



the latter, or this a guttural extension of the 
former. Baal, Bal, and Bel, as prefixes or 
suffixes, enter largely into many proper names 
of places and persons. Such are Baal-ze- 
phon, Baal-gad, Baal-hamon, Jerub-baal, Esh- 
baal, Bal-adan, and Bel-shazzar. The Phoeni- 
cians carried the word through all their wan- 
derings, giving us the Carthaginian Asdru-bal, 
Adher-bal, and Hanni-bal. They carried the 
name to Ireland, where we read of Seal or Bal, 
the ancient deity worshipped by Bal fires on 
the summits of the hills, and of Bel's cairns, 
where sacrifices were offered to Baal. The 
Greek B^Aof and the Latin Belus are merely 
the Babylonian Bel with a terminal syllable, 
though the Greeks invented for him a descent 
of their own. Whenever the Israelites fell into 
idolatry, their natural tendency was to worship 
Baal, the god of the nations with whom they 
came into most immediate contact. 

BAALBEK (in Phoenician, Baal of the valley, 
but rendered by the Greeks Heliopolis, city^ of 
the sun), an ancient city of Syria, in lat. 34 1' 
N., Ion. 36 11' E., 36 m. N. by W. of Damas- 
cus, the ruins of which are the most imposing 
in the country, excepting those of Palmyra. 
The city lay in a plain of Ccele-Syria, fertil- 




ILuins of Baalbek. 



ized by streams rising in the range of Anti- 
Libanus. The date of its foundation is uncer- 
tain, the tradition which ascribes its erection 
to Solomon being wholly unsupported. It is 
mentioned under the name of Heliopolis by 
Josephus and Pliny. Lying in the direct route 
of trade between Tyre and the East, it rose to 
considerable importance, and was embellished 
with magnificent temples, the finest of which 
appear to date from the time of Antoninus 
Pius, A. D. 160, who built or enlarged the 
great temple, which was then considered one of 



the wonders of the world. When Christianity 
became the religion of the Roman empire, the 
heathen temples, except the great one, which 
was made a Christian church, were suffered to 
decay ; but as late as the time of the Moslem in- 
vasion (635) Baalbek was the most splendid city 
of Syria, adorned with monuments of ancient 
times and abounding in luxury. It made a 
stout defence against tbe Moslem invaders, who 
imposed upon it a heavy ransom. For more 
than a century it continued an opulent mart, 
but was finally sacked in 748 by the caliph of 



BAALBEK 



BABADAGH 



179 



Damascus, the principal inhabitants being put 
to the sword. During the crusades it changed 
hands repeatedly. It was sacked by Tamerlane 
in 1400, and subsequently taken by the Metaweli, 
a barbarous nomad tribe, who were nearly ex- 
terminated by the Turks. In 1759 an earthquake 
completed its devastation. The most pfemi- 




Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek. 

nent objects visible from the plain are a lofty 
portico of six columns and part of the walls of 
the great temple, and the walls and columns of 
a smaller temple a little below. The greater 
temple stood upon an artificial platform, be- 
tween 20 and 30 ft. in height, and extended 




Piece of Ceiling (fallen) in Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek. 

1,000 ft. from east to west. It is probable that 
it was never completed. Approaching from 
the east, one entered a magnificent portico, 180 
ft. in length and 37 in depth. Only the pedes- 
tals of the columns now remain ; the vast flight 



of steps which led up to it have also disappear- 
ed. The great portal, 17 ft. in width, leads into 
a hexagonal court about 200 ft. in diameter, in 
a ruinous condition; on its western side an- 
other portal, 50 ft. wide, brings one to a quad- 
rangular court, 440 ft. in length by 370 in 
breadth. Around the sides of this court are 
numerous exedra, with columns in front, 30 ft. 
deep, and elaborately ornamented with carv- 
ings. The peristyle, 290 ft. in length by 160 in 
breadth, fronts upon the quadrangle; its col- 
umns, originally 54 in number, are about 76 
ft. in height and over 7 in diameter, usually 
consisting of three blocks only. This magnifi- 
cent edifice, of which only six columns now re- 
main standing, was elevated some 50 ft. above 
the surrounding country, upon a platform, the 
western side of which contains three immense 
stones, whose united length is 190 ft., the largest 
being 64 ft. long, their average height 13 ft., 
their thickness still greater. The lesser temple, 
which like the other is of Corinthian architec- 
ture, stands upon a lower platform, a little to 
the south of the peristyle of its greater neigh- 
bor ; its length, including the colonnades, was 
225 ft., and its breadth 120. Its peristyle con- 
sisted of 44 columns, 45 ft. in height, of which 
only 19 remain standing. Some 30 rods dis- 
tant stands a small circular temple, elaborately 
ornamented. The material used in the con- 
struction of the temples is a compact limestone, 
quarried in the hills south of the town. The 
ruins of Baalbek are apparently of two or 
three distinct eras. The huge stones which 
form the platform are of Cyclopean architec- 
ture. The Roman temples, which appear to 
occupy the site of an older structure, present 
some of the finest models of the Corinthian ar- 
chitecture. The modern village of Baalbek is 
little more than a heap of rubbish, the houses 
being built of mud and sun-dried brick. The 
population is about 2,000. 

BAIN, Jan van, a Dutch painter, born in Haar- 
lem, Feb. 20, 1633, died at the Hague in 1702. 
He confined himself almost exclusively to por- 
traiture, and was an imitator of Vandyke, to 
whom he was little inferior in color and ex- 
pression. He painted portraits of the most 
eminent men of his own country, and of Charles 
II. of England and many of his court. He de- 
clined an invitation of Louis XIV. to visit Paris, 
on the ground that it would be unbecoming in 
him to trace the features of the despoiler and 
conqueror of his country. 

BABADAGH, a fortified town of European 
Turkey, capital of the Dobrudja, or N. E. Bul- 
garia, in the eyalet and 96 in. N. E. of the city 
of Silistria, near Lake Rassein, which is con- 
nected with the mouths of the Danube and the 
Black sea; pop. about 10,000. Near the en- 
trance of the lake is the seaport of Kara Ir- 
man, through which Babadagh carries on an 
extensive trade. The town lies in an unhealthy 
situation between mountains and swamps. It 
is called after Baba the saint, whose adjoining 
tomb attracts Moslem pilgrims. . It contains 



180 



BABBAGE 



BABEL 



five mosques, a college, and an aqueduct, and 
was 'of great strategical importance in the 
Turko-Russian conflicts of the 18th century 
and in the Crimean war, when the forts were 
ineffectually bombarded by the Russians (March 
27, 1854). 

BABBAGE, Charles, an English mathematician, 
born at Teignmouth, Deo. 26, 1792, died in Lon- 
don, Oct. 20, 1871. He was a fellow student 
of Sir John Herschel at the university of Cam- 
bridge, and was Lucasian professor there from 
1828 to 1839. He became celebrated as the 
inventor of the calculating machine. (See 
CALCULATING MACHINES.) He was one of the 
founders of the royal astronomical society and 
of the British association, and the originator of 
the statistical society, and wrote extensively for 
scientific and philosophical periodicals on math- 
ematics, magnetic and electric phenomena, 
mechanical science, geology, and statistics. 
Among his works are : " Letter to Sir Hum- 
phry Davy on the Application of Machinery 
to Mathematical Tables" (1822); translations, 
with Herschel and Peacock, of Lacroix's works 
on the differential and integral calculus ; " Com- 
parative View of the different Institutions for 
the Assurance of Life" (1826); "A Table of 
the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 
1 to 108,000" (1826) ; " Reflections on the De- 
cline of Science in England " (1830); "Econ- 
omy of Manufactures and Machinery " (1832), 
which passed through many English editions 
and foreign translations, and has been called by 
Blanqni a hymn in honor of machinery ; " A 
Ninth Bridgewater Treatise" (1837), defending 
mathematical studies from the charge of a ten- 
dency to infidelity ; " The Great Exposition " 
(1851) ; and "Passages from the Life of a Phi- 
losopher" (1864). His house in London was 
for many years a centre of intellectual society. 

BABCOCK, Rnfns, D. D., an American, clergy- 
man, born at North Colebrook, Conn., Sept. 18, 
1798. Pie graduated at Brown university in 
1821, and was for two years tutor in Columbian 
college, D. C. In 1823 he was ordained pastor 
of the Baptist church at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; 
in 1826 he became pastor in Salem, Mass. ; and 
in 1833 he was elected president of Waterville 
college, Maine; but his health failing, he re- 
signed in 1836, and accepted the pastorate of 
the Spruce street Baptist church in Philadel- 
phia, whence he returned after three years to 
his first charge at Poughkeepsie. He was sub- 
sequently pastor of a church in Paterson, N. J., 
and has held successively the offices of secretary 
of the American and foreign Bible society, of 
the American Sunday school union, and of 
the Pennsylvania colonization society. He 
edited for five years the "Baptist Memorial," 
and has published a "Memoir of Andrew Ful- 
ler" (1830), "History of Waterville College" 
(1836), " Tales of Truth for the Young " (1837), 
"The Emigrant's Mother" (1859), "Memoirs 
of John M. Peck" (1862), &c. 

BABEL, the Hebrew name for Babylon and 
the Babjlonian empire. In the language of 



the Chaldeans it was probably Bab- II, the 
" gate of (the highest) God ; " but the Hebrew 
form is explained by balal (or bilbel), to con- 
found, in allusion to the confounding of 
tongues consequent on the building of the 
tower of Babel. This tower was probably 
never carried to any great elevation, but a 
sacredness may have been attached to the spot 
on which it was to be built ; and there, long 
after, was erected the pyramidal temple of 
Bel-Merodach, finally repaired by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, the ruins of which, at Borsippa, are 
now known as Birs Nimrud (citadel of Nim- 
rod). Except in one passage (Gen. xi. 9), there 
is no reference in Scripture to the tower of Ba- 
bel ; but we are told of a temple of Bel in which 
Nebuchadnezzar placed the spoils of Jerusalem, 
and probably those of his other conquests. 
Herodotus describes a temple of Belus, which 
according to him consisted of a "solid tower 
of a stadium in depth and width; upon this 
tower another is'raised, and another upon that, 
to the number of eight towers." This gen- 
eral description tallies so closely with the 
mound of Birs Nimrud as to render it probable 
that this is the remains of the temple of 
Belus. The ruin presents the aspect of a 
huge irregular mound, rising abruptly from a 
wide desert plain, with masses of vitrified mat- 
ter lying around its base. Its interior is found 
upon excavation to be composed of a mass of 
brick partially vitrified by fire, showing that it 
is the ruin of a structure into which combus- 
tible material largely entered. The bricks dis- 
interred from the mound bear inscriptions in 
the cuneiform character, in most of which the 
name of Nebuchadnezzar appears. One of the 
inscriptions of this monarch reads : "A former 
king had built it (they reckon 42 ages) ; but he 
did not complete its head. Since a remote 
time the people had abandoned it, without or- 
der expressing their words. Since that time 
the earthquake and the thunder had dispersed 
its sun-dried clay. The bricks of the casing 
had been split, and the earth of the interior 
had been scattered in heaps." Attempts have 
been made to represent this temple of Belus, 
as restored and rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar. 
That which appears most probable is by Sir 
Henry Rawlinson. He says : " Upon a platform 
of crude brick, raised a few feet above the allu- 
vial plain, was built of burnt brick the first or 
basement stage, an exact square, 272 ft. each 
way, and 26 ft. in perpendicular height. Upon 
this stage was erected a second, 230 ft. each 
way, and likewise 26 ft. in perpendicular 
height, which, however, was not placed ex- 
actly in the middle of the first, but considera- 
bly nearer to the southwestern end, which con- 
stituted the back of the building. The other 
stages were arranged similarly, the third being 
188 ft. square and 26 ft. high ; the fourth, 146 
ft. square and 15 ft. high; the fifth, 104 ft. 
square, of the same height as the fourth ; the 
sixth, 62 ft. square, and again the same height; 
the seventh, 20 ft. square, and once more the 



BABEL 



BABER 



181 



same height. On the seventh stage was prob- 
ably placed the ark or tabernacle, which seems 
to have been again 15 ft. high, and must have 
nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the 
seventh story. The entire original height, 
allowing three feet for the platform, would 
thus have been 156 ft., or without the pjat- 
fprm 153 ft. The whole formed a sort of 6b- 
lique pyramid, the gentler slope facing the N. 
E., and the steeper inclining to the S. W. On 
the N. E. side was the grand entrance, and here 
stood the vestibule, a separate building, the 
debris from which, having joined those from 
the temple itself, fill up the intermediate space, 
and remarkably prolong the mound in this di- 
rection." The several stories of this temple 
appear to have been painted in several colors : 
the lowest black, representing Saturn; then, 
in order, Jupiter, orange ; Mars, red ; the Sun, 
golden ; Venus, yellow ; Mercury, blue ; the 
moon, silver. Above these was the shrine, in 
which, according to Herodotus, was a golden 
table, and a bed well furnished, but no image. 
Within the shrine, he adds, " no one remains 
over night, except a native female, one whom 
the god has chosen in preference to all others, 
as say the Chaldeans, who are priests of that 
god. These persons also say, asserting what I 
do not believe, that the god himself frequents 
the temple, and reposes on the couch." The 
purposes to which this temple became devoted 
from age to age may be gathered from the 
foregoing. Consecrated, perhaps, at first to 
the ambition of a monotheistic faith, it passed 
through several stages of Sabianism or wor- 
ship of the host of heaven, until the rites per- 
formed in it sank into the gross idolatry of later 
times, and it was polluted by the vices which 
grow out of heathen superstition, as intimated 
by Herodotus. In one respect this temple, or 
rather series of temples built on the same spot, 
subserved a valuable purpose. The Babyloni- 
ans were given to the study of astronomy ; the 
temple served also as an observatory, from 
which the movements of the heavenly bodies 
could be watched. - Assuming, which is proba- 
ble, that the mound of Birs Nimrud represent? 
the most important structure in ancient Baby- 
lon, it enables us to correct, at least approxi- 
mately, the statements of the later historians as 
to the height of the walls which surrounded 
the city. This temple was at most only 156 ft. 
high, while we are told that the city walls were 
300 or 350 ft., with towers haying a height of 
420 ft. These walls would therefore be nearly 
as high as the dome of St. Paul's, London (365 
ft.), and the towers almost as high as the cross 
which surmounts the dome of St. Peter's at 
Rome (430 ft.). Of all human structures the 
apex of the greatest Egyptian pyramid (480 ft.) 
is the only one which greatly exceeds that as- 
cribed to the brick towers of Babylon. The 
only other ruins which have in any way been 
proposed to be identified with the ancient Babel, 
are those now denominated El-Kasr and Babil, 
on the opposite side of the Euphrates, at a dis- 



tance of about 12 m. from Birs Nimrud. (See 
BABYLON.) 

BAB-EL-MANDEB (Arabic, "the gate' of 
mourning," referring to the dangerous naviga- 
tion), a strait uniting the Indian ocean (gulf of 
Aden) with the Red sea, separating Asia from 
Africa, and situated between the shores of 
Samhara and Arabia. The distance across, 
from the projecting cape Bab-el-Mandeb (anc. 
Palindrormis) on the Arabian shore to the 
opposite coast of Africa, is about 18 m., the 
island of Perim and other smaller islands ly- 
ing in the intermediate space, and dividing the 
strait into a western channel with a depth of 
180 fathoms and an eastern one from 7 to 14 
fathoms deep. The latter is most practica- 
ble for navigation. Perim, commanding the 
straits, has been in British possession since 
1857; a fort has been built at Straits point, 
and a revolving light was erected in 1861. 

BABER, Zablr cd-Diii Mohammed, Mogul empe- 
ror, born in 1482 or 1483, died in December, 
1530. He was a descendant of Tamerlane, his 
father being sultan of Khokan, a Tartar king- 
dom on the Jaxartes. On his father's death, 
which happened when he was 11 or 12 years 
old, the kingdom was seized by his uncle, the 
sultan of Samarcand, but Baber succeeded in 
maintaining his rights. Baber's early life was a 
succession of wars with his neighbors. He was 
obliged to fly, and went to Khorasan with 300 
followers, where he sought assistance from the 
sultan, which was refused. A number of Mon- 
gols joined his standard, and Baber marched 
on Cabool in Afghanistan, which he captured 
in 1504. The following year he made an ir- 
ruption into the Punjaub, but did not cross the 
Indus, and returned to Cabool. He became 
involved in dissensions in Khorasan in 1506, 
and for many years was occupied with attempts 
to recover his paternal possessions. In 1519 
he again descended into Hindostan, crossed the 
Indus, and conquered some towns in the Pun- 
jaub. In 1524 he advanced to Lahore, which 
he captured and burned. The next year he ad- 
vanced to Paniput, about 50 miles from Delhi. 
Here he encountered the troops of Sultan Ibra- 
him Lodi, the Afghan sovereign of Delhi, and 
completely vanquished him, April 27, 1526. 
Baber's lieutenants occupied Delhi and Agra, 
while his son Humayun routed another Afghan 
army, and Baber himself marched south against 
the Hindoos, and gained a victory over Rana 
Sanka, the most powerful of their princes. 
From this time Baber occupied himself in con- 
solidating his extensive dominions. He made 
roads with stations for travellers ; directed the 
land to be measured with a view to equable 
taxation ; planted gardens and introduced fruit 
trees ; and established a line of post houses 
from Agra to Cabool. To great political and 
military talents Baber joined literary tastes 
and accomplishments. He wrote a history of 
his own life in the Mongol language, which has 
been translated. He founded a dynasty in In- 
dia which lasted almost three centuries, and 



182 



BABEUF 



BABISM 



embraced among its members Akbar and Au- 
rungzebe. He was succeeded by Humayun, 
the oldest of his three sons. 

BABECF, or Babcenf, Francois Noel, a French 
revolutionist, born in St. Quentin in 1764, ex- 
ecuted at Vend6me, May 27, 1797. He began 
life as a surveyor's assistant. In his youth he 
was arrested on account of his subversive 
theories, and was also imprisoned on a charge 
of forgery, of which he was acquitted. He 
professed the fullest sympathy with the revo- 
lution in 1792, obtained several public offices, 
and in 1794 established, under the name of 
Cains Gracchus Babeuf, a journal called Le 
tribun du peuple, urging the most extreme 
socialistic action. His followers were called 
Babouvistes. In March, 1796, he organized a 
conspiracy for the overthrow of the authori- 
ties and the constitution, and for carrying his 
theories into practice by an equal distribution 
of property. Being betrayed in May, Babeuf 
and his principal adherents were arrested, 
and were tried at Vend6me in the follow- 
ing year. Babeuf and Darth6 were sentenced 
to death, and attempted to commit suicide, 
but were still alive when carried to the scaf- 
fold. Of their accomplices 56 were acquit- 
ted, and 7 transported, including Buonarotti, 
who afterward published Conspiration pour 
Vegalite dite de Babeuf, with an account of 
the trial (2 vols., Brussels, 1828). Among Ba- 
beuf s works are: Cadastre perpetuel (Paris, 
1789), and Du systeme de depopulation, ou la 
vie et let crimes de Carrier (1794). Ed. Fleury 
refuted his theories in Babeuf et le socialisme 
en 1796 (Paris, 1851). 

BABINET, Jacques, a French physicist, born at 
Lusignan, March 5, 1794, died in October, 1872. 
He was educated at the polytechnic school, 
taught mathematics, physics, and meteorology, 
and became a member of the academy and an 
astronomer in the bureau of longitudes at the 
Paris observatory. His scientific lectures, cele- 
brated for their attractive style, were familiarly 
known in Paris as the causeries du pere Babi- 
net. He wrote in the annals of the academy 
and other periodicals on meteorological and 
mineralogical optics, terrestrial magnetism, the 
theory of heat, and the measure of chemical 
forces, and made important improvements in 
pneumatic machines, in hygrometers, atmome- 
ters, goniometers, afld in geographical maps 
(cartes homalograpkiques) ; but his unfortunate 
predictions in regard to the failure of the At- 
lantic cable and to various meteorological phe- 
nomena have been much ridiculed. Among 
his works is Etudes et lectures sur les sciences 
d 'observation et sur leurs applications pra- 
tiques (6 vols., Paris, 1855-'67). 

BABISGTON, Anthony, an English conspirator, 
born at Dethick house, Derbyshire, about 1566, 
executed in London, Sept. 30, 1586. He be- 
longed to the Roman Catholic branch of an 
ancient and opulent family, and when hardly 
20 years of age became the leader of a band 
of young Catholics who were fired with enthu- 



siasm for their faith and for the rescue of Mary 
Stuart, then a prisoner near the Babington 
estates. Betrayed by one of their companions, 
Babington and his 13 accomplices were arrest- 
ed and executed. On the day before his exe- 
cution he wrote to Elizabeth, whose murder 
was a part of the plot, confessing his guilt and 
imploring pardon. The execution of Mary 
was hastened by her correspondence with 
Babington. 

BABIJVGTON, William, an English physician, 
born at Portglenone, in the N. of Ireland, in 
June, 1756, died in Lo'ndon, May 29, 1833. 
He was early connected with Guy's hospital as 
an apothecary and lecturer on chemistry, and 
after 1797 became physician in that institution, 
and had an extensive medical practice in Lon- 
don. He laid the foundation of the geological 
society, and became its vice president and 
afterward president, making liberal donations 
to the museum and library. Having purchased 
the earl of Bute's fine mineralogical collec- 
tion, he published " A Systematic Arrange- 
ment of Minerals" (London, 1795), and "A 
New System of Mineralogy" (1799). Among 
his other works was a " Syllabus of the Course 
of Chemical Lectures" (1802). His son-in- 
law, Richard Bright, M. D., published "Me- 
moirs of the Life and Writings of William 
Babington, M. D." 

BABISM, the doctrines of a Mohammedan 
sect which originated in Persia about 1843. 
Its founder appears to have been Mirza Ali 
Mohammed, a native of Shiraz, who, after mak- 
ing a pilgrimage to Mecca, undertook to form 
a new religion from a mixture of Mohamme- 
dan, Christian, Jewish, and Parsee elements. 
He took the name of Bab-ed-Din, " the gate 
of the faith," which he afterward abandoned, 
calling himself the "Point," or creator of the 
truth, claiming to be not merely a prophet, but 
a personal manifestation of the Divinity, while 
the title of Bab was conferred upon one of his 
followers. He sent out missionaries in various 
directions, the most celebrated of whom was a 
young woman, known in the sect as Gurret-ul- 
Ayn, or "Consolation of the Eyes." She was 
the daughter of Hadji Mullah, a distinguished 
jurist, and is said to have been remarkable for 
her personal beauty and intelligence. She set 
the example of appearing in public unveiled, 
and after preaching against polygamy and other 
Mohammedan practices, she finally left her hus- 
band and family, rfnd devoted herself to the 
propagation of the new religion. Her purity 
of character was never questioned by either 
party. The adherents of the Bab soon became 
numerous. The late shah did not molest them, 
but on the accession of Nasir-ed-Din in 1848, 
apprehending a persecution, they took up arms, 
announcing the advent of the Bab as universal 
sovereign. Two large armies sent against them 
were routed, but the insurrection was at last 
crushed, and the Bab, who had held aloof from 
the revolt, was arrested. After 18 months' 
imprisonment he was put to death with one 



BABO 



BABOON 



183 



of his disciples in 1850. This gave a new im- 
petus to his doctrines. At an assembly of the 
leaders in Teheran a young man of 16, Mirza 
Gahara, son of the governor of the city, was re- 
cognized as Bab and took the name of " Eternal 
Highness." He ordered his followers not to 
take up arms again until he should give tfite 
signal. An attempt of three Babists, however, 
to assassinate the shah in 1852 led to a new 
persecution. Numbere of the believers were 
simultaneously executed at Teheran with hor- 
rible tortures, and among the victims was Gur- 
ret-ul-Ayn. She was treated at first with re- 
spect, being of noble rank, but finally, after 
being forcibly veiled, was sentenced to be burn- 
ed alive. The executioner, however, smothered 
her before setting fire to the pile. The Bab 
himself was not captured. Since that time the 
Babists, as a secret sect, are supposed to have 
made great progress in Persia, India, and a part 
of Turkey. The Babist doctrine asserts the 
unity of the Godhead, but upon this it engrafts 
many of the doctrines of the Gnostics and Brah- 
mins. All beings are emanations from the 
Deity, and all will at the day of judgment be 
reabsorbed into the divine personality. The 
Bab has not revealed the whole truth, but will 
be followed by a successor who will complete 
the revelation. The Bab is superior to Mo- 
hammed, as Mohammed was superior to Jesus. 
The number 19 is sacred, for the original unity 
of the Deity consisted of 19 persons, of whom 
the Bab was the chief. At the death of a 
prophet or saint, his soul does not quit the 
earth, but joins itself to some other soul still in 
the flesh, who carries on his work. Babism 
enjoins few prayers, and only upon fixed occa- 
sions. Women are to discard veils, and share 
in the intercourse of social life. Concubinage 
and divorce are forbidden, and polygamy is 
discountenanced, though not absolutely prohib- 
ited. See Les religions et philosophies dans 
FAsie centrale (Paris, 1866), by Gobineau, who 
gives a translation of " The Book of Precepts," 
the sacred book of the Babists. 

BABO, Franz Marina TOD, a German dramatist, 
born at Ehrenbreitstein, Jan. 14, 1756, died in 
Munich, Feb. 5, 1822. His Otto ton Witteh- 
bach is, next to Goethe's Goete von Berlichin- 
gen, the best German historical tragedy. His 
dramas have been collected in two volumes. 
(Berlin, 1793-1804.) 

BABOON, a division of the monkeys of the 
old world, belonging to the genus cynocephalvs 
of Ouvier. This genus is characterized by the 
position of the nostrils at the very end of the 
muzzle, which is lengthened and truncated; 
the teeth are 32 in number, as in man, but the 
canines are remarkably strong, and the last 
lower molar has a fifth point ; the ridges over 
the eyes are very distinct, and the occipital 
crest for the origin of the powerful muscles of 
the skull and jaws is as large in proportion as 
in the true carnivora ; the face is lengthened, 
giving the appearance of that of a dog, whence 
the generic name, and in the adult is marked 



with longitudinal furrows. All the species 
have cheek pouches and callosities. The ba- 
boons are among the largest of the quadruma- 
na, and their strength is enormous ; their dis- 
position is fierce and malignant, and their habits 
are of the most disgusting character ; they hardly 
possess a good quality, and are almost always 
rebellious in confinement and dangerous when 
at liberty. Their dispositions are exceedingly 
fickle, and they pass on the slightest provoca- 
tion from a pleased condition into a paroxysm 
of rage. In a wild state they are very cun- 
ning, and when attacked are most dangerous 
enemies. When trained from their youth, they 
exhibit a considerable degree of docility ; bnt 
they can never be trusted. They are semi- 
terrestrial ; from the nearly equal length of the 
fore and hind limbs, they run well on the 
ground, and are also excellent climbers ; their 
anterior extremities are remarkably powerful. 
Their food is principally vegetable, consisting 
of fruits, roots, the tender twigs of plants, and 
occasionally eggs and young birds ; in a state 
of captivity they will eat almost anything. In 
some species the colors are bright, and the fur 
long and fine, forming a kind of mane on the 
upper parts. They are generally divided into 
two groups: the baboons proper, with long 
tails, the genus cynocephalus of Cuvier; and 
the mandrills, with short tails, of which Bris- 
son has made the genus papio. There are six 




Chacma (Cynocephalus porcarius). 

well marked species of the former group: 1. 
The chacma, or pig-faced baboon (O. porcarius, 
Desm.), is a native of Africa, in the neighbor- 
hood of the Cape of Good Hope. The color 
is greenish or g