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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

3 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL HI. 
BOLAN PASS-CARMINE. 



104 




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



G-ENEBAL KNOWLEDGE.- 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME III. 
BOLAN PASS-CARMINE. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BEITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in tb 
Clerk's Office df the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 




I? 

O 

PS 



Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Third Volume of t/te Revised 

Edition are the following : 



WILLARD BAKTLETT. 

BOHBAT. 

BORNEO. 

BUBMAH. 

CALCUTTA. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

BOND, THOMAS EMERSON. 
BUNTING, JABEZ. 

JULIUS BING. 

BONAPABTE FAMILY, 

BOSSUET, 

BUNSKN, BARON VON, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

DELAVAN BLOODGOOD, M. D., U. S. N. 
BUCHANAN, FRANKLIN. 

FKANCIS 0. BOWMAN, Esq. 
BOYCE, WILLIAM. 
BRAHMS, JOHANNES. 

WILLIAM T. BRIGBAM, Esq., Boston. 
BREADFRUIT, 
BUCKTHORN, 

and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BUHLINOAME, Ph. I). 
BOTHWELL, EARL OP, 
BRASIDAS, 

and articles in history and biography. 

W. BRYAN OLAEK, Springfield, Mass. 
BOWLES, SAMUEL. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 
BBOMIDES, 
CALABAR BEAN, 
CALOMEL, 
CAMPHOR, 

and other articles of materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

BOND, 

BRIBERY, 

CABINET. 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 

BOTALLL, LEONARDO, 
BRAINARD, DANIEL, 
BRIGHT, RICHARD, 
CANCER, 
CAPILLARY VESSELS. 

and various medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 
BOSTON, MASS., 
BROOKLYN, N. Y., 
CALIFORNIA, 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS., 

and other articles in American geography. 

B. A. FlNKELSTEIN. 
BULGARIA. 
CALIPH. 
CALMUCKB. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 
BRAIN, DISEASES OF TUB. 
BRONCHITIS. 

ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. 
BOOK. 

BULL RUN. BATTLES OF. 
BYRON, LORD. 
CABALA. 
CAPE COLONY. 
CARLYLE, THOMAS. 



J. W. HAWES. 

BURLINGTON, N. J. and Iowa, 
CALAIS, Me., 
CALIFORNIA, LOWER, 

and other articles in American geography. 

CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 
BREWING. 
BUTTER. 
CAMERA. 
CANAL. 
CAOUTCHOUC. 

B. F. ISHERWOOD, late Chief Engineer U. S. N. 

BRASS. 
BBONZE. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

BORAX, 
BROMINE, 
CADMIUM, 
CARBOLIC ACID, 
CARBON DISULPHIDE, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., 
Boston. 

BONE CAVES, 
BRACHIOPODA, 
CAMEL, 

and other articles in natural history. 

J. N. LARNED, Buffalo, N. Y. 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 

CHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto. 
CANADA, DOMINION OF, 
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 

and other articles in Canadian geography. 

W. MATTHEWS. 

BOOKBINDING. 

JOHN MITOHEL. 

BREHON LAWS. 

Col. WILLIAM H. PAINE, Asst. Engineer East 
River Bridge. 
CAISSON. 

Prof. THOMAS T. SABINE, M. D. 

CARIES. 

JOHN G. SHEA, LL. D. 

CALIFORNIA, INDIANS OF. 
CANADIAN INDIANS. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

BOONE, WILLIAM JONES, D. D. 
BRAY, THOMAS. 

BROWNE, EDWABD HAROLD, D. D. 
BURGESS, GEORGE, D. D. 

P. H. VANDER WEYDE, M. D. 
CALORIC ENGINE. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 
BOLIVIA, 
BRAZIL, 
BUENOS AYBES, 

and other articles in South American geography. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

BOUTWELL, GEORGE SEWALL. 

BROWN, JOHN, an American Abolitionist. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College. 

BRAHMA. 

Gen. JAMBS HARBISON WILSON. 

Bnmr, K. 

BRIDGE, MILITARY. 

CANNON. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



BOLAN PASS 

BOLAJf PASS, a defile in the mountains of 
N. E. Beloochistan, between Dadur and 
Shawl, on the route between the lower Indus 
and the table land of Afghanistan. It consists 
of a succession of ravines rising 90 ft. to the 
mile for 55 m., when the summit is reached at a 
height of 5,793 ft. above the level of the sea. 




Bolan Pass. 

A small stream called the Bolan river flows 
down the pass, and after rains is a dangerous 
torrent. The British expedition to Afghanistan 
in 1839 spent six days, from March 16 to 21, in 
passing through this defile. 

BOMS, a missile weapon in common use 
among the Indians on the great South Ameri- 
can plains, and especially among the gauchos 
of the Argentine Republic, chiefly used for cap- 
turing animals. It consists of two balls covered 
with leather, and united by a thin plaited thong 



BOLE 

varying in length from 6 to 8 feet. The gau- 
cho holds one of the balls in his right hand, 
whirls the other round his head, and when 
sufficient momentum has been obtained sends 
them whirling like chain shot through the air. 
Striking the legs of an animal, the thong is 
tightly wound about them, rendering escape 
impossible. This weapon has often been used 
with great effect in war. The balls may be 
of stone, iron, or wood ; those of iron, usually 
small, may be projected an amazing distance. 

BOLBEl, a town of France, in the department 
of Seine-InfeVieure, on the Bolbec river, 16m. 
E. N. E. of Havre; pop. in 1866, 9,063. The 
ample water power furnished by the river Bol- 
bec makes it a thriving manufacturing town. 
Its principal productions are cotton fabrics, but 
it has also woollen and linen factories, dye 
works, and tanneries. 

BOLE (Gr. /?<M.o?, a mass), an argillaceous 
earthy mineral which occurs in amorphous 
masses of various colors, as yellow, black, 
brown, and bright red, all derived from oxide 
of iron. The substance is probably disintegra- 
ted basalt. It has a conchoidal fracture, yields 
to the nail, and the streak is shining. When 
placed in water it absorbs it rapidly, and falls 
to powder. It was formerly employed as a 
medicine for its absorbent, astringent, and tonic 
properties; the last due, no doubt, only to the 
iron in its composition. It is still used in 
India in medicine, and in Europe for giving a 
color to anchovies and tooth powders, and as 
a medicine in veterinary practice. Analysis 
shows it to be a hydrous silicate of alumina, 
with varying proportions of oxide of iron, and 
very small quantities of lime and magnesia. It 
is used as food by some of the native Indians 
of South America, and the Japanese eat it to 
induce a thin and spare habit of the body. In 
Germany bole is calcined, washed, and ground 
for a paint, and employed to remove grease 
stains from cloth or wooden floors, and hence 
called Bergseife, mountain soap. The paint 
known as sienna, or burnt sienna, is a prepara- 



BOLEYN 



BOLINTINEANO 



tion of a chestnut-brown variety from Siena in 
Italy. It is fashioned into pipes by the North 
American Indians, Turks, and Germans. 

BOLEYN, Anne. See ANNE BOLEYN. 

BOLCRAD, a town of Roumania, in the prov- 
ince of Moldavia, at the head of Lake Yalpukh, 
connected with the mouths of the Danube, 105 
m. S. S. E. of Jassy, and 28 m. N. N. W. of 
Ismail; pop. in 1866, 9,114. The inhabitants 
are chiefly Bulgarians. The houses are nearly 
all of stone. The town was formerly included 
in the Russian province of Bessarabia, but was 
ceded to Moldavia in 1857, in conformity with 
the Paris treaty of the preceding year. 

BOLIMBROKE, Henry St. John, viscount, an 
English statesman and author, born at Batter- 
sea, London, Oct. 1, 1678, died Dec. 12, 1751. 
He was the son of Sir Henry St. John, bart., 
and of a daughter of the earl of Warwick. His 
early education was managed by his mother, on 
strict puritanical principles. After attending 
school at Eton, he proceeded to Christ Church 
college, Oxford, where he distinguished him- 
self by the brilliancy of his parts rather than 
by diligence. After a tour on the continent in 
1698-'9 he was married in 1700 to Frances, 
daughter of Sir Henry Winchcomb; but the 
union was unhappy, and they speedily separa- 
ted. St. John's varied attainments and personal 
attractions rendered him a favorite in the fash- 
ionable circles of London, and before he was 
25 years of age he was a notorious libertine. 
In the hope of interesting him in honorable 
pursuits, his father retired from the position of 
representative in parliament for the borough 
of Wootton Basset, which was transferred to 
him, and he was thus brought into conspic- 
uous public life. The tories, under the lead 
of Rochester and Godolphin, were then in pow- 
er, and St. John at once attached himself 
to them. In 1704 he entered the ministry as 
secretary at war, and for four years he dis- 
charged the duties of that office. When Go- 
dolphin became a whig, and with Marlborough 
formed a new ministry, St. John retired to the 
country, and devoted himself to study. Two 
years later the tories triumphed, and he was 
made secretary of state in the department of 
foreign affairs. In 1712 he was called to the 
house of lords with the title of Viscount Boling- 
broke. Soon after the conclusion of the peace 
of Utrecht, in the negotiation of which he took 
an active part, a violent dissension broke out 
between him and his old friend Harley, then 
lord high treasurer and earl of Oxford, which 
did not terminate till Queen Anne had dis- 
missed Oxford and made St. John her prime 
minister. The queen died a week later, and 
George I. dismissed him, as he was suspected 
of having plotted for the return of the Stuart 
family to the throne. He fled in disguise to 
France, and became titular prime minister to 
the pretender, James III. During his absence 
he was impeached by Walpole at the bar of 
the house of lords, and formally attainted. 
After the failure of the pretender's Scottish 



expedition Bolingbroke was dismissed for neg- 
lect. He then sought a reconciliation with the 
Hanoverian party, but Walpole procured the 
prolongation of his exile, and for seven years 
lie remained in banishment, residing principally 
at La Source, near Orleans, and devoting him- 
self to belles-lettres and an active correspon- 
dence with Pope, Swift, and other literary con- 
temporaries. His wife dying in 1718, he was 
privately married two years later to the widow 
of the marquis de Villette, a niece of Mme. de 
Maintenon. It was chiefly through her in- 
strumentality, in bribing the duchess of Ken- 
da], a mistress of King George, with the sum of 
11,000, that he gained permission to return 
to his own country in 1723. He recovered his 
property, but being still excluded from the 
house of lords, he began writing political 
papers in the "Craftsman," under the titles 
of " An Occasional Writer " and " Humphrey 
Oldcastle," in which he attacked the ministry. 
His ""Letters upon English History " and his 
"Dissertation upon Parties" formed parts of 
this series. Failing in his efforts to overthrow 
the ministry, he quitted England once more 
for France, in 1735 and remained abroad till 
the death of his father in 1742, when he re- 
turned to take possession of the family estate 
at Battersea. He passed his leisure in the prep- 
aration of his literary works, and in inter- 
course with his philosophic and literary friends, 
among whom were numbered many of the 
most eminent men then living. On his death 
he bequeathed his manuscripts and works to 
David Mallet, who published a complete edi- 
tion of them, in 5 vols. 4to, in 1754. A new 
edition, with a life by Goldsmith, appeared in 
1809, in 8 vols. 8vo. Among the most note- 
worthy of his writings, besides those already 
noticed, are " The Idea of a Patriot King," a 
"Letter on the Spirit of Patriotism," "Some 
Reflections on the Present State of the Na- 
tion," "Letters on the Study and the Use of 
History," and " Concerning Authority in Mat- 
ters of Religion." They are written in a fluent, 
flexible, and eloquent style, combining an ap- 
parently profound philosophy with a sprightly 
and careless wit; but the rhetoric is some- 
times artificial, the learning borrowed, ami 
the thought unimportant. In spite of their 
serious defects, however, his writings for a 
long time influenced the tone of thought as 
well as the manner of writing of his age, and 
will ever occupy a distinguished place in the 
literary history of that epoch. As an orator. 
Bolingbroke held a high rank, but no complete 
specimen of his eloquence is now extant. 

BOLINTUVEA1VO, Demetcr, a Roumanian poet, 
born at Bolintina, near Bucharest, in 1826. He 
early entered the public service, and soon after- 
ward published in the newspapers of Bucharest 
several poems and articles which offended the 
government and caused him to lose his official 
position. The party of opposition, however, 
saw a valuable adherent in Bolintineano, and 
furnished him the means of studying in Paris, 



BOLIVAR 



BOLIVAR Y PONTE 



whither he went in 1847. In 1848, on the out- 
break of the Wallachian revolution, he re- 
turned, and edited the Populul mveranu, the 
organ of the democratic party. On the down- 
fall of the revolutionary government he again 
went to Paris, and afterward to Turkey. Un- 
der the government of Prince Ouza, he found 
himself again at liberty to return to Bucharest, 
where he once more took an active part in 
political affairs through the journal Dimbovitia. 
After Prince Ouza's coup d'etat (1864), Bolin- 
tineano received a place in the cabinet, but pre- 
ferred to exchange it for the office of council- 
lor of state. His principal poetical works, col- 
lected and published in 1852, consist of lyrics 
and ballads on themes connected with his 
country (French translation by himself, Brises 
d' Orient, 1866). He has also published a ro- 
mance entitled Manilv, which has attained 
much celebrity, and other prose works. 

BOLIVAR, a W. county of Mississippi, sepa- 
rated from Arkansas by the Mississippi river ; 
area, about 800 gq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,732, of 
whom 7,816 were colored. It consists mainly 
of swamp land, part of which is subject to 
frequent inundations. The climate of the low 
lands is unhealthy, and extensive fertile tracts 
are consequently left uncultivated. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 182,728 bushels of 
Indian corn and 15,571 bales of cotton. There 
were 720 horses, 1,478 mules and asses, 1,414 
milch cows, 3,099 other cattle, and 4,871 
swine. Capital, Beulah. 

BOLIVAR PONTE, Simon, the 'liberator of 
Colombia, born in Caracas, July 24, 1783, 
died at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, Dec. 17, 
1830. He was the son of one of the familias 
Mantuanas, which then constituted the creole 
nobility in Venezuela. He was sent to Madrid 
to be educated, married there in 1801, and re- 
turned to Venezuela, where on his arrival his 
wife died of yellow fever. He visited Europe a 
second time, but in 1809 returned home by way 
of the United States, and after the revolution 
broke out at Caracas, April 19, 1810, accepted a 
mission to London to purchase arms and solicit 
the protection of the British government. In 
September, 1811, he joined the insurgents, was 
made lieutenant colonel on the staif of Gen. 
Miranda, and received the command of Puerto 
Oabello, the strongest fortress of Venezuela. 
The Spanish prisoners of war confined in the 
citadel of Puerto Cabello, 1,200 in number, 
having succeeded in overcoming their guards 
and in seizing the citadel, Bolivar evacuated 
the place and retired to his estate at San 
Mateo, and the fortress was immediately oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards under Monteverde. 
This event obliged Miranda, on the authority 
of the congress, to sign the treaty of Vitoria, 
July 25, 1812, which restored Venezuela to 
the Spanish rule. Miranda endeavored to 
ieave the country, but was arrested in 'the 
night at La Guayra by Bolivar and other 
officers, and surrendered to Monteverde, who 
despatched him to Cadiz, where after some 



years' captivity he died in irons. Bolivar now 
went with his cousin Ribas to Cartagena, and 
enlisted there, from a number of refugees, 300 
soldiers for an expedition against the Spaniards 
in Venezuela. To this force Manuel Rodriguez 
Torices, the president of Cartagena, added 
500 men under the command of his cousin, 
Manuel Castillo. The expedition started in 
the beginning of January, 1813 ; and although 
Castillo suddenly decamped with his grena- 
diers, Bolivar kept on up the river Magdalena, 
driving the Spanish royalists from Tenerife, 
Mompox, and Cucuta, and arrived at Bogota, 
at that time the seat of the congress of New 
Granada. Here Bolivar and Ribas were both 
made generals by the congress, and, after 
having divided their little army into two 
columns, they marched by different routes 
upon Caracas, gaining recruits at every step. 
The only serious resistance on the part of 
the Spaniards was directed against the col- 
umn of Ribas, who however routed Gen. 
Monteverde at Los Taguanes, and forced him 
to shut himself up in Puerto Cabello with 
the remainder of his troops. On hearing of 
Bolivar's approach, Gen. Fierro, the gover- 
nor of Caracas, sent deputies to propose a 
capitulation, which was concluded at Vito- 
ria; and on Aug. 4, 1813, the liberating army 
entered the capital. Bolivar was honored 
with a public triumph, and having proclaimed 
himself " dictator and liberator of the western 
provinces of Venezuela" Marino had as- 
sumed the title of "dictator of the eastern 
provinces" he created "the order of the 
liberator," established a body guard, and sur- 
rounded himself with the show of a court. 
By the conduct of his officers and by the sus- 
picions which were prevalent that Bolivar 
aimed only at personal aggrandizement, the 
enthusiasm of the people was turned to dissat- 
isfaction. The Spaniards recovered them- 
selves and resumed the offensive. Jan. 1, 
1814, Bolivar assembled a junta of the most in- 
fluential inhabitants of Caracas, and asked to 
be relieved of the dictatorship ; but the junta 
insisted that he should retain the supreme 
power. In June, 1814, the Spanish general 
Boves marched on La Puerta, where Bolivar 
and Mariflo had formed a junction, and defeat- 
ed them in a battle in which the patriots lost 
1,500 men. Caracas was next taken, and Boli- 
var, defeated again at Aragua, fled to Cumana, 
sailed with some of his officers to Cartagena, 
and thence went to Tunja, where the congress 
of the federal republic of New Granada created 
him commander-in-chief, with the double mis- 
sion of forcing the president of the province 
of Cundinamarca to acknowledge the author- 
ity of the congress, and of then marching 
against Santa Marta, the only fortified seaport 
the Spaniards still retained in New Granada. 
He took Santa Fe, carrying the suburbs by 
storm, and Bogota immediately capitulated 
and became the seat of the general government 
of New Granada. In his design against Santa 



8 



BOLIVAR Y PONTE 



Marta he was hindered by the refusal of Cas- 
tillo, the commander of Cartagena, to furnish 
the munitions of war ordered from the citadel 
there. Bolivar led his troops against Carta- 
gena in the hope of reducing Castillo to sub- 
mission, and the season for action against the 
Spaniards was wasted by an indecisive siege 
of that city which lasted until May. Mean- 
while a great Spanish expedition from Cadiz 
had arrived, March 25, 1815, under Gen. Mo- 
rillo, at the island of Margarita, and had been 
able to throw powerful reinforcements into 
Santa Marta, and soon after to take Cartagena 
itself. Previously, however, Bolivar, seeing 
the hopelessness of the struggle there, had em- 
barked for Kingston, Jamaica, with about a 
dozen of his officers, on an armed English 
brig. During his eight months' stay at King- 
ston Morillo was overrunning New Granada 
almost without opposition; but the generals 
Bolivar had left in Venezuela, and Gen. Aris- 
mendi in the island of Margarita, still held 
their ground against the Spanish arms. From 
Kingston Bolivar repaired to Port-au-Prince, 
where, on his promise of emancipating the 
slaves, Petion, the president of Hayti, offered 
him four negro battalions for a new expedition 
against the Spaniards in Venezuela. At Cayes 
he met Brion, who had sailed from London 
with a corvette, arms, and stores for the re- 
publicans, and some patriot refugees from Car- 
tagena. ILaving united these forces, he sailed 
for Margarita April 1C, 1816, to aid Arismendi, 
who had already reduced the Spaniards to the 
single spot of Pampatar. On Bolivar's formal 
promise to convoke a national congress in 
Venezuela as soon as he should be master of 
the country, Arismendi summoned a junta in 
the cathedral of La Villa del Norte, and pub- 
licly proclaimed him the commander-in-chief 
of the republics of Venezuela and New Grana- 
da. On June 1, 1816, Bolivar landed at Ca- 
rupano, but here Mariflo and Piar separated 
from him to carry on a war against Cumana 
under their own auspices. Weakened by this 
separation, he set sail for Ocumare with 13 
vessels, of which 7 only were armed. His 
army mustered but 650 men, swelled by the 
enrolment of negroes, whose emancipation he 
had proclaimed, to about 800. While advanc- 
ing toward Valencia with this force, he was 
attacked and defeated by the Spanish general 
Morales not far from Ocumare. Compelled to 
reembark, he went first to the small island of 
Buen Ayre, and afterward joined the other 
commanders on the coast of 'Cumana ; but be- 
ing harshly received, he quickly retraced his 
steps to Cayes. After some months a majority 
of the Venezuelan military chiefs recalled him 
as their general-in-chief. He went first to 
Margarita with the arms, munitions of war, 
and provisions supplied by Petion, and was 
joined Jan. 2, 1817, by Arismendi; but five 
days later, when Arismendi had fallen into an 
ambush laid by the Spaniards, Bolivar escap- 
ed to Barcelona. The troops rallied at the 



latter place, whither Brion sent him guns and 
reinforcements, so that he soon mustered a 
new corps of 1,100 men. Here on Fob. 16 he 
met the Spanish forces under Morillo and de- 
feated them, after an obstinate battle lasting 
three days. On April 5 Bolivar left Barce- 
lona, and on the 15th the town was taken by 
the Spaniards and the garrison slaughtered. 
Piar, a man of color and native of Curacao, 
designed and executed the conquest from the 
Spaniards of the provinces of Guiana, Admi- 
ral Brion supporting that enterprise with his 
gunboats. On July 20, the whole of the prov- 
inces being evacuated by the Spaniards, Piar, 
Brion, Zea, Mariflo, Arismendi, and others, 
assembled a provincial congress at Angostura, 
and put at the head of the executive a trium- 
virate, of which Bolivar was appointed a mem- 
ber, notwithstanding his absence. On these 
tidings Bolivar went to Angostura, and, sup- 
ported by Brion, dissolved the congress and 
the triumvirate, to replace them by a "su- 
preme council of the nation," with himself as 
the chief, and Brion and Antonio Francisco 
Zea as the directors, the former of the military, 
the latter of the political section. Piar was 
arraigned on a charge of conspiracy before a 
war council under the presidency of Brion, 
convicted, and shot, Oct. 16, 1817. The con- 
quest of Guiana was a great aid to the patriots; 
and a new campaign, announced by Bolivar 
through a proclamation, was generally expect- 
ed to result in the final expulsion of the Span- 
iards. Nevertheless, toward the end of May, 
1818, he had after several battles lost all the 
provinces lying on the northern side of the 
lower Orinoco, while on the affluents of the 
upper, Paez, the leader of the patriot llaneros, 
was constantly victorious. At this critical mo- 
ment he met with San tender, a native of New 
Granada, and furnished him with the means of 
invading that territory, where the population 
were prepared for a general rise against the 
Spaniards. Powerful succor in men, vessels, 
and munitions of war began to arrive from 
England, and English, French, German, and 
Polish officers flocked to Angostura. Finally 
Bolivar was induced to convene a national con- 
gress, Feb. 15, 1819, the mere name of which 
proved powerful enough to create a new army 
of about 14,000 men, so that he found himself 
enabled to resume the offensive. He now form- 
ed the plan of making a feint toward Caracas, 
and, when Morillo should have concentrated 
his forces in Venezuela, suddenly turning to 
the west, uniting with Santander's guerillas, 
and marching upon Bogota. To execute this 
plan, he left Angostura Feb. 24, 1819, made a 
most extraordinary march across the Andes, 
and, aided by Santander and the foreign troops, 
consisting mainly of Englishmen, decided the 
fate of New Granada by repeated victories in 
July and early in August in the province of" 
Tunja. On Aug. 10 Bolivar made a triumphal 
entry into Bogota, amid the acclamations of 
the inhabitants, who hailed him as their libe- 



BOLIVAR Y PONTE 







rator. The Spaniards, all the Granadian prov- 
inces having risen against them, shut them- 
selves up in the fortified town of Mompox. 
Having regulated the Granadian congress at 
Bogota, and installed Gen. Santander as com- 
mander-in-chief, Bolivar marched to Montecal 
in Venezuela, where he had directed the pa- 
triot chieftains of that territory to assemble 
with their troops. Morillo withdrew before 
Paez from San Fernando de Apure to San 
Carlos. In October, 1819, the congress of An- 
gostura had forced Zea, whom Bolivar had 
made vice president during his absence, to re- 
sign his office, and chosen Arismendi in his 
place. On receiving this news, Bolivar sud- 
denly marched his foreign legion toward An- 
gostura, surprised Arismendi, exiled him to 
the island of Margarita, and restored Zea to 
his dignities. On Dec. 17, 1819, the two re- 
publics of Venezuela and New Granada at a 
general congress united under the name of Co- 
lombia, and Bolivar was made president. In 
New Granada 15 provinces out of 22 had 
joined the government of Colombia, and the 
Spaniards now held there only the fortresses 
of Cartagena and the isthmus of Panama. In 
Venezuela six provinces out of eight obeyed 
the laws of Colombia. Such was the state of 
things when Bolivar entered into negotiations 
with Morillo, resulting, Nov. 25, 1820, in the 
conclusion at Truxillo of a truce for six 
months. On Dec. IT Morillo embarked at 
Puerto Cabello for Spain, leaving the com- 
mand-in-chief to Miguel de la Torre. On June 
24, 1821, Gen. La Torre was totally defeated 
by Bolivar and Paez at Carabobo, about half 
way between San Carlos and Valencia. In 
this battle the royalists lost 6,000 men and all 
their baggage and artillery, and by it the war 
in Venezuela was virtually concluded. La 
Torre fled to Puerto Cabello, where he shut 
himself up with the remainder of his troops. 
On Sept. 23 Cartagena capitulated to Santan- 
der, and Puerto Cabello was captured by Paez 
in November, 1823. The Colombian congress, 
opened in May, 1821, at Cucuta, published on 
Aug. 30 a new constitution, and after Bolivar 
had again resigned, renewed his powers. Hav- 
ing signed the new constitution, he obtained 
leave to undertake the campaign of Quito 
(1822), to which province the Spaniards had 
retired after their ejection from the isthmus of 
Panama. This campaign ended in the incor- 
poration of Quito, Pasto, and Guayaquil into 
Colombia. Gen. San Martin, the liberator of 
Peru, having asked the assistance of Bolivar 
in driving the Spaniards from that country, 
he left the government in the hands of the 
vice president Santander, marched upon Lima, 
which the royalists evacuated at his approach, 
entered the city in triumph Sept. 1, 1823, and 
on Feb. 10, 1824, was made dictator by the 
congress of Lima. With 6,000 Colombians 
under Gen. Sucre and 4,000 Peruvians under 
Gen. Miller, he crossed the Andes, and on Aug. 
6, 1824, defeated the Spanish army on the plains 



of Junin. He then returned to Lima to reor- 
ganize the government, leaving Gen. Sucre to 
follow the retreating royalists to Upper Peru, 
where on Dec. 9 he achieved the decisive victory 
of the war at Ayacucho. Bolivar convened a 
congress and resigned the dictatorship of Peru, 
Feb. 1 0, 1 825. The provinces of Upper Peru met 
in convention at Chuquisaca, and having assum- 
ed for their country the name of Bolivia they 
made Bolivar perpetual protector, and asked him 
to prepare for them a plan of government. He 
returned to Lima, and from there on May 25, 
1826, presented the Bolivian code to the con- 
gress of Bolivia. In the mean time a serious 
antagonism had broken out in Colombia be- 
tween the centralists or Bolivarists and the 
federalists, Paez, the vice president of Vene- 
zuela, having broken into open revolt. Bolivar 
went to Bogota, assumed dictatorial powers 
Nov. 23, 1826, and meeting Paez at Puerto 
Cabello the last of December, he not only con- 
firmed him in his command of Venezuela, and 
issued a proclamation of amnesty to all the 
rebels, but openly took their part. Bolivar and 
Santander were reelected president and vice 
president; but in February, 1827, the former 
wrote a letter to the senate declining the po- 
sition. A large minority were in favor of ac- 
cepting his declination, but his friends proving 
a majority, he was induced to withdraw it. He 
repaired to Bogota to take the oath, but before 
doing so issued a decree, March 21, 1828, con- 
voking a national convention at Ocafia, with 
a view to modify the constitution in favor of 
the executive power. When, however, a large 
majority declared against the proposition, his 
friends vacated their seats, by which proceeding 
the body was left without a quorum, and thus 
became extinct. From a country seat some 
miles distant from Ocafia, to which he had 
retreated, he published a manifesto attacking 
the convention and calling on the provinces to 
recur to extraordinary measures. Popular as- 
semblies at Caracas, Cartagena, and Bogota 
anew invested him with dictatorial power. 
An attempt was now made to assassinate him 
in his sleeping room at Bogota, which he 
escaped only by leaping in the dark from the 
balcony of the window, and lying concealed 
under a bridge. Santander, convicted of ta- 
king a part in the conspiracy, was banished, 
and Gen. Padilla on the same charge was con- 
demned to death. Violent factions disturb- 
ing the republic in 1829, Bolivar in a new ap- 
peal to the citizens invited them to frankly 
express their wishes as to the modifications to 
be introduced into the constitution. An as- 
sembly of notables at Caracas answered by 
denouncing his ambition, declaring the separa- 
tion of Venezuela from Colombia, and placing 
Paez at the head of that republic. The senate 
of Colombia stood by Bolivar, but other insur- 
rections broke out at different points. Having 
resigned for the fifth time, in January, 1830, 
he again accepted the presidency, and left Bo- 
gotd to wage war on Paez in the name of the 



10 



BOLIVIA 



Colombian congress. But the influence of his 
friends in the congress was now weak, and he 
was forced to tender his resignation, notice 
being given that an annual pension would be 
granted to him on the condition of his depart- 
ure for foreign countries. He accordingly sent 
his resignation to the congress, April 27, 1830, 
but prolonged his sojourn at San Pedro until 
the end of the year, when he suddenly died. 
A few days before his death he dictated a 
farewell address to the nation, complaining 
bitterly of the ingratitude of those to whom 
he had devoted his life and fortune. During 
his whole life Bolivar was never without ma- 
lignant enemies, and he was constantly charged 
with cowardice and an ambition which aimed 
only at his own aggrandizement. But amid 
the conflicting reports of his biographers these 
facts stand forth strongly in his favor : that 
he conquered the independence of three states 
and secured their recognition by other na- 
tions ; that he gave them laws which secured 
the better administration of justice; and that 
he died no richer from having had the control 
of the treasuries of Colombia, Peru, and Bo- 
livia, and expended nearly all his own large 
fortune in the people's service. He was fond 
of pleasure, fame, and power, but patriotism 
and love of freedom were his ruling passions ; 
and his energy, generosity, and endurance in 
misfortune were acknowledged even by his 
enemies. By decree of the congress of New 
Granada, his remains were removed in 1842 to 
Caracas, where a monument was erected in his 
honor ; and in 1858 the city of Lima erected 
an equestrian statue of the " Liberator of the 
Peruvian Nation." 

BOLIVIA, a republic of South America, lying 
between lat. 12 and 24 8., and Ion. 57 25' 
and 70 30' W., bounded N. and E. by Brazil, 
from which it is partly separated 8. E. by the 
river Paraguay, S. by the Argentine Republic 
and Chili, and W. by the Pacific ocean and 
Peru. Bolivia, however, claims that portion of 
the Gran Chaco comprised between the rivers 
Paraguay and Bermejo, which would extend 
its, southern limits to lat. 26 53' 8. The re- 
public is divided into nine departments, which, 
with their areas, capitals, and population in 
1865, are as follows: 



DEPARTMENTS. 


Areas. 


Populat'n. 


CAPITALS. 


Populat'n. 




70,178 
150,000 
72,798 
26.803 
43,051 
21,600 
54,297 
144,077 
114,484 


7,948 
54,000 
219,788 
879,788 
619,465 
111,818 
290,804 
144,684 
103,800 


CobHa. 


2,500 

4,885 
26,664 
44,908 
88,092 
8,492 
25,774 
11,786 
8,375 


Beni 


Trinidad 


Chuqnisaea 
Cochabamba . . . 
La Paz. 




Cochabamba 
La Paz 


Oruro 
Potosi 


Oruro 


Santa Cruz 
Tarija 


Santa Cruz 
Tariia 


Total 




677,288,1,881,585 


The departments are subdivided into 37 dis- 
tricts, and these into 45 provinces. No official 
survey of the country has ever been made, but 
the above areas are, with the exception of the 



department of Beni, according to a map of Boli- 
via published in 1859 by Lieut. Col. J. Ondarza. 
Behru gives only 535,747 sq. rn. as the total 
area; but the former is probably more correct. 
The population consists of native whites, for 
the most part descendants of the Spanish set- 
tlers, mestizoes or Cholos (mixed white and 
Indian), mulattoes, zambos (mixed Indian and 
negro),. Indians in a domesticated state, and 
savage Indians. Of the last there are about 
250,000, which added to the figures of the 
table gives a total population of 2,081,585, 
rather more than one fourth of whom are 
whites. The aboriginal is by far the most 
numerous element in the republic; it forms 
in the province of La Paz nine tenths of the 
population ; in that of Tarija it is five times 
as numerous as the white. Of the many 
aboriginal tribes still existing in Bolivia, the 
most noteworthy are the Aymaras or Ay- 
marus, Quichuas, Moxos, and Chiquitos. The 
first two, once united under the dominion of 
the incas, speak languages of kindred origin, 
while in their customs and manners little dis- 
similarity is noticeable. The Aymaras dwell 
chiefly in La Paz, although some are met with 
in Oruro ; and the Quichuas inhabit the coast, 
the valley of the Desaguadero, and the N. and 
E. portions of the republic. Various monu- 
ments, such as obelisks, burial places, and other 
ruins, attest the proficiency in art and the high 
degree of civilization attained' by the Ayinara 
nation at an epoch far anterior to that of the 
incas. The Moxos (or Mojos) are remarkable 
for their ingenuity. The language of the Chi- 
quitos is copious and flexible, and lias a special 
vocabulary for females. The hair of this people 
does not whiten in extreme old age, but grows 
yellow. Most of these tribes have embraced 
Christianity and fairly entered upon the career 
of civilization. The Guarayos and Siriones are 
evidently descendants of a mixed race from the 
early Spanish settlers. In the tracts chosen by 
the Jesuits for their missions there linger the 
remnants of numerous indigenous nations, dif- 
fering in language, customs, and dress. The 
Bolivian Indians are usually squat in figure, 
robust and muscular, and capable of enduring 
the greatest hardship and fatigue ; and they arc 
especially remarkable for the rapidity with 
which they perform long journeys, travelling on 
foot, at a sort of trot, for days in succession, 
with no other sustenance than coca leaves 
chewed with lime or ashes, and occasionally 
a small quantity of pounded maize. Though 
usually mild and passive, they sometimes yield 
to fearful outbursts of temper. All the tribes 
above mentioned dwell in houses or huts con- 
structed of sun-dried bricks, rushes, or maize 
stalks thatched with grass. The uncivilized 
tribes, on the banks of the lower Beni and else- 
where, go naked, preserve the savage customs 
of their ancestors, lead a roving life, and sub- 
sist chiefly on game, wild roots, and fruits. 
The Spanish Creoles are most numerous in the 
| mining districts and in Cochabamba ; and im- 



BOLIVIA 



11 



Longitude ^East 12 of Washington 



Wcnata ' ,/v--' 1 . S, V N,<S 

S^^eS^X*? 

Ha^a Chlmare\"S.^\ 

J ..*/ ,.^a. v _i:'l i. - I <t.i /'^,,.<T\ 1 



4 <t^<J2*v>-^~A. ^ ^ jrirapui r --_ - 

^^^aajtM yejh. "^L. 

5jr9*! ! *sg*S'' /g?" T7 or< ,, n A, s 



jSa M^rioteieir; ^ 



^ M&^CoreUoi^ ' ml 
r *^foV oCbcMr , oca J 



u wn-Jar^mp^i.;^^-?-"" j if 

.tRl'SSrf-^f^P'"'*-^^? 06 '-" 



THl ^ E 



Longitude West 65 of Greenwich 




12 



BOLIVIA 



migrants into the country since the separation 
from Spain have chiefly settled in these places 
and in La Paz. Pure negroes are rarely met 
w ith. On the Pacific Bolivia has a coast line 
of 250 m. at most, including the sinuosities, 
which are numerous and of considerable ex- 
tent. The shore is high and rugged, and in 
parts interrupted by lofty hills; while to the 
interior stretches an arid sandy desert, only 
habitable in narrow strips along the banks of 
the rivers. The passage across this desert and 
over the Andes is attended with many hard- 
ships ; and transportation can only be effected 
on the backs of mules. In the tune of the incas 
this wilderness was traversed from Peru to 
Chili by a paved road or path wide enough for 
a single person to walk on. There is at present 
but one road leading from the coast to the in- 
terior, from Cobija to Oruro. Until 1872 
there were but two seaport towns of any im- 
portance on the coast. These were Oobija or 
Lamar, lat. 22 32' 50", a free port on the bay 
of Santa Maria Magdalena or Endymion, af- 
fording good anchorage for ships of any size, 
and shelter from the S. winds which prevail 
here ; and Tocopilla, on the bay of Algodonales. 
But in that year the small town of Mejillones, 
on the bay of the same name, about lat. 23 S., 
was very considerably extended, owing to the 
recent discovery of rich silver mines in the 
district of Caracoles, equally divided between 
Chili and Bolivia. By the middle of the year re- 
ferred to, 24 blocks of 300 feet square had been 
laid out, and a number of new buildings com- 
pleted, these having been for the most part 
constructed on sites given by the government 
to families moving thither from Cobija, which 
town, it is supposed, will soon fall into decay 
after the railway now in process of construc- 
tion from Caracoles to Mejillones is finished. 
Poor families received pecuniary assistance to 
enable them to move. The water at Mejillo- 
nes is plentiful and excellent ; an exception to 
the rule that on that part of the Pacific coast 
extending from Paita in the north of Peru to 
Valdivia in the south of Chili, water is neither 
abundant nor good. The bay of Mejillones, or 
Bahia de la Herradura (Horseshoe bay), S. of 
Cobija, has eight fathoms of water, and is 
sheltered by the Morro de Mejillones. North 
of Cobija bay are several shallow sandy bays 
with rocky points or promontories; but the 
most extensive inlet along the coast is Moreno 
bay (named from Mt. Moreno beside it, about 
7,000 ft. high), lat. 23 29', 17 m. wide, but 
frequented only by coasters. Between Manina 
creek and the river Loa are several guano beds, 
still worked, but showing signs of exhaustion. 
The most striking feature of Bolivia is its gigan- 
tic mountains. These separate in the south- 
west portion of the republic, between lat. 21 
and 22 S., into two systems, the Cordillera 
Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental or Cor- 
dillera Real, the latter consisting of many lofty 
ridges. These two great chains unite again to 
the north in the ridge cluster of Apolobamba, 



lat. 14 35' S. In the W. Cordillera, the fol- 
lowing peaks rise beyond the limit of perpetual 
snow : Tacora, Tatasavaya, Pomarapi (21,700 
ft. above the sea level), Parinacocha or Parina- 
cota (22,030ft.), Guallatiri or Gualatieri (21,960 
ft.), Iquimo, Toroni, Yabricoya, and the volca- 
noes Isluya and Sajama or Sahama (22,350 ft.), 
this last being, with the exception of Aconcagua, 
the highest point in the new world. In lat. 21 
S. this'same chain widens in an easterly direc- 
tion, presenting a number of snow-covered 
mountains, especially in Ion. 68 20' and 68 50' ; 
and still further E., the volcanoes Ollagua, Olca, 
and Tica. The Cordillera de Lipez, the uniting 
link between the E. and W. Cordilleras, is 
mainly composed of snow-capped peaks termi- 
nating in slender needle-shaped points. In lat. 
22 S. the Cordillera Oriental forms a nudo, or 
ridge cluster, having for its nucleus the Cerro 
de Chorolqne ; from which point the Chocaya 
and the Tasna and Ubina ranges stretch north- 
ward in two parallel ridges to lat. 20 S., where 
they unite at the portillo of Guasaco, one of 
the most elevated passes on the globe. A single 
chain, Frailes, continues thence to lat. 19 S. 
Here it takes the name of Cordillera de los 
Azanaques de Condo, and again breaking off 
into five distinct branches, terminates in the 
Nevado de Illimani, the loftiest of whose three 
summits rises 21, 145 ft. above the sea. East of 
the Cordillera de los Frailes, and in the line of 
the Tasna and Ubina ridge (also named the 
Cordillera de Chichas), the great eastern chain 
forms the Nudo de Potosi y Porco, which is 
likewise the central point of the nevadoa of the 
same names. Beyond the limits of the hill 
country, which extends into the valley of the 
Rio Grande or Guapey to a distance of nearly 
400 m. from the coast, lies the great Moxos 
plain, in which not even a pebble is to be 
found. During the wet season this region is 
flooded, and transit by boats is practicable in 
almost every direction through its dense forests. 
The country of the Chiquitos is rocky and ele- 
vated above the reach of inundation. Between 
the two great Cordilleras lies the valley of the 
Desaguadero, a vast inter-alpine plain, with an 
estimated area of 30,000 sq. m., which from its 
great elevation 13,340 ft. on an average and 
the height of the mountains which surround it, 
might be called the Thibet of South America. 
In this table land, which is intersected by iso- 
lated hills and low mountain ranges, are Lake 
Titicaca, and the rich silver and copper mines 
of Corocoro to the north, while the S. part is 
mainly covered by a vast, solid, and almost un- 
interrupted crust of salt many inches thick, and 
nearly 5,000 sq. m. in extent. Between the 
mountain ranges stretching eastward toward 
the great wooded plain are numerous fertile 
valleys, principal among which is the Valle 
Grande. Lake Titicaca, whose waters are divi- 
ded between Peru and Bolivia, and whose 
shores were the chief seat of power of the inoas, 
is situated in the table land just referred to. 
It is the largest inland lake in South America, 



BOLIVIA 



13 



its length being variously estimated at from 80 
to 120 m., and its average breadth being 40 m. 
Its surface is dotted with small islands, contain- 
ing curious ruins. It was on one of these 
islands, also called Titicaca, that according to 
the legend Manco Capac and his consort, 
Mama Oello Huaco, the founders of the inca 
dynasty, descended to spread civilization 
through the surrounding nations. Into the 
lake flow a number of rivers, which during the 
rainy season are of considerable volume ; and 
much of the water is drained off by the De- 
saguadero, its only outlet, a navigable river, 
varying in width from 25 to 60 yards, which, 
after a southerly course of nearly 200 m., flows 
into the swampy lake of Aullagas or Paria, 
whose surface is perhaps 490 ft. lower than 
that of Titicaca, and which has no visible issue. 
In Lake Aullagas are two islands, Panza and 
Filomena, the latter recently discovered. In 
the department of Beni is Lake Roguaguado, 
1,100 It. above the sea, with an area of about 
900 sq. m. ; and in a cultivated valley near 
Potosi is the remarkable Laguna de Tara- 
paya, situated in a circular basin on a sort of 
elevated lawn. While the water in the centre 
is constantly in a state of violent ebullition, the 
temperature at the brink is only about 93 F. 
It is said that in 1825, when an inundation 
rolled over Callao on the Pacific coast, the 
water disappeared for a tune from this lagoon. 
There are numerous other lakes and marshes in 
the south and east, from which latter the Chi- 
quito Indians extract copious quantities of salt ; 
but little is yet known of their precise situa- 
tion and extent. Bolivia is the centre of the 
watershed between the feeders of the Amazon 
and the Plata. The river Beni, whose head 
waters descend from the mountains near Co- 
chabamba, receives among other tributaries 
the Mapiri and Ooroico, holds first a N. W. and 
afterward a N. E. course, and joins the Ma- 
mor6, which takes its rise in the centre of the 
country, and flows in a generally N". course to 
lat. 10 20' S., where with the Beni it forms 
the Madeira. Among its tributaries are the 
Rio Grande, which descends from the 8. de- 
clivity of the lofty mountains near Cocha- 
bamba, and after an immense semicircular 
sweep falls into the Mamore near Trinidad; 
and the Itenez or Guapor6, which, leaving 
Brazil about lat. 13 20' 8., forms part of the 
boundary between that empire and the repub- 
lic until it unites with the Mamor6 about lat. 
1 1 50' 8. The Pilcomayo, formed by the united 
waters of the Cachimayo, Pilaya, and others, 
flows first E. and then 8. E. to the Paraguay. 
The Bermejo rises in the province of Tarija, 
leaves the republic parallel with the Pilcomayo, 
and also joins the Paraguay. The Paraguay 
enters at the 8. E., and, after forming for a 
distance of about 60 m. the 8. E. boundary, 
leaves the republic in lat. 20 25' 8. All the 
large Bolivian rivers send their waters to 
the Atlantic, while the Pacific receives only 
the Loa, separating the republic from Peru, 



and a few mountain streams which force their 
way through the desert of Atacama. Tra- 
chytic conglomerates in various stages of de- 
composition are the dominant element in 
the formation of the maritime Cordillera, 
and also in that of the more elevated por- 
tion of the great plateau of Oruro, as the 
valley of the Desaguadero is frequently called ; 
the trachyte of the latter region exhibitin<.'. 
however, great quantities of quartz crystals and 
saline efiloresence, and being hence unfavorable 1 
to vegetation. Although it has been supposed 
that some of the conical summits of the Cor- 
dillera Occidental are extinct volcanoes, no 
volcanic production is anywhere exhibited in 
the table land, nor is this region ever visited by 
earthquakes. In the E. Cordillera granite ap- 
pears to prevail from the Nevado de Illimani 
N. W. ; its general direction is N. W. and 8. E., 
but it is confined to the more elevated peaks. 
In its vicinity the trachytic formations invaria- 
bly become micaceous. Overlooking Cobija is 
a mass of basaltic porphyry ; and E. of the 
Cordillera Real a few spots of kindred origin 
mark the eastern limit of plutonic rocks in the 
lowlands. The Chiquito mountains are formed 
of gneiss with overlying foliated Silurian strata, 
the depressions in which formations are filled 
with sedimentary deposits, containing the fossil 
remains of colossal mammalia. Overlying this 
stratum is another of more recent formation, 
holding shells of existing species. The mineral 
wealth of Bolivia consists chiefly in its almost 
inexhaustible silver mines, principal among 
which are those of the Cerro de Potosi, in 
whose conical summit there are over 5,000 
openings. It is computed that the mines of 
this mountain yielded from 1545 to 1V8 ( ,I 
silver amounting in value to $1,000,000,000; 
or with the government fifths or royal dues, 
and the amount smuggled, a total of $2,000,- 
000,000 in 245 years. This celebrated moun- 
tain still continues to give an annual yield of 
$2,250,000. The name Potosi signifies an 
" eruption of silver." The Indians have at all 
times been the almost exclusive workers in 
the mines. Rich silver mines have been dis- 
covered in the Sierra del Limon Verde near 
Calamar, which are said to be greater than 
any hitherto found in Bolivia, and to yield 
ore equal to that of Potosi. Silver is also 
found in many other parts of the republic. 
Gold occurs in numerous parts of the moun- 
tain system. A huge mass of native gold 
detached by lightning from the base of Illi- 
mani was purchased at an enormous price, and 
sent to the museum of natural history in Ma- 
drid. In the sands of all the rivers descending 
from the Cordillera Real to the Beni or its af- 
fluents gold is found in abundance. The tin 
mines of Oruro are among the richest in the 
world; and copper is said to be as abundant 
in the mountains adjacent to Corocoro as was 
silver in the Potosi. Lead, salt, sulphur, nitre, 
and other volcanic products are found in large 
quantities; but these, in common with the 



BOLIVIA 



other sources of wealth in Bolivia, are of com- 
paratively little value to the country, owing to 
the difficulty of transportation. There are in- 
numerable thermal springs in the republic; 
those of Caiza in the district of Porco, and 
Urimiri and Machacamarca near Lake .Aulla- 
gas, are the most generally known. Not more 
than half of Bolivia has a tropical climate, al- 
though nearly the whole republic is within the 
tropics. In the valley of the Desaguadero ex- 
tremes of heat and cold are unknown. The 
year is divided into two seasons : the wet or 
summer, from November to April, when rain 
falls almost every day, and the nights are cold 
with occasional frost; and the winter, from 
May to October, when snow and rain are 
never seen. The summer is preceded and fol- 
lowed by snow storms. This valley is in gene- 
ral salubrious. The cold in the higher moun- 
tain regions is extreme ; hail and thunder 
storms are frequent and terrific; and several 
maladies of a peculiar nature render abode in 
these parts exceedingly disagreeable. The su- 
rumpe, a violent inflammation of the eyes caused 
by the reflection of the sun's rays on the snow, 
is attended by severe pain, and sometimes de- 
lirium, while the veto, or mareo (seasickness), 
called by the Indians puna, or soroche, attacks 
travellers with weariness, blood-spitting, verti- 
go, fainting fits, &c., and sometimes terminates 
fatally. In the lowlands S. of the Cordillera 
Real the heat is oppressive in many of the 
valleys, and intermittent fevers are common. 
Goitre is prevalent in the Yungas valleys, but is 
not accompanied by cretinism as in some parts 
of Europe. Among the vegetable productions 
are the potato, which grows wild in many parts ; 
quinoa (chenopodium quinoa), sometimes used 
as a substitute for the potato ; the various ce- 
reals ; and nearly all the fruits of the tropical 
and temperate zones. Cotton grows wild, and 
is of two kinds, yellow and white, both of a 
fine, long staple ; the sugar cane is raised to a 
considerable extent ; the coffee of the Yungas 
valley is of excellent quality ; cacao is abun- 
dant on the Beni, and considered to be supe- 
rior to that of Guayaquil ; and the same prov- 
ince and Santa Cruz produce tobacco reputed 
equal to that of Havana. But perhaps the 
most important product of Bolivia is the coca, 
the annual sales of which in the market of La 
Paz amount to $4,000,000. It grows exten- 
sively along the E. slope of the Andes, be- 
tween 5,000 and 6,000 ft. above the sea. It 
is used by the Indians as betel is by the Asi- 
atics and kava by the South sea islanders ; and 
a refreshing tea is also made from it. The 
country produces in abundance copaiba, sarsa- 
parilla, jalap, valerian, ipecacuanha, and other 
medicinal drugs ; the canela de clavo, a, species 
of cinnamon; and many varieties of gums, 
caoutchouc being abundant and of excellent 
quality. The fertile strips toward the coast, 
besides many of the inter-tropical products al- 
ready mentioned, yield yuca, maize, and algar- 
robas; and the arundo donax is cultivated. 



There are vast indigo fields ; cochineal is pro- 
duced; and flax, once prohibited by Spain, is 
now largely raised. Dyewoods are numerous ; 
and the dense forests afford timber of great 
beauty, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany, 
cedar, Brazil, and a variety of woods not com- 
monly known. The slopes of the Andes are 
to an immense elevation covered with magnifi- 
cent trees ; here, and in the valleys and the 
ravines of the mountains, abound cinchona 
trees, and especially the valuable G. Calisaya, 
from lat. 19 S., following the almost semicir- 
cular curve of the Andes, and at an elevation 
varying from 2,500 to 9,000 ft. above the 
ocean. Their usual companions, the ferns, 
melastomacea, arborescent passion flowers, and 
allied genera of cinchonaceous plants, are like- 
wise found in rich profusion. The various 
species of cacti, acacias, and palms are found 
in their respective zones; as also the mat6, 
or Paraguay tea, and a kind of mulberry, 
from the fibres of which the Indians prepare 
a beautiful yarn for shirts. A plant called 
sapaonane is used by the Indians to cure 
headache, and another called zapatilla as a 
laxative ; and the leaf of the matico is ap- 
plied to fresh wounds to draw out any foreign 
substance which might impede the cure. The 
cereals are sown on the table land, but do not 
ripen, and are cut green for forage. There 
are no trees here; the lower districts are 
clothed with a beautiful green- turf, and the val- 
leys with a coarse grass very good for pasture. 
The banks of Lake Titicaca are characterized 
by a luxuriant growth of rushes, used by the In- 
dians to make huts, mats, boats, and for a multi- 
plicity of uses. The llama, vicuna, alpaca, and 
guanaco roam in great numbers in the elevated 
regions ; horses, asses, and mules are plenty ; 
and numerous herds of horned cattle find pas- 
ture on the banks of the rivers in the plains. 
The forests are infested with pumas or cougars, 
jaguars, ocelots, wild cats, and bears. There 
are several species of monkeys. Peccaries are 
destructive to the crops ; the chinchilla is 
hunted for its fur ; and the burrowings of the 
bizcacha (lagostomus trichodactylus) render 
travel dangerous on the plains. The flesh of 
the tapir, carpincho (river hog), sloth, glut- 
ton, armadillo, and of two species of wild boar 
is used for food by the natives. There are the 
condor, gallinazo, and several species of 
hawks, also a species of ostrich ; and the mul- 
titude of birds in and about forest, lake, and 
river is incredible. Of reptiles there are the 
anaconda and the rattlesnake ; and the rivers 
are infested by caymans. Lake Titicaca 
abounds in fish of peculiar forms ; and in the 
rivers flowing to the Amazon is the bufeo, a 
variety of dolphin peculiar to these and the 
Brazilian waters. The vampire is troublesome 
in the plains, sucking cattle till death ensues; 
and there is a hornet called the alcalde, of 
enormous dimensions. Determined measures 
have of late been taken to construct roads. 
Several lines of rail way have been planned and 



BOLIVIA 



15 



sanctioned by the government: one from Co- 
bija to Potosi, and another to form a branch 
of the Peruvian railway from Arequipa to 
Puno. A line to connect La Paz with Acha- 
cache on Lake Titicaca was in progress in 
1871, and to be opened in 1872. Work com- 
menced in November, 1872, on a railway to 
connect Mejillones and the celebrated silver 
mines of Caracoles. The aggregate length of 
the affluents of the Madeira, with their tribu- 
taries, is 5,500 m., perhaps 3,000 m. of which 
navigated by steamers would aftbrd an easy 
outlet for the productions of the country. Some 
steps have been taken in this direction, and the 
government, to facilitate their execution, has 
decreed that the rivers of the republic shall 
henceforth be open for free navigation by ves- 
sels of all nations ; and in 1868 a New York 
engineer, Col. George E. Church, contracted 
for the establishment of a " National Bolivian 
Navigation Company " on the Madeira, the rap- 
ids of which will be avoided by a railway. 
A coarse cotton cloth, tocuyo, is made in Cocha- 
bamba, Santa Cruz, La Paz, and other places, 
over 600 looms being constantly occupied in the 
first named city. Santa Cruz produces excel- 
lent cordage from vegetable fibres, leather, furs, 
glass, and other commodities. Fabrics of a fine 
quality are made with the hair of the llama, 
alpaca, &c., at La Paz ; hats (from the wool of 
the vicufla) at San Francisco de Atacama ; ves- 
sels of silver wire in the mining districts; and 
there are besides various common cloths made 
by the Indian women. All the Indians are ac- 
quainted with the manufacture of gunpowder. 
The commerce of Bolivia is limited to the 
importation of cotton goods, hardware, furni- 
ture, jewelry, and silks, in exchange for Peru- 
vian bark, guano, copper ore, tin, borax, hides, 
furs, woollens, and wool hats. To facilitate the 
development of trade, the port of Cobija has 
been declared free. The total imports in 1871 
amounted to $6,000,000, and the total exports 
to $5,000,000. In 1859 the export of calisaya 
bark through the Peruvian ports of Arica and 
Islay amounted to $153,970, and from January 
to November, 1860, to $223,850. The inter- 
nal trade reached in 1868 about $50,000,000. 
The state mint at Potosi coins annually about 
2,250,000 pesos in silver. The national assem- 
bly in October, 1872, adopted a law permitting 
the exportation of silver in bars from June 1, 
1873, subject, however, to an export duty of 
50c. per mark, and 20c. per oz. for gold. An 
export duty of 4 per cent, is still paid on good 
money. By the provisions of the constitution 
of Bolivia, drawn up by Simon Bolivar in 1826, 
and considerably modified in 1828, 1831, and 
1863, the whole executive power is vested in a 
president elected for a term of four years. The 
legislative authority rests with a congress of 
two chambers, the senate and the house of rep- 
resentatives, both elected by universal suffrage. 
The president appoints a vice president to assist 
him in his functions, and also a ministry di- 
vided into the departments of the interior and 
105 VOL.. m. 2 



justice, finance, war, and education and public 
worship. The ministers are liable to impeach- 
ment before congress. The seat of the execu- 
tive government, formerly at La Paz, was 
transferred to Oruro in 1869. The standing 
army consists of 31 generals, 359 superior and 
654 subaltern officers, 3,034 men, and 522 
horses. The annual cost of the army is about 
$2,000,000. The revenue in 1867 amounted 
to $4,529,345, and the expenditures to $5,957,- 
275 ; deficit, $1,427,930. The revenue is de- 
rived partly from a land tax levied upon the 
Indian population, and partly from the import 
and export duties, and the proceeds of mines 
and other state property. Peru pays annually 
to the Bolivian government $506,250 for duties 
collected at the port of Arica on goods in tran- 
situ for Bolivia. The internal debt of the 
republic amounted on July 31, 1868, to $2,181- 
215, and it was estimated that the interest 
then past due amounted to n like sum. The 
country has no foreign public debt, and no 
paper currency, although the notes of the 
bank of La Paz have been declared legal ten- 
ders. There are in Bolivia three universities 
and 348 schools (primary, intermediate, and 
superior). 294 of which are for males and 54 
for females. The annual expenditure for public 
instruction amounts to about 260,000 pesos. A 
school of architecture is to be established in 
La Paz. The religion of the country is Roman 
Catholic ; and though no hindrance is offered to 
the exercises of other denominations, free and 
unrestricted toleration cannot be said to exist 
in Bolivia. Bolivia was formerly called the 
presidency of Charcas, and afterward Upper 
Peru, and formed from 1767 a part of the vice- 
royalty of Buenos Ayres. It was erected into 
an independent state in August, 1825, and 
called Bolivia, in honor of Simon Bolivar. A 
constitutional assembly decreed, Aug. 11, a 
republican form of government, appointed 
Gen. Sucre president, and requested Bolivar 
to prepare a constitution. Sucre's administra- 
tion continued till 1828, when he was forced 
to quit Bolivia by Gen. Gamarra, and was 
shortly afterward assassinated. His successor, 
Gen. Blanco, fell a victim to a revolution, 
headed by Balibian, two months after his in- 
auguration. Mariscal Santa Cruz, then in Chili 
as minister plenipotentiary from Peru, was 
elected to the presidency in 1829, and remain- 
ed in power till February, 1839. He was 
at the same time president of Peru, with the 
double character of protector of the Bolivio- 
Peruvian confederation. Velasco, aided by 
Balibian, raised a revolution, and having se- 
cured the overthrow of Santa Cruz usurp- 
ed the executive functions, but was himself 
overthrown by Balibian. The country again 
pronounced in favor of Santa Cruz, which 
produced an invasion by Gen. Gamarra, for 
the purpose of reestablishing Peruvian in- 
fluence. Balibian accompanied him for a 
while, but afterward took sides with the Bo- 
livians, and defeated the Peruvian army at 



16 



BOLIVIA 



BOLLAND 



Ingavi, where Gamarra was killed. President 
Balibian after five years was driven out by an- 
other revolution, and succeeded in power for 
a short time by Velasco, and subsequently by 
Gen. Belzu (1849). In 1855 Gen. C6rdoba 
was elected president, but was forced to yield 
to Dr. Linares, who, after nine revolutionary 
attempts, succeeded in 1858, and exercised 
power more as a dictator than as president till 
1860, in which year ho was cast into prison by 
three of his own officers, one of whom, Acha, 
had already failed in an endeavor to stir up 
a revolution against Belzu. Congress, which 
had been silent for four years, named Acha 
provisional president in 1861. In December, 
1864, Gen. Helgarejo rose against the govern- 
ment of Acha, who was defeated near Potosi 
in February, 1865. Melgarejo was recognized 
as president by almost the entire country ; but 
during his absence Gen. Belzu arrived at the 
capital of the republic, and caused himself to 
be proclaimed president. Melgarejo soon re- 
turned, and took the city by storm. Belzti 
was killed by one of his own soldiers. An un- 
successful rising against the Melgarejo govern- 
ment took place May 25, led by one Castro 
Drquedas, whose forces were finally defeated 
at Viacha, near La Paz, in January, 1866. 
Bolivia joined in the same year the alliance 
between Peru, Ecuador, and Chili against 
Spain, which had just declared war against 
the last named republic ; and one result of that 
step was a treaty between Chili and Bolivia 
settling the 24th parallel of 8. latitude as the 
boundary line between the two republics. In 
1867 Melgarejo ordered an election for presi- 
dent to take place, and declared that he would 
not himself be a candidate. In March 10,000 
square leagues of fertile territory, watered by 
the Purus, Jurua, and Jutay, were ceded to 
Brazil. A revolution broke out in December 
for the restoration of Acha, who had been until 
then kept a close prisoner by Melgarejo, and 
who issued a proclamation enjoining the peo- 
ple to assist him in reestablishing the constitu- 
tion of 1861, and promising to hold elections for 
a president irrespective of party or persons. 
The rebellion was terminated early in 1868, 
the insurgent leaders emigrating to the Argen- 
tine Republic. Melgarejo caused his cousin, 
one of the bravest officers in the array, to be 
shot for having attempted to raise a counter- 
revolution. In September Melgarejo issued a 
decree extending the rights of citizenship to all 
Americans. In spite of the continued dissatis- 
faction with his government, Melgarejo, with 
the unanimous consent of congress, proclaimed 
himself again dictator in February, 1869. In 
May he issued a decree restoring the constitu- 
tion ; but he nevertheless continued to exer- 
cise supreme control. The Bolivian govern- 
ment recognized the belligerent rights of Cuba 
in June of the same year. A new revolution- 
ary movement was set on foot toward the 
close of October by A. Morales, who but a few 
years previous had attempted the overthrow 



of President Belzu. This movement was 
speedily crushed, and was renewed with a like 
result in July, 1870. The following year wit- 
nessed a third attempt, which terminated in the 
complete overthrow of Melgarejo, who escaped 
to Peru, and was succeeded by Morales, elected 
for one year. Melgarejo was killed in Lima by 
his son-in-law, Nov. 23, 1871 ; and Morales was 
killed by his own nephew, Nov. 27, 1872. 

BOLKHOV, a town of Russia, on the Nugra, 
in the government and 35 m. N. of the city of 
Orel; pop. in 1867, 18,491. There are up- 
ward of 20 churches, a monastery, and a nun- 
nery. The houses are mostly built of wood. 
It has factories of gloves, hats, hosiery, leather, 
tallow, oil, ropes, &c. ; and its trade is con- 
siderable. 

BOLL AN, William, an English lawyer, died in 
1776. He went to Boston, Mass., about 1740, 
married the daughter of Gov. Shirley, and in 
1745 was sent to England to solicit the pay- 
ment of more than $800,000 advanced by the 
colony of Massachusetts for the expedition 
against Cape Breton. After three years he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining this. In 1769, being in Eng- 
land, he procured copies of several letters ca- 
lumniating the colonists which had been written 
by the governors Bernard and Gage, and sent 
them to Boston, for which he was denounced in 
parliament. In 1775 he recommended Eng- 
land to adopt conciliatory measures toward 
the colonies, and John Hancock declared that 
there was no man to whom the colonies were 
more indebted. He wrote several works rela- 
ting to American affairs, among which are 
"Ancient Rights to the American Fishery 
Examined and Stated " (London, 1764), and 
" Freedom of Speech and Writing upon Public 
Affairs Considered." 

BOLLAND, or Bollandns, John, a learned Jesuit, 
born in Limburg or in Brabant in 1596, died 
Sept. 12, 1665. In 1607 Heribert Rosweyd, 
a Jesuit of Antwerp, formed the design of 
collecting memoirs of the lives of all the 
saints ; and this design being finally approved 
by the ecclesiastical authorities, Bolland was 
appointed to carry it into effect. At his re- 
quest Godfrey Henschen was appointed in 1635 
as his coadjutor. The plan pursued was chro- 
nological, taking up the saints in the order 
of the calendar, and the work was entitled 
Aeta Sanctorum. The first two volumes, treat- 
ing of the January saints, were published in 
1643. The February saints, in three volumes, 
were completed in 1658. Bolland did not 
live to finish the March saints, although he 
prosecuted the work until his death. From 
Bolland the writers of the Aeta Sanctorum, 
who have been appointed from time to time, 
have been designated as Bollandists. Five 
years before the death of Bolland the order 
appointed another colleague, Daniel Pape- 
broek, and the work went on until the March 
and April saints were completed, and 16 days 
of May, when Henschen died in 1681. Other 
successive appointments followed, until, with 



BOLLINGER 



BOLOGNA 



17 



two interruptions (the first in 1773, when the 
order of Jesuits was abolished, and the second 
in the French revolution), the work reached 
53 volumes. It was then for a time suspended, 
but resumed in 1837, under the patronage of 
the Belgian government, which appropriated 
annually 6,000 francs for the continuation of the 
work. Among the principal Bollandists, be- 
sides those already named, were Baert, Jan- 
ning, Bosch, Suyskens, Hubens, Berthod, and 
Ghesquiere. The 60th volume was published 
in 1867, in which year the Belgian government 
withdrew its annual appropriation. 

BOLLINGER, a S. E. county of Missouri, 
drained by affluents of Little river ; area, 500 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,162, of whom 46 were 
colored. The St. Louis and Iron Mountain 
railroad passes through it. The surface is gen- 
erally level and the soil fertile. The produc- 
tions in 1870 were 51,286 bushels of wheat, 
395,953 of Indian corn, 135,986 of oats, and 32,- 
210 Ibs. of tobacco. There were 2,579 horses, 
2,173 milch cows, 3,306 other cattle, 9,808 
sheep, and 18,938 swine. Capital, Dallas. 

BOLLIJLOS DEL COUDADO, a town of Spain, 
in the province and 20 m. N. E. of the city of 
Huelva; pop. about 5,000. The streets are 
narrow, but there is one public square. The 
town contains several churches, schools, and 
convents, a town hall, a prison, and a hospital. 
The principal products are wine, oil, and brandy. 

liiil I.HANV, Erie, a German physician and 
politician, born at Hoya, Hanover, in 1769, 
died in London in 1821. He practised medi- 
cine in Carlsruhe and in Paris, having settled 
in the latter city soon after the outbreak of 
the great revolution. He accompanied Count 
Narbonne in his flight to England in 1792. 
About this time Lafayette was seized by the 
Austrians after he had crossed the frontier to 
avoid arrest by the revolutionary agents, and 
had been imprisoned at Olmutz. Great pains 
were taken by the Austrians to keep the place 
of his detention secret, and for a long time 
his family and friends could not learn where he 
was. Lally-Tollendal, who was then a refugee 
in London, became acquainted with Dr. Boll- 
mann, and being greatly impressed with his 
courage and address engaged him to search for 
Lafayette. Bollmann for this purpose estab- 
lished himself as a physician in Vienna, and 
soon learned that Lafayette was at Olmutz. 
He now formed a plan to rescue him, in con- 
junction with Francis Kinlock Huger, a young 
South Carolinian then travelling in Austria, 
whose father was a personal friend of Lafay- 
ette. Dr. Bollmann made the acquaintance of 
the surgeon of the prison, and through him 
contrived to enter into correspondence with 
Lafayette, who at that time was allowed occa- 
sionally to take an airing in a carriage accom- 
panied by two soldiers. On one of these occa- 
sions Bollmann and Huger waylaid the carriage, 
drove away the guards, rescued the prisoner,, 
and mounted him on a horse, directing him to 
ride to Hoff, where they had stationed a car- 



riage in readiness to receive him. Lafayette 
misunderstood the instruction given to him, 
and riding in the wrong direction was re- 
captured and sent back to prison. Bollmann 
escaped into Prussia, but was soon arrested 
and delivered up to the Austrians, by whom 
he was confined for nearly a year, but at length 
released on condition of quitting the country. 
He went to the United States, where he was 
well received, but in 1806 became implicated in 
Aaron Burr's conspiracy. In 1814 he returned 
to Europe, and after a second visit to this 
country settled in London. He wrote several 
works on banking and on political economy. 

BOLOGNA. I. A province of Italy, bordering 
on Ferrara, Ravenna, Florence, and Modena; 
area, 1,391 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 439,166. 
Its S. boundary is formed by the range of the 
Apennines, from which descend many streams 
flowing across the province. Of these the prin- 
cipal is the river Reno, which enters the Po di 
Primaro near Ferrara. The river lands of the 
northeast are marshy and subject to floods. 
The plain of Bologna, in the middle of the 
province, is very productive, and the valleys 
and lower slopes of the Apennines are well 
cultivated. It produces grain, oil, wine, figs, 
hemp, flax, almonds, and chestnuts, and is 
celebrated for its silk. The chief minerals 
are marble, gypsum, chalk, and a sulphate of 
baryta called Bologna stone, which becomes 
strongly phosphorescent on being heated with 
charcoal. The peasants are seldom land own- 
ers, but hold their farms from father to son, 
for a yearly rent of one half the product 
and taxes. The province is divided into the 
districts of Bologna, Imola, and Vergato. II. 
A city (anc. Sononia), capital of the province, 
beautifully situated at the foot of the Apen- 
nines, between the rivers Savena and Reno, 185 
m. N. by W. of Rome; pop. in 1872, 115,957. It 
is surrounded by walls aliout 6 m. in circuit, is 
2 m. long and 1J m. broad, has 12 gates, and is 
divided into four quarters. The covered porti- 
cos or arcades, which afford protection in warm 
and rainy weather, present an animated appear- 
ance, especially in the modern part of the city ; 
while many of the larger thoroughfares look 
comparatively deserted. The Montagnuola is 
the only public promenade within the walls. 
The finest square is the market place, or piazza 
Vittorio Emmanuele (formerly piazza Maggiore 
or del Gigante), with a famous fountain. The 
portico de' Banchi on one side of this square, 
and continued under the name of Paraglione, 
forms a continuous arcade 300 ft. long, with 
some of the finest stores. In this neighbor- 
hood are many palaces, prominent among 
which are the palazzo pitbllico or del governo, 
and the palazzo del podestA, containing the 
archives, and having a lofty tower rising upon 
arcades. Many of the private palaces are 
hardly less remarkable for antiquity and works 
of art. Near the exchange is a large space, 
from which four streets branch off to the prin- 
cipal gates, and containing two famous leaning 



18 



BOLOGNA 



towers (torro degli Asinelli and torre Garisen- 
da or Mozztt), respectively about 300 and 150 ft. 
high, and built in the 12th century. Remains 
of similar towers exist in various parts of the 
city. Conspicuous among the houses are the 
casa Rossini, in the via Maggiore, built in 1825 
by that composer, who long resided here ; the 
casa Lambertini, in the via della Oampana, the 
birthplace of Pope Benedict XIV. ; that of the 




Leaning Towers, Bologna. 

electrician Galvani, in the borgo delle Oasse ; 
and the residences once occupied by the paint- 
ers Guercino and Guido. There are about 130 
churches, including the ancient cathedral, re- 
stored in the 17th and 18th centuries, with 
famous relics and pictures ; the elegant church 
of San Bartolommeo di Ravegnana, of the 
17th century, on the site of one built by St. 
Petronius; San Bartolommeo di Reno, with 
paintings by the Carracci ; and San Domenico, 
with the tombs of St. Dominic, King Enzio, 
Taddeo Pepoli, and Guido. The church of San 
Francesco, behind the post office, which was 
one of the most extensive of all, was converted 
in 1798 into the custom house, but has lately 
been restored. Its bell tower is one of the 
finest in Bologna. The monument of Pope 
Alexander V., who was buried in this church, 
has been removed to the Oampo Santo. The 
basilica of San Petronio, founded in 1390, is 
the largest church of Bologna, and, though un- 
finished, one of the most imposing, especially 
in the interior ; over the great door stood the 
colossal bronze statue of Pope Julius II., by 
Michel Angelo, which was destroyed in 1511. 
The emperor Charles V. was crowned here by 
Clement VII. (1530), and the meridian line by 
Cassini was traced on its floor in 1653. Espe- 
cially noticeable for its great antiquity and ex- 
tent among the other churches is that of San 



Stefano, formed by the union of seven chapels, 
and presenting a labyrinth-like and strikingly 
medieval appearance. The university, which 
is said to have been founded by Theodosius II. 
in 425, and is celebrated as the oldest in Italy 
and as the first to confer academical de- 
grees, was the principal seat of learning in the 
middle ages, and acquired special renown in 
jurisprudence in the 12th century by the in- 
fluence of Irnerius. Many thousand students 
gathered there in that period from all parts of 
Europe. Medicine, the arts, and theology were 
taught subsequently, in addition to civil and 
canon law. In the 14th century dissection 
was practised there for the first time, and at 
a later period its renown was increased by the 
discovery of galvanism. Many learned women 
acquired distinction here as teachers, and more 
recently in the chair of anatomy. The univer- 
sity is still attended by about COO students an- 
nually, and retains a high reputation, chiefly 
in medicine. It was richly endowed by many 
of the German emperors, especially by Fred- 
erick I., by the princes of Italy, and by several 
popes ; and the Bolognese were so proud of it 
that they had the academical motto, Bononia 
docet, engraved upon their coins. The library, 
in which Mezzofanti was employed for some 
time, contains about 200,000 volumes and 6,000 
MSS. The institute of science was founded in 
1690 by Count Marsigli, the friend of New- 
ton, who also secured the establishment of 
an observatory, an anatomical museum, and a 
botanical garden, and presented the city with 
collections of natural history and scientific 
instruments. These various institutions are 
in the imposing palace of the university, in the 
strada San Donate, formerly the palazzo Cel- 
lesi. In the same street, in a former convent, 
is the academy of fine arts, or accademia Cle- 
mentina, founded by Pope Clement XIII., with 
the celebrated pinacoteca or gallery of paint- 
ings by Bolognese masters. The oploteca con- 
tains a collection of arms and a library, and on 
the ground floor are various schools of design. 
Among the great educational institutions and 
public buildings is the archiginnasio, with a 
public library, the gift of Magnani, a native of 
Bologna, The Venturoli college, founded in 
1825 by the architect of that name, is in the 
locality formerly used as the Hungarian col- 
lege, and is an architectural school for students 
below the age of 20. Among the various so- 
cieties is one for agriculture, and a Socratic 
society for humanitarian purpcses. Bologna 
boasts of being the most musical city of Italy, 
and in 1872 conferred the freedom of the city 
upon Richard Wagner. The accademia filar- 
monica has a wide reputation, as well as the li- 
ceo filarmonico in the convent of San Giacomo, 
which is a musical school with a library of 
17,000 volumes of printed music and the col- 
lections of Martini. The Zaproni theatre is the 
largest, and the Corso theatre, built in 1805, is 
the most popular. The Contavalli theatre was 
built in 1814, partly on the site of a former con- 



BOLOGNA 



BOLOR TAGH 



19 



vent. The public cemetery, or campo santo, 
about 1 m. from the gate of San Isaia, on the 
site of the ancient Carthusian monastery Oer- 
tosa, built in 1335 and suppressed in 1797, was 
consecrated in 1801 under the direction of Na- 
poleon I., and is one of the finest and most 
extensive in Italy. It is approached by a cov- 
ered portico of arches, and contains many large 
halls. The church of the monastery has been 
preserved, with its chapels and fine pictures. 
Among other interesting monuments, the cem- 
etery contains a pantheon of university profes- 
sors who are buried here, and whose busts are 
placed in the hall. A small separate space is 
reserved for the burial of Protestants. In the 
environs of the city there are many famous 
churches, including the nunnery and church of 
Madonna di San Luca, on the summit of the 
monte della Guarda, with a magnificent view, 
and a miraculous relic of the Virgin, attributed 
to St. Luke. This is a great resort of pilgrims, 
whose annual visit is celebrated by a public 
festival. It is approached by a covered portico 
of columns with 654 arches. Conspicuous 
among relics of antiquity are the ruins of the 
so-called baths of Marcus and of a temple of 
lais. Bologna is famous for poodle dogs and 
sausages (mort-adella), but the pure breed of 
the former has become very scarce. There is 
an active trade in macaroni, salami, cervellato 
(a peculiar plum pudding, only made in win- 
ter), liqueurs, prepared fruits, artificial flowers, 
aromatic soaps, and particularly in silk. The 
wines of the vicinity are not bad, and among 
fruits the grape is the best. Bologna is re- 
garded as the hottest city in Italy in summer, 
and as rather cold in winter, but the climate 
is healthy. The principal hotel occupies an 
ancient Roman palace, and there are many 
caf6s. The local dialect, once admired by 
Dante as the purest of Italy, has become one 
of the most puzzling and least intelligible of 
all Italian jargons. The epithet grassa (fat) 
has been applied to Bologna on account of the 
epicurean habits of the inhabitants and the 
fertility of the environs. The Bolognese have 
been described by Tassoni as an uncontrollable 
people, in allusion to their sturdy spirit of in- 
dependence. They rank at present among the 
most cultivated and public-spirited citizens of 
Italy. Bologna was founded by the Etrus- 
cans under the name of Felsina. It was long 
held by the Boian Gauls, and in 189 B. 0. be- 
came a Roman colony with Latin rights, under 
the name of Bononia. It Wcis subsequently a 
place of much importance, figuring chiefiy in 
the civil wars which followed the death of 
Cffisar, and retained its prosperity after the fall 
of the Roman empire. Charlemagne made it 
a free city. In the 12th century it attained 
the zenith of its greatness as a republic, which, 
however, fell in the subsequent century, owing 
to intestine strife among the nobles. After 
having been alternately under papal dominion 
and under that of the Geremei, Lambertazzi, 
Pepoli, Bentivoglio, and other local princely 



families, who successively contended for supre- 
macy, the city voluntarily became in 1513 a 
papal province, though retaining many of its 
ancient privileges till 1796, when the French 
united it with the Cisalpine republic, afterward 
incorporating it with the kingdom of Italy. In 
1815 it was restored to the Papal States. In 
1821 it became the focus of republican agitation 
and the seat of a provisional government, and 
the papal governor was obliged to leave the 
city ; but the insurrection was put down after 
the occupation of the city by Austrian troops. 
The mismanagement of custom house officials 
in 1843 and other vexations became a new 
source of commotion, in consequence of which 
many Bolognese were arrested and others fled. 
On Aug. 14, 1848, an attempted Austrian oc- 
cupation was gallantly prevented by the rising 
of the populace, and the invaders were ex- 
pelled, leaving their dead and prisoners behind. 
After the conclusion of the treaty of peace 
with Sardinia, however, the Austrians returned 
with the concurrence of Pius IX., and after a 
resistance of' eight days and a repeated bom- 
bardment, Bologna had to surrender, May 16, 
1849, and an Austrian garrison occupied the 
city till 1859. Bologna then seceded from the 
Papal States, and in 1860 became with the rest 
of the Romagna part of Victor Emanuel's do- 
minions. 

BOLOGNA, Giovanni da, an Italian sculptor and 
architect, born at Douay in Flanders about 
1524, died in Florence in 1608. He studied art 
when a youth at Rome and Florence, which 
last city he made his home. He surpassed all 
sculptors of his time except Michel Angelo, and 
few artists were charged with the execution of 
so many and such important works. His sur- 
name of Bologna seems to have been derived 
from the celebrated fountain in that city, de- 
signed by himself, of which the crowning co- 
lossal figure of Neptune is one of the wonders of 
art. At Florence, however, are to be found 
his finest works, such as the celebrated " Rape 
of the Sabine Women," a group in marble, and 
the equally celebrated bronze of Mercury. 

BOLONCHEN, a village of Yucatan, 60 m. E. 
N. E. of Campeachy. In the plaza of the vil- 
lage are nine ancient wells, cut through a stra- 
tum of rock, and communicating with a com- 
mon reservoir. In the vicinity is a large cave 
which contains seven pools of water, of which 
one is 450 ft. beneath the surface of the ground. 
These supply the village when the wells fail in 
the summer months. 

BOLOR TAGH, or Palolo Tagh, properly the 
W. portion of the Karakorum range of moun- 
tains in central Asia, lying between the sources 
of the Gilgit and the Nabra, affluents of the 
Indus, and separating Cashmere from Chinese 
Turkistan. This range on the west merges in 
the Hindoo Koosh. The name is, however, 
generally applied to the Belur or Belut Tagh, 
a range which, running N. and S., connects the 
chains of Thian-shan and Kuen-lun, and forms 
the W. boundary of Chinese Turkistan. 



20 



BOLSENA 



BOMBAY 



BOLSENA (ane. Vohinii), a town of Italy, on 
a lake of the same name, in the province and 
56 m. N. N. W. of Rome; pop. about 2,100. 
Volsinii, originally built on a height in the 
neighborhood, was one of the most power- 
ful Etruscan cities. It was frequently at war 
with the Romans, who finally took it in 280 B. 
0., razed it, and built a new town on the pres- 
ent site of Bolsena, retaining the name. Of the 
Etruscan town there is no vestige, and even its 
site is uncertain ; but the remains of the Roman 
one are numerous, including portions of tem- 
ples and of an amphitheatre, and numerous 
sepulchres and tumuli, in which many Etrus- 
can vases, statues, &c., have been found. The 




BolseDO. 

lake of Bolsena, which is supposed to fill an an- 
cient crater, exhales a deadly malaria during 
the summer season. It is about 9 m. long, 7 
m. broad, and 285 ft. deep, and is famous for 
its eels. The shores are formed by finely 
wooded hills, presenting much beautiful scene- 
ry ; it has two small islands, called Martana 
and Bisentina, and it discharges by the Marta 
river, flowing into the Mediterranean. 

BOLSWEKT, or Bolsward, Boetlus Adam, a Dutch 
engraver, born at Bolsward in Friesland in 
1580, died in 1634. He executed many valua- 
ble engravings after designs of Bloemaert and 
Rubens. His younger brother, SCHELTIUS, rose 
to higher fame in the same art, especially dis- 
tinguishing himself by his prints after some of 
the best works of Rubens and Vandyke. Both 
brothers practised their art at Antwerp. 

BOLTON, or Bolton-le-Moors, a manufacturing 
town and borough of Lancashire, England, 11 
m. N. W. of Manchester ; pop. in 1871, 82,854. 
The Croal, a tributary of the Irwell, divides the 
place into Great and Little Bolton. The manu- 
facture of woollens was introduced here by the 
Flemings in 1337, but the inventions of Ark- 
wright and Crompton, both natives of the place, 
laid the foundation of its present prosperity. 



It is now one of the principal seats of the cot- 
ton manufacture in England. The bleach and 
dye works here are among the largest in the 
kingdom, and it has also print works, exten- 
sive founderies, steam engine and machine 
works, paper, flax, and saw mills. Numerous 
coal pits are worked in the vicinity. The town 
is well supplied with water, and is connected 
by canal and railway with Manchester and 
Bury, and by railway with Liverpool, Preston, 
Leigh, and Blackburn. It sends two members 
to parliament. 

BOLZANO, Bernbard, a German philosopher 
and Roman Catholic theologian, born in Prague, 
Oct. 5, 1781, died there, Dec. 18, 1848. He 
was professor of divin- 
ity in the high school 
of Prague from 1805 
to 1820, and, support- 
ed by the archbishop 
of Prague, withstood 
the opposition of the 
ultramontanes, who re- 
garded him as a fol- 
lower of Schelling. In 
1820 he was suspend- 
ed, and hampered in 
his literary activity and 
social intercourse. His 
high character, piety, 
and benevolence se- 
cured for him a host 
of friends, and he lived 
for many years on the 
estate of one of them 
near Prague, and after- 
ward in that city with 
the assistance of Count 
Leo von Thnn. His 
Lehrbuch der Religiom- 

wissenschaft (6 vols., Sulzbach, 1834) ; Wis- 
senschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Dar- 
stellung der Logik (4 vols., 1837); and Atha- 
nasia, oder Grundefur die Umterblichlceit der 
Seele (2d revised ed., 1838). 

BOMARSUND, a narrow channel between the 
island of Aland and Vardo, at the entrance of 
the gulf of Bothnia. This channel was former- 
ly commanded by the strong Russian fortifica- 
tions on the S. E. extremity of Aland, which 
were destroyed by the allied fleets in 1854. 

BOMBAY. 1. A province (formerly presi- 
dency) and one of the ten great governmental 
divisions of British India, bordering on the 
Arabian sea, and lying between lat. 14 and 
29 N., and Ion. 66 and 77 E. It comprises 
a strip of territory about 900 m. in length, ex- 
tending from the northern limit of Sinde to the 
kingdom of Mysore on the south, along more 
than two thirds of the W. coast of Hindostan. 
Its greatest breadth is 250 m. According to 
the British parliamentary accounts for 1870, 
the area is 87,000 sq. m., and the population in 
1871 was 13,983,998. The province contains 22 
districts, apportioned among throe commission- 
erships, Sinde in the north, and the northern 



principal works are : 



BOMBAY 



21 



and southern divisions of Bombay proper, in 
which are comprehended Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Surat, Broach, Bombay island, Darwar, Can- 
deish, Tanna or North Ooncan, Eutnagherry 
or South Ooncan, Poonah, Ahmednuggur, and 
Canara. Tlie large native feudatory states of 
Cutch and Guzerat, the chiefs of which are 
subject merely to British supervision, intervene 
between Sinde and the northern and southern 
divisions. The coast line is about 1,050 m. in 
length. Considered with reference to its physi- 
cal characteristics, the province is divisible into 
four regions : 1, the Sinde territory, in the north, 
comprising the low and level basin of the In- 
dus, where strips of exceedingly fertile country 
alternate with deserts produced by lack of irri- 
gation ; 2, the two Ooncans, which form the 
rugged and hilly maritime belt, about 330 m. 
long and from 25 to 50 m. wide, lying between 
the Western Ghauts and the Arabian sea; 3, 
the eastward slope of the Western Ghauts; 
and 4, the flat, alluvial tracts W. of the gulf 
of Oambay, in the Nerbudda districts. There 
are great meteorological differences between 
these several regions. The climate of Sinde is 
exceedingly sultry and dry, with a very light 



rainfall, and an average maximum temperature 
at Hydrabad, the capital, of 98'5 F. in the 
shade. In the Ooncans, on the other hand, 
while the heat is as great, the annual fall of 
rain is much larger. This is due to the action 
of the Western Ghauts in condensing the va- 
pors of the S. W. monsoon as it blows in from 
the sea; but the same cause leaves the east- 
ward slope of the range comparatively rainless. 
At Bombay island the average annual temper- 
ature is about 80 F., with a maximum of 
about 100 in the shade; and the rainfall av- 
erages 80 inches per annum, sometimes rising 
nearly to 100 inches. The Western Ghauts 
are the most important mountains in the prov- 
ince ; within its boundaries the altitude of the 
range varies from 1,000 to 4,700 ft. The In- 
dus, Nerbudda, and Taptee are the principal 
rivers. The vegetable productions comprise 
cotton and rice in the coast districts, sugar and 
indigo in Oandeish, and wheat, barley, hemp, 
and tobacco in Sindo. Opium is manufactured 
in the native states of Malwa and Guzerat, 
and merchants who wish to send it to the city 
of Bombay obtain permits from the govern- 
ment at a certain price per chest. Consider- 




Bombay, from Malabar Hill. 



able quantities of silk are raised, and there are 
silk manufactories in some of the towns. The 
land revenue system of Bombay was carefully 
planned and put in operation about 20 years 
ago. It provides for a survey and assessment 
of the whole province, which work is now al- 
most completed. With few exceptions, the 
occupants of the land hold directly from the 
government, and pay their rent to government 
officers. The fields are mapped, and marked 
out by permanent objects, to remove which is 
a penal offence; they are then classified for 
assessment, with reference to the soil, climate, 
proximity to market, and other external condi- 
tions. When the existing rate was fixed, it 
was equal to one half the yearly value of the 
land; but in consequence of the general im- 



provement of the country the proportion is 
now not more than one fourth or one eighth 
of that value, except in the poorer districts. 
A revision of the assessment may be made at 
the end of every 30 years. The land revenue 
yields a larger sum per capita in Bombay than 
in any other province of India. The adminis- 
tration is vested in a governor appointed by 
the crown with the advice of the secretary of 
state for India. He is assisted by three coun- 
cillors and a legislative council. There are 
300 schools in the province, under government 
supervision, with an attendance of 13,000 
scholars, five sixths of whom are instructed in 
the native languages only, the remainder being 
taught English. Religious establishments are 
maintained by the churches of England and 



22 



BOMBAY 



Scotland. In the year ending March 31, 1870, 
the value of the imports into the province was 
22,232,435, and of the exports from it 24,- 
690,819. The length of the railway lines open 
for traffic there on Dec. 31 of the same year 
was 1,184 m. The chief towns, in addition to 
the city of Bombay, are Hydrahad and Kur- 
rachee in Sinde, Surat and Baroda in the re- 
gion E. of the gulf of Cambay, and Poonah in 
the highlands E. of the Ghauts, 2,000 ft. above 
the sea level. The sepoy mutiny of 1857 did 
not attain any serious magnitude in Bombay. 
A few conspiracies were detected in widely 
separated localities, and immediately sup- 
pressed. The native troops remained for the 
most part faithful to the British. Two ring- 
leaders in a plot for the massacre of all the 
European residents of the capital were sum- 
marily punished by being blown away from 
the mouths of cannon. II. A city, capital of 
the province, picturesquely situated on an 
island of the same name close to the W. coast 
of Hindostan, in lat. 18 56' N., Ion. 72 63' 
E., separated from the mainland by an arm 
of the sea; pop. in 1871, 646,636, of whom 
about 450,000 were Hindoos, 120,000 Moham- 
medans, 30,000 Parsees, and 8,000 Europeans. 
The island, which was the first possession ever 
acquired by the British in India, is 8 m. long 
and nearly 3 m. wide, and the city occupies its 
southern extremity. Toward the close of the 
15th century it was conquered by the Moham- 
medans, who ceded it to the Portuguese in 
1530. Shortly before the marriage of Charles 
II. and Catharine of Braganca, infanta of Por- 
tugal (1662), it was conveyed to the English 
crown as a portion of the dowry of that prin- 
cess. About seven years later the king trans- 
ferred it to the East India company, who held 
it at an annual rental of 10 sterling up to the 
year 1859, when the home government assumed 
direct control of all the British East Indian 
possessions. Bombay is the busiest and in 
appearance the gayest of the cities of British 
India. The ancient portion is known as the 
Fort, and contains numerous handsome build- 
ings. The houses within the walls are built 
of wood, surrounded with verandas, and cov- 
ered with sloping roofs of tiles. The poorer 
.classes occupy dwellings of clay thatched with 
palmyra leaves. There are many large store- 
houses and commercial establishments, and in 
the European quarter are numbers of fine resi- 
dences. Of the public buildings the more 
prominent are the Anglican cathedral, the 
various churches, temples, and synagogues, the 
government house, the town hall, the custom 
house, the Grant college of medicine, and the 
hospital founded by the Parsee merchant Sir 
Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, and bearing his name. 
The city is now connected with the neighbor- 
ing island of Salsette by means of a recently 
constructed causeway and arched stone bridge. 
By far the most interesting structures in the 
vicinity of Bombay are the celebrated cave 
temples of the Buddhists, excavated from the 



solid rock and" adorned with colossal statues, 
on the island of Elephanta, which lies at a dis- 
tance of from 6 to 8 m. The harbor of Bombay, 
as the name of the city indicates, is safe and com- 
modious, being one of the best in all India. It 
is enclosed by Colabba, or Old Woman's island, 
Bombay island, and the island of Salsette, on 
the west and north, and by the islands of Ele- 
phanta and Caranja, together with the main- 
land, on the east. It is between 12 and 14 m. 
long, between 4 and 6 m. wide, and has a depth 
of from 7 to 14 fathoms. A lighthouse 150 ft. 
high stands on the southern end of Colabba 
island. The rise and fall of the tide are suf- 
ficient to permit the construction of wet docks 
capacious enough for building large ships ; and 
in those belonging to the East India company 
merchant vessels of the largest class, and even 
frigates and line-of-battle ships, have been 
built by the Parsees. As the material used 
for ship building at Bombay is exclusively 
teak, the vessels constructed there are noted 
for their durability. The city is both a naval 
and a military station, but the fortifications, 
although extensive, are not adequate for de- 
fensive purposes against a well equipped foe. 
Preeminent among the natives for their intel- 
lectual capacity, their industry, their business 
ability, and their great wealth, are the Par- 
sees, the descendants of the ancient fire-wor- 
shippers. Socially, commercially, and politi- 
cally, they constitute, after the Europeans, 
the most influential class in Bombay. Their 
walled cemetery, carefully guarded, stands on 
fhe summit of Malabar hill, the most fashion- 
able suburb of the city. It contains five round 
towers, each about 60 ft. in diameter and 50 
ft. in height, and surmounted by a large grate. 
The bodies of the newly dead are placed upon 
these towers, and when the vultures have re- 
moved the flesh from the skeleton, the bones 
fall through the grate into the enclosure be- 
neath. The external trade of Bombay is very 
extensive, and is carried on principally with 
Great Britain, France, China, Mauritius, and 
the ports of the Arabian sea and Persian gulf. 
Cotton is by far the most important article of 
export. The rise in price and the increased 
demand growing out of the civil war in Ame- 
rica were followed by an era of the wildest 
speculation in commercial circles at Bombay, 
from 1862 to 1865, resulting in a financial 
panic so disastrous that for a time there was 
said to be not one solvent merchant in the en- 
tire city. The exceptional activity of this pe- 
riod, however, contributed in no slight degree 
to its present prosperity. The exports of cot- 
ton to Europe for six years ending with 1872 
averaged nearly 1,100,000 bales a year. In 
1863-'4 opium to the amount of 5,548,- 
158 was exported, principally to China. The 
other leading exports, in the order of their to- 
tal values, for the same year, comprise wool, 
seeds, cashmere shawls, coffee, grain, spices, 
sugar, tea, silk and silk goods, saltpetre, and 
tobacco. The first railway in the East Indies 



BOMBELLI 



BONACCA 



23 



was that between Bombay and Tanna, opened 
April 6, 1853. Bombay is now the terminus 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
railway, and of the Great Indian Peninsula 
railway, as well as of steamship lines from Eng- 
land. There is telegraphic communication with 
Calcutta, opened in 1854, and with Falmouth, 
England, opened in 1870, by means of cables, 
avoiding all land communications, by way of 
Aden, Malta, and Gibraltar. As the capital 
of the province, Bombay is the residence of 
the governor and of an Anglican bishop. The 
provincial high court is also held there. Prom- 
inent among the institutions of the city is the 
royal Asiatic society, famous for its successful 
efforts in behalf of oriental learning. Several 
missionary establishments are maintained by 
Europeans and Americans. 

BOMBELLI, Raffiiello, a Bologncse mathemati- 
cian of the 16th century. He published in 
1572 a treatise on algebra, in which he first at- 
tempted the solution of the "irreducible case " 
in cubic equations. He gave the geometrical 
solution depending upon the trisection of an 
angle, which latter problem, he observed, could 
be reduced to a cubic equation. He was also 
the first to attempt the extraction of the cube 
root in the result of Cardan's formula. 

BOMBERG, Daniel, a Dutch printer, born in 
Antwerp, died in Venice in 1549. Ho printed 
several renowned editions of the Hebrew Bible, 
the first of which appeared at Venice in 1518. 
The Babylonish Talmud and many other He- 
brew books were issued from his press in a 
style of execution so expensive as to ruin him. 

BOM (Fr. Bone; Arabic, Beled el-Anib, town 
of grapes), a fortified seaport town of Algeria, in 
the province of Constantine, on the W. coast of 
the gulf of Bona, 270 m. E. of Algiers ; pop. in 
1866, 17,841, more than half Europeans. It is 
built in the form of an amphitheatre in an ex- 
tremely fertile region, at the foot of a hill, and 







Bonn. 



has been Europeanized and embellished by the 
French, who have improved the harbor and in 
1858 built new piers. The town is well sup- 
plied with churches, schools, and public institu- 



tions. Outside the walls, which are flanked 
with four square towers and pierced by four 
gates, is the citadel, built by Charles V. in 
1535. Its capture by the French, March 26, 
1832, was one of the most brilliant achieve- 
ments of the French invasion. Since 1850 it has 
been used as a prison of state. Though the 
harbor is not favorably situated, commerce is 
active, but less so than formerly, part of it 
having been diverted to Philippeville since the 
establishment of that port in 1838. The coral 
fisheries are extensive. Silks, tapestry, and 
other articles are manufactured, and the town 
contains a marble quarry, an iron foundery, and 
other industrial establishments, and has weekly 
communication by steam with Marseilles. A 
marsh, between the town and the junction of 
the Seibous with two of its affluents near the 
entrance of the former river into the sea, is 
productive of malaria, and is supposed to have 
been the ancient harbor of Hippo Regius, the 
scanty remains of which town are about 1J m. 
S. by W. of Bona. (See HIPPO.) 

BONA, Giovanni, a Roman cardinal, born in 
Mondovi, Piedmont, Oct. 10, 1609, died in 
Rome, Oct. 27, 1674. He was a collaborator 
in the Acta Sanctorum, the author of Res Li- 
turgicce, which is an authority on the service 
of mass, and of De Principiis Vit(B Christiana, 
of which French translations appeared in 1693 
and 1728. An edition of his works appeared 
at Turin in 1747-'53, in 4 vols. 

BONA DEA (the good goddess), a Roman di- 
vinity, sister, wife, or daughter of Faunus. 
Her worship was secret, performed only by 
women ; and men were not allowed to know 
her name. Her sanctuary was in a cavern in 
the Aventine hill, but her festival, which oc- 
curred May 1, was celebrated in a separate 
room in the dwelling of the consul who then 
had the fasces. No man was allowed to be 
present, all male statues in the house were cov- 
^^_^ ered, and the myrtle was 

~ --.^-^ . avoided in the decoration 

of the house with flowers. 
The wine used at this fes- 
tival was called milk, and 
the vessel in which it was 
kept mellarium. After a 
sacrifice, called damium, 
the wine was drunk and 
bacchanalian dances were 
performed. According to 
Juvenal, licentious abomi- 
nations marked these fes- 
tivals. The snake was tho 
symbol of the goddess, 
indicating that she was 
regarded as possessing a 
curative medical power. 
In her sanctuary various 
herbs were offered for sale. 
BONACCA (formerly called GUANAJA), an island 
in Honduras bay, Caribbean sea, 30 m. N. of 
Cape Castilla; lat. 16 28' N., Ion. 85 55' W. 
It is the second in size of the group called the 



24 



BONALD 



Bay Islands, is about m. long and from 1 to 3 
m. broad, and rises to a height of 1,200 ft. The 
island was discovered by Columbus in his 
fourth and last voyage, July 30, 1502. The 
aborigines had made considerable advances in 
civilization, and carried on an active trade by 
means of large boats with the mainland of 
Honduras and Yucatan, and, it is said, even 
with Jamaica. The Spaniards and afterward 
the buccaneers harassed them so much that 
they abandoned the island in 1642, and took 
refuge on the mainland. The buccaneers forti- 
fied the island and held it till 1650, when they 
were expelled by the Spaniards. In 1742 the 
English seized Bonacca and the neighboring 
island of Kuatan, which they fortified and held 
till it was captured by the Spaniards in 1782. 
When Central America became independent in 
1821 Bonacca and the other islands of the 
group came under the jurisdiction of Honduras. 
In 1850 a British naval commander declared 
them under the sovereignty of Great Britain, 
and in 1852 the group was constituted by royal 
proclamation the British "Colony of the Bay 
Islands." This act, being in contravention of 
the convention between England and the 
United States known as the "Clayton and 
Bulwer treaty," led to an animated controversy 
between the British and American governments, 
which was at length settled by restoring the 
islands to Honduras in 1859. 

BONALD. I. Lonls Gabriel Ambroise, viscount 
de, a French political writer, born at Le Mon- 
na, near Millau-en-Rouergue, Oct. 2, 1754, died 
there, Nov. 23, 1840. When young he served 
in the mousquetaires. In 1791 he emigrated, 
and joined the royalist army on the Rhine. 
Returning to France under Napoleon, he be- 
came, with Chateaubriand and FieV6e, editor 
of the Mercvre, and after the restoration he 
was a member of the chamber of deputies, 
always favoring an absolutist and reactionary 
policy. In 1823 he was made peer by Louis 
XVIII., nnd as one of the secretaries of state 
presided over the censorship of the press. At 
the revolution of 1830 he resigned his seat as a 
peer, and retired from public life. His literary 
labors were devoted exclusively to establishing 
the theory of power in society, its origin and 
extent ; and he drew his demonstrations from 
history, philosophy, religion, and the philologi- 
cal meaning of words. He denied the validity 
of reason, and recognized absolutely that of 
authority. But above the highest civil author- 
ity, that of legitimate kings, he affirmed that 
of religion, or the church and its hierarchy. 
His complete works were published in 12 vols., 
Paris, 1817-'19, the principal being La legis- 
lation primitive, Theorie du pouvoir politique 
et religieux, Secherches philosopkigues, and 
Melanges litteraircs et politiques. II. Lonis 
Jacques Maurice, a French cardinal, son of the 
preceding, born at Millau, Oct. 30, 1787, died 
in Lyons, Feb. 25, 1870. He became arch- 
deacon of Chartres in 1817, bishop of Le Puy 
in 1823, and archbishop of Lyons in 1839, and 



BONAPARTE 

l)ore for a time the title of primate of the Gauls, 
which Pius IX. afterward forbade him to re- 
tain. He was created cardinal in 1841. He 
hecame conspicuous as a champion of the rights 
of the church against the civil power, and 
as an opponent of the liberty of education, 
for which Lamennais, Lacordaire, Montalem- 
bert, and the rest of the young Catholic party 
were then contending. His controversies with 
Dupin.and Villemain on these subjects were 
especially vigorous. He was a legitimist in 
politics, but gave a ready adhesion to the re- 
public of 1848. Under the empire he held a 
seat in the senate by virtue of his rank as 
cardinal. In September, 1852, he was created 
a commander of the legion of honor. 

BONAPARTE, or Buonaparte, the name of the 
family which has given to modern France its 
imperial dynasty. Its early origin is obscure. 
The name occurs in Corsica as early as the 
middle of the 10th century, being that of a 
messire who figured as witness to a public 
document. It disappears, however, in that 
island, not to reappear until the 16th century. 
In the mediaeval history of Italy a number of 
Bonapartes are mentioned, but criticism has as 
yet failed fully to establish or to disprove the 
pretended connections between their families. 
We find Bonapartes at Treviso, Florence, Par- 
ma, Padua, Ascoli, Bologna, San Miniato, and 
Sarzana, many of them noblemen of note and 
ability. A Trevigian Bonaparte, Giovanni, 
who held a command in the army of the Lom- 
bard league against the emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa, is designated as consul et rector. 
Those of Florence were originally Ghibellines, 
but subsequently espoused the popular cause. 
A Nicol6 Bonaparte served as papal envoy to 
various courts about the middle of the 15th 
century. Jacopo Bonaparte, of Tuscany, is the 
reputed author of a history of the sack of 
Rome by the army of the constable de Bour- 
bon (Ragguaglio gtorico di tutto Voccorso, 
giorno per giorno, nel saceo di Roma del anno 
1527), of which a French translation by the ex- 
king Louis of Holland was published at Flor- 
ence in 1830. The modern Oorsican Bona- 
partes seem to be chiefly connected with those 
of Sarzana. They figure among the patricians 
of Ajaccio in the 16th and 17th centuries. At 
the middle of the 18th, three male members of 
that branch were living, one of whom, Carlo, 
became the father of the founder of the French 
imperial dynasty, sketches of all the historical 
members of which are given in the following 
notices first of the father and mother of Na- 
poleon, with their daughters, then of their sons 
in alphabetical order, each followed by the 
noteworthy members of his family. 

BONAPARTE, or Buonaparte. I. Carlo Maria, 
father of Napoleon I., born in Ajaccio, March 
29, 1746, died in Montpellier, Feb. 24, 1785. 
He studied law in Pisa, and early acquired 
prominence as an advocate and a follower of 
Paoli in the Corsican war against Genoa. In 
his 18th year he fell in love with Maria Le- 



BONAPARTE 



25 



tizia Ramolino, whose family belonged to the 
Genoese faction, and were adverse to the mar- 
riage, which did not take place ti!117G7. His 
wife accompanied him during his campaign, 
and dissuaded him from following Paoli in his 
flight to England. He afterward entered into 
friendly relations with Count Marbceuf, the 
Frencli governor of the island, and became 
assessor of the city and province of Ajaccio, 
deputy of the Corsican nobles to the court of 
France (1777-'9), and in 1781 one of the 12 
members of the council of the Corsican nobil- 
ity. Through tho munificence of the govern- 
ment his son Napoleon was admitted to the 
military school of Brienne, Louis to the semi- 
nary at Autun, and his daughter filisa to the 
royal institution of St. Cyr. Afflicted with 
an ulcer in the stomach, he sought medical 
advice in Montpellier, and died in that city in 
the presence of his son Joseph and of his wife's 
brother, afterward Cardinal Fesch. He was 
a fine-looking, intelligent, amiable, and cour- 
ageous gentleman. His portrait is in the Ver- 
sailles museum, and his marble bust by Elias 
Robert was executed in 1855. His wife bore 
him 13 children, of whom five sons, Joseph, 
Napoleon, Lucien, Louis, and Jerome, and 
three daughters, Elisa, Pauline, and Caroline, 
survived him. II. Maria Lcli/ia (called by the 
French Madame L^ETITIA), wife of the preced- 
ing, born in Ajaccio, Aug. 24, 1750, died in 
Rome, Feb. 2, 1836. She was of an austere 
and classical style of beauty and commanding 
appearance, and her courageous spirit revealed 
itself after her marriage, when she went through 
the ordeal of camp life, in company with her 
husband, shortly before giving birth to her son 
Napoleon. She was overtaken with the first 
pains of labor while at church, and had barely 
time to reach her home. After the death of 
her husband she devoted herself to the educa- 
tion of her children; and in 1793, when Cor- 
sica fell into the hands of the English, she es- 
caped with her three daughters and Lucien, in 
the midst of many perils, from Ajaccio to Mar- 
seilles, where she lived in penury upon the pit- 
tance which the government allowed to Cor- 
sican refugees. Her position was greatly im- 
proved after Napoleon's promotion to the chief 
command of the French army in Italy, and on 
the establishment of the consular government 
she removed to Paris. Her mode of existence, 
however, continued to be frugal and unpre- 
tentious, even after her son's accession to the 
throne, when she received the title of Madame 
Mere. Napoleon found fault with her predi- 
lection for Lucien, and afterward with her in- 
veterate dislike of Maria Louisa, and always 
with her repugnance to display. But though 
she occasionally suffered from his want of filial 
affection, he insisted upon tho utmost reverence 
being shown to her. Her education and dis- 
position were not suitable for a prominent po- 
sition in the brilliant society of Paris ; and 
though a patrician by birth, of great natural 
dignity of manners, and possessed of consider- 



able tact and judgment, her culture was de- 
ficient and her tastes were simple, and her 
habitual circle included only Madame Saveria, 
the faithful teacher of several of her children, 
and a few other intimate friends. She saved 
large sums of money, which afterward enabled 
her to assist her children in distress ; and though 
economical almost to parsimony, she was lavish 
in dispensing charities, at the head of which she 
was placed officially. After the downfall of Na- 
poleon, she went with several of her children to 
Blois, and then to Rome. She visited her son at 
Elba, and sternly rebuked Caroline's defection, 
admonishing her rather to trample upon the 
corpse of her husband Murat than to desert her 
brother and benefactor. In April, 1815, she 
returned to Paris ; and after the battle of Wa- 
terloo she took up her abode in Rome. De- 
nounced in 1820 as a Bonapartist agitator by 
M. do Blacas, the French ambassador in Rome, 
she indignantly repelled the accusation, and 
declared with an unusual vehemence, the effect 
of which was enhanced by her general impas- 
sibility, that if in reality she could dispose of 
millions, she would not spend them in such 
attempts, but would devote her means exclu- 
sively to effect the release of her son from St. 
Helena. In 1830 she broke her thigh, and 
was ever afterward confined to her room. She 
left to her children a fortune represented by a 
revenue of 80,000 francs, and about 500,000 
francs worth of jewelry. In the museum of 
Versailles are two portraits of her, painted by 
Gerard. In her celebrated statue by Canova 
she is represented in the attitude of Agrippina 
in the capitol. HI. Marie Anne Klisi Bacrwclii, 
daughter of the preceding, born in Ajaccio, Jan. 
3, 1777, died, according to most accounts, at 
the villa Vicentina, near Trieste, Aug. 7, 1820. 
She left St. Cyr after the suppression of that 
educational establishment at the end of 1792, 
and married at Marseilles in May, 1797, Felice 
Pasquale Bacciochi, a poor Corsican officer of 
noble lineage. In 1798 she removed to Paris, 
where her house became a resort of Chateau- 
briand, La Harpe, and other eminent persons, 
including Fontanes, her special favorite. Na- 
poleon made her in 1805 princess of Piombino 
and Lucca, and in 1808 grand duchess of Tus- 
cany. She was called the Semiramis of Lucca 
on account of her administrative talents. She 
put down brigandage and promoted the pros- 
perity of her small dominions. She lived in 
great state at Florence, Pisa, and other places 
till 1814, when she retired to Bologna. Early 
in 1815 she went to Austria, where after Mu- 
rat's death she was joined by his widow, her sis- 
ter Caroline, spending her last years under the 
title of countess of Oornpignano, near Trieste, 
in which city she was buried. Her husband, 
though crowned with her at Lucca, held a sub- 
ordinate position during her life. They had 
two sons. (See BAOCIOCHI.) IV. Marie Pan- 
line, sister of the preceding, born in Ajaccio, 
Oct. 20, 1780, died in Florence, June 9, 1825. 
She had no advantages of education, but 



26 



BONAPARTE 



was remarkably brilliant and beautiful. In her 
14th year Freron fell in love with her, and she 
would have married him if Napoleon had not 
discovered that his first wife was living. Her 
next suitor, Gen. Duphot, was killed in Rome 
in 1797; and Junot applied in vain for her 
hand, which she bestowed in 1801 upon Gen. 
Leclerc, whom she accompanied to Santo Do- 
mingo. She declined to leave him despite the 
rising of the negroes and the outbreak of the 
yellow fever; and after her husband had died 
of that disease (Nov. 2, 1802), she conveyed 
his remains to France. Their only child died 
one year after her second marriage in 1803 with 
Prince Camillo Borghese, who, being the heir 
of an illustrious princely family of Rome, was 
selected by Napoleon as a valuable brother-in- 
law. He almost immediately separated from 
his wife, whose virtue he suspected, and he 
only became reconciled to her in her illness 
toward the end of her life. Napoleon doted 
upon Pauline, and made her duchess of Guas- 
talla; but he rebuked her excessive jealousy of 
Josephine, and resented her rudeness to Maria 
Louisa by banishing her from his court. She 
nevertheless led a gay life in the vicinity of 
Paris and subsequently at Nice, gathering round 
her many fashionable people of easy virtue. 
The news of her brother's downfall in 1814 
reached her in Italy. Forgetting all pre- 
vious differences, she proceeded to Elba, made 
many attempts for his restoration, reconciled 
him with Lucien and Murat, and sent him all 
her jewelry, which was afterward found in 
Napoleon's carriage at Waterloo. She repeat- 
edly applied for permission to share his cap- 
tivity at St. Helena, and spent the rest of her 
life in great affliction, Napoleon's death giving 
an irretrievable blow to her shattered health. 
After a long residence in the Borghese palace 
in Rome, she joined her husband in Florence 
shortly before her death. The papal author- 
ities treated her with great kindness, and she 
endeared herself to the people wherever she 
was by her patronage of letters and art and by 
her extensive charities. Canova's marble statue 
of Pauline (now said to be Queen Victoria's 
property) represents her as Venus Victrix. Her 
remains were transferred from Florence to 
Rome and buried in the Borghese chapel. (See 
BOBGHESE.) V. Caroline Marie Annonclade, sister 
of the preceding, born in Ajaccio, March 26, 
1782, died in Florence, May 18, 1839. She 
went with her mother to Paris, and was for 
some time under the tuition of Madame Carnpan 
at St. Germain. Murat was one of her many 
admirers, and Napoleon, over whom she ex- 
ercised great influence, selected him as her 
husband. They were married on Jan. 20, 
1800, and Murat successively became grand 
duke of Cleves and Berg (1806) and king of 
Naples (1808). Superior to her husband in 
administrative talent, she marked her acces- 
sion to power as regent in her husband's 
absence, ty recalling political exiles and re- 
leasing prisoners of state, and by a felicitous 



selection of upright and able ministers. She 
promoted science, letters, and art, improved 
the material and moral condition of the 
Neapolitans, established several lyceums and 
a female seminary, and had extensive exca- 
vations made, especially at Pompeii, which 
brought to light many remarkable monuments. 
She also displayed great courage, especially in 
1809, when she animated the drooping spirit of 
her subjects by exposing herself on the quay 
within reach of the fire of an English fleet. 
Her domineering nature, however, brought her 
into collision with Maria Louisa, and Talleyrand 
described her as a handsome woman with the 
head of Cromwell. Alienated from the em- 
peror's court, she sided against him by joining 
her husband's secret negotiations with Austria 
and England. After the disasters which over- 
whelmed Murat, she took leave of him May 
20, 1815, remained in Naples as regent, and 
invoked the assistance of English marines and 
the Austrian squadron for the repression of 
anarchy. She finally left Naples on board an 
English vessel in company with three of her 
former ministers, including Macdonald ; on her 
way to Trieste she met the ship which was con- 
veying Ferdinand, the restored king of Naples, 
to his capital. The emperor of Austria object- 
ed to her residing in Trieste, but permitted her 
to establish her domicile near Vienna, where 
she assumed the name of Countess Lipona 
an anagram of Napoli or Naples. While here 
she accidentally learned the tragic end of 
her husband, after which she contracted a 
secret marriage with Gen. Macdonald, who 
had never left her since their departure from 
Naples. Despoiled of her vast personal prop- 
erty, she was eventually obliged to dispose of 
her estate near Vienna, and to join her daugh- 
ters in Italy. Her claims upon the Elysee 
Bourbon and Neuilly palaces were rejected by 
France, but an annual allowance of 100,000 
francs was granted to her by the chambers 
shortly before her death. She bore to Murat 
two sons and two daughters. (See MURAT.) 

BONAPARTE. I. Jerome, king of Westphalia, 
youngest brother of Napoleon I., born in Ajac- 
cio, Nov. 15, 1784, died at Villegenis, near 
Paris, June 24, 1860. He was educated at the 
college of Juilly, entered the army as a private 
in 1800, and soon afterward joined the naval 
service in the Mediterranean, and in 1801 the 
expedition to Santo Domingo, rising to the 
grade of lieutenant. In 1803, while on his re- 
turn to France by way of the United States, 
where he was introduced to President Jeffer- 
son, he fell in love with Miss Elizabeth Pat- 
terson, the daughter of an eminent and wealthy 
Baltimore merchant, a young lady of great 
beauty, then in her 18th year. He deputed 
the Spanish minister in Washington to solicit 
her hand, and despite the protest of the French 
consul and the reluctance of the Pattersons, 
he married her on Dec. 24, 1803. The con- 
tract had been carefully drawn by Alexander 
J. Dallas, and the ceremony was performed 



BONAPARTE 



27 



by the Roman Catholic Bishop Carroll of Bal- 
timore, brother of Charles Carroll. They re- 
sided in the United States till March, 1805. 
While they were on their way to France Je- 
rome's mother entered a legal protest against 
the marriage, as contracted by her son during 
his minority without her consent and without 
legal publication of the banns in France. 
This was done at the bidding of Napoleon, 
who had in vain applied to Pope Pius VII. 
to cancel the marriage, but had from the 
first prohibited its registration, declaring it 
null and void and the prospective offspring 
illegitimate. The municipal authorities of 
Paris subsequently issued a decree to the same 
purport, and Jer6me and his wife were for- 
bidden to enter France. They landed at Lis- 
bon, and Jerome had an interview with Napo- 
leon at Alessandria, Piedmont, May 6, but 
without succeeding in reconciling him to his 
marriage. His wife, who had left Lisbon for 
Amsterdam, was not permitted to land there, 
and was obliged to sail at once for England, 
where in July, 1805, she gave birth to a son. 
Jerome had in the meanwhile been permitted 
to refnter the naval service, and as commander 
of a French squadron he obtained from the dey 
of Algiers the liberation of several hundreds of 
French and Genoese captives, whom in August 
he brought safely to Genoa, despite English 
cruisers. Napoleon promoted him to a higher 
command under Admiral Willautnez on an ex- 
pedition to the French possessions in the West 
Indies ; but being overtaken by a storm, many 
of the vessels were scattered, the admiral 
making for American ports. Jerome remained 
at his post, and with some of the ships suc- 
ceeded in destroying several English vessels, and 
on Aug. 26, 1806, reached with a number of 
captives a small and almost inaccessible port 
on the coast of Brittany, having barely escaped 
capture by the Brftish squadron under Lord 
Keith. This exploit won for him the rank of 
rear admiral, but he soon left the naval for 
the military service with the rank of brigadier 
general. At the same time he was recognized 
as a French prince, and subsequently (Sept. 
24, 1806) the senate made him successor to 
the throne in the event of Napoleon's leaving 
no male issue. He commanded a body of 
Wiirtembergers and Bavarians in the Prussian 
war of 1806-'7, gaining some successes in Si- 
lesia, and was rewarded with the grade of 
general of division, March 14, 1807, and after 
the peace of Tilsit with the crown of Westpha- 
lia, which was erected into a kingdom, with 
Cassel as capital, Aug. 18. In the same 
month he married the princess Catharine, 
daughter of the king of Wurtemberg, an alli- 
ance forced upon him by Napoleon, though he 
was much attached to his first wife, and had 
repeatedly urged the emperor to recognize her. 
But he never saw her again after her departure 
for England, excepting, as alleged, casually, 
years afterward in the picture gallery of the 
Pitti palace in Florence, when Jer6me started 



aside on beholding her, and was overheard to 
say to Catharine, "That lady is my former 
wife," after which he left the gallery and de- 
parted next morning from Florence. After 
his accession to the throne of Westphalia, he 
appointed several learned men as ministers, 
reopened the university of Halle, emancipated 
the Jews, and introduced the Code Napoleon ; 
but his rule was in other respects marked by 
shocking levity and prodigality, and politically 
he was nothing more than the deputy or vice- 
roy of the emperor. In 1809, during the war 
with Austria, he promptly quelled the insur- 
rectionary spirit in his kingdom, and proceeded 
with 20,000 troops to Saxony, entering Dres- 
den Dec. 1. In the campaign against Russia, 
in 1812, he led a corps of Germans, and dis- 
tinguished himself by bravery; but having 
been guilty of some neglect which disconcerted 
the plans of Napoleon, he was severely repri- 
manded by him, and went home in anger. In 
October, 1813, when the French were driven 
from Germany, he went to Paris. He was 
expelled from France in 1814, and was ar- 
rested with his wife by a body of the allies, but 
they were speedily released. He then went 
to Switzerland, and afterward resided in Gratz 
and in Trieste. On learning the emperor's 
return from Elba he hastened to Paris, be- 
came a member of the chamber of peers, and 
fought at Ligny and Waterloo, displaying a 
capacity and a bravery which made Napoleon 
say to him, " Man fr&re, je vous ai connu trop 
tard." He afterward returned to Paris, and 
the Wurtemberg envoy holding out to him the 
prospect of a cordial reception, he proceeded 
to that country, but was arrested at the fron- 
tier and compelled to sign a convention, the 
terms of which made him almost a prisoner of 
the king of Wurtemberg ; and indeed on his 
arrival at Goppingen he was treated as such. 
The chateau of Ellwangen was assigned to him 
as a residence, where he remained with his 
family until about July, 1816, when he was 
permitted to leave ; and on arriving at Augs- 
burg he was surprised by receiving from the 
king a patent of nobility creating him prince 
of Montfort, which he returned under protest 
to his brother-in-law, the crown prince. He 
then spent some time near Vienna with the ex- 
queen Caroline, and here they heard of the 
death of his father-in-law and of his will, by 
which Jerome's wife, who had already re- 
ceived her dowry of 200,000 francs, was not 
provided for beyond her share of 150,000 francs 
from her mother's estate. Jerome having been 
unable to recover 1,200,000 francs which he 
had deposited with a banker in Paris, and the 
marquis de Maubreuil having robbed his wife 
while she was still in France of all her jewelry 
and of 80,000 francs in money besides, his posi- 
tion became embarrassing ; and toward the close 
of 1819 he could hardly defray his travelling ex- 
penses on his way to Trieste for the restoration 
of his son's health. In the following year, how- 
ever, he obtained judgment against his Paris 



28 



BONAPARTE 



banker. He resided in Rome till 1831, when 
he removed to Florence, and afterward to 
Lausanne, where his devoted and accomplished 
wife died, Nov. 28, 1835. At the end of 1847 
he was permitted to reside in Paris, and after 
the revolution of February, 1848, he was re- 
stored to his military rank and appointed gov- 
ernor of the Invalides (Dec. 23) and marshal 
(Jan. 1, 1850). In January, 1852, he became 
president of the imperial senate, but retired 
toward the end of that year, after delivering 
a remarkable speech on the restoration of the 
empire. The palaii royal and the palace of 
Meudon were placed at his disposal, the right 
of succession to the throne was accorded to him 
and to his son, and he presided occasionally 
over cabinet councils in place of the emperor. 
He died from a pulmonary inflammation, which 
had prostrated him since December, 1859, and 
was buried with great pomp in the church of 
the Invalides. J6r6me's surviving first wife, 
Madame Patterson, as she was called in France, 
having spent several years in Europe in unavail- 
ing efforts for the legal recognition of her mar- 
riage, has ever since resided as Mrs. Patterson- 
Bonaparte in Baltimore, where she is much re- 
spected; and though smarting under an irre- 
trievable wrong', she never ceased to cherish 
the memory of the husband who deserted her. 
She was engaged in 1872 in completing her 
autobiography. II. Jerome Napoleon, only child 
of the preceding by his first wife, born at Cam- 
berwell, England, July 7, 1805, died in Balti- 
more, June 17, 1870. He was educated in 
Europe and the United States, and graduated 
at Harvard college in 1826. He studied law, 
but never practised, and in early life married 
Miss Susan Mary Williams, daughter of an opu- 
lent citizen originally of Roxbury, Mass. She 
brought him a large fortune, which in addi- 
tion to his own property made him one of 
the richest men of Baltimore ; and he de- 
voted himself to the management of his 
estate and to agricultural pursuits. He re- 
ceived a handsome allowance from his father, 
with whom he was on terms of intimacy in 
his several visits to Europe. Louis Philippe 
permitted him to reside for a short time in 
Paris, but only under the name of Patterson ; 
yet he attracted much attention by his strik- 
ing likeness to his uncle Napoleon. In 1852 
a family council decided in favor of his as- 
suming the name of Bonaparte, but without 
being regarded as belonging to the imperial 
family ; and at the invitation of Napoleon III. 
he several times visited him in Paris with his 
son. After his father's death in 1860, the Pat- 
terson claim was again brought before the 
French courts ; but, although Berryer pleaded 
the cause, the decision in 1861 was again ad- 
verse to the recognition of Jerome as the le- 
gitimate son of the king of Westphalia. Mr. 
Bonaparte never became naturalized in the 
United States, and proudly called himself a 
French citizen. His only son, JEROME NA- 
POLEON, born in 1832, a graduate of West Point 



(1852), became an officer in the French army 
in 1854, and served in the Crimea, Algeria, 
Italy, and France till the fall of the empire. 
He then returned to the United States, and 
in 1872 he married at Newport, R. I., a 
lady of Boston. III. Jerdme Napoleon, son of 
King Jer6me by his second wife, Catharine of 
Wiirtemberg, born Aug. 24, 1814, died in 
Florence, May 12, 1847. He was an officer in 
the W.urtemberg army till 1840, when ill health 
compelled his retirement. IV. Napoleon Joseph 
Charles Panl, popularly known as Prince Na- 
po!6on, second son of Jerome and Catharine of 
Wurtemberg, born in Trieste, Sept. 9, 1822. 
His education, commenced in Rome, was com- 
pleted in Geneva and at Arenenberg, where 
his cousin, the future Napoleon III., was his 
tutor. His uncle, the king of Wurtemberg, 
provided for liis military training at Ludwigs- 
burg, and after remaining here for four years 
he travelled extensively and spent some time 
in Spain. His resemblance to the first Napoleon 
attracted attention everywhere, and Be'ranger 
describes him, in allusion to his obesity, as a 
genuine Napoleon medal dipped in German fat 
(une vraie medaille Napoleonienne trempee 
dans de la graisse allemande). A permission 
granted him by Louis Philippe in 1845 to re- 
side in Paris was withdrawn after four months, 
mainly in consequence of his alleged under- 
standing with revolutionists ; but in 1847 he was 
allowed to remain in France with his father, 
and he made himself conspicuous on Feb. 24, 
1848, by his eager support of the revolution. In 
1848 he was elected deputy from Corsica to the 
constituent assembly, and in 1849 from the de- 
partment of the Sarthe to the legislative assem- 
bly. The less liberal complexion of the latter 
body induced him to accept from Louis Na- 
poleon the mission to Spain ; but he had hardly 
reached Madrid when, on Jiearing of the re- 
actionary educational measures proposed by 
Falloux, he hastily returned to the assembly, 
and was deprived of his office as minister for 
having deserted his post. He now became 
noted for his violent opposition, and was called 
le prince de la Montague. In 1850, when 
Thiers applied the term tile multitude to those 
who were to be disfranchised, he vindicated 
popular rights in an inflammatory speech ; but 
he kept quiet for a time after the coup d'etat 
of Dec. 2, 1851. On the establishment of the 
second empire in 1852 he took his seat in the 
senate and council of state as an imperial 
prince, with the right of succession to the 
throne. At the same time he was made general 
of division, though he had never seen military 
service ; and at the opening of the Crimean 
war he was placed in command of a reserve 
corps at the Alma and at Inkerman. He was 
soon recalled, ostensibly on account of ill 
health. His adversaries questioned his bravery 
and capacity, while his partisans ascribed his 
abrupt return to civil life to his having in- 
sisted with characteristic vehemence upon 
using the war against Russia for the liberation 



BONAPARTE 



29 



of Poland. He displayed considerable talent 
and activity as president of the imperial com- 
mission of the exposition of 1855, and in a 
scientific maritime excursion to the coasts of 
Scotland, Iceland, and Greenland in 1856, and 
was admitted to the academy of fine arts. In 
1857 he acquitted himself successfully of a 
diplomatic mission by prevailing upon Prussia 
to relinquish her claims upon Neufchatel in 
favor of Switzerland, putting an end to that 
contest. In 1858 he was appointed to the 
newly created ministry of Algerian and co- 
lonial affairs, and held that office about nine 
months. His marriage on Jan. 30, 1859, with 
the princess Clotilde, daughter of King Victor 
Emanuel, was speedily followed by the Franco- 
Italian war against Austria, during which he 
was sent to Tuscany at the head of the fifth 
army corps; but though he crossed the Ap- 
ennines by forced marches, he reached head- 
quarters only to witness the conclusion of the 
preliminary treaty of peace of Villafranca, for 
the carrying out of which he was sent to Verona. 
In 1861 he went with his yacht to the United 
States, and leaving the princess Clotilde with 
the duchess d'Abrantes at New York, pro- 
ceeded to Washington, where Secretary Seward 
presented him to President Lincoln. He then 
visited Beauregard's headquarters at Manassas, 
and pushed as far as Richmond, escorted by 
the French minister Mercier. He was accom- 
panied by Maurice Sand, the son of his intimate 
friend Mme. Dudevant (George Sand), and 
others ; and he often expressed his sympathies 
with the cause of the Union and of slavery 
abolition. After his return he made in 1862 
and 1863 remarkable speeches in the senate 
against the temporal power of the papacy and 
in favor of Polish nationality. In 1863 he 
visited the Suez canal, of which enterprise he 
became an advocate. At the inauguration of 
the statue of Napoleon I. in Ajaccio in 1865, he 
made a sensational oration, full of democratic 
sentiments, which proved still less palatable 
than his previous speeches to the emperor, who 
was then in Algeria, and from thence addressed 
an official reprimand to the prince. The latter 
immediately threw up all his public functions, 
including his membership of the council of re- 
gency, his opposition to the temporal power of 
the pope having converted the empress Eugenie, 
who had never been his friend, into his invete- 
rate enemy. But he speedily regained the con- 
fidence of the emperor, who apparently regarded 
his vagaries as harmless, and even in some re- 
spects as useful. In 1868 he visited the North 
German states, and a political object was as- 
cribed to this as to his other journeys in that 
year, especially as he occasionally received 
official deputations and was fond of assuming 
the attitude of a sovereign prince. Though he 
constantly coquetted with the ultra radicals, 
they never ceased to regard him as in reality 
an imperialist, possibly desirous of supplanting 
his cousin ; while the emperor himself even re- 
frained from rebukinj* his renewed violence in 



1869, though his speech on that occasion was 
publicly disavowed by Rouher, president of 
the senate. Prince Napoleon had long been 
nick-named Plon-Plon, his ambition as well as 
his attempt to reconcile imperialistic with ex- 
treme liberal institutions subjecting him to crit- 
icism, to which the grotesque contrast between 
his impetuous demonstrations and placid ap- 
pearance added a tinge of the ridiculous. After 
the outbreak of the Franco-German war, he 
made unavailing efforts to draw Italy into the 
contest against Prussia, and at the close of 1871 
he declined to accept an election to the gen- 
eral council of Corsica. In October, 1872, he 
was ordered to leave Paris, and on his resist- 
ing he was forcibly expelled. The prince insti- 
tuted legal proceedings against the prefect and 
commissary of police who arrested him in the 
house of his friend M. Richard, claiming 200,- 
000 francs damages. He afterward returned to 
his chateau of Prangins near Geneva with his 
wife and children, consisting of two sons, born 
in 1862 and 1864, and a daughter, in 1866. They 
occasionally reside also in their mansion at Mi- 
lan. V. MatMIde Lsetitia WUhelmlne, sister of the 
preceding, popularly known as Princess Ma- 
thilde, born in Trieste, May 27, 1820. She was 
early distinguished by her literary and artistic 
tastes, and in 1841 married in Florence the Rus- 
sian count Anatol Demidoff, whom the grand 
duke of Tuscany made prince of San Donate. 
He having agreed to bring up the prospective 
children in the Roman Catholic faith, the em- 
peror Nicholas deprived him of his office of 
chamberlain. But they had no issue, and when 
Mathilde went to St. Petersburg the czar be- 
came her friend, and he corresponded with her 
till the Crimean war ; and on her separation in 
1845 from her husband, he insisted upon his 
settling on his wife an annuity of 200,000 ru- 
bles. The princess Mathilde presided over the 
household of Louis Napoleon previous to his 
marriage with Eugenie, and afterward con- 
tinued to occupy a prominent position at the 
imperial court until the Franco-German war, 
when the downfall of her cousin deprived her 
of her large endowments; and the death of 
her former husband in April,'1870, also cut off 
the income which she had derived from him. 
Her palace in Paris and her summer residence 
at St. Gratien, near the lake of Enghien, were 
the most distinguished literary and artistic cen- 
tres of the second empire ; and she excels as 
an artist, as is attested by her fine paintings 
and etchings. After the death of Sainte-Beuve 
in 1869, the newspapers engaged in a lively 
controversy about her letters to him ; and her 
special favorite was Theophile Gautier, whose 
funeral she attended in October, 1872, Presi- 
dent Thiers having permitted her to continue 
to reside in Paris. 

BONAPARTE, Joseph, successively king of Na- 
ples and of Spain, eldest brother of Napoleon 
I., born at Corte, Corsica, Jan. 7, 1768, died in 
Florence, July 28, 1844. The grand duke of Tus- 
cany having recommended Charles Bonaparte 



30 



BONAPARTE 



to his sister, the queen of France, he gained 
admission for his son Joseph to the college of 
Autun, destining him for the church. Joseph, 
however, agreed with Napoleon to become a sol- 
dier; but the father prevailed upon him shortly 
before his death to relinquish this project, and 
to devote himself to the task devolving on him 
as the eldest son of attending to the education 
and prosperity of his younger brothers and sis- 
ters. Joseph having completed his education 
at the university of Pisa, the grand duke of 
Tuscany wished to attach him to his service, 
but he preferred to rejoin his family in Cor- 
sica. In June, 1788, he was admitted as ad- 
vocate to the superior council at Bastia, and 
he became one of the most active and influen- 
tial members of the municipality. He was an 
early and zealous supporter of the French rev- 
olution of 1789, became president of his dis- 
trict, published a pamphlet on the new French 
constitution, was a member of the committee 
appointed to invite Paoli to Corsica, and became 
his secretary in the Corsican administration. 
During the English invasion of the island Jo- 
seph, who had been commander of militia, 
served at Toulon at the same time with his 
brother Napoleon. On Aug. 1, 1794, he mar- 
ried at Marseilles Marie Julio Clary, daughter 
of a rich merchant, and whose younger sister 
became in 1798 the wife of Bernadotte and 
afterward queen of Sweden. In 1796 he fol- 
lowed Napoleon to Italy as military commis- 
sary of his army, and was sent by him to 
Paris with Junot to deliver his trophies to 
the directory. Shortly afterward he was sent 
with a body of men to Corsica against the 
English ; but they having evacuated the isl- 
and before his arrival, he rejoined Napoleon, 
who procured for him the appointment of 
French envoy in Parma, which he exchanged 
in 1797 for that of French minister in Rome. 
His course during the commotions in that city 
in 1798 being approved by the directory, the 
mission to Berlin was tendered to him ; but he 
preferred joining the council of 500 as mem- 
ber elect from Corsica, his presence in Paris 
enabling him to watch over the interests of 
Napoleon, to whom he sent his Greek friend 
Bourbaki to urge his immediate return from 
Egypt. He cooperated with Napoleon in the 
events of the 18th Brumaire, introducing Mo- 
reau to him, and through the medium of Ca- 
banis making the first overtures to Sieyes. 
He declined a place in the cabinet, but ac- 
cepted a seat in the tribunate and in the 
council of state, and contributed essentially to 
the popularization of the new consular govern- 
ment by assisting Napoleon with his advice, 
and by rallying round him many supporters, 
his amenity of manners and conciliatory dis- 
position making friends for him in almost all 
classes of society. The same characteristics 
secured his success as the negotiator of the 
treaty of peace with the United States in 1800, 
with Germany at Luneville in 1801, and with 
Great Britain at Amiens in 1802 ; and subse- 



quently in concluding the concordat with the 
Roman see. When assuming the imperial dig- 
nity, Napoleon offered the crown of Lombardy 
to Joseph, who however preferred to remain 
in France as the presumptive successor to the 
new throne. In 1805 he was prevailed upon by 
his brother to accept a military position ; but as 
the latter had to leave for the seat of war, Jo- 
seph remained in Paris to share with Camba- 
c6res in the administration of the government. 
After 'the victorious return of Napoleon from 
Austerlitz, Joseph was sent with an army to 
Naples, entering the city in February, 1806, and 
assuming the title of king of Naples, accord- 
ing to the wishes of Napoleon, which had now 
become laws even for Joseph, to whom up to 
that time he had invariably shown great defer- 
ence. The cares of the throne were not con- 
genial to Joseph's quiet disposition ; and they 
were made the more harassing by the futile at- 
tempts to conquer Sicily and by other internal 
complications, and especially by the interfer- 
ence of his brother with his conciliatory meas- 
ures. Yet he became attached to the genial 
climate and to the people of Naples ; and after 
having reigned over them about two years with 
great mildness and with much solicitude for 
their prosperity, it was with reluctance, and 
only in obedience to his brother's inexorable 
will, that in 1808 he exchanged the throne of 
Naples for that of Spain. In an interview 
with Napoleon at Bayonne, Joseph insisted 
upon being recognized as king by the Span- 
iards previous to his departure for their coun- 
try, and Napoleon at once had a junta con- 
vened (June 15), which lost no time in giving 
the prescribed recognition. The new mon- 
arch left for Madrid, but a day after his arri- 
val there (July 20) he informed Napoleon of 
his deception and of the unconquerable hos- 
tility of the Spaniards. If left to himself, he 
might perhaps have made his rule acceptable 
to them ; but he was compelled to govern 
Spain, as he had been to govern Naples, not 
in the interest of the nation, but according 
to the dictates of Napoleon, who disdained to 
listen to Joseph's repeated remonstrances, sug- 
gestions, and entreaties; neither would he 
allow him to relinquish the throne, though Jo- 
seph wished to be relieved from its burdens. 
Three times during his administration of five 
years he was driven by hostile armies from 
his capital, the last time, in 1813, never to 
return. After transferring (July 12) the com- 
mand of the army to Soult, Joseph retired to a 
chateau near Bayonne, and soon afterward he 
rejoined his family at Mortfontaine, near Paris. 
On Dec. 29 he wrote to Napoleon placing him- 
self at his disposal, but yet expressing unwill- 
ingness to desert his duties as king of Spain. 
The emperor in January, 1814, made him lieu- 
tenant general of the empire in his absence, with 
large military and civil prerogatives as the head 
of the regency under Maria Louisa. In this 
capacity, when the allied army invested Paris 
in March, 1814, he authorized Marmont and 



BONAPARTE 



31 



Mortier to treat for a suspension of hostilities, 
and subsequently consented to a capitulation. 
He then joined Maria Louisa and her son at 
Blois, attempted in vain to rejoin Napoleon at 
Fontainebleau, and went to Switzerland, where 
he purchased the chateau of Prangins on the 
lake of Geneva. On hearing of the emperor's 
landing at Cannes, Joseph hastened to Paris, 
and endeavored to gain the support of Lafay- 
ette, Mme. de Stael, Benjamin Constant, and 
his other personal friends, for his brother's last 
desperate attempt at restoration, by holding 
out the promise of a constitutional form of 
government. After the battle of "Waterloo he 
met Napoleon for the last time, June 29, 1815, 
and in vain proposed to take his place as 
prisoner, by passing himself off for him. Na- 
poleon still hoping to be able to escape to the 
United States, the two brothers pledged them- 
selves to meet there. While the emperor was 
conveyed to St. Helena, Joseph embarked at 
Ro van, July 25, under the name of Count de Sur- 
villiers, for New York. He purchased a house 
in Philadelphia, where he lived during the 
winter, and extensive grounds and a mansion 
called Point Breeze, near Bprdentown, N. J., 
where he generally spent his summers. An 
act was passed in 1817 by the legislature of 
New Jersey to enable him, as an alien, to hold 
real estate; and at his request a similar act 
was passed in 1825 by the state of New York, 
where he resided some time in a secluded man- 
sion on the edge of the great northern wilder- 
ness. He endeared himself to Americans by his 
benevolence, affability, and accomplishments ; 
and he was elected to many philanthropical 
and learned associations. His wife was pre- 
vented by her delicate health from joining him ; 
but his two daughters and his son-in-law, the 
prince of Canino, lived with him in the United 
States. Among his other faithful companions 
was O'Farrell, formerly one of his ministers in 
Spain. His exile was cheered by the visits of 
Lafayette and other distinguished personages, 
but it was deeply saddened in 1821 by the 
death of Napoleon, to whom Joseph had never 
ceased to be tenderly devoted. As chief of the 
Bonaparte family, he ineffectually exerted him- 
self after the revolution of July, 1830, for the 
recognition of the claims of Napoleon II. to the 
throne of France, and protested against the 
accession of any other dynasty. In 1832, on 
hearing of the duke of Reichstadt's illness, he 
went to Europe ; but being informed of his death 
at Liverpool, he remained in England. In 1834 
he joined his brother Lucien in a protest against 
the banishment of their family from France, 
disclaiming all unpatriotic and ambitious de- 
signs, and declaring their submission to the 
popular will. In 1837 he returned to the 
United States, but in 1839 again went to Eng- 
land. Some time after his second arrival in 
London he was struck with paralysis, and 
sought relief in vain at Wildbad, Wurtemberg. 
In order to escape from the English climate 
and to rejoin his family, he wished to proceed 
106 VOL. in. 3 



to Italy. Even in 1841, however, he conld 
only obtain the consent of the king of Sardinia 
to his residing in Genoa ; but this example was 
soon followed by the grand duke of Tuscany, 
and he spent the rest of his life with his family 
in Florence. Joseph was not made for camps 
or thrones; his ambition was moderate, and 
he found the main sources of happiness in do- 
mestic and social life, and in the gratification 
of his literary and artistic tastes. His presence 
was elegant and courtly, and his manners were 
singularly winning. The correspondence be- 
tween himself and Napoleon I., which has been 
published since his death, reveals the confiden- 
tial intercourse of the two brothers, and throws 
considerable light upon the details of important 
events and transactions. Joseph presented the 
various insignia of the legion of honor which 
had been worn by Napoleon to the French 
government, and many pictures from the col- 
lection of his uncle Cardinal Fesch to Corsican 
towns. The museum of Versailles contains a 
marble statue of Joseph, by Delaistre ; a bust, 
by Bartolini ; and a portrait of him by G6rard. 
See Memoires et correspondance politique et 
militaire du roi Joseph, by Du Casse (10 vols., 
Paris, 1853-'5 ; an English selection from the 
same, 2 vols., New York, 1856), and Memoires, 
by Miot de Melito (3 vols., Paris, 1858). His 
wife died in Florence, April 7, 1845. Their 
elder daughter, ZENA!DE CHAKLOTTE JULIE, 
married her cousin the prince of Canino, and 
died in Italy in 1854. The younger daughter, 
CHABLOTTE, born in Paris, Oct. 31, 1802, mar- 
ried her cousin, the second son of Louis, had 
no children, became a widow in 1831, and died 
at Sarzana, Italy, March 2, 1839. 

BONAPARTE. I. Louis, king of Holland, third 
brother of Napoleon, born in Ajaccio in Septem- 
ber, 1778, died in Leghorn, July 25, 1846. Na- 
poleon wished him to study military science at 
Chalons, but this project was not carried out, 
and he subsequently served under his brother 
in Italy and Egypt, and displayed bravery in 
various engagements, especially at the battle 
of Arcole. He cooperated with Napoleon on 
the 18th Brumaire, and rose to the rank of 
colonel. He was in love with a schoolmate of 
his sister Caroline, and consented with great 
reluctance, at the. urgent request of Napoleon 
and Josephine, to marry Hortense, Josephine's 
daughter. (See BEAUHABNAIS.) Hortense was 
equally indifferent to the alliance, which proved 
unhappy. In 1804 he was made general and 
councillor of state, and after the establishment 
of the empire he became prince and constable, 
governor general of the transalpine depart- 
ments, and military commander of Paris as 
successor of Murat, who took the place first 
destined to Louis at the head of the reserve 
in the proposed expedition against England. 
Against the wishes of Louis, the crown of Hol- 
land was forced upon him by Napoleon, and 
he was proclaimed king at Saint Cloud, June 5, 
1806. Napoleon, in replying to the Dutch 
admiral Verhnel's discourse on that occasion, 



32 



BONAPARTE 



intimated to Louis that, although king of Hol- 
land, he should never cease to bo a Frenchman ; 
but Louis after his accession to the throne pro- 
posed to devote himself exclusively to the in- 
terests of his kingdom, and hence arose in- 
terminable difficulties with Napoleon. Louis 
promoted science, letters, art, the construction 
of canals and dikes, a vast system of drainage, 
and various other ameliorations. He resisted 
Napoleon's design of converting the Dutch army 
and nation into tools for his conquests and am- 
bition. But while Louis lost no opportunity to 
propitiate Holland, Hortense sided with Napo- 
leon, and otherwise gave Louis serious cause for 
deploring their ill-fated union, though she im- 
parted brilliancy to the court of the Hague. The 
death of their first-born child, Napoleon Louis 
Charles, in 1807, increased his unhappiness. 
In the autumn of that year he became alto- 
gether estranged from his wife, and she went 
to Paris, where on April 20, 1808, she gave 
birth to the future Napoleon III. Louis trans- 
ferred his capital from the Hague to Utrecht, 
and eventually to Amsterdam. His relations 
with Napoleon became still more embittered by 
the injury which the blockade against England 
inflicted upon Dutch commerce. Louis resist- 
ed this measure as long as possible, and upon 
finally submitting to it he closed the Dutch ports 
not only against English but all foreign ship- 
ping. The emperor charged him with playing 
into the hands of England, and allowing Hol- 
land to be used as a neutral ground for his ene- 
mies. Louis had a stormy interview with Na- 
poleon in Paris in December, 1809 ; and during 
his residence in that city he was almost reduced 
to the condition of a prisoner, the emperor in- 
sisting upon regarding Holland as a sort of 
French dependency, and preventing Louis from 
returning to his kingdom. On the latter's 
taking measures to baffle the occupation of 
Amsterdam by French troops, Napoleon threat- 
ened him with the annexation of Holland. 
Finally he was compelled to yield so far as to 
interdict all commercial relations with England, 
to withdraw the privileges granted to the Dutch 
nobility, and to organize a powerful navy and 
army to support France against England in case 
of need. After assisting at Napoleon's marriage 
with Maria Louisa, having been previously oblig- 
ed to sanction his divorce from Josephine, Louis 
returned to Amsterdam in April, 1810, by way 
of Aix-la-Ohapelle ; while Hortense, ordered 
by the emperor to resume her position as queen, 
took the direct route to Holland, but remained 
only for a short time, Louis taking little or no 
notice of her departure. Having been com- 
pelled to ratify, though only conditionally, a 
treaty signed by Admiral Verhuel, authorizing 
small French garrisons in several localities, and 
his subsequent protests against Napoleon's in- 
creasing usurpations in Holland proving un- 
availing, he was finally obliged to abdicate in 
favor of his eldest surviving son Napoleon 
Louis, appointing Hortense as regent, and left 
Amsterdam July 1, 1810, a short time before 



the annexation of Holland to France. But he 
never ceased to protest against this measure, 
and to assert his claims and those of his family 
to the Dutch throne. He took up his residence 
at Teplitz, July 9, under the name of Count 
St. Leu. Resisting Napoleon's order, conveyed 
to him through Decazes, to return to France, 
he left for Gratz, and on Dec. 30 declined the 
estates offered to him by the senate in compen- 
sation for his throne, and also forbade Hortense 
to accept the endowment. In August, 1813, 
after the outbreak of war between France and 
Austria, he left the latter country for Switzer- 
land, having repeatedly but in vain applied to 
Napoleon for the restoration of his kingdom, 
the emperor finally declaring that he would 
rather see the house of Orange restored than 
his brother. Louis made an unsuccessful effort 
to be reinstated by the people of Holland dur- 
ing their war of independence, and afterward 
went to Paris. Napoleon received him coldly, 
and did not wish him to reside in the capital 
unless he would relinquish all ideas of domin- 
ion in Holland, and would sustain his own 
power, in which case he would be acknowl- 
edged as a French prince and constable of the 
empire. Louis nevertheless remained in Paris, 
maintaining his pretensions with characteristic 
obstinacy, and was the only one of Napoleon's 
brothers who durst defy him to the last. After 
the overthrow of the emperor in 1814, he joined 
Maria Louisa, who had left Paris against his 
advice; the allies permitted ' him to reside in 
France, but he would not witness the humilia- 
tion of his country, and went to Lausanne. 
Hortense having obtained from Louis XVIII., 
through the medium of the czar Alexander, a 
grant of the domain of St. Leu, with the title of 
duchess, Louis spurned the king's letters patent, 
issued May 30, 1814, which raised St. Leu to a 
duchy ; and he also scorned to accept his share 
of the annuity of 2,500,000 francs which the 
treaty of Fontainebleau had provided for him 
and the other princes of the Bonaparte fam- 
ily. His protest to that effect was published 
at Aarau on Aug. 2, 1814, and soon after he 
left Switzerland for Kome. Hortense refusing 
to surrender the custody of their son Napoleon 
Louis, he was obliged to have recourse to the 
tribunal at Paris, which conceded this right to 
him March 7, 1815; after which he retired to 
Florence with the young prince, who died at 
Forli in 1831. His health, aflfected by this and 
other sorrows, was soon hopelessly impaired by 
apoplectic fits, which culminated in partial 
paralysis. The abortive attempts of his young- 
est son Louis Napol6on at Strasburg (1836) 
and Boulogne (1840) became new sources of 
chagrin. He implored his personal friends 
among the members of the French cabinet 
to intercede with Louis Philippe not to de- 
prive him of his son's society during the 
last moments of his life. But the king in- 
sisting upon guarantees which the captive 
prince would not give, Louis despaired of see- 
ing him again. When he was apprised of his 



BONAPARTE 



33 



escape from Ham, though in a dying con- 
dition, he hastened from Florence to Leghorn 
to meet him, hut arrived only to be informed 
of his son's inability to procure a passport from 
England for Italy. This disappointment brought 
on a fit from which he died, unattended by any 
member of his family. He was buried in the 
church of Santa Croce, and his remains were 
subsequently transferred to the church of 
St. Leu in Paris. Despite his life-long diffi- 
culties with Louis, the emperor gave prece- 
dence in his will to his children over those of 
Joseph and Lucien in the right of succession, 
and also pardoned him for what he denounced 
as libellous assertions in the Documents histo- 
riques et reflexions sur le gouvernement de la 
Hollande (3 vols., Paris and London, 1820), the 
most important publication by Louis, and which 
throws much light upon his and Napoleon's ca- 
reer. He was also the author of several volumes 
of poetry, of a novel descriptive of Dutch 
life and manners (Marie, ou les peines d'amour, 
3 vols. ; 2d ed., under the title of Marie, ou lea 
Hollandaises 1814), and of a Memoire sur la 
versification (Paris, 1814), which obtained from 
the institute a prize offered by himself for the 
best essay on versification. He afterward en- 
larged this work (2 vols., Rome, 1825-'6), adding 
adaptations of Ruth et Noemi, an opera, Lu- 
crece, a tragedy, and Moliere's ISAvare, as spe- 
cimens of Greek and Latin forms of versification 
which he wished to see adopted in French 
poetry. His other writings include HMoire du 
parlement anglais depuis son origine jusqu'en 
Van VII, with autograph notes by Napoleon 
(Paris, 1820); Reponse a Sir Walter Scott sur 
son Histoire de Napoleon (1828-'9) ; and Obser- 
vations sur V Histoire de Napoleon par Nonins 
(1834). The last surviving son of Louis and 
Hortense was the late emperor Napoleon III. 
(See BONAPARTE, NAPOLEON III.) II. Napoleon 
Louis, second son of the preceding, born in 
Paris, Oct. 11, 1804, died in Forli, Italy, March 
17, 1831. He was the first of the Bonaparte 
princes whose name was inscribed on the offi- 
cial records ; he was baptized by Pope Pius VII., 
and Napoleon I. and Madame Lsetitia were his 
sponsors. The death of his brother made him 
heir presumptive to the Dutch throne, and 
while Hortense was regent he was for a short 
time recognized as king of Holland. The em- 
peror made him in 1809 grand duke of Oleves 
and Berg, and his mother had him educated 
by the abbe Bertrand. In conformity with the 
decisions of the tribunals, he was subsequently 
taken away from her to join his father in Italy. 
In 1827 he married his cousin Charlotte, the 
younger daughter of Joseph, ex-king of Spain. 
He became an ardent liberal, and during 
the revolutionary outbreak of 1831 he and 
his brother Louis Napoleon organized the 
defensive operations of the Italian patriots 
on the line from Foligno to Oivita Oastel- 
lana, and were about to seize the latter fort 
and set free the prisoners of state detained 
there, when their parents dissuaded them 



from compromising the Italian cause by giv- 
ing to the French a pretext for deserting it. 
They went thereupon to Bologna, and when 
that city was occupied by the Austrians, 
they removed to Forli, where Prince Napol6on 
Louis died of the measles. He was noted for 
his scientific attainments and his mechanical 
inventions. He established a paper manufac- 
tory on a plan of his own, published an essay on 
balloons, translated into French the " History 
of the Sacking of Rome," by his reputed an- 
cestor Jacopo Buonaparte (Florence, 1829), 
and published some other writings. 

BONAPARTE. I. Ludt'ti, prince of Canino, 
second brother of Napoleon, born in Ajaccio, 
March 21, 1775, died in Viterbo, June 29, 1840. 
He attended with his brother Joseph the col- 
lege of Autun for nearly two years, and after- 
ward studied at the military school of Brienne 
and at the seminary of Aix in Provence. He 
then lived some time with his uncle, the future 
cardinal Fesch, and in 1792 returned to Corsi- 
ca. Lucien was an ardent supporter of the 
revolution, and Paoli called him his little Taci- 
tus. After Paoli's rupture with France in 1793 
Lucien abandoned him, and went at the head 
of a deputation to Paris to solicit assistance 
against him and against the English. Subse- 
quently he became connected with the com- 
missary department at St. Maximin, and exerted 
much influence in that little town, as president 
of the popular society and the revolutionary 
committee, in preventing political excesses. 
He was nevertheless arrested after the fall of 
Robespierre, while he was acting as military 
inspector in the vicinity of Cette, and released 
only after six weeks' imprisonment through Na- 
poleon's influence with Barras, who subsequent- 
ly appointed him commissary of war. About the 
same time he married a poor girl of Provence. 
In 1798 he was elected deputy to the council 
of 500, of which he became president after 
Napoleon's return from Egypt. Having been 
a prominent supporter of the constitutional re- 
forms projected t>y Sieyes, he aided in securing 
his cooperation for the coup d'etat of the 18th 
Brumaire, and was one of the most active in 
its execution. During the stormy scenes in the 
council of 500 he left the chair under the pro- 
tection of Napoleon's grenadiers. He was ap- 
pointed by the first consul to the newly created 
senate, but at his request he became minister 
of the interior as successor of Laplace, who took 
Lucien's seat in the senate ; and the administra- 
tive centralization of France was initiated during 
his tenure of office. He reestablished the official 
organ, the Mercure de France, and promoted 
letters and arts; but he was too independent to 
suit his brother, and his relations with him be- 
came still more embittered through Fouch6, 
who taunted Lucien with his improvident 
course and with his illicit relations with the 
actress M6zorai, and falsely charged him with 
conspiring against the first consul. Lucien 
was removed from the ministry and sent as 
ambassador to Madrid. Here he ingratiated 



BONAPARTE 



himself with Godoy and Charles IV., and in 
March, 1801, secured the alliance of Spain with 
France in the attack upon Portugal. But he 
subsequently allowed himself to be outwitted 
by Godoy, incurring the censure of Napoleon, 
who charged him with having played into the 
hands of England, but ordered him to remain in 
Spain till after the conclusion of the treaties of 
Badajoz and Amiens, although Lucien had at 
once tendered his resignation. On his return 
to Paris, early in 1802, he became a member of 
the tribunate. He supported the conclusion of 
the concordat, and aided his brother in being 
made consul for life. Elected as the deputy of 
the tribunate to the grand council of the legion 
of honor, of which he was one of the founders, 
he became in this capacity an ex officio member 
of the senate. The institute was reorganized 
and enlarged under his auspices, and both he 
and his second wife, whom he married in 1802, 
were popular in literary and general society ; 
but this alliance was so displeasing to Napoleon 
that Lucien, who never sacrificed his dignity 
and independence, broke oft' all relations with 
him and left France in the spring of 1804. 
He went to Milan, then to Pesaro, and eventu- 
ally took up his residence in a magnificent 
palace in Kome, devoting himself to literary 
and archaeological labors, in which he became 
so much absorbed that Count Miot, charged by 
Napoleon in 1806 to offer a crown to Lucien if 
he would repudiate his wife, did not even ven- 
ture to broach the subject. In December, 
1807, Napoleon sought an interview with him 
at Mantua, and offered him a crown, the hand 
of the prince of Asturias for his daughter, 
and a duchy for his wife, provided he would 
divorce her. But Lucien spurned these tempt- 
ing offers, and deemed it prudent to leave 
Rome in view of the emperor's increased exas- 
peration, and to reside on his extensive estate 
near Viterbo, which the pope converted for his 
benefit into the principality of Canino. Lucien 
felt even here insecure against Napoleon, and 
embarked at Civita Vecchia Aug. 1, 1810, for 
the United States ; but he was captured by an 
English cruiser and conveyed to Malta, and 
thence to England. Though Lucien was not 
connected with the empire, and Napoleon even 
had his name struck out of the imperial al- 
manac, he was treated as a prisoner and de- 
tained at Ludlow castle, Wales. Shortly after- 
ward, however, he was allowed to reside at 
Thorngrove, Worcestershire, where he remain- 
ed till April, 1814, when he returned to Rome. 
As soon as he was apprised of the emperor's 
banishment to Elba, he became as generous to 
him in his adversity as he had been vehement 
in opposing his tyranny in his prosperity, and 
assisted him during the hundred days. After 
spending some time with his friend Mme. de 
Stael in Switzerland, he took up his official 
residence in the palaw royal as an imperial 
prince ; but the chamber cf peers declined ad- 
mitting him as such, recognizing him only as an 
ordinary member. He was installed among the 



members of the government upon the emperor's 
departure for Waterloo. After the fatal issue 
of that battle his appeals to the chambers in 
favor of the preservation of the empire proved 
unavailing, and Lafayette gave him a crushing 
reply by referring to the vast hosts sacrificed 
to the emperor's ambition. He in vain advised 
his brother to dissolve the chambers, and on 
his second abdication he insisted upon his 
transferring the throne to Napoleon II., whose 
claims he also vindicated in the senate. He 
remained with Napoleon till the end of June, 
and subsequently twice proposed to share his 
captivity in St. Helena. Going to Italy, he 
was arrested at Turin, and released after three 
months on the intervention of the pope, to 
whose dominions he returned, to devote him- 
self in his villa Russinella, near Frascati, to 
literary and archseological labors. Beranger 
applying to him for assistance in 1803, Lucien 
immediately placed at his disposal his annual 
income from the academy, and the poet ex- 
pressed his gratitude in the preface to his songs 
of 1833; but Lucien was excluded from the 
academy after the restoration, though he had 
been one of its benefactors. He published a 
description of his famous collection of Etruscan 
antiquities, and his other works include a novel, 
La tribu indienne, ou Edouard et Stellina (2 
vols., Paris, 1799), which was translated into 
English and German ; Charlemagne, ou VEgliie 
delivree(2 vols., London, 1814; English transla- 
tion by Butler and Hodgson), and other poems; 
La verite sur les Cent Jours (Paris, 1835); 
and his Memoires, of which the first volume 
appeared in 1836, and an extract of the 
second volume was published by his widow 
in 1845 under the title, Le 18 Brumaire. 
Lucien's first wife, CHRISTINE ELEONORE BOTEB, 
daughter of a hotel proprietor, died in Paris, 
May 14, 1800. She bore him two children: 
CHARLOTTE, born May 13, 1796, married in 
1815 Prince Mario Gabrielli, and in 1842 the 
Roman physician Centamori, and died in Rome 
May 6, 1865. CHRISTINE EGYPTA, born in 
Paris, Oct. 19, 1798, married in 1818 the 
Swedish count Arved Posse, and in 1824 Lord 
Dudley Coutts Stuart, and died in Rome in 
May, 1847. Lucien's second wife (1802) and 
previous mistress was MARIE ALEXANDRINE 
CHARLOTTE LOUISE LAURENCE DE BLESCHAMP, 
who was divorced from her first husband, the 
wealthy stock broker Jouberthon. She was an 
amiable and accomplished woman, and pub- 
lished a poem, Satilde, reine des Francs (Paris, 
1820). She bore him four daughters and four 
sons. Of the former, JEANNE died shortly after 
her marriage with Count Honorati ; MARIE 
married Count Vincenzo Valentin!, who died in 
1858 ; CONSTANCE became abbess of the convent 
of the Sacred Heart in Rome ; and L.CTITIA, 
born in Milan, Dec. 1, 1804, was the wife of Sir 
Thomas Wyse, for many years British ambas- 
sador in Athens, became a widow in 1862, and 
died March 15, 1871. One of her two daugh- 
ters became in 1862 the wife of the Hungarian 



BONAPARTE 



35 



general Turr, and the other, MARIE, after the 
death of her first husband, Frdderic Solrns, in 
1862, contracted a second marriage in 1863 
with the Italian statesman Ratazzi. (See RA- 
TAZZI.) II. Charles Lucien Jnles Laurent, prince 
of Canino and Musignano, a naturalist, son of 
the preceding, born in Paris, May 24, 1803, 
died there, July 29, 1857. He was educated in 
the universities of Italy. In 1822 he married 
at Brussels his cousin Zenaide, the daughter 
of Joseph, ex-king of Spain. He joined his 
father-in-law in Philadelphia, and gained a 
high reputation as an ornithologist, which was 
increased by his subsequent labors after his re- 
turn to Italy in 1828. On the death of his 
father in 1840 he inherited his princely titles, 
but continued to devote himself exclusively to 
scientific pursuits till 1847, when he touched 
upon politics at the scientific congress of Ven- 
ice, and was expelled by the Austrian authori- 
ties. After a visit to London and Copenhagen 
he went to Rome, where he supported Pius 
IX. as long as he adhered to a progressive 
policy ; but when the pope changed front and 
was eventually driven to Gaeta, the prince of 
Canino became a prominent leader of the revo- 
lutionists, was a member and vice president 
of the constituent assembly, and gallantly up- 
held the cause of the republic until the occu- 
pation of Rome by French troops, July 3, 1849, 
after which he left for France. Despite the 
warning given him at the frontier, he continued 
his journey toward Paris, and was arrested at 
Orleans by order of Louis Napoleon and con- 
veyed to Havre, whence he sailed for England. 
In 1850, however, he was permitted to reside 
in Paris, where in 1854 he became director of 
the jardin de plantes. He was the founder 
and president of many scientific congresses in 
Italy, lectured before them on natural history, 
and was elected member of the academies of 
sciences of Upsal and Berlin, and correspon- 
dent of the French institute. He wrote exten- 
sively on American and European ornithology 
and other branches of natural history. Many 
of his writings are contained in academical 
annals and other periodical publications. His 
principal separate works are : "American Or- 
nithology, or the Natural History of Birds in- 
habiting the United States, not given by Wil- 
son" (4 vols. 4to, illustrated, Philadelphia, 
1825-'33, with descriptions of over 100 new 
species of birds discovered by him); Specchio 
comparativo delle ornithologie di Roma e di 
Filadelfia (Pisa, 1827, establishing a compari- 
son between European and American birds) ; 
and Iconografia della fauna Italica (3 vols., 
royal 4to, richly illustrated, Rome, 1833-'41). 
His latest and partly posthumous productions 
comprise Catalogue de oiseanx d'Europe (1 
vol. 4to, Paris, 1856) ; Iconographie des pit/eons, 
.and in conjunction with M. de Pouance Icono- 
yf'ij'fiie des perroquets (Paris, 1857-'9). A 
volume of "Memoirs of Himself" was pub- 
lished in New York in 1836. His wife, an ac- 
complished woman, who translated Schiller's 



dramas and assisted her husband in his scien- 
tific labors, died in Italy, Aug. 8, 1854. She 
bore him twelve children, four of whom died 
young. The surviving five daughters became 
respectively the wives of Marquis Roccagio- 
vine, Count Primoli, Count Campello, and 
Prince Placido Gabrielli. The eldest son, 
JOSEPH LUCIEN CHARLES NAPOLEON, born in 
Philadelphia, Feb. 13, 1824, barely escaped 
assassination in Rome, Feb. 10, 1850, though 
he was not connected with politics, and died in 
that city, Sept. 2, 1865. He was succeeded 
as head of the family by his brother, LUCIEN 
Louis JOSEPH NAPOLEON, born in Rome, Nov. 
15, 182. He was ordained as a priest in 
1853, and is a great favorite of Pius IX., whose 
privy chamberlain he was till 1868, when he 
was made cardinal. Napoleon III. conferred 
upon him in 1865 the title of French prince 
and of highness, and during the existence of 
the second empire he was generally regarded 
as a Bonapartist candidate for the papacy. 
His only surviving brother is NAPOLEON GKE- 
GOIEE JACQUES PHILIPPE, born in Rome, Feb. 
5, 1839. He married in 1859 the Italian 
princess Ruspoli, and the title of highness 
was conferred upon him in 1861. He became 
captain in the Algerian rifle corps, and joined 
the Mexican expedition. III. Louis Lucicii, a 
philologist and chemist, second son of Lucien, 
born at Thorngrove, Worcestershire, England, 
Jan. 4, 1813. In his early life he resided in 
the United States and in Italy, mainly devoting 
himself to philological and other scientific 
studies. After the revolution of February, 
1848, he was chosen member for Corsica to 
the constituent assembly, but his election was 
annulled. In 1849, however, he was chosen 
by the department of the Seine to the legis- 
lative assembly; and in 1852 he was made 
senator, with the title of French prince and 
highness. His works on chemistry, and espe- 
cially on philology, won for him a doctor's 
diploma from the university of Oxford, the 
membership of the academy of sciences of St. 
Petersburg, and other marks of distinction. He 
has published translations of St. Matthew's par- 
able of the sower into 72 European dialects ; La 
langue basque et les langues finnoises (London, 
1862); a Basque version of Solomon's Song 
(1863) ; and numerous other writings relating 
to Basque, Celtic, and other branches of phi- 
lology, besides several works in French and in 
Italian on chemistry. IV. Pierre Napoleon, third 
son of Lucien, popularly known as Prince 
Pierre, born in Rome, Sept. 12, 1815. He went 
in 1832 to the United States, served with San- 
tander in South America, and was involved in 
quarrels owing to his violent temper. He then 
returned to Italy, where he soon made himself 
obnoxious, and in 1836 the papal authorities 
ordered him to depart. Of the policemen who 
came to escort him to the frontier he killed the 
chief and wounded two of the subordinates ; 
but being himself wounded in the fray, he was 
obliged to surrender, and for a considerable 



36 



BONAPARTE 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



time was imprisoned in the castlo of Sant' An- 
gelo. On his release he returned to the United 
States, where he was soon again involved in 
troubles. He next went to England, and after- 
ward to Corfu. After having in vain ofiered 
his military services to France and Egypt, he 
at length obtained in 1848 employment in the 
foreign legion of the French army. He was 
elected to the constituent and legislative assem- 
blies, where he acted with the extreme left, 
vehemently opposing all reactionary measures. 
In 1849 he joined the army in Algeria, but re- 
turned to France without permission at the most 
critical moment of a siege. For this he was 
cashiered with the express approval of the as- 
sembly ; and he fought a duel with a journalist 
who had commended his dismissal. After the 
coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he kept aloof from 
politics, though invested with princely dignities 
and endowments, and lived at Auteuil, near 
Paris, with his mistress, the daughter of a wash- 
erwoman of the faubourg St. Antoine, whom ho 
married in 1869. In 1870 he acquired great 
notoriety by his assassination, on Jan. 10, of 
one of Rochefort's collaborators, the journalist 
Victor Noir, who with his colleague Ulrich de 
Fonvielle called at his country residence to de- 
mand satisfaction from him in behalf of their 
friend Paschal Grousset, who charged the prince 
with having disparaged him in a newspaper 
published in Corsica. The prince, after a brief 
altercation, shot Noir dead, and also aimed the 
revolver, which he had carried loaded in his 
pocket, at Fonvielle, who escaped unhurt. This 
event created a great sensation, and threw 
additional odium upon the imperial dynasty at 
a time when its fortunes had already begun to 
decline. Pierre was arrested, and to prevent 
disturbances in Paris, a high court, the mem- 
bers of which were carefully selected by the 
authorities, was convened at Tours, and the 
trial (March 20-27) resulted in his acquittal of 
the charge of murder, the prince 'pretending 
that he had acted in self-defence, having been 
slapped in the face by Noir. He was, how- 
ever, condemned to pay an indemnity of 25,000 
francs to the family of his victim, and to bear 
the costs of the trial. The emperor requested 
him to leave the French territory, and he has 
since resided in London, mainly supported by 
his wife, who opened a fashionable millinery 
establishment there under her princely title. 
She has borne him several children, who were 
legitimized after their marriage. Vt Antolnc, 
the fourth son of Lucien, born at Frascati, Oct. 
31, 1816. He was educated in Italy, and went 
in 1832 to the United States in the hope of 
meeting his father, who however had already 
sailed for England. Afterward he resided with 
him in Italy, but became involved in trouble 
with the papal troops and had to leave Rome. 
He returned there after the revolution of 1848, 
but refrained from joining the ultra democrats. 
In 1849 he went to France, and was a conser- 
vative member of the legislative assembly till 
Dec. 2, 1851, when he retired from politics. 



As he did not court his cousin the emperor, he 
was excluded from the endowments enjoyed 
by many of his relatives who pursued a more 
obsequious course. 

BONAPARTE, Napoleon, emperor of France, 
born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Aug. 15, 1769, two 
months after the conquest of the island by the 
French, died at St. Helena, May 5, 1821. It 
is related that, his mother being taken in labor 
suddenly as she was returning from mass, he 
was born on a piece of old tapestry, on which 
were figured the events of the Iliad. As a boy 
he manifested a violent and passionate temper, 
and in the little disputes with his elder brother 
Joseph he always came off master. The tradi- 
tions report also that he delighted in running 
after the soldiers, who taught him military 
manoeuvres ; that his favorite plaything was 
a small brass cannon ; and that he regularly 
drilled the children of Ajaccio in battles with 
stones and wooden sabres. His first teacher 
was his mother, who exerted a powerful influ- 
ence upon his mind. He was next admitted 
to the royal college of Ajaccio, and spent a 
short time with his father on the continent, 
and with his brother Joseph at the college of 
Autun. In his 10th year, April 23, 1779, he 
was sent to the military school at Brienne, 
where Pichegru was one of his instructors. 
His companions there regarded him as taciturn 
and morose ; but as he was a Corsican, speak- 
ing very little French, and poor as well as 
proud, like those islanders generally, his con- 
duct is doubtless to be ascribed as much to his 
circumstances as to his temperament. Toward 
those who showed him sympathy, like Bourri- 
enne, he was susceptible of strong attachments. 
The annual report of the school for 1784 says 
of him : " Distinguished in mathematical stud- 
ies, tolerably versed in history and geography, 
much behind in Latin and belles-lettres, and 
other accomplishments ; of regular habits, stu- 
dious, and well behaved, and enjoying excel- 
lent health." His favorite author was Plu- 
tarch. The stories of his assuming undue au- 
thority over his fellows are contradicted by 
Bourrienne in his Nemoires. In 1784 Napo- 
leon repaired to the military school at Paris to 
complete his studies. . He was shocked at the 
expensive style of living there, and wrote a 
letter against it to his late superior at Brienne, 
Pere Berton. In September, 1785, he was 
commissioned a sub-lieutenant of artillery, and 
soon afterward was promoted to be first lieu- 
tenant of artillery in the regiment of Grenoble, 
stationed at Valence. There he wrote an essay 
for the prize offered by the Lyons academy, on 
the question, " What are the principles and the 
institutions necessary to make man happy!" 
and was successful. Talleyrand, having pro- 
cured this essay, showed it to Napoleon when 
he was at the height of his power, and lie cast 
it into the fire. With his friend De Manis he 
also made an excursion during that time to 
Mont Cenis, which he purposed to describe in 
the style of Sterne's "Sentimental Journey," 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



37 



then much in vogue ; but he did not complete 
what he had designed. A pretty Mile. Calom- 
bier of Valence, with whom he had stolen 
interviews and " ate innocent cherries," was 
supposed to have inspired the sentimental part 
of this literary plan. A more suitable under- 
taking was the project of a history of Corsica, 
which he began, and communicated to Paoli, 
then living in exile in London. The parts of it 
still preserved are full of warm patriotic ex- 
pressions and vehement democratic thoughts. 
They were not phrases borrowed from the 
classic authors, but the spontaneous outbursts 
of a fresh young mind, stimulated by the spirit 
of his age, and not yet contaminated by the ex- 
periences of life, or fettered by its own schemes 
of aggrandizement. Napoleon visited Ajaccio 
every year, and interested himself in furthering 
the education as well as the fortunes of his 
brothers and sisters. Though not the oldest 
son, he was instinctively recognized as the true 
head of the family, his father having died in 
1785. His allowance in those days, probably 
furnished by his uncle, was 1,200 francs. 
Nothing could have been more decided than 
his democratic tendencies at this period. The 
great revolution of France was already moving 
powerfully onward, and he, in common with 
the other officers of the regiment at Valence, 
watched its complicated movements with deep- 
ening anxiety. Many of those officers openly 
took part with the royalists, while others, and 
among them Napoleon, inclined as strongly to 
the revolutionary side. On Feb. 6, 1792, he be- 
came a captain of artillery by seniority, and in 
the same year, being at Paris, he witnessed the 
insurrections of June 20 and of Aug. 10. Bour- 
rienne relates that on the former of these oc- 
casions, when he saw the mob break into the 
palace, and force the king to appear at the 
window, with the bonnet rouge on his head, 
Bonaparte exclaimed : " It is all over with that 
pour man ! A few discharges of grape would 
have sent those despicable wretches flying." 
Paoli, having emerged from his retirement, had 
been enthusiastically received at Paris, and in- 
vested with the presidency and military com- 
mand of his native island, where the ferment 
of revolution was also at its height. Ajaccio 
appears to have been for a while the headquar- 
ters of the patriots, the Bonaparte house their 
place of meeting, and Joseph and Napoleon 
(who had returned hither) the acknowledged 
leaders. But Paoli's views of liberty were far 
more moderate than those of the national legis- 
lature, and in a little while he found himself in 
direct opposition to the government. The Bo- 
napnrtes, strongly attached to him personally, 
did not follow him in this movement, as the in- 
habitants of Ajaccio did generally, but adhered 
to the cause of the convention. A civil war 
was the consequence of Paoli's defection ; and 
in the course of it Napoleon, who acted pro- 
visionally as the commander of a battalion of 
the national guard, had the unpleasant duty 
laid upon him of assaulting his native place. 



He succeeded against it at the outset ; but the 
besieged party rallying, and his communication 
with the frigate which had set him ashore hav- 
ing been cut off, he was deprived of his tem- 
porary success, and in turn besieged in the 
tower of Capitello. During this time he and 
his 50 men were reduced to the extremity of 
living for three days upon horse flesh, when 
some shepherds from the mountains released 
them from their situation. The exasperation 
of the adverse faction now drove the Bona- 
partes out of Ajaccio. Madame Lsctitia, fright- 
ened by the signs of imminent danger, fled 
with her children to Milelli, and thence across 
the rugged mountain roads to the seashore, 
where they concealed themselves in the thick- 
ets until Napoleon succeeded in conveying 
them to Nice, whence they removed to Mar- 
seilles (1793). During their residence at Mar- 
seilles Napoleon was employed by the gen- 
eral commanding the artillery of " the army 
of Italy " to negotiate with the insurgents of 
Marseilles and Avignon. In the latter place 
he published in the same year a little pamphlet 
called Le souper de Seatieaire, in which he 
endeavored to persuade the excited people of 
those parts not to provoke the vengeance of 
the revolutionists, who were then the ruling 
power, and who were dealing a fearful retribu- 
tion upon all whom they suspected to be the 
enemies of the country. Its sentiments were 
generally republican, and in favor of the 
Montague, as against the Girondists, but not 
at all Jacobinical, as has been alleged. The 
pamphlet is given in Bourrienne, and trans- 
lated in the appendix to Sir Walter Scott's 
" Bonaparte." But the provinces were not the 
sphere for Napoleon, and he repaired to Paris, 
where he spent a part of the summer of 1793. 
In September he was ordered on service at 
the siege of Toulon, then possessed by the 
Spanish and English, where he displayed such 
extraordinary military intelligence and activity 
as to lay the foundation of his whole subsequent 
military career. After reconnoitring Toulon 
for a month, he communicated to the council 
of war a plan of attack, which was adopted, 
and which he himself executed with brilliant 
success. The place was so important that the 
capture of it diffused a general joy over France, 
and gave to the young colonel of artillery, by 
whom the reduction had been chiefly accom- 
plished, a distinguished name. In consequence 
of his services, he was recommended by Gen. 
Dugommier for promotion, and on Feb. 6, 1794, 
was made a brigadier general of artillery. He 
was then in his 25th year. Dugommier's let- 
ter to the committee of public safety in regard 
to him said sagaciously enough : " Eeward this 
young man and promote him ; for, should he 
lie ungratefully treated, he will promote him- 
self." Joining the army under Gen. Dumer- 
bion, stationed at the foot of the Maritime Alps, 
he made the campaign of 179-1 against the Pied- 
montese troops. On the downfall of Eobes- 
pierre, on the 9th Thermidor, 1794, he was sus- 



38 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



pected by the moderate party of too strong a 
sympathy with that leader, and, in spite of his 
disclaimers, was temporarily put under arrest. 
He wrote a sharp remonstrance against this 
proceeding, and was released by the committee 
of public safety, after a detention of about a 
fortnight. At the close of the campaign of that 
year he went to Paris again to solicit some 
new employment, but, in spite of his abilities, 
he did not procure it instantly. His letters to 
his brother Joseph, written during this time, 
have the tone and manner of those of a mere 
adventurer, somewhat depressed by ennui, and 
waiting impatiently upon fortune, though ready 
for any good luck that may turn up. " Life," 
he remarks, " is a flimsy dream, soon to be 
over," as if he was yet unsuspicious of what a 
disturbed and restless dream his was destined 
to be. He lodged in the rue du Mail, near the 
place de la Victoire, often complained of his 
poverty and suggested schemes for raising 
money, and at one time thought of offering his 
services to the sultan of Turkey. But the con- 
stitution of the year III. organizing the direc- 
torial government having in the mean time 
been adopted (1795), and the Thermidoreans 
of the convention which adopted it having 
passed two decrees declaring that the two new 
councils created by the constitution should in 
the first instance be constituted of two thirds of 
the present and one third of new members, and 
ordering the electoral bodies to nominate the 
third that were to be returned, a new germ of 
civil war was planted. The sections or primary 
assemblies of Paris resisted this dictatorial at- 
tempt of the convention to perpetuate its own 
power, and the convention prepared to put 
down the sections. The convention held at its 
disposal some 5,000 regular troops, besides a 
large number of cannon, under the general con- 
trol of Barras, one of its members. Menou was 
at first chosen to lead these troops against the 
people, but, through indecision or want of en- 
ergy, failed in his movements. Barras, who 
had known Napoleon at Toulon, then said to 
the committee of the convention that the 
young Corsican, who was already employed 
by them in some slight military occupation, 
was the very person to take command. 
They accordingly gave it to him, and he, will- 
ing to fight for the people or against them, 
as best served his own designs or necessi- 
ties, made his arrangements for the disper- 
sion of the populace. On the morning of 
the 13th Vendemiaire (Oct. 5, 1795), the na- 
tional guards, as the defenders of the sections 
were called, advanced, to the number of 30,- 
000 men, along the quays of the Seine, the rue 
St. Honor6, and other approaches to the Tuile- 
ries. Everywhere as they advanced, however, 
they encountered a most formidable resistance. 
Napoleon, though he had but one night to 
make his arrangements, left no point undefend- 
ed, while he established bodies of troops in 
the best positions, and to a fire of musketry 
returned a murderous discharge of cannon. 



In less than an hour of actual fighting he se- 
cured the victory to the convention, and, Bar- 
ras resigning, he became the conimander-in- 
chief of the army of the interior. One of 
the letters addressed to Joseph by Napoleon 
during intervals of his idleness said, jokingly, 
"If I stay here it is possible I may be fool 
enough to marry," and fortune had already pre- 
pared his bride for him. Moving in the society 
of Ban-as, Tallien, Carnot, and their families, 
was a young widow named Josephine Beauhar- 
nais, a native of Martinique, and possessed of 
rare beauty and accomplishments. Bonaparte 
paid his addresses to her, and was soon an ac- 
cepted lover. On Feb. 23, 1796, he was ap- 
pointed, at the instance of Carnot, to the com- 
mand of the army of Italy, which for three 
or four years had been carrying on an indeci- 
sive war against the Sardinians and Austrians, 
amid the defiles of the Alps and the Ligurian 
Apennines. His marriage took place the next 
month, March 9, and in less than a week after- 
ward he departed to assume command. His 
army consisted of about 35,000 men, and was 
in a miserable state of destitution as to clothing 
and provisions, and considerably relaxed in dis- 
cipline. The allied army opposed to him con- 
tained some 60,000 men, conducted by Beau- 
lieu, an experienced and courageous general, 
and manoeuvred according to the most skilful 
strategies of the time. But, in spite of the 
superiority of numbers and experience, Napo- 
leon brought to the campaign several incontes- 
table advantages: 1, the enthusiasm and alac- 
rity of a young mind given for the first time a 
separate and independent field of glory, and 
determined on conquest or ruin ; 2, an unri- 
valled power of combination, joined to a celer- 
ity of movement that seemed almost miracu- 
lous ; and lastly, the free use of such a stimu- 
lant to the hopes of impatient and desperate 
troops, half famished amid the barren Alpine 
rocks, as the promise of an unrestrained enjoy- 
ment of "the rich provinces and opulent 
towns " of Italy. Against France, at that time, 
a formidable coalition, consisting of England, 
Austria, Bavaria, Piedmont, Naples, and sev- 
eral minor states both of Germany and Italy, 
was arrayed; but Austria was the principal 
of the league, and the possession of Italy the 
key to the situation. Napoleon perceived this, 
and at once proceeded to make himself master 
of Italy. On April 12 he gained a victory at 
Monte Notte; on the 14th, that of Millesimo; 
on the 15th, that of Dego; on the 21st, that 
of Mondovi ; by which series of successes the 
king of Sardinia was compelled to sue for peace. 
Turning his attention next to upper Italy, he 
advanced upon Lodi, where he forced the pas- 
sage of the Adda, May 10, in a brilliant battle 
which put Lombardy in his power. On May 
15 he entered Milan, where heavy contribu- 
tions were levied upon the state, and the prin- 
cipal works of art seized and sent to Paris. 
Naples, Modena, and Parma hastened to con- 
clude a peace, and the pope was forced to sign an 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



39 



armistice. Mantua was the next object of at- 
tack. Wurmser, at the head of large Austrian 
reinforcements, came through Tyrol to the de- 
fence ; the two main divisions of his army 
were defeated at Lonato, Aug. 3, and at Cas- 
tiglione delle Stiviere, Aug. 5, and driven back. 
On Sept. 4 another division of the Anstrians 
was repulsed at Roveredo. Wurmser, having 
rallied his scattered troops in the mean time, 
was again attacked and routed at Bassano, Sept. 
8. A third Austrian army, under Marshal Al- 
vinczy, now entered Italy, and for a part of 
the autumn held the French in check ; but on 
Nov. 15 a battle was joined at Arcole, which, 
after three days (15th-17th) of the hardest 
fighting that had yet occurred in the Italian 
campaign, gave the victory again to the French. 
Bonaparte then turned his attention to the set- 
tlement of the internal affairs of Italy, which 
was everywhere disturbed, and in many places 
in insurrection. A letter written to the direc- 
tory, Dec. 28, 1796, reveals the principles upon 
which he acted in his various arrangements: 
"There are in Lombardy three parties: 1, that 
which is subservient to France and follows our 
directions; 2, that which aims at liberty and 
national government, and with some degree of 
impatience; and 3, that which is friendly to 
Austria and hostile to us. I support the first, 
restrain the second, and put down the third. 
As for the states south of the Po, there are also 
three parties : 1, the friends of the old govern- 
ment ; 2, the partisans of a free aristocratical 
constitution ; and 3, the partisans of pure de- 
mocracy. I put down the first ; I support the 
second, because it is the party of the great pro- 
prietors, and of the clergy, who exercise the 
greatest influence over the masses of the peo- 
ple, whom it is our interest to win over to us ; 
and I restrain the third, which is composed 
chiefly of young men, of writers, and of people 
who, as in France and everywhere else, love 
liberty merely for the sake of revolution." In 
the beginning of the year 1797 Austria again 
took the field with a formidable army, which 
Napoleon encountered, Jan. 14, at Rivoli, and 
defeated. Immediately afterward Wurmser, 
who had stood an obstinate siege in Mantua, 
was compelled to surrender. On the same 
day, proclaiming that the truce with the pope 
was at an end, Napoleon entered the papal 
territories, and repulsed the papal troops on 
the Senio; took Faenza, and in quick succes- 
sion Ancona, Loreto, and Tolentino; and on 
Feb. 19 forced the pope to conclude a peace. 
By this he was enabled to wage war upon 
Austria on her own soil. He crossed the Piave, 
and on March 16 forced the passage of the 
Tagliamento and thelsonzo; on the 19th he 
seized Gradisea, on the 20th Gorz, and on the 
23d Trieste. Before April 1 the greater part 
of Carinthia, Carniola, and Tyrol was reduced 
to subjection. On April 7 he granted the depu- 
ties of the archduke Charles an armistice of 
five days, and on the 18th of the same month 
concluded preliminaries of peace at Leoben, 



which laid the Austrians under pretty severe 
conditions, and assured the French possession 
of Trieste, whence they proceeded to assail 
Venice. On May 3 a declaration of war against 
that republic was published, on the pretended 
ground of its having violated neutrality; and 
on May 12 the city was occupied, and a new 
constitution, somewhat less aristocratic than 
the old, was improvised. During the same 
month Genoa was revolutionized, and early in 
June received a new French constitution as the 
"Ligurian republic." On June 29, at Milan, 
the new Cisalpine republic was proclaimed, 
and speedily organized; and on July 14 the 
French army, retiring from the territories of 
the new republic, took up cantonments in the 
Venetian states. During the remainder of the 
summer and the autumn Napoleon was en- 
gaged in conferences and negotiations for a 
definitive treaty of peace with Austria, which 
was signed at Campo Formio, Oct. 17. By 
that celebrated arrangement Austria ceded her 
Lombard territories to the Cisalpine republic, 
and her former possessions in the Low Coun- 
tries to France, guaranteeing the extension of 
its boundary to the left bank of the Rhine, 
while she received the Venetian provinces of 
Istria and Dalmatia, and the mainland of the 
republic as far as the Adige. Of the vio- 
lence, the pillage, and the despotism which 
marked these Italian campaigns, it is for his- 
tory to speak; but they did not prevent the 
popular French sentiment of the time from 
hailing Napoleon when he returned to Paris, 
Dec. 5, 1797, not merely as the conqueror, but 
as the liberator of Italy. In the short space of 
two years he had won a series of the most 
splendid victories on record, dictated forms of 
government to nearly the whole of Italy, hum- 
bled Austria, acquired large accessions of wealth 
and territory for France, and rendered the 
French arms formidable to the world. Under 
these circumstances, his journey from Italy to 
Paris was, of course, a triumphal procession; 
the enthusiasm of the Parisians was immense, 
and the festivals in his honor were endless; 
but Napoleon received his honors with becom- 
ing moderation, and was in fact sombre and 
thoughtful. Being a member of the institute, 
he assumed its dress, associated principally 
with men of science, and in all the congratu- 
latory addresses of the period was extolled for 
his simplicity, his modesty, and his complete 
want of ambition. The directory, then in 
power, had created an "army of England," 
with a view to hostilities against that country, 
and conferred the command of it on Bonaparte. 
He appeared to favor the movement, but at 
heart he disliked it, knowing how impracticable 
an attempt to conquer the island would prove ; 
and he sought to substitute for it a magnificent 
dream of his own, the conquest of Egypt and 
the East. At last the directory consented to 
this, and Napoleon made his preparations to 
embark at Toulon. By May 9, 1798, a great 
army had been collected, and the expedition 



40 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



set sail on the 19th. On June 10 it landed at 
Malta, and on the 12th took possession of the 
island, which was garrisoned by the French. A 
week later the fleet renewed its course, reach- 
ing Alexandria July 1. On the following day 
the French took the city, and having secured 
it advanced, to ward the Nile. They crossed 
the desert, and reached the river July 10. A 
flotilla ascended the stream, while the army 
marched along the shore. Arriving before 
Cairo July 21, they encountered a large body 
of Mamelukes under Murad Bey, which, after 
a most determined struggle, was repulsed. The 
battle was called the battle of the Pyramids, 
and the success of the French struck terror far 
into Africa and Asia. Many of the surround- 
ing tribes submitted to the conqueror. But 
fortune was preparing for him a terrible re- 
verse. His fleet, consisting of 13 ships of the 
Jine, besides frigates, was found in Aboukir bay 
by Nelson, the English admiral, who had long 
been in pursuit of it, and was attacked on the 
evening of Aug. 1, with a degree of vigor and 
activity which was never surpassed in naval 
warfare. The whole squadron, with the ex- 
ception of two ships of the line and two frig- 
ates, was destroyed or captured. Bonaparte be- 
ing cut off from the means of return, the sultan 
issued a declaration of war against him, Sept. 
10, for invading one of his provinces, incited 
an insurrection in Cairo, and prepared to send 
an army into Egypt. In February, 1799, Bona- 
parte crossed the desert with about 13,000 men, 
took El-Arish and Gaza, stormed Jaffa, where 
2,500 Turkish prisoners were deliberately mas- 
sacred, and advanced into Syria. On March 
17 the French army reached Acre, defended 
by a strong force of English, under Sir Sidney 
Smith, and two ships of the line. Repeated 
but ineffectual attempts to storm the place 
were made up to May 20, when Napoleon saw 
himself compelled to abandon the siege. The 
French army retreated to Cairo, which place 
they entered June 14. The Syrian campaign, 
which had lasted three months, cost the French 
4,000 men, who were either killed or died of 
the plague. On July 25 they recovered the 
possession of Abonkir from the Turks, after 
which Napoleon, whom his brother Joseph had 
succeeded in informing of the distracted con- 
dition of France and the growing unpopular- 
ity of the directory, returned home privately 
with a few personal adherents. He endeav- 
ored to conceal the failure of his expedition 
under the glory of its immense scientific results, 
but he could not disguise from himself that his 
plan to molest the English supremacy in India, 
to colonize Egypt, to give France the command 
of the Mediterranean, and to build np for him- 
self, perhaps, a vast oriental empire, had mis- 
carried. He returned in time to take advan- 
tage of the political intrigues then rife, and, 
by the covp d'etat of the 18th Brumaire (see 
BHUMAIEE), to attain supremo power as first 
consul of the republic (December, 1799). From 
this time his line of policy unfolded itself 



more distinctly; to establish order at home, 
and to humiliate the enemies of the nation, 
were the honorable objects of it ; but the ex- 
tension of his own power was unfortunately an 
end scarcely lass conspicuous. Nothing could 
have been more needed than a reformation of 
the administrative departments; the finances 
were deranged, the treasury empty, the taxes 
increasing, and trade at a standstill. In the 
same summary manner in which he ordered his 
troops, but with remarkable sagacity, and still 
more remarkable courage and activity, Bona- 
parte undertook to reform civil affairs. At the 
same time, Austria, England, and the Porte, if 
not carrying on active hostilities against France, 
refused all terms of peace, and a civil war was 
raging in La Vendee. Suppressing the latter 
by a series of decided but conciliatory measures, 
he turned his whole attention to the continental 
war. An army was secretly concentrated near 
the lake of Geneva, with which he passed the 
Great St. Bernard May 14-20, 1800, and enter- 
ed Milan June 2. On the 14th of the same 
month, after several unimportant skirmishes, 
he met the Austrians under Gen. Melas at the 
village of Marengo, where he achieved another 
brilliant victory, and by this unexpected blow 
at once recovered the supremacy of France in 
Italy, which had been lost in his absence. 
Having established provisional governments at 
Milan, Turin, and Genoa, he returned to Paris, 
where ho was received, July 3, with immense 
enthusiasm, but in December barely escaped 
assassination by an infernal machine. As his 
general, Moreau, had also defeated the arch- 
duke John in the great battle of Hohenlinden, 
Dec. 3, 1800, Austria was obliged to make a 
separate peace. The preliminary treaty of 
LuneVille, dated Feb. 9, 1801, made a new 
arrangement of the states of the continent; 
and although it was essentially the same as 
that of the treaty of Campo Formio, it con- 
tained provisions which laid the foundation 
of much subsequent trouble. Pursuant to 
the same objects, treaties were concluded with 
Spam, March 21, 1801 ; with Naples, March 
18; with the pope, July 15; with Bavaria, 
Aug. 24; with Portugal, Sept. 29; with Rus- 
sia, Oct. 8; with Turkey, the 9th; with Al- 
giers, Dec. 27 ; and the treaty of Amiens with 
England, March 27, 1802. Thus it seemed as 
if a universal cessation of hostilities was about 
to mark the history of Europe. To the title 
of conqueror the first consul now added that 
of pacificator. But his attempt to crush an 
insurrection of the blacks in Santo Domingo, 
for which an expedition had been sent out to- 
ward the close of 1801, under his brother-in-law 
Gen. Leclerc, is not to be regarded as one of the 
grounds of this latter title. The greater part 
of the army, some 20,000 in number, was swept 
away by fever and the sword ; the blacks WC.TO 
instigated by brutal cruelties to still more brutal 
massacres; and the island was desolated by the 
fiercest exhibitions of alternate terror and re- 
venge. Jt was by the direct act of Napoleon 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



that slavery was reestablished in Guadeloupe, 
and the slave trade reopened. Toussaint Lou- 
vorture, an able and courageous Haytian negro, 
who had made himself the leader of his strug- 
gling countrymen, was seized during a truce, 
and carried to France, where he died in prison. 
Napoleon availed himself of this interval to 
perfect the administration of the interior affairs 
of his country. A general amnesty allowed all 
the French emigrants to return home ; a new 
order of knighthood known as the legion of 
honor was established, and the constitution 
of the Cisalpine republic was perfected. On 
Aug. 2, 1802, Bonaparte was proclaimed con- 
sul for life by a decree of the senate, which 
was confirmed by a popular sanction of some 
3,000,000 votes. A ienatiu consultum, issued 
a few days after, reconstructing the electoral 
bodies and reducing the tribunate to 50 mem- 
bers, indicated, however, that he was not yet 
satisfied with the dignity to which he had been 
raised. Many persons saw in the movement 
a cautious step toward a still more absolute 
power. It is to this period that the greatest 
of Napoleon's services to France belongs. The 
civil code, which has ever since been the law 
of the nation, was then digested and arranged 
by a commission of eminent lawyers and civil- 
ians, under the presidency of Cambacdres. 
The various branches of public instruction also 
attracted his attention; and the lyceum, the 
college of France, the polytechnic and other 
military schools, were organized on the most 
liberal scale. But the perfection of the cen- 
tralization begun by the revolutionary assem- 
blies, which reduced the provincial administra- 
tion of France to one uniform plan, having its 
head at Paris, and completely abrogating the 
old communal liberty and independence, was 
a more questionable reform. Nor were his 
efforts to restore the religious harmony of 
France, by renewing the ancient privileges of 
the Catholic priests, as happily conceived as 
many of his political improvements. In fact, 
like nearly all organizers and reformers, Napo- 
leon undertook too much, and in the exaggera- 
tion of his own powers fell into many mistakes. 
Yet, in considering the epoch of the consulate, 
it is impossible not to derive from it a high 
admiration of the scope and versatility of 
Napoleon's genius, and a general sympathy 
with his public aims. But already his head 
w.i-; giddy with success, and in the midst 
of the great labors of 1802 ho coveted the 
imperial diadem. Disturbances in Switzerland 
in the beginning of 1802 caused Napoleon to 
resort to an armed mediation in its affairs; 
in August of the same year the island of Elba 
was united to France; on Sept. 11 the in- 
corporation of Piedmont took place, and in Oc- 
tober that of the duchy of Parma. England 
professed to see in these events an infringe- 
ment of the treaty of Amiens, and in a short 
time there was an open resumption of hostil- 
ities. On March 21, 1803, a senatus consultum 
placed 120,000 conscripts at Napoleon's com- 



mand, while England made no less active pre- 
parations. On May 18 England declared war 
against France, and laid an embargo upon all 
French vessels in her ports. France retaliated 
by a decree that all Englishmen, of whatever 
condition, found on her territory, should be 
detained as prisoners of war; and Gen. Mor- 
tier was sent to occupy the electorate of Han- 
over, as belonging to Great Britain. In the 
mean time, the police of Paris professed to 
have discovered a conspiracy against the life 
of the first consul, in which Pichegru, returned 
from exile in Guiana, Georges Cadoudal, a 
Chouan chief, and Gen. Moreau were said to 
be concerned. These were arrested, and sus- 
picions of complicity attaching to the duke 
d'Enghien, son of the duke do Bourbon and 
grandson of the prince de Conde, the neutral 
territory of the grand duchy of Baden was in- 
vaded in order to effect his seizure. He was 
taken during the night of March 15, 1804, con- 
veyed to the citadel of Strasburg, and thence, 
under escort, to the castle of Vincennes. A 
military court, consisting of seven, was hastily 
summoned there by the first consul, by which 
the duke was tried and found guilty of the 
charges of hearing arms against France, of 
offering his services to England, of conspiring 
with emigrants on the frontiers, and being an 
accomplice of the Paris conspirators. Ho was 
sentenced to death, and executed the next 
morning, March 21, between 4 and 5 o'clock. 
On April 6 Pichegru was found dead in his 
prison. At a later period Georges Cadoudal 
and others were executed, while some of their 
confederates were reprieved, and Moreau was 
banished. It was in the midst of these sinister 
events that a motion was made in the tribunate 
by one Cur6e that Napoleon be made emperor 
of the French, with the right of succession 
to his family. Carnot spoke against the mo- 
tion with much patriotic fervor, but it was 
carried by a large majority. On submission 
of the question to the votes of the people, an 
apparent popular sanction was given to the 
deed, and on May 18 Napoleon assumed the 
imperial title. He requested the pope to per- 
form the ceremony of his coronation. Pius 
VII., after consulting with his cardinals, came 
to Paris for that purpose in November. On 
Dec. 2 the " soldier of fortune," as he had been 
sometimes called, was consecrated at the altar 
of Notre Dame, "the high and mighty Napo- 
leon I., emperor of the French." Being em- 
peror, he proceeded to surround himself with 
all the splendors and gauds supposed to be es- 
sential to the dignity. He created a new no- 
bility with sounding titles ; he opened a bril- 
liant court ; he restored the etiquette of royalty, 
and in a thousand other ways sought to dazzlo 
weak minds by ostentation and parade. The 
changes which had taken place in France ren- 
dered changes in the Italian governments ne- 
cessary, and from republics they were trans- 
formed into a kingdom. Napoleon went to 
Milan, where on May 26, 1805, he was anointed 



42 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



king of Italy, in the midst of imposing cer- 
emonies and theatrical pomp. The same sum- 
mer the northern powers listened to the solici- 
tations of England, and united in a coalition 
against the new emperor. Russia, Austria, 
and Sweden joined in the charges of territorial 
usurpation which were levelled at Napoleon ; 
but Prussia, already bribed by him with the 
promise of Hanover, could not be seduced 
into becoming a party. By September the 
French forces in eight divisions, and number- 
ing 180,000 men, were upon the Rhine, ready 
to act against Austria. That country, gov- 
erned by decrepit bureaucrats, sent forward its 
troops under an incompetent general, Mack, 
without waiting for the Russian allies. On 
Oct. 17, being completely surrounded by Napo- 
leon at Him, he conditionally capitulated, and 
on the 20th he surrendered his whole army of 
23,000 men. The next day, however, the great 
victory of Nelson at Trafalgar, over the com- 
bined fleets of France and Spain, compensated 
the allies for this reverse. Nothing daunted by 
the naval disaster, Napoleon advanced to Vien- 
na, which city he entered Nov. 18, where he 
made his preparations to meet the combined 
armies of Russia and Austria, then concentra- 
ting on the plains of Olmutz. On Dec. 2, 1805, 
the grand encounter came on at Austerlitz, 
and after a struggle of unexampled energy in 
which three of the greatest armies of Europe, 
each commanded by an emperor, with the mas- 
tery of the continent for the prize, met in des- 
perate strife Napoleon won the victory, the 
most glorious perhaps of his career. The allies 
were thoroughly routed ; the emperor of Aus- 
tria made instant peace, while the emperor of 
Russia withdrew into his own territories. The 
king of Prussia was rewarded for his neutrali- 
ty by the possession of Hanover, and England 
alone remained to stem the tide of success 
which was bearing forward the victorious Cor- 
sican. As the king of Naples, instigated by 
his wife, an Austrian princess, had received the 
troops of Russia and England into his domin- 
ions during the recent war, Napoleon con- 
strued the act into one of predetermined hos- 
tility, and in February, 1806, sent an army 
under his brother Joseph to occupy the country. 
The king fled to Sicily, when Napoleon declared 
the crown vacant, and conferred the title of 
king of Naples and Sicily upon Joseph, March 
30. Following this by another decree, he 
transformed the Batavian republic into a king- 
dom, dependent upon France, and gave the 
crown to his brother Louis, June 5. About 
the same time he erected various districts in 
Germany and Italy into dukedoms, which he 
bestowed upon his principal marshals. But a 
more important act was that of July 12, which 
created the confederation of the Rhine, and 
which some 14 princes of Germany were in- 
duced to join, thereby placing themselves under 
the supremacy of France, and detaching some 
16,000,000 people from the tottering German 
empire. The policy which Napoleon had pur- 



sued in making two of his brothers kings, he 
now extended to his sisters and brothers-in- 
law, who were distributed as rulers over 
various countries of the continent. William 
Pitt, the minister of Great Britain, having 
died Jan. 23, 1806, and Charles Fox succeed- 
ing to his place, negotiations were opened be- 
tween France and England in regard to the 
termination of hostilities. In the course of 
these, propositions were entertained looking 
toward a restoration of Hanover to the latter 
power, which at once opened the eyes and 
aroused the jealousies of Prussia. It was not 
long before the Prussian monarch acceded to 
the coalition against Napoleon, and entered 
into active preparations for war. The em- 
peror, whose celerity of action was prodigious, 
instantaneously moved toward Prussia with a 
powerful force, and by Oct. 8, 1806, had 
reached the Prussian outposts. On the 14th 
he routed the enemy with fearful slaughter at 
Jena, and the same day Marshal Davoust 
achieved most important successes at Auer- 
stiidt, the duke of Brunswick being among 
the killed. By this double encounter, in 
which more than 20,000 Prussians were killed, 
the strength of the kingdom was fatally broken, 
and Napoleon followed up his victories with 
such signal energy that, in two weeks from 
the commencement of hostilities, Oct. 27, he 
entered the Prussian capital in triumph. After 
occupying almost all the fortresses, and re- 
ducing such towns as still maintained a show of 
resistance, he issued from Berlin, Nov. 21, the 
famous decree, declaring the British islands in 
a state of blockade, forbidding all correspon- 
dence or trade with England, defining all 
articles of British manufacture or produce as 
contraband, and the property of all British 
subjects as lawful prize of war. Meanwhile 
the Russian allies, who had advanced as far as 
the Vistula, were driven back through Poland, 
and the French entered Warsaw. A winter 
campaign was then begun against the Russians ; 
but after the indecisive battle at Pultusk, Dec. 
26, the Russians retreated to Ostrolenka, and 
the French behind the Vistula, toward the 
north. The month of January, 1807, was 
spent in repose and preparation by both sides, 
and on Feb. 7 and 8 a desperate engagement 
took place at Eylau, in which a loss of 50,000 
men was divided between them, and both 
claimed the victory. The following May Na- 
poleon attacked and conquered the important 
fortress of Dantzic, and having reeuforced 
his army with 200,000 men, he once more 
advanced against the Russians. On June 14 
the battle of Friedland was fought, and the 
Russians were so worsted that Alexander 
asked for an armistice. The two emperors met 
for the first time, June 25, on a raft in the 
middle of the Niemen, and on July 7 a treaty 
of peace was concluded at Tilsit. The Prussian 
monarch received back about half his domin- 
ions ; the duchy of Warsaw was created and 
given to the elector of Saxony, an ally of the 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



43 



French, who was made a king; while the prin- | 
cipal Prussian fortresses and seaport towns re- j 
mained in the. possession of the French till a j 
more general peace should be concluded. 
Russia obtained a part of Prussian Poland, and 
by secret articles was allowed to take Finland 
from Sweden. Out of the Prussian territory 
on the left bank of the Elbe, Hesse-Oassel, 
Hanover, and Brunswick, the new kingdom 
of Westphalia was formed, and bestowed upon 
Jerome. Soon after the treaty of Tilsit, Eng- 
land, conceiving that Napoleon, with the con- 
nivance of Russia, was about to make arrange- 
ments with Denmark and Portugal for the 
conversion of their fleets to his purposes, which 
would expose her to the assaults of the com- 
bined navies of Europe, sent a powerful 
squadron to bombard Copenhagen. Denmark, 
upon the surrender of that place, threw herself 
openly into the hands of France. As to Por- 
tugal, however, which had refused to enforce 
the Berlin decrees against England, and de- 
spatched her fleet to Brazil, at the instigation 
of England, to avoid lending aid to France, 
Napoleon declared that the house of Braganza 
had ceased to reign, and sent Junot to occupy 
Lisbon. On Nov. 27, 1807, the prince regent, 
the queen, and the court of Portugal embark- 
ed for a foreign port, and on the 30th the 
French entered their capital. In December 
of the same year Napoleon became involved 
in a serious controversy with the pope, which 
led to the annexation of the Adriatic provinces 
to his kingdom of Italy, and to the military 
occupation of Rome. At the same time Na- 
poleon found a pretence for interfering in the 
affairs of Spain. A series of corrupt intrigues, 
in which the king, Charles IV., his queen, the 
favorite Godoy, and the pretender to the 
throne, Ferdinand, son of Charles, were en- 
gaged, had involved the internal administra- 
tion of Spain in inextricable confusion. Na- 
poleon cut the Gordian knot with his sword. 
Madrid was occupied by Murat, March 23, 
1808; Charles and Ferdinand were both in- 
duced by Napoleon to abdicate at Bayonne, 
and he made Joseph king of Spain, transfer- 
ring the kingdom of Naples to Murat. Many 
of the Spanish nobility acquiesced, but the 
great body of the people rose in arms against 
the French. Ferdinand, although a prisoner 
in France, was declared by them the legiti- 
mate monarch, while England sent immense 
supplies to sustain the insurrection, and Na- 
poleon prepared to enforce his policy. A 
war which lasted nearly six years was thus 
begun in the peninsula. At the outset the 
Spaniards were successful. On June 14 a 
French squadron was captured by the English 
fleet in the bay of Cadiz ; on the 28th Marshal 
Moncey was repulsed in an attack upon Va- 
lencia ; for two months Palafox made a heroic 
defence of Saragossa ; on July 20 the new king 
made his triumphal entry into Madrid ; on the 
22d Gen. Dupont, with 18,000 men, surren- 
dered to the Spaniards at Baylen ; and a week 



later Joseph, with all his remaining forces, 
commenced a retreat beyond the Ebro. On 
Aug. 21 Marshal Junot was defeated at Vimi- 
eira by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and this battle 
led to the convention of Cintra, under which 
Portugal was evacuated by the French forces. 
Napoleon therefore deemed it necessary to 
take the field hi person, and in the early part 
of November appeared in the north of Spain 
with 1 80, 000 men. The Spaniards were rapidly 
defeated at Reynosa, Burgos, and Tudela, and 
on Dec. 4 he entered Madrid. The British 
troops, hastening to the assistance of the Span- 
iards, were pursued to and ineffectually at- 
tacked at Cornnna, but their leader, the gallant 
Sir John Moore, was fatally wounded. The 
presence of Napoleon seemed to have redeemed 
nearly every reverse. But in January, 1809, 
he was compelled to return to Paris to counter- 
act the movements of Austria, which, taking 
advantage of the peninsular war, had sent for- 
ward large bodies of troops into Tyrol and 
Italy. On April 17 he assumed the command 
of his army, and before the close of the 22d he 
had completely routed the Austrian forces. On 
that day, at Eckmiihl, he defeated the arch- 
duke Charles; on May 13 he again entered 
Vienna; on the 21st and 22d he was worsted 
at Aspern and Essling, but on July 6 he more 
than recovered all his losses, gaining a stu- 
pendous victory at Wagram, which enabled him 
to dictate once more his own terms of peace. 
During these troubles the Tyrolese seized the 
opportunity to raise the standard of insurrec- 
tion; the British made a descent upon the 
coast of Holland; Sir Arthur Wellesley was 
carrying on a most effective war in Spain, and 
the difficulties with the pope were renewed; 
yet Napoleon contrived to make face against 
all these assaults. By a decree of May 17 the 
Papal States were annexed to the French em- 
pire, which was followed by a bull of excom- 
munication against Napoleon, when the pope 
himself was arrested and conveyed to Paris, 
where he remained a virtual prisoner till 1814. 
In the midst of his triumphs an attempt upon 
Napoleon's life was made, Oct. 13, by a young 
German named Stapss, from which he had 
a narrow escape. To crown the events of 
the year, it was announced in December that 
Napoleon was about to repudiate his wife Jo- 
sephine, by whom he had no issue, in order 
to contract an alliance with some of the dy- 
nastic families, and thus procure to himself a 
successor of royal blood. On the 16th of that 
month an act formally divorcing him was pass- 
ed by the obedient commissioners of the sen- 
ate; and on April 2, 1810, he was married 
to the archduchess Maria Louisa, a daughter 
of the emperor of Austria. Josephine retired 
with a broken heart to Malmaison, and the new 
empress took the place of the affectionate and 
devoted companion of his early years. From 
this union there was born a son on March 20,' 
1811, who was proclaimed in his cradle king 
of Rome. The French empire had now reached 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



its greatest extent and its highest glory. In ad- 
dition to the original 86 departments of France 
(including Corsica), it embraced three depart- 
ments along the Alps, 15 W. of the Rhine, 15 
beyond the Alps in upper and central Italy, 
and 7 Illyrian provinces, besides exercising 
control in Holland, in Spain, in the Italian 
kingdoms, in Switzerland, and in the confed- 
eration of the Rhine. The French code and 
French ideas were predominant at Warsaw, 
at Milan, at Naples, in Holland, Westphalia, 
and Bavaria. To Sweden a king was given 
in the person of Bernadotte. Holland, after 
having had his brother Louis as king, was an- 
nexed to France by decree of the senate, July 
9, 1810. But in the Spanish peninsula the 
progress of the French was slow. Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, who had recently been made Vis- 
count Wellington, exhibited a degree of mili- 
tary skill and activity which easily held the 
marshals of Napoleon in check, and called for 
the presence of the grand master of war him- 
self. On July 1.0, 1810, the fortress of Ciudad 
Rodrigo capitulated to Ney, but on Sept. 27 
Massena was defeated by Wellington at the 
heights of Busaco, and on Nov. 14 driven from 
before the fortified lines of Torres Vedras. 
Early in 1811 Soult besieged Badajoz, and cap- 
tured it on March 11, but on May 16 he was 
routed at Albuera. Thus a series of alternate 
successes and reverses marked the campaign 
throughout the year. The surrender of Va- 
lencia to Suchet, Jan. 9, 1812, was, however, 
the last of the French triumphs. Ten days 
afterward Wellington recaptured Ciudad Ro- 
drigo; April 6, he recaptured Badajoz; July 
22, he worsted Marmont at Salamanca; and 
20 days later the capital of Spain was in the 
possession of the victorious English captain. 
But not until the battle of Vitoria, June 21, 
1813, were the French driven entirely beyond 
the Pyrenees. Napoleon was personally oc- 
cupied at the time with a greater enterprise 
than that of the reduction of Spain. His good 
understanding with Alexander of Russia had 
come to an end. The czar complained of his 
encroachments upon the interests of Russia, 
especially upon her commerce in the northern 
seas, and the commencement of the year 1812 
saw both emperors engaged in formidable prep- 
arations for war. The scheme of a univer- 
sal monarchy, which dazzled the ambition of 
Napoleon, seems to have blinded him to the 
consequences of his acts, or to have allured 
him to conquest with utter indifference to oth- 
er results. A " grand army " of more than 
500,000 men was gathered on the frontiers of 
Poland to enter upon the Russian campaign 
one of the most stupendous as it was one of 
the most disastrous events in the records of 
history. Three hundred thousand Russians 
assembled on the banks of the Niemen to 
oppose the mighty force of the French. On 
Juno 24, 1812, Napoleon crossed the river, 
and the Russians retired step by step before 
the invaders. Tempests, rains, and famine 



scourged the camps of the French, and yet 
they pushed forward. Under the walls of 
Smolensk, on the evening of Aug. 16, a divi- 
sion of the Russians ventured to make a stand 
against an advanced division of the French, 
and before the morning of the 18th the entire 
city was a heap of smoking ruins. Both the 
main armies drove rapidly on toward the city 
of Moscow. On Sept. 6, at the small village of 
Borodino, they halted, and came face to face 
with each other, resolved to risk a trial of 
strength. As the morning of the 7th dawned, 
a solitary gun announced the beginning of 
the fight; immediately 1,000 cannon belched 
forth their fire of death ; more than 250,000 
men were enveloped in the dense smoke of the 
conflict ; and when the night fell more than 
80,000 killed and wounded heaped the field. 
On the following day the Russians retired into 
Moscow, only to prepare the inhabitants to 
withdraw in a body before the irresistible arms 
of France. On the 15th, when Napoleon rode 
into the ancient capital, it was as silent as the 
desert, and he took up his residence in the 
Kremlin. But suddenly, at midnight, the city 
burst into flames in every direction, and the 
baffled French, enveloped in fire, were com- 
pelled to seek refuge in the desolate surround- 
ing country. Napoleon- lingered over the 
splendid ruins till Oct. 19, when, all his pro- 
posals for a peaceful adjustment of difficulties 
being rejected, he was reluctantly compelled 
to order a retreat. At first the weather was 
fine, and only moderately cold; but soon the 
snow, the rain, fatigue, and swarms of har- 
assing Cossacks threw the dispirited French- 
men into disorder. Then commenced that ter- 
rible retreat of 120,000 men, which for various 
suffering and horror has no parallel in the 
annals of our race. Napoleon himself returned 
immediately to France, and was almost the 
first to announce his disaster in his own cap- 
ital, so rapidly had he fled from the scene. 
The loss of the French and their auxiliaries in 
this campaign was 125,000 slain, 132,000 dead of 
fatigue, hunger, disease, and cold, and 193,000 
made prisoners ; yet the emperor had scarcely 
reached Paris when he issued orders for. new 
conscriptions, and still thought of prosecuting 
the war. This dreadful reverse encouraged the 
European powers to a sixth coalition, com- 
posed of Russia, England, Sweden, Prussia, and 
Spain, which early in the year 1813 sent for- 
ward its forces toward the Elbe, with a view to 
hem in the indomitable general, who seemed 
to set e.very misfortune at defiance. With an 
army of 350,000 men, in great part young 
troops, Napoleon repaired to Germany, where 
he won the battle of Lutzen on May 2, and the 
battle of Bautzen on the 20th and 21st, but 
neither with decisive results. On June 4 an 
armistice was agreed upon, when Napoleon re- 
paired to Dresden, where Metternich on the 
part of Austria offered a mediation with a view 
to closing the war. But Napoleon would not 
agree to the terms which were proposed to 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



him, fixing the limit of the French empire at 
the Rhine, and hostilities recommenced. From 
Aug. 24 to 27 a battle raged around the city 
of Dresden, with the preponderance of success 
on the side of the French ; but, owing to the 
want of cavalry, Napoleon was unable to de- 
rive from it all the advantages for which he 
looked. The greater part of the month of 
September was passed in a desultory warfare, 
the French armies on the whole losing ground, 
and experiencing constant desertions on the 
part of their German allies. It was no longer 
merely the governments who were opposing 
Napoleon, but the people ; and the prestige of 
popular sympathy, which had carried him along, 
even in the midst of nominal enemies, was be- 
ginning to fail. To the German masses the 
war had become a war of independenca. (For 
a more detailed history of the great campaigns 
of 1813-'14, see BLUOHEB.) On Oct. 16 the 
battle opened at Leipsic, and a gallant struggle 
on the part of the French showed that their 
energies were still fresh, and the genius of their 
leader unimpaired. The 17th was a day of 
anxious suspense and rapid preparation. On 
the 18th the carnage was renewed, and Napo- 
leon discovered that it would be necessary to 
retire beyond the Rhine. The morning of the 
19th saw the dejected lines of the French slow- 
ly filing out of the city, when the allies forced 
their way into it, and by blowing up a bridge 
committed a sad havoc, and made some 25,000 
prisoners. Thus, after an obstinate resistance 
of three days, Napoleon was compelled to re- 
treat a movement for which, prodigious as his 
genius was in assault and defence, he seemed 
to have but little capacity. As at Moscow, 
and later at Waterloo, his backward march 
was worse than a battle lost. Though he cut 
his way bravely through the Bavarians, his late 
friends, at Hanau (Oct. 30), yet when he crossed 
the Rhino but 80,000 remained of all his splen- 
did army. He reached Paris Nov. 9, to en- 
counter a strong feeling of dissatisfaction on the 
part of his own countrymen. The legislative 
body expressed a desire for peace, and could 
only be answered by a guard of soldiers. Yet, 
with a fertility of resource and a genius for 
combination which were almost miraculous, 
Napoleon was prepared by the end of January, 
1814, to enter upon another campaign, which 
is called the campaign of France. Prussia, 
Russia, and Austria were already on her east- 
ern borders ; Wellington had crossed the Py- 
renees, and had laid siege to Bayonne ; Ber- 
nadotte, crown prince of Sweden and late com- 
panion of the emperor, was coming down from 
the north at the head of 100,000 troops; and 
Murat, king of Naples, Napoleon's own brother- 
in-law, had entered into a secret treaty with 
Austria for the expulsion of the French from 
Italy. Thus surrounded on all sides by enemies, 
with his disposable force shattered and broken, 
the indomitable emperor still repulsed their at- 
tacks, and still continued to astonish Europe 
with dazzling achievements. But numbers as 



well as moral power were now against him ; 
the allies succeeded in reaching the exterior de- 
fences of Paris ; the capital, which for so many 
years had dictated law to all other capitals, was 
obliged to capitulate ; and on March 31 Alexan- 
der and his allies entered Paris amid the accla- 
mations of the people. The senate, formerly his 
too servicable instrument, declared that " by 
arbitrary acts and violations of the constitu- 
tion," Napoleon had forfeited the throne, and 
absolved all Frenchmen from their allegiance. 
His own generals insisted that he ought to ab- 
dicate, and on April 11 he signed his surrender 
of power. He was allowed the sovereignty of 
the island of Elba, with a revenue of 6,000,000 
francs ; and after taking leave of his army at 
Fontainebleau, he departed for his new abode. 
On May 4 he landed from the British frigate Un- 
daunted, at Porto Ferrajo ; and Louis XVIII. 
resumed the seat of his ancestors. Ten months 
later, invited by a conspiracy of old republicans, 
joined to the Bonapartists, Napoleon, who had 
not ceased to watch and foment the intrigues of 
Paris, was secretly returning to France. Escap- 
ing from Elba, Feb. 26, 1815, he landed at Can- 
nes, not far from Frejus, March 1, with an escort 
composed of about 1,000 of his old guard. As 
soon as his arrival was known, parts of the 
army, sent against him under Colonel Labe- 
doySre and Marshal Ney, joined his cause ; and 
he made a triumphal progress toward Paris. 
Europe was overwhelmed with surprise at the 
suddenness of the apparition. On March 20, and 
before a shot was fired, Louis XVIII. was driv- 
en from the throne to which he had just been 
restored by the combined armies of the world. 
The congress of Vienna, still in session, heard 
the news with astonishment, and instantly con- 
certed a plan for conjoint resistance. The 
armies resumed their march toward the French 
frontier. Napoleon, hastily reorganizing the 
government, but on a basis more liberal than 
that of the empire, and having in vain attempt- 
ed to open negotiations for peace, advanced to 
the encounter. Drained as France was by a 
long series of desolating conquests, upward of 
200,000 men went forward to meet more than 
double that number of enemies. On June 15 
Napoleon had crossed the Belgian frontier with 
124,000 men ; the next day he defeated the 
Prussians under Blucher, at Ligny ; and at the 
same tune he sent Ney against the English 
army at Quatre-Bras, where he was checked 
by Wellington. On the morning of the 17th 
the latter fell back upon Waterloo, and on the 
18th the final battle was fought. (See WATER- 
LOO.) The French were thoroughly dispersed, 
and the great captain hurried back to Paris. 
Once more the capital was occupied by foreign 
troops, and now also stripped of the treasures 
of foreign art with which the conqueror had 
adorned it ; a war which had lasted for 23 years 
was closed ; the legislature demanded a second 
abdication ; on June 22, just 100 days after his 
resumption of power, the second abdication 
was signed ; and Napoleon was required to em- 



46 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



bark instantly for the United States. But Na- 
poleon, arriving at Rochefort with a view to fly, 
found that there would be little probability of 
escaping the vigilance of the British cruisers, 
and voluntarily surrendered himself to Capt. 
Maitland, of the British war ship Bellerophon. 
The British government ordered his detention 
as a prisoner, and finally consigned him to the 
island of St. Helena for life. He landed at his 
place of imprisonment Oct.. 16, 1815, and re- 
mained there, alternately fretting at the re- 
straints imposed upon him and dictating me- 
moirs of his extraordinary career, till May 5, 
1821, when he died of an ulcer of the stomach, 
the same disease which had carried off his father. 
On the 8th of May his remains were interred 
beneath some weeping willows, near a fountain 
in Slane's valley; but 20 years afterward the 
king of the French, Louis Philippe, procured 
the removal of his ashes to France, where they 
were deposited Dec. 15, 1840, beneath a mag- 
nificent monument, in the Hotel des Invalides. 
Napoleon's marvellous character and career 
have occupied numberless pens, and the most 
divergent judgments have been passed upon 
them ; but he has almost universally been ac- 
corded the possession of unsurpassed military 
ability, of indomitable self-reliance, of prodi- 
gious energy, and of a lofty and commanding 
intellect. The bibliography of Napoleon forms 
a literature, and we can therefore refer only to 
a few of the leading works in French and Eng- 
lish. The Memoires by Bourrienne, the Sou- 
venirs historiquea by the duchess d'Abrantes, 
the Memorial de Sainte-HeUne by Las Cases, 
and the "Voice from St. Helena" by Barry 
O'Meara, are widely known, as are also the 
biographies of Napoleon by Sir Walter Scott, 
Lockhart, and Hazlitt. Besides these we must 
mention the various complete and selected edi- 
tions of (Enures de Napoleon; Recueil par 
ordre cJironologique de ses lettres, proclamations, 
&c. (2 vols., Paris, 1855); Le consulut et Vem- 

?ire by Thiers (20 vols.), and Le eonsulat et 
'empire, ou Hutoire de France et de Napoleon 
Bonaparte, by Thibaudeau (10 vols.) ; the works 
of Montholon aud Gourgaud, under Napoleon's 
dictation (respectively 4 vols. and 2 vols.) ; Vie 
politigue et militaire de Napoleon, by Jomini 
(4 vols.); Documents particuliers sur Na- 
poleon: Court diplomatique et politigue, ex- 
trait du Moniteur (7 vols.) ; Memoires pour 
sermr a Vnistoire, by Savary (4 vols.) ; Precis 
des etenements militaires, by Mathieu Dumas 
(19 vols.) ; " History of the Captivity of Na- 
poleon at St. Helena, from the Letters and 
Journals of the late Lieut. Gen. Sir Hudson 
Lowe " (3 vols.). Among valuable later histo- 
ries of Napoleon are those by Elias Regnault (4 
vols., 1846), by M. de Norvins (4 vols., 21st ed., 
1851), by Begin (5 vols., 1853-'4), by Baron Mar- 
tin (de Gray), (3 vols., 2d enlarged ed., 1858), 
and by Pierre Lanfrey (Paris, 1867 et serf. ; Eng- 
lish, London, 1871). See further, Correspon- 
dance de Napoleon 1" (32 vols., 1858-'69, the 
latter part edited under Prince Napoleon's di- 



rection as president of the committee of publi- 
cation ; abstract in German by Kurz, 3 vols., 
1868-'70). Josephine (MARIE JOSEPHS ROSE 
TASCHEE DB LA PAOEEIE), first wife of the pre- 
ceding, born at Trois-Ilets, Martinique, in June, 
1763, died at Malmaison, near Paris, May 29, 
1814. Her father derived his surname Pagerie 
from a family estate near Blois, whence he 
had emigrated to Martinique, to serve as a 
naval officer under the marquis de Beauharnais, 
then in command of that island. Her mother, 
Rose Claire des Verges de Sannois, belonged 
to a family which had likewise settled in the 
colonies. In December, 1779, she was married 
at Noisy-le-Grand, France, to the viscount do 
Beauharnais, then about 18 years of age. She 
went with her husband to Paris, where in the 
house of her mother-in-law, Mme. Fanny de 
Beauharnais, she became acquainted with 
literary society. Her grace and loveliness 
were admired, but the education which she 
had received at the convent of Port-Royal, 
adequate for colonial life, did not fit her for 
the society in which the viscount moved. The 
imhappiness arising from this cause was soon 
aggravated by the husband's gallantries and 
the wife's complaints. Beauharnais finally 
brought suit for divorce in 1785. After a trial 
lasting nearly a year the court exonerated 
Josephine from all charges, authorized a sep- 
aration, and ordered the husband to provide 
for her support and that of her daughter, but 
awarded him the custody of the son. The 
whole Beauharnais family siding with Jose- 
phine, she took up her residence with her 
father-in-law, and in June, 1788, she visited 
her parents in Martinique. On her return to 
Paris in the autumn of 1790 she became recon- 
ciled with her husband, and after his imprison- 
ment she was arrested herself while attempt- 
ing to release him, and narrowly escaped shar- 
ing his death by the guillotine (1794). Mme. de 
Fontenay, afterward Mme. Tallien, one of her 
fellow prisoners, on recovering her liberty, 
procured the liberation of Josephine, and aft- 
erward the restoration to her of -a portion 
of her husband's confiscated estates. Among 
the many stories of the origin of her acquaint- 
ance with Bonaparte, that relating to the ap- 
plication of her son Eugene for his father's 
sword, and Josephine's visit to thank him for 
his kindness to her son, is regarded as the most 
authentic. At this time she had removed from 
the rue de 1'Universite to a house in the rue 
Chantereine which she had purchased from 
Talma, and here she received many visitors, 
Bonaparte habitually spending his evenings in 
her society. She was married to him March 
9, 1796, and in less than a fortnight afterward 
her husband went to the seat of war in Italy. 
She joined him at his request, but was ap- 
palled at the sight of the battlefield, and soon 
returned. Bonaparte continued in the midst of 
his arduous labors to address to her tender 
epistles, and to complain of her lukewarm 
return of his love. She was with him at 



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



47 



Montebello and Udine in 1797, and in the 
latter part of that year she resumed her re- 
ceptions at Paris, and was now a recognized 
leader of society. She wished to follow him 
to Egypt, but he insisted on her going to 
Plombieres for her health. During his absence 
he was prejudiced against her by his sisters and 
other relatives, and on his return to Paris 
overwhelmed her with reproaches ; but she 
soon appeased him, and after this the smooth- 
ness of their intercourse remained unruffled. 
In the first years of the consulate Josephine 
was at the zenith of her career. Her recep- 
tions at the Tuileries and Malmaison acquired 
great celebrity, and by her invariable goodness 
she won the hearts even of opponents. Yet 
she felt oppressed by the paraphernalia of 
court life, and it was at Malmaison only, with 
its magnificent pleasure grounds and embellish- 
ments of her creation, that she found relief 
from the burdens of etiquette. These became 
still more distasteful after her accession as em- 
press (May 18, 1804). Napoleon's sisters at- 
tempted to exclude her from the coronation, 
mainly on the ground of her not having borne 
children to her husband. Nevertheless, she was 
crowned together with him as empress of the 
French (Dec. 2), but not afterward as queen 
of Italy. Previous to the coronation, the re- 
ligious ceremony of marriage, which had not 
been observed at the time of their union, was 
celebrated. She now saw much less of her 
husband than formerly, and his increasing neg- 
lect filled her with sad forebodings, which were 
fully confirmed after the battle of Wagram 
in 1809, when he decided upon a divorce. 
He had first intended to prepare her for this 
through the medium of her son Eugene, but 
on her indulging in bitter recriminations he 
broke it to her abruptly. The ceremony pre- 
ceding the divorce took place on Dec. 15. 
Overcome by her emotion, she could not con- 
tinue to read aloud the declaration of her assent, 
which had been drawn up for her, and was 
taken home almost lifeless. She was to remain 
in possession of her imperial rank and titles, 
and to receive an annuity of 2,000,000 francs. 
The emperor visited her repeatedly, and ena- 
bled her to keep up the semblance of a court 
at Malmaison, and after the capture of Paris she 
declared her willingness to join him at Elba, 
but was restrained by the fear of hurting the 
feelings of Maria Louisa. The czar Alexander 
offered his protection to her, and the king of 
Prussia and his son dined with her at Mal- 
maison. She died of quinsy, and was buried 
in the church of Rueil, in a tomb of marble 
erected by Eugene and Hortense. Her first 
valet de chambre, Constant, described her as 
a lady of middle size, exquisitely shaped, and 
with an elasticity of motion which gave her 
an aerial appearance. She had magnificent 
hair and eyebrows and dark blue eyes, and her 
expression was full of sentiment and kindness. 
The fortune-teller Mile. Lenormand published 
memoirs of her, which are regarded as utterly 
107 VOL. HI. 4 



worthless, and the Histoire secrete by Lewis 
Goldsmith is deemed to be equally untrust- 
worthy. The statement in the Memorial de 
Sainte-Helene that she wished to impose upon 
the nation a supposititious child she indig- 
nantly denied, maintaining that on the con- 
trary this subterfuge was constantly pressed 
upon her by others. The Hittoire de Vimpe- 
ratrice Josephine, by Joseph Aubenas (2 vols., 
Paris, 1857-'9), from authentic sources, throws 
a purer light upon her character. The Let- 
tret de Napoleon A Josephine, et de Josephine 
d Napoleon, et de la meme d sa fille (Paris, 
1833), are also regarded as good authority ; 
but the correspondence and memoirs published 
in 1819 have been denounced as apocryphal. 
Maria Louisa, second wife of Napoleon I., 
born in Vienna, Dec. 12, 1791, died there, Dec. 
18, 1847. She was the eldest daughter of the 
emperor Francis I. of Austria, by his second 
wife Maria Theresa, whose father was Ferdi- 
nand IV. king of the Two Sicilies. Having 
been taught, like all her relatives, to execrate 
the name of Napoleon, she was at first appalled 
at the idea of marrying him ; but resigning 
herself to her fate, she left Vienna on March 
13, 1810. She met Napoleon near Soissona 
March 28. The civil marriage took place at St. 
Cloud, April 1, and the religious ceremony was 
performed next day at the Louvre by Cardinal 
Fesch. Most of the cardinals declining to at- 
tend, as the pope had not ratified the divorce 
from Josephine, they were banished from the 
capital and forbidden to wear their scarlet 
gowns, and hence they were called the black 
cardinals. Among the brilliant festivities of 
the marriage was a grand ball at the Austrian 
embassy, in the midst of which the building 
took fire and the empress was borne from the 
flames in the arms of Napoleon. She seemed 
at first to respond to her husband's warm affec- 
tion, but she could not adapt herself to the 
society of the Tuileries, and her apathy and 
diffidence formed a striking contrast to her 
predecessor's vivacity. Her husband became 
still more attentive to her after the birth of 
a son in March, 1811. But she was as un- 
demonstrative in her maternal as in all her 
other affections. She accompanied Napoleon 
to Dresden in May, 1812, where all the Ger- 
man princes paid homage to her. During the 
emperor's absence he appointed her regent, 
with a board to the decision of which she left 
the direction of public affairs. The emperor 
having ordered her to leave Paris on the en- 
trance of the allies, she did not venture to 
disobey him, though urged by several of his 
relatives to remain at her post. She placed 
herself with her son under the protection of 
her father, and was easily persuaded to refrain 
from joining her husband at Elba. She never 
saw him again, and evinced no interest in his 
fate. The allies allowed her to retain for life 
the title of imperial majesty, and the congress 
of Vienna made her duchess of Parma, Piacen- 
za, and Guastalla. After Napoleon's death in 



48 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



1821, she contracted a morganatic mnrriago 
with Count Albert Adam von Neipperg, an 
Austrian general, then in his 47th year, who j 
had been her chamberlain in 1815, and her re- 
puted lover. He was divorced from his first 
Italian wife, by whom he had a son, who mar- 
ried Princess Mary of Wurtemberg. Maria 
Louisa bore him several children, and made 
him prime minister of Parma. He died April 
22, 1829. During the disturbances in 1831 she 
was absent from her capital until order was 
restored by the Austrians ; and shortly after 
the accession of Pius IX. in 1846, when a 
strong revolutionary excitement again per- 
vaded Italy, she took her final departure 
from Parma. She was highly educated and 
attractive in person, her beauty being of the 
blonde Tyrolese style; but Lamartine prop- 
erly characterizes her as a commonplace and 
motherly woman, fitted rather to shine in 
private life than to be associated with memo- 
rable events. Her fidelity was never suspected 
by Napoleon, who to the last regarded her as 
an incarnation of virtue and simplicity. See 
Napoleon et Marie Louise, souvenirs histo- 
riques, by M6neval ; Memoires anecdotiguee, 
&c., by Bausset ; and Memorial de Sainte-He- 
Une, by Las Oases. Napoleon II. (NAPOLEON 
FBANgois CHAELEB JOSEPH, duke of Reichstadt), 
son of Napoleon I. and Maria Louisa, born in 
Paris, March 20, 1811, died in Schonbrunn, 
July 22, 1832. He was baptized at Notre 
Dame by his grand-uncle Cardinal Fesch. The 
archduke Ferdinand represented the emperor 
of Austria as godfather, and his godmother was 
Madame Leetitia. His father bestowed upon 
him the title of king of Rome, and on his abdi- 
cation designated him as his successor to the 
imperial throne as Napoleon II., and he was 
recognized as such by the executive committee 
appointed by the chambers previous to the final 
accession of Louis XVIII. in 1815. The count- 
ess Montesquieu, the governess of the young 
prince, accompanied him to Austria, where 
his education was perfected under the direction 
of Count Maurice Dietrichstein. The right of 
succession to his mother's dominions in Parma 
being withdrawn from him in 1817, the em- 
peror of Austria conferred on him in July, 1818, 
the rank of an Austrian prince with the title of 
duke of Reichstadt, and provided him with emi- 
nent teachers, Metternich being charged with 
the superintendence of his studies. The feeble 
efforts made after the revolution of 1 830 in his 
favor were altogether unavailing, but the prince 
became more and more interested in the his- 
tory of his father's military career, and Mar- 
mont, whom he met at the English ambassador's 
house in Vienna, gave him for three months a 
course of instruction on the Napoleonic cam- 
paigns. His military training having been 
the object of special care, he rapidly passed 
through various promotions, and in 1831 he 
commanded as lieutenant colonel one of the 
Hungarian infantry regiments of Vienna. He 
died of laryngeal phthisis, in the same room in 



which his father had dictated peace to Austria, 
and was buried in Vienna in the vaults of the 
Austrian imperial family, in the church of St. 
Augustine. His eyes, remarkable for depth and 
brilliancy, reminded one of those of his father, 
and in his placid and amiable disposition he 
resembled his mother. On the establishment 
of the second empire in 1852, he became 
known as Napoleon II. in the order of imperial 
succession. His biographers are De Montbel 
(Paris, 1832-'3), Lecomte (de la Marne, 1842), 
Guy (de 1'Herault), and J. de Saint-Felix (1856). 
BONAPARTE, Napoleon III. (CHARLES Lor/ia 
NAPOLEON, popularly known as Louis NAPO- 
LEON), born in Paris, April 20, 1808, died at 
Chiselhurst, England, Jan. 9, 1873. His mother, 
Hortense de Beauharnais, had for some time 
lived apart from her husband, King Louis of 
Holland, and his paternity was questioned. It 
has been ascribed to the Dutch admiral Ver- 
huel, and King Louis himself only reluctantly 
acknowledged the new-born as his son at the 
imperative request of Napoleon I., who stood 
as godfather, and Maria Louisa as godmother, 
at the baptism, which was administered by 
Cardinal Fesch at Fontainebleau, in November, 
1810. Hortense selected the abb6 Bertrand as 
her son's governor, Philippe Lebas, a thorough 
republican, as his principal preceptor, and Col. 
Armandi became his military instructor. Ac- 
companying his mother to Switzerland and 
Germany, he familiarized himself at the gym- 
nasium of Augsburg with the German language 
and literature, and applied himself especially 
to the study of history and mathematics. 
From 1824 to 1830 he was with Hortense at 
Arenenberg. Gen. Dnfour having perfected 
his military training, he became an officer in 
the Swiss army, and in that capacity was re- 
garded as an adopted citizen of that country. 
Louis Philippe refusing to allow him to reside 
in France, he joined the patriots in Italy, where 
his brother died at Forli, while he, escap- 
ing to Ancona (1831), was prostrated there 
by a severe illness. He finally reached Paris 
after great perils, but, being ordered to leave, 
returned with his mother to Arenenberg. 
Subsequently he was about to engage in the 
Polish war of independence, the command of 
the revolutionary army having been tendered 
to him, when the fall of Warsaw put an end 
to that project. A new application to the 
French government led only to a renewal of 
the decree of banishment, especially as the 
death of the duke of Reichstadt in 1832 made 
him Napoleon's heir, according to the prece- 
dence accorded in the emperor's will to the 
children of Louis and Hortense, of whom he 
was then the only surviving son. He now de- 
voted himself to literary labors, which kept 
him before the public as a philosophical writer 
on political and social subjects, and as an ad- 
vocate of universal suffrage as the basis of im- 
perialism. In 1836 he covered himself with 
ridicule by an abortive attempt to overthrow 
the French government, begun at Strasburg 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



(Oct. 28-30), which resulted in his arrest and 
detention at the citadel of Lorient till Nov. 21, 
when he was conveyed to Brazil, and thence 
in January, 1837, to New York, where he lived 
for some time in pecuniary embarrassment. 
He was at Arenenberg at the time of his 
mother's death, in October, 1837, after which 
he voluntarily left Switzerland in order to avoid 
involving that country in a contest with Louis 
Philippe, who had insisted on his being expel- 
led. He took up his residence in London, sur- 
rounded by partisans, most of whom reaped in 
the subsequent days of his prosperity the reward 
of their devotion to him in his adversity. He 
associated much with tho countess of Blessing- 
ton and Count d'Orsay, and with a number of 
the English nobility ; but pecuniary distress 
and his political designs affiliated him with less 
select members of society. His principal mis- 
tress was Mrs. Howard, who bore him several 
children, and for whom he afterward provided 
handsomely ; and while in London he was for 
the first time introduced by Count Bentivoglio, 
brother of the countess Walewska, to Eugenie, 
his future wife. He enlisted support in the 
press for his imperialistic theories, and published 
in 1839 the Idees ifapoleoniennes. His tenacity 
of purpose and impenetrable bearing, savoring 
rather of the Teutonic than of the Latin race, 
had impelled his mother to call him le doux en- 
tete, in allusion to his being at the same time 
placid and stubborn, and gave him special 
qualifications for the mission of a conspirator. 
He embarked in August, 1840, for the continent, 
with the purpose of regaining the French 
throne ; but this enterprise ended as absurdly 
as the attempt at Strasburg. With Montholon, 
a companion of Napoleon I. at St. Helena, and 
about 50 followers, he landed near Boulogne in 
the night of Aug. 6, displaying a tame eagle ; but 
he failed to rouse the enthusiasm of the troops, 
and was again arrested, and two months later 
sentenced by the chamber of peers, despite 
Berryer's eloquent defence, to perpetual im- 
prisonment. He was confined in the fortress 
of Ham, where Montholon and Dr. Cpnneau 
shared his captivity and assisted him in pre- 
paring various publications. Being selected by 
several Central American states as the president 
of a projected Nicaragua canal, an application 
for his release was made in 1846, to which 
the illness of the ex-king Louis gave addi- 
tional weight; but Louis Philippe declined to 
grant the request, and the prince made his 
escape from Ham (May 25) in the dress of a 
working man, with the assistance of Dr. Con- 
neau, and reached England. The French am- 
bassador in London, however, refused to pro- 
vide him with a passport, and he was prevented 
from attending his father's deathbed. He 
remained in London till the outbreak of the 
revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, when he hastily 
left for Paris, but at the request of the provi- 
sional government he went back to England. 
He repeatedly declined to accept nomina- 
tions to the constituent assembly, in order, as 



he alleged, not to embarrass the government ; 
but being elected by large majorities in Corsica 
and in three other departments, including that 
of the Seine, he finally accepted the latter elec- 
tion, which was ratified by the assembly (June 
12), despite the decree of the executive commis- 
sion for his continued banishment. But on his 
declaring to the president of the assembly "that 
he would know how to fulfil the duties which 
the people might choose to impose on him," 
a popular excitement arose, and he returned to 
London, resigning his seat. After the san- 
guinary conflict of June, however, finding him- 
self again reflected by the departments of 
the Seine, Yonne, Charente-Infe>ieure, Moselle, 
and Corsica, he took his seat (Sept. 26) in the 
constituent assembly, which speedily revoked 
the decree of banishment. Yet he was dis- 
trusted, and an amendment was introduced 
(Oct. 9) with a view to exclude him from the 
presidency of the republic. On this occasion 
he made his first speech, his excessive tame- 
ness and composure creating an unfavorable 
impression, and Thiers called him a wooden 
head (tete de bois). To subsequent attacks he 
offered the same reserve and silence, declar- 
ing that he preferred to show his devotion 
to France by actual services rather than by 
rhetoric. He maintained the same attitude 
during the presidential election, listening to 
everybody without unbosoming himself to any- 
body, and seeking to conciliate all parties with- 
out identifying himself with any. On Dec. 
10, 1848, he was elected president of the re- 
public for four years by 5,434,226 votes, ac- 
cording to the official announcement on the 
day of inauguration, Dec. 20, Cavaignac, his 
principal competitor, receiving only 1,448,107. 
Odilon Barrot became the head of the cabinet ; 
Drouyn de Lhuys, minister of foreign affairs ; 
Falloux, of public instruction ; Bixio, the only 
one who had not been a monarchist, of agri- 
culture and commerce, but retired within eight 
days ; and M. de Maleville, of the interior, who 
was speedily dismissed, mainly because he had 
failed to hand over instantly to Louis Napo- 
leon all the telegraphic despatches addressed 
to him. The sincere republicans soon fell out 
with the president, on his determining to close 
political clubs and adopting other reactionary 
measures. A French army under Oudinot was 
sent against the Roman republic, and after 
some combats entered Rome July 3, 1849. Al- 
though this project had been initiated by Ca- 
vaignac and approved by the assembly, the ultra 
republicans, under the lead of Ledru-Kollin, at- 
tempted to impeach the president on account 
of this intervention ; but his course was ap- 
proved by the majority. The attempt at insur- 
rection made on June 13 was promptly quelled ; 
but he exasperated the extreme left by pro- 
claiming martial law in Paris, forbidding po- 
litical meetings, and instituting legal proceed- 
ings against the representatives implicated in 
those disturbances ; while at the same time he 
incurred the displeasure of the conservatives by 



50 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



seeking to condone for this rigor by releasing 
over 1,300 persons who had participated in the 
outbreak of the preceding year. The acces- 
sion of a number of ultra republican members in 
1850 increased the disappointment of the con- 
servatives, and on May 31 they passed a law 
restricting the universal suffrage which had 
made Louis Napoleon president ; and they fur- 
ther marked their hostility by grudging him 
an increased allowance, and by appointing a 
permanent committee to watch over the public 
interests during the recess of the legislature. 
This permanent committee was composed ex- 
clusively of conservatives; and while several 
of their leaders conferred with the count de 
Ohambord in respect to a fusion of the two 
branches of the Bourbons, Louis Napoleon 
courted popularity with the masses and the 
army. After a demonstration in his favor by 
the troops at Satory, near Versailles, Chan- 
garnier issued an order prohibiting such man- 
ifestations, which the president resented by 
removing him from the military command 
of Paris (Jan. 9, 1851), whereupon the as- 
sembly passed a vote of censure against the 
administration. This led to the formation of 
a new cabinet and to a conciliatory message, 
which, like most of Louis Napoleon's state 
papers, was pervaded with a peculiar philosoph- 
ical vein of thought; but a majority again de- 
clined to accord him a larger allowance, and 
their ill feeling against him was greatly in- 
creased by the petitions pouring in from all 
parts of the country demanding an extension 
of the presidential term, and by Louis Na- 
poleon's speeches at Dijon and other places, in 
which he assumed to be the providential pro- 
tector of France against both legitimists and 
socialists. Many of the provincial authorities 
protested against the rejection by the ma- 
jority of the proposed revision of the constitu- 
tion for the extension of Louis Napoleon's 
term of office ; and in this conflict between 
the assembly and the numerous Bonapartists 
among the people, the president ingratiated 
himself still more with the latter by proposing, 
in addition to the abrogation of the law of 
May 31 restricting the suffrage, the exercise 
of the franchise after only six months' res- 
idence in the place of voting. These mea- 
sures were rejected by the assembly, and a res- 
olution was at the same time introduced tend- 
ing to place the military forces of the capital 
under the control of the president of that body. 
This capped the climax of the contest, and 
Louis Napoleon immediately appointed a new 
prefect of police, M. de Maupas, and a new 
commander, Magnan. The latter selected a 
new corps of officers, composed of devoted 
Bonapartists, and the president declared that 
in a crisis he would not, like previous chiefs 
of state, follow the army, but expect it to fol- 
low him. The assembly, torn by party wran- 
gling, was unable to concert measures for the 
defence of the constitution, while the president 
matured his schemes. Finally, on Dec. 2, 1851, 



Louis Napoleon, assisted by Persigny, Morny, 
Saint-Arnaud, Magnan, Maupas, and other life- 
long adherents, overthrew the assembly by 
military force and took possession of the whole 
government. During the preceding night and 
early in the morning of that day about 180 mem- 
bers of the two extreme parties were placed 
under arrest, and some of them at once sent 
out of the country ; the national assembly was 
declared to be dissolved, and its place of meet- 
ing was guarded by soldiery ; universal suf- 
frage was proclaimed, and Paris placed in a 
state of siege. Several members of both par- 
ties in the assembly hastily assembled, but in 
vain, to protest against the usurpation, and de- 
clare the president deposed ; resistance was 
attempted, but without concert or plan, and 
chiefly resulted in deluging the principal boule- 
vards with the blood of innocent spectators, 
shot down by the soldiery under Canrobert and 
others (Dec. 4). Louis Napoleon had made 
such effective preparations that order was 
speedily restored. His appeal to the people in 
the general elections (Dec. 20-21) resulted in 
the confirmation of his usurpation and his 
election to the presidency for ten years, by over 
7,000,000 against less than 1,000,000 negative 
votes. He promulgated a new constitution, 
Jan. 14, 1852, reaffirming the principles of 1789, 
and declaring organic changes in the form of 
government to be admissible only by the consent 
of the people ; and on March 28 he relinquished 
the dictatorship which he had assumed since 
the coup d'etat, to resume the office of presi- 
dent. But it soon became manifest, especially 
from his intimations at Bordeaux on Oct. 9, that 
he was again bent on disregarding his pledged 
faith to the republic. The senate, obedient to 
his behests, voted almost unanimously on Nov. 
7 in favor of the restoration of the empire, and 
he resorted once more to his favorite measure 
of appealing to the people. The voice of the 
senate was ratified, Nov. 21-22, by nearly 
8,000,000 votes; and on Dec. 2 he ascended 
the throne as Napoleon III., hereditary em- 
peror of the French, by the grace of God and by 
the will of the nation. On Jan. 22, 1853, he in- 
formed the legislature that, after having become 
the peer of the anointed heads of old monarchies 
by the force of new political principles, it 
would be hardly dignified to gain an artificial 
admission to their families by intermarriage ; 
and uttering such democratic reflections, he 
announced his approaching marriage with 
Eugenie Marie de Montijo, which union was 
celebrated on Jan. 29 and 30. Although he 
had won supporters by declaring peaceful in- 
tentions, this illusion was speedily dispelled 
by the Crimean war, in which he embarked 
with Great Britain, Sardinia, and Turkey. It 
was alleged that, as the emperor Nicholas had 
declined to address him as his brother, as is 
usual among sovereigns, he was the more 
anxious to join in the war, which resulted in 
the defeat of Russia. The treaty of peace of 
March 30, 1856, was concluded in Paris under 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



51 



the auspices of Napoleon, who came out of this 
contest with enhanced prestige. The birth of 
the prince imperial on March 16 increased the 
festivities of the court, while a large concourse 
of visitors to the capital added to the com- 
mercial prosperity which he had from the first 
sought to promote, especially by providing oc- 
cupation for the discontented poor in new 
public works. He exchanged visits with Queen 
Victoria, had a friendly interview with the czar 
in September, 1857, and became the principal 
mediator between Switzerland and Prussia in 
the Neufchatel question. At the same time 
he gave greater prominence to the navy, and 
dazzled the public mind by his occupation of 
New Caledonia and by joining England in the 
warfare against China, and subsequently by 
expeditions to Japan and Cochin China, the 
last resulting in conquest. Attempts had been 
made upon his life by Pianori and Bellamare 
in 1855; and another was made in January, 
1858, by Orsini and others, chiefly Italians, on 
the very eve of Napoleon's interference in 
favor of Italy. Cavour, who had cultivated 
excellent relations with him during the nego- 
tiation of the treaty of Paris in 1856, met him 
again at Plombieres in August, 1858; and on 
the following new year's day, when the diplo- 
matic corps presented their respects to the em- 
peror, he created a great sensation in Europe 
by abruptly expressing his regret to Baron Hub- 
ner, the representative of the emperor Francis 
Joseph, at the altered relations between Austria 
and France. This was followed at the end of 
the same month (Jan. 30, 1859) by the marriage 
of the princess Clotilde, daughter of Victor 
Emanuel, with Prince Napoleon, and in May by 
the emperor's formal declaration of war against 
Austria, which had taken the initiative in at- 
tacking Sardinia, while Francis Joseph de- 
nounced Napoleon as a revolutionary firebrand. 
Setting out for the seat of war with the avow- 
ed purpose of making Italy free from the Alps 
to the Adriatic, Napoleon nevertheless brought 
the contest to an incomplete termination while 
flushed with the brilliant victories at Magenta 
(June 4) and Solferino (June 24), and he per- 
sonally arranged with the emperor of Austria 
the preliminaries of peace at Villafranca (July 
11), mainly resulting in the nominal cession to 
France of Lombardy, which was at once trans- 
ferred to Victor Emanuel. This abrupt peace, 
when it was generally expected that the war 
would be followed up by the total extirpation of 
Austrian domination in Italy, was ascribed to 
his anxiety to close the conflict before the aid 
of Prussia should enable the enemy to turn 
the tide of success, to the complications grow- 
ing out of the continued protection of Rome 
by the French army, and to a certain reluc- 
tance to make Italy too powerful. Cavour, 
however, despite the stipulations of Villa- 
franca, which were confirmed by the treaty of 
Zurich (November, 1859), opposed the plan of 
an Italian confederation proposed by Napoleon, 
and insisted upon the establishment of the 



kingdom of Italy. While ostensibly attempt- 
ing to have the Italian question settled peace- 
ably by liberal reforms on the part of the pope 
and the king of the Two Sicilies, and by a con- 
gress of sovereigns in Paris, Napoleon allowed 
Victor Emanuel to extend his dominions ; and 
his tacit connivance with the aggrandizement 
of Italy was rewarded in 1860 by the cession 
of Savoy and Nice to France. This led to a 
protest on the part of Switzerland, and revived 
in Europe generally suspicions of aggressive 
designs on his part, though in an interview 
with the German potentates on June 15, 1860, 
he strove to allay these apprehensions. Great 
Britain was now more friendly disposed to him 
than most other powers, especially as he lost 
no opportunity to ingratiate himself with Eng- 
lishmen individually, and concluded in the 
same year with Cobden personally a com- 
mercial treaty in the interest of free trade. 
This measure, however, alienated from him the 
good will of the protectionists in France, and 
was abandoned after his downfall. He also 
lost ultramontane supporters by his Italian 
policy, by the suppression of the society of St. 
Vincent de Paul, by the appointment of M. Re- 
nan to a professorship, and by other measures 
which pleased the liberals, whom he further 
propitiated by removing (Nov. 30, 186.0) some 
of the restrictions on elections, and enlarging 
the scope of the legislature and the liberties 
of the press. The Anglo-French war in China 
was brought to a successful termination by the 
capture of Peking in October, 1860; and his 
prestige in the East was increased by the ex- 
pedition to Syria (1860-'61), for protecting the 
Christian populations against a renewal of the 
Damascus massacres. The emperor was at 
the zenith of his prosperity at the time of 
the outbreak of the civil war in the United 
States. As this had a disastrous effect upon 
French industry and commerce, short crops 
aggravating the situation, Napoleon surrender- 
ed in favor of the legislature, at the urgent re- 
quest of Minister Fould, his previous absolute 
control of the treasury. He recognized the 
belligerent rights of the Confederate States, 
but officially informed the United States gov- 
ernment (May 16) that he did not consider this 
as recognizing the former as an independent 
power. Ostensibly he assumed a conciliatory 
attitude toward the United States, and repeat- 
edly offered his friendly services for the restora- 
tion of peace. He entertained, however, un- 
official relations with the Confederate agents, 
who claimed to have many influential friends 
of their cause at the imperial court. An ex- 
pedition projected in June, 1861, by France, 
England, and Spain, avowedly to obtain ma- 
terial guarantees for claims against Mexico, 
degenerated after the withdrawal of the two 
latter powers (April, 1862), under Napoleon's 
sole direction, into a war of conquest against 
that republic ; and in April, 1 864, he establish- 
ed the Hapsburg prince Maximilian on the 
throne of Mexico as emperor. This was rep- 



52 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



resented as the initiation of Napoleon's pro- 
posed supremacy of the Latin race, of which 
he wished to become the arbiter in the new 
world as in the old ; but the increasing vic- 
tories of the United States made him afterward 
disclaim all purpose of territorial acquisitions. 
At home he continued to make himself accept- 
able, especially to the money-making classes, 
officeholders, contractors, and speculators, who 
profited by military and naval expeditions, 
by railways, and by all the other stupendous 
enterprises of the period ; and the embellish- 
ment and enlargement of the capital gave em- 
ployment to many paupers, while little or no- 
thing was done for the mental and moral eleva- 
tion of the masses, and the whole aim of the 
emperor seemed to be to dazzle by splendor and 
luxury, and by material grandeur at home and 
visions of glory abroad. But the drain upon 
his military resources in Mexico was regarded 
as paralyzing his strength for the contingency 
of war in Europe, and at the same time made, 
together with the other costly expeditions, 
heavy inroads on the treasury. He began also 
to feel uneasy at the increasing power of Prus- 
sia ; and to counteract her entente cordiale with 
Russia, he warmly advocated in 1863, in union 
with England and Austria, the treaty rights of 
Poland ; but as these powers declined to join 
him in ulterior measures, England especially 
refusing to take part in a congress which he 
proposed for the settlement of this and other 
questions, he had to content himself with a bar- 
ren declaration of sympathy for the Polish pa- 
triots. While his political situation in Paris was 
compromised by official tampering with the 
elections, and by the greater dignity imparted to 
the opposition in the corps Ugulatif by the ac- 
cession of Thiers, Berryer, and other influen- 
tial statesmen, he was obliged to remain a 
passive spectator of the Schleswig-Holstein 
war and the consequent aggrandizement of 
Prussia. After having at first made an una- 
vailing effort to prevent this war by mediation, 
he withdrew (January, 1864) from a conference 
of the powers at London, disguising his dissat- 
isfaction with the progress of these events by 
pretending to encourage the application of 
his theory of nationalities in favor of the 
Schleswig-Holstein people shaping their own 
destinies. The ignominious end of the Mexican 
expedition, from which the cabinet of Wash- 
ington had urged him to withdraw, especially 
after the termination of the civil war in 1865, 
and the Prusso-Italian coalition against Aus- 
tria in 1866, which he resented by denouncing 
the obsolete character of the treaty obligations 
of 1815, inflicted still greater injury upon his 
prestige ; while the independence of Italy from 
France was further exhibited by Napoleon's 
withdrawal of his troops from Rome at the end 
of 1866, in accordance with the convention of 
1864. His participation in the peace negotia- 
tions between Austria and Italy after the over- 
whelming defeat of the former power by the 
Prussians at Sadowa (July 3), resulted in the 



nominal cession of Venetia to France and in 
its immediate transfer by Napoleon to Victor 
Emanuel ; but this afforded a poor consolation 
for the loss of influence, which had passed 
from his hands to those of Germany, under the 
lead of Prussia. The parliamentary opposi- 
tion, led by Thiers, increased in proportion to 
his vanishing repute, and the blunders of his 
foreign policy as well as the maladministration 
of financial affairs were unsparingly exposed. 
His repeated efforts in the course of 1866 to 
recover his lost ground by acquisition of Ger- 
man or Belgian territory, in consideration of 
his allowing Prussia to take the lead in united 
Germany, were unavailing against Bismarck's 
opposition ; and he was also disappointed in his 
hope of creating a division between the South 
and North German states ; so that all he could 
obtain after a grave conflict with Prussia in 
relation to Luxemburg, and subsequent nego- 
tiations with Holland for the acquisition of that 
territory, was its neutralization at the con- 
ference of London (May, 1867). He endeavor- 
ed nevertheless to explain away in his message 
to the legislative body the dangers of Ger- 
man consolidation, but proposed at the same 
time a considerable increase of armaments. 
The execution of Maximilian in June, 1867, 
shortly after the departure of the last French 
troops from Mexico, became known in Paris 
at the time when Napoleon was entertaining, 
during the great exposition,, almost all the 
crowned heads of Europe, including the sultan 
and the czar. The emperor went to Salzburg 
in August to condole with Francis Joseph on 
the tragical death of Maximilian, and this in- 
terview was regarded as a pledge of more inti- 
mate relations between the two emperors. He 
soon afterward sent French troops to Rome 
for the protection of the pope against the Gari- 
baldians, and insisted upon Victor Emanuel's 
joining his efforts in conformity with the con- 
vention of 1864; but the emperor's subsequent 
appeal to the European powers to settle the 
Roman question by a congress in Paris was not 
heeded. Despite his constant manipulation of 
public opinion, the general elections of 1868 
showed a defection of 200,000 voters since 
1863; and the new press law, adopted after 
stormy debates, and regarded as affording some- 
what greater liberty, resulted only in increas- 
ing the clouds that had been gathering round 
his throne and in the creation of many new 
journals, the most conspicuous of which in 
its invectives was Rochefort's Lanterne, whose 
first nine weekly issues reached a circula- 
tion of over 1,150,000. Other journals were 
almost equally bold, though much more dec- 
orous ; and 64 editors were sentenced to im- 
prisonment between May 11 and Dec. 31, 1868. 
According to the new law of Feb. 1, 1868, the 
military force, including the mobile guards, 
was brought up to 1,350,000 men. Yet on 
opening the new legislative session on Jan. 18, 
1869, the emperor boasted of his friendly rela- 
tions with foreign powers and of the prosper- 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



53 



Ity of the country. More than ever in need of 
the support of the masses, he followed up his 
various measures for the working classes by 
suppressing early in 1869 the livrets or service 
books which had subjected artisans to vexa- 
tious formalities. The controversy with Bel- 
gium in regard to the transfer of a Belgian 
railway to a French company, which for a time 
threatened complications, was amicably settled 
in April, but great agitation continued to pre- 
vail in Paris. The new elections at the end 
of May were attended with tumults in many lo- 
cal ities, the opposition carrying Paris, Lyons, 
Marseilles, and other cities, though the official 
influence in the interior, together with the 
votes of the peasantry and part of the clergy, 
resulted in an aggregate vote in favor of Na- 
poleon. Thiers, Favre, and Simon, however, 
were reflected ; Gambetta, Bancel, and Raspail 
were returned to reenforce the ultra radicals ; 
and Rochefort himself was finally elected in one 
of the metropolitan districts, at the same time 
with Cremieux and Emanuel Arago; while 
Emile Ollivier, a former liberal who had adher- 
ed to Napoleon, was defeated in Paris, and had 
to accept a seat for one of the departments. 
The aggregate of votes cast for the emperor had 
dwindled down to less than 5,000,000, while 
the opposition, including those opposed to per- 
sonal government though in favor of a con- 
stitutional empire, exceeded 3,000,000. Riot- 
ous demonstrations ensued (June 7-11) in Paris 
and other cities, amid acclamations in favor 
of a republic and against Napoleon. Over 
1,000 persons were arrested, and the military 
had to restore order in Paris, Nantes, and 
Bordeaux. To calm the excitement, the em- 
peror proposed liberal changes (July 12) after 
the opening of the legislative body; dismissed 
Rouher, his strongest partisan, from the minis- 
try; appointed a new cabinet to mark the 
transition from personal and arbitrary to the 
new projected parliamentary and constitutional 
government ; and promulgated an amnesty for 
political exiles, which measure resulted in 
bringing back to France some of his most in- 
veterate enemies. The senatus consultum em- 
bodying the new reforms was adopted Sept. 6 ; 
but the emperor would not convoke the new 
session on the day prescribed by the new law. 
The opposition, led by Favre, proposed to take 
the initiative in opening it ; but in view of the 
public exasperation, they limited their demon- 
stration to the issue of a protest (Oct. 18) 
against what they characterized as Napoleon's 
new insult to the nation, and calmly awaited 
the inauguration of the legislature by the em- 
peror himself, which took place Nov. 29. Ol- 
livier now came forward as the principal 
spokesman of the new constitutional regime, 
with about 120 followers, the rest of the mem- 
bers being divided among the various shades 
of conservatives and radicals. In his exposi- 
tion of foreign policy the emperor expatiated 
on the advantages of the Suez canal, which he 
had labored to promote, and on the Egyptian- 



Turkish complication, in regard to which he 
sided with England in maintaining the rights 
of the sultan without compromising the in- 
terests involved in the authority of the khe- 
dive. Ollivier became prime minister on Jan. 
2, 1870, and one of the first measures of the 
new administration was to remove Haussmann, 
whose administration of the prefecture of the 
Seine and stupendous enterprises had contrib- 
uted greatly to the embellishment and en- 
largement of Paris, but also to the detriment 
of integrity and financial stability, and to the 
disadvantage of the poor, whose humble dwell- 
ing places had been pulled down to make 
room for new boulevards and squares; while 
Odilon Barrot was appointed chairman of the 
committee of decentralization. Additional 
odium was cast upon Napoleon by the assassi- 
nation of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bona- 
parte, and by the letter's acquittal of the 
charge of murder at Tours, March 27. Yet he 
received an affirmative vote of over 7,000,000 
on the plebiscite of May 8, in approbation of his 
reform measures, although Paris returned over 
180,000 adverse votes, including those of many 
soldiers, and the majority in most of the large 
cities remained equally hostile to the emperor. 
Uneasiness in regard to foreign relations was 
revived by the appointment as minister of 
foreign aifairs of the duke de Gramont, who 
while French ambassador in Vienna had 
been noted for his hostility to Prussia. Olli- 
vier nevertheless persisted (June 30) in re- 
assuring the country in regard to uninter- 
rupted friendly relations with foreign powers. 
Great excitement, however, prevailed shortly 
afterward, when it became known that the 
crown of Spain had been offered to Prince 
Leopold of Hohenzollern, a relative of the 
king of Prussia, and both Ollivier and Gramont 
declared (July 6) in the legislative body that 
such a candidature, agreed upon without the 
knowledge of the French government, would 
be injurious to the honor and the influence of 
the French nation. The emperor instructed 
Benedetti, his ambassador in Berlin, to require 
King William, who was at that time (July 9) at 
Ems, to prohibit Prince Leopold from accept- 
ing the Spanish crown. Despite the latter's 
voluntary withdrawal, the emperor was not 
satisfied, and insisted upon a personal pledge 
from the king of Prussia that no prince of 
Hohenzollern' would be in future a candi- 
date for the Spanish throne. It now became 
manifest that the emperor, despairing of sus- 
taining his power at home and of recovering 
his standing abroad, was bent on retrieving his 
fortunes on the battlefield, and on wreaking 
revenge upon Prussia for the success by which 
she had exalted the glory of Germany and 
dimmed that of France. Bismarck, the Prus- 
sian prime minister, declined to submit the 
emperor's new pretensions to the king; and 
as Benedetti was nevertheless instructed to in- 
trude them upon the Prussian monarch per- 
sonally, the latter declined to give another 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



interview to Napoleon's representative. The 
next day (July 14) Benedetti was recalled by 
the emperor, and Baron Werther from Paris 
by the Prussian king. Preparations for war 
were immediately made on both sides. The 
Germans manifested the wildest enthusiasm in 
resenting what they called the arrogance of 
France, and, contrary to Napoleon's expecta- 
tions, the South German states promptly de- 
clared their readiness to join the North German 
confederation. The mediation of England, 
offered by Lord Loftus, the British ambassador, 
was declined in Berlin until Napoleon should 
first accept it; and a subsequent mediatorial 
effort of Pius IX. likewise fell to the ground. 
Napoleon took the initiative by formally de- 
claring war on July 19 through his chag6 d'af- 
faires Le Sourd, basing his declaration, first, 
upon the insult offered at Ems to Count Bene- 
detti, the French minister, and its approval by 
the Prussian government; secondly, upon the 
refusal of the king of Prussia to compel the 
withdrawal of Prince Leopold's name as a 
candidate for the Spanish throne ; and thirdly, 
upon the king's persistence in giving the prince 
liberty to accept the throne. The extraordi- 
nary military appropriations demanded by the 
emperor were unanimously accorded by the 
senate, and with but a few dissenting votes by 
the legislative assembly ; *but as considerable 
time was lost in the preparations, the Germans 
were left at liberty to concentrate overwhelm- 
ing forces on the French frontier, King Wil- 
liam leaving Berlin on July 31, three days after 
Napoleon's departure for Metz. The first 
movement of importance began on Aug. 2, 
when Gen. Frossard, with about 30,000 men, 
advanced from St. Avoid against Saarbruck. 
On the advance of the French, the small Prus- 
sian garrison of that city retired to the adjoining 
heights, and was compelled to withdraw to the 
right bank of the Saar. On taking possession 
of the heights, but not of the town of Saar- 
bruck, the emperor sent to Eug6nie, whom he 
had left hi Paris as regent, a sensational de- 
spatch containing a grandiloquent passage on 
the prince imperial's baptism of fire. But gro- 
tesque as this announcement was, it was the 
only one sent by him that did not savor of de- 
feat. The successive German victories creating 
great commotion in Paris, he was soon obliged 
(Aug. 8) to relinquish the command of the 
armies, and after a few days spent with Bazaine 
he joined MacMahon at Chalons. The corrup- 
tion which had infected the public service of 
the empire had impaired the efficiency of the 
military organization, and the generals, mainly 
trained in the warfare against Arabs in Algeria, 
could not cope with the superior organization 
of the Germans. Napoleon was overwhelmed 
by defeat after defeat, and on Aug. 31 he issued 
at Sedan his last proclamation to the army, ex- 
hibiting, though striving to conceal, his despera- 
tion. He had already a few days before pro- 
vided for the safety of the prince imperial by 
sending him to Belgium ; and in the afternoon 



of Sept. 1, when the French were everywhere 
beaten, Wimpffen proposed to the empero'r, 
who was said to have deliberately exposed him- 
self to death in the thickest of the fight, to save 
himself from capture by breaking through the 
German lines at Carignan. Napoleon would 
not risk the lives of the soldiers in what he 
regarded as a hopeless attempt, and also de- 
clined to accept Wimpffen's resignation. Soon 
after 5 P. M. he sent a colonel with a white flag 
to the headquarters of the enemy. Suddenly 
the firing ceased. The Germans shouted, " Vic- 
tory! the emperor is there." The king of 
Prussia sent Lieut. Col. Bronsart to Sedan to de- 
mand an unconditional surrender, upon which 
the emperor despatched his aide-de-camp, Gen. 
Keille, to the royal headquarters with the fol- 
lowing letter: "My brother: Since it has not 
been vouchsafed to me to meet death at the 
head of my troops, I surrender my sword to 
your majesty." In order to obtain if possible 
more lenient conditions of capitulation than the 
Germans were disposed to accord, the empe- 
ror left Sedan at 5 A. M. on Sept. 2, Bismarck 
hastening to meet him on the road between 
Sedan and Donch6ry, in a small house near the 
latter place. The king, however, consented 
to see the emperor only after the ratification of 
the capitulation between Moltke and Wimpffen. 
Preceded by an honorary escort of Prussian 
cuirassiers, and accompanied by Bismarck, the 
emperor had the same night an interview of 
about 15 minutes with the king of Prussia at the 
castle of Bellevue, near Frenois, and the victor 
assigned to his captive the castle of Wilhelms- 
hohe, near Cassel, as a residence. He left Belle- 
vue on the morning of Sept. 8 for the Belgian 
frontier with a Prussian escort, the Belgian gen- 
eral Chazal escorting him to the German border ; 
and in the evening of Sept. 5 he arrived at Wil- 
helmshohe. During his residence there the 
empress of Germany showed him many delicate 
attentions. On the news of the emperor's capitu- 
lation Jules Favre at once proposed his deposi- 
tion in the legislative body, and in the confu- 
sion which ensued during the proclamation of 
the republic (Sept. 4) the empress regent fled to 
England. Napoleon protested (March G, 1871) 
against the decree of the national assembly at 
Bordeaux of March 1, which confirmed his ex- 
pujsion and that of his dynasty from the throne, 
and made him responsible for all the calamities 
of the war and for the dismemberment of France. 
He was released by the emperor William on 
March 19, and joined Eugenie and the prince 
imperial at Camden house, Chiselhurst, where 
he was temporarily buried. On May 12, 1872, 
he wrote to Gen. Wimpffen assuming the sole 
responsibility for the surrender at Sedan ; and 
a pamphlet entitled Des causes qui ont amene 
la, capitulation de Sedan, par un officier at- 
tache a Vetat major general (Brussels, 1870), 
has been ascribed to him. Queen Victoria, 
and especially the prince of Wales, and the 
English generally, with whom he had always 
been popular personally, soothed his exile 



BONAPARTE (NAPOLEON III.) 



BONAVENTCRA 



55 



by considerate attentions ; and his funeral was 
numerously attended by the English and by 
French partisans of his dynasty. He published 
Hutoire de Jules Cesar (2 vols., 18G5-'G), 
which is still unfinished ; and his miscellaneous 
writings are contained in (Euvres de Napo- 
leon III. (5 vols., 1854r-'69), (Euvres militaires 
(3 vols., 1856), and (Euvres posthumeg (1873). 
See HMoire du second empire, by laxile 
Delord (vols. i. to iii., 1869-'72), and Napoleon 
///., eine biographische Studie, by Gottschall 
(3d ed., 1871). The best known publications 
adverse to Napoleon are Victor Hugo's Napo- 
leon le Petit (Brussels, 1852), and Let propos 
de Labienv*, by Prof. Rogeard (Paris, 1865). 
Eugenie Marie de Montijo, wife of the preced- 
ing, born in Granada, May 5, 1826. Her fa- 
ther, Count Montijo, who died in Madrid in 1839, 
was a grandee of Spain, whose origin has been 
traced to the Porto-Carrero family of Genoa, 
which, after settling in Spain in the 14th cen- 
tury, formed connections with many illustrious 
houses, whence Eugenie inherited numerous 
Spanish titles of nobility. Her mother, Maria 
Manuela Kirkpatrick Closeburn, was descend- 
ed from a Roman Catholic family of Scotland 
who sought refuge in Spain after the fall of the 
Stuarts. After spending her childhood in Ma- 
drid, Eugenie was sent to school in Toulouse and 
Bristol, and travelled much with her mother 
under the name of Countess Teba, residing 
some time in London. Her beauty, grace, and 
accomplishments having attracted the attention 
of the future emperor during his residence in 
England, she became his wife, Jan. 29, 1853, 
and contributed greatly to the brilliancy of the 
imperial court. She prevailed upon the mu- 
nicipality of Paris to devote a wedding present 
of the value of 600,000 francs, intended for her, 
to the endowment of a female college, and fur- 
ther devoted to charities 100,000 out of 250,- 
000 francs presented to her by her husband on 
the same occasion. She gave birth to the 
prince imperial March 16, 1856, and the pros- 
pective right of regency was conferred on her 
in February, 1 858. Her support was courted by 
the ultramontanes in respect of the Italian and 
Roman questions and the Mexican invasion ; and 
in 1865, while her husband was in Algeria, her 
position as regent was complicated by Prince 
Napoleon's hostility to the pope, to whose in- 
terests she was zealously devoted. After having 
in previous years accompanied her husband to 
the English court, she went with her son to 
Corsica in 1869 to attend the inauguration of the 
monument of Napoleon I. ; and in October of 
that year she set out on a journey to the East by 
way of Venice to attend the opening of the Suez 
canal, receiving great attentions everywhere. 
In the same year she endowed the geographical 
society of Paris with 200,000 francs as a foun- 
dation for an annual prize of 10,000 francs to 
the most eminent French explorer or discover- 
er. She assumed the regency after the empe- 
ror's departure for the seat of war in 1870, and 
received the first news of his surrender at Se- 



j dan through Prince Metternich, the Austrian 
ambassador, whose wife was one of her most 
devoted friends, and formerly conspicuous, with 
the empress, Mme. de Pourtales, Mme. de Gal- 
lifet, and other brilliant women, among the most 
famous leaders of gay and fashionable entertain- 
ments. She received no tidings either from her 
minister Palikao or from her husband ; but Pie- 
tri, the prefect of police, in the afternoon of Sept. 
3, warned her of the insecurity of her position, 
and his despatch was still on her table when a 
few hours after her departure the mob invaded 
her apartments. Metternich urged her to flee 
in the most pressing manner, and the Tuileries 
was in the greatest confusion when she left the 
palace after midnight,deserted by her attendants 
and accompanied by Metternich, the Italian 
minister Nigra, the countess Walewska, M. de 
Lesseps, and her aged secretary, Mme. Lebre- 
ton. Plainly attired, the empress was recog- 
nized only by a boy, whose exclamation passed 
unnoticed, and she entered a public carriage in 
a street near the imperial residence, at the same 
moment when a crowd of nearly 1,000 persons 
passed by her uttering violent outcries against 
the emperor. Eug6nie, the countess Walewska, 
Prince Metternich, and one of the latter's at- 
tached rapidly drove to the railway station, 
intending to proceed to England. After spend- 
ing a few days with the Hagvorst family near 
Brussels, the ex-empress proceeded to Ostend 
and Dover, and thence to Hastings, where she 
met her son, with whom she left for Torquay, 
and on Sept. 24 arrived at Chiselhurst. Napo- 
leon joined them in March, 1871, and she con- 
tinued to reside there after his death. Napoleon 
Eugene Lonis Jean Joseph, prince imperial, son of 
Napoleon III. and Eugenie, born in the Tuile- 
ries, March 16, 1856. He received a careful 
education, and accompanied his father to Metz 
on the outbreak of the Franco-German war, and 
thence to Saarbrilck, where, according to Na- 
poleon's despatch to Eugenie, he received his 
baptism of fire. As the military situation be- 
came critical, the emperor provided for the 
safety of his son by sending him in August to 
Belgium, and subsequently he joined his moth- 
er in England. He is a youth of delicate frame 
and winning manners, and bears a much great- 
er resemblance to his mother than to his father. 
BONAVENTURA, Saint (GIOVANNI DI FIDANZA), 
a cardinal and doctor of the Roman church, 
born at Bagnarea in Tuscany in 1221, died in 
Lyons, July 15, 1274. He entered the order 
of St. Francis in 1248, studied in the university 
of Paris, was appointed professor of theology 
there in 1253, and in 1256 elected general of 
his order. He reconciled the differences among 
the cardinals on the death of Clement IV., and 
they chose Gregory X. on his advice in 1271. 
That pope made him bishop of Albano in 1273 
and cardinal in 1274. He died during the ses- 
sion of the second council of Lyons, to which 
he had been sent as papal legate, and his 
funeral was attended by the supreme pontiff, 
accompanied by a brilliant retinue of cardinals 



56 



BONCHAMP 



BOND 



and kings. He was canonized by Sixtus IV. 
in 1482, and declared by Sixtus V. in 1587 the 
sixth in rank among the great doctors of the 
church. The sublime and mystical thoughts 
which abound in his writings gained him the 
title of the seraphic doctor. The Franciscans 
regard him as one of their most learned theolo- 

g'ans, and rank him with Thomas Aquinas, 
e is the patron saint of the city of Lyons, 
where he was buried. His works include a 
commentary on the Maguter Sententiarum of 
Peter Lombard, the two manuals of dogma 
called the Breviloquium and Centiloquium, the 
Itinerarium Mentis in Deum, the Reduetio 
Artium in Theologiam, the Biblia Pauperum^ 
a life of St. Francis, and various songs and 
devotional and exegetical treatises. They are 
of a strong mystical tendency, but fervent in 
spirit and practical in their teachings. They 
have been published at Rome (8 vols. fol., 
1588-'96), Lyons (7 vols. fol., 1088), and Venice 
(14 vols. 4to, 1752-'6). 

BONCHAMP, Charles Melehlor Artns, marquis 
de, a French soldier, born at Jouverteil, Anjou, 
about 1760, died near Chollet, Oct. 18, 1793. 
He served in the American war of indepen- 
dence, and on his return to France resigned 
and remained faithful to Louis XVI. After the 
outbreak of the insurrection in Vendee (March, 
1793), his tenantry compelled him to place 
himself at their head. He commanded the in- 
surgent troops in Lower Poitou and in Anjou, 
and was wounded in the attack on Nantes 
and on other occasions, and defeated Kleber 
near Torfou. He was mortally wounded near 
Chollet, and died next day on the retreat, af- 
ter having prevented his soldiers from retalia- 
ting upon the prisoners of war. The Memoires 
de Mme. de BoncTiamp sur la Vendee, edited by 
Mme. de Genlis (Paris, 1823), are regarded as 
good authority, though ultra-royalist. 

BOM), in law, an instrument in writing and 
under seal, whereby one person, who is called 
the obligor, acknowledges himself bound to an- 
other, who is called the obligee, for the pay- 
ment of a specified sum of money. If this be 
the whole, it is called a simple bond ; but usu- 
ally the sum mentioned is specified by way of 
penalty only, and a condition is underwritten 
which constitutes the real contract, and which 
may be for the payment of money, or for any 
other lawful act to be done .or performed by the 
obligor or by any other person, and which 
when done shall discharge the penalty. To 
constitute a valid bond, the obligor must be 
competent to contract, and he must seal and 
deliver the instrument ; he need not sign, though 
usually this formality is observed. The seal 
is evidence that it is given upon sufficient con- 
sideration. A bond has some advantages over 
simple contracts, or those which are not under 
seal, the chief of which is that, under the 
statutes of limitation, the remedy by suit there- 
on is not so soon barred ; 6 years being in gen- 
eral the period in the case of simple contracts, 
and 10, 15, or 20, in different states, in the case 



of bonds. At common law, also, contracts 
under seal were entitled to precedence in the 
distribution of estates of deceased persons. In 
a suit upon a bond the obligee recovers judg- 
ment for the penalty, but to be discharged 
upon payment of the actual damages sustained 
by non-performance of the condition, which 
damages are assessed by the court or jury and 
constitute the real measure of liability. A 
bond is not negotiable, and though it may be 
assigned, the assignee must at common law 
sue upon it in the name of the obligee. 

BOND, a S. W. county of Illinois, intersected 
by Shoal creek and its branches, and touched 
on the S. E. corner by Kaskaskia river ; area, 
about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 13,152. The 
St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute, and Indian- 
apolis railroad passes through the county. The 
surface is moderately uneven, and occupied by 
beautiful prairies and woodland in equal pro- 
portion. The soil is fertile. Coal is found 
near Shoal creek. The chief productions in 
1870 were 309,325 bushels of wheat, 1,064,052 
of Indian corn, 401,097 of oats, 19,338 tons of 
hay, and 37,259 Ibs. of wool. There were 
6,481 horses, 3,618 milch cows, 10,233 sheep, 
and 16,907 swine. Capital, Greenville. 

BOND, Thomas Emerson, an American physician, 
editor, and preacher, born in Baltimore, Md., 
in February, 1782, died in New York, March 
14, 1856. After studying in the medical school 
of the university of Pennsylvania, and taking 
his degree at the university of Maryland, he 
returned to Baltimore to practise medicine, 
and was soon called to a professorship there. 
While practising medicine he was likewise 
licensed as a local preacher in the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Trained to a vigorous style 
by faithful study of the English classics, Dr. 
Bond was peculiarly fitted to take active part 
in the theological questions that agitated the 
Methodist church from 1816 to 1830. In 1830 
and 1831 he conducted the "Itinerant," in 
which he defended the polity of the Methodist 
Episcopal church against those views of church 
government that culminated in the secession 
of the Methodist Protestant church. His rep- 
utation is chiefly owing to his editorial man- 
agement of the " Christian Advocate and Jour- 
nal," the chief organ of the M. E. church. 
He conducted this journal for 12 years, being 
editor-in-chief at his death. He published an 
"Appeal to the Methodists" (8vo, 1827), and 
"Narrative and Defence" (8vo, 1828). 

BOND. I. William Craneh, an American as- 
tronomer, born in Portland, Me., Sept. 9, 1789, 
died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 29, 1859. He was 
brought up by his father to the trade of watch- 
making, but devoted much of his time from 
early youth to studying astronomy. He estab- 
lished a private observatory at Dorchester, 
Mass., and gained considerable reputation by 
his discoveries, and in 1838 was selected by 
the United States government to make obser- 
vations for the use of an expedition to the 
South sea. He superintended the construe- 



BONDI 



BONE 



57 



tion of the observatory of Harvard university 
in 1839, and became its director when com- 
pleted. From that time he was constantly en- 
gaged in astronomical observations and studies, 
and published the results in the " Annals of the 
Observatory of Harvard College." He also 
invented a device for visibly measuring tune to 
a small fraction of a second, and was among the 
first to use photography as a means of record- 
ing the aspects of heavenly bodies. He re- 
ceived the degree of A. M. from Harvard uni- 
versity in 1842, and became a member of the 
academy of arts and sciences, of the philo- 
sophical society, and of the royal astronomical 
society of London. II. George Phillips, son of 
the preceding, born at Dorchester, Mass., May 
20, 1825, died in Cambridge, Feb. 17, 1865. He 
graduated at Harvard college in 1845, and be- 
came an assistant to his father in the observa- 
tory, succeeding to its full charge on the latter's 
death. He wrote several valuable astronom- 
ical works, among which are a " Treatise on the 
Construction of the Rings of Saturn," and the 
" Elements of the Orbits of Hyperion and the 
Satellite of Neptune." The satellite of Nep- 
tune and the 8th satellite of Saturn were dis- 
covered by himself and his father. He re- 
ceived a gold medal from the royal astronomi- 
cal society for a work on Donati's comet. 

BONDI, Clcmente, an Italian poet, born at Miz- 
zano, near Parma, in 1742, died in Vienna in 
June, 1821. He acquired renown in 1773 by his 
Giornata villarecia, published in Parma, where 
he was professor of rhetoric. His ode relative 
to the suppression of the society of Jesus, which 
event took place shortly after his admission to 
it, giving offence to influential parties, he fled 
to Tyrol, and subsequently became a protege 
of the Austrian archduke Ferdinand, acting as 
librarian and tutor. In Vienna he instructed 
the wife of the emperor Francis in history and 
literature. His works chiefly consist of cele- 
brated translations of Virgil's ^Eneid and Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, and of lyrical, didactic, satir- 
ical, and other poetry, which bears some resem- 
blance to that of Metastasio. A complete edi- 
tion of his original poetry was published in 
Vienna in 1808, in 3 vols. 

BONDOO, a kingdom of Senegambia in W. Af- 
rica, between the Senegal and the upper Gambia. 
The surface of the country, which is generally 
flat, save in the southern and central parts, 
where it rises into hills of moderate height, is 
covered with vast forests and low stunted 
bushes. From the hills torrents descend dur- 
ing the rainy season to the Senegal and 
Fiilum6 rivers. In the vicinity of the towns, 
where the forests have been cleared away, the 
soil is found to be light and productive. Cotton, 
grain, rice, indigo, tobacco, and pepper are cul- 
tivated with some industry, while different 
varieties of fruit are found in great profusion. 
The climate is warm, but not unhealthy. The 
population, consisting chiefly of Foolahs and 
Mandingos, is estimated at about 1,500,000. 
The Foolahs are the dominant tribe. The 



people are professedly Mohammedans, but not 
very strict. In every town there are schools 
in which the reading and writing of Arabic are 
taught. The people are of a light copper color, 




Bondooe. 

and in form and feature resemble the Europeans 
more nearly than any other tribe of W. Africa, 
except the Moors. The king possesses absolute 
power, and has under his command a consider- 
able body of troops. The capital town is Buli- 
bani (pop. about 3,000), situated in an exten- 
sive plain at the foot of a range of rocky hills. 
It is surrounded by a clay wall pierced with 
loopholes. The houses are small and irregular ; 
the streets narrow, crooked, and dirty. The 
useful arts are held in high esteem, and a good 
trade is carried on with some of .the Moorish 
territories. One of the towns, Samcocolo, is 
famous for its skilful workers in iron and gold. 
BONE, the substance which forms the in- 
ternal skeleton of man and the vertebrated 
animals, constituting the framework of support, 
the levers by which force is exerted and loco- 
motion performed, and the boxes or cages in 
which are enclosed the internal organs. The 
bony parts of the vertebruted animals are very 
different in structure and composition from the 
hard external skeletons of the invertebrata. 
Bone consists of an organic and an inorganic 
material, which may be obtained separately by 
the following simple processes : steep a bone in 
dilute muriatic or nitric acid ; the inorganic or 
earthy matter is dissolved out, and the organic 
substance remains, retaining the original size 
of the bone, and easily bent. In this way is 
obtained the cartilaginous basis of the bone, 
on which its shape depends. On the contrary, 
if a bone be subjected to a strong heat, the 
organic or animal part is burned out, and the 
earthy part remains, retaining its form, but 



58 



BONE 



crumbling to pieces at the least touch. To the 
earthy part, which consists principally of phos- 
phate and carbonate of lime, 51 per cent, 
of the former and 11 per cent, of the latter, 
the bone owes its hardness, density, rigidness, 
and white color; to the animal part, princi- 
pally cartilage, or some form of gelatine, about 
32 per cent., it owes its strength of cohesion. 
These proportions vary at different ages : in 
the child, the animal matter forms nearly one 
half of the bone, accounting for its greater 
flexibility and the less liability to fracture at 
this age ; in the old, the earthy matter is about 
84 per cent., explaining the great brittleness 
and easy fracture of the bones in aged persons. 
In the disease called rickets, common among 
the ill-fed children of the poor in Europe, but 
somewhat rare in America, there is a de- 
ficiency in the deposit of earthy matter, ren- 
dering the bones so flexible that they may be 
bent almost like wax. The power of bone 
to resist decomposition is remarkable : fossil 
hones deposited in the ground before the ap- 
pearance of man upon the earth have been 
found by Cnvier exhibiting a considerable 
cartilaginous portion ; the jaw of the Cam- 
bridge mastodon was found by Dr. 0. T. Jack- 
son to contain 42'6 per cent, of animal matter, 
and cartilage obtained from the same specimen 
by means of dilute acid was readily converted 
into gelatine, and made a good glue ; a portion 
of one of the vertebral spines of Dr. J. C. War- 
ren's mastodon was found to contain SO per 
cent, of animal matter. The chemical consti- 
tution of bone is shown in the following anal- 
yses by Berzelius and Marchand : 

1. Organic or animal matter 33-80 33-25 

fPhosphate of lime 51-04 52-26 

Carbonate oflime 11-80 10-21 

2. Inorganic Fluoride of calcium 2-00 TOO 

or earthy -| Phosphate of magnesia 1-16 1-05 

constituents. | Soda and chloride of sodium 1-20 1-17 

Oxide of iron and manganese, and 

loss 10-5 



100-00 100-00 

Some recent authorities deny the existence of 
fluoride of calcium in bone. Bones are not 
solid. Make a section of almost any bone, and 
two kinds of structure are seen: one dense, 
firm, and compact, on the exterior surface ; the 
other loose, spongy, enclosing cells or spaces 
communicating freely with each other, in the 
interior of the bone, and surrounded by the 
more compact tissue. The loose structure 
abounds in the ends of bones, securing at the 
same time greater lightness and sufficient ex- 
pansion to form the joints, while in the shaft 
or central portion, where strength is most 
needed, the compact tissue is more developed. 
Bones are of different forms, according to the 
uses to which they are to be applied: some 
are long, as in the limbs, and these are the 
principal levers of the body ; others are flat 
and thin, composed of two layers of compact 
tissue, with an intervening cellular structure, 
destined to enclose cavities. Bones have also 
a variety of eminences and depressions, for the 



attachment of muscles, the protection of 
nerves and vessels, &c. ; these eminences, or 
processes, are well marked in proportion to 
the muscularity of the subject. In females and 
feeble men the bones are light, thin, and 
smooth, while in the powerfully muscular 
frame the bone is dense and heavy, and every 
prominence is well developed. Exercise is as 
necessary to the strength of a bone as it is to 
the strength of a muscle ; if a limb bo disused 
from paralysis, or the body be prostrated by 
long disease, the bones waste as well as the 
soft parts. The external surface is perforated 
by numerous minute openings, which transmit 
the arteries and veins to the interior ; this sur- 
face is covered by a firm tough membrane, the 
periosteum, composed of densely interwoven 
white fibrous tissue. The cells, or cancelli, of 
the spongy portions of bone, are made up of 
thin and inosculating plates of osseous tissue, 
enclosing spaces between them which are filled 
with marrow or medulla; these are lined with 
a delicate membrane. On a superficial observa- 
tion it appears as if the plates of the cancel- 
lated structure were arranged without definite 
plan ; but the researches of Prof. Jeffries Wy- 
man and others show that the cancel!! of such 
bones as aid in supporting the weight of the 
body are arranged either in the direction of 
that weight, or in such a manner as to support 
and brace those cancelli which are in that 
direction. The 'arrangement of these bony 
plates in the lumbar vertebra, the neck of the 
thigh bone, the tibia, and the ankle and heel, 
is of itself enough to indicate that man, alone 
of animals, naturally assumes an erect position. 
This relation is most evident in the above- 
mentioned bones, and in the adult, it being 
less observable in youth and old age. There 
is no real difference between the compact and 
the spongy structure of bone, the degree of 
condensation being the only distinction. The 
cells of the cancelli communicate freely with 
each other. In the long bones the marrow is 
not contained in cells, but in one central med- 
ullary canal, lined by a membrane. Both the 
periosteum and the medullary membrane are 
abundantly supplied with blood vessels, and 
are therefore intimately connected with the 
nutrition of the bone, and their destruction 
to any great extent leads to the death of the 
part in contact with them. Microscopic ex- 
amination can alone explain the intimate struc- 
ture of bone. If a thin transverse section of 
a long bone, as the femur, he examined un- 
der the microscope, the compact tissue will 
present several dark circular or oval spots, 
surrounded by numerous concentric lines ; in 
these lines will be perceived minute black spots, 
with other lines leading from them in various 
directions. The larger oval or circular spots 
are the openings of vascular canals, called 
"Haversian," from their discoverer, Clopton 
Havers; these canals are numerous, taking a 
course parallel to the axis of the bone, joined 
together by free inosculation of short trans- 



BONE 



59 



verse branches ; they thus form a network of 
tubes for the minute vessels which they con- 
vey and protect. According to Todd and 
Bowman, the arteries and veins usually occupy 
distinct Haversian canals, a single vessel being 
distributed to each. The canals conveying the 
veins are said to be the larger, and to present 
at irregular intervals, where two or more 
branches meet, pouch-like sinuses which serve 
as reservoirs to delay the escape of the blood ; 
in some of the irregular bones, as in those of 
the skull, the venous canals are extremely tor- 
tuous, running chiefly in the cancellated struc- 
ture, there called diplot. The Haversian canals 
vary in diameter from j-J^ to j-j 1 ^ of an inch, 
the average being about ^-j^, and their ordi- 
nary distance from each other about -j-J-y of an 
inch. This whole apparatus of canals is only 
an involution of the surface of the bone, that 
the vessels may come into a more free contact 
with it ; as they communicate internally with 
the medullary cavity, externally with the pe- 
riosteal surface, and also with the cancellar 
medullary cells, the network of nutrient ves- 
sels is very complete. But, as if this arrange- 
ment were not enough to secure the nourish- 
ment of such a hard tissue as bone, and so far 
removed from immediate contact with blood 
vessels, there is a still more curious and deli- 
cate apparatus of microscopic cavities. Around 
the Haversian canals will be noticed the ap- 
pearance of delicate lamella of bone, more or 
less concentric; these, with the lacunae men- 
tioned below, are the most essential constitu- 
ents of true and fully developed bone, the med- 
ullary cells and Haversian canals being merely 
definite spaces existing between the lamellaa. 
It is principally by the successive development 
of new lamellse that bones increase in diameter, 
being usually deposited in the direction of the 
axis. A transverse section, therefore, would 
present under the microscope the following 
arrangement of lamellas, as given by Hassall : 
1, several layers passing entirely round the 
bone; 2, others encircling each Haversian 
canal ; and 3, irregular and incomplete lamellae 
occupying the angular spaces between those 
concentrically arranged. The lamellse of the 
Haversian canals, however, are not exactly 
concentric, as commonly described, but incom- 
plete and running into one another at various 
points, a necessary consequence of the irregu- 
lar distribution of the lacunsa. The Haversian 
systems generally run in the direction in which 
the tissue requires the greatest strength. With 
the previously mentioned arrangement of the 
cancellated structure, the Haversian canals 
more fully display the wonderful adaptation of 
means to ends, combining mechanical advan- 
tages with the best provisions for the nutrition 
of the tissue. The number of lamellae passing 
entirely round the bone is generally less than 
12, and those encircling each Haversian canal 
vary from 2 or 3 to more than 12, the smallest 
canals having the fewest lamellte. The lamel- 
la;, according to the best observers, appear to 



consist of a delicate network of fibres in sets, 
the fibres of each set running parallel, but 
crossing the others obliquely ; some have sup- 
posed that they are produced by the union of 
a number of diamond-shaped cells, and not by 
the crossing of fibres ; the first opinion is prob- 
ably the true one. Distributed through the 
cancellated and compact portions of bone oc- 
cur numerous black specks in the lines of the 
lamellse ; these are the lacunae, or bone corpus- 
cles, the most peculiar and characteristic mi- 
croscopic form to be found in bony tissue. 
They differ somewhat in form in different ani- 
mals, but are always more or less flatten- 
ed, elongated, ovoid bodies, with numerous 
branches and radiating filaments passing out 
from them and communicating with those in 
the adjacent lamellffi. In the dried bone the 
lacunae are empty, owing to the decomposition 



3'f 



[ '' ' ''>#' "Hi; 

r ,v. 

FIG. 1. Transverse section of bone in the neighborhood of 
two Haversian canals, a a; &, lacunsu. 



-?1 ! IP 

?.:*>! *J ;f*. : \lf*-l \ 



Fia. 2. Longitudinal section of bone with Hayersian canals, 
a a, and lacun*. b (less magnified than the preceding). 




FIG. 8. Lacuna;, c, and canaliculi, t/, very highly magnified. 

and shrinking of the soft parts, and the branched 
lines running out from them appear as minute 
canals or canaliculi; but in the fresh condi- 
tion they are both undoubtedly filled with a 



60 



BONE 



soft organized substance, forming an inter- 
lacing network of bone corpuscles and fila- 
ments, destined to absorb nourishment from tbe 
blood vessels occupying the Haversian canals. 
The bone corpuscles have an average length of 
-,-gVir of an inch, and they are usually about 
one half as wide and one eighth as thick. The 
diameter of the pores, or canaliculi, is from 
TTT.iw to -nr.W of an inch.-From the re- 
searches of Mr. Tomes and Mr. Quekett it 
appears that the ultimate structure of bone 
consists of a congeries of granular parti- 
cles, deposited in an organized matrix; these 
granules are often distinctly visible, with- 
out any artificial preparation, in the sub- 
stance of the delicate spicula of the cancelli, 
varying in size from -^^ to Tr.^nr of an inch - 
The periosteum, a dense, fibrous membrane, 
richly supplied with blood vessels, covers the 
external surface of all bones, with the excep- 
tion of their articular extremities. The vessels 
of bone are supplied from the periosteum, and 
ramify, as has been seen, through the Haver- 
sian canals ; in the long bones a large artery 
penetrates by the nutritious foramen into the 
medullary cavity, sending branches to the med- 
ullary cells, and inosculating with the capil- 
laries from other sources. Nerves have not 
yet been detected in the interior of bones sup- 
plying strictly the osseous structure, but the 
painfulness of many diseases of the bones shows 
that the external and internal vascular surface 
must be supplied with nerves. Lymphatics 
most probably also exist in bone. At the ear- 
liest period of the appearance of a skeleton in 
the embryo, it consists of a series of cells ; these 
increase in number and density, and are held 
together by an intercellular substance, thus 
forming temporary cartilage, which is after- 
ward converted into bone, though not com- 
pletely so until adult age. Ossification com- 
mences at determinate points or centres, the 
first of which is in the clavicle, and appears 
during the fourth week ; then follow the lower 
jaw, ribs, femur, humerus, tibia, and upper 
jaw ; the spine and pelvis are late, and the 
kneepan does not begin to ossify till after 
birth. There are generally several ossific cen- 
tres ; for instance, in the long bones, one for the 
shaft, and one for each extremity. The cen- 
tral part of the bone is the diaphysis, and is 
not united till long after birth to the ends or 
epiphyses ; processes of bone are called apo- 
pkyses. Ossification generally extends in the 
intended direction of the chief strength of a 
bone. According to Todd and Bowman, the 
process by which cartilage is converted into 
bone is as follows : The small nucleated cells, 
with comparatively large and granular nuclei, 
are uniformly scattered through a homogeneous 
intercellular substance ; at the points of ossifica- 
tion the cells begin to assume a linear series, 
running down toward the ossifying surface, and 
separated from one another by the intercellular 
substance ; the cells are closely applied to one 
another, and so compressed that even their nu- 



clei seem often to touch ; the lowest rows rest 
in deep, narrow cups of bone, formed by the 
ossification of the intercellular substance ; the 
cups are gradually converted into closed areolce 
of bone, with their lamelliform walls. During 
this first stage of the process there are no blood 
vessels directly concerned. The lamellae of the 
areolas, or cancelli, become thicker, and include 
in their substance elongated oval spaces of a 
roughly granular nature, in other respects re- 
sembling lacunae, and considered by these ob- 
servers as the nuclei of the cells of the tem- 
porary cartilage; within the cancelli only a 
few cells are found, these cavities being chiefly 
occupied by a new granular substance, resem- 
bling a formative blastema, like that out of 
which all the tissues are evolved ; the cells are 
in apposition with the wall, and sometimes one 
seems half ossified, and its nucleus about to be- 
come a lacuna ; these nuclei have now the same 
direction as the neighboring lacunaa ; from the 
blastema the vessels are probably developed 
and the necessary elements for the growth of 
the bone. The cancelli, at first closed cavities, 
communicate at a subsequent period, and go to 
form the Haversian systems, a network of ves- 
sels becoming developed within them at the 
same time. The subsequent process of ossifica- 
tion consists essentially in the slow repetition 
of the above on the entire vascular surface of 
the bone. The canaliculi begin as irregularities 
in the margin of the lacunae, and are converted 
as the tissue becomes consolidated into the 
branching tubes which have been described 
above, and are accordingly formed in the ossi- 
fied substance of the cartilage cells. As to the 
lacunse, their granular interior seems to be 
gradually removed, and they become vacuities 
for the conveyance of the nutrient fluids. 
Agreeably to this theory of the formation of 
bone, Todd and Bowman believe that it grows 
chiefly by layers formed in succession on its 
vascular surface, but also in an interstitial 
manner after being originally deposited. A 
most important process of growth is constantly 
going on in cartilage by the multiplication of 
the cells and the increase in their dimensions ; 
in the long bones this growth is most active 
in the longitudinal direction. Bones also in- 
crease by the addition of new systems of lami- ( 
nte on their exterior, and by new involutions 
of the vascular surface to form new Haversian 
canals, as has been proved by experiments with 
madder mixed with the food of animals; the 
coloring principle of this substance has a re- 
markable affinity for phosphate of lime, and it 
affects first the portions of bone in course of 
formation, or those nearest to the vascular sur- 
face. "Wherever there is a vascular network 
in the structure of bone, whether on the peri- 
osteal or internal surface, there growth takes 
place ; the exterior increase is strictly analo- 
gous to the exogenous mode of growth in plants. 
A third mode in which bone grows seems to be 
by the dilatation of the primary cancelli and 
central Haversian canals ; by this enlargement 



BONE 



BONE ASH 



61 



of the interior the strength of the compact ex- 
terior is increased without the disadvantage of 
an increase of weight. The reparative power 
of bone is of the greatest importance in surgery. 
When a bone is broken, blood is effused, with 
the coagulum of which a semitransparent lymph 
is subsequently mingled, covering the surfaces 
of the wounded parts ; in the course of two to 
three weeks this is gradually condensed by an 
interstitial change, which converts it into a 
substance resembling temporary cartilage ; ossi- 
fication takes place in this in a nearly uniform 
manner, and the whole is transformed in from 
four to six weeks into a spongy osseous mass 
which holds the ends of the bone together ; 
this provisional callus, as Dupuytren called it, 
is gradually absorbed during the succeeding 
months, while the permanent callus is being 
deposited between the contiguous surfaces of 
the compact tissue ; the permanent callus has 
all the characters of new bone. When this 
reparative process is interfered with by med- 
dlesome surgery or constitutional disease, the 
union takes place merely by ligament, con- 
stituting sometimes a false joint. In reptiles 
and fishes the cancellated structure usually ex- 
tends throughout the shaft, which is not so well 
divided into solid bone and medullary cavity as 
it is in mammalia. Lacunaa are highly char- 
acteristic of true osseous structure, being never 
deficient in the minutest parts of the bones 
of the higher vertebrata, though those of fishes 
are occasionally destitute of them. The lacu- 
nae of birds are longer and narrower than those 
of mammals, and the canaliculi are remarkably 
tortuous ; in reptiles they are remarkably long 
and narrow, and in fishes very angular, with 
few radiations ; their size is not in relation to 
that of the animal, since there is no percepti- 
ble difference between their size in the large 
extinct iguanodon and in the smallest living 
lizard. From the emarginated and festooned 
outline often seen on sections of bone, Dr. Car- 
penter, in his "Principles of Human Physiol- 
ogy," expresses the opinion that the older por- 
tions of the osseous substance are removed 
from time to time, and that the irregular out- 
line thus presented by the Haversian spaces is 
caused by the partial or complete removal of the 
Haversian system ; in their stead newly formed 
tissue is deposited ; this alternate absorption 
and reproduction takes place at all times of 
life, though its energy diminishes with the in- 
creasing age of the individual. The complete 
development of the osseous system characterizes 
the final stage of the growth of the organism ; 
the vertebral column does not completely ossi- 
fy in its spinous and transverse processes until 
the 25th or 30th year ; the ossification of the 
head and the tubercle of the ribs, commencing 
soon after puberty, is not continued to the 
body of the bone till some years after ; the ossi- 
fication of some of the cartilages of the sternum 
is often not completed even in quite advanced 
age ; the bones of the skull are united within 
a few years after birth. As long ago as Aris- 



totle's time, the duration of the life of animals 
was measured by their period of growth. Buf- 
foh had the same idea, for he says : " The dura- 
tion of life, to some extent, may be measured 
by the time of growth." Animals and man 
grow only until union takes place between the 
shafts and the ends of the bones ; this union 
occurs in man at the age of 20 years, in the 
camel at 8, in the horse at 5, in the ox and 
lion at 4, in the dog at 2, in the cat at 1, 
and in the rabbit at 1 year. Recent observa- 
tions go to show that animals live about five 
times their period of growth ; this would give, 
according to Flourens, as the age at which 
man should arrive, if he lived in accordance 
with the laws of physiology and hygiene, 
about 100 years; for the camel 40, the horse 
25, the ox and the lion 20, the dog 10, the cat 
about 8, the rabbit 5 years. In an elephant 
which died at the age of 30 years, the ends of 
the bones were not united to the shafts, so that 
it may be confidently asserted that this animal 
lives more than 150 years. 

BONE, Henry, an English enamel painter, 
born at Truro, in Cornwall, Feb. 6, 1755, died 
in London in December, 1834. He was 
brought up to the art of painting on china, 
and was afterward employed in London in 
enamel painting on watches, lockets, and 
other jewelry. His remarkable skill in this 
work attracted special attention about the 
year 1800. From that time he devoted him- 
self to painting portraits or copying celebrated 
pictures on ivory or in enamel. He used 
larger plates than had been employed for a 
similar purpose before; his copy of Titian's 
"Bacchus and Ariadne," which was sold for 
2,200 guineas, is 18 inches by 16. Among his 
other celebrated pictures are " Hope Nursing 
Love," after Sir Joshua Reynolds, the " Death 
of Dido," and several collections of historical 
portraits. A series of 85 portraits of illustri- 
ous characters in the reign of Elizabeth occu- 
pied his leisure for 25 years, and was finished 
after his death by his son H. P. Bone. He be- 
came a member of the royal academy in 1811. 

BONE ASH. Bones, when calcined in open 
fire, lose all their organic matters and part of 
the carbonic acid gas they contain, by which 
their weight is diminished about two thirds. 
The residue is a dry, friable, and white mass, 
of the original form of the bones. Pulverized, 
the powder is grayish white. It consists of 
basic phosphate of lime, with some lime, fluor- 
ide of calcium, carbonate and sulphate of soda, 
and phosphate of magnesia. The sulphur of 
the sulphate comes from the cartilage. Pre- 
pared from the bones of cattle, the proportion 
of phosphate of lime is about 90 per cent.; 
from human bones, about 86 per cent. Other 
matters may be removed by dissolving in hy- 
drochloric acid, and precipitating by ammonia, 
when the phosphate of lime and a very small 
quantity of phosphate of magnesia alone are 
left in the solution. Bono ash, ground to pow- 
der, is made into a paste with gum water, or 



BONE BLACK 



beer and water, and moulded into the form of 
cups, called cupels, which are used in the pro- 
cess of cupellation. This is separating silver 
or gold from lead, by melting the alloy of the 
metala in the cupel, and subjecting it to the 
action of a current of air, which oxidizes the 
lead, converting it into litharge. This is ab- 
sorbed by the bone ash as fast as it is produced, 
till the precious unoxidizable metal is at last 
left pure and alone in the cupel. The opera- 
tion is conducted in the same manner on the 
large scale and in small assays. When care- 
fully prepared, and freed from foreign matters 
by levigation, bone ash is called burnt harts- 
horn, and is used for cleaning jewelry. 

BONE BLACK, a black carbonaceous powder, 
obtained by grinding the product of bones 
burned in a close vessel at a red heat. The 
name ivory black should properly be limited 
to the finer and more expensive article pre- 
pared from ivory. The volatile products of 
the distillation of bones are an empyreumatic 
oil, fetid gases, and ammoniacal vapors. The 
latter may be collected, as they sometimes are, 
in forming with them salts of ammonia. The 
fixed products, which constitute animal char- 
coal, or bone black, consist of 

Carbon 9-6 

Sulphate of lime 0-2 

Carbonate of lime 8'6 

Phosphate of lime 78'3 

Phosphate of magnesia 1*8 

Chloride of sodium 0'5 

Silii'ate and sand 0'8 

Protoxide of iron 0-2 

Alkalies, and sulphur 0-5 

100-0 

The powder resembles that of vegetable char- 
coal, but is more dense and less combustible, 
and its ashes are not so readily soluble in sul- 
phuric acid as those of charcoal. The process 
of preparing the material varies according as 
the ammoniacal vapors are saved, or allowed 
to go to waste. In the former case the bones, 
cleaned of their fatty matters, are carbonized 
in cast-iron cylinders, which connect by a 
three-inch pipe with the condensing apparatus. 
The cylinders are kept at a red heat for 36 
hours, when the charred bones are taken out, 
and the cylinders are refilled. The bones are 
then ground in mills. The volatile products 
are in some instances discharged under the fire, 
by which they are consumed, and their dis- 
agreeable odor destroyed. In this way also 
they aiford some heat, and save fuel. By the 
other process, the bones are put in cast-iron 
pots, which contain each about 25 Ibs., and 
these are put together in pairs, mouth to 
mouth, and luted. They are then piled up in 
an oven or kiln, the entrances to which are 
tightly bricked up, except those for the admis- 
sion of the flame from the furnace connected 
with the kiln, and the opening into the chim- 
ney. The pots are well heated for 16 to 18 
hours by the flame playing around them, and 
this is increased by the combustible vapors 
which issue from the bones. Other arrange- 



ments have been contrived for consuming the 
disagreeable gases. The valuable property 
possessed by bone black is its absorbing com- 
pletely the color of organic solutions, and leav- 
ing the liquid clear and limpid ; this is greatly 
facilitated by heating the mixture to the boiling 
point. Vegetable charcoal possesses the same 
property also, but to a much less degree. From 
the year 1800 wood coal continued to be used 
for decolorizing crude sirups, for which pur- 
pose it was about this time recommended by 
LiJwitz, a chemist of St. Petersburg; but in 
1811 M. Figuier of Montpellier discovered the 
greater efficiency of animal charcoal for this 
purpose, and this being employed the next 
year by Derosne and Payen, it has since super- 
seded the use of vegetable coal. Although 
this property of charcoal has been ably inves- 
tigated by distinguished chemists, as Bussy, 
Payen, and Derosne, it does not yet clearly 
appear upon what it is dependent, nor whether 
it acts mechanically or chemically. M. Bussy 
has shown that bone black used for decoloring 
an indigo solution in concentrated sulphuric 
acid, and this diluted with water, does not 
give the slightest trace of sulphate of indigo by 
repeated washings, but does of free sulphuric 
acid. Treated, however, with an alkaline 
wash, the charcoal gives up the indigo, thus ap- 
pearing as if it acted mechanically. The effi- 
ciency of the charcoal is greatly dependent 
upon its being in a minute state of division. 
The earthy matters combined with the carbon 
of bones, no doubt, have great influence in 
effecting this condition. Vegetable coal attains 
it to some extent, and the decolorizing property 
also, by being finely comminuted previous to 
charring, and mixed with pulverized pumice, 
quartz, or calcined bones, or with some chemi- 
cally acting ingredient, as carbonate of potassa. 
The most powerful deodorizer is charcoal ob- 
tained in the manufacture of Prussian blue by 
calcining animal matter with potassa. It is 
the purest form of charcoal, freed by the po- 
tassa from its nitrogen, and reduced by chemi- 
cal segregation to the finest particles. Carbon 
obtained by decomposing carbonate of soda 
also possesses this property in a high degree, 
from the fine state of division in which its par- 
ticles are found, so that it would appear to be 
by no means peculiar to animal charcoal. 
Even other substances than carbon are ob- 
served to possess the same property, as has 
been shown by E. Filhol, such as sulphur, 
arsenic, iron reduced by hydrogen, &c. Bone 
black that has been once used for refining 
sirups may be revived, so as to answer the 
same purpose again. The process consists in 
thoroughly washing out the saccharine matters 
absorbed, and in some establishments in dis- 
solving the lime, which is also taken up by the 
bone black, by fermentation in water acidulat- 
ed with hydrochloric acid. The charcoal is 
then again calcined in crucibles, or, as in 
France, in reverberatory furnaces. High steam 
is said also to restore its property, but this 



BONE CAVES 



BONE DUST 



63 



cannot remove the lime. Several forms of 
furnace have been contrived in England to 
effect this purpose ; and retorts are used which 
hold 50 Ibs. of charcoal, and in which the re- 
burning is completed in 15 or 20 minutes. 
Besides extracting the color of fluids, animal 
charcoal takes away the bitter principle from 
bitter infusions, and iodine also from its solu- 
tions ; and it is found by Graham that various 
inorganic substances are abstracted from their 
solutions, as lime from lime water, and metal- 
lic oxides, as lead, from solution in water. 
Bone black is also used to extract from spirits 
distilled from grain the volatile poisonous oil, 
called fusel oil, which gives to the liquors a 
disagreeable taste. It is also a disinfecting 
agent. For chemical and pharmaceutical pur- 
poses, bone black requires to be purified, that 
is, freed from the phosphate and carbonate of 
lime which constitute its principal part. Di- 
lute hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve these 
out, and the residue, being well washed, is 
pure animal carbon. It is used to absorb the 
active principles of plants from their boiling 
infusions. The charcoal, after being well 
washed and dried, is mixed with boiling alco- 
hol, to which it imparts the principle it has 
absorbed from the vegetable infusion, and an 
alcoholic extract is obtained. The alcohol then 
may be distilled off, and the pure substance 
recovered. Quinia, strychnia, and many other 
vegetable principles, are thus procured. The 
refuse animal black of the sugar refiner is 
largely used as a manure, and in the manufacture 
of phosphorus and of baking powders. From 
the investigations of M. A. de Romanet, it ap- 
pears that, in old soils exhausted of humus, it 
produces no effect, having none of this sub- 
stance to restore to the soil. But it gives out 
the ammonia it had taken up in the sirups, and 
neutralizes the bitter and acid principles of 
healthy or new soils; the phosphates it con- 
tains are also rendered soluble in water, and 
are thus furnished to grains requiring them. 

BONE CAVES. In many natural excavations, 
both in the old and the new world, mostly in 
the secondary limestone strata, the result of 
fracture of the earth's crust, of chemical action 
of acid waters, of erosion by powerful currents, 
and of slow disintegration by the elements, have 
been found the bones of extinct post-tertiary 
mammals, mingled sometimes with the works 
and bones of man. The most celebrated of 
these caves in Europe are near Kirkdale, 
England, 25 m. N. N. E. of York, fully ex- 
plored by Dr. Buckland; at Bristol; Kent's 
cave, near Torquay ; in the valley of the Dor- 
dogne, France, especially those of Moustier and 
Cro-Magnon, described by Christy and Lartet ; 
and at Gailenreuth in Bavaria. There are 
many others in Belgium, near Li6ge; in Sicily, 
at Gibraltar, in Mexico, in several parts of the 
United States, and in Brazil. These caves may 
consist of several chambers at different levels, 
and show on their walls the erosive action of 
water, and at the bottom and top various de- 
108 VOL. HI. 5 



posits of stalagmite and stalactite from the in- 
filtration of lime-bearing waters. Under this 
lime floor ancient bones have been discovered, 
mingled, both as to size and species, in the 
most indiscriminate manner; they are often 
rolled, as if from the action of floods, sometimes 
fissured, but often unchanged. The bones most 
abundantly found are those of the great car- 
nivora of the quaternary period, the bear, 
hyaena, lion, &c. ; with those of the great 
pachyderms, as the mammoth and the rhino-, 
ceros; and of many herbivora and rodents. 
The English caves were mostly occupied by 
hysenas, while those of the continent were 
chiefly caves of bears. At Kirkdale Dr. 
Buckland found the remains of at least 75 
hysenas, of the extinct or cave species, mixed 
with those of the extinct pachyderms, carnivo- 
ra, ruminants, and rodents ; from which he be- 
lieved that the hyasnas dragged the carcasses 
there and fed upon them, cracking their bones 
with the marks of their teeth peculiar to this 
animal, and leaving behind them their fossil 
faces. In Gailenreuth have been found the 
bones of the cave bear, of- at least 800 individ- 
uals. Caves containing bones of post-tertiary 
mammals are rare in North America ; but in 
those of Brazil, explored by Dr. Lund, remains 
of gigantic rodents, pachyderms, and edentates 
were found, especially of the extinct mega- 
therioids. The bones found in the caverns have 
a uniform appearance over large areas of coun- 
try, and evidently belong to the geological pe- 
riod intermediate between the tertiary and 
the present epochs. Though some of these 
caves owe their remains to the fact that they 
were the dens of hyasnas and bears, or were 
the retreats of sick and wounded animals, there 
can be no doubt that most of their contents 
have been brought to the caves by temporary 
torrents of water independent of marine ac- 
tion; the bones could not have come from a 
great distance, as they belong to the then ex- 
isting animals of the region, and are the same 
as those met with in external transported sed- 
iments. Remains of man and of his works 
have been found mingled with the bones of 
the above post-tertiary extinct mammals in the 
caves of Europe, and especially of southern 
France by Messrs. Christy and Lartet, seeming 
to place it beyond doubt that man began his 
existence at this remote epoch. The imple- 
ments found are invariably those of the early 
stone age, and the bones never those of the 
domestic animals afterward subjugated by man. 
See AKCH-BOLOGY, and the works of Dr. 
Buckland, Constant-Pr6vost, Lyell, and the 
Beliquias Aquitanica of Christy and Lartet. 

BONE DUST, bones crushed and ground to 
dust for manure. The finer the dust the more 
rapid is its action ; the coarser the particles, the 
longer is their effect slowly given out. This 
substance is beneficial to the growth of plants 
from its affording them several of the constit- 
uents they require. The following analysis 
of dry ox bones is by Berzelius : 



BONE DUST 



BONET 



Phosphate of lime, with a little fluoride of calcium . . 57-85 

Bone gelatine 88-80 

Carbonate of lime ' 

Phosphate of magnesia 2-05 

Soda, and a little chloride of sodium 8-46 

100-00 

The phosphate of lime of the solid bone, and 
the ammonia furnished by the organic matters 
connected with it, are particularly beneficial. 
So valuable is this substance regarded as a ma- 
nure in England, that in the report of the Don- 
caster agricultural association it is stated that 
one wagon load of small drill bone dust is equal 
to 40 or 50 loads of fold manure. Upon thin 
and sandy land it is particularly effective, and 
continues to act for several successive crops. 
It is best applied when mixed with earth and 
fermented, and at the rate of 25 bushels of fine 
bone dust and 40 of broken bones to the acre. 
It is also used as a top dressing, sown broad- 
cast and by the drill. Pasture and grass lands 
are greatly benefited by it; white clover 
springs up wherever it falls ; and the turnip 
crop is largely increased by its application. 
Bone dust is sometimes adulterated with the 
raspings and filings of the ivory nut. In this 
place the use of dissolved bones and other 
phosphates, first recommended by Liebig in 
1840, may be noticed. The phosphatic mate- 
rials are first ground to a very fine powder by 
millstones ; the powder is then carried up by 
means of elevators and discharged continuously 
into a long iron cylinder, having agitators re- 
volving within it with great velocity.- A con- 
stant stream of sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1'66, en- 
ters the cylinder at the same end as the dry 
powder, and the mixture flows out at the other 
end in the form of thick mud, having taken 
three to five minutes in passing through the 
machine. The quantity turned out by such a 
mixing machine is about 100 tons daily. The 
semi-fluid mass runs into covered pits 10 to 12 
feet deep, each of sufficient size to hold the 
produce of the day's work. It becomes tolera- 
bly solid in a few hours, but retains a high tem- 
perature for weeks, and even months, if left 
undisturbed. The composition of a superphos- 
phate of good quality, made partly from min- 
eral phosphate and partly from ordinary bone, 
may be stated as follows : 

Soluble phosphate 22 to 25 per cent. 

Insoluble phosphate 8 to 10 " 

Water 16 to 12 " 

Sulphate of lime 85 to 45 " 

Organic matter. 12 to 15 " 

Nitrogen 0-75 to 1-5 " 

If sufficient sulphuric acid were used to de- 
compose the whole of the phosphate of lime, 
the product would be too wet to be packed in 
bags, and would require either to be mixed 
with extraneous substances of a dry and porous 
nature or to be artificially dried. The manu- 
facture of manures from guano, from the Ash- 
ley river deposits of South Carolina (see Co- 
PHOLITES), and from the mineral apatite, has 
become an industry of great importance. The 
commercial superphosphates are so frequently 



adulterated that purchasers would do well to 
have the samples analyzed before contracting 
for large quantities. 

BONESET, or Thoronghwort, the herb eupato- 
rium perfoliatum, an indigenous perennial 
plant growing in moist places, distinguished by 
the perfoliate character of its leaves, each pair 
of which are at right angles to those immedi- 
ately above and below. It is a bitter weed or 
vegetable tonic, with a faint odor and a strong 
bitter taste. Hot water extracts its virtues, 
which are believed to reside chiefly in a bitter 
principle. The cold infusion acts as a mild, 
pleasant tonic ; the hot infusion as a diapho- 
retic, and, when very strong, as an emetic. 
Strong infusions of boneset leaves are used as 
a substitute for Peruvian bark in cases of ague, 
and sometimes with success ; but it is not al- 
ways to be relied on. A pint of boiling water 
is poured upon an ounce of the dried leaves, or 




Boneset 

a pint of cold water upon an ounce of the fresh 
leaves, and allowed to stand two hours ; it is 
then strained for use. A weak cold infusion 
is good for all cases of debility where tonics are 
prescribed. For ague as much should be taken 
as the stomach will bear, and it should be 
drunk warm. 

BONET, Juan Pablo, a Spanish instructor of 
the deaf and dumb, held by- some authors to 
have been the inventor of their first alphabet 
and means of communication, born in Aragon 
in the latter part of the 16th century. He was 
attached to the secret service of Philip III., but 
the greater part of his time was occupied by 
his efforts in behalf of the class in which he 
had become interested early in life. His sys- 
tem is explained in his work on the subject, 
Rediiccion de las letras y artes para ensefiar a 
hdblar d los miidos (Madrid, 1620). His claim 
to the actual invention of the first means of 
communication for the deaf and dumb is re- 
jected by the majority of writers, who give the 
credit to a Spanish Benedictine monk, Pedro 
Ponce, who lived some 50 years before Bonet. 
Ponce wrote nothing of the art, however, and 



BONHEUB 



BONIFACE 



65 



the honor of first diffusing this important 
knowledge seems to belong entirely to the 
latter teacher. 

IIOMI 1)1 It. I. Rosalie (commonly called ROSA), 
a French painter, born at Bordeaux, March 
22, 1822. Her first instructor in painting was 
her father, Raymond Bonheur, an artist of 
considerable merit; but she owes her remark- 
able success in the delineation of animals to a 
constant study of living subjects. Her first 
contribution to the French exhibition was made 
in 1841, when she sent two pictures, "Goats 
and Sheep " and " Two Rabbits." From that 
time she devoted herself to her favorite class 
of subjects, visiting stables, shambles, and fairs, 
and studying the structure and habits of ani- 
mals under all circumstances. The result of 
these studies was a series of pictures which 
gave her a reputation second to that of no art- 
ist in her special department. Among the most 
noted of her paintings are "The Horse for 
Sale," "Horses in a Meadow," "The Three 
Musketeers," "A Drove on theRoad," "Farm 
Labor in Nivernais," "Cows and Sheep in a 
Hollow Road," "The Horse Fair," "Deer 
Crossing an Open Space," and "Bucks in Re- 
pose." The "Ploughing in Nivernais" was 
placed in the Luxembourg, and the "Horse 
Fair" was a leading attraction at the exposi- 
tion of 1853. The artist worked 18 months on 
this latter picture, attending the "horse market 
in Paris regularly twice a week during the 
time. To the universal exposition of 1867 she 
sent ten pictures. Mile. Bonheur became di- 
rectress of the free school of design for girls at 
Paris in 1849, but has given little of her own 
time to its affairs, her sister Mme. Peyrol hav- 
ing actual charge of the institution. She has 
tried her hand at sculpture as well as painting, 
and in 1848 took a first class medal for a bronze 
group. She has received several other med- 
als and prizes, and in 1865 was decorated 
with the cross of the legion of honor. Her 
latest picture (1872) represents a fight be- 
tween a hyaena and a tiger. II. Anguste, a 
French artist, brother of the preceding, born 
in Bordeaux, Nov. 4, 1824. He studied under 
his father, and has painted landscape, genre, 
and cattle pieces, making rather a specialty of 
the last named department, besides a few por- 
traits. He has received a medal of the first 
class. III. .hilrs Isidore, a French sculptor, 
brother of the preceding, born in Bordeaux, 
May 15, 1827. He studied painting under his 
father, and at the same time gave much atten- 
tion to modelling in clay, choosing animals 
generally for his subjects. His first works pub- 
licly exhibited were a painting representing a 
combat between a lioness and a horseman, and 
a sculptured group illustrating the same subject. 
He soon after abandoned painting, and has 
since devoted himself exclusively to the pro- 
duction of single figures and groups, mostly in 
bronze, representing cattle, horses, dogs, and 
animals of the chase. IV. Juliette (Madame 
Peyrol), a French painter, sister of the pre- 



ceding, born in Paris, July 19, 1830. She has 
painted chiefly animals and rural subjects, and 
is her sister's chief assistant in the direction of 
the school of design for women at Paris. 

BONHOMJIE, a S. E. county of Dakota, sepa- 
rated from Nebraska on the south by the Mis- 
souri river ; area, about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 608. The productions in 1870 were 1,930 
bushels of wheat, 3,520 of Indian corn, 1,590 
of oats, 2,870 of potatoes, and 1,315 tons of hay. 

BOXI, one of the principal states of the 
Bughis nation in the S. W. peninsula of Celebes, 
bounded E. by the gulf of Boni and W. by 
Macassar; area, 2,850 sq. m. ; pop. 180,000. 
The country is mountainous, Lompo-Batang 
(great pillar), 8,200 ft. high, being the loftiest 
peak on the island. Lake Labaya, in the N. W. 
corner of the territory, is a beautiful sheet of 
water, 24 m. long by 13 broad, and receives 
numerous small streams. The valleys and 
plains are fertile, and inhabited by a thrifty 
and industrious people. They carry on consid- 
erable traffic in gold dust, tortoise shell, pearl, 
camphor, nutmegs, and various drugs, and ob- 
tain European products from Batavia and Sin- 
gapore. The country is tributary to the Neth- 
erlands, but is governed by a king who is 
chosen for life by the chiefs of the eight petty 
states of which it is composed, and who can 
decide upon no important measure without 
their consent. The capital is the inconsiderable 
town of Boni, on the shores of the gulf, in lat. 
4 22' S., Ion. 120 18' E. 

BONIFACE, the name of nine popes of the 
Roman Catholic church. I. Saint, the suc- 
cessor of Pope Zosimus in 418, died in 422. 
The emperor Honorius supported his claims 
to the pontifical chair against the archdeacon 
Eulalius, who was chosen by an opposition 
party supported by Symmachus. St. Augus- 
tine dedicated to this pontiff his four books 
against the Pelagians. II. Successor of Felix 
IV. in 530, died in 532. His election was dis- 
puted, bnt Dioscorus, the rival claimant, died, 
and the schism ended. III. A Greek, succes- 
sor of Sabinianus in March, 607, died in No- 
vember of the same year. He convoked a 
council of 72 bishops, in which certain laws 
were passed against choosing successors to 
popes or bishops during their lifetime, and 
obtained from the emperor Phocas the ac- 
knowledgment that the see of Rome had uni- 
versal supremacy. IV. Saint, son of a physician, 
successor of Boniface III., died probably in 615. 
He changed the Pantheon with the permission 
of the Byzantine emperor into a church, and 
his own house in the country of the Marsi 
into a monastery. V. A Neapolitan, successor 
of Pope Deusdedit in 619, died in 624 or 625. 
He forbade civil judges to take away from the 
churches by force those who claimed there 
the right of asylum. VI. Pope after Formo- 
sus in 896, occupied the throne only 15 days. 
Having been uncanonically elected by a popu- 
lar faction, he is sometimes regarded as one of 
the antipopes. VII. Franco, a cardinal deacon, 



66 



BONIFACE 



chosen in a popular tumult in which Benedict 
VI. was strangled in 974, died in 985. He was 
expelled from Eome shortly after his election, 
and went to Constantinople, but returned on 
the death of Benedict VII. (983), and finding 
John XIV. in the papal chair, had him thrown 
into prison and resumed the place. VIIL Bene- 
detto Gaetano, horn at Anagni about 1228, died 
in Rome in October, 1303. About 1255 he 
visited England; in 1280 he went to Germany 
as secretary of a papal legate; in 1281 he was 
made a cardinal by Martin IV., who allowed 
him to receive the revenues of twelve benefices, 
seven of them being in France and one in Eng- 
land. He was papal legate in France in 1290, 
and afterward in Sicily and Portugal, and was 
chosen to the papal chair on the abdication 
of Celestine V. in December, 1294. His entry 
into Eome was attended with extraordinary 
pomp. In 1296 Boniface issued his famous 
bull, Clerieis laicos, by which he forbade the 
clergy, tinder pain of excommunication, to pay 
without the consent of the holy see any subsidy 
or tax on any ecclesiastical property, and ex- 
tended the excommunication to the emperors, 
kings, or princes who should impose such sub- 
sidy. The vigor with which Philip the Fair 
resisted this bull obliged the pope to retract, 
and to allow the taxes to be raised in France 
as before. He became soon after embroiled 
with the Colonna family, who denied the valid- 
ity of his election. Two cardinals of this 
family were deprived of their dignities ; the 
entire family were excommunicated, their de- 
scendants were condemned to civil degradation 
to the fourth generation, their castles and their 
city, Prseneste, were totally destroyed, and 
Frederick of Aragon, whom they had support- 
ed, was ordered to renounce the title of king of 
Sicily, and to evacuate the island. The Colon- 
nas took refuge in France. Boniface inter- 
fered to make peace between France and Eng- 
land. He censured the king of Denmark and 
his brother ; forbade the king of Naples to 
treat with Frederick, elected king of Sicily; 
summoned to Rome Albert I., king of Ger- 
many, whose election as emperor he declared 
to be invalid without the papal sanction ; and 
rebuked Philip the Fair for his treatment of 
Guido of Flanders. In 1300 Boniface pro- 
claimed the first jubilee in a bull granting 
plenary indulgence to all who should visit the 
sanctuaries in Rome during that year. Soon 
after this his quarrel with the king of France 
became more violent than ever. In December, 
1301, Boniface issued the bull Amculta Dei, 
and convoked a council of the French bishops 
at Rome to examine the conduct of King 
Philip, at the same time affirming it to be he- 
retical not to believe that the king was subject 
to the pope in secular as well as spiritual 
affairs. The French nation, however, opposed 
the pretensions of the pope, and supported 
their king ; and it was formally declared by 
the three estates that the king held his power 
in fief to no one, and in secular matters was 



subject to God alone. The bishops were for- 
bidden to attend the council at Rome, which 
therefore was never held. In 1302 the bull 
Unam sanctam affirmed the claims of the pope, 
setting forth that the church wields two swords, 
the spiritual and the secular, but that the secu- 
lar is subordinate to the spiritual, and that 
therefore kings, who hold the former, are sub- 
ject to the pope, who holds the latter. The 
bishops 'of France were again convoked under 
pain of excommunication ; but Philip ordered 
the sequestration of the property of every one 
who should be absent from his diocese, and in 
his turn summoned a general council at Lyons 
to judge the pope. To this council the univer- 
sity of Paris and a large number of prelates ad- 
hered ; the excommunication of Philip fol- 
lowed, April 13, 1303 ; and in June the assem- 
bled estates of France declared the pope a 
criminal and a heretic. The king sent Guil- 
lanme de Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna to 
Rome to seize the pope and bring him before 
the council of Lyons. They armed about 300 
malcontent Italian nobles, surprised Anagni, 
the residence of Boniface, forced the palace, 
and seized the person, diamonds, and papers 
of the pope, and guarded him as a prisoner. 
After three days Boniface was rescued by the 
inhabitants of Anagni and taken to Rome, 
where he was protected in the Vatican by the 
Orsini ; but the violent commotion he had 
gone through caused his death 34 days after his 
captivity. Boniface incurred the bitter en- 
mity of Dante by his persecution of the Ghi- 
bellines, and is repeatedly denounced in the 
Divina Commedia. IX. Pletro Tomxcelli, bora in 
Naples, succeeded Urban VI., at Rome, Nov. 
2, 1389, while the antipope Clement VII. ruled 
at Avignon, died in Eome, Oct. 1, 1404. He 
recognized Ladislas, the son of Charles of Du- 
razzo, asking of Naples in 1390, and celebrated 
two jubilees, 1390 and 1400. The annates, 
which had before been occasional, he made 
perpetual, and decreed that archbishops and 
bishops nominated to benefices should pay to 
Rome one half of their first year's revenue. 
He was twice expelled from Rome by the mu- 
nicipal authorities, and when in 1400 his pres- 
ence became necessary for the celebration of 
the jubilee, he refused to return till the Ro- 
mans consented to the overthrow of the mu- 
nicipal government, promised obedience to a 
senate appointed by himself, and paid him a 
sum of money. From that time he ruled the 
city absolutely. 

BONIFACE, a saint of the Roman Catholic 
church, born in Devonshire, England, about 
680, died in Friesland in June, 755. His bap- 
tismal name was Winifrid or Winifreth. He is 
usually called the apostle of Germany, though 
he was not the first to preach Christianity in 
that country. He was educated in the Bene- 
dictine monastery of Exeter, and was at one 
time professor of theology, history, and rhetoric 
in that of Nutcell, where he became a presbyter. 
In 718 he went to Eome, and received from 



BONIFACIO 



BONINGTON 



67 



Pope Gregory II. an apostolic mission to Ger- 
many. He entered Friesland, where he 
preached during three years, then passed into 
Hesse, and founded there a monastery, around 
which in the course of time grew up the city 
of Marburg, and which now remains as a uni- 
versity. In 723 Gregory II. called him to 
Rome and consecrated him as a bishop, and 
on this occasion his name of Winifrid was 
changed to Boniface. In 732 Gregory III. 
made him archbishop and primate of Germany, 
and in 738, after a third journey to Rome, 
papal legate. He erected various bishoprics, 
and established numerous churches in different 
parts of the country. He also exercised a great 
influence over the last Merovingians, and over 
Pepin and Oarloman. He was named arch- 
bishop of Mentz by Pepin, and founded the 
celebrated abbey of Fulda, and also those of 
Fritzlar and Hammelburg. Boniface finally 
gave np his see of Mentz, in order the better 
to preach to the Frisians. In one of his jour- 
neys across the savage country where now is 
Dokkum, near Leeuwarden, he was attacked 
by the natives and slain, together with some 
50 of his converted companions, whom he for- 
bade to use any means of defence. His body 
was buried in Utrecht, afterward removed to 
Mentz, and finally to Fulda, where a copy of 
the Gospels in his handwriting is still preserved. 
A complete edition of his letters was pub- 
lished at Mentz in 1789. His other writings 
(De Rebut Ecclesiastic-is, Instituta, Synodal-ia, 
and De suis in Oermanin Rebus) were pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1845, in 2 vols. A monu- 
ment to him was erected in 1811 on the spot 
(near Altenberga, Thuringia) where the first 
Christian church was built by him in 724. 
Another was erected at Fulda in 1842. 

BONIFACIO, Strait of (It. Bocea di Bonifacio), 
the passage between Corsica and Sardinia, 
about 7 m. wide in the narrowest part. The 
land is mountainous and the shores steep on 
either hand. Several small islands lie at the 
eastern entrance. The strait is difficult of 
navigation. The town of Bonifacio, an ancient 
seaport on the southern extremity of Corsica 
(pop. about 3,000), has important coral fish- 
eries. A submarine telegraph connects it with 
Longo Sardo on the opposite Sardinian coast. 

BOXI.V. I. Eduard Wilhelm Lndwig TOD, a Prus- 
sian general, born at Stolpe, March 3, 1793, 
died in Coblentz, March 13, 1865. He was the 
son of a general, and enlisted in his 13th year; 
captured by the French at the taking of Lu- 
beck, Nov. 6, 1806, he was immediately re- 
leased on account of his youth. He was re- 
warded with the iron cross for his gallantry at 
the battle of Lutzen, gradually rose in rank 
from 1817 to 1848, when he became brigadier 
general, and acquired celebrity in the first 
Schleswig-Holstein war. In 1849 he was com- 
mander-in-chief of the federal as well as of the 
Schleswig-Holstein troops. He relinquished 
these commands in 1850, was Prussian minister 
of war in 1852-'4, and again in 1858-'9, and 



spent the rest of his life in Coblentz as com- 
manding general of the eighth army corps. II. 
idolf von, a Prussian soldier, born Nov. 11, 
1803, died in Berlin, April 16, 1872. He en- 
tered the army in 1821, became in 1858 adju- 
tant general of the king, which post he retained 
till 1863, when he rose to the command of the 
first army corps, and in 1864 to the rank of 
general of infantry. He distinguished himself 
at the battle of Sadowa, July 3, 1866, and sub- 
sequently acted as commander of the Prussian 
forces in Saxony, and as governor of Dresden 
till May 28, 1807. In August, 1870, he was 
appointed governor general of Lorraine, where 
he displayed tact and moderation. In March, 
1871, he resumed his position on the royal staff. 
BONIN ISLANDS, a group of 70 islands and 19 
rocks in the north Pacific, composed of three 
small clusters, between lat. 26 30' and 27 44' 
N. and Ion. 142 and 145 E. The northern 
cluster was named by Capt. Beechey Parry's 
group, and the southern, Baily's group, while 




Chasm near Port Lloyd. 

to the islands of the middle cluster he gave the 
separate names of Peel, Buckland, and Staple- 
ton. Peel island (the only one inhabited) has 
long been visited by whalers for supplies. From 
1675 to 1725 the Bonin islands were used by 
the Japanese as penal colonies. In 1826 the 
first settlement was made by two English sail- 
ors, and in the same year Capt. Beechey ar- 
rived to take possession of the islands for the 
British crown. By the treaty of 3854, Port 
Lloyd on Peel island was opened to American 
and Britisli shipping. The Bonin islands are 
volcanic ; the water around them is very deep, 
and the shores are precipitous and abound in 
singular chasms, one of the most remarkable of 
which is through a headland near Port Lloyd. 
Timber is scarce. The few inhabitants, chiefly 
natives of the Sandwich islands, adopted a con- 
stitution, ' Aug. 28, 1853, and are ruled by a 
magistrate who is elected for two years. 

BONINGTON, Richard Parkes, an English paint- 
er, born at Arnold, near Nottingham, Oct. 25, 
1801, died in London, Sept. 23, 1828. He was 
the son of an artist, and was educated in Paris. 
Having achieved some reputation there he went 
to Venice, where he made many sketches, and 



68 



BONITO 



BONN 



in 1828 returned to England. He painted 
chiefly in water colors, reviving the taste for 
them in France, after they had been neglected 
for 20 years. His best productions are marine 
views and representations of coast scenery. 

BOJVITO, a name given to several scombe- 
roid fishes of the genera thynnus, auxis, and 
pelamys. The bonito of the tropics, so cele- 
brated for its pursuit of the flying fish, is the 
thynnus pelamys (Linn.). Its range is exten- 




Bonito (Thynnus pelamys). 

sive in the tropical Atlantic, and it probably ex- 
tends to the Pacific and Indian oceans. It has 
the graceful form, habits, and activity of the 
common tunny, but it is much smaller, rarely 
attaining a greater length than 2 ft.; the 
color of the back and* sides is of a brilliant steel 
blue, with green and pink reflections ; the belly 
is silvery, with eight brown longitudinal bands, 
four on each side, extending from the throat to 
the tail. Its food is principally small fish, the 
higher mollusks, and sometimes marine plants ; 
it is readily taken by the hook, and its flesh, 




Plain Bonito (Auxis vnlgaris). 



though dry and occasionally injurious, is con- 
sidered by mariners as a luxury. The T. coretta 
(Ouv.) is also called bonito in the West Indies. 
The bonito of the Mediterranean is the auxis 
mdgaris (Cuv.), resembling the mackerel in 
the separation of the dorsal fins ; the color of 
the back is blue, with irregular lines and spots 
of a blackish blue on the sides ; the average 
length is 15 inches, and the weight rarely ex- 
seeds 6 Ibs. The bonito of the New England 



fishermen is the pelamys sarda (Bloch), called 
also skipjack ; its genus differs from the tunny 
only in having separate, pointed, and strong 
teeth ; the color of the head and upper parts 
is a greenish brown, the sides lighter, and the 
belly silvery white ; 10 or 12 dark-colored bands 
pass obliquely downward and forward from the 
back toward the sides, sometimes as low as the 
abdomen ; the lateral line is rather undulating ; 
it is rarely more than 2 ft. long. It is found in 
the Mediterranean, and in the temperate regions 
of the Atlantic, from the Cape Verd islands to 
the American coast ; it is considered good eat- 
ing in the Mediterranean. The P. Chiliensis 
(Ouv.) of the Pacific coast of South America is 
also called bonito. This term is Spanish, mean- 
ing "pretty," and is doubtless applied to many 
other species of fish. 

BONJOUR, two brothers, natives of Pont 
d'Ain, in France, who founded a new sect 
somewhat similar to the Flagellants of the 13th 
century. They were educated for the church, 
and the elder held at first a curacy in La Forez. 
In 1775, being censured by his bishop for heresy, 
he was removed from this parish and appoint- 
ed to that of Fareins, of which his brother was 
made vicar. After living an irreproachable life 
for eight years, the elder brother resigned the 
curacy to the younger, alleging himself to be 
unworthy of the office. He soon acquired a 
reputation for working miracles, and attached 
to himself a number of followers, mostly wo- 
men and young girls, who called him their 
petit papa. They held to community of goods, 
and indulged in eccentric practices which ex- 
cited a very strong popular sentiment against 
them. One of the devotees, a young girl, was 
said to have been publicly crucified by Bonjour 
in the church, without sustaining any injury. 
One of their most prominent opponents being 
found dead in his bed, by the prick of a needle, 
the elder Bonjour was exiled, and his brother 
imprisoned in the convent of Toulay, from 
which he escaped, as he alleged, by the inter- 
vention of an angel. The revolution of 1789 
encouraged the former to return to Fareins, 
and in the absence of the cure and vicar he took 
possession of his church, and issued orders to 
his followers, who rallied around him. He 
was, however, soon dislodged from his occu- 
pancy, and under the consulate exiled to Lau- 
sanne with his brother, where they both died in 
extreme poverty. Their sect, known as the 
flagellants fareinistes, perished with them. 

BOMf, a city of Rhenish Prussia, on the left 
bank of the Rhine, 15 m. S. S. E. of Cologne; 
pop. in 1871, 26,020, of whom about 4,300 
were Protestants, 500 Jews, and the rest Ro- 
man Catholics. It is finely situated on an emi- 
nence in a fertile region, 10 m. N. N. W. of 
the peak of Drachenfels. It has seven gates, 
and with its many gardens presents a cheerful 
appearance. The finest public square, Milnster- 
platz, adjoining the cathedral, is planted with 
trees, and has a monument of Beethoven, who 
was born at Bonn. The bust of Arndt was 



BONN 



BONNER 



69 



placed in 1865 on the beautiful promenade of 
the Alte Zoll, and his house and garden have 
been presented to the town for conversion into 
a turners' hall. Bunsen died here in 1860. 
The monument of Niebuhr, by Rauch, is in the 
cemetery outside the Sternen gate. A. W. von 
Schlegel and Schumann were also buried here. 
The cathedral or minster, surmounted by five 
towers, contains a bronze statue of St. Helena, 
the mother of Constantine the Great, and sup- 
posed founder of the church. The central 
tower, the windows of the nave, and the clois- 
ters are its most remarkable parts. The 
church of St. Remigius contains a picture by 
Spielberg of the baptism of Clovis. A Protes- 
tant church has been established since 1864. 
The town hall, on the market place, is a hand- 
some modern building ; but the most renowned 
public edifice is the university, the chief source 
of the celebrity and prosperity of Bonn, and the 
most elegant and extensive academical building 
of Germany. It was formerly an electoral pal- 




tTnivoreity of Bonn. 

ace, and contains a hall decorated with fres- 
coes, lecture rooms, a library with over 200,- 
000 volumes, a museum of Rhenish antiquities, 
a cabinet of natural history, and an archaeologi- 
cal museum. There are separate buildings for 
the anatomical theatre and chemical labora- 
tory. The villa of Poppelsdorf, formerly an 
electoral chateau, a mile from the town, belongs 
to the university, and contains apartments for 
the officers and professors, lecture rooms, galle- 
ries of painting, and a collection of natural his- 
tory. Here are situated the botanical gardens, 
an agricultural institute with an area of over 
100 acres, and a manufactory of earthenware 
and pottery. On the fine road to Poppelsdorf 
is the observatory. The university was found- 
ed in 1786 by the archbishop Maximilian Fred- 
erick. In 1802 it was converted by the French 
into a lyceum, but restored upon a much larger 
scale in 1818 by Frederick William III., and 



provided by him with the present palace. 
There are five faculties, namely, of Protestant 
and Roman Catholic theology, medicine, juris- 
prudence, and philosophy; the teachers in- 
clude about 90 professors and adjuncts, and 
the number of students is nearly 900. Prince 
Albert and his son Prince Alfred studied here, 
and among the professors have been some of 
the most learned men of Germany. Bonn oc- 
cupies the site of the ancient Bonna, a town 
of the Ubii, afterward a Roman stronghold, in- 
cluded in Germania Secunda. According to 
Tacitus, Civilis here defeated the Roman troops 
under Gallus. Bonn is said to have embraced 
Christianity in the year 88. It was destroyed 
in 355 by German tribes, and rebuilt in 359 
by Julian; and it was again almost ruined 
by the Northmen in 881. .The archbishop of 
Cologne surrounded the town with walls in 
1240, and conferred many privileges upon it ; 
and the emperor Charles IV. was crowned 
here in 1346. The French took it in 1673, 
surrendered it to the 
prince of Orange and 
Montecuculi in the 
same year, regained 
possession in 1688, and 
lost it in 1689, when 
it was bombarded and 
captured by Frederick 
III., elector of Bran- 
denburg. In 1703 it 
was taken by Coehorn 
after three clays' bom- 
bardment, and most of 
the fortifications were 
razed in 1717. It was 
under French domina- 
tion from 1801 to 1814, 
when it was made part 
of Prussia. 

BONNER, Edmund, an 
English bishop, born 
at Hanley, Worcester- 
shire, about 1495, died 
in the Marshalsea pris- 
on, London, Sept. 5, 1569. His reputed father 
was a sawyer, but some affirm that he was 
the illegitimate son of a priest. In 1512 
he entered Pembroke college, Oxford, where 
in 1519 he took the degrees of bachelor of 
the canon and civil laws, and was soon after 
ordained. By 1525 he had attained the de- 
gree of doctor, and was appointed chaplain to 
Wolsey. After the fall of Wolsey he became a 
favorite of Henry VIIL, and received several 
livings. Much of his promotion was due to 
the favor of Thomas Cromwell, into whose 
schemes for religious reformation he warmly 
entered. In 1532 he was sent as envoy to 
Rome, and the next year to Marseilles, where 
Pope Clement VII. then was, to appeal to a 
general council from the papal decree of ex- 
communication against Henry VIIL on ac- 
count of his divorce from Catharine of Aragon. 
In 1538, while on an embassy to Paris, he was 



70 



BONNEK 



BONNEVAL 



named bishop of Hereford, but before his con- 
secration was translated to the see of London ; 
his commission from the king was dated in 
1540. In 1547 he was sent as ambassador to 
the emperor Charles V. After the death of 
Henry, Bonner broke with the reformers, and, 
protesting against the measures of Oranmer, 
hesitated to take the oath of supremacy ; for 
this he was committed to the Fleet, but making 
submission was soon released. His continued 
hostility to the reformation drew upon him the 
displeasure of the privy council, before whom 
he was arraigned on charge of failing to fully 
comply with an order directing him to preach 
a sermon on the contested four points. For 
this, in October, 1549, he was deprived of his 
bishopric, and committed to the Marshalsea 
prison. Upon the accession of Queen Mary, in 
1553, he was restored to his see, and became a 
prominent upholder of the persecutions which 
followed. He was appointed to perform the 
act of degradation upon Oranmer, against 
whom he had an old grudge, and executed this 
function with extreme insolence. The names 
of 125 persons are given who were executed 
for heresy in his diocese, and through his 
agency ; and 22 more whom he had condemned 
were saved only through the influence of Car- 
dinal Pole. When Elizabeth ascended the 
throne in 1558, she manifested a strong repug- 
nance to Bonner, but left him in possession of 
his see until the next year, when, upon his re- 
fusing to take the oath of supremacy, he was 
deposed, and again committed to the Marshal- 
sea prison, where he remained until his death. 
Even after ten years' confinement public feel- 
ing was still so bitter against him that he was 
buried at midnight for fear of a tumult. 

BONNER, Robert, an American journalist, 
born near Londonderry, Ireland, April 28, 
1824. In 1839 he came to Hartford, Conn., 
where his uncle was a prosperous farmer, and 
entered the printing office of the Hartford 
" Courant " as an apprentice. Here he became 
a thorough printer, and laid the foundation of 
his subsequent fortune by extra work and rigid 
economy. He removed to New York in 1844, 
was employed upon the "Evening Mirror," 
and acted as correspondent of the Hartford 
" Courant," and of newspapers in Boston, Al- 
bany, and Washington. In 1851 he founded 
the "New York Ledger," by purchasing the 
business and establishment of the " Merchant's 
Ledger," a weekly commercial newspaper, 
which he transformed into a journal of current 
literature and popular fiction. His enterprise 
in the conduct of this paper, and especially his 
practice of advertising to an unprecedented 
extent, has given it an immense circulation, at 
times reaching 400,000 copies. Mr. Bonner is 
well known as the owner of the finest stable of 
trotting horses in the United States, which he 
never allows to take part in public races. 

BONNET, Charles, a Swiss naturalist and phi- 
losopher, born in Geneva, March 13, 1720, died 
there, May 20, 1793. He was educated for the 



law, but reading Pluche's account of the for- 
mica leo, he undertook to find this insect for 
himself. This search interested him in many 
other insects. He read other works, and made 
further observations, discovering several unde- 
scribed species, and becoming a naturalist of 
rare attainments at the age of 16. At 18 he 
communicated to Reaumur several interesting 
facts, and at 20 his discovery that several gen- 
erations of aphides are produced by a viviparous 
succession of females without the males, for 
which he was elected a corresponding member 
of the French academy of sciences. Learning 
of Trembley's experiments on the reproduction 
of certain polyps by bisection, Bonnet experi- 
mented, and discovered that certain so-called 
worms could be multiplied by the same pro- 
cess. He published these discoveries in his 
Traite d'insectologie (1745). In 1754 he pub- 
lished De V usage desfeuilles, treating upon vege- 
table physiology, and in 1762-'8 Considerations 
sur les corps organises, embodying his views 
on the origin and reproduction of organic forms 
of life. The failure of his sight drove him from 
the field of actual observation to that of specu- 
lative philosophy. His Essai de psychologie ap- 
peared in 1754, and his Essai analytique des 
facultes de Vdme in 1760. In his Contempla- 
tion de la nature (l764-'5) he tried to con- 
struct a chain of nature from the lowest organ- 
ism up to the Deity. His Palingenesie philo- 
sophique (1770) puts forth the idea that the 
souls of animals are immortal and rise pro- 
gressively in the scale of being. He published 
in 1771 Secnerches philosophiques sur les 
preuves du Christianisme, a defence of revela- 
tion. His complete works were published at 
Neufchatel, before his death, in 8 vols. 4to, 
and with illustrations, in 18 vols. 12mo. 

BONNEViL, Clande Alexandra, count de, a 
French soldier, born at Coussac, in Limousin, 
July 14, 1675, died in March, 1747. Being 
found unmanageable at the Jesuit college, he 
left it to enter the navy at the age of 12 years. 
He left this service in 1698 on account of a duel 
with the lieutenant of his vessel, and bought a 
commission in the guards, and afterward in a 
regiment of infantry. He served with Ven- 
d6me in Italy, where he displayed great cour- 
age and skill. Getting into trouble with the 
accounting officers and the minister of war, he 
wrote the latter an insulting letter and threw 
up his commission as colonel. After spending 
some time in Italy, he entered the service of 
Austria as a major general, and fought under 
Prince Eugene in several campaigns in Italy, 
France, and the Netherlands. While the nego- 
tiation of the treaty of Utrecht was in pro- 
gress he fought a duel with a Frenchman for 
denying that Louis XIV. aspired to universal 
monarchy, and another with a Prussian for 
maintaining the same thing. He afterward 
fought against the Turks, and was severely 
wounded at the battle of Peterwardein. Hav- 
ing gone to Paris in 1717 to sue for a pardon, 
he was induced by his mother to marry a 



BONNE VILLE 



BONOMI 



71 



daughter of Marshal do Biron, but deserted 
her ten days after and returned to the army 
of Prince Eugene, distinguishing himself at 
Belgrade and obtaining an important command 
in Sardinia and Sicily (1719). Being concerned 
in a lampoon on the associates of Eugene, he 
was sent to his regiment at Brussels, where he 
soon got into trouble with the governor of the 
Netherlands and was sent to the citadel of Ant- 
werp. He made the matter worse by writing 
a letter to Prince Eugene which was construed 
as a challenge, and after trial he was sent be- 
yond the border on condition that he should 
never set his foot on German soil again. He 
went first to Venice and then to Bosnia, where 
he was arrested and held in custody 15 months. 
Fearing that he would he delivered up to the 
Austrian authorities, he turned Mussulman, 
was made a pasha under the name of Ahmed, 
and undertook to reorganize the Turkish army. 
His propensity for getting into trouble still at- 
tended him, and in 1738 he was exiled to Asia. 
He finally appealed to his friends to secure his 
safe return to France. The pope offered him 
an asylum at Rome, and the king of the Two 
Sicilies a pension. A galley was sent to assist 
him to escape, but he died before he could effect 
his purpose. Various memoirs and collections 
of anecdotes concerning his adventures were 
popular in the last century. 

BONNEYILLE, l.ni.jamiii I.. I'., an American 
soldier, born in France about 1795. He grad- 
uated at West Point in 1815, and in 1820 was 
employed in the construction of a military road 
through the state of Mississippi, and afterward 
on frontier duty till 1825. In 1831, receiving 
a furlough, he set out upon an exploring ex- 
pedition beyond the Rocky mountains, and not 
being heard of till 1836, his name was dropped 
from the army list. His journal, edited and 
amplified by Washington Irving, was published 
in 1837, under the title of "Adventures of 
Captain Bonneville, U. S. A., in the Rocky 
Mountains and the Far West." Restored to 
the army, he served in the Indian territory and 
in the Florida and Mexican wars, becoming 
major in 1845 and brevet lieutenant colonel in 
1847. He became colonel in 1855, was assigned 
to the command of the department of New 
Mexico, and in 1857 commanded the Gila ex- 
pedition. In 1861 he was retired from active 
service for disability, and during the civil war 
served as superintendent of the recruiting ser- 
vice and chief disbursing officer in Missouri. In 
1865 he was made brevet brigadier general. 

BONHViRD, Francois de, a writer and politi- 
cian of Geneva, born in France in 1496, died 
about 1571. Coming into possession of a rich 
priory near Geneva, he heartily espoused the 
cause of that republic against the designs of 
the duke of Savoy, and in 1530 was arrested 
by the agents of Savoy and imprisoned in the 
dungeons of the castle of Chillon. He was 
restored to liberty six years later, when Chillon 
fell into the hands of his countrymen. He was 
employed from 1546 to 1552 in writing the 



chronicles of Geneva, from the time of the Ro- 
mans to 1530. He was versed in Latin litera- 
ture, theology, and history, and left several 
works, which have remained in manuscript. 
He left a large collection of books to Geneva, 
from which has grown the public library of that 
city. The imprisonment of Bonnivard in the 
castle of Chillon forms the foundation of By- 
ron's poem "The Prisoner of Chillon." 

BONNY RIVER, one of the outlets of the 
Niger, at its delta on the coast of Guinea. 
Near its mouth is Bonnytown, which was once 
a place of great resort for slavers. Large 
quantities of palm oil are exported from this 
place. The country around the river is flat 
and swampy. The people are dirty and super- 
stitious, and large numbers of them die every 
year from dysentery and fever, owing to the 
unhealthy climate. 

BOMYCASTLE. I. John, an English mathe- 
matician, born at White Church, Buckingham- 
shire, died at Woolwich, May 15, 1821. He 
was for more than 40 years one of the mathe- 
matical masters at the royal military academy 
at Woolwich, and published introductions to 
arithmetic, algebra, astronomy, geometry, and 
trigonometry, an edition of Euclid's "Ele- 
ments," and a general history of mathematics 
from the French of Bossut. II. Charles, son of 
the preceding, born at Woolwich in 1792, died 
at Charlottesville, Va., in October, 1840. He 
assisted his father in preparing his mathemati- 
cal text books, wrote various articles for cyclo- 
paedias, and when the university of Virginia 
was founded was selected to occupy its chair 
of natural philosophy. He arrived in this 
country in 1825, was transferred to the profes- 
sorship of mathematics in 1827, and was the 
author of a treatise on " Inductive Geometry " 
and of several memoirs on scientific subjects. 

BONOMI. I. Giuseppe, an Italian architect, born 
in Rome in 1739, died in London, March 9, 1808. 
He went in 1767 to London, where he was em- 
ployed as a draftsman. In 1775 he married 
Rosa Florini, the cousin of his friend Angelica 
Kauffmann, and, excepting one year spent with 
the latter in Italy (1783-'4), he remained for 
the rest of his life in London, and in 1789 he 
was elected associate member of the royal 
academy. He was the architect of the chapel 
of the Spanish embassy, of Eastwell house, 
Kent, of the pyramidal mausoleum in Blick- 
ling park, Norfolk, and of other famous struc- 
tures; but his masterpiece was the duke of 
Argyll's country seat, Roseneath, Dumbarton- 
shire, which he did not live to finish. II. 
Joseph, an English archaeologist and author, 
son of the preceding, born in London in 1796. 
He studied under Sir Charles Bell, at the royal 
academy, and in Rome, and spent many years 
in Egypt and Syria. He was the first to point 
out the monument erected by Sesostris on the 
coast of Syria, as mentioned by Herodotus, and 
has written on Egyptian archaeology for various 
publications of learned societies. His works 
include " Nineveh and its Palaces : the Discov- 



BONONCINI 



BONZES 



eries of Botta and Layard applied to the Eluci- 
dation of Holy Writ," with contributions by 
Lepsius and other Egyptologists (illustrated, 
London, 1852 ; 3d ed., 1857), and " The Sarcoph- 
agus of Oimenepthah I. described by Samuel 
Sharpe " (1864). Mr. Bonomi is curator of Sir 
John Soane's museum, London. 

liO\OMIM, or Baononcinl, Giovanni Battista, an 
Italian composer, born at Modena about 1670, 
died after 1752. He became known at Vienna 
as a composer of operas, and the royal academy 
of music invited him to London to compose for 
the stage. Handel was invited at the same 
time, and the two became rivals in popular 
favor, the tories favoring Handel and the whigs 
Bononcini. The former steadily gained the 
ascendancy, and Bononcini became a pensioner 
on the duchess of Marlborough, who had led 
his admirers. Having palmed off a madrigal 
as his own which he had merely copied, he 
was obliged to leave London, and was subse- 
quently composer for the chapel of the king at 
Paris. He finally went to Venice, where all 
trace of him is lost. None of his operas have 
retained their popularity. 

BONPLAND, lime, a French traveller and nat- 
uralist, born at La Rochelle, Aug. 22, 1773, 
died in Uruguay in May, 1858. He studied 
medicine, and served as a surgeon in the navy 
during the French revolution. He afterward 
pursued scientific studies with Humboldt at 
Paris, and accompanied that naturalist on his 
travels in Mexico and South America. They 
were absent five years, and on their return in 
1804 Bonpland presented his collection of 
plants, numbering 6,000, to the museum of 
natural history. Napoleon gave him a pension, 
and the empress placed him in charge of her 
gardens at Malmaison. While in this position 
he published descriptions of the plants which 
he had collected, with illustrations. After the 
fall of the. emperor he embarked again for South 
America, landing in Buenos Ayres in 1816 
with a large collection of European plants and 
seeds. He was made professor of natural his- 
tory in that city, and remained there five years. 
He then set out to carry on new explorations 
among the Andes, but was intercepted by Dr. 
Francia, the dictator of Paraguay, and de- 
tained for nearly ten years, during which time 
he was compelled to act as physician to a 
garrison. On his release in 1831 he retired to 
a plantation near San Borja on the southern 
boundary of Brazil, where he married an In- 
dian woman and devoted himself to cultivating 
Paraguay tea. In 1853 he removed to a larger 
estate at Santa Anna, where he raised orange 
trees. During all this time he made collec- 
tions of plants and wrote descriptions of them, 
which he intended to take to the museum at 
Paris, had he not been prevented by death. 
His most important contribution to Humboldt's 
Voyage des regions equinoxiales is Nova Genera 
et Species Plantarum, edited by 0. S. Kunth 
(7 vols. fol., 1815-'2o). His biography has been 
written by Adolphe Brunei (Paris, 1872). 



BONSTETTEIf, Charles Victor de, a Swiss author, 
born in Bern, Sept. 3, 1745, died in Geneva, 
Feb. 3, 1832. Before the revolution he took 
part in public affairs and interested himself in 
social and political questions. Afterward he 
travelled extensively, writing letters, sketches, 
and books on a variety of subjects, both in 
French and German. He was acquainted with 
nearly, all the distinguished persons of his time, 
and left some unfinished Souvenirs, in which 
he intended to record his reminiscences of them. 
His principal works are Eecherches sur la 
nature et les lois de ^imagination (Geneva, 
1807), and Etudes de I'homme (Geneva, 1821). 

BONVICINO, Alessandro, called II Moretto da 
Brescia, an Italian painter, born in Brescia 
early in the 16th century, died about 1560. 
Being a pupil of Titian and a careful student 
of the works of Raphael, he succeeded to a 
remarkable degree in combining the excellences 
of the two. He painted several historical pic- 
tures of celebrity, but excelled mainly in por- 
traits. 

BONZES, a term applied to the priests of Fo 
or Buddha in China, Japan, Cochin China, 




Japanese Bonzes. 

Burmah, &c. They are divided into various 
sects, but their teachings are much alike, and 
they have many customs in common. They 
profess celibacy, practise austerities of various 
kinds, and dwell together in monasteries. They 
always go with the head bare and closely 
shaven, and wear no beard. They are sup- 
posed to lead a life of prayer and contempla- 
tion, and at intervals teach the mass of wor- 
shippers in their temples. Among their moral 
teachings are strict honesty, chastity, and tem- 
perance. In their public devotions they use 
idols, some of them very hideous, but the real 



BOOBY 



BOOK 



73 



object of worship is an invisible spirit. There 
are female bonzes who live in convents, and to 
whom the education of girls is sometimes in- 
trusted. 

BOOBY, the English name for agenusof^e- 
lecanida, the dysporus of Illiger, morus of 
Vieillot, lefou of the French ; separated from 
the true pelicans by Brisson, under the name 
of sula. The term booby is applied by naviga- 
tors to that species (sulafitsca, Briss.) which 
inhabits the desolate islands and coasts of warm 
climates in almost every part of the globe. 
The old voyagers have left accounts perfectly 
consentaneous concerning the stupidity of these 
birds, and testify to the passive immobility 
with which they sit in rows, two and two, 
along the shores, and suffer themselves to be 
beaten to death with clubs, attempting only a 
weak defence by pecking at their aggressors, 
and never making so much as an effort to take 
wing. Dampier says that in the Alacrane isl- 
ands, on the coast of Yucatan, the crowds of 
these birds were so great that he could not pass 
their haunts without being inconvenienced by 
their pecking. He also states that he succeed- 
ed in making some fly away by the blows 
which he bestowed on them ; but the greater 
part remained in spite of all his efforts to com- 
pel them to take flight. The boobies seldom 




Booby (Sula fusca). 



swim and never dive, but take fish by darting 
down from on high, with unerring aim, upon 
such kinds as swim near the surface, and in- 
stantly rising again into the air with their 
booty. In the performance of this exploit 
they are often harassed and persecuted by 
the frigate birds and albatrosses, which give 
chase to them the instant they see them rising 
laden with their prey, and force them to dis- 
gorge it, when they themselves appropriate 
the fish. Recognizing the similar habit of 
the whiteheaded eagle toward the osprey, of 
the great arctic gull toward the fishing terns, 
and of other predatory birds toward their more 
industrious and peaceful congeners, there is 



no reason for doubting the truth of this story. 
They walk with extreme difficulty, and while 
at rest on land stand nearly erect, propped, 
like the penguins, on the stiff feathers of the 
tail. The omission of all efforts for self-pres- 
ervation by this bird is to be attributed not 
to stupidity, but to inability to get away, the 
extreme length of its wings and comparative 
shortness of its legs rendering it difficult for 
the bird to rise at all from a level surface, 
and almost impossible to do so in a hurry. 
They ordinarily lay their eggs, each bird two 
or three, in rude nests on ledges of rock cover- 
ed with herbage ; but Dampier states that in 
the isle of Aves they build nests in trees, 
though they have been always observed in 
other places to nest on the ground. 

BOODBOOM. See HALIOAENASSCS. 

BOOK, by the law of England, is " construed 
to mean and include every volume, part or di- 
vision of a volume, pamphlet, sheet of letter- 
press, sheet of music, map, chart, or plan sepa- 
rately published." The word comes to us from 
the Saxon boo, " beech," because the Saxons 
usually wrote upon beechen boards ; just as the 
Latin liber denoted originally the inner bark of 
a tree, which was employed for the same pur- 
pose. It has, however, received an application 
anterior to its own origin, and is also used with 
reference to written tablets of stone and metal. 
In its widest sense it dates from the most re- 
mote antiquity. The ten commandments were 
written on slabs of stone ; the Babylonians and 
Egyptians traced inscriptions on bricks and 
rocks. Sheets of wood, ivory, and various 
metals, and subsequently a great variety of 
pliable substances, animal and vegetable, crude 
and prepared, have been used for the purpose. 
The bark of the birch forms a very good writing 
material; and the leaves of the talipot palm 
are to this day used by the Cingalese for large 
books ; the writing is performed with a sharp 
metallic point, and a black pigment is 'rubbed 
into the lines. In the library of the university 
of Gottingen is a Bible of this kind containing 
5,373 leaves. Among the Greeks and Romans 
books of wood were common. For the more 
important purposes they also employed ivory, 
as well as bronze and other metals ; and for 
common business, such as the recording of con- 
tracts and the making of wills, and for the cour- 
tesies of social life, the letters of love or friend- 
ship, they had sheets of wood, covered with 
wax, to be written upon with a stylw^ and pro- 
tected from contact by a raised margin, or op- 
posite projections in the centres. Many speci- 
mens of ancient books still exist, which prove, 
without historical evidence, how various are 
the materials which suffice for the wants of 
man in an unlettered age. The most ancient 
books extant, with the possible exception of 
a few Egyptian papyri, are probably those 
brought from the ruins of the palace of Ko- 
yunjik, at Nineveh, dating from about 667 B. C. 
They consist of tablets of burned clay, some 
9 inches by 6, others much smaller, covered 



BOOK 



with cuneiform characters, sometimes so mi- 
nute as to be almost illegible without a magnify- 
ing glass; they had been impressed upon the 
moist clay, which was afterward baked. So 
numerous were they that the floors of two 
rooms were covered a foot deep with them. 
They had been originally paged and placed in 
cases. In the destruction of the palace they 
were broken ; but there were four copies of 
each, so that what is wanting in one is often 
supplied by another. This library is now in the 
British museum. The antiquary Montfaucon 
in 1699 purchased at Rome a leaden book of 
six thin leaves, about 4 inches long by 3 wide, 
with hinges and clasps of the same material ; it 
contained Egyptian Gnostic figures, and other 
unintelligible writing. Among the Calmuck 
Tartars was found a collection of books that 
were long and narrow, the leaves very thick 
and made of bark covered with varnish, the ink 
being white on a black ground. M. Santander 




Ancient Books and Writing Implements. 



possessed a beautiful Hebrew Pentateuch, writ- 
ten on 57 skins of leather, sewed together with 
threads or strips of the same material ; it form- 
ed a roll 113 French feet in length. The shape 
of wooden and metal books was square, but 
when more convenient material, such as parch- 
ment and papyrus, was introduced, the cylin- 
drical form was adopted. The sheets, fastened 
together at the edges, were attached to a staff, 
round which they were rolled; whence our 
word volume, from volvere, to roll. At each 
end of the staff was a boss by which it could be 
turned, and the volume was read by unrolling 
the scroll so as to expose successively its several 
sheets. The title was written generally in red, 
on fine vellum, and pasted on the outside. 
Scrolls were again superseded by square books. 
Modifications in form accompanied the various 
changes made in material, until the shape and 
general proportions which now prevail were 
adopted. The value of books, depending not 
only upon beauty of chirography, accuracy of 



transcription, and elaborateness of ornamenta- 
tion, but upon the favor in which particular 
authors happened to be held, seems to have 
gone to each extreme; instances of extraor- 
dinary cheapness standing side by side with 
others of almost incredible dearness. Accord- 
ing to Bockh, in Athens, " a small book (ypap.- 
/taTidiov) for the purpose of recording a contract, 
that is, a small, commonly wooden diptychon, 
consisting of two wax tablets, was estimated 
by Demosthenes at two chalci (one quarter of an 
obolus, less than one cent). Wooden tablets 
(aavtief), on which accounts were written, 
cost, Olymp. 93, 2 (B. C. 407), a drachma 
(about 18 cents) apiece. These must have 
been pretty large and well made. Two pieces 
of papyrus for copying an account cost at the 
same time two dr. four ob. (45'6 cents). Paper 
appears from this to have been very dear, al- 
though written books were cheap since the 
books of Anaxagoras, even when dear, were 
to be had for a drach- 
ma ; or else the pa- 
per upon which public 
accounts were writ- 
ten was uncommonly 
good." It is also stated 
that Plato, who was 
not rich, bought three 
books of Philolaus the 
Pythagorean for 10,000 
denarii (about $1,600); 
and it is further said 
that Aristotle paid 
three Attic talents 
(nearly $3,000) for a 
few books which had 
belonged to the phi- 
losopher Speusippus. 
But these apparent 
contradictions may be 
easily reconciled by a 
consideration of the 
probable conditions 



that occasionally existed ; the number of certain 
works reducing them to the value of the tran- 
scriber's labor, or less, when supply exceeded 
demand, while the rarity of others gave a practi- 
cal monopoly to their possessors. At Rome the 
manufacture of books, which under the early 
emperors had been constantly increasing, dimin- 
ished during the troubles of the empire, and 
upon its fall was for a long time entirely ex- 
tinguished ; to revive again after many years, 
but under greatly altered circumstances. In 
the dark ages the material for writing became 
scarce. The supply of papyrus from Egypt 
failed, and paper had not been introduced from 
the East. Parchment was almost the only ac- 
cessible material, and for this the demand far 
exceeded the supply. Hence arose the prac- 
tice of erasing the original writing from the 
parchment so that it could be used again. The 
erasure was usually made by rubbing with 
pumice stone ; but as the coloring matter of 
the ink penetrated a little into the texture of the 



BOOK 



75 



parchment, the erasure was seldom complete, 
and the original writing can often bo made out. 
Several valuable works have thus been recov- 
ered. A manuscript of this kind is termed a 
palimpsest (Gr. TraAfyji/"?' 7 " ?) from TraAiv, again, 
and V> fv, to rub off). Had not paper, properly so 
called, been already common in Europe, the in- 
vention of printing, superseding the labor of 
the copyist, would have been of little value for 
the multiplication of books. In the earliest 
times books had been ornamented ; but in the 
middle ages they reached the acme, if not 
of beauty and convenience, at least of cost. 
In the process of preparation hooks then re- 
ceived the most careful attention. In the 
monasteries the monks were not only tran- 
scribers, illuminators, and binders, hut the 
same individual frequently combined the triple 
function in his own person. From the hands 
of the scribe the book passed to the illuminator, 
and from him to the binder, by whom its pon- 
derous proportions were encased in massive 
covers of wood and leather, studded with 
knobs and bands, often of gold and silver, and 
closed with broad clasps. When publicly ex- 
posed, they were frequently secured by chains ; 
nearly every great library contains books, 
often printed ones, with the chains still at- 
tached. Hooks were protected by special stat- 
utes ; were subjects of grave negotiations ; 
were solemnly bequeathed by will ; and were 
lent only to the higher orders, who were com- 
pelled to deposit ample pledges for their re- 
turn. Even so late as 1471 Louis XI. was com- 
pelled by the faculty of medicine at Paris to 
deposit a valuable security, and give a respon- 
sible indorser, in order to obtain the loan of 
the works of the Arabian physician Rhazes. 
Among the illustrations of cost which the in- 
dustry of bibliographers has collected, we find 
that St. Jerome, to procure the works of Origen, 
impoverished his estate ; that King Alfred gave 
for one book eight hides of land (480 to 960 
acres) ; that the countess of Anjou paid for a 
copy of the homilies of Bishop Huiman, be- 
sides other articles of barter, 200 sheep. Stowe 
says that in 1274 a Bible finely written sold for 
50 marks (about 34), at a time when wheat 
was 5d. a bushel, and labor Id. a day ; in 1400 
a copy of Jean de Mehun's " Romance of the 
Rose " was publicly sold at Paris for 40 crowns 
(more than $150). But, according to a docu- 
ment in the monastery of St. Stephen at Caen, 
the works of Peter Lombard were bought 
in 1431 for 7 francs. It is thus difficult to as- 
certain the prices of books as determined by 
the value of material and labor at remote 
periods ; for the peculiar instances which have 
been placed on record are more likely to refer 
to exceptional and accidental conditions than to 
the ordinary and usual rates affixed by the un- 
derstood laws of trade. Something of the same 
kind occurs in our own time ; a book whose 
intrinsic value is but a few shillings, has often 
been sold for scores or even hundreds of 
pounds. (See BIBLIOMANIA.) Printing made 



no immediate or violent innovation upon the 
then existing order of things. Types were 
made to imitate the products of the slower 
process of writing, and the general appearance 
of MS. volumes was carefully imitated, so that 
for some time books still continued inaccessible 
to the people. But the desire for books was 
almost imperceptibly growing, the gradually 
widening demand keeping pace with and en- 
couraging the development of mechanical skill. 
Copies were multiplied with increasing ra- 
pidity and diminishing cost, and their sale 
becoming larger, while it reduced the propor- 
tionate expense, enlarged the aggregate profits 
of the maker. Nevertheless, in Europe, even 
long after the invention of printing, books 
were beyond the reach of the people, even 
had they been able to read. In China, and 
probably in Japan, printed books have been 
common and cheap from time immemorial. 
Their method of printing, which has undergone 
no important change for generations, enables 
them to produce a book much more cheaply 
than it could have been done with us half a 
century ago. Twenty-five or thirty pages for a 
cent is, and appears to have long been, a com- 
mon price for an ordinary book ; a cent, how- 
ever, representing a much greater value there 
than here. With us the manufacture of a book 
demands a large outlay of capital and the aid of 
various branches of mechanical skill. Strictly 
speaking, the making of a book begins with 
the author who writes it, or, as in the case of 
a collective work like a cyclopsedia or a gaz- 
etteer, the corps of editors, writers, and re- 
visers. Then follow, in regular sequence, the 
compositor, proof-reader, pressman, and binder ; 
and if the work is one of which a considerable 
number is to be printed, and is illustrated, the 
stereotyper or electrotyper, and the engraver 
on wood, copper, steel, or stone (lithographer), 
or perhaps two or more of them, will also be 
called into requisition. (See BOOKBINDING, 
CORRECTION OF THE PRESS, ELECTRO-MAGNET- 
ISM, ENGRAVING, LITHOGRAPHY, and PRINTING.) 
In respect to the size of their pages books re- 
ceive several designations. Originally these 
denoted the number of leaves into which each 
sheet was folded. In a folio, the sheet was 
folded once, making two leaves ; in a quarto 
(4to), twice ; in an octavo (8vo), three times, 
making 8 leaves ; in a duodecimo (12mo) the 
sheet made 12 leaves, but four leaves had to 
be cut off from one end of the sheet, folded 
separately, and placed in the centre of the 
other part, when folded. These terms are now 
used only in a general way, to indicate the size 
of a book. The introduction of power presses 
permitting the use of larger sheets, it is very 
rarely that a work is now printed in folio, or 
even in quarto, although a volume of very large 
size is still styled a quarto. This Cyclopsedia 
is a large octavo; a volume somewhat smaller 
is simply an octavo ; the next smaller size is 
crown octavo ; then come duodecimo, 18mo, 
36mo, and so on. All printers are not pub- 



76 



BOOK 



lishers or booksellers ; and all booksellers are 
not printers. The distinction is this : A printer 
is one who prints a book, either for himself or 
for another; a bookseller is one who vends 
books, either at retail or by wholesale, whether 
printed by himself or another ; a publisher is 
one who prepares a book for the market, and 
issues it to the public. A few publishers con- 
fine themselves exclusively to the sale of the 
books issued by themselves, but most of them 
also buy and sell the books of others; so that 
while all booksellers are not publishers, all pub- 
lishers are booksellers. Few authors have the 
facilities requisite for getting up their works 
and placing them before the public. For this 
they must avail themselves of the agency of 
the publisher, who usually undertakes all the 
expense, and so demands a share in the profits. 
The author's pecuniary right in his book is 
termed a copyright, that is, the exclusive 
right to produce a copy of it, for a certain 
period, and under certain conditions prescribed 
by the law, which creates this exclusive right. 
(See COPYBIGHT.) Usually the author disposes 
of his copyright to a publisher ; sometimes he 
sells it outright for a stipulated sum ; generally 
he prefers to receive a certain portion of the 
profits. This varies greatly, but the most com- 
mon rate is 10 per cent, on the retail price of 
each copy sold. Some authors obtain much 
more ; and in the case of school books, which 
are usually sold at a small advance upon the 
cost of production, the author's percentage is 
often smaller. In Great Britain a frequent 
arrangement is that the author and publisher 
shall divide the net profits equally ; but this is 
liable to the objection that it is not easy to fix 
the expenses belonging to each separate book, 
and there is always a contingent risk that a 
part of the copies may remain unsold, or that 
bad debts may be incurred. By the American 
method the publisher usually assumes all risks, 
and. the amount due the author can be at any 
moment ascertained. The first regular book- 
seller in the United States appears to have been 
Hezekiah Usher, who was in business in Boston 
as early as 1652. He was succeeded by his 
son, John Usher, who in 1686 was described 
as a "trader who makes the best figure in 
Boston ; he's very rich, adventures at sea, but 
has got his estate by bookselling." Books 
were mainly imported, and were kept in shops 
with other wares; thus Benedict Arnold sold 
drugs and books ; usually, however, the occu- 
pations of printer, bookbinder, and bookseller 
were combined. In 1732 Richard Fry, a Bos- 
ton bookseller, advertised that he had printed 
" the most beautiful poems of Mr. Stephen 
Duck, the famous Wiltshire poet," and con- 
sidered the fact that he had sold 1,200 of these 
poems " a full demonstration that the people 
of New England have a fine taste for good 
sense and polite learning." Toward the close 
of the last century bookselling began to assume 
a prominent place among commercial pursuits. 
About 1820 it began to increase rapidly, and 



it has since more than kept pace with the in- 
crease of population. In the 12 years from 
1830 to 1842, the entire number of books 
printed in the United States was about 1,300, 
an average of over 100 a year, about equally 
divided between original works and reprints. 
The number of publications steadily increased 
from year to year. In 1853 there were 879 
new books and new editions, of which 298 
were reprints of English works, and 37 trans- 
lations from other languages. In 1855 the new 
books and new editions were 1,092, of which 
250 were reprints of English books, and 38 
translations. During the years 1859-'60 the 
number of books averaged about 1,350 a year. 
The civil war somewhat checked the book 
trade, but it revived after its close. In 1871 
the number of books published in the United 
States was about 3,000 ; of which 50 may be 
designated as works of reference, 350 theology, 
30 mental and moral philosophy, 200 political 
and social science, 200 education, 300 history, 
geography, and travels, 450 sciences and arts, 
200 fine arts and recreation, 350 general lit- 
erature, 570 juvenile, and 300 fiction. Many 
of these works comprise several volumes, so 
that the number of volumes is about 3,500. 
The value of the books manufactured in the 
United States in 1820 is estimated at $2,500,000 ; 
in 1830, $3,500,000; in 1840, $5,500,000; in 
1850, $12,500,000; in 1856, $16,000,000; in 
1871 it can hardly be less than $40,000,000. 
The cost of producing each copy of a book 
depends greatly upon the number printed, for 
there is a certain expense for setting the type, 
&c., which must be incurt-ed, no matter whe- 
ther the number be great or small. This in 
the case of an ordinary 12mo may be set down 
at $750. If 1,000 copies be printed, it will be 
75 cents a copy; if 5,000 copies, 15 cents a 
copy; if 10,000 copies, 7i cents a copy. The 
paper, printing, and binding of each copy of 
such a work cost about 40 cents, or somewhat 
less for very large numbers. If, now, 1,000 
copies are printed, the cost of the mere manu- 
facture of each will be $1 15 ; if 5,000 are 
printed, 55 cents; if 10,000, 47 ee-nts. The 
usual retail price of such a book is $1 50 ; and 
deducting the discount to the trade, and cer- 
tain inevitable minor expenses, the publisher 
receives $1 a copy. His account would stand 
thus: For 1,000 copies cost $1,150, receipts 
$1,000, loss $150 ; for 5,000 copies cost 
$2,750, receipts $5,000, profits $2,250; for 
10,000 copies cost $4,750, receipts $10,000, 
profits $5,250. From these must be deducted, 
in the case of an original work, the author's 
copyright of .15 cents a volume. This on 
5,000 copies is $750 ; on 10,000, .$1,500. The 
apparent profits of the publisher are twice 
those of the author on 5,000 copies, and two 
and a half times on 10,000 ; but out of this 
must come the expenses of conducting business, 
cost of advertising, losses by bad debts, and 
the cost of unsold copies. In a fairly success- 
ful book, the net profits of the publisher are 



BOOKBINDING 



77 



about equal to those of the author ; in the ex- 
ceptional cases of a very large sale, they are 
usually considerably greater ; but the authors 
of such works command more than the usual 
copyright, so large occasionally as to absorb 
the greater part of the profits, in which case 
the publisher is in effect merely the business 
agent of the author. Still it is true that every 
purchaser of a book, as a rule, pays more to 
the paper maker, the printer, and the binder, 
respectively, than to the author. A success- 
ful publisher, indeed, usually receives more 
than a successful author ; for the reason that 
the former derives his income from scores, 
hundreds, or thousands of different works, 
while the latter derives his from only the few 
which he has himself written. The great ma- 
jority of individual volumes have only a brief 
life. Of those printed more than 20 years 
ago probably not one in five now exists. The 
others, by steps more or less rapid, have found 
their way to the flames or the waste basket, 
and thence to the paper mill, whence their 
material substance reappears in the shape of 
paper or bookbinders' boards. 

BOOKBINDING, the art by which the material 
parts of a book are connected for convenience 
in use and protection from injury. Its antiquity 
is coeval with the art of composing books, for 
from whatever materials ancient books were 
made wood, slate, horn, plates of lead or 
copper, the leaves or bark of trees the neces- 
sity arose of uniting the several parts together 
for more ready reference as well as their bet- 
ter preservation. The art probably first con- 
sisted in fastening together sheets of wood or 
metal by means of hinges. Afterward, when 
the more pliable substances papyrus and parch- 
ment were substituted, the sheets were fasten- 
ed together at the edges and fixed at one end 
to a scroll round which they were rolled. The 
bookbinder then as now prepared the volume, 
made the staff, affixed the bosses and the title, 
and embellished the outside as his own or his 
patron's taste might suggest. Dibdin, on the 
authority of Trotzius, an ancient scribe, asserts 
that Phillatius \Vfts the discoverer of a substance 
for making the sheets adhere together, and 
that the Athenians erected a statue in his 
honor. He also says, on the authority of Vos- 
sius, that King Attalus of Pergamus first or- 
dered the squaring of books, and that this gave 
rise to the folding into twos and fours, or folios 
and quartos ; and after the folding, gathering, 
and glueing of the book, covers of board, vel- 
lum, or leather naturally followed. Bookbind- 
ing involves considerable mechanical skill and 
knowledge of decorative art ; for from its com- 
mencement it has gone beyond the mere ne- 
cessities of utility, often to heights of notable 
extravagance. In respect of expense the limits 
have never been defined, ostentatious display 
having at times superseded the binder proper 
by the goldsmith and lapidary. Thus St. 
Jerome exclaims : " Your books are covered 
with precious stones, and Christ died naked 



before the gate of his temple." Jewels and 
precious metals, the finest stuffs and the most 
gorgeous colors, united to give a material value, 
frequently without any elegance of design or 
chasteness of taste. All great public collec- 
tions show with pride some of these rare and 
venerable bindings, decorated with gold and in- 
laid with precious stones, cameos, or antique 
ivories. The cathedral of Milan contains in its 
treasury the covering of a book of a date prior 
to the 12th century, 14 inches long and 12 
inches wide, profusely covered with incrusted 
enamel, mounted and ornamented with pol- 
ished but uncut precious stones of various colors. 
Skelton's description, though purely fanciful, 
will convey an idea of what was in his time ac- 
ceptable as the perfection of book decoration : 

With that of the boke losende were the claspls: 

The margent was illumynid all with golden rallies 
And byse, enpicturid with gressoppes and waspis, 

With butterflyis and fresshe pecoke taylis, 

Enflorid with flowris and slymy snaylis ; 
Enuyuid picturis well towchid and quikly; 
It wolde haue made a man hole that had be ryght sekely, 
To beholde how it was garnyschyd and bounde, 

Encouordc ouer with golde of tisseu fyne ; 
The claspis and bullyons were worth a thouaande pounde; 

With balassis and charbnncles the borders did shyne; 

With merum musicum every other lyne 
Was wrytin. 

This mode of decoration, however, was the 
work of goldsmiths, enamellers, &c., and quite 
foreign to the bookbinder's art. In specimens 
of oriental binding brought home by the cru- 
saders, European workmen found models for the 
dyeing, stamping, and gilding of leather, which 
did much to advance the art. A marked change 
in the character of binding and its decora- 
tion took place as books began to multiply 
by the invention of printing. To such patrons 
as Grolier, De Thou, and Maioli, of the six- 
teenth century, binders are indebted for those 
chaste and elegant designs which form their 
best examples at the present day. Since that 
period many styles have sprung into exist- 
ence which have each their admirers, the 
Harleian, Montagu, Roxburghe, &c. In pur 
own times bookbinding has wonderfully im- 
proved in style, design, and cheapness. France, 
England, and America have each character- 
istically contributed toward this improvement, 
while Germany, where printing was invented, 
has lagged behind. France has excelled in her 
taste and finish, England in solidity and 
strength without sacrifice of flexibility, and 
America by the invention and use of machi- 
nery vastly increasing the speed of pro- 
duction, a single bindery in New York being 
capable of producing 10,000 bound books a 
day. The introduction of cloth binding is 
an important feature in the progress of the 
art. The number of modern publications and 
the extent of the editions necessitated a style 
both economical and rapid in its production. 
To Mr. Pickering, the London publisher, and 
Mr. Leighton, the binder, belongs the credit 
of its introduction about 40 years ago. The 
paper label was its first and only ornament, 



BOOKBINDING 



afterward the title in gold ; but now it receives 
the most elaborate gilding, and of late years 
elegant and emblematic designs of ink and gold 
in combination are produced. This style has 
given rise to the greater part of the machinery 
used in bookbinding, and to the United States 
the credit of the invention of three fourths 
of it belongs. Sheep skin is extensively used, 
but morocco, russia leather, and calf form the 
covers of the more expensive binding. Occa- 
sionally velvet, ivory, and mother-of-pearl are 
used for Bibles and books intended for pre- 
sentation. There are two kinds of binding, 
a description of which will suffice to give 
a general idea of the mechanical processes 
through which a book passes after leaving the 
printer, before it is completed for sale. The 
first is cloth-case binding, the cheapest, and 
that in which machinery is most employed ; 
the other is known as extra binding, the work on 
which is principally performed by hand. Ta- 
king the volume in which this article appears as 
an example, we shall first describe the manner 
in which it is bound in cloth. Books derive a 
technical name descriptive of size from the 
leaves into which each printed sheet is folded, 
such as folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, &c. 
At the foot of the first page of each sheet is a 
number or letter, called the signature, by which 
the order is designated. This volume is called a 
royal 8vo, being printed on paper a size larger 
than the ordinary 8vo, and is printed on nearly 
50 sheets, each containing 8 leaves or 16 pages. 
These sheets go to the binder in quires, and 
are first taken to the sheet room, where the 
work of folding, gathering, collating, and sew- 
ing is done by females. The whole edition of 
each sheet is folded by one girl with astonish- 
ing rapidity and accuracy. The most expert 
will fold about 400 an hour, but the average is 



from which they are taken one by one by the 
gatherer with the right hand, and then placed 
in the left, until a whole set is collected. This 
process, as well as that of folding, is performed 
with wonderful quickness, the gathering of 




FIG. 1. Folding Machine. 

perhaps 300. Folding machines (see fig. 1) are 
now in general use capable of folding 10,000 or 
12,000 sheets a day. After having been folded, 
the sheets are laid in piles, according to the 
order of the signatures, on the gathering table, 




Fio. 2. Book-Sewing Machine. 

25,000 sheets a day being not unusual for an 
active girl. After this the sheets are knocked 
up evenly and examined by the collator, who 
looks at each signature to insure that the vol- 
ume is complete, each sheet being in its proper 
order without duplicates or deficiencies. Being 
found perfect, the book is pressed in a smash- 
ing machine, by which the delay of the screw or 
hydraulic press formerly employed is avoided. 
It now passes to the sawing machine, prepara- 
tory to sewing. Several volumes are taken 
together, and in an instant five revolving 
saws make as many cuts in the backs, of a 
size sufficient to admit the hands of twine to 
which the sheets are sewed. The sewer has 
a wooden frame, which consists of a table with 
two upright screws supporting a horizontal 
and adjustable rod, to which three strong 
hands fastened on the table are attached, at 
distances corresponding to the three inner saw 
marks. She then places the first sheet against 
the bands and passes her needle from the first 
cut or kettle stitch to the inside of the sheet, 
then out and in at every band, embracing each 
with the thread until the bottom is reached, 
then sews the next sheet in the same manner 
but in an opposite direction, and so on alter- 
nating until the last. Within the last year 
(1872) book-sewing machines (see fig. 2) have 
been successfully introduced in America, which 
effect an average saving of one half the cost of 
hand sewing, and are simple and perfect in 
their operation. Henry G. Thompson of Con- 
necticut is the patentee. End papers are now 
pasted on the hook, which then leaves the sheet 
room, where about 1,000 are so prepared in a 
day. In the forwarding room, which it enters 



BOOKBINDING 



next, its further progress is effected mainly by 
the aid of machinery. It is first prepared for 
the cutting machine, and, after its fore edge 
has been cut, is glued and rounded by the 
workman, then returns to be cut on the ends, 
after which a piece of muslin is pasted over the 
back nearly as long as the book, but extending 
about an inch over its sides to give strength to 
the joints. A backing machine then spreads 
the back and forms a groove for the boards ; 
two paper linings are now glued to the back, 
and the book is ready for its cover, which has 
in the mean time been prepared in another de- 
partment. The case or cover is simply and 
expeditiously made, and is composed of mill 
boards cut a little larger than the size of the 
book, strips of paper the exact length and 
width of the back, and the cloth cut sufficient- 
ly large to turn over all. The cloth is glued, 
and one board placed upon it, then the paper 
at a short distance to allow for the joint, then 
the other board, after which the corners of the 
cloth are cut, the edges turned over, and it is 
rubbed smoothly down. When dry, it is given 
to the stamper, who letters it in gold and em- 
bosses the sides. The letters are engraved on 
a metal stamp, and the impression is made in 
an embossing press, heated by steam. Gold 
leaf is laid on the cover, and the heated stamp 
causes it to adhere where desired, the unused 
gold being afterward wiped off with a rubber. 
Then the book is pasted on the sides, placed in 
the cover, and pressed till dry. This completes 
the process of case binding, which is distin- 
guished more particularly from extra binding 
in having the book forwarded separate from its 
cover ; and it may be useful to learn that some 
bookbinders pursue the same plan with mo- 
rocco as with cloth, producing inferior work, 
not readily detected by the purchaser until 
after the volume has been some time in use. 
Morocco or other extra binding will now be de- 
scribed. Though folded and gathered the same 
as the cloth copy, greater care is taken in 
pressing, and it is sewed in a different manner. 
The back is not sawed, but the bands, to the 
number of five in this volume, have their posi- 
tions indicated by pencil marks. Instead of 
passing the needle out at the upper and in at the 
lower side, merely drawing them to the book, 
it is passed out at the lower and in at the up- 
per, completely encircling the band, and form- 
ing a flexible hinge for the sheet. This is called 
flexible or raised band sewing, and constitutes 
one of the distinguishing features of strong 
binding, being not only important but indis- 
pensable. The forwarder now receives the 
volume, pastes on and breaks up the end pa- 
pers, glues the back, and when dry rounds it ; 
after which the backing boards are placed on 
the sides a short distance from the back, and 
it is then screwed up in the laying press, and 
the back hammered very carefully, so as to 
spread the sheets on each side of the backing 
boards, at the same time not wrinkling the in- 
side. By this process grooves are formed for 
109 VOL. ni. 6 



the mill boards, which, being cut of the desired 
size, are placed on the sides, and the book is 
subjected to a powerful pressure, during which 
the refuse glue is soaked off with paste, and 
the back is rubbed smooth and left to harden. 
It is now in shape, but with all the leaves un- 
cut. No new machine has yet been made to 
supersede the old press and plough for cutting 
a book " in boards." The mill boards are put 
close in the joints and even with the head of 
the book, the front board placed as much be- 
low the head as may be desired ; the book is 
fixed tightly in the press, the head of the front 
board being on a level with it, and the head 
is cut; the same operation is repeated for the 
foot or tail, the boards being left larger than 
the book in order to overlay and protect the 
edges. The fore edge is formed differently. A 
cord is wound tightly round the volume paral- 
lel with and close to the back, which is then 
beaten flat, and the fore edge cut straight ; and 
upon the release of the book from the cord by 
which it is bound, the back resumes its round, 
and the fore edge becomes grooved. The edges 
are now gilded, for which purpose, the books 
being pressed, they are scraped smooth, and 
covered with a preparation of red chalk as a 
groundwork for the size, a mixture of the 
white of egg and water, in the proportion of 
one egg to about half a pint of water. The 
gold is laid on the size, allowed to dry, and 
then burnished with an agate or bloodstone. 
Before being covered, head bands of silk are 
fixed to each end of the back, projecting a 
little beyond the sheets, and making the back 
the same length as the boards. The boards 
are bevelled at the edges, by means of a ma- 
chine which grinds them with emery dust. 
The cover, pared thin, is now pasted on and 
drawn tightly over, but is afterward taken off 
for convenience in turning in the edges. The 
back, which has no lining, is well pasted, the 
cover drawn on again, the bands well nipped 
up, and great care is taken to make the leather 
adhere firmly to the back, and to set the boards 
closely and well forward in the joints. A book 
thus sewed and covered possesses the primary 
essentials of strong binding. The ornamenting 
or finishing is much a matter of taste within 
certain limits. The process by which decora- 
tive impressions are made on the outside of a 
book is called tooling, and when gold is not used 
blind tooling. A beautiful effect is produced 
on morocco by the latter, making those glossy 
black indentations which so tastefully contrast 
with the rich color of the leather. For this 
purpose the tools or stamps are heated and 
applied repeatedly to the morocco, which has 
been made thoroughly wet. End papers being 
neatly pasted to the boards, the book is finished. 
The foregoing will serve to point out the 
several processes through which the sheets 
pass before the book is completed, as well as 
to exhibit the distinguishing characteristics of 
the two principal styles of binding. The hol- 
low or spring back, which is in much favor, 



80 



BOOKKEEPING 



and adapted in a superior degree to books in 
calf, is yet subject to rupture, and demands the 
binder's best attention. By securing the back 
always with muslin instead of paper, its strength 
will be greatly increased. India-rubber binding, 
by which the leaves are fastened together with 
a cement of caoutchouc, though admirably 
adapted for allowing engravings to be opened 
to their full extent, is a failure for want of 
strength. 

BOOKKEEPING, the method of exhibiting in 
a clear and concise manner the state of a man's 
pecuniary affairs. The system of bookkeeping 
in general use among men of business, called 
the "Italian method," from the country of its 
invention, and "double entry," from the con- 
struction of its ledger, is of great antiquity. 
The first treatise on the subject was written by 
Luca Pacioli, better known as Luca di Borgo 
(Venice, 1495). The first German treatise on 
bookkeeping was written by Johann Gottlieb 
(Nuremberg, 1531). In 1543 Hugh Oldcastle 
produced at London "A profitable Treatyce to 
learn to knowe the good order of the kepying 
of the famouse reconynge, called in Latin, Dare 
et kabere, and in Englyshe, Debitour and Credi- 
tour." In 1602 a work in French on double 
entry appeared at Leyden, followed in 1652 
by Collins's "Introduction to Merchants' Ac- 
counts." Mair's "Bookkeeping Modernized," 
the most elaborate exposition of the old Italian 
school published, appeared the following cen- 
tury, and passed through many editions. In 
1789 Benjamin Booth modified the system, in- 
troduced many valuable improvements, and 
gave to the world the first and best work ex- 
tant on the modern practice of monthly jour- 
nalizing, under the title of " A Complete Sys- 
tem of Bookkeeping," an improved mode of 
double entry, comprising a regular series of 
transactions, as they have occurred in actual 
business. The following are the fundamental 
principles upon which the science of double 
entry is based : The essentials of this art con- 
sist in the classification and arrangement of 
data in a book called the ledger. Each collec- 
tion of data is called an account. An account, 
whether of persons or things, is a statement of 
all the transactions whereby the property of 
the concern has been affected by the person or 
thing in question. The accounts are designated 
by distinct titles, and articles of opposite kinds 
are placed in opposite columns. The space 
which an account occupies in the ledger being 
vertically divided, the left-hand side is denomi- 
nated debtor and the right-hand side creditor. 
These terms, when applied to the personal ac- 
counts, are used in their ordinary sense; but 
when applied to an impersonal account, they 
have a more extended signification. All debit 
items are not sums owing to the concern, nor 
are all credit items sums owing by the con- 
cern; in short, the terms Dr. and Or. serve 
merely to distinguish the left from the right- 
hand side of an account, and the arithmetical 
signs plus and minus would equally answer 



this purpose. The nature and object of the 
principal accounts in a merchant's ledger are 
briefly as follows: 1. The receipts and pay- 
ments of money are recorded under the title of 
cash. All receipts are entered in the left or 
debtor money column, and all payments in the 
right-hand or creditor money column. The 
difference between the two sides, technically 
called the balance, represents the cash in hand. 
2. Written securities, such as drafts, notes, 
or acceptances, received by the merchant, and 
for the payment of which other parties are 
responsible, are recorded under the title of 
bills receivable, and those issued or accepted 
by the merchant, for the payment of which 
he is responsible, are recorded under the 
title of bills payable; the former account in- 
variably represents assets, and the latter lia- 
bilities, in the shape of bills. 3. An account 
must be opened for each person or firm with 
whom the 'merchant has dealings on trust un- 
der their respective names, or the name of 
the firm with which they are connected. The 
design of a personal account is to show what is 
owing to or by the person in question. The 
terms debtor and creditor are here used in 
their ordinary sense ; since each person is made 
debtor for what he owes, and creditor for 
what is owing to him. 4. Purchases and 
sales are recorded under the name of the spe- 
cific property bought or sold; the cost or 
outlay being entered on the. debtor side, and 
the sales or returns, as well as the value nn- 
sold, at the time the accounts are adjusted, on 
the credit side. The result is gain or loss as 
the case may be. 5. The capital invested in 
business, in the outset, is recorded under the 
title of stock, or capital stock, and the gains 
and losses under the double title of profit and 
loss. Commission, charges, interest, and the 
like are merely subdivisions of the profit and 
loss, and the latter is simply a branch of the 
stock account. The stock account exhibits the 
capital collectively, that is, in one mass ; the 
other accounts exhibit its component parts. 
The fundamental law of double entry is this: 
every transaction which affects or modifies the 
capital, or its component parts, must be twice 
entered ; that is, to the debit of one or more 
accounts, and vice vena. When the accounts 
are completed, there remains the last process, 
which consists in balancing the books ; that is, 
in closing and equilibrating the several ac- 
counts, and in collecting the results, so as to 
exhibit in a concise form the gains and losses, 
the assets and debts, and the present capital. 
This is generally done at stated intervals on a 
balance sheet which contains every account of 
the ledger. Every transaction in business be- 
ing virtually a transfer between two accounts, 
it must bo entered to the debit of the one and 
to the credit of the other ; these two balan- 
cing entries are made in the ledger, and com- 
prise all that is scientific in the system of dou- 
ble entry. The entries in the primary books 
are merely preparatory arrangements, totally 



BOOLAK 



BOONDEE 



81 



unconnected with the principle and proof of 
accounts. The most indispensable preliminary 
in the process of bookkeeping is the registra- 
tion of all the data of which the accounts are 
composed in chronological order, and in lan- 
guage as clear and concise as possible. The 
subsidiary books in general use are : The cash 
book, which contains a daily record of the re- 
ceipts and payments of money ; the bill book, 
which contains a daily record of the bills, 
notes, or acceptances received and issued ; the 
invoice book, which contains the particulars 
of goods purchased, and is simply a transcript 
of the invoices or bills of parcels ; the sales 
book, which contains the particulars of goods 
sold on credit, or shipped abroad on consign- 
ment; the day book, which is used to record 
such transactions as do not properly belong to 
either of the other subsidiary books. The 
journal is a record of the transactions com- 
piled from the subsidiary books, daily, weekly, 
or monthly, as may be expedient. The rules 
for distinguishing the accounts which are to be 
debited and credited are inferred from the ar- 
rangement of the ledger. The thing received, 
or the person accountable to you, is debtor ; 
the thing delivered, or the person to whom 
you are accountable, is creditor ; thus: 1. The 
person to whom anything is delivered is debtor 
to the thing delivered when nothing is received 
in return. Therefore, when money is paid, 
the receiver is debtor to cash ; when goods 
are sold upon credit, the purchaser is debtor 
to goods. 2. The thing received is debtor to 
the person from whom it is received when no- 
thing is delivered in return. Therefore, when 
money is received, cash is debtor to the payer ; 
when goods are bought on credit, goods are 
debtor to the seller. 3. The thing received is 
debtor to the thing given for it. Therefore, 
goods bought for ready money are debtor to 
cash; when goods are sold for ready money, 
cash is debtor to goods. 4. When one person 
delivers anything to another on your account, 
the person who receives the value is debtor, 
and the person who gives it creditor. 

BOOLAK, Bonlak, or Bulak, a town of Egypt, 
on the Nile, 1 m. N. W. of Cairo, of which it 
is the port; pop. about 5,000. In 1799 it was 
burned by the French. Mehemet Ali rebuilt 
it, and established extensive cotton-spinning, 
weaving, and printing works, a school of engi- 
neering, and a printing establishment, renowned 
for its productions in Arabic, Persian, and 
Turkish, from which is issued a weekly news- 
paper in Arabic. The town contains a naval 
arsenal, a dockyard, and a custom house, and 
is surrounded by the country residences of nu- 
merous Egyptian grandees. 

liOOI.I M>MI\III U. or ItiilimiMiuliiir. I. A 
British district of Hindostan, in the Northwest 
Provinces, division of Meerut; area, 1,823 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 800,000, more than three 
fourths Hindoos. It has a level surface, slo- 
ping gradually to the southeast, with a slight 
ridge rising between the courses of the Jumna 



and the Ganges, which, with the Hindon and 
the East Kali-Nnddee, are the principal rivers 
of the district. The climate is subject to ex- 
tremes unusual in that latitude. Domestic 
quadrupeds attain scarcely half the size of 
those in Bengal and Bahar. Cotton grows 
well, and constitutes the staple production. 
The other products are indigo, sugar, tobacco, 
wheat, barley, millet, and several kinds of 
pulse. Boolundshahur formed part of the ter- 
ritory acquired by the French adventurer Per- 
ron. He was routed by the British in 1803, 
when this district and other possessions were 
ceded to the East India company. II. Or Itiirrun, 
the chief town of the district, situated on the 
Kali-Nuddee, 40 m. S. E. of Delhi ; pop. 12,000. 
It has a bazaar and considerable traffic. It 
was one of the centres of the sepoy rebellion 
of 1857. 

BOOM, a town of Belgium, in the province 
and 10 m. S. of Antwerp; pop. in 1866, 10,- 
064. It is situated on the Rupel, at the junc- 
tion of the Brussels canal, and has an active 
transit trade. It contains a college, brick and 
tile works, tanneries, breweries, and various 
other manufactures. 

BOOMERANG, Bomerang, or Women, a missile 
for war, sport, or the chase, used by the abo- 
rigines of Australia. It consists of a piece of 
very hard wood about 2 ft. long, 2J inches 
wide, and of an inch thick, bent to a parabo- 
lic curve, the ends rounded, and one side con- 




Boomerangs. 

vex, while the other is flat. It is taken in the 
hand by one end, with the convex edge for- 
ward and the flat side up, and projected as if 
to hit an object directly in advance. It gradu- 
ally rises, rotating rapidly, and finally takes a 
retrograde motion and falls behind the projec- 
tor. Its effective use requires a skill that Eu- 
ropeans find it next to impossible to acquire. 

BOONDEE, or Bundi. I. A native state of 
Rajpootana, Hindostan, under British protec- 
tion, separated from Kotah on the E. by the 



82 



BOONE 



Chumbul, and bounded S. by Sindia's terri- 
tory ; area, 2,291 sq. m. ; pop. about 250^000. 
A range of mountains traverses it from N. E. 
to S. W., on each side of which the surface is 
level. The climate is unhealthy, fevers, rheu- 
matism, ophthalmia, and bronchial affections 
being very prevalent. The majority of the in- 
habitants are Meenas, a predatory tribe, dwell- 
ing chiefly among the mountains, and supposed 
to be the early possessors of the district. The 
dominant tribe, however, to which the sov- 
ereign belongs, is that of the Haras. The 
territory subject to the rajah of Boondee was 
anciently of much greater extent than at 
present, and was called Haraoti. It is said to 
have been wrested from the Meenas by Rao 
Dewa in 1342. It was dismembered by Je- 
hangir at the end of the 16th century, and 
the territory of Kotah set apart for a descen- 
dant of a former rajah. Other portions of the 
territory were lost in 1804, and in 1817 more 
than half the revenues were usurped by 
Holkar and Sindia. The rajah of Boondee 
having aided the British in the Mahratta and 
Pindaree wars, a treaty of alliance and friend- 
ship was made in 1818, by which Boondee 
regained its revenues and a portion of its lost 
domain. The importance of this state is due 
to the fact that it contains the principal passes 
to upper Hindostan from the south. II. The 
capital of the state, situated in a valley sur- 
rounded by rocky hills, 22 m. N. W. of Kotah, 
and 245 m. S. S. W. of Delhi; lat. 25 28' N., 
Ion. 75 30' E. It is encompassed by walls 
with three massive gates, and inhabited 
chiefly by native Haras. Its advantages as a 
commercial town are very few, but the beauty 
of its situation, its antiquity, numerous temples, 
handsome fountains, and palaces, invest it 
with considerable interest. The residence of 
the rajah, which is a collection of splendid 
structures reared by different sovereigns, and 
each bearing the name of its founder, stands 
on the slope of a hill overlooking the town. 
The town is divided into old and new Boondee, 
the former of which is in a state of decay. 

BOONE, the name of counties in seven of the 
United States. I. A 8. W. county of W. Vir- 
ginia, bounded N. E. by Coal river, a tributary 
of the Kanawha, and drained by its branches ; 
area, about 500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,553, of 
whom 153 were colored. Its surface is hilly, 
and to a great extent covered with forests. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 2,585 
bushels of wheat, 129,630 of Indian corn, 
13,667 of oats, 12,043 of potatoes, 6,213 Ibs. of 
tobacco, 9,699 of wool, 55,784 of butter, and 
22,547 of honey. There were 565 horses, 
1,356 milch cows, 2,448 other cattle, 3,955 
sheep, and 4,848 swine. Capital, Ballards- 
ville. II. A N. county of Arkansas, bordering 
on Missouri ; area, about 800 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 7,032, of whom 74 were colored. White 
river flows through the N. E. corner of the 
county. Most of the land is fertile and diver- 
sified. Excellent variegated marble is found. 



The chief productions in 1870 were 41,940 
bushels of wheat, 341,042 of Indian corn. 
22,837 of oats, 12,394 Irish and 10,027 sweet 
potatoes, 206 bales of cotton, 56,365 Ibs. of 
tobacco, 9,449 of wool, and 92,958 of butter. 
There were 2,247 horses, 2,161 milch cows, 
4,041 other cattle, 5,557 sheep, and 22,486 
swine. Jackson township is the temporary 
capital. III. A N. county of Kentucky, sepa- 
rated from Ohio and Indiana by the Ohio 
river; area, 300 sq. m. ; pop in 1870, 10,696, 
of whom 1,012 were colored. The surface is 
hilly and the soil fertile, resting upon a basis 
of blue limestone. The Louisville, Cincinnati, 
and Lexington railroad passes through the S. 
E. corner. The chief productions in 1870 
were 93,424 bushels of wheat, 32,621 of rye, 
770,505 of Indian corn, 86,441 of oats, 81,518 
of potatoes, 279,740 Ibs. of tobacco, 36,661 of 
wool, and 198,511 of butter. There were 
4,709 horses, 2,918 milch cows, 5,580 other 
cattle, 11,278 sheep, and 31,466 swine. Capi- 
tal, Burlington. IV. A central county of In- 
diana, drained by Eagle and Sugar creeks ; 
area, 408 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 22,593. The 
Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette railroad 
passes through the centre of the county, and 
the Indianapolis, Bloomington, and "Western 
through the S. W. corner. The surface is 
either level or moderately uneven, and the soil 
deep and fertile. The chief productions in 
1870 were 388,352 bushels of wheat, 14,337 of 
rye, 749,482 of Indian corn, 52,075 of oats, 
48,278 of potatoes, 68,607 Ibs. of wool, 261,- 
816 of butter, and 30,743 gidlons of sor- 
ghum molasses. There were 7,902 horses, 5,147 
milch cows, 8,643 other cattle, 23,095 sheep, 
and 27,109 swine. Capital, Lebanon. V. A 
N. county of Illinois, bordering on "Wisconsin, 
intersected by Kishwaukee river ; area, 270 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 12,942. It has a rolling sur- 
face, diversified by fertile prairie lands and 
forests. The Kenosha, the Galena, and the 
Madison divisions of the Chicago and North- 
western railroad pass through the county ; and 
there is also a branch railroad from Belvidere 
to Beloit. The chief productions in 1870 were 
241,641 bushels of wheat, 35,871 of rye, 466,985 
of Indian corn, 579,127 of oats, 62,355 of bar- 
ley, 167,311 of potatoes, 31,323 tons of hay, 
555,159 Ibs. of butter, 17,810 of cheese, and 
80,598 of wool. There were 6,309 horses, 7,088 
milch cows, 7,906 other cattle, 20,810 sheep 
and 7,849 swine. Capital, Belvidere. VI. A 
central county of Iowa, watered by Des Moines 
and Snake rivers and Beaver creek ; area, 576 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,584. The Chicago 
and Northwestern railroad traverses the coun- 
ty, and the Des Moines valley line touches its 
S. W. corner. Forests occupy a considerable 
portion of the surface. The soil is highly pro- 
ductive. Coal is abundant. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 176,969 bushels of 
wheat, 727,831 of Indian corn, 151,272 of oats, 
63,541 of potatoes, 22,019 tons of hay, 20,825 
Ibs. of wool, and 256,549 of butter. There 



BOONE 



83 



were 3,740 horses, 3,636 milch cows, 5,844 
other cattle, 11,788 sheep, and 10,182 swine. 
Capital, Boonesboro. VII. A N. E. county of 
Missouri, bounded S. W. by the Missouri river; 
area, 648 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 20,765, of 
whom 4,038 were colored. The Northern 
Missouri railroad and the Columbia branch 
pass through the county. The surface is 
slightly uneven, and consists mainly of prairies 
interspersed with forests. The soil is uni- 
formly productive. Stone coal and limestone 
are the principal minerals. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 235,750 bushels of wheat, 
1,096,114 of Indian corn, 260,019 of oats, 149,- 
634 Ibs. of tobacco, and 74,552 of wool. There 
were 7,218 horses, 2,709 mules and asses, 5,441 
rnilch cows, 9,541 other cattle, 21,037 sheep, 
and 30,169 swine. Capital, Columbia. 

BOONE, Daniel, an American pioneer, born in 
Bucks co., Penn., Feb. 11, 1735, died atCharette, 
Mo., Sept. 26, 1820. His father, Squire Boone, 
came from England and took up his residence 
in a frontier settlement in Pennsylvania, where 
Daniel received the merest rudiments of edu- 
cation, but became thoroughly familiar with 
the arts and hardships of pioneer life. When 
he was 18 years old the family moved to the 
banks of the river Yadkin in North Carolina, 
where he married Rebecca Bryan and passed 
some years as a farmer. He made several 
hunting excursions into the wilderness, and 
finally in 1769 set out with five others to ex- 
plore the border region of Kentucky. They 
halted on the Red river, a branch of the Ken- 
tucky, where they hunted for several months. 
In December, 1769, Boone and a companion 
named Stewart were captured by the Indians, 
but escaped, and Boone was soon after joined by 
his brother. They were captured again, and 
Stewart was killed ; but Boone escaped, and, 
his brother going shortly after to North Caro- 
lina, he was left alone for several weeks in the 
wilderness, with only his rifle for a means of 
support. He was rejoined by his brother, and 
they continued their explorations till March, 
1771, when they returned home with the 
spoils which they had collected. In 1773 he 
sold his farm and set out with his family and 
two brothers and five other families to make 
his home in Kentucky. They were inter- 
cepted by Indians and forced to retreat to 
the Clinch river near the border of Virginia, 
where they remained for some time, Boone in 
the meanwhile conducting a party of surveyors 
into Kentucky for the governor of Virginia. 
He was afterward appointed, with the com- 
mission of a captain, to command three gar- 
risons on the Ohio, to keep back the hostile 
Indians, and in 1775 was employed to lay out 
lands in Kentucky for the Transylvania com- 
pany. He erected a stockade tort on the Ken- 
tucky river, which he called Boonesborough, 
and removed his family to the new settlement, 
where he was again employed in command of 
a force to repel the Indians. In 1778 he went 
to the Blue Licks to obtain salt for the settle- 



ment, and was captured and taken to Detroit. 
His knowledge of the Indian character enabled 
him to gain favor with his captors, and he was 
adopted into one of their families. Discovering 
a plan laid by the British for an Indian attack 
upon Boonesborough, he contrived to escape 
and set out for the Kentucky settlement, which 
he reached in less than five days. His family, 
supposing that he was dead, had returned to 
North Carolina, but he at once put the gar- 
rison in order and successfully repelled the 
attack which was soon made. He was court- 
martialled for surrendering his party at the 
Licks, and for endeavoring to make a treaty 
with the Indians before the attack on the fort; 
but conducting his own defence, he was ac- 
quitted and promoted to the rank of major. In 
1780 he brought his family back to Boones- 
borough, and continued to live there till 1792. 
At that time Kentucky was admitted into the 
Union as a state, and much litigation arose 
about the titles of settlers to their lands. 
Boone, losing all his possessions for want of a 
clear title, retired in disgust into the wilder- 
ness of Missouri, settling on the Femme Osage 
river, 45 m. W. of St. Louis, where he lived 
from 1795 to 1804. This region was then un- 
der the dominion of Spain, and he was ap- 
pointed commandant of the Femme Osage dis- 
trict and received a large tract of land for his 
services, which he also lost subsequently be- 
cause he failed to make his title good. His 
claim to another tract of land was confirmed 
by congress in 1812 in consideration of his emi- 
nent public services. The latter years of his 
life he spent in Missouri with his son-in-law 
Flanders Callaway. The only original portrait 
of Boone hi existence was painted by Mr. Ches- 
ter Harding in 1820, and now hangs in the state 
house of Kentucky. The remains of Boone 
and his wife were exhumed in 1845 and depos- 
ited with appropriate ceremonies in the ceme- 
tery of Frankfort, Ky. An account of Boone's 
adventures, as related by himself, was written 
out by John Filson (1784), and reprinted in the 
supplement to Finlay's "Description of the 
j Western Territory " (1793). There is a life of 
Boone by John M. Peck in Sparks's " Library 
of American Biography." Lives of him have 
also been written by Timothy Flint, W. II. Bo- 
gart, and J. 8. C. Abbott. 

BOONE, William Jones, D. D., first missionary 
bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church at 
Shanghai, China, born in South Carolina, July 
1, 1813, died at Shanghai, July 17, 1864. He 
graduated at the college of South Carolina, stud- 
ied law under Chancellor De Saussure, and was 
admitted to the bar, but soon after studied for 
the ministry at the theological seminary of 
Virginia, and was ordained in 1835. During 
the following two years he studied medicine at 
the South Carolina medical college, and receiv- 
ed his degree in 1837. Appointed early the 
same year a missionary to China, he sailed with 
his wife, and reached Batavia in October. He 
thenceforward devoted all his energies to th 



BOONESBOROUGH 



BOORHANPOOR 



acquisition of the Chinese language, and in 
time became one of the first scholars of modern 
times in that difficult tongue. In 1840 he re- 
moved to Macao for the benefit of his health, 
and two years later to Amoy, where his wife 
died in August, 1842. By desire of the for- 
eign committee on missions, he returned to the 
United States in the summer of 1843, and was 
consecrated missionary bishop for China, Oct. 
22, 1844. Taking with him several assistants, 
Bishop Boone reached Shanghai in June, 1845. 
He was especially occupied in translating the 
prayer book into Chinese, and, in connection 
with the missionaries from other denomina- 
tions, in securing an accurate version of the 
Bible. It was in this work that his knowledge 
of the language was especially conspicuous. On 
two occasions, in 1852 and 1857, he returned 
home for the benefit of his health. Having suc- 
ceeded in getting the mission to Japan under 
way, he returned to China in December, 1859. 
Severe domestic afflictions and other trials in 
connection with his mission, as well as inces- 
sant labors, soon broke down his feeble health 
and terminated his life. 

BOONESBOBOCGH, a decayed village of Madi- 
son co., Kentucky. In 1775 the first fort erect- 
ed in Kentucky was built here by Daniel Boone. 
In Boonesborough was convened, toward the 
end of last century, the first legislative assem- 
bly ever held in the territories now forming 
the western states. 

BOONTON, a town of Morris county, N. J., 
on the Rockaway river, at the terminus of a 
branch of the Morris and Essex railroad, and 
on the Morris canal, 40 m. N. W. of New York ; 
pop. in 1870, 3,458. The town is situated in a 
mountainous region, the canal here overcoming 
a perpendicular elevation of 80 feet. The Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna, and Western railroad passes 
through it. The Boonton iron works, from which 
the place derives its chief importance, cover 
about 60 acres of ground, and include 14 large 
buildings, several offices and stores, and exten- 
sive sheds. Every branch of production is car- 
ried on, from the smelting of ores to the manu- 
facture of the machinery and tools used in the 
establishment. There are two blast furnaces, 
which together produce about 450 tons of pig 
iron per week, the greater part of which is manu- 
factured in the works. The proprietors own 
and operate the mines at Dover from which 
the ores are obtained. These are of the New 
Jersey magnetic variety, yield from 50 to 75 per 
cent, of iron, and contain but little sulphur. The 
product consists largely of gray and mottled 
iron of fine grain, available for both forge and 
foundery purposes. Connected with the blast 
furnace is a chemical laboratory, in which all 
the materials used are analyzed. The rolling 
mills contain 12 double puddling and 11 heat- 
ing furnaces, and 6 trains of rolls. They pro- 
duce chiefly the plate iron from which nails are 
cut, while of bar iron the production is limited 
to the requirements of the nut and bolt fac- 
tory which forms a part of the establishment. 



The two nail mills are the most important por- 
tion of the works, and contain 138 machines, 
which produce 100 kegs of nails an hour. 
About 300,000 kegs are used annually for pack- 
ing the nails, and 20,000 for bolts and nuts, of 
which about 1,000 tons are produced annually. 
The keg mill connected with the establishment 
consumes yearly about 1,000,000 feet of head- 
ing stuff and 1,500 cords of stave timber. The 
only steam engines in the works are those 
which furnish the blast for the furnaces. The 
power that drives the machinery is furnished 
by the Morris canal, the water of which, after 
revolving a large overshot wheel in the nail 
factory, passes to the rolling mills, which have 
two large iron overshot wheels and four tur- 
bines, and thence into the canal again. In the 
old town of Boonetown, which was swept 
away early in the present century by the burst- 
ing of the dam across Rockaway river, was 
built in 1770 the first nail mill in the United 
States, which, notwithstanding opposition from 
the British authorities, was worked successfully 
for many years. There are no locks on the 
canal at this point, but the boats are transferred 
from one level to the other by means of an in- 
clined plane 500 ft. long, upon which is laid a 
track of about 9 ft. guage. The transfer is 
effected with great rapidity by means of an 
eight-wheeled cradle, capable of holding a canal 
boat, which is drawn along this track by a tur- 
bine wheel at the top of the incline. Boonton 
contains several churches and schools, and a 
weekly newspaper. 

BOONVILLE, a city and the capital of Cooper 
co., Missouri, on the right bank of the Missouri 
river, 43 m. N. W. of Jefferson City ; pop. in 
1870, 3,506. It is situated in the midst of a 
rich fanning region, in the vicinity of iron, 
lead, and coal mines, and of marble and lime- 
stone quarries. The grape is extensively cul- 
tivated. Boonville is the centre for most of 
the trade of S. W. Missouri, of a portion of Ar- 
kansas, and of the Cherokee nation. It has a 
court house, several churches, ropewalks, and 
four weekly newspapers, one of which is in 
German. It was settled by Daniel Boone. 

BOORHASiPOOB, or Bnrhannpoor, a town of 
British India, formerly capital of Candeish, in 
the territory of Gwalior, 130m. S. S. E. of Oo- 
jein and 210m. E. of Surat; lat. 21 19' N., Ion. 
76 18' E. ; pop. about 20,000. It stands on the 
north bank of the Taptee, 60 or 70 feet above 
the stream, and is surrounded by a brick ram- 
part in the form of a semicircle, in the centre 
of which is a palace of brick, called the Red 
Fort. It was built by Akbar, with pleasure 
gardens, halls of white marble, and a mosque ; 
but it is now fast falling to ruin. The town 
itself contains but one edifice of much preten- 
sion, which is a mosque built by Aurungzebe. 
The streets are wide and regular, and many of 
the houses neat and commodious. The trade 
is almost monopolized by a Mohammedan 
tribe called the Borahs, who came originally 
| from Arabia, and still retain the dress and 



BOOEO 



BOOTAN 



85 



many of the customs of that country. They 
manufacture muslins, flowered silks, and bro- 
cades, and in the time of Ta vernier (about 1665) 
used to export considerable quantities of their 
fabrics to Persia, Egypt, Turkey, Russia, and 
Poland, though even then Boorhanpoor had 
passed the meridian of its prosperity. The vicin- 
ity is noted for excellent grapes. This town 
was founded about 1414 by Malik Nasir, ruler 
of Candeish, and for a long time was the capital 
of the country. In 1599 it was besieged and 
taken by Akbar, king of Delhi, who reduced 
Candeish to a province of his empire. It was 
plundered by the Mahrattas in the reign of 
Aurungzebe in 1685, and in 1720 was wrested 
from the empire of Delhi by Azaf Jah or Ni- 
zam ul-Mulk, viceroy of the Deccan. It was 
subjugated by Madhajee Sindia in the latter 
part of the 18th century ; was occupied by the 
British under Col. Stevenson in 1803, restored 
the same year, and finally with the whole of 
Sindia's territory, or Gwalior, passed under 
British protection in 1844. 

BOORO, Boaro, or Boeroe, an island of the 
Malay archipelago between lat. 3 and 4 S., and 
IOQ. 126 and 127 E. ; area, about 2,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. 100,000. The surface is mountainous, 
the highest peak, Mount Donel, rising 10,400 
feet; the soil is fertile, producing rice, sago, 
fruits, aromatic plants, and dyewoods. The 
island is well watered, and abounds with deer 
and babyroussa hogs. Fort Defence, on the E. 
side, is a Dutch station ; on the north is Cajeli 
bay, where plentiful supplies can be obtained. 

BOOTAN, or Bhutan, an independent territory 
of India, between lat. 26 30' and 28 30' N., 
and Ion. 88 30' and 92 E., on the N. E. fron- 
tier of Bengal, among the Himalaya mountains, 
which separate it from Thibet on the N., and 
branch out over a great part of its surface. It is 
bounded E. by a region inhabited by savage 
mountain tribes, S. by the British districts of 
Assam and Goalpara, and the native state of 
Cooch-Bahar, and W. by the native state of 
Sikkim ; length from E. to W., 215m.; breadth, 
115 m. ; area, 19,130 sq. m. Some of the high- 
est summits of the Himalaya chain lie on its N". 
border, from which the surface sinks by broken 
and abrupt descents to the Brahmapootra. The 
rivers are numerous, and have violent cata- 
racts. The most important of them traverse 
the country from N. to S., and fall into the 
Brahmapootra. There are many bridges over 
the torrents, some of which are of very inge- 
nious construction. In the lower part of the 
country the vegetation presents the usual fea- 
tures of the tropics; higher up are forests of 
pine, birch, maple, and yew, while the hills are 
covered with fruits common to Europe, such 
as apples, apricots, and berries. The soil in 
many places is well tilled. Rice, wheat, barley, 
turnips, gourds, and melons are raised in large 
quantities. The trade is chiefly with Bengal 
and Thibet ; the exports comprise rice, wheat, 
Hour, horses, linen, musk, and fruits ; and the 
imports, cattle, hogs, dried fish, tobacco, cot- 



ton, woollens, indigo, tea, gold, silver, and em- 
broideries. Iron and copper are found, but 
not in large quantities. The inhabitants are 
tall, with smooth, dark skins, high cheek 




Boo tana. 

bones, and the broad faces common to the 
Chinese and Tartars. Though courageous 
when attacked, they are by no means a war- 
like people, and have little knowledge of mili- 
tary art. They are industrious and devoted 
almost altogether to agriculture. The climate 
in the valleys at the foot of the Himalaya is 
very unhealthy. The religion is Buddhism, 
and there are many priests and monasteries, 
but morality is at a very low ebb. Polyandry 
and polygamy are both general, and no reli- 
gious ceremony is observed in marriage. There 
are two sovereigns, one spiritual, called the 
dhurma rajah, and the other secular, known as 
the deb rajah. The chief towns are Tassisudon, 
Wandipoor, Poonakha, Ghassa, Paro, and Muri- 
chom ; but for the most part the people live in 
small villages. In ancient Brahmanical legends 
Bootan is called Madra. Up to the last century 
little is known with regard to its political con- 
dition. In 1772 the Booteahs ravaged the ter- 
ritory of Cooch-Bahar, whereupon the latter 
state applied to the British for assistance, which 
being granted, the rajah of Bootan was attack- 
ed within his own dominions, defeated, and 
forced to solicit aid from Thibet. By the 
mediation of the latter state, a treaty of peace 
was concluded in 1774. The British sutfered 
severely for many years from the incursions 
of the Booteahs into the Dooars, a strip of 
fertile frontier country at the foot of the 
mountain passes leading from Boqan into 
Assam and Bengal. The Assam Dooars were 
occupied by the British in 1841, a rent being 
paid for them to the Bootan government. As 



86 



BOOTES 



BOOTH 



the depredations continued on the Bengal 
frontier, the Hon. Ashley Eden was sent as an 
ambassador to the two rajahs in 1803. He 
was violently maltreated on the route, and at 
the capital, Poonakha, and only allowed to 
return after signing on compulsion a treaty 
ceding the Assam Dooars. This treaty was at 
once repudiated by the British government, 
war was proclaimed (1864), and in a short 
campaign (1864-'5) the forts commanding the 
passes were reduced, and the Dooars, 150 m. 
long and 30 to 40 m. wide, were annexed by 
treaty^ to the British possessions. 

BOOTES, in astronomy, a constellation in the 
northern hemisphere. The name is derived 
from the Greek [love, an ox, and means an ox- 
driver. The modern figures represent Bootes 
as a man with a club in the right hand, and in 
the left the leash which holds two hunting 
dogs. It contains Arcturus, a star of the first 
magnitude. 

BOOTH, Barton, an English actor, born in 
Lancashire in 1681, died in London, May 10, 
1733. His father was a near relative of the 
earl of Warrington. The son ran away from 
the university of Cambridge and joined a com- 
pany of strolling players. He appeared in 
Dublin in 1698 with great success in the char- 
acter of Oronoko, and was afterward engaged 
at the Drury Lane theatre, London, under the 
management of Betterton. He was the favor- 
ite tragic actor of the day, gaining especial 
celebrity as Cato in Addison's play, and as the 
ghost in " Hamlet." He was highly esteemed 
for his attainments and character. 

BOOTH, Sir Felix, an English manufacturer, 
born in 1775, died in 1850. He was head of 
the firm of Booth and company, distillers in 
London, and gave 20,000 in 1827 to aid the 
arctic expedition under Sir John Ross. For 
this public-spirited act he was made a baronet 
in 1834. Ross's expedition resulted in the dis- 
covery of the true position of the north mag- 
netic pole, and of a large tract of country which 
was named Boothia Felix. 

BOOTH. I. Juntos Brutus, a tragedian, born 
in London, May 1, 1796, died on the passage 
from New Orleans to Cincinnati, Dec. 1, 1852. 
His father was a solicitor, his mother a descen- 
dant or relative of John Wilkes. He entered 
the navy at an early age, but soon changed 
from this to a printing office, afterward began 
the study of law, made some creditable at- 
tempts as a painter and sculptor, and finally 
went upon the stage, his first appearance being 
Dec. 13, 1813. After playing at minor thea- 
tres in England and on the continent, he made 
his debut at Covent Garden theatre in October, 
1815. He afterward played in provincial thea- 
tres, and having made a hit as Sir Giles Over- 
reach, he was reengaged at Covent Garden, 
where he appeared, Feb. 12, 1817, as Richard 
III. Edmund Kean, ten years his senior, had 
just made his appearance at Drury Lane thea- 
tre, the manager of which induced Booth to 
leave the rival house, and appear at his own on 



the same nights with Kean. In " Othello " 
each took alternately the characters of Othello 
and lago. This engagement was brief. Booth 
returned to Covent Garden, where he met with 
an unfriendly reception, but soon gained great 
favor, especially as Richard III., Sir Giles 
Overreach, and Lear. In 1820 he again ap- 
peared as leading actor at Drury Lane. He 
afterward went to Amsterdam, and then to 
Madeira, whence he suddenly sailed to Amer- 
ica, arriving at Norfolk, Va., in July, 1821. 
His residence was thereafter in the United 
States, and for a period of 30 years he played 
in nearly every theatre in the country. In 
1824 he purchased a farm at Belair, 20 m. 
from Baltimore, where he resided when not 
occupied by professional engagements. His 
range of characters was limited, embracing 
only those which he had studied in early life. 
Richard III., lago, and Sir Giles Overreach 
were his favorite parts, although he excelled in 
Othello, Lear, Shylock, Hamlet, and Sir Ed- 
ward Mortimer. His personifications were 
marked by an intensity which placed him in 
the first rank of tragedians, but his irregular 
habits very often interfered with his success. 
Notwithstanding this, he retained much of his 
vigor to the close of his life. II. Edwin, an 
American actor, son of the preceding, born at 
Belair, Md., in November, 1833. He was edu- 
cated for the stage, supporting his father in in- 
ferior parts from his boyhood, and made his 
first regular appearance at the' Boston museum 
in 1849 in a minor part in "Richard III." On 
occasion of his father's illness in 1851, he took 
his place and performed Richard III. at the 
Chatham street theatre, New York. In the 
following year he went to California and en- 
gaged for "utility business," and in 1854 made 
a visit to Australia, stopping at the Sandwich 
Islands on his way. He returned in 1857 and 
appeared at Burton's, theatre, New York, in 
leading tragic parts. At the same theatre, 
under its new name of the Winter Garden, 
he gained a high reputation in 1860 for his 
delineation of Shakspearian characters. He 
visited England in 1861, appearing at the Hay- 
market theatre, London, and passed a year on 
the continent in studying his art. Returning 
to America in the fall of 1862, he entered upon 
a brilliant dramatic career, gaining great celeb- 
rity by his impersonation of Hamlet, Othello, 
lago, Richard III., and other Shakspearian 
parts, and of Richelieu in Bulwer's drama of 
that name. In 1869 he built a theatre in New 
York, which has become celebrated for the 
presentation of standard dramas with great 
perfection of detail. HI. John Wilkes, brother 
of the preceding, an actor and the assassin of 
Abraham Lincoln, horn at Belair, Md., in 1839, 
died near Bowling Green, Va., April 26, 1865. 
He appeared on the stage at an early age, but 
with inditferent success. During the civil war 
he passionately sympathized with the South, 
and near its close entered into a conspiracy to 
assassinate President Lincoln, the vice presi- 



BOOTHAUK 



BOPPAKD 



87 



dent, and some members of the cabinet. On 
the evening of April 14, 1865, the president 
was at the theatre in Washington. Booth 
gained access to his box, discharged a fatal 
pistol shot into the head of the president, and 
leaped upon the stage, breaking one of his legs. 
He reached the private entrance of the theatre, 
where a horse was in readiness for him, and 
with an accomplice rode 30 m. into Maryland. 
Here he stopped to have his fractured leg set 
by a physician, and then crossed the Potomac 
into Virginia. A party of pursuers overtook 
him before daybreak of the 26th at Garrett's 
farm, near Bowling Green, about 20 m. from 
Fredericksburg. He had taken refuge in a 
barn, and refusing to surrender, was shot, 
dying soon after. (See LINCOLN.) 

BOOTHil K, a fortified village of Afghanistan, 
12 m. E. of Cabool, and at the commencement 
of a series of defiles between that place and 
Jelalabad. Here the Afghans made an attack 
upon the British army in January, 1842, during 
the disastrous retreat from Cabool, and liter- 
ally annihilated it. The pass of Boothauk is 5 
m. long, and in its narrowest parts, where it is 
but 50 ft. wide, is hemmed in by perpendicular 
cliffs 500 ft. high. 

BOOTUBAY, a township of Lincoln co., Maine, 
on the coast, between the Damariscotta and 
Sheepscott rivers; pop. in 1870, 3,200. Its 
harbor is one of the best on the coast, and is 
never frozen over in the winter. The inhabi- 
tants are extensively engaged in ship building, 
the foreign and coasting trade, and the fish- 
eries. Ferries connect the town with Bristol 
and with Southport, an island in the bay. 

BOOTHIA FELIX, a peninsula forming the 
most northerly part of the North American 
continent, between lat. 69 and 75 N., and 
Ion. 92 and 97 W. It is connected with the 
mainland by the isthmus of Boothia. It was 
discovered by Oapt. James Ross, and named by 
him in honor of Sir Felix Booth. Ross here 
determined the position of the magnetic pole. 

BOOTHIA GILF, a continuation to the south- 
ward of Prince Regent inlet, in British Amer- 
ica. It separates Boothia Felix from Oockburn 
island and Melville peninsula, and is about 310 
m. long and from 60 to 100 m. broad. 

BOOTON, an island in the eastern archipelago, 
S. E. of Celebes, lat. 5 S., Ion. 123 E., about 
85 m. long by 20 m. wide. It is governed by 
its own prince ; the inhabitants are Mohamme- 
dans. The island is mountainous and woody, 
but portions are well cultivated. There is a 
bay on the E. side of the island, into which 
in calm weather vessels are liable to be drawn 
by the current, which is so strong that once 
fairly in, it is said, they can only escape in the 
western monsoon. The Dutch East India com- 
pany formerly maintained a settlement here. 

BOPP, Franz, a German philologist, born at 
Mentz, Sept. 14, 1791, died in Berlin, Oct. 23, 
1867. He began his studies at Aschaifenburg, 
went to Paris in 1812, and devoted several 
years to the study of the oriental languages 



and literature, receiving encouragement and 
assistance from Chzy, Sylvestre de Sacy, and 
August Wilhelm von Schlegel. He afterward 
went to London to pursue his investigations, 
and finally passed some time at Gottingen, re- 
ceiving a small pension from the king of Ba- 
varia. On his return to Prussia in 1821 he 
was appointed professor of oriental languages 
in the university of Berlin, where he spent the 
remainder of his life. His first publication was 
a work on the Sanskrit verb, which was fol- 
lowed by a grammar and glossary of that lan- 
guage. He also published some Sanskrit po- 
ems and a portion of the epic Mahabharata, 
giving the original text with translations. The 
great work of his life, and one that may be 
said to have laid the foundation of the science 
of comparative philology, is his VergleieJiende 
Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, 
Lateinucfien, Litauischen, Altslavischen, Goth- 
ischen und Deutschen (5 vols., Berlin, 1833-'52 ; 
new ed., entirely recast and enlarged by the 
addition of the Armenian, 1857). A third edi- 
tion was published after his death (1868-'71). 
In this work he traced back the Indo-European 
languages to their origin, and pointed out their 
present relations to each other. It has been 
translated into French and English. He wrote 
also on the relations of the Malayan and Poly- 
nesian languages to those of the Indo-European 
system, and on the Celtic, the Albanian, and 
the Caucasian languages. In honor of his 
memory the Bopp-Stiftung has been founded 
at Berlin, to promote the study of comparative 
philology. His library has been purchased by 
Cornell university, Ithaca, N. Y. 

BOPPARD, or Boppart (anc. Baudolrica or 
Bontobrica), a walled town of Rhenish Prussia, 




Boppard. 

on the left bank of the Rhine, 9 m. S. of Cob- 
lentz; pop. in 1871, 4,977. It owed its origin 
to a fort supposed to have been built by Drn- 
sus. Its streets are narrow and antiquated, 



88 



BORA 



BORAX 



and it contains two fine Gothic churches and 
two hydropathic establishments, one of winch 
occupies the former abbey of Marienberg. The 
town has some trade and manufactories of cot- 
ton, tobacco, and leather. 

BORA, hatliiii'iiia von, the wife of Martin La- 
ther, horn at Loben, near Merseburg, Jan. 29, 
1499, died at Torgau, Dec. 20, 1552. In her 
youth she was placed in the Cistercian convent 
of Nimptschen, near Grimma, in Saxony. Here 
she read some of the works of Luther, which 
inspired her with great enthusiasm, and she 
applied to him for aid in leaving the cloister. 
Through the instrumentality of Leonhard 
Koppe, a native of Torgau, Luther succeeded 
in securing the escape of Katharina and eight 
companions on the night of April 4, 1523. They 
fled first to Torgau, then to Wittenberg. As 
their parents refused to take them home, Lu- 
ther provided for them as best he could. Some 
of them found employment as teachers, others 
married. Katharina became an inmate of the 
house of the burgomaster of Wittenberg, and 
on June 13, 1525, Luther married her. After 
his death she had the friendship and aid of 
Christian III., king of Denmark, and John 
Frederick of Saxony. She left three sons and 
two daughters. 

BORACIC ACID. See BORIC AOID. 

BORACITE, or Borazite, a mineral occurring in 
crystals imbedded in gypsum and anhydrite in 
Hanover, Holstein, and France ; also impure 
in the salt mines of Stassfurt. It was formerly 
supposed to be composed of magnesium borate, 
but recent analyses have shown that it also 
contains chlorine. According to Potyka, a fair 
average sample has the following constitution : 

Magnesia 26-19 

Oxide of iron 1-66 

Boric acid 61-19 

Chloride of magnesium 10-41 

Water 0-94 



BORAGE (lorago), 
a plant and the typ- 
ical genus of the 
order boraginacece. 
Calyx 5, rarely 4- 
parted, and persis- 
tent ; corolla hypo- 
gynous, monopetal- 
ous, rotate, 5, rarely 
4-cleft, imbricate in 
aestivation ; stamens 
inserted on the tube 
of the corolla, ex- 
serted, alternate 
with the segments 
of the corolla; an- 
thers oblong or lan- 
ceolate, extrose, con- 
niving in a cone 
around the style, 
awned ; ovary 4- 
parted, carpels or 
nutlets 4, 1 -seeded, 1- 



100-39 




Borage (Borago offlcinalis). 



celled, distinct, seeds exalbuminous. Herbs or 



shrubs with alternate, exstiputate leaves, usu- 
ally rough ; flowers in spikes, panicles, or co- 
rymbs, rarely solitary in the axils. B. officina- 
lis originally came from Aleppo, but is now thor- 
oughly naturalized in central Europe and Eng- 
land. Corolla blue or purple, sometimes white, 
or with different colors on the same stem ; tube 
of the corolla with emarginate rotate scales ; 
nuts ovate-oblong, ribbed, the ribs denticulate. 
The plant was once in great repute, being 
reckoned one of the four cordial flowers, with 
alkanet, violets, and roses. A decoction of its 
leaves with honey was used as a pectoral medi- 
cine, and the drink culled in England cool 
tankards is made of the succulent, mucilagi- 
nous stems. The juice contains much nitre, and 
to this is probably due the cooling quality of the 
plant. The young and tender leaves are used 
for pickles or as a salad, and hence borage is 
much cultivated in some cities of Europe. 

BORAX (Arabic, burak), a salt first men- 
tioned by Geber in the 10th century; its chem- 
ical nature was discovered by Geoffroy in 1732. 
It is largely prepared from the natural product 
boric acid, and is itself found native in various 
parts of the world. The anhydrous borax, or 
borate of sodium, has the formula Na?B 4 O 7 , 
and is composed in 100 parts of boric anhydride 
(B a O s ) 69-05, soda (Na0) 30-95. It is found 
native in some Alpine lakes, in the snowy 
mountains of India, China, and Persia, in Cey- 
lon, and especially in the lake of Teshu-Lumbu 
in Great Thibet. This lake is distant 15 days' 
journey from a town of the same name, and it 
formerly furnished large quantities of borax. 
Is also occurs in still greater quantities near 
Potosi in Bolivia; in Pyramid lake, Washoe co., 
Nevada, and near Columbus, Esmeralda co., in 
the same state ; also in Borax lake, California. 
The supply at the last named places seems to be 
inexhaustible. Formerly a large quantity of 
the borax formed by the spontaneous evapora- 
tion through the sun's heat of the waters of 
borax lakes, was imported into Europe under 
the name of tincal, tincana, swaga, or pounxa. 
It appears in small hexagonal crystals more or 
less flattened out, either colorless or having a 
yellowish or greenish tinge, with an earthy 
crust. It has a greasy feel, and smells like 
soap. The crude borax was first refined in 
Venice, where for a long time the process was 
kept a secret. Afterward it was also refined 
in Holland. At Lake Clear in California, 250 
m. N. of San Francisco, where 4,000 Ibs. of 
borax per day is produced, the muck which 
contains it is obtained by dredging, dried in 
the sun, and the borax dissolved out and crys- 
tallized. The purification of tincal may be ac- 
complished in various ways. The oldest method 
was to place it on a wire sieve or bolter and 
wash it with a lye containing 5 per cent, of 
soda so long as the liquor ran through colored. 
This removed all fatty substances that might 
adhere to it, forming a very soluble soap. Af- 
ter allowing the borax to drain, it is dissolved 
in boiling water, 12 per cent, of crystallized 



BORAX . 



89 



carbonate of soda added, and the solution fil- 
tered. It is then evaporated to the specific 
gravity of 18 to 20 B., and allowed to crystal- 
lize in wooden vessels well lined with lead. In 
order to obtain single, well formed crystals, 
and to prevent a crust forming, the liquor must 
cool very slowly. Another process consists in 
pouring over the tincal a small quantity of cold 
water, and gradually adding, while stirring, 
1 per cent, of caustic lime. Some time after 
boiling water is added and the liquor strained. 
The greasy substances that contaminated the 
tincal remain behind as an insoluble lime soap. 
Two per cent, chloride of calcium is added, 
and it is again strained and allowed to crystal- 
lize. Clouet reduces the tincal to a fine pow- 
der, mixes with 10 per cent, of nitrate of sodi- 
um, and calcines the mixture in an iron pan 
over a gentle fire, thus burning out all the fatty 
matter. The calcined mass is then dissolved 
in water, the solution separated from the car- 
bon left behind, evaporated, and the crude bo- 
rax crystallized out. Its varying crystalline 
form depending on the amount of water it 
contains, borax is divided into (1) the common 
or prismatic (natural or artificial), and (2) the 
octahedral, containing but half as much water 
of crystallization. Prismatic borax (NajBjOr + 
lOHjO) consists in 100 parts of boric acid 36-6, 
soda 16'2, water of crystallization 47'2. Oc- 
tahedral borax (NaaB^ + oIIsO) contains bo- 
ric acid and soda 69-36, water of crystalliza- 
tion 30-64. Prismatic borax is made as fol- 
lows : About 26 cwt. of sal soda is dissolved 
in 400 gallons of water, placed in a large 
tightly closed vat lined with lead. The solu- 
tion is caused to boil by a jet of steam enter- 
ing it. About 24 cwt. of crude boric acid 
is introduced, in portions of 9 or 10 Ibs. at 
a time, through a tube dipping under the 
surface of the liquor. A discharge pipe con- 
ducts off the carbonic acid, together with some 
carbonate of ammonia formed at the same 
time, the ammonia being retained by pass- 
ing it through dilute sulphuric acid. The so- 
lution is brought to a density of 21 to 22 B. 
by the addition of either crude borax or water 
as may be required. The solution is allowed 
to settle and drawn off into the crystallizing 
vessels, also lined with lead, and left two or 
three days, the crystals placed on an inclined 
plane to drain, and then recrystallized, the 
mother liquor being used to dissolve a fresh 
quantity of soda. After using this mother 
liquor three or four times, it contains sufficient 
Glauber's salt for it to crystallize out, when 
cooled below 33 C., at which point it is most 
soluble. The crude borax is purified by recrys- 
tallization, 5 per cent, of carbonate of sodium 
being added to the solution. To obtain large 
crystals the crystallizing vessels are surround- 
ed by some non-conductor, usually wool, and 
thickly covered. In the English factories bo- 
rax is made by fusing the crude boric acid 
with one half its weight of calcined soda on 
the hearth of a muffle furnace, under continual 



stirring. The ammonia, existing in crude boric 
acid as sulphate, goes off in the form of car- 
bonate, and is condensed in a suitable cham- 
ber. The fused mass is dissolved in hot water, 
clarified by allowing it to settle, and cooled 
slowly in an iron vessel. In France its manu- 
facture has been united with that of fuming 
sulphuric acid; the boric acid and calcined 
Glauber's salt being distilled together, and 
borax obtained from the residue left in the 
retort. Very recently borax has been obtained 
from the native borate of lime and soda (tiza 
or boronatrocalcite), which is found in Tara- 
paca in Peru, and on the W. coast of Africa. 
The mineral is ground and triturated, then cov- 
ered with two thirds its own weight of com- 
mercial hydrochloric acid, and to this double 
its volume of water added, and digested at a 
boiling heat until entirely decomposed, the 
heat being increased toward the close and 
water added to preserve the original volume. 
It is allowed to settle, and decanted while hot. 
On cooling, nearly all the boric acid crystallizes 
out, leaving the chloride of sodium and chloride 
of calcium, together with a slight excess of 
hydrochloric acid, in the mother liquor. The 
boric acid thus obtained is allowed to drain, 
pressed or squeezed out, washed in cold water, 
and again dried, when it is so pure that on 
adding soda a pure borax is obtained on the 
first crystallization. In England the borona- 
trocalcite is fluxed with soda, but the process 
offers many difficulties. The use of stassfurtite 
to make borax has also been successfully tried 
in Germany. Prismatic borax forms almost 
colorless, transparent crystals, of a specific 
gravity 1-75, soluble in 12 parts cold water or 2 
parts of boiling water ; the solution is slightly 
alkaline. Exposed to the air, the crystals ef- 
floresce only on the surface ; on being warmed 
they decrepitate, and swell up into a spongy 
mass known as calcined borax ; at a red heat 
they fuse to a transparent glass (borax glass), 
which takes up water and loses its trans- 
parency very slowly. Octahedral borax (Nai 
B^T + SHjO) is prepared as follows: A boil- 
ing solution of prismatic borax is made of a 
specific gravity of 1-26=30 B., and allowed 
to cool slowly and regularly. The octahedral 
crystals begin to form at 79 C., and continue 
to do so down to 56, below which tempera- 
ture the mother liquor produces only prismatic 
crystals, and hence must be removed. Buran 
obtained them from a solution of a specific 
gravity of 32 B., ten days being allowed for 
10 cwt. to cool. The tincal from India and 
half-refined borax from China are sometimes 
octahedral. It differs from the ordinary borax 
in crystalline form, has a specific gravity of 
1 -81, is hard enough to scratch a prismatic crys- 
tal, and when exposed to moist air becomes 
opaque, takes up water, and goes back into the 
prismatic form. The uses of borax are numer- 
ous. It has the property at a high tempera- 
ture of dissolving metallic oxides, and forming 
transparent glasses, the color depending on the 



90 



BORBECK 



BORDEAUX 



metal used ; thus cobalt oxide gives a blue 
glass, chromium oxide a green glass, and so on. 
On this property depends its use not only in 
analytical chemistry, where it serves to deter- j 
mine certain metals before the blowpipe, but 
also in soldering. Borax is largely used in 
making strass, enamels, and some kinds of 
glass, and in vitreous pigments for glass and 
porcelain ; in glazing earthenware ; as a flux to 
reduce certain metals from their ores ; and in 
South America, under the name of quemawn, 
the crude substance is actually used in smelting 
copper. With shellac (in the proportions 1 to 
5) it forms a varnish soluble in water, used in 
stiffening felt hats. With caseine it makes an 
adhesive substance that may be used instead of 
gum arabic. Borax is used instead of soap for 
washing the gum out of silk, instead of sal 
soda in the laundry, to cleanse the hair, and as 
a cosmetic. In printing and dyeing establish- 
ments it has been proposed to use it to fix the 
mineral mordants. Aqueous borax has been 
proposed as an agent for tho preservation of 
wood. In medicine it is employed for many 
diseases connected with the bladder and the 
uterus, and also as a wash for cutaneous erup- 
tions, canker in the mouth, and ringworm. It 
has the property of making cream of tartar, 
when boiled together with it, very soluble in 
water, and this soluble cream of tartar is often 
found a convenient preparation when large 
doses of this medicine are required. It is also 
used to expel cockroaches from closets and 
pantries, these insects seeming to have an antip- 
athy for it. 

BORBECK, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the 
Ruhr, 4 m. N. W. of Essen ; pop. in 1871, 16,857. 
It has a castle, and is the seat of a nourishing 
iron industry ; in the vicinity are several coal 
mines. The place is rapidly increasing in popu- 
lation. 

BORDA, Jean Charles, a French mathematician, 
born at Dax, May 4, 1733. died in Paris, Feb. 
20, 1799. He served as a young man both in 
the army and navy, and gave much study to the 
principles of projectiles and the construction of 
vessels. Chosen a member of the academy in 
1756, he furnished to it several valuable contri- 
butions on these subjects. He was employed by 
the government in 1771 on expeditions to ascer- 
tain the value of chronometers in determining 
longitudes. He was sent on several geographical 
expeditions, and was one of the commissioners 
with Delambre and Mechain to determine the 
arc of a meridian as the basis of the metrical 
system of measures and weights. A new in- 
strument for measuring the inclination of the 
magnetic needle was invented by him, and he 
made important improvements in the reflecting 
circle for the accurate measurement of angles. 
He rose to the rank of major general of marines, 
serving as such in the American war of inde- 
pendence. He wrote several works on mathe- 
matics and navigation, and constructed loga- 
rithmic tables for the centesimal division of the 
quadrant. 



BORNE, Andrew, an English physician, born 
at Pevensey, Sussex, about 1500, died in Lon- 
don in April, 1549. He travelled in various 
parts of Europe and Africa, and finally settled 
down as a physician in England. It is said 
that he became fellow of the college of physi- 
cians in London, but he died insolvent in the 
Fleet prison. He wrote several works of a 
humorous character, and is said to have given 
rise to the phrase "merry Andrew," from his 
practice of making droll speeches at fairs and 
public gatherings, to attract the people. 

BORDEAUX (anc. Burdigala), a city and sea- 
port of France, capital of the department of 
Gironde, on the left bank of the river Garonne, 
58 m. from its mouth, and 307 m. S. W. of 
Paris; pop. in 1866, 194,241. Long before the 
Christian era Burdigala was a commercial em-' 
porium, and the chief town of the Bituriges 
Vivisci, a Celtic nation of southern Gaul. In 
the 2d century Hadrian made it the metropolis 
of Aquitania Secunda. During the decline and 
after the fall of the Roman empire it suffered 
successively at the hands of the Goths, Vnn- 
dals, Saracens, and Normans. It was annexed 
to the Frankish kingdom by Clovis, and recon- 
quered from the Saracens by Charles Martel. 
On the final dissolution of the Carlovingian 
empire it became the capital of the duchy of 
Aquitaine. Eleanor of Aquitaine united it to 
France \>y her marriage with Louis VII. ; but 
after her divorce she married Henry Plantage- 
net, afterward king of England (1164), thus 
subjecting the duchy to the English crown. 
From that period until the middle of the 15th 
century Bordeaux remained in the possession 
of the English, and in the 14th century the 
Black Prince made it the seat of his court. 
The city was the last to submit to Charles VII. 
of France, in 1453. Since that time the city has 
been substantially rebuilt, and now is architec- 
turally one of the finest in Europe. In the 
first revolution it was the headquarters of the 
Girondists, and suffered much during the reign 
of terror. Under Napoleon it was injured by 
the continental blockade, and toward the close 
of his reign became noted for its loyalty to 
Louis XVIII. In December, 1870, the delega- 
tion of the provisional government of France, 
consisting of Gambetta, Glais-Bizoin, and Cre- 
mieux, which during the first months of the 
siege of Paris had governed the provinces from 
Tours, established itself at Bordeaux ; and on 
Feb. 12, 1871, the national assembly of the 
French republic met there, removing to Ver- 
sailles in March. Besides the palace or amphi- 
theatre of Gallienus, very few remains of the 
Roman monuments are to be seen. Those of 
the middle ages have been better preserved; 
among these are the cathedral of St. Andr6, an 
imposing though irregular Gothic edifice, con- 
secrated in 1096 and completed in the 15th cen- 
tury ; the church of St. Michel, built about the 
12th century; the church of Ste. Croix, built 
before the middle of the 7th century, and re- 
stored by Charlemagne ; the imperial college, 



BORDEAUX 



91 




Bordeaux. 



and other ancient buildings. The modern as- 
pect is admirable. The broad curve of the 
Garonne is lined with crowded quays, adjacent 
to which are some of the most commodious 
warehouses in Europe. The bridge which con- 
nects the city with the suburb La Bastide was 
completed in 1821, at a cost of $1,300,000 ; it is 
1,590 ft. long, with 17 arches. Two of the old 
gates of the city still remain, la porte du Palais, 
formerly the entrance to the palace of the dukes 
of Aquitaine and the seneschals of England, and 
la porte de l'H6tel de Ville, which is surmounted 
by three antique turrets. There are numerous 
open squares, broad avenues, and fine prome- 
nades. The place des Quinconces is the finest 
square in the city, and occupies the site of 
the ancient chateau Trompette. The public 
garden in the same neighborhood is elegantly 
laid out with conservatories, &c. Among the 
finest of the modern edifices of the city are the 
Grand theatre, erected in 1780, at a great ex- 
pense, and presenting one of the handsomest 
exteriors in Europe ; the bourse, in which the 
merchants congregate daily under a glass dome 
covering an inner court 95 ft. long by 65 broad ; 
the palais de justice and the hotel de ville, 
formerly the palace of the archbishop. There 
are several fine churches besides the mediaeval 
ones already mentioned, among them St. 
Michel, which has a lofty detached tower and 
contains some fine works of art, and St. Seurin, 
remarkable for its finely carved porch and 
curious bass reliefs. There are also a gallery of 
paintings, a museum containing many historical 
relics, a museum of natural history, and a public 
library with 140,000 volumes. The imperial 
college, academy of arts, sciences, and belles- 
lettres, and the botanical garden with courses 
of study and lectures, are among the learned in- 
stitutions; and there are numerous schools and 



educational associations. In commercial im- 
portance, wealth, and culture, Bordeaux is 
excelled by no French city except Paris. The 
harbor is commodrous, and always crowded 
with shipping from America, Great Britain, 
and the Mediterranean ports, and the entrance 
and channel of the river have been greatly im- 
proved in recent years. Ship building is very 
extensively carried on, but the city is not dis- 
tinguished for general manufactures. There 




are some iron founderies, cotton factories, and 
sugar refineries ; and brandy, vinegar, cordage, 
gloves, and musical instruments are made. 
There is but one bank in the city, and that was 
transformed in 1848 into a branch of the bank 
of France. In 1864 1,488 vessels of 356,565 
tons entered the port, of which 732 of 142,947 
tons were French ; and 1,455 vessels of 375,291 
tons left it, of which 707 of 167,145 tons were 
French. The same year 1,644 French coasting 



92 



BORDEAUX 



BOREAS 



vessels of 129,762 tons entered, and 1,745 of 
116,714 tons cleared. The red and white wines 
of the Gironde are exported almost altogether 
from Bordeaux. The average annual export 
from 1860 to 1865 was 13,861,976 gallons, 
of which 5,600,127 went to European ports, 
1,822,362 to the United States, and the rest to 
other countries. The brandies exported from 
Bordeaux are produced mainly in the districts 
of Armagnac and Marmande. The principal 
distilleries are at Cognac, the best known be- 
ing those of Martell and Hennessy. The aver- 
age annual exportation from 1860 to 1864 was 
1,598,211 gallons, of which 413,900 gallons 
went to European ports, 445,329 gallons to 
the United States, and the rest to other coun- 
tries. 

BORDEAUX, Duke of. See CHAMBOHD. 

BORDEAUX WINES. See FRANCE, WINES OF. 

BORDELAIS, a district of S. W. France, in 
the ancient province of Guienne, now form- 
ing a part of the department of the Gironde. 
The inhabitants of Bordeaux and its neigh- 
borhood are called the Bordelais ; and the 
same term is applied to the products of the 
district, of which wine and a breed of cattle 
resembling those of Holland are the principal. 

BORDEN, Simeon, an American engineer and 
mechanic, born at Fall River, Mass., Jan. 29, 
1798, died there, Oct. 28, 1856. With very 
little instruction he mastered the principles of 
mathematics and mechanical science, and be- 
came a skilful engineer and one of the best 
mechanics of his day. In 1828 he took charge 
of a machine shop in Fall River, and in 1830 
devised and constructed for the state of Massa- 
chusetts an apparatus for measuring the base 
line of the trigonometrical survey of that state, 
which at that time was the most accurate and 
convenient instrument of the kind extant. Mr. 
Borden assisted in the measurement of the base 
and in the subsequent triangulation. In 1834 
he took charge of the work, and completed it 
in 1841. It was the first geodetic survey ever 
completed in this country, and its precision has 
since been proved by the coast survey. He 
afterward laid down the boundary lines be- 
tween Massachusetts and Rhode Island, con- 
structed several railroads, and published in 
1851 'a volume entitled "A System of Useful 
Formulas, adapted to the Practical Operations 
of Locating and Constructing Railroads." In 
1851 he accomplished a difficult feat by sus- 
pending a telegraph wire over a mile long, 
upon masts 220 ft', high, across the Hudson, 
from the Palisades to Fort Washington. 

BORDENTOWN, a township and village of 
Burlington county, New Jersey, on the Cam- 
den and Amboy railroad, 6 m. S. E. of Tren- 
ton ; pop. of the township in 1871, 6,041. 
The village lies pleasantly on an elevated plain 
on the left bank of the Delaware river, and 
contains several public and private schools. It 
is the terminus of the Delaware and Raritan 
canal, is connected by railroad with Trenton, 
and is a favorite place for excursions by steam- 



boat from Philadelphia. The extensive car 
shops, locomotive works, and general depot of 
supplies of the Camden and Amboy railroad are 
situated here. The mansion built by Joseph 
Bonaparte is in the neighborhood. 

BOKDLEY, John Beale, an American agricul- 
turist, born in 1728, died in Philadelphia, Jan. 
25, 1804. He was a lawyer who devoted him- 
self to husbandry, and cultivated an estate on 
Wye island in Chesapeake bay. He published 
many essays and short treatises on agricultural 
topics, and established at Philadelphia in 1793 
the first agricultural society in the United 
States. 

BORD0NE, Paride, a painter of the Venetian 
school, born at Treviso about 1500, died in 
Venice about 1570. He was for a time a pupil 
of Titian, and afterward studied the works of 
Giorgione. His own style, though not an imi- 
tation, is formed in a measure on the charac- 
teristics of these two artists. He attained 
special celebrity for his portraits. Several 
of his pictures are to be found in the gal- 
leries of Venice, including his masterpiece, 
the " Old Gondolier presenting a Ring to the 
Doge." 

BORE, the rapid rushing of the tide inland 
against the current of a river. This phenome- 
non takes place when a narrow river falls into 
a gradually widening estuary subject to high 
tides. At spring tides the great volume of 
water which enters the wide mouth of the 
estuary is compressed as it advances till it is 
several feet higher than the mouth of the river, 
up which it therefore rushes like a torrent. In 
England the bore is observed in the Severn and 
Trent rivers and in Solway frith. There is a 
remarkable bore in the Hoogly branch of the 
Ganges, where the current goes 70 m. in 4 
hours ; also at the mouth of the Brahmapootra, 
where no boat ventures to navigate at spring 
tide, and at the mouth of the Indus. The rise 
of the tide in the bay of Fundy resembles a 
bore, and this phenomenon occurs in some of 
the smaller rivers on the coast of Brazil, as 
well as in the Amazon on a large scale. 




Boreas. (From a bass relief on the Temple of the Winds, 
Athens.) 

BOREAS, the Greek name of the north wind ; 
in mythology, son of Astraaus and Eos (Aurora), 



BORECOLE 



BORGIIESE 



93 



and brother of Hesperus, Zephyriis, and Notus, 
dwelling in a cave of Mount Hremus in Thrace. 
He carried off Orithyia, daughter of Erech- 
theus, by whom he begot Zetes, Calais, and 
Cleopatra, who are called Boreadee. In the 
Persian war Boreas destroyed the ships of the 
invaders, and hence was worshipped at Athens, 
where a festival, Boreasmi, was instituted in 
his honor. He was represented with wings, 
which, as well as his hair and beard, were full 
of flakes of snow ; instead of feet he had the 
tails of serpents, and with the train of his gar- 
ment he stirred up clouds of dust. 

BORECOLE, a variety of cabbage, known also 
as kale and German greens, celebrated for ten- 
derness and delicate flavor. Wild cabbage, or 
brassica oleracea, to which species borecole be- 
longs, is met with in abundance in many parts 
of Europe. It is very common in the southern 




Borecole. 

part of Turkey, especially about Mount Athos. 
It is also found in Great Britain, on the coast 
of Kent, near Dover, on the Yorkshire coasts, 
in Cornwall and Wales, and on the Isle of 
Wight. In other places it forms a broad-leav- 
ed glaucous plant, with a somewhat woody 
stem, having but little likeness to its cultivated 
progeny. 

KOItl I.I I, Giovanni Alfonso, an Italian mathe- 
matician and physician, born at Castelnuovo, 
near Naples, Jan. 28, 1608, died in Rome, Dec. 
81, 1679. He was professor of mathematics in 
Messina and in Pisa, became in Rome a favorite 
of Queen Christina of Sweden, taught mathe- 
matics (1677-'9) at the convent of St. Panta- 
loon, and was a member of the accademia del 
Cimento. He was one of the leaders of the 
iatro-mathematical school, and employed him- 
self diligently in the dissection of animals with 
a view of explaining their functions upon math- 
ematical principles. He invented a diving 
apparatus, excelled as an astronomer, wrote 
extensively on medicine, mathematics, and as- 
tronomy, and also published a scientific account 
of the eruption of Mt. Etna (1669). The first 
part of his principal work, De Motu Anima- 
lium(2 vols., Rome, 1680-'81), skilfully applies 
the principles of mechanics to the exposition 
of the movements of the body ; but the second 
part is regarded as fallacious in respect to the 
application of mechanical principles to the ac- 



tion of the heart, lungs, liver, and other viscera. 
This work was long regarded as a standard au- 
thority by the iatro-mathematical school. 

BORGERHOIIT, a town of Belgium, in the 
province and 3 m. E. of Antwerp; pop. in 
1866, 10,787. It is well built, and has bleach- 
ing and dyeing works, and manufactures of 
woollen goods and tobacco. 

BORGET, August?, a French painter, born at 
Issondun, Aug. 30, 1808. He studied under 
eminent masters, and in 1836 produced his first 
work, the "Banks of the Tiber." He made a 
journey round the world, and published illus- 
trated albums of his travels, including La Chine 
et lea Chinois (1842), and Fragments ffun toy- 
age autonr du monde (1845-'6). He also ex- 
ecuted over 200 designs for La Chine ouverte, 
by Old-Nick (1845), and contributed to illus- 
trated journals. He has painted many genre 
pictures and landscapes on Chinese, Hindoo, 
and other foreign subjects. 

BORGIIESE, the name of a patrician family 
of Siena, Tuscany, which came into prominence 
about the middle of the 15th century. Marco 
Antonio Borghese settled in Rome in the early 
part of the 16th century, and became an advo- 
cate of the papal court. His third son, Camil- 
lo, became Pope Paul V. in 1605, and did much 
for the advancement of his relatives. For 
Marco Antonio, a son of his elder brother, he 
procured the princedom of Sulmona and a 
grandeeship in Spain. His own brother Fran- 
cesco he made commander of the troops which 
he sent against Venice in 1607. Scipione 
Caflarelli, a nephew, he created cardinal. 
Paolo, the son of Marco Antonio, married 
Olimpia Aldobrandini, the only child of the 
prince of Rossano, and grand-niece of Clement 
VIII., who brought the wealth of the Aldo- 
brandini into the Borghese family. The son of 
Paolo, Giovanni Battista, was the ambassador 
of Philip V. to the court of Rome, where he 
died in 1717. His son, Marco Antonio, was 
viceroy of Naples in 1721, and another of the 
same name, descended from him, became a 
noted collector of works of art, with which he 
adorned his sumptuous villa near the Pincian 
hill. CAMILLO FILIPPO LUDOVICO, son of the 
art collector, born in Rome, July 19, 1775, died 
at Florence, April 10, 1832. He joined the 
French on their invasion of Italy and went to 
Paris, where in 1803 he married Marie Pauline, 
sister of Napoleon and widow of Gen. Leclerc. 
(See BONAPABTE.) In 1804 he was made a 
prince of the empire and received the grand 
cross of the legion of honor. He served in the 
Austrian war of 1805, and at its close received 
the title of duke of Guastalla, the duchy itself 
being bestowed on his wife. He took part 
also in the campaign of 1806-'7 against the 
Prussians and Russians ; but not long after, be- 
coming jealous of his wife, he separated from 
her and retired to Florence. He was, never- 
theless, after the peace of Tilsit in 1807, ap- 
pointed by the emperor governor general of 
the provinces beyond the Alps, which included 



BOBGHESI 



BORGIA 



the former states of Piedmont and Genoa. At 
the request of Napoleon he sold to the French 
nation, for the sum of 8,000,000 francs, over 
800 of the works of art which ornamented the 
palace of his ancestors at Rome. After the 
abdication of the emperor he broke off all con- 
nection with the Bonapartes, and fixed his resi- 
dence in Florence, where he lived in great 
splendor till his death. He was reconciled to 
his wife shortly before her death in 1825. Be- 
sides the famous villa near the Pincian hill, his 
family had large estates in Tuscany, Naples, 
and the papal territories. 

BORGHESI, Bartolommeo, count, an Italian 
numismatist, born at Savignano, near Rimini, 
July 11, 1781, died at San Marino, April 10, 
1860. His father was a man of considerable 
learning, and had made a large collection of 
coins, to which the son made valuable addi- 
tions. He pursued the study of numismatics 
as a branch of historical research, published in 
1820 the "New Fragments of the Consular 
Fasti of the Capitol " (Nuovi frammenti dei 
Fasti comolari capitolini illwtrati), and in- 
tended to publish a Corpus Universale Imcrip- 
tionum Latinarum. This he never accom- 
plished, but his correspondence and contribu- 
tions to various Italian journals form an im- 
mense mass of material, and after his death 
Napoleon III. appointed a commission to col- 
lect and publish his complete works. In 1864 
appeared vols. i. and ii. of (Euvres numuma- 
tiques, and vol. i. of (Euvres epiyraphistes. Two 
additional volumes were published in 1872. 

BORGHI-JUAMO, Adelaide, an Italian opera 
singer, born in Bologna, Aug. 9, 1830. She 
made her debut at Bologna in December, 1846, 
and has since sung in the leading cities of 
Europe with great success. Her voice is a 
contralto of remarkable compass and power. 

BOKGI, Giovanni, the founder of ragged 
schools, born in Rome about 1736, died about 
1802. He was a poor mechanic, but was in 
the habit of taking home the vagrant chil- 
dren of the streets, clothing them, and ap- 
prenticing them to various trades. His 2eal 
interested others in the work, and he obtained 
means to rent a suitable building and to pay 
the expense of teaching and providing for a 
large number of poor children. The institu- 
tion outlived Borgi, and was greatly extended, 
Pius VII. becoming its principal protector. 

BORGIA. I. Cesare, an Italian prelate and sol- 
dier, born about 1457, died March 12, 1507. 
His family was of Spanish origin, but attained 
considerable prominence at Rome after the 
elevation of Alfonso Borgia to the papal throne 
in 1455 as Calixtus III. His father was Pope 
Alexander VI., and his mother a woman called 
Rosa Vanozza (Giulia Farnese). He was bishop 
of Pampeluna when a mere youth, and soon 
after his father's accession was made arch- 
bishop of Valencia, and in 1493 a cardinal. 
He began a war of extermination against the 
feudal barons and small princes in the Papal 
States and its vicinity, having persuaded his 



father to take the lead in this movement. 
They dispossessed most of the feudatories, 
seizing their strongholds, castles, and estates. 
He is believed to have poisoned Zizim, the 
brother of Bajazet II., who sought refuge in 
Rome about this time. He also poisoned 
Giovanni Battista Ferrata, the richest and most 
influential dignitary in the papal court, and 
seized the treasures he had accumulated. Soon 
afterward he was suspected of procuring the 
murder of his own brother, Giovanni Borgia, 
duke of Gnndia, who was found in the Tiber 
pierced with nine stiletto strokes by unknown 
hands. At all events he obtained his duchy 
and other possessions. In 1497 the pope re- 
leased him from his clerical vows, and endeav- 
ored to make him marry Charlotte, daughter 
of Frederick of Aragon, king of Naples. This 
scheme, however, was unsuccessful, but a car- 
dinal who participated in the intrigue was 
poisoned and his fortune seized by Borgia. 
Cesare was sent to France the next year with 
the bull divorcing Louis XII. from his wife 
Jeanne, and was rewarded by Louis with the 
dukedom of Valentinois and a command in the 
French army. While in the French service he 
obtained possession of Forli, Cesena, Imola, 
Rimini, Piombino, the island of Elba, Faenza, 
and Camerino, and murdered their sovereigns. 
He married Charlotte, daughter of Jean d'Al- 
bret, king of Navarre, in 1499, and in 1501 he 
was made duke of Romagna and gonfaloniere of 
the holy see. He continued his onslaught on the 
petty sovereigns of central Italy, and aimed at 
making himself king of Romagna, Umbria, and 
the Marches; but Louis XII. arrested these 
ambitious machinations, and many whom Ce- 
sare had already deprived of their possessions 
recovered them. His most bloody military 
action was the storming of Sinigaglia, toward 
the close of 1502, at the head of his Swiss 
mercenaries, and the slaughter of his prison- 
ers, including several princes, as described by 
Machiavelli. Finally, as many historians al- 
lege, in conjunction with his father, in August, 
1503, he concocted the plan of poisoning four 
of the wealthiest cardinals at an evening party 
in the villa Corneto ; but by mistake the poi- 
son, which was mixed in wine, was adminis- 
tered to Alexander VI. and to Cesare. The 
pope died about a week after. Cesare was 
saved, having taken but little of the drugged 
wine. He seized upon the papal treasures in 
the Vatican, and with about 12,000 mercenaries 
still kept Rome, although those whom ho had 
despoiled in central Italy revolted and recov- 
ered their lost property. Finally his troops 
abandoned him, and the pope, Julius II., ar- 
rested and expelled him from the Papal States. 
He took refuge with Gonsalvo de Cordova, the 
commander of Naples, who sent him to Spain, 
where he was imprisoned by Ferdinand of 
Aragon. After two years he escaped and 
found an asylum, in 1506, at the court of Jean 
d'Albret, his father-in-law. Finally he was 
slain before the castle of Viana, while in the 



BORGIA 



BORIC ACID 



95 



service of the king of Navarre. He was highly 
educated, eloquent, and a patron of art and 
literature. For this reason he found many 
apologists, among them Macbiavelli, who took 
him as the model ruler in his Principe. II. 
Lnerezla, sister of the preceding, died in 1523. 
She was equally remarkable for beauty and ac- 
complishments, and was in her youth affianced 
to a nobleman of Aragon, but her father on be- 
coming pope married her to Giovanni Sforza, 
lord of Pesaro. This union was dissolved in 
1497, and she was given in marriage to Alfonso, 
duke of Bisceglia, natural son of Alfonso II., 
king of Naples, and made duchess of Spoleto 
and Sermoneta. The duke was assassinated 
two years later, as was believed by order of 
her brother Cesare. In 1501 she married 
Alfonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, 
became a patron of men of letters, and attract- 
ed a brilliant society to her court. In her 
later years she was much given to devotion 
and acts of charity. She has been often repre- 
sented as a monster of profligacy, sharing in 
the atrocities of her father and brother, and 
even living with them at Rome in incestuous in- 
tercourse ; but she has also found many defend- 
ers, who deny the crimes alleged against her. 

BORGIA, St Francis, general of the society of 
Jesns, born at Gandia, Spain, in 1510, died in 
Rome, Oct. 1, 1572. He was duke of Gandia, 
grand equerry to Isabella of Portugal, the con- 
sort of Charles V., and mayor domo to the 
crown prince, afterward Philip II. He was 
always exact in his religious duties, and after 
the death of his wife gave up his title and 
estate to his son and entered the society of 
Jesus, retaining the administration of the duchy, 
by special permission of the pope, until his 
children were provided for. He was ordained 
priest in the 40th year of his age, and devoted 
himself to extending and strengthening the 
order of Jesuits in Spain. At the death of 
Laynez in 1565 he was elected general of the 
society, and remained in office till his death. 
Several bishoprics and the dignity of cardinal 
were repeatedly pressed upon him, but refused. 
He was canonized by Clement X. in 1671. 

BORGIA, Stefano, an Italian cardinal and 
statesman, born at Velletri, Dec. 3, 1731, died 
In Lyons, Nov. 23, 1804. He was a generous 
patron of science, and made valuable collec- 
tions of manuscripts, coins, and various anti- 
quities. Having been made a member of the 
Etruscan academy of Cortona in 1750, he 
founded the celebrated museum of antiquities 
at Velletri. He was for some years governor 
of the duchy of Benevento, and by his sagacity 
preserved that province from the famine which 
ravaged the kingdom of Naples in 1764. In 
1770 he became secretary of the propaganda, 
and during 18 years that he occupied that 
office was enabled greatly to enrich his collec- 
tion of rare manuscripts and antiquities through 
the missionaries. Pins VI. named him a car- 
dinal in 1789, and put under his care the in- 
stitution of foundlings, and in 1797, when the 
110 VOL. HI. 7 



revolutionary movement reached Rome, made 
him dictator of the city. Expelled by the 
Roman republicans, he retired to Venice, and 
afterward to Pisa, where he formed a small 
society of scientific men. He returned to 
Rome with Pins VII. in 1800, and devoted him- 
self to reorganizing the papal government. He 
died while on a journey to Paris as companion 
of the pope. Besides his valuable collections, 
he left several historical works of some merit. 

BORGNE, Lake, a body of water in the S. E. 
part of Louisiana. It is strictly the termina- 
tion of that large arm of the Mexican gulf 
known as Mississippi sound, being connected 
with it by a strait crossed by a line of small 
islands, and faced on the east by Grand island. 
It is also connected with Lake Pontchartrain 
by the Rigolet pass. It has about the average 
depth of Lake Pontchartrain, and approaches 
within 15 m. of New Orleans. Its greatest 
extent from N. E. to S. W. is about 27 m. 
Lake Borgne forms a part of the eastern 
boundary of the Mississippi delta. 

BORGO, Pozzo di. See Pozzo DI BOEGO. 

BORGOGNONE, Jacopo Cortesl, also known as 
JACQUES COUBTOIS (his original name), an Ital- 
ian painter, born in Burgundy in 1621, died in 
Rome, Nov. 14, 1676. He studied his art at 
Bologna, a part of the time under the instruc- 
tion of Guido. He worked very rapidly, and 
excelled in representing battle scenes. For 
many years he resided at Florence, where he 
acquired a fortune by his pencil, and about 1656 
became a Jesuit, still devoting himself to art, 
but working chiefly on religious subjects. 

BORGOJUNERO, a walled town of Piedmont, 
Italy, in the province and 20 m. N. N. W. of 
the city of Novara, beautifully situated near 
the Agogna and on the road to Lakes Orta and 
Maggiore; pop. about 7,000. The town con- 
tains several churches, convents, and other 
public buildings, and manufactories of silk and 
several other articles. 

BORGOO. I. A kingdom in the interior of 
Africa, bounded N. by Goorma, E. by the Niger, 
S. by Yoruba, and W. by Dagomba. It is gener- 
ally a level country, though crossed by a range 
of mountains. The soil is fertile and well cul- 
tivated, and produces corn, yams, plantains, 
and limes. Game is found in abundance. The 
people are good-natured, and tolerably honest 
and thrifty. Borgoo is divided into the states 
of Boossa, Wawa, Kiama, and others, and is 
crossed by a caravan route over which there 
is considerable traffic. Boossa, which holds 
the first rank among the states, was the scene 
of the murder of Mungo Park. II. Another 
kingdom in the interior of Africa, about 400 
m. N. E. of Lake Tchad. It is a mountainous 
region, and is said to be fertile and healthy. 
It has never been explored by Europeans. An 
unsuccessful attempt was made to reach it by 
Barth and Overweg in 1851. 

BORIC ACID, a compound of the element 
boron with oxygen and hydrogen ; also called 
boracic acid. It occurs in nature under the 



96 



BOEIO ACID 



name of sassoline, H S B0 3 , composed of boric 
anhydride, B 2 O 3 , 56-45 per cent., and water 
43-55. It is also contained in the follow- 
ing minerals, in the proportions given: bora- 
cite (magnesium chloride and borate), 62-5 per 
cent.; rhodicite (calcium borate), 30 to 45; 
tiza or boronatrocalcite, 30 to 44; hydrobo- 
racite, 47; borax or tincal, 36-53; datholite 
(boro-silicate), 18 ; botryolite (do.), 20-35 ; ax- 
inite (do.), 2 to 6'6 ; tourmaline, schorl (do.), 
2 to 11-8; larderellite (ammonium borate), 68; 
lagonite (iron borate), 49 ; also in many min- 
eral waters and the ocean. Boric acid is the 
hydrate of boric oxide, also called boric anhy- 
dride, B 2 O 3 . It was discovered in 1702 by 
Homberg, who called it sedative salt. The 
crystals are white, pearly, and scaly, unctuous 
to the touch, and exposed to a temperature of 
212 F. lose half their water of crystallization, 
and at a higher temperature the whole. The 
mass fuses into a hard transparent glass, but 
will not sublime except at a white heat. Un- 
less protected from the air it absorbs water 
and loses transparency. Deprived of water, 
its specific gravity is 1-8; that of the hydrate 
is 1-48. Boiling water dissolves one third 
of its weight of the crystals ; cold water only 
about one thirtieth. They are soluble in alco- 
hol, and when this is ignited the acid gives to 
the flame a beautiful green color. This is em- 
ployed as a characteristic test of its presence. 
The acid properties of this substance at ordi- 
nary temperatures are very feeble. It scarcely 
reddens vegetable blues, and turmeric paper is 
rendered brown by it as by an alkali. It is 
expelled from its combinations by stronger 
acids almost as readily as carbonic acid is. But 
at high temperatures, as when exposed to a 
red heat in a crucible, boric acid mixed with 
sulphate of soda expels the sulphuric acid, and 
combines with the soda ; when cold, the pro- 
cess may be reversed. In boiling the aqueous 
solution, the acid is taken up by the steam; 
much more, however, is this the case with the 
alcoholic solution. It is to this property we 
owe the supplies of boric acid, which are fur- 
nished from the interior of the earth by jets 
of steam that issue through fissures, and come 
up more or less laden with this material, as 
well as other substances, as sulphur, sal ammo- 
niac, clay, and gypsum. The acid is deposited 
in the soil in the form of solid efflorescences, 
or is collected in pools of water, through 
which the jets are made to pass. In South 
America it is collected upon the surface of the 
ground. At an island of the Lipari group, 
called Vnlcano, 12 m. N. of Sicily, it rises in 
vapor at the bottom of the crater of an extinct 
volcano, 700 ft. below its summit. The vapor 
condenses here upon the bottom and sides, like 
frost after a heavy dew ; but it goes on accu- 
mulating, till it resembles more a bed of clean 
snow ; beneath it is found a layer of red-hot 
sal ammoniac, through which come up sulphur- 
ous vapors. The boric acid is gathered up as 
it collects, and with the sulphur and sal am- 



moniac is a source of no little profit to the pro- 
prietors of the volcano. It is also found at 
Sasso in S. Italy, and has hence been called 
sassoline. But the great supplies of it are ob- 
tained from the volcanic districts of Tuscany. 
Here, over an area of some 30 m. of wild 
mountain land, issue through beds of calcareous 
rocks, black marl, and sand, numerous jets of 
steam, which rise in white clouds among the hills, 
and spread around oifensive sulphurous smells 
and vapors, that drench those passing by the 
spot. The ground itself is hot and undermined. 
It shakes beneath the feet, and is sometimes so 
treacherous as to let man or beast walking 
upon it fall through into its heated recesses. 
Its surface is covered with incrustations of sul- 
phur and saline substances. The waters be- 
neath are heard boiling with strange noises, 
and are seen to break out upon the surface. 
Of old it was regarded as the entrance to hell. 
The name Monte Oerboli (mons Cerbert) is 
still retained by a neighboring volcano, and 
contains the principal lagoon or pool from 
which the acid is obtained. The great value 
of these natural exhalations, or saffioni, as they 
are called, was discovered in 1818, and made 
available by the skill and ingenuity of Count 
Larderel. "Wherever up the slopes of the hills 
the ground is observed to be hotter than usual, 
and sulphurous vapors are seen to rise from it, 
and the surface is felt to tremble, a pit is dug, 
from which soon issues a column of steam. A 
temporary wooden chimney is put up for this 
to pass through, so that the workmen may 
continue the excavation, and constrnct a basin 
with stone wall lining, to contain the water in- 
tended to receive and collect the acid brought 
up by the steam. The water is introduced 
from some supply at the surface, and the chim- 
ney is then removed. The heat soon causes 
the water to reach nearly the boiling point. It 
penetrates into the fissure, and is rejected by 
the steam, bringing up with it a portion of 
boric acid. As it is found that the quantity 
which the water is capable of absorbing is very 
small, fresh supplies are introduced every day ; 
and the pits are so arranged down the slope of 
the hill that the water entering at the top 
passes from an upper basin into a lower one, 
and so on, till at the foot it is received into 
large evaporating pans. The basins or "la- 
goons" are of rough shapes, rudely construct- 
ed, from 5 to 8 ft. deep, and from 13 to 60 ft. 
in diameter ; they continue to receive the va- 
pors for years, but the jets are liable at any 
time to cease and break out in a new place. 
The pans are very numerous, and present a 
great evaporating surface. They are heated 
by the vapors of some of the soffioni, which are 
conveyed under them in flues. After the liquor 
has passed through a series of the pans and 
been greatly concentrated, it is baled out and 
drained through baskets, and the precipitated 
salt is taken to the drying rooms. These are 
of brick and warmed in the same manner as 
the pans are heated. Thus the operations are 



BOKIE 



BORING 



97 






carried on with no expense of fuel, and boric 
acid is obtained to the amount of 5,000,000 
Tuscan pounds or more per annum. Since 1854 
artificial soffionihave been produced by boring, 
and the yield from this source is very large. 
The product is of late years more impure than 
formerly, the foreign matters having increased 
from 8 per cent, to 25 per cent., which appears 
to have excited some apprehension lest the 
supply may give out. An analysis of the crude 
acid made by Vohl in 1866 is interesting, as 
showing the great variety of the associated sub- 
stances. It is as follows : 

Boracic acid crystallized 80-000 

Hygroscopic water 4-500 

Sulphuric acid 9-610 

Silicic add 0-810 

8and 0-800 

Oxide of iron 0-120 

Oxide of manganese 0-001 

Alomina 0-670 

Lime 0-010 

Magnesia . 0-600 

Potash 0-180 

Ammonia 2-980 

Soda. 0-002 

Chloride of sodium 0-100 

Organic matter and loss 0-217 

100-000 

Our knowledge of the Tuscan locality, and the 
process as there conducted, is derived from the 
treatise of Payen, who describes it in detail. Sir 
John Bowring and Durval have also furnished 
interesting data concerning it. Boric acid is 
of value principally for the preparation from it 
of borax. It is used in manufacturing a paste 
for artificial gems, and in making enamel. Its 
price in Tuscany is about 10 cents a pound. 

BORIE, Pierre Rose Drank Domonlln, a French 
missionary, born at Beynat, Feb. 20, 1808, put 
to death in Tonquin, Nov. 24, 1838. After com- 
pleting his studies for the priesthood, he sailed 
for Tonquin, Dec. 1, 1831, arriving just at the 
commencement of a bloody persecution of the 
Christian converts. He very soon learned to 
speak the language and accommodate himself 
to the habits and temper of the Tonquinese, 
and labored with great zeal and success for six 
years. In 1838 he was apprehended, severely 
beaten, and imprisoned, and after four months 
condemned to be beheaded. He bore his tor- 
tures with fortitude, and such was the venera- 
tion of the people for his character that no one 
was willing to deal the fatal blow. The soldier 
selected for that purpose intoxicated himself, 
and performed the task so awkwardly that sev- 
en strokes were necessary for its completion. 
After his death the heathens burned gold paper 
over his grave and honored him as a divinity. 

BORING, a name common to two distinct me- 
chanical operations, which bear different ap- 
pellations in most languages. The one consists 
in turning the inside surface of cylinders to 
make them true, the other in cutting holes 
through solid matter. Cylinders of a diameter 
smaller than four feet are bored on a lathe ; the 
cylinder is fastened to the slide-rest, and the 
tool is keyed on a mandrel or boring bar held 
between the centres of the lathe ; the cylinder 



moves lengthwise, and the tool revolves so that 
the cut is helical. Large cylinders of the thick- 
ness usual for steam engines are bored on a ver- 
tical machine, as their weight is sufficient to 
deflect them when resting on the side. This 
important tool is of modern invention, and is 
found only in those large establishments where 
huge steam engines are built. A boring ma- 
chine is generally placed in a corner of the shop 
formed by two solid walls. It consists mainly 
of a vertical shaft placed below the floors, sup- 
porting a vertical boring bar which carries a 
horizontal cutter wheel, and of a strongly rib- 
bed bed plate on which are four movable stan- 
dards or supports, with clamps to hold the cyl- 
inder in a vertical position. The lower end of 
the shaft rests in a socket on strong founda- 
tions ; the upper end is keyed loosely to the 
boring bar, and supports it. The boring bar is 
guided by two adjustable boxes, the lower one 
forming a part of the bed plate, the upper one 
part of an iron beam strongly bolted and brac- 
ed to the walls. The shaft and boring bar are 
made to revolve by a train of wheels placed 
under the floor. The cutter wheel, on which 
are bolted several tool-carriers, descends slowly 
along the boring bar. To operate with this 
machine, the boring bar is at first withdrawn, 
to make room for the cylinder, which is placed 
on the standards, and then the bar is put back 
in its place inside the cylinder. This last is 
then so adjusted as to have the same axis with 
the boring bar, and is firmly clamped. Cutting 
chisels are set on the tool-carriers ; these are 
adjusted for the depth of cut desired, and the ma- 




Fia. 1. Boring Machine. 

chine is put in motion. After the cutter wheel 
has come down the whole length of the cyl- 
inder, it is raised by means of a revolving crane 



98 



BORING 



for another cut. Boring machines were made 
to avoid the bulging of the sides of cylinders 
when placed horizontally, as this was the main 
impediment to good boring; they also avoid 
the deflection of the boring bar. They require 
much less power than lathes to do the same 
work, and have several other minor advantages. 
Messrs. Nasmyth, Gaskell and company con- 
structed the boring mill represented in fig. 1 
for the purpose of boring the large cylinders, 
10 ft. in diameter, for the Great Western 
steamship navigation company's vessel the 
Mammoth, at their works at Bristol. The mo- 
tion is communicated by the driving pulley c 
to a bevel pinion working the bevel wheel -d. 
The shaft on which this wheel is fixed has on 
its opposite end a worm for communicating 
motion to the upright shaft/" and boring bar a. 
This boring bar has vertical grooves a', in 
which the cutter head J is movable, sliding up 
and down according to the progress of the 
work ; k is a tool-carrier, fixed to the cutter 
head, by which the boring is effected. The 
foundation plate h forms a bearing for the 
upright shaft, the lower end of which rests in 
the step <7, while the cylinder I is secured by 
the clamps _; j to the supports i i, which are 
fixed to the foundation plate. Two strong 
pieces of masonry, m ', support the entablature 
m, for carrying the self-acting apparatus for 
raising and lowering the cutter head b. The 
entablature is secured to the masonry by 
strong holding down bolts. This self-acting ap- 
paratus consists of a rack, n, worked by a pin- 
ion, the motion being transmitted by trunnion 
wheels through two spur wheels and pinions, 
oo. The whole of this upper machinery revolves 
with the boring bar, with the exception of the 
ringjp, upon which the trunnion wheels rest 
and revolve. The motion thus produced is 
communicated to the rack, which is either 
raised or lowered according to the direction 
in which the boring bar revolves. Smaller 
hollow cylinders are bored in a similar man- 
ner, except that they are usually placed in a 
horizontal position. The cutter head may be 
made to revolve in the cylinder, or the cyl- 
inder may revolve about the cutter head. The 
barrels of muskets and other small firearms, 
being forged hollow, are bored upon a similar 
principle. The barrel is screwed on a carriage 
which moves in iron grooves, and is propelled 
toward the boring bar by a rope which passes 
over pulleys and has a weight hanging from the 
end. (For the boring of cannon and rifle guns, 
see CANNON, and RIFLE.) In the boring of 
solid substances various questions require to be 
taken into consideration. If the tools had only 
to cut away a portion of matter, as is done in 
cutting, planing, and turning, the directions 
given for cutting tools as to the angles of the 
faces of the edge with the work, the velocity, 
and the lubricating liquid proper for the sub- 
stance to be cut, would have to be strictly ap- 
plied. Such is not the case, however; a drill 
has not only to turn off the bottom of the hole, 



but also to pare its sides, to guide itself in a 
straight line, and, for wood and some other 
substances, to eject the shavings. Moreover, 
the velocity is unavoidably different at all 
points from the centre to the circumference. 
In consequence, the rules given for cutting 
tools are observed in boring tools only as far 
as they accord with other important requisites ; 
but they must never be lost sight of. Drills 
are made', in general, to bore straight holes, by 
providing them with a centre point or pin pro- 
jecting beyond the cutting edge just in the 
centre of the hole, or by tapering the cutting 
edges to a point. They are made to bore clean 
holes, by providing them with a shearing point 
on the side, that cats like the point of a knife ; 




FIG. 2. 



FIG. 8. 



I A 



FIG. 4. 



or by prolonging the cutting edge along the 
side ; or, for metal, by making a reamer with 
the stem of the drill (figs. 2, 3, and 4). Boring 
tools are made to eject the material cut away, 
by shaping the stem in the form of a screw, or 
by making it hollow. The various tools used 
for boring wood are as follows : The brad awl 
(fig. 5) is a cylindrical wire, with a chisel edge ; 
it packs the material around the hole. The awl 



Fio. 5. Fie. 6. FIG. 7. Fie. 8. Fio. 9. FIG. 10. 

(fig. 6) is a square bar tapering to a point. A 
great number of tools are fluted, that is, have 
the shape of the half of a tube. Such are the 
gouge bit (fig. 7), the spoon bit (fig. 8) and its 
varieties, the table bit and the cooper's dowel 
bit, and the nose bit or auger bit (fig. 9). The 
gimlet (fig. 10) is fluted, but terminates in a 
screw, which drives it into the wood. The cen- 
tre bit (fig. 11), an instrument of English in- 
vention, consists of a centre point, a shearing 
point, and a broad inclined cutter. Its varia- 



BORING 



99 



tions are called plug centre bit, wine cooper's 
centre bit, and expanding centre bit. The 
tools in the form of a screw are the single-lip 
auger (fig. 12), made of a half-round bar wound 




l 
Fie. 11. Pio. 12. Fie. 18. FIG. 14. Fio. 15. FIG. 16. 

spirally around a cylinder ; the twisted gimlet, 
(fig. 13), made of a conical shaft, around which 
is cut a half-round spiral groove; the screw 
auger (figs. 14 and 15), formed of a flat band 
of steel twisted when red hot ; the American 
auger (fig. 16), made of a solid shaft, around 
which is a thin helical fin. The last much 
resembles a wood screw ; the cutting edge is 
removable, and resembles that of a centre bit. 
All these twisted tools are of American inven- 
tion, and were scarcely known in Europe 30 
years ago. Another American tool is an auger 
for producing square holes or cutting mortices : 
it consists of a screw auger working in a tube, 
round inside and square outside ; the four cor- 
ners at the lower end of the tube are sharpened 
from inside, and proceed forward a short dis- 
tance behind the cutting edge of the auger, 
cutting through the wood as they advance, 
and making the round hole square. Several 

of these tools 
working side by 
side will cut 
an oblong hole. 
Boring tools for 
wood are work- 
ed by means 
either of a 
lathe, a car- 
penter's brace, a 
transverse han- 
dle, or a drilling 
machine. (See 
fig. 17.) Bor- 




F.G. 11-DriHtag Machine. 

drills, and are much less varied in shape than 
those for wood. The double-cutting drill, fig. 
4, is made by flattening the end of a small bar 
of steel, catting it so as to form a point or pro- 
jecting angle of about 90 in the centre line of 
the tool, and grinding on both sides to trans- 
form the two flats, forming the angle into edges 



of about 60 sharpness. Another double-cut- 
ting drill, called the Swiss drill, is made of a 
wire filed on one side to the diameter, the end 
of the remaining half being ground in the shape 
of a half cone. The common single-cutting 
drill, fig. 3, is forged flat and cut pointed, so 
as to show at the end two small faces meeting 
at an angle of 90, and forming a point project- 
ing in the centre line of the tool. These two 
faces are ground so as to form angles of 60 
with the flat sides of the tool ; the one face 
forming this angle with one side, the second 
face with the other. This drill is in universal 
use, the angles specified being slightly modified 
according to the nature of the metal to be bor- 
ed. It is very difficult to drill a hole in the ex- 
act place where it is designed to he, and the 
error is proportional to the size of the drill. For 
this reason, when exactness is required for a 
large hole, a small hole is drilled first, and this 
is enlarged by means of a pin drill. The shape 
of a pin drill is exactly represented by placing 
two carpenter's chisels side by side, the one 
presenting its face, the other its back, to the 
person holding them, and by letting the end of 
a wire project between them a little below the 
edges. In using the instrument, the centre pin 
must enter and fit the small hole previously 
bored, which acts as a guide. If the portion 
of the cutting edges nearest the centre pin is 
cut away, the tool will cut a circular groove ; 
such is the form adopted for cutting holes in 
the tube plates which receive the tubes in loco- 
motives. These drills are worked in various 
kinds of braces, in the lathe or in the drilling 
machine. After they are drilled, the holes of 
all carefully made machines, which are not 
tapped, are perfected by reaming. A large 
proportion of holes drilled are intended for 
screws, and are consequently tapped. Taps, 
master-taps, stocks, dies, and reamers are cost- 
ly tools ; hence it is the interest of machinists 
to devise and adopt a uniform system in drilling 
and making screws, so that a machine may be 
repaired in another shop than that of the 
maker, without the necessity of making a new 
set of tools for each particular case. Hard 
steel and glass are bored with the end of a 
rotating brass rod fed with oil and emery. 
Glass offers also this remarkable and little 
known peculiarity, that it is drilled through as 
easily as hard woods with a common metal 
drill, provided the drill is kept all the time 
moistened with turpentine. In boring rocks 
for blasting, the common hand drill and the 
jumper are more used than any other tools. 
(See BLASTING.) The situation of the place in 
which the holes are to be drilled is often very 
difficult of access with a machine, so that the 
time and expense employed in adjusting the 
apparatus would make it preferable to employ 
manual labor. When, however, large holes 
are desirable for the displacing of masses of 
rock, machines worked by compressed air fur- 
nished by steam power, when they can be 
placed in working position, are to be pre- 



100 



BORING 




FIG. 18. Air Compressor. 



ferred; and, in fact, in all modern blasting 
on a large scale, the greatest amount of dis- 
placement of rock is effected by blasts which 
are made in the holes drilled by machines. 
Among the most 
noted of the rock 
drills, having 
been the longest 
in use, and the 
principal one em- 
ployed in exca- 
vating the Hoosac 
tunnel, is the 
Burleigh drill, a 
general outline 
of which and its 
mode of working 
are represented 
under BLASTING. 
It is what is call- 
ed a percussion 
drill, that is, a 
drill whose bit is 
driven by blows 
against the rock, 
and is usually 
propelled, as are 
the other drills to be noticed, by compressed 
air, which is furnished by a double-cylinder 
pump, called the air compressor, fig. 18. The 
backward and forward motion of the piston 
rod to which 
the drill is at- 
tached is pro- 
duced in the 
same manner 
as in an ordi- 
nary high-pres- 
sure steam en- 
gine. The In- 
gersoll drill is 
especially . ef- 
fective in ex- 
cavating open 
cuts. In the 
engraving, fig. 
19, c is the 
cylinder, s the 
steam or com- 
pressed air 
chest, Ji the 
pipe which sup- 
plies the com- 
pressed air, and 
p the screw 
for moving the 
drill forward, 
which may be 
done by the 
hand or by the 
rod gr, which is 
turned by an automatic ratchet movement. 
Various attachments are used for the purpose 
of rotating percussion drills as well as for feed- 
ing them, a general idea of which may be 
gathered from the following description of a 




Pie. 19. Ingersoll Drill. 



drill (fig. 20) invented by Prof. De Volson 
Wood of the Stevens institute at Hoboken, N. 
J. The piston, piston rod, drill holder, ratchet 
for rotation, and enlargement for regulating 
the feed, constitute a single piece of cast steel. 
The small valve a is operated by the recipro- 
cating movement of the plug J. Steam is ad- 
mitted behind the plug b so as to keep it con- 
stantly pressed against the plug c, which rests 
upon the conical surface d. During the back- 
ward movement of the piston the small valve 
is forced upward by the conical surface, and 
during the forward movement it is moved 
downward by the pressure of the steam behind 




FIG. 20. Wood's Drill. 

the plug l>. This small valve admits the motor 
so as to reciprocate the piston e, and this piston 
operates the main valve f. The length of the 
stroke is adjusted by simply turning the piece 
g. By this arrangement the valve is operated 
without shock, and hence will not break, and 
when properly set the main valve will not be 
opened until the blow is struck. The drill is 
seized and held automatically by the conical 
wedges i i, and is rotated by the sloping click 
k, which rotates about its back edge, coming 
in contact with sloping teeth I on the enlarge- 
ment of the piston rod. The click m prevents 
it from feeding forward, and the click n in a 
similar manner prevents it from feeding back. 
The thread on the screw o is made very steep, 
so that when the piston advances so far as to 
drive m out of bearing, the pressure of the mo- 
tor on the forward head, p, during the back- 
ward stroke of the piston, forces the cylinder 
forward, which will cause the screw o to turn, 
thus securing an advance feed. A false head, 
r, to prevent the piston from striking the rear 
head, has the motor admitted and retained be- 
hind it by a puppet valve. The diamond drill, 
owned by the American diamond drill company, 
the bit of which is the invention of Kodolphe 
Leschot of Paris, is a rotary machine, and of 
course differs widely in construction from those 
just described. There are several patterns and 
sizes ; that represented in fig. 21 is a small tun- 
nelling drill. It is so adjusted that it can be 
placed in any required position, moving as if on 
a universal joint. The bits, which are screwed 
on the end of the drill rod, are armed with 
black diamonds as represented in figs. 22 and 
23. It will be observed that the diamonds are 
so arranged as to cut the hole larger than the 
diameter of the bit or the drill- Both the drill 
rod and the bit are hollow to admit w ater % which 



BORISOGLEBSK 



BORNE 



101 



is forced down to the bottom of the hole while 
the machine is at work. This drill is now 
(February, 1873) in use by the United States 




FIG. 21. Diamond Drill. 



government in deepening the channel of the 
James river below Richmond, Va. It is much 
used in prospecting for coal and other mine- 





22 



Fio. 28. 

rals, and for boring arte- 
sian wells, and is especial- 
ly adapted to these pur- 
poses. At the Lacka- 
wanna coal and iron com- 
pany's mines the total 
boring in 67 days in the 
year 1872 was 6,357 ft., 
with an average number of 2 T \ drills, the aver- 
age of each drill per day being 34 ft. The aver- 
age cost of the diamonds was 13 cents per foot. 
BORISOGLEBSK, a town of Russia, in the 
government and 90 m. S. by E. of Tambov, on 
the Vorona, a tributary of the Don ; pop. in 
1867, 12,254. It has an important fair, manu- 
factures of various kinds, and a large establish- 
ment for the melting of tallow. 

BORISQV, a town of Russia, on the Beresina, 
in the government and 44 m. N. E. of Minsk; 
pop. in 1867, 5,233. Near the adjacent village 
of Stndienka the Beresina was crossed by the 
French army, Nov. 26 and 27, 1812. (See BB- 

EK8INA.) 

IJOK.I i:ssov Julian, a Swedish dramatist, bora 
at Tanum, March 22, 1790, died in Upsal, May 



5, 1866. He was minister of the church of 
Weckholm near Enkoping from 1828 till his 
death. His first and best drama, Erik XIV. 
(1846; German translation, 1855), was succeed- 
ed by many tragedies. In 1861 he became one 
of the 18 members of the Swedish academy. 

BORLACE, Edmund, an English historian, a 
physician by profession, died at Chester about 
1682. His father, Sir John Borlace, was one 
of the lords justices of Ireland, and he was 
educated at Dublin and Leyden. He practised 
his profession at Chester, and wrote among 
other works " The Reduction of Ireland to the 
Crown of England, with the Governors since 
the Conquest by Henry II. in 1172" (London, 
1675), and " The History of the execrable Irish 
Rebellion, traced from many preceding acts to 
the grand Eruption, Oct. 23, 1641, and thence 
pursued to the Act of Settlement, 1661" 
(London, 1680). 

BORN) Bertram! de, viscount of Hautefort, 
a French troubadour and warrior, born in the 
castle of Born, Perigord, in the middle of the 
12th century, died about 1209. He belonged 
to an ancient family which traced its origin to 
the duke of Aquitaine, and early contended with 
his brother for the supremacy over the vast 
family domain, which contained 1,000 serfs. 
Richard Coeur de Lion took the dispossessed 
brother's part in revenge for Bertrand's satiri- 
cal lays, upon which the latter espoused the 
cause of Henry II. and took a prominent and 
mischievous part in these family broils and 
wars, especially as Aquitaine was threatened 
both by France and England. After the death 
of Richard, whom he as well as other princes 
had instigated to go to the Holy Land without 
himself contributing anything to the crusades 
excepting spirited songs, he lived in retirement, 
as was believed in a monastery, and the fief of 
Hantefort was transferred in 1210 by his son 
Bertrand (who also wrote several songs) to 
the king of France. Eleanor of Aquitaine, 
wife of Henry II., was said to have been one 
of his patronesses; he was also in love with 
Helena, sister of Richard, though he celebrated 
Maenz, daughter of the viscount of Turenne, 
and wife of Talleyrand of Perigord, as the 
special object of his adoration. Dante places 
him in his inferno for leading the youthful 
king to quarrel with his father; and Thierry 
as well as Sismondi refers to the influence of 
his lyrics and of his sword and counsels in 
stimulating and embittering the spirit of con- 
tention of his day. See Laurens, Le Tyrtee du 
Moyen Age, ou Jiistoire de Hertrand de Born, 
vicomU d'Hauteford (Paris, 1863). 

BOKNA, a town of Germany, in the kingdom 
of Saxony, on the Wyhra, 16 m. S. S. E. of 
Leipsic ; pop. in 1871, 5,751. It has an old 
Gothic church, and the ruins of an ancient 
castle, which was destroyed by the Hussites in 
1430. The town has a considerable industry. 

BORNE, Lndwlg, a German author, of Jewish 
origin, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May 
18, 1786, died in Paris, Feb. 13, 1837. His 



102 



BORNEO 



father, Jakob Baruch, was a banker, and his 
grandfather was employed on a diplomatic 
mission to Vienna. He studied medicine, phi- 
losophy, and political science at Berlin, Halle, 
Heidelberg, and Giessen, and then entered the 
public service at Frankfort. When that city 
was restored to the condition of a free town he 
turned his attention to literature, and estab- 
lished two journals, the Stoats- Ristretto and 
the Zeitschwingen, at Offenbach, near Frank- 
fort. These were suppressed on account of 
their boldness in dealing with public affairs, 
and the editor was arraigned for circulating 
seditious pamphlets. He was acquitted, and in 
1818, having in the mean time become a con- 
vert to Christianity and changed his name, he 
established a paper called Die Wage, which be- 
came famous by theatrical criticisms. He was 
a severe and caustic critic of the existing order 
of things, and lived much in isolation at Frank- 
fort, Hamburg, and Paris. After the revolu- 
tion of 1830 he established La Balance in 
Paris, with a view to creating a closer intel- 
lectual and social union between France and 
Germany. His Denkrede auf Jean Paul, re- 
markable for great elevation of thought, and 
his Menzel der Franzosenfresser, a fierce satire, 
are his best productions. Most of his writings 
are included in his Oesammelte Schriften (17 
vols., 1829-'47) and Nachgelaiseiie Schriften 
(6 vols., Mannheim, 1847-'50). 

BORNEO, an island of the East Indian or Ma- 
lay archipelago, situated directly under the 
equator, which divides it into two nearly equal 
parts. It is the largest island in the world 
with the exception of Australia, and possibly 
of Papua or New Guinea. Its native name is 
Pulokalamantin. It extends from about the 
7th parallel of N". latitude southward a little 
further than lat. 4 S., and from its most western 
point, near the 109th meridian of E. longitude, 
eastward to Kaniungan point in Ion. 119 20' 
E. ; its greatest length, which is from N. N. E. 
to S. S. W., is about 850 m., and its greatest 
width about 680 m. It is bounded N". and W. by 
the China sea, E. by the Sooloo sea, the Celebes 
sea, and Macassar strait, which separates it 
from the island of Celebes, and S. by the Java 
sea. Its estimated area is from 284,000 to 
300,000 sq. m. The northern portion of Bor- 
neo is a peninsula with an average width of 
120 m., trending from lat. 2 30' upward of 300 
m. in a northeasterly direction. The popula- 
tion is variously estimated at from 2,500,000 to 
3,000,000. Borneo has about 2,000 m. of sea- 
coast, in which there are comparatively few 
important bays or indentations, and no great 
inlets, but many rivers and small creeks. Along 
the entire S. coast the shores are low and gen- 
erally marshy ; the features of the E. coast up to 
Kaniungan Point, and of the W. coast up to Cape 
Datu, nearly opposite, are similar. The shores 
of the peninsula, however, are bolder, being 
rocky and lined with islets perilous to naviga- 
tion. They enclose several bays of considera- 
ble extent, of which the more important are : 



Maludu bay, which is sheltered by Cape Sam- 
panmanjo, the N. extremity of the island, and 
was formerly a favorite resort of pirates ; and 
Labok bay and Gyong bay, on the E. side of 
the peninsula, with the Unsang promontory 
between them, where edible birds' nests are 
gathered in large quantities for the Chinese 
market. Off the W. coast of the peninsula, in 
lat. 5 22' N., lies the little island of Labuan, 
the seat' of a small but important British colony. 
An inland range extending from S. W. to 
N. E., with an average elevation of from 3,000 
to 4,000 ft., forms the watershed of the great 
northern peninsula. At its extremities it curves 
outward toward the sea, and terminates in Cape 
Datu and Cape Sampanmanjo respectively. Its 
name changes, in proceeding northward, from 
the Krimbang mountains, which form the in- 
land boundary of the territory of Sarawak, 
in the northwest, to the Batang-Lupar, and 
finally to the Madi mountains, whence the 
region comprised in the kingdom of Borneo 
proper slopes down to the Chinese sea. The 
chain attains its greatest height in Mt. Kina- 
Balu, the loftiest peak yet discovered in Bor- 
neo, 13,698 ft. above the level of the sea. It 
is near the northernmost end of the island, and 
as seen from the coast presents the appearance 
of a vast truncated cone. The summit, which 
has been thrice reached by Europeans, consists 
of syenitic granite, and is about 2 m. in length. 
Lofty detached mountains are visible to the 
eastward, apparently at least 7,000 ft. high, 
and a long chain stretches away in a S. S. W. 
direction. The main peninsular range is pro- 
longed beyond Mt. Kina-Balu, and terminates 
in Cape Sampanmanjo. Apparently uncon- 
nected with it and much nearer the sea is Mt. 
Malu, in about lat. 4 N. with an altitude of 
8,000 ft. In the central portion of the island, 
the Madi mountains form a group whence radi- 
ate several ranges toward different parts of the 
coast. Of these, one extends from Mt. Berin- 
gin, in about lat. 2 30' N., easterly to Kaniun- 
gan point, and a second, the high Anga-Anga 
mountains, southward to Cape Salatan, the 
southern extremity of Borneo ; there is also a 
third range which separates from the Anga- 
Anga mountains not far from their junction 
with the central group, and runs westward, as 
the Kaminting and Pembaringan mountains, 
until it is broken up into detached masses as it 
approaches the 110th meridian. The navigable 
rivers of Borneo are numerous. Many of them 
are deep enough to admit of navigation by 
larger craft than can pass the bars which in 
most instances obstruct their entrance. It is 
said that on the N. W. coast, between Cape 
Datu and Cape Sampanmanjo, 23 rivers enter 
the sea, each navigable for vessels drawing 12 
ft. of water to a distance of 100 m. above its 
mouth. Among these may be mentioned the 
Sarawak, which has two outlets, its western 
mouth being situated in about lat. 1 20' N. t 
Ion. 110 30' E. The anchorage near the town 
of Sarawak is 17m. from the sea. The Batang- 



BORNEO 



103 



Lupar is another large stream which drains the 
Sarawak territory. Its embouchure, which is 
4 m. wide, is near lat. 1 25' N. and Ion. 111 
E. Flowing seaward from within the confines 
of the same state are the rivers Rejang and 
Bintulu. Further N. E., in Borneo proper, is 
the Limbang, Kadayan, or Brunai, with the 
capital of the kingdom, a town of 25,000 in- 
habitants, known as Brunai or Borneo, on its 
left bank. The island of Labuan lies just with- 
out the bay or gnlf into which it flows. Malu- 
du bay, which indents the most northern por- 
tion of Borneo, receives a stream said to flow 
out of Lake Kina-Balu, a sheet of water near 
the mountain of that name, the existence of 
which is positively asserted by the natives, but 
which has not been seen by any European. 
The principal rivers which enter the Celebes 
sea are the Bnlongan, which rises in the Anga- 
Anga range and flows eastward through the 



Sooloo dominions, reaching the coast near lat. 3 
10' N., Ion. 117 30' E., and the Pantai, which 
has its sources in the same mountain group, 
and pursues a parallel course down to its 
mouth, which is about 2 N. of the equator. 
The only river of any considerable length which 
flows into Macassar strait is the Koti, a stream 
which waters the region bearing its own name, 
and which is fed by numerous affluents. Its 
general course is S. E., and its delta occupies 
the coast region from 10 to 50 m. S. of the 
equator. The Banjer is the chief of the rivers 
having their outlet in the Java sea on the 8. 
coast. It takes its rise near the middle of the 
island, and is a tortuous stream, flowing south- 
ward along or near the 115th parallel, and 
eventually separating into two branches, one 
of which is known as the Little Dayak river, 
the other and principal arm being the avenue 
to the important Dutch settlement of Banjer- 




Mouot Kina-Bftla. 



massin, which stands on its left bank. Other 
rivers on this coast are the Great Dayak, the 
Mendawi, the Sampit, the Pembuan, the Kotta- 
Waringen, and the Jelli. The great river of 
western Borneo is the Simpang, which drains 
the extensive region comprised between the 
peninsular range on the north and the western 
offshoot of the Anga-Anga mountains, portions 
of which are known as the Kaminting and 
Pembaringan ranges. Its general course is in 
a westerly direction almost under the equator, 
from its source in Ion. 114 10' E. to Ion. 
109 20' E., where the Chinese town of Pon- 
tianak is situated on one of its main outlets 
just above the month. In 1823 a Dutch ex- 
pedition in search of gold and diamond fields 
explored this river for a distance of 300 m. in- 
land. The Sambas territory, further N., is 
watered by the Sambas river. The greater 



part of Borneo belongs to recent geological for- 
mations. The shallow seas which separate the 
island from Asia, and the resemblance between 
Bornean and Asiatic natural productions, indi- 
cate that at no very distant epoch the conti- 
nent extended further S. W. than at present, 
and included Borneo as well as Sumatra and 
Java. No trace of recent volcanic action has 
been observed in Borneo, though the island is 
almost surrounded by one of the most impor- 
tant belts of volcanoes in the world, near which 
earthquakes (also wholly unknown in Borneo) 
are of weekly or monthly occurrence. The 
island is notably rich in mineral productions, 
among which are diamonds, gold, antimony, 
coal, tin, iron, copper, and lead. Diamonds 
occur in the sand and gravel of the river beds, 
at depths from 6 to 15 ft. below the surface, 
and in strata occasionally several feet in thick- 



104 



BORNEO 



ness, whence they are obtained by Malays, who 
sink shafts in the rivers for this purpose. The 
largest diamond ever found in Borneo weighs 
367 carats. Diamond washing is carried on to 
some extent in the Sarawak river, which yields 
small stones of brilliant water; but the largest 
product is in the Landak district, in the Dutch 
dominions, 40 in. N. of the equator. Gold is 
found in Sarawak as well as the districts under 
the government of the Netherlands, but only 
as small grains in alluvial deposits. The anti- 
mony exported from Borneo through Sarawak 
constitutes the chief supply of Great Britain. 
The principal mines are at Bidi, near which 
some traces of silver have been discovered. 
Coal of good quality occurs abundantly at the 
British island of Labuan, and in the Dutch 
Banjermassin district. It has also been found 
in Sarawak, and on the Koti river. Excellent 
iron ore abounds in the south, and is also met 
with in the northwest. The natives manufac- 
ture it into the best cutting blades to be found 
in the archipelago. A copper mine is worked 
by the Dutch in the Sambas country. Small 
quantities of platinum have been obtained in 
some localities, but this metal has never been 
profitably extracted. The climate of Borneo 
is remarkably salubrious for an equatorial 
island. The low regions of coast land and ex- 
tensive forest are hot and moist, with an aver- 
age temperature throughout the year of about 
70 F. between 6 and 7 o'clock A. M., and an 
annual rainfall in some places estimated at 300 
inches. The wet season on the western side 
of the island is synchronous with the dry sea- 
son on the eastern shores, from April to Sep- 
tember, at the time of the S. E. monsoon; 
with the beginning of the N. E. monsoon in 
September the wet season sets in along Macas- 
sar strait and the shores of the Java sea, last- 
ing till April. In the higher districts the cli- 
mate is temperate and healthy. The vegeta- 
tion of Borneo is rich, luxuriant, and varied. 
The island is essentially a forest country, and 
abounds in gigantic trees. Brilliant flowers 
are scarce. The most striking vegetable pro- 
ductions are the wonderful pitcher plants of 
the botanical genus nepenthes, which here at- 
tain their highest development in form and 
color. They grow on the mountains, and vary 
greatly in size and appearance. The pitcher 
of one species will hold two quarts of water. 
They are usually green, with red, brown, and 
purple markings and linings. There are prob- 
ably 100 species of ferns on the island, and the 
orchids are well represented. The finest fruit 
is furnished by the abundant durian tree, 
which resembles the elm in general appear- 
ance. A spiny oval mass contains the fruit 
in the form of a cream-colored pulp. Other 
fruit trees are the mangosteen, lansat, rambu- 
tan, jack, jambon, and blimbing. The bamboo 
is put to many important uses in the native 
economy. Among the valuable products of 
the Bornean forests are bananas, betel nuts, 
breadfruit, camphor, cocoanuts, ebony,' gutta 



percha, rattan, and sandal wood. The soil is 
generally very fertile, and yields rice, sago, 
manioc, cotton, sugar, cloves, nutmegs, pop- 
pies, and ginger. Melons and gourds are pro- 
duced in large quantities, and in addition to 
the more distinctive fruits already mentioned 
are found the orange, lemon, mango, tamarind, 
and pomegranate. The orang-outang or mias 
(iimia satyrus) occupies the most prominent 
place in the fauna of Borneo, which, with the 
exception of Sumatra, where it is rarely met 
with, is believed to be its exclusive habitat. 
These creatures frequent the dense virgin for- 
ests of the low country, and are not to be found 
in the dry and elevated districts. The quadru- 
mana are further represented by the long-nosed 
monkey and at least ten other species. There 
are four species of lemur-like animals. The 
carnivora are sparingly represented, a species 
of arboreal panther (felis macrocelis) being the 
most noteworthy animal of this order. The 
elephant is occasionally encountered in the 
north, and is believed to be identical with that 
of India. The only other large quadrupeds are 
deer and wild cattle (bos Sondaicvs). Wild 
hogs roam through the forests in vast numbers. 
There are numerous bats and many charac- 
teristic species of squirrels. A curious repre- 
sentative of the insectivora is the small feather- 
tailed ptilocercus Lowii. Of birds there are 
parrots, woodpeckers, trogons, pheasants, par- 
tridges, hornbills, cuckoos, bee-eaters, and ga- 
pers. Of insects there are honey bees, 2,000 
species of beetles, and no fewer than 29 species 
of papilionida or gorgeous swallow-tailed but- 
terflies. Crocodiles, tortoises, and pythons and 
other serpents are met with. The adjacent 
seas and the rivers abound in fish, which form 
a considerable article of consumption and com- 
merce. The principal territorial divisions of 
Borneo are as follows: 1, Sarawak, an indepen- 
dent 'state under an English rajah, extending 
about 300 m. along the N. W. coast, with a 
population of 300,000 ; 2, Borneo proper, one 
of the few Malay kingdoms which remain in 
the archipelago, embracing the N. W. coast 
of the peninsula to Maludu bay, population 
unknown; 3, the Dutch territories on the 
S., E., and W. coasts, comprising Sambas, 
Banjermassin, and Pontianak, with an aggre- 
gate area of 201,541 sq. m., and a total popu- 
lation in 1869 of 1,189,303. These dependen- 
cies are included under the administration of 
the Dutch governor of Java. The inhabi- 
tants comprise the aboriginal Dyaks and the 
immigrant Malays, Javanese, Chinese, and 
Bughis or natives of Celebes. The Dyaks are 
closely allied to the Malay race, but are more 
simple and honest, and morally superior in al- 
most every respect. Their average stature 
somewhat exceeds that of the Malays ; their 
hair is straight, coarse, and black, and they are 
well proportioned without any tendency to 
obesity. Agriculture is their principal means 
of subsistence. They are distinguished by many 
excellent traits of character, and when kindly 



BORNHEIM 



BORNOO 



105 



treated are docile, industrious, and faithful. 
They formerly gained great notoriety as daring 
pirates and head-hunters, seeking to decapitate 
others under the belief that every person be- 
headed would become the slave of the hunter 
in the next world. The greater portion of them 
have substantial dwellings, and cultivate rice, 
the banana, sugar cane, and some cotton and 
tobacco for their own consumption. They are 
skilled artificers in iron, and understand spin- 
ning and weaving, but have no written lan- 
guage. Dogs and fowls are their only domes- 
ticated animals. The distinction between Land 
Dyaks and Sea Dyaks is founded not upon the 
localities which they inhabit, but upon the fa- 
vorite pursuits of the respective tribes, which 
lead some to cultivate the soil and others to a 
life on the water. Chinese settlers are found 
in all parts of the island, and engage in trade, 
local manufactures, and mining. The most 
active traders, howeyer, are the Bughis, who 
are superior sailors, and visit every section of 
the coast in their light vessels. Antimony, 
spices, camphor, gold, and diamonds are the 
principal articles of export from Borneo to 
Europe. The British and Dutch carry on a 
considerable commerce with the island, the 
former mainly through the free port of Singa- 
pore. Borneo appears to have been visited by 
the Portuguese very early in the 16th century. 
Nearly 200 years later, in 1690, they acquired 
a temporary foothold in Banjermassin, which 
they were soon compelled to relinquish. The 
Dutch subsequently established themselves on 
the same coasts, and in 1787 gained supremacy 
over Banjermassin by a treaty with its sultan. 
The sway thus inaugurated has been maintained 
almost continually up to the present time. In 
1823 they settled Pontianak. Great Britain 
made unsuccessful attempts to establish com- 
mercial factories in Borneo in the years 1702 
and 1774; but owing to the foundation of the 
state of Sarawak under an English ruler, and 
the acquisition of Labuan as a colony, British 
influence is now paramount in the N. W. part 
of the island. (See SARAWAK.) 

BOKMIM.H, a village of Germany, in the 
province of Hesse-Nassau, close by Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, for the inhabitants of which it 
forms a favorite resort for pleasure; pop. in 
1871, 6,396. On the Bornheimer ffeide, near 
the town, on Sept. 18, 1848, Prince Lich- 
nowski and Von Auerswald, two prominent 
conservative members of the German parlia- 
ment, were assassinated by a mob. 

BORNHOLM, an island in the Baltic, belong- 
ing to Denmark, 23 m. S. E. of Sandhammar 
point, Sweden, and 90 m. E. of Seeland ; area, 
225 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 31,894. It is about 
23 m. long by 18 wide. The coast is high and 
rocky, skirted in many places by dangerous 
reefs, and there are no good harbors for large 
vessels. A range of mountains with dry and 
sterile slopes runs through the interior ; but 
the lower land is generally fertile. The island 
produces coal, marble, building stone, sheep, 



and cattle ; and earthenware is made. The 
capital is Ronne, at the S. W. angle of the 
island. 

BORNOO, or Bornn (called by the natives Ka- 
nowra), a country of central Africa, between lat. 
9 and 14 N., and Ion. 8 and 15 E., bounded 
N. by the Great Desert, E. by Lake Tchad and 
Baghinni, S. by Mandara, and W. by Houssa. 
The country is level and wholly destitute of 
minerals. The chief rivers are the Komadugu 
and the Shary, which with numerous small 
streams flow into Lake Tchad. During the wet 
season large tracts are overflowed by the waters 
of the lake and rivers. The fertility caused by 
this inundation produces only a rank growth 
of grass from 10 to 12 ft. in height, and almost 
impenetrable thickets of underwood. Nearly 
all the wild animals, reptiles, birds, and in- 
sects common to central Africa infest this 
region in great abundance, and are driven to 




Body Guard of the Sultan of Borneo. 

the inhabited districts during the inundations. 
Domestic animals are also plentiful. The cli- 
mate of Borneo, especially from March to the 
end of June, is excessively hot. During the 
rainy season, from May to October, fevers are 
prevalent. The soil is fertile, and, though but 
imperfectly cultivated, produces large crops. 
A species of millet forms the staple food of the 
people ; rice and grain of an inferior kind are 
raised in small quantity. There are no fruits. 
The mass of the inhabitants, called Bornoose 
or Kanowry, are genuine negroes, peaceable 
and lazy, and wholly subject to the Arabs, who 
form the dominant race. The Arabs are de- 
scribed as arrogant, deceitful, and dishonest, 
and carry on the trade of the country, dealing 
chiefly in slaves. They are bigoted Mohamme- 
dans, but fetishism is still common among the 
negroes. The government of Borneo is nom- 
inally vested in a sultan, but all the power 



106 



BORODINO 



BORON 



really resides in an Arab sheik. The sultan is 
surrounded by a body guard of nobles and 
chiefs, clad in a grotesque and unwieldy garb. 
The military force of this monarch amounts to 
about 30,000, mostly cavalry. The principal 
towns are Kuka, the royal residence, Ngornoo, 
Dikoa, and Old and New Birnee. Most of 
them are populous, well built, and walled. 

BORODINO, a small village of Russia, on the 
left bank of the Kolotcha, 2 m. above its junc- 
tion with the Moskva, in the government and 
70 m. W. S. W. of Moscow. It is famous for 
a battle between the French and Russians, 
Sept. 7, 1812. The French army, under Napo- 
leon, numbered 125,000, while the Russian 
forces, commanded by Kutnzoft', Prince Bagra- 
tion, and Barclay de Tolly, were nearly 160,000 
strong. The battle commenced in the early 
morning, and raged with great fury until 3 
o'clock in the afternoon, when the Russians 
gave up the field and retreated. The total loss 
of the Russians was 52,000 men, and that of 
the French 30,000. The former, having re- 
treated in good order, never acknowledged the 
battle as a defeat, and in 1839 raised a mau- 
soleum on the field as a trophy of victory. 
The French call it the battle of the Moskva, 
and it gave Marshal Ney his title of Prince of 
Moskva. The actual battle field was on the 
opposite side of the Kolotcha from Borodino. 

BORON, the characteristic combustible ele- 
ment of the acid contained in borax. In na- 
ture it is always met with in combination with 
oxygen. It is found in small quantities, and 
only in a few localities. It presents considera- 
ble analogy with silicon in its properties and 
its mode of combination, and like it may be 
obtained in two distinct modifications, the crys- 
talline and the amorphous. Berzelius obtained 
boron by heating the borofluoride of potassium 
with an equal weight of potassium in a covered 
iron crucible. Boron as thus obtained is an 
amorphous, dull olive-green powder, which be- 
fore it has been strongly ignited soils the 
fingers, and is dissolved by pure water in small 
quantity, forming a greenish yellow solution; 
from which, however, it is precipitated un- 
changed on adding a little solution of sal am- 
moniac. Boron is not oxidized by exposure to 
air, to water, or to solutions of the alkalies, 
whether cold or boiling. It is, however, easily 
oxidized when treated with nitric acid or with 
aqua regia. After exposure to intense heat in 
vessels from which air is excluded, it becomes 
denser and darker in color. It may be fused by 
the application of a heat still more intense than 
that required to melt silicon. As first obtained, 
boron exhibits a strong attraction for oxygen, 
and, if heated in air or in oxygen, takes fire 
below redness, burning with a reddish light 
and emitting vivid scintillations; it is thus 
converted superficially into boric anhydride, 
B 3 O 3 , which melts and protects a portion of 
the boron. Mixed with nitre and heated to 
redness, it deflagrates powerfully. It is also 
oxidized when ignited with hydrate of potash ; 



and when heated with carbonate of potassium 
in fusion it sets carbon free, and forms berate 
of potassium. Pulverulent boron, like silicon, 
is a non-conductor of electricity. Boron may 
be obtained in the amorphous form in large 
quantity by the following method (WShler and 
Deville ; Liebig's Annalen, cv. 67) : 1,500 
grains of fused boric anhydride are coarsely 
powdered and mixed rapidly with 900 grains 
of sodium cut into small pieces. The mix- 
ture is then introduced into a cast-iron cru- 
cible previously heated to bright redness ; 700 
or 800 grains of solid but previously fused 
chloride of sodium are placed upon the top of 
the mixture, and the crucible is covered. As 
soon as the reaction is over, the still liquid 
mass is thoroughly stirred with an iron rod, 
and poured while red hot, in a slender stream, 
into a large and deep vessel containing water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid. The nn- 
dissolved pulverulent boron is then collected 
on a filter and washed with acidulated water 
till the boric acid is got rid of; after which the 
washing is continued with pure water till the 
boron begins to run through the filter. It 
must finally be dried upon a porous slab with- 
out the application of heat. Crystallized Bo- 
ron. In order to convert the amorphous into 
the crystallized form, the following method 
may be adopted : A small Hessian crucible is 
lined with the pulverulent boron made into a 
paste with water, and the boron is pressed in 
strongly, as in the ordinary mode of lining a 
crucible with charcoal. In the central cavity 
a piece of aluminum weighing from 60 to 90 
grains is placed; the cover is luted on' and 
the crucible enclosed in a second, the interval 
between the two being filled with recently ig- 
nited powdered charcoal. The outer crucible 
is next closed with a luted cover, and the whole 
exposed for a couple of hours to a heat suffi- 
cient to fuse nickel. The temperature is then 
allowed to fall, and when cold the contents 
of the inner crucible are digested in diluted hy- 
drochloric acid, which dissolves out the alu- 
minum; beautiful crystals of boron are left, 
generally transparent, but of a dark brown 
color. Numerous scales of boron are formed 
at the same time, in pale copper-colored, opaque, 
six-sided plates, which consist of an alloy of 
aluminum and boron, formerly erroneously 
called graphitoid boron. Crystallized boron 
has a specific gravity of 2'68 ; it assumes the 
form of transparent octahedrons belonging to 
the pyramidal system. These crystals when 
pure are nearly colorless, but they usually 
contain traces of foreign matter, which give 
them a pale yellow or red color; they re- 
fract light powerfully, and are hard enough 
to scratch the ruby, and even sensibly to 
wear away the diamond. Crystallized bo- 
ron burns imperfectly in oxygen when heated 
to full whiteness, and becomes coated witli a 
layer of fused boric anhydride. It however 
burns easily when heated to redness in dry 
gaseous chlorine, becoming converted into the 



BOROUGH 



BORROMEAN ISLANDS 



107 



gaseous terchloride of boron. No acid or mix- 
ture of acids has any action upon the crystal- 
line boron. The atomic weight of boron is 
10'9. The hardness of boron has suggested 
its use as a substitute for the diamond in cut- 
ting glass, for drills, and bearings of machinery ; 
but the cost of production has hitherto pre- 
vented its extensive application. 

BOROUGH. The origin of this term is un- 
certain. By some etymologists it is derived 
from burgh (Sax.), burgus (Lat.), a walled 
town, and thence applied to any association of 
families in a neighborhood, for the purpose of 
mutual protection. By others it is deduced 
from borgh or borhce (Sax.), pledge, referring 
to the civil division into tithings or decenna- 
ries, hundreds, &c., in which the inhabitants 
composing the tithing or hundred were pledges 
for the good conduct of each other. It is 
probable that in an early period, when great 
disorder prevailed, protection was the princi- 
pal object of the vicinage of houses which was 
denominated a borough. The term villa, from 
which is derived the modern village, originally 
signified a private country residence, but was 
afterward applied to a number of buildings 
placed near each other for the common safety 
of the inhabitants. It appears from "Domes- 
day Book" that there were 82 boroughs in 
England, including cities, at the time of the 
Norman conquest. Though differing as to the 
extent of their franchises and mode of govern- 
ment, they were alike in two respects : 1, in 
having a fair or market; 2, in having a bor- 
ough court independent of the hundred. A 
third particular afterward became the distinc- 
tive franchise of boroughs, viz., the right of 
sending burgesses to parliament. The original 
object of mutual defence was merged in an- 
other, viz., privileges of trade; and not long 
after the conquest the guild, which was an as- 
sociation of persons in a particular trade, be- 
came so intermingled with the original consti- 
tution of boroughs that it is difficult to distin- 
guish the respective franchises belonging to 
each, and the guild merchant, which was a 
kind of incorporation or licensed association of 
all the trades, became substantially the bor- 
ough, or at least became possessed of its fran- 
chises, government, and name. Membership 
of the guild thus became the principal mode 
of obtaining the freedom of the borough. The 
number of burgesses was by no means coexten- 
sive with that of the inhabitants ; in fact, the 
boroughs were generally oligarchies, especially 
those which were created by charters after 
the conquest. The government was in many 
instances engrossed by a body self-constituted 
as the guild merchant, and in some cases even 
by a particular guild. Borough franchises 
were derived from charter or prescription 
(which was founded upon a supposed charter), 
and consisted at first of particular privileges, 
as that of a fair or market, of having a court, 
exemption from toll, and the like. Charters 
of incorporation were first granted in the reign 



of Henry VI., although the ancient boroughs 
had in fact used the privileges peculiar to cor- 
porations, viz., of governing themselves, and 
of holding property in common. But from 
the period above mentioned, the history of bo- 
roughs belongs to the subject of municipal cor- 
porations, with the exception of parliamentary 
franchise. Before the act of 1832, known as the 
act for parliamentary reform, there were 171 
boroughs in England, represented by 339 bur- 
gesses ; from Scotland there were 15 members 
for boroughs, and from Ireland 36. By that 
act 56 English boroughs which had become in- 
significant in population were wholly disfran- 
chised, 30 were deprived of one member each, 
and the right was given to 22 boroughs, which 
were before unrepresented, of returning two 
members each, and to 19 boroughs of return- 
ing one member each. The right of voting 
was also extended from a small privileged 
class to the citizens at large having certain 
qualifications. By the reform act of 1867 11 
more boroughs were disfranchised; 23 were 
deprived of one member each, and 25 members 
were given to new boroughs and universities. 
Previous to the act last mentioned the whole 
number of representatives from boroughs in 
the English parliament was 337 from England 
and Wales, 23 from Scotland, and 39 from Ire- 
land ; but by that act 28 of this number were 
distributed among the larger counties, which 
were divided into districts for the purpose. 
In the whole kingdom the number of members 
for boroughs is now 366. In the United 
States the term borough is applied to an in- 
corporated village or town, but not to a city. 
In England it includes cities as well as villages, 
though in some old statutes the terms city, 
borough, and village are used distinctively. 

BOBOVITCHI, a town of Russia, in the gov- 
ernment of Novgorod, on the Msta, 155 m. 
S. E. of St. Petersburg ; pop. in 1867, 9,108. 
It has nine churches, two schools of a high 
grade, and several manufactories. 

BOROVSK, a town of European Russia, in the 
government and 50 m. N. of the city of Ka- 
luga, on the Protva; pop. in 1867, 8,826. It 
contains many churches, and near the town is 
one of the richest convents of the empire. 
There are extensive manufactories of sail cloth 
and of woollen goods, and there is an active 
trade in these articles, as well as in flax, hemp, 
and leather. 

BORROMEAN ISLANDS, a group of four small 
islands in the gulf of Tosa, an arm of Lago 
Maggiore, in northern Italy. The group takes 
its name from the Borromeo family, in whose 
possession it has been for more than 600 years. 
The separate islands are called Isola Madre, 
Isola Bella, Isola dei Piscatori, and Jsolino. 
They were little more than barren rocks prior 
to 1671, when Vitaliano, Count Borromeo, 
caused soil to be transported from the shores 
of the lake, terraces to be made, and all the 
trees and flowers to be planted which would 
grow in that climate. Isola Bella was most 



108 



BORROMEO 







Isola Bella, Borromean Islands. 



richly adorned, being formed of ten successive 
terraces covered with beautiful trees and flow- 
ers, interspersed with statues and other works 
of art. At the west end is an elegant palace. 
Isola Madre, which is the largest, being 3 m. 
in circumference, consists of seven terraces, 
and has also a palace. Isola dei Piscatori con- 
tains a little village peopled with fishermen. 

BORROJIKO, Carlo, count, a saint and cardinal 
of the Roman church, born at Arona on Lago 
Maggiore, Oct. 2, 1538, died in Milan, Nov. 4, 
1584. From his earliest childhood he was re- 
markable for his virtues. He studied civil and 
canon law in the university of Pavia, and took 
his degree in 1559. At the close of the same 
year his maternal uncle, Cardinal de' Medici, 
became Pope Pius IV., and successively made 
him archbishop of Milan, a cardinal, grand pen- 
itentiary, and president of the Roman council. 
He lived in the midst of great splendor, but in 
his own habits was temperate, studious, and 
devoted to the duties of his station. He insti- 
tuted many reforms in the administration of 
affairs in the states of the church, and carried 
them into effect with vigor and wisdom. 
Through his agency the council of Trent was 
reopened, and its deliberations concluded. On 
the death of his elder brother he was urged, 
even by the pope himself, to leave the service 
of the church and take his position at the head 
of his family. This he refused to do, and de- 
termined to go to Milan and devote himself al- 
together to the interests of his diocese. He 
was greeted with great enthusiasm by the 
people, but before he had fairly addressed him- 
self to the work before him was recalled to 
Rome by the death of the pope. His influence 
had much effect in securing the election of 
Pius V. He then returned to Milan, and set 
himself to work vigorously correcting abuses 
and reforming the manners of priests and peo- 
ple. He met with considerable opposition, 
and the Humiliati attempted to have him as- 
sassinated, in consequence of which the order 
was abolished, and its revenues were distributed 
among the poor. The cardinal instituted the 
order of Oblates, founded a great number of 



schools, and is generally regarded as the first 
to establish Sunday schools. He associated 
with himself in his labors of reform a council 
chosen from the diocese at large, and put down 
with a resolute hand the pretensions of his suf- 
fragan bishops who resisted his measures of 
church discipline. He succeeded also in im- 
proving the secular government of Milan. His 
charities were munificent, not only his ecclesi- 
astic revenues but his personal fortune and the 
works of art and ornaments of his palace being 
devoted to the relief of the poor and suffering. 
During the plague of 1576 he organized and 
superintended measures for the care of the 
sick and the burial of the dead. The magis- 
trates had fled, and he had for a time the en- 
tire control of the city. The exertion, how- 
ever, was too great for his physical strength, 
and his health soon became broken. His 
death was regarded as a national calamity, and 
was universally mourned throughout Italy. 
He was buried beneath the high altar in the 
cathedral of Milan, and his tomb became a 
shrine visited by pilgrims from all parts of the 
country. He was canonized by Paul V. in 1610. 
A collection of his works, including sermons, 
letters, the acts of his diocesan synods, and 
conferences delivered at the academy of the 
Vatican, under the title of Noetes Vatican, 
appeared at Milan in 1599 (2 vols. fol.), and 
was republished with notes by Sax (5 vols. fol., 
Milan, 1747). The biography of St. Charles 
Borromeo has been written by Godeau, bishop 
of Venice (2 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1748), by Tou- 
ron (3 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1761), and by the Ital- 
ian Guissano (1751). A life in English by E. 
H. Thompson was published in London in 
1858. His statue was erected near Arena, 
and his festival is celebrated Nov. 4. 

BORR031EO, Federigo, count, cardinal, and 
archbishop of Milan, cousin of St. Charles, 
born at Milan in 1563 or 1564, died in 1631. 
He founded the Ambrosian library at Milan in 
1609, and devoted to it most of his fortune. 
He sent Oligati to Germany, the Netherlands. 
and France, Ferrari to Spain, Salmaci to 
Greece, and Father Michael, a Maronite priest. 



BOKROMEO 



BOS 



109 



to Syria, to collect MSS. for it. He added to 
it a printing establishment, and founded acad- 
emies, schools, and charitable institutions. 

BORROMEO, St. Charles. Sisterhood of, a religious 
association founded in 1652 by the abb<5 d'Es- 
tival, for educational and charitable purposes. 
It has its chief organization at Nancy, in Lor- 
raine. A religious association of St. Charles 
Borromeo was founded in Bonn in 1846, for the 
distribution of Roman Catholic publications. 

BORROMINI, Francesco, an Italian architect, 
born at Bissone in 1599, died in Rome in 1667. 
He studied sculpture and architecture for about 
seven years in Milan, and then went to Rome, 
where he was employed under his kinsman, 
Carlo Maderno, in finishing St. Peter's. On 
the death of Maderno he continued at work 
under Bernini. He became capricious and 
fantastic in his designs, and killed himself in a 
fit of insanity. 

BORROW, George, an English author, born 
near Norwich in February, 1803. He is the 
son of an officer in the army, and received his 
early education at various schools in England 
and at the high school in Edinburgh. At 
the age of 15 he was articled to a solicitor 
in Norwich, but soon turned his attention to 
philology, studying especially the language and 
habits of the gypsies, with whom he led a 
wandering life for some years. In 1833 he 
entered the service of the British and foreign 
Bible society, and was sent to Russia. Here 
he edited the New Testament in the Mantchoo 
language, and published a book which he called 
" The Targum," containing metrical transla- 
tions from 30 languages. He then went to 
Spain, where he mingled with the gypsies, 
translated the Gospel of Luke into their lan- 
guage, edited a translation of the New Testa- 
ment into Spanish, and was thrown into prison 
for circulating the Bible. Having returned to 
England, he published in 1841 " The Zincali : 
an Account of the Gypsies in Spain," with a 
collection of their songs and a vocabulary of 
their language. In 1843 he published " The 
Bible in Spain," a narrative of his personal 
adventures. He afterward travelled for some 
time in Turkey and Wallachia. In 1851 he 
published "Lavengro: the Scholar, the Gypsy, 
and the Priest," a work autobiographical in 
form, but apparently containing much fiction. 
In 1857 he published " The Romany Rye," a 
sequel to "Lavengro;" and in 1862 "Wild 
Wales:" He has also contributed much, both 
in prose and verse, to various periodicals. 

BORSi, a village of Hungary, in the county 
of Marmaros, 45 m. S. E. of Szigeth, at the 
entrance of a gorge leading into Bukowina; 
pop. in 1870, 5,503. In the neighborhood are 
some mines of gold, argentiferous lead, and 
copper. 

BORSOD, a N. county of Hungary, bounded 
E. in part by the Theiss and the Hernad, and 
traversed by the Sajo ; area, 1,370 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 195,037, chiefly Magyars. The soil is 
mountainous or hilly in the northwest, and 



level in the east and south. Cattle are reared 
in great numbers on extensive pastures. Bor- 
sod wheat is celebrated, and the county is 
called Little Hungary on account of its extra- 
ordinary productiveness in the principal staples 
of the country. The forests contain various 
kinds of timber and plenty of game. The vine 
culture is extensive. Minerals abound, and 
iron is worked to a large extent, and partly 
converted into steel. The county contains a 
number of large and over 170 small villages, 
and derives its name from that of Borsod, 5 m. 

5. of Szendro, which contains a Protestant 
church and an old castle. Capital, Miskolcz. 

BORY DE SAINT VINCENT, Jean Baptist* George 
Marie, a French naturalist, born at Agen in 1780, 
died in Paris, Dec. 22, 1846. He visited Mau- 
ritius and Bourbon in 1800, explored St. Helena 
and various other African islands, and on his 
return published Essais sur les lies Fortunees 
et V antique Atlantide (4to, Paris, 1803), and 
an illustrated Voyage dans les quatre princi- 
pals iles des mers d'Afrique (3 vols. 8vo, 
1804). He served in the French army under 
Davoust, Ney, and Soult, the last of whom sub- 
sequently employed him in the ministry of war. 
Exiled after the restoration, and hunted by the 
police through many of the states of Europe, 
he remained a fugitive till 1820, during which 
time he assisted in editing the Annales gene- 
rales des sciences physiques at Brussels, and 
wrote his Voyage souterrain, describing the 
subterranean quarries of Maestricht. In 1829 
he was chief of an official scientific expedition 
to the Morea and the Cyclades, and was the 
sole author of the botanical portion of the 
Expedition scientifique de Moree (1832 et seq.\ 
besides writing with Chaubard the Nomelle 
floredu Peloponnese et des Cyclades (1838). He 
was in the war department in 1830, and rose 
to the rank of marechal de camp in the corps 
of engineers. In 1839 he was appointed chief 
of a scientific expedition to Algeria. He was 
the principal editor of the Dictionnaire clas- 
sique de VTiistoire naturelle, writing nearly half 
of the first 10 volumes. He wrote two works 
on Spain, a history of microscopic animals, and 
IShomme, essai zoologique sur le genre humain 
(2 vols., 2d ed., Paris, 1827), the last being one 
of his most original productions. 

BORYSTHENES. See DNIEPER. 

BOS, Lambert, a Dutch philologist, born at 
Workum, Friesland, Nov. 23, 1670, died Jan. 

6, 1717. He was instructed by his father in 
Greek and Latin, and studied philology and 
oriental languages at Franeker, where he be- 
came professor of Greek. His principal works 
are Ellipses Oraecte (1702) and Vetus Testa- 
mentum ex Versione Septuaginta Interpretum 
(1709; new ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 1805). 

BOS, Boseh, or Boson, Micron} inns, surnamed 
the Joyous, a Flemish artist, born at Bois-le- 
Duc after the middle of the 15th century, died 
in the early part of the 16th. Few particulars 
of his life are known. He excelled in painting 
demons, monsters, infernal scenes, and similar 



110 



BOSA 



BOSCOVICH 



fantastic subjects. Among his masterpieces are 
the "Temptation of St. Anthony," the "Flight 
into Egypt," the "Fall of the Angels," the 
" Adoration of the Kings," and the " Triumph 
of Death," mostly preserved in the art galleries 
of Spain, where Bos is believed to have spent 
a part of his life. His gloomy and wildly 
grotesque pictures and engravings were espe- 
cially pleasing to Philip II. 

BOSA, a town of the island of Sardinia, in the 
province of Oagliari, situated at the mouth of 
the river Termo ; pop. 6,300. It is the seat of 
a Catholic bishop, has a college, and a consider- 
able coral fishery. 

BOSBOOM, Johannes, a Dutch painter, born at 
the Hague, Feb. 18, 1817. He studied under 
P. J. van Br6e, and his best works are city 
views and church interiors, including "The 
Tomb of Engelbert II. of Nassau, in the church 
at Breda; " "The Great Church of Amster- 
dam," in the royal gallery at Munich ; " Fran- 
ciscan Monks chanting a Te Denm ; " " The 
Holy Communion in a Protestant Church ; " 
and " The Hall of the Consistory at Nimeguen." 
The last three pictures obtained a medal at the 
Paris exposition of 1855 ; and his " View in the 
Church of Alkmaar " and " Rotterdam Cathe- 
dral " appeared in that of 1867. 

BOSC, Louis Angnstln Gnlllanme, a French natu- 
ralist, born in Paris, Jan. 29, 1759, died there, 
July 10, 1828. He held public offices until the 
reign of terror, when he sought refuge in the 
forest of Fontainebleau. He visited the United 
States in 1796-'8, and contributed much to- 
ward diffusing in France a better knowledge of 
American natural history. He was for some 
time chief director of prisons, went on missions 
to Italy and to the wine districts of France, 
edited an agricultural cyclopedia, wrote exten- 
sively for various publications on natural his- 
tory, with all branches of which he was singu- 
larly conversant, and became professor at the 
zoological garden of Versailles, afterward of 
Paris, and member of the academy. He ac- 
quired additional celebrity by his devotion to 
his former official chief Roland, and to Mme. 
Roland, whose memoirs he saved from destruc- 
tion. After having been the tutor of Mile. 
Roland, he became her guardian at the request 
of her parents, adopted her as his daughter, 
and recovered for her the confiscated property 
of her family. His chief works are: Histoire 
naturelle des coquillet (5 vols., 2d ed., Paris, 
1824) ; Histoire des ten et des Crustacea (2 vols., 
2d ed., 1829) ; and his elaborate and renowned 
descriptions of the French wine districts. 

BOSCAN (BosoAN ALMOOAVEB), Juan, a Span- 
ish poet, born in Barcelona before 1500, died in 
Perpignan about 1543. A patrician by birth, 
he was received at the court of Charles V. in 
Granada, served in the army, superintended for 
some time the education of the famous duke of 
Alva, travelled extensively, was converted to 
Italian forms of versification by Andrea Nava- 
gero, ambassador of Venice in Spain, and be- 
came the founder of a new Spanish school of 



poetry, which has prevailed ever since. He 
wrote Leandro (1540), a long tale in blank 
verse after the model of Bernardo Tasso, 
on the basis of the " Hero and Leander " of 
Musseus. In the same year he translated Cas- 
tiglione's " Courtier," which acquired celebri- 
ty as the most classical Spanish prose work of 
those days. His complete works were pub- 
lished, by his widow in 1543, and consist of 
four books, the first containing poems of the old 
Castilian school, the second and third his poe- 
try after Petrarch and other Italian models, 
and the fourth, " The Allegory," being the most 
original and celebrated of all. Among his 
works are poetical epistles after the manner of 
Horace, pastorals, and eclogues. 

BOSCAWEN, Edward, a British admiral, third 
son of Hugh Boscawen, the first Lord Fal- 
mouth, born in Cornwall, Aug. 19, 1711, died 
near Guilford, Jan. 10, 1761. His mother was 
the daughter of a sister of Marlborough. Enter- 
ing the navy at an early age, he was promoted 
to the rank of captain in 1737. In 1744 he 
captured a French frigate in the channel. He 
commanded all the land and naval forces sent 
to the East Indies in 1748, and the squadron 
employed against the French off Newfoundland 
and at Louisburg in 1758. The next year he 
gained a decisive victory over the French off 
Lagos, capturing three vessels and destroying 
two others. On his return to Spithead with 
his prizes and 2,000 prisoners, he received the 
freedom of the city of Edinburgh, and was 
made governor of the marine forces, with a 
salary of 3,000 a year, after having previously 
occupied the highest positions in the navy and 
the admiralty ; and he also served for many 
years in parliament. Admiral Boscawen, one 
of the bravest of seamen, was styled by Horace 
Walpole the most obstinate of an obstinate 
family. Lord Chatham said : " When I apply 
to other officers respecting any expedition I 
may chance to project, they always raise diffi- 
culties; Boscawen always finds expedients." 

BOSCH, Hieronymns de, a Dutch philologist 
and Latin poet, born in Amsterdam, March 23, 
1740, died in Leyden, June 1, 1811. His 
Poemata (Leyden, 1803) are among the best 
Latin poems of modern times. His great work 
is the Anthologia Graca (4 vols., Utrecht, 
1795-1810; 5th volume by Van Lennep, 1822). 
He was one of the founders of the Dutch in- 
stitute for science and art, and curator of the 
Leyden university. 

BOSCOVICH, Ruggiero Giuseppe, an Italian nat- 
ural philosopher, born at Ragusa, May 18, 
1711, died in Milan, Feb. 12, 1787. He was a 
member of the society-of Jesus, a distinguished 
mathematician and astronomer, and the ori- 
ginator of a system of natural philosophy which 
regards the senses as immediately cognizant, 
not of matter itself, but only of the attractive 
and repelling forces which particles exercise 
upon each other. His Philosophies Naturalix 
Theoria (Vienna, 1758) expounded the doctrine 
of the propagation of pressure through solid 



BOSIO 



BOSNIA 



111 



bodies, and threw much light upon the com- 
paratively new doctrine of cohesion. He was 
for many years professor of mathematics in the 
Roman college, and for six years in the uni- 
versity of Pavia. Subsequently he became pro- 
fessor of astronomy and optics at Milan, where 
he established an observatory. He was em- 
ployed in measuring a degree of the meridian, 
in correcting the maps of the Papal States, 
and in settling boundary questions. He was a 
member of the royal society of London and of 
many other learned bodies at home and abroad. 
After the abolition of his order in. 1773, he 
spent several years in Paris as director of the 
optical department in the navy, receiving a 
pension of 8,000 livres. Vexed by the jealousy 
of D' Alembert and others, he returned to Italy, 
superintended at Bassano the publication of his 
complete works (5 vols., 1785), visited Rome, 
and finally retired to Milan. Among his writ- 
ings on astronomy and other branches of phys- 
ical science are De Maculis Solaribus (1736) 
and De Expeditione ad Dimentiendos Secundi 
Meridiani Gradus (Rome, 1755). His didactic 
poem De Solis aa Lunce Defectibus (London, 
1764) was translated into French by the abb6 
de Barruel (Paris, 1779). He published anno- 
tated editions with supplements of Noceti's 
works on the rainbow and the aurora borealis, 
and of Benedict Stay's poems on the Cartesian 
and other modern philosophical systems. His 
narrative of his journey from Constantinople 
to Poland appeared in French in 1772, in Ger- 
man in 1779, and in Italian in 1784. 

BOSIO, Angiolina, an Italian vocalist, born in 
Turin, Aug. 20, 1829, died in St. Petersburg, 
Aug. 12, 1859. She belonged to a family of 
dramatic artists, studied in Milan under Catta- 
neo, made her debut at Turin in Verdi's I due 
foscari, and afterward sang with great success 
in Copenhagen and Madrid. Her first appear- 
ance in Paris was in Verdi's Nabucco in 1848 ; 
and she acquired celebrity there afterward in 
the same composer's Luisa Miller and in 
Rossini's Moise. She visited Cuba and the 
United States in 1849, and after new triumphs 
in London and other capitals, accepted an en- 
gagement at the Italian opera in St. Peters- 
burg, dying there from a cold in the zenith 
of her fame. Her voice was a pure soprano of 
power and sympathetic quality, and her style 
refined and polished, though she was deficient 
in vehemence. She was married to a gentle- 
man named Xindavelonis. 

BOSIO, Francois Joseph, baron, a French sculp- 
tor, born in Monaco, Italy, March 19, 1769, 
died in Paris, July 29, 1845. Ho studied under 
Pajou, but became to some extent a follower 
of Canova, was employed by Napoleon and by 
the successive Bourbon and Orleans dynasties, 
and was ennobled by Charles X. He executed 
the bass reliefs of the column on the place Ven- 
dome, the equestrian statue on the place des 
Victoires, and many other works in France 
and Italy, among the best known of which are 
those connected with the mausoleum of the 
111 TOL. m. 8 



countess Demidoff in Pere-la-Chaise. He was 
a member and eventually director of the Paris 
academy of fine arts. 
BOSJESMANS. See BUSHMEN. 
BOSNA-SERAI, or Serayevo, a city of European 
Turkey, capital of the province of Bosnia, at the 
confluence of the rivers Miliatchka and Bosna, 
in lat. 43 52' N., Ion. 18 40' E., 560 m. N W. 
of Constantinople ; pop. about 60,000. It is sur- 
rounded by a wall of no considerable strength, 
and has a citadel with fortresses out of repair. 
The houses are mostly of wood. There are 
about 100 mosques, several schools, a number 
of Greek, and four Roman Catholic churches. 
The majority of the inhabitants are Moslems ; 
the rest are Greeks, Catholics, and Jews. The 
Jews have a considerable part of the commerce. 
Bosna-Serai is a great entrepot of traffic be- 
tween Turkey, Dalmatia, and Croatia; it ex- 
ports leather, hides, wool, goats' hair, cattle, 
and smoked fish, and imports cotton and wool- 
len stuifs, silks, lace, paper, salt, glassware, and 
jewelry. It has manufactures of leather, cot- 
ton, woollen, iron, copper, cutlery, and fire- 
arms. The city was founded by the Hungarians 
about 1263 under the name of Bosznavar. It 
derives its present surname Serai (palace) from 
a palace built in 1530 by Khosrev Bey, the 
governor of Bosnia. Prince Eugene captured 
the town in 1697, but was unable to take pos- 
session of the citadel. 

BOSNIA (properly BOSNA; Turkish, Bosh- 
maili), the extreme N. W. province or vilayet 
of European Turkey, lying between lat. 42 30' 
and 45 15' N. and Ion. 15 40' and 21 10' E., 
comprising Bosnia proper, Herzegovina, and 
Turkish Croatia; area estimated from 22,500 
to 24,450 sq. m. ; pop. about 1,100,000. It is 
bounded N. W. and N. by Austrian Croatia and 
the Military Frontier, E. by Servia, S. by Pris- 
rend, Albania, and Montenegro, and W. by Dal- 
matia and the Adriatic. The surface is moun- 
tainous, the elevations ranging from 3,000 to' 
8,000 ft. A branch of the Dinaric Alps forms 
the watershed between the tributaries of the 
Danube and the rivers flowing S. The moun- 
tains consist chiefly of limestone of secondary 
formation, together with sandstone and shales 
of the carboniferous system ; and it is also said 
that beds of coal are general throughout the 
country. The valleys are well watered. The 
chief rivers are the Save on the N. frontier, and 
its affluents the Unna, Verbas, Bosna, and Drina, 
and the Narenta, which flows into the Adriatic. 
The mountains are densely covered with for- 
ests. Sheep, goats, pigs, and Voultry are rais- 
ed in great numbers, but cattle and horses are 
neglected. The chief food is wheat and maize ; 
barley, hay, hemp, &c., are cultivated to some 
extent. In Herzegovina tobacco, rice, oil, wine, 
figs, and pomegranates are produced. The cul- 
ture of fruit is important, 300,000 quintals of 
prunes alone being produced annually. Fish- 
eries are active, chiefly in the Bosna and Na- 
renta rivers. The great mineral wealth of the 
country is undeveloped, but a few mines of 



112 



BOSNIA 



BOSPORUS 



lead, iron, and mercury are worked. The 
chief manufactures are cutlery and firearms. 
Among the exports are staves, timber, agri- 
cultural products, wool, honey, and wax. The 
total value of imports is about $5,000,000, 
a great part of which consists of salt. Most 
of the merchandise comes from Constanti- 
nople and Sophia, to Bosna-Serai or Sera- 
yevo ; hut commerce is much impeded by bad 
roads, imposts, monopolies, and the sand banks 
and trunks of trees in the rivers, which render 
navigation almost impossible. The most im- 
portant towns are the capital, Bosna-Serai, 
Banialuka, Travnik, Mostar, Fotcha, and Novi- 
Bazar. Of importance in a military point of 
view are the fortresses Sienitza, Vishegrad, 
near the frontier of Servia, Nikshity, near the 
frontier of Montenegro, Bielina, and Trebinye, 
the last on the main road leading to Eagusa. 
The towns are generally divided into three 




Bosnians. 

parts: the fortress, the city proper, surround- 
ed by walls and having the gates closed at 
night, and the quarter occupied by the lower 
classes. Nearly the whole population belongs 
to the southern Slavs, who entered the coun- 
try in the 7th century and dislodged the Illy- 
Han race, which was probably identical with 
the Albanian. A remnant of the Albanian ele- 
ment, numbering about 30,000 souls, is found 
in the S. E. corner of the country. The pre- 
vailing language is a dialect of the Servian. The 
majority of the population are Christians, 431,- 
000 belonging to the Orthodox Greek and 192,- 
000 to the Roman Catholic church. There are 
about 5,000 Jews and 8,000 gypsies. The Mo- 
hammedans, 418,000 in number, are nearly all 
descendants of Slavs who embraced Islamism 
in order to preserve their estates, and include 
the wealthier part of the population, chiefly in 
the towns. A large portion of the commerce 



of the country is in their hands. They com- 
prise the beys, nobility, agas (land owners), 
and spahis, the descendants of the nobility 
whose ancestors were invested with fiefs at the 
time of the conquest. Their vassals pay them 
a tribute, and in war they form a cavalry of 
reserve. The Bosnians, especially the Chris- 
tians, are hospitable, pious, and brave, but iras- 
cible and vindictive. The head of the family has 
a patriarchal jurisdiction over it, and his wife or 
son's wife has sole management of the house. 
The people are generally but little instructed ; 
they have some knowledge of mechanics and 
of the elements of medicine, but scarcely any 
literature. There were formerly printing presses 
at Milesevo and Goradye, where church books 
in Slavic were printed as early as 1531. 
Bosnia anciently belonged partly to Lower 
Pannonia and partly to Illyricum. In the 7th 
century the country was invaded by the Slavs. 
In the 12th and 13th centuries it belonged to 
Hungary. In 1339 it passed into the hands of 
the Servian king Stephen, after whose death it 
formed an independent government till 1370, 
when one of the chieftains, Ban Tvartko, seized 
the reins of power as king of Bosnia. At the be- 
ginning of the 15th century Turkey asserted its 
claims upon the province, finally annexing it in 
1528; since then, however, the native nobil- 
ity have frequently caused disturbances, espe- 
cially in 1850 and 1851. The legal contin- 
gent of Bosnia in the Turkish army is 80,000, 
but it actually consists of only about 30,000. 
In 1857-'8 an insurrection of the peasantry 
took place at Tuzla against the exactions of 
the tax gatherers and beys. After an encoun- 
ter with the troops they took refuge in Aus- 
trian territory, but returned upon a proclama- 
tion of amnesty. In 1861 another insurrection 
took place, and before it could be put down the 
war in Montenegro broke out, peace not being 
restored in Bosnia till after the suppression of 
the rebellion in the former country. A con- 
ference was held by the consuls of the Euro- 
pean powers, but without any salutary effects. 
In May, 1863, an Austrian and Ottoman mixed 
commission met at Livno to define the boun- 
daries between Bosnia and Dalmatia. During 
the administration of Osman Pasha, 1860-'68, 
Bosnia enjoyed peace and made considerable 
progress. A railway has been in course of 
construction since 1870 from Banialuka to the 
frontier near Novi, as the first section of the 
great line from the Austrian frontier to Con- 
stantinople. 

BOSPORUS (Gr. Watropoc, ox-ford). I. Called 
by the ancients the Thracian, and by the Turks 
Istambul Boghazi, the strait joining the Black 
sea and the sea of Marmora, between Euro- 
pean and Asiatic Turkey; so named either 
from the legend of lo, who after being meta- 
morphosed into a heifer passed over the chan- 
nel, or because the strait is so narrow that 
an ox can swim across. It is about 16 m. 
long ; its greatest width is about 2 m., and its 
narrowest part, near the middle, only a little 



BOSPOKUS 



BOSQUET 



113 




Castles of Europe and Asia. 



over ^ m - There are in this channel surface 
currents and undercurrents, the former flowing 
southward except during the prevalence of S. 
winds, and the latter flowing northward to 
the Black sea. In the narrowest part the 
current is very strong. Here are the castles 
of Europe and Asia, Eum-Ili Hissar on the 
European side, huilt by Mohammed II. in 1451, 
andAnadoli Hissar on the Asiatic side, previous- 
ly erected by Mohammed I. The sides of the 
channel are steep wooded cliffs, studded with 
ruins of all ages and gay buildings of the 
present day. According to tradition, confirm- 
ed by geological testimony, this strait was 
formed by the bursting of the barriers of the 
Black sea. It was anciently and is still famous 
for its extensive tunny fisheries. Constanti- 
nople and Scutari lie on the opposite shores of 
the southern entrance. From the former city 
the strait is frequently called the strait of Con- 
stantinople. II. Called by the ancients the 
Cimmerian, and now the strait of Kertch or 
Yenikale, formerly of Kaffa or Feodosia, the 
strait connecting the Black sea and the sea of 
Azov. It is wider and shallower than that 
of Constantinople. III. An ancient kingdom, 
comprising the country on both sides of the 
Cimmerian Bosporus, founded in 502 B. 0. by 
the Archmnactidse, a native Cimmerian dy- 
nasty, who were succeeded about 440 by a 
Greek dynasty, beginning with Spartacus I. 
The capital was Panticapseum (now Kertch) in 
the Tauric Chersonesus (Crimea). Under a 
later Spartacus (353-348) the limits of the king- 
dom on the Asiatic side were enlarged, Theo- 
dosia (Kaffa), on the European, having been an- 
nexed under his predecessor, Leucon I., in 360. 
About 280 Leucanor became tributary to the 
Scythians. These latter became so exacting 



that Parysades II., the last of the Leuconides, 
placed himself under the protection of Mith- 
ridates the Great of Pontus, who defeated 
the Scythians, and after the death of Parysa- 
des took possession of Bosporus and placed his 
own son Machares on its throne. After his 
death and that of his father (63 B. C.) the Ro- 
mans appointed his brother Pharnaces to suc- 
ceed him, and after his overthrow by Caasar 
several other princes who professed to belong 
to the family of Mithridates. When the line 
became wholly extinct in A. D. 259, the Sar- 
matians took possession of the country. It 
later formed part of the Eastern empire til' 
its conquest by the Khazars, and was after- 
ward taken by the Tartars. 

BOSQCE, a central county of Texas, bounded 
E. by the Brazos river, and watered by North 
Bosqne creek, and other affluents of the Bra- 
zos; area, 905 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,981, of 
whom 528 were colored. The surface is hilly 
or undulating; about one third of it is cov- 
ered with forests of oak, live oak, and cedar. 
The soil is a dark loam resting on bases of hard 
blue limestone. The chief productions in 1870 
were 38,665 bushels of wheat, 260,946 of corn, 
and 2,165 bales of cotton. There were 8,071 
horses, 4,829 milch cows, 21,022 other cattle, 
5, 607 sheep, and 8,971 swine. Capital, Meridian. 

BOSQUET, Pierre Joseph Francois, a French 
soldier, born at Mont de Marsan, Nov. 8, 1810, 
died Feb. 5, 1861. He was educated at the 
polytechnic school of Paris and the military 
school at Metz, and acquired distinction in Al- 
geria, attaining in 1848 the rank of general of 
brigade, and was wounded in the campaign 
against the Kabyles in 1851. In the Crimea 
he had the command of the second division, and 
was prominent in the battles of the Alma and 



114 



BOSSI 



BOSSUET 



of Inkerman, in the latter of which but for his 
succor the English would have been crushed 
by the Russians. As chief of the corps des- 
tined to cover the allied forces on the slope of 
the Tcheraaya, he constantly displayed quick- 
ness, vigilance, and activity, and took part in 
the storming of the Malakhoff, after which he 
was made a senator and a marshal. In 1858 
he was appointed commander -of the S. W. 
military division, but, disabled by the wounds 
received at Sebastopol, he was obliged to re- 
frain from active duties. 

BOSSI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, born at 
Busto-Arsizio in August, 1777, died in Milan, 
Dec. 15, 1815. He studied at the Brera acade- 
my and in Rome, and on his return to Milan 
became secretary of the academy of fine arts, 
and afterward president of that institution and 
of those of Venice and Bologna. In 1801 he 
won a first prize for a picture commemorating 
the conclusion of peace, and in 1805 he exhib- 
ited various works, the best of which was a large 
cartoon representing the Italian Parnassus, 
which is in the museum of Milan. For Eugene 
de Beauharnais he executed a celebrated copy 
of Leonardo da Vinci's Gena, and published in 
1810, as the result of his investigations relating 
to this famous masterpiece, Libri quattro sul 
Cenacolo di Leonardo da Vinci. lie also par- 
ticipated in the biography of Leonardo da Vinci, 
and left an unfinished work on Lombard paint- 
ers and several poetical effusions. He greatly 
enlarged and improved the Brera museum and 
Ambrosian library, and in the latter was placed 
a monument to him, with a bass relief and a 
colossal bust by Oanova, executed by order of 
the academy. He was regarded as one of the 
most eminent painters of the modern Lombard 
school. 

BOSSI, Ginseppe Carlo Anrello, baron de, an 
Italian poet and diplomatist, born in Turin, Nov. 
15, 1758, died in Paris, Jan. 20, 1823. The 
son of a Sardinian count, he acquired the title 
of baron in the French service. He produced 
several plays in his youth, studied law, and 
after a short banishment in 1781 was employed 
in the foreign ministry and in diplomacy. He 
was Sardinian minister plenipotentiary in St. 
Petersburg in 1797, when Paul I. on hearing of 
the Sardinian-French treaty sent him his pass- 
ports, after which he became very prominent 
as envoy to Napoleon, and finally, with Carlo 
Giulio and Carlo Botta, was one of the three ad- 
ministrators or triumvirs of Sardinia (called in 
France the three Charleses) during the unsettled 
period preceding the annexation to France. He 
joined the French service in 1805, and became 
prefect of the department of Ain, and after- 
ward of La Manche. His devotion to the em- 
peror during the hundred days caused him to 
be removed from office after the second resto- 
ration. It was mainly due to his influence that 
England, supported by Prussia, successfully in- 
terfered in Sardinia in behalf of the Waldenses. 
He was the first to give a dramatic fervor af- 
ter the manner of Pindar to the Italian ode. 



Among his lyrics, which have been collected 
in 3 volumes (Paris, 1799-1801 ; 2d ed., Lon- 
don, 181G), are VIndipendema americana 
(1785), La Olanda pacificata (in two cantos, 
1788), and Oromasia (on the French revolution, 
12 cantos, 1805-'12). 

BOSSI, Lnlgi, count, an Italian historian and 
archaeologist, born in Milan, Feb. 28, 1758, died 
there, April 10, 1835. He studied jurispru- 
dence and natural sciences in Pavia, and became 
Bonaparte's agent in Turin, and after the an- 
nexation of Sardinia to France keeper of the 
Italian archives. He was the author of over 
80 works on archffiological, scientific, and his- 
torical subjects, including Storia delta Spagna 
(8 vols., 1821), htoria tfltalia (19 vols., 1819- 
'23), Introduzione olio studio delle arti del 
disegno, and a volume of dramas, besides con- 
tributions to periodicals and academical annals. 
He also published an elaborate edition in Ital- 
ian of Roscoe's "Life of Leo X." (12 vols., 
Milan, 1816-'17). 

BOSSIER, a N. W. parish of Louisiana, bor- 
dering on Arkansas, bounded E. and S. E. by 
Dauchite river and Bistineau lake, and S. W. and 
W. by Red river; area, l,066sq.m. ; pop. in!870, 
12,675, of whom 3,505 were colored. Badeau 
lake is in this parish. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 287,660 bushels of Indian corn, 
11,422 of sweet potatoes, and 13,506 bales of 
cotton. There were 1,553 horses, 1,564 mules 
and asses, 2,788 milch cows, 4,401 other cattle, 
1,917 sheep, and 9,994 swine. Capital, Bellevue. 

BOSSl'ET, Jacques Benlgne, a French prelate, 
born at Dijon, Sept. 27, 1627, died in Paris, 
April 12, 1704. He came of a family of law- 
yers, received his early education at the Jesuit 
college of Dijon, and thence was removed to 
the college of Navarre in Paris, where he soon 
attracted attention by his rapid progress in 
learning and his eloquence. It was said that 
he had formed a matrimonial engagement with 
Mile, des Vieux, but that it was broken off in 
order that he might enter the church, though 
they never ceased to be friends, and he even- 
tually provided her with a country seat near 
Paris, where she spent the rest of her life, pro- 
longed - till nearly her 100th year. He was or- 
dained in 1652, spent some time under the in- 
fluence of St. Vincent de Paul at Saint Lazare, 
declined the directorship of the college of Na- 
varre (which he assumed, however, at a later 
period), and accepted the modest office of canon 
at Metz, relieving his arduous life of study and 
controversy with the Protestants by preaching 
occasionally in Paris. The sermons which he 
delivered there in 1659 created a deep impres- 
sion. He never repeated a sermon, and spoke 
with little preparation excepting a rough draft 
of the leading points of his discourse. His style 
was picturesque, dramatic, and at times abrupt; 
the flow of his language was easy, and his 
presence was magnetic. For many years, and 
especially from 1660 to 1C69, he was frequently 
summoned to Paris to preach the Lent and 
Advent series, and for occasional solemn!- 



BOSSUET 



BOSTAN 



115 



ties, addressing larger congregations and with 
greater effect than any other pulpit orator 
in that capital. Among his eulogies of saints, 
that of St. Paul is his masterpiece. He es- 
pecially excelled in funeral orations, though 
he was too much inclined to idealize the sub- 
jects of his panegyrics. The most admired 
were those on Henrietta Maria, widow of 
Charles I. ; on the great Conde ; on Anne, 
princess Palatine ; and above all, on the duchess 
of Orleans, whose misfortunes and whose mys- 
terious death lent additional interest to his dis- 
course. The oration which he delivered on 
the duchess de la Valliere's taking the veil was 
another of his fine efforts. In 1669 he received 
the bishopric of Oondom, hut he never entered 
upon its duties, and relinquished the title and 
revenues in 1670, when Louis XIV. intrusted 
to him the education of the dauphin. For the 
special instruction of his pupil he wrote his 
Discours sur Vhistoire universelle, De la eon- 
noissance de Dieu et de soi-meme, and La po- 
litique tiree des propres paroles de VEcriture 
Sainte ; the first showing the omnipresence of 
God in history, the second applying religious 
principles to philosophy according to the ideas 
of Descartes, and the third sustaining absolu- 
tism in politics. His Exposition de la foi ca- 
tholique, said to have been written (1671) espe- 
cially for the conversion of Turenne, weaned the 
latter and other eminent persons from the Re- 
formed church. Thiswork, translated into many 
languages, was sanctioned by two papal briefs 
(1678-'9), and by the Gallican clergy in 1682, 
and finally gave rise to the memorable con- 
ference between Bossuet and the Protestant 
divine Claude. In 1671 he was admitted to the 
academy ; and having finished the education of 
the dauphin, he was named almoner of the duch- 
ess of Burgundy, and in 1681 bishop of Meaux. 
In 1682, in his opening address at the extra- 
ordinary convocation of the Gallican clergy, he 
attempted to reconcile his devotion to the ab- 
solute power of the king with that to the holy 
see, proclaiming the " indefectibility " of the 
latter, while contesting the infallibility of the 
pope personally. His influence resulted in the 
adoption of the four celebrated articles of the 
Gallican church. The fourth article, claiming 
that, "although the pope had the principal 
voice in matters of faith, his decisions were 
still not irrevocable, at least if they were not 
confirmed by the consent of the church," was 
regarded as an attack upon the supremacy of 
the pope, and exposed him to charges of heresy. 
His Histoire des variations des figlises pro- 
testantes (2 vols.), first published in 1688, 
though circulated in MS. since 1685, is his 
most important controversial work. He stren- 
uously denounced the quietism of his friend 
Madame Guyon, as well as of his former dis- 
ciple Fenelon, in his Relation du Quietisme, and 
procured the latter's removal from court and 
the condemnation at Eome of his Maximes des 
laintes. Though he was in friendly and pro- 
tracted correspondence with Leibnitz (1691- 



1700) on the subject of a treaty for the union of 
the Reformed and Catholic churches, and though 
his biographer, Cardinal de Bausset, claims for 
him the gratitude of Protestants, it is uncertain 
whether he did or did not countenance the re- 
vocation of the edict of Nantes, and the subse- 
quent persecutions of the Protestants. His ac- 
tivity was prodigious ; he attended to the affairs 
of his diocese and to his duties at the court, 
while engaged in controversies, in writing and 
preaching, and in works of charity and piety. 
The last two years of his life were spent in 
comparative retirement owing to a painful 
disease (the gravel) from which he died. He 
was called by La Bruyere one of the fathers of 
the church, and by Henri Martin the Corneille 
of the pulpit, but was more generally known 
as the eagle of Meaux. He left an immense 
correspondence, including that with Leibnitz. 
Among his works not yet mentioned are his 
Maximes sur la comedie, condemnatory of the- 
atres, and Commentaire sur I' Apocalypse, which 
he interprets as predicting the fall of the 
Roman empire. There are many more or less 
complete editions of his writings, and several 
new and complete ones are in progress. The 
oldest is that of 1747-'53, in 20 vols. Those 
of 1825 (60 vols. 12mo) and of 1835-'7 (12 
vols. large 8vo) are regarded as among the best. 
The edition prepared by the Benedictines in 
48 vols. (1815 et seg.) includes the Histoire de 
Bossuet (4 vols., Paris, 1814), by Cardinal Louis 
Francois de Bausset, who was also the biogra- 
pher of Fenelon. Among his other biographers 
in France was Burigny (Paris, 1761), and in 
England, Charles Butler (London, 1812). The 
best biography is the Histoire de J. B. Bos- 
suet et de e otuvres, by Reaume (1 vol., 
Paris, 1869). New light is thrown npon his 
life and achievements by the Memoires et Jour- 
nal sur la me et les outrages de Bossuet (Paris, 
1856-'7), after autograph MSS., edited by the 
abbe Guettee, with an introduction and anno- 
tations of the abbe Le Dieu, who was Bossuet's 
secretary from 1699 to 1704. They represent 
Bossnet as genial in his manners, and always 
preserving his serenity of temper, excepting in 
his animosity against Fenelon. 

BOSSIT, Charles, a French mathematician, born 
at Tarare, Aug. 11, 1730, died Jan. 14, 1814. 
He studied under D'Alembert, became his col- 
laborator in the Eneyclopedie, and was admit- 
ted to the academy in 1768, after which the 
king founded for him a chair of hydrodynam- 
ics. He published Mecanique en general, Cours 
complet des mathematiques, and Essai sur Vhis- 
toire generale des mathematiques. The last, 
published in 1802, was his masterpiece. He 
wrote also on navigation, astronomy, physics, 
and history, and prepared an edition of Pascal's 
works, with an essay on his life and writings. 

BOSTAN, or Al-Bostan (Arab., the garden), a 
town of Asiatic Turkey, on the Sihun (Sarus), 
and on the N. side of Mount Taurus, 40 m. 
N. W. of Marash ; pop. about 9,000. It is sit- 
uated in a well watered and well cultivated 



116 



BOSTON 



plain, whence its name. It contains several 
mosques, is surrounded by many villages de- 
pendent upon its authority, and trades exten- 
sively in wheat with the Turkomans. It is 
generally supposed that Bostan is on or near 
the site of the ancient Oappadocian city of 
Comana. 

BOSTON, a game played by four persons, with 
two packs of cards. The cards are never shuf- 
fled ; one of the packs is dealt, and the other 
cut alternately to determine the trump. The 
dealer gives five cards to each player twice, 
and three the last time around. If the first 
player can make five tricks, he says, "I go 
Boston ; " and his competitors may overbid 
him by saying, "I go 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, or 
13," as the hand of each may warrant. Should 
either of them fail to make the number of 
tricks he "bids" for, he must pay to each 
competitor a forfeit regulated by a card of 
prices prepared beforehand. Boston is the 
most complicated of all games of cards. It is 
said to have been introduced into France by 
Franklin, and was called after his native city. 

BOSTON, the capital of the commonwealth of 
Massachusetts and of Suffolk county, the chief 
city of New England, and the seventh of the 
United States in point of population, situated 
in lat. 42 21' 24" N., Ion. 71 3' 58" W., at the 
western extremity of Massachusetts bay. The 
city embraces Boston proper, East Boston, 
South Boston, Roxbury, and Dorchester. Bos- 
ton proper, or old Boston, occupies a peninsula, 
joined to the mainland on the south by a nar- 
row strip of land known as the Neck, which 
was once overflowed by the tide, but has been 
raised and widened. The surface is very un- 
even, and originally presented three hills, Bea- 
con, Oopp's, and Fort (whence the early name 
of the peninsula, Trimountain), the first of 
which is about 130 ft. above the sea. Fort 
hill has recently been levelled, while the ele- 
vation of Copp's hill has been much reduced. 
East Boston occupies the W. portion of the 
island formerly known as Noddle's island, but 
more commonly bearing the name of Maverick, 
from Samuel Maverick, who lived there in 1630. 
It is equidistant from old Boston and Charles- 
town, and has a hilly surface. South Boston 
extends about 2 m. along the S. side of the 
harbor, an arm of which separates it from Bos- 
ton proper. Near the centre are Dorchester 
heights, which attain an elevation of about 130 
ft. above the ocean, and afford a fine view of 
the city, bay, and surrounding country. The 
surface of Eoxbury and Dorchester in many 
places is rugged and hilly. The original limits 
of Boston embraced but 690 acres ; 1,700 acres 
were acquired by the addition of South and 
East Boston, and by filling the surrounding 
flats; 2,100 by the annexation of Roxbury; 
4,800 by the annexation of Dorchester; and 
880 by filling flats in other places ; making the 
present area 10,170 acres. The city is con- 
nected with Charlestown by the Charles river 
bridge, 1,603 ft. long, and the Warren bridge, 



1,390 ft. long; and with Cambridge by the 
West Boston bridge, which crosses Charles 
river from Cambridge street, Boston, and is 
2,756 ft. long, with a causeway of 3,482 ft. 
Craigie's bridge, 2,796 ft. long, extends from 
Leverett street to East Cambridge ; from this 
bridge another, 1,820 ft. in length, extends to 
Prison point, Charlestown. South Boston is 
reached by the Federal street bridge, about 500 
ft. long, and the South Boston bridge, 1,550 
ft. long, extending from the Neck to South 
Boston. These bridges are all free. The West- 
ern avenue, or Milldam road, has been con- 
structed upon a substantial dam across the 
Back bay from the foot of Beacon street to 
Sewall's point, in Brookline. It is about li 
m. long, from 60 to 100 ft. wide, and is a popu- 
lar resort for driving. Boston is unsurpassed 
in the beauty of its suburbs, which embrace 
the cities of Charlestown, Chelsea, Somerville, 
and Cambridge, and the towns of Revere, 
Brighton, Brookline, Winthrop, and others. 
These places contain many handsome residences 
of persons doing business in Boston. The har- 
bor is a spacious indentation of Massachusetts 
bay, the mouth of which lies between Point 
Alderton on Nantasket and Shirley in Chelsea. 
It embraces about 75 sq. m., and includes sev- 
eral arms, such as Dorchester bay, South Bos- 
ton bay, and the embouchures of Charles, 
Mystic, and Neponset rivers. A part of Charles 
river is commonly known as the Back bay. 
There are more than 50 islands or islets in the 
harbor. Boston light stands on Lighthouse 
island. Its top is 98 ft. above the sea, and 
is fitted with a revolving light which can be 
seen at a distance of 16 m. Northerly from 
the lighthouse runs a chain of islands, rocks, 
and ledges, 3 m. long, to the Graves. George's 
island commands the open sea, and Fort War- 
ren, a very strong fortification, is built on it, 
the island being national property. Castle 
island (so called from a fortress which was 
erected there in 1633, and which subsequently 
was rebuilt and called Castle William in honor 
of William III.) lies further up the harbor, and 
is the site of Fort Independence. Governor's 
island is a mile to the north of Castle island, 
and Fort Winthrop, an uncompleted fortifica- 
tion, stands there. This island passed into the 
possession of John Winthrop in 1632, and for a 
long time was known as "the governor's gar- 
den." It is still in the possession of the Win- 
throp family, except that portion of it which has 
been ceded to the national government. Long 
island, which also has a lighthouse, is large, 
and attempts have been made to render it a 
place of residence, but with little success. Deer 
island is now occupied by city institutions, and 
Rainsford island by state hospitals. On Thomp- 
son's island is the Boston asylum and farm school 
for indigent boys. The main entrance to the har- 
bor is between Castle and Governor's islands ; 
it is very narrow, and is defended by Forts Inde- 
pendence and Warren. Deer island, comprising 
1 34 acres of upland and 34 acres of flats, Thomp- 



BOSTON 



117 




View of Boston from the Harbor. 



son's, Great Brewster (16 acres), Galloupe's 
(16 acres), and Apple islands (9^ acres) belong 
to the city. The growth of Boston for two 
centuries was not rapid. There are no exact 
figures for her population during the first four 
generations of her existence. It is supposed to 
have been 7,000 at the close of the 17th cen- 
tury. In 1742 it was placed at 18,000, pro- 
bably an exaggeration. In 1764-'5, during 
the administration of Gov. Bernard, the first 
colonial census was taken, and under it the 
population of Boston was returned at 15,520. 
Mr. Bancroft says the population was " about 
16,000 of European origin" at the close of 
1768; and Mr. Frothingham puts it at about 
17,000 in 1774. If the returns under the 
census of 1764-'5 were correctly made, Boston 
was 40 years in doubling her population after 
that date. The revolution, and the troubles 
which followed it, retarded her growth. Down 
to 1790 Boston did not increase so fast in num- 
bers as the colony, province, or state of which 
she was or is the capital. The population from 
that date is shown by the federal censuses as 
follows: 1790, 18,038; 1800, 24,937; 1810, 
33,250; 1820, 43,298; 1830, 61,392; 1840, 
93,383; 1850, 136,881; I860, 177,840; 1870, 
250,526. The increase during the last decade 
is largely due to the annexation of Roxbury in 
1867, which now constitutes the 13th, 14th, 
and loth wards, containing 34,772 inhabitants, 
and of Dorchester in 1869, now forming the 
16th ward, with 12,259 inhabitants. The 
character of the population has much changed 
during the last 30 years. Formerly it contain- 
ed but few foreigners. In 1870 there were 
162,540 native, 87,986 foreign, 247,013 white, 
and 3,496 colored. Of the native population, 
127,617 were born in Massachusetts; of the 



foreign, 56,900 were natives of Ireland, 13,818 
of British America, 5,978 of England, 5,606 of 
Germany, 1,795 of Scotland, and 615 of France. 
Of the total population, 17,487 over 10 years 
of age were unable to read and 23,420 over 10 
years of age were unable to write; of the 
latter, 21,993 were foreign and 1,427 native- 
born. The legal division of the city is into 16 
wards, but usage has divided it into certain 
districts. North Boston, or " the North End," 
is the oldest part of the place, and still retains 
much of the irregular appearance that charac- 
terized it in colonial times. Many old build- 
ings yet stand there, but change is steadily 
going on. The North End comprises the larger 
portion of the Boston which makes so grand 
a figure in our revolutionary history. West 
Boston is mostly new, and contains the " fash- 
ionable quarter " of the town. It lies between 
Canal street and the Common, and west of Tre- 
mont and Hanover streets. It contains many 
public edifices, among which are the state 
house, the city hall, and the building of the 
Boston Athensum. Most of the houses are of 
brick or stone, and many are costly and ele- 

fant. It contains many historical sites. " The 
outh End " included before the annexation all 
that part of Boston which lies to the south of 
Winter and Summer streets, and running to 
Roxbury, now known as Boston Highlands. 
South Boston was originally the N. E. part of 
the town of Dorchester, and was annexed to 
Boston in 1804, except Washington Village, 
which was annexed in 1855. It has increased 
rapidly, and its appearance is strikingly differ' 
ent from that of old Boston, being open, airy, 
and cheerful. It forms ward 12, and contains 
19,880 inhabitants. East Boston dates from 
1832. Together with the islands in the bar- 



118 



BOSTON 



bor, it forms ward 1, and contains 23,824 in- 
habitants. It is a place of much enterprise, 
and is united by the Grand Junction railroad 
with all the railroads that proceed from the 
city. The depot of the Grand Junction is con- 
nected with the wharves, which have great 
depth of water. The water frontage is almost 
20,000 ft., and the wharves are the best in the 
city. Two lines of steamships for Liverpool 
have their berths there. Ship building is one 
of its most important branches of business. 
It has extensive elevators for transferring to 
vessels grain brought from the west in cars, 
and ample facilities for loading and unloading 
foreign steamers and for the reception and de- 
spatch of immigrants. During the six months 
ending with March, 1872, 14,558 cars with 
139,187 tons of merchandise were received 
here, and 11,127 cars with 114,128 tons of 
freight were forwarded. During the same 
period more than 1,000,000 bushels of grain 
were received at the elevator, and 617,826 
bushels were exported. A large portion of the 
city west of the Common, known as the Back 
Bay, consists of made land, and has already 
become the most beautiful and fashionable 
quarter. In 1852 the commonwealth began 
to fill in these flats, and the proceeds of sales 
of this made land up to January, 1872, amount- 
ed to $3,591,514, and the total expenditure to 
$1,547,220. About 500,000 feet of land still 
remain unsold, and it is expected that $1,600,- 
000 profit will be realized from the improve- 
ment. Extending westerly from the public 
garden through this district is Commonwealth 
avenue, which when completed will be 1 m. 
long with a width of 240 ft. Through the 
centre runs a long park with rows of trees, 
while on either side are wide driveways. 
Many of the finest churches in the city, 
as well as private residences, have recently 
been erected in this quarter; among the public 
buildings are those of the Boston society of 
natural history and the institute of technology. 
The streets here are wide, regularly laid out, 
and present a handsome appearance; but in 
the older parts of the city, especially in the 
North End and the West End, they are ex- 
ceedingly irregular. Some are very short, 
many very narrow, and most of them very 
crooked. Great improvements, however, have 
been made in the older parts of Boston by 
widening and raising streets. The most impor- 
tant of these improvements were made in 
Tremont street, south of Boylston street, and 
in Hanover and Devonshire streets. After the 
great fire of 1872 the streets burned over were 
improved by widening and straightening. The 
principal thoroughfare for general retail stores 
is Washington street, which extends S. W. in a 
very irregular line from Cornhill to Roxbury, 
a distance of more than 2 m. An ordinance has 
been passed for its extension northerly. The 
district bounded by State, Court, Tremont, 
Boylston, and Essex streets may be regarded 
as the business section of the city. The finan- 



cial centre is State street, the headquarters of 
the bankers and brokers. Pearl street has 
been the largest boot and shoe market in the 
world, while Franklin, Chauncey, Summer, and 
the neighboring streets are noted for the great 
establishments that make Boston the leading 
market of the country for American dry goods. 
Boston has 120 hotels, 13 markets, 70 public 
halls, and 16 free public baths, of which 5 are 
for females. Gas is furnished by 7 gas compa- 
nies, and the streets are lighted by 5,505 gas 
and 1,192 oil lamps. The city in 1872 con- 
tained 27,457 dwelling houses, 2,670 stores, and 
2,690 miscellaneous buildings. There are 257,- 
563,351 square feet of vacant land applicable 
to building purposes, valued at $31,546,300, 
and 78,061,539 square feet of marsh land and 
flats, valued at $2,630,100. The most celebra- 
ted public building is Faneuil hall, the " cradle 
of liberty," in Dock square, which has a his- 




Faneull Hall. 

torical reputation, because of the meetings of 
the revolutionary patriots that were there held. 
Most of the Boston political meetings are held 
in it now, when they are meant to be of a 
comprehensive character. The building was 
erected in 1742 by Peter Faneuil, a gentleman 
of Huguenot descent, and by him given to the 
town. It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1761. 
Rebuilt, and enlarged in 1805, it now covers 
nearly twice its first area. The hall is 76 ft. 
square end 28 ft. high. It is adorned with 
portraits of eminent Americans, conspicuous 
among which is an original one of Washington 
by Stuart. Among the other paintings are a 
full length of Peter Faneuil (a copy), Healy's 
picture of Webster replying to Hayne, and 
portraits of Samuel Adams, John Quincy 
Adams, Edward Everett, Abraham Lincoln, 
and John A. Andrew. The room over the hall 
is used by military companies for drill. The 
basement, which formerly was a market, is now 
a series of stores. The state house, in Beacon 



BOSTON 



119 



street, near the centre of the city, with its 
dome 50 ft. in diameter and 30 ft. high, 110 
ft. above the hill on which it stands and 230 ft. 
above the water of the harbor, is the most 




State House. 

conspicuous edifice in Boston. It was com- 
menced in 1793, when Samuel Adams was gov- 
ernor, and was finished and occupied in Jan- 
uary, 1798. Its form is oblong, 173 ft. front 
by 61 deep. The land was purchased by the 
city of Boston of the Hancock family, and 
given to the state. It was then known as " Gov. 
Hancock's pasture." The view from the dome 
is very fine, as it includes the harbor with the 
ocean beyond, an immense extent of country 
in various directions, covered with towns and 
villages, and the Blue hills of Milton. The 
hall of the house of representatives, the senate 
chamber, the rooms of the governor and coun- 
cil, the offices of the secretary of state, state 
treasurer, adjutant general, and auditor, and 
the state library, together with some minor 
offices, are in the state house. Large addi- 
tions have been made to the state house since 
1852, for the accommodation of the govern- 
ment ; in 1866-'7 it was remodelled inside. On 
the terrace in front of the state house are 
statues of Daniel Webster and Horace Mann. 
In the Doric hall, or rotunda, is a statue of 
| Washington by Chan trey, placed there in 1828 
by the Washington monument association. 
Here are also the battle flags borne by Massa- 
chusetts soldiers during the civil war, copies 
of the tombstones of the Washington family 
in Brington parish, England, a statue of Gov. 
Andrew, busts of Samuel Adams, Abraham 
Lincoln, and Charles Sumner, and many his- 
torical relics. The old state house was erected 
in 1748, and was for half a century the seat 
of government, being the building which is 
of such frequent mention in the revolution- 
ary history. It is in Washington street, at the 
head of State street, dividing the latter, and 



obstructing a beautiful view. It has long been 
devoted to business purposes, having been en- 
tirely remodelled. One of the most imposing 
specimens of architecture in the city is the 
city hall in School street. It covers 13,927 
square feet, is built of the finest Concord granite 
in the Italian renaissance style with modern 
French modifications, and is surmounted with 
a Louvre dome. It was completed in 1865 at 
a cost of $505,691. The city officials have 
commodious quarters here, while in the dome 
is the central point of the fire-alarm tele- 
graphs. On the lawn in front of the city hall 
stands the bronze statue of Franklin by Green- 
ough. The new post office, in Milk, Water, 
and Devonshire streets, the corner stone of 
which was laid Oct. 16, 1871, will be when 
completed the finest building in New England. 
Its architecture is of the most ornate character. 
It will be of the finest granite, four stories 
high, with a frontage of over 200 ft. in Devon- 
shire street. Its cost will exceed $2,000,000. 
The upper stories will be occupied by the 
United States sub-treasury. The post office 
was in the merchants' exchange in State street 
until the fire of 1872, when it was removed 
temporarily to Faneuil hall. The exchange, 
completed in 1842, at a cost, exclusive of the 
land, of $175,000, was noted for its large size 
and massive architecture ; but in consequence 
of the damage then received, it was decided to 
remodel it. The custom house is a large and 
costly granite edifice in State street, and was 
12 years in building, 1837-'49, at an expense 
of $1,076,000. It is of the Doric order, and 
is 140 ft. long from N. to S., 95 ft. through 
the centre, and 75 ft. at the ends. The form 
is that of a Greek cross. The porticos are 
67 ft. long, and project 10 ft. on each side. 
They comprise 32 Doric columns, each 32 ft. 
high with a diameter of 5 ft. 2 in. The build- 
ing is surmounted by a dome, the top of 
which is 90 ft. from the ground. The court 
house, also of granite, is in Court square. The 
state and municipal courts are held here, while 
the old Masonic temple in Tremont street is 
devoted to the use of the United States courts. 
The Suffolk county jail, in Charles near Cam- 
bridge street, completed in 1849, is 70 ft. 
square and 85 ft. high, with four wings. The 
exterior is of Quincy granite, and the remain- 
ing porticos are of brick, stone, and iron. No 
school building in the United States surpasses 
in general completeness that of the girls' high 
and normal school. It was completed in 1870 
at a total cost of $310,717, has a frontage of 
144 ft. both on Newton and Pembroke streets, 
contains 66 separate apartments exclusive of 
halls, corridors, &c., and has accommodations 
for 1,225 pupils. The large hall in the upper 
story contains a valuable collection of casts of 
classical sculpture and statuary acquired by do- 
nations. Tremont Temple, in Tremont street, 
was erected in place of the building burned in 
1852, which had been made from the Tremont 
theatre. The main hall is 124 ft. by 73, and is 



120 



BOSTON 



60 ft. high, with galleries on three sides. Nearly 
all the concerts, lectures, fairs, readings, &c., 
given in Boston, occur in Tremont Temple, Hor- 
ticultural hall, and the Music hall. In 1872-'3, 
19 courses, embracing 205 lectures, were deliv- 
ered in Boston. The Music hall, completed in 
1852, is in the interior of a block, with entrances 
from Winter and Tremont streets. The main 
hall is 130 by 78 ft. and 65 ft. high, and has two 
tiers of galleries on three sides. It is adorned 
with Crawford's statue of Beethoven, a statue 
of the Apollo Belvedere, and three casts of 
eminent composers presented by Miss Charlotte 
Cushman. The great organ in the Music hall 
is the largest instrument of the kind in Amer- 
ica, and ranks among the finest in the world. 
Its entire height is 60 ft., breadth 48 ft., depth 
24 ft. It contains 5,474 pipes, of which 690 
are in the pedal organ, and has 84 complete 
registers. It was constructed at Ludwigsburg 
in Germany, at a cost of $80,000, by Walcker, 
the builder of the great organs of Ulm and 
Stuttgart, and was formally inaugurated Nov. 
2, 1863. Horticultural hall, corner of Tremont 
and Bromfield streets, is a handsome structure 
of fine-grained white granite, beautifully 
dressed. The front is surmounted by a granite 
statue of Ceres, and is ornamented by statues of 
Flora and Pomona. The lower floor is occupied 
for business purposes, while the two halls are 
used by the Massachusetts horticultural society 
and for public lectures, fairs, concerts, &c. 
The Masonic temple, on the corner of Tremont 
and Boylston streets, a structure of fine light- 
colored granite, highly ornamental and unique 
in style, was completed in 1867. It has a front 
of 85 ft. in Tremont street, and is 90 ft. high, 
having seven stories above the basement, and, 
besides numerous smaller apartments, contains 
three large halls for masonic meetings. Odd 
Fellows' hall has lately been erected on the 
corner of Berkeley and Tremont streets. The 
building is of elegant design, constructed of 
Concord and Hallowell white granite, is four 
stories high, and covers 12,000 square feet. 
The hall of the Massachusetts charitable me- 
chanics' association, constructed of dark free- 
stone in a modification of the Italian renais- 
sance style, at a cost, including land, of about 
$320,000, is on the corner of Bedford and 
Chauncey streets. It is used by the Boston 
board of trade and the national board of trade. 
The depot of the Lowell railroad company 
will when completed be one of the largest and 
most ornamental railroad structures in the 
country. It will be of brick, with trimmings 
of Nova Scotia freestone, and will be 700 ft. 
long, with a front of 205 ft. in Causeway 
street. The train house will be spanned by an 
arch of 120 ft. without central support. Fa- 
neuil Hall market, popularly known as Quincy 
market, situated just E. of Fanenil hall, was 
completed in 1827 at a cost of $150,000. It is 
of Quincy granite, 530 ft. by 50, and is two 
stories high. Washington market was erected 
in 1870 for the accommodation of the South 



End, on the corner of Washington and Lenox 
streets. It is 250 ft. long, 120 ft. wide, and 
contains nearly 100 stalls. Among the most 
ornamental of the private edifices may be men- 
tioned the "Sears building," corner of Court 
and Washington streets, constructed of gray 
and white marble in the Italian-Gothic style, 
at a cost, including land, of about $750,000, 
and devoted exclusively to offices, banks, &c. ; 
and the hotel Boylston, containing apartments 
for families, recently erected on the corner of 
Tremont and Boylston streets. Boston con- 
tains 25 public parks and squares. The prin- 
cipal one, Boston Common, is a park of 48 
acres, surrounded by an iron fence, erected in 
1836 at a cost of more than $100,000. The 
Common is considered to date from 1634, and 
by the city charter it is made public property 
for ever, and the city cannot sell it or change 
its character. The malls are spacious and 
shaded by magnificent trees, some of which 
were set out considerably more than a century 
ago. There are nearly 1,300 trees on the 
Common, which are kept in admirable order at 
a large annual expense. The " old elm " is 
regarded as the oldest tree in New England ; it 
is represented on a map engraved in 1722, and 
is supposed to be as old as Boston itself. In 
the great branch broken oif by the gale of 1860 
nearly 200 rings could be easily counted. It 
was also mutilated by a high wind in 1869, and 
is now protected by strong iron bands and 
props, and an iron fence. One of the most 
conspicuous objects on the Common is a costly 
bronze fountain, known as the Brewer foun- 
tain, cast in Paris and set up at the expense of 
Gardner Brewer. The foundation for a sol- 
diers' monument has been laid on Flagstaff hill, 
near the centre of the Common. The public 
garden, which was once a portion of the Com- 
mon, is now separated from it by a part of 
Charles street. It comprises 21J- acres beau- 
tifully laid out, and contains a conservatory, 
an equestrian statue of Washington by Ball, a 
bronze statue of Edward Everett by Story, one 
representing Venus rising from the sea, and a 
monument to commemorate the discovery of 
ether as an anaesthetic. Besides the public 
statues already mentioned, there is one of Al- 
exander Hamilton in Commonwealth avenue, 
and two in Louisburg square, respectively rep- 
resenting Aristides and Columbus. Five city 
passenger railway companies have lines ex- 
tending to all parts of the city and suburbs, 
and there is an omnibus line from Concord 
j street to Charlestown. There are two ferries 
to East Boston North ferry, from Battery 
street to Border street, and South ferry, from 
Eastern avenue to Lewis street. Communica- 
tion with Chelsea is by the Winnisimmet 
ferry, popularly known as Chelsea ferry, es- 
tablished in 1631, and believed to be the oldest 
ferry in the United States. Eight lines of rail- 
road terminate in Boston, viz. : the Fitchburg, 
the Eastern, the Boston, Lowell, and Nashua, 
the Boston and Maine, the Boston and Provi- 



BOSTON 



121 






denoe, the Boston, Hartford, and Erie, the 
Boston and Albany, and the Old Colony and 
Newport. By means of the Grand Junction 
railroad, the main line of the Boston and Al- 
bany is connected with the Fitchburg, Lowell, 
Eastern, and Boston and Maine railroads, and 
with the Grand Junction wharf at East Bos- 
ton, which greatly facilitates the transfer of 
freight to and from vessels. There are numer- 
ous lines of steamers to the principal eastern 
ports of the United States and British America, 
while two lines ply between Boston and Liv- 
erpool. The harbor has 164 wharves, and 
will afford anchorage for 500 vessels of the 
largest class. Boston early became distin- 
guished for her commerce. In less than half 
a century after the foundation of the place, the 
Boston merchants traded not only with other 
parts of America and the leading nations of 
Europe, but with the Canaries, the coast of 
Africa, and Madagascar. Their wealth was 
the subject of remark to all visitors. The first 
vessel belonging to Boston, of American build, 
was the bark Blessing of the Bay, built at 
Mystic for Gov. Winthrop, and launched July 
4, 1631. She was of 30 tons, and her first 
voyage was to Long Island and New York. 
The first ship built at Boston was the Trial, 
in 1644, which immediately made a voyage to 
Spain. The same year a fur company com- 
posed of Boston merchants was formed. Dur- 
ing the year ending Dec. 25, 1748, 430 vessels 
entered the port, and 540 were cleared. A 
century earlier the arrivals of ships were only 
about one a month, but even then large quanti- 
ties of country produce were exported, 20,000 
bushels of corn being mentioned among the 
exports of 1645. After the revolution Boston 
rapidly attained to eminence in commerce. 
The number of foreign arrivals was 399 in 1791, 
and 2,985 in 1857. In 1806 it was 1,083, and 
but 83 in 1814, the last year of the second war 
with England. In 1871 Boston ranked next 
to New York in extent of imports, and third 
among the cities of the Union in the value 
of foreign commerce, New York being first 
and New Orleans second. The total value of 
the commerce for the year ending June 30, 
1871, was $68,063,914, the imports being 
$53,652,225, domestic exports $12,761,291, 
foreign exports $1,450,398; 671 American 
vessels of 266,673 tons, and 2,843 foreign 
vessels of 569,431 tons, entered from foreign 
ports; and 566 American vessels of 205,775 
tons, and 2,723 foreign vessels of 396,778 tons, 
cleared for foreign ports; 41 American and 
85 foreign ocean steamers entered, and 40 
American and 28 foreign cleared ; 788 steamers 
and 468 sailing vessels entered in the coastwise 
trade, and 858 steamers and 1,207 sailing ves- 
sels cleared. There were belonging to the 
port 876 sailing vessels, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 315,966, and 57 steamers with a 
tonnage of 22,820 ; 166 vessels of 5,360 tons 
were employed in cod and mackerel fishing; 
25 vessels of 4,732 tons were built during the 



year. The imports from England amounted to 
$22,941,679, and the exports to that country 
were $4, 127,91 6 ; imports from British America, 
$2,139,473, exports $2,896,827; imports from 
British India, $4,206,474, exports $285,523 ; 
imports from Cuba and Porto Eico, $7,325,512, 
exports $992,784 ; imports from Brazil, $1,042,- 
000; from China, $1,953,066; from the Argen- 
tine Republic, $1,902,752 ; from Italy, $1,740,- 
607; from Sweden and Norway, $1,150,070; 
exports to Chili, $838,237. The leading arti- 
cles imported, with their values, were : brown 
sugar, $7,329,133; hides and skins (not fur), 
$3,158,524; dress goods, $2,188,451; bar iron, 
$1,962,116; cloths and cassimeres, $1,864,289; 
molasses, $1,627,502; fruits and nuts, $1,349,- 
858; raw hemp, $1,201,148; rags, $854,369; 
coffee, $698,729; earthen, stone, and china 
ware, $672,837; indigo, $594,338; spices, 
$400,000 ; wool, $372,115 ; tea, $245,382. The 
chief articles of export were: flour, $1,- 
467,748; bacon and hams, $653,501; petro- 
leum, $529,470; household furniture, $301,- 
569; ice, 49,085 tons, valued at $202,452. 
The ice trade is a Boston invention. It was 
originated by Frederick Tudor, who in 1806 
shipped 130 tons to Martinique. For 20 years 
the losses were great, but success was finally 
won by talent and perseverance. Mr. Tudor 
had a monopoly of the trade for 30 years, when, 
its brilliant success having become known to all, 
he found competitors. It is believed that but 
for the ice trade the Calcutta trade of Boston 
never could have become important. Formerly 
this trade was very large, but it has within a 
few years considerably declined. Boston is 
the only city on the eastern seaboard in which 
no capitation tax is levied upon immigrants. 
This impost in other cities varies from $1 50 
to $2 50 on each passenger. The number of 
arrivals in 1871 was 22,904; in 1870, 30,069; 
in 1869, 26,414; in 1868, 15,128. The domestic 
trade of Boston is specially large in boots and 
shoes, wool, cotton, dry goods, clothing, fish, 
flour, and grain. The annual sales of merchan- 
dise are estimated at $1,200,000,000. The re- 
ceipts of wool embrace about one third the en- 
tire clip of the country, while the average 
weekly sales amount to about 1,000,000 Ibs. 
The imports of foreign wool for a series of 
years, as compared with the imports into New 
York, are as follows : 



TEAKS. 



BOSTON. iraw YORK. 

Ibl. Ibs. 

1868 17371,818 47,571,920 

1864 20,780,124 61,691,879 

1865 14,292,412 82,561,580 

1866 20,027,958 86,066,176 

1867. 12,675,880 19,868,869 

1868 10,878,791 18,458,635 

1869 19,954,882 21,570,480 

1870 15,721,147 12,460,290 

1871 88,098,521 89,411,518 

The stock of foreign wool on hand in Boston 
Jan. 1, 1872, was 2,846,800 Ibs. ; 1871, 2,052,000 
Ibs. ; 1870, 4,550,000 Ibs. ; 1869, 2,840,000 Ibs. ; 
1868, 5,155,000 Ibs. ; 1867, 5,435,000 Ibs. The 
amount of domestic wool on hand Jan. 1, for a 



122 



BOSTON 



YEARS. 
1862 
1868 
1864 
1865. 
1866 



series of years, in the three leading wool mar- 
kets of the country, was as follows : 

BOSTON. HEW YORK. PHILADELPHIA. 

TEAKS. , bl lb lbl . 

1868. . 7,400,000 6,100,000 8,000,000 

1869. . .. 11,850,000 11,200,000 6,600,000 
1870 8,900,000 8,780,000 8,900,000 
1871. . 6,725,000 7,070,000 4,779,000 
1812 ......... 7,100,000 6,814,000 2,702,000 

The receipts of cotton in 1871 were 313,000 
bales, all of which, excepting about 8,000 bales 
exported, was for consumption in the manu- 
facturing towns of New England. The number 
and value of packages of domestic dry goods 
exported from the city has been : 

Packages. Value. 

2,065 $261,128 

488 85,447 

245 42,217 

841 58,854 

4,746 670,285 

1867 ....................... 10,822 1,084,966 

1868 ....................... 11,948 1,298.242 

1869.... ......... 6,665 720,834 

1870 ....................... 7,486 788,865 

1871 ....................... 11,254 979,669 

The hides received in 1871 were valued at 
$14,800,000; 1870, $11,385,000; 1869, $13,- 
225,000 ; 1868, $11,500,000. The value of the 
leather manufactured for the Boston market 
in 1871 was $36,900,000, against $33,038,574 
in 1870 ; and the whole amount of sales for 
the year was $53,479,000, against $47,881,991 
in 1870. The aggregate sales of boots and shoes 
for 1871 amounted to $64,500,000, and for 1870 
to $63,188,255. In 1871 1,251,223 cases of boots 
and shoes (average value, $66 75 per case) were 
shipped from the city ; in 1870, 1,213,129 cases; 
in 1869, 1,182,704; in 1868, 1,041,472. The 
receipts of fish in 1871 amounted to $4,199,872. 
The elevators of Boston have a capacity for 
1,000,000 bushels of grain. During the year 
ending March 1, 1872, there were received 
1,408,325 barrels of flour, 4,179,911 bushels of 
corn, 475,500 bushels of wheat, and 2,431,272 
bushels of oats, a large portion of which was 
for foreign exportation. According to the la- 
test returns of the industry of Massachusetts, 
the chief manufacturing establishments of Bos- 
ton were 49 cabinet ware factories, 38 manufac- 
tories of machinery, 38 book-publishing houses, 
89 printing establishments, 31 hat and cap fac- 
tories, 30 bookbinderies, 29 manufactories of 
watches, 28 of cars, carriages, &c., 17 of pianos, 
17 of upholstery, 12 brass and 7 type and ste- 
reotype founderies, 9 glass factories, 4 of organs, 
melodeons, and harmoniums, 4 of paper collars, 3 
of sewing machines, and 2 of chemicals. There 
are 51 national banks in Boston, with an aggre- 
gate capital of $49,400,000. The number of 
savings banks in 1871 was 16, with a total of 
180,480 depositors, and deposits aggregating 
$49,944,206. The two most extensive were 
the five-cent savings bank, which had 58,568 
depositors and deposits amounting to $9,984,- 
068, and the provident institution for savings, 
with 33,528 depositors and deposits reaching 
$12,405,954. In 1872 there were 37 insurance 



companies, of which 6 were life, with a com- 
bined capital of $28,632,778; while 92 insur- 
ance companies belonging to other cities had 
agencies in Boston. The government is vested 
in a mayor (salary $5,000), elected annually on 
the second Monday in December, a board of 
12 aldermen, and a common council of 64 mem- 
bers, 4 from each ward. The police are ap- 
pointed by the mayor and aldermen, and are 
under the immediate direction of the mayor 
and a police committee. There are 11 police 
districts, a chief, 11 captains, and 11 lieutenants. 
The maximum number of the police force is 500, 
of whom 60 are officers. In 1871, 10,837 dis- 
turbances were suppressed and 25,201 arrests 
made, 17,794 of foreigners ; 15,089 arrests 
were for drunkenness, 2,213 for assault, 1,372 
for larceny, 98 for robbery, 18 for house break- 
ing, and 8 for murder. The amount of prop- 
erty reported stolen was $60,018 ; amount re- 
covered, stolen in and out of the city, $71,159 ; 
fines imposed, $60,370. There were 2,952 
places where intoxicating drinks were sold 
1,428 groceries, &c., 1,121 bar-rooms, 327 jug 
rooms, and 76 hotels. The whole number of 
persons taken into custody by the police was 
17,107, of whom 15,089 were taken to the sta- 
tions, and 2,018 were taken home. The fire 
department comprises a chief, 14 assistant en- 
gineers, and a secretary, all elected annually 
by the city council, and 450 members; their 
aggregate salaries amount to $215,163. They 
are divided into 21 steam engine companies, 10 
hose companies, and 7 hook and ladder com- 
panies. About 46,000 feet of hose are used, 
and there are 2,375 hydrants and 96 reservoirs 
where water can be obtained in case of fire. 
The number of fires in 1871 was 549 ; the losses 
by fire amounted to $704,329, being $297,722 
on buildings and $406,606 on stock; total in- 
surance, $534,991$168,757 on buildings and 
$366,234 on stock. The fire-alarm telegraph 
is in charge of a superintendent and a corps of 
operators, who keep constant watch at the city 
hall day and night. Here is the central office to 
which alarms are transmitted from the signal 
stations or boxes, of which there are 146. 
From this office 42 bells and 55 gongs at their 
various locations on churches, school houses, 
engine houses, &c., are struck precisely at noon 
every day. Boston long felt the want of a 
supply of water, but it was not till 1848, dur- 
ing the mayoralty of Josiah Quincy, jr., that 
the want was met, and water brought from 
Lake Cochituate, 20 m. W. of Boston. The 
lake covers 650 acres, and drains some 14,400 
acres. Water is conveyed by a brick conduit 
11 m. long to a grand reservoir in Brookline, 
and thence to distributing reservoirs in Boston, 
East Boston, South Boston, and the Highlands. 
Brookline reservoir covers about 23 acres, and 
has a capacity of nearly 120,000,000 gallons. 
The Chestnut Hill reservoir has just been com- 
pleted at a cost of $2,423,231. It is situated 
in the towns of Brighton and Newton, 5 m. 
from the Boston city hall and 1 m. from the 



BOSTON 



123 



Brookline reservoir, covers about 125 acres, 
and has two basins with an aggregate capacity 
of 730,000,000 gallons. It is surrounded by a 
beautiful driveway, varying from 60 to 80 ft. in 
width, which cost $169,471, and is a fashion- 
able resort. Authority has lately been given 
to the city to take water from the Sudbury 
river, which will be connected with the reser- 
voirs by independent mains. An important 
improvement was made in the Cochituate water 
works in 1869, by the construction of a stand- 
pipe in Roxbury, by means of which pure 
water is forced to the highest levels occupied 
by dwelling houses throughout the city. The 
base of the shaft is 158 ft. above tide level ; the 
interior pipe is a cylinder of boiler iron 80 ft. 
long. The total cost was about $100,000. Its 
capacity is adequate to the supply of the whole 
city ; hence the reservoir on Beacon hill is no 
longer used. The gross payments for construct- 
ing, carrying on, and extending the Cochituate 
water works, from their commencement, Aug. 
20, 1846, to April 30, 1871, amount to $19,087,- 
530; total income, $9,867,633. The total debt 
of the city at the close of 1871 was $29,383,- 
390, of which $27,865,916 was funded and 
$1,517,473 unfunded. This was classified as 
follows : 

City debt proper $17,020,493 88 

Water debt (net cost of works) 9,570,896 64 

War loans (outstanding) 1,915,500 00 

Roxbury loans (outstanding) 692,000 00 

Dorchester loans (outstanding) 184,600 00 



Total $29,888,390 52 

The means on hand for the payment of this 
debt, Dec. 30, 1871, were funds in the hands 
of the board of commissioners of the sinking 
fund, amounting to $10,771,231, and public 
land and other bonds in the city treasury 
pledged for the payment of the debt, amount- 
ing to $998,930; total, $11,770,162. Immedi- 
ately after the great fire of 1872, the legisla- 
ture authorized the city government to issue 
bonds to the amount of $20,000,000 to meet 
the exigencies caused by the fire. The total 
receipts into the city treasury on account of 
the city for the year ending April 30, 1871, 
amounted to $20,773,594; expenditures, $19,- 
320,382. The chief items were : 

Expeniea. Income. 

City hospital $101,290 $5,686 

Fire department 418,507 8,810 

Health department 298,892 48,926 

Police department 678,844 11,625 

Public buildings '. 68,815 25,273 

Public institutions 800,067 114,179 

Schools and school houses 1,675,279 _':(. -i > 

Streets.. 1,486,273 167,776 

Waterworks 1,696,048 789,128 

The whole amount of taxes assessed for the 
year 1870 was $9,050,419, of which $8,936,567 
was assessed on real and personal estate, and 
$113,852 on 56,926 polls. Of the whole 
amount, $7,972,820 ($13 65 per $1,000) was 
for city and county, and $963,747 ($1 65 per 
$1,000) for state purposes. The valuation and 
rate of tax for a series of years are as follows: 



YEAKS. 


Ral etate. 


Penonal estate. 


Total valua- 
tion. 


Rats IRT 
1,000. 


800 


$6,901,000 


$8 194 700 


IflSOil.'i'OO 




1820! 


21^687,000 


16' 602,200 


88,289,200 


$4 00 


1880. 


89,960,000 


22,626,000 


59,686,000 


4 06 


1840. 


60,424,200 


84,157,400 


94,581,600 


5 50 


1850. 


105,098,400 


74,907,100 


180,500,000 


6 SO 


1860. 


168,891,800 


112,969,700 


276,861,000 


9 80 


1861. 


167,682,100 


108,078,000 


275,760,100 


8 90 


1862. 


168,688,000 


112,579,000 


276,217.000 


10 50 


1868. 


169,624,500 


182,882,700 


802,507,200 


11 60 


1864. 


182,070,300 


150,877,600 


832,449,900 


18 80 


1865. 


201,628,900 


17o.-2iM,*7.". 


871,892,775 


15 80 


1866. 


225,767,215 


ls9.. r .MW> 


415,862,845 


18 00 


1867. 


2flO.5-i7.700 


194,858,400 


444,946,100 


1560 


1868. 


2J7,6*5.SOO 


205,937,900 


498,573,700 


1280 


1869. 


882,051,900 


217,459,700 


549,511,600 


18 70 


1870. 


K65.MI8,1UO 


218,496.800 


584,089,400 


IT, 80 



The tax rate per $1,000 in 1870 was $22 50 in 
New York, $18 in Philadelphia, $15 in Chicago, 
and $31 60 in Cincinnati. In 1840 the average 
amount of property owned by each inhabitant 
of Boston was less than $900 ; in 1870 it had 
increased to an average of more than $2,300. 
The benevolent institutions of Boston are 
numerous, and effective in their operations. 
There are 62 societies which come under this 
special head. The Perkins institute and Massa- 
chusetts asylum for the blind, though it is 
largely aided by the state, and is in part the 
work of other places, is of Boston origin, and 
has derived much of its means from the libe- 
rality of Boston people. It has been under the 
charge of Dr. S. G. Howe since its opening in 
1832, and has received 776 pupils. The num- 
ber of inmates in 1871 was 162 ; number of 
instructors and employees, 40 ; average annual 
receipts for five years, $78,497; expenditure, 
$71,342. Indigent persons are admitted gra- 
tuitously. The Massachusetts school for idiotic 
and feeble-minded youth, at South Boston, also 
under Dr. Howe, has been very successful. It 
was opened in 1848, since which time 465 
pupils have been received, and there were 106 
inmates in 1871. The eye and ear infirmary, 
exclusively for the poor, is in Charles street, 
and is provided with everything necessary for 
the efficient treatment of the sick.' The build- 
ing and land cost $54,000. The city hospital, 
opened in 1864, covers nearly seven acres of 
land, occupying the entire square bounded by 
Concord, Albany, and Springfield streets, and 
Harrison avenue. It consists of a central 
building and three pavilions, two of which are 
connected with the central building by corri- 
dors. Many patients are received and treated 
at the expense of the city, while others pay for 
these privileges. In 1871, 2,569 patients were 
treated within the hospital, in addition to 8,899 
out patients. The Massachusetts general hos- 
pital, incorporated in 1811, is at the corner of 
Allen and Blossom streets, occupying a plot of 
four acres. The building is of granite, and has 
a front of 274 ft. and a depth of 54 ft., with a 
portico of eight Ionic columns. The general 
fund of the hospital, Jan. 1, 1872, amounted to 
$888,258; the income of the corporation for 
the preceding year was $211,302, and the ex- 



124 



BOSTON 



penses $238,458. These figures include the sta- 
tistics of the McLean asylum for the insane at 
Somerville, which is a branch of this institu- 
tion. In 1871 more than 1,500 patients were 
received in the hospital, about two thirds free 
of charge, and nearly 10,000 out patients were 
treated. The consumptives' home is a spacious 
mansion surrounded with ample grounds, at 
the junction of Warren street and Blue Hill 
avenue, Dorchester. The institution is of 
recent origin. It was founded by Dr. Charles 
Cullis, and is supported by voluntary contri- 
butions, which in 1871 amounted to $55,000. 
During that year 185 patients were cared for 
at the home, and 757 have been received since 
its opening. The Boston farm school, for the 
relief and instruction of poor boys destitute of 
proper control, is on Thompson's island, and 
has accommodation for about 300 boys. Among 
the other benevolent institutions that are doing 
much good are the Baldwin home for little 
wanderers, the home for aged indigent females, 
and two inebriate asylums, the Washingtonian 
home and the Greenwood institute. The pub- 
lic charitable institutions are under the care of 
a board of directors elected by the city council ; 
they have charge of the house of industry and 
reformation and the almshouse, situated on 
Deer island, and the house of correction and 
lunatic hospital, at South Boston. The whole 
number of inmates in the first three institu- 
tions, April 30, 1871, was '1,062, of whom 398 
were females ; total expenditures for the year, 
$111,212; income, $25,943. There were 409 
inmates of the house of correction and 233 of 
the lunatic hospital ; expenditures of the for- 
mer for the year, $82,001; income, $75,599; 
expenditures of the latter, $64,441 ; income, 
$5,676. Galloupe's island is used as a quaran- 
tine station and for a smallpox hospital. The 
schools of Boston have a high reputation. Ac- 
cording to the report of the superintendent for 
the year ending Aug. 31, 1871, the number of 
persons in the city of school age (from 5 to 15) 
was 45,970, of whom 38,220 were attending 
school. The average number belonging to the 
day schools was 36,174, with an average daily 
attendance of 33,464 ; and there were 1,666 in 
the evening schools, with an average attend- 
ance of 1,037. There were 5 high, 37 gram- 
mar, and 327 primary schools, 11 evening 
schools, a school for deaf mutes, a kindergarten 
school, and 2 schools for licensed minors (boys 
licensed to sell papers and serve as bootblacks 
on the streets), making a total of 384 schools. 
The whole number of teachers was 990, of 
whom 850 were females. The high schools 
are the Latin school for boys, the English high 
school for boys, the girls' high and normal 
school, and the Highland and Dorchester high 
schools for boys and girls. The first named is 
well known as a preparatory school to Harvard 
university; its object is "to give thorough 
general culture to boys intending to pursue the 
higher branches of learning, or preparing for 
professional life." Much time is devoted to 



the study of the languages, ancient and modern. 
There is also an evening high school. Music 
and drawing are taught in all grades of the 
public schools. The total expenditure for 
school purposes during the year was $1,575,- 
279, of which $1,131,599 was for current ex- 
penses and $443,679 for school houses and lots. 
The institute of technology was founded in 
1861, and is " devoted to the practical arts and 
sciences." It is in Boylston, between Berke- 
ley and Clarendon streets. The building, an 
elegant structure of pressed brick with free- 
stone trimmings, is 150 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, 
and 85 ft. high. The institute receives one 
third of the grant made by congress to the 
state for the establishment of a college of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts. Its plan of 
organization includes a society of arts, a 
museum of arts, and a school of industrial 
science and art. In 1871 there were 264 
students, from 13 states, and 13 instructors. 
Boston college is a Jesuit institution, with 10 
instructors and 140 pupils, organized in 1863. 
The Boston university was founded in 1809 by 
the munificence of Isaac Rich, who bequeathed 
for that purpose the bulk of his estate, amount- 
ing to nearly $2,000,000. The plan of the in- 
stitution comprehends a general department of 
schools, which supposes on the part of thfc 
student a previous collegiate training, and a 
department of colleges. The former will em- 
brace schools of theology, law, medicine, and 
universal science; and the latter, colleges of 
arts, natural science, philosophy and literature, 
agriculture, mining and engineering, navigation 
and commerce, pharmacy, dentistry, music, 
architecture, and painting and sculpture. The 
school of theology, the school of law, and the 
college of music are already in operation. The 
first named, the largest theological school in 
New England, was formerly the Boston theo- 
logical seminary (Methodist Episcopal), organ- 
ized in 1847. In 1872 it had 14 instructors, 
94 students, and a library of 4,000 volumes. 
The school of law was opened in October, 1872, 
with 50 students. The college of music is in- 
tended to afford instruction to pupils advanced 
in the study and practice of music. Boston 
has numerous music schools, the chief of which, 
besides the one already mentioned, are the New 
England conservatory of music, in Music hall, 
the Boston conservatory of music in Tremont 
street, opposite the Common, and the national 
college of music in Tremont Temple, organized 
in 1872. The medical school of Harvard uni- 
versity is situated in North Grove street. It 
was established in 1783, and in 1871 had 25 
instructors, 301 students, and a library of 2,000 
volumes. The dental school of Harvard uni- 
versity, with 13 instructors and 27 students, is 
also situated in Boston. The New England 
female medical college, established in 1848, in 
1871 had 5 instructors and 26 pupils. The 
Massachusetts college of pharmacy was estab- 
lished in Boston in 1867. In educational and 
literary institutions Boston is not surpassed by 



BOSTON 



125 



any city in the United States. The public li- 
brary, next to the library of congress at Wash- 
ington, is the largest in the country. Joshua 
Bates, a wealthy banker of London, whose 
early life was passed in Boston, having offered 
the city $50,000 toward the purchase of books 
if a suitable building should be provided, his 
offer was accepted in 1852 and an edifice was 
erected in Boylston street, opposite the Com- 
mon, which was completed and delivered to 
the trustees Jan. 1, 1858. The cost of the land 
and building was $365,000. Abbott Lawrence 
gave $10,000 and Jonathan Phillips $30,000 to 
the institution. In 1858 the library (2,250 
volumes) of Nathaniel Bowditch was presented 
by his sons, and in 1860 the valuable collection 
(11,721 volumes) of Theodore Parker was re- 
ceived by bequest. The increase of the library 
has been as follows : 

TEARS. Volumes. Pamphlets. 

1852 9.688 961 

1855... 28,080 12,886 

I860 97,886 27,881 

1865 180,678 86,566 

1871... 179,250 89.746 

1872 192,958 100,888 

In 1871 the library of congress had about 
206,000 volumes, the Astor library 140,538, 
and the New York Mercantile library 127,237. 
The increase of the Boston public library in 
1871 was the largest ever reported, being 18,- 
000 volumes and nearly 15,000 pamphlets; 
during the same period the library of congress 
increased 12,441 volumes and 8,000 pamphlets, 
the New York Mercantile library 11,416 vol- 
umes, and the Astor library 1,500 volumes. 
In that year the library of Spanish and Portu- 
guese books and manuscripts of the late George 
Ticknor, more than 4,000 in number, was added 
to the public library. In 1872 the number of 
persona using the library was 42,453, and the 
number of books issued 380,343. The expen- 
ditures amounted to $74,924, of which $67,000 
was appropriated by the city. The library is 
free to all, and books may be taken away ; a 
branch with 6,767 volumes (included in the 
above figures), is in operation in East Boston. 
In 1872 a branch with 4,365 volumes was 
opened in South Boston, and preparations were 
made for opening another in Roxbury. The 
Boston Athenaeum dates from 1804, its germ 
being the Anthology club. The association 
was incorporated in February, 1807. The 
beautiful building now used by the Athenreum 
was completed in 1849. It stands on the S. 
side of Beacon street, between Bowdoin and 
Somerset streets. Its length is 114 ft., and its 
breadth is irregular ; the height is 60 ft. The 
material is freestone. The first story contains 
the sculpture gallery and two reading rooms. 
The library is in the second story, and the 
picture gallery in the third. The building 
cost $136,000, and $55,000 was paid for the 
land. The privilege of using the library, which 
contains about 95,000 volumes, is limited to 
the holders of about 1,000 shares, but strangers 



may have access. The funds of the Athenaum 
amount to more than $250,000, besides the 
real estate, library, paintings, and statuary, 
which are valued at upward of $400,000. The 
chief benefactors of the institution are : James 
Perkins, who gave it a house on Pearl street, 
which was used as a library, &c., for 27 years, 
and then sold for $45,000; John Bromfield, 
who bequeathed it $25,000 ; Samuel Appleton, 
who bequeathed it $25,000 ; James Perkins, 
jr., who gave it $8,000 ; Thomas II. Perkins, 
who gave it $8,000 ; and T. W. Ward, who 
gave it $5,000. Many other persons have given 
or bequeathed lesser sums, or books, or articles 
for the picture and sculpture galleries. The 
American academy of arts and sciences, incor- 
porated in 1780, has its rooms and its library 
(about 15,000 volumes) in the Athenseum build- 
ing. The magnificent building of the Boston 
society of natural history (incorporated in 
1831), recently constructed at a cost of $100,- 
000, is on the corner of Boylston and Berkeley 
streets. The library contains 12,000 volumes ; 
the valuable cabinet is open to the public for 
several hours on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
The Lowell institute was founded by John 
Lowell, jr., who bequeathed $250,000 to provide 
regular courses of free lectures. The most im- 
portant libraries, in addition to those already 
mentioned, are the libraries of the American 
Congregational association, with 6,500 volumes 
and a fund of $168,000 ; the Boston library 
society, with 19,000 volumes; the Handel and 
Haydn society, with 8,000 volumes (music) ; 
the Massachusetts historical society, founded in 
1791, with 18,500 volumes; the mechanic ap- 
prentices' library association, with 6,000 vol- 
umes; the social law library, with 8,000 vol- 
umes; the state library of 82,000 volumes ; and 
the young men's Christian association, with 
4.610 volumes. The mercantile library, founded 
in 1820, had about 20,000 volumes, which were 
destroyed in the great fire of 1872. The press 
of Boston is the oldest in the United States. 
The first journal regularly published in North 
America was "The News Letter," which was 
commenced April 24, 1704, by John Campbell, 
postmaster. It was published 72 years, ceasing 
in 1776, with British rule. The second paper 
was the "Boston Gazette," commenced in 1719, 
of which James Franklin was printer. In 1721 
Franklin commenced the publication of the 
" New England Courant." Benjamin Franklin 
was an apprentice to his brother, and wrote for 
the " Courant " at the age of 16. The paper was 
for some time published in Benjamin's name. 
There are now (1873) 143 periodicals published 
in Boston, of which 9 are daily, 6 semi-weekly, 
61 weekly (4 German), 1 bi-weekly, 4 semi- 
monthly, 51 monthly, 2 bi-monthly, 8 quarterly, 
and 1 semi-annual. There are 150 churches 
in Boston, classified as follows : Baptist, 17 ; 
Christian, 1 ; Church of Christ, 1 ; Church of 
the Adventists, 1 ; Congregational Trinitarian, 
22 ; Independent Congregational, 2 ; Congre- 
gational Unitarian, 27 ; Episcopal, 15 ; Evan- 



126 



BOSTON 



gelioal Adventists, 1 ; Freewill Baptist, 1 ; Ger- 
man Lutheran, 1 ; German Evangelical Re- 
formed, 1 ; Swedish Lutheran, 1 ; Jewish syn- 
agogues, 4 ; German Methodist, 1 ; Methodist, 
2 ; Methodist Episcopal, 18 ; Independent 
Methodist, 1 ; Presbyterian, 17 ; Roman Cath- 
olic, 17 ; Swedenborgian, 1 ; Universalist, 6. 
In the above are included several of the oldest 
churches in the_ United States. The oldest 
church edifice in the city is Christ church, 
Episcopal, in Salem street, founded in 1723. 
The Old South church was erected in 1729 in 
the same place where the first edifice of the 
society had stood since 1669. During the rev- 
olution it was occupied by British soldiers as a 
place for cavalry drill. Immediately after the 
great fire of 1872, it was leased for two years 
to the government for a post office, a new edi- 
fice for the use of the society being in process 
of construction on the corner of Dartmouth and 
Royalston streets. The last service was held 
in it on Nov. 17. King's chapel, on the corner 
of Tremont and School streets, has been used 
for divine service since 1754 ; the first edifice 
was erected there in 1689. Brattle Square 
church, in the walls of which was imbedded a 
cannon ball fired from Bunker Hill, June 17, 
1775, was taken down in 1871. When com- 
pleted, the cathedral of the Holy Cross on 
Washington and Waltham streets, begun in 
1867, will be the largest and most ornamental 
church edifice in New England. The great 
tower at the S. W. corner will he 300 ft. high. 
There are two convents of Sisters of Notre 
Dame in Boston, St. Joseph's in South Boston 
and St. Aloysius in East Boston. There are 
five theatres in the city, the oldest of which is 
the Boston museum, which was founded in 
1841 and has occupied its present location in 
Tremont street since 1846. The Boston theatre, 
in Washington street near Boylston, one of 
the largest theatres in the United States, was 
opened in 1854. It is capable of seating 3,400 
persons, with standing room for 1,000 more. 
The Globe theatre, in the same vicinity, was 
opened in October, 1868. The Howard 
Athenaeum, in Howard street, and the St. 
James, in Washington street, are devoted to 
varieties. The principal cemeteries used by 
Boston are the Mount Auburn, embracing 125 
acres, in Cambridge and Watertown ; Forest 
Hills, with a still larger area, in West Rox- 
bury ; Mount Hope, also in West Roxbury, 105 
acres ; Cedar Grove, in Dorchester, 46 acres ; 
and Woodlawn, in the towns of Everett and 
Chelsea. There are in the heart of the city 
several burial grounds not now in use, but of 
great historical interest. The oldest of these 
adjoins King's chapel at the corner of Tremont 
and School streets. It is not known when it 
was first used for interments, hut certainly as 
early as 1658. The "old granary burying 
ground," in Tremont street, between Beacon 
and Park place, was established in 1660, and 
contains the tombs of John Hancock, Samuel 
Adams, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil, Samuel 



Sewall, and the parents of Franklin. The Old 
North burying ground on Copp's Hill, which 
was first used for interments in 1660, still re- 
mains, and is protected by a high stone wall. 
The first settlement of Boston was made Sept. 
7 (O. S.), 1630, by a portion of the company 
which came from England that year with 
John Winthrop. The Plymouth pilgrims be- 
came acquainted with the peninsula in 1621. 
The only person residing there in 1630 was 
William Blackstone, or Blaxton, supposed to 
have been an Episcopal clergyman, and to have 
arrived about 1 623. David Thompson and Sam- 
uel Maverick lived on two islands in what is 
now Boston harbor. It was by invitation from 
Blackstone that Winthrop and his associates 
removed from Charlestown to the peninsula, 
the excellence of the water at the latter place, 
and its abundance, being the chief inducement 
to the change. Blackstone soon left the colo- 
ny, and his lands were purchased by the set- 
tlers. More than 50 years later, the last Indian 
claim to any portion of the territory was ex- 
tinguished by the payment of " a valuable sum 
of money " to the claimants. The Indian name 
of the peninsula, according to Mr. Drake, the 
highest authority, was Mushauwomuk, Shaw- 
mut being merely an abbreviation. Some of 
the most noted of the colonists were from Lin- 
colnshire, and it had from the first been their 
intention to give the name of Boston to their 
chief settlement, in honor of the Rev. John 
Cotton, vicar of St. Botolph's church, in the 
Lincolnshire Boston. The town records begin 
about 1634. The officers who subsequently 
were known as " selectmen " were in existence 
in 1634, but how the institution originated is 
unknown. The town meetings begin to he of 
importance at this date. The first grand jury 
of the country met at Boston, Sept. 1, 1635, 
and presented 100 offences. The church of 
Boston was much troubled about Roger Wil- 
liams and his heresy, and finding him resolute, 
handed him over to the general court, which 
banished him. The Antinomian controversy 
broke out in 1636, the occasion of it he- 
ing the action of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, a 
woman of superior understanding, whose con- 
duct greatly vexed the church. Free schools 
were established, the town paying liberally for 
their support, and Indians being taught gratis. 
Negro slaves were first brought to the town in 
1645, much to the people's anger. A malig- 
nant disease raged in 1646. In 1651 the place is 
described by an eye-witness as very flourishing. 
Mrs. Anne Hibbins, a widow, said to have been 
a sister of Gov. Bellingham, was hanged in 
1656 for witchcraft. When, two years later, 
the general court made a law for the punish- 
ment of Quakers, two of the Boston members 
dissented ; but three Quakers were executed on 
the Common for having returned from banish- 
ment in defiance of the law. When Goffe and 
Whalley, the regicides, came to Boston in 1660, 
they were openly entertained by the principal 
inhabitants. Boston sullenly acquiesced in the 



BOSTON 



127 



restoration, but Charles II. was not proclaimed 
there until 14 months after his arrival at Lon- 
don. Down to the date of the English revolu- 
tion there was a constant antagonism, some- 
times fierce in its manifestation, between the 
colony and the royal government, and it was 
most intensely felt in Boston. A description 
of Boston in 1671 shows that the town had 
much increased in numbers and wealth. The 
streets were large, and many of them paved 
with pebble stones. The buildings were fair 
and handsome, some being of stone, and one is 
mentioned that cost 3,000. The next year a 
report was made to the English government in 
which the number of families is stated at 1,500. 
When the general court voted 1,890 for the 
rebuilding of Harvard college, Boston paid 
800. In anticipation of attacks from the 
Dutch, in 1672, extensive fortifications were 
commenced. "Philip's war" began in 1675, 
when Indian scalps were for the first time 
brought to Boston. They were Boston men 
who led the van in the famous attack on the 
Narragansett fort, and the town is said to have 
suffered nearly five times as much as any other 
place from the war. Liberty to establish a 
printing press in the town had been granted in 
1674, with two ministers for censors; and a 
printing house was opened in 1676 by John 
Foster, a graduate of Harvard college. He 
printed the histories of the Indian wars written 
by Hubbard and Mather. In November, 1676, 
a fire occurred, which destroyed 46 dwellings, a 
church, and other buildings. A fire department 
was then organized, but not with much immedi- 
ate effect; for in 1679 another conflagration 
swept away 80 dwellings and 70 warehouses. 
The loss was estimated at 200,000. During the 
reign of James II., and under the rule of his gov- 
ernors Dudley and Andros, the town lived un- 
der a tyranny. ' Yet James's "declaration of 
indulgence " was well received there, and the 
churches held a thanksgiving on its account. 
On April 18, 1689, the people of Boston rose 
against the government, and overthrew it. In 
no part of the British empire was the revolu- 
tion of 1688 more warmly supported tha:i in 
Boston. The witchcraft delusion raged in 1692 
in Boston, as in other parts of New England. 
In 1695 the town's churches were much agi- 
tated by the discussion of the question whether 
it is lawful for a man to marry the sister of his 
deceased wife, and they decided it in the nega- 
tive, which decision was followed by the enact- 
ment of severe laws by the general court 
against marriages of affinity. A list of all the 
streets, lanes, and alleys was made in 1708, 
and they were found to bo 110 in number. 
Long wharf was commenced in 1710, running 
800 feet into the harbor. A severe fire hap- 
pened in 1711, burning 100 edifices, including 
the first church that had been erected in Bos- 
ton, after the rude hut which had witnessed 
the primitive devotions of the earliest set- 
tlers. Several persons were killed, and others 
wounded, by the blowing up of houses, and a 
112 VOL. HI. 9 



number of sailors perished while piously en- 
deavoring to save the church bell. Mail routes 
were at this date established at Boston, run- 
ning both east and west. What is known as 
" the great snow storm " occurred in February, 
1717. Some of the Scotch-Irish settled in 
Boston in 1720, and introduced the linen manu- 
facture, which excited much interest, and was 
greatly encouraged, spinning schools being es- 
tablished. Boston had often been ravaged by 
the smallpox, and when in 1721 it again broke 
out virulently, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston determined 
to introduce inoculation. He encountered sav- 
age and malignant opposition, especially from 
medical men, but owing to the influence of 
Cotton Mather was allowed to proceed. Of 
286 persons who were inoculated, only 6 died, 
while of the 5,759 who took the disease natur- 
ally, 844 died. As the population of Boston 
could not have been above 12,000, half the 
people were attacked. The first insurance 
office was established in 1724. The traffic in 
slaves prevailed to some extent in 1727, but the 
action of the town was strongly against it on 
many occasions. The town was divided into 
12 wards in 1736. It was the scene of great 
riots in 1747, in consequence of some of 
the citizens having been impressed by Com. 
Knowles. The first theatrical performance was 
in 1750, Otway's " Orphan " being the piece 
selected. This led to the passage of a law 
which prevented any more dramatic exhibitions 
for 25 years. Nov. 18, 1755, 17 days after the 
great earthquake at Lisbon, the town was 
" dreadfully shaken " by an earthquake, per- 
haps the severest ever known in New England, 
by which great damage was done and much 
fright caused. March 20, 1760, a fire con- 
sumed 349 buildings, the entire property de- 
stroyed being valued at 100,000. Relief was 
sent to the sufferers from the other colonies 
and from England. The case of writs of as- 
sistance, which began the American revolution, 
was tried at Boston in 1761. James Otis so 
distinguished himself therein, that he became 
the most influential man of the town, and was 
said to have governed it for the next 10 years. 
At the first news of the intention of the Brit- 
ish government to apply its revenue system 
comprehensively to the colonies, Boston as- 
sumed that determined stand in behalf of 
liberty which gave her so conspicuous a part 
in the birth of the republic. " The Bos- 
ton massacre " happened March 5, 1770, when 
three persons were killed by the fire of the sol- 
diery, and five wounded. The destruction of 
the tea in 1773 was pronounced by the tory 
governor of the province the boldest stroke 
which had been struck in America. (See 
UNITED STATES.) The passage of the Boston 
port bill was the practical retort of the im- 
perial government to the proceedings of the 
Bostonians. But though the commerce of the 
town was for the time destroyed, and the in- 
dependence of the local government was sus- 
pended for nearly two years, other places 



128 



BOSTON 



refused to profit from Boston's sufferings ; and 
her people received from all parts of the country 
warm sympathy and solid assistance. In 1775 
there were about 4,000 British troops in Bos- 
ton, and several armed vessels in the harbor. 
The battle of Lexington (April 19) roused the 
country, and in a short time Boston was be- 
leaguered by a large American force, full of 
spirit, but destitute of all the other essentials 
of war. Their attempt to fortify and hold 
Bunker Hill, which commanded the town, re- 
sulted in a battle, June 17, in which the Amer- 
icans were defeated from lack of ammunition, 
but which had on them and their cause the 
usual influence of a victory. Gen. Washington 
arrived in the besieging camp July 2, and as- 
sumed command the next day. The siege was 
prosecuted with all the vigor that could be dis- 
played, but it lasted nearly a year. On the 
night of March 4, 1776, the besiegers seized and 
occupied Dorchester heights, which commanded 
both town and harbor. The English made prep- 
arations to recover the heights, but were pre- 
vented from assailing them by the severity of 
the weather, which was extreme until the 7th, 
by which time the American fortifications had 
been rendered impregnable to any force the 
enemy could bring against them. The British 
commander was compelled to abandon the place 
March 17. During the war Boston supported 
the policy that ended in the adoption of the 
federal constitution. In the material prosper- 
ity that followed the inauguration of the new 
government Boston largely shared. Her busi- 
ness increased, and her commerce was extended 
to almost every part of the world. She became 
distinguished also as a seat of learning, and for 
the number of persons eminent in literature or 
in oratory who were among her citizens or 
those of her suburbs. From 1830 to 1860 she 
was popularly regarded as the headquarters of 
anti-slavery and other reform movements. In 
1822 Boston was made a city, 170 years after 
the change had been first talked of, and 113 years 
after the failure to have the place incorporated 
in 1709. In 1869 a monster musical festival, 
styled the peace jubilee, was held in Boston, in 
a wooden coliseum built for the purpose, 500 ft. 
long and 300 ft. wide, with a capacity for 50,000 
persons. The chorus comprised 108 societies, 
with about 10,000 singers, and there was a 
band of nearly 1,000 instruments, with a bat- 
tery of artillery, and 50 anvils beaten by 100 
men. The festival opened June 15. and lasted 
five days. The receipts exceeded the expendi- 
tures by about $50,000. A second festival 
projected by the originator of the first, Mr. P. 
S. Gilmore, was held from June 17 to July 6, 
1872, under the name of the international 
peace jubilee. The coliseum built for this af- 
fair was 550 ft. long by 350 ft. wide, with an ex- 
treme height of 115 ft. The chorus comprised 
165 societies with 20,000 voices, while the or- 
chestra numbered 2,000. Representative mil- 
itary bands were present from France, Ger- 
many, England, and the United States marine 



corps. The expenditures, which amounted to 
nearly $600,000, exceeded the receipts by 
about $150,000. In November, 1872, occurred 
a great conflagration, which, excepting tlie fire 
in Chicago the year before, was the most ex- 
tensive and destructive ever known in the 
United States. It originated from an unknown 
cause in a large granite building, devoted chiefly 
to dry goods, on the corner of Kingston and 
Summer streets, and was discovered about 
7 o'clock in the evening of the 9th. A mode- 
rate wind prevailed, and the flames, with won- 
derful rapidity, spread simultaneously in all di- 
rections, but chiefly toward the north and east. 
The fire continued till noon of the following 
day (Sunday), when it was brought under con- 
trol, but again broke forth, in consequence of 
an extensive explosion of gas, about midnight, 
and lasted till 7 o'clock on the morning of the 
llth. The district burned overextended from 
Summer and Bedford streets on the south to 
near State street on the north, and from Wash- 
ington street east to the harbor. Within these 
limits, excepting a portion bounded by Milk, 
Devonshire, State, and Washington streets, the 
devastation was complete. The burnt district 
covered about 65 acres, and was the centre of 
the great wholesale dry goods, boot and shoe, 
wool, and clothing trades. About 800 build- 
ings, many of which were of granite, five and 
six stories high, including some of the grandest 
business blocks in the United States, and oc- 
cupied by about 1,800 firms, were entirely 
destroyed. The total loss, according to the 
most accurate estimate, was about $80,000,000. 
The total loss by insurance companies was 
$52,676,000, of which $35,351,600 was sus- 
tained by Massachusetts companies. Very few 
public buildings or residences were destroyed. 
The number of lives lost did not exceed 15, 
while the suffering was mainTy occasioned by 
the temporary loss of employment to about 25,- 
000 working men and women. 

BOSTON, a seaport town and parliamentary 
borough of Lincolnshire, England, on both 
sides of the river Witham, 6 m. from the sea, 
and on the Great Northern railway, 28 m. 
S. E. of Lincoln, and 107 m. N. N. E. of Lon- 
don ; pop. of the town in 1871, 15,576. The 
two divisions of the town are connected by an 
iron bridge, of a single arch, 86 ft. in span. 
Boston is noted for the neatness of its streets, 
| is lighted by gas, supplied with excellent water 
from a distance of 14 m., and built almost en- 
tirely of brick. The most remarkable of its 
edifices is the parish church of St. liotolph, 
the largest without transepts in the kingdom, 
built in 1309, and having a tower 282 ft. in 
height, on the plan of that of the cathedral of 
Antwerp. This tower is surmounted by an 
octagonal lantern, visible at sea for nearly 40 
m. A window of stained glass has been 
placed in this church in honor of the Rev. 
John Cotton, who was vicar of St. Botolph's and 
one of the first ministers of Boston in America. 
There are numerous charitable institutions, a 



BOSTON 



BOSWELL 



129 



grammar school founded by Philip and Mary 
in 1554, three subscription libraries, a court 
house, spacious market houses, and commodi- 




8t Botolph's Church. 

ons salt-water baths, with pleasant grounds, 
established in 1830 for the use of the public. 
The manufactures consist of sail cloth, cordage, 




Cotton Chapel. 

leather, iron and brass work, &c. There is a 
considerable foreign trade, chiefly with the 
Baltic, whence timber, iron, hemp, and tar 
are imported, while large quantities of agricul- 



tural produce are transported to London. A 
monastery was founded here in 654 by the 
Saxon St. Botolph, and destroyed by the 
Danes in 870; "hence," as Lombard says, 
" the name of Botolph's town, commonly and 
corruptly called Boston." There were several 
other ecclesiastical establishments, which were 
suppressed in the time of Henry VIII. Dur- 
ing the civil war Boston was for a time the 
headquartei's of Cromwell's army. Its decline 
subsequent to the 16th century was caused by 
the prevalence of the plague, to which its low 
situation particularly exposed it, and by the 
gradually increasing difficulty of the Witham 
navigation. The healthiness of the place has 
been unproved by draining the surrounding 
fens, and its commercial prosperity has been 
in some degree restored by great improvements 
in the channel of the river. Vessels of 300 
tons now unlade in the heart of the town. It 
is connected by canals and railroads with the 
principal towns in the north. Boston was the 
birthplace of Fox the martyrologist. See 
" The History and Antiquities of Boston," &c., 
by Pishey Thompson (royal 8vo, Boston, 1856). 

BOSTON, Thomas, a Scottish Presbyterian 
clergyman, born at Dunse in March, 1676, 
died at Ettrick, May 20, 1732. He was edu- 
cated at Edinburgh university, and ordained 
minister of Simprin in 1699, whence he was 
transferred to Ettrick in 1707. He was a 
member of the general assembly and an un- 
compromising champion of the independence 
of the Scottish church. His works, which are 
strongly Oalvinistic, were first published col- 
lectively in 1852 in 12 volumes. The best 
known are the "Fourfold State," the " Crook 
in the Lot," and a "Body of Divinity," which 
is esteemed of high authority in the Presbyte- 
rian church. He also left "Memoirs of his 
own Life and Times." 

BOSTRi. See BOZEAH. 

BOSWELL, James, the biographer of Samuel 
Johnson, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 29, 1740, 
died in London, June 19, 1795. His father, as 
judge of the court of session, bore the title 
of Lord Auchinleck, after the family estate in 
Ayrshire. James studied at the universities 
of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and early in life 
became a high churchman and a tory, although 
his father was a rigid Presbyterian and a whig. 
His early ambition for intimate relations with 
distinguished persons was strengthened on his 
first visit to London in 1760, and it was with 
difficulty that his father prevailed upon him to 
give up the notion of going into the guards, 
and to resume the study of law. After re- 
maining for a short time at the university of 
Utrecht, he travelled extensively, visiting Vol- 
taire, Rousseau, and other men of note. In 
1766 he became a member of the faculty of ad- 
vocates, but never practised, and soon after- 
ward published a pamphlet concerning the 
celebrated Douglas cause, and one in 1774 
containing a report of the decisions of the 
court of session on literary property. He was 



130 



BOSWELL 



BOSWORTII 



mncli ridiculed on account of his enthusiasm 
for Paoli, whom he had visited in Corsica ; 
but his " Account of Corsica, with Memoirs of 
General Pasquale di Paoli" (Glasgow, 1768; 
3d ed., London, 1769), was praised by Hume, 
Johnson, Gray, and Walpole, translated into 
several languages, and was in a great measure 
the means of obtaining for Gen. Paoli marked 
attention and a pension of 1,200 on coming 
to England. In 1769 Boswell, after numerous 
love adventures, married a cousin, Miss Mar- 
garet Montgomery, an accomplished lady, with 
whom he lived very happily, and who died in 
1789, leaving him two sons and three daugh- 
ters. The great event of his life was his ac- 
quaintance with Johnson, formed in 1763, 
which ripened into intimacy. Through John- 
son's influence he became in 1773 a member 
of the famous Literary club, where he met 
Burke, Garrick, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and 
other eminent persons. He went with John- 
son to the Hebrides, and his narrative of this 
journey appeared in 1785, soon after his idol's 
decease ; it contains valuable records of John- 
son's conversation, and is exceedingly enter- 
taining. Between 1773 and 1785 Boswell 
^only enjoyed such snatches of Johnson's com- 
pany and conversation as were afforded by oc- 
casional visits to London. These visits were 
but a dozen in all, and, added to the time 
spent in the northern journey, make the whole 
period during which the biographer enjoyed 
intercourse with his subject only 276 days. 
But the "Life of Johnson," which was pub- 
lished in 1791, is universally conceded to be 
the most entertaining biography ever written, 
and Macaulay declares it to be the best in uni- 
versal literature. John Wilson Croker's famous 
edition of this work, including the "Journal of 
a Tour to the Hebrides," with numerous addi- 
tions and notes, appeared in 1831 (5 vols.), 
and has frequently been reprinted. Boswell 
succeeded to his father's estate in 1782, and 
removed to London in 1786. In 1790 he stood 
for parliament, but was defeated. In addition 
to the works already mentioned, he published 
several political pamphlets and a series of 
papers in the "London Magazine," entitled 
"The Hypochondriac," expressive of the feel- 
ings of a man subject to a depression of spirits, 
such as was common to himself and to Dr. 
Johnson. A posthumous volume of "Letters 
of James Boswell, addressed to the Rev. W. 
J. Temple," was first published from the origi- 
nal MS. in London in 1856. In his letters 
published in 1785, Boswell says: "Egotism 
and vanity are the indigenous plants of my 
mind." This frank avowal of his foibles and 
his eccentricities only served to enhance the 
popularity which he acquired by his amiability 
and accomplishments, and by his generous 
appreciation of real merit. His eldest son, Sir 
ALEXANDER, born Oct. 9, 1775, an intimate 
friend of Sir "Walter Scott and a member of the 
Roxburghe club, was a contributor to "The 
Beacon," a bitterly personal tory journal of 



Edinburgh, and to its successor, "The Senti- 
nel " of Glasgow. Having in the latter insult- 
ed Mr. James Stuart, a leading whig of Edin- 
burgh, by an imputation of cowardice, he was 
challenged to a duel, in which he was mortally 
wounded, March 26, 1822, and died the next 
day. Mr. Stuart was tried for murder and ac- 
quitted. Sir Alexander was the author of a 
volume of "Songs, chiefly in the Scottish Dia- 
lect" (.1803), " Clan Alpine's Vow " (1811), &c. 
The second son, JAMES, was the author of a 
"Memoir of Edmund Malone" (1814) and 
editor of Malonc's edition of Shakespeare, and 
also of several publications of the Roxburghe 
club. He died in London in 1822, in his 43d 
year ; and it was immediately after returning 
from his funeral that Sir Alexander fought 
his fatal duel. 

BOSWORTH, or Market Bosworlli. a town and 
parish of Leicestershire, England, 12 in. W. of 
Leicester; pop. of the parish about 2,500. 
The town has a free grammar school, in which 
Dr. Johnson was an usher. On a moor in the 
vicinity the battle was fought, Aug. 22, 1485, 




Bosworth Field Monument over King Richard's Well. 

in which Richard III. fell, and the wars of the 
roses were brought to an end. It was on the 
Crown hill near Bosworth that the crown was 
placed by Lord Stanley on the head of the 
earl of Richmond (Henry VII.) after the battle. 
BOSWORTH, Joseph, D. D., an English phi- 
lologist, born in Derbyshire about 1790. He was 
educated at the university of Aberdeen, and is 
a clergyman of the church of England. From 
1829 to 1841 he was British chaplain at Am- 
sterdam and at Rotterdam, afterward vicar of 
Walthe, Lincolnshire/and in 1858 became rec- 
tor of Water Stratford, near Buckingham. His 
"Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar" (1823) 
and "Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Lan- 
guage" (1838) embody, according to the "Ed- 
inburgh Review," " the whole results of An- 
glo-Saxon scholarship." Among his other 
works are : " The Origin of the English, Ger- 
manic, and Scandinavian Languages and Na- 
tions;" "King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version 
of the Compendious History of the World by 
Orosius" (1856) ; and "The Gospels in Gothic 
of 3GO, and in Anglo-Saxon of l>95, in parallel 



BOTALLI 



BOTANY 



131 



columns with "Wycliffe's Version of 1380, and 
Tyndale's of 1526 " (1865). 

BOTALLI, Leonardo, a Piedmontese physician, 
born at Asti about 1530. He was educated at 
Pavia, and went to France in 1561, where he 
acquired celebrity by his controversies with the 
faculty of Paris on the subject of bloodletting. 
In 1571 he was appointed physician in ordi- 
nary to Elizabeth, queen of Charles IX., and 
afterward to Catharine de' Medici. He wrote 
a number of important medical works, includ- 
ing De Catarrfto, De Lue Venerea, De Curan- 
dis Vulneribus Sclopetorum, De Via Sanguinis \ 
a Dextro in Sinutrum Cordis Ventriculum, 
and De Curatione per Sanguinis Miisionem. 
His chief claim to distinction at present rests 
upon a singular error, namely, the description 
in the fourth of the works enumerated above 
of an exceptional case in which the foramen 
ovale, between the right and left auricles of the 
heart, remained open in the adult. Botalli sup- 
posed this to be a normal appearance, and de- 
scribed it accordingly as a natural opening, 
giving passage to the arterial blood into the 
left auricle ; while in reality it exists, as a gen- 
eral rule, only in the fetus, and when present 
in the adult does not allow the blood to pass 
through it. It is still known, however, as the 
" foramen of Botal." 

BOTANY (Gr. POT&VTJ, a plant or vegetable), 
the division of natural science which treats of 
plants. The history and bibliography of the 
science will be treated in this article; for a 
general account of plants and their organism, 
see PLANT. As a plant in its typical form is 
composed of organs, as roots, stem, leaves, &c., 
which have each a part to perform in the life 
of the individual, a study of vegetable physiol- 
ogy must be the foundation of botanical knowl- 
edge. This important division of botany 
treats of these organs in their most intimate 
structure, a study only possible by the improve- 
ments in the microscope and in organic chem- 
istry. Vegetable anatomy dissects the plant, 
opens the structure of the root, stem, bark, and 
leaves, or studies the special organs (organ- 
ography), and the various forms which these or- 
gans assume for different functions (morpholo- 
gy), as where the leaf becomes a petal, a sta- 
men, or a carpel, yet preserving all the while 
its identity. The botanist also examines the 
functions of all the organs, the order and mode 
of their development, and finally those derange- 
ments of plant life which are followed, as in the 
animal, by death of a part or of the whole 
(nosology). The vast number and variety of 
plants existing on the globe require a knowl- 
edge of some system of classification, and sys- 
tematic botany supplies the want with a rigor- 
ous method by which all plants wherever found 
rnay at once be placed in a definite position in 
the order adopted. As plants are not scattered 
haphazard over the earth, botanical geography 
must be studied, and with this plant history, 
using the fossil remains of plants of former geo- 
logical ages for the purpose. Botany may then 



be applied to the wants of every-day life, as in 
agriculture, horticulture, or medical botany. 
Animals often exhibit a marvellous instinct in 
selecting medicinal herbs, and- observation of 
their habits has often, even in the present time, 
led to valuable discoveries. The fragmentary 
history we have of the study of nature by the an- 
cients indicates a much greater knowledge than 
is recorded; for instance, in the well known 
paradox of the Greek philosophers that plants 
are only inverted animals a statement that 
certainly required an extensive knowledge of 
the phenomena of vegetation. The collected 
descriptions of known plants, however, were 
very limited, the Hebrew Scriptures containing 
names of about 70 species which can be identi- 
fied, besides some others. Hippocrates of Cos 
(about 400 B. C.) described briefly about 200 
medicinal plants; Theophrastus, the pupil of 
Aristotle, describes about 400; Dioscorides 
(about A. D. 100) treats of about 600 species, 
of which fewer than 150 have been recognized. 
Pliny the Elder, in his Historia Naturalu, 
devotes 16 books to botany, describing almost 
1,000 plants ; but from his unscientific descrip- 
tions many cannot now be identified. The 
Arabian travellers added about 200 oriental 
plants to the 1,200 known before the 9th cen- 
tury. Jean Bauhin (born in 1541) wrote a 
universal history of plants, describing more 
than 5,000 species, illustrated by 3,577 figures; 
and later his brother endeavored to arrange 
the 6,000 plants then known. Linnseus de- 
scribed in his first edition of the Systema Na- 
tures 7,300 species, and in the second 8,800; 
and at his death in 1778, 11,800 were known. 
The influence of his example on his many pupils 
rapidly increased the number of known plants, 
until in the time of Jussieu 20,000 had been 
described ; and the number at present known 
is at least 100,000. With so vast a collection 
the botanist would be overwhelmed had he not 
some methodical arrangement; and as the 
history of the various devices invented by 
botanists to order and catalogue their rapidly 
increasing stores is an important part of hot- 
any, it may be considered, after a brief sketch 
of the labors and discoveries of the early bot- 
anists. The ancients recorded many botani- 
cal observations which do not seem to have 
been productive of results ; although Herodotus 
(book i., 193) mentions the fact that in Baby- 
lonia the flowers of the male palm were tied to 
those that bear fruit " in order that the fly en- 
tering the date may ripen it, lest otherwise the 
fruit fall before maturity : for the males have 
flies in the fruit, just like wild fig trees." The 
seeds of palms were still undiscovered. Aris- 
totle wrote two books on plants, known only 
from Latin and Arabic versions. Theophras- 
tus taught that there was no philosophical dis- 
tinction between trees, shrubs, and plants. 
He noticed the difference between palm wood 
and that of trees with concentric rings, a 
point used as the first distinction in the clas- 
sification of flowering plants only within the 



132 



BOTANY 



last 60 years. The parenchyma and woody 
fibre were also clearly distinguished by this 
remarkable botanist. Musa and Euphorbus, 
Roman physicians, published botanical obser- 
vations, and Pliny gives some interesting de- 
scriptions. For 1,700 years all botanical inves- 
tigation was at a standstill. The Arabians, it 
is true, travelled and collected plants; Wahab 
and Abu Seid went to China and described the 
tcha or tea plant; Masudi, Abulfeda, Batuta, 
and Averroes all made their contributions, and 
have generally been honored by having plants 
named after them. After the fall of Constan- 
tinople (1453), and the revival of letters conse- 
quent upon that event and the invention of 
printing, botanists were not satisfied with com- 
mentaries on Aristotle and Theophrastus, and 
made many new investigations. In Germany, 
Otto Brunfels first published good woodcuts 
of living plants in 1530 ; for those in the work 
incorrectly attributed to /Emilius Macer (1480), 
and even in that of Pietro de' Crescenzi, are 
all of inferior value. Leonhard Fuchs attempt- 
ed to arrange and illustrate the known plants 
of his time. Rauwolf travelled in the western 
part of Asia and collected many new plants. 
Prospero Alpini, Venetian consul at Cairo, and 
Melchior Guilandinus, explored Egypt. The 
discovery of the West Indies in 1492, and the 
doubling of the Cape of Good Hope five years 
later, opened new and rich botanical store- 
houses. Conrad Gesner of Zurich (1516-'65) 
established genera from the flower and fruit, 
and his attempt at classification was published 
by J. Camerarius in 1586, in a synopsis of the 
commentary of P. A. Matthioli, physician to 
the emperor of Germany. Charles de 1'Ecluse 
(Clusius), director of the imperial garden of 
Vienna, described accurately and elegantly 
many new plants, and was the best botanist up 
to his time (1526-1609). Lobelius of Lille 
(1538-1616) was the first to distinguish mono- 
cotyledonous from dicotyledonous plants. An- 
dreas Csesalpinus of Florence, physician to Pope 
Clement VIII., established (1583) a system of 
classification from fructification, divided trees 
according to the direction of the germ, made 
the distinction of sex in dioecious plants clearer 
by giving masculine names to staminate, femi- 
nine ones to pistillate individuals, and, what 
proved of more permanent benefit, analyzed 
several of the important organs of vegetation. 
Among the botanists of this period were Jaco- 
bus Theodoras Taberneemontanus, who repro- 
duced the figures of more than 3,000 species 
which had been already described ; his nephew, 
Joachim Jungermann ; Fabricius Colonna, who 
first published delicate copperplates of plants ; 
Ad. Zaluskianski, a Bohemian, who wrote on 
the sexes of plants and described the floral 
organs. Jean Bauhin of Basel, a pupil of 
Fuchs, laid out the garden of the duke of 
Wurtemberg at MontbIiard, and wrote a uni- 
versal history of plants, but described them 
less accurately than Csasalpinus. His brother 
Caspar tried to distinguish each species by a 



brief description of its characteristics, and 
grouped all species into genera ; and his sys- 
tem, with that of Cffisalpinus, was used by 
botanists for some years. War then put an end 
to botanical as to all other scientific progress in 
Europe ; and although Marcgraf explored and 
described the vegetable riches of Brazil, little 
advance was made until Leeuwenhoeck with 
the microscope (1632-1723) commenced the ex- 
amination of the hitherto invisible structure of 
vegetables, and thus gave a new impulse to bot- 
any, which resulted in investigations pursued 
with great accuracy by Nehemiah Grew (born 
about 1628), and by the Italian Marcello Mal- 
pighi (born in 1628). These two naturalists 
laid the foundation of vegetable physiology as 
a science by carefully examining all the cells 
and tissues of plants and seeds ; and, although 
in the great number of their discoveries they 
were both often misled, many of their investi- 
gations were of great importance. Several of 
the French academicians made further discov- 
eries : Charles Perrault on the movement of the 
sap ; Renaulme on the leaves as organs of tran- 
spiration, absorption, and nutrition ; Dodart on 
the direction of growth; Lahire on the growth 
of trees. Van Helmont and John Woodward 
made experiments on the nutrition of plants. 
In 1676 Thomas Millington and Bobart dis- 
covered the fertilizing power of anthers, which 
Grew confirmed, establishing the sexes of 
plants. In 1694 R. J. Camerarius demonstrated 
this discovery, and three years later Boccone 
experimented with palms, acting on the sug- 
gestion of Herodotus. All these doubtless led 
Linnaeus to his sexual classification. From 
the physiological botany which had at the time 
of Linn*us become so prominent, naturalists 
turned for a while to geographical botany, and 
many of the pupils of the great Swede were 
sent out as collectors. Solander explored Lap- 
land, Archangel, &c., and circumnavigated the 
globe with Cook and Banks ; Peter Kalm ex- 
plored North America; Peter Lofling, Por- 
tugal, Spain, and New Spain ; Hasselquist, 
Asia; Forskal, Arabia; Ternstrom, the East 
Indies; Osbeck, China; Solander, Surinam; 
others, various parts of Europe. Tournefort 
(1656-1708) travelled in southern Europe and 
western Asia ; L. Feuillee travelled in Asia in 
1690 and in America in 1705 ; Charles Plmnier 
observed and collected plants in the Antilles, 
and A. Fr. Frezier in Spanish America. The 
Burmanns, father and son, described almost 
1,500 new species from the East Indies, and 
Commelyn and his son described Malabar 
plants. Other distinguished botanical travellers 
are : Adanson, on the Senegal ; Thunberg, suc- 
cessor of Linnanis, at the Cape of Good Hope ; 
Kampfer, in Japan ; Ruiz and Pavon, in Chili 
and Peru ; Mutis, in equatorial America ; Jac- 
quin, in South America ; Swartz, in the Antil- 
les; Aublet, in Guiana; Joao Loureiro, in 
Cochin China ; Commerson, almost all over the 
globe ; Roxburgh, in Bengal ; Desfontaines, in 
Algeria ; Masson, at the Cape of Good Hope ; 



BOTANY 



133 



Ledru and Reidel, around the globe ; Labillar- 
diere and Ventenat, in the Pacific islands; 
Du Petit-Thouars, in Madagascar ; A. Michaux, 
in North America ; Joseph Jussieu (1704-1779), 
among the Andes and the sources of the Plata ; 
Alex, von Humboldt and Aim6 Bonpland, in 
South America; Robert Brown, with the 
painter Bauer, in Australia; Ehrenberg, in 
Egypt, Abyssinia, Dongola, and Arabia (in 
which countries he collected 47,000 speci- 
mens); Lesson, in the Pacific islands; Baron 
Hugel, there and in the East Indies ; Rnssegger, 
in Syria, Kordofan, and littoral Arabia ; J. D. 
Hooker, in India and the Southern ocean; 
Leschenault de la Tour, in India ; Griffith, in 
India ; Victor Jacquemont, in eastern India ; 
Siebold, in Japan ; Ed. Ruppel and Schimper, 
in Nubia and Abyssinia ; Otto, in the Cordil- 
leras, on the Orinoco, and in North America ; 
Aug. de St.-Hilaire, Spix, Martins, Moritz, and 
G. Gardner, in Brazil and Guiana; Schomburgk, 
in Guiana and Louisiana ; Nuttall, in the Uni- 
ted States ; Tweedie, on the pampas in La 
Plata; Jo. Frazer and T. Drummond, in the 
United States ; Bertero and 01. Gay, in Chili ; 
Allan Cunningham, in New Zealand and New 
Holland ; Chamisso, in the Pacific and around 
the globe; Meyen, around the globe, which 
Charles Gaudichaud circumnavigated three 
times with Freycinet. Pallas, Baer, Schrenck, 
Ruprecht, Somelieu, Parrot, and Ehrenberg ex- 
plored Russia. Among those who have made 
expeditions for botanical collections in the pres- 
ent generation are Vogel and G. Mann in Africa, 
Wright in Cuba and Texas, Brewer on the Pa- 
cific coast, Fendler in the S. W. United States, 
Horace Mann and Brigham in the Hawaiian isl- 
ands, Fortune in Japan and eastern Asia, Remy 
in the Hawaiian islands, and Seemann in the 
Feejee islands. Classification of Plants. Even 
before the collections of modern travellers had 
so immensely increased the number of known 
plants, it was found necessary to adopt some 
order or arrangement by which the recorded 
description of a species might be so placed that 
succeeding botanists could know what had been 
described. The classification adopted by The- 
ophrastus into pot herbs and forest trees, cone 
plants, water plants, and parasites, and the 
more medicinal one of Dioscorides into aroma- 
tics, gurn-bearing plants, eatable vegetables, 
and corn herbs, answered the purpose when 
botanists and described plants were few; but 
for the last century and a half botanists have 
been striving with the advance of their science 
to improve the classification of the rapidly in- 
creasing store of plants they had to study. 
Rivinus in 1690 invented a system depending 
on the formation of the corolla ; Hatnel in 1693, 
as Csesalpinus had done before him, on the 
fruit alone. John Ray in 1703 published an 
amended natural system, separating dicotyle- 
dons and monocotyledons, but his work was 
little noticed. In 1720 Magnol arranged his 
system on the variations of the calyx and co- 
rolla. In 1735 Linnajus based his on the vari- 



ations of the stamens and pistils, and this arti- 
ficial system was at once adopted everywhere, 
and for many years was taught and used in all 
botanical classes in Europe and America. He 
devised the binomial system of nomenclature, 
denoting each plant by a generic and specific 
name. Although now entirely out of use, the 
Linnoean system is interesting as the best arti- 
ficial one yet invented. Its outline is as follows : 

MARRIAGES OF PLANTS. 
Generation of plants. 
Florescence. 

Pr/RLic, manifest phanerogamous. 
Flowers, visible. 

Monoclinia OAOI-OS, one, K\ivT], tbalamus, couch). 
Males and females OD the same thalamus. 
Flowers hermaphrodite : stamens and pistils in one 

flower. 

Diffintty (no affinity). 
Males not cognate. 

Stamens altogether unconnected with each other. 
IntiifFerentism (no subordination of males). 
Stamens of indeterminate length. 



1. Uton- 

2. Di- 
8. Tri- 

4. Tetr- 

5. Pent- 

6. Heac- 
1. Ifept- 



8. Oct- (6) 

9. Enne- (9) 

10. Dec- (10) 

11. Dodec-(Vl.) 

12. /M- (20) 

13. Po/y- (many) 



-andria 
(manhood). 



Subordination (certain males preferred to others). 
Two stamens shorter than the others. 

I*! Teira- \ d y namia (power). 
Affinity. 

Males related and cognate. 

Stamens adhering among themselves or with the 

pistil. 

16. Man- ) 
IT. IH- y -adtlphia (brotherhood). 

18. Poly- j 

19. Sungenesia (births together). 

20. Oynandria (wife-manhood). 
Diclinia (is, twice). 

Males and females on distinct thalami. 
Several males and females in the same species. 

22' /" \ " aeeia (household). 
28. Polyffamia (many marriages). 
{, CLANDESTINE, hidden, cryptogamous. 
Flowers scarcely visible to the naked eye. 
24. Cryptoyamia (secret marriage). 

From the 1st to the llth class, which has 12 
stamens, the number of the class coincides 
with that of the stamens. The 12th class, 
icosandria (20 stamens), differs from the 13th, 
polyandria (many stamens), not by the number, 
but by the insertion of the filaments, which is 
on the inner side of the calyx in the former 
and on the receptacle in the latter. Didynamia 
has 4, tetradynamia 6 stamens, 2 of which 
are shorter in each class. In the monadelphia 
the stamens have the filaments more or less 
united ; in the diadelphia they are in two 
groups ; in the polyadelphia, in several. In 
syngenesia the anthers (rarely the filaments 
also) are united. In gynandria the anthers are 
borne on the pistil, either sessile or with short 
filaments. Monacia have the stamens in one 
flower, the pistil in another, but both on the 
same plant ; while in diiecia the two forms of 
flower are on distinct plants, and in polygamia 
the pistillate and staminate flowers are on 
the same or different plants in the same spe- 
cies. These classes are divided into orders as 
follows: the first 13 classes according to the 



134 



BOTANY 



number of their distinct stigmata, as mono-, di-, 
&c., gynia, ; the 14th by the seed (when cover- 
ed, angiosperma ; when naked, gymnosper- 
ma) ; the 15th by the form of the fruit, sili- 
quosa (podded), and siliculosa (with silicles) ; 
the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 20th by the absolute 
number of their stamens ; the 21st and 22d by 
the absolute number of the stamens and their 
adherence (monadelphia, syrigenesia, gynan- 
dria) ; the 23d by the distribution of the her- 
maphrodite or unisexual flowers (man-, di-, 
triacia). The 24th class, cryptogamia (secret 
marriage), has four orders, filices (ferns), 
rnuid (mosses), alga (seaweeds), and fungi 
(mushrooms). The 19th, syngenesia, has five 
orders: flowers all fertile, hermaphrodite (po- 
lygamia equalis); flowers radiate, disk with 
hermaphrodite florets, ray with pistillate (poly- 
iuperflua) ; disk with fertile hermaphrodite 
florets, ray with barren pistillate (polyfrwtra- 
nea) ; disk with barren hermaphrodite florets, 
ray with fertile pistillate (polynecessaria) ; 
each floret with its own calyx besides the com- 
mon perianth (polysegregata), and also sepa- 
rated flowers, as the lobelia (monogamia). 
This artificial system is, then, founded on the dif- 
ferences, not on the similarities of plants, and 
does not tend to impart a knowledge of the 
structure of a plant beyond its stamens and 
pistils. Linnaaus himself felt its deficiencies, 
and tried to work out what is called a natural 
system, which he declared to be the primum 
et ultimum in botanicu desideratum. Bernard 
de Jussieu, in his catalogues of the gardens of 
the Trianon, adopted an arrangement of plants 
according to their natural affinities ; and as he 
never published his method, it was left for his 
nephew Antoine Laurent (1748-1836) to give 
to the world the first natural system in his 
Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines Natu- 
rales disposita (Paris, 1789), a work contain- 
ing descriptions of almost 20,000 species, and 
celebrated as a monument of wonderful saga- 
city and profound research, as well as for the 
eloquence and precision of its style. Various 
modifications of Jnssieu's system have been 
adopted by succeeding botanists. Among 
them three methods deserve a more special 
mention, as the works in which they have been 
adopted are in constant use. De Oandolle's 
Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Ve- 
getabilis, a description of all known species 
of plants, commenced in 1824 and now nearly 
completed, adopts the descending series, as it 
is called ; that is, those plants which are con- 
sidered most complete in their organization are 
first described, and the series ends in the lower 
cryptogams. The Pro&romm is so much used 
by all working botanists that a brief synopsis 
of the arrangement therein followed may be 
given. The primary divisions are vasculares 
and celhilares. Vasculares or cotyledons are 
furnished with cellular tissue and vessels, and 
their embryo has one or more cotyledons. 
This includes : I. Exogence or dicotyledons, in 
which the vessels are arranged in concentric 



layers, the youngest outside, and the embryo 
has opposite or verticillate cotyledons ; II. 
Endogence or monocotyledons, in which the 
vessels are arranged in bundles, the youngest 
being in the middle of the trunk, while the 
embryo has a solitary or alternate cotyledons. 
The exogens are divided into dichlamydew, with 
calyx and corolla distinct, and monochlamydea, 
where the calyx and corolla form only one peri- 
anth. ' The dichlamyds are again divided into 
the thalamiftorce, in which the petals are dis- 
tinct, inverted on the receptacle; the calyci- 
florce, in which the petals are free or more or 
less united, always perigynons or inserted on 
the calyx ; and the corolliflora, in which the 
petals are united into a hypogynous corolla, or 
not attached to the calyx. Cellulares or aco- 
tyledona are composed of cellular tissue only, 
and have no proper vessels, while the embryo 
has no cotyledons. This division includes the 
foliaccte or plants which have leaf-like expan- 
sions and known sexes ; and the aphylloe, or 
plants which have neither leaf-like expansions 
nor (as was supposed when the method was 
published) sexes. John Lindley, in his " Ve- 
getable Kingdom " (1846 ; 3d ed., 1853), adopts 
the ascending series. The number of orders 
is 303, and his classes are as follows : 

Flowcrless Plants Cryptogams. 
I. Tliallogens. Stem and leaves Indistinguishable. 
II. Acrogem. Stem and leaves distinguishable. 
Flowering Plants Phanerogams. 

III. Rhizogens, Fructification springing from a tballus. 
Fructification proceeding from a stem, 
t Wood of stem youngest in the centre ; cotyledon single. 
IV. Endog&ns. Leaves parallel-veined, permanent ; wood 

of stem always confused. 

V. Dictyogens. Leaves net-veined, deciduous; wood of 
stem, when perennial, arranged in a 
circle with a central pith. 

J Wood of stem youngest on the circumference, always con- 
centric ; cotyledons two or more. 
VI. Gymnogens. Seeds quite naked. 

VII. Exogens. Seeds enclosed in seed vessels. 

The alliances proposed by Lindley are as fol- 
lows: Algales, ex. seaweeds; fungales, ex. 
mushrooms ; lichenales, ex. lichens ; mvscales, 
ex. urn mosses ; lycopodales, ex. club mosses ; 
filicales, ex. ferns ; glumalei, ex. grasses ; ara- 
les, ex. arads ; pair/idles, ex. palms ; hydrales, 
ex. naiads ; narcissales, ex. amaryllis ; amoma- 
les, ex. maranta ; orchidales, ex. orchis ; xyri- 
dales, ex. spiderwort; jimcales, ex. bulrush; 
liliales, ex. lily ; alismales, ex. alisma ; amen- 
tales, ex. willow ; urticales, ex. nettle ; evphor- 
biales, ex. spurge; quercalei, ex. oak; garry- 
ales, ex. garrya ; menupermales, ex. moonseed ; 
cvcurbitales. ex. melon ; papayales, ex. papaw ; 
violates, ex. violet; cistales, ex. rock rose ; mal- 
vales, ex. mallow ; sapindales, ex. soapwort ; 
guttiferales, ex. clusia; nymphnles, ex. water 
lily; ranales, ex. buttercup; lierlterales, ex. 
berberry ; ericales, ex. heath ; rulales, ex. 
orange ; geraniales, ex. cranesbill ; silenales, 
ex. pink ; chenopodahs, ex. amaranth ; piper- 
ales, ex. pepper ; ficoidales, ex. mesembryanthe- 
mum ; dap/males, ex. laurel ; rosales, ex. apple ; 
saxifragales, ex. saxifrage; rfiamnales, ex. 
buckthorn; gentianales, ex. gentian ; solanales, 



BOTANY 



135 



ex. potato; cortiisales, ex. primrose; echiales, 
ex. bugloss ; 'bignoniales, ex. trumpet-creeper ; 
campanales, ex. aster ; myrtales, ex. pome- 
granate ; cactales, ex. cactus ; grossales, ex. 
currant ; cinchonales, ex. honeysuckle ; umbel- 
lales, ex. carrot ; asarales^ ex. birthwort. Ste- 
phan Endlicher published Genera Plantarum 
secundum Ordines Naturales disposita (Vien- 
na, 1836-'40), the most important systematic 
work since A. L. de Jussieu's of 1789. His 
classes answer to Lindley's alliances. We sub- 
join a summary of his method, from his Con- 
spectus diagnostics : 

Two regions contain all plants : 1. Thallophyta (Gr. 
flaAAeii', to pullulate, to green, grow, bloom, sprout), the 
tfiallus being either a leafy branched tuft or frond, or a flat- 
lobed mass of green matter upon the ground, a bed of fibres ; 
and 2. Cormophyta (Gr. op/ios, Lat. corpus, fruticus, stem, 
stalk), the cormus being the lecu* of Du-Petit Thouars, pla- 
teau of De Candolle, bulbotuber of Ker, and bnlbus solidus 
of others ; in short, a stem, whether subterranean or super- 
terranean. The tkallophyta (having no opposition of stem 
and root, no spiral vessels nor sexes, but spores lengthened in 
all directions) he divides into two sections, viz.: I. Proto- 
phyta (n-pwTo?, first), born without soil, feeding by the sur- 
face, fructification vague ; containing 2 classes, namely, algct) 
in 7 orders and 122 genera, and lichenes in 4 orders and 57 
genera. 2. HysteropJ-.yta (uorepof, posterior, later), born on 
languid or dead organisms, feeding Irom within, developing 
all organs at once, perishing definitively; constituting 1 class, 
fungi ; birth hidden ; sporldia none or within asci (tubules) ; 
in 5 orders, 274 genera. In this region there are 16 orders and 
453 genera. The cormophyta (having polar opposition of 
stern to root, vessels and distinct sexes in the more perfect 
individuals) he divides into 3 sections. The first section is 
acrobrya (a*pos, uppermost, highest, extrepie, and 0puw, 
I germinate, emanate, am bred) : stem growing only at the 
top, lower part only food-bearing; comprising 8 cohorts, 
namely : 1. Anophyta (acw, upward) : no vessels ; hermaphro- 
dite ; spores free within sporangia ; with 2 classes, hepaticce, 
in 5 orders and 20 genera, and nnisci, in 8 orders and 26 gen- 
era; 2. Protophyta: bundles of vessels more or less perfect; 
no male sex; spores free within sporangia of one or more 
lodges; 5 classes; a, equiseta (horsetails), in 1 order, 2 gen- 
era; b^jUices (ferns), 7 orders, 72 genera; c, hydropterides 
(water-wings), in 2 orders, 29 genera; d, sehtgines, in 8 or- 
ders. 11 genera; e. zamice, 1 order, cycadacecK^ 10 genera; 8. 
llyxterophyta: both sexes perfect; seeds without embryo, 
many-spored; parasites, with 1 class, rkizantheoB (root-flow- 
ering), in 3 orders and 14 genera. The second section is ampki- 
brya; stalk growing peripherically ; with 11 classes, viz. : a, 
plurnftceve, in 2 orders, fframinecf^ grasses, 22U genera, and 
cyperacece, sedges. 47 genera; &, enantioblastas (evavriov, 
against, /SAaordf, germ), in 5 orders, 83 genera; c. heliobicB 
(e'Aos, pool, marsh, 109, life), in 2 orders, 10 genera; d, coro- 
nariie (from the coronate perigoniuin), in 6 orders, 42 genera ; 
*, art&rkiza (dpro?, bread, pifo, root), in 2 orders, 17 gen- 
era;/, enfiatcB (Lat. ensis^ sword), in 7 orders, 110 genera; 
frgynandrce (female with male), in 2 orders, 8iJ5 genera ; h. 
scifaminecp (Lat. scitamina^ dainties), in 3 orders, 38 gen- 
era; i^jtuyiale^m 1 order, naiad e<e^ 6 genera; ^, spadici- 
florce, in 3 orders, 51 genera; and &, principes, in 1 order, 
palmce, 62 genera. The third section is the acramphibrya: 
stem growing both at top and pei Spherically; divided in to 4 
cohorts: 1. tiymnoitpermw : ovules naked, Jertilized immedi- 
ately through the open fruit leaf or permeable disk, with 1 
class, coniferfe, in 4 orders, 23 genera; 2. Apetalae: no peri- 
gonium, or a rudimentary or simple one, calycine or colored, 
free or adhering to the ovary ; with 6 classes : a, piperitw, in 
8 orders, '^3 genera; b, actjiMtica>, in 3 orders, 10 genera; 
c, jidiflorm (Lat. iulus^ catkin). In 15 orders and 1 sub- 
order, 72 genera; d. oleraeeis (Lat. olns, a kitchen plant), 
in 4 orders, 60 genera; e, thymelew (0vju'A7j. altar, flour), 
in 9 orders, 146 genera; /, serpentar-iai, in 2 orders, 6 
genera; 8. Gamopetalce: perigonium double, exterior caly- 
cine, interior corolliue, gamopetalic, seldom abortive; 
with 10 classes: o, plumbagine* (Lat. plumbum, a disorder 
in the eyes, which some species were believed to cure), in 2 
orders, 10 genera; b. aggregate* in 3 orders, 859 genera; c, 
campanuUnetf^ift 5 orders, 53 genera; rf, capri/blia (from 
climbing like a goat, Lat. cupra), in 3 orders, 246 genera; e, 
contortcB (twisted), in 7 orders. 2'27 genera; f, nuculiferce, in 
8 orders, 'J19 genera; (/, tubuliJlorcB, in 5 orders, 90 genera; 
A. personate (masked), in 7 orders, 818 genera; i,petalan- 
t/iie, in 4 orders, 70 genera; ,;, bicomes. In '2 orders, 89 genera ; 
4. Diali/petdlip (8iaAveif, to dissolve, separate): perigonium 
double, outer calycine (with leaflets distinct or coalesced, free 



or cognate with ovarv, sometimes colored), inner coralline 
(parts distinct or seldom united by base of stamens, hypo-, 
peri-, or epigynous), sometimes abortive ; with 23 classes, viz. : 
, discantkce (disk -flowering), in 7 orders, 252 genera; b, 
comiculat'je, in 8 orders, 77 genera; c, polycarpicw (many- 
fruited), in 8 orders, 182 genera; d, rhceadea (pota, pome- 
granate, here misapplied), in 5 orders, 2U1 genera; e, nelum- 
bia (Cingalese, nelitmbo, water lily), in 3 orders and 1 sub- 
order, 10 genera;/, parietal&t^'m 18 orders. iH genera; g, 
peponiferw, in 3 orders, 33 genera ; A, opuntice, in 1 order, 
cactece, 9 genera; z, caryophillinex (Kapvov, walnut, and 
<uAAoc, leaf, from the appearance of the flower buds of 
pinks), in 4 orders, 103 genera; ,;', cotiunniferce, in 4 orders, 
126 genera; , guttiferae, in 9 orders, 93 genera; /, kespe- 
rides (rockets, more fragrant in the evening, eVn-epos), in 5 
orders, 73 genera; m, acera (maples), in 5 orders, 86 
genera; n, polygalinece (yaAo, milk, believed to favor 
milk secretion when fed upon), in 2 orders, 16 genera; o, 
frangulacex. in 7 orders, 100 genera; p, tricQGcm* in 3 or- 
ders, 129 genera; <?, ttrebintkinece, in 10 orders, 156 genera; 
r, (iruinales (like cranebills), in 6 orders, 22 genera; s, caly- 
MWTKV, in 8 orders. 102 genera; , myrt(ftoi'w, in 2 orders, 
172 genera; , ro*^?orce, in 5 orders, 77 genera; >, legitnvi- 
nosce, in 3 orders. 421 genera. 

The Genera Plantarum of Hooker and Ben- 
tham, of which the first volume was com- 
pleted in 1867, is the latest arrangement of 
orders and genera, and when finished will 
doubtless be for some time the guide in the 
classification of herbaria and local floras. 
Physiological and Anatomical Botany. After 
the discovery of the microscope and the inves- 
tigations of Grew and Malpighi, much study 
was devoted to the vegetable cell and the na- 
ture of cellulose. Mirbel, Dutrochet, Amici, 
Moldenhawer, Von Mohl, linger, Fre"my, and 
Schleiden have carefully observed the forms 
it assumes and the work it performs, Fre"my 
distinguishing various kinds by chemical tests 
where optical tests failed. Schleiden calls the 
primitive utricle the cytoblast or germinating 
cavity; and Mulder in Holland and Schacht in 
Germany now lead those who consider all 
vegetation traceable from the cell-generating 
cytoblast. Pringsheim denies this. The move- 
ment of the sap was described by Corti in 1772, 
and Biot, De la Place, Fontana, L. C. Trevi- 
ranus, Meyen, Cassini, Schultz, and Morren 
have published their observations on the cir- 
culation. The observers whose works may be 
consulted with profit for special phytotomic de- 
tails are : on organic mucus, Brongniart, Mohl, 
Valentin; laticiferous tissue, Schultz (1839), 
Dippel, Haustein (1863) ; protoplasm, Cobn, 
linger, Max Schultze, K. H. Schultz ; fibrous 
tissue, Purkinje, Morren ; starch, Rospail, Fritz- 
sche, Payen, Tr6cul, Niigeli ; aleurone, Hartig, 
Tre"cul, Gris; color of plants, De Candolle, 
Mohl, Lawson, Morren ; chlorophyl, Bohm, 
Mohl, Morren, Fr6my, Gris, Verdeil ; cell con- 
tents, Weddell, Schacht; epidermis, Schleiden, 
Brongniart, "Weiss ; stomata, the Krokers, father 
and son, Thomson, Lindley, linger, Morren; 
bark and cork, Duhamel (Physique des arbres), 
Senebier, Pallini, Sprengel, Gaudichaud ; stem, 
Daubenton, Deefontaines, Duhamel, Mohl, 
Gaudichaud, Mirbel, T, Hanstein (also on root 
and leaves) ; root, Tre'cul, Goldman, Link, Gar- 
reau and Brauwers, Decaisne, Ohlert, Th. de 
Saussure, Macaire, Bouchardat, Chatin,Trincln- 
netti ; leaf, J. D. Hooker, Braun, J. Rossmann, 
Steinheil, Mercklin,Wretschko, Tre'cul, Bonnet ; 



136 



BOTANY 



movements of plants, Runge, Desfontaines, 
Meyen, Brucke, Darwin; phyllotaxy, Schim- 
per and Brown ; floral organs, Duval, Duchartre ; 
anther, Purkinje, Fritzsche; pollen, Chatin, 
Wimmel, Nageli, Hofraeister, R. Brown, Schlei- 
den, Unger ; ovary and ovule, Brongniart, Du- 
chartre, Cramer, Grisebach, Tulasne, Deeke, 
Schacht, Henfrey, Radtkofer,IIofmeister; fruits, 
Lindley, Lestiboudois, Desvaux, De Candolle, 
Dumortier ; vitality of seeds, De Candolle, Des- 
moulins, Girardin, Naudin ; alimentation of 
plants, Dutrochet, Schumacher, Herbert Spen- 
cer, Hofmeister, Bohm, Hanstein, Hartig, 
Sachs, Payen, Vogel, AVittwer, Vierordt, Jac. 
Moleschott, Daubeny, Draper, Boussingault, 
Liebig, Grischow ; respiration, Traube, Core- 
muinder, De Saussure, Gladstone. Of vege- 
table products : the proportions of the amyla- 
ceous bodies in plants (cellular tissue, inuline, 
dextrine, mannite, pectine, &c.) have been 
investigated by Berard, P61igot, Braconnot, 
Eichof, Payen, and Pereira ; oily substances, by 
Hartig, Mulder, Donders, Iljenko and Laskow- 
sky, Playfair, Gorgey, and Dumas; wax, by 
Brodie. The diseases of plants have been stud- 
ied by Focke, Munter, Hartig (potato disease), 
Von Mohl (grape disease, 1852), and Liebig. 
Economic botany has been treated by Fee, 
Geiger, Reissech, Royle, Richard, Pereira, 
Endlicher, Nees von Esenbeok, Martius, Gui- 
bourt, and Schacht. Various classes of plants 
have received special attention from the follow- 
ing botanists : Cryptogams in general, Agardh, 
Persoon, Berkeley, Ehrenberg, Kutzing, De- 
caisne, Thuret, Derbis, Nageli, Cohn, Greville; 
alg, Harvey, Johnstone, and Croal ; fungi, 
Berkeley, Montague, Cordier, Tulasne, Kromb- 
holz, Sturm, Benerden, Badham, Cooke, 
Pringsheim ; mosses, Hedwig, Sullivant ; lich- 
ens, Tuckerman, G. von Holle, Leighton, Spier- 
schneider, J. D. W. Bayerhofer; ferns, W. J. and 
J. D. Hooker, Moore, Eaton, Lowe,* Baker; 
grasses, Munro, Kunth, Gray ; palms, Martius, 
Seemann; liliacese, Redout6; conifers, Lambert, 
Richard; orchids, Bateman, Blume, Hooker, 
Moore, Darwin ; cactacese, Engeluiann ; pipera- 
cese, Miquel ; labiates, Bentham ; rhododen- 
drons, Hooker ; geraniaceas, Sweet, Andrews ; 
heaths, Andrews. Local floras have been pub- 
lished as follows : United States, Gray, Torrey, 
Chapman, Brewer, Watson ; Brazil, Martius, 
Saint-Hilaire and Jussieu, Humboldt, and Bon- 
pland ; Peru, Ruiz and Pavon ; Chili, Bertero, 
Gay; Guiana, Schomburgk ; West Indies, Grise- 
bach, Wright, Larran, Descourtiles, Sloane ; An- 
tarctic, Hooker and Harvey; Pacific, Gray, Gau- 
dichaud; Hawaiian Islands, H. Mann; Feejee 
and Samoan Islands, Seemann ; New Zealand, 
Hooker; Australia, Hooker, Muller, Sweet, 
Bentham; Philippine Islands, Blanco; Hong 
Kong, Bentham ; China, Loureiro, Hance ; 
Japan, Thunberg, Siebold; Siberia, Gmelin, 
Maximovitch ; India, Wight, Roxburgh, Wal- 
lich, Hooker, and Thompson; Java, Blume; 
Ceylon, Thwaites ; Arabia, Forskal ; Greece, 
Sibthorp; Italy, Gussone, Tenore, Bertoloni; 



Austria, Jacquin, Kock, Reichenbaeh; France, 
Saint-Hilaire ; Russia, Pallas ; Lapland, Lin- 
naeus ; Sweden, Andersen ; Denmark, Oeder ; 
England, Curtis, Smith, Hooker, Bromfield, 
Sowerby, Greville, Bentham, Thornton, Bab- 
ington; Africa, Desfontaines, Hooker, Palisot 
do Beauvois, Harvey, Oliver. We give below 
an alphabetical list of the principal authors, 
native and foreign, who have applied them- 
selves to the botany of the United States anf*. 
of British America : 

WILLIAM BALDWIN assisted Elliott in the sketch of the bota- 
ny of South Carolina and Georgia. 

BENJAMIN S. BARTON, professor of botany in Philadelphia, 
u Collections for an Essay toward a Materia Medica of the 
United States," 1798-1604; " Fragments of the Natural His- 
tory of Pennsylvania," fol., 171>9 ; Progress of Vegetation," 
I7WJ " Elements of Botany," revised, and with additions 
of British examples. &c., London, 1804; Flora Firffi/iii-it 
(reaching only to the tetrandria of Linnaeus, but an enlarged 
and modifit-d" edition of the work of Clayton and Gronovius), 
Philadelphia, 1812; "Specimen of a Geographic View <il' 
Trees," &c., of North America between lat. 71 and 75 (in- 
complete). 

L. C. BECK contributed toward the botany of Illinois and 
Missouri (not beyond the monadtlphia of Linnanis); 
" Botany of the United States north of Virginia," 1838; ud 
cd., 1848. 

JACOB BIGELOW, Florala Boston iensis, 1814. '24, '40; 
"American Medical, Botany," 1S17-'21, 8 vols., 60 colored 
plates ; "On the Forwardness of Spring in different parts of 
the United States," 1818. 

J. A. BRERETON, Prodrojnus Flora Columbians (of Wash- 
ington), 1830. 

W. H. BEEWEB, " Botany of the California Geological Sur- 
vey," 1878. 

BEOWN, " List of Plants collected on the Coast of Baffin's and 
Possession Bay," London, 1819; ChloriH Melvilliana, 1S-J8. 

M AUK CATESBY, "Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and 
the Bahamas," 2 vols. fol., 1743; also Hortux Britannia? 
Americanus, treating of trees fit for England (also under 
the title of Ifortus Europm AmericanuK). 1768-'7. 

CHAPMAN, " Botany of the Southern United States." 

J. COENCTUS, a French physician, published a Canadensium 
Plantarum Iliatoria, Paris, 1685. 

M. CUTLER wrote an account of the vegetable productions of 
New England, 1785, probably the first essay of a scientific 
description. 

J. DARBY wrote on the vegetable productions of the south- 
ern States, and (1841) a " Manual of Botany." 

W. DAHLINOTON, " Essay on the Development of the Exter- 
nal Forms of Plants," compiled from Goethe, 1839; on 
gramineae, as important toman; a Florula, 1826, and a 
Flora Cestrica (of West Chester, Pa.), 1887; on "Agricul- 
cultural Botany," and " Memorials of J. Bartram, 11. Mar- 
shall," &c., Philadelphia, 1849. 

DEWEY, on cartography, " Silliman's Journal," vol. vii. 

A. EATON'S ' Manual of Botany for North America," on the 
system of Linnfflus, 1st ed. in 1818, 8th in 1840 (in the last 
edition Wright cooperated), and some elementary books, 
marked an epoch in the progress of the science in this coun- 
try. 

A. ELLIOTT issued in numbers (1816-'24) a valuable " Sketch 
of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia." 

G. B. EMEESON, on ' Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts," 
1846. 

G. ENOELMANN wrote on Cytinerr in 1842, and with A. Gray 
on Lindheimer's Texan plants, 1?45. 

A Florula Columbiensin appeared at Washington in 1S19, 
anonymously. 

J. R. FORSTER, Flora America! Septentrionalis, 1771 (also 
in Bossu's travels, vol. viii.). 

A. GRAY, an eminent botanist of the United States ; elemen- 
tary books, monographs of American Rhyncliospora 1 , a 
revision of 3leluntliace.it, remarks on Ceratophyllacete ; 
has catalogued American Gramina and Cyperacea ; re- 
viewed J. Dumas, J. B. Boussingault, Johnston, and 
Draper, on the Chemistry of Vegetation : notes on the 
mountains of North Carolina; notices on Katlnesque, and 
on European lierbtiria ,' Chloris Borefili-Americana, il- 
lustrating rare plants; also a complete "Manual of the 
Botany of the Northern United States," 6th ed., 1868; " In- 
troduction to Structural and Systematic Botany and Vege- 
table Physiology," 1858; "Field, Forest, and Garden Bot- 
any," 1869; began in 1849 his great work, Genera Flora 
Americana Soreali^ illustrata., which is to be in 10 vols. 
Many of his short works have been published in American 



BOTANY 



137 



literary periodicals. He was associated with G. Engelmann 
in a work on Lindheimer's plants of Texas; with W. 8. 
Sullivant, who wrote on the mosses and liverworts of the 
United States east of the Mississippi ; with J. Torrey, in 
the ' Flora of North America," an abridged description of 
indigenous and naturalized plants north of Mexico, 2 vols., 
1838-'48. 

Jo. FB. GRONOVIUS published Flora Virfjinica, Leyden, 
1739-' 43; 2d ed., 1762. by his son. augmented with the ob- 
servations of Clayton, Colden, Mitchell, Kalm, &c. 

W. JACKSON HOOKER, one of the best European botanists, 
published lists of plants on the E. coast of Grcenhuiil. 
1823 ; an account of a collection of Arctic plants by Edw. 
Sablne, 1824; with Walker- Arnott, the botany of Capt. 
Beechey's voyage to the Pacific and Behring strait, 1841 ; 
a Flora Boreali-Americana, 1 vols. 4to, 1829-'40, 288 

g'ates (including Texas). His agents were Douglas, 
rummond. Richardson, and others. 

ANDRE MICHAITX, Histoire des cfienes de tAmerique, pub- 
lished by his son Francois Andre, Paris, 1801, with 80 plates 
by the renowned P. J. Redoute. The son published, more- 
over. Voyage d Poueet den monte Allegtuinyx et retour d 
Charleston par les hautes Carolines, &c.. Paris. 1804; 
Memoires sur la naturalisation dee arbresforestiers de 
tAmtrlqut Septentrionale, &c., 1805; Notices nur Its 
lies Bermudas, 1806; Hutolre des arbres forestiers de 
FAmerique Se/>tentrionale (discussing their uses in arts, 
commerce, &c.). 3 vols. 4to, with 145 plates, 1810-'13-, and 
In connection with C. L. Richard, a Flora S&reall-Ame- 
9'icana, containing the discoveries of his father, with 51 
plates, 1803, republished with a mere change of title in 1820. 
An English epitome of the " Oaks," 1810-'12, containing 26 
black plates; and the imitation under the name of the 
"North American Sylva, or Forest Trees of the United 
States, Canada, and Nova Scotia," 150 colored engravings, 
4' vols., Paris, 1817-18; 2d edition at New Harmony, 
Ind., 3 vols., 1840. An edition was printed at Paris for 
Philadelphia. (See Nuttall for the supplement.) 

H. M0HLENBBRG of Lancaster, Pa., catalogued the plants of 
that region, described Gramina and plantar calamariab 
of North America, 1817 ; his works were partly repub- 
lished by his son. 

THOMAS NUTTALL published "Genera of North American 
Plants, and a Catalogue of Species," 2 vols., 1817-18; a 
description of new species and genera of composite, col- 
lected on a voyage across the continent, in Oregon, Upper 
California, and on the Hawaiian isles, in 1834-'5 ("Trans- 
act. Amer. Pbilos. Soc." 1841); and a supplement to F. A. 
Michaux's " North American Sylva," with additions of the 
trees observed in the Rocky mountains, Oregon, on the 
shores of the Pacific, &c., Philadelphia, 1742, with 1*2 col- 
ored plates ; besides the works noticed elsewhere. 

Fa. TBAUGOTT PUBSOH (anglicized Pursh), Flora America 
Septentrionalu. 2 vols., London, 18I4-'16; a good work. 

DE LA PYLAIE, Flore de- File de Terre-neuvt, Paris, 1829. 

C. 8. RAFINESQCE-SOHJIALTZ published Neogenyton (describ- 
ing 66 new genera of North American plants) ; a " Medi- 
cal Flora of the United States," with more than 100 fig- 
ures ; the ' Herbarium ; " and the " New Flora and Bot- 
any of North America," supplemental to all American 
botanical works, as well as those of the great European 
botanists, &c. 

RICHARDSON, "Botanical Appendix to Sir J. Franklin's 
Narrative of a Journey on the Shores of Hudson's Bay 
and the Polar Sea." 

J. L. EIDDELL, "Synopsis of the Flora of the Western 
States," 1835. 

L. D. VON SCHWEINITZ, of Bethlehem, Pa., wrote, besides what 
is noticed elsewhere, a monograph of the American viola, 
and of the species of carices, and a synopsis of native fun- 

g; a "Narrative of the Expedition to the Source of St. 
eter's river, to Lake Winnepeck," Ac., London, 1828, 
Specimen Florae America Septentrionalis Cryptoga- 
mica, Raleigh, 1821. 

J. L. E. W. SHECUT, Flora Carolinensis, &c., collected or 
compiled, 2 vols., Charleston, 1806. 

C. W. SHOBT, Florula Lexingtoniensis, 1880, a supplemen- 
tal catalogue of the phanerogamous plants and ferns of 
Kentucky. He sent many plants and seeds to the Atlan- 
tic states and to Europe. 

W. 8. SULLIVANT and L. LESQUEREUX, several works on the 
mosses of North America, 1845-'64. 

JOHN TORBEY published, besides other works, a " Flora of 
the Northern and Middle States" (not beyond the ico- 
sandria. of Llnnteus), 2 vols, 1824; a catalogue of the 
North American genera, according to Lindlcy's "Intro- 
duction," 1881 ; a monograph of the North American Oi/- 
peracece; a "Flora of the btate of New York, with a full 
Description of all indigenous and naturalized Plants, Re- 
marks on Economy and Medicine." Albany, ls48-'4 (in the 
3d part of the "Natural History of New York," 1839), with 
161 colored plates; fcones ineditie ad Floram Phila- 
e illuetrandam, 180 colored plates. Some of Tor- 



rey's writings are found in the American scientific peri- 
odicals. 

EDWARD TUCKERMAN arranged the carices, 1843, and gave 
a synopsis of the lichens of the Northern States and British 
America, 1848. 

8. WATSON and others, " Botany of the 40th Parallel Ex- 
ploring Expedition," 4to, 1672. 

We add a list, in chronological order, of cata- 
logues of the plants of various regions of 
America : 

JOHN BANISTER, in Virginia, 1680 (in Saji Hist. Plantar., 

II. parte, London, 1688). 
DAVID HOSACK, Hort. Elginensis, 1801-'ll. 
C. W. EDDY, Plant PlandomeMen (around J. L. Mitchell's 

country seat), 1807. 

J. LE CONTE, on the island of New York, 1811. 
H. MUHLENBEBG, Catnl. Plantar. Amer. Sept., 1813-'18. 
J. TOBEEY, of plants within 80 miles of New York city, 1819. 
C. 8. RAFINESQUE, of the botanical garden of the university 

of Transylvania, 1S24. 
L. D. TON SCHWEINITZ, of plants collected in the Northwest 

territory (in the narrative of the expedition). London. ISiio. 
J. TOBBEY. account of a collection of plants from the Rocky 

mountains, &c., 1827. 

E. HITCHCOCK, of the vicinity of Amherst college, 1829, and 
of Massachusetts, 1885. 

H. H. EATON, a few specimens from near Troy, 1882. 

H. B. CBOOM and LOOMIS, of the neighborhood of Newborn, 

N. C., li3S. 

J. BACHMAN, about Charleston, 8. C., 1884. 
T. NUTTALL, collection toward a flora of Arkansas, 1884. 
M. A. CURTIS, about Wilmington, N. C., 1884. 
L. R. GIBBES, phanerogamous plants about Columbia, 8. C., 

1885. 

DB. AIKTN, about Baltimore, 1886. 
J L. RIDDELL, supplementary catalogue of plants of Ohio, 

1886. 

J. A. LAPHAM, near Milwaukee, 1838. 
W. 8 SULLIVANT, about Columbus, O., 1840. 
DEWEY'S report on plants of Massachusetts, 1340. 
8. T. OLNEY, Rhode Island plants, 1844. 
Botanical Society of Wilmington, Del., plants of New Castle 

CO., 1844. 
S. F. BAIRD, contributions toward a catalogue of trees and 

shrubs of Cumberland co., Pa.. 1845. 
A. W. CHAPMAN, a list of plants about Qulncy, Fla., 1845. 

F. B. HOUGH, plants in Lewis co., N. Y., 1845. 
H. P. SARTWELL, of Western New York, 1845. 

HORACE MANN, phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamous 
plants of North America north of Mexico, 1868. 

The following writers, in addition to those al- 
ready named, may be consulted by the student: 



J. C. LOCDON. author of 14 valuable works, from 18f)4 to 
1841 ; and Mrs. J. W. LOUDON. author of several popular 
ones, especially for ladies. 184ft-'57. 

SIR J. PAXTON, "Magazine of Botany." 8 vols., 1884-'4S, 
with 500 tables, and (assisted by J. Lindley) a pocket bo- 
tanical dictionary. 1853. 

JOHN LINDLEY (besides the greater works mentioned above), 
"Outlines of the First Principles of Botany," 1830; "Key 
to Structural. Physiological, and Systematic Botany," 
1835; "Ladies' Botany," 1887; "Introduction to Botany," 
3d edition, 1889; "Elements of Botany," 1841. 

JOHN SMITH, "Domestic Botany." 12ino, London, 1871. 



BRISSEAU-MIBBEL, Analyse des plantes. 

DE CANDOLLE. Theorie elementaire de la botanique, edit. 
8, par Alphonse de Candolle, 1844. 

ADRIEN DE JUSSIEU. filament* de botanique, 1845; trans- 
lated into English by J. H. Wilson, 1849. 

LEBOUIDRE-DELALANDE, Traite elementaire de physiologic 
negetale, 1845. 

RICHARD. Nomeanx elements de botaniqiie, 7th ed., 1846. 

P. DUCHARTRE, Elements de botanique, 1867. 

LE MAOOT et DECAISNE, 1868. 

GERMAN. 

ENDLICHER and UNGEB. ffrundzitge der Botanik, 1843. 

N. J. DE JACQUIN, Einleitung, 1785-1800 ; revised by his son, 

1840. 

K. 8. KUNTH, LehrTruch. 1847. 
C. G. NEES VON ESENBECK, ffandbudi, 1820. 
PFEIFFEB, Synonymia Sotanioa, 1871. 



138 



BOTANY 



BOTHNIA 



G. A. PRITZEIL, laamtm Eot. Index loctipletissimus, con- 
taining a list of all botanical works of the ISth and 1'Jth 
centuries, 1855. 

M. SCHLEIDEX, Grundzuge, 1845-'6; Grundriss, 1840; Die 
Pffan.se. 1847. 

K. SPEE.NGEL. (JescMchte der Botanik, 1817-'18. 

STEUDEL, Nomenclator Botanicus, 2 vols., 1M ed., 1840. 

FE. UNOEE, Grundzilge der Anatomie und Pliysiologie der 
PJhmaen, 1848. 

K. L. WII.LDENOW, Grundrisse der Kr&uterkunde, 7th 
ed., 1831. 

BOTANY, a parish and township in the elec- 
toral district of Canterbury, Cumberland coun- 
ty, New South Wales, on Cook's river and on 
Botany bay, 5 m. S. of Sydney; pop. about 700. 
It is one of the most popular resorts of excur- 
sionists from Sydney on account of its beautiful 
scenery. It contains the Sydney water works, 
occupying an area of 30 acres, and weekly sup- 
plying that city with about 18,000,000 gallons 
of water. There are five places of worship, a 
temperance hall, and a post office. The prin- 
cipal industry is market gardening. It is an 
agricultural district, though the surrounding 
country consists of swamps and sand hills, with 
but occasional patches of fine alluvial soil. 

BOTANY BAY, a harbor on the E. coast of 
Australia, county of Cumberland, New South 
Wales, 5 m. S. of Sydney, the N. head (Cape 
Banks) being in lat. 34 S., Ion. 115 16' E. The 
harbor is about 5 m. long from N. to S. and 6 
m. wide from E. to W., but the entrance is 
little over 1 m. across. It receives the waters 
of Cook's and George's rivers, is capacious 
and open, but affords poor shelter for ship- 
ping. The S. shore of Botany bay is the spot 
first touched at, in April, 1770, by Capt. Cook, 
on his discovering the E. coast of Australia. 
Though the coast there is comparatively bar- 
ren, Mr. (afterward Sir Joseph) Banks, bota- 
nist of the expedition, was so impressed with 
the profusion of the unknown local flora that 
the name of Botany was given to the bay. 
The reports of Capt. Cook led the English 
authorities to send out Capt. Arthur Philipps, 
the first colonial governor, in 1788, with about 
1,000 persons, over 700 of whom were con- 
victs ; but neither the harbor nor its swampy 
surroundings were suitable for colonization, 
and he removed the men to Port Jackson. 
A brass plate on the cliffs marks Capt. Cook's 
first landing place ; and a monument was 
erected there in 1828, by Bougainville and 
Ducampier, in honor of La P6rouse, who pre- 
vious to his shipwreck was last heard from by 
the French government, through his letter 
dated Botany bay, Feb. 7, 1788. 

BOTETOCRT, a S. W. county of Virginia, inter- 
sected by James river ; area, about 500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 11,329, of whom 3,163 were 
colored. It contains the sources of Craig's and 
Catawba creeks. Besides the Blue Ridge, 
which forms its S. E. boundary, there are other 
high ridges within its limits. The famous 
Peaks of Otter are near the dividing line be- 
tween this and Bedford county ; Middle moun- 
tain is on the N. W. border. The James River 
canal has been opened from Richmond to 



Buchanan. The chief productions in 1870 
were 152,799 bushels of wheat, 95,980 of In- 
dian corn, 92,307 of oats, 3,752 tons of hay, 
and 196,459 Ibs. of tobacco. There were 
2,044 horses, 1,984 milch cows, 3,426 other 
cattle, 3,332 sheep, and 6,192 swine. Capital, 
Fincastle. 

BOTETOCRT, Norborne Berkeley, baron, an Eng- 
lish statesman, born about 1717, died at Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., Oct. 15, 1770. He was sum- 
moned to parliament as Baron Botetourt (the 
peepage having been in abeyance since 1406), 
April 13, 1764. He arrived in Virginia in No- 
vember, 1768, succeeding Sir Jeffrey Amherst 
as governor-in-chief of the colony. His first 
purpose was to enforce submission, and in 1769 
he dissolved the assembly, which, however, con- 
vened in a private house. On becoming better 
acquainted with the colonists, he forwarded to 
England their remonstrances, with a favorable 
opinion against parliamentary taxation. A 
promise of repeal was held out to him by 
Lord Hillsborough, but finding himself de- 
ceived he demanded his recall, and died soon 
afterward of bilious fever aggravated by cha- 
grin. He presented at his own expense gold 
and silver medals as prizes to the students of 
William and Mary college ; and his statue was 
erected at that institution by the assembly in 
1774. His title expired with him. 

BOTH, two Dutch painters, brothers, natives 
of Utrecht. I. Jan, born about 1610, died about 
1650. He was a pupil of Bloemaert, and lived 
in Italy, where he produced exquisite land- 
scapes, representing perfectly Italian atmos- 
pheric effects. II. Andreas, drowned at Venice 
in 1650. He was also a pupil of Bloemaert, and, 
besides introducing figures into his brother's 
landscapes, painted after the manner of Bam- 
boccio, but with finer coloring. 

BOTHNIA, a gulf between Sweden and Russia, 
constituting the northern arm of the Baltic sea, 
extending from lat. 60 to 65 50' N., 400 m. in 
length, with an average breadth of 120 m. At 
its mouth, about midway between the two 
shores, is the Aland archipelago, belonging to 
Russia, and the main entrance is the Alands 
Haf, a strait about 24m. wide, on the Swedish 
side of the islands. About midway of its ex- 
tent it is gathered into a channel much nar- 
rower than its main body, called the straits of 
Quarken. The channel is also further inter- 
cepted at this place by several small islands, 
the principal of which is Holmo. The entire 
coast line of the gulf is very irregular. There 
is a strong current, or gulf stream, setting con- 
stantly from the head of the gulf southward, 
through Quarken, to Aland, where it divides 
into two, one passing E. and the other W., to 
reunite again, and also with a third current 
from the gulf of Finland, near the island of 
Kokar, whence it sets southward through the 
Baltic. There are good harbors, the principal 
of which on the Russian side are Abo, Bjor- 
neborg, Uleaborg, and Tornea ; and on the 
Swedish, Gefle, Hernbsand, Pitea, Umea, and 



BOTHWELL 



139 



Lulea. The S. shore of the gulf is annually 
visited by shipping for the export of timber 
and naval stores. It is usually completely 
frozen in the winter, so that armies have 
marched across it. The strong current and the 
abundant supply of fresh water, from a shed of 
an average breadth of 150 m. throughout its 
entire extent of coast line, give the waters of 
this gulf great freshness. The gulf of Bothnia 
presents an undoubted instance of slow up- 
heaval of its E. and W. coasts, now taking place 
without volcanic action, at the approximate 
rate of two or three feet in a century. The 
coasts S. of Quarken are generally precipitous, 
and N. of the straits low and sandy. The nu- 
merous rivers which flow from Sweden and 
Finland into the gulf abound with fish, espe- 
cially a kind of small herring called strumming, 
which constitutes a prominent article of food 
among the lower classes. A large part of the 
population on the W. coast are occupied in 
catching them. Most of these herrings are 
dried in the usual manner, but a considerable 
portion undergo fermentation in a closed cask, 
after having been previously a little salted and 
exposed to the air for a short time. The fish 
thus acquires a sour taste, and is called sur- 
strdmming. 

BOTHWELL, a village and parish of Lanark- 
shire, Scotland, on the N". shore of the Clyde, 
8 m. E. S. E. of Glasgow ; pop. of the village 
and parish about 18,000. The old Gothic 
church of Bothwell was used as a place of 
worship till 1828. A new parish church, with 
a tower 120 ft. high, was erected in 1833. The 
parish contains extensive iron works and col- 
lieries. It is famous in history for the battle 
fought on Bothwell bridge, about 1 m. from 
the village, June 22, 1679, between the Cov- 




BothweU Castlo. 

enanters and the royal troops, in which the 
former were defeated with great loss. The an- 
cient castle, once the stronghold of the Doug- 
lases, is on a summit surrounded by woods, 
and is one of the finest ruins in Scotland. The 
manse of Bothwell was the birthplace of Jo- 
anna Baillie, whose father was minister there. 



BOTHWELL, James Hepburn, fourth earl of, 
the third husband of Mary, queen of Scots, 
born about 1526, died at Malmo, on the coast 
of Sweden, in 1576. He occupied an influential 
position in the parliament of December, 1557. 
In 1558 he was made a lord of the articles, and 
shortly after lieutenant of the borders. In 
1559 he intercepted Cockburn, master of Orme- 
ston, near Haddington, as he was carrying 
3,000 from England to aid the Scotch reform- 
ers. A little later, when the reformers showed 
signs of yielding before the regent's troops, he 
declared the earl of Arran, one of their leaders, 
a traitor to the government. In 1560, how- 
ever, when Protestantism was made the es- 
tablished religion of the country, Bothwell 
declared himself of that faith, and was one of 
the Protestant nobles sent to France to offer 
their escort and service to Mary, queen of 
Scots, whose husband, the dauphin, had just 
died. Mary returned to Scotland in Au- 
gust of this year (1561), and at once formed 
a government under the leadership of her ille- 
gitimate brother, Lord James Stewart, Both- 
well becoming a member of the privy council. 
But his quarrels and excesses made him intol- 
erable in this position, and at the end of the 
year he was for a short time banished from 
Edinburgh. He now effected a reconciliation 
with the earl of Arran, and the two entered 
into a conspiracy to seize the queen at Falk- 
land, on a journey into the earldom of Murray. 
Arran, who was already showing symptoms 
of insanity, changed his mood and confessed 
the plot. Both conspirators were imprisoned 
in Edinburgh castle ; but Bothwell escaped, 
and was on his way to France when he was 
driven back by a storm and arrested at Ber- 
wick. Here he was kept three months, and 
then carried to London and imprisoned in the 
tower. The English government detained him 
there, without trial, for nine months ; but the 
queen of Scots requested his release, although 
her ministers opposed his return to Scotland ; 
and he was finally allowed to pursue his journey 
to France. In that country he was well received, 
and made captain of the Scottish guard ; and he 
remained there till 1565, a few months before 
the marriage of Mary with Darnley at Edin- 
burgh. Lord James Stewart, who had now 
received the title of earl of Murray, having 
caused him to be indicted for high treason, he 
once more fled the country, and a decree of out- 
lawry was passed against him. After a short 
period, of which we have no detailed account, 
he suddenly appeared again in Scotland, gained 
Mary's favor, and in October, 1565, was a 
member of the newly organized privy council 
and a commander in Mary's army against the 
Scottish nobles who had taken up arms to op- 
pose her marriage with Darnley. In 1566 he 
married Lady Jane Gordon, daughter of the 
earl of Huntly, who had been lord chancellor 
of Scotland. In the matter of the murder of 
Rizzio, Bothwell was a warm partisan of the 
queen, and earnestly opposed the plot. After 



140 



BOTIIWELL 



BOTOCUDOS 



its consummation he aided the flight of Mary 
and Darnley to Dunbar castle, then under his 
control. On the return of the royal pair to 
Edinburgh Mary compelled Bothwell's bitterest 
enemies, Murray and Argyle, to go through the 
form of reconciliation with him. Many mat- 
ters of moment were intrusted to him. Among 
these was the task of quelling a disturbance at 
Liddesdale, where he was severely wounded. 
Mary, who was at Jedburgh when this oc- 
curred, on hearing of his danger rode to Her- 
mitage Castle, where he was lying, making 
the journey of 20 miles and returning the same 
day an exertion which threw her into a vio- 
lent fever, during which Bothwell in his turn 
hastened to visit her, though he was obliged 
to be conveyed to Jedburgh. The nature of 
the relations between him and the queen from 
this time forward has been the subject of a vio- 
lent historical controversy between the assail- 
ants and defenders of Mary ; but the following 
summary is confined to facts which are not 
denied by either party. (See MART STUART.) 
The belief that Bothwell aspired to the hand 
of Mary now began to gain ground. He was 
one of the foremost in urging her to consent to 
a divorce, and he was certainly a leader in the 
conspiracy for Darnley's murder. Prosecuted 
by Darnley's father, the earl of Lennox, he 
was acquitted after a shamelessly partial trial, 
and shortly afterward his lands and offices 
were confirmed to him by a statute alluding to 
the queen's appreciation of his " gret and mani- 
fold gude service " to her and the nation. The 
day after the closing of parliament a number 
of leading nobles met at Ainsley, and drew up 
the paper called " the Ainslie Bond," whereby 
they expressed their approval of Bothwell's ac- 
quittal, proposed his marriage with the queen, 
and agreed to aid him in attaining this object 
and to defend it when attained. On April 
24, 1567, as Mary was on her return from 
Stirling, Bothwell with a large body of men 
met her near Linlithgow, at Almond bridge, 
and overpowering her party carried her away 
to his castle of Dunbar, whether with or with- 
out the queen's consent is a matter of dis- 
pute. Bothwell now succeeded in procuring 
a full divorce from his wife, and in May he 
brought the queen to Edinburgh, where the 
banns of his marriage with her were published. 
On May 12 Mary, after she had solemnly declar- 
ed that she was influenced only by her own will, 
signed a full pardon of Bothwell and his allies 
for their abduction of herself. She also created 
Bothwell duke of Orkney, and on May 15 was 
married to him at Holyrood. This step aroused 
the popular indignation to the point of armed 
resistance. The hostilities which followed in 
June culminated in the surrender of Mary at 
Carberry hill, and Bothwell fled to Dunbar, 
whence, being deserted by his former allies, 
and ordered to leave the country within twelve 
days, he took refuge in the Orkney islands. 
Pursued for acts of piracy committed in expe- 
ditions which he undertook, he fled to Den- 



mark, and after a short period of impunity 
was imprisoned in the castle of Malmo, then 
belonging to the Danish king. Here he spent 
the remaining years of his life. 

BOTOCl'OOS (Port, botogne, a barrel hung), 
the name given by the Portuguese to a tribe of 
Tupayas Indians of Brazil, from their custom 
of wearing flat disks of wood in slits cut in the 
ears and under lip. By the coast Indians they 
were called Aymbor6s or Aimores. According 
to tradition, they were driven from the north, 
and took up their habitation W. of a mountain 
range since called after them Serra dos Aym- 
bores, separating the present provinces of Espi- 
into Santo and Bahia from that of Minas Geraes. 
They call themselves Engereckmung, the sig- 
nification of which is unknown. In Espirito 
Santo and Bahia they are commonly called 
Bugres, derived by Tschudi from the French, 
but apparently without warrant. They rarely 
approached the seashore, but in their oc- 
casional descents they gained a terrible rep- 
utation among the coast tribes, who regarded 




Botocudos. 

them with horror and as irrational beings, un- 
skilled in the arts of hut building and of deco- 
rating their persons with feathers and other 
gaudy trappings. So strong was their antipa- 
thy to water, that their intended victim might 
always find safety by plunging into a river. 
They are of medium height, broad-shouldered, 
large-bodied, and muscular, their legs and arms, 
nevertheless, appearing soft, thin, and eft'eini- 
nate. There is a great variety of features among 
them, but in general they have low foreheads 
and small, black, piercing eyes, the exterior 
angles of which are usually oblique as in the 
Mongolian race, but blue eyes are not infre- 
quent ; small noses, at times somewhat arched 
at the base, especially in the women, and witli 
wide alas; small mouths; the lips are usually 
thick, though some individuals have very thin 
lips. Their cheek bones are much less prominent 
than in their neighbors of the Tupi-Guarani 
family. The hair on the head is thin, and 
when not allowed to fall over the forehead is 



BOTOCUDOS 



BOTTA 



141 



shaved with a bamboo razor for about two inch- 
es from the edge all round. The beard, naturally 
deficient, is commonly plucked out. The skin is 
a whitish yellow ; and it has been affirmed that 
the Botocudos are capable of blushing. The 
women have the abdomen very large, the 
breasts flaccid and pendent, and are frequently 
bow-legged. All the hard work falls to their 
lot; they are the slaves of their husbands, who 
treat them with the utmost cruelty, beating 
them unmercifully and even cutting them with 
knives. Children while young are often treat- 
ed with tenderness, and yet it is not unusual 
for the mothers to sell them to planters, who 
in reality hold them as slaves ; but these rarely 
reach maturity. As a race, the Botocudos 
are decidedly ugly, exceptions to this rule being 
rare even in the young women. It has been 
erroneously stated that the Aymbores painted 
their bodies as other Indians do. They were 
formerly in the habit of varnishing their skin 
with the yellowish sap of certain trees, which 
gave them the appearance of having jaundice; 
but the intention was not to beautify but to 
preserve their bodies from the attack of mos- 
quitoes and other insects. Their weapons con- 
sist of a bow about six feet long, so strong that 
none but an Indian can use it, and arrows of 
great length, sometimes barbed, with a sharp- 
pointed bamboo head, hardened in the fire. 
Their mode of combat is by attacking at night 
and from ambush. According to current be- 
lief, they were cannibals, and it is certain 
that after battle they ate the bodies of the 
slain, and that these feasts were conducted 
with great ceremony. They are fond of amuse- 
ment, and have nothing of the stolid gravity of 
the northern Indians. Among their articles 
of diet are the larva? of certain insects, ants, 
alligators, lizards, the boa constrictor, mon- 
keys, the ounce and other carnivora, tapirs, and 
ant-eaters. The Botocudos have been consid- 
erably reduced in number by European vices, 
and above all by the passion for strong drink, by 
disease, and by the war of extermination un- 
ceasingly waged against them by the whites. 
Of those still existing, some are domesticated 
and divided into several small bands, each of 
which has its separate headquarters, called 
aldeamentos, or villages; others have resisted 
all efforts to civilize them, and roam in freedom 
through the forest. All of them inhabit the 
region between the Rio Doce and Rio Pardo, 
and watered by these rivers and the Mucury 
and Belmonte. They all go naked, except 
civilized ones when they visit the fazendas or 
plantations; and these close up the slit in the 
lip with wax. The ear plug is often four inch- 
' es in diameter, and that for the lip two inch- 
es; but the custom of wearing them appears 
to be going out, and is only persevered in by 
the adult females. Old women always lack 
the lower incisors, which have been dislodged 
by the pressure of the plug ; in many cases even 
the alveola? have totally disappeared, leaving 
the bone bare and as sharp as a knife. The. 



Botocudo language is entirely different from 
the various Tupi tongues, and has dialectic dif- 
ferences observable in each band. It is rich in 
reduplicated words, but possesses no gutturals 
or sibilants, and is generally spoken in a high 
key, very rapidly, and apparently indistinctly. 
BOTOSHAJV, or Botnshani, a city of Roumania, 
in Moldavia, on the Shiska, an affluent of the 
Pruth, 60 m. N. W. of Jassy ; pop. in 1866, 
28,117. It is irregularly built, and contains 1 
Armenian and 14 Greek churches, 10 syna- 
gogues, and a hospital. It has a considerable 
trade, especially in cattle, and is the seat of the 
most important fair in Moldavia. 

BOTS, the larva? of a species of gadfly, gantero- 
philug equi. The females deposit their eggs on 
the sides and legs of horses, where a glutinous 
fluid attaches the eggs to the hair. The horse 
in licking himself breaks the eggs, and a small 
worm adheres to the tongue, and is conveyed 
with the food into the stomach. There it 
clings firmly to the cuticular portion of the 
stomach by means of a hook on either side of 
its mouth, feeding on the mucus during the 
winter, and passing out with the chyme at the 
end of spring, by which time it has attained a 
considerable size. The larva buries itself in 
the ground, becomes 'a 
chrysalis, and in a few 
weeks is changed into 
a fly. The bots cannot, 
while they inhabit the 
stomach of the horse, 
give the animal any pain 
or cause any injury ; for 
he enjoys the most per- 
fect health while the cu- 
ticular part of his stomach is filled with them, 
and their presence is not suspected until they 
appear at the anus. They cannot be removed 
by medicine, because they are not in that part 
of the stomach to which medicine is usually 
conveyed ; and if they were, their mouths are 
too deeply buried in the mucus for any medi- 
cine that can safely be administered to affect 
them ; in due course of time they detach them- 
selves and come away. When, after death, the 
coats of the stomach are found to be corroded 
and perforated, and when bots are found either 
in the perforations or already passed through 
them, other causes have destroyed the stomach. 
Horses are frequently injured, however, by the 
medicines which are ignorantly given to re- 
move the bots. This will easily be understood, 
when it is stated that bots have lived for many 
days together in olive oil, and even in oil of 
turpentine, and that tobacco and nitrous and 
sulphuric acids do not immediately kill them. 

BOTTA. I. Carlo Giuseppe Gngllelmo, an Italian 
historian, born at San Giorgio del Oanavese, 
Piedmont, Nov. 6, 1766, died in Paris, Aug. 10, 
1837. He was educated as a physician at the 
university of Turin, and also studied literature, 
botany, and music. In 1792 he was imprison- 
ed for an alleged political offence, and, though 
nothing could be proved against him, he was 




142 



BOTTA 



BOTTESINI 



subjected to a rigorous confinement for 17 
months. After his release he went to France, 
and was employed as surgeon in the army. 
Toward the close of 179G he was sent to the 
Venetian islands of the Adriatic, where he 
wrote a " Historical and Medical Description 
of the Island of Corfu." In 1798 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the provisional govern- 
ment of Piedmont, which was soon overthrown 
by the Austro-Russian invasion. He returned 
to France, was restored to his rank in the 
army, after the battle of Marengo became a 
member of the council which, with six com- 
missioners, was to reorganize and administer 
the government of Piedmont, and a few months 
later, when a new government was instituted, 
he was one of the three commissioners who 
formed the executive. After the annexation 
to France in 1802 he became a member of the 
council of general administration, and publish- 
ed his Precis historique de la maison de Savoie 
et du Piemont. In 1804 he was chosen to the 
legislative body, and for some years was a resi- 
dent of Paris. The first edition of his Storia 
della guerra delV independenza degli Stati, 
Uniti d 1 America (4 vols. 8vo) appeared in 
Paris in 1809-'10, was immediately reprinted in 
Italy, without compensation for want of a copy- 
right law, passed through several editions, and 
was translated into English by George Alex- 
ander Otis of Boston (2 vols., 1826 ; new eds., 
New Haven, 1834 and 1840, and Cooperstown, 
1848). In 1808 he was chosen vice president 
of the legislative assembly, and reflected to the 
same office the following year. In 1816 he pub- 
lished an epic poem in 12 cantos, entitled II 
Camilla, o Vejo conquistata. In 1817 he was 
made rector of the academy at Rouen, where 
he remained till 1822. There he wrote his sec- 
ond history, the Storia d 1 Italia del 1789 al 1814, 
but it was not till 1824 that he was able to pub- 
lish it. This, too, was immediately republished 
in Italy. In 1825 he wrote in French a general 
history of Italy for a popular library (3 vols.). 
The assistance of friends enabled him to con- 
nect his history of Italy with the great work 
of Guicciardini. He thus completed in five 
years the 10 volumes of the history of Italy 
from 1532 to 1789 (Storia d 1 Italia continuata 
daquella del Guicciardini sino al 1789, Paris, 
1832). This was the last of his works. In the 
latter part of his life he received from Charles 
Albert a pension at first of $600, and after- 
ward of $800. II. Paul Emile, a French archre- 
ologist, son of the preceding, born about 1800, 
died at Acheres, near Poissy, April 18, 1870. 
He made in his youth a voyage round the 
world, and formed on the W. coast of America 
a collection of natural curiosities. He accom- 
panied as physician the expedition of Mehemet 
Ali to Sennaar, 1830-'33, and made a rich 
zoological collection. He was then appointed 
French consul at Alexandria, and in 1837 made 
another journey, the results of which he pub- 
lished in the Relation d'un voyage dans V Yemen 
(Paris, 1844). In 1843, being consular agent at 



Mosul, he began the excavation of Assyrian 
antiquities from the mounds on the banks of 
the Tigris, and published in 1848 criture 
cuneiforme assyrienne. The French govern- 
ment commissioned several eminent men to 
assist him in the preparation of Monuments de 
Ninive, decouverts et decrits par P. ). Botta, 
mesures et destines par E. Flandin (5 vols., 
Paris, 1849-'50), which was translated into 
English '(" Letters on Discoveries at Nineveh," 
London, 1850 et seq.). Many of the discovered 
monuments were transported to Paris, and 
placed in the Louvre. Botta laid the founda- 
tion for the more important labors of Layard. 
In 1846 he became consul at Jerusalem, and in 
1857 at Tripoli, where he remained till 1868. 

BOTTA. I. Vlntenzo, an Italian scholar, born 
at Cavalier Maggiore, in Piedmont, Nov. 11, 
1818. He was professor of philosophy in the 
royal and national colleges of Turin, and in 
1849 became a member of the Sardinian parlia- 
ment. With Dr. Paroli he prepared a valuable 
work on public education in Germany (Pub- 
lilico insegnamento in Germania), which was 
published at the expense of the Italian govern- 
ment. Two parts of it were written by M. 
Botta and the third part by Dr. Paroli. Sub- 
sequently he settled in the United States, where 
he was naturalized, and has been for several 
years professor of Italian in the university of 
New York. His writings include La qitestiona 
Americana (1861), ''Discourse. on the Life of 
Count Cavour" (1862), and "Dante, as Phi- 
losopher, Patriot, and Statesman "(1865). II. 
Anne Charlotte Lynch, wife of the preceding, 
an American poetess, born at Bennington, Vt. 
Her father belonged to the association of United 
Irishmen, participated at the age of 16 years 
in the rebellion of 1798, was by reason of his 
youth offered pardon if he would swear alle- 
giance to the British government, refused, was 
imprisoned for four years, and then, being 
banished for life, settled in the United States. 
Miss Lynch was educated in Albany. In 1841 
she published in Providence the " Rhode 
Island Book," a selection of prose and verse 
from the writers of that state. She soon after 
removed to New York, where her house be- 
came a resort of persons connected with lit- 
erature and the arts. A collection of her po- 
ems was published in 1849, illustrated by emi- 
nent artists. Her principal prose work is a 
"Handbook of Universal Literature" (New 
York, 1860; 3d ed., 1873). She was married 
to Prof. Botta in 1855. . 

BOTTARI, Giovanni Caetano, an Italian prelate, 
born in Florence, Jan. 15, 1689, died in Rome, 
June 3, 1775. He was director of the grand- 
ducal press of Tuscany, professor of ecclesias-' 
tical history and controversy in the Sapienza, 
and subsequently keeper of the Vatican li- 
brary. He was principal editor of the new 
edition of the Vocaliulario della Cntsca and 
of the celebrated Vatican Virgil (1741). 

BOTTESINI, Antonio, an Italian composer and 
contrabassist, born at Crema, Dec. 24, 1823. 



BOTTGER 



BOTTLE 



143 



He was taught the double bass in Milan by Luigi 
Eossi, according to the method of Andreoli and 
Dragonetti, and studied composition under sev- 
eral distinguished masters. When scarcely 23, 
he was engaged as contrabassist for the Italian 
opera in Havana, and afterward became di- 
rector of the company. During the five years 
of his stay in Havana he paid occasional visits 
to the United States, where he became famous 
as a virtuoso, his renown being confirmed by 
his success on his return to Europe in 1851. 
In 1853 he visited the United States with M. 
Jullien, and afterward accompanied Mme. 
Sontag to Mexico. Subsequently he became 
director of the orchestra at the Italian opera 
in Paris, where his opera VAssedio di Fi- 
reme was performed in 1857. In 1863 he pro- 
duced at Barcelona Marion Delorme, and in 
1871 his Ali Baba was performed in London. 
In 1872 he directed the Italian opera in Cairo. 

BOTTGER, Adolf, a German poet, born in 
Leipsic, May 21, 1815, died there, Nov. 16, 
1870. He studied at the university of Leipsic, 
and his father, the author of a German-Eng- 
lish dictionary, instructed him in the English 
and other foreign languages. He translated 
Byron (1840), Pope (1842), Goldsmith's poems 
(1843), Milton's poetical works (1846), Os- 
sian (1847), Shakespeare's "As You Like It," 
"Midsummer Night's Dream," and "Much 
Ado about Nothing" (1847), Eacine's Phedre 
andPonsard's Odyssee (1853), and Longfellow's 
" Hiawatha " (1856). Among his principal po- 
ems are Pausanias, Der Fall von Babylon, Ha- 
bana, and Die Tochter des Kain. One of his 
most idyllic productions is Goethe's Jugendliebe, 
a description of some of Goethe's love affairs. 
A complete edition of his original poetical, dra- 
matic, and prose works has been published in 
Leipsic in 8 vols. (1864 et seq.). 

B6TTGER, Bb'tteher, or Bottiger, Johann Frio- 
drith, a Saxon alchemist, born at Schleiz, Feb. 
4, 1682, died in Dresden, March 13, 1719. His 
pretended discovery of the philosopher's stone 
resulted in the invention of Saxon porcelain. 
After various vicissitudes he gave the elector 
Augustus an account of his discovery, which 
is preserved in the archives of Saxony. The 
elector not availing himself of his suggestions, 
they were put in application by Count Tschirn- 
hausen, who established a manufactory at 
Meissen in 1705, employing Bottger, who suc- 
ceeded in producing with the reddish brown 
clay which abounds in the vicinity of Meissen 
a porcelain of remarkable beauty and solidity. 
After Tschirnhausen's death Bottger became 
in 1710 director of a manufactory, but was 
arrested shortly before his death for havitig 
otfered to sell the secret of his art. Engelhardt 
wrote his biography (Leipsic, 1837). 

BOTTIELLI, Sandro, an Italian painter, born 
in Florence in 1437, died there in 1515. One 
of his earliest frescoes, " St. Augustine in Ec- 
stasy," is in one of the churches of Florence. 
He decorated for Sixtus IV. a chapel in the 
Vatican, and painted numerous figures of the 
113 VOL. m. 10 



popes and three large frescoes. Among his 
masterpieces are "The Birth of Christ," now in 
a private collection in London, and a crowned 
Madonna in the gallery -at Florence. He en- 
graved the first 19 prints for the famous edi- 
tion of Dante's Inferno printed at Florence in 
1481. His devotion to Savonarola subjected 
him_to much persecution. 

B6TTIGER. I. Karl August, a German archae- 
ologist, born at Eeichenbach, June 8, 1760, died 
in Dresden, Nov. 17, 1835. He was a teacher, 
and through Herder's influence became director 
of the Weimar gymnasium, and was well ac- 
quainted with Wieland, Goethe, and Schiller. 
In 1832 he was admitted to the French acade- 
my, after having been made director of the royal 
academy of knights in Dresden. Among his 
chief works are: Sabina, oder Morgenscenen 
einer reichen Romerinn (2 vols., 2d ed., 1806), 
and Grieehisehe Vasengemalde (1797-1800). 
II. Karl Wllhflm, son and biographer of the 
preceding, born Aug. 15, 1790, died Nov. 26, 
1862. He became eminent as a historian, and 
edited a posthumous work of his father, Litc- 
rarische Zustande und Zeitgenossen (2 vols., 
Leipsic, 1838). He contributed the history of 
Saxony to Heeren and Ukert's Europaische 
Staatengeschichte, and his Allgemeine Geschich- 
te fur Schule und Ham and Deutsche Geschich- 
te fur Schule und Ham passed through many 
editions. From 1821 till his death he was pro- 
fessor of history in Erlangen. 

B&TTIGER, Karl Vilhelm, a Swedish poet of 
German descent, born at Westeras, May 15, 
1807. After extensive studies and travels, he 
became in 1845 professor of modern literature 
at Upsal. He has translated Tasso's Gerusa- 
lemme and Dante's Dimna Commedia into 
Swedish, and written the biography of his 
father-in-law Tegner, besides many religious 
and other poems, most of which are contained 
in his Samlade Skrifter (3 vols., Stockholm, 
1856-'8). A selection of the latter has been 
translated into German. 

BOTTLE, a hollow vessel, now generally made 
of glass or earthen ware, with a narrow neck. 
In ancient times, especially among the nomadic 
races, bottles were made of the skins of ani- 
mals. Such are mentioned by Homer as being 
in use by the Greeks, Eomans, and Egyptians. 
Herodotus describes the manner in which they 
were made by the Egyptians. The first distinct 




FIG 1. Skin Bottles. 



notice of them in the Bible is in the book of 
Joshua, where it is said the inhabitants of 
Gibeon "took old sacks upon their asses, and 
wine bottles, old and rent, and bound up." 
According to Chardin, the Persians preserve 



144 



BOTTLE 



wine in skins prepared with pitch, which pre- 
vents the imparting of an unpleasant flavor to 
the wine. In Spain various skins, and espe- 
cially that of the goat, are still used for con- 
taining wine. The hide is stripped from the 
animal as entire as possible, and the various 
natural openings having been sewed up, with 
the exception of that of one of the legs, which 
is retained as a nozzle, the vessel is ready, after 
a certain preliminary curing of the skin, for the 
reception of the wine. The peculiar taste of 
Amontillado sherry is supposed to be due to 
its being kept in leather. The only word ren- 
dered bottle in the New Testament is aatis, a 
skin or leathern bottle (Matt. ix. 17). In the 
Old Testament, however, earthen bottles are 
mentioned, as well as those made of skins. In 
the hook of Jeremiah occurs the passage, 
"Thus saith the Lord, Go and get a potter's 
earthen bottle," &c. (xix. 1). Metal, earthen, 
and glass bottles were used in ancient times by 
the Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, and Etrus- 
cans. The Jews probably obtained their 
knowledge of them from the Egyptians. Ke- 




Fio. 2. Egyptian Bottles. 1 to 7, glass; 8 to 11, earthen- 
ware. 

mams of Egyptian earthen and glass vessels, 
of various forms and sizes, have been found, 
and shown to have been made at a very early 
period. There is a collection of these articles 
in the British museum, and of elegant vases, 
which are assigned to a time as far back as that 
of Thothmes III., about 1450 B. 0. Glass bot- 
tles made several centuries B. 0. were found at 
Babylon by Mr. Layard. The manufacture of 
glass bottles, on account of the nature of the 
material, is necessarily very simple, although 
for the production of fine work great skill is 
required. Glass while in a plastic state will 
not admit of much contact with machinery or 
tools without having its molecular constitution 
BO affected as to increase its liability to fracture. 
Therefore the finest bottles are blown, as they 
' were in the earliest times, without the use of 
a mould, and with the aid of as few tools as 
possible ; the operation being performed by 
simply gathering a proper quantity of molten 
glass upon the end of a metallic blowpipe, and 
forming it into shape by holding it in various 
positions' while expanding it by blowing through 
the tube, and occasionally applying pressure 



with some tool of very simple form. General- 
ly, however, bottles are made with the use of 
a mould in which the glass is blown, because 
in this way time and labor are saved. Fig. 3 




FIG. 8. Mould. 

shows the construction of a mould which is 
frequently used, especially in making small bot- 
tles and vials. It requires an extra hand, 
usually a boy, to open and shut it. For ordi- 
nary quart and pint bottles a mould is used with 
hinges at the bottom, and is closed by means 
of a lever which is moved by the foot of the 
operator. When this form of mould is used 
three hands are usually employed to make a 
bottle : one, a boy or apprentice, to gather the 
molten glass on the end of the blowpipe, one to 
blow the bottle and shape it in the mould, and 
a third to finish the neck and mouth and cor- 
rect any defects in form. One person can per- 
form the work, but not with equal economy of 
labor. The operation may be briefly described 
as follows : Gathering the proper quantity of 
molten glass upon the end of the blowpipe, 
which is a straight iron tube about five feet 
long, the gatherer hands it to the blower, who 
rolls it rapidly into a convenient form on the 
surface of a smooth iron or stone table, called a 
marver, at the same tune expanding it slightly 




FIG. 4. Marver. 

with the breath, then blows it to a suitable 
size for the mould, the axis of which is vertical. 
He then closes the mould, applies his mouth to 
the blowpipe, and blows with sufficient force to 
make the glass fit the cavity, and to take the 
impressions of whatever designs may have been 
engraved upon it. The mould is then opened 
and the bottle removed by means of the blow- 
pipe, to which it still adheres. A punty, as it 
is called, is then attached to the bottom, to hold 



Punty. 



FIG. 5. 



it during the finishing process. This punty is 
an iron rod, upon one end of which a small ball 
of red-hot glass has been gathered so that it 
will adhere to the bottle, and it is applied as in 



BOTTLE 



BOTTOMRY 



145 



fig. 5, the neck of the bottle being cut off by 
the application of a cold iron or a wet stick, 
accompanied by slight traction. The finisher 
takes it, and, seating himself on a bench, a, fig. 
6, which has some resemblance to an arm chair 
without a back, finishes the neck and mouth. 




FIG. 6. Finishing Bench. 



Generally a band of molten glass is wound 
around the neck, at the mouth, which is then 
held hi a flame till it attains the proper degree 
of pliability, and the shaping is done with one 
or more of the tools a, 6, c, fig. 7. The chief 




Fio. 7. Finishing Tools. 

use of the arms to the bench is to allow a 
rotary motion to be given to the bottle, by 
which it is held in position and its form retain- 
ed. After the mouth is finished the punty is 
removed, and the bottle is received on a wood- 
en rod or in a holder and taken to the anneal- 
ing furnace, where it is placed upon a pan, 
which, with several others attached together 
in the form of a chain, is drawn slowly through 
a long, horizontal oven. When the pan arrives 
at the opposite end of the oven, its load of bot- 
tles is removed and it is returned to the mouth 
of the oven to receive a new load. A patent 
was obtained by Henry Rickets of Bristol, Eng- 
land, in 1822, for a machine for making bottles 
which was not unlike the moulds now in use, 
although more complex. It had a contrivance 
for forming the bottom by pressure from with- 
out, which is of no mechanical advantage, and 
only injures the texture of the glass. Other 
patents for slight alterations in moulds have 
been obtained, but their adoption causes but 
little change in the process of blow-ing, which, 
for reasons above stated, cannot receive much 
modification as long as glass is the material 
from which the bottle is made. The various 
bottles used for different well known purposes 
are generally distinguished by peculiar shapes 
and sizes, as, for example, the English wine, 
beer, ale, and soda bottles, the French cham- 
pagne, burgundy, and claret, and the Rhenish 
wine bottles. Port wine is occasionally put 
into very large bottles, called magnums, and 
acids in still larger, termed carboys. Demi- 
johns are large bottles covered with wicker- 
work. The largest glass bottle perhaps ever 
manufactured was one blown at Leith, Scot- 
land ; its dimensions were 40 by 42 inches. 



BOTTLE TREE (sterculia [Delalechea] rupes- 
tris), an Australian tree of the family stercu- 
liacece. It has the calyx 5-cleft, usually color- 
ed ; no petals ; column of stamens with 15 or 
rarely 10 anthers; stigma peltate; carpels 5, 
distinct, with two or more ovules; narrow, 
digitate leaves ; paniculate, axillary inflores- 
cence ; flowers unisexual or polygamous, the 
female flowers expanding first. The tree has a 
greatly expanded trunk, which is swollen to a 
disproportionate size. Where the ground is 




Bottle Tree of Australia. 

rocky this expansion is greatest just below the 
branches ; but in favorable soils the foot of the 
tree is largest, forming a uniform cylindrical 
column, from whose summit the branches issue 
as from the neck of a bottle. 

BOTTOMRY, in maritime law, a contract by 
which the owner of a ship, or the master as his 
agent, hypothecates or binds the ship as secu- 
rity for the repayment of money advanced for 
the use of the ship. The name is derived from 
bottom, that is, keel, a figure by which the 
vessel itself is designated. In form it is a bond, 
by which, in consideration of the money lent, 
the borrower undertakes to repay it if the ship 
accomplishes its voyage, and pledges the ship 
for the performance of the undertaking. If the 
ship should be lost, the debt would be lost, that 
is, so far as it depends upon the bottomry bond ; 
and in consideration of this risk, a higher rate 
of interest may be agreed for than is allowed in 
other contracts. In case of partial damage to 
the ship, it is usually provided that the lender 
shall bear his proportion of it, which will be 
the proportion the amount lent bears to the 
whole value of the vessel. The lender is not 
entitled to possession of the vessel, not even 
when the debt becomes due (unless it should 
be so expressly stipulated in the bond), but 
may enforce payment of the debt by a decree 
of a court of admiralty for sale of the vessel. 
The master is not authorized to enter into this 
species of contract except in a case of necessity, 



146 



BOTTS 



BOUCHER 



usually when the vessel 
is in some foreign port, 
and he has no other 
resources for obtaining 
the necessary supplies. 
It would impair the 
obligation of the bond 
if there were in fact 
means of getting such 
supplies without hy- 
pothecation of the ves- 
sel, and this was known 
to the lender. A bot- 
tomry bond is a pledge 
of the ship and freight ; 
a respondentia bond is 
a pledge of the cargo ; 
but both ship and cargo 
may be included in the 
same instrument. As 
respects the cargo there 
is not strictly a lien for 
the money lent, except 

in case of partial loss ; but if the voyage is suc- 
cessfully performed, the obligation is merely 
personal, unless an express provision be inserted 
in the bond for a specific lien upon the goods. 

BOTTS, John Minor, an American politician, 
born in Dumfries, Prince William co., Va., 
Sept. 16, 1802, died in Culpeper co., Jan. 7, 
1869. After practising law a few years in 
Richmond, he settled on a farm in Henrico 
county. In 1833 he was elected to the state 
legislature, and was several times reflected. 
In 1839 he was returned to the 27th congress, 
and there advocated most of the points of Mr. 
Clay's programme a national bank, a protec- 
tive tariff, and the distribution among the states 
of the proceeds of the public lands. Though 
Jong a warm and intimate friend of John Tyler, 
Mr. Botts at once abandoned him on his seces- 
sion from the whig party ; and in the presiden- 
tial election of 1844 he supported Mr. Clay. 
After serving two terms in congress, he was 
defeated in 1843, but was again elected in 1847. 
In 1852 he resumed the practice of law in Rich- 
mond. After the death of Mr. Clay, and the 
dissolution of the whig party, he became at- 
tached to the American party. He was op- 
posed to the repeal of the Missouri compro- 
mise, and sympathized with those southern 
members of congress who resisted the passage 
of the Lecompton bill in 1858. In 1861 he en- 
deavored to prevent the secession of Virginia, 
and throughout the civil war was inflexibly 
faithful to the Union. He was imprisoned for 
a few weeks in 1862, and his farm in Culpeper 
county, where he then resided, was several 
times devastated. After the war he published 
"The Great Rebellion, its Secret History," &c. 
(New York, 1866). lie was one of the signers 
of the bail bond of Jefferson Davis (1867). 

BOTZARIS. See BOZZAEIS. 

BOTZEN (Ital. Bolzano), a town of Tyrol, 
Austria, in the circle of Brixen, beautifully situ- 
ated at the confluence of the Talfer and Eisack, 




Eotzen. 

the latter of which empties into the Adigo 2 m. 
below the town, and on the Brenner railway, 
52 m. S. of Innspruck; pop. in 1869, 9,357, 
chiefly Italians. It is surrounded by mountains 
and built in an Italian style, many streets being 
bordered with arcades. It is protected against 
inundations by a strong dike. In the parish 
church, a Gothic building of the 14th century, 
is a monument of the arehduke Rainer. In 
the new cemetery on the E. side of the church 
is a fine monument by Schnorr. The wine of 
Terlau, produced in the vicinity, is celebrated, 
and the country abounds in other good wines 
and in excellent fruit. The principal articles 
of trade are silk, leather, and fruit, and fhere 
are four annual fairs, the situation of the town 
at the junction of the roads to Germany, Italy, 
and Switzerland producing great commercial 
activity. The weekly markets are especially 
interesting, owing to the variety of Tyrolese 
costumes. The Roman citadel Pons Drusi 
probably occupied the site of Botzen. 

BOUCHARDON, Edme, a French sculptor, born 
May 29, 1698, died in Paris, July 27, 1762. He 
was the son of an architect and sculptor, studied 
in Paris, obtained a prize in 1723, and spent 
ten years in Rome, where he executed busts of 
Clement XI. and other great personages. The 
king recalled him to Paris, where he suc- 
cessively became designer to the academy of 
fine arts, member of the academy, and pro- 
fessor. Among his principal works are a foun- 
tain in the rue de Grenelle, which still exists, 
and his bronze equestrian statue of Louis XV., 
which was destroyed in 1792. The museum 
of modern statuary in the Louvre contains a 
cabinet which bears his name, and his statues 
of Amor and of Christ. Caylus wrote his life 
(Paris, 1762), and Bardon, Anecdotes sur la 
mart de Bouchardon (1764). 

BOUCHER, Francois, a French painter, born 
in Paris, Sept. 29, 1703, died there, May 30, 
1770. He painted with remarkable facility, 



BOUCHER 



BOUCIOAULT 



147 



and the number of his pictures and drawings 
is said to have exceeded 10,000, while at the 
same time he practised engraving. By pan- 
dering to the licentious taste of his times, he 
became fashionable and popular, and was called 
the painter of graces. For a long time after 
the first revolution his works were unsalable ; 
but of late years they have again been sought 
for, especially by English amateurs, the gallery 
of the marquis of Hertford containing the 
erotic cabinet executed for Mme. de Pompa- 
dour. His most remarkable portrait is that of 
Mme. de Pompadour, and his best mythological 
picture, " Diana's Bath," is now in the Louvre. 

BOUCHER, Jonathan, an English clergyman, 
born in Cumberland, March 12, 1738, died at 
Epsom, April 27, 1804. He went to Virginia 
about 1754 as a private teacher, afterward 
took orders in England, and was a rector in 
Virginia and Maryland till 1775, when he re- 
turned to England, his anti-revolutionary sen- 
timents having given umbrage to his American 
congregation. From 1784 till his death he was 
vicar of Epsom. He is the author of " A View 
of the Causes and Consequences of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, in 13 Discourses," dedicated to 
Washington (8vo, 1797), and of a "Glossary 
of Archaic and Provincial Words," intended as 
a supplement to Johnson's dictionary (A, 1802 ; 
A to G, 1807; enlarged ed., 1832). 

BOUCHER, Pierre, sisur de Boucherville, a 
Canadian pioneer, born in Perche, France, in 
1622, died at Boncherville, Canada, April 20, 
1717. He came to America with his father in 
1635, and was for many years Huron inter- 
preter, and then rendered good services in the 
warj against the Iroquois, whom he repulsed 
frequently. He was deputed to France in 1661 
to lay before the court the condition of the col- 
ony. This led to the publication of his little 
work entitled Histoire veritable et naturelle 
des mxurs et des productions de la Nounelle 
France (Paris, 1663). He was ennobled for his 
services and made governor of Three Rivers in 
1663, and received a grant of Boucherville, on 
which he settled in 1668. He was esteemed as 
a brave, pious, intelligent, and upright man, 
and, having reared a large family, is the ances- 
tor of many of the best houses in Canada. 
"The Adieux of Grandfather Boucher," ad- 
dressed in his last days to his children, is emi- 
nently characteristic of the man and the time. 

BOUCHER DE CREVECiEUR DE PERTHES, 
Jacques, a French archaeologist and author, 
born at Bethel, department of the Ardennes, 
Sept. 10, 1788, died in Amiens in August, 1868. 
He belonged to an old family, and through the 
influence of his father, author of several botan- 
ical works and director of customs at Abbe- 
ville, he was employed by Napoleon on vari- 
ous missions to foreign countries. By a royal 
decree of 1818 he was permitted to add the 
family name of his mother, De Perthes, who 
claimed descent from an uncle of Joan of Arc, 
to his own. lie wrote several tragedies and 
a comedy, and published anonymously in the 



interest of free trade Opinion deM. Christophe, 
viyneron, sur lea prohibitions et la liberte de 
commerce (4 parts, 1831-'4). Subsequently he 
became president of the societe d 'emulation at 
Abbeville, made an extensive collection of Cel- 
tic and Roman antiquities, which he presented 
to the government, and acquired celebrity 
by his archaaologicai discoveries and by his 
work De la creation (5 vols., 1839-'41). In 
1841 he observed in some sand containing mam- 
malian remains at Menchecourt, near Abbe- 
ville, a flint rudely fashioned into a cutting 
instrument; and during the formation of the 
Champ de Mars in the same locality, many 
of the since celebrated iron hatchets were 
found. He published his first work on the 
subject in 1846, De Vindmtrie primitive, ou 
les arts et leur origine, claiming that these 
implements belonged to the age of the drift; 
and bis Antiquites celtiques et antedilumennes 
(1847) contains many illustrations of the im- 
plements, and refers to remains found in the 
peat, which appear to have been the ruins 
of lake dwellings. He also wrote De Vhomme 
antedilumen et de ses auvres (1860), and Des 
outils de pierre (1866). His miscellaneous wri- 
tings comprise a novel and a volume of poetry ; 
an alphabetical dictionary of passions and sen- 
sations entitled Homme et chases (4 vols., 1851) ; 
Les masques, biographies sans nom, being a 
collection of ethical disquisitions (4 vols., 1861- 
'4) ; Sous dix row, souvenirs de 1791 d 1860 
(8 vols., 1862-'7); Des idees innees (1867); 
and numerous books of travel. 

I'.oi ( lli:s-m -KHOM:, a S. E. department of 
France, in Provence, on the Mediterranean, 
comprising the delta of the Rh6ne, bounded 
N". by the Durance and W. by the Rh6ne; 
area, 1,971 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 554,911. The 
Rh6ne divides within the province into two 
branches, forming a delta called the island of 
Camargue, which is partly occupied by marsh- 
es and lagoons. On the north of the lagoons 
is La Crau, a dreary plain, mostly of gravel, 
stretching to Aries; during the summer it is 
entirely arid and waste, though in winter it 
furnishes pasture for sheep and goats. These 
flocks are sent to the mountains about the 
beginning of the spring, and return in the au- 
tumn. The horses and cattle are few and of 
poor breed. The quantity of corn gathered in 
the department is insufficient, while the pro- 
duce of wine leaves a large surplus for export. 
Silkworms are raised in large quantities ; and 
olives are cultivated on a great scale, being 
partly exported as fruit, and partly converted 
into oil. There are manufactories of soap, ho- 
siery, and silk, sugar refineries, and oil mills. 
The trade is mainly carried on through the 
port of Marseilles, the capital. The depart- 
ment is divided into the arrondissements of 
Marseilles, Aix, and Aries. 

BOUCICAULT, Dion, a British dramatist and 
actor, born in Dublin, Dec. 26, 1822. His 
father was a French refugee and a merchant in 
that city. He was sent to England to be edu- 



148 



BOUDINOT 



BOUFLERS 



cated as a civil engineer, under the guidance 
of Dr. Lardner, but devoted himself to the 
stage, and produced in 1841 his popular comedy 
of "London Assurance," at Covent Garden 
theatre. After the success of this play, he 
rapidly produced upward of 100 pieces, either 
original or adapted from the French, including 
"Old Heads and Young Hearts," " Love and 
Money," "The Rich Heiress," "Love in a 
Maze," " The Corsican Brothers," " The Wil- 
low Copse," " Janet Pride," "The Phantom," 
and " Faust and Margaret." He excels in con- 
structive power, knowledge of stage effect, and 
epigrammatic dialogue. In September, 1853, 
he visited the United States, and after deliver- 
ing several lectures in New York, he resumed 
his profession, writing and playing "Jessie 
Brown," " The Octoroon," and "The Colleen 
Bawn." In 1860 he returned to London, and 
brought out at the Adelphi theatre " The 
Colleen Bawn," which proved successful. A 
French adaptation of this drama was perform- 
ed in Paris in 1861 under the title of Le Sue de 
Gflenaston. In 1865 he produced " Arrah na 
Pogue " with equal success. This drama was 
also translated for the French stage under the 
title of Jean la, Paste. In the seven following 
years he brought forth the comedies and 
dramas "The Long Strike," " Hunted Down," 
" How She Loves Him," "Flying Scud," "The 
Rapparee," "Formosa," "After Dark," "Foul 
Play " (in collaboration with Charles Reade), 
"Lost at Sea," "Rip Van Winkle" (which 
Mr. Joseph Jefferson has rendered so popular), 
" Kerry, or Night and Morning," " Elfie," and 
"Babil and Bijou." In the summer of 1872 
he entered into partnership with Lord Londes- 
borough and became the manager of Covent 
Garden theatre; and in the autumn of that 
year he made, together with his wife (Agnes 
Robertson), a second professional visit to the 
United States. 

BOCDIXOT, Ellas an American patriot, born 
in Philadelphia, May 2, 1740, died in Burling- 
ton, N. J., Oct. 24, 1821. He was descended 
from a family of French Huguenots, studied 
law, commenced practice in New Jersey, was 
early a devoted advocate of the patriot cause, 
and in 1777 was appointed by congress com- 
missary general of prisoners, and during the 
game year was elected a member of congress. 
In 1782 he became president of that body, and 
as such signed the treaty of peace. In 1789 
he resumed the practice of the law, but in 1796 
was appointed by Gen. Washington superin- 
tendent of the mint, which office he held till 
1805, when he resigned all public employments 
and retired to Burlington. He became a trustee 
of Princeton college in 1805, and endowed it 
with a valuable cabinet of natural history. In 
1812 he became a member of the American 
board of commissioners for foreign missions, 
and in 1816 was made the first president of the 
American Bible society. To these and other 
institutions he made munificent donations. He 
was the author of several works, including 



" The Star of the West, or an Effort to dis- 
cover the Lost Tribes of Israel," in which he 
seeks to show that the American aborigines 
are Hebrews. 

i:t)l KT-U II.I.1M1I /. Lonls Edousrd, count de, 
a French naval officer, born near Toulon, April 
24, 1808, died in Paris, Sept. 10, 1871. He left 
the naval school in 1829 with the grade of en- 
sign, became lieutenant in 1835, served in South 
America' and at the bombardment of Moga- 
dore, and was employed in 1838 in surveying 
the W. coast of Africa. In 1844, having at- 
tained the rank of captain, he was appointed 
governor of Senegal, where he remained till 
1847. During the Crimean war he served as 
rear admiral, after which he was maritime 
prefect successively of Cherbourg and Toulon, 
commanding the Mediterranean squadron, and 
was promoted to be vice admiral. In 1865 he 
was made senator; and in 1870 he commanded 
the French squadron in the Baltic. He pub- 
lished Description nautique des cotes com- 
prises entre le Senegal et Vequateur (1849) ; 
Oampagne aux cotes occidentals d'Afrique 
(1850) ; Bataillea de terre et de mer (1 855) ; and 
Tactique supplementaire a Pusage d'unejlotte 
cuirassee (1865). 

BOIIFAR1K, a town of Algeria, in the centre of 
the plain of Metidja, 16 m. S. by W. of Algiers ; 
pop. in 1866, 5,267, about half Europeans. In 
1832 Gen. d'Erlon established here an in- 
trenched camp in the midst of a malarious 
swamp, and the early colonists suffered much 
from fevers; but by means of draining, the 
district has been rendered one of the most 
healthy and fertile in Algeria, producing the 
mulberry tree, grain, fruit, cotton, and to- 
bacco. The town carries on an extensive 
trade, and is the seat of a large fair. Being 
upon the direct route from Algiers to Blidah 
and Oran, it is an important military post. 

IJOI ITK. Marie, a French comedian, born in 
Paris, Sept. 4, 1800. He was a mechanic 
previous to going on the stage. For 40 years 
he was one of the first French comic actors, 
especially excelling in vaudevilles. In 1855 he 
was much admired at the Varieties theatre in 
Paris in the Abbe Galant, and in 1857 in Jean 
le Toque. Since 1864, when he gave his fare- 
well performance, he has only played once at 
the Gymnase theatre, in 1866, in La fille de 
Vwtare. 

BOUFLERS, Lonls Francois, marquis, afterward 
duke de, a French soldier, known as the che- 
valier de Bouflers, born Jan. 10, 1644, died at 
Fontainebleau, Aug. 22, 1711. He distinguish- 
ed himself during the retreat of the French 
army before Montecuculi in 1675, and was cre- 
ated marshal in 1693. In 1708 he successfully 
withstood a siege in Lille for three months. 
At Malplaquet (1709) he served as a volunteer 
under his junior, Marshal Villars. When the 
latter was wounded, Bouflers was constrained 
to retreat ; but he succeeded in saving all the 
guns, and left only 30 prisoners in the hands 
of the enemy. 



BOUFLERS 



BOUGHTON 



149 



BOUFLERS, Stanislas, marquis de, first known 
as the abbe, then as the chevalier de Bouflers, 
born at Lun6ville in 1737, died in Paris, Jan. 
18, 1815. His mother, who died in 1787, was 
one of the celebrities of the court of Stanislas 
Leszczynski, at Luneville. His wit and elegant 
manners and his poetical talents rendered him 
a favorite at the court of Louis XV. He was 
a member of the constituent assembly (1789), 
and afterward went to Berlin, where he re- 
ceived from the king n grant of lands in Prus- 
sian Poland, to establish a French colony ; but 
the plan failed. He married Mine, de Sabran 
and returned to France in 1800, and in 1804 
was admitted to the French academy. He was 
a fervent eulogist of Napoleon, and was ridi- 
culed for his extravagant praise of Jerome 
Bonaparte. The best collection of his works 
is that of 1828, in 2 vols., including his excellent 
" Letters from Switzerland." 

BOCFLERS-ROUVREL, Marie Charlotte Hippolyte, 
countess de, born in Paris in 1724, died about 
1800. She was a daughter of the count de Oam- 
per-Saugeon, and married the count de Bou- 
flers-Rouvrel,who died in 1764 ; after which she 
led a gay life at the court of the duchess of 
Orleans, and was the reputed mistress of the 
prince de Oonti, over whose receptions she pre- 
sided. After the prince's death she retired to 
Auteuil with her-daughter-in-law the countess 
Amelie de Bouners, afterward the duchess de 
Lauzun, who was guillotined June 27, 1794, and 
she herself was imprisoned until after the fall of 
Eobespierre. She was intimate with Rousseau, 
and in correspondence with him 16 years, and 
was the friend of Hume, Grimm, and other ce- 
lebrities. Walpole, in his partiality for Mme. 
du Deffand, decried Mme. de Bouflers, though 
the latter was regarded as one of the most in- 
telligent women of her day. 

BOUGAINVILLE, l.ouis Antolne de, a French sol- 
dier and navigator, born Nov. 11, 1729, died 
Aug. 31, 1811. He entered the military service 
as aide-de-camp to Che vert, and at the ago of 25 
published a treatise on the integral calculus. In 
1754 he went to London as secretary of the 
French embassy ; in 1756 he served in Canada 
as aide-de-camp to Montcalm, after whose death 
he returned to France. In 1761 he displayed 
such courage in the campaign on the Rhine, 
that he received from the king two guns which 
he had taken from the enemy. Peace being 
concluded, he entered the navy, and undertook 
to establish a French colony in one of the Falk- 
land islands. Compelled to relinquish this set- 
tlement on account of the objections of Spain, 
he sailed southward, passed through the straits 
of Magellan, and entered the South sea, which 
was still for the most part unexplored. He 
looked in vain for Davis's land, then steered 
through the Paumotu archipelago, where he 
discovered several yet unknown islands, ar- 
rived at Tahiti, April 6, 1768, gave the name of 
Navigators' islands to the Samoan archipelago, 
and touched the part of the cluster which re- 
ceived a few years later from Capt. Cook the 



appellation of New Hebrides. He then recon- 
noitred the E. coast of Australia, doubled the 
Louisiade islands, passed the large Solomon's 
archipelago, which had not been visited since 
its discovery by Mendana, and put in at Port 
Praslin, New Ireland, where he repaired his 
ships. He then took his course westward, dis- 
covering on his passage some small islands, and 
passing the N. shore of New Guinea. Finally 
he reached Booro, one of the Moluccas, where 
he procured a fresh supply of provisions, and 
in March, 1769, reached St. Malo, after a 
cruise of over two years. In 1771-'2 he pub- 
lished his Voyage autour du monde (2 vols., 
Paris), a very interesting account of his adven- 
tures, with a graphic description of the coun- 
tries he had visited ; it was immediately trans- 
lated into English, and in 1783 into German. 
Bougainville had scarcely completed this work 
when he planned a voyage to the north pole ; 
he wrote a memoir on the subject, proposing 
two distinct routes, and submitted it to the royal 
society of London, of which he had been ad- 
mitted a member. In 1778, when the French 
took part in the American war of indepen- 
dence, Bougainville was appointed to the com- 
mand of a ship of the line, and distinguished him- 
self in all the engagements between the fleets 
of France and England. In the conflict in 
which De Grasse was defeated by Admiral Rod- 
ney, April 12, 1782, the Auguste, the ship com- 
manded by Bougainville, suffered most severe- 
ly, but maintained its station in the line to the 
last extremity; when no hope of retrieving 
the fortune of the day was left, by a judicious 
and decisive movement he succeeded in rescu- 
ing eight sail of his own immediate division, 
which he conducted safely to St. Eustace. Re- 
turning to France, he resumed his project of a 
voyage in the arctic seas, but received no en- 
couragement, and finally left the naval service 
in 1790. In 1795 he was elected to the French 
institute, and subsequently became a member 
of the board of longitudes. On the organiza- 
tion of the senate, he was made a member of 
that body by Napoleon, who also ennobled him. 
BOUGHTON, George II., an American painter, 
born in Norfolk, England, in 1836. His family 
removed to the United States about 1839, 
and he passed his youth at Albany, N. Y. ' He 
early developed a taste for drawing both 
figures and landscapes, and in 1853, having 
painted a few pieces which found a ready 
sale, he went to London and passed several 
months in the study of his art. Upon re- 
turning to America he settled in New York, 
and soon became known as a clever and rising 
landscape painter. Two of his works pro- 
duced at this time, " Winter Twilight " and 
the " Lake of the Dismal Swamp," are notice- 
able for neatness of execution combined with 
no little poetic sentiment. They indicated a 
transition period from landscape to genre 
painting ; and to fit himself for the latter he 
visited Paris in 1859 and devoted two years to 
study. In 1861 he opened a studio in London, 






150 



BOUGIAH 



BOUILLET 



where he has since mostly resided, contributing 
annually to the royal academy exhibitions. 
His works are of cabinet size, and represent 
generally genre subjects in connection with 
landscapes. Though partaking somewhat of 
the mannerisms of the French school, they are 
often original in conception, and in respect to 
composition and imaginative power entitle the 
painter to take high rank among contemporary 
artists. Among the most successful are several 
depicting French peasant life, such as " Passing 
into the Shade," "Coming from Church," 
" Cold Without," and " Morning Prayer." On 
American subjects he has painted "The Scarlet 
Letter," "Return of the Mayflower," and 
"Puritans going to Church." Among his 
later works are "Reading Clarissa Harlowe," 
"Colder than Snow," and "The Idyl of the 
Birds," the last named a composition in three 
parts, refined in execution and infused with a 
singular pathos. Mr. Boughton is most suc- 
cessful in his female figures, which are always 
interesting and sometimes strikingly beautiful 
in features and expression. Of late years he 
has habited them in the long, narrow dress of 
about 1810, but without the eccentric accesso- 
ries belonging to the fashion of that time. 

BOUGIAH (anc. Salda ; Fr. Bougie; Arab. 
Bujayah), a town of Algeria, capital of the prov- 
ince of Kabylia (created in 1873), beautifully sit- 
uated in a mountainous region, about 112 in. E. 
of Algiers, on the W. coast of the gulf of Bou- 
giah, which extends from Cape Carbon to Cape 
Cavallo; pop. in I860, 2,836. On the summit 
of the principal mountain is a French fort, 
on the site of a former place of pilgrimage, 
which had earned for the town the title of Lit- 
tle Mecca. There are several other forts, and 
the town contains churches, mosques, a school, 
a hospital, an asylum for children, and a num- 
ber of barracks. The roadstead is the safest 
on the coast of Algeria, and there is an active 
trade in oil, grain, wine, oranges, honey, and 
especially in wax. The ancient Saldse was a 
Roman colony of Mauritania Sitifensis under 
Augustus, and it was afterward the seat of a 
bishop. In the 5th century it became the 
capital of Genseric, king of the Vandals, and 
m the 8th it fell under Arab domination. As 
the residence of a powerful caliph it became in 
the 10th century, under the name of Bujayah, 
the chief emporium of N. Africa, and retained 
this prosperity under the subsequent rule of 
Morocco and of Tunis. An active trade was 
carried on with Italian merchants, especially 
with the Genoese, who erected here many pub- 
lic buildings. In the 15th century piracy in- 
jured the character of the place; and Spanish 
domination early in the 16th century brought 
about a decline, which under Turkish rule in 
the 17th culminated in utter ruin, from which 
the town has only partially recovered since 
1833, when the French gained possession of it. 
It is the chief seat of trade with E. Kabylia. 

BOUGCER, Pierre, a French physicist, born at 
Le Croisic, Feb. 16, 1698, died Aug. 15, 1758. 



After holding a professorship of hydrography 
at Havre, he succeeded Maupertuis as associate 
geometer of the academy of sciences, and was 
afterward made pensioned astronomer. He 
accompanied La Condamine and Godin on the 
great South American expedition to measure 
an arc of a meridian near the equator, and on 
his return he published Theorie de la figure de 
la terre (Paris, 1749). His other works are on 
optics, astronomy, and navigation. His princi- 
pal claims to fame are his invention of the 
heliometer, and his foundation of the science 
of photometry, which is most fully expounded 
in his posthumous Traite cToptique eur la gra- 
dation de la himiere, edited by La Caille (Paris, 
1760). 

BOUGCEREAU, Gnillanme Adolphe, a French 
painter, born at La Rochelle, Nov. 30, 1825. 
He studied in the Paris school of fine arts, and 
has been prominent since 1855 among the art- 
ists of the modern French school. He exe- 
cuted the mural paintings in the St. Louis chap- 
el of the church of Ste. Clotilde, and in the 
church of St. Augustine. His "Triumph of 
Venus" (1856) has been popularized by many 
engravings and lithographic drawings. There 
are many of his pictures in the United States. 

BOUILLE, Franfols Claude Amour, marquis de, 
a French general, born Nov. 19, 1739, died in 
London, Nov. 14, 1800. He distinguished him- 
self in the seven years' war, was appointed 
governor of Guadeloupe in 1768, and at the be- 
ginning of the American war of independence 
was governor general of the French Antilles. 
He not only preserved those islands against the 
English, but succeeded in taking several others 
from them. At the same time he displayed 
such magnanimity that on visiting England at 
the conclusion of peace he received there pul>- 
lic tokens of admiration. In the first years of 
the revolution he was in command of the east- 
ern military division of France, and ably con- 
tended with great difficulties arising from the 
rebellious disposition of the population and the 
mutinous spirit of the troops. When Louis 
XVI. projected his flight from France, he con- 
sulted Bouille, who entered into the plan and 
made all the necessary preparations ; but not- 
withstanding all the efforts of the general, the 
king was arrested at Varennes (June 21, 1791). 
Bouille thereupon fled from France and went 
afterward to Russia, where Catharine II. pro- 
mised him an army of 30,000 men to invade 
France ; but the promise was never fulfilled, 
and Bouille repaired to England, where ho 
wrote his excellent Memoircs sur la revolution 
franfaise, first printed in English at London 
in 1797, translated into German (Hamburg, 
1798), and not published in French till 1801. 

BOUILLET, Marie Nicolas, a French metaphy- 
sician and encyclopedist, born in Paris, May 5, 
1798, died there, Dec. 28, 1864. He was for 
20 years professor of metaphysics and ethics 
in various colleges, and became honorary coun- 
cillor of the university in 1850, inspector of 
the academy of Paris in 1851, and permanent 



BOUILLIER 



BOUILLON 



151 



inspector general of public instruction in 1861. 
He edited the philosophical works of Cicero and 
Seneca, and the works of Bacon (3 vols;, 1834- 
'5), and prepared the first complete French 
translation of the Enneads of Plotinus (3 vols., 
1857-'61), for which he received a prize of 
3,000 francs from the French academy. He 
contributed to various cyclopredias, and was the 
chief editor of the Dictionnaire classique de 
Vantiquitesacreeet profane(^ vols., 1826), Dic- 
tionnaire universel d histoire et de geographic 
(1 vol. large 8vo, 1842; 22d ed., 1871), and 
Dictionnaire universel des sciences, des lettres 
et des arts (8vo, 1854; 9th ed., 1870). The 
second of these works was modified in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the Roman con- 
gregation of the Index. 

BOl ILLIEK, Francisqne, a French philosopher, 
born in Lyons, July 12, 1813. He became pro- 
fessor and dean of the faculty, and in 1856 pre- 
sident of the academy of that city ; and since 
1867 he has been director of the superior 
normal school. He prepared French transla- 
tions of some of the works of Kant and Fichte, 
and is the author of the Histoire de la philoso- 
phic cartesienne (2 vols., Paris, 1854; 2d ed., 
1867). 

BOUILLON, a town of Belgian Luxemburg, on 
the Semoy, 17 m. W. S. W. of Neufchateau; 




Bouillon. 



pop. in 1866, 2,765. It has an ancient castle, 
and was formerly the capital of the lordship of 
Bouillon (which had been separated by parti- 
tion from the county of Boulogne), a district 
in the Ardennes containing several large vil- 
lages and about 20,000 inhabitants. This dis- 
trict was mortgaged by Godfrey the crusader, 
in 1095, to the bishop of Liege, whose succes- 
sors held it till 1482, when it was taken by 
Guillaume de La Marck, prince of Sedan. Re- 
stored to the bishop by Charles V. in 1529, it 
was again taken in 1548 by Robert de La 
Marck, whose descendants were dukes of Bou- 
illon, which title afterward passed by mar- 



riage into the family of La Tour d'Auvergne, 
viscounts of Turenne. Bouillon was held by 
the French from 1676 to 1815. The title of 
prince of Bouillon was assumed in 1792 by 
Philip d'Auvergne, a captain in the British 
navy, and was borne by him until his death in 
1816, when the contest between different claim- 
ants was set at rest by a decision (July 1) in 
favor of the French prince Charles Alain de 
Rohan-Guemene, whose posterity still bear the 
title. Bouillon has belonged to Belgium since 
1831. 

BOUILLON, Godfrey de, the hero of the first 
crusade, born in South Brabant about 1060, 
died in Jerusalem, July 18, 1100. He was the 
son of Eustace II. of Boulogne, brother-in- 
law to Edward the Confessor. In 1076 he 
succeeded his maternal uncle, Godfrey the 
Humpbacked, duke of Lower Lorraine, in a 
part of his possessions. He espoused the cause 
of the emperor Henry IV. in the memorable 
struggle with Pope Gregory VII., slew the 
rival emperor Rudolph of Swabia in the battle 
of Molsen (1080), and a few years later planted 
Henry's banner on the walls of Rome, which 
he was the first to scale. In reward for these 
services he became duke of Lower Lorraine. 
The idea, however, that he had committed 
sacrilege by violating the city of St. Peter sat 
heavy on his soul. As 
f- soon as the crusade was 
proclaimed, he mortgaged 
his lands to the bishop of 
Liege, in order to procure 
funds for the enterprise, 
and set out in the spring 
of 1096, with his broth- 
ers Eustace and Baldwin, 
for the Holy Land, at 
the head of 70,000 foot 
and 10,000 horse, French, 
German, and Lorrainers. 
Godfrey, who belonged to 
both the French and Ger- 
man nations, and spoke 
both tongues with ease, 
soon became the virtual 
leader of the whole vast 
expedition. (See CRU- 
SADES.) He was not tall, 
but his strength was pro- 
digious. It is said that 
with one blow of his sword he clove asun- 
der a horseman from head to saddle, and 
with one back stroke would cut off an ox's 
or camel's head. When in Asia, having one 
day lost his way, he found one of his com- 
panions in a cavern engaged with a bear ; 
he drew the beast's rage upon himself, and 
slew it, but the serious bites he received 
kept him long in his bed. Alexis Comnenus 
agreeing to provide the western army with 
supplies on condition that the crusaders would 
expel the Turks from his dominions, Godfrey 
conquered Nicsea and in 1098 Antioch, where 
his soldiers were short of provisions, the Greek 



152 



BOUILLON 



BOULLONGNE 



emperor having failed to keep his promise. 
They regained their courage on the supposed 
discovery of the lance which pierced the side 
of the Saviour on the cross ; and after a siege 
of 38 days, Godfrey, with only 20,000 men 
remaining of his army, captured Jerusalem, 
July 15, 1099. He tried, hut in vain, to re- 
strain the excesses of his soldiers, and a fearful 
massacre ensued. Elected king, he refused to 
assume a royal crown on the spot where the 
Saviour had been crowned with thorns, and, 
accepting only the title of duke and adminis- 
trator of the Holy Sepulchre, surrendered to 
the patriarch the kingdom of Jerusalem, while 
he watched over the defence of the city, which 
was threatened hy a vast Egyptian army. God- 
frey soon died, probably of care and anxiety, 
after having founded a monastery in the val- 
ley of Jehoshaphat. He was buried on Calvary, 
and was succeeded by his brother Baldwin I., 
who assumed the title of king of Jerusalem. 
Godfrey's exploits have been celebrated by 
Tasso. 

BOUILLON. I. Henri de la Tour d'Anvergne, 
duke de, marshal of France, born Sept. 28, 
1555, died March 25, 1623. During the first 
part of his life he was known as viscount of 
Turenne. He received a military training 
under the superintendence of his grandfather, 
the constable de Montmorency. While still 
young he was converted to Calvinism, and 
became an adherent of Henry of Navarre. 
After his accession to the throne of France, 
Henry conferred on him the hand and estates 
of Charlotte de la Marck, the heiress of the 
duchy of Bouillon, and thus he became a 
powerful prince and assumed the title of duke 
de Bouillon. On the evening of his marriage, 
bidding adieu to his bride for a few hours, he 
stormed the fortress of Stenay, which was held 
by the Lorrainers. This made Henry say that 
he would make marriages every day if he could 
be sure of such wedding presents. He after- 
ward participated in the conspiracy of Biron, 
and fled to Geneva, where he remained till 
1 606. During the regency of Maria de' Medici, 
Bouillon sometimes sided with the queen, some- 
times with her opponents; now supporting 
the Calvinists, then making peace with the 
court. Yet he found time to establish at Sedan 
a large library and a college. After the death 
of his first wife he married Elizabeth of Nas- 
sau, daughter of William, prince of Orange, 
by whom he had two sons, the younger of 
whom was the celebrated Turenne. II. Frederic 
Maurice de la Tonr d'Auvergne, duke de, a French 
soldier, son of the preceding, born at Sedan, 
Oct. 22, 1605, died at Pontoise, Aug. 9, 1652. 
He was brought up in the Calvinistic creed, 
and learned the profession of arms under his 
uncles, Maurice of Nassau and Frederick Henry. 
In 1635 he entered the service of France, but 
six years later, from aversion for Richelieu, he 
joined the Spaniards. At the battle of La 
Marfee, July 6, 1641, fighting on the side of 
the count de Soissons, he displayed extra- 



ordinary ability, but the withdrawal of the 
Spanish allies rendered victory useless. He 
then made peace with the cardinal, and was 
appointed lieutenant general, but the next year 
was arrested as an accomplice in the con- 
spiracy of Cinq-Mars. He probably would 
have been executed if his wife, who was in 
possession of Sedan, had not threatened to de- 
liver it up to the Spaniards. After the death 
of Louis XIII. he went to Rome, was convert- 
ed to Catholicism, and placed in command of 
the papal troops. In 1649 he returned to 
France, where he actively participated in the 
civil war against Mazarin. 

BOUILLY, Jean Nicolas, a French dramatist and 
novelist, born about 1763, died in Paris, April 
14, 1842. He wrote the texts of many operas, 
including Le jeune Henri, by Mfihul, and Les 
deux journeea of Cherubini. He was also the 
author of several comedies and dramas, and 
of collections of tales for young persons, which 
were translated into German. 

BOULAINVILLIERS, Henri, count de, a French 
historian, born at Saint-Saire, Normandy, Oct. 
11, 1658, died Jan. 23, 1722. He asserted that 
France as a nation was indebted for its power 
to the feudal system, which in his opinion was 
the " masterpiece of human genius." His His- 
toire de Vancien gomernement de la France 
(the Hague, 1727) set forth this theory, and he 
wrote many other works. 

BOULDER, a N. county of Colorado, bounded 
W. by the Medicine Bow mountains ; area, 
600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,939. It is watered 
by affluents of the South fork of the Platte 
river. The chief productions in 1870 were 
54,891 bushels of wheat, 21,060 of Indian corn, 
71,183 of oats, 3,898 tons of hay, and 84,253 
Ibs. of butter. There were 877 horses, 1,847 
milch cows, 3,219 other cattle, and 183 swine. 
Capital, Boulder City. 

BOULDERS. See BOWLDEES. 

KOI'LE, Theodore, a French publisher, born 
Feb. 23, 1799. In 1833 he founded the Esta- 
fette, and owned this journal till 1858, when, 
after 18 suits against him for stealing articles 
from as many other journals, it was suppressed 
by the government. On Feb. 24, 1848, he pub- 
lished the Republique, announcing the estab- 
lishment of a republic previous to the official 
proclamation to that effect. His establishment 
was sacked June 13, 1849, by the national 
guard, and in 1850 he was deprived of his 
license as publisher. His business became then 
the property of a joint-stock company, which 
up to 1852 had already attended to the print- 
ing of more than 200 journals. Among the 
daily and periodical journals with which Boul6 
was connected as printer or proprietor, or in 
other capacities, were the Revue Britannique 
(1836), Patrie (1843-'o), Figaro (1855), &c. 
Ho has amassed an immense fortune. 

BOULLONGNE. I. Louis, a French painter, 
born in Picardy about 1609, died in Paris in 
June, 1674. He studied in Italy, and after 
settling in Paris about 1640, he became one of 



BOULOGNE 



153 



the organizers of the academy of painting and 
sculpture, and was professor in that institution 
till his death. His principal works were exe- 
cuted for the cathedral of Notre Dame. II. 
Bon, son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1640 
or 1649, died there, May 16, 1717. A pupil of 
his father, his early picture of St. John was 
placed by order of Colbert in the academy, and 
he studied in Rome as a pensioner of the king. 
His imitations of great masters were after- 
ward often taken for originals. He became 
in 1677 a member and in 1678 professor 
of the Paris academy, and Louis XIV. em- 
ployed him. One of his most famous paintings 
is the " Resurrection of Lazarus " in the church 
of the Carthusians. He also produced a num- 
ber of etchings. III. Lonls de, brother of the 
preceding, born in Paris in 1654, died there in 
November, 1733 or 1734. In his 18th year he 
obtained the great prize of the academy, and 
in 1675 he went to Rome as a royal pensioner. 
After his designs in imitation of Raphael the 
Gobelins prepared tapestry for the king's apart- 



ments. In 1681 he was admitted to the 
academy, and in 1722 appointed designer of 
medals and devices for the academy of inscrip- 
tions, in 1723 rector of the academy of painting 
and sculpture, in 1725 its president, and about 
the same time first painter to the king, by whom 
he was ennobled. His paintings are highly 
esteemed. He also excelled as an engraver. 
IV. (ieuovieye and Madeleine, sisters of the pre- 
ceding, respectively born in 1645 and 1646, 
died in 1708 and 1710. They studied under 
their father, and were both admitted at the 
same time to the academy of painting (1699), 
exhibiting on this occasion a joint production. 
They were good portrait painters. 

BOULOGNE. I. Bonlogne-snr-Mer (anc. Qe- 
soriacum, subsequently Holonia), a town of 
France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 
situated on th English channel, at the mouth 
of the Liane, 19 m. 8. S. W. of Calais, and 130 
m. N. byW. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 40,251, 
including nearly 7,000 English. The upper 
town, irregularly laid out, but well built, con- 




Boulogne-snr-Mer. 



tains two squares with fountains, and an old 
castle where Louis Napoleon was confined 
after landing here in 1840. Among other 
public buildings is a cathedral built in the mod- 
ern Italian style between 1827 and 1867, on 
the site of the Gothic building which was 
destroyed during the revolution. The citadel 
was razed in 1690. The ramparts have been 
transformed into promenades, and E. of them 
are the grounds which were used as a military 
camp in!854-'5, and on many previous occa- 
sions. The lower or new town, lying close 
to the harbor, and containing the chief com- 
mercial establishments, is better laid out and 
built than the old town. It has a fine bathing 
establishment opened in 1863, with a ball 
room and reading room, and contains also a 
famous museum, and a library with over 30,000 
volumes. The harbor, though still deficient 
in depth, has been much improved, and con- 
sists of two large basins connected by a quay, 



ships anchoring some distance off in from six 
to nine fathoms. A great deal of the prosperity 
of the town is due to its situation on one of the 
main routes between London and Paris, being 
less than six hours' journey from London via 
Folkestone and Dover, and about 4J hours from 
Paris by the new railway through Amiens, 
opened in 1867. About 300 vessels belong 
to the town, a large proportion of them en- 
gaged in the Newfoundland cod fishery. The 
fishermen generally marry only among them- 
selves, live in a separate part of the town, 
have a peculiar dress, and speak a distinct 
patois. Before going to sea they make votive 
offerings in the neighboring chapel of J6sus 
Flagell6. The foreign trade is chiefly in her- 
ring, mackerel, oysters, wine, brandy, coals, 
butter, and linen, wool, and silk goods. Over 
3,000 vessels enter and leave the port annually, 
with an aggregate tonnage exceeding 500,000. 
The population has nearly doubled since 1815, 



154 



BOULTEK 



BOUKBAKI 



chiefly owing to the influx of English residents ; 
and the town looks now more English than 
French. There are two British chapels and 
many English boarding schools. Le Sage and 
the English poets Churchill and Campbell died 
in Boulogne, and Sainte-Beuve was born here. 
Under the Romans the place was the port 
most frequented by travellers crossing to 
Britain. During the middle ages it was pos- 
sessed by various princely houses, until it fell 
to that of Burgundy. In 1477 it was united to 
the French crown by Louis XI. In 1544 it 
was taken by Henry VIII. of England, but 
restored to France in 1550 on payment of 
2,000,000 francs. It has been at various times 
the starting point of naval expeditions against 
England, and it was the centre of the great ar- 
mament prepared by Napoleon for the invasion 
of that country. II. Bonlogne-SDr-Seine, a village 
of France, in the department of the Seine and 
arrondissement of St. Denis, on the right bank 
of the Seine, opposite St. Cloud, about 1 m. 
"W. of the S. W. extremity of Paris; pop. in 
1866, 17,343. It is famous for its bleacheries. 
Between Boulogne and the Porte Maillot of 
Paris is the Bois de Boulogne, originally a 
royal hunting ground. In the 13th century 
it contained the monastery of Longchamps, 
and subsequently was a celebrated forest till 
1852, when it was converted into one of the 
finest pleasure grounds of Europe, covering 
nearly 2,500 acres. Among the most renowned 
features of the park were the deer park ; the 
rond des cascades ; the lakes ; the Imtte Jforte- 
mart, an artificial mound ; the mare d'Auteuil, 
a natural pond; the immense artificial rock- 
work called cascade de Longchamps, with the 
race course; the pre Catalan, with its con- 
certs ; the villa Haussmann, on the site of the 
old abbey of Longchamps ; the zoological gar- 
den of acclimation ; and the restaurant chateau 
de Madrid, called after the famous palace de- 
molished under Louis XVIII. During the 
Franco-German war the trees were cut down 
by order of the military authorities of Paris, 
and the pleasure grounds otherwise devastated. 
BOULTER, Hugh, an English prelate, born in 
or near London, Jan. 4, 1671, died in London 
in September, 1742. After leaving Oxford he 
was successively chaplain to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, rector of St. Olave's, Southwark, 
archdeacon of Surrey, chaplain to George I., and 
tutor to Frederick, prince of Wales. In 1719 
he became bishop of Bristol and dean of Christ 
church, Oxford, and in 1724 archbishop of 
Armagh and primate of all Ireland. He ex- 
pended 30,000 in augmenting the incomes of 
the poorer clergy, erected and endowed hos- 
pitals at Armagh and Drogheda for clergymen's 
widows, contributed to the establishment of 
charter schools, and during the famine of 1740 
provided at his own expense two meals a day 
for 2,500 persons. For 19 years he filled the 
office of lord justice of Ireland. His " Letters 
to several Ministers of State in England rela- 
tive to Transactions in Ireland from 1724 to 



1738 " (2 vols., Oxford, 1769-'70) are regarded 
as authority on that period. 

BOULT01V, Matthew, an English mechanician, 
born in Birmingham, Sept. 3, 1728, died near 
there, Aug. 17, 1809. He joined his father in 
the manufacture of hardware, and one of his 
first inventions was a new mode of inlaying 
steel. The death of his father gave him ample 
means to extend his business, and in 1762 he es- 
tablished the Soho manufactory near Birming- 
ham, for which he in 1767 constructed a steam 
engine, on the original plan of Savery. In 1769 
he entered into partnership with James Watt, 
and the Soho steam engine, gradually improved 
and simplified, became known all over Europe. 
It was first applied to coinage in 1783, from 
30,000 to 40,000 milled coins being struck off in 
an hour. Boulton and Watt sent two complete 
mints to St. Petersburg, and for many years 
executed the entire copper coinage of England. 
Mr. Boulton expended 47,000 on the steam 
engine before Watt had so completely con- 
structed it that its operation yielded profit. 
He also patented a method of raising water 
and other fluids by impulse. 

BOU MA/A, an Arab chief, born in Algeria 
about 1820. He was a dervish, who in 1845 
roused the population of the Dahra against the 
French, participating in many conflicts and co- 
operating with Abd-el-Kader in Morocco. On 
April 13, 1847, he was compelled to surrender 
to Saint- Arnaud and sent to Paris. A liberal 
pension was granted to him, and he was pro- 
vided with handsome lodgings; but being 
caught in an attempt to leave Paris in the night 
of Feb. 23, 1848, he was removed to Ham and 
detained in the fortress till July, 1849, and in 
the city till 1852. He was sent to the theatre 
of war in the East in 1854, and commanded a 
corps of irregular troops, receiving in 1855 a 
colonelcy in the army. 

BOIRBAKI, Charles Denis Santer, a French sol- 
dier, born in Paris, April 22, 1816. His father, 
of Greek origin, and an officer in the French 
army, lost his life in the Greek war of indepen- 
dence (1827). Bourbaki was educated at St. 
Cyr, became a sub-lieutenant in 1836, and brig- 
adier general in 1854. He distinguished him- 
self in the Crimean war at Alma and Inker- 
man, and on Sept. 8, 1855, during the storming 
of the Malakhoff. Subsequently he was on the 
staff of the governor general of Algeria, and 
in August, 1857, became general of division. 
In 1859 he increased his reputation at the 
battle of Solferino, and afterward held a com- 
mand in Paris. In May, 1869, he command- 
ed the second camp at Chalons, and in July 
became aide-de-camp of Napoleon III. After 
the outbreak of the Franco-German war, he 
was appointed in July, 1870, commander-in- 
chief ad interim of the guard in place of Ba- 
zaine, under whom he took an active part in 
the battles near Metz, Aug. 14, 16, and 18, and 
especially on Aug. 31 in the unavailing attempt 
to break through the German lines. He suc- 
ceeded in escaping from Metz in the beginning 



BOURBON 



155 



of October, and was reported to have been sent 
by Bazaine on a mission to the ex-empresa 
Eugenie at Chiselhurst. The provisional au- 
thorities at Tours next placed him in com- 
mand of the first army of the north at Lille ; 
but while he was exerting himself to qualify 
the trodps for active service, Gambetta remon- 
strated against his inactivity, and Bourbaki, 
after rebutting these charges, laid down his 
command. On Dec. 6, however, he was placed 
at the head of part of the remnants of the de- 
feated army of the Loire, which he reorganized 
around Nevers, so as to make it consist of four 
corps and eventually of about 150,000 men. 
Disappointed by Garibaldi's force not joining 
him for the relief of Belfort and in other pro- 
jected exploits, he succeeded, nevertheless, in 
driving the enemy from Dijon ; but his adver- 
sary, Gen. Werder, concentrated his forces at 
Vesoul, attacked the French flank at Villesexel 
(Jan. 9, 1871), gained time to intrench himself 
in a strong position before Belfort, and re- 
peatedly repelled Bourbaki's impetuous attacks 
(Jan. 15-17). Dreading at the same time Ger- 
man reenforcements under Manteuffel, the 
French general retired to Besancon in the 
hope of thence reaching Lyons; but, cut off 
by the Germans, he was obliged to retreat 
over the left bank of the river Doubs in the 
direction of Switzerland. In the mean while he 
received visionary instructions from Gambetta 
to resume aggressive operations with demoral- 
ized forces, worn out by forced marches over 
Alpine mountains and glaciers, and short of the 
necessaries of life. Depressed by these circum- 
stances and exasperated at Gambetta's taunt- 
ing him with treason, Bourbaki shot himself 
in the head at Besancon, Jan. 27. Expressing 
his regret that the wound did not prove fatal, 
he transferred his command to Gen. Clin- 
chant, who, after new disasters, led the re- 
maining 80,000 of the original 150,000 men of 
Bourbaki's army into Switzerland. Bourbaki 
has since been appointed to a military com- 
mand in Lyons. 

BOURBON. I. A N. E. county of Kentucky, 
bounded E. by the South Licking river, which 
also intersects the N. E. part, and drained by 
Hinkston, Stoner's, and Stroad's creeks ; area, 
about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,863, of whom 
6,677 were colored. This county forms part 
of the region called the garden of Kentucky. 
The surface is gently undulating, and the soil, 
of fine limestone derivation, is remarkably rich. 
Lead ore is found .in small quantities; sulphur 
and chalybeate springs are numerous. On 
Stoner's creek is a remarkable ancient earth- 
work. The Kentucky Central and the Paris 
and Maysville railroads traverse the county. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 71,717 
bushels of wheat, 67,739 of rye, 1,229,515 of 
Indian corn, 114,762 of oats, 163,850 pounds 
of butter, 47,585 of wool, and 5,572 tons of 
hay. There were 5,214 horses, 5,119 mules 
and asses, 3,870 milch cows, 16,629 other cat- 
tle, 11,038 sheep, and 19,387 swine. The 



manufacture of Bourbon whiskey, which takes 
its name from this county, is extensively car- 
ried on. Capital, Paris. II. A S. E. county 
of Kansas, bordering on Missouri, drained by 
the Little Osage and Marmiton rivers; area, 
625 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,076. The Mis- 
souri River, Fort Scott, and Gulf, and the Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and Texas railroads traverse it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 145,179 
bushels of wheat, 706,607 of Indian corn, 
266,320 of oats, 81,527 of potatoes, 20,789 
tons of hay, 12,103 of wool, 255,218 of but- 
ter, and 225,569 gallons of sorghum molasses. 
There were 5,423 horses, 5,299 milch cows, 
10,055 other cattle, 4,302 sheep, and 6,867 
swine. Capital, Bourbon. 

BOURBON, an island. See REUNION. 

BOURBON, a French ducal and royal family, 
different branches of which have reigned as 
kings over France, Spain, and Naples, and as 
sovereign dukes over*Parma. I. DUCAL FAM- 
ILY. The fief of Bourbon, now called Bourbon- 
1'Archambault, was early in the 10th century 
in the possession of Adhemar or Aimar, a de- 
scendant of Childebrand, brother of Charles 
Martel, and in the 13th century in that of the 
house of Dampierre, which held it till 1272, 
when Beatrix, the heiress, married the sixth son 
of Louis IX., Robert, count of Clermont, who 
thus became the head of the family. The fief, 
then only a seigniory, was erected into a duke- 
dom by Charles IV. for Louis, son of Robert 
and Beatrix (1327). He left two sons : Pierre 
I., the elder, who continued the ducal dynasty, 
and Jacques I., count of La Marche, the an- 
cestor of the royal line. The second duke, 
Pierre I., was killed in 1356 at Poitiers. His 
son Louis II. (1337-1409) distinguished himself 
in the war against the English, and was appoint- 
ed conjointly with Philip the Bold, duke of 
Burgundy, to superintend the education of the 
young king Charles VI., who had married his 
sister. He was the true founder of the great- 
ness of his house. To the duchy of Bourbon 
and county of Clermont he added, through 
his two marriages or by purchase, the duchy 
of Auvergne, the county of Montpensier, the 
principality of Dombes, and several minor 
feudal estates; so that he became one of the 
most powerful vassals of the crown, his posses- 
sions extending from the Cher to the Rhdne. 
JEAN!, succeeded his father Louis II.; was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Agincourt (1415), and 
carried to England ; paid his ransom three times 
without being released ; and at last concluded 
a treaty by which he gave up to the English 
king the principal strongholds of his duchy, 
at the same time acknowledging Henry VI. 
as king of France; but his son declined to 
abide by these terms, and the duke died in 1434 
in London, after 18 years' captivity. CHARLES 
I., known until his father's death as count of 
Clermont, did good service for the French king 
against the English, and was one of the nego- 
tiators of the treaty of Arras between Charles 
VII. and the duke of Burgundy in 1435. Ho 



156 



BOURBON 



subsequently engaged in the revolt known as 
la pragverie, but soon made his peace with 
the king, a daughter of whom his son, the 
count of Clermont, afterward married. He 
died in 1456. JEAN II., son of Charles I., was a 
faithful servant to Charles VII., but became the 
controlling mind of the ligue du bien public 
against Louis XI. By the treaty of Conflans 
he obtained favorable terms, being successively 
appointed governor of Languedoc, knight of St. 
Michael, and grand constable of France. On 
his death in 1487 the duchy reverted to his eld- 
est brother, the archbishop of Lyons, who died 
the following year, when their younger brother, 
PIEBEE II. of Beaujeu, got possession of it. He 
married Anne, daughter of Louis XI. On the 
death of that king, Anne governed under the 
name of her brother, Charles VIII. Her only 
child was a daughter, Susanne, who married her 
cousin, CHAKLES of Montpensier, the last duke, 
popularly known as the constable de Bourbon. 
He belonged to a younger branch of the family, 
and by his marriage with the heiress of the elder 
became the richest prince in France, and was 
appointed grand constable by Francis I. Louisa 
of Savoy, mother of the king, fell in love with 
him, but he repelled her advances. By her hos- 
tility he was deprived of his pensions, amount- 
ing to 76,000 livres; and on his wife's death, as 
she had left no child, Louisa claimed the Bourbon 
estates as the nearest of kin, and a lawsuit was 
brought against him. A judgment being ren- 
dered in her favor, Bourbon entered into se- 
cret negotiations with Charles V. and Henry 
VIII. It was agreed that a kingdom should 
be created for the constable in S. E. France, 
and the remainder of the country given up to 
the other confederates. Francis I. was in- 
formed of the plot, and Bourbon fled in dis- 
guise and raised in Germany 6,000 soldiers, with 
whom he entered the service of the emperor. 
He contributed greatly to the victory of Pavia, 
where Francis I. was taken prisoner. However, 
he was not treated by the emperor with the re- 
gard which he anticipated ; and being at the 
head of a body of German mercenaries, who 
for months had received no pay, he was obliged 
to lead them against Rome. He was shot (May 
6, 1527) while scaling the wall, upon which 
the soldiers stormed the city, which for two 
months was given up to pillage and bloodshed. 
His remains were removed to Gaeta, where a 
monument was erected to his memory; while 
the French parliament ordered the threshold 
of his mansion in Paris to be painted yellow, 
to signify that he had died bearing arms against 
his native country. II. ROYAL DYNASTIES OF 
BODEBON. 1. France. The head of the younger 
branch of the Bourbons, which gave kings to 
France, was Jacques, count of La Marche, 
second son of Louis, first duke of Bourbon. 
The sixth descendant of Jacques, Antoine de 
Bourbon, duke of Vendome, married Jeanne 
d'Albret, the heiress of Navarre, by whom he 
had a son, Henri, prince of Beam, born in 
1553, who succeeded his father in 1562, and 



in 1589, on the death of Henry III., the last 
prince of the Valois family, was the heir ap- 
parent to the crown of France. Henry the 
B6arnais, as he was called by the Catholics, 
made his claims good by courage, energy, and 
perseverance. At last, in 1594, he was ac- 
knowledged king of France as Henry rV ., and 
was assassinated in 1610 by Ravaillac. Six of 
his descendants in the direct line occupied the 
throne after him: Louis XIII., 1610-1643; 
Louis XIV., 1643-1715 ; Louis XV., 1715-1774; 
Louis XVI., 1774-1793 ; Louis XVIII., 1814- 
1824 ; and Charles X., 1824-1830. The reign 
of Louis XIV. lasted 72 years. This prince's 
sons and grandsons, excepting Philip, who was 
excluded on account of his accession to the 
throne of Spain, died before him, and he was 
succeeded by his great-grandson, then a child. 
Their two successive reigns covered together 
nearly a century and a half. The disorders 
and corruption which prevailed during the lat- 
ter part of that period prepared the French 
revolution, to which Louis XVI. fell a victim. 
For more than 20 years his brothers were ex- 
iles from France ; they returned to their coun- 
try under the protection of foreign armies. 
Hence the comparative unpopularity of Louis 
XVIII. and Charles X., which caused at last 
the overthrow of the latter in 1830. The pres- 
ent head of this elder branch, and pretender 
to the throne (1873), is the count de Cham- 
bord, formerly duke de Bordeaux (called by his 
adherents Henry V.), the posthumous son of 
the duke de Berry, second son of Charles X., 
who was assassinated in 1820. The younger 
branch, known as Bourbon-Orleans, traces its 
origin to Philip, duke of Orleans, the brother 
of Louis XIV. It ascended the throne in 
1830 in the person of his fourth descendant, 
who was styled Louis Philippe I., king of the 
French. Ho reigned 18 years, and lost his 
crown in the revolution of February, 1848. 
His surviving sons are the dukes de Nemours, 
Aumale, Montpensier, and the prince de Join- 
ville. The present aspirant to the throne as 
the head of this branch is their nephew the 
count de Paris, the elder son of the last duke 
of Orleans, who was accidentally killed in 1842. 
2. Spain. On the death of Charles II., the last 
prince of the Austrian house of Spain, the 
crown passed under his will to Philip, duke of 
Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., who reigned as 
Philip V., 1700-1746. His successors were 
Ferdinand VI., 1746-1759; Charles III., 1759- 
1788; Charles IV., 1788-1808 ; Ferdinand VII., 
1814-1833; and Isabella II., who lost her 
throne in 1868, and in 1870 renounced her 
claims in favor of her son Alfonso. 3. Naples. 
Don Carlos, the second son of Philip V. of 
Spain, obtained in 1734-'o the crowns of Na- 
ples and Sicily, which he kept till 1759, when 
he ascended the throne of Spain as Charles III., 
transmitting his Italian crowns to his third son, 
Ferdinand IV., who on his restoration in 1815 
styled himself Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. 
He reigned 66 years, including the period of 



BOURBON 



BOURDALOUE 



157 



the French invasion, and was succeeded by his 
son Francis I., 1825-1830, the father of Ferdi- 
nand II., who in 1859 was succeeded by his 
son Francis II., whose possessions were in the 
following year conquered by Victor Emanuel. 
His eldest son is Prince Louis, count of Trani, 
born in 1838. 4. Parma. The infante Don 
Carlos, before becoming king of Naples, had 
been for a time duke of Parma and Piacenza. 
In 1748, by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, his 
younger brother Philip, son-in-law of Louis 
XV., was invested with the duchy of Parma, 
which he transmitted to his son Ferdinand, 
whose heir was Louis I. The last named in 1801 
exchanged his duchy for Tuscany, which had 
been erected into a kingdom under the namS of 
Etruria. His son Charles II. succeeded him in 
1803, under the guardianship of his mother, 
Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles IV. of Spain. 
In 1807 the same princess, on the promise by 
Napoleon of another kingdom in Portugal, con- 
sented to a resignation for herself and son ; but 
the promise was never fulfilled, and they had 
to be contented in 1815 with the hereditary 
duchy of Lucca. In 1847 Charles II. was again 
put in possession of the duchy of Parma by 
the death of the empress Maria Louisa, to 
whom it had been given by the congress of 
Vienna. In 1849 he abdicated in favor of his 
son Charles III., who had in 1847 married a 
French princess, Louise Marie Therese, daugh- 
ter of the duke of Berry. On the assassina- 
tion of Charles III. in 1854, his son Robert I. 
was proclaimed duke, under the regency of his 
mother, who died in 1864, after the annexa- 
tion of Parma in 1859-'60 to the dominions 
of Victor Emanuel. Among the houses derived 
from the royal Bourbon family of France, the 
most important are those of Conde and Conti. 

BOURBON, Loots Henri, duke of, the great- 
grandson of the great Conde, born at Versailles 
in 1692, died at Chantilly, Jan. 27, 1740. After 
the death of Louis XIV. he was a member of 
the board of regency, and on the death of the 
regent, Philip of Orleans, he was appointed 
prime minister. He obtained large sums from 
the public treasury, was involved in the schemes 
of Law, and increased his fortune by various 
questionable transactions. He allowed his 
mistress, the marquise de Prie, to control polit- 
ical affairs, and incurred so much odium by 
imposing onerous taxes that Cardinal Floury 
prevailed upon Louis XV. to exile him in 1726 
to Chantilly. 

BOURBON, l.mii- Henri Joseph, duke of, prince 
of Cond6, grandson of the preceding, born Aug. 
13, 1756, died Aug. 27, 1830. In his youth he 
fought a duel with the count d'Artois, after- 
ward Charles X. In 1782, in the war between 
the English and French, he was wounded at 
the siege of Gibraltar. He was among the first 
to emigrate, served in the army of Conde, and 
on his return to France after the restoration 
recovered most of his hereditary fortune. His 
mistress, the baroness de Feucheres, as he 
had no offspring, induced him to settle his 



fortune upon the young duke d'Aumale, son 
of Louis Phillipe. On the outbreak of the 
revolution of 1830 he proposed to cancel 
his will, and to give all his fortune to Charles 
X. ; but he was found strangled the next 
month, under circumstances which led to a 
legal investigation. No light was cast upon 
the matter, and it was judicially admitted that 
he had committed suicide. He was the last 
duke of Bourbon. 

BOURBON-LANCT, a watering place of France, 
in the department of Sa&ne-et- Loire, 20 m. N. 
W. of Charolles; pop. in 1866, 3,222. Its 
mineral springs, which are employed in nervous 
affections and rheumatism, were known to the 
Romans under the name of Aquce Nisineii. A 
fine hospital was established here by the mar- 
quis d'Aligre. 

BOURBON-L'ARCHAMBAULT, a town of France, 
in the department of Allier, 15 m. W. N. W. of 
Moulins; pop. in 1866, 3,466. It is celebrated 
for its mineral springs and baths, said to be of 
great efficacy in cases of paralysis, rheumatism, 
and gun-shot wounds. It contains vestiges of 
the ancient castle of the Bourbon family, and 
was the capital of Bourbonnais. 

BOURBONNAIS, a former province of central 
France, between the rivers Loire and Cher, 
now included chiefly in the department of Al- 
lier. It belonged for centuries to the ducal 
house of Bourbon, and was confiscated in 1523 
by Francis I., and united to the French crown in 
1531. Its ancient inhabitants were the ^Edui 
and the Bituriges Cubi. 

BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS (anc. Agues Borvonis), 
a town of France, in the department of Haute- 
Marne, 21 m. E. N. E. of Langres ; pop. in 
1866, 4,053. It has hot mineral springs, which 
were resorted to by the Romans. The tem- 
perature varies from 120 to 150 F. the 
water is principally employed in cases of paral- 
ysis and rheumatism, spasms, and ill-reduced 
fractures. There is a military hospital here. 

BOURBON-VENDEE. See NAPOI^ON-VEND^E. 

BOURDALOUE, Lonls, a French prelate and 
orator, born at Bourges, Aug. 20, 1632, died in 
Paris, May 13, 1704. At an early age he en- 
tered the society of Jesus, and became profes- 
sor of rhetoric, philosophy, and moral theology 
in their college at Bourges, displaying remark- 
able capacity for oral instruction, as well as 
great energy of character. He first preached 
in provincial churches, and in 1669 was sent to 
Paris, where he became very popular. Louis 
XIV. on many occasions invited him to preach 
at Versailles. He reformed in a measure the 
somewhat theatrical pulpit oratory of his day, 
and restored it to greater simplicity, directness, 
and sincerity. For 20 years he continued a 
favorite preacher. Louis XIV. sent him to 
Languedoc to reconcile the Protestants to the 
repeal of the edict of Nantes. In the latter 
part of his life he chiefly devoted himself to 
charitable labors. His sermons, often publish- 
ed during his lifetime, and translated into many 
foreign languages, are remarkable for their 



158 



BOURDEILLES 



BOURGEOIS 



solid learning and eloquence. The most cele- 
brated of them is the sermon on the Passion. 
The edition by Pere Bretonnean, in 16 volumes, 
is generally considered the most complete and 
valuable. Prominent among more recent edi- 
tions is that of Didot (3 vols. 8vo, 1840). 

BOIJRDEILLES. See BRAHMS. 

BOURDIN, Maurice, an antipope, born in Li- 
mousin, France, died at Fumone, Papal States, 
in 1122. He was arch priest of the diocese 
of Toledo in 1095, afterward bishop of Coim- 
bra, and in 1110 archbishop of Braga. Pope 
Paschal II. sent him as legate to Henry V. of 
Germany, but excommunicated him for hav- 
ing crowned the emperor without authority, 
and for other acts of insubordination. After 
the death of Paschal and the election of Gela- 
sius II. (1118), the emperor set up Bourdin as 
an antipope under the name of Gregory VIII., 
and drove Gelasius from Rome. But the op- 
position of the clergy rendered his position un- 
tenable, and after the death of Gelasius (1119) 
Henry was reconciled with Calixtus II., the 
legitimate successor to the papal see. The 
fugitive antipope was brought back ignomin- 
iously to Rome and imprisoned for the rest of 
his life in the castle of Fumone. 

BOURDON, Louis Pierre Marie, a French math- 
ematician, born at Alencon, July 16, 1799, died 
in Paris, March 15, 1854. He was professor 
in the principal colleges of Paris, and finally 
inspector of studies and a member of the coun- 
cil of the university. His Elements cfarith- 
metique and Elements d'algelre have passed 
through many editions ; and the latter, adapted 
by Prof. Charles Davies (1834), has been ex- 
tensively used in the United States. His Tri- 
gonometric rectiligne et spherique was pub- 
lished in 1854 as a text book according to the 
new system of instruction in France. 

BOURDON, Sebastien, a French painter, born 
at Montpellier in 1616, died in Paris in 1671. 
He became acquainted with Claude Lorraine in 
Rome, where he was denounced as a Calvinist, 
and obliged to return to Paris. There he was 
one of the founders of the academy of painting 
and sculpture. Exiled to Stockholm during 
the troubles of the Fronde, he was employed 
by Queen Christina as her principal painter; 
but when she embraced Roman Catholicism 
he returned to France. Many of his works, 
remarkable for a brilliant and easy style, are in 
French galleries, especially in the Louvre, which 
possesses his masterpiece, the "Crucifixion of 
St. Peter." He also excelled as an engraver, 
his prints in aquafortis exceeding 100. 

BOURG, or Bonrg-en-Bresse, a town of France, 
capital of the department of Ain, on the Reys- 
souse, 20 m. E. S. E. of Macon; pop. in 1866, 
13,733. The streets are narrow, but there are 
fine public buildings. A lyceum was opened in 
1856. Outside the walls is the church of Notre 
Dame de Brou, with celebrated monuments of 
its founder, Margaret of Austria, of her hus- 
band, Philibert of Savoy, and of her mother- 
in-law, Margaret of Bourbon ; it has a sun dial 



reconstructed by the astronomer Lalande, who 
was born here. Bourg was important under 
the Roman empire, and successively belonged 
to the kings of Burgundy, the emperors of 
Germany, and the dukes of Saxony, coming 
into the possession of France in 1601. 

BOURG, Anne da, a French Protestant martyr, 
born at Riom in 1521, executed in Paris, Dec. 
20, 1559. He took orders, but quitted the 
church for the bar, became a professor of law, 
embraced Calvinism, and after remonstrating 
with Henry II. in behalf of the reformers, was 
imprisoned in the Bastile and degraded as a 
heretic by the archbishop of Paris. After the 
death of Henry II., the elector Palatine ap- 
plied to Francis II. for his release, proposing to 
give him a professorship at Heidelberg ; but 
Minard, one of his judges and the especial 
friend of the cardinal de Lorraine, being assas- 
sinated during the trial, the so-called ordon- 
nance minarde was passed sentencing him to 
death. He was hanged in the place de la Grfeve, 
and his body burned. 

BOURGADE, Francois, a French priest and ori- 
entalist, born at Ganjou, department of Gers, 
July 7, 1806, died in 1866. He was ordained 
in 1832, and in 1838 went as a missionary to 
Algeria, and thence to Tunis, where he founded 
a hospital, a college, and schools for girls, and 
was appointed to serve the chapel and other 
institutions for females established by Louis 
Philippe in honor of St. Louis' (Louis IX.), on 
the spot where that monarch was believed to 
have died. He published Soirees de Carthage ; 
La clef du Goran ; Le passage du Coran a 
V&vangile ; La toison d'or de la langue pheni- 
cienne, containing many Punic inscriptions; 
part of a translation of the romance of Antar 
(1864) ; and a. Lettre a M. E. Renan (1864), in 
reply to Renan's Vie de Jesus. 

BOURGELAT, Claude, a French veterinary sur- 
geon, born in Lyons in 1712, died in 179 ( J. He, 
began to practise as an advocate, and afterward 
served in the cavalry, where he became very 
skilful in the treatment of horses. In 1762 
he opened a veterinary school at Lyons, the 
first in France. He was a member of the 
Paris and Berlin academies of science. The 
best of his many works, Traite de la conforma- 
tion exterieure du cheval, de sa beaute et de 
ses defauta (Paris, 1776 ; 3d part by Huzard, 
1803-'8), passed through many editions, and 
was translated into several languages. 

BOURGEOIS, AniiTl. See ANICET-BOUEOEOIS. 

BOURGEOIS, Dominique Francois a French in- 
ventor, born in 1698, died in Paris in 1781. He 
first exhibited his mechanical talent while em- 
ployed in a locksmith's shop in Paris. Having 
claimed the invention of the celebrated autom- 
aton duck of Vaucanson, he was indicted as an 
impostor and imprisoned over two years. In 
1744 he invented a lantern which received the 
approval of the academy of sciences, and estab- 
lished a manufactory in which he was ruined 
by his partners. The academy having in 1766 
granted him a prize for the best mode of light- 



BOURGES 



BOURMONT 



159 



ing a town, the city of Paris gave him a mo- 
nopoly for 20 years; but he was again de- 
frauded by his associates, and died destitute. 
Catharine II. of Russia employed him in the 
construction of a lighthouse at St. Petersburg. 
Pere Joly published under the name of Bour- 
geois two Memoires sur let lanternes d reverbilre 
(Paris, 1764). 

BOURGES, a town of France, capital of the 
department of Cher, and formerly of the prov- 
ince of Berry, at the confluence of the Auron 
and Yevre, 60 m. S. S. E. of Orleans ; pop. in 
1866, 30,119. Most of the old ramparts have 
been converted into promenades. The town 
has numerous interesting old houses and public 







Cathedral of St. fitlenne. 



buildings. The cathedral of St. Etieune is one 
of the most celebrated in France, and in the 
church of St. Pierre is the tomb of Jeanne la 
Bienheureuse, consort of Louis XII. The hotel 
de ville, originally the private mansion of 
Jacques Coeur, is an interesting building. The 
university of Bourges, founded in 1403, ac- 
quired great celebrity by the teachings of Al- 
ciati, Oujas, Calvin, and Theodore Beza. It 
has since been converted into a lyceum. 
Charles VII., from his temporary residence 
here, was called king of Bourges. Bourges is 
the see of an archbishop, and has excellent in- 
stitutions of education and art. It is renowned 
for its school of artillery and extensive military 
workshops, and is one of the great arsenals of 
France. It has an iron foundery, saltpetre 
works, and cloth manufactories. The chief 
114 VOL. m. 11 



trade is in sheep, wool, cloth, hats, cutlery, 
hosiery, porcelain, wine, and confectionery. 
The town is remarkable for its jewellers' and 
silversmiths' shops. It is the birthplace of 
Bourdaloue. It occupies the site of Avaricum, 
the ancient and flourishing capital of the Bi- 
turiges Cubi, which was captured by Caesar in 
52 B. C., when almost all its defenders and 
inhabitants were slaughtered. It was subse- 
quently the metropolis of Aquitania, under the 
name of Bituriges. Destroyed by Chilperic I., 
it was restored by Charlemagne and enlarged 
by Philip Augustus. During the middle ages 
many councils were held here. The pragmatic 
sanction of Bourges, established under Charles 
VII. in 1438, declared the pope subordinate to 
a general council. 

BOURIGNON, Antoinette, a Flemish fanatic, born 
in Lille, Jan. 13, 1616, died at Franeker, Oct. 
30, 1680. She was so ugly that at her birth it 
was proposed to kill her as a monster ; never- 
theless, being of a rich family, she received sev- 
eral offers of marriage, which she refused in or- 
der to devote herself to a religious life. In 
1636 she fled from home in male disguise, to 
avoid marrying, and entered a convent at Cam- 
bray, where she pretended to inspiration and 
made a number of converts among the nuns. 
Attempting to escape with some of her disci- 
ples, she was expelled, and after the death of 
her father took charge of a hospital at Lille, 
whence she was also expelled. She then trav- 
elled extensively, and at Amsterdam abjured 
Roman Catholicism, and urged reforms in re- 
ligion and politics. Thence she fled to Holstein 
to avoid arrest, and took up her residence in 
the island of Nordstrand, where she gave um- 
brage to the authorities by the clandestine 
publication of her mystical writings. She af- 
terward wandered over various parts of En- 
rope, claiming to be the medium of a new reve- 
lation supplementary to that of the Scriptures, 
making proselytes, but often persecuted as a 
witch. Shortly before her death she was at 
the head of a hospital in East Friesland. La- 
coste, Peter Poiret, and Noels, the secretary 
of Jansen, were among her disciples. Her 
writings were published by Poiret (25 vols., 
Amsterdam, 1676-'84; new ed., 1717). 

BOURMONT, Lonls Angnste Victor de Ghaisne, 
count de, a French soldier, born at the chateau 
de Bourmont, Maine-et- Loire, Sept. 2, 1773, 
died there, pot. 27, 1846. At the beginning of 
the revolution he emigrated with his father, 
who was on the staff of the prince de Cond6, 
and after fighting for the Bourbons in La Ven- 
dee, he offered his services to Bonaparte. Im- 
plicated in the plot of the infernal machine, he 
was arrested, but escaped to Portugal, and Ju- 
not's influence reinstated him in the favor of 
Napoleon, who, after his distinguished military 
services in 1813-'14, especially at the defence 
of Nogent, made him general of division. Al- 
ternately serving Louis XVIII. and Napo- 
leon, he deserted the emperor on the eve of 
the battle of Ligny, and proceeded directly to 



160 



BOTJKNE 



BOUEKIT 



the Prussian headquarters. Joining Louis 
XVIII. at Ghent, he restored the Bourbon au- 
thority in many important towns, and saved 
several provinces from foreign occupation, in 
consequence of which he was promoted to the 
command of a division of the royal guard. In 
1823 he commanded under the duke of An- 
gouleme in the Spanish campaign, and at its end 
was raised to the peerage. In 1829 he became 
minister of war, and in 1830 commander-in- 
chief of the expedition to Algeria, during 
which he was made marshal ; but after the ac- 
cession of Louis Philippe, to whom he refused 
allegiance, he was superseded by Gen. Clausel 
and dismissed the service. He cooperated with 
the duchess of Berry in her attempt to raise 
an insurrection in La Vendee, served Dom 
Miguel in Portugal, and went to Rome in the 
interest of Don Carlos. The amnesty of 1840 
permitted his return to France, but he was 
mobbed at Marseilles, one of his sons being 
wounded, and his wife dying three months 
afterward from the effect of the excitement. 
His testimony against Marshal Ney was re- 
garded as having sealed that soldier's doom. 

BOURNE, Hugh, an English clergyman, the 
founder of the Primitive Methodists, born at 
Stoke-upon-Trent, April 3, 1772, died at Bem- 
ersley, Oct. 11, 1852. In 1807 some of the 
Wesleyan Methodists were desirous of reviving 
camp meetings, which the British conference 
declared "highly improper for England." Mr. 
Bourne and 20 of his friends, dissenting from 
this judgment, were expelled from the body, 
and the new sect, which was called into exist- 
ence under his leadership, eventually included 
over 100,000 members, the first society having 
been founded by him in 1810. In 1844 Mr. 
Bourne visited the United States, where his 
preaching excited much attention. 

BOURNE, Vincent, an English Latin poet, born 
about 1700, died Dec. 2, 1747. He was a grad- 
uate of Cambridge and usher at Westminster 
school, where Cowper was among his pupils. 
A collection of his Latin versions of old English 
ballads, with some original poems, was pub- 
lished under the title of Poemata in 1734, and 
was followed by several others. In 1808 ap- 
peared his posthumous " Poetical Works," 
with his letters (2 vols., London ; new ed., 
Oxford, 1826). Cowper translated several of 
Bourne's original Latin poems. 

BOURRIENNE, Louis Antoine Fanvelet de, private 
secretary of Napoleon I., born at Sens, July 9, 
1769, died in Caen, Feb. 7, 1834. He was the 
schoolmate of Napoleon at the military insti- 
tute of Brienne, and subsequently spent some 
time at Vienna, Leipsic, and Warsaw. After 
his return to Paris he renewed his intimacy 
with Napoleon, then a poor and friendless 
officer; but the decisive turn taken by the 
revolutionary movement after June 20, 1792, 
drove him back to Germany. In 1795 he again 
returned to Paris, and there again met Napo- 
leon, who however at that time treated him 
coldly; but toward the end of 1796 he was 



installed as his private secretary. After the 
18th Brumaire Bourrienne received the title of 
councillor of state, was lodged at the Tuileries, 
and admitted to the first consul's family circle. 
In 1802 the army contractor Coulon, whoso 
partner Bourrienne had secretly become, and 
for whom he had procured the lucrative busi- 
ness of supplying the whole cavalry equipment, 
failed with a deficit of 3,000,000 francs; the 
chief of the house disappeared, and Bourrienne 
was banished to Hamburg. lie was afterward 
appointed to watch in that city over the strict 
execution of Napoleon's continental system. 
Accusations of peculation arising against him 
from the Hamburg senate, from which he had 
obtained 2,000,000 francs, and from the empe- 
ror Alexander, whose relative the duke of 
Mecklenburg he had also mulcted, Napoleon 
sent a commission to inquire into his conduct, 
and ordered him to refund 1,000,000 francs to 
the imperial treasury. Thus, a disgraced and 
ruined man, he lived at Paris until Napoleon's 
downfall in 1814, when this amount was re- 
stored to him by the French provisional gov- 
ernment, and he was appointed postmaster 
general, but removed by Louis XVIII., who, 
however, at the first rumor of Napoleon's re- 
turn from Elba, made him prefect of the Paris 
police, a post he held for eight days. As Na- 
poleon, in his decree dated Lyons, March 13, 
had exempted him from the general amnesty, 
he followed Louis XVIII. to Ghent, was thence 
despatched to Hamburg, and created on his re- 
turn to Paris state councillor, and subsequently 
minister of state. His pecuniary embarrass- 
ments forced him in 1828 to seek a refuge in 
Belgium, on an estate of the duchess of Bran- 
cas at Fontaine 1'Eveque, not far from Charle- 
roy. Here, with the assistance of M. de Ville- 
marest and others, he prepared Memoirex sur 
Napoleon, le directoire, le comulat, Pempire et 
la restauration (10 vols. 8vo, 1829-'31 ; English 
translation, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1831). This 
work, which throws much light upon Napo- 
leon's career, led to a counter-publication en- 
titled Bourrienne et se erreurs volontaires et 
involontaires (2 vols., Paris, 1830). The loss 
of his fortune, said to have been caused by the 
revolution of 1830, drove him mad, and the 
last two years of his life were spent in an asy- 
lum, where he died from apoplexy. 

BOIRRIT, Mare Theodore, a Swiss artist and 
author, born in Geneva about 1739, died near 
that city about 1815. He early evinced artistic 
talent, and reproduced the beauties of Alpine 
scenery in remarkable descriptions and illustra- 
tions, while gaining a livelihood as a chorister. 
Victor Amadeus of Sardinia and Louis XVI. 
became his patrons, and the latter gave him a 
pension. At the instance of Buft'on, who had 
presented him to the French monarch, he took 
up his residence in Paris. After repeated un- 
successful attempts to ascend Mont Blanc with 
De Saussure, he succeeded in reaching the sum- 
mit in 1787. He was remarkable for generosity 
and courage, once at great risk saving Prince 



BOUKSAULT 



BOUTEVILLE 



161 



Galitzin, then unknown to him, from drowning. 
His principal works are : Description des Alpes 
pennines et rhetiennes (2 vols., Geneva, 1781); 
new edition, comprising also Nbuvelle descrip- 
tion des glacieres et glaciers de la Savoie, par- 
ticulierement de la vallee de Ghamouny et du 
Mont Blanc (3 vols., 1787) ; and Description des 
cols et passages des Alpes (2 vols., 1803). 

BOURSAULT, Edme, a French author, born at 
Mussy-l'five'que, Burgundy, in October, 1638, 
died at Hontlucon, Sept. 15, 1701. He went 
to Paris in 1651, became after a few years a 
popular writer, and was appointed teacher of 
the dauphin in reward for his publication De 
la veritable etude des sounerains (Paris, 1671) ; 
but he declined this office, as well as member- 
ship of the academy, on account of his igno- 
rance of Latin. By his attacks upon high 
personages at court he lost a pension of 2,000 
francs that had been given him by Louis XIV., 
and narrowly escaped the Bastile. He assailed 
Moliere, who revenged himself by impaling him 
in his comedy ISimpromptu de Versailles ; at- 
tacked Boileau in La satire des satires, hut 
subsequently was of service to him ; and dis- 
paraged Racine's Britannicus in a preface to 
his novel ofArtemise et Polianthe. His Lettres 
de respect, ^obligation et d 'amour (Lettres d 
Babet) derive a romantic interest from the 
story of Babet, who died in a convent to 
which she had been consigned by her parents 
on account of her devotion -to Boursault. His 
fame rests chiefly on his comedies, JUsope d la 
mile, JSsope d la cour, and Le Mercure galant, 
the last of which is still occasionally performed. 

BOUSSINGiULT, Jean Baptlste Joseph Mendonne, 
a French chemist, born in Paris, Feb. 2, 1802. 
He was educated in the mining academy at 
Saint-Etienne, and afterward employed by an 
English company to direct the working of 
some mines in South America. During the 
revolution and the war of independence he 
joined Bolivar, and obtained the rank of colo- 
nel. He explored Venezuela, and all the re- 
gions between Cartagena and the mouths of 
the Orinoco, as well as Peru and Ecuador, 
making numerous observations in meteorology 
and collections in botany and mineralogy. 
He was the friend and correspondent of Alex- 
ander von Humboldt. On his return to 
France, he was appointed professor of chemis- 
try and dean of the faculty of sciences at Ly- 
ons ; and in 1839 he became a member of the 
institute and taught in the chair of Dumas at 
the Sorbonne. Among his best works is J2co- 
nomie rurale (2 vols., Paris, 1844; English 
translation by Law, London, 1845 ; new 
French ed., Agronomie, chimie agricole . et 
physiologic, 3 vols., 1861-'4). The apprecia- 
tion of manures according to the proportions 
of nitrogen which they contain is chiefly due 
to the researches of Boussingault ; and in coop- 
eration with Dumas he measured the exact 
proportions of the constituent elements of at- 
mospheric air. He has made valuable obser- 
vations on the peculiar properties and uses of 



different kinds of vegetables in the feeding and 
the fattening of cattle, and discovered a very 
simple method of preparing oxygen by means 
of baryta. He is one of the chief writers for 
the Annales de physique et de chimie, and for 
the annals of the academy. He was elected 
to the constituent assembly in 1848. 

BOtTERWEK, Friedrieh, a German metaphy- 
sician and writer on aesthetics, born at Oker, 
near Goslar, April 15, 1766, died at Gottingen, 
Aug. 9, 1828. He began the study of law at 
the university of Gottingen, but soon neglected 
it to devote himself to literary pursuits, and 
wrote a number of poems and a romance, 
Graf Donamar (republished at Gottingen in 
1800). In 1787 he went to Hanover and after- 
ward to Berlin ; but, discouraged at the cold 
reception of his works, he returned in 1789, 
and applied himself to philosophy and literary 
history. He became a supporter of Kant, and 
delivered a course of lectures on his doctrines. 
In 1797 he was appointed adjunct professor of 
philosophy at Gottingen, and in 1802 full pro- 
fessor. From a disciple of Kant he became an 
ardent follower of Jacobi, his Lehrbuch der 
philosophischen Wissenschaften (2 vols., Got- 
tingen, 1813 ; 2d ed., 1820) and his Religion 
der Vernunft (Gottingen, 1824) supporting 
opinions exactly opposed to those of his Ideen 
zu einer allgemeinen Apodiktik (1799). His 
principal and most famous work was his Ge- 
schichte der neuern Poesie und BeredsamTceit 
(12 vols., Gottingen, 1801-'19). The section 
of this work relating to Spanish literature has 
acquired an especially wide reputation ; it has 
been translated into Spanish, and into English 
(2 vols., London, 1823). He also published 
Aesthetik (1806 ; with large additions, Leipsic, 
1824) and Kleine Schriften (1818). 

BOUTEVILLE, Francois de Moiitinomio, sei- 
gneur de, sovereign count of Suxe, a French 
duellist, born in 1600, beheaded in Paris, June 
27, 1627. In his youth he served against the 
Huguenots, and acquired notoriety as the 
most intrepid and skilful duellist of his day. 
For one of his duels, fought on Easter day, 
1624, he, his adversary, and their seconds were 
condemned by the parliament of Paris to be 
hanged ; but they escaped, and the scaffold was 
destroyed by their friends. In 1626 he killed 
a marquis de Thorigny, then wounded one of 
his intimate friends who reproached him he- 
cause he had not chosen him as his second. 
For these two affairs he was obliged to fly to 
Brussels. The governing archduchess received 
him kindly, and interceded for his pardon with 
Louis XIII. The king refusing, Bouteville ex- 
claimed, " As the king refuses to pardon me, I 
shall fight next in Paris." This he did, fight- 
ing a duel with the marquis de Beuvron, a rela- 
tion and avenger of Thorigny. For this both 
were executed, in spite of the intercession 
of many powerful friends. Bouteville left a 
widow, who six months after his death gave 
birth to a son, who became celebrated as the 
marshal de Luxembourg. 



162 



BOUTWELL 



BOVES 



BOUTWKLL, George Sewall, an American states- 
man, born in Brookline, Mass, Jan. 28, 1818. 
He is the son of a farmer, and received a com- 
mon school education, which he supplemented 
by a course of reading and self-instruction, con- 
tinued far into manhood. In 1835 he became 
a merchant's clerk in Groton, Mass., and sub- 
sequently was made a partner in the business. 
At 18 years of age he began the study of law, 
which he pursued chiefly by night, and of 
which he acquired a considerable knowledge, 
although he never became a practitioner. In 
1840 he entered political life as an advocate 
of the election of Van Buren to the presidency, 
and between 1842 and 1851 he was seven 
times elected as a democratic member from 
Groton of the Massachusetts house of repre- 
sentatives, where he developed ability as a 
debater, and was recognized as a leader of his 
party. In 1844, 1846, and 1848 he was the 
democratic candidate of his district for mem- 
ber of congress, but failed in each instance of 
an election ; and in 1849 and 1850 he was 
nominated by the same party for governor of 
the commonwealth. In 1849-'50 he was state 
bank commissioner. In 1851, by a coalition 
of democrats and freesoilers, he was elected 
governor, and in the succeeding year was again 
returned for the same office. After the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise in 1854 he left the 
democrafic party, and the next year helped or- 
ganize the republican party, with which he has 
since acted. He was a delegate in 1860 to the 
republican convention at Chicago, which nom- 
inated Lincoln for the presidency, and a mem- 
ber of the peace conference which assembled 
in Washington in February, 1861. In 1862, at 
the invitation of President Lincoln, he organ- 
ized the new department of internal revenue, 
and was its first commissioner till March 4, 1863, 
when he became a member of congress, and 
was twice reflected to that office. In 1868 he 
was one of the managers in the impeachment 
trial of President Johnson. He was secretary 
of the treasury from March, 1869, to March, 
1873, when he was elected United States 
senator from Massachusetts. He has opposed 
any considerable diminution of national tax- 
ation, and advocated a large annual reduc- 
tion of the public debt. In 1870 congress at 
his recommendation passed an act providing 
for the funding of the national debt, by the 
terms of which the secretary of the treasury 
was authorized to sell certain bonds under cer- 
tain plainly expressed conditions, but not to in- 
crease the debt. He attempted to effect this 
object through the instrumentality of a " syn- 
dicate," but in funding the new loan expended 
more than one half of one per cent., which was 
alleged to be in defiance of the law. The com- 
mittee of ways and means of the house of rep- 
resentatives subsequently absolved Mr. Bout- 
well from this charge. He has been an over- 
seer of Harvard college, was for five years secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts state board of edu- 
cation, in which capacity he prepared elaborate 



annual reports, and was a leading member of 
the Massachusetts constitutional convention of 
1853. He is the author of " Educational Top- 
ics and Institutions," a "Manual of the United 
States Direct and Revenue Tax " (1863), and a 
volume of "Speeches and Papers" (1869). 

BOUVART, Alexis, a Swiss astronomer, born 
near Mont Blanc, June 27, 1767, died June 7, 
1843. He went to Paris in 1785, attended the 
free lectures at the college de France, was at- 
tached to the observatory, in 1804 became a 
member of the bureau of longitudes, and was 
elected to the academy of sciences through the 
influence of Laplace, whom he assisted in the 
Mecanique celeste. In 1808 he published new 
tables of Jupiter and Saturn, to which in 1821 
he added those of Uranus, whose perturbations 
he was the first to point out and explain. Le- 
verrier's discovery of Neptune in 1846 con- 
firmed Bouvart's hypothesis. 

BOIVET, Joachim, a French Jesuit missionary, 
born at Le Mans about 1662, died in Peking, 
June 28, 1732. Sent by Louis XIV. to China, 
ho was employed by the Chinese emperor in 
directing various public buildings, and allowed 
to build a church within the imperial city. On 
his return to France in 1697, he presented to 
Louis XIV. 49 Chinese works, and in 1699 de- 
parted again for China with 10 other mission- 
aries. He labored for nearly 50 years to pro- 
mote the progress of the sciences in that em- 
pire, gave an account of the state of China in 
several treatises and letters, and composed a 
Chinese dictionary, which has never been 
printed. 

BOUVIER, John, an American jurist, born at 
Codognan, France, in 1787, died in Phila- 
delphia, Nov. 18, 1851. He was of a Quaker 
family, which emigrated to this country and 
settled in Philadelphia when he was in his 15th 
year. He obtained employment for several 
years in a bookstore, published a newspaper 
for a short time at Brownsville, was admitted 
to the bar in 1818, and in 1822 began to prac- 
tise in Philadelphia. In 1838 he became asso- 
ciate judge of the court of criminal sessions. 
He published in 1839 a "Law Dictionary, 
adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the 
United States of America, and of the several 
States of the American Union," the fruit of 10 
years' labor (2 vols. 8vo). In 1841 he com- 
menced a new edition of Bacon's " Abridgment 
of the Law," in 10 vols. royal 8vo. His great- 
est work, published two months before his 
death, was the " Institutes of American Law " 
(4 vols. 8vo). His daughter and only child, 
HANNAH M. BOUVIEK, born in 1811, is the au- 
thor of a popular work entitled "Familiar As- 
i tronomy," illustrated by celestial maps and 
engravings, with a "Treatise on the Globes," 
&c. (8vo, Philadelphia, 1857). 

BOVES, Jose Tomas, a Spanish American mili- 
tary adventurer, born in Spain, killed at Urica, 
Venezuela, Dec. 5, 1814. While employed as 
a naval officer on the northern coast of South 
America he was tried and imprisoned for brib- 



BOVINES 



BOWDITOH 



163 



ery and prevarication. After his release he 
acted with the revolutionists on the outbreak 
of the war of independence in Venezuela, but 
subsequently joined the royalists and served 
as captain under Oagigal, after whose defeat he 
took up an independent position at Calabozo, 
and with 500 men, many of whom were slaves, 
defeated Marifio, dictator of the eastern prov- 
inces. His band being increased by vagabonds 
and fugitives from justice, he worsted the in- 
dependents twice, slaughtered all his prisoners, 
and gained for his force the name of the infer- 
nal division. He was defeated by Rivas, when 
many of his men were captured and put to 
death ; but in 1814 he beat Bolivar and Marifio 
at La Puerta, and captured Valencia after a 
blockade, a^id, in violation of a solemn pledge, 
ordered the republican officers and many of the 
soldiers to be shot. Boves, cooperating with 
Morales, was again victorious at Anguita, ob- 
liged Bolivar to retreat to Cartagena, and en- 
tered Caracas. He fell in the battle of Urica, 
and was buried while his victorious troops were 
massacring their captives. 

BOVINES, or Bonvlnes, a village of French 
Flanders, on the Marcq, 7 m. S. E. of Lille, 
celebrated for the victory gained by Philip Au- 

fustus of France over Otho IV. of Germany, 
uly 27, 1214. In 1340 Philip of Valois de- 
feated here 10,000 English troops ; and on May 

17 and 18, 1794, the French here defeated the 
Austrians. 

BOVBfO (anc. Bovinum or Vibinum), a forti- 
fied town of Italy, in the province of Capitanata, 

18 m. S. S. W. of Foggia ; pop. about 6,000. It 
is memorable for a defeat of the imperialists by 
the Spaniards in 1734. 

BOW. See ABOHEBT. 

BOWDICH, Thomas Edward, an English travel- 
ler, born in Bristol in 1790, died in Africa, Jan. 
10, 1824. He went to Cape Coast Castle, where 
his uncle was governor, in 1816, as writer in 
the service of the English African company; 
and in 1817 he was second in command of a 
mission to Ashantee. Becoming chief of this 
mission, he concluded an advantageous treaty 
with the Ashantee ruler. He afterward went 
to Paris and studied under Cuvier and other 
eminent men, with a view of preparing him- 
self for a second African expedition ; but he 
succumbed to the climate soon after reaching 
the mouth of the Gambia. He published 
works on African travel and geography, the 
most important of which is " Mission from Cape 
Coast Castle to Ashantee" (London, 1819). 

BOWDITCH, Nathaniel, an American mathe- 
matician, born in Salem, Mass., March 26, 1773, 
died in Boston, March 16, 1838. The son of a 
cooper, he was sent to school till 10 years of 
age, and was then taken into his father's shop. 
He was soon transferred to a ship chandlery, 
and remained in this business till he made his 
first voyage in 1795. His education and all his 
labors in mathematics were accomplished by 
improving his leisure while pursuing other avo- 
cations. An English sailor taught him the ele- 



ments of navigation. He began the study 
of Latin alone, that he might read the Prin- 
cipia of Newton ; and later in life he taught 
himself Spanish, Italian, and German. Be- 
tween 1795 and 1803 he made five long voy- 
ages, successively as clerk, supercargo, and 
master, to the East Indies, Portugal, and the 
Mediterranean. On his return from his last 
voyage he arrived off Salem by night in a vio- 
lent snow storm, and with no other guide than 
his reckoning, confirmed by a single glimpse of 
the light on Baker's island, found his way safe- 
ly into the harbor. In 1802 he published his 
" New American Practical Navigator," which 
passed through many editions, and was esteem- 
ed the best work of the sort ever published 
(English ed. by Kirby, London, 1802). On the 
close of his seafaring life, he was elected pres- 
ident of the Essex fire and marine insurance 
company, which situation he held till 1823. His 
attachment to his native place made him de- 
cline the chair of mathematics in Harvard uni- 
versity in 1808, in the university of Virginia in 
1818, and at West Point in 1820. Among his 
productions were a chart of remarkable beau- 
ty and exactness of the harbors of Salem, Mar- 
blehead, Beverly, and Manchester ; many con- 
tributions, chiefly on astronomical subjects, to 
the " Transactions " of the American academy 
of arts and sciences ; the article on modern 
astronomy in vol. xx. of the " North American 
Review ;" and many articles in the American 
edition of "Rees's Cyclopaedia." He complet- 
ed between 1814 and 1817 the great undertak- 
ing on which his fame chiefly rests, a transla- 
tion of the Mecanique celeste of Laplace (4 vols., 
1829-'38) ; the 5th volume, which Laplace had 
added to his work many years after the other, 
was subsequently issued under the editorial care 
of Prof. B. Peirce, accompanied by an elabo- 
rate commentary. It was estimated that there 
were at that time but two or perhaps three 
persons in America, and not more than 12 in 
Great Britain, who were able to read the origi- 
nal work critically. The French astronomer, 
thoroughly master of the mighty subject, very 
often omitted intermediate steps in his demon- 
strations, and grasped the conclusion without 
showing the process. It was the design of Dr. 
Bowditch to supply these deficiencies. Anoth- 
er object was to record subsequent discoveries, 
to continue the original work to the latest date, 
and to subjoin parallel passages from geometers 
who had treated of the same subjects. A third 
object was to show the sources from which La- 
place had derived assistance. The elucidations 
and commentaries form more than half the work 
as produced by Dr. Bowditch. In 1823 he be- 
came actuary of the Massachusetts hospital life 
insurance company in Boston. During the lat- 
ter years of his life he was a trustee of the 
Boston Athenceum, president of the American 
academy of arts and sciences, and a member 
of the corporation of Harvard college. See 
" Memoir of Nathaniel Bowditch," by his son, 
N. I. Bowditch (Boston, 1839). 



164 



BOWDOIN 



BOWDOIN COLLEGE 



BOWDOIN. I. James, governor of Massachu- 
setts, born in Boston, Aug. 8, 1727, died Nov. 6, 
1790. He was a descendant of Pierre Baudonin, 
a French Huguenot who fled to America on the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes. He graduated 
at Harvard college in 1745, became in 1753 rep- 
resentative in the general court, and was sub- 
sequently senator and councillor. During the 
troubles which preceded the revolution, he was 
forward in opposition to the royal governor. 
In 1775 he was president of the council of gov- 
ernment; when the convention assembled in 
1778, for the formation of a constitution, lie 
was chosen president ; and in 1785 he succeed- 
ed Hancock as governor. It was during his 
administration that the disturbances in the west- 
ern counties of Massachusetts, known as Shays's 
rebellion, occurred. He called out 4,000 mili- 
tia, and the speedy suppression of the insurrec- 
tion was due to his vigorous course ; yet he lost 
his election the next year. He was afterward 
a member of the convention for the adoption 
of the federal constitution. He was a friend 
and correspondent of Franklin, and one of the 
founders and first president of the academy of 
arts and sciences, to which he bequeathed his 
library. He left a legacy to Harvard college, 
and aided in the establishment of the Massa- 
chusetts humane society. II. James, son of the 
preceding, born Sept. 22, 1752, died on Nau- 
shon island, Mass., Oct. 11, 1811. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1771, afterward 
spent one year at Oxford, and commenced his 
travels on the continent, but returned to the 
United States after the battle of Lexington. 
He was minister to Spain from 1805 to 1808, 
and acquired hi Paris an extensive library, phi- 
losophical apparatus, and collection of paint- 
ings, all of which he left at his death to Bow- 
doin college, together with 6,000 acres of land, 
and the reversion of the island of Naushon, 
one of the Elizabeth islands in Buzzard's bay, 
which had been his favorite residence. 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE, the oldest and most prom- 
inent literary institution in the state of Maine, 
situated at Brunswick, on an elevated plain S. 
of the village, about 1 m. from the Androscog- 
gin river, and 4 m. from the shore of the At- 
lantic ocean. It was named in honor of Gov. 
James Bowdoin of Massachusetts. Prior to 
the revolution it had been proposed to establish 
a college in Maine, then a district of Massachu- 
setts; but it was not till 1788 that a petition for 
a charter was presented to the Massachusetts 
legislature, from the association of ministers 
and the court of sessions for Cumberland coun- 
ty. The charter was granted in 1794, together 
with five townships as a foundation for the col- 
lege, whose object, as stated in the act of in- 
corporation, should be to " promote virtue and 
piety, and the knowledge of the languages and 
of the useful and liberal arts and sciences." 
The government was vested in two boards, 
one of trustees and the other of overseers, 
which metin 1801, and elected Joseph McKeen, 
D. D., a graduate of Dartmouth, for president 



of the college, and John Abbott, a graduate of 
Harvard, for professor of languages. These 
officers were installed in 1802, when eight stu- 
dents were admitted, and in 1806 the first hon- 
ors bestowed by the new institution were con- 
ferred upon eight graduates. A single building 
at this time served all the college uses, and also 
as the residence of the family of the president. 
President McKeen, dying in 1807, was succeed- 
ed by Jesse Appleton, D. D., who during the 
12 years of his presidency contributed largely 
to the prosperity of the college. James Bow- 
doin, son of the governor, had before made a 
donation to the college of 1,000 acres of land 
and more than 1,100 ; and at his death in 
1811 he left to it another donation of land, 
400 models in crystallography, more than 500 
specimens of minerals which had been arranged 
by Hauy, an elegant private library, and a cost- 
ly collection of paintings. This gallery, since 
then much increased, is one of rare excellence, 
and the crystals and minerals were the nucleus 
of the large and valuable minernlogical and 
conchological cabinets which have been col- 
lected and arranged by Prof. Cleaveland. Upon 
the death of President Appleton in 1819, the 
Rev. William Allen, who had formerly been 
president of Dartmouth university, was elected 
his successor, and retained the office till 1839, 
with the exception of a short interval in 1831, 
when, being indirectly removed by an act of 
the legislature of Maine, which had now be- 
come a separate state, he contended against the 
authority of the state thus to control the col- 
lege, and the question was decided in his favor 
by adjudication in the circuit court of the Uni- 
ted States. President Allen was succeeded by 
Leonard Woods, D. D., who held the position 
till 1866. In 1867 the Eev. Samuel Harris, S. 
T. D., became president, and was succeeded in 
1871 by Joshua L. Chamberlain, LL. D. There 
are now eight college buildings, all large brick 
structures, excepting the chapel, which is of 
light granite, in the Romanesque style, and 
" Memorial Hall," of the same material. It was 
begun in 1846 and completed in 1855, and has 
rooms also for the library and picture gallery. 
The government of the college is vested in a 
board of 13 trustees and 40 overseers. Among 
the trustees are the president and vice presi- 
dent of the college. There is a visiting com- 
mittee and an examining committee, each com- 
posed of two trustees and three overseers, and 
a finance committee of two trustees and two 
overseers. Besides the president, there are, 
including those in the medical school, 17 pro- 
fessors, 8 instructors, and 6 lecturers. During 
the year 1871-'2 the college had 163 under- 
graduates, 4 post-graduates, and 67 medical stu- 
dents; total, 234. The college year, divided 
into three terms, begins about the middle of 
September and ends on the second Wednesday 
of July, when the commencement exercises are 
held ; there is a vacation of six weeks, begin- 
ning the last week in November, between the 
first and second terms, and one 'of a week in 



BOWEN 



BOWER BIKD 



165 






April, between the second and third terms. 
The regular course of study comprises four 
years all studies being required, except that 
for the third term of the junior year Italian 
and Greek are optional, and for the second term 
of the senior year Spanish is optional. Exami- 
nations are held at the end of each term. Be- 
sides the regular classical course, there is a sci- 
entific course for undergraduates. The degree 
of Sc. B. is conferred in this department. There 
is also a post-graduate course of two years in 
philosophy and the arts, in which are conferred 
the degrees of A. M., Sc. D., and Ph. D. Grad- 
uates who have completed any post-graduate 
course with honor may he appointed fellows, 
to reside at college, with all the privileges of 
the same, one or two years longer without 
charge. Instruction is given in military sci- 
ence, and daily exercises in drill are held, by an 
officer of the army detailed to perform these 
duties. The annual college expenses for each 
student are $60 for tuition and $10 for room 
rent. Ten scholarships, each yielding from $50 
to $60 per annum, have been founded by indi- 
vidual benefactors, and there are several college 
scholarships. Assistance is furthermore afford- 
ed to students from a fund of $6,000 given by 
Mrs. Amos Lawrence of Massachusetts, and 
one of $2,000 given by Daniel W. Lord of Ken- 
nebunkport. The college has received no aid 
through legislative appropriation. The medi- 
cal school of Maine was united with this col- 
lege in 1821, and has now a complete anatomical 
cabinet and chemical apparatus, and a library 
of 4,000 volumes. The annual course of lec- 
tures, extending over a term of 16 weeks, be- 
gins early in January. The number of pro- 
fessors and instructors in the medical school in 
1872 was 13; students, 67. The library of the 
college, together with those belonging to the 
societies of the students (exclusive of the med- 
ical library), contains 30,138 volumes. Ac- 
cording to the triennial catalogue of 1870, the 
whole number of aluinni was 1,677, of whom 
1,150 survived; whole number of ministers, 
316, living 227 ; whole number of doctors, 993, 
living 834. Parker Cleaveland, one of the 
earliest eminent mineralogists in America, was 
connected with the college from 1805 to 1858. 
Thomas 0. Upham, D. D., held the position of 
professor of mental philosophy from 1824 to 
1867. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry W. 
Longfellow graduated here in 1825, and among 
their contemporaries as students in the college 
were Luther V. Bell, G. B. Oheever, William 
P. Fessenden, John P. Hale, Franklin Pierce, 
S. S. Prentiss, and Calvin E. Stowe. Mr. Long- 
fellow was the professor of modern languages 
from 1829 to 1835, when he was called to Har- 
vard. The prevailing religious denomination 
at Bowdoin college is the Congregationalist. 

BOWEN, Francis, an American author, born 
at Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 8, 1811. He grad- 
uated at Harvard college in 1833, and during 
four years was instructor there in intellectual 
philosophy and political economy. In 1843 he 



succeeded Dr. Palfrey as editor and proprietor 
of the " North American Review," which he 
conducted till 1854. He was rejected in 1850 
by the board of overseers of Harvard college 
as professor of history on account of his un- 
popular views on politics and on the Hunga- 
rian struggle for independence, but was almost 
unanimously confirmed in 1853 as Dr. Walker's 
successor in the Alford professorship of natural 
religion, moral philosophy, and civil polity. In 
1848-'9 he delivered lectures before the Lowell 
institute on the application of metaphysical 
and ethical science to the evidences of religion 
(published in 1849 ; revised and enlarged edi- 
tion, 1855) ; in 1850, on political economy; in 
1852, on the origin and development of the Eng- 
lish and American constitutions; and subse- 
quently on English philosophers from Bacon to 
Sir William Hamilton. He supports Locke and 
Berkeley, and opposes Kant, Fichte, Cousin, 
Comte, and John Stuart Mill. Mr. Mill, in the 
third edition of his "Logic," makes elaborate 
comments on Mr. Bowen's antagonistic views. 
Among his works are: an annotated edition 
of Virgil ; a volume of " Critical Essays on the 
History and Present Condition of Speculative 
Philosophy" (1842) ; an abridged edition of 
Dugald Stewart's " Philosophy of the Human 
Mind ; " " Documents of the Constitution of 
England and America, from Magna Charta to 
the Federal Constitution of 1789 " (1854) ; con- 
tributions to Sparks's " Library of American 
Biography ; " " Principles of Political Econo- 
my applied to the Condition, Resources, and 
Institutions of the American People" (1856), 
in which he opposes the theories of Adam 
Smith, Malthus, and Ricardo, as inapplicable 
to the United States; and a revised edition 
of Reeve's translation of De Tocqueville's 
"Democracy in America" (2 vols. 8vo, 1862). 
In 1872 he made an extended tour in Europe. 
BOWER BIKD, the name of two genera of 
conirostral birds of the starling family, peculiar 
to Australia. In the genus ptilonorhynchus 
(Kuhl) the bill is moderate, compressed, arched, 
and notched at the tip ; the nostrils lateral, 
deeply sunk, with large opening partly con- 
cealed by projecting plumes; wings long and 
pointed, the first three quills graduated, and the 
fourth and fifth equal and longest; tail short 
and even ; tarsi much longer than middle toe, 
robust and scaled ; all four toes long and strong, 
with sharp claws. Two species are described 
by Gray, found chiefly in forests bordering the 
larger rivers of Australia, and in thick brushes 
of cedar ; when perched on lofty trees they 
utter loud and harsh notes, somewhat re- 
sembling those of a domestic cat; they con- 
gregate in autumn in small flocks on the 
ground. The satin bower bird (P. holosericeus, 
Kuhl) is about the size of a jackdaw or small 
crow; in the adult male the plumage is deep 
satiny blue black, the primaries velvety black, 
and the wings and tail of the last color, edged 
with blue black ; eyes light blue, with red cir- 
cle around the pupil ; bill bluish horn-colored, 



166 



BOWER BIRD 



BOWIE 



yellowish at tip, and legs and feet yellowish 
white. The female is grayish green above, the 
wings and tail sulphur brown; yellowish be- 
low, each feather scaled with a dark brown 
border. The old males are more rarely seen 
than the females and young males, and the last 
do not get their glossy plumage till the second 
or third year. They feed on berries and fruits, 
especially wild figs and the native cherry, and 
they often attack the ripening crops of the 
settlers. The common name is derived from the 
singular habit which the females have of mak- 
ing very extraordinary bower-like structures, of 
various sizes, which are the most curious ex- 
amples of bird architecture on record, display- 
ing more ingenuity combined with taste than 
any other members of the class of birds. On the 
ground, generally under the shelter of trees in a 
retired place, they form a dome-shaped bower of 
sticks and twigs on a platform of the same ma- 
terials ; these are so interwoven that the tops of 
the twigs turn in and nearly meet at the top, the 
forks always pointing outward so as to offer no 




Satin Bower Bird (Ptllonorhynchus holoserieeus). 

obstruction to the ingress and egress of the 
birds. But the most singular habit is the man- 
ner in which the bower is ornamented ; they 
collect with great perseverance all kinds of bril- 
liant and striking objects, such as the gaudy 
feathers of parrots, shells, skulls, and bleached 
bones of small animals, bright stones, and such 
high-colored rags as they can find about the 
houses of the natives and settlers ; these they 
place at or near the entrances, introducing 
feathers between the interstices in the most 
fantastic and often in a very pleasing manner ; 
so prone are these birds to pick up any odd- 
looking thing, that the natives always search 
their bowers, sure of finding many articles which 
they have missed from their scanty possessions. 
These bowers, according to Mr. Gould ( " Birds 
of Australia," London, 1848), are not used as 
nests, but probably as assembly rooms, where 
many individuals of both sexes sport in the 
most playful manner ; they are probably also 
used as places of rendezvous during pairing 
time, and for the elegancies and amusements 



rather than the necessities of bird life. This 
species is the cowry of the natives, and is 
found chiefly, if not only, in New South Wales ; 
the male has a loud liquid call, besides the 
harsh note common to both sexes. The green 
satin bird (P. Smithii, Vig. and Horsf.) is rather 
smaller; the general color is a parrot green, 
with the ends of the wing coverts, secondaries, 
and most of the tail feathers tipped with white, 
and below with oval spots of the same. The 
food and the habitat are the same as in the last 
species, but it has not been ascertained that it 
makes a bower; it is called cat bird by the 
colonists, from the resemblance of its notes to 
the nightly concerts of the domestic cat. The 
genus chlamydera (Gould) differs in having the 
nostrils exposed, a long and slightly rounded 
tail, and the third and fourth quills equal and 
longest. They are very shy birds, frequenting 
the forests and brushes of Australia ; the food 
consists of fruits and seeds. They make still 
more remarkable bowers than the preceding 
genus, and the structures are longer and more 
avenue-like, made externally of interwoven 
twigs, and lined with tall grasses meeting above ; 
they are decorated with bivalve shells, stones, 
small skulls, and whitened bones, the stones 
being arranged as a pavement, and so as to 
keep the grasses in place. The spotted bower 
bird (C. maculata, Gould) is about 11 inches 
long, the general color above being deep brown, 
each feather tipped with buff and edged with 
black on the head; the back of the neck is 
crossed by a broad frill of rosy pink elongated 
feathers ; the lower parts grayish white ; both 
sexes have the frill, except when young. In 
some of the larger bowers made by this bird, 
which had evidently been used for years, Mr. 
Gould has seen nearly half a bushel of shells 
and pebbles at each entrance, which had been 
brought from the shore at a considerable dis- 
tance. The great bower bird (C. nuchalis, 
Gould) is about 15 inches long, and occurs 
in N. W. Australia ; it is grayish brown above, 
satiny on the head, tipped with grayish white ; 
on the nape a rosy pink frill partly encircled 
with a ruff of satiny plumes; yellowish gray 
below, tinged with brown ; it makes highly 
ornamented bowers. 

BOWIE, a N. E. county of Texas, separated 
on the north from the Indian territory and 
Arkansas by the Red 'river, bounded E. by 
Arkansas and S. and S. W. by the Sulphur fork 
of Red river ; area, 892 sq. in. ; pop. in 1870, 
4,687, of whom 2,249 were colored. The sur- 
face is undulating, and in many places covered 
with thick forests of post oak and other timber. 
The soil of the bottoms is rich red land, well 
suited to cotton ; in other localities it is sandy. 
Lignite coal and iron ore are found. There are 
several mineral springs. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 104,805 bushels of Indian corn, 
11,223 of sweet potatoes, 2,990 bales of cotton, 
and 4,757 Ibs. of honey. There were 772 
horses, 1,501 milch cows, 4,178 other cattle, 
i 578 sheep, and 7,011 swine. Capital, Boston. 



BOWLDERS 



BOWLES 



167 



BOWLDERS, or Boulders, loose rounded blocks 
of stone, named by the French Hoes erratiques, 
found scattered over the surface in high north- 
ern and southern latitudes, extending to with- 
in 35 or thereabouts of the equator. In the 
northern hemisphere they are always of the 
varieties of rock which are found in solid ledges 
in a northerly direction ; and in the southern 
hemisphere the ledges are again met with to- 
ward the pole. These loose rocks appear in 
each case to have been transported toward 
the equator, either by glaciers or by ice- 
bergs, and to have been subjected to rolling ac- 
tion, which has rounded off their corners and 
ground their surfaces. (See DILUVIUM.) The 
size of these transported blocks is often enor- 
mous. At Fall River, Mass., on the S. side 
of the bay at the mouth of Taunton river, a 
bowlder of conglomerate rock was uncovered 
in the gravel resting on granite ledges which 
was estimated to weigh 5,400 tons. The ledges 
of this conglomerate are met with only on the 
other side of the bay. Along the coast of New 
England the bowlders constitute by their great 
numbers and size a marked feature in the land- 
scape. They are sometimes found perched upon 
bare ledges of rock, and so nicely balanced that, 
though of great weight, they may bo rocked by 
the hand. These are called rocking stones. 
"Plymouth Rock" is a bowlder of sienitic 
granite, ledges of which are found in the towns 
near Boston. The highest mountains are often 
covered with these bowlders of the drift for- 
mation. Upon the bare granite summit of Mt. 
Katahdin the highest mountain in Maine at 
an elevation of 3,000 feet or more above the 
surrounding valleys, pieces of limestone con- 
taining fossil shells are found, though no ledges 
resembling them are known except many miles 
to the northwest, and at a much lower level. 
The northern and central parts of Europe are 
equally interesting for the distribution of 
bowlders. The pedestal of the statue of Peter 
the Great at St. Petersburg was hewn out of 
a granite bowlder, weighing about 1,500 tons, 
that lay on a marshy plain near the city. Upon 
the limestone ledges of the Jura mountains are 
found bowlders of granite which must have 
come from the higher Alps, where ledges of 
similar character are found. Some of these 
bowlders are of very large dimensions, one in 
particular, known as the pierre d Martin, ac- 
cording to Mr. Greenough, measuring no less 
than 10,296 cubic feet, and weighing conse- 
quently about 820 tons. 

BOWLES, Caroline. See SOUTHKT. 

BOWLES, Samuel, an American journalist, 
born in Springfield, Mass., Feb. 9, 1826. His 
father was proprietor of the " Weekly Repub- 
lican " newspaper at Springfield, and the son 
became at an early age an apprentice in the 
office. In 18-4 ho induced his father to estab- 
lish a daily newspaper, of which he became, 
though only 18 years of age, virtual editor. 
He has held this post ever since, and under 
his charge the " Springfield Republican " has 



risen to prominence. Mr. Bowles has made 
several journeys in the region lying between 
the Mississippi and the Pacific, the first in 1865 
with a large company, among whom was Mr. 
Schuyler Colfax. The observations made on 
this journey, originally written in the form of 
letters to his journal, appeared in a collec- 
tive form under the title " Across the Conti- 
nent" (1865). In 1869 he published two 
works, " Our New West " and " The Switzer- 
land of America," the latter describing the 
natural parks and the mountains of Colorado. 

BOWLES, William Augustus, an American ad- 
venturer, born in Frederick co., Md., in 1763, 
died in Havana, Dec. 23, 1805. His father 
was an English schoolmaster who had estab- 
lished himself in Maryland. When 13 years 
of age young Bowles ran away from home and 
joined the British army at Philadelphia. He 
obtained a commission, and was for some time 
stationed at Pensacola ; but for a breach of reg- 
ulations he was dismissed the service. Soon 
afterward he became connected with the Creek 
Indians, and married a woman of the tribe, in 
which he became an acknowledged leader. He 
encouraged their excesses and prompted them 
to many attacks on the Spaniards, in which he 
was sustained by the approval and even re- 
wards of the British government. He com- 
manded the Creeks when they assisted the 
British at Pensacola in May, 1781, and for his 
conduct on that occasion was restored to his 
place in the army. After the war he led a 
roving life at one time an actor and again a 
portrait painter until he was appointed by 
Gov. Dunmore leading agent for his old In- 
dian allies, when he established himself at 
Chattahoochie. McGillivray, who had led the 
Creeks during the revolution, drove him from 
his agency, and he went to England fora time; 
but on his return he was again made com- 
mander-in-chief of the tribe, and used his in- 
fluence with such effect against the Spaniards 
that they offered $6,000 for his capture. After 
disturbing the peace of Georgia for several 
years, he was taken in 1792 by the Spaniards, 
and sent to Madrid and afterward to Manila. 
He escaped, and for a time returned to his old 
allies ; but he was finally recaptured in 1804, 
carried to Havana, and confined in the Morro 
castle till his death. 

BOWLES, William Lisle, an English poet and 
clergyman, born at King's Sutton, Sept. 24, 
1762, died in Salisbury, April 7, 1850. After 
attending Westminster school he entered Trin- 
ity college, Oxford, where he graduated in 
1787. Disappointed in the expectation of 
a living, and much depressed by the death 
of a lady to whom he was engaged to bo 
married, he made, soon after leaving the uni- 
versity, an extended journey in Great Britain, 
during which he composed the " Fourteen 
Sonnets" forming his first published work, 
which were much admired. They were fol- 
lowed by several less important writings, and 
in 1804 by his "Spirit of Discovery," a poem 



168 



BOWLING 



BOWLING GREEN 



in six books. In 1807 he published an edition 
of Pope's works in 10 volumes. From this 
time new works appeared in rapid succession, 
and comprised a great number of poems, of 
which the "Missionary of the Andes," pub- 
lished in 1815, acquired the greatest fame, lie 
continued a prolific writer of verse and prose 
till 1837, when he seems to have retired from 
literary life. In the mean time he had received 
important preferment in the church, having 
been made rector of several parishes, in 1818 
chaplain to the prince regent, and in 1828 
canon of Salisbury cathedral. He was a man 
of eccentric habits, very absent-minded, and 
singularly timid. Bowles's edition of Pope, 
containing an essay with some severe com- 
ments on the poet, gave rise to a discussion 
which has become historical as " the Pope and 
Bowles controversy." In it Byron was his 
principal opponent, but Campbell, Gilchrist, 
and others were warmly engaged in it. Bowles 
defended his opinions with great ability. 

BOWLING, or Bowls, an ancient athletic 
game, played with balls of different shapes 
rolled on a flat expanse of turf in the open 
air. The name is also sometimes applied to 
a modern American game more commonly call- 
ed tenpins, which but slightly resembles the 
ancient sport, from which it is nevertheless un- 
doubtedly derived. I. The ancient game of 
bowls, still a favorite pastime in Great Britain, 
requires, in order that it may be played with 
skill, the most careful preparation of the 
ground, called a bowling green, on which the 
turf must be closely shaved, watered, and rolled. 
It must be surrounded by a shallow trench. 
The balls (called bowls) which are used by 
the players are of hard wood, generally lignum 
vita, six or eight inches in diameter, but are 
not exactly spherical, having a bias to one side. 
A small white spherical ball, called the jack, 
is placed at one end of the green, and the play- 
ers endeavor so to roll their bowls that they 
shall fall as near as possible to this conspicuous 
mark. The irregular shape of the bowl makes 
it very difficult for a novice to calculate its 
course, and renders necessary a peculiar motion 
in rolling it. The players are generally ar- 
ranged in sides, every man of each side having 
two bowls. The side which places its bowls 
nearest the jack counts one point in the game 
for each bowl so placed. The number making 
game is settled by the players before beginning. 
With unimportant variations, this method of 
playing bowls has been in use in Great Britain 
for centuries. The game has been the subject 
of several legislative enactments, having been 
prohibited altogether during the reign of Henry 
VIII., by a law repealed in 1845. Bowls was 
formerly a favorite game with the Dutch. The 
early inhabitants of New York city (in their 
time New Amsterdam) made it a common rec- 
reation, and the ground they used for play, at 
the lower end of Broadway, near the Bat- 
. tery, is now a small ornamental park, which 
still bears the name of the Bowling Green. 



II. The modern game of tenpins or bowling 
is practised in saloons, on alleys of carefully 
fitted carpenter's work, from 50 to 65 ft. in 
length, and about 4 in width. The alley has a 
gutter, as it is termed, on each side, and is 
very slightly convex in the centre, regularly 
bevelled to the sides. At the further extremity 
are set up 10 pins, usually of ash wood, about 
a foot in height and 2 or 2| Ibs. in weight, ar- 
ranged in the form of a pyramid, with the 
apex toward the bowler. The apex consists 
of a single pin, the 2d rank of 2, the 3d of 3, 
and the 4th of 4, the last occupying the whole 
width of the alley, and the first standing on 
the crown of it. All the pins are equidistant 
from each other. At these the bowler rolls 
wooden balls, perfectly spherical and usually 
of lignum vitse, from 4, 5, or 6 Ibs., down to 
half a pound in weight, with the object of 
knocking down as many of the pins as pos- 
sible at each roll. The pins, when set up, are 
called a frame; and at each frame the bowlei- 
rolls three balls, when the number of pins 
down is counted to him, and the frame is set 
up again for the next bowler. A game ordina- 
rily consists of 10 frames, or 30 balls. If the 
bowler takes all the pins with his first ball, he 
counts 10; this is called a "ten-strike;" the 
frame is again set up for his second ball, when, 
if he again takes all, he counts 10 more, and the 
frame is again set up for his third, when what- 
ever number he scores with the three balls counts 
to him as if all had been made off one frame. 
If he takes all the 10 with his first two balls, 
he is entitled to a fresh frame for his third or 
last ball ; this is called a spare. It is now 
everywhere customary to employ a somewhat 
complicated method of counting gains th us made. 
By this arrangement, when a player gets a ten- 
strike or spare, he does not immediately have 
the frame set up for him especially, and pro- 
ceed to roll the remaining one or two of his 
three balls while the other players wait for 
him ; but in order to save time and the labor 
of unnecessary resetting, he waits till his next 
regular turn comes, and then counts the first 
ball or first two balls of it doubly i. e., both as 
additions to his former ten-strike or spare, and 
as new counts for himself. 

BOWLING GREEN, a town and the capital of 
Warren co., Ky., on Barren river, 120 m. S. W. 
of Frankfort; pop. in 1870, 4,574, of whom 
1,670 were colored. The river is navigable to 
this point by steamboats of 200 tons, and regu- 
lar lines run to Louisville. The Louisville and 
Nashville railroad passes through the town. 
Its trade, chiefly in pork and tobacco, is con- 
siderable, and there are a number of mills, and 
some manufactories of iron, woollens, &c. There 
are several churches and schools, and a weekly 
newspaper. At the beginning of the civil war 
it was regarded as a point of great strategic 
importance, and was occupied by Gen. Buck- 
ner in September, 1861, with a force of 10,000. 
confederates, which was subsequently largely 
increased, for the purpose of defending the ap- 



BOWMAN 



BOX 



169 



proach to Nashville. After the capture of 
Fort Henry by the federal troops (Feb. 6, 1862), 
the confederates found themselves outflanked, 
and were obliged to evacuate the town. 

BOWMAN, Thomas, D. D., an American clergy- 
man, born near Berwick, Columbia co., Penn., 
July 15, 1817. He was educated at Wilbraham 
academy, Mass., at Cazenovia seminary, N. Y., 
and at Dickinson college, Carlisle, Penn., where 
he graduated in 1837. After studying law at 
Carlisle for one year, he entered the ministry 
in the Baltimore conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1839. From 1840 to 1843 
he taught in the grammar school of Dickinson 
college. In 1848 he was appointed to organize 
the Dickinson seminary at Williamsport, Penn. 
Over this institution he presided for ten years, 
and during this period became distinguished as 
a pulpit orator. In 1858 he was elected presi- 
dent of Indiana Asbury university at Green- 
castle. He was elected delegate to the British 
conference in 1864, and was chaplain of the 
United States senate in 1864 and 1865. He 
continued to preside over the Indiana Asbury 
university till May, 1872, when he became- a 
bishop. His residence is St. Louis, Mo. 

BOWRING, Sir John, an English statesman 
and author, born at Exeter, Oct. 17, 1792, died 
Nov. 22, 1872. He early applied himself to the 
study of modern languages, and between 1821 
and 1824 published metrical translations of the 
popular poetry of Russia, Holland, and Spain, 
and afterward of Poland, Servia, Hungary, 
Portugal, Iceland, and Bohemia. About 1822 
he made the acquaintance of Jeremy Bentham, 
became his disciple, executor, and biographer, 
and edited his works (11 vols. 8vo, 1843). In 
1825 he was made first editor of the "West- 
minster Review," and continued in this position 
for several years, writing copiously in support 
of parliamentary reform and free trade. He 
travelled in Holland in 1828, and received the 
honorary degree of LL. D. from the university 
of Groningen. In 1833 he published "Matins 
and Vespers, with Hymns," a volume of original 
poetry, chiefly devotional. He wrote with Vil- 
liers " On the Commercial Relations between 
France and Great Britain " (2 vols., 1834-'5), 
the result of official investigation, and was em- 
ployed in similar labors relating to Switzer- 
land, Italy, the Levant, and the German cus- 
toms union. As a member of parliament from 
1835 to 1837, and again from 1841 to 1849 he 
invariably advocated extreme liberal opinions, 
and was one of the counsel of the anti-corn law 
league. In January, 1849, he was appointed 
British consul at Canton, and subsequently he 
became acting plenipotentiary. He returned to 
England for a short time in 1853, and published 
two volumes in support of a decimal system of 
coinage. In 1854 he was knighted and ap- 
pointed governor of Hong Kong. Parliament 
censured his course in the bombardment of the 
Chinese forts in 1856, and he was recalled in 
1857. His " Kingdom of Siam and its People " 
(2 vols., London, 1857) embodies his observa- 



tions while on a mission in that country for the 
conclusion of a commercial treaty. "A Visit 
to the Philippine Islands in 1858-'9 " appeared 
from his pen in 1859. He was a zealous Uni- 
tarian, and in 1872 was prominent in the inter- 
national social reform convention in London. 

BOWYER, William, an English printer and 
scholar, born Dec. 19, 1699, died Nov. 18, 1777. 
He studied at Cambridge, and became printer 
to the house of commons and various learned 
societies. He published several learned works, 
the most celebrated of which was a Greek edi- 
tion of the New Testament, with critical and 
emendatory notes (2 vols., 1763; 2d ed., 1812). 
His memoirs are included in "Nichols's Liter- 
ary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century" 
(9 vols., 1812-'15^ continued as "Illustrations 
of Literary History," 18l7-'48). 

BOX (buxus), a shrubby evergreen tree, which 
affords a very valuable close-grained wood. 
The Romans cultivated the box tree as an orna- 
mental shrub in their gardens, and consecrated 




it to Ceres. The Greeks called it n-tfof , whence 
the Latin name ; and as the same Greek word 
signifies goblet or vase, it is probable that they 
named it from its use in the manufacture of 
small cups and ornaments. B. sempervirens, the 
best known species, is the most northern arbo- 
rescent plant of the natural order euphorbiacece, 
the other trees of that order being found only in 
mild or tropical climates. It is a native of most 
parts of Europe, is common from England to 
Persia, and attains in favorable localities the 
height of 15 or 20 ft., but in some rocky re- 
gions never rises above 3 ft. It has small oval 
and opposite leaves, male and female flowers 
upon the same individual, and a 3 or 4-parted 
calyx. Among the garden varieties is the 
dwarf box, much used for the edgings of 
walks. The wood is of a yellowish color, hard, 
heavy, durable, close-grained, and susceptible 
of a high polish. It has a specific gravity of 



170 



BOX ELDER 



1-328. It is prepared for industrial uses by 
steeping large blocks in water during 24 bours, 
after which it is boiled in water, and then al- 
lowed to dry slowly, immersed in sand or ashes 




Leaves and Fruit of Box. 

to exclude the air and prevent rapid desicca- 
tion. It is much used by the turner, the math- 
ematical instrument maker, and the wood en- 
graver, and for certain uses no other kind of 
wood can replace it with advantage. It is sent 
in large quantities from Spain to Paris, and 
great quantities of a very fine quality are im- 
ported from the Levant into the manufacturing 
countries of Europe. The . JBalearica, or 
Majorca box, is a handsomer plant than the 
preceding, having wide leaves, but requires a 
warmer climate or more careful culture. It 
will grow, however, in the open air, in the 
milder exposures of northern latitudes. It 
abounds on the hills of Majorca at the height 
of 1,500 ft. above the level of the sea, and is 
supposed to furnish a part of the Spanish and 
Turkey box wood. Box wood is sometimes 
used in medicine as a substitute for guaiacum, 
and the leaves have been employed as a substi- 
tute for Peruvian bark. The leaves have also 
been used instead of hops in the brewing of 
beer, but they give an acrid, unpleasant flavor 
to tbe liquor. 

BOX ELDER, a N. W. county of Utah, bound- 
ed N. by Idaho and W. by Nevada ; area, 6,000 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,855, of whom 403 
were Chinese. About half of Great Salt lake 
lies in the S. E. part of the county. Bear river 
flows through the E. part. The surface is 
broken. The Central Pacific railroad traverses 
the county. The chief productions in 1870 
were 26,972 bushels of wheat, 4,539 of Indian 
corn, 2,324 of oats, 4,240 of barley, 10,692 of 
potatoes, 1,784 tons of hay, 3,394 Ibs. of wool, 
and 3,910 gallons of sorghum molasses. There 
were 434 horses, 801 milch cows, and 2,582 
sheep. Capital, Brigham City. 

BOXING. See PUGILISM. 



BOYAR 

BOTACi. I. An inland state of the United 
States of Colombia, divided into the provinces 
of Pamplona, Casanare, Socorro, and Tunja, 
and bordering upon Venezuela and the states 
of Cundinamarca and Santander ; area, 33,- 
349 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 482,874. The capital 
is Tunja, once the court of the Zaques kings, 
the implacable enemies of the Zipas of Bo- 
gota. The face of the country is traversed 
in the west by a chain of the Andes, and 
slopes toward the east into immense llanos or 
plains, little cultivated, and covered in part 
by dense forests and marshes, and in part by 
luxuriant pastures watered by the Meta and 
other tributaries of the Orinoco. Along the 
banks of the former river are almost the only 
inhabitants to be found in this region. The 
S. part of the state is intersected by mo- 
rasses. The soil in some places is remarkably 
fertile; the lowlands yield in abundance all 
the tropical fruits and vegetables, as also cot- 
ton, cacao, sugar, tobacco, dyes, medicinal 
drugs, and an infinite variety of useful timber. 
The productions of the highlands are similar to 
those of Europe. Honey is plentiful, and the 
preserves from this state are much esteemed. 
Vapors from numerous thermal springs in the 
south are condensed in dry weather and cover 
the surrounding fields with sulphate of soda, 
which is sold in the plains for the use of cattle 
at a high price. Near Tunja there are springs 
cold by day and very hot 'by night. The 
climate on the plains is hot and unhealthy, and 
fevers are common ; in the valleys of the west 
and centre, though warm, it is very salubrious ; 
in the highlands it is much cooler, but, as in 
most alpine regions, the inhabitants suffer 
very much from goitre, due in some localities 
to the use of impure water. Coarse cotton 
and woollen cloths, blankets, and flannels are 
manufactured, as also straw hats; and there 
are dyeworks, powder mills, tanneries, and 
spinning mills, and' a considerable internal 
traffic. Cattle are extensively raised. Eme- 
ralds and some gold are found, but the mines 
are no longer worked. There are some lead 
mines in Socorro, as also fossil remains of 
colossal mammifers. The forests are infested 
by jaguars, wild cats, mapurites (species of 
badger), hideous snakes, coyas (venomous 
spiders), and green mosquitoes formidable on 
account of a worm which they deposit in the 
skin whenever they bite. II. A small town of 
the above described state, on the road from 
Tunja to Bogota, 12 m. from the former, in lat. 
5 20' N., Ion. 73 39' W. It is celebrated for 
the victory gained by the forces of New Gra- 
nada, commanded by Bolivar, over the Span- 
iards, the whole of whose surviving troops, 
with arms, ammunition, and baggage, fell into 
the hands of the victor. This battle, fought 
Aug. 7, 1819, near the bridge of Boyaca, was 
decisive of the independence of New Granada. 
A college was established here in 1821. 

BOYAR, or Boiar (from boi, battle), a Slavic 
title, first especially used by the Bulgarians, 



BOYCE 



BOYD 



171 



Serbs, and Russians, and afterward by the Mol- 
davians and Wallachians. It represented the 
highest social condition, corresponding in cer- 
tain respects to that of an English peer. In 
ancient Russia the boyurs were the next after 
the princes of the blood, and formed a kind of 
supreme political body, acting as the council 
of the grand dukes. All the higher offices, 
civil and military, including the lieutenancies 
in the provinces, were held by them. While 
Russia was divided into petty sovereignties, the 
boyars enjoyed the right of choosing for them- 
selves and for their dependants the prince 
whom they wished to serve, and of leaving his 
service at pleasure. When the grand dukes of 
Vladimir and of Moscow stripped these petty 
princes of their sovereign rights, the dignity of 
boyars was granted to them, and their influence 
often equalled that of the grand dukes, the 
nkases always containing the words, " approv- 
ed by the boyars." Precedence among the 
boyars was according to the creation of the 
title, which was hereditary; and in the 16th 
and 17th centuries any boyar of an older crea- 
tion refused to serve under one of a younger. 
This struggle for precedence, which was espe- 
cially troublesome in times of war, was ended 
by Fedor III., and Peter the Great wholly 
abolished the dignity of boyar. In Roumania 
the boyar nobility, though not of national ori- 
gin, sat in the council of the hospodars, and 
exercised a preponderating influence till 1864, 
when it was checked by Prince Cuza. 

BOYCE, Hector. See BOETHIUS. 

BOYCE, William, an English composer, .born in 
London in 1710, died in February, 1779. He was 
the son of a mechanic, and was placed under 
the tuition of Charles King, choir master of St. 
Paul's cathedral. When his voice changed he 
commenced the study of harmony and the or- 
gan, and became organist first at the Oxford 
chapel, and subsequently at St. Michael's, and 
composer for the royal chapel. He received 
the degree of doctor of music from Cambridge 
university in 1749. In 1758 he became con- 
ductor of the royal orchestra, directing in that 
capacity the music at the triennial gatherings 
of the cathedral choirs of Worcester, Hereford, 
and Gloucester. His principal compositions 
are church services, which are still held in high 
esteem and are in constant use both in Eng- 
land and the United States. Several years of 
his life were devoted to the collection and 
publication in score of the best works of the 
composers of English church music from the 
earliest times to his own. He wrote also 12 
trios for two violins and bass, eight sympho- 
nies, and many anthems of much excellence. 
One of the latter, "Blessed is he that consid- 
ereth the poor," is sung every year at the 
festival given for the sons of the clergy. He 
also wrote two musical dramas entitled "The 
Chaplet " and " The Shepherd's Lottery." He 
was buried in St. Paul's cathedral. 

BOYD, a N. E. county of Kentucky, separated 
on the N. E. from Ohio by the Ohio river, and 



on the E. from West Virginia by Big Sandy 
river; area, 230 sq. in. ; pop. in 1870, 8,573, of 
whom 291 were colored. The surface is gen- 
erally hilly. Iron ore and stone coal are abun- 
dant. The chief productions in 1870 were 
11,718 bushels of wheat, 168,199 of Indian 
corn, 17,968 of oats, 12,598 of potatoes, and 
1,269 tons of hay. There were 850 horses, 945 
milch cows, 1,908 other cattle, 3,843 sheep, 
and 3,999 swine. Capital, Catlettsburg. 

BOYD, Andrew Kennedy llnlclii-on, D. D., a 
Scottish clergyman and essayist, born at Au- 
chinleck, Ayrshire, in November, 1825. He 
was educated at the university of Glasgow ; 
became a minister of the established church of 
Scotland in 1851, and officiated successively in 
the parishes of Newton-on-Ayr, Kirkpatrick- 
Irongray in Galloway, St. Bernard's in Edin- 
burgh, and at St. Andrews, where he still re- 
mains. His writings, which originally appeared 
in magazines, have been republished separate- 
ly. They include " Recreations of a Country 
Parson " (two series, 1860 and 1861), " Leisure 
Hours in Town " (1862), " Graver Thoughts of a 
Country Parson " (1863), " Counsel and Comfort 
Spoken from a City Pulpit," " Autumn Holi- 
days of a Country Parson," and "Present Day 
Thoughts" (1870). 

BOYD, John Parker, an American soldier, 
born in Newburyport, Mass., in 1768, died in 
Boston, Oct. 4, 1830. He entered the United 
States army in 1786, but soon afterward went 
to India, where he raised three battalions, 
each of about 500 men, with a few English 
officers, whom, as well as his men, he hired at 
a certain amount per month. The equipment, 
including guns and elephants, was his sole 
property, and he let out the services of his little 
army to any of the Indian princes who would 
give him the best pay. The demand for his 
services diminishing, he sold out, and in 1808 
returned to the United States, and took part 
as colonel in the battle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 
1811. He was afterward appointed brigadier 
general, put at the head of a detachment of 
1,500 men of Wilkinson's army in the expedi- 
tion to Upper Canada, and fought the battle of 
Chrystler'sFarm, Nov. 11, 1813. He published 
"Documents and Facts relative to Military 
Events during the late War " (1816). 

BOYD, Mark Alexander, a Scottish scholar and 
soldier, born at Galloway, Jan. 13, 1562, died 
at Pinkill, April 10, 1601. His headstrong 
temper made him quarrel with his relatives 
and instructors, and before he had finished his 
academic course he sought his fortune at court, 
where one duel and numberless broils soon 
made him notorious. He went to France, 
where he studied civil law, and thence to Italy. 
In 1587 he joined the Catholic league as a 
volunteer soldier, though himself a Protes- 
tant; but in 1588 he resumed his legal studies 
at Toulouse, where he was imprisoned for 
his religious opinions. He was permitted to 
escape to Bordeaux, and for some years his 
life alternated between war and study. His 



172 



BOYD 



BOYER 



elder brother's death in 1595 induced him to 
return to Scotland. He had previously en- 
deavored to win the favor of James VI. by 
dedicating to him a volume of Latin poems, 
published at Antwerp in 1592. Some other of 
his Latin poems are to be found in the Delicia 
Poetarum Scotorum. He was a thorough 
master of Greek, and translated Caesar's Com- 
mentaries into that language. Lord Hailes 
wrote a "Sketch of the Life of Boyd " (1783). 

BOYD, Zaehary, a Scottish divine, died in 
Glasgow about 1653. He studied in Scotland 
and France, became professor at Saumur, and 
after his return home on account of the perse- 
cutions of the Protestants, he was pastor of the 
parish church and thrice rector of the universi- 
ty of Glasgow. He wrote many works, chiefly 
polemical, among which is " The Last Battell 
of the Soule in Death " (2 vols., Edinburgh, 
1629; new ed., with his biography by Gabriel 
Neil, Glasgow, 1831). He also wrote the 
metrical paraphrase of the Scriptures popularly 
called "Zachary Boyd's Bible," bequeathed, 
with many other manuscripts and a large sum 
of money, to the university of Glasgow, in 
whose library it remains in MS.. 

BOYDELL, John, an English engraver and 
print publisher, born Jan. 19, 1719, died in 
London in December, 1804. He was edu- 
cated for the church, but apprenticed him- 
self in 1740 for seven years to a London en- 
graver. His first publication was the " Bridge 
Book," so called because there was a bridge in 
each of the views which it contained. In 1746 
he published by subscription a volume of engrav- 
ings, wholly executed by himself, containing 152 
views in England and Wales. The profits of 
this volume enabled him to become a regular 
publisher, and to employ good artists ; and in 
a few years the engravings of Boydell were 
largely exported to the continent. He estab- 
lished the " Shakespeare Gallery " in Pall Mall 
as an English school of historical painting, and 
employed Reynolds, Opie, West, Northcote, and 
other eminent painters, in illustrating Shake- 
speare's works. From these pictures the best 
engravers produced the celebrated work (3 
feet by 2 in size), in royal elephant folio, en- 
titled " A Collection of Prints from Pictures 
painted for the purpose of illustrating the Dra- 
matical Works of Shakespeare." It appeared 
in 1803 (having been preceded, in 1792-1801, 
by Boydell's edition of Shakespeare, printed by 
Bulmer, 9 vols. folio), and the sum of 350,- 
000 had been expended upon it. When he com- 
menced this project, he had every reason to 
expect that, as with his previous productions, 
his foreign customers would take a considerable 
number of copies. But the war had injured 
foreign trade, and in 1804 he was compelled to 
solicit parliament to authorize him to dispose 
of the original paintings by lottery. He was 
alderman of London in 1782, sheriff in 1785, 
and lord mayor in 1790. The plates of Boy- 
dell's illustrations of Shakespeare were pur- 
chased in a damaged condition by an Ameri- 



can, Dr. S. Spoonor, brought to the United 
States, and retouched, and a new edition was 
printed from them. 

BOYER, Abel, an English historian and lexi- 
cographer, born at Castres, France, June 13, 
1664, died at Chelsea, Nov. 16, 1729. He was 
a Frencli Protestant refugee who settled in 
London in 1689, and was for some time a 
teacher. He figures in Pope's "Dunciad," 
and compiled the "Political State of Great 
Britain," a monthly publication, continued till 
1740, making 60 vols. 8vo. ; "Annals of the 
Reign of Queen Anne" (11 vols.); "History 
of William III." (3 vols.); and, besides other 
works, published a " Life of Sir William Tem- 
ple" (1714). He also wrote a French-Eng- 
lish dictionary and grammar, which remained 
in very general use almost to the present time. 

BOYER, Alexis, baron, a French surgeon, born 
at Uzerche, Limousin, in March, 1757, died in 
Paris, Nov. 25, 1833. He was the son of a 
poor tailor, went to Paris as assistant to a 
drover, and acquired his first knowledge of 
surgery while employed as a barber. In 1795 
he became professor of operative medicine, and 
afterward chief surgeon of Napoleon, who made 
him a baron with a revenue of 25,000 francs, 
which he lost after the restoration, though re- 
maining in the service of Louis XVIIL, Charles 
X., and Louis Philippe. He succeeded Des- 
champs in 1825 as chief surgeon of the Charit6, 
and a member of the institute of France. His 
best works are, Traite complet d'anatomie (4 
vols., Paris, 1797-'9), and Traite des maladies 
chirurfficales (11 vols., 1814-'26), of which 
many editions have appeared in France, and 
translations in Germany. With Corvisart and 
Roux he edited the Journal de Medecine, Chi- 
rurgie et Pharmacie (1798-1817). 

BOYER, Jean Pierre, a mulatto general and 
president of Hayti, born in Port-au-Prince in 
February, 1776, died,in Paris, July 9, 1850. He 
was educated in France, and on his return to 
Hayti joined the revolted blacks, then strug- 
gling against the French for their indepen- 
dence. When the French gave up Fort St. Ni- 
colas to the English, Boyer fought against the 
latter, and distinguished himself in the defence 
of the fort of Biroton, and in other dangerous 
enterprises. Soon afterward Toussaint 1'Ouver- 
ture separated from the mulattoes, and Boyer, 
Potion, and others, retired to France. Boyer 
was appointed by Bonaparte a captain in the 
expedition fitted out in 1801, under Gen. Leclerc, 
and after its disastrous termination left the 
French service. In 1806 he served under P6- 
tion as commander of Port-au-Prince, and re- 
pelled the attacks of Christophe, who held 
part of the island with the title of emperor. 
At the death of P6tion in 1818, Boyer was 
elected president ; and after the death of Chris- 
tophe in 1820, the empire was united to the re- 
public. In 1824 Boyer annexed Santo Do- 
mingo, the Spanish part of the island, thus 
uniting the whole of Hayti. The country ad- 
vanced during the earlier years of his adminis- 



BOYLE 



173 



tration, but afterward he became arbitrary and 
reckless. Intimidated in 1825 by the appear- 
ance of a French squadron, he submitted to 
the claims of France, who demanded a monop- 
oly of the trade and a componsation of 150,000,- 
000 francs for the confiscated estates of the 
white planters. The Haytians, oppressed by 
the debt he had foolishly brought upon them, 
rose in rebellion against him in 1842. He fled 
to Jamaica, and after the outbreak of the French 
revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, went to Paris, 
where he died. 

BOYLE, a central county of Kentucky, bound- 
ed N. E. by Dick's river, a branch of the Ken- 
tucky; area, 180 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,515, 
of whom 3,679 were colored. The Lebanon 
branch of the Louisville and Nashville rail- 
road passes through it. Danville is con- 
nected with Lexington by the Kentucky Cen- 
tral railroad. The surface is diversified, and 
the soil deep and rich, underlaid by extensive 
beds of limestone. The chief productions in 
1870 were 99,316 bushels of wheat, 14,789 of 
rye, 272,505 of Indian corn, 58,115 of oats, and 
14,481 gallons of wine. There were 23,035 
horses, 1,496 milch cows, 4,358 other cattle, 
3,811 sheep, and 12,663 swine. Capital, Dan- 
ville. 

BOYLE, a town, parish, and barony of Ire- 
land, in the county of Roscommon, 108 m. N. 
W. of Dublin ; pop. of the town about 4,000. 
The river Boyle divides it into a new town, 
which is well built and has a handsome ses- 
sions house, and an old town, with the re- 
mains of Boyle abbey and other ancient build- 
ings. The old manor house of the King family 
is used for barracks. The Irish " Annals of 
Boyle," extending from 420 to 1245, have been 
published in English and Latin. 

BOYLE. I. Biehard, earl of Cork, an English 
politician, born at Canterbury, Oct. 3, 1566, 
died Sept. 15, 1643. He was born a com- 
moner, and became clerk to Sir R. Manwood, 
chief baron of the court of exchequer. Not 
seeing any prospect of advancement, he went 
to Ireland, where he married a lady who died 
and left him a landed estate worth about 500 
a year. His abilities, and the growth of his 
possessions, raised him up a host of enemies 
and detractors ; and the rebellion of Munster 
reduced him to poverty. He returned to Eng- 
land, and visiting Ireland again in the suite of 
the earl of Essex, his presence renewed the 
malice of his detractors, who having brought 
formal charges against him, he pleaded his 
cause with such force before Elizabeth in per- 
son that the queen took him into favor. He 
was made clerk of the council of Munster, and 
bought considerable estates, which he colo- 
nized with Protestant tenants, and managed so 
well as to call forth a remark from Cromwell, 
that had there been an earl of Cork in each 
county there had been no rebellion. In 1616 
he was created Baron Boyle of Youghal, in 
1620 earl of Cork, and in 1631 lord high treas- 
urer of Ireland, which office was made hered- 



itary in his family. His " True Remembrancer 
of his Life " is included in Dr. Birch's " Life of 
Robert Boyle" (London, 1766). II. Boger, 
third son of the preceding, born in Ireland, 
April 26, 1621, died Oct. 16, 1679. He was 
known as Lord Broghill during the protector- 
ate, and earl of Orrery in the reign of Charles 
II. He was won to the cause of the common- 
wealth in Ireland by Cromwell, at a period 
when he was known to be engaged in favoring 
the return of Charles II., and was of material 
assistance in reducing Ireland to subjection. 
After the protector's death he was one of 
Richard Cromwell's privy council, but favored 
the restoration of Charles II. He wrote a ro- 
mance, " Parthenissa " (3 vols., 1665), and many 
tragedies, comedies, and poems, besides " State 
Letters," published in 1742. III. Robert, 5th son 
and 14th child of the first earl of Cork, born 
at Lismore castle, Ireland, Jan. 25, 1626, died 
in London, Dec. 30, 1691. At Eton, whither 
he was sent at nine years of age, he showed 
irregular application and development, and 
after four years was placed under the care of 
private tutors. With M. Marcombes, a French- 
man, he travelled on the continent. He re- 
turned to England in 1644, his father having 
meanwhile died, and left him property in Ire- 
land and the Stalbridge estate, where he 
chiefly resided from 1646 to 1650, occupied in 
study, especially of chemistry. At this time ho 
was one of a society of learned men, called by 
him the "Invisible College," out of which ul- 
timately grew the royal society. In 1652' he 
went to Ireland on private business. After his 
return he resided at Oxford for the most part, 
using its advantages for study, and associating 
with men of science in their investigations, 
till 1668, when he settled in London, at the 
residence of his elder sister, Lady Ranelagh. 
He has been called the inventor of the air 
pump, which was perfected for him in 1658 
or 1659 by Robert Hooker, then his chemical 
assistant, and by it Boyle demonstrated the 
elasticity of the air. He also associated and 
corresponded with eminent oriental and Bibli- 
cal scholars. On the restoration Boyle was 
favorably received at court, and urged to enter 
the church ; but he thought he could serve re- 
ligion better as a layman, and published in 1660 
" Some Motives and Incentives to the Love 
of God," which was several times reprinted 
and translated into Latin. In 1662 a grant 
was made him of a lease of forfeited impropria- 
tions in certain parishes in Ireland, but he re- 
linquished all private benefit, and appropriated 
two thirds of the net proceeds to the wants of 
the parishes, and printed the church catechism 
and the New Testament in Irish at his own ex- 
pense. The other third he gave to the society 
for propagating the gospel in New England, of 
which he was afterward made governor. In 
1663 he was one of the first council of the 
newly incorporated royal society. He became 
a director of the East India company, helping 
to procure its charter. In 1 676 he wrote a letter 



174 



BOYLE 



BOZMAN 



pressing upon that body the duty of promoting 
Christianity in the East, and in 1677 he caused 
the Gospels and the Acts to be translated into 
Malay at his cost by Dr. Thomas Hyde, and 
gave a large reward to the translator of Gro- 
tius's De Veritate into Arabic. A selection of 
his works was published in Latin at Geneva in 
1677, though without his consent or knowledge. 
In 1680 he was elected president of the royal 
society, but declined from a conscientious scru- 
ple. He gave pecuniary aid to Burnet while 
the latter was compiling his "History of the 
Reformation." The revolution cut off his re- 
sources from Ireland, and his health being im- 
paired, he resigned his presidency of the society 
for the propagation of the gospel in 1689. His 
sister, with whom he had lived for 23 years, 
died in 1691, and he did not survive her a 
week. Boyle was tall, pale, and of delicate 
health. He never married. His habits were 
very careful, regular, and abstemious, and he j 
was noted for reverential piety. His philosoph- 
ical experiments gave him a very high repu- 
tation in science, and he has been called " the 
great Christian philosopher." His works, with 
an autobiography, were published in London in 
1744, in 5 vols. folio. Among them may be 
mentioned the " Disquisition into the Final 
Causes of Natural Things," "Free Inquiry 
into the received Notions of Nature," " Dis- 
course of Things above Reason," " Considera- 
tions about the Reconcilableness of Reason 
and Religion," "Excellency of Theology," and 
"Considerations on the Style of Scripture." 
IV. Charles, 4th earl of Orrery, born at Chelsea 
in August, 1676, died in August, 1731. He was 
the great-grandson of the first earl of Cork, and 
second son of the second earl of Orrery. He was 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford. An edition 
of the epistles of Phalaris, the preface of which 
contained a disparaging allusion to Richard 
Bentley, having been published under his name, 
he became complicated in a famous controversy | 
between Bentley, Atterbury, and other scholars. 
(See BENTLEY, RICHARD.) In 1700 Mr. Boyle 
was elected to parliament, and in 1703 he suc- 
ceeded to the title of earl of Orrery. He 
served as major general under Marlborough in 
Flanders, and after the treaty of Utrecht in 
1713 was sent as envoy to the states of Brabant 
and Flanders, and created a peer of Great 
Britain as Lord Boyle. Under George I. he 
was one of the lords of the bedchamber, but in 
1722 was confined six months in the tower for 
high treason as an accomplice in Sayer's plot. 
In the latter part of his life he amused him- 
self with philosophical subjects. It was in his 
honor that George Graham, the inventor, gave 
the name of the orrery to the instrument exhib- 
iting the planetary revolutions. V. John, only 
son of the preceding, born Jan. 2, 1707, died 
Nov. 16, 1762. He succeeded his father as earl 
of Orrery in 1731, and in 1753, on the death 
of his second cousin, became fifth earl of Cork. 
In the house of lords he constantly opposed 
the administration of Sir Robert Walpole. He 



edited the dramatic works and state papers of 
the first earl of Cork, Pliny's letters, and the 
"Life of Robert Gary, Earl of Monmouth " 
(1759), and contributed to various periodical 
publications; but he is best known by his 
"Remarks on the Life and Writings of Dr. 
Jonathan Swift, in a Series of Letters " (Lon- 
don, 1751), the publication of which brought 
upon him a great deal of censure. 

BOYLS'TON, Zabdiel, an American physician, 
born at Brookline, Mass., in 1680, died in 
Boston, March 1, 1766. In 1721, when the 
smallpox appeared at Boston, the attention of 
the faculty was called by Cotton Mather to in- 
oculation. Dr. Boylston, the only member of 
that body who did not treat the communica- 
tion with disdain, commenced the practice suc- 
cessfully in his own family, and extended it to 
other cases. But the opposition to the new 
process was so stubborn that the doctor was 
in danger of being mobbed, until six clergymen 
came forward in his support, and the practice 
approved itself. In 1721 and 1722 he inocu- 
lated 247 persons ; 39 were inoculated by others ; 
of the whole number only 6 died. During the 
same period, of 5,759 who had the disease in 
the natural way, 844 died. 

BOYNE, a river of Ireland, which rises near 
Carberry in the barony of that name, county 
of Kildare. It is formed by the confluence of 
several small streams, and after leaving the bog 
of Allen has a N. E. course to the town of 
Navan, where it is joined by the Blackwater. 
After this it flows nearly E. to Drogheda, on its 
left bank, and 4 m. below that city falls into 
the Irish channel about 10 m. S. of Dunany 
point, the headland of Dundalk bay, after a 
winding course of 60 m. from its source. It 
is navigable 25 m. from the sea. It has been 
called the " Boyne of science" on account of 
the many monastic institutions along its shores, 
and is celebrated for its scenery, and for its 
ancient and modern historical associations. 
The decisive battle between William III. and 
James II. was fought on the banks of the 
Boyne, July 12, 1690. An obelisk, erected in 
1736, opposite the ford at Oldbridge, marks the 
spot where William was wounded. 

BOYSE, Boys, or Bois, John, an English the- 
ologian, born at Nettleshead, Suftblk, Jan. 3, 
1560, died Jan. 14, 1643. He was one of the 
translators of the Bible appointed by James I., 
and not only executed his own task, which was 
the Apocrypha, but also that of one of the 
others. He was also one of the six revisers 
of the whole. He afterward assisted Sir Henry 
Savile in his edition of St. Chrysostom. An- 
drews, bishop of Ely, made him prebendary 
of his cathedral in 1615. He left many MSS. 
at his death, one of which, on the text of the 
Evangelists and the Acts, was published in 
1655. Peck's Desiderata (2 vols. fol., London, 
1732- '5) contains his curious autobiography. 

BOZMAN, John Leeds, an American historian 
and jurist, born at Oxford, Talbot co., Md., 
Aug.' 25, 1757, died there, April 23, 1820. He 



BOZRAH 



BOZZARIS 



175 



graduated at the university of Pennsylvania 
in 1783, studied law in London, and afterward 
practised in his native state, where for several 
years he was deputy 'attorney general. He 
wrote a " Historical and Philosophical Sketch 
of the Prime Causes of the Revolutionary 
War," in which he praised Washington and de- 
preciated Franklin; but it was suppressed. 
During the administrations of Washington and 
John Adams he wrote much in prose and 
verse for the press, and at a later period con- 
tributed to Dennie's "Port Folio." His prin- 
cipal work is his " History of Maryland, from 
the earliest Settlement in 1633 to the Resto- 
ration in 1660," the introduction published in 
1811, and the complete work in 1837(2 vols., 
Baltimore), under the auspices of the state. 

BOZRAH, or Bostra, a ruined city of Syria, in 
an oasis on the S. E. border of the Hauran, 
76 m. S. S. E. of Damascus, in lat. 32 30' N., 
Ion. 36 24' E. It was one of the chief cities 
of Bashan, and is about 5 m. in circuit, with 




Ruins of Bozrah. 

high walls 15 ft. thick, and a strong cas- 
tle. Among its ruins are temples, churches, 
mosques, baths, fountains, aqueducts, and tri- 
umphal arches. A straight street intersects 
the city lengthwise, and has a beautiful gate 
at each end; and other straight streets cross 
it. This city anciently contained 100,000 in- 
habitants ; now there are scarcely 20 families. 
The castle stands on the S. side of the city ; its 
outer walls and towers are still in good pres- 
ervation. In the centre of this structure, sup- 
ported on massive piers and arches, are the re- 
mains of a theatre 270 ft. in diameter. This 
fortress is supposed to have been built by the 
emperor Philip, who was a native of the city. 
The town, which the Greeks and Romans 
called Bostra, is supposed by some Biblical 
critics, and among them Gesenius, to be iden- 
tical with the Bozrah of Genesis and the proph- 
ets; but others, like Porter, distinguish be- 
115 VOL. m. 12 



tween the Bozrah mentioned as a town of 
Edom and the Bozrah of Moab, identifying the 
latter with the Bostra of the ancients, and 
the former with Busaireh between the Dead 
sea and Petra; while still others contend that 
none of the Scriptural Bozrahs correspond to 
the Bostra of Bashan. This city was enlarged 
and embellished by the Romans, and in the 
reign of Trajan it was made the capital of the 
province of Arabia and received the name of 
Nova Trajana Bostra. Under the emperor 
Philip it was the seat of a bishop, and after- 
ward of an archbishop. On the invasion of 
the Saracens it began to fall into decay, and in 
the reign of Baldwin IV. of Jerusalem (1180) 
it was ravaged by the Turks. 

BOZZARIS, Marco (MAKcos BOTZABIS), a 
Greek patriot, born about 1790, died near 
Missolonghi, Aug. 20, 1823. His father, Kitzos 
Bozzaris, his grandfather, uncles, and brothers, 
were all distinguished patriots and warriors. 
In 1803, after the fall of Suli, he escaped to 
the Ionian islands, 
where he united with 
other refugees against 
Turkey. When the 
treaty of Tilsit restored 
the Ionian islands to 
the French, and de- 
prived the Greeks of 
any hopes of imme- 
diate deliverance, he 
entered the French 
service as a sergeant in 
an Albanian regiment, 
in which his father and 
uncle served as majors. 
In 1813 he became a 
member of the Hetm- 
ria, the great central 
society of the patriots. 
When in 1820 Ali Pa- 
sha took arms against 
the Porte, Bozzaris 
with several hundred 
followers joined him 

in Epirus, having first obtained from him 
the restoration of the Suli mountains. When 
in 1821 the insurrection against Turkey be- 
came general, Bozzaris fought in western Hel- 
las, with varying success. In 1822 he lost the 
flower of his comrades in a desperate effort to 
relieve the Suliote stronghold of Kiapha, but 
continued bravely fighting, until the battle of 
Peta (July 16) destroyed the elite of the pa- 
triots. He then threw himself, with a number 
of Suliotes, into Missolonghi, and was one of 
its foremost defenders till the end of the cam- 
paign. On the reorganization of the national 
forces in 1823 he was appointed a general in 
the army of western Hellas. In the night of 
Aug. 19 he made with Tzavelas and others a 
combined night attack on the camp of the 
pasha of Scutari, who was advancing toward 
Missolonghi at the head of a considerable army. 
Marco, with 350 Suliotes, fought his way into 



176 



BRA 



BRACE 



the midst of the camp, near Carpenisi, but was 
killed by a shot in the face while spreading 
carnage around him. He was borne from the 
battlefield, after the victory, on the shoulders 
of a relative, and buried in Missolonghi. The 
victory, however, which was signal, was not 
followed up. Marco was no less remarkable 
for modesty than for patriotism and bravery. 
His heroism has been commemorated, among 
others, by Fitz-Greene Halleck, whose poem 
has been translated into modern Greek. The 
only son of Marco, DEMETRIUS BOZZAKIS, has 
been minister of war under various administra- 
tions of the Greek government. 

BRA, a town of Piedmont, Italy, province of 
Coni, in the valley and 2 m. N. of the Stura, 
and 9 m. "W. of Alba; pop. about 12,000. 
It contains the celebrated church of Santa 
Chiara, built by Vettone in 1742. The envi- 
rons produce silk of excellent quality, and 
there is also an active trade in wine, grain, and 
cattle. 

ISRAUAXT. I. Duehy of, one of the ancient 
divisions of the Netherlands, bounded N. by 
Holland and Gelderland, E. by Limburg and 
Liege, S. by Namur and Hainaut, and W. by 
Flanders and Zealand. The Menapii and 
Tungri were the original inhabitants of this 
country. By the Romans it was made part 
of the province of Gallia Belgica. The Franks 
settled in it in the 5th century. It succes- 
sively formed part of Austrasia, of the Oarlo- 
vingian kingdom, of the kingdom of Lorraine, 
and of the duehy of Lower Lorraine. When 
Duke Otho died childless in 1005, Godfrey, 
count of Ardennes, became count of Brabant ; 
and in 1190 Brabant was made a duchy. In 
1349 Duke John III. received from the em- 
peror the golden bull of Brabant, according to 
which no Brabancon could appeal to a higher 
court of judgment than that of the duke of 
Brabant. Duke John's eldest daughter, Joan- 
na, bequeathed the duchy to her nephew, An- 
thony, second son of Philip the Bold, duke of 
Burgundy (1405). Duke Anthony fell on the 
French side, at the battle of Agincourt. With 
Philip, the younger brother of Anthony, the 
line of dukes terminated. Brabant passed 
to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy (1430), 
and remained an integral part of the duchy of 
Burgundy until, in 1477, Maximilian, the future 
emperor of Germany, married Mary, the heiress 
of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. Brabant then 
passed under the dominion of the house of Aus- 
tria. The emperor Charles V. left it to his son 
Philip II. of Spain. In the revolt of the Neth- 
erlands Brabant was among the first to join, but 
was not successful in its efforts. At the peace of 
Westphalia (1648) the northern part was aban- 
doned to the United Provinces, and received 
the name of North Brabant ; at the same time 
the provinces of Antwerp and Mechlin were 
cut off from the ancient limits of the duchy, 
and erected into separate territories under Span- 
ish rule. The remaining part was called thence- 
forth South Brabant, and remained a part of 



the hereditary possessions of the Spanish crown 
until the war of Spanish succession, at the end 
of which it reverted to Charles VI., afterward 
emperor of Germany, together with Antwerp 
and Mechlin, and was thenceforward known as 
part of the Austrian Netherlands. Both Bra- 
bants were conquered by the French in 1794. 
Under them North Brabant formed the depart- 
ment of Bouches-du-Rhin, and South Brabant 
the department of La Dyle and a part of Deux- 
Nethes. At the congress of Vienna (1814) 
both Brabants were given to the king of Hol- 
land. In the revolution of 1830, South Bra- 
bant joined the revolt of the provinces which 
had formerly been the Austrian Netherlands, 
and it has since formed part of the kingdom 
of Belgium, while North Brabant remains part 
of the kingdom of Holland. II. North, a prov- 
ince of Holland, bounded N. by the provinces 
of Holland and Gelderland, E. by Limburg, S. 
by Limburg and Antwerp, and W. by Zealand ; 
area, 1,980 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 440,302. It 
is divided into the arrondissements of Bois-le- 
Duc, Breda, and Eindhoven; capital, Bois-le- 
Duc. The principal rivers are the Maas, the 
Dommel, the Dintel, the Donge, and the two 
rivers Aa. There are numerous canals. Ag- 
riculture is in an advanced condition. Mutton, 
poultry, bees, game, and fish are abundant. 
Pine is the principal tree ; of minerals the 
country is entirely destitute. The linen, cotton, 
cutlery, and porcelain manufactures are highly 
prosperous; and the inhabitants, chiefly Ro- 
man Catholics, are distinguished for their in- 
dustry and frugality. III. South, the metropoli- 
tan province of Belgium, bounded N. by Ant- 
werp, E. by Limburg and Liege, S. by Namur 
and Hainaut, and W. by East Flanders ; area, 
1,268 sq. m. ; pop. in 1869, 862,982. It is di- 
vided into the arrondissements of Brussels, Lou- 
vain, and Nivelles; capital, Brussels. A part 
of the inhabitants speak Flemish and others 
Walloon ; the great majority are Roman Cath- 
olics. The soil is flat, and in some places 
wooded. It is watered by the Dyle, the Den- 
der, and the Senne. The climate is rather 
moist, but healthy. The agriculture is of the 
first quality, the land being cultivated like a 
garden. The products are rye, wheat, oil seed, 
and buckwheat, but little fruit. Cattle are 
reared, mostly oxen and horses ; so are bees. 
Its manufactures are of woollen and cotton 
stuffs, linen, Brussels lace, leather, hats, play- 
ing cards, tobacco, starch, brandy, paper, and 
oil. South Brabant is intersected by several 
railroads and canals. 

BRACCIOLINI. See POQGIO. 

BRACE, Charles Loring, an American clergy- 
man and author, born at Litchfield, Conn., in 
1826. He graduated at Yale college in 1846, 
and afterward studied theology in the theolo- 
gical department of that institution, and at the 
Union theological seminary, New York. He 
has since been a recognized preacher, but has 
not been connected with any church. In 1850 
he made a pedestrian journey in Great Britain 



BRACE 



BRACHIOPODA 



177 



and Ireland, also visiting the Rhine, Belgium, 
and Paris. An account of part of this journey 
was afterward published by his companion, 
Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, under the title of 
" Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in 
England." In the following year he visited 
Hungary, where he was arrested on suspicion 
of being a secret agent of Kossuth, and tried 
before a court martial, but, through the efforts 
of C. J. McCurdy, United States charge d'af- 
faires at Vienna, was soon released. He after- 
ward visited Switzerland, England, and Ire- 
land, giving special attention to schools, pris- 
ons, and reformatory institutions. Returning 
to the United States in 1852, he became asso- 
ciated in the labors of the Rev. Mr. Pease 
among the most degraded class of the city of 
New York, and was chiefly instrumental in the 
formation of the " Children's Aid Society," an 
association for transferring destitute and va- 
grant children to homes in the country, and 
which also to a large extent provides lodgings, 
instruction, and other aid for poor boys and 
girls in the city. Of this society he is still 
(1873) the secretary and principal agent. In 
1856 he made a journey in northern Europe, 
and in 1872 revisited Hungary, where he was 
received with marked attention. He has pub- 
lished "Hungary in 1851" (1852); "Home 
Life in Germany" (1853); "Norse Folk," a 
description of the religious, social, and politi- 
cal condition of the people of Sweden and 
Norway (1857); "Races of the Old World" 
(1863); "The New West" (1869); "Short 
Sermons for Newsboys ; " and " The Dangerous 
Classes of New York" (1872). 

BRACE, Julia, a blind deaf mute, born at 
Newington, Conn., in 1806. She lost botli 
sight and hearing at the age of 4J- years, and 
soon forgot the few words she had learned to 
speak. In 1825 she entered the American 
asylum for the deaf and dumb at Hartford, and 
remained there about 30 years, when she went 
to Bloomfield, Conn., where she still resides 
with a sister (1873). As compared with other 
blind deaf mutes, she seems possessed of only 
ordinary abilities. In all that concerns out- 
ward and material nature she manifests much 
intelligence. She possesses great tenacity of 
memory and nice powers of discrimination, 
being able to distinguish readily articles be- 
longing to different persons. She keeps her- 
self apprised of the progress of time, days, 
weeks, and months, and notes the return of 
the Sabbath. In her intellectual education she 
has made little progress ; a few facts have been 
acquired, but soon forgotten. It is doubtful if 
she possesses any distinct idea of God, but she 
seems to have a sense of right and wrong. She 
has never been guilty of theft, falsehood, or 
any deliberate wickedness ; and while tena- 
cious of her own rights, she will not knowing- 
ly invade those of others. 

BRACHIOPODA, or Brarhiopods (Gr. ppax'ov, 
arm, and woif, foot), till within a few years 
universally regarded as one of the classes of 




Arms of Brachiopod. 



mollusca, named by Cuvier from two long, cili- 
ated arms, which project from the side of the 
mouth, and with which they create currents 
that bring them food. By De Blainville and 
Owen they were called palliobranehiata, from 
pallium, a mantle, and branehia, gills, the deli- 
cate mantle covering the body constituting the 
respiratory apparatus of the animals. They 
are bivalve, differing from the conchifera in 
the valves being always unequal : yet they are 
symmetrical and equal-sided. The valves are 
dorsal and ventral, instead of right and left, 
the smaller and lower being generally consid- 
ered the dorsal valve. By the old naturalists 
they were commonly called lampades, or "lamp 
shells," from the resem- 
blance of their form to 
that of the antique lamps; 
the hole for the wick in 
these being represented in 
the shell by the curved 
beak of the ventral valve, 
through which the organ 
passes by which the ani- 
mal attaches itself to any 
substance. The brachio- 
poda all belong to salt 
water. They are found at- 
tached to corals, to other 
shells, and to the under sides of shelving rocks. 
Though a low animal type, no other class exhib- 
its such a great range in time, geographical dis- 
tribution, and depth of water ; they are found 
from the Silurian to the present epoch, from the 
poles to the tropics, and from near high-water 
mark to the greatest depths reached by the 
dredge. Among the earliest forms of animal life 
were the lingula of the lowest fossiliferous 
rocks. This genus has continued through all the 
series of formations, during which multitudes of 
other forms have been introduced and spread 
through an immense number of species, which 
have long since disappeared, leaving no type of 
their family in existence ; but the ancient genus 
lingula is still met with in the 
Pacific and on our Atlantic 
coast; and the terebratula 
and diidna, which were intro- 
duced in periods nearly as re- 
mote, have representatives liv- 
ing in many parts of the world. 
More than 1,000 extinct spe- 
cies have been described. They 
constitute a large proportion 
of the shells found so abun- 
dantly throughout the New 
York system, as the spirifer, productus, atrypa, 
itrophomena, &c. They were most numerous 
in the Silurian and Devonian epochs, since 
which they have been declining; there were 
about 700 in the paleeozoic age, not more than 
200 in the cretaceous period, and there are 
fewer than 100 at the present time, of which 
the best known genera are lingula, terebratula, 
discina, rhynconella, and crania, all of which 
are very old forms. Naturalists have for some 




Terebratula eep- 
tentrionalis. 



178 



BRACKEN 



BRACKENRIDGE 



years been of the opinion that the brachiopods 
and polyzoa form a natural anatomical class, 
defined by Prof. Hyatt as a sac closed at one 
end by a disk, surrounded by free tentacles, 
and perforated by a toothless mouth from 
which hangs the alimentary canal. Some re- 
cently have been inclined to add the ascidians, 
and to separate the three from the mollusca, 
under the name of molluscoida; the ascidians 
seem to form the connecting link of the mol- 
luscoids with the bivalve mollusks; the first 
two agree in having but one aperture to the 
atrial chamber, and a complicated muscular 
system intersecting the visceral cavities. Prof. 
E. S. Morse, in " Memoirs of the Boston Society 
of Natural History," 1871, from the study since 
1869 of terebratulina and discina, in all stages 
of growth, finds the following articulate charac- 
ters, which induce him to remove the brachio- 
pods from mollusks: the shell is like that of 
Crustacea in its tubular structure, scale-like 
appearance, and chemical composition ; in lin- 
gula there is 42 per cent, of phosphate of lime, 
and only 6 per cent of carbonate of lime ; the 
horny bristles or setffl fringing the mouth are 
remarkably worm-like; they are secreted by 




anatino. 



follicles, surrounded by muscular fibres, and 
freely movable. Gratiolet has compared the 
circulatory system with that of Crustacea, and 
Burmeister has shown the resemblance be- 
tween the respiratory apparatus of lingula and 
that of certain cirripeds. The oviducts re- 
semble the similar organs in worms in their 
trumpet-shaped openings ; the part bearing the 
cirri, and the mantle covering the arms, are 
comparable to similar parts in tubicolous 
worms. From French and German authors 
we have many proofs of their affinity with the 
worms in embryological characters. These 
views were confirmed by Prof. Morse's study 
of the living lingula on the coast of North 
Carolina, near Fort Macon. Here he ascer- 
tained that they make a tube in the sand, like 
annelids; the peduncle is hollow, distinctly 
ringed, with longitudinal and circular fibres, 
very contractile, and remarkably worm-like; 
they have also red blood, and the sexes are 
distinct. His conclusions are that they are 
"true articulates, having certain affinities with 
the Crustacea, but properly belonging to the 
worms, coming nearest the tubicolous annelids: 
they may be better regarded as forming a com- 
prehensive type, with general articulated fea- 
tures." Possibly they have affinities with the 
mollusks, as homologies have been pointed out 
between the polyzoa and tnnicates or ascidians. 
BRACKEN, a N. E. county of Kentucky, bor- 
dering on the Ohio river and drained by the 
north fork of Licking river ; area, 200 sq. m. ; 



pop. in 1870, 11,409, of whom C36 were color- 
ed. The soil is generally fertile and produc- 
tive. The chief productions in 1870 were 30,- 
229 bushels of wheat, 20,610 of rye, 440,530 
of Indian corn, 22,533 of oats, and 4,188,039 
Ibs. of tobacco. There were 3,760 horses, 2,087 
milch cows, 2,311 other cattle, 3,445 sheep, 
and 12,719 swine. Capital, Augusta. 

III! l< k KMtllH.K. I. Hugh Henrj, an Ameri- 
can judge and author, born near Campbelton, 
Scotland, in 1748, died at Carlisle, Penn., in 
1816. In 1771 he graduated at Princeton col- 
lege, where he subsequently acted as tutor. 
Having studied divinity, he became a chaplain 
in the continental army; but he soon relin- 
quished the pulpit for the bar, and edited for a 
time the "United States Magazine" at Phila- 
delphia. In 1781 he established himself at 
Pittsburgh, and in 1799 was appointed a judge 
of the supreme court of the state, which office 
he held till his death. He participated with 
Gallatin in the whiskey insurrection, and vin- 
dicated his course in the " Incidents of the In- 
surrection in Western Pennsylvania, in 1794," 
published in 1795. His " Modern Chivalry, or 
the Adventures of Captain Farrago," a humor- 
ous and political satire, has been especially pop- 
ular throughout the West. The first portion 
was published at Pittsburgh in 1796, and was 
republished in Philadelphia in 1846, with illus- 
trations by Darley. The second portion was 
published 10 years after the first, and both were 
issued together in 1819. He also wrote many 
miscellaneous essays and fugitive verses. II. 
Henry M., an American lawyer, diplomatist, and 
author, son of the preceding, born in Pitts- 
burgh, Penn., May 11, 1786, died there, Jan. 18, 
1871. At 20 years of age, having been admit- 
ted to the bar, he commenced practice in Som- 
erset, Maryland. In 1811 he was appointed 
deputy attorney general for the territory of Or- 
leans, afterward the state of Louisiana, and the 
next year was made district judge. During the 
war of 1812 he gave the government valuable 
information, and afterward wrote a history of 
the war, which was translated into French and 
Italian. He joined with Mr. Clay in advoca- 
ting the acknowledgment of the independence 
of the South American republics. His pamphlet 
under the name of " An American," addressed 
to President Monroe, was republished in Eng- 
land and France, and, being supposed to ex- 
press the views of the American government, 
was replied to by the duke of San Carlos, the 
Spanish minister. He was appointed one of 
the commissioners to the South American re- 
publics in 1817, and on his return published his 
"Voyage to South America," which was said 
by Humboldt to contain an " extraordinary 
mass of information." He accompanied Gen. 
Jackson to Florida in 1821, and in May was ap- 
pointed judge of the western district, in which 
office he remained for 10 years. He removed 
to Pittsburgh in 1832, was elected to congress 
in 1840, and the year after was named a com- 
missioner under the treaty with Mexico. His 



BRACKET! 



BRADFORD 



179 



political writings are numerous. In 1859 he 
published a " History of the Western Insurrec- 
tion," in vindication of his father. 

BRACKETT. I. Edwin E., an American sculp- 
tor, born in Vassalborough, Me., Oct. 1, 1819. 
He has produced portrait busts of Washington 
Allston, Richard Henry Dana, Bryant, Long- 
fellow, Rufus Choate, Sumner, John Brown, 
Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Gen. Butler, and 
others, and a marble group of the "Shipwrecked 
Mother," now at the cemetery of Mount Au- 
burn, near Boston. II. Walter SI., a painter, 
brother of the preceding, born in Unity, Me., 
June 14, 1823. He is known chiefly as a 
painter of salmon, trout, and other varieties of 
game fish. 

BRACTOJf, Henry de, lord chief justice of Eng- 
land in the time of Henry III., died about 1270. 
He was educated and took the degree of doctor 
of laws at Oxford, and about 1244 was made 
one of the itinerant judges. Ten years later 
he became chief justice, and held the office 20 
years. He wrote De Legibux et Consuetudini- 
bus Anglics, one of the earliest English law 
books (fol., 1569). 

BRADBURN, Samuel, an English clergyman, 
born at Gibraltar, where his father was station- 
ed with his regiment, Oct. 5, 1751, died July 
24, 1815. His parents removed to Chester, 
England, and he was apprenticed to a shoe- 
maker ; but he became a Wesleyan local preach- 
er in 1773, and entered the itinerant ministry 
in 1774. He shared the troubles of the early 
Methodist preachers, but his adroit kumor and 
his persuasive eloquence often conquered oppo- 
sition and made him popular. He was the great 
natural pulpit orator of Wesleyan Methodism ; 
combining a nobility of person, a scrupulous 
neatness of apparel, a ready wit, and a genuine 
pathos, that drew to him multitudes of hearers. 
In 1799 he was elected president of the Wes- 
leyan conference. His " Sermons on Particu- 
lar Occasions " (1 vol. 12mo) appeared in 1817. 

BRADDOCK, Edward, a British general, born 
in Perthshire about 1695, died near Pittsburgh, 
Penn., July 13, 1755. Having served with dis- 
tinction in Spain, Portugal, and Germany, he 
was in 1755 sent to take charge of the war 
against the French in America. He set out 
soon after his arrival on an expedition against 
Fort Duqnesne (now Pittsburgh). Although 
unacquainted with Indian warfare, he disre- 
garded the suggestions of Col. Washington, act- 
ing as his aide-camp, fell into an ambush of 
French and Indians near that fort, July 9, 1755, 
was defeated and mortally wounded, and died 
after a hasty retreat of 40 miles. 

BRADDON, Mary Elizabeth, an English novelist, 
born in London in 1837. Her father, Mr. Henry 
Braddon, a solicitor, contributed to sporting 
papers, and she early exhibited literary talent. 
In 1860 her comedietta, "The Lover of Arca- 
dia," was performed at the Strand theatre, and 
in 1861 she published " Garibaldi and other 
Poems," and a series of tales in the "Temple 
Bar" and "St. James's" magazines. In 1862 



her novel, " Lady Audley's Secret," secured for 
her a wide reputation, which has been increas- 
ed by "Aurora Floyd," "Sir Jasper's Tenants," 
" Only a Clod," and many other sensational and 
attractive novels, the most recent of which, 
" To the Bitter End," appeared in 1872. Miss 
Braddon edits the "Belgravia" magazine. 

BRADFORD. I. A N. E. county of Pennsyl- 
vania, bordering on New York ; area, 1,170 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 63,204. The Elmira and 
Williamsport and the Lehigh Valley railroads 
pass through the county, and there are rail- 
roads to the coal mines S. and S. W. from To- 
wanda. It is intersected by the North branch 
of the Susquehanna, and drained by Towanda, 
Wyalusing, and Sugar creeks, which afford good 
water power. The surface is uneven and thick- 
ly wooded with pine, hemlock, and sugar maple. 
The soil is good. Iron, bituminous coal, and 
sandstone are abundant, but lumber is the prin- 
cipal article of export. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 285,698 bushels of wheat, 33,991 
of rye, 505,341 of Indian corn, 1,114,120 of 
oats, 382,581 of buckwheat, 541,198 of potatoes, 
129,956 tons of hay, 3,704, 709 Ibs. of butter, and 
122,253 of wool. There were 12,131 horses, 
35,243 milch cows, 27,275 other cattle, 36,257 
sheep, and 12,000 swine. Capital, Towanda. 
II. A N. E. county of Florida, bounded S. W. 
by the Santa Fe river ; area, 940 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 3,671, of whom 824 were colored. The 
Florida railroad passes through the S. E. part.) 
The chief productions in 1870 were 45,708 bush- 
els of Indian corn, 6,170 of oats, 13,273 of sweet 
potatoes, 295 bales of cotton, 3,096 Ibs. of wool, 
49 hhds. of sugar, and 8,518 gallons of molas- 
ses. There were 375 horses, 2,843 milch cows, 
5,763 other cattle, 1,833 sheep, and 4,816 swine. 
Capital, Lake Butler. 

BRADFORD, a market town and parliamen- 
tary borough of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
England, on an affluent of the Aire, 8 m. W. of 
Leeds and 29 m. S. W. of York ; pop. in 1871, 




Bradford Town Hall. 

145,827. In its vicinity are the celebrated iron 
works of Low Moor and Bowling. Bradford 
is the .principal seat of the English worsted 



180 



BRADFORD 



manufacture, both in yarn and in piece. There 
are also numerous cotton mills, founderies, and 
manufactories of combs and machinery. A 
custom house and inland bonding warehouse 
have been established here. A handsome and 
commodious town hall was commenced in 
1870, to cost 74,000, including 30,000 for 
land. The town is situated at the union of 
three extensive valleys, surrounded by pictu- 
resque scenery, and has the advantage of many 
ancient and excellent schools. The Airedale 
college, for the education of Independent minis- 
ters, is at Undercliffe, near Bradford, and a 
Wesleyan seminary for ministers' sons at Wood- 
honse Grove. 

BRADFORD, Alden, an American author, born 
at Duxbury, Mass., in 1765, died in Boston, Oct. 
26, 1843. He was descended from Gov. Brad- 
ford, graduated at Harvard college in 1786, and 
was settled as pastor of a Congregational church 
at Wiscasset, Maine, for eight years. He after- 
ward engaged in the book trade in Boston, and 
from 1812 to 1824 was secretary of state of 
Massachusetts. He published a history of Mas- 
sachusetts from 1764 to 1820, a " History of the 
Federal Government," and many miscellaneous 
pieces at different times. 

BRADFORD, John, an English martyr, born 
at Manchester about 1510, burnt at Smithfield 
after a long imprisonment, July 1, 1555. He 
was appointed chaplain to Edward VI. in 1552, 
and became one of the most popular preachers 
in the kingdom. In the reign of Mary he was 
tried on a charge of sedition and heresy, and 
sentenced to death. The Parker society pub- 
lished his theological treatises in 1848. 

BRADFORD, William, second governor of Ply- 
mouth colony, born in Yorkshire, England, in 
March, 1588, died May 9, 1657. At an early 
age he emigrated to Holland for the sake of re- 
ligious liberty, and, having joined the English 
congregation at Leyden, sailed for America in 
1620, in the Mayflower. Upon the death of 
Gov. Carver in 1621, he was elected to supply 
his place. One of his first acts was to adopt 
measures to confirm the league with Massasoit, 
who afterward disclosed to the colony a dan- 
gerous conspiracy among the Indians, which 
was suppressed. The first legal patent or char- 
ter of the colony was obtained in the name of 
John Pierce ; but in 1630 a more comprehensive 
one was issued in the name of William Bradford, 
his heirs, associates, and assigns. In 1 640 the 
general court requested him to deliver the pat- 
ent into their hands, and upon his complying 
immediately returned it into his custody. He 
was annually elected governor as long as he 
lived, excepting five years at different intervals, 
when he declined an election, holding the office 
31 years. Though without a learned education, 
he wrote a history of Plymouth colony from 
1602 to 1647. On the retreat of the British 
army in 1775, the MS. was carried away from 
the library of the Old South church in Boston, 
but was recovered and printed entire by the 
Massachusetts historical society in 1856. A large 



book of copies of letters relating to the affairs 
of the colony was also lost; but a fragment of 
it found in a grocer's shop at Halifax has been 
printed by the same society. 

BRADFORD. I. William, the first printer in 
Pennsylvania, born in Leicester, England, in 
1658, died in New York, May 23, 1752. Being 
a Quaker, he emigrated in 1682, and landed 
where Philadelphia was afterward built. In 
1686 he printed an almanac. In 1692, having 
printed the alleged seditious writings of George 
Keith, he was tried for libel. The justice hav- 
ing charged the jury to find only the fact as to 
the printing, Bradford maintained that they 
were to find also whether the paper was really 
seditious, and that " the jury are judges in law 
as well as the matter of fact." He was not 
convicted, but having incurred the displeasure 
of the dominant party in Philadelphia, he re- 
moved to New York in 1693, and in that year 
printed the laws of the colony. On Oct. 16, 
1725, he began the first newspaper in New 
York, called the " New York Gazette." In 
1728 he established a paper mill at Elizabeth- 
town, N. J. For more than 50 years he was 
printer to the government of New York, and 
for 30 years the only one in the province. II. 
Andrew, an American printer, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in, Philadelphia about 1686, died 
Nov. 23, 1742. He was the only printer in 
Pennsylvania from 1712 to 1723. On Dec. 22, 
1719, he commenced the " American Weekly 
Mercury," the first newspaper in Philadelphia ; 
and he gave employment to Benjamin Franklin 
on his arrival there in 1723. In 1732 he was 
postmaster. In 1735 he kept a bookstore at 
the sign of the Bible in Second street ; and in 
1738 he removed to No. 8 South Front street, 
to a house which in 1810 was occupied as a 
printing house by his descendant, Thomas 
Bradford, publisher of the " True American." 

BRADFORD, William, an American lawyer, 
born in Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1755, died Aug. 
23, 1795. He graduated at Princeton college in 
1772, and was admitted to the bar in 1779. In 
1776 he joined the militia, and attained the rank 
of lieutenant colonel ; but in consequence of 
ill health he resigned at the end of two years. 
In 1780 he was appointed attorney general of 
Pennsylvania, a judge of the supreme court in 
1791, and attorney general of the United States, 
Jan. 28, 1794. In early life he wrote some 
pastoral poems in imitation of Shenstone ; but 
his principal production was an "Inquiry how 
far the Punishment of Death is necessary in 
Pennsylvania." 

BRADFORD, William, an American painter, 
born in New Bedford, Mass., about 1830. Ho 
is of Quaker extraction, and was educated for 
commerce ; but failing in business, he took up 
painting, and soon acquired facility in making 
portraits of ships. He practised marine paint- 
ing for several years at Fairhaven, Mass., and 
thence made excursions along the New Eng- 
land coast, and northward as far as Greenland, 
in quest of subjects. His works relate ex- 



BRADLEY 



BRADSTREET 



181 



clusively to the sea and the seashore, and he is 
an unusually careful delineator of shipping in 
every form familiar to the coast of North Ame- 
rica. Some of his largest and most elahorate 
compositions have been suggested by his voy- 
ages to the higher latitudes. Of these " The 
Coast of Labrador '' and " Crushed by Ice- 
bergs " are conspicuous examples. Other char- 
acteristic works by him are " The Island of 
Grand Menan," "Fishing Boats getting under 
Way," "Fishing Boats at Anchor," "Ship- 
wreck off Nantucket," " Sudden Squall in the 
Bay of Fundy," and " A Stiff Breeze in the 
Harbor of Eastport." Many of these have 
been photographed. He is now (1873) prac- 
tising his profession in New York. 

BRADLEY. I. A S. county of Arkansas, 
bounded W. by Moro bayou and traversed by 
Saline river; area, 958 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
8,646, of whom 2,529 were colored. The sur- 
face is generally level. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 4,726 bushels of wheat, 222,825 
of Indian corn, 48,356 of sweet potatoes, and 
5,177 bales of cotton. There were 1,656 horses, 
3,536 milch cows, 5,550 other cattle, 2,544 
sheep, and 16,213 swine. Capital, Warren. 
II. A S. E. county of Tennessee, bordering on 
Georgia and bounded N. E. by Hiawassee river ; 
area, about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,652, 
of whom 1,700 were colored. The East Ten- 
nessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad, and the 
Dalton branch of the same, pass through it. 
The county is well watered. The surface is 
uneven, and in the south mountainous, with ex- 
tensive forests. The chief productions in 1870 
were 112,341 bushels of wheat, 239,490 of In- 
dian corn, 41,727 of oats, 12,810 of sweet po- 
tatoes, and 135,976 Ibs. of butter. There were 
2,181 horses, 2,455 milch cows, 3,497 other 
cattle, 9,146 sheep, and 13,633 swine. Cap- 
ital, Cleveland. 

BRADLEY, James, an English astronomer, born 
at Sherborne, Gloucestershire, in March, 1692, 
died at Chalford, July 13, 1762. He was edu- 
cated at Oxford and took orders, but devoted 
himself wholly to the study of astronomy. He 
was chosen a fellow of the royal society in 
1718, and three years afterward was appointed 
Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford. In 
1727 he published his brilliant discovery of the 
aberration of light, and in 1747 the equally 
valuable discovery of the nutation of the earth's 
axis. He also made successful researches into 
the law of refraction, for which he produced 
an empirical formula. In 1742 he succeeded 
Dr. Halley as astronomer royal, and in 1751 
he received a pension in consideration of the 
" advantages of his astronomical labors to the 
commerce and navigation of Great Britain." 
From his valuable observations, published after 
his death, Meyer formed his table of the moon, 
and Bessel drew the elements of his Funda- 
menta Astronomim. 

BRADSHAW, John, president of the court which 
tried Charles I., born about 1590, died in 
1659. He was made chief justice of Chester in 



1647, and sergeant in 1648; and on Jan. 10, 
1649, the commissioners for trying the king 
chose him for their president. He performed the 
duties of the office with dignity and sternness, 
and declared on his deathbed that if the king 
were to be tried and condemned again, he 
would be the first to agree to it. He was made 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancasterand lord 
president of the council of state, and received 
valuable grants from parliament. He opposed 
Cromwell's elevation to the supreme power, 
and on the latter's assumption of the protec- 
torate, he was accordingly deprived of the chief- 
justiceship of Chester; but after Cromwell's 
death he obtained a seat in the council, and 
was again elected president. Bradshaw left 
the reputation of a cold and impassive, but 
upright, conscientious, and heroic republican. 
He was buried with great pomp in Westmin- 
ister abbey, but on the restoration his body 
was taken from the tomb and gibbeted beside 
those of Cromwell and Ireton. 

BRADSTREET, Anne, an American poetess, 
born in Northampton, England, about 1612, 
died Sept. 16, 1672. She was the daughter of 
Gov. Thomas Dudley, and in 1628 married Si- 
mon Bradstreet, afterward governor of Massa- 
chusetts, with whom she emigrated to New 
England in 1630. Her poems were published 
in London in 1650. The volume was entitled 
" The Tenth Muse, lately sprung up in Ameri- 
ca," and contained, according to the title page, 
" a complete Discourse and Description of the 
Four Elements, Constitutions, Ages of Men, 
Seasons of the Year, together with an Exact 
Epitome of the Four Monarchies, viz., the As- 
syrian, Persian, Grecian, Roman." There was 
also a dialogue on politics, &c., between Old 
and New England, " with divers other pleasant 
and serious Poems." Her verses are distin- 
guished by a great amount of curious and exact 
learning, especially in natural history, set forth 
with singular quaintness, and in the most lit- 
eral manner. A second edition, published at 
Boston in 1678, contains her "Contemplations," 
a poem much superior to her other works. 
Mrs. Bradstreet was the mother of eight chil- 
dren, to whom she alluded in some verses con- 
taining these familiar lines : 

I had eight birds hatch't In the nest ; 
Four cocks there were, and hens the rest. 
I nurs't them up with pains and care, 
For cost nor labor did I spare ; 
Till at the last they felt their wing, 
Mounted the trees, and learned to BiDg. 

A third edition of her " Tenth Muse " appeared 
in 1758; and her complete works, both prose 
and verse, edited by the Rev. G. E. Ellis, D. D., 
were published at Charlestons in 1868. 

VRADSTREET, John, an English general, born 
in 1711, died in New York, Sept. 25, 1774. 
When a young officer he was ordered to join 
the British forces in America, and spent the 
remainder of his life there. He took part in 
the expedition against Louisburg in 1745, as 
lieutenant colonel of a colonial regiment, and 
was in the same year made a captain in the 



182 



BRADSTREET 



regular line. In 1746 he was made governor 
of St. John's, Newfoundland. In 1755 he was 
ordered to Oswego by Gen. Braddock, and 
acted as adjutant general to Gov. Shirley. In 
1756, while carrying supplies, he was attacked 
by the enemy in force, but defeated them. He 
became lieutenant colonel and deputy quarter- 
master general in 1757, took part in the attack 
on Ticonderoga in 1 758, and soon after was made 
colonel and quartermaster general. In the same 
year he led an expedition against Fort Fron- 
tenac, and captured it by surprise. He served 
under Amherst in his expedition against Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point in 1759, marched 
against the Indian tribes in the west and made 
a treaty with them at Detroit in 1764, and was 
made a major general in 1772. 

BRADSTREET, Simon, governor of Massachu- 
setts, born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1603, 
died at Salem, Mass., March 27, 1697. He 
was steward to the countess of Warwick, mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of Thomas Dudley, and 
engaged in the enterprise of founding a col- 
ony in Massachusetts. In March, 1630, he was 
chosen assistant judge, and arrived at Salem in 
the course of the summer. He became secre- 
tary, agent, and commissioner of the united'col- 
onies, and in 1662 was despatched to congratu- 
late Charles II. on his restoration, and look after 
their interests. He was assistant from 1630 to 
1679, and from 1673 to 1679 deputy governor; 
then governor till 1686, when the charter was 
annulled. When Andros was imprisoned in 
April, 1689, he was restored tp the office, which 
he held till the arrival of Sir William Phipps 
in 1692, with the new charter, when he be- 
came first council. He was in public service 
62 years, except during the brief administra- 
tions of Joseph Dudley and Andros. 

BRADSTREET, Simon, minister at Charlestown, 
Mass., born in 1669, died Dec. 31, 1741. He 
graduated at Harvard college in 1693, and at- 
tained a high rank as a preacher and a scholar. 
He was so subject to hypochondria aa to be 
afraid to preach from the pulpit, but spoke 
from the deacon's seat, without notes, usually 
upon the vanity of earthly things. 

BRADWARDIN, Bredewardlne, or Bredwardlne, 
Thomas, an English scholar and theologian, called 
"the profound doctor," died Aug. 26, 1349. 
He was a proctor at Oxford in 1325, and ulti- 
mately its chancellor, and afterward chaplain 
of the bishop of Durham, chancellor of the 
diocese of London, prebendary of Lincoln, 
chaplain to Edward III., and in 1349 arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. He was consecrated at 
Avignon in France, being at the time with the 
king in that country, and hastened to England 
to enter upon his duties, but died of the plague 
before his enthronement at Canterbury. He 
was especially distinguished as a mathemati- 
cian, and wrote several works on geometry, 
arithmetic, and the higher mathematics. But his 
principal work was his essay De Causa Dei, in 
which, according to some writers, he advanced 
doctrines nearly approaching those of the mod- 



BRAG- 

ern Protestants. A folio edition of this, edited by 
Sir Henry Savile, appeared in London in 1618. 
BRADY, James Topham, an American lawyer, 
born in New York city, April 9, 1815, died 
there, Feb. 9, 1869. His father emigrated from 
Ireland in 1812, and after teaching a classical 
school for some years became a lawyer and final- 
ly a judge. He educated his son himself, and 
at the age of 16 James had acquired sufficient 
knowledge of law to act as junior counsel to 
his father. He was admitted to the bar at the 
age of 20, and soon became distinguished for 
ability, legal learning, and eloquence. He was 
often intrusted with great civil cases, which he 
managed generally with success. But it was 
as a criminal lawyer that he gained the highest 
reputation. In a single week he defended four 
clients charged with murder, all of whom were 
acquitted. Of the 52 capital cases in which 
he was counsel, in only one was he unsuccess- 
ful, and in that his client was tried as a spy 
and a guerilla before a court martial. In poli- 
tics he was a zealous democrat, but he declined 
to accept any office but that of corporation 
counsel, which he considered a professional one. 
He consented in 1860, however, to be the can- 
didate of the ultra states rights party for gov- 
ernor, because there was no chance of his elec- 
tion. During the civil war he gave a general 
support to President Lincoln's administration, 
and near the close of it he accepted an appoint- 
ment as one of a commission to go to New Or- 
leans to investigate the management of the de- 
partment of the gulf under Gen. Butler and 
Gen. Banks. The commission made a volu- 
minous report, which has never been pub- 
lished. Mr. Brady wrote much for the maga- 
zines and other periodicals, and one of his con- 
tributions, which appeared in 1846 in the " New 
World," entitled "A Christmas Dream," sub- 
sequently became popular as a holiday book. 

BRADY, Nicholas, an English divine, born at 
Bandon, Ireland, Oct. 28, 1659, died at Rich- 
mond, near London, May 20, 1726. He was 
partly educated at Oxford, and partly at Trin- 
ity college, Dublin. In the revolution he sided 
with King William, who made him one of his 
chaplains. In 1726, just before his death, he 
published a poetical translation of Virgil's 
^Eneid, now unknown; also a tragedy, and 
numerous sermons. His reputation mainly 
rests on a metrical version, in conjunction with 
Nahum Tate, of the Psalms of David. 

BRAG, a game at cards, deriving its name 
from the efforts of the players to impose upon 
the judgment of their opponents by boasting 
of better cards than they possess. The num- 
ber of players is usually from four to eight. 
The game is played with the entire pack of 
cards, which rank as at whist, except the 
knaves and nines. These are called "brag- 
gers," and rank the same as any cards they 
may be held with. Thus, an ace and two 
knaves or nines, or one of each, are called 
three aces; a deuce and two braggers, three 
deuces ; a king and one bragger, two kings, and 



BRAGA 



BRAHAM 



183 






so on. The best hand is a pair royal, i. e., three 
cards of one kind, the highest being three aces; 
the next is the highest pair, and then the high- 
est single card. Stakes are put up by each 
player, after which the cards are shown and 
the best hand wins. 

BRAGi (anc. Braeara Augusta), a city of 
Portugal, in the province of Minho, 33 m. N. 
by E. of Oporto; pop. in 1864, 19,514. It is 
situated on an eminence between the rivers 
Oavado and Deste, and is surrounded by old 
walls and defended by a fortress. It is the 
archiepiscopal see of the primate of Portugal, 
and contains a fine Gothic cathedral, the palace 
of the archbishop, and a large number of foun- 
tains. In the vicinity is the remarkable pil- 
grimage chapel of the Bom Jegut, which stands 
on the summit of a steep hill, whence there is 
a magnificent view of the city and of its pic- 
turesque environs. Many articles of common 
use are largely manufactured here, and there 
are weekly markets and two important annual 
fairs. The town is supposed to have been 
founded by the Carthaginians. There are con- 
siderable remains of its Roman occupation. It 
was afterward the capital of the Suevi, and one 
of the most prominent towns in the early his- 
tory of Portugal. 

BRAGANf A, or Braganza, a town of Portugal, 
capital of the province of Tras-os-Montes, 103 
m. N. E. of Oporto; pop. in 1864, 5,101. It 
has the ruins of an ancient castle, one of the 
finest feudal remains in Portugal. It is the see 
of a bishop, and has some manufactories of 
silks and velvets. Braganca has given its name 
to the present royal family of Portugal. 

BRAGM^A, House of, the reigning house of 
Portugal, derived from Affonso, duke of Bra- 
ganca, a natural son of John I., king of Portu- 
gal. The constitution of Lamego, 1139, de- 
clares that no foreign prince can succeed to the 
throne ; consequently in 1578, on the death of 
King Sebastian in Africa, without issue, his 
people had recourse to the illegitimate line 
of Braganca. Philip II. of Spain, however, 
claimed the throne, and successfully supported 
his pretensions by an army under the duke of 
Alva. Philip and his successors on the Spanish 
throne continued to rule Portugal till 1640, 
when the Portuguese shook off the Spanish 
yoke and proclaimed Dom Joao, the then duke 
of Braganca, their king. He assumed the title 
of John IV., and the line of Braganca has con- 
tinued to rule Portugal till the present time. 

BRAGG, Braxton, an American general in the 
confederate service, bofn in Warren county, 
N. 0., about 1815. He graduated at West 
Point in 1837, was appointed lieutenant of 
artillery, and served mainly in Florida till 
1843, during the war with the Seminoles; from 
1843 to 1845 he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, 
in Charleston harbor, and just before the 
breaking out of the war with Mexico was or- 
dered to Texas. In May, 1846, he was made 
captain by brevet for gallant conduct in the 
defence of Fort Brown, and in June was made 



captain of artillery. He was present at the 
battle of Monterey, Sept. 21-23, and was bre- 
veted as major for gallant conduct there ; and 
in 1847 he was breveted as lieutenant colonel 
for gallant conduct in the battle of Buena 
Vista. From 1848 to 1855 he was engaged in 
frontier service at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
Fort Gibson, and Washita. In March, 1855, 
he was appointed major of cavalry, but declin- 
ed, and received leave of absence. In January, 
1856, he resigned his commission in the army, 
and retired to his plantation at Thibodeaux, 
La. In 1859-'61 he was commissioner of the 
board of public works of the state of Louisiana. 
When the civil war broke out, he joined the 
confederates, was appointed brigadier general, 
and placed in command at Pensacola. In Feb- 
ruary, 1862, he was made major general, and 
ordered to join the army of the Mississippi. 
He took part in the battle of Shiloh, April 
6 and 7, was raised to the full rank of gen- 
eral in place of Gen. A. S. Johnston, killed at 
Shiloh, and after the evacuation of Corinth 
succeeded Gen. Beauregard in command of the 
department. In August he left Tennessee at 
the head of a strong force, and entered Ken- 
tucky, but after the battle of Perryville, Oct. 
8, was forced to retreat, carrying with him a 
vast amount of supplies and many recruits 
from Kentucky. He was removed from his 
command and placed under arrest, but was 
soon restored, and resumed command of the 
force opposed to the federal army under Rose- 
crans. He was checked by Rosecrans in the 
protracted contest of Stone river or Murfrees- 
boro, Dec. 26, 1862, to Jan. 2, 1863, again en- 
countered and defeated him at Chickamauga, 
Sept. 19-20, 1863, but was decisively defeated 
by Gen. Grant at Chattanooga, Nov. 23-25. 
Shortly afterward he was relieved from com- 
mand and called to Richmond, where for a 
time he acted as military adviser to President 
Davis, with whom he was a favorite. In the 
autumn of 1864 he led a small force from North 
Carolina to Georgia, to operate against Sher- 
man, but without success. 

BRAHAM, John, an English tenor singer, born 
of Jewish parents in London about 1774, died 
there, Feb. 17, 1856. He first appeared on 
the stage at the age of 12 years, and for more 
than half a century enjoyed a high reputation 
throughout Europe. In 1796 he appeared in 
opera at the Drury Lane theatre, after which 
he sang with the greatest success in Paris and 
the leading cities of Italy. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1801, he appeared in opera at Covent 
Garden and afterward at Drury Lane, where 
for more than 25 years he proved a strong at- 
traction. In 1840 and 1841 he appeared in 
the United States and created great enthusiasm 
by his singing in operas, oratorios, and con- 
certs. In 1841 he returned to England, and 
continued even to the age of 80 years to attract 
large audiences. He was noted for the purity 
of his voice and the brilliancy of his execution, 
and is said to have retained command of the 



184: 



BKAHE 



BRAHMA 



tenor scale longer than any other man ever 
known. Braham also composed numerous 
songs which met with great popularity, and 
were noted for the beauty of their melody. 
His son AUGUSTUS acquired some distinction as 
a tenor singer, lie first sang in opera in New 
York in 1852, having previously appeared in 
concerts. 

BBAUE, Tyebo or Tyge de, a Danish astrono- 
mer, of Swedish origin, born at Knudstorp, 
in Scania, which then belonged to Denmark, 
Dec. 4, 1546, died in Prague, Oct. 13, 1601. 
He caine of an ancient princely family, the 
ruins of whose castle, Wisingsborg, are still 
visible on the shore of Lake Wetter. He was 
the second of ten children, and he as well as 
his youngest sister Sophia early displayed great 
intellectual ability. After having been under 
the care of private tutors, his maternal uncle, 
Steno Belle, sent him after the death of his 
father to Copenhagen to study philosophy, and 
in, 1562 to Leipsic to study law ; but astronomy 
engrossed his attention almost exclusively, the 
fulfilment of the prediction in regard to the 
eclipse of the sun in 1560 having essentially 
contributed to strengthen his faith in that 
science. His relatives insisting upon his pre- 
paring himself for the law and for statesman- 
ship, he clandestinely devoted the night to 
astronomical observations, with the aid of a 
small celestial globe and a wooden circle for 
the measurement of the stars, thus observing 
in 1563 the junction of Saturn with Jupiter. 
The inheritance of a considerable fortune in 
1565 left him at liberty to prosecute his ex- 
periments, in which he was encouraged by 
the Danish government in 1568. After spend- 
ing some time in Augsburg, he returned to 
Copenhagen in 1570 with a European repu- 
tation, which was increased in 1572 by his dis- 
covery of a new star, though this did not re- 
appear after 1574. His uncle gave him every 
opportunity for astronomical observations at 
his seat near Knudstorp; but his marriage 
with a peasant girl produced great unpleasant- 
ness with his relatives, though Frederick II. 
of Denmark endeavored to effect a reconcilia- 
tion. At the king's request he lectured at 
Copenhagen in 1574 on the theory of comets 
and on mathematics, and he afterward visited 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. He resolved 
in 1576 to settle permanently in Basel ; but the 
king secured his services by bestowing upon 
him for life the island of Hven in the Sound, 
and by building there for him a laboratory and 
a magnificent observatory, which was finished 
in 1580. It acquired great celebrity under the 
name of Uranienborg, and Brahe gave here such 
a powerful impetus to astronomical science, 
that distinguished personages of all countries 
visited him, including James VI. of Scotland, 
afterward James I. of England, while in Den- 
mark to marry the princess Anne. Frederick 
II. spared no effort and no money to enlarge 
the scope of the astronomer's labors, and gave 
him a pension of 2,000 crowns and the canonry 



of Roeskilde with a revenue of 1,000 crowns, 
besides other endowments. But soon after the 
king's death he lost all these advantages, owing 
to the hostility of Walchendorff and other 
members of the council of regency. Not only 
was he driven from Uranienborg on account 
of his inability to defray the expenses of the 
observatory, but he was also obliged to leave 
Copenhagen ; and in 1597 he abandoned Den- 
mark for ever. He went with his family to 
Rostock, and then to Holstein, where he pre- 
vailed upon Heinrich von Rantzau to recom- 
mend him to Rudolph II. of Gennany. This 
emperor received him with great distinction, 
and assigned him in 1599 a pension of 3,000 
florins in gold and a residence in his own cha- 
teau of Benach, near Prague, where Kepler vis- 
ited him in 1600. Subsequently Brahe was 
installed by the emperor in an extensive man- 
sion in Prague, which he proposed to convert 
into another Uranienborg, but he died too soon 
for the accomplishment of this purpose. He 
was interred in the Theinkirche, one of the 
principal churches of Prague, where a marble 
effigy perpetuates his memory. The emperor 
purchased his valuable collection of instru- 
ments, but, with the exception of one sextant, 
they have all been destroyed in times of war ; 
and his famous celestial globe of brass, said to 
have cost 5,000 thalers, found its way back to 
Copenhagen after many vicissitudes, only to 
be burnt during the conflagration of the palace 
in 1720. Brahe was of a violent and hasty 
temper, and so superstitious that he kept 
about him a lunatic whose ravings he re- 
garded as prophetic. His system was not ex- 
tensively adopted, and is considered as but a 
modified form of that of Ptolemy. But to 
Brahe belongs the merit of having been the 
first to lay the foundation of practical astrono- 
my, and Kepler used his numerous and for his 
time wonderful observations effectively in his 
discoveries. Brahe's principal publications in- 
clude Calendariurn Naturale Magicum (1582), 
Progymnasmata Astronomical vols., 1587-'9), 
AstronomitB instaurata Mechanica (a descrip- 
tion of his instruments, 1598), and Epistola As- 
tronomicce (1610). His observations were col- 
lected by his disciples in 1666 (Historia Cce- 
lestia, 20 vols.). His chief biographers are, in 
Italian, Gassendi (Paris, 1655); in German, 
Helfrecht (Hof, 1798); and in Danish, Peder- 
sen (Copenhagen, 1838). See also Brewster, 
" Martyrs of Science " (London, 1841), and 
Bertrand, Les fondateurs de I'astronomie mo- 
derne (Paris, 1865). 

BKAHMA, Brahman, Brahmanlsm (also BRAHMIN, 
BRAHMINISM), linihinaiia. Of this, the most im- 
portant body of words in the religious history 
of India, the starting point is the neuter noun 
brahman (nom. and accus. brdhma), which is 
of frequent occurrence even in the oldest parts 
of the Veda, as signifying " worship, offering of 
devotion and praise." In later developments 
it is used to mean holy words, songs, action, 
&c., and finally the sacred principle, the highest 



BRAHMAPOOTRA 



BRAILA 



185 






object of religious thought and veneration, the 
absolute and infinite. From it comes first the 
masculine noun brahman (nom. brahma), hav- 
ing a twofold use : 1, an offerer of worship, devo- 
tee, priest, and hence, more specifically, the su- 
pervising and correcting priest in the intricate 
Hindoo ceremonial ; 2 (later, and by reflection 
from the later sense of brahman), a kind of per- 
sonal incorporation of the absolute, a theo- 
sophic highest divinity, the supreme god, Brah- 
ma. The secondary classes of Vedic writings 
are full of brahman (neuter) as the theme of 
religious contemplation; but a god Brahma is 
much more recent, and a creature of sacerdo- 
tal philosophy. The Hindoo trinity (trimurti), 
in which he figures as creator, beside Vishnu 
as preserver and Siva as destroyer, was a piece 
of artificial system-making, having no real root 
in the religious consciousness of the people. 
Brahma was never actually worshipped, nor 
had temples built to him. Our word brahman 
or brahmin represents the derivative adjective 
brdhmana, which, as coming from brahman, 
signifies "dealing with worship and sacred 
things," or, as in part also from brahman, 
"of priestly descent and office." This adjec- 
tive begins to appear in the more recent parts of 
the Veda ; and with the rise of a priestly caste 
and a hierarchy in India, it becomes the name 
of that caste, the dominant class in a system 
of religious polity which is thence called Brah- 
manism, and of which the history constitutes 
an essential part of that of India. (See INDIA.) 
The neuter of the same adjective, brdhmanam, 
is used to denote a class of writings in the re- 
ligious literature of India, next in age to the 
hymn texts of the Veda, and dealing with ques- 
tions of religious and ceremonial theory, exe- 
gesis, and so on. There are several treatises 
bearing this title. (See VEDA.) 

BRAHMAPOOTRA, or Bnrrampooter (" offspring 
of Brahma "), one of the largest rivers of 
India, rises in Thibet at the E. extremity of 
the Himalaya mountains, between lat. 28 and 
29 N., and Ion. 97 and 98 E. Here the Ta- 
luka and Taluding unite and form the Lohit, 
which, after emerging from the mountain pass 
in a S. W. direction, assumes the name of Brah- 
mapootra. Near Suddya, in about lat. 27 50' 
N. and Ion. 95 30' E., it is joined by the Di- 
hong and Dibong. The former has been traced 
through the Himalaya chain to lat. 28 15' N. 
and Ion. 95 10' E., and is thought to be a con- 
tinuation of the I)zang-bo-tzin or Sanpo, a 
large river which rises in Thibet N. of that 
range. After receiving these tributaries, the 
river flows 75 m. S. W. through Assam, and 
then diverges into the Boree Lohit and the 
Dihing. Uniting again after a divided course 
of 65 m., it flows W. through the district of 
Goalpara, winds around the W. extremity of 
the Garrow hills, separates Goalpara and My- 
munsing from Rungpoor, and, after sending 
off a branch called the Konaie, which joins it 
again further down, runs S. E. for 130 m. It 
then changes its name for that of Megna, re- 



ceives part of the waters of the Ganges through 
the Kirtynassa, and after various windings en- 
ters the bay of Bengal by three channels : the 
Ganges on the W., the Shabazpoor in the cen- 
tre, and the Hattia on the E. Its total length, 
from its source to the bay, is about 900 m. ; but 
including the Dzang-bo-tzin, it is about 1,600 m. 
It is navigable from its mouth to the Dihong 
by the ordinary vessels of the country, and for 
some distance further by canoes. Through the 
last 60 m. of its course, it is from 4 to 5 m. 
wide, and studded with islands. Its waters are 
muddy; its banks are mostly covered with 
marshes and jungles, and are subject to annual 
inundations. During the season of the over- 
flow, from the middle of June to the middle of 
September, the level districts of Assam are al- 
most wholly submerged, so that travel is im- 
possible, except on causeways 8 or 10 ft. high. 
The volume of water discharged by the river 
at such times is immense. Even in the dry sea- 
son it is equal to 146,188 cubic feet a second, 
while under the same circumstances the Ganges 
discharges only about 80,000. 

BRAHMS, Johannes, a German pianist and com- 
poser, born in Hamburg, March 7, 1833, where 
his father was a player on the double bass. He 
was placed at the age of 12 under the instruc- 
tion of Edward Marxsen, and when 14 played 
at concerts the most difficult modern composi- 
tions as well as classical works of the older 
masters. He was first brought prominently 
into public notice by Robert Schumann, who 
in 1853, in his Neue Zeit&chriftfiir Musik, pre- 
dicted for Brahms a great career, speaking of 
the young composer as " one destined to give 
expression in an ideal manner to the deepest 
feelings of the age one who will present us 
with the qualities of a master." Brahms has 
hardly filled the place that Schumann marked 
out for him, though his influence upon the mu- 
sical art, so far as it has extended, has been 
exerted worthily. He has resided generally in 
Vienna. His works consist of sonatas, songs, 
trios, and other compositions for stringed in- 
struments, choruses, and orchestral wo