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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA. 



YOL, IV. 
CARMONA-CODDINGTON. 



155 






THE 



AMEEICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



GlENEBAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME IV. 
CARMONA-CODDINGTON. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BKOADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
tne Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



/IE 
c 




Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Fourth Volume of the Revised 

Edition are the following : 



WILLARD BAETLETT. 

CELEBES. 

COANZA. 

Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

CARTWRIGHT, PETER. 

CLARK, DAVIS WASGATT, D. D. 

CLARKE, ADAM, LL. D. 

JULIUS BING. 

CERVANTES, 

CHRISTIAN IV., King of Denmark, 

and other articles in history and geography. 

LOEIN BLODGET, Philadelphia. 

CLIMATE. 

FRANCIS C. BOWMAN. 

CLEMENTL, Muzio. 

T. S. BBADFORD, Washington. 

COAST SURVEY. 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 

COCOANUT TREE, 

and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BUELINGAME, Ph. D. 

CASSANDEB, 

CATO, 

CELTS, 

CHARLES V., Emperor, 

CLEOPATRA, 

and other articles in history, biography, and geog- 
raphy. 

ROBERT CARTER. 
CHEOPS, 

and other articles in history, biography, and geog- 
raphy. 

JOHN R. CHAMBEELIN, Cincinnati. 

CINCINNATI. 
JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

CHILI, 

CHINCHA ISLANDS, 

CHIQUITOS, 

COAHUILA, 

and other geographical articles. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 
CATHARTICS, 
CAUSTICS, 
CINCHONA, 

and other articles of materia medica. 

E. COLBERT, Chicago. 
CHICAGO. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

CHANCELLOR, 

CHANCERY, 

and other legal articles. 

S. H. DADDOW, St. Clair, Pa. 

COAL (beds of). 
Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 

CELL, 

CHYLE, 

CIRCULATION, 

and various medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 
CENSUS, 
CHARLESTON, S. C., 

and other articles in American geography. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

CASSINI, FAMILY OF. 

B. A. FlNKELSTELN. 
ClRCASSIA. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 

CHLOROSIS. 

ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. 

CHANCELLOBSVILLE, BATTLE OF. 

CHICKAHOMINY. 

CHIVALRY. 

CHRONOLOGY. 



J. W. HAWKS. 

CHABLESTOWN, Mass. 
CLEVELAND, O., 
COD FISHING, 

and other articles in American geography. 

CHAELES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

CASTING. 

CEMENTS. 

CHEESE. 

CLOCKS AND WATCHES. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 
CHLORAL, 
CHLORINE, 
CHLOROFORM, 

and other chemical and mineralogical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., 
Boston. 

CATERPILLAR FUNGUS, 

CEPHALOPODA, 

CHIPMUNK, 

and other articles in natural history. 

Prof. LEO LESQUEREUX, Columbus, 0. 
COAL (geology of). 
COAL PLANTS. 

CHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto. 
CARON, RENE EDOUARD. 
CABTIER, SIR GEORGE TIENNE. 

JAMES MACFARLANE, Ph. D., Towanda, Pa. 

COAL (distribution of). 

JOHN MITCHEL. 

CELTS, LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE OF THE. 
Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS. 
CHARLES I. AND II. (England). 
CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GASPABD. 
CHERUB. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

CHRYSOSTOM, JOHN, 
CLEMENT. POPES, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

J. C. PETERS, M. D. 

CHOLERA. 

BERNARD ROELKER. 
CIVIL LAW. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

CENTRAL PROVINCES, 

and other geographical articles. 

G. F. SEWARD, Consul General, Shanghai. 

CHINA. 

JOHN G. SHEA, LL. D. 
CAYUGAS. 
CHEROKEES. 
CHEYENNES. 
CHICKASAWS. 
CHOCTAWS. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 
CHASE, PHILANDER, D. D. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

CARTAGENA. 
CATAMABCA. 
CAYENNE. 
CEARA. 



CHACO, EL GRAN. 
CHIHUAHUA. 

Gen. JAMES GRANT WILSON. 

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM AND ROBERT. 

Gen. JAMES HARRISON WILSON. 

CAVALRY. 

Rev. A. WYLIE, D. D., China. 

CHINA, LANGUAGE AND LITEBATUBE OF. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



CARMONA 

. Carmo; Moorish, Karmunah), 
\J a city of Spain, in the province and 20 m. 
N. E. of Seville, on the Carbones river ; pop. in 
1867, 20,074. It is a well built and handsome 
town, on an isolated hill commanding a mag- 
nificent view of the Andalusian valleys, and is 
surrounded by old and massive Moorish walls. 
Hardly any conspicuous remains' exist of the 
many palaces and fountains of the Moorish 
era, excepting the superb ruins of the alcazar, 
which towers over the gate leading to Cor- 




Carmona. 

dova. This gate, built on Koman foundations, 
is celebrated for its beauty. There is a fine 
old Gothic church, with Pacheco's picture of 
the "Descent from the Cross," besides six 
other places of worship, nine convents, two 
hospitals, and a university. Woollen cloths, 
hats, leather, and other articles are manufac- 
tured ; but the principal trade is in wine and 
olives, there being over 100 oil mills. The an- 
nual fair (April 25) is much resorted to. Ca9- 



CARMONTELLE 

sar regarded Carmona as the most strongly 
fortified city of Further Spain, and Eoman coins 
and other antiquities have been found here. 
The place was rescued from the Moors by 
Ferdinand III., king of Castile and Leon, in 
1247 ; and the castle of Carmona was subse- 
quently used for a long time as a royal resi- 
dence and refuge in times of danger. 

CARMONTELLE, or Carmontel, a French play- 
wright and artist, born in Paris, Aug. 25, 1717, 
died Dec. 26, 1806. He excelled as a writer 
of short plays (properties) 
adapted for private theat- 
ricals, and as an amateur 
artist. He became a great 
favorite in society, and 
was appointed reader to 
the duke of Orleans, as 
well as the director of 
festivities, and designer 
of the famous park of 
Monceaux, his exquisite 
taste being constantly 
called into requisition by 
the royal family and the 
fashionable classes. Af- 
ter the revolution he was 
saved from want by an 
amateur conferring a pen- 
sion upon him of 4,000 
francs, in consideration 
of the acquisition of 
his tramparents (pastel 
paintings over 100 ft. 
long, which can be un- 
rolled). He wrote and sketched with re- 
markable rapidity. His principal works are 
his Properties dramatiques (8 vols., Paris, 
1768-'81) ; two additional volumes were pub- 
lished in 1811, and a new edition byMme. de 
Genlis appeared in 1825 under the title of Pro- 
verges et comedies posthumcs de Carmontel, in 3 
vols. He also wrote more than 25 comedies 
contained in his Thedtre de campagne (4 vols., 
Paris, 1775), and several novels. 



CARNAQ 



CARNARVON 



CARNAC, a town of Brittany, France, in the 
department of Morbihan, 18 m. S. E. of Lo- 
rient, and 9 m. by road from the station of 
Auray, on the railway from Brest to Nantes ; 
pop. in 1866, 2,864. It is built on an elevation 
not far from the sea, and contains a fine church 



to which pilgrims resort annually. The cele- 
brated Celtic or druidical monument of Carnac, 
the most extensive in Brittany, consists of 
three groups with gaps between, running par- 
allel with the coast, stretching across the 
country E. to W. for nearly 7 m., and all ter- 




Carnac. 



minating respectively in 11 rows of unhewn 
stones from 10 to 22 ft. high. Originally the 
avenues extended continuously for several miles, 
but the stones are being gradually cleared away 
for fences and agricultural improvements, so 
that at present there are several detached por- 
tions, which however have the same general 
direction. The first group is that called le Bal, 
after an enclosure of the same name which 
forms a rectangular area. The second group 
is that of the Dolmen, so called after the large 
Celtic stone in the shape of a table which stands 
in front of it. The third and most famous group, 
best known under the name of Maenac, after a 
locality of that name where the stones reach 
the highest point, terminates in front of a cir- 
cular enclosure within the limits of the town. 
According to Sir John Lubbock, who visited 
this locality in 1867 with Dr. Hooker, the 
tumuli of Carnac, like most of those of Brittany, 
probably belong to the stone age. The tumu- 
lus of Mont St. Michel, about 880 ft. long and 
190 ft. broad, with an average height of 33 ft., 
was found in 1862 to contain a square chamber 
with numerous Celtic remains. (See Rapport 
d M. le prefet du Morbihan sur les fouilles 
du Mont St. Michel, by M. Rene Galles, 1862.) 
A chapel is built on the summit of this tumulus, 
the roof of which commands the finest view 
of the monuments and surrounding scenery. 
The best map of the relics of Carnac is in 
possession of the London anthropological so- 
ciety. There are similar relics, though on a 
much smaller scale, at Erdeven, about 5 m. 
N. W. of Carnac. See " Prehistoric Times," 
by Sir John Lubbock (2d ed., London, 1869), 
and another recent publication, " The Stone 
Avenues of Carnac," by the Rev. William Col- 
linga Lukis. 



CARNARVON, or Caernarvon, the chief town 
of Carnarvonshire, Wales, a parliamentary and 
municipal borough, situated upon the Menai 
strait, at the mouth of the Seiont, 55 ra. W. S. 




Carnarvon Castle. 



W. of Liverpool; pop. in 1871, 8,512. It is 
the terminus of railways from Bangor on the 
north and Pwlheli on the south. A railway 
also runs 8 m. to Llanberis, the point from 
which excursions are made for the ascent of 



CAERNARVONSHIRE 



CARXEADES 



Snowdon. Carnarvon is frequented in summer 
for sea bathing, and there is a handsome bath- 
ing establishment, and a terrace walk along 
the strait, terminating in a pier. The harbor 
admits vessels of 400 tons burden. The older 
and smaller part of the town is surrounded by 
an ancient wall. At the S. W. corner of the 
town is a large castle, in the tower of which 
Edward II., the first English prince of Wales, 
was born. The castle with its courtyard is a 
mile in circuit. Over its gateway is a statue of 
Edward I. Carnarvon was the site of the Ro- 
man station Segontium. 

CARNARVONSHIRE, a county of Wales, form- 
ing the N. W. extremity of the mainland, bor- 
dering on Cardigan and Carnarvon bays and 
Menai strait ; area, 579 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
95,694. A large part of the county is a pen- 
insula which extends S. W. into the Irish sea. 
The Snowdon range of mountains occupies the 
centre of the county. Of' this range Snowdon, 
3,571 ft., is the highest point in Wales. Lakes 
are numerous, but the only river of importance 
is the Conway, which separates the county 
from Denbighshire. Not one fortieth of the 
county is arable land, but it is rich in minerals. 
The slate quarried here is one of the most im- 
portant mineral productions of Great Britain ; 
most of it is sent for shipment to Bangor. 
The suspension bridge built by Telford for the 
Great Holyhead railway, and the tubular 
bridge built by Stephenson for the Chester 
and Holyhead railway, span the river Conway 
and the Menai strait. 

CARNATIC, an ancient province of British 
India, on the E. coast of the peninsula, extend- 
ing from Cape Comorin to lat. 16 N., with an 
average breadth of about 90 m. ; area, about 
50,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated at 7,000,000. 
The province is separated into two parts by the 
Eastern Ghauts, which run parallel with the 
coast, and which cause a considerable differ- 
ance in climate between the table land and the 
seaboard ; the latter in dry weather is the hot- 
test part of India, the thermometer sometimes 
standing at 130 in the shade. The principal 
rivers are the Pennar, the Palar, and the 
Coleroon. The inhabitants are chiefly Hin- 
doos. The Carnatic includes the cities of 
Madras and Pondicherry, besides the impor- 
tant towns of Arcot, Madura, Tanjore, Trich- 
inopoly, Nellore, and Vellore. It originally 
formed the Hindoo kingdom of Carnata, and 
after various changes was finally included in 
the dominions of the nabob of Arcot ; and the 
contentions arising from a disputed succession 
first brought the French and English into col- 
lision, and ended in the transfer of the Carnatic 
to the East India company in 1801, the reign- 
ing nabob, Azim ul-Omrah, receiving a pension 
equal to one fifth of the revenue, and his chief 
officials being provided for. The last titular 
nabob died in 1855, without heirs. The Car- 
natic is now included within the administration 
of the presidency of Madras. The principal 
occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture, the 



land being held either by Brahmans, who culti- 
vate it by hired labor, or by the farmers them- 
selves. Rice is the chief production, of which 
two crops a year are raised where the facilities 
of irrigation are good. Cotton is raised in fa- 
vorable situations, and upon the high land in 
the interior of the province millet, sugar, and 
indigo are produced. 

CARNE. I. Louis Mnnrin, count de, a French 
author, born at Quimper, Feb. 17, 1804. He 
early entered the diplomatic service. In 1839 
he was elected to the chamber of deputies, 
where he was a follower of Lamartine. He 
opposed the Pritchard indemnity and other 
measures of Guizot's foreign policy, but in 1847 
accepted the presidency over the commercial 
department in the ministry of foreign affairs, re- 
tiring after the revolution of Feb. 24, 1848. He 
was elected a member of the academy in 1863. 
In 1869 he was defeated as an ultramontane can- 
didate for the legislative body. His numerous 
publications include HJtudes sur Vhistoire clu 
gouvernement representatif en France de 1789 
a 1848 (2 vols., 1855), and jfitudes sur lesfon- 
dateurs de V unite f ran false (2 vols., 1848-'56). 
II. Louis de, son of the preceding, born in Brit- 
tany in 1843, died there in 1870. After having 
finished his studies, he was admitted in 1863 
to the commercial department of the ministry 
of foreign affairs ; and his uncle, Admiral La 
Grandiere, exciting his interest in Cochin Chi- 
na, he was appointed by Drouyn de Lhuys in 
1865 secretary of the scientific mission to the 
Mekong. He distinguished himself as an ex- 
plorer, and wrote Voyage en Indo- Chine et dans 
V empire chinois, edited by his father after 
his death (Paris, 1872 ; translated into English, 
London, 1872). 

CARNEADES, a Greek philosopher of the Skep- 
tic school, considered as the founder of the 
third or new academy, born at Cyrene about 
213 B. C., died in 129. Of the incidents of his 
life very little is known, -but of his brilliant 
qualities as a philosopher and rhetorician there 
is abundant testimony in the works of classic 
authors. In Athens he became a student of the 
Stoic and Skeptic doctrines, especially those 
of Chrysippus, of whom he afterward became 
the most formidable opponent. His eloquence 
was considered so irresistible, his logic so for- 
cible, that more than a century later Cicero 
said, " Him I would not care to challenge in 
debate, but would rather propitiate him, and 
implore his silence." It is related of him that 
having been sent to Rome as one of three com- 
missioners of the Athenian commonwealth, he 
one day made a speech in favor of justice, and 
the next day one in opposition. His arguments 
on either side were so convincing, and seem- 
ingly unanswerable, that Cato, fearing lest the 
public mind should be corrupted by such an 
exhibition of plausible arguments for immorality 
and injustice as well as for morality and justice, 
insisted upon a speedy settlement of the diplo- 
matic business for which Carneades had come 
to Rome, and his prompt dismissal from the 



CARNEIA 



CARNICER 



city. He was not an author, but transmitted 
his doctrines to his disciples by word of mouth, 
like Socrates. So far as the philosophy of 
Carneades is known, its substance may be con- 
densed thus: Every perception is a certain 
change or movement in a sensible being, bring- 
ing to consciousness first itself, and secondly 
some object without. In respect to the object, 
the perception is either true or false ; in respect 
to the one who perceives, either probable or 
improbable. There exists no test to decide on 
the truth or untruth of a perception, that is to 
say, on the relation which the perception bears 
to the object by which it is caused. There is 
no objective certainty, or guarantee that real 
existing- things are essentially reproduced by 
the human perception ; but whatever the re- 
lation of human perception to reality, to man 
himself the mere probability, the test of which 
lies within the limits of his mind, is sufficient 
for all practical purposes. Thus much may be 
designated as the affirmative portion of the 
philosophy of Carneades ; the practical portion 
was his criticism of the then existing philo- 
sophical system, a criticism based merely upon 
the supposition that the affirmations and nega- 
tions of human language comprise all existing 
possibilities, so that if both should be refuted a 
non est would be proven. Carneades pretends 
to prove the non-existence of God by the fol- 
lowing reasoning: God is either a rational and 
sensitive being, or he is not. If he is, then he 
would be subject to sensations agreeable and 
disagreeable, to likes and dislikes; but if so, he 
would be a changeable being, and, as such, lia- 
ble to destruction. On the other hand, if God 
is not a rational and sensitive being, then he 
could not have been the creator of reason and 
sensation. Again: God is either finite or infinite. 
If the latter, then he would be motionleas, and 
therefore inactive ; if the former, there would 
be something that was more than he, because 
limiting him. By similar arguments he gets rid 
of all general ideas of morality, human rights, 
duties, &c. But when he seems to have de- 
stroyed everything, lie suddenly turns round, 
concluding that all these arguments prove 
merely that absolute metaphysical knowledge 
is as unnecessary as it is impossible ; that man 
ought to be satisfied with probabilities and ex- 
pediencies, which are amply sufficient to se- 
cure his well-being. 

CARXEIA (Gr. K&pvtia), a national festival of the 
Spartans, celebrated in honor of Apollo, and in 
the Spartan month Carneios (August). The 
festival lasted nine days, during which the 
Spartans were not allowed to entV upon a hos- 
tile campaign. Y 

CARNELIAN (Lat. caro, gen. eaTvm^flesh; call- 
ed by the ancients sarda), a clear red chalcedo- 
ny, one of the numerous varieties of the quartz 
family of minerals. (See AGATE.) It^is found 
resembling flesh in its colors, whence it^name. 
By exposure to the sun and baking, the Colors 
are deepened. Together with agates, carne- 
lians are quarried in great quantities in differ- 



ent parts of India, particularly in the region 
of Cambay, whence the name commonly ap- 
plied to them all of Cambay stones. They are 
also brought to the lapidary workshops at 
Cambay from different parts of Guzerat, to 
be worked up into round and flat necklaces, 
beads, bracelets, armlets, seals, marbles, chess 
men, studs, rings, &c., which give employment 
in their manufacture to nearly 2,000 people. 
Between the Bowa Gore and Bowa Abbas 
hills, on the plain, are small mounds, in which 
the stones are quarried by the Bheels of the 
district. They sink shafts, and excavate hori- 
zontal galleries, working underground with 
lamps. The stones, being brought to the sur- 
face and sorted, are purchased of the miners in 
the village of Ruttunpoor, by the contractor or 
his agents. When a considerable quantity is 
collected, a trench is dug in a field two feet in 
depth and three in breadth. In this a fire is 
made with the dung of goats and cows, and 
upon it earthen pots containing the stones are 
placed in rows. The fire is kept up from sun- 
set to sunrise, when the pots are removed, and 
the stones piled away. These once a year are 
carted to Nemodra, then sent down the river 
in canoes to Broach, and thence in boats to 
Cambay. The manufacture of beads from the 
rough stone is thus conducted: The stones, 
brought to a convenient size, are chipped into 
a rounded form upon the point of an iron, 
standing inclined in the ground. Another 
workman then takes them, and fixing a num- 
ber of equal size in wooden or bamboo clamps, 
rubs them on a coarse, hard polishing stone ; 
they are then transferred to another man, who 
secures them in clamps, and rubs them on all 
their sides against a ground polishing board, 
smeared with a composition of emery and lae. 
The final polish is given by putting several 
hundreds or thousands of the beads into a stout 
leathern bag, about 2 ft. long and 10 or 12 in. 
in diameter, with some emery dust and the 
carnelian powder obtained in boring the holes ' 
through the beads. The mouth of the bag is 
tied up, and a flat thong is bound around its 
centre. Two men seated at opposite ends of a 
room then roll it back and forth between them, 
keeping up the operation from 10 to 16 days, 
the bag being kept moistened with water. 
When the beads are well polished, they are 
passed to the workmen who bore the holes. 
This is done by means of a steel drill tipped 
with a small diamond, the work being kept wet 
by water dripping upon it. Carnelian is a com- 
mon mineral in many localities in the United 
States, especially on Lake Superior, in Missouri, 
and on the upper Mississippi. It is used for 
numerous articles of jewelry, and is cut on a 
leaden plate with emery, and polished on wood 
with pumice stone. 

CARMCKR, Ramon, a Spanish composer, born 
at Tarrega, Oct. 24, 1789, died in Madrid, March 
17, 1855. He studied music, chiefly in Barce- 
lona, and was more than ten years leader of the 
orchestra in the opera there, till 1828, when 



CARNIOLA 



CARNIVAL 



he went to Madrid, and became in 1830 pro- 
fessor at the conservatory of music. Between 
1827 and 1845 he composed many operas, the 
most successful of which were Adela de Lusi- 
gnano and Colombo. He also excelled in church 
music and in popular ballads. 

CARNIOLA (Ger. Krairi), a duchy in the Cis- 
leithan half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 
bounded N. by Carinthia, N. E. by Styria, E. by 
Croatia, S. by Croatia and the Coastland, and 
"W. by the Coastland; area, 3,857 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 466,334, of whom 93 per cent, 
were Slovens, the remainder mostly Germans. 
Nearly the entire population belongs to the 
Catholic church, all others numbering less 
than 1,500. It is a mountainous region, trav- 
ersed by branches of the Julian Alps, abound- 
ing in grottoes, caverns, and underground pas- 
sages, and presenting many snow-capped sum- 
mits, several of which are about 10,000 ft. 
high. It is neither so well watered nor so 
fertile as the neighboring districts of the em- 
pire, the only rivers of note being the Save 
and the Kulpa, and the lakes being mostly 
very small. The southern part produces fruits 
and a fine variety of flax ; bees and silkworms 
are extensively reared, and in some districts 
wheat, barley, and the grape are largely culti- 
vated. With minerals Carniola is richly gifted. 
Its famous quicksilver mines at Idria, next to 
Alrnaden hi Spain the richest of Europe, once 
produced upward of 16,000 cwt. per annnm, 
and still yield about 6,400 cwt. Iron, lead, 
coal, marble, clays, and precious stones are also 
found. There are manufactures of iron, steel, 
fine linen, woollen, flannel, worsted stockings, 
lace, leather, wooden ware, &c. The exports 
comprise several of the above articles, together 
with hats, glass, wax, wine, and flour ; and the 
imports, salt, oil, coffee, sugar, tobacco, cloths, 
cattle, and fruit. Carniola was subdued by the 
Romans at an early period, and was occupied 
by Slavs in the 6th century. It was Christian- 
ized in the 8th century, became a margraviate 
in the 10th, was afterward partly under the 
sway of the dukes of Austria and Carin- 
thia, and in the 12th century was erected into 
a duchy. It was then held by the powerful 
dukes of Tyrol, until the extinction of that 
family in 1335, when it passed into the hands 
of the counts of Gorz, who were succeeded 
by the house of Austria in 1364. By the 
treaty of Vienna in 1809 it was ceded to 
France and incorporated in the kingdom of 
Illyria, but restored to Austria in 1814. The 
Carniolan diet is composed of the Landeshaupt- 
mann, the prince-bishop of Laybach, and 30 
delegates. Capital, Laybach. 

CARNIVAL, a festival observed in most Ro- 
man Catholic countries immediately before the 
commencement of Lent, but celebrated with 
more parade in Rome and Venice than any 
other cities. Its name is derived from the 
Latin carni vale, farewell to meat, as from Ash 
Wednesday, the first day of Lent, a strict fast 
is observed for 40 days. Much dispute exists 



as to the origin of this festival, but it has prob- 
ably come down from the Saturnalia of pagan 
Rome, modified by the early Christians into a 
feast during the several days preceding the 
great fast of 40 days, generally supposed to 
have been instituted by Telesphorus, bishop of 
Rome, before the middle of the 2d century. 
The carnival appears to be most suited to the 
genius of the Italian people, being kept up by 
them with undying spirit, while in other' lands 
it has frequently languished or fallen into neg- 
lect. The only relic of it remaining in Eng- 
land, or ever introduced into the English por- 
tions of North America, consists in the obser- 
vance of Shrove Tuesday. In Paris the carni- 
val takes place during the five or six weeks 
preceding Ash Wednesday, and is marked by 
the frequency of masked and fancy balls in 
private society, and at the various places of 
public amusement ; such balls, to which the 
public is indiscriminately admitted, having 
been first permitted by the regent duke of 
Orleans. During the festivities, masks appear 
in the streets only on the Sunday, Monday, 
and Tuesday preceding Lent, and at Mi-Car6me 
or Mid-Lent Thursday. On these days persons 
in disguise, many of them masked, and exhib- 
iting all sorts of folly, parade the streets, and 
immense crowds in carriages, on horseback, or 
on foot, assemble to witness the gayeties of 
the scene. The carnival was prohibited in 
1790, and no more celebrated until the appoint- 
ment of Bonaparte as first consul. Its restora- 
tion was a cause of great joy to the Parisians, 
and for some years nothing could exceed the 
beauty and richness of the costumes displayed 
upon this annual festival ; but it has now lost 
many of its charms, and the masks are com- 
paratively few. After parading the streets, 
the masks repair for the night to the various 
masked balls of every description, which then 
abound in the capital. The public masked 
balls take place on fixed days throughout the 
carnival, being given at almost all the theatres. 
The procession of the ~b<&uf gras (the fat ox) 
has for ages been celebrated at Paris on the 
Sunday and Tuesday before Lent, when the 
government prize ox, preceded by music, and 
accompanied by a numerous train of butchers 
"fantastically dressed, is led through the streets. 
The ox is covered with tapestry, and his head 
adorned with laurel. Formerly the- ox bore 
on his back a child, called roi des Vouchers 
(king of the butchers), decorated with a blue 
scarf, and holding a sceptre in one hand and a 
sword in the other. He now follows the ox in 
a triumphal car, but without his sword and 
sceptre. The carnival in Italy is much the 
same in the different cities where it is cele- 
brated ; that of Venice is by no means as bril- 
liant as in former days, and it will be therefore 
sufficient to describe that of Rome. It extends 
over the eleven days which immediately pre- 
cede Ash Wednesday, though only eight days 
are actually given up to its festivities, the two 
Sundays and Friday not being included, from 



10 



CARNIVAL 



CARNIVORA 



motives of religion. The festivities are held in 
the Oorso, and the streets immediately adjoin- 
ing, to which the show is confined. The Corso 
is about a mile long, but very narrow, being 
on an average only about 35 ft. broad, and 
lined by lofty houses, nearly all of which are 
built with overhanging balconies, with especial 
reference to this spectacle ; and where per- 
manent balconies are wanting, temporary struc- 
tures of wood are frequently erected. Thus 
persons on opposite balconies are brought 
within speaking distance, or near enough to 
exchange bouquets and sugar-plums. The street 
beneath is densely filled with carriages and foot 
passengers, and all are brought so close to- 
gether as to act and react upon each other. 
The sport does not last through the whole of 
each day, but only from about 2 o'clock till 
dark, during the short days of February. Pieces 
of brilliant cotton, cloth, or silk, red, yellow, 
and blue, are hung over the balconies, while 
innumerable streamers of the same hues flut- 
ter in the breeze. Far as the eye can reach, 
the balconies are crowded with spectators, 
many of them beautiful and gayly dressed 
women. The course below is thronged with 
two rows of carriages, moving in opposite 
directions and filled with gay parties; while 
crowds of pedestrians mingle among the vehi- 
cles, clad in every variety of costume that fancy 
can suggest, masked, and playing every imagi- 
nable prank within the bounds of decency. 
Meanwhile all engage in pelting each other 
far and near with flowers, bonbons, and con- 
fetti. For some time before the carnival be- 
gins flowers are brought into Rome in exhaust- 
less profusion, costly bouquets of hot-house 
flowers being ranged side by side with the 
wild growth of the Campagna. The bonbons 
are not so abundant, but still are used exten- 
sively; while the confetti, which are nothing 
but pellets of lime about the size of a pea, are 
scattered in myriads, and cover those attack- 
ed from head to foot with lime dust. Every 
day of the masquerade the Corso becomes more 
crowded and more animated, till on the last 
the number and spirit of the masks, the skir- 
mishes of bonbons and lime dust, and the shouts 
and enthusiasm of all, surpass description. Of 
the mass who elbow one another through the 
crowded streets, the greater part are in tlieir 
ordinary garb, though disguises are common 
enough not to attract any particular notice. 
Among the most usual masks are punchinellos, 
harlequins, and pantaloons. Some of the masks 
carry an inflated bladder on the end of a stick, 
with which they deal noisy but harmless blows. 
Besides carriages such as are seen every day, 
many are put together for the occasion merely, 
and consist of framework renting upon wheels, 
and made to assume variouk shapes, such as 
ships or moving forests. E\ery day of the 
masquerade there is a race by spirited horses, 
but without riders. About 6 o'clock prepara- 
tions begin for the running of these animals. 
Mounted dragoons trot up and down the Corso, 



the carriages are withdrawn into by-streets, 
and pedestrians alone are left. Meanwhile 
the horses which are to run have been brought 
to the starting point in the piazza del Popolo. 
Each one is held by his groom in a showy 
uniform, and they are kept within bounds until 
the hour for starting arrives by a rope stretched 
across the Corso. They are goaded on in the 
race by metal balls full of sharp points, which 
are fastened to their trappings. The goal is 
formed by a piece of cloth suspended across 
the street near the Venetian palace, at the 
Ripresa de' Barberi, so called from Barbary 
horses being the original racers. At this point 
the judges are assembled to decide upon the 
race. Goethe, who visited Rome in 1788, says 
that carriages were then allowed to remain in 
the Corso, and their presence rendered it so 
narrow that horses often dashed themselves 
against the wheels and were instantly killed. 
Of late years, the celebration of the carnival 
in Rome has lost much of its ancient splendor 
and interest. 

( AKMVORA (Lat. cro, gen. carnis, flesh, and 
roro, to eat), an order of mammals which feed 
upon flesh, as distinguished from the herlivora, 
or vegetable feeders. This order has been di- 
vided into various groups by different authors, 
some including in it the cheiroptera and insecti- 
vora, and others limiting it to the following five 
families, which agree in their most essential 
characters, viz. : ursidce, or bears ; mustelidcB, or 
weasels ; canidce, or dogs ; felidce, or cats ; and 
phocidce, or seals. The bears constitute the 
plantigrades, the seals the pinnigrades, and the 
other three the digitigrades, according as the 
whole foot or only the toes touch the ground, 
or as the extremities are modified into fin-like 
paddles. The felida are the most truly car- 
nivorous, and constitute the type of the order ; 
and in them the large canine teeth, sharp re- 
tractile claws, and great strength and agility 
indicate a special formation for the pursuit and 
destruction of living prey. The skeleton ex- 
hibits the modifications adapted for the manner 
of life in the shape of the bones, tlieir articu- 
lations, and proportions. In the felidce the 
spine is flexible, yet strong, with a large devel- 
opment of the lumbar portion ; the ribs are 
narrow and far apart, the limbs long and afford- 
ing the greatest freedom of motion, and the 
skull short and broad. In the weasels the 
spine is lengthened in accordance with the 
habits of these prowling creatures. In the bears 
the foot is placed wholly on the ground, and 
the shortness of the lumbar region of the spine 
adds to the firmness and strength of limb re- 
quired in these less carnivorous animals. In 
the seals the posterior limbs are extended back- 
ward into two horizontal fins, the anterior also 
serving in addition for a limited progression on 
land. The cranium is remarkable for the short- 
ness and strength of its facial or tooth-bearing 
portion, and for the crests and large fossae for 
the accommodation of the powerful muscles 
of mastication ; in the cats the tentorium cere- 



CARNIVORA 



11 



belli is bony, evidently to protect the brain 
during the sudden movements of leaping upon 
their prey, and the whole bony structure is re- 
markably solid; the lower jaw is strong and 
short in proportion to the carnivorous propen- 
sity of the genus. The vertebrae of the neck 
are remarkable for the size of the first two ; the 
dorsals and the number of ribs vary from 13 
(the jnost common) to 16 ; the lumbar verte- 
brae, always numerous in proportion to the 
leaping powers, vary from 4 to 7 ; the sacrum 
is composed of several vertebrae, and in the 
bears is remarkably broad, for the support of 
the body in their frequently erect position ; the 
tail is the longest in the most active species, as 
in the lion and the panther. The shoulder 
blade is flat and broad ; the clavicle, when not 
entirely wanting, is quite rudimentary ; the 
humerus is arched, short, and strong ; the bones 
of the forearm have but little motion on each 
other, except in the ursidce, and the ulna is 
generally placed behind the radius, both of 
them in the seals being broad and flat ; the me- 
tacarpus is much larger in the digitigrades than 
in the plantigrades. The retractile claws of the 
felidce are described in the article OAT, in which 
family they are most developed. The pelvis is 
short, and its bones broad and flat ; the thigh 
bone is moderately long, and directed immedi- 
ately downward, except in the seals, in which 
its direction is outward. The bones of the leg 
are generally separate ; the tarsus consists of 
the usual five bones, but the tuberosity of the os 
calcis is quite long and strong ; the inner meta- 
tarsal bone in the cats and dogs is merely rudi- 
mentary ; in the weasels the inner toe is small, 
in the cats wanting, and in the plantigrades in 
the same range as the others ; in the planti- 
grade foot everything is arranged for slow and 
steady walking, in the digitigrade for leaping 
and tearing, and in the pinnigrade for swim- 
ming. The muscles in this order, especially of 
the jaws, neck, and anterior extremities, are 
enormously large and powerful. In the typical 
carnivora, the incisor teeth are small, and placed 
in the intermaxillary bone ; the canines, situa- 
ted above, at the junction of the intermaxilla- 
ries with the superior maxillaries, are strong, 
long, and cutting, slightly curved, and admira- 
bly adapted for tearing their prey ; the cheek 
teeth have cutting edges, the lower shutting 
within the upper like the blades of scissors, and 
are provided with sharp triangular processes ; 
the teeth are arranged in a short space, and 
their action is rendered more efficacious by the 
shortness of the whole jaw, and by the simple 
hinge-like motion of the lower jaw ; in the seals 
the canines are much smaller, but the cheek 
teeth are furnished with numerous sharp points 
for the purpose of holding the slippery and 
scaly fish upon which they feed ; in the bears 
the jaws are much longer, and the molars are 
flattened and tubercular, indicating the far less 
carnivorous propensities of this family. The 
carnivora, in proportion to their approach to 
the typical felidce, whose food when swallowed 



is so like their own tissues that it is ready for 
speedy assimilation, have a short intestinal ca- 
nal ; in the lion it is but three times the length of 
the body, and has very few internal folds, and a 
very small caecum, while in man it is five times 
as long, in the horse 10 times, in the sheep 28 
times ; such is the relation between the organs, 
that the form of the teeth indicates the charac- 
ter of the intestinal canal, the armature of the 
feet, the mode of progression, and very nearly 
the habits and mode of life of an animal. The 
lobes of the liver vary in number from four in 
the badger to eight in the lynx, without any 
apparent physiological reason; the hepatic 
ducts correspond in number to the lobes, and 
the common duct, before it enters the intesti- 
nal cavity, frequently receives a pancreatic 
duct ; the gall bladder is always present, and in 
the ursidce is of great size ; the pancreas and 
spleen do not differ, except in form, from these 
organs in other mammals ; the chyle is so noted 
for its opacity and whiteness, that the discov- 
ery of the lacteals was made in these animals 
long before they were seen in man. The car- 
nivora belong to the sub-class gyrencephala of 
Owen, in which the cerebral hemispheres are 
the largest developed (except in man), extend- 
ing over a portion of the cerebellum and the 
olfactory lobes ; in this arrangement they are 
next to the quadrumana or monkeys ; the hemi- 
spheres have well marked though simple con- 
volutions. The organs of sense are well devel- 
oped ; in the diurnal carnivora the pupil is 
round ; in the cats it is elongated vertically, 
and in a very bright light almost linear, but it 
is round in the dark, causing the brilliant tape- 
turn of the posterior arch of the choroid to ap- 
pear like a ball of fire ; the large size of the 
mastoid process, communicating with the cav- 
ity of the tympanum, indicates considerable 
acuteness of the sense of hearing, necessary for 
animals seeking their prey during the stillness 
of night ; the sense of smell, especially in the 
ccmidce, is very acute, and the pituitary mem- 
brane is extended greatly by means of the com- 
plicated convolutions of the turbinated bones ; 
the sense of taste is probably not very acute, 
and the tongue of the cats is covered in its mid- 
dle portion with horny spines, well calculated 
to tear the flesh from bones. The kidneys in 
some families, as in the bears and seals, are 
much subdivided, resembling a bunch of grapes; 
in the cats the divisions are hardly perceptible. 
In the civets and allied genera there are glan- 
dular follicles, which secrete a peculiar odorous 
substance, sometimes exceedingly fetid ; the 
glands are usually situated near the anus, and 
the excretory ducts open between the rectum 
and the genital organs. The testes are gener- 
ally pendulous and external, but in the seals 
they remain permanently within the abdominal 
cavity; the vesicuke seminales do not exist, 
but organs resembling the prostate and Cow- 
per's glands are generally found ; in almost all 
there is a bone in the penis, the hyaena forming 
an exception, it is said ; the teats are abdomi- 



12 



CARNOCHAN 



CARNOT 



nal, ranging from four in the lioness to ten in 
the bitch ; the placenta is zonular, surrounding 
the foetus. The geographical distribution of 
the carnivora is very extensive, but the largest 
and most destructive species are confined to 
the tropics of the old world ; the tiger is lim- 
ited to Asia, the lion to Asia and Africa, the 
cougar to America ; the largest bears frequent 
the arctic regions, and the largest seals the ant- 
arctic waters. The carnivora fulfil an impor- 
tant purpose in the economy of nature, by keep- 
ing in check the increase of the herbivorous 
animals, whose countless numbers would oth- 
erwise destroy vegetation, and thus cause their 
own and a general destruction. Cuvier asso- 
ciated under the name carnassiers the cheirop- 
tera, insectivora, carnivora, and marsupials; 
excluding the latter, which form a sub-class by 
themselves, many more recent authors adopt a 
somewhat similar classification. Prof. Agassiz, 
in his " Essay on Classification," divides mam- 
mals into three orders, marsupialia, herbivora, 
and carniwra, the last the highest in the scale. 
Prof. Owen divides his sub-class gyrencepJiala 
into the three primary divisions of mutilata 
(including the cetaceans), ungulata (pachy- 
derms and ruminants), and unguiculata (carni- 
vora and the monkeys), the last being the high- 
est in development; in the unguiculata, the 
sense of touch is more highly developed through 
the greater number and mobility of the digits, 
and the smaller extent of covering with horny 
matter ; in the carnivora he places the digiti- 
grades at the head, then the plantigrades, and 
lastly the pinnigrades ; and among the digiti- 
grades the felidcR are placed highest, whose 
retractile claws and long and narrow hind foot 
make them the most perfect and typical form 
of the carnivora. 

CARNOCIIAN, John Murray, an American sur- 
geon, born in Savannah, Ga., in 1817. His 
father, who was a Scotchman, sent him when 
a boy to Edinburgh. After graduating in the 
high school and university of that city, he re- 
turned to the United States, and entered the 
office of Dr. Valentine Mott of New York as a 
student of medicine. After taking his degree, 
he again visited Europe, and passed several 
years in attendance upon the clinical lectures of 
Paris, London, and Edinburgh. In 1 847 he com- 
menced the practice of his profession in New 
York. In 1851 he was appointed surgeon-in- 
chief of the New York state emigrant hospital. 
In 1852 he successfully treated a case of elephan- 
tiasis Arabum by ligature of the femoral ar- 
tery. In the same year he performed the 
operation of amputating the entire lower jaw, 
with disarticulation of both condyles. In\l854 
he exsected the entire ulna, saving the 6rm, 
with its functions unimpaired ; and subse- 
quently, in another case, removed the entire 
radius with equal success. In 1856 he per- 
formed for the first time one of the most start- 
ling and original operations on record, in ex- 
secting for neuralgia the entire trunk of the 
second branch of the fifth pair of nerves, from 



the infra-orbital foramen, as far as the foramen 
rotundum at the base of the skull. Amputa- 
tion at the hip joint he has performed several 
times ; once in 1864, after the battle of Spott- 
sylvania. Among his more recent operations 
are the ligature of both common carotid ar- 
teries in a case of elephantiasis of the head, 
neck, and face ; the ligature of the common 
carotid on one side, and of the external carotid 
on the other, for hypertrophy of the tongue ; 
and the tying of the femoral artery for vari- 
cose veins of the leg and thigh. He has also 
been successful in the removal of large ovarian 
tumors. From 1851 to 1863 Dr. Carnochan 
was professor of the principles and operations 
of surgery in the New York medical college, 
and published his lectures on partial amputa- 
tions of the foot, lithotomy, and lithothrity, and 
also a " Treatise on Congenital Dislocations " 
(New York, 1850), and "Contributions to 
Operative Surgery" (Philadelphia). He has 
translated SedUlot's TraitS de medecine opera- 
toire, bandages et appareils, and Karl Rokitan- 
sky's Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie. 
From 1870 to 1872 he was health officer of the 
port of New York. 

CARNOT. I. Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, a French 
statesman and tactician, born at Nolay, Bur- 
gundy, May 13, 1758, died in Magdeburg, Prus- 
sia, Aug. 2, 1823. "When only 18 he was made 
a second lieutenant of engineers; two years 
later he was first lieutenant ; in 1783 captain, 
in which year he wrote an essay on aerial navi- 
gation and a eulogy of V auban, which brought 
him into controversy with Gen. Montalembert, 
who caused him to be arrested and confined in 
the Bastile. He had also published about the 
same time an Essai sur les machines, in which 
he demonstrated a new theorem upon loss of 
motive power, which Arago declared to be one 
of the greatest and most useful discoveries of 
the age. He did not at first actively partici- 
pate in the revolution, although he submitted 
to the national assembly a memoir with a view 
to a restoration of the finances. In 1791 he 
was elected deputy to the legislative assembly 
by the department of Pas-de-Calais, and de- 
voted himself assiduously to his new duties. 
As a member of the committee on military 
affairs, he greatly contributed to the adoption 
of the decree ordering a large addition of forces 
to the national guard ; and it was in accord- 
ance with his report that, for want of muskets, 
the new guards were armed with pikes. The 
efficacy of these weapons was soon tried, Aug. 
10, 1792, in the assault against the Tuileries. 
In the following month he was elected to the 
convention, and was present on the trial of 
Louis XVI. ; his vote was recorded in these 
words : " In my opinion, both justice and good 
policy require the death of Louis ; but I must 
confess that never a duty so heavily weighed 



upon 



my heart as the one that is now incumbent 
>n me." He was neither a Girondist nor a 



montagnard, but upon the fall of the former 
party he did not hesitate to side with the lat- 



CARNOT 



13 



ter. In August, 1793, he entered the commit- 
tee of public safety. The armies were demor- 
alized ; there were no funds, no provisions ; 
enemies had invaded France in every direc- 
tion ; the insurgent Vendeans were success- 
ful ; the city of Lyons kept at bay the be- 
sieging army; and Toulon had been just de- 
livered into the hands of the English. Carnot 
went boldly to work, and succeeded so well 
that his fellow citizens declared emphati- 
cally that he had " organized victory." He 
proved himself to be not only a skilful ad- 
ministrator, but a strategist of the highest 
ability. The 14 armies created by the rising 
en masse of the nation cooperated under his 
orders in the execution of a well devised plan ; 
they were placed under the command of new 
generals able to understand the projects of the 
directing mind, and defeats were soon suc- 
ceeded by brilliant victories. Carnot some- 
times repaired in person to the weakest or 
most exposed point to watch the operations, 
and to inspire the troops with his ardor and 
confidence. A victory was won at Wattignies, 
which forced the prince of Coburg to retreat; 
Toulon was retaken from the English; the 
Vendeans were defeated and almost destroyed ; 
and the Austrian army was expelled from 
France. As a member of the committee of 
public safety, Carnot, being entirely absorbed 
in the performance of his especial duties, left 
the interior administration in the hands of his 
colleagues, and was scarcely aware of the atro- 
cities which were perpetrated in the name of 
the committee. Thus he did not participate 
in the revolution of the 9th Thermidor; but 
after the fall of Kobespierre he energetically 
defended his colleagues, Collot-d'Herbois, Bil- 
laud-Varennes, and Barere, charged with be- 
ing the accomplices of the man in whose over- 
throw they had been instrumental. Carnot 
was on the point of being arrested, and was 
only saved by Bourdon de 1'Oise exclaiming, 
" This is the man who has organized victory." 
After the 1st Prairial, 1795, he was again 
threatened with impeachment, and was obliged 
to leave the committee and give up the man- 
agement of war affairs, which he had held for 
nearly two years. On the establishment of 
the directory, he was elected representative 
by 14 departments at once, and took his seat 
in the council of 500. Being appointed one 
of the five directors, he resumed his previous 
office and planned the admirable campaign of 
1796, the success of which was secured in Italy 
by Bonaparte. After the coup d'etat of the 
18th Fructidor, Carnot was condemned to 
transportation, but escaped to Switzerland, and 
afterward to Germany, where he wrote a me- 
moir to vindicate his conduct. After the 18th 
Brumaire he returned to France, and was ap- 
pointed minister of war in 1800; but being 
unable to agree with Bonaparte, he resigned. 
In 1802 he was elected to the tribunate, where 
he voted against the establishment of the le- 
gion of honor, the consulate for life, and espe- 



cially the empire. On the suppression of the 
tribunate he retired to private life, and resumed 
his scientific pursuits. But in January, 1814, 
he addressed a letter to Napoleon, proffering 
his services: "I staid away as long as you 
were prosperous ; now that misfortune has 
come, I do not hesitate to place at your dis- 
posal what little ability I may still possess." 
Napoleon at once intrusted him with the com- 
mand of Antwerp. For years the supreme di- 
rector of military affairs, he had gained no ad- 
vancement in the army, and was still merely a 
major. Napoleon had to promote him to the 
rank of general, passing him through all the 
intermediate degrees at once. He defended 
Antwerp until the treaty of Paris, April, 1814, 
and returned to the capital, where he published 
a Memoire au roi, full of liberal opinions and 
wise advice. On Napoleon's return from Elba, 
he appointed Carnot minister of the interior, 
which post he held for three months, during 
which he received the title of count of the 
empire, but never bore it. After the rout of 
Waterloo he almost alone preserved his self- 
possession, and suggested energetic measures, 
which were not adopted. " I have known you 
too late," said Napoleon on his departure. A 
member of the provisional government, his 
honesty was not a match for Fouche's shrewd- 
ness. On the second restoration he was again 
outlawed, and retired to Warsaw, then repaired 
to Madgeburg, where he died. His writings 
are numerous ; besides his various political pa- 
pers, he left disquisitions of great interest on 
several points of science, especially on fortifica- 
tion. A biography of Carnot was published by 
D. F. Arago (Paris, 1837). II. Lazare Hippolyte, 
a French statesman, son of the preceding, born 
at St. Orner, April 6, 1801. He was of liberal 
opinions, became a disciple of St. Simon, and 
wrote the Exposition generate de la doctrine 
Saint Simonienne, the authorship of which 
was, with his consent, ascribed to Bazard. But 
as soon as St. Simonism assumed the form of a 
religious creed, Carnot parted with his friends, 
and became a journalist, and the chief editor 
of the Revue encyclopedique. He was also in- 
trusted with the publication of Gregoire's and 
Barere's Memoires. He was elected to the 
chamber of deputies in 1839, and reflected in 
1842 and 1846. After the revolution of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, he was minister of public instruc- 
tion till July 5, and improved the condition of 
the teachers, rendered the normal schools free, 
and established free lectures. In 1848 he was 
elected to the constituent, and on March 10, 
1850, to the legislative assembly. After the 
coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he left France; 
during his absence he was elected a member 
of the corps legislatif, but refused to take the 
oath. He was reflected in 1857, but again re- 
fused to serve. In 1863 he was elected from 
Paris, and took his seat. He was again a can- 
didate in 1869, but was defeated by Gambetta. 
In 1861 he commenced the publication of Mi- 
moires sur Carnot, par sonfils. 



CARNUNTUM 



CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA 



CARNUNTCM, an ancient Celtic town in the N. 
part of Pannonia, on the Danube, near where 
Hainburgnow stands, 26 m. E. of Vienna. It was 
an important military pass under the Romans, 
who made it at one time a station for their fleet 
on the Danube, and raised it to the position of 
a municipium according to some inscriptions, 
of a colony according to others. During the 
wars with the Marcomanni and Quadi it was 
for three years the residence of Marcus Aure- 
lius, who here composed a part of his "Medi- 
tations." It was destroyed by the Germans in 
the 4th century, was afterward rebuilt, became 
once more a Roman military station, and was 
finally destroyed during the wars with the 
Magyars in the middle ages. Its remains are 
very extensive. 

CAROLAN, or O'Carolan, Turtongh, an Irish 
bard, born in the county of Westmeath in 
1670, died in 1738. Having lost his sight 
when a child, he remained blind for the rest 
of his life ; but having learned to play on the 
harp, he became famous for his musical and 
poetical genius, and is still remembered as the 
last and greatest of the Irish bards. 

CAROLINA. See NOBTH CABOLINA, and SOUTH 
CAROLINA. 

CAROLINA MARIA, queen of Naples, daughter 
of the emperor Francis I. of Austria and Maria 
Theresa, born in Vienna, Aug. 13, 1752, died 
at Schonbrunn, Sept. 8, 1814. In 1768 she 
was married to Ferdinand IV., king of Na- 
ples, over whom she exercised great influence, 
which led to fatal results, especially when, in 
1784, she prevailed upon the king to appoint 
her favorite Joseph Acton prime minister. A 
great share of the odium of Acton's unwise 
measures fell upon the queen. In 1798 Ferdi- 
nand, at the instigation of Carolina, declared 
war against the French republic; but after the 
defeat of the Austrian army under Mack, the 
French marched upon Naples, and the royal 
family were compelled to fly to Sicily, and to 
put themselves under British protection. Car- 
dinal Rutfo's agitation in Calabria against the 
French and the Neapolitan republicans per- 
mitted the king to return to Naples in 1709 ; 
but here new intrigues were opened by Caro- 
lina, who on this occasion had the pernicious 
assistance of Lady Hamilton. In 1805 Caro- 
lina joined the coalition against Napoleon, but 
notwithstanding the assistance given to Naples 
by Russia and England, she and her husband 
were again expelled from their dominions. 
She went to Vienna in 1811, and died before 
the restoration of Ferdinand IV. to the throne. 
She was notoriously ambitious of political 
power, which, however, she was unable to 
manage, although possessed of some ability. 

CAROLINE. I. An E. county of Maryland, 
bordering on Delaware, intersected by the 
Choptank and Marshy Hope rmtrs, and bound- 
ed N. E. by Tuckahoe creek ; area, 300 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 12,101, of whom 3,758 were 
colored. The surface is flat and the soil sandy. 
The Maryland and Delaware railroad passes 



through the N. part, and the Dorchester and 
Delaware railroad touches the S. E. corner. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 130,728 
bushels of wheat, 342,971 of Indian corn, 37,- 
948 of oats, 27,302 of Irish and 17,141 of sweet 
potatoes, 98,591 Ibs. of butter, and 9,397 of 
wool. There were 2,155 horses, 2,283 milch 
cows, 3,126 other cattle, 2,826 sheep, and 
6,672 swine. Capital, Denton. II. An E. 
county of Virginia, bounded N. by the Rappa- 
hannock, and intersected by the Mattapony; 
area, 480 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,128, of whom 
8,038 were colored. The surface is diversified, 
and the soil of the river bottoms is good. The 
Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac rail- 
road passes through it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 63,462 bushels of wheat, 214,968 
of Indian corn, 30,194 of oats, and 417,848 Ibs. 
of tobacco. There were 1,208 horses, 1,733 
milch cows, 2,129 other cattle, 1,900 sheep, 
and 4,607 swine. Capital, Bowling Green. 

CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA, queen of Eng- 
land, daughter of Duke Charles William Ferdi- 
nand of Brunswick and the princess Augusta 
of England, born May 17, 1768, died Aug. 7, 
1821. In 1795 she married her cousin, the 
prince of Wales, but in the ensuing year, after 
she had borne him a daughter (Charlotte), the 
prince, who had married her reluctantly, sepa- 
rated from her, and Caroline retired to a resi- 
dence at Blackheath. Looked upon as the 
victim of a profligate husband, her position 
excited much sympathy from the people at 
large, but at the same time subjected her to 
serious charges on the part of her enemies. In 
1808 George III. instituted an inquiry into her 
conduct, which absolved her from any positive 
dereliction of duty, but without acquitting her 
of improprieties of conduct. In 1814 she re- 
ceived permission to visit her native town and 
to travel in Italy and Greece, and subsequently 
resided chiefly. in a villa on the lake of Como. 
Her relations with Bergami, an Italian con- 
nected with her" household, who accompanied 
her in her travels, gave rise to a new series of 
rumors disparaging to her honor. On Jan. 29, 
1820, her husband ascended the throne as 
George IV., when a pension of 50,000 was 
offered her on condition that she should never 
return to England. She rejected this offer, 
and arrived in England in June of the same 
year, the people, who never withdrew their 
sympathies from Caroline, receiving her with 
enthusiasm. A charge of adultery was brought 
against her by the king before the house of 
lords, which, as partisan feelings were blended 
with the intrinsic interest of the case, created 
the greatest excitement in England. The house 
of lords, by a majority of 108 against 99, 
passed a bill of pains and penalties intended to 
apply to her case ; but public opinion was so 
strongly in her favor that the prosecution was 
abandoned by the government. Brougham, 
who was her counsel, hinted significantly that 
if the charge was pressed the defence could 
prove the marriage of the king with Mrs, 



CAKOLINE ISLANDS 



GABON 



15 



Fitzherbert, which hy the law would have ex- 
cluded him from the throne. The queen re- 
mained in undisputed possession of her rank 
and title. She, however, was deeply affected 
at the result of the trial, and the moral shock 
received on this occasion accelerated her death. 
The humiliation of seeing the doors of West- 
minster ahbey shut against her, when in July, 
1821, she presented herself to attend the coro- 
nation of George IV., was the last blow dealt 
to her before she died. Her funeral gave rise 
to disturbances at London and Brunswick, the 
people attributing her death to her opponents. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, or New Philippines, an 
archipelago of Oceania, between the Philip- 
pines, the Ladrones, the Marshall islands, and 
Papua. They lie between lat. 3 and 12 N. 
and Ion. 135 and 165 E. ; area, 1,000 sq. m. ; 
pop. about 28,000. They are divided into 
numerous groups. The westernmost of these, 
the Pelew, consists of seven large and a num- 
ber of small islands, all of coralline formation. 
They are generally flat, and afford no secure 
anchorage. N. E. of these is the group of Yap, 
the principal island of which is mountainous 
and rich in precious metals. The islands of 
Egoi, resembling the Pelew in surface and for- 
mation, lie E. of Yap; they are fertile and 
partly inhabited. Other groups are the Swede 
islands, the Ltitke, and the Seniavin islands. 
The easternmost island, called Ualan, is 24 m. 
in circumference, and has abundant supplies of 
water, fruit, and fish. The climate is mild and 
agreeable. The inhabitants, most of whom are 
of the Malay race, are generally fishermen, 
and make excellent sailors. The Carolines 
were discovered in 1543 by Lopez de Villa- 
lobos, and were named in honor of Charles V. 
Nominally they belong to Spain and form 
part of the government of the Philippines, but 
they have no Spanish settlements. 

CAROLINE MATILDA, queen of Denmark, 
daughter of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, 
and sister of George III. of England, born 
July 22, 1751, died at Celle, May 10, 1775. 
She married in 1766 Christian VII., king of 
Denmark, and in 1768 became mother of 
Frederick VI. She endeared herself to all 
around her, excepting the queen dowager, 
Sophia Magdalen, and Juliana Maria, the king's 
stepmother, who were jealous of her influence, 
and treated her with marked hostility. Their 
dislike to the young queen assumed a still 
more formidable character when Struensee, 
the physician and special favorite of the queen, 
rose to supreme power in Denmark, and in 
concert with his royal mistress acted with the 
liberal party, while the queen dowager and 
Juliana Maria were partisans of the old Danish 
aristocracy. At the same time grave imputa- 
tions were cast by them upon the queen's honor. 
In 1771 she was delivered of a daughter; and 
her enemies, calling attention to the long ill- 
ness and feebleness of the king, attributed the 
child to the illicit connection with Struensee. 
The ruin of the queen and her favorite was re- 
156 VOL. iv. 2 



solved upon by the queen dowager and her 
party, and on the night of Jan. 16, 1772, du- 
ring a ball at the court, the agents of the queen 
dowager's party so wrought upon the fears of 
the weak Christian as to induce him to sign 
orders for the arrest of the queen, her favorite, 
and several of their partisans, and to appoint 
their most violent enemies to the principal 
offices of state. Struensee and the queen were 
immediately taken into custody. The minister 
and his friend Brandt were sentenced to death, 
and Caroline with her little daughter (the 
future duchess of Augustenburg), barely es- 
caping the same fate, were consigned to Kron- 
borg castle. But for Lord Keith, the British 
minister at Copenhagen, more stringent meas- 
ures would have been taken against her ; as it 
was, a separation from her husband King 
Christian (who by his semi-idiotic condition had 
long since ceased to possess any personal influ- 
ence) was agreed upon, and Celle in Hanover 
assigned to her as a place of residence, where 
she died after a few years. A monument has 
been erected to her in Celle! Lenzen pub- 
lished a book on her last hours, containing the 
celebrated letter written by the queen to her 
brother George III., in which she asserts her 
innocence. See also Die Versckworung gegen 
die Konigin Karolina Mathilde und die Graf en 
Struensee und Brandt, nach bisher ungedruck- 
ten Originalacten (Leipsic, 1864). 

CARON, or Carron, Frandsens, a Dutch -navi- 
gator, perished by shipwreck off Lisbon in 1674. 
He was of a French Protestant family which 
had taken refuge in the Low Countries. He 
engaged when very young as assistant cook on 
board a vessel departing for Japan. During 
the voyage he applied his leisure to the study 
of arithmetic, and after his arrival in Japan 
learned the native language. This acquisition 
rendered him especially useful to the Dutch 
East India company, and he became director 
of their commerce with Japan, and a member 
of their council. Colbert was at this time 
striving to give to France some importance in 
the commerce of the East Indies, and sought 
among foreigners men capable of seconding his 
views. In 1666 Caron^accepted letters patent 
appointing him director general of the French 
commerce in India, other Dutch and French 
merchants being joined with him with the 
same title. Caron arrived at Madagascar in 
1667; but, finding the French offices at that 
island in hopeless confusion, it was decided not 
to remain there. He departed for Surat, and 
began operations there with good success. 
Several of his subsequent plans and operations 
proved unfortunate, and his imperious and 
avaricious character excited many enemies 
against him at court. The minister was con- 
strained to recall him ; and, that Caron might 
not suspect the hostile motive, it was pretended 
to him that his advice was needed with refer- 
ence to new enterprises. He embarked for 
Marseilles, bringing with him a great amount 
of treasure ; but after he had passed the straits 



16 



CARON 



of Gibraltar, he was informed by a vessel 
which he met of the disposition entertained 
concerning him at court. He at once turned 
his ship about and directed his course to Lis- 
bon. He had already anchored in this port, 
when a heavy sea beat his vessel against a rock, 
and it went to the bottom with its passengers 
and cargo, one of his sons alone being saved. 
He wrote a " Description of Japan," published 
in 1636. 

CARON, Rene Edonard, a Canadian jurist and 
statesman, born in the parish of Ste. Anne 
Cote de Beaupr, Lower Canada, in 1800. He 
was educated at the seminary of Quebec and 
the college of St. Pierre, Riviere du Sud, and 
admitted to the bar in 1826. In 1827 he was 
elected mayor of Quebec, which office he filled 
till 1837. In 1841 he was appointed member 
of the legislative council for Lower Canada, of 
which body he was speaker from 1843 to 1847, 
and subsequently from 1848 to 1853. In 1841 
he entered into a correspondence with Mr. 
Draper, then at the head of the government of 
Canada, with a view of bringing into the cabi- 
net some French Canadians ; but the project 
was not favored by the real chief of the 
French Canadians, Mr. Lafontaine, and failed. 
Caron became a member of the Lafontaine- 
Baldwin administration in 1848, and aban- 
doned political life in 1853, becoming judge of 
the court of queen's bench, Lower Canada, in 
which the French civil and the English crimi- 
nal law are administered. This post he tem- 
porarily vacated in 1857, on receiving the ap- 
pointment of commissioner for codifying the 
laws of Lower Canada; and when this work was 
done he returned to his duties as judge. Be- 
ing superannuated for this office, Mr. Caron 
entered on the duties of lieutenant governor 
of Quebec in February, 1873, in the 73d year 
of his age. 

CAROOR, a town of British India, in the 
presidency of Madras, district of Coimbatoor, 
on the Ambrawutty river, near its junction 
with the Cavery, 38 m. W. N. W. of Trichi- 
nopoly, with which it is connected by railway. 
It contains about 1,000 houses, has near it a 
fort and a large temple, and has been in the 
possession of the British since 1760. 

CAROIGE, a town of Switzerland, on the left 
bank of the river Arve, in the canton and 1 m. S. 
of Geneva, with which it is united by a bridge ; 
pop. about 5,000. It contains a fine Roman 
Catholic and a Protestant church and a syna- 
gogue. Cotton, leather, and earthenware are 
manufactured here. Victor Amadeus III. of 
Sardinia founded the town in 1780, as a rival 
to Geneva. For a short time it was a re- 
sort of political refugees and a centre of the 
smuggling trade with France; tjut it declined 
in importance after the occupation of Geneva 
by French troops in 1 798. It ceased to be under 
Sardinian rule in 1816, and was assigned to 
Switzerland. One of the favorite roads from 
Geneva to the summit of the neighboring 
Mont Salere is by way of Carouge. 



CARP 

CAROVf , Friedrieh Wilhelm, a German philos- 
opher and publicist, born at Coblentz, June 
20, 1789, died in Heidelberg, March 18, 1852. 
He was an advocate, held some judicial offices, 
was made doctor of philosophy by the univer- 
sity of Heidelberg, and officiated for a short 
time as professor at Breslau. He was one of 
the founders of the Heidelberg Burschenschaft, 
and participated in the famous Wartburg fes- 
tival. He was afterward a member of the 
provisional German parliament of 1848. His 
most elaborate works are attacks on the Ro- 
man Catholic religion, and include Ueber die 
alleinseliginachende Kirche (2 vols., Frankfort, 
1826) ; Was heisst rdmisch-Jcatholische Kirche f 
(2d ed., Altenburg, 1847); Die Buchdrucker- 
kunst in ihrer weltgeschichtlichen Bedeutung 
(Siegen, 1843); and Ueber das sogenannte 
germanwche und sogenannte christliche Staatt- 
princip (1843). 

CARP, a malacopterygian fish, of the family 
cyprinidcB, genus cyprinus, having the body^ 
covered with large scales, a single elongated' 
dorsal fin, fleshy lips, small mouth, with a bar- 
bel at the upper part of each corner in the 
common species, and a smaller one above ; 
teeth in the pharynx, but none in the jaws ; 
branchial rays three ; the ventrals behind the 




Cyprlnus cnrpio. 



pectorals, without any connection with the 
bones of the scapular arch ; the second dorsal 
ray and the first anal serrated posteriorly ; the 
tail forked; 12 rows of scales between the 
ventral and dorsal fins. The C. carpio (Linn.) 
is of a golden olive-brown color above, yellow- 
ish beneath, and the fins dark brown. It in- 
habits the fresh-water lakes and streams of 
central and southern Europe, whence it has 
been spread by man over the northern parts. 
It is noticed by Aristotle and Pliny, but was 
not held in much estimation in ancient times ; 
it grows rapidly, lives to a considerable age, 
and is exceedingly prolific ; it seems to have 
been introduced into England about 300 years 
ago. Carps prefer quiet waters, with soft or 
muddy bottoms, spawning in May or June, i 
according to locality ; the food consists of lar- 
vffi of aquatic insects, worms, and soft plants, 
though they eat almost any vegetable food 
in artificial ponds. They are very tenacious 
of life, and will pass long periods, especially 
in winter, without food ; they afford but lit- 
tle sport to the angler, being very uncertain, 
and are difficult to take in nets. Their size 
varies from ^ to 2 feet, and their weight from 



CARPACCIO 



CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS 17 



1 to 18 Ibs. ; they are in season from October 
to April, and are generally considered excel- 
lent for the table. The common carp of Eu- 
rope has been introduced from France into the 
Hudson and other waters of New York. The 
gold fish, or golden carp, is the C. auratw 
(Linn.). The crucian carp (C. gibelio, Bloch) 
is of smaller size, and is considered by some 
the same as the C. carassius (Bloch). In this 
country the name of carp is erroneously ap- 
plied to some species of catastotmi* and luxilus, 
belonging to the same family of fishes. 

CARPACCIO, Vittore, a Venetian painter, born 
probably in Istria, died subsequently to 1519. 
Ho was a pupil and follower of Giovanni and 
Gentile Bellini of Venice, and in several of 
his efforts even surpassed the latter master. 
His best works belong to the period immedi- 
ately succeeding 1490, when he painted for the 
school of Sant' Ursula in Venice nine pictures 
illustrating scenes in the life of St. Ursula, 
which are now in the academy of Venice. An- 
other fine work was a " Presentation of Christ 
in the Temple," painted for the church of San 
Giobbe. He was an industrious and successful 
painter till 1515, when, owing to age or de- 
bility, his powers began rapidly to decline. 
He was fertile in invention, a master of per- 
spective, and earnestly impulsive in the con- 
ception and rendering of movement. Hence 
he preferred scenes of life and action, into 
which he could introduce ordinary objects and 
incidents, to purely religious subjects. He was 
an indifferent colorist. Such of his pictures as 
remain in Venice are more or less injured by 
damp and efforts to repair them. Fine speci- 
mens by him are in the galleries of Milan and 
Berlin and the Louvre. 

CARPJJA, among the ancient Greeks, a kind 
of mimetic dance peculiar to the ^Enianes and 
Magnetes, in Thessaly. It was performed by 
two armed men, one representing a plough- 
man and the other a robber, in the following 
manner : The laborer, laying aside his arms, 
begins to plough with a yoke of oxen, fre- 
quently looking around as if in alarm. When 
the robber at length appears, the ploughman 
snatches up his arms, and a fight begins for 
the oxen. The movements are rhythmical, 
and accompanied by the flute, and at last the 
victor takes away the oxen and plough for his 
reward. 

CARPANI, Giuseppe, an Italian dramatist and 
writer on music, born at Villalbese, near 
Milan, Jan. 28, 1752, died in Vienna, Jan. 22, 
1825. Educated for the law, he devoted him- 
self to literary pursuits, and produced a great 
number of plays and operas, partly translations 
and partly original. In 1792 he was editor of 
the Gazzetta di Milano, and wrote violent ar- 
ticles against the French revolution. He was 
obliged to leave the city after the invasion 
of the French, and went to Vienna, where he 
was appointed censor and director of the thea- 
tre. In 1809 he accompanied the archduke 
John in the expedition against Napoleon. 



Under the title of Haydine^ he published a 
series of curious and interesting letters on the 
life and works of Haydn the composer. These 
letters, published in a French translation as 
an original work, under the name of L. A. C. 
Bombet, by Beyle (Stendhal), gave rise to a 
great literary controversy, in which Carpani 
successfully vindicated his authorship. 

CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS, a mountain system 
in central Europe, encircling Transleithan Aus- 
tria on the N. W., N. E., and S., and separa- 
ting it from Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Galicia, 
Bukowina, and Roumania. The entire range 
forms a semicircle about 800 m. long, com- 
mencing at New Orsova, on the Turkish fron- 
tier, where it is separated from the N. offshoots 
of the Balkan range only by the Danube, and 
terminating on the same river in the lofty rock 
on which the castle of Presburg is situated. 
Its breadth, including branches on both sides 
of the Hungarian and Transylvanian frontiers, 
varies from 100 to 200 m. The highest emi- 
nences rise 8,000 or 9,000 ft. above the sea level. 
The loftiest peaks were formerly thought to be 
in the Transylvanian section, but recent meas- 
urements show that the Gerlsdorf and Lomnitz 
peaks of the Tatra range, in the Hungarian sec- 
tion, have a greater altitude. The highest parts 
of the whole Carpathian system consist of gran- 
ite. Sandstone and limestone are found at a low- 
er level, and basalt, porphyry, jasper, petrosilex, 
lava, obsidian, and numerous other, substances, 
the result of volcanic and aqueous action, are 
scattered among the lower ranges. No traces 
exist of recent volcanic eruption, though there 
is unquestionable evidence of the extensive 
agency of fire and water at some time. The 
Carpathians stand preeminent among the 
mountains of Europe in respect to mineral 
wealth. Nearly every metal is produced abun- 
dantly from their sides. There are rich mines 
of silver and gold at Kremnitz and at Schem- 
nitz in Hungary, and a gold mine at Nagy Ag 
in Transylvania, which is esteemed one of the 
richest in Europe. Iron, copper, lead, and 
mercury are also found in large quantities, and 
rock salt lies in immense deposits throughout 
both sections of the chain. The Carpathians 
present four zones of vegetation, rising suc- 
cessively. There is first the woody region, 
where the oak, beech, and chestnut thrive, 
which reaches to a height of more than 4,000 
ft. above the sea. Then the pinus abies, or 
Scotch fir, appears, and occupies a zone of 
1,000 ft. Tim is succeeded by the moss pine, 
which diminishes in size as the elevation in- 
creases, and at the height of 6,000 ft. appears 
only as a small shrub and in scattered patches. 
The open places of this region produce a few 
blue-bells and other small flowers. From the 
termination of the moss pine to the summit 
the mountains have a barren and dreary look, 
their conical peaks being of naked rock, or 
covered only with lichens ; yet even at these 
heights a straggling blue-bell or gentian may 
sometimes be found. None of the Carpathians 



18 



CARPATHUS 



CARPENTER 



are covered with perpetual snow. Small moun- 
tain lakes of great depth, called "eyes of the 
sea," are met with in various parts. Numerous 
passes intersecting these mountains facilitate 
communication between the countries lying 
at their base. The most remarkable and fre- 
quented of these are those of Teregova, lead- 
ing from Orsova to Temesvar ; of Vulcan, form- 
ing the valley in which the Schyl flows ; and 
of the Red Tower in a gorge formed by the 
Aluta, at the foot of Mt. Surul. All of these 
passes were formerly strongly fortified to pre- 
vent the entrance of the Turks into Transyl- 
vania, but several of them have nevertheless 
at various times been forced. (See HUNGABY, 
and TRANSYLVANIA.) 

CARPATHrS. See SCABPANTO. 

CARPEAl'X, Jean Baptist*, a French sculptor, 
born in Valenciennes, May 14, 1827. He stud- 
ied in Paris, obtained the prize of Rome in 1854, 
produced his first statue, a fisher boy, in 1859, 
and acquired reputation in 1863 by his group 
of Ugolino and his children, which was pur- 
chased by the government and attracted at- 
tention by a bold departure from classical mod- 
els. Conspicuous among his subsequent pro- 
ductions are a Neapolitan fisherman, in Baron 
Rothschild's gallery ; a girl with a shell, in pos- 
session of the duchess de Mouchy ; and many 
busts. In 1865 he executed for the Flora pa- 
vilion of the Louvre statuary exhibiting impe- 
rial France AS enlightening the world and pro- 
tecting agriculture and science. His subse- 
quent work representing dancing on the facade 
of the new opera house has been highly praised 
for its singular picturesqueness, and much cen- 
sured for violating the conventional rules of 
art ; and an unavailing attempt to damage it 
by corrosive ink was made soon after its ap- 
pearance, in the night of Aug. 27, 1869. 

CARPENTARIA, Golf of, the largest bay of Aus- 
tralia, deeply indenting the northern coast, be- 
tween lat. 10 40' and 17 30' S., and Ion. 137 
and 142 E. No settlement has yet been made 
on its coast. The name is derived from Peter 
Carpenter, who from 1623 to 1627 was gov- 
ernor general of the Dutch possessions in the 
East Indies. 

CARPENTER, Lant, LL. D., an English clergy- 
man, born at Kidderminster, Sept. 2, 1780, died 
April 5, 1840. He was of a nonconformist fam- 
ily, and at an early age was adopted and edu- 
cated by Mr. Pearsall, a relative of his mother. 
Designed for the ministry, he was sent in 1797 
to the Northampton academy. That school 
being temporarily discontinued, he was placed 
at Glasgow college. Leaving college in 1801 
without his degree, he spent some time in 
teaching, and as librarian of the Athenroum, 
Liverpool. While at the academy he became 
imbued with liberal religious views, and at 
Liverpool he allied himself with the Unitarian 
denomination, receiving several invitations to 
the pastoral charge of Unitarian congregations, 
and a call to a professorship in their college ^at 
York. In 1805 he finally accepted a call ti 



succeed Dr. Thomas Kenrick at Exeter, where 
he continued for 12 years. From Exeter he 
removed to the pastoral charge of the Unita- 
rian congregation at Bristol (1817), where he 
continued with a short interval until his death, 
which occurred by falling overboard between 
Naples and Leghorn, while on a tour for his 
health. His piety was of an eminently prac- 
tical turn. The instruction of children was 
an object of constant "interest, and he estab- 
lished Sunday schools among the children of 
Exeter and Bristol. Among his more impor- 
tant works are " An Introduction to the Geog- 
raphy of the New Testament," " Unitarianism 
the Doctrine of the Gospel," "Examination of 
the Charges against Unitarianism," "Harmony 
of the Gospels," and a volume of sermons. 

CARPENTER, William Benjamin, an English 
physiologist, son of the preceding, born in 
Exeter, Oct. 29, 1813. He was originally in- 
tended for an engineer, but graduated as doctor 
of medicine at Edinburgh in 1839. One of his 
earliest papers, published in the " Edinburgh 
Medical and Surgical Journal," was on the 
"Voluntary and Instinctive Actions of Living 
Beings ;" and in this and other early papers 
he laid the foundations of those views which 
he afterward developed more fully in his 
" Principles of General and Comparative Phys- 
iology, intended as an Introduction to the 
Study of Human Physiology, and as a Guide 
to the Philosophical Pursuit of Natural His- 
tory " (8vo, London, 1839). After receiving 
his diploma in Edinburgh, lie settled in Bris- 
tol, and became lecturer on medical juris- 
prudence in the medical school of that city. 
In 1843 and subsequent years he produced 
the "Popular Cyclopaedia of Science," em- 
bracing the subjects of mechanics, vegetable 
and animal physiology, and zoology. In 1844 
he was appointed professor of physiology in the 
royal institution, London, where he has since 
resided. In 1846 he published " Principles 
of Human Physiology," which reached a 7th 
edition in 1869. In 1854 a 4th edition of his 
" Principles of Comparative Physiology " was 
published, followed by the " Principles of 
General Physiology." These two works, with 
that " On Human Physiology," form three in- 
dependent volumes, comprising the whole 
range of biological science. The articles on 
the "Varieties of Mankind," the "Micro- 
scope," "Smell," "Taste," "Touch," "Sleep," 
"Life," "Nutrition," and "Secretion," pub- 
lished in the " Cyclopredia of Anatomy and 
Physiology," are also from his pen. Having 
written much as a popular disseminator, as 
well as an original investigator of science, he 
has been accused of being a plagiarist and 
mere compiler. In answer to this charge, he 
claims, in the preface to the 3d edition of his 
"General and Comparative Physiology," the 
following facts and doctrines as his own : 1. 
The mutual connection of vital forces, and their 
relation to the physical. This doctrine is fully 
developed in a paper on the "Mutual Rela- 



CARPENTER 



CARPET 



19 



tions of the Vital and Physical Forces," in the 
' Philosophical Transactions" for 1850. 2. 
The general doctrine that the truly vital ope- 
rations of the animal as well as the vegetable 
organism are performed by the agency of un- 
transformed cells, which was first developed in 
an "Essay on the Origin and Functions of 
Cells," published in the "British and Foreign 
Medical Review " for 1843. 3. The organic 
structure of the shells of mollusca, echinoder- 
inata, and Crustacea, of which a full account is 
contained in the " Reports of the British Asso- 
ciation " for 1844 and 1847. 4. The applica- 
tion of Von Baer's law of development from 
the general to the special to the interpretation 
of the succession of organic forms presented in 
geological time. 5. The relation between the 
two methods of reproduction, that by gemma- 
tion and that by sexual union, with the appli- 
cation of this doctrine to the phenomena of 
the so-called "alternations of generations;" 
first developed in the "British and Foreign 
Medico-Chirurgical Review " for 1848 and 
1849. 6. The relation between the different 
methods of sexual reproduction in plants ; first 
developed in the same periodical for 1849. 7. 
The application of the doctrine of reflex action 
to the nervous system of invertebrata, espe- 
cially articulated animals; first developed in 
the author's prize thesis, published in 1839. 8. 
The functional relations of the sensory ganglia 
to the spinal cord on the one hand, and to the 
cerebral hemispheres on the other. In 1856 
Dr. Carpenter published a work " On the Mi- 
croscope, its Revelations and its Uses," in which 
Le displayed the same industry, accuracy, and 
impartiality as in his other writings. Pie has 
also published several interesting papers on the 
fossil forms of the family of foraminifera, and 
" An Introduction to the Study of the Fora- 
minifera." He has been professor of medical 
jurisprudence in University college, London ; 
lecturer on general anatomy and physiology at 
the London hospital and school of medicine ; 
and registrar to the university of London. In 
1849 he gained the prize of 100 guineas offered 
for the best essay on the subject of " Alcoholic 
Liquors." This essay was published in 1850, 
and acquired great popularity among the ad- 
vocates of total abstinence. He was editor 
for many years of the "British and Foreign 
Medico-Chirurgical Review," and while thus 
occupied with writing he was also much 
engaged in lecturing. In 1872 he was pres- 
ident of the British association for the ad- 
vancement of science. Dr. Carpenter's more 
recent labors have been directed to the subject 
of submarine animal life, and the temperature 
and constitution of the oceanic waters at various 
depths, as indicated by the result of deep-sea 
dredgings. In 1868 he made an expedition, in 
a government vessel fitted for this purpose, to 
the waters between the north of Scotland and 
the Faroe islands ; in 1869 an expedition to 
the Atlantic ocean south and west of Ireland, 
and a second to the neighborhood of the Faroe 



islands; and he has since given a report of 
similar investigations in the waters of the 
Atlantic between Great Britain and Portu- 
gal, and in those of the Mediterranean. The 
results of these observations show that sub- 
marine animal life does not, as was formerly 
supposed, diminish rapidly at the depth of 100 
fathoms, and nearly disappear at 300, but that 
it is abundant at much greater depths ; living 
mollusks, crustaceans, and protozoa having 
been brought up by dredging from depths va- 
rying from 450 to 2,435 fathoms. He also 
found that in the North Atlantic, between the 
Hebrides and the Faroe islands, at from 400 to 
550 fathoms' depth, there are warm and cold 
areas, the former having a minimum tempera- 
ture of from 46 to 49 F., the latter from 32 
to 33f ; while the surface temperature is near- 
ly the same in both, namely, from 50 to 52. 
The deep waters of the Mediterranean, on 
the other hand, were found to have nearly a 
uniform temperature throughout, namely, be- 
tween 54 and 56^ F. The saltness and den- 
sity of the waters of the Mediterranean, also, 
were found to be greatest near the bottom, 
while in the Atlantic they are greatest at or 
near the surface. 

CARPENTRAS (anc. Carpentoracte), a city of 
France, in the department of Vaucluse, on the 
left bank of the Auzon, at the foot of Mont 
Ventoux, 15 m. N. E. of Avignon; pop. in 
1866, 10,848. It is surrounded by high walls 
and beautiful walks, has a large Gothic cathe- 
dral with a spire of the age of Charlemagne, 
a departmental college, and a public library 
with 28,000 volumes and many valuable manu- 
scripts. Under the Romans Carpentoracte was 
an important town of Gallia Narbonensis. 
Under Pope Clement V. in 1313 it was the 
seat of the holy see, to which with Avignon it 
belonged till 1791. From the 3d century till 
1801 it was the seat of a bishopric. 

CARPET, a sort of thick cloth, used princi- 
pally for covering the floors of apartments. 
In its place, at a very early period, straw, 
rushes, and other coarse materials were used. 
Improving upon this, the rushes were plaited 
into matting, which, though homely enough 
in appearance, served to promote warmth and 
comfort. In England, where wool was ob- 
tained in abundance, a kind of coarse woollen 
cloth was often seen upon the floors of the 
gentry. As late as the time of Queen Mary 
rushes were strewn on the floor of her presence 
chamber, though carpets had long before been 
introduced from the East. In Egypt their 
manufacture is traced back to a very remote 
period ; and in Persia and other Asiatic coun- 
tries the art, practised by the hand, had at- 
tained a high degree of excellence long before 
it was known in Europe. Purple carpets of 
great beauty were used at the banquets of the 
ancient Greeks, spread beneath their couches. 
The Babylonians, still earlier, ornamented 
their fabrics with figures of men and strange 
devices of fabulous creatures. These were 



20 



CARPET 



imported by the Greeks and Romans; and 
from what we know of the fabric, it appears 
to have been rather of the nature of tapestry 
than of what we now call carpets made by 
introducing tufts of woollen yarn into a warp 
stretched in a frame, which are held down by 
a woof passed over each tuft. Such is the 
method of carpet weaving now practised by the 
Asiatics, the stitches being made one by one by 
the slow and tedious operation of the fingers. 
Young girls acquire great skill hi this work, 
and their hands and eyes are soon trained to 
do it with ease and rapidity ; but by one of the 
modern machines 1,000 stitches are sooner 
made, than one by the hand process. In Per- 
sia whole families, and even tribes, are em- 
ployed in carpet weaving. These carpets are, 
however, of so small a size that they are little 
used. They are purchased by travelling mer- 
chants, who dispose of them to Europeans in 
Smyrna and Constantinople. These carpets 
are also woven by families, and no large manu- 
factory for them exists. They are in one piece ; 
the patterns are peculiar, and no two are ever 
made exactly alike. Their chief beauty con- 
sists in the harmonious blending of the colors, 
and in the softness of their texture, rendering 
them agreeable both to the eye and to the foot. 
In the process of manufacturing the weaver 
sits in front of the loom, and fastens to each 
thread of the warp a bunch of colored yarn, 
varying the color according to the pattern. 
The row being completed, he passes a linen 
weft through the web, and drives it well up, so 
that all the bunches may be securely fastened. 
In this way narrow breadths of carpet are 
made, which are afterward laid side by side 
and united, so as to form one large piece. The 
tufts are then pared of equal length, and being 
beaten down, the whole presents a smooth, 
even surface. Rugs are made in the same 
manner. In British India the manufacture 
of carpets is carried on to a great extent. In 
Benares and Moorshedabad costly carpets of 
velvet with gold embroidery are made. Silk- 
embroidered carpets are manufactured in va- 
rious places; the woollen ones principally at 
Masulipatam. For many years Europe received 
all her supplies of carpets from the East. The 
manufacture is said to have been introduced 
into Europe by the French in the reign of 
Henry IV. The manufactory now belonging 
to the French government, and still producing 
excellent fabrics, was established at Beauvnis 
in 1664 by Colbert, minister of Louis XIV. 
Another large factory was at Chaillot, a league 
from Paris, where the carpets were worked in 
the manner of the modern Wilton carpet. The 
first successful operations in England were at 
Mortlake, in Surrey, to which enterprise James 
I. contributed 2,676. In the middle of the 
18th century the business was much extended 
in different localities, and in 1757 a premium 
was awarded by the society of aVts to Mr. 
Moore for the best imitation Turkey^ carpets. 
This kind of carpet was afterward^ largely 



produced at Axminster, in Devonshire, made 
even more expensive than the real Turkey by 
the substitution of worsted for woollen yarn ; 
but the manufacture ceased here, and in 
Yorkshire also, many years ago. The other 
varieties of carpets in use, as the Kidder- 
minster or two-ply, called in this country the 
ingrain, the three-ply, the Venetian, Brussels, 
and Wilton, are all made by machinery. The 
ingrain, made with two sets of worsted warp 
and two of woollen weft, consists of two dis- 
tinct webs incorporated into each other at one 
operation, the warp threads passing from one 
to the other to bring the required colors to the 
surface. Each web, however, is a cloth of 
itself, which, if separated by cutting it from 
the other, would present a coarse surface like 
bnize. Two colors only are used to best ad- 
vantage in this kind of carpet, the introduction 
of more tending to give a striped appearance. 
The three-ply is also ingrained, the threads 
being interlaced to produce three webs, thus 
making a fabric of greater thickness and dura- 
bility, with the advantage of greater variety of 
color. The pattern, however, does not appear 
in opposite colors on the two sides in this, as 
it does in the two-ply. Great difficulty was 
experienced in applying the power loom to 
weaving this fabric ; in Europe the idea was 
wholly abandoned ; nnd in 1839 two-ply in- 
grains were woven at Lowell, Mass., only by 
the hand loom, at the rate of eight yards a day. 
At this time Mr. E. B. Bigelow of Boston im- 
proved the power loom so that he obtained 
with it from 10 to 12 yards a day, and after- 
ward by still further improvements so perfect- 
ed the machinery that the power loom is now 
wholly used, nnd with such economy of labor 
as to have greatly reduced the cost of car- 
pets, and extended their manufacture to meet 
the increased demand. The inventions of Mr. 
Bigelow have been so important in this branch 
of manufacture as to have given it an entirely 
new character ; and though their full descrip- 
tion would be too technical and detailed, a 
general account of those immediately connect- 
ed with this subject may properly be intro- 
duced. The object sought for was a loom 
which should make carpet fast enough to 
be economical, one which should make the 
figures match, nnd produce a good regular sel- 
vage, and a smooth, even face. The hand 
weaver can at any moment tighten the weft 
thread, if too loose after the shuttle hns been 
thrown, and so make the selvage regular ; if he 
finds by measurement that, by reason of the 
irregularity of the weft threads or the ingrain- 
ing, the figure is being produced too long or 
too short, he gives more or less force to the 
lathe in beating up ; and if he finds that the 
surface of the cloth is getting rough, he regu- 
lates the tension of the warps. In this way, 
by observation and the exercise of skill and 
judgment, he can approximate, and only ap- 
proximate, to the production of a good nnd 
regular fabric. In the first loom Mr. Bigelow 



CARPET 



21 



produced, he approximated more nearly than 
the hand weaver to a perfect match in the 
figure ; and this he effected by taking up the 
woven cloth by a regular and positive motion 
which was unerring, the same amount for 
every throw of the shuttle and beat of the 
lathe. As the weft threads are not spun regu- 
larly, and the weaving in of the warp threads 
and passing the different colors from the upper 
to the lower ply or cloth to produce, the figures 
require sometimes more and sometimes less to 
make a given length, he determined to regulate 
the delivery of the warps as required by their 
tension, thereby throwing the irregularities into 
the thickness, where they cannot be noticed, 
instead of into the length, where they would 
destroy the match of the figures. He accom- 
plished this by suspending a roller on the 
woven cloth, between the lathe and the roll- 
ers that take up this cloth, so that when the 
cloth was being woven too short, which in- 
dicates a deficient supply of warps, the roller 
would be elevated, and by its connection in- 
crease the delivery motion to give out more 
warps, and vice versa. Still this served only 
to prevent the further extension of a fault 
already incurred. The roller, to perfectly ac- 
complish its purpose, should have been applied 
to the unwoven warps, which seemed then 
impracticable ; for when the lathe beats up the 
weft, these must be rigid to resist the beat, and 
no Avay was apparent to make the roller sensi- 
tive to detect and indicate the amount taken 
up. The warps, moreover, are necessarily all 
rolled up on the warp beam with equal tension, 
and so can only be given out equally. The 
improvement was afterward perfected by Mr. 
Bigelow in the following manner : Each warp 
thread in the usual way passes through a loop 
called a mail, attached to a card suspended from 
the jacquard, and each card has suspended to it 
a weight, all the weights being equal. The two 
trap boards of the jacquard move simultane- 
ously, one up and the other down, and in these 
movements they catch or trap such of the cards 
(determined by the combination of cards) as 
are required to bring up the proper warp threads 
at each operation to produce the figure, leaving 
down such of them as are not required at that 
particular operation ; and when the two trap 
boards are on a level, and all the warp threads 
connected with them are in a horizontal line, and 
those not connected with them hang down with 
the suspended weights, the lathe beats up the 
weft thread, which lies between the warps that 
are in a horizontal line, at the same time exert- 
ing a force on the weft threads previously 
thrown, and beating them up more closely. 
Now, as the warp threads are all connected at 
one end with woven cloth, and at the other 
with the beam, it follows that those which are 
hanging down in a bent line will receive a 
greater proportion of the force of the beat of 
the lathe than the others ; and as all the warp 
threads in succession take this position, and all 
iave an equal weight, it follows that each suc- 



cessively receives the same pull at the time the 
lathe beats up ; thus the tendency to irregular- 
ity of surface from the varying lengths of warp 
threads taken up in ingraining is counteracted. 
The selvage was made smooth and even by a 
contrivance which regularly gave a pull to the 
weft thread after the shuttle was thrown. Mr. 
Bigelow at last, by these improvements and 
others which he introduced, brought the loom 
to average from 25 to 27 yards a day of two- 
ply, and from 17 to 18 yards of three-ply car- 
pet. His improved method of producing fig- 
ures that will match was afterward introduced, 
and patented in 1845. The same machinery 
was found to be applicable to the manufacture 
of Brussels and tapestry carpets, the weaving 
of which otherwise than by hand was before 
generally considered a mechanical impossibility. 
With the hand loom they were made at the rate 
of three or four yards per day ; but with the 
improved loom the production was increased to 
18 or 20 yards per day. The carpets, too, were 
made more exact in their figures, so that these 
perfectly matched, and their surface was smooth 
and regular. They surpassed, indeed, in their 
quality the best carpets of the kind manufac- 
tured in any other part of the world. The 
looms of Mr. Bigelow were introduced into 
factories built at Lowell, Mass., and Thompson- 
ville and Tariffville, Conn., for their use, and 
others were established at Clinton, in Worces- 
ter co., Mass., where carpets are now made 
to the annual value of about $1,000,000. 
Brussels carpet is so named from Brussels 
in Belgium, whence the style was introduced 
into England in the last century. It is made 
upon a ground of linen weft, which is con- 
cealed by the worsted threads that are in- 
terlaced with and cover it. The threads are 
commonly of five different colors. In the weav- 
ing these run the length of the web, and are so 
managed that all those required by the pattern 
are brought up together across the line of the 
carpet; before they are let down, a wooden 
instrument called a sword is passed through to 
hold up the threads ; this is replaced by a round 
wire, which, being at last removed, leaves a 
row of loops across the carpet. In a yard 
length the number of successive lifts of the sets 
of colors required is sometimes as many as 320, 
each of which forms a row of loops. Four 
colors must always lie beneath the fifth, which 
appears on the surface, and thus the carpet, 
with its linen weft too, is thick and heavy. 
The Wilton carpet, the moquette of the French, 
differs from the Brussels in the loops being cut 
before the wire is removed, a groove in the flat 
upper surface of the wire admitting of their 
being cut by passing a knife along the surface. 
The soft ends give the carpet a rich velvety 
appearance. In the imperial Brussels carpet the 
figure is raised above the ground of the pattern, 
and the loops of this are cut, but not those 
of the ground. Various methods have been 
devised of simplifying the processes of making 
Brussels carpet. Richard Whytock of Edin- 



22 



CARPET 



CARPOCRATES 



burgh introduced an ingenious plan of using 
threads dyed of the colors in the succession 
they would be required ; this was done before 
they were made into the warp, and by a system- 
atic arrangement, and thus a considerable pro- 
portion of the threads was dispensed with. 
His looms produce what are known as " patent 
tapestry and velvet pile" carpets. Another 
device is to weave the carpet in plain colors, 
and then print it with rollers or with blocks, 
after the method of calico printing. On ac- 
count of the thickness of the fabric, difficulty 
is experienced in introducing sufficient color 
without going over the work many times. In 
doing this, the difficulty is of course increased 
of retaining each color within its own exact 
limits. Rollers were first used; but a cheap 
kind of carpet is now produced at Manchester, 
England, by block printing. Felt carpets are 
also printed in colors in this country. Vene- 
tian carpets (which, by the way, were never a 
production of Venice) are made with a heavy 
body of worsted warp, which completely hides 
the woof; this should be an alternate shoot of 
worsted and linen yarn. The fabric admits of 
little variety of design. It is made in narrow 
widths for stairways and passages. The patent 
wool mosaic carpet is a novel manufacture car- 
ried on by Messrs. John Crossley and Sons, of 
Halifax, England- A strong, plain cloth is 
used as a ground; upon this a pile of warp 
threads, first arranged over and under parallel 
strips of metal, which are cut out, leaving the 
ends like those of a Wilton carpet, is placed 
and cemented with caoutchouc. If the threads 
were of different colors, stripes are produced, 
or the yarns may have been colored by "Why- 
tock's plan, or colored patterns may be obtained 
by another process in use. This method is 
principally applied to the production of small 
articles. Great Britain is the principal seat of 
the carpet manufacture of the world. The 
following table shows the exports of carpets 
from Great Britain to other countries in 1871 ; 
and from this it will be observed that, notwith- 
standing there are several million yards of 
carpets made yearly in the United States one 
company, at Lowell, Mass., producing 87,000 
yards per week more than 65 per cent, of the 
exports of British carpets come to this country : 



COUNTRIES. 


Ymnta. 


UK. 


Value. 


Russia 


198,075 


846.658 


184,900 


Germany 


821,919 


650.598 


ttdJMB 


Holland 


247,880 


418,280 


ii'H 4:C> 


Belgium 


161,095 


278,260 


1162-'0 


France 


,<W04:U 


607,760 


900,890 


Bpain 


818,086 


U8J86 


1.V5440 


Italy 


KMLfiat 


471,887 


219845 


Turkey; 


179,284 


271 406 


107075 


EjTVPt. 


61 925 


101 689 


52260 


Peru 


93581 


151768 


71 770 


Chill 


168548 


275 742 


128905 


Argentine Republic.. 
Australia 


104.084 
898405 


162.860 
611 125 


78,270 
287275 


Br. X. America 
United States 
Other Countries 


772,9(50 
6,8M2,4ft6 
446,784 


1,020.788 
11,469,178 
726,002 


459.-270 
5.438,190 
884^80 


Total 


10,957,453 


17 781,806 


8,242,066 











CARPI. I. A town of Italy, in the province 
and 9 m. N. N. W. of Modena, on the canal of 
Secchia; pop. about 5,000. It has a citadel, 
walls, a cathedral, several churches, and a semi- 
nary, and is the seat of a bishop. Silk culture 
and the manufacture of straw hats are the chief 
branches of industry. It was the principal 
town of the principality of Pico till 1530, when 
it was acquired by Modena. II. A fortified 
town of Italy, in the province and 28 m. S. E. 
of Verona, on the Adige; pop. about 1,200. 
In 1701, during the war of the Spanish suc- 
cession, the French were defeated here by 
Prince Eugene. 

CARPI, I'go da, an Italian painter nnd en- 
graver, born in Rome about 1486, died in the 
second quarter of the 16th century. He is 
chiefly known as the inventor of a species of en- 
graving on wood, which consists in the use of 
separate blocks for the dark shadows, the light 
shadows, and the demi-tints. His prints are 
slightly executed, but spirited. They are mostly 
from the works of Raphael and Parmigiano. 
Bartsch in his " Peintre-Graveur " describes 15 
prints attributed to Carpi. 

( AKI'IM, Giovanni dl Piano, an Italian Francis- 
can monk and traveller, born about 1220. In 
1246 he was sent with a company of several 
other Franciscans on a mission to the great 
khan of Tartary, to convert him to Christiani- 
ty if possible, or at least to induce him rather 
to employ his arms against the Saracens and 
Turks than against the Christians. Cnrpini 
travelled through Russia and along the shores 
of the Black sea, and finally reached the court 
of the Tartar monarch, in the region N. E. of 
the Caspian. He remained here a month or 
more, without apparently accomplishing much, 
and then set out on his return, which he effect- 
ed safely, though not without much suffering. 
He wrote an account of his journey in Latin, 
an abstract of which was published in the 
"Voyages and Discoveries" of Ilakluyt. He 
devoted the remainder of his life to preaching 
the gospel in Hungary, Bohemia, Norway, and 
Denmark, and died at an advanced age. 

CARPINO, a town of S. Italy, in the province 
of Capitanata, situated on Mt. Gargano, near 
Lake Varano, 22 m. N". E. of St. Severo; pop. 
about 6.000. including the whole commune. 
It contains several churches, and is situated in 
a region celebrated for picturesque scenery. 

CARPOCRATES, or Carpoeras, an Alexandrian 
theologian, of the Gnostic school, flourished 
under the reign of Hadrian in the 2d century. 
The fundamental Gnostic idea of a Supreme 
Being entirely disconnected with the affairs of 
the universe was the starting point of Carpo- 
crates. The demiurge, and the other finite 
spirits ruling over the material universe, were 
striving to keep humanity from unity with the 
supreme monad, to which it was constantly 
tending on account of its having been an origi- 
nal emanation from him. The preexistent state 
of the human soul was that period when it had 
been in perfect unity with the supreme monad. 



CARPZOV 



CARRACCI 



23 



The demiurge and ruling spirits have drawn 
it away from this union. One of their meth- 
ods of accomplishing it is by laws or religious 
duties and observances, such as self-denial and 
control of appetites and passions, and general 
humiliation and penances. This Gnostic anti- 
nomianism developed itself into a practical life 
of freedom from moral restraint, which Carpo- 
crates and his son Epiphanes took all pains to 
justify. The gratification of the appetites and 
passions became a duty, and salvation by Jesus 
was only attainable on the condition of perfect 
abandonment to an antinomian life. Jesus was 
simply a man of superior soul, who had the 
power to discern the real difficulty, and 
strength to achieve his own practical redemp- 
tion and point the way for others. Carpocrates 
and his followers rejected the gospels of Mat- 
thew and Luke, and the entire Old Testament, 
as the contrivance of the demiurge to keep 
men in subjection. They also denied the resur- 
rection of the body. 

CARPZOV, a family of learned Germans, said to 
be descended from a Spanish family named Oar- 
pezano, who were driven from their country by 
religious persecution at the beginning of the 1 6th 
century. The founder of the German family 
was SIMON CARPZOV, burgomaster of Branden- 
burg about 1550. His son JOACHIM reached a 
high rank in the Danish army, and died in 
1628; and another son, BENEDICT (1565-1624), 
was professor of jurisprudence at Wittenberg, 
chancellor of the dowager electress Sophie, 
and again professor. Benedict left five sons, 
one of whom, also named BENEDICT (1595-1666), 
acquired eminence as a jurist in Leipsic and 
Dresden, and his Practica nova, Rerum Crimina- 
lium (Wittenberg, 1635 ; new ed. by Bohmer, 
5 vols., Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1758) and other 
works exerted great influence on the judiciary 
in Saxony and other countries. His four 
brothers were likewise men of great erudition 
and piety, especially JOHANN BENEDICT (1607- 
'57), who was professor of theology and preach- 
er at Leipsic, and the author of Systema Theo- 
logies (2 vols., Leipsic, 1653) and other works. 
The latter had a son also named JOHANN BENE- 
DICT (1639-'99), a clergyman, who published 
De Pontificum Hebrceorum Vestitu and other 
critical works. Prominent among the brothers 
of the preceding were FRIEDRIOH BENEDICT 
(1649-'99), collaborator m Mencken's Ac to, Eru- 
ditorum, and SAMUEL BENEDICT (1647-1707), 
professor of poetry and chief chaplain of the 
court of Saxony. One of the latter's sons, 
JOHANN GOTTLOB (1679-1767), was in the front 
rank of the theologians of his day. He was pro- 
fessor of oriental languages at Leipsic (1719- 
'30), and superintendent at Lilbeck (1730-'67) ; 
and his works include Introductio in Libros 
Canonicos Bibliorum Veteris Testamenti Omnes 
(Leipsic, 1721), and Critica Sacra Veteris Testa- 
menti (1728). Among the later members of the 
family was JOHANN BENEDICT (1720-1803), 
who was successively professor of philosophy at 
Leipsic and of poetry and Greek philology at 



Helmstedt, and ended his life as an abbot after 
having taught theology. He occupied himself 
with philological labors, especially with gram- 
matical commentaries on the New Testament. 

(ARK, Dabney, a member of the house of bur- 
gesses of Virginia, born in 1744, died at Char- 
lottesville, May 16, 1773. He moved and elo- 
quently supported a resolution to appoint a 
committee of grievances and correspondence, in 
consequence of British encroachments, which 
was adopted, March 3, 1773. He married a 
sister of Jefferson, by whom he is described as 
a man of eloquence, judgment, and inflexible 
purpose, mingled with amiability. 

('AIMS, Sir Robert, British commissioner in 
New England, died at Bristol, June 1, 1667. 
He was appointed to that office by Charles II. 
in 1664, in conjunction with Nicolls, Cart- 
wright, and Maverick. In 1664 Nicolls and 
Carr captured New Amsterdam from the Dutch, 
and called it New York, in honor of the king's 
brother, the duke of York, afterward James II. 
Carr forced the Swedes and Dutch on the Del- 
aware into a capitulation. He returned to 
Boston in 1665, and in conjunction with his 
coadjutors assumed the government. 

CARRACCI. I. Ludovko, the founder of the 
Bolognese school of painting, born in Bologna 
in 1555, died there in 1619. His first master, 
Prospero Fontana, a Bolognese painter, so little 
appreciated his capacity that he advised him 
to adopt some other profession. His slowness 
of execution was so remarkable that his fellow 
pupils called him in ridicule the ox. From 
Bologna he went to Venice, and studied with 
Tintoretto. Subsequently he visited Florence 
and Parma, where he gave much attention to 
the works of Andrea del Sarto, Correggio, and 
Parmigiano. The object of these varied stud- 
ies was presently developed in the establish- 
ment of his school of painting, known as the 
eclectic school of Bologna. In this project he 
secured the assistance of his cousins Agostino 
and Annibale, who joined him in Bologna about 
1585. In a few years their school was over- 
flowing with pupils, "and all the others in Bo- 
logna closed. As the head of the academy, 
Ludovico resided chiefly at Bologna ; and his 
merit is more that of a teacher than of a pro- 
ductive artist. He has left many works at Bo- 
logna, including his fresco paintings in the pa- 
lazzi Magnani and Zampieri ; his series of scenes 
from the history of St. Benedict and St. Cecilia, 
in the convent of St. Michael at Bosco; an 
"Assumption of the Blessed Virgin," one of 
his best works ; and the " Birth of St. John the 
Baptist." He also painted many "Ecce Ho- 
mos " and "Pietas." II. Agostino, cousin of 
the preceding, born at Bologna in 1558, died in 
1601. He was the son of a tailor, was instruct- 
ed in the goldsmith's art, and afterward became 
an engraver. At the invitation of Ludovico 
he embarked in his project for founding a new 
school of art in Bologna, but first went through 
a course of studies at Bologna, Rome, Parma, 
and Venice. To Agostino were assigned tho 



CARRANZA 



CARRARA MARBLE 



most important and laborious duties. He pre- 
pared treatises on architecture and perspective, 
lectured on anatomy, and suggested subjects 
for composition, drawn from history or fiction. 
He also proposed and awarded prizes for de- 
signs, celebrating the victor's triumph with 
music and song. His early predilection for 
engraving never forsook him, and, although 
his designs were numerous, he finished fewer 
paintings than either of the other Carracci. 
Among the best specimens of his paintings are 
" St. Jerome receiving the Sacrament before 
Death," at Bologna, and the "Infant Hercules 
strangling the Serpents," in the Louvre. III. 
Annibale, brother of the preceding, born in Bo- 
logna in 1560, died in Rome in 1609. He was 
at first a tailor, but was instructed in painting 
by Ludovico, and afterward sent to Parma and 
Venice, where he devoted years to the works 
of Correggio and the great Venetian colorists. 
His style was founded on the eclectic principle 
adopted by Ludovico. He was an industrious 
painter, and the works of this period of his life 
are numerous. His contributions to the palazzi 
Magnani and Zampieri in Bologna, in which' he 
assisted Ludovico, were highly esteemed. In 
1600, by the invitation of Cardinal Farnese, he 
visited Rome, where, under the influence of 
Raphael and Michel Angelo, his style devel- 
oped itself in a new form. He was employed 
to paint for various churches in Rome, but his 
chief work is the series of frescoes of mytholo- 
gical designs in the Farnese palace, and particu- 
larly in the gallery, which occupied him eight 
years. At the commencement of this work he 
was assisted by Agostino ; but the intercourse 
between the brothers, when they were not 
under the influence of Ludovico, was always 
liable to be interrupted by jealousies and dis- 
putes, and Annibale was soon left to labor 
alone. When the work was at length com- 
pleted, the artist received only 500 crowns. 
Irritated by this parsimony, and enfeebled in 
health by long confinement, he repaired to 
Naples. The persecutions of the Neapolitan 
artists obliged him to return to Rome, where 
he died soon afterward. Besides the contribu- 
tions to the Farnese palace, which have been 
frequently engraved, "St. Roch distributing 
Alms," in the Dresden Gallery, a "Dead Christ 
supported by the Madonna," the " Resurrec- 
tion," at Bologna, and the "Three Marys" in 
the collection at Castle Howard, are among his 
most celebrated works. He was one of the 
first to practise landscape painting as a sepa- 
rate department of art. IV. Frenrtsro, brother 
of the preceding, born at Bologna in 1595, 
died in Rome in 1622. He studied painting 
with Ludovico, and attempted to establish a 
rival school in Bologna, over the door of which 
he caused to be inscribed "This is the true 
school of the Cnrracci." The project foiled. 

CARRANZA, Bartolome de, a Spanish prelate, 
born at Miranda in 1503, died in Rome, May 
2, 1576. He early gained distinction as pro- 
fessor of theology at Valladolid, and attended 



in 1546 the council of Trent as envoy of Charles 
V. He was subsequently tutor of Charles's son, 
afterward Philip II., whom he accompanied to 
Winchester in 1554, on his marriage to Mary 
of England, whose confessor he became, zeal- 
ously cooperating with her in the interests of 
the church of Rome. Shortly after his acces- 
sion to the throne Philip II. appointed him 
primate of Spain. In 1558 he was arrested 
by order of the inquisition on account of his 
Comentarios sobra el cateeJiismo cristiano, 
though the catechisim was approved by the 
council of Trent. His alleged heterodox in- 
fluence upon Charles V. at his deathbed also 
gave oft'ence. In 1567 his condition as a 
prisoner was ameliorated by his being removed 
to the castle of San Angelo in Rome ; but he 
was not released till 1576, and died a few 
weeks afterward. His principal work, Summn 
Conciliorum (Venice, 1546), passed through 
many editions. 

CARRARA, a city of Italy, in the province of 
Massa-Carrara, on the Avenza, 59 m. S. W. of 
Modena; pop. about 7,000. Its principal edi- 
fices are the college, the palace of the former 
dukes of Modena, the collegiate church, and the 
church of Madonna delle Grazie. An academy 
of sculpture was founded here by Napoleon, 
and many artists from abroad reside here to 
superintend the transport of marble, or to exe- 
cute works of art. The inhabitants are chiefly 
engaged in the preparation of marble, which 
is obtained in the vicinity. 

CARRARA MARBLE, a beautiful white marble, 
of fine granular texture, deriving its name 
from the city of Carrara. The Parian differs 
from it in being composed of the most delicate 
little plates or scales, confusedly united together. 
The magnificent chain of mountains in which 
the quarries of Carrara marble are situated 
forms a portion of the Apennines, and is in- 
cluded in the province of Massa-Carrara. 
These mountains are distant about 4 m. from 
the seashore, and present a very imposing ap- 
pearance, towering to the skies, and broken 
into rugged and inaccessible peaks. The quar- 
ries, among which are those that furnished the 
material for the Pantheon at Rome, are about 
half way up the mountain ; and although they 
have been worked for many centuries, and the 
annual export has long amounted to about 
40,000 tons, yet the workmen are still employed 
upon the surface, so that the supply may be re- 
garded as inexhaustible. The Carrara marbles 
are of four varieties. That used by sculptors, 
the white, granularly foliated limestone, is the 
most valuable. It is more easy to work than 
the compact limestone, its color is purer, and 
it is delicately transparent. The other varie- 
ties are the veined marble, with colored lines, 
which render it unfit for statuary; the rava- 
cioni, or Sicilian, and the laidifflio, of a deep 
blue color. In working the quarries, large 
blocks of marble, some of more than 200 cubic 
feet, are loosened by blasting. When thoroughly 
detached, they are tumbled down or lowered 



CARRAGEEN 



CARRERA 



25 



to the base of the mountain, whence they are 
transported to Marino, the port of shipment. 
This marble range extends over many square 
It-allies. The whole number of quarries is es- 
timated at about 400, of which 40 or 50 are 
constantly worked, employing about 1,200 men. 
Those of the statuary marble do not exceed 12 
in all, but are the most productive as well 
as the most valuable. They are the property 
of a few of the principal families of Carrara. 
The Carrara marble, which was formerly re- 
garded as a primitive limestone, proved to be 
an altered limestone of the oolitic period. The 
causes by which the change of its structure 
was effected have also served to obliterate all 
traces of the fossils which are usually found in 
the rocks of this period. An analysis of the 
best quality of this marble by Kappel gives : 

Carbonate of lime 98-7654 

Carbonate of magnesia 0-9002 

Oxides of iron and manganese, and alumina 0-0825 

Silica, trace of phosphoric acid, and loss 0-0961 

Quartz sand 0-1558 



100-0000 

CARRAGEEN, or Irish Moss, a marine plant 
(chondrm crispus), which grows upon the 
rocks of the coasts of Europe, particularly of 
Ireland, and is said to be a native of the United 
States. It is collected for the preparation of 
a light and nutritious food for invalids, and is 
particularly recommended in pulmonary and 
scrofulous affections, dysentery, diarrhoea, &c. 
It is prepared by macerating it in cold water, 
in which it swells without dissolving, and which 
removes the taste of extraneous matters mixed 
with it. It is then boiled in water, of which 
three pints are used to the ounce of moss. 
Milk instead of water makes a more nutritious 
preparation. It dissolves and gelatinizes, and 
the jelly is flavored with lemon juice, and 
sweetened with sugar. (See ALG^E.) 

CARRE, Michel, a French dramatist, born in 
1819, died at Argenteuil, near Paris, June 29, 
1872. He studied at the college Charlemagne, 
and published in 1841 a volume of poetry, and 
in 1843 his first drama, La jeunesse de Lu- 
ther. Subsequently he wrote for the stage to- 
gether with Jules Barbier and others. Among 
their joint productions are the librettos of Les 
noces de Figaro (1858), Le pardon de Ploermel 
(1859), La reine de Saba and Lalla Rouck 
(1862), and Mignon (1866). 

CARREL, Nieolas Armand, a French journalist, 
born at Rouen, May 8, 1800, died at St. Mande, 
near Paris, July 24, 1836. The son of a mer- 
chant, he was educated at St. Cyr, and en- 
tered the army as sub-lieutenant. He secretly 
participated in the Belfort conspiracy in 1821, 
but eluded suspicion. His political opinions be- 
came known on the occasion of the outbreak 
of the Spanish revolution. A letter he had 
written to the cortes came into the hands of his 
colonel, when he resigned his commission, and 
entered the foreign legion in Spain. When 
the French army invaded the peninsula, Carrel 
was made prisoner, and was three times tried 



before a court martial, but escaped punish- 
ment. He was then engaged for a few months 
as an amanuensis to the historian Augustm 
Thierry ; subsequently he wrote two essays on 
the history of Scotland and of modern Greece, 
and a biographical notice of Paul Louis Courier, 
the French pamphleteer ; he was also editor 
of the Revue Americaine, a short-lived monthly, 
and an occasional contributor to several lead- 
ing opposition papers, such as the Comtitu- 
tionnel and the Globe. But he did not gain 
much literary reputation until the appearance 
of his Histoire de la centre-revolution en An- 
gleterre. At the commencement of 1830, with 
Thiers and Mignet, he founded the National 
as an organ of their political views. Thiers, 
being the oldest and best known of the three, 
was the leading editor, while Carrel wrote 
chiefly for the literary department of the paper. 
The National had much influence in bringing 
about the revolution of 1830. When it was 
accomplished, Carrel was sent on a mission 
into the western departments, where his wise 
measures and personal influence contributed to 
maintain tranquillity. During his absence he 
had been nominated prefect of the department 
of Cantal; he declined the appointment, and 
went back to the National, of which he now 
assumed the chief editorship. Under his con- 
trol, and chiefly by his contributions, the Na- 
tional became a most vigorous and eloquent 
journal, and gave to the republican party a 
standing which it never had before. The 
boldness of his course drew on him the anger 
of the government, but the measures taken 
against him could not damp his ardor. He 
was the first to vindicate the memory of Mar- 
shal Ney before the court of peers ; and his 
temerity would have been severely punished 
if he had not been supported by Gen. Excel- 
mans. His quickness of temper involved him 
in several duels. His last encounter was with 
Emile de Girardin, who had challenged him. 
Girardin was slightly wounded in the thigh, and 
Carrel received a ball in the abdomen. He 
was taken to the house of one of his friendg 
at St. Mand6, and died two days after. His 
collected works have been published (5 vols., 
Paris, 1858). 

CARRENO DE MIRANDA, Jnan, a Spanish paint- 
er, born in 1614, died in 1685. As a colorist, 
the Spaniards rank him with Titian and Van- 
dyke. His principal paintings are a " Magda- 
len in the Desert," at Madrid; a "Holy Fam- 
ily," at Toledo ; and a " Baptism of our Sav- 
iour," at Alcala de Henares. 

CARRERA, Rafael, president of Guatemala, 
born in the city of Guatemala in 1814, of 
mixed Indian and negro blood, died April 14, 
1865. In 1829, when Morazan was president 
of the federal government, Carrera became a 
drummer boy. Subsequently he retired to the 
village of Metaquascuintla, where he married 
a woman of singularly energetic character, his 
constant companion throughout his subsequent 
career. In 1837 he placed himself at the head 



26 



CARRIER 



of a band of insurgent mountaineers, and in 
February, 1838, occupied the city of Guatemala 
with 6,000 Indians, whom he succeeded in 
restraining from pillage and massacre. Some 
accommodation among the conflicting parties 
now followed, and Carrera was sent to Meta, 
a neighboring district of the interior, in an 
official capacity. On April 13, 1839, he again 
occupied the capital, which he subsequently 
held. Ruling at first as general-in-chief, he 
was elected, March 21, 1847, to the presidency 
of Guatemala. Early in 1851, with only 1,500 
men, he defeated the combined forces of San 
Salvador and Honduras. He was reflected 
Oct. 19, 1851, as president for life. In 1861 
he intervened with success in the contest which 
had arisen between the ecclesiastical authorities 
in Honduras and President Guardiola. In 1862 
he opposed the plan for a confederation of the 
Central American republics, and the project 
failed. In 1863 he declared war against San 
Salvador, took posses- 
sion of the capital, and 
expelled President Bar- 
rios. In the early part 
of his career he was re- 
garded as the enemy of 
order and civilization, 
but he subsequently 
proved a mild and con- 
servative ruler. His 
government was abso- 
lute. When first elect- 
ed to the presidency he 
was unable to read or 
write, but he afterward 
in some measure re- 
paired the deficiencies 
of his education. 

CARRETTO, Francesco 
Saverlo, marquis of, a 
Neapolitan minister of 
police, born in Salerno 
about 1788, died in Na- 
ples in December, 1862. 

He fought his way to distinction in the army, 
and, although a member of the carbonari, was 
in 1823 appointed general inspector of police. 
In 1828 he marched at the head of 6,000 men 
to quell an insurrection at the little town of 
Bosco. After destroying the town he caused 
a pillory to be erected upon its ruins, and had 
20 persons executed, including an old man of 
80 years. This drew upon him the wrath of 
the Neapolitans. King Ferdinand II., how- 
ever, appointed him minister of police in 1831. 
For some time he exercised almost absolute 
power in Naples. In 1837, when the cholera 
raged in Sicily, and the people were persuaded 
that it had been intentionally brought into the 
country by the government, Carretto wa^ de- 
spatched to Catania, where the insurgent^ had 
organized a provisional government ; and al- 
though this on his arrival had already been 
abandoned, he again exercised his authority by 
ordering the execution of more than 100 per- 



sons, even applying the torture to the prisoners. 
The king was finally compelled to yield to the 
clamors of the people, and dismiss him. Du- 
ring the night of Jan. 27, 1848, he was arrested 
and put on board a French steamer, as an exile 
to France. When the name of the passenger 
became known at Leghorn, the supply of coals 
was withheld from the steamer. In Genoa 
he was not permitted to go on shore. He 
afterward returned to Naples, but was not re- 
stored to office, though he was loaded with 
favors by the king. 

CARR1CKFERGUS, a parliamentary borough 
and seaport of Ireland, county Antrim, situated 
on Belfast lough, 7 m. N. E. of Belfast ; pop. 
in 1871, 9,452. The town extends about a mile 
along the shore of Carrickfergus bay, and con- 
sists of three parts : the old or walled town in the 
centre, the Irish quarter on the west, and the 
Scotch quarter on the east. The inhabitants 
of the last mentioned quarter are chiefly fisher- 




Carrlckfergua Castle. 

men, descendants of a colony whom religious 
persecution drove thither in the 17th century. 
There is an old castle, once very strong, and 
still fortified. The other public buildings 
worthy of note are the parish church, an anti- 
quated structure in the form of a cross, and the 
court house. There are also places of worship 
for Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, and 
Unitarians. There are flax-spinning mills, a 
muslin bleach green, and a linen bleach mill 
and green in the vicinity ; and some trade is 
also carried on in tanning, brewing, and dis- 
tilling. There is a semi-annual fair. It returns 
one member to parliament. In ancient times 
the town was frequently attacked by the Scots. 
William III. landed here, June 14, 1690. In the 
roads opposite the town the British sloop of 
war Drake was captured by Paul Jones, April 
24, 1778. 

CARRIER, Jean Baptist*, a French revolution- 
ist, born near Aurillac in 1756, executed in 






CARRIERE 

Paris, Dec. 16, 1794. Taking his seat in the 
national convention in 1792, he supported the 
establishment of the revolutionary tribunal, 
voted for the death of Louis XVI., presented 
a motion for the arrest of Philippe figalite, 
duke of Orleans, and participated actively in 
the popular rising of May 31 against the Giron- 
dists. His revolutionary zeal caused him to be 
sent to Normandy, then to Nantes, where he 
arrived Oct. 8, 1793. The western depart- 
ments were troubled by civil war, and he 
ordered numerous arrests, and sent victims to 
the scaffold on the slightest suspicion. He 
soon dispensed with even a show of trial ; 
without any judicial proceedings, prisoners 
were murdered by wholesale ; and as the guillo- 
tine did not afford sufficient means of execution, 
boats provided with valves were procured, 
which, after receiving on board hundreds of 
prisoners, were towed to the middle of the 
Loire, where they were sunk to the bottom 
with their human cargo. The first of these 
noyades de Nantes comprised 94 priests ; sev- 
eral others took place in which women and 
children were mingled with men. The prison- 
ers were confined in a vast building called the 
warehouse; every day, at nightfall, numbers 
of them were summoned on board the fatal 
boats, and their death was hidden in the dark- 
ness of night. He also invented the so-called 
"republican marriage," in which victims were 
tied in couples, sometimes a man and woman 
together, then flung into the river, or forced 
from the boat by the sword or bayonet. Mean- 
while numbers of prisoners were also shot in 
the vicinity of Nantes. The convention was 
for a while kept ignorant of these scenes ; the 
killing of prisoners he reported as the " trans- 
lation of culprits." The citizens of Nantes did 
not dare to denounce him, as they were under 
the impression that he acted in accordance 
with the orders of the convention. At last the 
assembly became aware of the real state of 
things, and Carrier was recalled by the com- 
mittee of public safety. Strongly denounced 
by public opinion after the fall of Robespierre, 
he was arraigned before the revolutionary tri- 
bunal, Nov. 25, 1794, and sentenced to death. 
CiRRIERE, DIoritz, a German philosopher, born 
at Griedel, March 5, 1817. He studied at 
Giessen, Gottingen, and Berlin, and perfected 
his knowledge of art in Italy. In 1842 he be- 
came private teacher in the university, in 1849 
professor at Giessen, and in 1853 at Munich, 
where he lectures chiefly on aesthetics at the 
university and on art history at the acad- 
emy. He has written various works on phi- 
losophy, religion, poetry, and esthetics, trans- 
lated into German the letters of Abelard 
d H61oise, composed a poem on the last 

light of the Girondists, urged the conver- 
sion of the cathedral of Cologne into a free 

hurch, and developed his liberal ideas in 
an essay on Cromwell. He has also pre- 
pared annotated editions of Goethe's Faust 
and Schiller's Wilhelm Tell; and during the 



27 



Franco-German war he delivered lectures on 
Die sittliche Weltordnung in den Zeichen und 
Aufgaben unserer Zeit (Munich, 1870), and on 
Deutsche Geisteshelden im Elmss (1871). He 
is foremost among German thinkers who seek 
to reconcile Christianity with science, art, 
and history, and who are opposed to ultramon- 
tanism. His most celebrated work is Die 
Kunst im Zusammenhange der Culturentwielce- 
lung und die Ideale der Memchheit (4 vols., 
Leipsic, 1863-'71). 

_ CARRIER PIGEON, a variety of the common 
pigeon (coluniba livia). This, the pigeon prive 
of B61on, the pigeon domestique of Brisson, the 
wild rock pigeon of the British, and the colom- 
men of the Welsh, is the stock from which 
ornithologists generally now agree that the do- 
mestic pigeon is derived. The varieties of this 
bird, produced under the fostering hand of man, 
the tumblers, croppers, jacobines, runts, spots, 




1, 2. Methods of attaching stettei-s. 8. Lieffe Carrier. 
4. Antwerp Garner. 

turbits, owls, nuns, &c., would fill a volume; 
the carrier, however, demands especial notice. 
The carrier pigeon is a bird larger than the 
common pigeon, measures about 15 inches in 
length, and weighs about 1J Ib. The neck is 
long, and the pectoral muscles are very large, 
indicating a power of vigorous and long-con- 
tinued flight. An appendage of naked skin 
hangs across its bill, and continues down on 
either side of the lower mandible. According 
to its size and shape the amateurs of carrier 
pigeons estimate the value of the bird. They 
consider those pigeons the best that have the 
appendage rising high on the head, and of con- 
siderable width across the bill, and that are 
also distinguished by a wide circlet around the 
eyes, destitute of feathers. The instinct which 
renders this bird so valuable is its very strong 
love of home, which is in some degree common 



28 



CARRIER PIGEON 



CARROLL 



to all the domesticated varieties. The mode of 
training them in Turkey, where the art is sup- 
posed to be carried to the greatest perfection, 
is this : The person who has the charge of rear- 
ing and training them takes the young pigeons 
when they have got their full strength of 
wing in a covered basket to a distance of about 
half a mile from their home ; they are then set 
at liberty, and if any of them fail in returning 
home from this short distance, they are con- 
sidered stupid, and are rejected as valueless. 
Those that return home are then taken to great- 
er distances, progressively increased to 1,000 
miles, and they will then return with certainty 
from the furthest parts of the kingdom. In 
England it is usual to keep these birds in a dark 
place for about six hours before they are used ; 
they are then sparingly fed, but have as much 
water given them as they will drink. The 
paper on which the message is written should 
be carefully tied round the upper part of the 
bird's leg, but so as in no wise to impede its 
flight. It appears from an English ballad, and 
from a line in Tasso, that in older times the 
original way of suspending the despatch was 
from the wing or round the neck; but the 
above method is that now adopted. The an- 
tiquity of the use of these birds for the 
purpose of bearing intelligence to distant parts 
or persons, and the perseverance with which 
some varieties (that which is named, from its 
peculiar fitness, the carrier more especially), 
when well trained, will return from long dis- 
tances, is well known ; but it is not known 
when or by whom the pigeon was first applied 
to this purpose. We have the authority of Sir 
John Mandeville that the Asiatics used them 
for the same purpose as the Romans. During 
the crusade of St. Louis they were so employed ; 
Tasso presses them into service in the siege of 
Jerusalem, making Godfrey defend one when 
attacked by a falcon ; and Ariosto makes the 
castellan di Damiata spread the news of Or- 
rilo's death by a messenger dove. During the 
late siege of Paris these birds were employed 
to convey messages beyond the German lines; 
very long documents, printed by micro-photog- 
raphy on films indestructible by water, and 
weighing only a few grains, were thus transmit- 
ted with great success. The ordinary rate of 
the flight of carrier pigeons is not generally 
held to exceed 30 miles an hour, although 
instances of a double or even triple rate of 
velocity are recorded. The education of car- 
rier pigeons is entirely progressive; the dis- 
tance flown being gradually and slowly in- 
creased from half a mile up to 20 or 30 miles. 
"When the bird is able to accomplish this, he 
may be trusted to fly any distance overland, 
within the limits of physical power. The 
younger the bird is, if it have strength to fly 
well, the greater is the chance of educating it 
to be a good bearer of a despatch. .If this drill- 
ing be not commenced early, birds of the best 
breed cannot be trusted. When thrown up the 
bird rises, and when it has reached a good height 



will at first fly round and round evidently for 
the purpose of finding some well known land- 
mark, and then make off, continuing on the 
wing without stop or stay, unless prevented, 
till its home is reached. If no such landmark 
is found, the bird is lost. Thus pigeons, when 
loosed from a balloon at a great height, have, 
after flying round and round, returned to the 
balloon for want of objects to guide them in 
their homeward flight. The magnetic telegraph 
has now rendered the service of carrier pigeons, 
unless in times of siege, of little use. 

CARR1GALIXE, a parish of Ireland, in the 
county and 8 m. S. of Cork ; pop. about 7,000. 
It contains fine marble and slate quarries. The 
village, on Owenboy river, possesses some 
archaeological interest on account of a ruined 
castle of the earls of Desmond, and the remains 
of a religious house and of a Danish fort in the 
vicinity. The church is a fine building in the 
perpendicular style. In a neck of the river 
near by Sir Francis Drake once took shelter, 
when hard pressed by a Spanish fleet. 

CARRO, Jean de, a German physician, born in 
Geneva, Aug. 8, 1770, died at Carlsbad, March 
12, 1857. Taking up his abode in Vienna in 
1795, he became celebrated by his eftbrts in 
spreading Jenner's system of vaccination as a 
protection against smallpox in Germany, Hun- 
gary, Poland, and Russia. In 1800 he sent a 
quantity of virus to Lord Elgin at Constanti- 
nople, together with a work of his own, trans- 
lated into Turkish, on vaccination. The at- 
tempts of the English to introduce vaccination 
into India having been unsuccessful, because 
the virus had deteriorated on the way, Carro 
procured vaccine matter from cows of Lom- 
bardy, and sent it to Dr. Hnrford at Bagdad. 
This retained all its strength, and was the 
means of introducing kinepox inoculation into 
India. The Hindoos consider it to be derived 
from a sacred cow, to which they give the 
name of amurtum, or immortality. Carro 
published Observations et experiences sur Vino- 
culation de la vaccine (Vienna, 1801); His- 
toire de la vaccination en Turquie, en Grece 
et aux Indes Orientales (1803); Carlsbad et 
sea eavx minerales (1827) ; and Vingt-huit 
ant d 1 observation et d 1 experiences a Carlsbad 
(1853). For many years he published annually 
the Almanack de Carlsbad. 

CARROLL, the name of 14 counties in the Uni- 
ted States. 1. An E. county of New Hampshire, 
bordering on Maine ; area, about 560 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 17,332. Lake Winnipiseogeo 
separates it from Belknap county on the S. W., 
and within its own limits are several smaller 
lakes and ponds and numerous small streams. 
The surface is mountainous and broken, Os- 
sipee mountain and Conway peak being the 
principal summits. The soil is productive, but 
much labor is required for its cultivation. The 
Portland and Ogdensburgh railroad runs Jo 
North Conway, and the Portsmouth, Great 
Falls, and Conway railroad is being extended 
into the county. The chief productions in 



CARROLL 



29 



1870 were 17,034 bushels of wheat, 106,385 
of Indian corn, 59,853 of oats, 327,694 of pota- 
toes, 43,052 tons of hay, 504,194 Ibs. of butter, 
82,766 of wool, and 177,270 of maple sugar. 
There were 3,018 horses, 6,801 milch cows, 
6,122 working oxen, 8,784 other cattle, 9,059 
sheep, and 2,747 swine. There were 2 manu- 
factories of boots and shoes, 5 of carriages and 
wagons, 4 of furniture, 9 tanneries, 7 currying 
establishments, 9 saw mills, 2 wool-carding and 
cloth-dressing establishments, 2 manufactories 
of cotton and woollen machinery, and 1 of 
woollen goods. Capital, Ossipee. II. A N. 
county of Maryland, bordering on Pennsyl- 
vania, drained by the sources of the Patapsco 
and Monocacy rivers ; area, about 500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 28,619, of whom 2,175 were 
colored. The surface is hilly, and the soil 
thin, but well cultivated. Copper and iron 
ores are found. The Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road skirts the S. part, and the Western Mary- 
land line passes through the county. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 427,586 bushels 
of wheat, 36,257 of rye, 716,887 of Indian corn, 
425,019. of oats, 118,072 of potatoes, 30,766 
tons of hay, 823,759 Ibs. of butter, 19,012 of 
wool, and 225,800 of tobacco. There were 
6,564 horses, 8,945 milch cows, 5,531 other 
cattle, 5,279 sheep, and 19,265 swine. There 
were 7 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 18 of carriages and wagons, 10 of fur- 
niture, 3 of iron castings, 17 of saddlery and har- 
ness, 11 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 
3 of woollen goods, 5 saw mills, 29 flour mills, 
13 tanneries, and 8 currying establishments. 
Capital, Westminster. III. A S. W. county of 
Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, hav- 
ing the Alleghany mountains on the N. W. 
and the Blue Nose on the S. E., and drained 
by affluents of the Kanawha river; area, 440 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,147, of whom 328 were 
colored. The soil is rough and hilly, but 
generally adapted to cultivation and grazing. 
There are mines of copper, iron, and lead. 
Grayson sulphur springs are much resorted 
to in summer. The chief productions in 1870 
were 13,382 bushels of wheat, 25,080 of rye, 
91,772 of Indian corn, 42,658 of oats, 10,837 
of potatoes, 2,713 tons of hay, and 74,893 
Ibs. of butter. There were 1,200 horses, 2,186 
milch cows, 3,417 other cattle, 8,632 sheep, 
and 7,648 swine. Capital, Hillsville. IV. 
A W. county of Georgia, bordering on Ala- 
bama; area, 572 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11.782, 
of whom 1,309 were colored. The Chattahoo- 
chee and the Tallapoosa are the principal rivers. 
The surface is mountainous, and the soil, which 
rests chiefly on a granite foundation, is fertile 
in many parts of the county. One or two gold 
mines are worked with profit. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 40,981 bushels of wheat, 
215,338 of Indian corn, 8,997 of oats, 29,640 
of sweet potatoes, 113,083 Ibs. of butter, and 
1,964 bales of cotton. There were 849 horses, 
2,354 milch cows, 3,747 other cattle, 5,484 
sheep, and 11,892 swine. Capital, Carrollton. 



V. A N. W. county of Mississippi drained by 
branches of the Yallobusha and Yazoo rivers, 
and bounded S. E. by the Big Black ; pop. m 
1870, 21,047, of whom 11,550 were colored. 
The former area was 850 sq. m., but a portion 
was taken in 1870 to form Grenada county. 
The surface is level, and the soil alluvial and 
remarkably fertile. The Mississippi Central 
railroad passes through the E. part. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 6,821 bushels of 
wheat, 433,245 of Indian corn, 29,794 of sweet 
potatoes, and 14,135 bales of cotton. There 
were 1,809 horses, 2,552 mules and asses, 
4,346 milch cows, 8,566 other cattle, 3,955 
sheep, and 20,388 swine. There were 5 saw 
mills and 1 manufactory of cotton goods. Cap- 
ital, Carrollton. VI. A N. E. parish of Louisiana, 
bordering on Arkansas, between the Mississippi 
river and Boeuf bayou ; area, 1,050 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 10,110, of whom 7,718 were colored. 
The surface is generally level. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 142,525 bushels of Indian 
corn, 12,765 of sweet potatoes, and 20, 384 bales 
of cotton. There were 683 horses, 1,424 mules 
and asses, 1,504 milch cows, 3,164 other cattle, 
and 5, 051 swine. Capital, Providence. VII. A N. 
W. county of Arkansas, bordering on Missouri, 
and intersected by Long creek and King's and 
White rivers; pop. in 1870, 5,780, of whom 37 
were colored. The former area was 1,038 sq. 
m., but a portion has recently been taken to 
form Boone county, while a part of Madison 
county has been added to this. The surface is 
diversified, and the soil generally fertile. Sev- 
eral quarries yield excellent variegated yellow 
marble. The chief productions in 1870 were 
20,438 bushels of wheat, 172,696 of Indian 
corn, 45,447 Ibs. of butter, 15,445 of tobacco, 
and 6,226 gallons of molasses. There were 
1,957 horses, 1,135 milch cows, 2,517 other 
cattle, 4,590 sheep, and 14,174 swine. There 
were 5 saw mills in the county. Capital, Car- 
rollton. VIII. A W. county of Tennessee, 
drained by affluents of the Big Sandy and Obi- 
on rivers; area, 625 eq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
19,447, of whom 4,799 were colored. The 
surface is flat, and the soil fertile. There are 
extensive forests of oak, hickory, maple, and 
black walnut. The Louisville and Memphis and 
the Nashville and Northwestern railroads trav- 
erse the county. The chief productions in 1870 
were 93,872 bushels of wheat, 777,922 of In- 
dian Corn, 272,083 Ibs. of butter, and 5,023 
bales of cotton. There were 3,517 horses, 
2,265 mules and asses, 4,076 milch cows, 5,362 
other cattle, 10,822 sheep, and 35,018 swine. 
There were 5 flour and 4 saw mills, and 3 
wool-carding and cloth-dressing establish- 
ments. Capital, Huntingdon. IX. A N. county 
of Kentucky, bordering on Indiana, bounded 
N. by the Ohio, and intersected by the 
Kentucky river ; area, about 200 sq. m ; 
pop. in 1870, 6,189, of whom 540 were 
colored. In the N. .part the surface is occupied 
by steep hills ; elsewhere the land is undulating 
and fertile. Most of the soil is calcareous, and 



30 



CARROLL 



limestone is abundant. The Louisville, Cincin- 
nati, and Lexington railroad passes through 
the S. part. The chief productions in 1870 
were 38,236 bushels of wheat, 263,629 of Indian 
corn, 26,965 of potatoes, 12,640 Ibs. of wool, 
and 669,875 of tobacco. There were 2,058 
horses, 1,282 milch cows, 2,480 other cattle, 
3,495 sheep, and 6,489 swine. There were 4 
flour and 3 saw mills, and 1 manufactory of 
woollen goods. Capital Carrollton. X. An E. 
county of Ohio ; area, 360 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 14,491. It is somewhat hilly, but well 
watered and fertile. Hard coal and iron ore 
are found. The Tuscarawas branch of the 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroad, and the Car- 
rolltort and Oneida railroad traverse the coun- 
tv. The chief productions in 1870 were 211,- 
008 bushels of wheat, 23,699 of rye, 417,864 
of Indian corn, 520,663 of oats, 75,819 of po- 
tatoes, 27,133 tons of hay, 600,785 Ibs. of but- 
ter, and 538,589 of wool. There were 5,628 
horses, 6,314 milch cows, 6,720 other cattle, 
131,069 sheep, and 10,230 swine. There were 

8 flour, 3 saw, and 3 planing mills, 7 tan- 
neries, and 5 currying establishments. Capi- 
tal, Carrollton. M. A N. W. central county 
of Indiana, drained by the Wabash and Tippe- 
canoe rivers; area, 378 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
16,152. The surface is diversified and well 
timbered, and the soil productive. It is trav- 
ersed by the Wabash and Erie canal, and by 
the Toledo, Wabash, and "Western railroad. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 521,689 
bushels of wheat, 401,635 of Indian corn, 
65,738 of oats, 36,834 of potatoes, 7,475 tons 
of hay, 236,988 Ibs. of butter, and 69,452 of 
wool. There were 5,175 horses, 4,268 milch 
cows, 6,640 other cattle, 19,942 sheep, and 
18,338 swine. There were 5 manufactories of 
carriages and wagons, 2 of wrapping paper, 1 
of sashes, doors, and blinds, 2 of woollen goods, 
5 brick kilns, 13 flour and 23 saw mills. Cap- 
ital, Delphi. XII. A N. W. county of Illinois, 
separated from Iowa on the W. by the Missis- 
sippi river; area, 416 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
10,705. The surface is rolling, and divided 
between prairie lands and forests, and there 
are extensive lead mines. It is traversed by 
the Western Union railroad. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 418,333 bushels of 
wheat, 25,721 of rye, 1,367,965 of Indian corn, 
775,100 of oats, 123,466 of barley, 133,949 of 
potatoes, 25,610 tons of hay, 532,486 Ibs. of 
butter, and 32,659 of wool. There wore 
9,813 horses, 7,984 milch cows, 14,613 other 
cattle, 7,342 sheep, and 26,213 swine. There 
were 6 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 
10 of saddlery and harness, 2 of malt liquors, 

9 flour and 2 saw mills. Capital, Mt. Carroll. 
XIII. A W. central county of Iowa, drained 
by North and Middle Raccoon rivers, and the 
West Nishnabotunga ; area, about GOO sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 2,451. The climate re healthy 
and the soil fertile. Coal, iron, \building 
stone, and timber are abundant. They Chica- 
go and Northwestern railroad passes through 



it. The chief productions in 1870 were 65,- 
758 bushels of Indian corn, 12,525 of oats, 
68,830 of wheat, and 2, 189 tons of hay. There 
were 745 horses, 503 milch cows, 1,107 other 
cattle, and 1,528 swine. Capital, Carrollton. 
XIV. A N. W. central county of Missouri, 
lying between the Missouri river on the W. 
and Grand river on the E. ; area, 700 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 17,446, of whom 827 were col- 
ored. The surface is somewhat uneven, and 
in many places is covered with thick forests of 
oak, black walnut, and other trees. The soil, 
which rests on beds of limestone and sand- 
stone, is generally productive. The western 
division of the North Missouri .railroad trav- 
erses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 
233,069 bushels of wheat, 1,205,966 of Indian 
corn, 192,829 of oats, 4,986 tons of hay, 186,- 
278 Ibs. of butter, 41,821 of wool, and 256,578 
of tobacco. There were 7,542 horses, 1,787 
mules and asses, 5,729 milch cows, 10,407 
other cattle, 17,171 sheep, and 84,499 swine. 
There were 4 manufactories of saddlery and 
harness, 3 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 
and 7 flour mills. Capital, Carrollton. 

CARROLL, Charles, of Carrollton, a patriot 
of the American revolution, the last surviving 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, born 
at Annapolis, Md., Sept. 20, 1737, died Nov. 
14, 1832. In 1745 he was taken to the college 
of English Jesuits at St. Omer, France, where 
he remained six years, and then went to the 
Jesuit college at Rheims. After two years 
he went to Bourges to study the civil law, and 
after remaining there one year spent the next 
two in Paris, whence he repaired to London 
and began the study of law in the Temple. In 
1764 he returned to America, and in 1768 mar- 
ried Mary Darnell. He inherited a vast estate, 
the last of the manorial grants of Maryland, 
and at the commencement of the revolutionary 
war was considered the richest man in the colo- 
nies, his property being estimated at $2,000,000. 
In 1770-'71 he wrote articles, under the signa- 
ture of "The First Citizen," against the right 
of the government to regulate fees by procla- 
mation. In 1775 he was chosen a member of 
the first committee of observation established 
at Annapolis ; and during the same year he was 
elected a delegate to the provincial convention. 
In February. 1776, he was appointed one of 
the commissioners to proceed to Canada in or- 
der to induce the inhabitants of that country 
to unite with the colonies. He returned in 
June, and on the 12th presented their report. 
He found the declaration of independence un- 
der discussion, and the delegates of Maryland 
shackled by instructions " to disavow in the 
most solemn manner all design in the colonies 
of independence." He hastened to Annapolis 
to procure a withdrawal of these instructions. 
Together with Judge Chase, he labored so as- 
siduously that on June 28 the instructions were 
withdrawn and the delegates authorized to join 
in a declaration of independence. On July 4, 
1776, he was appointed a delegate to congress, 



CARROLL 



CARROT 



31 



and on Aug. 2, when the declaration was first 
formally signed, he was one of the earliest 
signers. As he affixed his signature a member 
ohsi-rved, " There go a few millions;" and add- 
ing, " however, there are many Charles Carrolls, 
and the British will not know which one it is," 
Mr. Carroll immediately added to his name " of 
Carrollton," and was ever afterward known by 
that title. He took his seat July 18, and was 
soon afterward placed in the board of war. 
In the latter part of 1776 he was one of the 
committee to draft the constitution of Mary- 
land, and in December of the same year he was 
chosen to the senate of that state. In 1777 he 
was reappointed a delegate to congress. In 
1781 and 1786 he was reflected to the Mary- 
land senate, and in 1788 chosen a United States 
senator. In 1797 he was again elected to the 
senate of Maryland, and in 1799 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to settle the 
boundary line between Virginia and Maryland. 
In 1810 he retired from public life, and after- 
ward devoted his time to the management of 
his estate. On July 4, 1821, the fact that only 
four of the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence were still living was noticed in many 
of the newspapers. Of these, William Floyd 
of New York died 30 days afterward. The 
death of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson 
on July 4, 1826, left Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton the last surviving signer. In the perform- 
ance of their obsequies, funeral honors being 
paid them in Baltimore as in many other cities, 
Mr. Carroll was chief mourner. On July 4, 
1828, after he had passed the age of 90 years, 
in the presence of a vast concourse of specta- 
tors and attended by an imposing civic proces- 
sion, he laid the corner stone of the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad. 

CARROLL, John, an American prelate, born at 
Upper Marlborough, Md., in 1735, died Dec. 3, 
1815. He was educated in the colleges of St. 
Omer and Liege, at the latter of which he 
was ordained a priest, and after surrender- 
ing his patrimonial estate to his brother be- 
came a member of the society of Jesus. Upon 
the dissolution of that society in France in 
1762, he acted as the secretary of the dis- 
persed fathers in their remonstrance with the 
court of France respecting the temporal inter- 
ests of the order. He then went to England, 
and was selected by a Catholic nobleman to 
accompany his son as tutor in a tour of Europe. 
On his return to the continent in 1773, he was 
for a short time professor at Bruges and after- 
ward retired to England, living with the family 
of the earl of Arundel. On the breaking out 
of the troubles between Great Britain and the 
American colonies, he returned to America, 
and was invited by a special resolution of con- 
gress to accompany his cousin, Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, Dr. Franklin, and Samuel Chase 
on a political mission to Canada, from which it 
was hoped that great benefits would ensue to 
the colonial cause. After the establishment of 
peace the Roman Catholic clergy of the United 
157 VOL. IT. 3 



States petitioned the pope for the establishment 
of a hierarchy in this country, and at Dr. Frank- 
lin's instance Mr. Carroll was appointed vicar 
general in 1786, when he fixed his abode in 
Baltimore. In 1789 he was appointed the first 
Catholic bishop in the United States. He was 
consecrated in England, assuming the title of 
bishop of Baltimore ; and in 1815, shortly be- 
fore his death, he was created archbishop. 

(AKRON, a small river of Scotland, 14 m. 
long, rising between the friths of Forth and 
Clyde, and flowing into the frith of Forth, 
about 3 m. N. of Falkirk. About half a mile 
from the stream, near Falkirk, is the battle 
ground where the English defeated Wallace in 
1298. The Carron was the boundary of the 
Roman empire, the wall of Antoninus running 
close to and parallel with it for several miles. 
In the early part of the 5th century many bat- 
tles between the Romans and the Scots and 
Picts were fought near this river. The village 
of Carron, on its banks, is known for its large 
iron works, established in 1760, at which the 
kind of cannon called carronades was first con- 
structed in 1779. 

CARROT (daucus carota, Tourn.), a plant of 
the natural order umbelliferce, or parsley fam- 
ily. It is a biennial, bearing seeds on stems 2 
to 2J ft. high, in clusters called umbels. It 
may be seen growing in its wild state in pas- 
tures, where it is a great pest. The tap root 
of the domesticated carrot is raised from seeds 
sown in cultivated ground, and has long been 
used in soups and stews,, and is a favorite in 
Germany and France. It is a promoter of di- 
gestion, and is especially valued as a substantial 
food for horses and other stock. Butter of an 
excellent quality and bright color can be made 
by feeding a peck of carrots morning and night 
to each milch cow. They can be raised at the 
rate of 500 to 1,500 bushels per acre. The 
best soil is a deep dry loam, rich from previous 
manuring. The carrot germinates slowly, re- 
quiring about three weeks before it appears 
above ground. This slow growth allows the 
weeds time to start, and makes culture more 
expensive. To avoid this, it has been the 
practice with many to drill radishes, mustard, 
or oats with them, to mark the rows at an 
early period so as to allow the spaces between 
the rows to be cleaned, even before the plants 
are up. Some growers place the seed in a bag, 
and bury it in the earth until it begins to swell 
and show signs of sprouting, when it is rolled in 
plaster and planted. The amount of seed re- 
quired is 2 to 4 Ibs. per acre, depending on 
nearness of drills ; if radishes are sown with 
them, an equal bulk will be required. Early 
carrots for house use are sown as soon as the soil 
is fit to receive the seed. Field carrots do bet- 
ter, sown from May 10 to June 10. In Eng- 
land carrots are best grown on ridges, but in 
our warm climate flat culture is to be preferred. 
In gardens they are sown in drills 15 to 20 in. 
asunder, and cultivated by hand. In the field 
they are planted from 24 to 30 in. apart, grown 



32 



CARSON 



CARSTAIRS 



more thickly in the drill, and tilled by horse 
power. The land is deeply ploughed, sub- 
soiled, smoothly harrowed, and rolled. The seed 
is sown from a drill barrow at a depth of one 
half to three quarters of an inch. Some drilling 
machines sow a special manure with the seed, 
which is advantageous in giving the plants an 
early start. Should any manure be required, 
it would be advisable to use soluble special 
manures, made with regard to the wants of the 
plant and the deficiencies of the soil. The best 
Peruvian guano, mixed with many times its 
bulk of muck or charcoal dust, will answer a 
good purpose if ploughed in the soil before 
planting; 300 to 500 Ibs. per acre will be re- 
quired for a good dressing. Soluble super- 
phosphate of lime, with about one third its 
weight of guano, probably forms one of the 
best general manures for carrots. Ten bushels 
of common salt per acre will add to its value ; 
and on most soils 25 or 50 bushels of unleached 
wood ashes dressed over the surface separately 
from and after the other manures, so that they 
will not come in immediate contact with the 
ashes, will increase the yield. After-culture 
consists in frequent stirring of the soil with a 
horse hoe, root cleaner, or other similar instru- 
ment, which cuts close to the plant, and de- 
molishes all weeds in spaces between the rows. 
In November the crop is lifted, by running a 
subsoil lifter close to a row of carrots at full 
depth, say 10 to 20 inches; this will loosen 
the whole soil, and the roots may be readily 
pulled, the tops rempved with a knife, fed to 
the cattle, or left on the ground to be ploughed 
under for manure, while the roots are stored 
in a cool cellar, where an even temperature 
just above freezing is maintained ; or they may 
be pitted in long narrow piles in the field, cov- 
ered with two or three inches of long rye 
straw and several inches in depth of earth, 
leaving straw chimneys to ventilate the pits. 
When fed to cattle, they should be washed in 
clean water, and cut in thin slices, and given 
alone or with other food. The meal for fat- 
tening cattle should be sprinkled over carrots. 
CARSON, Christopher, popularly known as KIT 
CARSON, an American mountaineer, trapper, 
guide, and soldier, born in Madison co., Ky., 
Dec. 24, 1809, died at Fort Lynn, Colorado, 
May 23, 1868. While he was yet an infant his 
family emigrated to what is now Howard co., 
Mo. At 16 years of age he was apprenticed to 
a saddler, with whom he continued two years. 
The next eight years of his life were passed as a 
trapper, which pursuit he relinquished on re- 
ceiving the appointment of hunter to Bent's 
fort, where he continued for eight years more. 
He was then engaged by Fremont as guide in his 
explorations. In 1847 he received an appoint- 
ment as lieutenant in the i^fle corps of the 
army. In 1853 he drove 6,500 sheep to Cali- 
fornia, a difficult but successml undertaking. 
On his return to Taos he was appointed In- 
d an agent in New Mexico, and was instru- 
mental in bringing about many treaties with 



the Indians. During the civil war he rendered 
important services in New Mexico, Colorado, 
and the Indian territory, rose to the rank of 
colonel, and was brevetted brigadier general. 
He died from the rupture of an artery in the 
neck. See "Life of Kit Carson," by Charles 
Burdett (Philadelphia, 1869). 

CARSON CITY, the seat of justice of Ormsby 
co., Nevada, and capital of the state, situated 
in Eagle valley, 4 m. from Carson river, and 
178 m. N. E. of San Francisco; pop. in 1870, 
3,042, of whom 697 were Chinese. It is in a 
fertile and picturesque region. The Sierra 
Nevada mountains rise abruptly on the west, 
while the valley of the Carson extends far to 
the north and east. A railroad connects it 
with Virginia and Gold Hill, in Storey co., 
which is used chiefly to transport ore from the 
mines at those places to the crushing mills on 
the Carson river, and to carry back timber, 
which is abundant on the slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada. The state house is in course of con- 
struction. The branch mint occupies a fine 
building. The deposits of bullion for the year 
ending June 80, 1872, amounted to $8,564,436 
69, of which $4,371,573 65 were gold, and 
$4,192,863 14 silver. The total deposits of 
gold to that date were $5,499,537 59. The 
total coinage, including silver bars, has been 
441,449 pieces, valued at $10,881,428 18, of 
which 77,029 pieces, valued at $874,461 05, 
were gold, and 364,420 pieces, valued at 
$10,006,607 08, were silver. The state prison 
is at Warm Springs, 2 m. to the east. There 
are four quartz mills, with 76 stamps, for the 
production of silver, and several churches, good 
schools, two daily newspapers, and the state 
and odd fellows 1 libraries. Carson City was 
founded as a ranch before the discovery of sil- 
ver in Nevada, after which time it increased 
rapidly, being on the line of travel through the 
state previous to the opening of the Central 
Pacific railroad. 

CARSTAIRS, or Carstares, William, a Scottish 
divine, born at Cathcart, near Glasgow, Feb. 
11, 1649, died Dec. 28, 1715. He was edu- 
cated at Edinburgh and Utrecht, devoted him- 
self warmly to the prince of Orange, and be- 
came minister of an English church at Leyden. 
After returning home, he took offence at the 
conduct of the Episcopal party, through whose 
influence he was arrested, after which he re- 
tired again to Holland. He was brought back 
on a charge of having been accessory to the 
Rye House plot, and put to the torture in 1682. 
Being dismissed, with the king's pardon, he 
again went to Holland, where he rose still 
higher in favor with the prince of Orange, who 
made him his chaplain in 1685; and as King 
William's chaplain and confidential secretary, 
1688-1702, he contributed much to the estab- 
lishment of the Presbyterian government in 
Scotland. During the reign of Anne he still 
retained his chaplaincy. In 1704 he became 
professor of divinity at Edinburgh, and was 
four times moderator of the general assembly. 



CARSTENS 



CARTAGENA 



CARSTENS, Asmns Jakob, a German painter, 
born at Sanct Jiirgen, near Schleswig, May 10, 
1754, died May 26, 1798. He was a miller's 
son, and had a youthful passion for painting, 
but was placed in a mercantile house. After 
quitting his master he went to Copenhagen, 
where he supported himself for seven years by 
taking portraits in red chalk, producing during 
the time a large historical picture, the " Death 
of ^Eschylus," and another painting, "^Eolus 
and Ulysses." In 1783 he started for Rome, 
but his means did not permit him to go beyond 
Mantua, where he remained a month and then 
went to Lubeck, where he lived five years in 
obscurity. He was then introduced by the 
poet Overbeck to a wealthy patron, by whose 
aid he went to Berlin, where his " Fall of the 
Angels," a colossal picture, containing over 
200 figures, gained him a professorship in the 
academy of fine arts. Two years' labor in 
Berlin and a travelling pension enabled him in 
1792 to go to Rome, and study the works of 
Michel Angelo and Raphael. Afterward he 
spent some time in Dresden, studying the 
works of Albert Dilrer. His best works were 
designs in aquarelle and paintings in fresco ; he 
rarely painted in oil. His biography was pub- 
lished in 1806 (new ed. by Riegel, 1867), and 
his works, engraved by Muller, in 1869. 

CARTAGENA, or Carthagena (anc. Carthago 
Nova, New Carthage), a seaport town of Spain, 
in the province and 29 m. S. S. E. of Murcia ; 



lat. 37 36' N., Ion. 56' W. ; pop., including 
suburbs, about 60,000. It is built at the 
head of a deep, well sheltered harbor, flanked 
by steep hills, defended by works at its mouth, 
and forming one of the best ports on the Medi- 
terranean. The town itself is walled and neatly 
built; the streets are wide, regular, and re- 
lieved by several public squares. It is the seat 
of a bishop, and has an old cathedral, of little 
beauty, and now a simple church. There are 
several other churches, convents, hospitals, an 
observatory, an artillery park, a splendid arse- 
nal, barracks, dock yards, founderies, ropewalks, 
and a glass factory. Notwithstanding its com- 
modious port, the town has little commerce. 
The inhabitants are employed chiefly in lead 
and silver mining, fishing, and exporting barilla, 
grain, and esparto. The mineral wealth of the 
neighborhood was known in very early times, 
and the yield of silver enabled Hannibal to carry 
on his war against the Romans. The mine of 
La Carmen was opened in 1839, and the veins 
have since been successfully worked by a joint 
stock company. Cartagena was founded by 
Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian general, about 230 
B. C. ; was taken by Scipio in 210, at which pe- 
riod, Livy states, it was one of the richest cities 
in the world ; was almost destroyed by the 
Goths ; rose to great importance in the time of 
Philip II., and became the great naval arsenal 
of Spain. It was formerly very unhealthy; 
but within a few years the draining of the Al- 




Cartagena, Spain. 



majar, a lake formed by the rains, has remedied 
this, and its population has in consequence con- 
siderably increased. 

CARTAGENA, a fortified maritime city of the 
United States of Colombia, capital of a prov- 
ince of the same name and of the state of 
Bolivar, 410 m. N. N. W. of Bogotd; lat. 10 
25' N., Ion. 75 30' W. ; pop. about 8,500. It 
is situated on an island beside the coast of the 
Caribbean sea, joined to the mainland by a 
series of artificial isthmuses, and to its suburb 
Jejemani by a wooden bridge. Both the city 
and suburb are surrounded by freestone fortifi- 
cations, and on the mainland is an eminence 
150 ft. high, which is, however, overlooked by 
the summit of Mount Popa, 550 ft. above the 
level of the sea, and not fortified, although it 
has repeatedly served as a successful point of 
attack against the city. The streets are nar- 



row, the widest not being over 30 ft. broad, 
but regular, with paved or flagged sidewalks, 
and lighted with gas. The houses are of stone 
and well built; the majority have but one 
story. There are numerous public edifices of 
some beauty, especially the churches of Santo 
Domingo and San Juan de Dios (both bomb- 
proof) ; the monasteries of Santa Teresa and 
Santa Clara; that of Nuestra Sefiora de la 
Popa, on the mountain of the same name ; and 
the cathedral, which is noteworthy for its mag- 
nificent marble pulpit. Cartagena has a col- 
lege, a naval school, a hospital, a theatre, &c. 
The port is one of the best on the N. coast of 
South America, and the only one in Colombia 
in which vessels can be repaired. The bay is 
divided into three sections : Boca Grande and 
Pascaballos, with a mean depth of 15 fathoms; 
Boca Chica, somewhat deeper, and defended 



CARTAGO 



CARTE 




Cartagena, Colombia. 



by two strong castles ; and the Caldera, as deep 
as the first, and thoroughly sheltered. The en- 
trance to the bay is rather difficult; the tides 
are extremely irregular, and the roadstead for 
large vessels is distant nearly 3 m. from the 
city. The excessive heat is somewhat tem- 
pered by frequent sea breezes. Tlie climate is 
not extremely insalubrious, especially in the 
dry season from December to May ; but yellow 
fever epidemics at times commit fearful rav- 
ages, and leprosy is not uncommon. The 
lomba, a disease closely resembling yellow 
fever, in 1872 carried oft' 6,000 victims in the 
course of a few months. Mosquitoes are very 
large and troublesome ; and a small insect, 
the comejen, may destroy in a single night 
whole packages of silk, woollen, or linen fab- 
rics. Maize, rice, beans, peanuts, yuca. and 
tobacco are produced in abundance, with plen- 
tiful supplies of cabinet and other woods, and 
various species of gums, medicinal plants, &c. 
The exports to the United States are tolu, 
caoutchouc, vegetable ivory, mora, hides, and 
some other commodities. Delicious fish are 
taken in the bay, which is besides remarkable 
for enormous turtles, and for the number, vo- 
racity, and hideous appearance of the sharks 
found in it. Cartagena was founded by the. 
Spaniards in 1533, and fortified at a cost of 
$29,000,000. In 1544 it was seized by the 
French ; it was taken by Sir Francis Drake in 
1585, and again by the French in 1697. Ad- 
miral Vernon unsuccessfully besieged it in 1741. 
In 1815 it was taken by Bolivar, again surren- 
dered to the royalists the same year, and was 
finally retaken by the republicans Sept. 25, 1821. 
CARTAGO, an inland city of the United States 
of Colombia, in the state of Cauca, on the 
right bank of the river Cauca, 130 m. TV. of 
Bogota, for the trade of which city it is the 
entrepot; pop. about 8,000. It is situated at 
a slight elevation above the Cauca, nd 3,500 
ft. above the level of the sea. The streets are 
wide and well laid out, but poorly lighted ; the 
houses are well built; and the surrounding 
country is exceedingly picturesque and highly 
cultivated. Cartago has a cathedral, two 
parish churches, and a Lancasterian and soxne 
other schools. Considerable droves of horned 
cattle and swine are raised in the neighbor- 



hood ; the various tropical fruits, sugar, cacao 
of superior quality, coffee, and tobacco, are 
abundantly produced, and form, with swine 
and jerked beef, the chief articles of export. 
The city was founded by the Spaniards in 
1540, between the rivers Otan and Quindiu, 
and was at the end of the same century trans- 
ferred to its present site. 

CARTAGO, an inland town of Costa Rica, on 
the right bank of the river of the same name, 
13 m. E. N. E. of San Jose. This town, once 
a populous and prosperous emporium, and the 
residence of the federal authorities, was almost 
swallowed up, Sept. 2, 1841, by an earthquake 
which left standing only 100 out of 3,000 
houses, and one out of seven churches. The 
commercial importance of the place has ever 
since been on the decrease, and the population 
has dwindled to about 5,000, owing in part to 
the decrease of the Indians, who mainly form 
the working class. Near the town is an ex- 
tinct volcano 11,480 ft. high. 

CARTE, Thomas, an English scholar, born near 
Clifton, Warwickshire, in April, 1686, died near 
Abingdon, Berkshire, April 2, 1754. He studied 
at Oxford and Cambridge, received holy orders, 
and was appointed reader of the Abbey church 
at Bath. A sermon which he preached in 
January, 1714, in which he endeavored to vin- 
dicate Charles I. with regard to the Irish re- 
bellion, engaged him in a controversy with Dr. 
Chandler and led to his first publication, entitled 
u The Irish Massacre set in a Clear Light." On 
the accession of George I. he declined taking 
the oath of allegiance, and therefore relin- 
quished his ecclesiastical office. In 1715 he 
was suspected of being implicated in the re- 
bellion, and was obliged to conceal himself at 
Coleshill. Having officiated as curate in that 
town for a short time, he became secretary to 
Bishop Atterbury. In 1722 he was strongly 
suspected of being concerned in the bislioji's 
conspiracy, and a reward of 1,000 was oft'ered 
for his apprehension ; but ho escaped into 
France and remained there 12 years under the 
assumed name of Phillips, until Queen Caroline 
obtained permission for him to return to Eng- 
land. In 1744 he again gave umbrage to the 
government, and was arrested, but soon dis-^ 
charged. His principal works consist of the* 



CARTER 



CARTHAGE 



35 



chief materials for an English edition of De 
Thou and Rigault (7 vols., London, 1733); a 
" Life of James, Duke of Ormond " (London, 
1735-'f>) ; and a " History of England " (4 vols., 
1747-'55), which brings the history down to 
Iti."i4; the manuscript for the remainder, to 
1C88, is preserved in the Bodleian library. 

CARTER. I. A N. E. county of Tennessee, bor- 
dering on North Carolina, drained by affluents 
of Holston river, and by Doe river ; area, about 
350 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,909, of whom 573 
wore colored. It occupies some of the highest 
ground in the state. The Iron mountain range, 
covered with timber and rich in mines of iron, 
extends along its S. E. border. Watauga river 
and other streams supply water power, which 
is extensively employed in iron works. The 
valleys are highly productive. A branch of 
the East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia 
railroad traverses the county. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 37,169 bushels of wheat, 
132,097 of Indian corn, 63,396 of oats, and 2,155 
tons of hay. There were 1,033 horses, 1,326 
milch cows, 2,543 other cattle, 5,430 sheep, 
and 7,253 swine. There were 6 iron forges, 
1 flour mill, and 1 manufactory of woollen 
goods. Capital, Elizabethtown. II. A N. E. 
county of Kentucky, intersected by the Little 
Sandy river and Tygert's creek ; area, about 500 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,509, of whom 100 were 
colored. The surface is hilly and broken. The 
soil near the rivers is tolerably fertile, but in 
other places unfit for cultivation. The mineral 
we;ilth is considerable, iron ore and stone coal 
being found among the hills in_great quantities. 
The Elizabeth, Lexington, and Big Sandy rail- 
road is to traverse the county. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 13,214 bushels of wheat, 
282,691 of Indian corn, 41,507 of oats, 107,529 
Ibs. of butter, and 17,175 of wool. There were 
1,805 horses, 1,747 milch cows, 2,892 other 
cattle, 8,614 sheep, and 7,988 swine. There 
were 2 manufactories of pig iron. Capital, 
Grayson. III. A S. E. county of Missouri, in- 
tersected by Current river ; area, 500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 1,455, of whom 30 were colored. 
The surface is diversified by hills and valleys. 
Timber is plentiful, and copper and iron are 
found. The chief productions in 1870 were 
4,992 bushels of wheat, 73,259 of Indian corn, 
7,311 of oats, and 28,550 Ibs. of tobacco. There 
were 417 horses, 470 milch cows, 1,047 other 
cattle, 1,182 sheep, and 3,589 swine. Capital, 
Van Buren. 

CARTER, Elizabeth, an English authoress, born 
at Deal, Dec. 16, 1717, died in London, Feb. 
19, 1806. She translated Epictetus (London, 
1758), and also wrote some poems for the 
" Gentleman's Magazine," numbers 44 and 100 
of the " Rambler," and published a volume of 
poems in 1738. Her poetical works exhibit 
much tenderness, simplicity of sentiment, and 
expressive sweetness. She never married. 

CARTERET, an E. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on the Atlantic and Pamlico sound ; 
area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,010, of whom 



2,725 -were colored. Several long, narrow isl- 
ands, on one of which is Cape Lookout, par- 
tially separate it from the sea, and Newport 
river flows through it. The surface is level, 
and much of it is occupied by swamps and pine 
forests. The Atlantic and North Carolina rail- 
road passes through it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 32,260 bushels of Indian corn, 
58,715 of sweet potatoes, and 774 bales of cot- 
ton. There were 542 horses, 935 milch cows, 
1,970 other cattle, 1,099 sheep, and 3,765 
swine. There were 2 saw mills and 4 manufac- 
tories of tar and turpentine. Capital, Beaufort. 

CARTERET, Philip, an English navigator, was 
captain of the Swallow in the expedition com- 
manded by Samuel Wallis, which sailed Aug. 
22, 1766, on a voyage of discovery to the South 
seas; but he parted from Wallis's vessel, the 
Dolphin, and made a separate expedition. He 
discovered Queen Charlotte's isles, and other 
islands, two of which he called Gower and Car- 
teret. He returned to England Feb. 20, 1769, 
and a description of his voyage was given by 
Dr. Hawkesworth in the introduction to his 
narrative of Capt. Cook's first voyage. 

CARTESIUS. See DESCAKTES. 

CARTHAGE (called by the Carthaginians Karfh- 
hadtha, the new city; the Carthago of the 
Romans, 'K.apx'nSuv of the Greeks), an ancient 
city and state in the north of Africa. The city, 
near the site of modern Tunis, on a peninsula 
which extends into a small bay of the Mediter- 
ranean, was founded, according to the legend, 
by Dido, a Phoenician princess, about 880 B. C. 
Of the early history, first settlement, and chro- 
nology of Carthage, beyond the fact that the 
original colonists were Phoenicians from Tyre, 
nothing definite is known ; and ancient writers 
materially differ as to the' date of the foundation 
of the city. Probably it was older, as at one 
period it was more important, than its rival 
Rome, and soon after its settlement it became 
very populous by the influx of Africans who 
came thither for traffic. How long Carthage 
remained under a monarchy, or what events 
occurred in its early history, is unknown, at 
least for a period of 300 years ; but from the 
beginning it was an important maritime and 
commercial city, with a trade extending to all 
the ports in the Mediterranean, and inland to 
the Nile and to the Niger. Beyond the straits 
of Hercules the commerce of Carthage reached 
to the W. coast of Africa, to northern Europe, 
and even, it is supposed, to the Azores. About 
508 B. C. the Carthaginians made a treaty with 
the Romans, relating mainly to commerce ; and 
by this treaty (whose genuineness is contested 
by modern scholars), which Polybius (iii. 22, 
26) translated from the original brazen tablets 
in the capitol, it appears that Sardinia and a 
part of Sicily were then subject to Carthage. It 
gradually extended its supremacy over all the 
islands in the western half of the Mediterranean. 
Its foreign trade was mainly a monopoly, which 
the treaty with Rome shows it meant to main- 
tain. Beyond her commercial importance, and 



36 



CAETHAGE 



later in history something of her successes 
and reverses in war, less is known of Carthage 
than of any other nation of antiquity. She has 
left no literature, no monuments, no traces of 
her people or her language, with the exception 
of a few inscriptions on coins, and a few verses 
in one of the comedies of Plautus. Even among 
the writers of nations with whom she carried 
on commercial business and waged wars, the 
notices of her polity, population, religion, man- 
ners, and language are few and far between ; 
and the Romans are charged with destroying 
tlie Punic archives for three centuries. Al- 
though the waters of every sea were white 
with her sails, and the shores of every land, 
hospitable or inhospitable, civilized or savage, 
were planted with her colonies or frequented 
by her mariners, no relic of her laws, language, 
or blood remains. Were it not for the wars 
which terminated her existence as a nation and 
a people, we should scarcely be aware of the 
existence of a city the inhabitants of which 
had visited the Western isles, the Canaries, and 
the Cape Verds ; had braved, if they had not 
actually crossed, the waters of the Atlantic ; 
and had excavated the tin mines of Cornwall. 
Even of the Carthaginians in their wars we 
know little, and this is by the names and the 
deeds of her generals, several of whom were 
among the greatest of antiquity, not by the 
constitution, composition, or character of her 
armies. Through Aristotle and Polybius we 
have learned something of her political system 
and her government, and a little of her reli- 
gion. Of her civic customs, social habits, do- 
mestic institutions, amusements, and industry, 
with the exception of some few hints in rela- 
tion to her navigation, commerce, and agricul- 
ture, we are ignorant. No writer has so con- 
cisely and ably brought together what is known 
of the great commercial republic of antiquity 
as Dr. Thomas Arnold, in his "History of 
Rome," from which a portion of the following 
is condensed. In the middle of the 4th cen- 
tury B. C. the Carthaginians possessed the 
northern coast of Africa, from the middle of 
the Greater Syrtis to the pillars of Hercules, a 
country reaching from Ion. 19 E. to 6 W., 
and a length of coast which Polybius reckoned 
at above 16,000 stadia. In that part where 
the coast runs nearly N. and S. from the Iler- 
maean headland or Cape Bon to the Lesser 
Syrtis was one of the richest tracts to be 
found ; and here the Carthaginians had planted 
their towns thickly, and had Covered the open 
country with their farms and villas. This was 
their irepioude, the immediate domain of Car- 
thage, where fresh settlements were continually 
made as a provision for the poorer citizens; 
settlements prosperous, indeed, and wealthy, 
but politically dependent. Distinct from these 
settlements of the Carthaginians were the sis- 
ter cities of Carthage, founded by the Phoeni- 
cians of Tyre and Sidon. Among these colo- 
nies were Utica, Hadrumetum, the two cities 
known by the name of Leptfe (situated the one 



near the western extremity of the Greater 
Syrtis, and the other on the coast, between the 
Lesser Syrtis and the Hermrean headland) 
and Hippo. These were the allies of Car- 
thage, and some of them were at the head of 
small confederacies of states. In the beginning 
the Phoenicians in Africa occupied their forts 
and domains by sufferance, and paid tribute to 
the natives, as an admission that they did not 
own the soil. Subsequently the settlers became 
sovereigns. The natives were driven back from 
the coasts and confined to the interior, where 
they became mere tillers of the soil, and were 
subject to despotic rule, to severe taxation, and 
to conscription for service in the Carthaginian 
armies. Intermarriage of the settlers with the 
native women resulted in a race of half-castes, 
known as Liby-Pho?nicians, or Afro-Phceni- 
cians ; and colonies of them were sent to the 
Atlantic coast of Africa, and probably of Spain 
also, beyond the pillars of Hercules. It is tra- 
ditional that one voyage from Carthage was 
undertaken mainly to settle 30,000 Afro-Phoe- 
nicians on the African coast S. of the straits of 
Gibraltar. So early as the 7th century B. C. 
the trade of Carthage began with the Spanish 
seaports, especially with Tartessus or Tarshish. 
At the beginning of the 4th century B. C. 
the whole coast of Spain, both Atlantic and 
Mediterranean, was full of Carthaginian tra- 
ding posts and settlements, mostly of small 
size and of little if any political importance. 
Sardinia and Corsica were both subject to Car- 
thage, while on the shores of Sicily she had 
also strong fortresses, trading posts, seaports, 
and dockyards. From the natives of all these 
countries, as well as mercenaries from Gaul, 
Liguria, and the coasts of the Adriatic, were 
recruited the large and effective armies by 
which the Carthaginians maintained the quiet 
of their provinces, and pushed their foreign 
conquests. The political constitution of Car- 
thage is said to have resembled that of Sparta, 
in that it combined the elements of monarchy, 
of aristocracy, and of democracy. But it is 
difficult to ascertain exactly how they were 
combined, or which predominated, during the 
greater period of her existence. During her 
struggle with Rome the aristocratic element 
prevailed, and appears to have been an aris- 
tocracy mainly of commercial wealth, not of 
birth; although there was to a certain ex- 
tent a hereditary nobility which furnished 
the two chief magistrates, variously called 
kings and suffetes, who formed originally 
the supreme and nearly despotical execu- 
tive, as well as being leaders in war, but were 
reduced by successive usurpations of the no- 
bility to functions and powers not differing 
essentially from those of the doges of Venice. 
Then there was a senate of 104 members, and 
also a council of 100 members. There seems 
to have been besides a pentarchy, who formed 
the highest magistracy. Davis conjectures 
that the senate had periodically five outgoing 
and five incoming members, and that those 



CARTHAGE 



37 



whose term expired served for a period as a 
pentarcliy, and could summon in times of per- 
plexity 100 men for a select council. The 
multiplication of offices was a part of the sys- 
tem at Carthage, and the suifetes a term 
identical with the Hebrew word which is ren- 
dered "judges" in the Scriptures as well as 
the other principal magistrates, bought their 
dignities, so that high office was inaccessible 
except to the rich. The power of the com- 
mons was exceedingly small ; they had neither 
originating powers nor judicial functions; yet, 
as ample provision was made for the poorer 
classes, and as the surplus population was 
always disposed of, profitably and advanta- 
geously to themselves, by a system of coloni- 
zation at the government expense, the lower 
orders remained for many centuries contented 
with the constitution of their country. Poly- 
bius says that during her wars with Rome 
the constitution of the city became more and 
more democratic. " The language of Phoeni- 
cia," says Dr. Arnold, " was a cognate tongue 
with the Hebrew, if it were not, as is held 
by Gesenius and others of the best authorities, 
identical with the earliest Hebrew of the Old 
Testament, and varying from it no more than 
does the dialect of the later Hebrew writers. 
It is evident, however, from the fact that the 
Carthaginian tongue seems to have been no- 
where studied by the inhabitants of the na- 
tions with whom they had treaties and con- 
stant commercial intercourse, even among the 
most learned men and the most distinguished 
scholars, that it could have contained little or 
nothing worthy of preservation." Of their 
architecture and their arts we have as yet few 
relics and records. The houses of Carthage 
are believed to have been several stories high, 
of which the lower story alone was built of 
massive material, and the others were moulded, 
as Pliny says, of earth. When such buildings 
are pulled down, or decay, they are nothing 
but a heap of rubbish. The Romans rebuilt 
the city on top of this, and in digging their 
foundations they often cut through rich mo- 
saic pavements and other ornaments of the 
lower stories of the original town. The mo- 
saics recently excavated and considered relics 
of Punic Carthage are of exquisite workman- 
ship. The city grew to be 23 m. in circuit, 
and had two harbors; an outer and an inner, 
the latter being surrounded by a lofty wall. 
Across the peninsula was a triple wall 3 m. 
long, and between the walls were stables for 
300 elephants and 4,000 horses, and barracks 
for 2,000 infantry, with magazines and stores. 
Cothon, an island in the centre of the inner 
harbor, was lined with quays and docks for 
220 ships. Above the city, on the western 
heights, was Byrsa, the citadel, as its Phoeni- 
cian name signified, which, however, the 
Greeks identified with their (ttpoa, hide, and 
thus formed their legend of the purchase of 
the spot on which the original town stood. 
(See DIDO.) When it surrendered to the 



Romans 50,000 people marched out of it. On 
its summit was the famous temple of ^Escu- 
lapius. At the N. W. angle of the city were 
20 immense reservoirs, each 400 ft. by 28, 




Carthaginian Cistern. 

filled with water brought by an aqueduct 
from a distance of 52 m. The suburb Me- 
gara, beyond the city walls, but within those 
that defended the peninsula, was the site of 
magnificent gardens and villas, which were 
adorned with every kind of Grecian art ; for 
the Carthaginians were rich before the Ro- 
mans had even conquered Latium. The navy 
was the largest in the world, and in the sea 
fight with Regulus there were 350 ships, carry- 
ing 150,000 men. Modern excavations have 
led to the discovery of the groundwork of a 
temple, probably that of Cronos, or Baal Ham- 
man, and the quantities of fragments of pre- 
cious marbles found about it indicate that it 
must have been gorgeously decorated. Some 
of the Punic inscriptions that have come to 
light are wonderful for the proportion and 
exquisiteness of the characters. Of their re- 
ligion we know from Scripture and from more 
recent history that it was a cruel and bloody 
superstition. They worshipped on high places, 
and they had sacred groves, as well as idols. 
Their principal god was x Baal, Belsamen, or 
the bright one, considered by the Greeks as 
identical with Cronos or Saturn, and who in 
process of time became in some features as- 
similated to Apollo. He was evidently the fire 
god or sun god, and to him were offered the 
human sacrifices, of children more especially, 
who were placed on the extended palms of the 
metallic statue, whence they rolled into a fiery 
furnace. With the sun god was associated a 
female deity, Ashtoreth or Astarte, expressive 
probably of the productive power of nature 
under the generative power of the sun, and 
worshipped as the queen of heaven. The 
worship of Ammon was associated with that 
of Baal and of the sacred elephant; while 
that of Melkarth (Melk-karih, king of the 
city), the Phoenician Hercules, was celebrated 
by the lighting of yearly funeral pyres, and 
the release of an eagle, typical of the sun 
and of the legendary phoenix. The offering of 
human sacrifices extended as far westward aa 



38 



CAETHAGE 



to Cadiz, where there existed a temple and 
statue of Baal-Saturn. The first period of the 
history of Carthage extends to the beginning 
of the war with Syracuse, from the commence- 
ment of the city, whenever that occurred, 
nominally about 880 to 480 B. C. ; during which 
time she had conquered her African empire, 
Sardinia, and the adjacent isles; waged wars 
with Massilia and the Etrurians, on commercial 
grounds ; prosecuted her voyages of discovery, 
traffic, and colonization along the coasts of 
Spain and far out into the Atlantic; estab- 
lished trading intercourse with the Scilly isles 
and parts of the British coast; and, as some 
believe, pushed her adventures so far as to the 
inhospitable shores of the Baltic, where she is 
reported to have collected amber. About 480 
begins the second period of Carthaginian his- 
tory. It opens with their efforts to conquer 
and attach to their empire the great, rich, and 
fertile island of Sicily, and closes in 2G4 with 
the outbreaking of the first Punic war. The 
Syracusan war was waged long and with va- 
rious success. In the simultaneous attempt 
of the Persians on the Hellenic, and the Car- 
thaginians on the Sicilian Greeks, the Cartha- 
ginians under Ilamilcar were defeated at Hi- 
mera, by Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, and The- 
ron of Agrigentum, with nearly as much loss 
as was their ally, Xerxes, at Salamis. Tradi- 
tion says that of 300,000 Carthaginians, 150,- 
000 were killed in battle or flight, and the rest 
were taken prisoners; while of 2,000 ships of 
war and 3,000 transports, 8 only escaped, and 
these were cast away, only a few men saving 
themselves in a small boat and carrying to 
Carthage the news of the total loss of the fleet 
and army. Asa condition of peace the Car- 
thaginians were compelled to pay 2,000 tal- 
ents in silver, build two temples, and renounce 
human sacrifices in their Sicilian trading posts 
and settlements. In the war with Hiero, Ge- 
lon's successor, about 410, Hannibal, son of 
Gisco, conquered and held in occupation the 
cities of Ilimera, Selinus, and Agrigentum. 
With Dionysius they were for a short time at 
peace, and then employed themselves in con- 
solidating their former conquests on the island, 
which were now very rich and strong, consist- 
ing of well fortified seaports, fortresses, dock- 
yards, naval stations, and garrisons, backed by 
considerable territorial domains of great pro- 
ductiveness and wealth. After the refistab- 
lishment of republicanism in the Greek cities 
by Timoleon, the Carthaginians were almost 
invariably unfortunate. Agathocles, however, 
on attempting, after the policy of Dionysius, to 
drive them out of the island, was defeated and 
besieged in his capital of Syracuse; but he broke 
out of the beleaguered city with a portion of his 
army, and carried the war into AfriciX. There 
he overran the open country, took 200 towns, 
and, although he was twice personally called 
back to Sicily to quell mutinies and restore 
order in his home dominions, actually Main- 
tained himself four entire years on African soil, 



at the gates of Carthage. At length his for- 
tune turned, his armies in Africa were obliged 
to surrender, and in the year 306 he con- ' 
eluded a peace which restored order to Sicily, 
and established both parties in possession of 
the territories each held before the breaking 
out of the war. After his death the Cartha- 
ginians increased their possessions and power 
in Sicily, and established themselves as actual 
masters and sovereigns of the Balearic isles, 
Corsica, Sardinia, and the Lipari islands, thus 
girding the whole Roman seaboard with a 
belt of insular fortresses. Thus far, however, 
all was peace and amity between the two great 
western republics of antiquity. Ten years after 
the retreat of Pyrrhus, the Romans were undis- 
puted masters of Italy. Carthage had become 
yet more influential in Sicily, and was bent on 
converting influence and ascendancy into em- 
pire and possession. The little strait of Mes- 
sina alone divided the possessions and sepa- 
rated the nrmed forces of the two powerful, 
ambitious, encroaching, and jealous states, and 
a contest between them was inevitable. It 
arose with the invocation of Roman aid by the 
Mamertines, belonging to an Italian city of 
Sicily, against the Carthaginians; this being 
gladly rendered, as by a people seeking pre- 
text of war, gave birth to the first Punic war, 
which broke out in 264, and may be regarded 
as the commencement of tbe third period of 
Carthaginian history. This war lasted 23 
years. It was waged (with the exception of 
the invasion, defeat, and capture of Marcus 
Regulus on Carthaginian territory) either on 
the island of Sicily or on the waters of the 
Mediterranean. On the latter, at first, the 
Romans suffered bloody defeats and maritime 
disasters. Still they persevered, and although 
when the war broke out they had not a ship 
of war, a mariner, or an officer who had seen 
sea service, in the end obtained the mastery of 
the Mediterranean, crushed the last fleet of the 
Carthaginians in a terrible conflict off the isl- 
and of Favignana, at the W. angle of Sicily, 
and granted the peace which their enemy sued 
for, on condition that the Carthaginians should 
evacuate Sicily and all the isles thence to the 
Italian coast, release all Roman prisoners with- 
out exchange or ransom, and pay the expenses 
of the war, at the price of 8,200 Euboic talents, 
or $3,337,888, within the space of ten years. 
(See HAMILCAB, and HANNO.) In the 22 years 
that followed before the commencement of 
the second Punic war, although the Cartha- 
ginians had lost Sardinia, of which the Ro- 
mans, taking advantage of a mutiny of the Car- 
thaginian mercenaries, made themselves mas- 
ters, Carthage had more than repaired all her 
losses by the conquest and colonization of the 
vast and rich Spanish peninsula, with its vir- 
gin gold mines and its bold and hardy popula- 
tion, furnishing an inexhaustible supply of men 
to recruit the armies of the republic. Han- 
nibal, the son of Hamilcar, forced the war by 
laying siege to Saguntum (now Murviedro), 









CARTHAGE 



CARTHUSIANS 



39 



an allied city of the Romans on the seacoast, 
and by crossing the Ebro contrary to protest, 
if not to treaty. The passage of Hannibal 
across the Alps, the victories of the Ticinus, 
the Trebia, Lake Thrasymene, and Cannse, the 
defeat on the Metaurus and the death of Hanni- 
bal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal, the 16 Italian 
campaigns, the simultaneous victories of the 
Roman arms in Spain and Sicily, the transfer 
of the war to Africa by the elder Scipio Afri- 
canus, the defeat of Zama, and the total sub- 
mission, subjection, and disarming of Carthage, 
are the principal incidents of the second Punic 
war, which continued about 18 years, and was 
concluded in 201 by the virtual subjection of 
Carthage. (See HANNIBAL.) An interval of 
52 years followed, during which Rome en- 
couraged her allies to commit aggressions on 
Carthage; until that city, in despair, went 
to war to repel unendurable insult and pro- 
vocation, regardless of the late treaty which 
forbade them to take up arms against any na- 
tion without consent of the Romans. After 
this the Romans, as the price of peace, ex- 
torted from them all their remaining ships of 
war, all their arms, military engines, and sup- 
plies, compelled them to give 300 hostages, and 
then commanded them, as the only alternative 
by which to escape destruction, to abandon their 
city and seashore position, and to remove 10 
miles inland. The third Punic war resulted, and 
for three years (149-146) the unarmed, almost 
defenceless citizens of Carthage maintained a 
warfare of despair. At the end of that space 
a second Scipio, the son of Paulus JEmilius, 
the conqueror of Perseus, adopted by the son 
of the conqueror of Hannibal, took the city by 
storm, and destroyed it, razing it to the ground, 
passing the ploughshare over its site, and sow- 
ing salt in the furrows, the emblem of barren- 
ness and annihilation. The inhabitants fought 
from street to street, while the houses burned 
over their heads, during 17 days, until 55,000 
persons, the whole of the survivors of a nation, 
were shut up in the ancient citadel called 
Byrsa, where they surrendered at discretion, 
and were all sold into slavery. Hasdrubal 
only, the commander, with his wife, children, 
and 300 Roman deserters, took refuge in the 
temple of JEsculapius, with the determination 
to defend themselves to the last, and die under 
the ruins of the last Punic edifice. The heart 
of the leader failed him, and while his wife 
and all his followers met the death from which 
he meanly shrank, he surrendered himself to 
be led in triumph, and to die by the hands of 
the Roman carnifex in the Tullianum. About 
80 years after the destruction of Carthage, a 
portion of the city was temporarily restored, 
and called Junonia, by 6,000 colonists whom 
C. Gracchus brought over from Rome. Long 
afterward, in 46 B. C., Caesar planted a small 
colony on the ruins of Carthage ; and Augus- 
tus, his successor, built a city, of the same 
name, at a small distance, which attained some 
eminence. It became an important Christian 



bishopric A. D. 215. Cyprian held a council 
there in 252. It was conquered by Genseric 
from the Romans in 439, and continued to be 
the seat of the African empire of the Vandals 
until it was retaken by Belisarius in 534. It 
was finally destroyed by the Saracens in the 
caliphate of Abd-el-Melek in 698. See Bot- 
ticher, dfeschichte der Karihager (Berlin, 1827) ; 
Munter, Religion der Karthager (2d ed., Co- 
penhagen, 1821); and Davis, "Carthage and 
her Remains " (New York, 1861). In connec- 
tion with Phoenician antiquities, those of Car- 
thage have been treated by Movers, Gesenius, 
and others. 

CARTHAGENA. See CARTAGENA. 

CARTIIAGO NOVA. See CAETAGKNA. 

CARTHA9IINE. See SAFFLOWEE. 

CARTHEUSER, Johann Friedrich, a German phy- 
sician and naturalist, born at Hayn, Sept. 29, 
1704, died at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, June 22, 
1777. He studied medicine first at Jena and 
afterward at Halle, where he took the degree 
of doctor in 1731. He was appointed in 1740 
professor of chemistry, pharmacy, and materia 
medica at the university of Frankiort-on-the- 
Oder, and shortly afterward to the chair of 
anatomy and botany. Still later he was named 
professor of pathology and therapeutics. He 
was also appointed rector of the university, and 
continued to hold his appointments till his 
death. He was made member of the academy 
of sciences, Berlin, in 1758. His chief merit 
consists in having introduced the method of 
submitting the various substances of materia 
medica to a strict ordeal of chemical analysis. 
He analyzed a great number of plants and 
other substances, and gave an exact account 
of the elements which enter into their compo- 
sition. He published a considerable number 
of books and dissertations, among which are : 
Elementa Chymios Medicce Dogmatico-experi- 
mentalis (Halle, 1736) ; Fundamenta Materim 
Medicos Generalis et Specialis (2 vols., Frank- 
fort, 1749-'50) ; and De Morlis Endemicis Li- 
lellus (Frankfort, 1772). 

CARTHUSIANS, a branch of the religions or- 
der of the Benedictines, founded by St. Brnno 
in 1086. The first monastery of the order was 
built in a wild and solitary district six miles 
from Grenoble, in the department of Isere, 
known as La Chartreuse, whence the order 
took its name. The observances of the Car- 
thusian monks were austere and penitential in 
an extraordinary degree, even among contem- 
plative orders. They devoted a portion of 
their time to manual labor, consisting chiefly 
in the transcribing of ancient MSS. Their la- 
bors as agriculturists gained great renown for 
their name, for they reclaimed marshy and un- 
healthy neighborhoods, and caused the rocky 
and barren fastnesses of La Chartreuse and oth- 
er desert regions to bloom with the fruits of 
patient and intelligent toil. They had rich 
and celebrated abbeys in England, France, and 
Germany. The Charterhouse in London was 
once a Carthusian monastery. The Certosa 



CARTIER 



of Pavia, and that of St. Elmo at Naples, are 
still visited by travellers, and for many years a 
Carthusian community occupied as a convent 
the baths of Diocletian at Rome. They de- 




A Carthusian Monk. 

clined rapidly at the close of the last century, 
and have not recovered in this. Since the sup- 
pression of religious houses in Italy the order 
is confined chiefly to the Grand Chartreuse and 
its filiations in France. 

CARTIER, Sir George Itlenne, a Canadian 
statesman, of the family of Jacques Cartier, 
born at St. Antoine, Sept. 6, 1814, died in Eng- 
land, May 20, 1873. He was educated at the 
seminary of St. Sulpice, Montreal, studied law, 
and in 1835 commenced practice in that city. 
In politics he became a follower of M. Papi- 
neau, and when the rebellion of 1837 broke out 
in Lower Canada, a price of $2,000 was set on 
his head. He however escaped arrest, and in 
time an amnesty cast oblivion over the offence, 
and he lived to be entertained by Queen Vic- 
toria at Windsor castle. He was elected to the 
house of assembly from the county of Ver- 
cheres in 1848. In 1856 he was appointed 
provincial secretary, and soon became attor- 
ney general. In November, 1857, he became 
leader of the Lower Canada section of the 
government, J. A. Macdonald being governor. 
After the provinces were confederated, and 
distinctions were conferred upon Canadians 
who had taken part in that change, Cartier 
considered himself slighted iu, being only cre- 
ated a commander of the batit while his col- 
league was knighted. Sir Jo^in Macdonald 
then advised the bestowal on Cartier of a 
higher title than that conferred on himself, 
and obtained for him a baronetcy. , In August, 
1858, Cartier became premier, with Macdonald 
for his chief Upper Canada colleague. He as- 
sisted in carrying the abolition of the feudal 
tenure in Lower Canada ; in making the legis- 
lative council elective, and in that reactionary 



measure which in 1867 reverted to the prac- 
tice of crown nomination; in bringing about 
the codification of the laws of Lower Canada, 
and in judicial decentralization ; and in origi- 
nating and carrying out the confederation of 
British America. With the exception of an 
interval of about a year, he had held some cab- 
inet office since 1858. In 1872 his health 
failed, and he visited Europe, without, how- 
ever, resigning his office of minister of militia. 
CARTIER, Jacques, a French navigator, born 
at Saint Malo, Dec. 31, 1494, died about 1555. 
Under the auspices of Francis L, he was in- 
trusted with the command of an expedition to 
explore the western hemisphere. He sailed 
from Saint Malo, April 20, 1534, with two ships 
of 60 tons each, and a crew of 120 men, and in 
20 days reached the E. coast of Newfound- 
land ; thence steering N. he entered the straits 
of Belle Isle, and took possession of the coast 
of Labrador by planting a cross. He next 
turned S. and followed the W. coast of New- 
foundland to Cape Ray, when he was borne 
W. by unfavorable weather toward the Magda- 
len islands. After visiting them, he continued 
W., landed at the mouth of the Miramichi, 
whence he went with some of his men to ex- 
plore the bay of Chaleurs, and a few days later 
sailed with his two ships, to land again a little 
further N. in the bay of Gasp6, which he mis- 
took for the outlet of a large river. He there 
had friendly intercourse with the savages, and 
inspired them with such confidence that one 
of their chiefs permitted two of his sons to go 
with him to France, on condition that he would 
bring them back the following year. There he 
planted another wooden cross, to which was 
attached a shield bearing the arms of his king, 
and the words, Vive le roi de France I He next 
proceeded N. E., doubled the E. point of Anti- 
costi, and entering the channel which separates 
the island from the continent, sailed up that 
branch of the St. Lawrence to Mont Joly, not 
being aware, however, of the existence of the 
river. Returning, he reached Saint Malo, Sept. 
5, 1534, after an absence of less than six months. 
This successful voyage encouraged the king to 
new efforts; three well furnished ships were 
fitted out for another expedition, which was 
joined by some of the young nobility of France, 
and Cartier was appointed commander, being 
designated in the commission as " captain and 
pilot of the king." About the middle of May, 
1535, Cartier assembled his 'companions and 
men on Whit-Sunday, and repaired to the ca- 
thedral, where a solemn mass was celebrated, 
at which the whole company received the eu- 
charist and the bishop's blessing. The squad- 
ron, consisting of La Grande Hermine, a vessel 
of 120 tons, La Petite Hermine, of 60, and 
L'Eme'rillon, a smaller craft, sailed May 19, car- 
rying several young gentlemen as volunteers, and 
two chaplains. Storms soon separated the three 
vessels, which after a rough voyage arrived 
successively at their place of rendezvous, the 
inlet of Blanc Sablon, in the straits of Belle 



CARTIER 



CARTILAGE 



41 



Isle. On July 31 they sailed "W. and entered 
the channel between the mainland and Anti- 
costi, which he called lie de 1'Assomption; 
sailed up the river St. Lawrence; saw the 
mouth of the Saguenay Sept. 1 ; and on the 
14th came to the entrance of a river at Que- 
bec, now called the St. Charles, to which he 
gave the name of Sainte Croix. The next day 
he was visited by Donnacona, of Stadacon6, 
agouhanna or king of Canada, with whom he 
was enabled to converse, the two Indians whom 
he had the previous year taken from Gasp6 to 
France acting as interpreters. Leaving his 
two larger ships safely moored, he sailed in 
the Emerillon up the stream as far as Lake St. 
Peter ; there, his further progress being inter- 
rupted by a bar in the river, he took to his boat 
with three volunteers, and on Oct. 2 arrived at 
an Indian settlement called Hochelaga, which 
he ' called Mont Royal, whence the present 
name Montreal. On the 5th he left Hochelaga 
and rejoined his ships at the mouth of the 
Sainte Croix, where he passed the winter. 
With his men he suifered from the severity of 
the climate, but above all from the scurvy, 
which made frightful ravages among them ; no 
fewer than 25 soon died ; and out of 110 still 
surviving in February, 1536, only a few were 
free from the disease. Owing to the reduction 
of their number, Cartier decided to abandon 
one vessel, apparently the Petite Hermine. 
After having taken solemn possession of the 
land in the name of Francis L, by erecting a 
cross bearing the arms of France, with the in- 
scription, Franciscus primus, Dei gratia Fran- 
corum rex, regnat, he sailed May 6, carrying 
with him Donnacona and nine other chiefs 
whom he had somewhat treacherously kid- 
napped ; went through the channel S. of Anti- 
costi, and the straits S. of Newfoundland, and 
once more reached Saint Malo, July 16, 1536. 
The hardships which had been incurred during 
the expedition were not encouraging to colo- 
nization ; but at last the entreaties of Francois 
de la Roque, lord of Roberval in Picardy, pre- 
vailed; he was appointed viceroy and lieuten- 
ant general of the new territories, while Car- 
tier preserved the title of captain general and 
chief pilot of the king's ships. Five vessels 
were now fitted out ; Cartier sailed with two 
of them, May 23, 1541 ; he was soon joined by 
the three others, and they arrived at Sainte 
Croix Aug. 23. On exploring the neighboring 
country, Cartier found a better harbor at the 
mouth of the Cap Rouge river, where he built 
a fort called Charlesbourg Royal. Here he 
anchored three of his ships, while the two 
others returned to France after landing their 
cargoes. Cartier then visited Hochelaga for 
the second time, with the particular purpose of 
ascertaining the obstructions to further naviga- 
tion. The winter passed in gloom. Toward 
the end of May, 1542, nothing having been 
heard from Roberval, provisions becoming 
scarce, and the savages evincing unfavorable 
feelings, Cartier sailed for France. On his 



way he met Roberval ; but he continued, steer- 
ing for France, where he arrived without any 
further accident. In the autumn of 1543 he 
made his fourth voyage to Canada, sent by the 
king to bring back Roberval, who had wintered 
at Charlesbourg Royal or France Roi, as he 
called it. Cartier wintered in Canada, and 
finally left it about May, 1544. From that time 
he lived quietly, either at Saint Malo or at the 
village of Limoilon; the precise date of his 
death is unknown. A brief but interesting ac- 
count of his second expedition appeared anony- 
mously in 1545. The journals of the first two 
journeys of Cartier are inserted in vol. iii. of 
Ramusio's Italian collection (Venice, 1565) ; 
also abridged in Marc Lescarbot's Histoire de 
la Noutelle France; a French translation of 
Ramusio's account of the first voyage was print- 
ed at Rouen in 1598, and reprinted in 1865 ; 
and the journals appeared in the original French 
in 1867. A description of his third journey is 
in vol. iii. of Hakluyt's "Principal Navigations," 
&c. (1600). The whole series have been col- 
lected by the Quebec historical society. 

CARTILAGE, a firm, elastic substance, of an ap- 
parently homogeneous structure, bearing some 
analogy to bone, and entering largely into the 
composition of the animal skeleton ; in its inti- 
mate structure it approaches very closely the 
cellular tissues of vegetables. It constitutes the 
rudimentary skeleton of the higher mollusca, 
and of the selachian fishes, hence called car- 
tilaginous fishes ; in man and the higher ani- 
mals it forms the internal skeleton at the early 
periods of life, and is in all employed as a nidus 
for the development of bone. The organic 
basis of cartilage is a variety of gelatine called 
chondrine; this, like gelatine, in a watery 
solution solidifies on cooling, and may be pre- 
cipitated by alcohol, creosote, tannic acid, and 
corrosive sublimate, and is not precipitable with 
ferrocyanide of potassium ; but, unlike gelatine, 
it is precipitable with acetic and the mineral 
and other acids, with alum, persulphate of iron, 
and acetate of lead. True cartilage is of a 
white or bluish white appearance ; fibro-carti- 
lage is of a yellowish color, and exhibits a fibrous 
structure. Temporary cartilages supply the 
place of bone in early life, and gradually be- 
come ossified; for a considerable time after 
birth the ends of the long bones are composed 
chiefly of cartilage, and the extremities are not 
united to the shafts by bone until about the 20th 
year. Permanent cartilages are divided into two 
kinds, the articular and the membraniform ; the 
skeleton of the selachians is also permanent car- 
tilage. Articular cartilages cover the ends of 
bones entering into the formation of joints, 
either a thin layer between almost immovable 
bones, as those of the cranium, ilium, and sa- 
crum, or incrusting the ends in the free-moving 
ball-and-socket and hinge joints. The mem- 
braniform cartilages have no relation to locomo- 
tion, but serve to keep open canals or passages by 
the mere force of their elasticity ; such are the 
cartilages of the external ear, nose, edge of the 



CAETILAGE 



eyelids, Eustachian tube, and the air passages. 
The distinguishing characters of cartilage are 
elasticity, flexibility, and cohesive power ; it is 
not easily broken, and will speedily resume its 
proper shape when bent by accident or design. 
These varieties of cartilage, except the articu- 
lar, are covered with a fibrous perichondrium, 
analogous to the periosteum of bones, which 
serve as support to the blood vessels. The sim- 
plest form of cartilage consists of nucleated cells, 
large, ovoid, more or less flattened by their mu- 
tual contact; the diminutive nucleus, attached 
to the cell wall, contains a minute nucleolus; 
these cells are scattered irregularly in an inter- 
cellular substance, or hyaline matrix, which 
contains numerous granules, many of which, ac- 
cording to Hassall, must be regarded as the 
cytoblasts from which new cells are developed ; 
the amount of this substance is greatest in the 




Homogeneous Substance and Cells of Cartilage. 

fully developed cartilage. In the condensed 
margin of true cartilage, the cells are com- 
pressed, with their long diameters parallel to 
the surface they cover; when ossification be- 
gins in temporary cartilage, the cells become 
disposed in rows, as described in the article 
BONE. In the articular cartilages the cells are 
arranged in small groups in an abundant hya- 
line matrix; they measure from j^t to ^5 of 
an inch; in their deep portions these car- 
tilages gradually blend with the bone, which 
dips unevenly into the substance of the car- 
tilage. In the cartilages of the ribs the cells 
are larger than in any other, being from -^J-y 
* iiir f *** mcn m diameter; they often 
have a linear arrangement, and are imbed- 
ded in a very abundant intercellular sub- 
stance, which sometimes presents a distinctly 
fibrous structure, though not resembling white 
fibrous tissues. In the membraniform carti- 
lages, the cells are very numerous in propor- 
tion to the intercellular substance, which is so 
fibrous in its character in the external ear as 
to approach very near to fibro-cartilage ; the 
ear of the mouse is a good specimen of this 
form, and presents in its central portion a 
series of six-sided cells arranged in layers one 
above the other, resembling, except in size, 
the transverse section of the pith of a plant. 
Cartilage is sometimes found as an accidental 
and diseased product. Enchondroma is a tu- 



mor attached to bone, containing cells like 
those of cartilage, and others of a peculiar 
form resembling the lacunae of bone. In the 
articulations, especially in the knee joint, loose 
rounded bodies are often found, of a cartila- 
ginous consistence, frequently as. large as the 
knee pan; these interfere with the motions of 
joints, and are sometimes removed by opera- 
tion. The cartilage cells of reptiles are larger 
than those of fishes, being largest in the siren ; 
in birds cartilage is very early converted into 
bone, so that they have very little of it except 
in the joints ; the largest cells in the mammals, 
according to Mr. Quekett, are found in the 
elephant. Cartilage belongs to non-vascular 
substances, as considerable masses are found 
impenetrated by a single vessel ; articular car- 
tilage is non-vascular, except in some diseased 
conditions when the presence of a few vessels 
seems to have been detected ; temporary car- 
tilage also, when in small mass, has no vessels, 
but when of considerable thickness the delicate 
extensions of the investing perichondrium pene- 
trate it in a tortuous manner ; the membrani- 
form resemble the temporary cartilages in re- 
spect to vascularity. The nutriment of articu- 
lar cartilage is derived from the vessels of the 
joint, and from the synovial membrane, though 
none of these enter its substance, the nutrient 
material passing from cell to cell by imbibition ; 
in cartilages of ossification vessels regularly 
appear, accompanying the process of bone 
formation. According to Hassall, cartilage 
cells are multiplied in two ways: 1, by the 
division of a single cell into two or more parts, 
each becoming a distinct cell; 2, by the de- 
velopment of cytoblasts in the intercellular 
substance, or in the parent cells, constituting 
a true reproduction, constantly going on. In 
this multiplication by division, and by develop- 
ment of secondary in parent cells, cartilages 
resemble the algce, and herein they stand alone 
in the animal economy. Cartilage cannot be 
regenerated ; fractured surfaces are united only 
by a condensed cellular tissue. There is a form 
of tissue which may be described here, as it 
differs from cartilage chiefly in having its in- 
tercellular substance replaced by white fibrous 
tissue; it is therefore called fibro-cartilage. 
It occurs principally in the joints, where its 
strength and elasticity are most needed. Its 
color is white, slightly tinged with yellow, 
with the shining fibres of the white fibrous 
tissue quite conspicuous ; its consistence varies 
from pulpy to very dense. The fibres are ar- 
ranged in an intricate and interlaced manner, 
strongest in that direction in which the great- 
est toughness is required. To the strength of 
fibrous tissue is added the elasticity of carti- 
lage ; its vessels are few and derived from ad- 
jacent textures, and no nerves have been de- 
tected in it; its sensibility is low, and it has 
no vital contractility. The disks between the 
vertebrse are fibro-cartilage; their elasticity 
diminishes the shocks to which the spinal 
column is necessarily subjected ; in the whale 



CARTOUCHE 



CAETWRIG1IT 



43 



these disks are very large, detached from the 
vertebral bodies, and more or less ossified. In 
the diarthrodial joints, as in the sterno-clavicu- 
lar, temporo-inaxillary, and knee joints, there 
are fibrous laminae, free on both surfaces, called 
menisci; in these the circumference is fibro- 
cartilage, and the centre more cartilaginous. 
On the edges of the shoulder and hip joints is 
a rim of fibre-cartilage, giving depth to the 
articular cavities. In the grooves in bone for 
the lodgment of tendons we find another in- 
stance of the occurrence of fibro-cartilage. 
Fibro-cartilage is not so prone to ossification 
as the simple fibrous structures ; it is repaired 
by a new substance of similar texture ; in cases 
of false joint from the non-union of fractured 
bone, the broken ends are sometimes connect- 
ed by fibro-cartilage. The pubic bones at the 
symphysis are united by this tissue. Fibro- 
cartilage is less soluble in boiling water than 
true cartilage, and yields therefore less chon- 
drine. The uses of cartilage and fibro-carti- 
lage are entirely of a mechanical nature ; their 
structure is admirably adapted for the protec- 
tion of organs by their solidity, flexibility, and 
elasticity. 

CARTOUCHE, Louis Dominique, a French rob- 
ber, born in Paris about 1693, executed Nov. 
28, 1721. He organized a band of desperadoes, 
whose robberies and murders spread terror 
among the Parisians. For years, notwith- 
standing a high price had been put on his 
head, he baffled the police, and was arrested 
by mere chance in a cabaret. His trial, which 
lasted for several months, created a deep sen- 
sation; and an immense crowd gathered to 
witness his execution. He was broken on the 
wheel alive ; but to the last moment the public 
and himself were under the impression that he 
would be rescued by his companions. 

CARTWRIGHT, Edmund, an English clergy- 
man, inventor of the power loom, born at 
Marnham, Nottinghamshire, April 24, 1743, 
died Oct. 30, 1823. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, was elected a fellow of Magdalen college, 
and was rector of Brampton, Derbyshire, and 
afterward of Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire. 
Ilis early life was passed in lettered ease, and 
was especially devoted to poetical composition. 
During the summer of 1784, happening to be 
at Matlock, he had a conversation with some 
gentlemen from Manchester on the subject of 
mechanical weaving. He had never till now, 
in his 40th year, taken any interest in me- 
chanics, but by April of the succeeding year 
he had his first power loom in running order. 
The invention was opposed equally by spinners 
and their workmen. The latter class saw in it 
a machine that would deprive them of bread ; 
the other feared it was a device that would 
diminish their profits. A mob set fire to the 
first factory and burned it with 500 spindles. 
Improvements were added to the original ma- 
chine, and it slowly made its way. For many 
years, however, Cartwright derived no pecu- 
niary benefit from his invention. He patented 



several other machines, of which the principal 
was one for wool combing. Numerous societies 
awarded him premiums, but he received no 
substantial benefits from any of his inventions 
till 1809, when, on the memorial of the prin- 
cipal cotton spinners, parliament voted him 
10,000. This sum placed him in easy circum- 
stances, and he devoted his time to experiments 
in the adaptation of steam power to boats and 
carriages, but died without attaining any im- 
portant result. 

CARTWRIGHT, John, an English political re- 
former, elder brother of the preceding, born 
at Marnham in 1740, died Sept. 23, 1824. At 
the age of 18 he entered the navy, but at 35 
was still a lieutenant. Meantime the struggle 
between Britain and her colonies enlisted his 
sympathies for the Americans. In 1774 he 
published his " Letters on American Indepen- 
dence," and at the same time requested to be 
placed on the retired list, rather than fight 
against the colonists. Lord Howe vainly at- 
tempted to shake his resolution in this respect. 
Having retired to Nottinghamshire, where he 
possessed some property, he received a com- 
mission as major in the militia. His appoint- 
ment gave great offence to the government, 
who signified their disapprobation so pointedly 
to the lord lieutenant that he refused Cart- 
wright the usual step of promotion to the lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy, although five successive va- 
cancies occurred in that office. He retired from 
the regiment in 1792, and about this time re- 
moved to Lincolnshire. His name now be- 
comes prominent in the history of parliament- 
ary reform. He contended for annual parlia- 
ments and universal suffrage. These he sup- 
ported with voice and pen, in cooperation with 
Dr. Jebb, Granville Sharpe, Home Tooke, 
Hardy, Thelwall, Cobbett, Hunt, and other 
liberals of the day. Mainly through his in- 
strumentality the citizens of Birmingham were 
induced to elect a delegate claiming a seat in 
parliament under the nante of their legislato- 
rial attorney, although that city, the third in 
the kingdom, had no representation in that 
body. For his share in this proceeding Cart- 
wright was tried in 1820 on a charge of se- 
dition, and fined 100. Again, when procur- 
ing signatures in Huddersfield to a mammoth 
petition, he was arrested on a charge of ex- 
citing a riot, but released. The English libe- 
rals placed much reliance in the integrity of 
his purposes. Sir William Jones declared that 
his declaration of the people's rights should be 
written in letters of gold. Fox, in his place in 
parliament, said that few men united so com- 
plete a knowledge of the people's constitution- 
al rights with such high intelligence and such 
conscientious views. His views on the Ameri- 
can revolution were summed up in this sen- 
tence : " The liberty of man is not derived from 
charters but from God, and is original in every 
man." He was one of the earliest who main- 
tained that the slave trade was piracy. In 
1831 a bronze statue of him was erected in 



CARTWRIGHT 



CARUS 



Burton crescent, London. His life was pub- 
lished by his niece (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1826). 

CARTWRIGHT, Peter, an American clergyman, 
born in Amherst co., Va., Sept. 1, 1785, died 
near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon co., 111., Sept. 
25, 1872. His parents removed in his childhood 
to Kentucky, where about 1801 his religious 
zeal was aroused by an itinerant preacher, and 
he joined the Methodist Episcopal church. He 
was ordained as deacon in 1806, and as elder 
in 1808, and preached for many years to the 
backwoodsmen, upon whom his homely but 
forcible and earnest utterances produced a 
deep impression. In 1812 he was appointed a 
presiding elder, spent eight years in the old 
Wesleyan conference, four in the Kentucky, 
eight in the Tennessee, and over 45 years in 
the Illinois conference. He was a member 
of every quadrennial conference from 1816 to 
1860, and again in 1868. He travelled 11 cir- 
cuits and 12 presiding elders' districts; receiv- 
ed more than 10.000 members into the church, 
baptized more than 12,000 persons, pronounced 
on an average four discourses a week for 83 
years, and preached in all about 15,000 ser- 
inons. His " Fifty Years a Presiding Elder," 
and the " Autobiography of Peter Cartwright, 
the Backwoods Preacher," edited by the Rev. 
W. P. Strickland (New York, 1856), furnish 
vivid pictures of the life of a frontier preacher. 

CARTWRIGHT, Thomas, an English Puritan 
divine, born in Hertfordshire about 1535, died 
Dec. 27, 1603. He studied divinity at St. 
John's college, Cambridge; but afterward he 
turned his attention to the legal profession, 
and became clerk to a counsellor at law. 
Eventually, however, he returned to the uni- 
versity, and was chosen fellow of St. John's 
in 1560. He was appointed Lady Margaret's 
reader of divinity in 1570, and provoked the 
hostility of Sir William Cecil and Dr. Whitgift 
by the constancy with which he advocated the 
Puritan doctrines and discipline. In 1571, 
when the latter became, vice chancellor of the 
university, he was deprived of his professor- 
ship, and in the following year of his fellow- 
ship. He then repaired to the continent, and 
was chosen minister to the English merchants 
at Antwerp and Middelburg. At the end of 
two years he returned to England, and pub- 
lished a second admonition to parliament in 
behalf of the Puritans. A protracted contro- 
versy with Whitgift, afterward archbishop of 
Canterbury, was the result of his publication, 
and Cartwright had again to expatriate him- 
self, officiating while abroad as minister to 
English communities. In 1580 James VI. of 
Scotland offered him a professorship in the 
university of St. Andrews, which he declined. 
He was imprisoned on his return in 1582-, but 
was released through the influence of Burleigh 
and Leicester, the latter making him master 
of the hospital which he had founded at War- 
wick. He was again committed to prison in 
1585 and 1591, and in 1592 was reinstated in 
his mastership of the Warwick hospital, and was 



again permitted to preach. His " Confutation 
of the Rhemish Translation, Glosses, and An- 
notations on the New Testament" was pub- 
lished after his death, in 1618. He was also the 
author of several commentaries on the Bible 
and of other works. 

CARfPANO, a maritime town of Venezuela, 
in the state of Cumana, 260 m. E. of Caracas; 
lat. 10 40' N., Ion. 63 22' W. ; pop. of the 
town and canton about 10,000. It is charm- 
ingly situated near the base of high hills com- 
manding an extensive view of the surrounding 
country, much of which is covered with for- 
ests and marshes. There are a church, a gram- 
mar and a primary school, and some parochial 
charitable institutions. The climate is hot, and 
generally insalubrious owing to the prevailing 
moisture and the exhalations from the marshes. 
The principal employments of the inhabitants 
are agriculture and the raising of horses and 
mules, numbers of which are exported, as are 
also fruits and other tropical productions. The 
port is commodious, and is defended by a bat- 
tery situated on an eminence. 

CARl'S, Karl Gnstav, a German physician and 
naturalist, born in Leipsic, Jan. 3, 1789, died 
in Dresden, July 28, 1869. After studying in 
the gymnasium and university of his native 
place, he devoted himself to chemistry, in or- 
der to aid his father, who was a dyer. He soon 
left chemistry, and in 1811 graduated at Leip- 
sic as a physician. Engaged as teacher in the 
university, he was the first to deliver there 
a distinct course of lectures on comparative 
anatomy. In 1813 he was appointed to the 
French hospital at Pfaffendorf, near Leipsic, 
and by his devotion to his patients contracted 
a severe illness. The following year, on the 
reorganization of the medico-chirurgical acad- 
emy of Dresden, he was appointed professor of 
midwifery, and at the same time had the clini- 
cal direction of the lying-in hospital. In 1827 
he resigned his professorship on being appoint- 
ed physician to the king of Saxony. lie con- 
tinued, however, to lecture, and in 1827 deliv- 
ered a course of lectures on anthropology, 
and in 1829 on psychology, which added great- 
ly to his previous reputation. Besides his pro- 
fessional and scientific labors, Cams was a 
painter of marked talent. His reputation rests 
mainly on his discovery of the circulation of 
the blood in insects, for which he received & 
prize from the French academy of sciences, 
and his contributions to the history of develop- 
ment in animals. His principal works are: 
Verwch einer Darstellung des Nervensystems, 
itnd inbesondere des Oehirns (Leipsic, 1814); 
Lehrluchder Zootomie, with 20 plates engraved 
by himself (1818) ; Erlduterungstnfeln zur ver- 
gleichenden Anatomic (3 vols., 1826-'35) ; Ueber 
den Blutkreislauf der Insecten (1 827) ; Orund- 
zuge der terglciehenden Anatomic und Physio- 
logic (3 vols., Dresden, 1828) ; Vorlesungen uber 
Psychologic (Leipsic, 1831); Briefe fiber Land- 
8. haftsmalerei (1831); Si/mbolik der mench- 
lichen Gestalt (1852); Erfahrungsresultate aus 



CARUS 



CARY 



45 



artzlichen Studien und drtzlichem Wirlcen wah- 
rend eines hallen Jahrhunderts (1859) ; Natur 
und Idee, oder das Werdende und sein Gesetz 
(Vienna, 1861) ; and Lebenserinnerungen und 
DenTcwurdigkeiten (4 vols., Leipsic, 1865-'6). 

CARUS, Miin-us Aurelius, a Roman emperor, 
bom at Narbo (Narbonne) in Gaul (according 
to other authorities, at Milan or in Illyria), 
about A. D. 222, died in 283. His descent is 
doubtful, but it is supposed that his father was 
an African, and his mother a noble Roman 
lady. He was educated in Rome, attained the 
highest military and civil offices, was praetorian 
prefect, and was proclaimed emperor by the 
legions, on the assassination of Probus, in 282. 
He caused justice to be executed upon the as- 
sassins. He gained a signal victory over the 
Sarmatians, and prosecuted the war against 
the Persians. Undertaking the campaign in 
midwinter, and making a rapid march through 
Thrace and Asia Minor, he ravaged Mesopota- 
mia, made himself master of Seleucia, and car- 
ried his arms beyond the Tigris, where he died 
suddenly in his camp, according to some killed 
by a stroke of lightning. 

CARUS, Victor Julius, a German zoologist, 
born in Leipsic, Aug. 25, 1823. He is the 
grandson of Friedrich August Carus (1770- 
1807), who was a professor and author of six 
posthumous volumes on philosophy (1808-' 10). 
His father, Ernst August Carus (1795-1854), 
was for many years professor of surgery at 
Dorpat, and author of a handbook of surgery 
(1838). Victor was educated at the university 
of Leipsic, became assistant physician there, 
and in 1849 was appointed director of the mu- 
seum of comparative anatomy at Oxford. He 
returned to Leipsic in 1851, and has been since 
1853 professor of comparative anatomy and di- 
rector of the zootomical collection in th^t uni- 
versity. He has published System der thieri- 
schen Morphologie (1853) ; Icones Zootomicce 
(1857 et seq.) ; with Engelmann, Bibliotheca 
Zoologica (2 vols., 1862); with Gerstacker, 
Handbuch der Zoologie (1868 et seq.); and 
Geschichte der Zoologie bis auf Johannes 
Mutler und Charles Darwin (Munich, 1872). 

CARVAJAL, Tom-is Jose Gonzales, a Spanish au- 
thor, born in Seville, Dec. 21, 1753, died Nov. 
9, 1834. He was appointed in 1795 governor 
of the new colonies in Sierra Morena and An- 
dalusia ; protested against the French invasion 
of Spain in 1808; from 1809 to 1811 served as 
commissary in the Spanish army against Napo- 
leon; in 1813 became minister of finance; re- 
linquished these offices to assume the director- 
ship of the royal university of Isidro; was 
arrested and detained in prison from 1815 
to 1820, and exiled from 1823 to 1827. At 
the time of his death he was member of the 
supreme council of war, of the military depart- 
ment of the Spanish and Indian boards, and a 
grandee of Spain. He learned Hebrew at the 
age of 57, in order to translate the Psalms. 
He published Los Salmos (5 vols., Valencia, 
1819), and Los libros poeticos de la Santa Bi- 



l>lia (6 vols., Valencia, 1827). His Opusculos 
ineditos en prosa y en verso appeared after his 
death (13 vols., Madrid, 1847). 

CARVALHO E MELLO. See POMBAL. 

CARVER, a S. E. county of Minnesota, bounded 
S. E. by the Minnesota river, and intersected 
by Crow river ; area, 375 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
11,586. The surface is undulating, the soil 
fertile, and it is watered by numerous lakes 
and streams. There is a railroad from Minne- 
apolis to Chaska, and the proposed Hastings 
and Dakota railroad will pass through it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 298,852 bushels 
of wheat, 122,140 of Indian corn, 140,375 of 
oats, 33, 987 of barley, 54, 207 of potatoes, 19,694 
tons of hay, 211,497 Ibs. of butter, and 16,313 
of wool. There were 1,691 horses, 4,170 milch 
cows, 8,381 other cattle, 5,501 sheep, and 7,874 
swine. Capital, Chaska. 

CARVER, John, first governor of Plymouth 
colony, born in England, died at Plymouth, 
Mass., in April, 1621. He left his country for 
the sake of religion, and established himself at 
Leyden, whence he was sent to effect a treaty 
with the Virginia company concerning terri- 
tory in North America. He obtained a patent 
in 1619, and proceeded in the Mayflower with 
101 colonists.. After a dangerous voyage they 
arrived at Plymouth, where Carver was unani- 
mously elected governor. He managed the 
affairs of the infant colony with prudence, and 
exhibited great address in his intercourse with 
the Indians, but died within four months after 
landing, his wife surviving him only six weeks. 

CARVER, Jonathan, an American traveller, 
born at Stillwater, N. Y M in 1732, died in Lon- 
don, Jan. 31, 1780. He abandoned the study 
of medicine for a military life, bought an en- 
signcy, became a captain, and served in the 
war by which the Canadas came into the pos- 
session of Great Britain. At the conclusion of 
peace in 1763 he undertook to explore the inte- 
rior of North America, and to open new chan- 
nels of commerce. He penetrated to the Minne- 
sota river, and returned to Boston in 1 768. Pro- 
ceeding to England, he unsuccessfully solicited 
from the king requital of his expenses, and aid 
in publishing his charts and journals. He was 
even commanded to deliver up his papers, 
now ready for publication, as being the proper- 
ty of the government, and was obliged to re- 
purchase them from the bookseller to whom ho 
had sold them. In 1778 he published " Travels 
through the Interior Parts of North America," 
and in 1779 a " Treatise on the Culture of the 
Tobacco Plant." 

CARVIN, a town of France, in the department 
of Pas-de-Calais, 15 m. N. E. of Arras; pop. 
in 1866, 6,546. It has starch and sugar fac- 
tories, and distilleries. 

CARY. I. Alice, an American author, born in 
the Miami valley, 8 m. N. of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
April 26, 1820, died in New York, Feb. 12, 
1871. Her parents were people of considerable 
culture, but she had only the slight advantages 
of education afforded by a newly settled country. 



46 



CARY 



She began writing verses at the age of 18 years, 
and for the next ten years made frequent con- 
tributions in prose and verse to newspapers 
and magazines. She first attracted attention 
by some sketches of rural life published in the 
" National Era," under the signature " Patty 
Lee." The " Poems of Alice and Phoebe Gary," 
of which about one third were written by the 
latter, appeared in Philadelphia in 1849. In 
1850 the two sisters removed to New York, 
where they devoted themselves with industry 
and success to literary labor. Alice became a 
constant contributor to the leading literary peri- 
odicals of the country, and her articles, both 
prose and poetry, were subsequently collected 
in volumes which were warmly welcomed both 
at home and abroad. She also wrote novels 
and poems which made their first appearance 
in book form. Her poems are characterized 
by a rare naturalness and grace, while her 
prose is remarkable for its realistic character 
and charming descriptions of domestic life. 
Her last illness was protracted and attended 
with much suffering, but was borne with pa- 
tience and cheerfulness. Alice Gary's pub- 
lished works, besides the volume above men- 
tioned, are: "Clovernook Papers," in two se- 
ries (1851 and 1853), and "The Clovernook 
Children " (1854), containing sketches of west- 
ern life and scenerv ; u Hagar, a Story of To- 
day " (1852) ; " Lyra and other Poems " (1853 ; 
enlarged ed., including "The Maiden of Tlas- 
cala," 1855); "Married, not Mated" (1856); 
"Pictures of Country Life" (1859); "Lyrics 
and Hymns" (1866); "The Bishop's Son" 
(1867); "The Lover's Diary" (1867); and 
" Snow Berries, a Book for Young Folks " 
(1869). IL I'lurbr. an American poetess, sister 
of the preceding, born near Cincinnati, Sept. 
4, 1824, died at Newport, K. L, July 31, 1871. 
She contributed frequently to periodicals, but 
her writings were chiefly poems very different in 
style from those of her sister, being more buoy- 
ant in tone and more independent in manner. 
One of her earliest poems, " Near Home," writ- 
ten in 1842, attracted very general attention. 
Her household duties while living in New York 
with her sister interfered somewhat with her 
literary labor. Her published works, besides 
the contributions to the volume issued in con- 
junction with her sister, were : " Poems and 
Parodies " (1854) ; " Poems of Faith, Hope, and 
Love" (1868); and a large portion of the 
"Hymns for all Christians," compiled by the 
Rev. Dr. Deems in 1869. She wrote a very 
beautiful and touching tribute to her sister's 
memory, which was published in the " Lady's 
Repository " a few days before Jier own death. 
See "Memorial of Alice and Phoebe Gary, 
with some of their Later Poems," by Mary 
Clemmer Ames (New York, 1873). 

CARY, Archibald, an American patriot, born 
in Virginia about 1730, died there in September, 
1786. His family was descended fror, 1 Henry 
Lord Hunsdon, and at the time of his death 
he was the heir apparent of the barony. He 



early became a member of the house of bur- 
gesses. In 1764 he served on the committee 
which reported the address to the king, lords, 
and commons, on the principles of taxation; 
and in 1770 was one of the signers of the " mer- 
cantile association," pledged to use no British 
fabrics thereafter, the design being to resist 
by practical measures the encroachments of 
the government. In 1773 he was one of the 
committtee of correspondence by which the 
colonies were united against parliament ; in 
the following year he was a member of the 
convention which appointed delegates to the 
general congress; and he served with great 
distinction in the convention of 1776. As 
chairman of the committee of the whole he re- 
ported the resolutions instructing the Virginia 
delegates in congress to propose independence. 
When the state government was organized he 
was returned to the senate, of which he was 
chosen president. At this time occurred the 
incident with which his name is most generally 
connected. The scheme of a dictatorship had 
been broached, and without his knowledge or 
consent Patrick Henry was spoken of for the 
post. In the midst of the general agitation 
Gary met Mr. Syme, Mr. Henry's half-brother, 
in the lobby of the assembly, and said to him : 
" Sir, I am told that your brother wishes to be 
dictator. Tell him from me that the day of 
his appointment shall be the day of his death, 
for he shall find my dagger in his heart before 
the sunset of that day." The project was 
speedily abandoned. Gary soon afterward re- 
tired to his estate of Ampthill, in Chesterfield 
co., where he died. He was n good represen- 
tative of the former race of Virginia planters, 
delighting in agricultural pursuits, in blooded 
horses, and improved breeds of cattle. He was 
a man of singular courage, and was called by 
his contemporaries " Old Iron." 

CARY, Henry Fiancis, an English clergyman 
and writer, born in Birmingham, Dec. 6, 1772, 
died in London, Aug. 14, 1844. lie early dis- 
tinguished himself by an " Ode to Kosciusko " 
and a volume of odes and sonnets. At Oxford 
he devoted himself to the study of the modern 
European languages. In 1797 he was appointed 
vicar of Bromley Abbot's. His translation 
into blank verse of the Ditina Commedia of 
Dante (1806-'14) gained him great celebrity. 
He also translated the " Birds " of Aristophanes, 
and some odes of Pindar. His continuation of 
Johnson's "Lives of the English Poets" from 
Johnson to Kirke "White, and his "Lives of the 
early French Poets," are meritorious produc- 
tions ; the latter were published anonymously 
in the " London Magazine " and in a volume 
edited by his son, the Rev. Henry Gary, in 
1846. From 1826 to 1832 he was assistant li- 
brarian of the British museum, and received a 
government pension of 200. He edited edi- 
tions of Pope, Cowper, Milton, Thomson, and 
Young. He was buried in Westminster abbey, 
and his memoirs, by his son, with his literary 
journal and letters, were published in 1847. 



CAKY 



CAS ALE 



CART, Lott, one of the founders of Liberia, 
born a slave near Kichmond, Va., in 1780, died 
at Monrovia, Africa, Nov. 8, 1828. In his 
youth he was vicious and profane, but in his 
27th year he joined the Baptist church. With 
the change in his character came the thirst for 
knowledge. He soon learned to read and 
write, and after a time he began to preach to 
his countrymen. He succeeded in raising by 
extra work $850, with which he redeemed 
himself and his two children from slavery. He 
was then employed in a tobacco warehouse 
with a good salary. In 1815 he became inter- 
ested in Africa and in the establishment of 
missions there. In February, 1821, he went to 
Liberia, and was instrumental in the removal 
of the colonists from their first unhealthy po- 
sition to Cape Mesurado, now Monrovia. He 
exerted himself in the erection of cabins for 
the settlers, telling trees, prescribing for the sick, 
preaching, or fighting against the savages, who 
had determined to exterminate the colonists. 
Once, when the latter had become dissatisfied 
with the course of the colonization society in re- 
gard to the tenure of their lands, he took sides 
with them against the agent, Jehudi Ashmun, al- 
though personally his friend ; but foreseeing the 
evils which would follow insubordination, he 
acknowledged his error and submitted to the 
laws of the society. In September, 1826, Mr. 
Ashmun sailed for America, leaving the entire 
control of the colony in the hands of Mr. Gary. 
He was killed by the explosion of a cask of 
powder in a building where he was making 
preparations to repel an assault of the natives. 
CARYATIDES, in architecture, female figures 
which support a roof in lieu of columns or 
pilasters. Vitruvius says that the 
inhabitants of Caryae, an Arcadian 
village, joined the Persians after 
the battle of Thermopylae ; after 
the defeat of the Persians the con- 
federate Greeks destroyed Caryse, 
put the male inhabitants to death, 
and enslaved the women. Sculptors, 
in commemoration of their infamy, 
made use of representations of these 
women to sustain roofs and heavy 
superincumbent weights; but the 
use of caryatides is more ancient 
than the date of the story, and the 
Greeks probably derived this form 
in architecture from Egypt. 
CASA, Giovanni dclla, an Italian prelate and 
author, born near Florence, June 28, 1503, 
died in Rome, Nov. 14, 1556. He was of a 
distinguished family, studied in Bologna and 
Padua, and led a gay life in Borne ; but becom- 
ing a priest in 1538, he was employed in 1541 
on a papal mission to Florence, and elected to 
the newly founded accademia fiorentina. In 
1544 he became archbishop of Benevento, and 
was subsequently nuncio at Venice until after 
the death of Pope Paul III. (November, 1549). 
The new pope, Julius III., being unfriendly to 
him, sold the post of clerk of the camera, which 
158 VOL. iv. 1 




he had held for seven years. He returned to 
Venice, remaining there till after the -accession 
of Paul IV. (1555), when his hopes of becom- 
ing a cardinal were frustrated partly by his pro- 
motion being urged by France, and probably 
still more by the existence of his licentious poem 
Capitoli delforno. He did not long survive 
this disappointment. In point of style he was 
the best Italian prose writer of his day. His 
most celebrated work, Galateo, briefly laying 
down the rules of polite behavior and illustra- 
ting the manners of society, has been transla- 
ted into foreign languages and passed through 
many additions. His writings in Latin include 
translations from Plato and Aristotle. His 
lyrical poems, edited by Menage (Paris, 1667), 
are noted for their purity and delicacy. His 
licentious poem Capitoli (Venice, 1538-'64), 
has been expunged from the several editions 
of his complete works (3 vols., Florence, 1752 ; 
4 vols., Milan, 1806). 

CASABIMCA, Louis, a French naval oflScer, 
born at Bastia about 1755, died Aug. 1, 1798. 
He entered the naval service when very young, 
and having adopted the principles of the French 
revolution, he was elected to the national con- 
vention ; on the trial of Louis XVI. he did not 
vote for death, but merely for imprisonment. 
He subsequently became a member of the 
council of 500 ; after which he was appointed 
captain of L'Orient, the flag ship of Admiral 
Brueys, the commander of the fleet which took 
Bonaparte and his army to Egypt. When this 
fleet was attacked by the English in the bay of 
Aboukir, Casablanca fought bravely to the last, 
and was killed with his son, then 10 years old, 
by the explosion of his ship. 

CASACALENDA, a town of S. Italy, in the 
province and 18 m. N. E. of Campobasso ; 
pop. about 6,000. It contains several churches, 
one of which is noted for its Tuscan architec- 
ture, and a convent. Wine and excellent fruit 
are largely produced in the surrounding country, 
and silkworms are reared. Some authorities 
identify its site with that of the ancient Calela, 
in the territory of Larinum, where, according 
to Polybius, Minucius was encamped at a dis- 
tance of about 16 stadia from the headquarters 
of Hannibal at Gerunium. 

CASAL, or Cazal, Manuel lyres de, a Portuguese 
geographer, born in the latter half of the 18th 
century, died at Lisbon in the second quarter of 
the present century. Having received an ex- 
cellent education, he took holy orders, but af- 
terward devoted himself to the exploration of 
Brazil. He has been styled the father of Bra- 
zilian geography, and his principal work, enti- 
tled Corografia Brasilica (2 vols., Rio de Ja- 
neiro, 1817), elicited the admiration of Hum- 
boldt and of other competent judges. 

CASALE, a city of Italy, capital of a district 
in the province of Alessandria, on the right 
bank of the Po, 38 m. E. N. E. of Turin, near 
the site of the ancient Sedula;. pop. in 1871, 
25,714. The citadel, founded in 1590, was one 
of the strongest in Italy ; and after the cam- 



48 



CASAL-MAGGIORE 



CASANOVA 



paign against Austria in 1849 the defences, 
which had fallen into decay, were rebuilt and 
enlarged. It was the capital of the ancient 
marquisate of Montferrat, and has sustained 
several sieges, and frequently changed its mas- 
ters. It is the seat of a bishop and of a district 
court of justice, and has a cathedral, founded 
in 742, a theatre, and a royal college. The 
church of San Domenico, containing a tomb in 
memory of the princes Palreologi, is remarkable 
for the elegance of its design, and several fine 
works of art are found in other churches. 
Among the prominent articles of trade are silk, 
hemp, fruit, and wine. 

CASAL-MAGGIORE, a town of Italy, on the Po, 
in the province and 22 m. S. E. of Cremona ; 
pop. about 4,500. Tanneries, and the manu- 
facture of glass, pottery, and cream of tartar, 
are carried on. The town has a superior school, 
a hospital, orphan asylum, and theatre. A 
victory was achieved here by Sforza over the 
Venetians in 1448. 

CASAL-PtSTERLENGO, a town of Italy, in the 
province and 30 in. 8. E. of Milan, on the 
Brembiolo ; pop. about 5,500. It is the seat of 
several public offices, has a church and sanctu- 
ary, manufactures of silk, linen, and earthen- 
ware, and an extensive trade in cheese. 

CASAMANZA, a river of Senegambia, rises in 
the mountains S. of Barraconda, and after a 
course of 200 m. falls into the Atlantic, about 
56 m. S. of the Gambia. Its lower course has 
been since 1860 within French territory. The 
French fort of Carabane is situated at its mouth. 

CASANOVA, Giovanni Giaeomo de Selnpalt, an 
Italian adventurer, born in Venice, April 2, 
1725, died in Austria about 1803. His father, 
who was of noble descent, was an adventurer 
and comedian, and married the daughter of 
a Venetian shoemaker. Giovanni was sent to 
Padua, and placed under the instruction of 
Gozzi ; but having been implicated in a brawl 
between the students and the police, he was 
forced to leave Padua, and went to Venice. 
His adventures there are described in his me- 
moirs, and reveal the frivolous character of the 
Venetian society of those days. Having be- 
come notorious for his profligacy, he was final- 
ly thrown into the dungeon of San Andrea, 
but effected his escape, and, after wandering 
over various towns of Italy, succeeded in find- 
ing at Morterano a prelate to whom he brought 
letters of introduction which his mother had 
obtained for him, and who recommended him 
to his friends at Naples. They in turn supplied 
him with letters to Cardinal Acquavivain Rome, 
who brought him into personal contact with 
Pope Benedict XIV., and this circle of acquaint- 
ance laid the foundation for his subsequent 
career. His devotion to the poetical Marchesa 
Gabrielli, his mental encounters with the litera- 
ti, his conversational triumphs in the high social 
circles of Rome, were all brought to a sudden 
close by his connivance in an elopement which 
gave offence to the marchesa, who requested 
Cardinal Acquaviva to dismiss Casanova, whom 



he employed as secretary. The cardinal gave 
him a passport for Venice, and he eventually 
reached Constantinople, in company with the 
Venetian ambassador, into whose favor he had 
insinuated himself. He was received with 
great distinction by Cardinal Acquaviva's friend, 
the pasha of Caramania, alias count de Bon- 
neval, who introduced him to Yusuf Ali, whose 
wife fell in love with him, while his daughter 
Zelmi was offered to him in marriage. He left 
Constantinople surfeited with presents and 
money, which he lost in gambling soon after 
his arrival at Venice in 1745, where he accept- 
ed a humble musical employment in the or- 
chestra of the theatre San Samuele, in order to 
save himself from starvation. Here he fell in 
with the rich Venetian senator Bragadio, but 
was soon again compelled to remove to other 
places in order to escape the hands of justice. 
After figuring as a magician at Cesena, as a 
priest at Milan, and in various characters at 
Mantua, Ferrara, Bologna, Parma, and Venice, 
he made his first appearance in Paris on June 
1, 1750. There his reputation had preceded 
him, and he was received with great favor; 
the marshal de Richelieu became his bosom 
friend; the duchess de Chartres doted upon 
him. After two years in Paris he joined his 
mother, who was then performing at the 
theatre of Dresden, and subsequently pro- 
ceeded to Vienna, where he was received 
with much favor. On his return to Venice, 
July 25, 1755, he was lodged in the dun- 
geons of the council of ten. He gives in 
his memoirs an entertaining but improbable 
account of the skill and audacity which he 
displayed in again effecting his escape. Early 
in 1757 he reappeared in Paris, where the 
dungeon episode added considerably to his 
notoriety. He now tried his hand at politics 
and financiering, and proposed a lottery in 
order to restore the equilibrium of the French 
exchequer. A meeting was convened to de- 
liberate on the subject, and D'Alembert in his 
capacity of mathematician was invited to at- 
tend it. Casanova's persuasive power con- 
vinced the most skeptical minds of the infalli- 
bility of his project ; it was actually adopted, 
but he did not remain to observe its develop- 
ment, being sent as a kind of government spy 
to Dunkirk. On his return to Paris he met 
the famous adventurer, the count de St. Ger- 
main, whom he subsequently found installed at 
the Hague. After failing in his various indus- 
tri.-il speculations at Paris, Casanova went to 
Holland under the auspices of the duko de 
Choiseul, to contract a loan for the French 
government, while St. Germain had received 
the same mission from the hands of Louis XV. 
himself. The two adventurers were well 
matched, but as they found the Dutch unwill- 
ing to advance any money, Casanova resumed 
his travels. At Roche, in Vaud, he paid his 
respects to Haller, and at Ferney to Voltniiv. 
At London he met the chevalier d'Eon, and was 
introduced to George III., but, implicated in a 



CASAS 



CASAS GKANDES 



49 



charge of forgery, left the English capital in a 
hurried manner. At Brunswick the prince of 
Prussia helped him out of a pecuniary diffi- 
culty. His rencontres with St. Germain con- 
tinued to be frequent and amusing. At Sans 
Souci he had an audience of Frederick the 
Great; at St. Petersburg, of Catharine II. 
Prince Adam Ozartoryski introduced him to 
the king of Poland. He returned to Vienna, 
but Maria Theresa would not receive him, and 
he departed for Spain. There his career forms 
a continued series of scandals and intrigues. 
In Barcelona he was put in prison, where he 
beguiled his time by writing Confutazione della 
storia del governo veneto d'Amelot de la Hous- 
saye (Amsterdam, 1769). After recovering 
his liberty, he betook himself in 1768 to Aix, 
where he met Cagliostro. But Casanova's ro- 
ving career was now drawing to its close. At 
a dinner of the Venetian ambassador at Paris 
he had met Count Waldstein of Bohemia, a 
good-natured man, and to escape from the 
dangers of his precarious position, he accepted 
the office of librarian in the chateau of the 
Bohemian count, where he spent the remain- 
ing years of his life. Casanova wrote a work 
on Polish history, translated the Iliad into 
French verse (4 vols. 4to, Venice, 1778), and 
was the author of an account of his imprison- 
ment, and various other writings, among which 
is Icosameron, ou Histoire d'Edouard et d'Eli- 
sabeth, a narrative of 80 years spent among the 
inhabitants of the interior of the globe (5 vols. 
8vo, Prague, 1788-1800). But his literary 
fame rests upon his Memoires de ma vie jus- 
qu'en 1797, written during his residence in Bo- 
hemia (corrected ed., 8 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1830). 

CASAS, Las. See LAS CASAS. 

CASA SANTA. See LOEETO. 

CASAS GRANDES (Span., great houses), a town 
of about 4,000 inhabitants in Chihuahua, Mex- 
ico, on the Casas Grandes or San Miguel river, 
35 m. S. of Llanos, which first became noted for 
ruined edifices, apparently relics of an aboriginal 
race. These ruins are found about half a mile 
from the modern town, partly on the declivity 
of a small hill, and partly on the plain at its 
foot. They consist chiefly of the remains of a 
large edifice, built entirely of adobe, or mud 
mixed with gravel and formed into blocks 22 
in. thick and about 3 ft. long. No stone ap- 
pears to have been used in them, although the 
similar structures found in Arizona are entire- 
ly built of stone. The outer walls are almost 
all prostrate, except at the corners, and were 
probably only one story high ; the inner walls 
are much better preserved, varying in height 
from 5 to 50 ft., and being in some cases 5 
ft. in thickness at the base. The central parts 
of these, like the exterior walls, have gen- 
erally fallen, leaving the corners towering 
above the rest. The portions remaining erect 
seem to indicate an original height of from 
three to six stories, but they are so much 
washed away that it is impossible to discover 
where the beams were inserted. The door- 



ways have the tapering form noticed in the 
ancient structures of Central America and 
Yucatan, and over them are circular open- 
ings in the partition walls. The stairways 
in Chihuahua were of wood, but in Ari- 
zona of stone. Clavigero, in his "History 
of Mexico," tells us that the building at Casas 
Grandes was erected by the Mexicans in their 
peregrination, and that it consisted " of three 
floors, with a terrace above them, and without 
any entrance to the lower floor. The door for 
entrance to the building is on the second floor, 
so that a scaling ladder is necessary." It is dif- 
ficult to form a correct idea of the arrangement 
of such an edifice, but its main features seem 
to have been three large structures connected 
by ranges of corridors or low apartments, and 
enclosing several courtyards of various dimen- 
sions. The extent from IS", to S. must have 
been 800 ft., and from E. to W. about 250 ft. 
A range of narrow rooms, lighted by circular 




House at Tewah, Arizona. 



openings near the top, and having pens or 
enclosures 3 or 4 ft. high in one corner, sup- 
posed to be granaries, extends along one of 
the main walls. Many of the apartments are 
very large, and some of the enclosures are too 
vast ever to have been covered by a roof. 
About 200 ft. W. of the main building are 
three mounds of loose stones, which may have 
been burial places ; and 200 ft. W. of these are 
the remains of a building, one story high and 
150 ft. square, consisting of a number of apart- 
ments ranged around a square court. For some 
distance S. the plain is covered with traces of 
similar buildings, the nature of which cannot 
now be determined ; and for 20 leagues along the 
Casas Grandes and Llanos rivers are found ar- 
tificial mounds from which have been dug up 
stone axes, corn -grinders, and various articles 
of pottery, such as pipes, jars, pitchers, &c., 
of a texture far superior to that made by the 
Mexicans of the present day, and generally or- 
namented with angular figures of blue, red, 



50 



CASAS GRANDES 



CASAUBON 



brown, and black, on a red or white ground. 
The best specimens command a high price in 
Chihuahua and neighboring towns. On the 
summit of a mountain, about 10 m. from the 




Interior View. 

Casas Grandes, are the remains of an ancient 
stone fortress, attributed to the same people 
who built the Casas Grandes, which was prob- 
ably intended as a lookout. On the Salinas 
and Gila rivers, in the country of the Pimo and 
Coco-Maricopa Indians, and in Arizona, are ruins 
of like character and evidently identical origin, 
to which the same name is usually applied. 
The Indians call all such ruins " casas de Mon- 
tezuma." Of those on the Salinas little remains 
but shapeless heaps of rubbish, broken pottery, 
and the traces of several irrigating canals. On 
the Gila, however, there are three distinct build- 
ings, all enclosed within a space of 150 yards. 
The largest measures 50 by 40 ft., and at a dis- 
tance looks not unlike a square castle, with a 
tower rising from the centre. The southern 
wall is badly rent and crumbled, but the other 
three walls are nearly perfect ; they are rough- 
ly plastered over on the outside, and hard- 
finished inside with a composition of adobe. 
The material of which they are constructed is 
the same as that used in the Casas Grandes of 
Chihuahua. The walls are perpendicular with- 
in, but their exterior face tapers in a curve to- 
ward the top. One of them is covered with 
rude figures. The ends of the beams, which 
denote by their charred appearance that the 
building was destroyed by fire, are deeply sunk 
in the walls, and show three stories now stand- 
ing. The lower floor is divided into five apart- 
ments. There is an entrance on each of the 
four sides, but there are no windows except on 
the W. side, and no traces isf an interior stair- 
way. The other two buildings are much 
smaller, and one of them wa^ perhaps merely 
a watch tower. Both are badly ruined. About 
200 yards distant is a circular enclosure, from 
60 to 100 yards in circumference, probably in- 
tended for cattle. For miles around the plain 
is strewn with fragments of pottery. The ori- 
gin of these ruins is a subject of doubt. They 
were seen nearly in their present state by the 
early explorers of the country, and the Indians 
then assigned them an age of no less than 500 
years. Mr. Squier supposes them to have been 
the work of the aboriginal race of the Moquia. 



Late explorations have shown that the whole 
of the wide region drained by the Gila and 
Colorado rivers, now for the most part arid and 
desolate, was once widely if not densely popu- 
lated. On the cliffs bordering the Colorado, 
and on the shelves of its rocky banks, in places 
apparently inaccessible, are remains of consid- 
erable edifices. Throughout the country west 
of the Rio Grande are the outlines of buildings, 
discernible by the stones that supported adobe 
walls, which have now been washed away by 
rains, or have been disintegrated by time. The 
stone buildings of the existing Pueblo Indians do 
not, as far as plan is concerned, differ much from 
those of their ancestors. They are built around 
courts, and are generally about three stories 
high ; the walls receding by stages, and access 
being gained only by the use of ladders. When 
these ladders are drawn in, the various sides 
present a perpendicular front to an enemy, and 
the building itself becomes a fortress. These 
features indicate that before the conquest the 
quiet, agricultural population of what is gener- 




Moqui Town, near Tewah. 

ally called New Mexico was subject to raids 
or incursions from the barbarous hordes roam- 
ing to the north and northeast, against whom 
their casas were probably an efficient protec- 
tion. The strength of the walls of these struc- 
tures was proved during the Mexican war, 
when it wns found that they were impregnable 
to field artillery. To gain greater security, the 
ancients built on the high mesas, or terrestrial 
islands, that abound in the region they occu- 
pied (precisely as did the barons of Europe in 
the middle ages), whose level summits could 
only be reached by narrow and easily defensible 
passes, in many cases hewn in the rock. The 
remains of the buildings that crowned these 
natural fastnesses are conspicuous and interest- 
ing features in the wide region embraced be- 
tween the Rio Grande on the east, the Gila on 
the south, and the Colorado on the west. 

CASAUBON. I. Isaac, a Swiss theologian and 
critic, born in Geneva in February, 1559, died 
in London, July 1, 1614. He was the son of 
a French Protestant minister, studied at Lau- 



CASEIN 



CASOARILLA 



51 



sanne, and afterward at Geneva, where he be- 
came professor of Greek at the age of 23, hold- 
ing the position for 14 years. Meanwhile he 
married the daughter of Henry Stephens, the 
celebrated French printer and publisher, by 
whom he had 20 children. In 1596 he became 
professor of Greek and belles-lettres in the uni- 
versity of Montpellier. Two years afterward, 
at the solicitation of Henry IV., he went to 
Paris to take a similar professorship in the uni- 
versity of France; but the jealousy of the 
Catholic party made the measure impolitic, and 
Henry finally appointed a Catholic to the chair, 
and made Casaubon royal librarian. At the 
conference of Fontainebleau, May 4, 1600, Hen- 
ry constituted him one of the Protestant judges. 
The Catholics made strong efforts to win him 
to their side, and it was given out that he wa- 
vered in his faith. Chagrined that his Protes- 
tant reputation was thus impaired, Casaubon 
determined to leave France, and therefore, 
availing himself of the occasion of Henry's 
death to get leave of absence from the queen, 
he accompanied Sir Henry Wotton to England 
in October, 1610. He was received with dis- 
tinction, made prebendary of Canterbury, and 
some say also of Westminster, and received a 
pension of 200, which he lived three years to 
enjoy. He was buried in Westminster abbey. 
He spoke Latin as well as he did his mother 
tongue, and was the most critical Greek scholar 
of his age. His works are numerous, mostly 
philological and critical, many of them being an- 
notated editions of the classics, including Dioge- 
nes Laertius, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Sue- 
tonius. II. Merle, an English divine, son of the 
preceding, born at Geneva, Aug. 14, 1599, died 
in England, July 14, 1671. He accompanied his 
father to England, studied at Oxford, was ap- 
pointed to the cure of Bleadon in 1624, and 
four years afterward was made prebendary of 
Canterbury and rector of Ickham. He received 
the degree of D. D. at Oxford in 1636. Through 
his attachment to the Stuarts he lost both 
property and preferments during the protecto- 
rate ; and Cromwell made frequent efforts to win 
him over to the cause of the commonwealth. 
Christina, queen of Sweden, offered him the 
superintendency of all the Swedish universities, 
but he persisted in living in retirement in Eng- 
land until the accession of Charles II., when 
his ecclesiastical preferments were all restored. 
He published in his lifetime two vindications 
of his father from the* aspersions of his enemies. 
His theological and critical works are numer- 
ous ; he edited some of the classics ; and his 
MSS. are preserved in Oxford. He believed in 
the existence of witches and familiar spirits, a 
faith which he endeavored to defend in a work 
entitled " Credulity and Incredulity." 

CASBIN, Kasbin, Kazbln, or Casveen, a fortified 
city of Persia, in the province of Irak-Ajemi, 
90 m. N. W. of Teheran, in lat. 36 12' N., Ion. 
49 53' E. ; pop. in 1868 estimated at 25,000. 
It is surrounded by brick walls with towers, 
and is said to exceed Teheran in extent ; but 



whatever grandeur it may have once possessed 
has been destroyed by repeated earthquakes. 
Whole streets lie in ruins, and most of the an- 
cient buildings have been overthrown. The 
palace, though much dilapidated, is still occu- 
pied by the governor. A mosque with a large 
dome, bazaars, schools, atfd baths are the other 
principal buildings. The chief manufactures 
are velvets, brocades, a coarse cotton cloth 
called kerbas, carpets, sword blades, and wine. 
Grapes and nuts are produced abundantly, and 
of good quality. It is also an entrepot for the 
silks of Ghilan and Shirvan destined for Bag- 
dad and India, and for rice from the Caspian 
provinces. The surrounding plain was for- 
merly one of the most productive districts of 
Persia, its natural fertility being greatly en- 
hanced by a vast system of irrigating canals, 
most of which are now choked up, except in 
the immediate vicinity of the city. Casbin 
was founded about the middle of the 4th 
century, and under the Suffide dynasty be- 
came the capital of the kingdom. The re- 
moval of the government to Ispahan checked 
its prosperity. 

CASCA, Pnblius Servlllns, one of the conspirators 
against the life of Julius Caesar. He had been 
attached to the Pompeian party, and, like many 
others of the dictator's slayers, submitted him- 
self to Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, and 
received a free pardon. It is stated by Plutarch, 
in his life of Caesar, that when Tullius Cimber, 
according to the preconcerted plan, gave the 
signal for the assassination by dropping the 
fold of his toga from his shoulder, Casca struck 
the dictator on the back of the neck with a 
short sword, or dagger, but failed to inflict 
either, a deep or deadly wound, being under 
the influence of agitation, if not of fear, when 
delivering the blow. Caesar on feeling the 
stroke turned round, it is said, abruptly, and 
caught the assassin by the arm, crying out, 
in Latin, "What dost thou, villain Casca?" 
when Casca calling to his brother in Greek, 
" Help, brother ! " the others rallied to his as- 
sistance, and completed the bloody deed. No- 
thing is known of Casca's history after the 
death of Caesar. 

CASCADE RANGE, a chain of mountains in the 
W. part of Washington and Oregon, forming a 
continuation of the Sierra Nevada of California. 
It lies about 100 m. from the Pacific, and runs 
nearly N. and S. Its highest summits are Mt. 
Ranier, 14,444 ft., and Mt. Baker, 10,760 ft., in 
Washington. Mts. Pitt, Jefferson, and Hood 
are notable peaks of this range in Oregon. The 
name of the chain is derived from the cascades 
of the Columbia, which are formed where that 
river breaks through the Cascade range. 

CASCARILLA (Span, cascara, bark), a medici- 
nal bark, obtained from croton Eleuiheria, a 
small tree or shrub which grows wild in the 
West Indies and Bahama islands, especially on 
the island of Eleuthera. It has a spicy, bitter 
taste, and is used as a tonic. When burnt, it 
emits an odor so agreeable that smokers have 



52 



CASCO BAY 




Cascarilla (Croton Eleutherla). 

sometimes mixed a small quantity of it with 
their tobacco, but this is very injurious. 

CISCO BAY, on the coast of Maine, lying be- 
tween Cape Elizabeth and Cape Small Point, 
20 m. apart. It contains several hundred small 
islands, some of which are favorite resorts 
during the summer season. 

(ASK, in law, a formal statement of facts 
agreed upon by the parties, or stated by a judge, 
with a view to obtaining the judgment of the 
court thereon. Formerly in England cases 
were sometimes directed by the court of chan- 
cery, in suits pending therein, for the judgment 
of the common law courts, but this practice is 
now abolished. Action on the case, or trespass 
on the case, is a form of personal action, tirst 
used in the reign of Edward III., as a remedy 
for injuries to which the forms then in vogue 
were not adapted, and receiving its name from 
the fact that the case of the plaintiff was set 
forth in the original writ. It is so compre- 
hensive in its scope as to lie wherever a party 
has sustained a legal injury to person or prop- 
erty, for which no other form of action affords 
a remedy. This, which may be called a natu- 
ral species of action, in contradistinction from 
those which are of a more technical character, 
is retained in the codes which have recently 
been adopted in several of the American states, 
the purpose of which has been to simplify plead- 
ings and proceedings at law. 

CASE, William, an American Methodist cler- 
gyman, born at Swansea, Mass., Aug. 27, 1780, 
died at Alnwick mission house, Canada, Oct. 
19, 1855. He was received into the New York 
conference in 1805, and for It? years was pre- 
siding elder in central and western New York 
and in Canada. In 1828 he was appointed su- 
perintendent of Indian schools and missions in 
Canada, which post he filled till his death, and 
became known as " the apostle to the Ca^'sWan 
Indians." He was the director of the Methodist 
ministry in Canada, and thus became powerful 
in shaping the religious history of that region. 



CASE-HARDENING 

CASEINE. See CHEESE. 

CASERTA. I. Or Terra di Lavoro. a province 
of Italy, formerly a part of the kingdom of 
Naples, bounded by the provinces of Rome, 
Aquila, Campobasso, Benevento, Avellino, and 
Naples, and the Mediterranean; area, 2,307 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1872 695,754. It comprises 
the districts of Caserta, Nola, Sora, Gaetn, 
and Piedimonte d'Alife. The most important 
mountains are Mt. Matese in the southeast, 
the Tifati mountains in the south, and the Mas- 
sico in the northwest. The chief rivers are 
the Garigliano, with its tributary the Lii-i, and 
the Volturno. Agriculture is flourishing, and 
cattle raising is conducted on a large scale. 
The province has large woods and silk, linen, 
and tapestry factories. The marshes N. of the 
Volturno have by drainage been converted 
into arable land. II. The capital of the prov- 
ince, situated in a fertile plain on the railway 
line from Naples to Capua, 17 m. N. E. of Na- 
ples; pop. in 1872, 29,142. It is the seat of a 
bishop, has a cathedral, a seminary, numerous 
churches, a convent, a military school, and ex- 
cellent barracks, and is noted for its magnifi- 
cent royal palace and aqueduct, both con- 
structed by Vanvitelli for Charles III. The 
palace contains a chapel and a large theatre, 
adorned with columns from an ancient temple 
of Serapis*. The gardens are supplied with 
water from a distance of 27 m. by means of a 
fine aqueduct. The principal branch of in- 
dustry is the manufacture of silks. On the 
hills behind Caserta is CASEETA VECCHIA, sur- 
rounded by a wall and towers probably of the 
8th century, and containing a splendid cathe- 
dral and other churches. It was once a place 
of great importance, but has been eclipsed 
since the foundation of Caserta. Both towns 
were founded by the Lombards. 

CASE-HARDENING, a process of hardening the 
surface of iron by converting it into steel. For 
this purpose the articles are placed in an iron 
case, together with animal or vegetable charcoal, 
and subjected to the process of cementation. 
The carbon absorbed does not, in the short time 
allowed for the operation, penetrate beneath 
the surface. From two to eight hours is the 
usual time that the articles are exposed to a 
dull red heat. They are then taken out of the 
burnt bone dust or other carbonaceous sub- 
stance, and further hardened by quenching 
them in oil or cold water. Sometimes they are 
left to cool in the case, and are afterward tem- 
pered. Prussiate of potash has in various ways 
been found a very useful material for affording 
its carbon to iron for producing steel. Being 
a combination of two atoms of carbon and one 
of nitrogen with one of potash, it offers no solid 
residue that interferes with the progress of the 
chemical change, or impairs the quality of the 
steel. In case-hardening, it is sprinkled or 
rubbed upon the iron heated to dull red, and 
this, after being put in the fire for a few min- 
utes, is taken out and tempered in water. 
The process is a convenient one where small 



CASES 



CASHEW NUT 



53 



articles are to be exposed to much wear, these 
being easily made of soft iron, and then ex- 
ternally hardened. It is also conveniently ap- 
plied to give a good surface to small articles 
which are desired to receive the high polish 
of which steel is susceptible. 

CASES, Connt do Las. See LAS CASES. 

CASE SHOT, or Canister Shot, a missile consist- 
ing of a number of wrought-iron balls, packed 
in a tin canister of a cylindrical shape. The 
balls for field service are regularly depos- 
ited in layers, but for most kinds of siege and 
naval ordnance they are merely thrown into 
the case until it is filled, when the lid is sol- 
dered on. Between the bottom of the canister 
and the charge a wooden bottom is inserted. 
The weights of the balls vary with the differ- 
ent kinds of ordnance, and the regulations of 
each service. For siege and garrison artillery, 
the balls are sometimes arranged round a spin- 
dle projecting from the wooden bottom, either 
in a bag in the shape of a 
grape (whence the name 
grape shot), or in regular 
layers with round wood- 
en or iron plates between 
each layer, the whole cov- 
ered over with a canvas 
bag. The Shrapnel shell, 
so called from its inven- 
tor, Gen. Shrapnel of the 
British army, is a thin cast- 
iron shell, from one third 
to three fourths of an inch 
thick, with a diaphragm 
or partition in the middle. 
The lower compartment is 
destined to receive a burst- 
ing charge ; the upper one 
contains leaden musket 
balls. A fuse is inserted 
containing a carefully pre- 
pared composition, the ac- 
curacy of whose burning 
off can be depended upon. A composition is 
run between the balls, so as to prevent them 
from shaking. When used in the field, the fuse 
is cut off to the length required for the distance 
of the enemy, and inserted into the shell. At 
50 to 70 yards from the enemy the fuse is 
burnt to the bottom, and explodes the shell, 
scattering the bullets toward the enemy pre- 
cisely as if common case shot had been fired on 
the spot where the shell exploded. The pre- 
cision of the fuses at present attained in several 
services is very great, and thus this projectile 
enables the gunner to obtain the exact effect 
of grape at ranges where formerly round shot 
only could be used. 

CASEY, a central county of Kentucky, trav- 
ersed by Green river and the Boiling fork of 
Salt river; area, 350 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
8,884, of whom 544 were colored. The surface 
is hilly and broken. The Cincinnati, Lexing- 
ton, and East Tennessee railroad is to pass 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 



were 16,773 bushels of wheat, 356,850 of In- 
dian corn, 42,747 of oats, 116,841 Ibs. of but- 
ter, 22,469 of wool, and 145,982 of tobacco. 
There were 2,780 horses, 1,972 milch cows, 
2,954 other cattle, 12,047 sheep, and 19,240 
swine. Capital, Liberty. 

IASIIAX. See KASIIAX. 

CASHEL (anc. Caraiol, the "habitation in the 
rock"), a town of Ireland, in the county and 
12 m. N. E. of Tipperary, and 90 m. S. W. of 
Dublin ; pop. in 1871, 3,976. Part of it is well 
built, but it has a poverty-stricken appearance, 
is destitute of manufactures, and has been on 
the decline for many years. It contains an 
Anglican parish church, a nunnery, chapels, 
schools, barracks, a hospital, an infirmary, and 
court houses. Its most interesting object is 
the famous "rock of Cashel," which rises 
abruptly from the plain outside of the city, and 
is crowned with the finest collection of ruins 
in Ireland. These consist of a round tower, a 




Cashel Cathedral. 

splendid Gothic cathedral built about the 12th 
century, a monastery and a castle of about the 
same date, and a chapel of hewn stone, with a 
roof of the same material, built in the Saxon 
and Norman styles of architecture, and still 
showing marks of extraordinary beauty. These 
remains, which are visible at a great distance, 
are all within an enclosed area. At the foot 
of the rock are the ruins of Hore abbey and of 
a Dominican priory. Donald O'Brien, king of 
Limerick, and his nobles took the oath of alle- 
giance to Henry II. here in 1172. Cashel was 
the ancient residence of the sovereigns of Mun- 
ster, and is often dignified by the title of " the 
city of kings." In the civil wars following the 
rebellion of 1641, it was taken by Lord Inchi- 
quin, and afterward by Cromwell. It is the 
seat of a Catholic archbishopric. The former 
Anglican archbishopric of Cashel has recently 
been united with the bishopric of Waterford. 

CASHEW NUT, the fruit of the anacardium 
occidental, cultivated in the West Indies and 



CASHMERE 



other tropical countries. The tree, which re- 
sembles the walnut tree, is large, with oval, 
blunt, alternate leaves ; the flower is rose-col- 
ored and fragrant ; the stem furnishes a milky 




Cashew Nat 

juice, which when dry becomes black and is 
used as a varnish. The tree also secretes a 
gum having the qualities of gum arabic, and 
known in commerce as codjii gum. In South 
America, from whence it is imported, book- 
binders use it as a varnish for their books to 
protect them from moths and ants. The fruit 
is a pear-shaped receptacle, having an agreea- 
ble acid flavor with some astringency, and at 
the end the kidney-shaped ash-colored nut. 
This has a shell of three layers, the outer and 
inner hard and dry, while the intermediate con- 
tains a quantity of black, acrid, caustic oil, 
strong enough to excoriate the lips of those 
who crack the nut with their teeth ; and in 
India it is sometimes applied to the floors to 
drive away ants. To destroy this acrid matter, 
the nuts are roasted, which renders them when 
eaten wholesome and agreeable. The roasting 
is carefully conducted, as the acridity of the 
fumes is sufficient to produce severe inflam- 
mation in the face and hands of the roaster. 

CASHMERE, or Kashmir, a kingdom in the N. 
W. part of India, almost enclosed by ranges of 
the Karakorum and Himalaya, which separate 
it from Chinese Tartary, Thibet, and the British 
districts of N Lahoul and Spiti and the Punjaub ; 
area estimated at 75,000 sq. m. ; pop. at 750,- 
000. It extends from lat. 82 17' to 36 N., and 
from Ion. 73 20' to 79 40' E., and inclu les the 
famous vale of Cashmere, the provinces of Ja- 
moo, Balti, Ladakh, Chamba, and some others. 
The valley of Cashmere is of irregular oval 
form, shut in by lofty mountains, the summits 
of some of which are covered with perpetual 
snow. It is from 5,500 to 0,000 ft. above the 
sea, and the alluvial plain which forms ?ts bot- 
tom is 70 m. long, 40 m. wide, and about ^,000 
sq. m. in area, that of the whole valley being 
4,500 sq. m. It is entered by many passes, 
11 of which are practicable for horses. The 
highest, including that of the Pir Panjal, have 



an elevation of about 12,000 ft. The principal 
river is the Jhylum, a tributary of the Indus, 
which receives numerous tributaries from the 
mountains, and flows through the Baramula 
pass into the Punjaub. Several small lakes 
are scattered through the valley. Thus abun- 
dantly irrigated, and fertilized by rains which, 
unlike those of most parts of India, are light, 
the soil attains an extraordinary fertility, 
yielding returns of from 30 to 60 fold of the 
principal crops. Rice, the common food of the 
inhabitants, is the staple ; wheat, barley, buck- 
wheat, maize, and tobacco are cultivated to 
some extent ; cotton is found to flourish ; escu- 
lent vegetables, kitchen herbs, and saffron are 
abundant; and the lakes supply the poorer 
classes with a nutritious though insipid article 
of food in the singhara or water nut, the seed 
of the trapa bispinota, which is ground into 
flour, roasted, boiled, or eaten raw. About 
60,000 tons of this nut are annually taken from 
the Wullur lake. Among the fruits are the 
apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, pome- 
granate, and grape. Flowers of rare beauty, 
particularly the rose, which is highly culti- 
vated, abound in the valley. Many of the for- 
est trees attain a vast size; among them are 
the Himalayan cedar, the chunar, the poplar, 
the lime, and the wild chestnut. The willow, 
maple, birch, alder, pine, and white thorn are 
common. Every village has its grove of chu- 
nars and poplars, planted centuries ago by 
order of the Mogul emperors, and now forming 
one of the richest ornaments of the valley. 
Bears, both brown and black, are very numer- 
ous. The other wild animals are leopards, 
jackals, foxes, stags, gazelles, and wild goats. 
Birds of prey are numerous, including a spe- 
cies of vulture of great size. Game birds are 
very plentiful. Venomous reptiles are rare. 
The native horses are small and hardy. Cat- 
tle, sheep, and goats are numerous. The 
most valuable minerals are iron nnd lime- 
stone, both of which are abundant; copper, 
plumbago, and lead are also known to exist. 
The climate is salubrious, and milder than in 
many parts of India, but the stillness of the 
midsummer air gives the heat an oppressive- 
ness scarcely to be expected from the range 
of the thermometer (80 to 85 at noon in the 
shade), and the winter is sometimes severely 
cold. Snow falls abundantly. The bulk of 
the inhabitants are Mohammedans, speaking a 
Sanskrit dialect, with a large admixture of 
Persian, in which latter tongue the records 
and correspondence of the government are 
written. They are divided in sect into Sun- 
nis and Shiahs, the former being the more nu- 
merous and regarded as orthodox. The Cash- 
merians are preeminent among Indian nations 
by their physical perfections. The men are 
tall, robust, well formed, and industrious; the 
women famous for their beauty and fine com- 
plexions. They are a gay people, fond of 
pleasure, literature, and poetry, but are repre- 
sented by many travellers as peerless in cun- 



CASHMERE 



55 



ning and avarice, and notoriously addicted to 
lying. They appear to be of Hindoo origin. 
At the beginning of the present century the 
population of the valley was 800,000, which 




Cashmerian Boatmen. 

has been reduced by pestilence, famine, and 
earthquakes to 200,000. In 1828 an earth- 
quake destroyed 1,200 persons ; two months 
later the cholera carried off 100,000 in 40 days; 
and in 1833 famine and pestilence committed 
still more frightful ravages. The chief towns 
are Serinagur or Cashmere, the capital (see 
SEBINAGUB), Islamabad, Shupeyon, Pampur, 
and Sopur. The principal manufactures are 
the celebrated Cashmere shawls, gun and pis- 
tol barrels, paper, lacquered ware, and attar 
of roses. The country was conquered by the 
Mogul emperor Akbar in 1587, by the Afghans 
in 1752, and by the Sikhs in 1819. It was in- 
cluded in the territory transferred by the lat- 
ter to the British under the treaty of Lahore 
in 1846, and was immediately sold by its new 
owners to Gholab Sing for the sum of 750,000 ; 
but by the compact between the maharajah 
and the British government, the rajah is to be 
assisted in defending himself against his ene- 
mies, and British supremacy is acknowledged. 
See Vigne's "Travels in Kashmir" (2 vols., 
London, 1842) ; " Travels in India and Kash- 
mir," by E. Schonberg (2 vols., London, 1853); 
and "Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and 
Thibet," by Captain Knight (London, 1863). 

CASHMERE (Fr. cachemire), a textile fabric 
made of the fine wool of the Thibet goat. In 
Cashmere the wool is received from Thibet 
and Tartary, and, after being bleached, is spun 
and dyed of various colors. The weavers, em- 
ployed by the merchants for a few cents a day, 
receive the yarns, and in their shops, or at 
looms in their own houses, proceed to weave 
them after the patterns ordered. Each loom 



is estimated to produce five shawls a year; 
but a single one of the finest shawls sometimes 
occupies the work of a whole shop, keeping 
two to four persons constantly engaged upon 
it, for an entire year. The total number of 
looms in Cashmere, it is believed, is about 
16,000. The process of weaving the shawls 
with variegated figures is conducted without a 
shuttle, each colored yarn of the woof being 
worked upon the warp with its separate wood- 
en needle ; and as the work goes on very slow- 
ly, it is customary to divide it among several 
looms, and then join the pieces together. This 
is so skilfully done that the seams are not 
detected. As the pattern is worked, the right 
side is the under one upon the frame, and is 
not seen by those who work it upon the upper 
or rough side. The shawls are made single 
and in pairs, either square or long ; the former 
measures from 63 to 72 inches on a side, the 
latter 126 inches by 54. To work a single long 
shawl without a seam, and of the finest thread 
in the warp as well as the woof, in the most 
elaborate pattern and exquisite colors, would 
require the labor of about three years ; and as 
in this time the colors are likely to change, and 
the fabric to receive injury from worms or 
otherwise, such shawls are rarely attempted. 
The fine shawls are more usually made upon 
12 different looms for a pair. The principal 
market is in the London semi-annual public 
sales, which of late years have materially de- 
creased, chiefly owing to the direct impor- 
tation into France by Paris houses having 
agents in Cashmere. In 1852 the London 
sales amounted to 100,000; in 1862, 270,- 
000 ; in 1869, only 80,000. In 1871 the total 
import of India shawls into England was 1,557, 
against 3,343 in 1870. On account of the 
Franco-German war there was but one public 
ile in 1871, amounting to 27,000. In 1872 
wie June sale amounted to 36,245. These 
sales included long shawls, square with plain 
and filled centres, pieces, scarfs, cravats, capes, 
fringes, &c. The buyers are from France, 
Belgium, Germany, England, the United States, 
and sometimes from Eussia and Turkey. The 
prices range from 2 to 70, and occasionally 
100 for exceptional qualities and patterns. 
The finest and choicest shawls now go exclu- 
sively to Paris direct from India ; Russians and 
Italians sometimes buy the best, but do not 
import them. Very few of the higher priced 
shawls are manufactured, though in some pub- 
lic sales in London shawls have been sold at 
from 160 to 220 each. The maharajah of 
Cashmere has control of the exports of shawls, 
and through his agents sends some to the Lon- 
don sales. Various attempts have been made 
to naturalize the Thibet goat in Europe and 
the United States. In 1819 a cross between 
the Thibet and a Tartar variety was introduc- 
ed into France, and subsequently some of the 
stock was sent to England. Some years ago 
Dr. J. B. Davis of Columbia, S. C., imported 
nine pure breed Thibet goats, the stock of 



56 



CASIMIR 



which was introduced into Tennessee and other 
states. But all attempts at naturalization have 
resulted in the production of an inferior quality 
of wool, owinij;, it is supposed, to the influences 
of climate. In California, however, the goat 
has been successfully introduced, and is now 
very numerous; and it is thought that the 
climate of that state will be favorable to the 
quality of the wool. The attempts to im- 
port and manufacture the wool in Europe have 
not been successful. The native weavers are 
brought up to the trade from their infancy, 
and are proficient in the highest degree ; while 
to the water of India in which the wool and 
shawls are washed, and to the atmosphere, the 
brilliant colors of the cashmere shawls are 
supposed to be due. In Paris, Lyons, Nimes, 
and Eheims there are extensive manufacto- 
ries for the production of imitation cashmere 
shawls, the best of which are easily distinguish- 
ed from the genuine ones by experts, but which 
are extensively exported. The value of India 
shawls imported into New York in 1872 was 
$164,118. 

CASIMIR (Pol. Kazimierz), the name of sev- 
eral monarchs of Poland. I. The IVanTiil. son 
of Miecislas II. and of Rixa, a German prin- 
cess, died in 1058. After the death of his 
father in 1034 his mother ruled the country as 
regent ; but the favors she bestowed upon her 
own countrymen, and their ill conduct, caused 
an outbreak of national hatred, and Rixa fled 
to Germany. Casimir followed her. Poland, 
left without a ruler, became a scene of the 
wildest anarchy and lawlessness; the lately 
established Christian church also suffered great- 
ly from pagan persecutions. Profiting by this 
state of affairs, the Bohemians made an incur- 
sion into Poland, and advanced as far as Gnesen. 
In 1040 Casimir was recalled by his countrymen 
from Germany, where he was living in quiet 
retirement occupied with exercises of religious 
piety, which gained him the surname of "the 
Monk." Slightly assisted by Henry III. of 
Germany, he regained his authority, and re- 
stored Christianity and a regular administra- 
tion of justice, conquered Masovia, gained Bres- 
lau and other places from the Bohemians, and 
was honored with the title of restorer of Po- 
land. His wife was Dobrogniewa, sister of 
Yaroslav, the grand duke of Kiev. His suc- 
cessor was Boleslas II. the Bold, his eldest son. 

II. The Just, born in '1138, died in 1194. He 
was the youngest of the four sons of Boleslas 
III., among whom that monarch divided Po- 
land, and reigned over the reunited country 
after the expulsion of Miecislas III. in 1177. 
He is greatly renowned for his personal virtues, 
as well as for the introduction of laws defend- 
ing the peasants against the nobles and officers 
of the court. Under him the Polish senate 
was first organized, consisting of bishops, pala- 
tines, and castellans. He made successful ex- 
peditions to Volhynia, Halicz, and Lithuania. 

III. The Great, born in 1309, died Nov. 5, 1370. 
He was the son and successor of Ladislas Lo- 



kietek (the Short), who had restored the union 
and the power of the long distracted kingdom. 
While still a prince Casimir displayed his tal- 
ents as governor of Great Poland, as well as 
his bravery in the wars of his father against 
the order of Teutonic knights, but also exhibit- 
ed habits of great dissoluteness. In 1333 his 
father bequeathed him his throne, with the 
advice not to enter into any treaty with the 
Teutonic knights; but the inclinations of the 
young king were for peace, and he soon con- 
cluded a treaty, in which the knights ceded 
the districts of Kujaw and Dobrzyn, but gained 
Pomerania. To secure peace from the kings 
of Bohemia, he sacrificed to them the rich 
province of Silesia for the resignation of their 
claims on Poland. The Polish nation, dissatis- 
fied with his acts, sought redress'at the court 
of Rome. The pope gave a favorable decision, 
commanding the knights to restore all the 
Polish districts, and to rebuild the destroyed 
churches ; but the knights scorned the bull, and 
maintained their conquest. In the mean while 
Casimir had strengthened his reign by salutary 
and peaceful reforms, as well as by the erection 
of numerous castles and fortifications. The 
adoption of his nephew, Louis, son of Charles 
Robert, king of Hungary, as successor to the 
throne of Poland, confirmed by the assembly 
of the nation at Cracow (1339), secured the 
alliance with Hungary. In 1340 the death 
of Boleslas of Masovia and Halicz, who died 
without progeny, offered a favorable opportu- 
nity for the annexation of Red Russia, which 
was easily executed in two successful cam- 
paigns. A consequence of these was an incur- 
sion of the Tartars (1341), at the summons of 
certain Russian princes, who pretended to have 
been wronged. Casimir fortified and defended 
the line of the Vistula, and by the speedy 
retreat of the invaders Poland escaped total 
destruction. In 1344 some difficulties, caused 
by the dukes of Silesia, brought about a short 
war with the king of Bohemia, which was 
begun by the conquest of Silesia, and ended 
with the acquisition only of Fraustadt. Sub- 
sequently parts of Lithuania, Masovia, and 
Volhynia were added to Poland. But the 
successes achieved by Casimir in time of peace 
were still more glorious. The diet of "Wislica 
(1347) sanctioned a double code of laws for 
Great and Little Poland, digested by the ablest 
men of the country, based in part on the an- 
cient statutes of the nation, and in part on the 
German or the so-called Magdeburgian institu- 
tions, according to which the commercial cities 
were governed. The rights of both nobles and 
peasants were determined and secured, and so 
great was the zeal of Casimir in defence of the 
latter against the former, that he was called 
the king of the peasants (krol JcmiotMw). No 
less great was his ardor and activity in pro- 
moting industry, commerce, arts, and sciences 
(particularly proved by the foundation in 1364 
of the university of Cracow), and in adorning 
and strengthening the country with buildings 



CASINO 



CASPIAN SEA 



57 



for public use and defence; and thus he de- 
served the remark of an ancient historian, that 
he inherited Poland of wood and left it of stone. 
Agriculture, industry, and general wealth grad- 
ually increased under Casimir ; and the riches 
and liberality of the state were displayed on 
the occasion of the marriage of his granddaugh- 
ter with Charles IV., emperor of Germany, 
which was celebrated for 20 days at Cracow. 
But his reign had also its shades: unhappy 
marriages ; love affairs condemned by the peo- 
ple and the church ; an excommunication by the 
archbishop of Cracow ; a deadly revenge taken 
on its innocent announcer; the subsequent 
humiliation of the .king by the pope ; and a 
great defeat by the Wallachians. A fall from 
a horse ended the life of the most popular 
monarch of Poland. Among the objects of the 
love of Casimir was the Jewess Esther, the 
heroine of many romances, by whom he had 
several children, and who is supposed to have 
contributed greatly to the humane protection 
which he and his laws bestowed on her people 
in Poland, in the time of most barbarous per- 
secutions in other parts of Europe. IV. Born 
in 1427, died at Grodno in 1492. He was 
the son of Ladislas Jagiello, and brother and 
successor of Ladislas III., at whose death in 
1444 Casimir was grand duke of Lithuania. 
He accepted, but hesitatingly, the call to the 
throne of Poland. His long reign is remark- 
able for several diets held at Lublin, Piotrk6w, 
&c. ; for a successful war of 14 years against 
the Teutonic knights, terminated in 1466 by 
the peace of Thorn, which gave to Poland the 
western part of Prussia and the suzerainty of 
the eastern ; and for the subsequent long period 
of general prosperity, luxury, and relaxation 
of the national spirit. The introduction of the 
Latin language into the schools and public 
life of Poland dates particularly from this 
reign. Of the six sons of Casimir, one was 
elected king of Bohemia and Hungary, three, 
John Albert, Alexander, and Sigismund, suc- 
ceeded each other on the throne of Poland, one 
became a cardinal, and one was canonized. 
V. See JOHN CASIMIK. 

CASINO, or Monte Casino, a celebrated Bene- 
dictine monastery, established by St. Benedict 
in 529, upon the mountain of the same name, 
in the Italian province of Caserta, over the 
town of San Germane, the ancient Casinum, 48 
m. N. N. W. of Naples, in former times the 
seat of a famous castle, and of a temple of 
Apollo. The beauty of the spot attracted many 
visitors to the abbey, and the medical skill of 
the friars many invalids, while pilgrims re- 
sorted there from all parts of the world, as the 
Benedictines were deemed to possess miracu- 
lous balms derived from Mount Zion. The 
monastery is a massive pile, more like a palace 
than a convent. The church, erected by St. 
Benedict, was destroyed in the 6th century by 
the Lombards, rebuilt in the 8th, destroyed by 
the Saracens in the 9th, restored at the be- 
ginning of the 10th, ravaged by the Normans 



and rebuilt in the llth ; ruined by an earth- 
quake in 1349, and restored in 1365 ; fell down 
in 1649, and was rebuilt as it now stands, and 
consecrated by Pope Benedict XIII. in 1727. 
Its interior surpasses in beauty and costliness 
of decoration every church in Italy except St. 
Peter's. In our times the abbey presents many 
intellectual attractions, as its inmates have es- 
tablished a press and published a variety of 
valuable works. 

< ASOKI A, a town of Italy, 5 m. N. E. of Na- 
ples; pop. about 7,000. It is the birthplace 
of the painter Pietro Martino. It has four 
churches, and produces quantities of silk. 

CASPiRI, Carl Paul, a German theologian, 
born at Dessau, Feb. 8, 1814. He studied in 
Leipsic and Berlin, and in 1857 became profes- 
sor of divinity at the university of Christiania 
in Norway. He has written a number of crit- 
ical works on Biblical subjects, including trea- 
tises on Obadiah, Isaiah, Micah, Daniel, and the 
apostolic symbols, and has been active as joint 
editor of the Lutheran Tidskrift of Copenha- 
gen. A third edition of his Grammatica Ara- 
bica appeared in 1866. 

CASPE, a town of Spain, in the province 
and 50 m. S. E. of Saragossa, near the conflu- 
ence of the Guadalupe with the Ebro ; pop. 
in 1867, 9,402. It has a castle, several con- 
vents, and four hospitals. In the neighborhood 
are extensive plantations of olive and mulberry 
trees. In 1412 a congress was held here of 
the'Aragonians, Catalonians, and Valencians, 
to settle the succession to the throne. 

CASPIAN SEA (called by the Kussians also the 
sea of Astrakhan ; anc. Mare Caspium or Hyr- 
canum; Gr. Kaprr/a 6dl.aaaa), an inland sea, lying 
between Europe and Asia, between lat. 36 30' 
and 47 30' N., and Ion. 46 48' and 54 25' E. ; 
grellest length from N. to S., 760 m. ; greatest 
breadth, 300 m. ; average breadth about 200 
m. ; area, according to Berghaus, 156,800 sq. 
m. It is bounded N. W., N., and N. E. by 
Kussia, S. and S. W. by Persia," and E. by Tur- 
kistan. It has few bays, the most important 
being, on the Asiatic side, Emba bay, Mertvoi 
gulf. Karasu inlet, Manghishlak gulf, bay of 
Alexander, Kenderlinsk gulf, Kara-Bugaz bay, 
and Balkan bay; on the European side, Kizil 
Agatch and Kuma gulfs, and several smaller in- 
dentations. At the S. extremity of the sea is 
Astrabad bay. The Emba river, which enters 
the bay of its own name by several mouths, and 
the Atrek, are almost the only considerable 
rivers which it receives on the E. side, though 
the Oxus, or Amoo, which now enters the sea 
of Aral, is supposed to have once flowed into it. 
On the N. and W. its basin is far more exten- 
sive. The Ural, the Volga, the Kuma, the 
Terek, and the Kur here pour their waters into 
it, and most of them are constantly bringing 
accumulations of sand, which in some instances, 
as at the mouth of the Volga, form little islands, 
projecting several miles from the coast. All 
this part of the coast, as far S. as the Sulak, is 
of alluvial formation ; thence S. to the penin- 



58 



CASPIAN SEA 



CASS 



sula of Apsheron it is of tertiary formation, 
broken by occasional carboniferous strata ; and 
from Apsheron around the S. extremity of the 
sea, the shores are low and sandy, with lofty 
hills rising in the background. On the E. and 
S. E. is found a cretaceous subsoil, covered 
with moving sands ; the surface, with the ex- 
ception of Cape Karagan, being flat. In fact, 
the coast generally is so low that most parts 
are overflowed when the wind sets in strongly 
from the opposite quarter. Naphtha, or petro- 
leum, is found in immense quantities, particu- 
larly in the vicinity of Baku on the peninsula 
of Apsheron and on the island of Naphthalia, 
in the bay of Balkan . There is a large export of 
petroleum to the Tartar and Persian ports on 
the S. and E. shores of the sea. In May, 1869, 
there was an extraordinary conflagration 
caused by the accidental ignition of large naph- 
tha streams flowing on the surface of the sea. 
The waters are not so salt as those of the 
ocean, owing to the immense volume of fresh 
water constantly poured in by the Volga and 
other large rivers. It is very deep, particularly 
on the S. shore, where a line of 450 fathoms will 
not reach bottom ; but in the north and off the 
mouths of the Volga it is quite shallow, with 
frequent shoals. There are no tides, and the 
sea has no outlet, the superfluous waters being 
carried off wholly by evaporation. Extraor- 
dinary changes in its level have been noticed, 
but never explained ; according to native ac- 
counts, the surface rises and falls several feet 
in periods of about 30 years. It has long been 
known that the level of the Caspian is lower 
than that of the ocean, and in 1812 an attempt 
was made by Engelhardt and Parrot to ascer- 
tain the difference by a series of levellings and 
barometrical measurements across the Cauca- 
sian isthmus to the Black sea. Measurements 
were made in two places, one of which made 
the Caspian 348 ft. lower than the Black sea, 
and the other 301 ft. lower. A survey made 
by the Russian government in 1836-'7 proved 
the difference of level to be 84 ft. Sturgeon, 
sterlets, balugas, salmon, and seals are taken 
in great numbers. We know little of the an- 
cient commerce of the Caspian. About the 
middle of the 13th century much of the trade 
of W. Europe with India passed over it, As- 
trakhan being then, as now, its chief port. On 
the seizure of Constantinople by the Turks 
commerce was forced into other channels. In 
1560 an English company made a fruitless at- 
tempt to render it a channel of commerce with 
Persia and Turkistan. Peter the Great had its 
coasts explored by Dutch navigators, partly 
with the view of founding stations for the In- 
dian trade on the Persian seaboard, but his 
project was not carried out. No "Russian con- 
quest was made on the Caspian sea until the 
time of Catharine II., and it was not till still 
more recent periods that Russia succeeded in 
obtaining full control over its trade, which 
is small, though constantly increasing. The 
largest class of vessels navigating the Cas- 



pian, carrying from 90 to 200 tons, are called 
schuyts, and are built of the timber of the boats 
that bring breadstuff's down the Volga to As- 
trakhan. Another class of vessels, of superior 
sailing qualities, carry from 70 to 140 tons, and 
are called raschips. Besides these, a great 
number of small craft are employed in coast- 
ing, fishing, and as lighters. The Caspian 
steamboat navigation company was chartered 
in 1858, and steamboats are now common on 
the Volga and at all the important ports in the 
Caspian. Canals uniting the head waters of 
the Volga with Lake Ilmen and the Duna 
establish connections between the Caspian and 
the Baltic. The Russian government has pro- 
jected a canal to connect the Caspian with 
the sea of Azov, and then with the Black sea, 
for which surveys were made in 1855, 1860, 
1864, and 1871. The principal ports are As- 
trakhan and Baku, from which trade is carried 
on with Astrabad, Balfrush, and other Persian 
ports on the south, and with Manghishlak, Bal- 
kan, &c., on the east. Russia maintains a fleet 
on the Caspian, and has three fortified settle- 
ments on the E. coast. Dureau-Delamalle's 
Geographic physique de la Mer Noire, Eich- 
wald's fieise aufdem KaspUchen Metre und in 
den Kaukatus, Hommaire de Hell's Les steppes 
de la Mer Caspienne, the Beschreibung pub- 
lished by Sawitsch and Sabler, giving their sur- 
ve'y of the respective elevations of the Black 
and Caspian seas (St. Petersburg and Leipsic, 
1849), and Petermann's Mittheilungen, iii., vii., 
1869, contain valuable information on this sea. 
CASS, the name of seven counties in the 
United States. I. A S. W. county of Michi- 
gan, bordering on Indiana ; area, 528 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 21,094. It has a level surface, 
diversified by a number of small lakes, and 
occupied by prairie, oak openings, and dense 
forests. Iron and limestone are the principal 
minerals. It is traversed by the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern, the Peninsula, and the 
Michigan Central railroads. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 630,271 bushels of wheat, 
670,013 of Indian corn, 175,665 of oats, 802,- 
058 of potatoes, 33,078 tons of hay, 448,182 
Ibs. of butter, 143,913 of wool, and 42,278 of 
maple sugar. There were 7,142 horses, 5,648 
milch cows, 6,702 other cattle, 36,770 sheep, 
and 22,830 swine. There were 7 manufac- 
tories of agricultural implements, 11 of car- 
riages and wagons, 7 of furniture, 5 of iron 
castings, 7 of saddlery and harness, 5 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 of woollen 
goods, 8 flour and 24 saw mills. Capital, 
Cassopolis. II. A N. "W. county of Indiana, 
drained by Wabash and Eel rivers ; area, 420 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 24,193. In the vicinity 
of the rivers are high bluffs; the rest of the 
surface is generally flat, and divided between 
prairies in the N. and forests in the S. part. 
It is traversed by the Wabash and Erie canal, 
and by the Toledo, Wabash, and Western, and 
the Columbus, Chicago, and Indiana Central 
railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 



CASS 



59 



401,154 bushels of wheat, 312,434 of Indian 
corn, 90,835 of oats, 55,077 of potatoes, 11,934 
of flax seed, 10,516 tons of hay, 310,588 Ibs. 
of butter, and 56,444 of wool. There were 
4,989 horses, 4,361 milch cows, 6,181 other 
cattle, 18,186 sheep, and 14,706 swine. There 
were 7 flour mills, 31 saw mills, 1 manufac- 
tory of cars, 4 of machinery, 9 of carriages and 
wagons, 5 of furniture, 2 of iron castings, 1 of 
linseed oil, and 5 of saddlery and harness. 
Capital, Logansport. III. A "W. central coun- 
ty of Illinois, bounded N. W. by Illinois river, 
and N. by the Sangamon, both of which are 
here navigable by steamboats ; area, 350 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,580. The surface is 
level, and consists of prairies and woodlands ; 
the soil is extremely fertile. It is traversed 
by the Peoria, Pekin, and Jacksonville, the 
Springfield and Illinois Southeastern, and the 
Rockford, Rock Island, and St. Louis rail- 
roads ; the Jacksonville division of the Chica- 
go and Alton railroad intersects the S. E. 
comer. The chief productions in 1870 were 
139,219 bushels of wheat, 1,146,980 of Indian 
corn, 168,784 of oats, and 4,136 tons of hay. 
There were 3,513 horses, 2,281 milch cows, 
6,198 other cattle, 4,235 sheep, and 12,685 
swine. There were 3 flour and 2 saw mills, 1 
paper mill, and 2 manufactories of carriages 
and wagons. Capital, Beardstown. IV. A N. 
central county of Minnesota, nearly encircled 
except on the west by the Mississippi, which 
rises in Itasca lake on its N. W. border ; 
area, 4,750 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 380. It is 
watered by numerous streams and lakes, the 
largest of which is Leech lake, in the N. part. 
Pine and other timber is abundant. The 
Northern Pacific railroad passes through the 
8. part. The estimated value of farm pro- 
ductions in 1870 was $1,770; of live stock, 
$1,360. V. A S. W. county of Iowa; area, 
576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 5,464. It is trav- 
ersed by the Nishnabatona river, an affluent 
of the Missouri, and watered by affluents of 
the Nodaway river. The Chicago, Rock Isl- 
and, and Pacific railroad passes through it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 54,529 
bushels of wheat, 235,500 of Indian corn, 
23,144 of oats, 13,857 of potatoes, 7,061 tons 
of hay, and 56,185 Ibs. of butter. There were 
954 horses, 868 milch cows, 2,398 other cattle, 
1,386 sheep, and 1,820 swine. Capital, Lewis. 
VI. A ~W. county of Missouri, bordering on 
Kansas, intersected by a branch of the Osage 
river ; area, about 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
19,206, of whom 502 were colored. There are 
numerous springs of good water, and several 
quarries of limestone and sandstone. The sur- 
face is moderately uneven and occupied chiefly 
by fertile prairies. The Pacific railroad of 
Missouri crosses the S. E. corner. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 205,789 bushels of 
wheat, 1,711,952 of Indian corn, 262,472 of 
oats, 82,859 of potatoes, 12,100 tons of hay, 
252,508 Ibs. of butter, 22,680 of wool, and 19,- 
281 of tobacco. There were 8,053 horses, 



1,441 mules and asses, 5,366 milch cows, 
13,514 other cattle, 9,187 sheep, and 33,140 
swine. There were 6 flour and 7 saw mills, 
and 6 manufactories of saddlery and har-' 
ness. Capital, Harrisonville. VII. A S. E. 
county of Nebraska, bounded N. by the Platte 
river, and separated from Iowa on the east 
by the Missouri ; area, 570 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 8,151. It is well watered and fertile, 
the surface being undulating prairie. The 
Burlington and Missouri River railroad trav- 
erses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 
224,670 bushels of wheat, 674,558 of Indian 
corn, 137,986 of oats, 78, 107 of potatoes, 11,971 
tons of hay, and 171,262 Ibs. of butter. There 
were 3,310 horses, 2,748 milch cows, 4,370 
other cattle, 2,098 sheep, and 7,419 swine. 
There were 8 flour and 2 saw mills, and 3 
manufactories of saddlery and harness. Cap- 
ital, Plattsmouth. 

CASS, Lewis, an American statesman, born at 
Exeter, N. H., Oct. 9, 1782, died in Detroit, 
Mich., June 17, 1866. He was the eldest son 
of Jonathan Cass, who served in the revolu- 
tion and rose to the rank of major in the army. 
In 1799 he was stationed at Wilmington, Del., 
where his son found employment as a teacher. 
In the following year the family went to Ma- 
rietta, Ohio, where Lewis studied law, and in 
1802 he was admitted to the bar and began to 
practise in Zanesville. In 1806 he married 
Elizabeth Spencer, of Wood co., Va., and 
shortly afterward was elected a member of the 
legislature. In this capacity he drew up the 
address to Jefferson embodying the views of 
the legislature on Aaron Burr's expedition, 
and drafted the law under which Burr's boats 
and provisions, built and collected in Ohio, 
were seized. From 1807 to 1813 he was state 
marshal. In the^war of 1812 he was colonel 
of the third Ohio volunteers under Gen. Hull, 
and after Hull's surrender was appointed colo- 
nel of the 27th infantry, and was shortly after- 
ward promoted to the rank of brigadier gen- 
eral. At the close of the campaign he was 
in command of Michigan, and in October, 1813, 
was appointed governor of the territory. He 
acted as governor, and ex officio as superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs, for 18 years, during 
which time he negotiated 22 treaties, secured 
by cession of different tribes immense tracts of 
land in the northwest, instituted surveys, con- 
structed roads, built forts, and organized coun- 
ties and townships. In 1815 he purchased for 
$12,000 a homestead tract of 500 acres in De- 
troit, which the subsequent growth of the city 
made immensely valuable. In 1820, in com- 
pany with Schoolcraft and others, he explored 
the upper lakes and the head waters of the 
Mississippi, traversing 5,000 miles. The results 
of this and of subsequent expeditions were 
published in the " North American Review " 
in 1828-'9. In 1831 President Jackson nomi- 
nated him secretary of war, and he was at the 
head of the war department during the first 
two years of the Florida war, 1835-'6. In 



60 



CASS 



CASSANDER 



1836 he was sent as minister to France. 
In this capacity he settled the indemnity dis- 
pute by obtaining the interest withheld when 
the principal was paid. In 1837 he embarked 
at Marseilles in the frigate Constitution for 
Egypt via Constantinople, following the coast, 
stopping at the principal ports, and making 
excursions into the interior. He was on ex- 
cellent terms with Louis Philippe, of whose 
character he gave a favorable account hi his 
"King, Court, and Government of France," 
published in 1840. The most marked incident 
of his diplomatic career was his attack on the 
quintuple treaty for the suppression of the 
slave trade, which led to his resignation in 
1842. In January, 1845, he was elected 
United States senator from Michigan, which 
place he resigned on his nomination, May 22, 
1848, as democratic candidate for the presi- 
dency. A division in the democratic party in 
New York gave that state to Gen. Taylor, and 
secured his election by a majority of 86 elec- 
toral votes. In June, 1849, Cass was re- 
elected to the senate for the remainder of his 
original term. In the next session he vigor- 
ously opposed the Wilmot proviso, though he 
was instructed by the legislature of Michigan 
to vote for it. In 1850 he was a member 
of Clay's compromise committee, but did not 
vote for the fugitive slave bill. He was again 
elected a senator for six years from March 4, 
1851. In the democratic convention at Balti- 
more, in May, 1852, he was a candidate for the 
presidential nomination, but was unsuccessful. 
3n 1854 he voted for Douglas's Kansas-Ne- 
braska bill proposing a repeal of the Missouri 
compromise, but including a provision embody- 
ing Cass's suggestion, in the famous Nichol- 
son letter, to leave to the inhabitants of the 
territories the power to .regulate their own 
institutions, subject only to the constitution of 
the United States. Subsequently he declined 
to obey the instructions of the Michigan legis- 
lature as to his votes on the Kansas question. 
In the democratic convention at Cincinnati, 
in May, 1856, he was not a candidate, and 
warmly concurred in the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan, who on his accession to the presi- 
dency in 1857 nominated Cass as secretary of 
state. In December, 1860, when Buchanan 
refused to reenforce Major Anderson and re- 
provision Fort Sumter, he promptly resigned 
and closed a public career of 54 years. Du- 
ring the war he warmly sympathized with the 
national cause, and lived to see its complete 
success. He was a man of much ability and 
of the purest integrity, a fine scholar, and an 
effective public speaker. In private life he 
was distinguished for a generous hospitality, 
which lw? great wealth enabled him to dis- 
pense. Besides his published works above 
noticed, he" was author of an " Inquiry respect- 
ing the History, Traditions, Languages, &c., 
of the Indians Jiving within the United States " 
(Detroit, 1828), and of several historical and 
scientific sketches and addresses. See "Life 



and Times of Lewis Cass," by W. L. G. Smith 
(New York, 1856). 

CASSAGNAC. See GRANIER DE CASSAGNAO. 

CASSANDER, king of Macedon, son of Antipa- 
ter, born about 854 B. C., died in 297. Histo- 
ry gives no account of his life previous to 823, 
in which year he undertook a journey to Baby- 
lon, in order to defend his father Antipater from 
the accusations which had been made against 
him before Alexander. Cassander's pride, and 
his contempt for the servility he saw exhibited 
at the conqueror's court, are said to have of- 
fended that monarch and caused him to treat 
his visitor with indignity. Whatever may have 
been the cause, it seems certain that the inter- 
view between the two led Cassander to a vio- 
lent hatred of the great ruler, so undisguised 
that when Alexander died but a short time 
after, Cassander's name was everywhere con- 
nected with a story which attributed his death 
to poison. "When Antigonus was sent by An- 
tipater against Eumenes in 321, Cassander was 
appointed chiliarch, or second in command of 
the expedition; and on the death of his father 
in 319, he was confirmed in this office by Poly- 
sperchon, whom his father, ignoring the claims 
of his sou, had left regent of Macedonia. In- 
dignant at being kept in a secondary position, 
he declared war against Polysperchon, having 
first formed an alliance with Ptolemy Lagi 
and Antigonus. Polysperchon had apparently 
won the favor of the Greek cities by declaring 
them independent of Macedonia, and Athens 
was especially well disposed toward him. He 
had also the influence of Olympias on his side ; 
and Antigonus, whom he considered the most 
formidable of his opponents, was at war with 
Eumenes in Asia. But Cassander's general Ni- 
canor held Munychia and the Piraeus, the port 
fortresses of Athens. Polysperchon, accompa- 
nied by the royal family (Alexander's), began 
a march into Attica to attack these; but while 
he delayed in Phocis, where by a treacherous 
action (see PHOCION) he endeavored to render 
more secure the allegiance of the Athenians, 
Cassander suddenly appeared near Athens and 
occupied the Piraeus with a large force. Poly- 
sperchon laid siege to it, but meeting with lit- 
tle success, he left his son Alexander to con- 
duct the attack and went on into the Pelopon- 
nesus. Here he met with little resistance until 
he attacked Megalopolis, whose citizens re- 
pulsed his army at the same time that his fleet 
was destroyed by that of Cassander in the Hel- 
lespont. These defeats caused the Greek states 
to go over at once to the side of the victor, 
who treated Athens with clemency, and won 
friends throughout Greece by his justice and 
tact. In the mean time he had formed an alli- 
ance with the wife of King Arrhidrous, Eury- 
dice, an energetic and intriguing queen, who 
had determined to free herself from Polysper- 
chon's oppression, and had herself raised an 
army with which she did Cassander good ser- 
vice in holding Macedonia. While he was pur- 
suing his conquest in Greece, and just as he 



CASSANDER 

had laid siege to Tegea, he received news that 
Eurydice and her husband, with Cassander's 
brother Nicanor and 100 of his friends, had 
been murdered by the orders of Olympias. 
He at once 'hastened homeward, cut off Olym- 
pias from her allies, besieged her in Pydna 
during the winter of 317, captured her in 
the spring, and at once had her put to death, 
in violation, it is said, of his special agreement. 
He now imprisoned Alexander's son, Alexan- 
der ^Egus, and his mother Roxana, and further 
prepared his way to the royal power by mar- 
rying Thessalonica, Alexander's half sister. It 
was probably within a year of his marriage 
that he rebuilt the two cities of Therma and 
Potidsea, naming them Thessalonica and Cas- 
sandria. In 315 he returned to Greece, and 
began the rebuilding of Thebes, which Alex- 
ander had destroyed 20 years before. Poly- 
sperchon and his son had during his absence 
retaken some of the towns of the Peloponne- 
sus, but Cassander regained possession of them 
without difficulty ; and within the next year he 
and Polysperchon ended their rivalry by form- 
ing an alliance with several other leaders 
against the now formidable power of Antigonus. 
War was begun in 313; but Antigonns by spe- 
cious promises gained the allegiance of nearly 
all the Greek states, and two years' conflict 
which followed was unfavorable to Cassander 
and his friends. In 311 peace was declared; 
and during that year Cassander made further 
way for his ambition by ordering the murder 
of his two prisoners, Roxana and Alexander 
-$J?us. In 310 war again broke out, and now 
Polysperchon once more opposed his old enemy, 
putting forward Hercules, another son of Alex- 
ander, as the proper heir to the throne; but 
Cassander won him over by bribes, and induced 
him in 309 to put to death his prot6g6 and 
his mother. The ambitious ruler nevertheless 
lost ground rapidly ; Corinth, Sicyon, and Ath- 
ens, the only towns now subject to him in 
Greece, fell into the hands of the enemy in 308 
and 307; a long series of defeats and indecisive 
battles followed ; the war was carried into Asia 
without much change in its aspects ; and it was 
only through the mistaken action of Demetrius, 
the son of Antigonus, who by going to his 
father's aid in Asia left Greece exposed, that 
affairs suddenly changed, and Cassander ac- 
quired a lasting advantage. The battle of 
Ipsus, in 301, in which Antigonus was killed, 
gave the allies a final victory ; and Cassander, 
Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Lysimachus divided the 
dominion of the dead king among them, Cas- 
sander receiving Macedonia and Greece. His 
remaining years were occupied with schemes 
for wider conquest. He invaded the island of 
Corcyra about 299, but was almost immediately 
driven from it by Agathocles of Syracuse. In 
298 he began the carrying out of plans for gain- 
ing complete possession of those cities of south- 
ern Greece which still held out against him; 
but his death occurred before he had gained 
any considerable success. 




CASSANO 



61 



CASSANDER, George, a Flemish theologian, 
born in the island of Cadsand, Zealand, in 1515, 
died Feb. 3, 1S66. He officiated for some 
time as professor of divinity at Bruges and 
Ghent, and gained a high reputation by his 
various attainments. In 1561 he published a 
treatise designed to reconcile the Catholic and 
Protestant theologians, which was attacked by 
Calvin, but favorably received by the emperor 
Ferdinand and other German princes, the em- 
peror encouraging him to persist in his concilia- 
tory task. In 1565 he published a famous 
work entitled Comultatio de Articulis Fidei 
inter Papistas et Protestantes Controversis, in 
which he reviewed the controverted articles 
of the Augsburg confession. He was sincerely 
attached to the Roman Catholic faith ; but he 
was accused of taking too favorable a view of 
the points brought forward by the Protestants, 
and several of his writings were condemned by 
the council of Trent. His collected works were 
published in Paris in 1616. 

CASSANDRA (called also ALEXANDRA), a Tro- 
jan princess, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. 
Apollo, enamored of her, permitted her to ask 
of him whatever she desired as a reward for 
her complaisance. She begged for the gift of 
prophecy ; but when the god had bestowed it 
upon her, she refused to keep her promise to 
him. Thereupon Apollo, unable to withdraw 
from her the prophetic art, ordained that her 
predictions should never be believed. In vain 
she foretold that the abduction of Helen would 
cause the ruin of Troy, counselled the making 
of peace with the Atridae, announced to Priam, 
Paris, and the Trojan people the fate which 
awaited them, and opposed the reception of 
the wooden horse. On the night of the cap- 
ture of Troy she took refuge in the temple of 
Pallas, but was torn away from the statue of 
the goddess by Ajax, son of Oi'leus. She fell 
by lot as a slave to Agamemnpn, who carried 
her to Greece; and, after fruitlessly advising 
that prince of the fate reserved for him, she 
perished with him in the massacre plotted by 
Clytemnestra. She is an important personage 
in Greek poetry, and is the heroine of a poem 
by Lycophron, celebrated for its obscurity. 

CASSANO. I. A town of S. Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Cosenza, 10 m. W. of the gulf of Ta- 
rento, on the railroad which skirts the E. shore 
of Calabria; pop. about 8,000. It is built in 
the concave recess of a steep mountain, round 
an isolated rock, on which are the ruins of an 
ancient castle. It is the see of a bishop, and 
contains a cathedral, four convents, and an 
episcopal seminary ; hot sulphurous springs and 
plaster and stone quarries are in the vicinity. 
The inhabitants are principally employed in th<? 
manufacture of macaroni, leather, table linens, 
and fabrics of cotton and silk. It is supposed 
to stand on the site of the ancient Cosa ; ac- 
cording to some authorities, however, the neigh- 
boring village of Civitd occupies the real site 
of the ancient town. II. A town of N. Italy, 
on the Adda, 16 m. N". E. of Milan; pop. about 



62 




CASSATION 



3,500. A battle was fought here, Sept. 16, 
1259, which resulted in the defeat and capture 
of the tyrant Ezzelino. On Aug. 16, 1705, a 
victory was gained here by the French under 
Vend6me, over the imperial troops under Prince 
Eugene; and on April 27, 1799, the French, 
under Moreau, were defeated here by the Rus- 
sians and Austrians, under Suvaroff. 

CASSATION, ourt of, the highest court of ap- 
peal in France. It was established by the con- 
stituent assembly toward the close of 1790, un- 
der the name of tribunal de cassation, with a 
view of putting an end to the confusion that had 
so largely prevailed in the judiciary system of 
the country, and of imparting to the whole juris- 
diction a spirit of unity, without endangering 
the independence of the inferior courts. In 
1804 the name of courde cassation was given to 
the court, which it still retains. The functions 
of the court are not to go into the facts, but 
simply to revise the proceedings of the inferior 
courts, and any decision taken by the court of 
cassation is considered iinal and binding. It 
is composed of a president, 3 vice presidents 
(presidents de chambre), 45 counsellors, an at- 
torney general (procureur general), 6 assistant 
attorneys general (atocats generaux), and a chief 
clerk (greffier en chef) ; and only 60 advocates 
are permitted to plead before the court. The 
president and counsellors are named by the 
government for life ; the other officers are re- 
movable at pleasure. The court is divided into 
three chambers, one of appeals in civil and one 
in criminal cases, and the chamber of requests, 
a sort of preliminary tribunal, which decides on 
the locus standi and admissibility of the appeal. 

CASSAVA, the meal, and bread made from it, 
obtained from the roots of several species of 
the genus manihot (from the Indian manioc), 




Cassava (Manihot utilissima). 

plants of the family of the euphorliacea, which 
grow in the West Indies, South America, and 
Africa. Three species are described, but under 
different names by different botanists. The 



CASSEL 

genus, formerly included in the jatropha of 
Linnaeus, was separated by Kunth, and called 
janipha ; and the common species was designa- 
ted as J. manihot, of which two varieties, the 
sweet and bitter, are distinguished.- But later 
authorities designate the genus as manihot, and 
the common species as M. utilissima, another 
as M. aipi, and a third as M. janipha. The first 
is the bitter cassava, indigenous to Brazil, and 
cultivated in other parts of South America. It 
is a shrub 6 or 8 ft. high, with a large tuberous 
root, which sometimes weighs 30 Ibs. This 
root contains a large proportion of starch, 
which is associated with a poisonous milky 
juice, containing hydrocyanic acid and a bitter 
acrid principle. The other two species do not 
possess this poisonous juice. All are used alike 
for the preparation of the meal. The root is 
well washed, then scraped or grated to a pulp, 
and this, when of the poisonous kind, is thor- 
oughly pressed in order to remove the juice ; 
but even if some of this is left in the meal, it 
escapes by its volatility in the process of baking 
or drying the cakes upon a hot iron plate. 
Afterward dried in the sun, the cassava is kept 
as food, to be mixed with water and baked like 
flour in large thin cakes. These are a coarse, 
cheap kind of bread, much used by the negroes 
and poorer whites, in which the ligneous fibre 
is plainly visible. Its nourishing qualities con- 
sist in the starch of which it is principally 
composed. The expressed juice also furnishes 
by deposition a very delicate and nearly pure 
starch, when left to stand for some time. "Well 
washed with cold water, and afterward dried, 
this is the tapioca of commerce, sometimes 
called Brazilian arrowroot. 

CASSEL, a town of France, department of 
Le Nord, on the railway from Lille to Dunkirk, 
28 m. N. W. of Lille; pop. in 1866, 4,242. It 
is situated on an isolated hill 600 ft. high, com- 
manding an extensive view, and has manufac- 
tories of lace, linen thread, and hosiery, brew- 
eries, tanneries, dye houses, and a considerable 
trade in cattle. It was the ancient capital of 
the Morini, and was known to the Romans as 
Castellum. It was strongly fortified during the 
middle ages. In 1071 Philip I. of France was 
defeated here by Robert the Frisian, count of 
Flanders ; in 1328 Philip VI. won a complete 
victory over the Flemish troops ; and in 1 f>77 
Philip, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., 
defeated here the prince of Orange. 

CASSEL, or Kassel, a city of Germany, capital 
of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, and 
of the district of Cassel, formerly the electorate 
of Hesse-Cassel, situated on the river Fulda, 
90 m. N. N.E. of Frankfort-on-the-Main ; pop. 
in 1871, 46,375, of whom about 5,000 were Ro- 
man Catholics, 1,500 Jews, and the remainder 
Protestants. It is connected by railway di- 
rectly with Frankfort and Hanover, and thence 
with the rest of Germany. It is divided into the 
old town, the lower new town, and the upper 
new town, and has 10 Protestant churches, 
a Catholic church, and a synagogue. In St. 



OASSEL 



CASSIANUS 



63 



Martin's church are the tombs of many of the 
electors. The city contains the government 
buildings, the former electoral palace, a theatre, 
an observatory, and other fine edifices. The 




Wilhelmshohe. 

museum, the finest building in Oassel, com- 
prises collections of pictures and natural his- 
tory, a cabinet of curiosities, containing a vast 
collection of watches and clocks from the 
earliest invented, and a library of about 90,000 
volumes. The Friedrichsplatz, with a statue 
of the elector Frederick I., who was the founder 
and patron of the principal art collections of 
Cassel, is one of the most admirable public 
squares in Europe ; and there are 15 other 
public squares. The public gardens are charm- 
ing, especially that of Wilhelmshohe, 3 m. dis- 
tant, in which the summer palace is situated. 
Here is the cascade of the Karlsburg, consist- 
ing of a flight of stone steps extending 900 ft. 
up a hill on which is a colossal statue of Her- 
cules. After the battle of Sedan, Napoleon III. 
was a prisoner at Wilhelmshohe until March 19, 
1871. There are manufactures of cotton, silk, 
and woollen fabrics, leather, hats, carpets, kid 
gloves, and porcelain ; and the place is the 
main emporium of the trade of Hesse-Cassel. 
Two fairs and a wool market are held here 
Annually. 

CASSEL, Panlns Stephanns Selig, a German cler- 
gyman and author, born of Jewish parentage 
in Glogau, Silesia, Feb. 27, 1827. He was 
educated in both the Eoman Catholic and 
Protestant gymnasia of Schweidnitz, completed 
his studies of history in Berlin under Eanke, 
became a journalist, and in 1855 a Protestant. 
Subsequently he was director of the royal li- 
brary and secretary of the academy at Erfurt, 
the government giving him the title of pro- 
fessor. He removed to Berlin in 1859, and 
served in the Prussian chamber of deputies 
from 1866 to the end of 1867, when he declined 
a reflection to become minister of Christ church, 
which position he continues to hold (1873). 
His treatises on the history of Erfurt were fol- 
lowed in 1848 by his Magyarische Alterthumer, 
And in 1851 by an extensive historical article 
159 VOL. IT. 5 



on the Jews in Ersch and Gruber's cyclopaedia, 
and a political disquisition, Von Wanchau bis 
Olmutz, which attracted much attention. He 
has written also on various literary subjects; 
and his more important theological works are 
Weihnaehten (1862), Die Sucker der Richter 
und Ruth (1865), Sunam (1869), and Das 
Evangelium des Sohnes Zebedai (1870). His 
works for the young have passed through nu- 
merous editions, and he has also acquired emi- 
nence as a lecturer on the oecumenical coun- 
cil and papal history (1869-'70), and on the 
Franco-German war. 

CASSIA, the bark of the cinnamomum cassia, 
an inferior quality of cinnamon which is often 
mixed with the genuine article. (See CINNA- 
MON.) Cassia is also a genus of plants of the 
family leguminosce. Several species of this 




Cinnamomum cassia. 

genus furnish the officinal senna. One species 
native to this country is the source of the drug 
called American senna. The pod of cassia 
fistula, and perhaps an allied /species, is em- 
ployed to some extent as a laxative. 

CASSIANPS, Johannes, a founder of monastic in- 
stitutions, believed to have been born about 350, 
and to have died in Marseilles about 433. Ac- 
cording to other accounts, he was a native of 
Greece, born about 360, and died about 448. 
He went when young to the Holy Land, re- 
mained some time in Bethlehem, spent many 
years among the ascetics of Egypt, was or- 
dained about 403 as deacon by Chrysostom 
at Constantinople, and sent on a mission to 
Rome relative to the controversy with the 
Arians. Soon afterward he founded at Mar- 
seilles a nunnery and the abbey of Saint Vic- 
tor, which is said to have contained during his 
time 5,000 inmates. His De Institutis Casno- 
biorum and Collationes Patrum Sceticorum con- 
stitute a code of monastical institutions, which, 
though strenuously opposed by St. Augustine, 
acquired great popularity, and was subsequent- 
ly much admired by Thomas Aquinas, by the 
recluses of Port Royal, who adopted his regu- 
lations as the model of their monastic life, and 
by Arnaud d'Andilly, who embodied the ideas 



CASSIN 



CA8SINI 



of Cassianus in his Vie des peres du desert. He 
was eventually canonized, and his anniversary, 
July 23, was long celebrated at Marseilles. 
The best edition of his collected works is that 
reprinted at Leipsic in 1733. 

CASSIA, John, an American ornithologist, born 
near Chester, Penn., Sept. 6, 1813, died Jan. 
10, 1869. In 1834 he took up his residence in 
Philadelphia, and, excepting a few years par- 
tially given to mercantile pursuits, devoted him- 
self to the study of ornithology. He contrib- 
uted descriptions of new species and synoptical 
reviews of various families to the " Proceed- 
ings " and the " Journal " of the Philadelphia 
academy of natural science. His more elaborate 
publications are : " Birds of California, Texas," 
&c. (Philadelphia, 1855); "American Ornitho- 
logy" (1856), containing descriptions and fig- 
ures of all North American birds not given by 
former American authors, after the manner 
and designed as a continuation of the works 
of Audubon, with 50 colored plates ; " Mam- 
malogy and Ornithology of the United States 
Exploring Expedition ;" " Ornithology of the 
Japan Expedition ;" " Ornithology of Gilliss's 
Astronomical Expedition to Chili ;" the chap- 
ters on rapacious and wading birds in the 
" Ornithology of the Pacific Railroad Explora- 
tions and Surveys ;" and the ornithology of the 
" Iconographic Encyclopaedia." His works are 
the result of careful research, and are espe- 
cially valuable for their descriptions and classifi- 
cations of many birds not given in the previous 
works of Wilson and Audubon. He was of a 
Quaker family, several members of which have 
distinguished themselves in naval and military 
service. His great-uncle, JOHN CASSIN, a com- 
modore in the American navy, conducted the 
defence of Philadelphia in the war of 1812. 
His uncle, STEPHEN CASSIN (1782-1857), also a 
commodore, served under Com. Preble in the 
war with Tripoli, and for his bravery in the 
action on Lake Champlain in 1814, under Com. 
McDonough, was rewarded by congress with a 
gold medal. 

(\ssiM, a family of Italian and French as- 
tronomers, four members of which were direc- 
tors of the Paris observatory for the first 122 
years of its existence. I. Giovanni Domenlco, born 
at Perinaldo, near Nice, June 8, 1625, died in 
Paris, Sept. 14, 1712. While in college at Genoa 
he gained considerable reputation by his Latin 
verses ; but his attention having been turned 
to mathematics, he abandoned poetry. He 
went to Paris as secretary in the suite of Ler- 
caro, afterward doge of Genoa, who was then 
the head of an embassy to the court of Louis 
XIV. After the return of the embassy he ac- 
companied Lercaro to his estates in Lombardy, 
and while there ho devoted some time to the 
study of astrology, which led him to his lifelong 
pursuit of astronomy. In 1644, at the invita- 
tion of the marquis Malvasia, he went to Bo- 
logna, and in 1650 was appointed professor of 
astronomy in the university there. The mar- 
quis had built an observatory at the villa of 



Pansano near Modena, and here Cassini made 
observations upon the comet of 1652 from 
which he published his first work. In the 
following year the church of St. Petronia in 
Bologna, where Ignazio Dante in 1575 had es- 
tablished a meridian line and gnomon, was 
undergoing repairs, and Cassini obtained the 
privilege of correcting and lengthening this 
line. He was very successful, and made ob- 
servations in regard to the obliquity of the 
ecliptic, refraction, and parallax, which subse- 
quent observations have shown to be very close 
approximations to exactness. In 1656 he pub- 
lished his tables of the sun founded upon these 
observations. In 1 657 he was appointed super- 
intendent of the Po for the city of Bologna, and 
he was afterward employed in many public du- 
ties by different cities and by the pope. He 
also found time to make a great number of ob- 
servations upon insects, experiments upon the 
transfusion of blood, a subject which then at- 
tracted great attention, and to continue his 
astronomical observations. While at Ferrara 
he conceived the idea of a chart to represent 
the different appearances of an eclipse of the 
sun at various places on the surface of the 
earth; but the inquisitor of that city forbade 
its publication on account of its novelty. In 
1665, at Citta della Pieve in Tuscany, by means 
of a telescope furnished by Campani, he observed 
the shadows thrown upon the surface of Jupiter 
by his satellites when they pass between the 
planet and the sun, and distinguished them from 
the fixed spots. Having compared his own ob- 
servations with those of Galileo, he constructed 
his first tables of the satellites. He very nearly 
approximated the truth in his calculations of 
the time of rotation of Jupiter, Venus, Mars, 
and the sun ; and these discoveries exalted his 
reputation above that of any other astronomer 
then living. Though they really indicated 
nothing more than the use of good instru- 
ments by a careful and accurate observer, yet 
they were capable of being stated in definite 
terms which everybody could understand ; and 
while the sublime discoveries of Copernicus and 
Newton were slowly struggling for recognition, 
all Europe was filled with the praises of the 
man who had laid open and stated in numbers 
the secrets of the heavens. In 1666 Colbert, 
chief minister of Louis XIV. of France, founded 
the royal academy of sciences and projected an 
observatory. He invited Cassini to take up his 
residence in Paris, offering him a pension equal 
to the emoluments of all the offices he held in 
Italy. Cassini arrived in Paris April 4, 1669, 
and on Sept. 14, 1671, commenced his observa- 
tions. In this and the following year he dis- 
covered the third and fifth satellites of Saturn. 
In 1673 the Bolognese government requested 
him to return to that city, but Colbert persuaded 
him to remain in France. Cassini took out 
letters of naturalization as a French subject, 
and the same year married a French lady. 
Henceforth his time was mostly occupied in 
making observations and recording their re- 



CASSINI 



CASSINO 



65 



suits. His explanation of the lunar libration 
was more complete and accurate than any pre- 
viously given, and is considered one of his finest 
achievements. He was the first who carefully 
observed the zodiacal light, although he did not, 
as is frequently asserted, discover it. In 1684 
he discovered the first and second satellites of 
Saturn, and a medal was struck in commemora- 
tion of the event, with the legend Saturni Satel- 
lites primum cogniti. In 1 693 he published new 
tables of the satellites of Jupiter, which were a 
considerable improvement upon those which 
he had previously published in 1668. He had 
long been in possession of all the data necessary 
to determine the velocity of the transmission of 
light; but when the announcement of the dis- 
covery was made by Olaus Romer, Cassini re- 
jected it. He revisited Italy in 1695, accom- 
panied by his son. The survey of an arc of the 
meridian of Paris, which had been commenced 
in 1669 by Picard, and continued to the north 
of Paris by La Hire in 1683, was completed by 
Cassini to the south as far as Roussillon in 1700. 
He continued his observations until a few years 
before his death, when he became totally blind. 
Cassini left a great number of writings, some 
of which have never been published; but 
very many appeared in the Journal des 
Savants and in the Memoires de V Academic. 
None of them are now consulted except in so 
far as they may contain records of facts and 
observations. He nowhere gives evidence of 
any acquaintance with the writings of Newton, 
and it has never been ascertained whether he re- 
jected or adopted the Copernican theory of the 
solar system. He left an autobiography, which 
was published in 1810 by his great-grandson 
Cassini de Thury. II. Jacques, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris, Feb. 18, 1677, died on his 
estate of Thury, April 16, 1756. Some papers 
on optics by him and an elder brother, who 
was killed at the battle of La Hogue, were 
published in 1691. In 1694, when only 17 
years of age, he was chosen a member of the 
academy of sciences, and the following year ac- 
companied his father to Italy. He then trav- 
elled in Holland and England, where he made 
the acquaintance of Newton and many other 
distinguished men, and in 1696 he was made a 
member of the royal society. He participated 
with his father in the survey of the meridian, 
which he continued to Mt. Canigou in the ex- 
treme south of France, and afterward north- 
ward to Dunkirk. On the death of his father 
he succeeded him at the observatory, and was 
maitre des comptes. In 1720 he published a 
work on the magnitude and form of the earth. 
He determined the times of revolution of the 
satellites of Saturn then known, first observed 
the inclination of the orbit of the fifth (now 
the seventh), and determined very nearly the 
variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic and 
the length of the year. In 1740 he published 
Elements d" 1 astronomic. Like his father, he 
was an excellent observer, but little of a philos- 
opher. He seems to have been inclined toward 



the Copernican system, to have had hardly any 
acquaintance with the theories of Newton, and 
to have been ignorant of the discovery of aber- 
ration by his contemporary Bradley. III. Cesar 
Francois (CASSINI DE THUBY), son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris, Jan. 17, 1714, died Sept. 
4, 1784. He became a member of the academy 
of sciences in his 22d year, assisted his father in 
the survey of the meridian, and succeeded him 
as director of the observatory and maitre des 
comptes. His greatest work was the immense 
topographical map of France, upon which he 
labored for a large part of his life. It was fin- 
ished by his son. Like his father and grand- 
father, he was an accurate and industrious ob- 
server, but contributed nothing to the advance- 
ment of astronomical science. IV. Jaeques Do- 
minique, count de Thury, son of the preceding, 
born in Paris, June 30, 1748. died there, Oct. 
18, 1845. In 1770 he published an account of a 
voyage made by order of the king to test the 
chronometers of Le Roy, and the same year 
was admitted a member of the academy of 
sciences. He succeeded his father as director 
of the observatory. In 1787 he was associated 
with M6chain and Legendre in the operations to 
connect by a series of triangles the observato- 
ries of Greenwich and Paris. He completed the 
great map of France which his father had left 
unfinished, and on Oct. 13, 1789, he presented 
it to the national assembly as an aid in the new 
division of France into departments. In 1793 
the national convention decreed that the ob- 
servatory should no longer be under the control 
of one person, but of four, who should each 
serve in rotation for a year. Cassini and three 
of his pupils were appointed. He refused to 
submit to this, and on Sept. 6 of the same year 
he resigned. He was ordered to quit the ob- 
servatory within 24 hours, and the next year 
he was imprisoned for seven months. On recov- 
ering his liberty he retired to his estate, aban- 
doned astronomy entirely, and refused to take 
any part in the scientific operations undertaken 
by the government. V. Alexandra Henri Gabriel, 
a French botanist, son of the preceding, born 
in Paris, May 9, 1781, died of cholera, April 16, 
1832. He commenced astronomical studies at 
an early age, but soon abandoned them and de- 
voted himself in great measure to the study of 
botany, and published a large number of papers 
upon various parts of that science. He also 
held several judicial offices, being in the latter 
years of his life a member of the court of cas- 
sation. In 1827 he was made a member of the 
academy of sciences, and in 1830 a peer of 
France. 

CASSINO, a game at cards in which four are 
dealt to each player, four being also placed on 
the board. There are generally four players. 
The greatest number of cards counts 3 points, 
and of spades 1 ; the 10 of diamonds, great 
cassino, 2 ; the 2 of spades, little cassino, 1 ; and 
each of the aces 1. The object is to take as 
many cards as possible. A player may take 
from the board any card corresponding to one 



66 



GASSING 



CASSIUS 



in his hand, or any cards whose combined spots 
equal the number of spots on any card in his 
hand. Thus, a 10 in the player's hand will 
take a 10 from the board, or any number of 
cards which can be made to combine into 10. 
The name of the play is derived from the 
societies' rooms iu Italy, and continental Eu- 
rope generally, under the name of casinos, 
where probably the name originated. 

CASSINO, Monte. See CASINO. 

CASSIODORUS, Magnns Anrelins, an Italian 
statesman, author, and ascetic, born at Scyla- 
cium about 468, died about 560. He was of an 
ancient and wealthy Roman family. In his 
youth he distinguished himself by his talents, 
and was appointed to high offices by Odoacer, 
king of the Heruli, the first barbarian king of 
Italy. After Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, 
had overcome and supplanted Odoacer, Cassio- 
dorus for many years, and under various titles, 
was prime minister of the Gothic kingdom. 
When Theodoric in his old age began to perse- 
cute the leading Latins in his service, Cassio- 
dorus resigned his situation and dignities, and 
retired to his estates. After the death of Theo- 
doric he was recalled to power, and served with 
distinction and fidelity Amalasontha, Athalaric, 
Theodatus, and Vitiges. Upon the temporary 
triumph of the emperors of the East, being 
now 70 years of age, he retired again to the 
monastery of Viviers which he had founded in 
Galabria. In this retreat he passed the remain- 
der of his days, which were prolonged until he 
was nearly a century old. His career as a 
historian and man of letters began when his 
career as a statesman ended. He taught his 
monks to labor in the fields as husbandmen, 
and to devote themselves to the copying of 
ancient manuscripts, then perishing rapidly 
under the effects of barbarian ascendancy and 
Roman neglect. This monastery was taken as 
a model for others founded in all parts of 
Christian Europe. His arrangement of the 
branches of a liberal education into grammar, 
rhetoric, and dialectics (the trivium), and arith- 
metic, geometry, astronomy, and music (the 
quadrivium), was accepted throughout the mid- 
dle ages, and long after, as the only true pro- 
gramme of a liberal education. His writings 
on education form a considerable part of his 
literary remains. His history of the Goths in 
12 books has not survived, but the epitome of 
the same by Jornandes is extant, and is an in- 
valuable authority. Equally important in a 
critical point of view are his state papers in 
12 books, which are the chief authority upon 
the internal condition and government of Italy 
during the period of Ostrogothic rule. The 
style isvery florid and affected, the language 
very corrupt. He also wrote a universal his- 
tory down to 519, and an ecclesiastical history 
from the era of Constantino down to the time 
of Theodosius the Younger. These works en- 
joyed great consideration during the middle 
ages, but since the revival of learning have 
fallen into oblivion. *Fhe first edition of his 



works was published at Paris in 1584; the 
latest and best is that published by D. Garet 
at Rouen (2 vols. folio, 1679), and reprinted at 
Venice (1729). There are three biographies of 
Cassiodorus : one in Latin, prefixed to Caret's 
edition of his works ; one in French by Saint- 
Marthe, Paris, 1695; and one in German by 
De Buat, in the first volume of the transactions 
of the royal academy of Munich. 

CASSIOPEIA, a northern constellation, easily 
recognized by the form, a letter W, on the op- 
posite side of the pole from the Great Bear ; 
named from the wife of Cepheus, king of Ethi- 
opia, and mother of Andromeda. The con- 
stellation was distinguished in 1572 by a bril- 
liant temporary star which shone for 18 months 
and then disappeared. 

CASSIQ11IARE, or Cassiqniarl, a remarkable 
river of Venezuela, deep and extremely rapid, 
which serves as the connecting link between 
the Orinoco and the Rio Negro. It furnishes 
the only example in the world of a bifurcation 
forming in the very heart of a continent a natu- 
ral water communication between two great 
river valleys. It leaves the Orinoco about 20 
m. W. of Esmeralda, and is at first scarcely 
250 ft. broad ; and after a S.W. course of near- 
ly 130 m. it joins the Negro near the little town 
of San Carlos, its breadth having there reached 
over 1,500 ft. By means of the Cassiquiare 
canoes can penetrate with facility from the 
south of Brazil, from Peru and Bolivia, and 
even from the Argentine Republic, to Caracas 
through the Amazon and Orinoco and their 
various affluents. 

CASSIS, in conchology, the name of a genus 
of univalve shells, including the species known 
as helmets. (See HELMET SHELL.) 

CASSITERIDES, or the Tin Islands of the 
Greek and Roman writers, are supposed with 
much probability to be the modern Scilly isl- 
ands near the coast of Cornwall, England. 
The Phanicians, who discovered these islands 
and who kept the knowledge of them for a long 
time from other nations, traded there for tin 
with the inhabitants of the neighboring penin- 
sula of Cornwall, where the tin was produced 
from mines, and was brought to the islands 
and sold to the foreign merchants. The islands 
themselves produced no tin. By a natural con- 
fusion of ideas the term Cassiterides or tin isl- 
ands came in time to be applied to Cornwall 
itself, at least before the Roman settlement in 
Britain, when the true situation of the tin 
mines became known. (See SCILLY ISLANDS.) 

CASSIUS. I. Longlnns Cains, the leader of the 
conspiracy against Caesar, died in 42 B. C. In 
53 he was quaestor in the campaign against the 
Parthians, and distinguished himself by mili- 
tary skill, particularly after the death of Cras- 
sus, in the defeat at Carrhaa. Having col- 
lected the remains of the army, he defended 
Syria, and won in the next two years two vic- 
tories over the Parthians. After his return to 
Rome he was tribune of the people, embraced 
the party of the senate at the outbreak of the 



OASSIUS 



CASTALIA 



67 



civil war, and followed Pompey, whose fleet he 
then commanded, in his flight. After the de- 
feat at Pharsalia (48), he led the fleet to the 
Hellespont, but having fallen in with Caesar, 
he surrendered. Caesar pardoned him, made 
him praetor, and promised him the province of 
Syria. At the same time Cassius was engaged 
with Brutus in forming a conspiracy against 
the dictatorial rule and the life of his bene- 
factor. Caesar fell on the ides of March, 44, 
and the senate rewarded his murderers with 
provinces. Cassius received Syria, where he 
defeated his opponent Dolabella, plundered its 
cities to provide means for the war against 
Antony and Octavius, and returned with Bru- 
tus to Macedonia. The two ensuing battles of 
Philippi (42) ended their lives, with the hopes 
of the Roman republicans. In the first, An- 
tony defeated the wing of Cassius, who, mis- 
taking the cavalry of the victorious Brutus 
hastening to his relief for that of Octavius, 
killed himself, as Plutarch says, with the dag- 
ger which wounded Caesar. In the second, 
Brutus, who mourned him as the last of the 
Romans, followed his example. II. Cassias Par- 
mensis, so called from his birthplace, the city of 
Parma, was also one of the conspirators against 
Cassar, after whose death he adhered to the 
aristocratic republican party of Brutus and his 
namesake Cassius, and fought on their side 
until their defeat at Philippi. He subsequently 
joined Pompey, and afterward surrendered 
himself to Antony, whose fortunes he followed 
until after the battle of Actium ; he then re- 
tired to Athens, where he was put to death 
by order of Augustus. He was a poet of some 
eminence, not to be confounded with Cassius 
of Etruria, who is ridiculed by Horace in his 
Sermones for his facility and poverty of compo- 
sition, and is believed to be the person alluded 
to by Shakespeare as torn to pieces in the 
streets of Rome by the rabble immediately on 
the celebration of Caesar's funeral rites, and the 
raising of the people by Antony. 

CASSIUS, Dion. See DION CASSITJS. 

CASSICS, Purple of, a pigment used for color- 
ing porcelain and glass by fusing it with these 
substances. It is a precipitate obtained by add- 
ing protochloride of tin to a solution of chlo- 
ride of gold. The purple powder thrown 
own is an obscure compound of sesquioxide 
'f tin and oxide of gold. It contains of metal- 
ic gold 39-82 per cent. Its production is a test 
~ the presence of protoxide of tin. 

CASSOCK, a close garment resembling a long 

ckcoat, made of cloth or silk with a single 
.pright collar, worn under the surplice by cler- 
en of the Roman Catholic and Anglican 

urches. In the Roman church it varies in 

ilor, being black for priests, purple for bish- 
ops, scarlet for cardinals, and white for 
popes. In the Anglican church it is always 
black, and worn by all orders of the clergy. 

CASSOWARY (casuarius galeatus, Vieill.), a 
bird of the ostrich family, the only species of 
the genus. The bill of the cassowary is long, 




compressed, and curved to the tip, the upper 
mandible overlapping the under. The wings 
consist of five strong rounded shafts without 
webs; the tail is not apparent; the tarsi are 
long and robust, and covered with large scales ; 
the toes are three in number, all directed for- 
ward ; the inner toe is armed with a very long 
powerful claw. The head and base of the bill 
are surmounted by an elevated compressed 
casque, or bony helmet ; the head and neck are 
denuded of feathers, the skin being of a blue 
and violet color, with two fleshy wattles in 
front. It is a heavy massive bird, about 5 ft. 
high ; the plumage is of a blackish color, the 
feathers being loose, and resembling delicate 
hairs ; the feathers which take the place of the 
tail are pendent. The cassowary is a stupid, 
gluttonous bird, living on fruits, herbs, and 
occasionally on small animals ; it is incapable 
of flight from the imperfect development of the 
wings, but it runs with great rapidity, and de- 




Cassowary (Casuarius galeatus). 

fends itself by means of its powerful feet. It 
lives in pairs in the forests of the Moluccas, of 
New Guinea, and other islands in the Indian 
archipelago ; in some places it is domesticated. 
The female lays three greenish spotted eggs, 
on the bare ground, on which she sits during 
the night for a month ; the young are of a red 
color, mixed with grayish. The cassowary, 
though it approaches the structure of common 
birds in the shortness of the intestines, and in 
the want of the stomachal sac between the 
crop and the gizzard, belongs evidently to the 
ostrich type, characterized by massive size, 
absence of wings, strength of lower extremi- 
ties, flattened breast bone, and hairy nature of 
the feathers. 

CASTALIA, a fountain at the foot of Mount 
Parnassus, near the temple of Apollo, at Del- 
phi, in Phocis. It was, like the mountain, 
sacred to Apollo and the muses, which were 
therefore called Castalides. The Pythia used 
to bathe in its waters before delivering the ora- 



68 



CASTALIO 



CASTELLAMARE 



cles of the god ; it was regarded as a source 
of inspiration for poets, and had its name, ac- 
cording to some authorities, from Castalia, the 
daughter of Achelous, who, being pursued by 
Apollo, threw herself into the fountain. 

CASTALIO, or Castalion, Sebastien, a French 
theologian, born in Dauphiny in 1515, died 
in Basel, Dec. 20, 1563. His family name 
was Chateillon, which he latinized into Cas- 
talion. Through the influence of Calvin he 
was made professor of classical literature at 
Geneva. Having quarrelled with Calvin, who 
caused his banishment in 1544, he repaired to 
Basel, where he taught Greek ; but as his sti- 
pend did not suffice to support his numerous 
family, he was compelled to employ part of his 
time in agricultural labors. Besides several 
theological works, he made a Latin translation 
of the Bible, the best edition of which is in 
folio (Basel, 1573). He defended the right of 
free discussion hi a collection of maxims com- 
piled from various sources. 

CASTAftOS, Francisco Xayler do, duke of Baylen, 
a Spanish general, born in Madrid about 1755, 
died there, Sept. 24, 1852. In early life he was 
sent with Gen. O'Reilly to the court of Fred- 
erick the Great to study the art of war, and 
on his return to Spain he entered the army. 
When Napoleon invaded Spain, Castafios was 
appointed captain general of the Spanish ar- 
mies in Andalusia. At Baylen, July 19, 1808, 
he encountered a French force under Dupont, 
who were surrounded and after some fighting 
forced to capitulate on the 22d, surrendering 
18,000 men. He was shortly after routed by 
Lannes at Tudela (Nov. 23, 1808), and resign- 
ing his command became a member of the re- 
gency. In 1811 he was appointed to the com- 
mand in Estremadura and Galicia, in 1812 was 
placed by Wellington in charge of the fortress 
of Ciudad Rodrigo, and early in 1818 was given 
the command of one of the four armies into 
which the Spanish forces were then divided. 
He contributed to Wellington's victory at Vi- 
toria, but at the close of the year he was re- 
moved by the new regency, under the pretext 
that he was needed in the council of state. 
After the restoration he was made captain gen- 
eral of Catalonia, an appointment which he re- 
signed in 1816, but again accepted in 1823. In 
1815 he was placed at the head of a force of 
80,000 men destined to invade France, in 1833 
received the title of duke of Baylen, and after 
Espartero's fall in 1843 became for a time the 
guardian of Queen Isabella. He became a sen- 
ator in 1845. 

CASTE. See INDIA. 

CASTELAR, Emllio, a Spanish statesman, born 
in Cadiz, Sept. 8, 1832. His father, an ex- 
change broker at Alicante, and afterward at 
Cadiz, spent seven years in the English posses- 
sions, chiefly in Gibraltar, to escape from the 
sentence of death passed on him for his im- 
plication in liberal movements. He died in 
Madrid in 1839, leaving his family almost des- 
titute. Emilio nevertheless received a supe- 



rior education. He early published novels, 
and subsequently became known as a demo- 
cratic journalist and orator. In December, 
1856, he was the successful competitor for the 
chair of history and philosophy in the uni- 
versity of Madrid, delivering at the same time 
lectures on the history of civilization in the 
Athenaeum. He was deprived of his position in 
1864, after having founded with Carrascon the 
journal La Democratic/,. This was suppressed 
in 1866, owing to his participation in the dis- 
turbances of June 22, when he was sentenced 
to death, but escaped in disguise to Switzer- 
land and thence to France. When the revolu- 
tion of September, 1868, began, he returned to 
Spain and was restored to his professorship. 
He kindled the enthusiasm of the people by his 
eloquent appeals in favor of democracy, and was 
elected to the cortes for Saragossa and Lerida. 
In this body he opposed Prim and Serrano, and 
subsequently King Amacleus, and became the 
most popular leader of the republican party. 
In 1873 he actively promoted the declaration of 
the republic, and was chosen minister of foreign 
affairs Feb. 12, and president of Spain Sept. 7, 
with extraordinary powers. He has publish- 
ed Diseursos parlamentarios (3 vols., Madrid, 
1871), and Recuerdos de Italia (translated by 
Mrs. Arthur Arnold, " Old Rome and New 
Italy," London, 1873). 

CASTEL BRANCO, or Castello Branro, a city of 
Portugal, in the province of Beira, situated on 
the Liria, 42 m. N. E. of Abrantes; pop. 6,700. 
It is the see of a bishop, and has a college, two 
collegiate churches, and a ruined castle on the 
summit of the hill on which the town stands. 

CASTEL-FIDARDO, a town of Italy, in the 
province and 11 m. S. of Ancona, near Lo- 
reto, on a range of hills between the Musone 
and the Aspio ; pop. about 6,500. Near it the 
Italians under Gen. Cialdini defeated the papal 
troops under Lamoriciere, Sept. 18, 1860. 

CASTEL-FRANCO, a town of Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Treviso, 23 m. N. W. of Venice ; pop. 
about 5,000. Here the French, on Nov. 23, 
1805, gained a victory over the Austrians. 

CASTELLAMARE, or Castel a Mare. I. A seaport 
of S. Italy, in the province and 17 m. S. E. of 
Naples, with which it is connected by railway ; 
pop. in 1872, 26,381. It is situated on the 
lower slopes of the Monte d'Auro, along a 
sheltered beach, and commands an extensive 
view of the bay of Naples from Vesuvius to 
Miseno. It is defended by two forts, and con- 
tains a royal palace, a cathedral, five church- 
es, several convents, manufactories of linen, 
silk, and cotton cloth, 12 thermal and mineral 
springs, and a national dockyard. It has ac- 
quired celebrity also as a summer resort, in 
consequence of the salubrity of its air and the 
beauty of its environs. It is built near the 
eite of the ancient Stabise, which, having been 
destroyed by Sulla during the civil wars, was 
afterward occupied principally by villas and 
pleasure grounds. It was here that the elder 
Pliny, wishing to approach as near as possible 



CASTELLANETA 



CASTELNAUDARY 



69 



to Vesuvius during the eruption which over- 
whelmed Herculaneum and Pompeii, met his 
death, A. D. 79. II. A seaport of Sicily, in the 
province of Trapani, 4 m. N. W. of Alcamo; 




Castellamare dl Stabia. 

pop. about 9,000. The bay is spacious, but not 
safe during northerly winds. It exports wine, 
fruit, grain, manna, and opium. 

CASTELLANETA, a town of S. Italy, in the 
province of Lecce, 18 m. N. "W. of Taranto ; 
pop. about 6,500. It is the seat of a bishop. 

CASTELLI, Ignaz Friedrich, a German drama- 
tist, born in Vienna, May 6, 1781, died near 
Lilienfeld, Feb. 5, 1862. He was educated -for 
the law, but devoted himself to composing pa- 
triotic songs for the Austrian army, and pre- 
paring pieces for the stage. His songs having 
given umbrage to Napoleon, he fled to Hun- 
gary. In 1814 he accompanied Count Cav- 
riani as secretary to Paris, and afterward he 
served in the same capacity in Italy. In 1840 
he retired with a pension and the office of 
state librarian. He was the author of many 
poems, popular songs, and miscellaneous wri- 
tings, and was at various times connected with 
the press of Vienna, but is best known by his 
productions for the stage. More than 100 
plays, partly adapted from the French, partly 
original, are attributed to him. In 1848, 100,- 
000 copies of his political pamphlets in favor 
of the revolution were sold. His autobiogra- 
phy was published in 1861-'2, in 3 vols. 

CASTELLON DE LA PLAJfA. I. An E. prov- 
ince of Spain, bordering on the Mediterranean, 
forming part of the ancient kingdom of Valen- 
cia; area, 2,446 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867 (esti- 
mated), 288,921. It is very mountainous, and 
is watered by several small rivers, the most 
important of which are the Mijares and Palen- 
cia. It is well cultivated, produces grain, and 
has many mines and mineral springs. The 
chief towns, besides the capital, are Benicarlo, 
Villareal, and Burriana. II. A city, capital 
of the province, situated in a fertile region, 
4 m. from the sea, and 38 m. N. by E. of Va- 



lencia; pop. about 20,000. It has linen and 
sail-cloth factories, and carries on considera- 
ble trade in hemp. The former diocese of 
Oastellon de la Plana is now united with Se- 
gorbe. An aqueduct, cut in great part through 
the limestone rock, brings the water from the 
Mijares, which is about 5 m. distant, into the 
plain in which the town is situated. 

CASTELNAU, Michel de, sieur de la MauvissieTe, 
a French soldier and diplomatist, born at Mau- 
vissiere about 1520, died at Joinville in 1592. 
He entered the army in 1547, and won the favor 
of Francis of Lorraine, grand prior of France, 
under whom he afterward served in the navy, 
and who on becoming lieutenant general of the 
kingdom (1557) employed him in diplomatic 
missions to Scotland, England, Germany, the 
Netherlands, Savoy, and Eome. He negotiated 
a treaty with Queen Elizabeth, and dissuaded 
her from insisting on the restoration of Calais. 
In 1560, after the death of Francis II., he ac- 
companied Queen Mary to Scotland, and for a 
year rendered her efficient service in the field 
and in council. He distinguished himself in the 
civil war, negotiated a favorable treaty of peace 
with England, and was made governor of St. 
Dizisr. He was again employed in various mis- 
sions, was ambassador to England from 1574 
to 1584, and on his return declared against 
the league. Henry IV. upon his accession 
treated him with great favor. His memoirs, 
written in England, extend over the period 
from 1559 to 1570, and are a valuable record 
of the events of the time. They were publish- 
ed in 1621, and are to be found in Petitot's 
Memoires relatifs d Vhistoire de France. He 
translated the Latin work of Ramus on the 
ancient Gauls. His life, by Le Laboureur, was 
published in Paris in 1659. 

CASTELNAPDARY, a town of France, in the 
department of Aude, on the canal of Languedoc, 
30 m. S. E. of Toulouse; pop. in 1866, 9,075. 
The reservoir of St. Ferriol forms a harbor, 
and an active trade is carried on in cereals, 
wine, fruit, cloth, linen, silk, cotton yarn, 
leather, and other articles. According to 
some authorities, the ancient Sostomagus was 
situated near Castelnaudary, the modern name 
being a corruption of Castrum Novum Aria- 
norum, as the new town was called after the 
old one had been destroyed in the 5th century. 
It became the fortified capital of the county 
of Lauragais, ruled by the counts of Toulouse. 
It suffered severely during the crusade against 
the Albigenses, and in 1211 was the scene of a 
battle between Raymond of Toulouse and Simon 
de Montfort, the former of whom destroyed 
the fortifications in 1229. In 1237 an auto da 
fe was enacted here, in which many persons 
accused of heresy were put to death. It was 
burned in 1355 by Edward the Black Prince, 
but was rebuilt in 1366. In September, 1632, 
the duke of Montmorency, commanding the 
forces of Gaston of Orleans, was defeated here 
by the royal force under Marshal Schomberg, 
wounded, taken prisoner,, and executed. 



70 



CASTELSARRASIN 



CASTILE 



CASTELSARRASIN, a town of France, in the 
department of Tarn-et-Garonne, 35 m. N. W. 
of Toulouse ; pop. in 1866, 6,838. It has facto- 
ries of hats, woollen goods, linen, and hosiery, 
and a large oil and saffron trade. 

CASTEL-VETRANO, a town of Sicily, in the 
province of Trapani, situated on a hill 6. m. 
from the sea, 45 m. S. W. of Palermo ; pop. in 
1872, 20,420. The town is well built, and has 
a considerable trade in wine and olives. 

CASTI, Giovanni Battista, an Italian poet, born 
at Prato, Tuscany, in 1721, died in Paris, Feb. 
6, 1803. He was for some time professor in 
the seminary of Montefiascone, and afterward 
obtained a canonry in the cathedral there. 
Having gained the favor of Joseph II. of Aus- 
tria, he spent several years as unpaid attach.6 
to foreign embassies, and at the death of Me- 
tastasio in 1782 he received the appointment of 
poet laureate at the court of Vienna ; but he 
relinquished this office after the death of the 
emperor Joseph, and spent the last years of 
his life in Paris. In early life he had written 
18 poetical tales, and afterward added 30 more, 
making altogether 48, published in Paris in 
1804, under the title of Novelle galanti, all 
loose. His fame depends on a political satiri- 
cal poem, Gli animali parlanti (Paris, 1802). 
It has been translated into French and Span- 
ish, and there is an abridged English version. 
He also produced several burlesque operas. 

(Kl I (.MOM:. I. A village of Italy, near the 
lake of Gabii, 10 m. E. of Rome. It occupies 
the site of the ancient city of Gabii, and is 
rich in remains of antiquity. Old walls, por- 
tions of a temple of Juno, a Grecian theatre, 
and an aqueduct are among its most interest- 
ing ruins. II. A village of Italy, on the Sti- 
viere, near the Lago di Garda, 16m. S. E. of 
Brescia. The vanguard of the Austrian army 
under Wurmser was defeated here, Aug. 3, 1796, 
by the French under Augereau, and the main 
body two days later by Gen. Bonaparte. The 
battle of Solferino, June 24, 1859, was fought 
almost on the same ground. 

CASTIGLIONE, Baldassart, an Italian states- 
man and author, born at Casatico, near Man- 
tua, Dec. 6, 1478, died at Toledo, Spain, Feb. 
2, 1529. His career commenced in the military 
service of the duke of Milan, but he is better 
known as a diplomatist, in which capacity he 
was intrusted by the dukes of Urbino with im- 
portant missions to Henry VII. of England, Louis 
XII. of France, and Pope Leo X. He became a 
favorite of this pontiff, and was regarded as 
one of the ornaments of his court. Clement 
VII. subsequently sent him as nuncio to Ma- 
drid, but shortly after his arrival Rome was 
sacked by the imperialists under the constable 
de Bourbon. It was not possible for Casti- 
glione to have foreseen or prevented this catas- 
trophe, but the reproaches of those who in- 
sinuated that he had been neglectful of the 
interests of his country preyed upon his mind 
and hastened his end. He was universally la- 
mented, and the emperor Charles V., in an- 



nouncing his death, exclaimed, " One of the 
truest gentlemen in Christendom is dead." Cas- 
tiglione was not a voluminous writer, but hi& 
published works are models of composition. 
His work on court life, entitled II libro del cor- 
tegiano, was first printed by Aldus in 1528, 
and a version was published in London in 1727. 
He also published Italian and Latin poems and 
two volumes of letters. 

CASTIGLJONE, Carlo Ottavio, count, an Italian 
philologist and antiquary, born in Milan in 
1784, died in Genoa, April 10, 1849. In 1819 
he published a description of the Cufic coina 
in the cabinet of Brera at Milan. His prin- 
cipal work in oriental literature, Memoire 
geographique et numismatique sur la partie 
orientate de la Barbarie appellee Afrikiapar les 
Arabes (Milan, 1826), is an effort to ascertain 
the origin and history of the towns in Barbary 
whose names appear on Arabic coins. In con- 
junction with Angelo Mai, he published an 
edition of Ulphilas's Gothic translation of St. 
Paul's Epistles, which Mai had discovered 
among the palimpsests of the Ambrosian libra- 
ry. Most of the dissertations which enrich 
the work, the publication of which extended 
through 20 years, were written by Castiglione. 

CASTIGLIONE, Giovanni Benedetto, called li. 
GREOHKTTO, a Genoese painter and engraver, 
born in Genoa in 1616, died in Mantua in 1670. 
He was a pupil of Paggi and of Ferrari, and 
according to some of Vandyke, and gained a 
high reputation as a historical, landscape, and 
portrait painter, and also as an engraver. Hi 
specialty, however, was animal painting. Many 
of his pictures are in the museum at Florence, 
and in the Louvre at Paris ; and some have 
found their way to Venice, Milan, Munich, and 
Dresden. 

CASTIGLIONE, Giuseppe, an Italian artist and 
missionary, born in 1698, died in Peking in 1768. 
He was thoroughly instructed in the art of paint- 
ing, but joining the order of the Jesuits, Peking 
was assigned as the field of his labors, and there 
he passed the greater part of his life, in favor 
with several successive emperors. He made his 
art an accessory to his religious labors, and the 
emperor Kien-Long erected several palaces 
from designs furnished by him. He is said to 
have frequently exerted his influence to protect 
Christians from persecution. 

CASTILE (Span. Castillo,, so called from the 
number of its castles). I. An ancient kingdom 
of Spain, situated in the centre of the peninsu- 
la, and the source and chief seat of the Span- 
ish nation. It is divided into Old and New 
Castile. Old Castile was the northern part, 
which first shook off the yoke of the Moorish 
conquerors, while New Castile was so called 
because it was a later acquisition. The Castiles 
occupy a large portion of the great central 
plateau, and their area of 45,000 square miles 
is about one fourth of that of all Spain. The 
people, about 3,000,000 in number, are a fine 
race, the heart of the Spanish nation as they are 
proverbially called proud, manly, brave, and 



CASTILE 



CASTILLO 



71 



self-respecting. Castile was perhaps never en- 
tirely subjugated by the Moors, and became 
fully independent after the middle of the 8th 
century, being ruled by counts. It was erected 
into a kingdom in 1033, when Ferdinand, son 
of Sancho III., king of Navarre, was made 
king. Upon the death of Bermudo III., king 
of Leon, in 1037, that kingdom was united 
to Castile. The two crowns of Castile and 
Leon were afterward separated and again 
united several times, until in 1479, Ferdinand 
II. of Aragon having married Isabella, queen, 
of Castile and Leon, the three kingdoms were 
united into one. (See SPAIN.) II. Old, the 
northern division of Castile, bounded N. by 
the bay of Biscay and the Basque provinces, E. 
by Navarre and Aragon, S. by New Castile, 
and W. by Leon and Asturias ; area, 25,409 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1867, 1,716,193. It is of very 
irregular shape, stretching from S. W. to N. E. 
In the north the Cantabrian range of moun- 
tains runs across the province. On the south 
it is divided from New Castile by the Sierra 
de Guadarrama, the Somosierra, and a con- 
tinuing chain, which under different names 
forms also the E. boundary. The rivers are the 
Duero (Douro) in its upper course, its affluent 
the Pisuerga in the centre, and the Ebro on 
the north. There are numerous minor streams : 
the Riaza, Cega, Piron, Eresma, and Adaja, 
tributaries of the Duero; the Oca, Tiron, and 
Oja, affluents of the Ebro. These are torrents 
after rains, but in summer many of them are 
insignificant. The climate is dry and hot in 
the summer, dry and cold in the winter. The 
plains are almost deserts, whose vegetation 
affords but a scanty pasturage, and disappears 
entirely under the summer sun. On the sea- 
coast, and in the mountains, valleys, and hill 
slopes, nature is much less sterile. Old Castile 
includes the provinces of Avila, Burgos, Lo- 
grofio, Palencia, Santander, Segovia, Soria, and 
Valladolid. The general occupation of the peo- 
ple in the interior is agriculture and grazing. 
In the towns some inferior manufactures, chiefly 
of coarse woollens, cotton, linen, leather, and 
glass, are carried on. Sheep and cattle are 
reared in large numbers and exported. Wheat 
and corn are also exported, and wines and 
fruits are produced in abundance. III. New, 
the southern division, bounded N. W. and N. 
by Old Castile, E. by Aragon and Valencia, 
S. by La Mancha, and W. by Estremadura; 
area, 20,178 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 1,289,415. 
It is divided into the provinces of Madrid, 
Toledo, Guadalajara, and Cuenca. The princi- 
pal rivers are the Tagus and its tributaries, 
the Tajufla, Henares, Jarama, Guadarrama, 
and Guadiela, and the Jucar, which falls into 
the Mediterranean, and its tributaries, the 
Guadazaon and Gabriel. The climate is the 
same as that of Old Castle. Large crops of 
wheat are raised, and the mountain slopes 
afford abundant pasturage. The vine is cul- 
tivated, and olives and oil, saffron, honey, and 
hemp are produced in considerable quantities. 



Woollens, paper, linen, cotton, and silk are 
manufactured. 

CASTILLA, Don Ramon, a Peruvian general, 
born at Tarapaca, Aug. 30, 1797, died May 25, 
1867. He entered the Spanish army in 1816, 
and was made lieutenant in 1820. Soon after- 
ward he joined the army of independence, and 
was made lieutenant colonel. In 1830 he went 
to Lima, and was appointed by Gamarra chief 
of staff of the whole army. He was made 
brigadier general by Orbegoso, the provisional 
president, whom he supported until the treaty 
with Santa Cruz, the president of Bolivia. 
He then fled to Chili, and in 1837 joined the 
army of the Peruvian patriots who marched 
against Santa Cruz. Castilla was second leader 
of the vanguard at the attack upon Lima and 
defeat of Orbegoso, and made common cause 
with Gamarra, who was proclaimed president 
by the patriots, while Castilla was appointed 
minister of war. In 1841 he was second in 
command of the Peruvian army which invaded 
Bolivia. In 1844 he overthrew the dictator 
Vivanco, and in the following year he was 
elected president of Peru. At the expiration 
of his term of office in 1851 he was succeeded 
by Gen. Echenique. Soon after, the adminis- 
tration of the latter having become unpopular, 
Castilla began a revolution at Arequipa, over- 
came Echenique, and entered Lima in 1865 as 
supreme ruler of the country. In this capacity 
he made many reforms, the most important of 
which was the abolition of slavery. He was 
reflected president in 1858, and two years 
afterward proclaimed a new constitution, which 
established universal suffrage and prohibited 
the exercise of every form of religion except 
the Catholic. In 1861 he made an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to annex Bolivia to Peru. In 1862 
he was succeeded as president by Gen. San 
Ramon, and he in 1863 by Pezet. Castilla, 
having assumed a hostile attitude toward the 
latter, was arrested in 1865, but soon gained 
his liberty, and joined the movement under 
Prado. In 1867 he headed an insurrection 
against Prado, and was on his way to Arica 
when he died. 

CASTILLEJO, Crlstoval de, a Spanish poet, born 
at Ciudad Rodrigo toward the close of the 15th 
century, died in Vienna probably in 1556. At- 
tached from the age of 15 to Ferdinand, the 
younger brother of Charles V., and afterward 
emperor of Germany, he subsequently officiated 
as secretary to that prince. He was a zealous 
champion of the old Spanish poets, and a decided 
opponent of the new Italian school. One of 
his most fanciful and characteristic poems is 
entitled " Transformation of a Drunkard into a 
Mosquito." His poetry, though circulated in 
manuscript, was forbidden by the inquisition, 
but a selection was permitted to be printed in 
1573. His works were published in Antwerp in 
1598, in Madrid in 1600, and reprinted in Fer- 
nandez's " Collection of Spanish Poets," 1792. 

CASTILLO, Diego Enriqnez de, a Spanish chron- 
icler of the 15th century, born at Segovia. Hit* 



72 



CASTINE 



CASTING 



annals of the reign of Henry IV. f>f Oastile, 
from 1454 to 1474, were published by Jose 
Miguel de Flores (Madrid, 1787). He also 
composed a poem relating to the death of Al- 
fonso V. of Aragon, published by Oclioa (Paris, 
1844), in the same volume with the inedited 
poems of the marquis of Santillana. Castillo is 
said to have fallen into the hands of Henry's 
younger brother Alfonso, the pretender to the 
throne, after the battle of Olmedo ; but little is 
known about his career, except that he was 
employed in important missions. 

( AS'i'l.N K, a town and port of entry of Han- 
cock co., Maine, on the E. bank of the Penob- 
scot, .34 m. below Bangor; pop. in 1870, 1,303. 
It derives its name from the baron de Castine, 
a French nobleman, by whom it was settled in 
1667, in company with a French colony, who 
afterward abandoned it in consequence of bor- 
der wars with the Indians and English colo- 
nists. In 1760 it was settled by the English. 
It is situated on a peninsula, enclosing a spa- 
cious harbor always accessible to vessels of the 
largest class. Its inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in ship building and fishing. For the 
year ending June 30, 1871, there were belong- 
ing to the port 347 vessels, of 23,997 tons; em- 
ployed in the cod and mackerel fishery 148, of 
6,100 tons; built 15, of 1,561 tons. It has a 
state normal school and three churches. 

CASTING, the forming of metals and other 
substances by pouring them in a melted or 
liquid state into moulds, and allowing them to 
solidify by setting or cooling. The term when 
applied to the casting of metals is used synony- 
mously with founding, and the place where the 
work is done is called a foundery. The origin 
of the casting of metals cannot be traced; it 
was performed in the earliest times, and from 
the vestiges discovered seems to have been 
at first confined to ornamental articles, such 
as statues, medals, and parts of household fur- 
niture. The metal chiefly used by the ancients 
was bronze, and it is an interesting fact that 
their alloy contained about the same propor- 
tions of tin and copper as that which is used at 
the present time. Most of the bronze castings 
which have been discovered in excavations at 
Nineveh have been found, when analyzed, to 
contain about 10 per cent, of tin, the propor- 
tion now in use for the best quality of statuary 
bronze. Bronze castings have been found in 
Egypt which are thought to be 4,000 years 
old. A cylinder with the name of Pepi, of the 
sixth dynasty, and other bronze implements 
of the same age, all of which date more than 
2,000 years before the Christian era, bear evi- 
dence of having been cast in moulds. It is re- 
lated in the book of Deuteronomy that Og, 
king of Bashan, had a bedstead of iron, but 
whether wrought or cast is unknown. The 
earliest method of working iron was probably 
like that still in use in India and some other 
countries. The broken ore was mixed with 
charcoal and subjected by heat to deoxidation. 
The semi-plastic mass resulting from this treat- 



ment was then hammered into a bloom, and 
this reheated and hammered until malleable 
iron was produced. It is probable that the 
metal was a long time used in this way before 
the melting and casting of it was practised. 
The account given of the molten calf which 
Aaron caused to be made of the ornaments 
brought to him, shows that the art of casting 
was brought by the Israelites from Egypt. 
From the description given of the articles made 
for Solomon's temple by the Tyrian master 
Hiram (1 Kings, vii.) there can be no doubt 
that many of them were cast: "For he cast 
(formed) two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits 
high apiece." "And he made two chapiters 
of molten brass, to set upon the tops of the 
pillars." "In the plain of Jordan did the 
king cast them, in the clay ground between 
Succoth and Zarthan." There is here not 
only evidence of the casting of bronze (for that 
is what is meant by " brass "), but also of the 
material used in making the moulds, which 
was the same as that used at the present day, 
namely, loam, and which composes the soil at 
the place where Hiram built his furnace. The 
bronze castings of the Assyrians were remark- 
ably good, particularly those of animals, as ia 
shown by the figure of a lion found by M. 




FIG. 1. Bronze Lion from Nineveh. 

Botta in the excavations in the palace of Khor- 
sabad. This little statue is thought to have 
been cast in a single piece. That it is a work 
of Assyrian art is shown by the cuneiform 
characters that were found upon it. How 
long before the fall of Nineveh it was cast can- 
not be told, but it is probable that some of the 
bronzes found there are older than the temple 
of Solomon. In Babylon bronze statuettes 
have been found. We are told by Herodotus 
that both the town and palace gates were of 
this material ; and it would seem from the ac- 
counts of Diodorus Siculus that they were so 
massive that they were not opened in the or- 
dinary manner, but by a machine. Rawlinson 
assumes that they were cast. Fine works of 
Grecian art were made in embossed bronze as 
early as the 7th century B. C., but, according 
to historians, it was not till that or the follow- 
ing century that Rhoecus and Theodorus intro- 
duced bronze castings into Greece, and they 



CASTING 



73 






are sometimes spoken of as the inventors of 
this art. It is difficult to believe that it was 
not introduced there at an earlier period, when 
it is certain that it was practised at Tyre, dis- 
tant but a few hundred miles by water, 400 years 
previously. However that may be, from the 
time of Theodorus it was carried to greater and 
greater perfection, until the time of Lysippus 
and Praxiteles, when bronze was moulded into 
forms of transcendent beauty. It is not unjust 
to assume that the world owes as much of its 
knowledge of casting metals to the old Greek 
sculptors as to any other source. The new 
art introduced by Rhoecus and Theodorus 
was transmitted to Crete, where two artists, 
Dipoenes and Scyllis, were distinguished as 
sculptors in bronze as well as marble. They 
carried the art to Sparta, which afterward 
produced many artists of her own, among 
whom was Gitiadas, also celebrated as an archi- 
tect, and who is said to have built the temple 
of Minerva Chalcicecus at Sparta, and cast a 
bronze statue of the goddess. The colossal 
statue of Apollo at Rhodes, made by the sculp- 
tor Chares, a pupil of Lysippus, who flourished 
about 290 B. 0., may be mentioned as an ex- 
ample of the magnitude to which the ancient 
Greeks were able to carry their works. This 
bronze statue was more than 105 ft. high, and, 
like modern statues, must have been cast in 
several pieces, which were afterward fastened 
together. The fragments into which it fell 
when destroyed by an earthquake 66 years 
after its erection lay on the ground 923 years, 
when they were sold by the Saracens to a Jew 
of Emesa, who loaded 900 camels with them. 
A fine example of bronze casting in the spirit 
of Lysippus is the beautiful statue of Mercury 
discovered at Herculaneum, and now in the 




FIG. 2. Bronze Statue of Mercury. 

museum at Naples. Whether it was cast in 
Italy or brought from Greece is uncertain. 
Church bells are said to have been introduced 
by Paulinus, bishop of Nola in Campania, 



about the year 400. They were probably in- 
troduced into England about the close of the 
7th century. The great bell at Peking, cast in 
the feign of Yung-loh in the beginning of the 
15th century, occupies a noteworthy place in 
the history of casting. It is 14J ft. hi height 
and 13 in diameter, and is estimated to weigh 
about 112,000 Ibs. It is covered both within 
and without with perfectly formed Chinese 
characters, embracing 87 sections of the sacred 
books of one of the religious orders. The 
greatest feat, however, that was ever performed 
in bell founding was the casting of the great 
bell of Moscow, which occurred in 1733 in the 
reign of the empress Anna. It is 19 ft. 3 in. 
in height and 60 ft. 9 in. in circumference, and 
weighs 443,772 Ibs. The appliances for melt- 
ing this great mass of over 200 tons of bronze 
metal must have been stupendous, and have 
required technical knowledge of no mean order. 
The process of casting varies with the kind 
of article to be produced and the material of 
which it is made. Iii casting a statue or a bust 
of plaster of Paris, where perfection of exte- 
rior form is alone sought, it is only necessary to 
pour an indefinite quantity of the fluid mixture 
of plaster and water into a hollow mould and 
take an impression of its internal surface. In 
casting a medallion or cameo it suffices to pour 
the liquid material over a one-sided? open 
mould to such a depth as may be required. 
But in the casting of statues in bronze, or in 
the casting of bells, of stoves, of cylinders, and 
of pieces of machinery, and all other articles 
that are required to have a definite thickness 
and weight, it is necessary that the moulds 
shall have two or more walls. The casting of 
statuary in plaster of Paris and in bronze will 
be treated of at the end of this article. Cast- 
ing or founding may be divided into : 1, prepar- 
ing a mould of the figure to be cast, which 
process usually includes the making of a pat- 
tern of such figure ; 2, the melting and reducing 
to the proper degree of fluidity of the metal ; 
and 3, the introduction of the molten metal 
into the cavity of the mould, and whatever 
manipulation may be necessary during the so- 
lidification and cooling. The mould may be 
made of metal, of stone, of plaster of Paris, 
of clay, of loam, or of sand. A metal mould 
may be formed either by excavating it with 
tools worked in a lathe or by the hand, or it 
may be cast in a similar manner to the article 
of which it is to form the mould. Small arti- 
cles of the more fusible metals, and of simple 
form, are usually cast in metal moulds which 
are composed of two or more parts held to- 
gether by hinges or pins. In using a metal 
mould, the molten metal, after being poured 
into it, may be allowed to solidify while cool- 
ing by the molecular attraction of its particles 
alone, or it may be so constructed that its con- 
tents are subjected to pressure during solidifi- 
cation. Bullets and small shot and printing 
types are examples of casting in metal moulds. 
Ingots of brass are examples of casting in stone 



CASTING 



moulds, which are usually of granite. Easily 
fusible metals are sometimes cast in moulds of 
plaster of Paris, which possesses some advan- 
tages as a mould material in consequence of the 
ease with which it may be given various forms, 
and their great permanency under favorable 
circumstances. Those metals, however, which 
have high melting points cannot conveniently 
be cast in plaster moulds, because this substance 
readily crumbles when subjected to a heat 
above 400 F. Before describing the casting 
of metals in sand and* loam moulds, a brief de- 
scription of the establishment where the work 
is performed is desirable. A well appointed 
foundery, in addition to the room required for 
the actual work of moulding and casting, 
should have rooms for storing and preparing 



the materials of the moulds, such as grinding 
and sifting the sand, loam, sea coal, coke, 
plumbago, or charcoal. There should also be 
a workshop for making the patterns which are 
to be used in the formation of the moulds. 
The moulding room embraces an area of great- 
er or less extent, but even in moderate estab- 
lishments it is necessarily of considerable size. 
Where heavy articles are founded there are 
huge cranes for lifting and moving moulds and 
castings from one place to another. The floors 
of such founderies are also covered or rather 
filled with moulding sand to a considerable 
depth, varying from 5 to 10 ft. Fig. 3 repre- 
sents the interior of a foundery for heavy cast- 
ings. In one part of the room, usually at one 
side, and sometimes adjoining another room 




FIG. 8. Interior of Iron Foundery. a, a. Cupola furnaces. 6, 6. Tuyeres, c. Crane, d. Ovens for baking moulds. . Cope 
of a greensand mould, made in the floor bed. /./. Temporary furnaces for forcing heat through the pipes g, g into a large 
mould, A. Mould of a steam cylinder, placed In a pit and in process of completion. 



for making light castings, stands the furnace 
for melting the metal. This may be an air 
furnace, or that form of a blast furnace known 
as the cupola, which is most in use at the pres- 
ent time. Anthracite coal is used for fuel to a 
great extent in this country, but coke is better, 
and wood charcoal the best, on account of con- 
taining no sulphur. Unlike the air furnace, 
which depends upon the ascending column of 
air in the chimney for its draught, it is fed by 
a current of air forced in at the bottom through 
tubes called tuyeres by^a blowing machine. 
The cupola is usually made of boiler iron in the 
form of a cylinder or cylindroid, lined with 
fire brick. It is from 10 to 16 ft. in height and 
from 3 to 6 ft. in diameter inside, and capable 
of melting from 5 to 15 tons of metal per hour. 
The chimney may be of brick, or of boiler iron 
lined with fire brick, which is more common. 
A cupola is often spoken of as holding a charge 
of so many tons of metal ; but as only a limited 



quantity of molten metal can be contained in 
it at one time, because it must be confined to 
the space below the tuyeres, its capacity is 
more correctly measured by the amount of 
metal it will melt in a given time. For a fuller 
description of its construction, see FURNACE. 
A sufficient explanation will be found in fig. 
4 to enable the reader to understand the ma- 
nipulations connected with the process of cast- 
ing. The tuyeres, a, a, are seen to enter the 
cupola from 10 to 16 inches above its floor. 
The space just above the tuyeres has the shape 
of an inverted cone, which has the effect to 
hold the contents in such a relation to the 
blast as is best calculated to make it the most 
effectual. The floor of the cupola, ft, when in 
use is composed of sand 6 or 8 inches in depth, 
lying upon the bottom plate c, which rests 
upon supports, and may be dumped by their 
removal. Some cupolas are chambered at the 
lower section, the blast entering through a row 



CASTING 



75 




FIG. 4. Perpendicular Section of Cupola. 

of holes in the inner wall. In the npper part of 
the back of the cupola is the door for receiving 
the charges. Fig. 5 shows the exterior of the 
lower part of a cupola. A cupola is charged by 
placing a sufficient quantity of kindling wood 
upon the floor, and above this a layer of the best 
anthracite coal in large lumps, and in sufficient 
quantity to fill the cupola to the height of 




FIG. 5. Lower Part of Cupola, a, a. Tuyeres. 6, b. Small 
isinglass windows for showing the state of combustion and 
position of the layer of coal. o. Pot for receiving the melt- 
ed metal, d, d. Columns of support. (The smaller up- 
right rods support the movable floor, and stand in the pit 
below the cupola.) 

several inches above the entrance of the tuy- 
eres after it has well settled and the wood 
has burned away. This precaution must be 
carefully observed, because if the charge of 
iron above the coal should come down to a 
level with the entrance of the blast, combus- 



tion would be checked, the metal become 
chilled, the process stopped, and the dumping 
of the charge necessitated. Upon the layer of 
coal thus carefully deposited, one of* pig iron 
is placed, varying in quantity from 1,000 to 
5,000 Ibs., according to the size of the cupola 
and to the rapidity with which it is proposed 
to effect the melting; and upon this another 
layer of coal is deposited, and afterward suc- 
ceeding layers of iron and coal. Fluxes are 
added where occasion requires, according to 
the judgment of the founder, pounded marble 
or limestone being most frequently employed. 
The wood is usually ignited when the first 
layer of coal is deposited, and in from an hour 
to an hour and a half the furnace may be 
tapped. It usually requires about 1 Ib. of coal 
to melt 6 Ibs. of iron. There is a wide differ- 
ence in the processes of making heavy and light 
castings. A description of the latter, which is 
the simpler, will be given first. The first mat- 
ter to receive attention is the selection and 
proper treatment of the sand, which is the ma- 
terial used for making the moulds of light cast- 
ings ; and it is one of the utmost importance, for 
it is only by the use of sand possessing certain 
properties that the formation and retention of 
a smooth and well defined cavity can be pro- 
duced, having at the same time sufficient po- 
rosity to allow of the escape of air and 'gases 
which are generated during the pouring of the 
metal. If the sand is too dry, it will not ad- 
mit of the formation of a defined cavity within 
it. It must possess in a certain degree the na- 
ture of a plastic or adhesive substance. Pure 
sand cannot therefore be used for a mould, and 
the best material with which it can be mixed 
is clay, but not to an extent to form what 
might be called a loam. Enough moisture 
must also be present to produce a proper de- 
gree of adhesion, but the quantity must be 
as small as possible, for too much would pro- 
duce an amount of vapor wb/en the molten 
metal is poured in that would injure or destroy 
the mould, or cause the surface of the sand to 
adhere to it on i$s removal. A fine sand which 
is slightly loamy is therefore selected, and this 
is not found in every locality where common 
sand exists, but has often to be transported 
considerable distances. The moulding sand 
which is used in New York city is principally 
obtained in New Jersey, in the vicinity of Troy 
and Albany, and from some parts of Long 
Island ; but the cost of sand is not an item of 
much consequence after the first supply is ob- 
tained, as it is used over and over many times. 
That which is used in some parts of the mould 
is mixed with finely pulverized bituminous coal, 
coke, or plumbago, as the circumstances may 
demand; and these substances are frequently 
spread upon the surface of the mould, to effect 
various purposes, as will be explained further 
on. An apparatus called a flask contains the 
sand in which the mould is made. It is com- 
posed of three or more parts, a bottom board, 
a drag, a cope, and upon occasion one or more 



76 



CASTING 



cheeks. A wooden flask, containing^ one cheek 
and having the parts fastened to'gether by 
clamps, is represented in fig. 6. The drag as 
well as the cheeks is 

a rectangular frame 
made of plank, similar 
to the four sides of a 
box without top or 
bottom. The cope is 
similarly constructed, 
but having in addition 




FIG. 6. -Moulding Flask. 




pro. 7. Cop. 



one or more bars running across it, of variable 
depth, to suit the shape of the mould, and into 
which nails are driven to assist in holding the 
sand. in place. Fig. 7 represents the construc- 
tion of a wooden cope. 
Iron flasks have the 
same general con- 
struction, with the ad- 
dition of strong ears 
by which they may be 
lifted with a crane. It 
is upon the proper 
construction and management of the flask, and 
the nice and exact mixing and tempering of the 
moulding sand, that much of the success in cast- 
ing depends. Indeed, the founder regards his 
work as chiefly accomplished when the mould 
is fairly dressed and faced, and proper avenues 
have been provided for pouring and for the es- 
cape of air and gases, and the cope is read- 
justed to its place in such a manner that no 
part of the surface of the mould is disturbed. 
In making a flask mould, the moulder first lays 
upon the floor what is called a turn-over board, 
and upon this places the pattern. If this is of 
such a form that it will not lie firmly, or if it 
is liable to be bent or broken by packing of the 
sand upon it, it must be supported by a bed 
piece. Facing sand, which is prepared by 
mixing fine dry sand with the ground scrapings 
from the surface of previous castings, is then 
sifted over it, and the drag is laid upon the 
turn-over board. Sand is then thrown in, 
covering the pattern to a certain depth, and 
packed with the hand. More is then thrown 
in, perhaps enough to fill the drag, and then 
the moulder treads it down evenly with 
his feet, when, taking a rammer (see 
fig. 8), and using the end containing the 
pin, he proceeds to pack it firmly all 
round the sides of the drag. Then, 
using the butt end, he rams the sand 
firmly all over the mould. After the 
drag, and whatever checks may be 
used, are filled, the bottom board is 
placed over it and clamped or keyed 
to the turn-over board. The pattern 
is thus enclosed in a box, and lying 
_ upon its bottom, covered with sand. 
The drag is then turned ovr, bringing 
Rammer 1 *^ ie bottom board to the bottom, and 
the pattern to the top. The clamps 
are then removed and the turn-over board is 
taken off, leaving one side of the pattern un- 
covered. With a parting trowel (a small thin- 



bladed tool, similar in form to a bricklayer's 
trowel), a joint or parting is made by scraping 
away some of the sand from about the pattern, 
and especially to the furthest lateral lines, so 
that it may be drawn without injury to the 
mould. The surface of the sand is then smooth- 
ly dressed, and parting sand is sifted from a bag 
over its surface as well as that of the pattern, 
and the superfluous particles are blown away 
by a bellows. Pieces of wood, some cylindrical 
and some flat, are next placed upright on the 
surface, to form holes for pouring and for the 
escape of air, which is effected by their re- 
moval on the completion of the mould. The 
air holes are sometimes made with a pin, and 
are above the cavity; the pouring holes are 
usually at the sides, and connected by horizon- 
tal channels. Fine moulding sand is now sifted 
over to a sufficient depth to insure a smooth 
surface, and the cope is adjusted and clamped. 
(See fig. 9.) More 
sand is then thrown in 
between the bars and 
tucked under them 
with the hands and 
well packed upon the 
pattern. Still more 
sand is again added and well packed with the 
rammer, and this process is repeated until the 
proper depth is attained. The pieces for form- 
ing the holes are now taken out, the clamps 
are removed, and the cope is lifted off to one 
side, or, if furnished with hinges, may be 
turned back upon them in the manner of a 
trunk cover (fig. 10). The pattern is then 
carefully lifted out of its bed, and if any cor- 
ners or edges have been knocked off, or any 
other injury has been done, it is repaired with 
a trowel or some suitable tool. Pulverized 




FIG. 9. 




FIG. 10. Drag and Cope, opened. 

plumbago or charcoal is then dusted over the 
surface ; and if fine work is required, the pat- 
tern is replaced and carefully pressed down to 
give as much perfection to the impression as 
possible. This operation is technically called 
printing. The pattern is then gently tapped 
with the handle of a tool, to loosen it, and 
gently raised with the fingers or some appro- 
priate instrument, or by means of a screw in- 
serted into a hole previously prepared. Chan- 
nels are now cut in the surface leading from 
the points upon which the pieces for forming 
pouring holes stood to some part of the mould. 
The pieces still remaining in the cope are now 
removed and the holes are dressed. All par- 
ticles of loose sand are then blown from the 



CASTING 



77 




FIG. 11. Section of Mould. 



surfaces of both parts of the mould, and the 
cope is gently replaced and secured with keys 
or clamps. The relation of the parts as they 
now exist is represented in section in fig. 11. 
All that now remains 
to be done is to melt 
the metal and pour it 
into the mould ; a criti- 
cal operation, requir- 
ing much care, and not 
safely performed ex- 
cept by experienced moulders. The pouring 
is done from iron pots lined with clay, called 
ladles. They are of various forms and sizes, 
to suit the work to be done. Some have 
one handle, and are intended to be carried 
by one man. Others have the form repre- 
sented in fig. 5, but with longer handles, capa- 
ble of holding from 200 to 300 Ibs., and are 
carried by two or more men. When the 
moulds are ready the furnace is charged in the 
manner already described, and one of the large 
carrying pots is placed under the spout. The 
melting point of cast iron varies somewhat, 
owing to its freedom from other metals and 
the quantity of carbon which it contains. 
Hard, gray cast iron melts at about 2,900 F. 
Scotch pig melts at a lower temperature than 
many other kinds, because of its large quantity 
of carbon. The best American iron is harder, 
contains less carbon, and requires more heat to 
melt it. It is a common practice among foun- 
ders to melt different brands oif iron together 
to give the mixture desired characteristics 
which they do not possess separately. The 
practice varies at different establishments, each 
founder having his own favorite formulas. 
When a sufficient quantity of metal in the cu- 
pola has attained the proper degree of fluidity, 
the clay stopper or plug is removed by the 
workman whose special duty it is to attend to 
the filling of the pots, and the molten iron is 
caught in the vessels which are held under the 
spout. Two or three men usually pour into 
one mould at the same time, through different 
gateways or holes, by which means the streams 
of metal, having a shorter distance to run than 
if poured through one gate, have less risk of 
losing the proper degree of fluidity by cooling. 
It is a common practice in founderies to pour 
the metal in the afternoon. The smaller arti- 
cles are taken from the flasks the same evening, 
and the larger ones on the following morning. 
After the sand is rubbed from them they are 
carried to an adjoining apartment, where any 
roughnesses are chipped away by the chisel, 
and they are otherwise suitably finished. Hol- 
low articles are often cast in moulds composed 
of parts, some of which are of greensand and 
some of dry sand or loam. The casting of a 
hollow column is an example. The outer part 
of the mould is made in a flask of two parts 
with greensand, from a solid pattern of the 
column. A core somewhat longer than the 
mould, made of a mixture of sand and paste, 
baked dry, is then placed in the axis of the 



hollow mould, its extremities resting upon the 
sand beyond. The thickness of the walls of 
the column will of course be in inverse propor- 
tion to the size of the core. Small columns 
may be cast lying horizontally, but larger ones 



d 



FIG. 12. Mould for a Column. 

should be cast vertically, and, if of much height, 
in sections. If cast lying down, they are liable 
to warp and to be of inferior strength in conse- 
quence of the opposite sides wanting uniformity 
of molecular structure and density. The cast- 
ing of long, slender articles, such as ornamen- 
tal railings, is simplified by a method patent- 
ed by Mr. Jobson in England. He secures a 
finished brass or iron pattern to a plaster of 
Paris back or ramming block, upon which the 
mould is formed. When the model is removed 
the mould remains in the drag. A cop'e with 
a plane surface, or having a device correspond- 
ing to the other side of the pattern, and which 
has been formed from a reverse block, is then 
placed over the mould, and the necessary holes 
having been prepared, the metal is poured. 
Mr. James L. Jackson, of New York, has ta- 
ken out a patent for making patterns entirely 
of plaster of Paris and other plastic materials, 
thereby greatly reducing their cost. They are 
swept with a templet which may be made to 
move in either straight or curved lines. The 
labor and time of making the large and accu- 
rate castings for the fronts of buildings are by 
this process very greatly reduced. A bed piece 
or rest, of plaster, is first swept with a templet, 
and after the surface of this is properly pre- 
pared, another layer of plaster mixture is 
spread on, and this swept with a templet of 
corresponding form but of larger size. In 
moulding, the pattern lies upon the rest when 
the first side is rammed in the drag. When 
the pattern is long it is sawed into transverse 
sections to facilitate the handling. These may 
be adjusted together and will serve the pur- 
pose of a whole piece. Greensand moulding 
is often practised with only part of a flask, 
the cope, the sand bed of the floor taking the 
place of the drag. A bed is carefully pre- 
pared and levelled, the pattern imbedded in its 
surface, and the sand well rammed about it. 
The pattern is then carefully cleaned and the 
surface of the bed levelled and dressed, leaving 
a certain portion of the pattern projecting 
above the surface. Parting sand is then 
sprinkled over both pattern and bed, and a 
cope is laid down and rammed, it being prop- 



78 



CASTING 



erly secured from rising by weights. The 
cope is then lifted off by a crane, and while 
suspended its surface is dressed and properly 
prepared. The pattern is lifted out, and the 
mould in the bed repaired and dressed, when the 
cope is replaced, the holes for pouring and for 
the escape of air and gases having been provided 
for. Being then securely weighted, to prevent 
rising from pressure of metal and gases, it is 
ready for the pouring of the metal. In fig. 3 a 
greensand floor mould is represented at c. In 
the casting of metals, especially those having 
high melting points, there is always more or 
less production of gases, together with expan- 
sion of air; and if the operation were per- 
formed in a mould which was not porous, the 
bubbles would mar the surface of the casting 
as well as enter to a certain extent into its in- 
terior. It is therefore necessary that the mould 
should possess sufficient porosity to allow of 
the escape of aeriform matter. Moisture in 
a mould is only admissible in small castings 
which cool quickly. Used for large masses of 
molten iron, the amount of steam formed, to- 
gether with the expanding gas, would not only 
endanger the mould, but also the workmen. 
Dry moulds made of loam are consequently 
used in heavy castings, partly for the above 
reasons, and partly because sand could not be 
properly manipulated or retained in place in 
large and massive castings. The casting of 
large cylinders, bed plates, and condensers for 
steamships is a very intricate process, requir- 
ing good engineering abilities, skill in draught- 
ing, and experience in the designer as well as in 
those who execute the work. The moulds are 
usually worked from drawings instead of being 
formed upon patterns. A single piece of machin- 
ery is often complex in form, and as the art of 
the moulder consists in forming a hollow cavity 
where the carpenter or cabinetmaker would 
make a solid body, it must be seen that he has 
a much more difficult task before him ; for he 
has not only to form an inside structure simi- 
lar to the future cast, but an outside one of a 
reverse form as well; and these two forms 
must be perfectly related to each other. He 
has also to provide channels and gateways for 
the pouring of the metal, and they must be so 
arranged as to secure its perfect flowing to 
every part, and as nearly as possible its simul- 
taneous cooling. Allowance must also be made 
for shrinkage, and an almost infinite number 
of precautions, suited to particular exigencies 
as they arise, must be observed. The draught- 
ing requires great forethought and calculation, 
and the execution not only involves a perfect 
comprehension of the plan, but a constant 
vigilance in avoiding errors and causes of mis- 
carriage. A description of the moulding and 
casting of a complex piece of machinery would 
require a very great detail of explanation and 
numerous illustrations, and then could not be 
comprehended except by repeated visits to the 
foundery. The moulding and casting of a 
simple cylinder will therefore be taken. A 



loam mould, secured in a pit, and ready for 
casting, is represented in fig. 13. It is con- 
structed in the following manner. An iron 
foundation plate is laid upon the floor of the 




FIG. 18. Loam Mould, a. Hollow mould, surrounding the 
core, and surrounded by the cope. f>. Hollow Inside of 
core, o, c. Bolts holding cope together, d. Air tube for 
discharging air from core, e, . Air tubes. /, /. Pouring 
holes. 

foundery, and levelled. An iron ring, flat and 
of a breadth equal to the thickness of the walls 
of the core which is to be built upon it, and of 
a diameter equal to that of the inside of the 
future cylinder, is laid down, and the core is 
built upon it to the height desired. An appa- 
ratus for describing and sweeping the surface 
of the core is now erected, which is called a 
sweep, and consists of a spindle and templet, 
represented in fig. 14. An arm, a, supported 
by some portion of the building, holds the up- 
per end of the spindle ft, while the lower end 
turns in a hole in the 
centre of the founda- 
tion plate. A collar, 
c, which may be ad- 
justed at any required 
height, is provided 
with an arm, to which 
again the templet d is 
firmly held by means 
of a mortise, which 
slides over the arm, 
and may be set at any 
desired distance from 
the spindle. From the 
construction of the ma- 
chine it will be perceived that it may be used 
to describe either the inner or outer surface 
of a cylinder ; therefore it serves to give form 
both to the surface of the core and to the inner 
surface of the cope. After the sweep is placed 
in position the core is commenced by building 
up a cylinder of brickwork upon the circular 
plate, its dimensions being governed by the 
templet, which in sweeping about its axis 
should leave a small space between itself and 
the bricks to allow of finishing with loam. 
The bricks are laid up in loam, and the same 




FIG. 14. Sweeping the Core. 



CASTING 



79 



material is laid upon the surface until it has 
sufficient thickness to be scraped off by the 
templet, as shown in fig. 14. The top of the 
core may be swept and levelled by the arm, 
the templet being removed. If the cylinder is 
to be cast with a bottom, an iron plate is fitted 
to the upper end of the core, and a proper 




FIG. 15. Drying Ovens. 

thickness of loam laid upon it. This may be 
built upon the core,. or it may be done sepa- 
rately, and the parts put together after they 
are dried. When the core is finished it is lifted, 
by a crane by means of chains or rods at- 
tached to the circular plate upon which it rests, 
upon a car which passes on a track to one of 
the drying ovens represented in fig. 15. The 
templet is then placed at that distance from 
the spindle by which it will describe the inner 
cylindrical surface of the cope, which is built 
up with brickwork and loam in a similar man- 




Fio. 16. Sweeping the Cope. 

ner with that used for the core, except that for 
convenience it is usually built in two sections 
(see fig. 16). Iron rods are laid in the brick- 
work, passing from top to bottom, and securely 
160 VOL. iv. 6 



fastened to the bottom plate. A cap is then 
made by fitting an iron plate to the top, adding 
brick and loam, and securing it by the rods 
which pass through the walls from the bottom 
plate. When finished, all these parts are washed 
with a mixture of charcoal or plumbago dust 
and water, the mixture being sometimes applied 
two or three times. A strong cross piece of 
iron is then fastened to the top of the cope, 
hoisted by means of a crane upon the carriage, 
and taken to the oven. After both core and 
cope have been thoroughly dried, they are low- 
ered into a pit formed in the floor of the fur- 
nace. (See fig. 3, h.) Upon the bottom of this 
pit there is an iron foundation upon which the 
cope and the core both rest, and to which they 
are properly adjusted and secured. Care has 
been taken to provide the cope with the necessa- 
ry holes for pouring and for the discharge of air. 
Sand is then thrown into the pit about the 
sides of the mould, and well tamped down to 
prevent any spreading during the casting. The 
relation of the parts is represented in fig. 13. 
A powerful expansive force is applied to the 
interior of the mould when the hot metal is 
poured in, and the greatest precautions must 
be taken to have all the iron fastenings as well 
as the sand tampings strong enough to with- 
stand the pressure. Into the holes intended for 
the escape of air iron tubes are placed, of suffi- 
cient length to reach above a layer of loam which 
is now laid over the cope. Into the holes for 
pouring plugs are placed and the loam formed 
around them in cups, which are connected with 
channels through which the metal runs in pour- 
ing. In the figure a tube is seen leading a few 
inches downward from the lower part of the 
hollow of the core, then horizontally beyond 
the edge of the mould, and thence up to the 
surface of the foundery floor. This is for the 
purpose of carrying otf gaseous products from 
the core. In casting a cylinder without a bot- 
tom, it will only be necessary to have a tube 
extend directly upward to the surface. It will 
be noticed that the holes for pouring are placed 
immediately over the hollow mould, and not, 
as in casting statuary, connected with channels 
in the cope entering at the bottom of the 
mould. The securing of the mould for the 
cylinder of a large steamer is a matter which 
requires the greatest vigilance. The pit into 
which it is lowered must be dry, and is gen- 
erally built like a cistern and bricked and 
cemented on the sides and bottom ; and care 
must be taken to keep the mould dry till the 
casting is done. The cope must be well bolted 
to the bars that come through the sides from 
the bottom. A rim of iron plating may be placed 
around the part that projects above the ground, 
reaching high enough above the top of the cope 
to hold a layer of sand. A heavy iron cross is 
then raised over the mould and fastened with 
bolts, by which and also by its weight it aids 
in sustaining the strain at the time of casting. 
This is called packing. Fig. 17 represents the- 
packing of a mould for a large cylinder. To 



80 



CASTING 



furnish sufficient metal for the casting of a 
cylinder of 24 tons, two large cupola furnaces 
are required, capable of melting 10 or 12 tons 
of iron per hour. A reservoir which will con- 




FIG. 17. Packing the Mould of a Steam Cylinder. 

tain 8 tons of the molten metal is erected at 
the side of the mould, at such an elevation that 
the metal will flow with a moderate current 
into the channels on the top ; or two such res- 
ervoirs may be placed, one on either side, the 
rest of the metal being poured from kettles 
suspended by cranes. The reservoirs are tap- 
ped from a hole in the lower part, in the same 
manner as the cupola is tapped, but the kettles 
are turned by an apparatus of wheel work 
adjusted to the bail. Each kettle may contain 
from 4 to 6 tons of molten iron, and the ap- 
paratus for pouring them must be of the most 
substantial character; for if any part of it 
should break, severe accidents would be almost 
sure to follow. The melted metal in the reser- 
voirs and kettles is kept covered with lumps 
of charcoal, which are raked off when the 
pouring is made. In the casting of cylin- 
ders, the shrinkage of the iron in cooling must 
always be particularly taken into considera- 
tion. This is quite uniform, and is one inch 
in 8 ft., or -fa linear measure. The circum- 
ference of a cylinder, therefore, having a di- 
ameter of 8 ft., will shrink on cooling 3-14159 
inches ; and if it were cast over a perfectly in- 
compressible core, it would necessarily be rup- 
tured unless the core were removed before the 
shrinking began. Mr. Robert Cartwright has 
patented a process which has been used in 
casting the cylinders for the pneumatic piles 
for the great bridge over the Missouri river at 
Leavenworth, Kansas, with satisfactory results. 
It consists in making the core in sections and 
joining it together in such a way that it may 
be taken to pieces and removed immediately 
after the cast is made. It is designed especial- 
ly for cylinders open at both ends, but may be 
varied so as to be used when they are cast with 
.the bottom upward. Brass and bronze found- 
ing is very similar in its details to that of iron. 



The moulds for casting these alloys are made 
of the same material as for iron, although for 
the casting of fine articles of bronze a finer and 
more compact loam is used. The melting for 
large castings is usually done in a reverberatory 
furnace, charcoal being the best fuel. Cupolas 
are sometimes used, but at a great waste of the 
more oxidizable alloy. When the quantity is 
not large, black-lead crucibles are used, which 
are heated in a furnace placed beneath a plat- 
form raised one or two feet above the floor, 
for convenience of handling. The construction 
of a furnace for melting brass and bronze is 
shown in fig. 18, the first flue being repre- 
sented in section. The melting point of brass 
containing 33 per cent, of zinc is between 1,800 
and 1,900 F. That which contains more zinc 
melts at a lower, and that which contains less at 
a higher temperature. The copper is usually 
melted first and the zinc added. Bronze con- 
taining about 10 per cent, of tin requires heat- 
ing some 200 higher; but bell metal, contain- 
ing 22 per cent, of tin, melts at about the 
same temperature as ordinary brass. Anthra- 
cite coal is used for heating the crucibles, and 




Fig. 18. Furnace for Melting Brass. 

the surface of the alloy is covered with char- 
coal, which of course is consumed and adds to 
the heat, at the same time that it prevents oxi- 
dation. The pouring is performed in the same 
manner as for iron. The screw propellers for 
first-class steamships are made of bronze to 
enable them to resist the action of salt water. 
The moulds are of loam, and for small wheels 
are made upon patterns, but for large ones 
are swept and modelled with tools. Some- 
times the hub of the wheel is swept with a 
templet, while the wings are separately mould- 
ed on a pattern. This is the most convenient, 
and perhaps the most perfect method, as the 
precise curve can more readily be given to the 
surface of the wings. The alloy for propeller 
wheels contains 10 per cent, of tin. The cast- 
ing of bells is usually performed in the following 
manner: The mould of a small bell is made 
with a pattern, the process being very simple 



CASTING 



81 



when compared to that required for pieces of 
machinery. It may be made of moulding sand 
or of loam. If of the former, the pattern, which 
of the exact size and form of the future bell, 
laid, mouth downward, upon a turn-over 
sard, and dusted with coke dust or charcoal. 
. drag of sufficient depth is then placed upon 
:ie board and rammed full of sand. The bot- 
board is then clamped on, and the flask is 
irned over and a cope adjusted and rammed 
" of sand, the necessary holes being provided 
, The cope is then taken off, the pattern 
amoved, the mould properly dusted with part- 
ig sand, and the parts replaced and clamped 
together, when the piece is ready for casting. 
For large bells the method pursued is similar 
that for large cast-iron cylinders. A sweep 
constructed having a templet which may be 
to sweep the interior of the cope or the 
irface of the core. The core is built of brick 
and loam upon an iron plate, and swept in the 
same manner as the core of a cylinder, and the 
cope, made of brick and loam also, and bolted, 
which is to form the exterior of the bell, is 
swept like the cope of a cylinder. The surfaces 
are then washed with charcoal or plumbago 
mixture, and dried in the oven in the usual 
way. The parts are then sunk in a pit upon a 
bed plate, secured, and the pit well rammed 
with sand, pouring and vent holes having been 
provided. The top of the cope is covered with 
loam through which holes are made connect- 
ing with those in the cope, and channels are 
formed in it to receive the metal. The core 
must be so constructed that it will yield when 
the metal shrinks on cooling, which is the case 
with bronze as with cast iron. If rupture is 
not produced by rigidity of the core, the metal 
will have a strain of tension which will be 
likely to cause fracture when the bell is struck. 
It may be constructed with bands of straw 
wound around it, over which loam is spread 
before finishing with the templet. The Messrs. 
Meneely of West Troy, N. Y., use perforated 
cases (fig. 19), upon which the core as well 
as the cope is formed. 
The cone upon which 
the core is made be- 
fore being spread with 
loam is wound with 
ropes of straw, which 
yield sufficiently for 
the contraction of the 
bell. The outer case 
is spread with loam on 
the interior, the holes 
with which it is 
pierced allowing of 
the expulsion of ex- 
panding air and gases. 
For casting of heavy 
guns, see CANNON. 
Casting in the Fine 
Arts. Before treat- 
ing of the casting of 
statuary and other FIG. 19. Meneely's Cases. 




articles of sculpture in metals, it will be 
proper to describe the more simple methods 
of casting them in plaster of Paris. This 
substance possesses peculiar properties which 
give it a wide application in nearly all the 
arts. Gypsum, from which plaster of Paris 
is made by calcination, is a hydrated sul- 
phate of lime containing about 20 per cent, 
of water by weight. Where a large, but not 
necessarily definite quantity of this water is 
driven off by a gentle heat, the gypsum, after 
being ground and sifted, becomes the beau- 
tiful white article known as plaster of Paris. 
This substance possesses the property of re- 
combining with the same amount of water 
which the heat had driven off. When mixing 
it for use, however, a much larger quantity of 
water is used, sometimes twice or three times 
as much ; but for making strong moulds, as 
little is used as will answer to render the mix- 
ture fluid. A definite quantity of water enters 
into chemical combination, and the rest is held 
in the pores of the plaster when it sets, most 
of it afterward passing away by evaporation. 
A proper mixture of plaster and water pos- 
sesses the property of running into the minu- 
test parts of a mould, so that the finest lines 
may be copied with considerable approach to 
perfection. For this reason it is often used in 
electrotyping, for taking casts, upon which the 
metal is subsequently deposited by galvanic 
action ; and also for taking casts of leaves of 
plants, and other articles of a similar character. 
The mixture sets in 20 or 30 minutes after 
being stirred, depending upon the quality and 
quantity of the plaster used, and upon the pres- 
ence of other substances, such as lime, alum, 
or cream of tartar, which may have been added 
to it. The casting of models in bass relief is 
quite a simple process, and is performed in the 
following manner. The mould is made by 
simply laying the model, which is usually made 
upon a plate of glass or a slate, upon a table 
and pouring over it the mixture of plaster and 
water. If the model is in clay, it should be 
wet with water, and the slate slightly greased 
with lard oil. It is not necessary to build a bar- 
rier about the edge of the slate, for the mixture 
poured on with a cup or a large spoon, first over 
the object, soon becomes thick enough to allow of 
its being spread over the slate without running 
off. The mould may be made from one half 
to one and a half inch in thickness. In from 50 to 
70 minutes it will set firmly enough for removal, 
which may be done by carefully introducing 
the blade of a stout knife under its edge, and 
gently raising it with the assistance of the 
hand. If the model is not undercut, the mould 
may be used in one piece for casting several 
copies. If, however, projections are left, the 
mould must be broken away from the cast, or 
else it must be composed of more than one 
piece so that it may be drawn. When a mould 
is broken off it is called a waste mould, and 
when in parts it is called a piece mould. When 
a model is undercut it may be made flush by 



82 



CASTING 



adding clay. A whole mould may then be 
taken, and such portions as were added may 
be removed from the cast by appropriate tools, 
thus avoiding the use of a piece mould. When 
the mould is made in parts, it may be done by 
pouring the plaster over a portion, letting it 
set, removing it and paring the edge, which is 
slightly oiled or washed with a mixture of clay 
and water, replacing it, and adding one or 
more sections afterward. Another plan, which 
may be practised with great facility, is to make 
the mould in one piece and afterward saw it 
into sections with a very thin, fine saw. If a 
very fine impression is desired, the mould 
should be saturated with water, laid upon its 
back, and, if composed of more than one piece, 
held in place by supports. A mixture of plas- 
ter and water, carefully stirred together, is 
then turned into the mould and over the plane 
surface, to an extent sufficient to form a base 
to the cast, of any desired dimensions. If 
several copies are wanted, and there are no 
very fine lines to be preserved, the mould may 
be varnished with shellac and alcohol. Pre- 
vious to applying the varnish it may be painted 
with linseed oil, in which case it should first be 
dried ; but if oil is not used, the varnish may be 
applied to the green mould with more advan- 
tage than to allow it to dry. In removing the 
mould from the cast a good deal of care is re- 
quired, and successful manipulation is not at- 
tained without considerable experience. In 
making a cast of a clay model of a bust, two 
methods may be pursued. The entire model 
may be covered over with the plaster mix- 
ture, by throwing it on in a creamy state with 
a cup or spoon, and lastly by spreading it 
on with the hands, until the proper thickness 
is attained to give sufficient strength; and 




FIG. 20. Bust covered with Plaster Mould. 



then, after setting, the mould may be cut into 
sections with a very thin saw and care- 
fully removed. (Seq fig. 20.) The process 
more usually preferred is to apply the plaster 



in sections by the method of parting. A 
common way is to make only two sections, 
the smaller one embracing merely the crown 
of the head. This plan requires that the frame 
on which the bust was modelled shall be so 
constructed that it may be taken apart and re- 
moved by the hand, after the plaster is well 
set. After the mould has been carefully clean- 
ed with water and a soft brush, the parts are 
put together and bound by a strong cord or 
rope, and the seams stopped on the external 
surface with cream of plaster. After this is 
set the mould is saturated with water. The 
bust is then cast by turning into the cavity suc- 
cessive batches of cream of plaster, at the same 
time turning the mould about in such a man- 
ner as to cause the plaster to run into all the 
lines and furrows, and to be deposited in suffi- 
cient thickness all over the interior surface. In 
this way a hollow cast is made without the use 
of a core. After the plaster is well set, the 
bust may be placed upon a table and the mould 




FIG. 21. Machine for Casting a Bust. 

chipped off with a chisel and mallet. This is 
an operation which requires great care, and 
can only be done by an experienced hand, and 
by none so well as by the artist himself. The 
casting of a bust is rendered much easier by 
swinging the mould in a pair of strong, con- 
centric iron rings. (See fig. 21.) This device 
allows it to be turned with ease in any position, 
greatly facilitates the operation, and diminish- 
es the chances of making a defective cast. The 
plaster bust is used as a model by the marble 
cutter in reproducing the work of the artist. 
When several copies in plaster are desired, it is 
used as a model on which to form a piece 
mould, which may serve in producing an in- 
definite number of copies. A statue in plaster 
may be cast in a variety of ways, depending 
upon the purpose for which it is intended ; 
whether to be preserved as a plaster statue, or 
copied in marble, or to be used as a model from 
which to make a bronze cast. If it is to be 
preserved as a statue, it will be cast as nearly 
as may be in one piece ; but if to be used as 
a model or pattern by the bronze founder, it 



CASTING 



83 



may either be taken in as many pieces as it is 
designed to make the bronze casting, or it may 
be cast in one piece, or in as few as possible 
and then joined together, leaving the bronze 
founder to make his selection of sections in 
which to take his loam mould. The method of 
proceeding to make a mould for a plaster sta- 
tue from a clay model is as follows : The model 
is made pretty wet, so that the moisture from 
the plaster will not be too much absorbed be- 
fore it sets. Then a mixture of plaster and 
water is spread over a certain selected portion 
of the statue, say the front half of the head and 
chest, a barrier of clay having been previously 
erected along the boundary line. After the 
plaster has set the clay barrier is removed, 
any injuries that may have happened to the 
back part of the head and chest are repaired, 
and the edges of the plaster soaped or washed 
with a mixture of clay and water. A plaster 
mixture is then spread over the back of the 
head and chest, the two applications encasing 
the whole body above the waist. The remain- 
der of the body may be taken in two or four 
pieces. If one limb is partially raised or much 
separated from the other, it may taken in two 
halves by itself; but if not, the lower part of the 
body and both limbs may be moulded in two 
pieces, one before and one behind. Very often 
one arm will be "taken with the chest, while 
the other pne will be taken separately. After 
setting, all the pieces may be removed, and of 
course some of the clay will be brought away 
with them; but that is of no consequence if 
the plaster mould is a good one, because, with 
care, a copy is now secured. After remo- 
val, the separate pieces are cleaned with water 
and the careful use of a brush. The pieces may 
then be put together and the different parts of 
the statue cast in the same manner as a bust is 
cast. Measurements have been taken from cer- 
tain points on the clay model to the dividing 
lines, and recorded. These points and lines are 
reproduced on the plaster casts, so that their 
edges may be cut to precisely fit each other 
and preserve the symmetry of the original mod- 
el. The statue is then completed by putting all 
the parts together and cementing them with 
plaster mixture, which is spread on over the 
seams on the inside by the hand, introduced 
through an opening made for that purpose, 
which is afterward repaired in the same way. 
If a bronze copy is to be taken and the bronze 
founder prefers to have the pieces separate, of 
course the joining will not be done. In cases 
where the statue is clad to the throat, there 
will be one additional piece of work to be per- 
formed to prepare it for the bronze founder, 
which is to detach the head, and add plaster in 
a conical form to the neck, which is to be fitted 
into a collar ; for the head should be cast sepa- 
rately in bronze, and the artist should separate 
it and fit it in its joint himself, so that the prop- 
er pose shall be preserved. A statue in bronze 
is cast in two or more pieces, generally in from 
four to six, the number of pieces usually be- 



ing in inverse proportion to the mechanical and 
technical skill of the founder. The principal 
difficulty in casting a statue whole is the crack- 
ing and straining of parts on cooling and con- 
traction of the metal. If, however, this can be 
cast very thin, and uniformly so in every part, 
avoiding masses where there are folds of dress 
or any irregular surfaces, no cracking may oc- 
cur. It is not always, however, desirable to 
avoid division, because the parts may be skil- 
fully joined and much tedious labor saved. In 
the case of such a work as the statue of Pallas, 
shown in fig. 23, the whole figure, with the ex- 
ception of the right arm and upper part of the 
spear, which are to be removed, may be cast in 
one piece. If of plaster, we will suppose the 
model to have been varnished with a solu- 
tion of shellac in alcohol, previous to which 
it may have been painted witli linseed oil and 
dried, to harden the surface ; but this may have 
been omitted. The statue is laid upon some 
very fine loam in the iron flask in which it is to 
be cast, and well adjusted in abed prepared for 
it, which fits its surface perfectly, giving a firm 
support. A quantity of fine loam, which is only 
to be obtained in a few localities, possessing 
peculiar physical properties, adhesive and yet 
porous, after having been ground several times 
in a mill resembling a sugar mill, is take,n in 
small quantities at a time and pressed and ham- 
mered into compact sections upon the surface 

of the model. 
Each section 
must embrace 
such parts as 
will allow of its 
being drawn. 
The process is 
similar to that 
of making a 
piece mould 
with plaster of 
Paris, except 
that the mate- 
rial in the latter 
case is spread on 
in a plastic con- 
dition, while the 
former is ram- 
med and ham- 
mered on. The 
process is a very 
difficult and te- 
dious one, re- 
quiring several 
weeks and some- 
times months to 
make a mould 
for a life-size 
statue. In Ger- 
many a compo- 
sition is used 

""innmiiimii' ' '"I"' .ii.M^. - v J 

FIG. 22.-Piece Mould for a Statue. whl ^ 1S S P re . ad 

on like plaster 

and allowed to harden. Whatever material is 
employed, the problem is to fit together firm but 




CASTING 



porous sections over the whole surface, of such 
forms and dimensions as will be most convenient 
for drawing from the model, and also for sup- 
porting each other after the model is removed. 
(See fig. 22.) Iron rods and stays are placed 
in the section while they are being hammered 
together, and channels leading from the top to 
the bottom must be formed in them through 
which to pour the metal. They are represent- 
ed in the sectional cut, fig. 24. After this 
loam piece mould is completed, a number of 
the sections are laid in a bed of loam in a flask, 
and the forming of the core is commenced with- 
in the cavity. It is made of the same material, 
a very fine loam, which was used for the outer 
mould, except that sometimes it has mixed 
with it a small portion of molasses or paste. It 
is hammered together in the same way, and 
when completed is a facsimile of the original 
model. It must contain an iron frame, or a 
number of iron rods, to strengthen it, and also 
some pierced tubing for carrying off the expand- 
ed gases which are generated in pouring. Iron 
rods must also be passed in two or more pla- 
ces through it, their ends entering and rest- 
ing in the outer mould. When the latter has 
been carried up piece by piece and the hollow 
completely filled with the hammered loam, it 
is to be removed and the loam statue placed in 
the proper position, and its surface carefully 
pared down to a uniform depth. This forms 
the core, which is represented in fig. 23 by the 




of the core and the inner surface of the outer 
mould. It will be observed that in this case 
the holes for pouring and for the escape of air 
are made at the base of the statue, which for 



nil 



FIG. 28. Statue and Core of Mould. 

smaller statue. When placed within the outer 
mould and properly adjusted, there will be 
a space, equal in depth to the thickness of 
the paring, between every part of the surface 




FIG. 24. Perpendicular Section of Mould, a, a, a. Hollow 
mould, b, b. Channel in the cope for pouring the metal. 
c, c. Channel for discharging gases. a,d,d.d. Iron sup- 
ports for holding core in place. 6, e. Air tube in core. 

casting is to be turned upside down. In cast- 
ing statues in one piece, they are usually plac- 
ed in this position. A perpendicular section 
through both outer and inner parts of the mould 
and the containing flask has the appearance 
represented in fig. 24, with the exception that 
the iron framework for strengthening the parts 
has been omitted. Both core and outer piece 
mould are now placed in the oven and baked, 
having previously been carefully dressed and 
cleaned, and then washed with a mixture of 
water and plumbago or charcoal, or both com- 
bined. After the proper amount of baking, 
which should leave them dry and porous, the 
parts are taken and placed together in a flask, 
each part of which contains a bed perfectly ad- 
justed to the surface of the mould. The flask 
is then carefully secured with bolts to prevent 
any expansion or opening of the mould during 
the casting. Bronze containing 10 per cent, 
of tin requires a heat of about 2,000 F. to 



CASTLEBAR 



CASTLEREAGH 



85 



bring it to the proper degree of fluidity. It is 
considered rather a refractory metal, liable to 
fly, and requires skill and experience for its 
mastery. The pouring is done in the same man- 
ner as for bell casting, and the same crucibles 
and furnaces are used. After the metal has 
cooled the flask is removed, the loam knocked 
otl', and the branches of metal which fill the 
spaces of the air holes as well as those for pour- 
ing are cut off. When the statue is cast in sec- 
tions the edges are made somewhat thicker 
than the other parts, and lips are also provided, 
to meet in the interior so that they may be 
bolted together. The thickness of the edges is 
for supplying material for hammering them to- 
gether till the seams are obliterated. The parts 
are usually immersed for a few hours in a weak 
pickle of acidulated water, for the purpose of 
loosening and aiding in the removal of silicious 
matter which has become incorporated with 
the surface of the bronze. All the sections are 
then bolted together, the edges smoothly ham- 
mered till the joints are perfect, all roughnesses 
filed away, and the whole surface chased with 
appropriate tools. An old method, which is 
still employed in Italy, is to make a core com- 
posed of potter's clay, brick dust, cow's hair, 
or some other composition, and over this model 
the figure in wax. Then the outer mould is 
formed upon this, of some composition, of which 
loam forms the principal part. Iron rods for 
supports and tubes are provided and adjusted 
in the same way as in piece moulding. The 
whole is then dried and baked in an oven un- 
til the wax is melted and cleaned, and the mould 
rendered sufficiently porous. 

CASTLEBAR, a town of Ireland, capital of 
county Mayo, at the N. end of a lake of the 
same name, 41 m. N. N. "W. of Galway ; pop. 
about 3,000. The principal street is a mile 
long, and it contains a square with handsome 
houses. It has a fine parish church, a Catho- 
lic chapel, a Wesleyan meeting house, several 
schools and hospitals, barracks for artillery 
and infantry, a court house, and a county jail. 
The principal trade is in agricultural products. 
Linen, linen yarn, and other articles are manu- 
factured. The town was captured in 1798 by 
a French force under Gen. Humbert, who had 
landed at Killala bay ; but they evacuated it 
shortly afterward, on the approach of the 
British under Lord Cornwallis. 

CASTLE CARET, a market town and parish 
of Somersetshire, England, on the Great West- 
ern railway, 22 m. S. S. W. of Bath ; pop. in 
1871, 5,518. It contains a manor house in 
which Charles II. took refuge after the battle 
of Worcester. 

CASTLEMAIN, a town of Australia, in the 
colony of Victoria, situated at the junction of 
Barker's and Forest creeks, 65 m. N. W. of 
Melbourne ; pop. in 1871, 7,308. In the early 
days of gold mining it was a place of great im- 
portance, the diggings in the neighborhood be- 
ing among the first discovered in Australia. 
It is a principal station on the Victoria railway. 



CASTLEREAGH, Robert Stewart, viscount and 
marquis of Londonderry, a British statesman, 
born at the family seat of Mount Stewart, 
county Down, Ireland, June 18, 1769, died by 
his own hand at his seat of North Cray place, 
Kent, England, Aug. 12, 1822. He attended 
the grammar school at Armagh, and completed 
his education at Cambridge. In 1789 he was 
elected to the Irish parliament for the county 
Down, after a sharp contest, which is said to 
have cost his family over 25,000. In 1794 
he was returned to the British house of com- 
mons, as a member for the borough of Tre- 
gony. In May, 1796, he was again returned 
to the British parliament for Orford ; but re- 
linquishing his seat in July, 1797, he was re- 
elected to the Irish parliament, as representa- 
tive of the county Down, and appointed keeper 
of the privy seal of Ireland. In 1796 he be- 
came Viscount Castlereagh, on the elevation of 
his father to the marquisate of Londonderry. 
In the beginning of 1798 he became chief sec- 
retary to the lord lieutenant, and an Irish privy 
councillor. The rebellion which invited and 
accompanied the landing of Gen. Humbert in 
1798 was crushed by Castlereagh. It was 
mainly through his instrumentality that the 
act of union was passed. When this measure 
was consummated, he quitted the Irish govern- 
ment, execrated by the majority of his country- 
men. He represented his native county in the 
first imperial parliament, which assembled in 
February, 1801, and also in the second, which 
convened in September of the ensuing year. 
In the beginning of 1802 he was appointed a 
privy councillor of Great Britain, and presi- 
dent of the board of control. He retained 
that office after the retirement of Mr. Pitt, and 
throughout the Addington administration. In 
July, 1805, after Mr. Pitt's return to power, 
Castlereagh joined his cabinet as secretary at 
war and for the colonies. Having lost his seat 
for Down, he was returned in 1806 for Bo- 
roughbridge ; and relinquishing his office after 
Mr. Pitt's death, he was returned for the fol- 
lowing parliament, in the same year, for the 
borough of Plympton Earle. He now went 
into opposition against Fox and Grenville, and 
attacked their peace policy. In 1807, upon the 
formation of the Portland cabinet, he again 
became secretary at war, and was reflected 
by his last constituency for the parliament 
which met in May of that year. While a 
member of this administration, he incurred in 
1809 the responsibility of the ill-advised Wal- 
cheren expedition, in reference to which Mr. 
Canning, his colleague and secretary for foreign 
affairs, assailed him with such warmth of per- 
sonality, that a duel ensued between them, 
and both retired from office. Castlereagh 
soon returned to the ministry, and assumed 
Canning's post, in which he gained a position 
so commanding, that on Mr. Perceval's death, 
in 1812, he was regarded as the ministerial 
leader in the house of commons. In Novem- 
ber, 1812, he was once more returned for the 



86 



CASTLETON 



CASTOR OIL 



county Down, retaining that seat in the next 
two parliaments, which met in August, 1818, 
and in April, 1820. In 1814, as British pleni- 
potentiary, he took part in the conferences of 
Chatillon, and was influential in persuading 
the allies not to lay down their arms unless 
Napoleon agreed to limit France to the boun- 
dary of 1792. This Napoleon refused to do ; 
and that great campaign was begun which 
ended in the capitulation of Paris and the ab- 
dication of Napoleon. At first Castlereagh 
would not concur, in behalf of England, in the 
measure by which Napoleon was permitted to 
retain the title of emperor and retire to Elba. 
After the treaty was signed, however, he re- 
luctantly acceded to it. lie took part in the con- 
gress of Vienna, both before and during the hun- 
dred days. Subsequently he supported George 
IV. in his schemes for getting rid of Queen 
Caroline, and was the author of the harsh 
measures for the repression of discontent caused 
by general distress and dearness of provisions. 
The struggles of the constitutionalists in Spain 
and Portugal called for active interference on 
the part of the holy alliance, and Castlereagh 
was on the point of joining the congress of 
Verona when he fell into a state of melancholy, 
in which he committed suicide by opening the 
carotid artery with a penknife. The coroner's 
jury declared the act to have been committed 
in a state of lunacy. He had become second 
marquis of Londonderry, April 8, 1821. His 
correspondence was edited by his brother, the 
third marquis, in 1850. 

CASTLETON, a post village and township of 
Rutland co., Vt., on Castleton river, at the in- 
tersection of the Rutland and Washington, and 
the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroads, 12 in. 
W. of Rutland; pop. in 1870, 3,243. It is 
noted for its slate quarries, and is the seat of a 
seminary and a state normal school. 

CASTLETOWN, the capital of the Isle of Man, 
England, on' a bay of the same name, near the 
S. extremity of the island; pop. in 1871, 2,373. 
It contains King William's college, founded in 
1830, and Castle Rushen, said to have been 
built by a Danish prince in 960. It is the 
seat of the governor and the courts of law. 

CASTOR, a substance somewhat resembling 
musk, secreted by the beaver. It is of the con- 
sistency of honey, and has a strong, penetrating, 
fetid, and volatile odor, which is lost when the 
substance is dried and hardened. It is used to 
some extent in medicine as an antispasmodic 
and stimulant, and is thought to act especially 
upon the nervous system. It was known and 
recommended by Pliny and Dioscorides, but 
it has not a high reputation among mod- 
ern practitioners ; and as it is often largely 
adulterated, there will be little cause for re- 
gret should its use be discontinued. The arti- 
cle considered the best is obtained from Rus- 
sia. The American beaver produces an infe- 
rior quality. Benzoic acid is recognized among 
the numerous organic compounds of which this 
substance consists. 



CASTOR OIL, a mild purgative obtained from 
the nuts of the castor oil plant, the ricinus 
communis or palma Christi. Ricinus is an 
apetalous genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order euphorbia cea. It was originally 
a native of Asia, and was used by the nations 
of antiquity, but is now naturalized in Africa, 
America, and the south of Europe. The char- 
acters of this genus are : Leaves alternate, stip- 
ulate, palmate, glands at apex of petiole. Flow- 
ers in terminal panicles ; mono3cious, no petals ; 
calyx 3-5 parted, valvate ; filaments numerous, 
polyadelphous; style short, stigmas 3, bipar- 
tite, feathery ; ovary globose, 3-celled, with an 
ovule in each cell; fruit capsular, tricoccous. 
The H. communis or palma Christi has peltate 
palmate leaves, with lanceolate serrated lobes; 
an herbaceous glaucous stem, of a purplish red 
color upward ; and flowers in long green and 
glaucous spikes, springing from the divisions 
of the branches, the males from the lower part 




Castor Oil Plant. 

of the spike, the females from the upper. The 
capsules are prickly. It varies in size in dif- 
ferent countries. In some parts of Europe it 
is not more than three or four feet high, but in 
India it is a tree, and in Spain it attains fair 
dimensions. The native country of R. corn- 
munis is unknown; it is conjectured to be 
Barbary. The castor oil plant was known in 
very ancient times, both to the Egyptians and 
the Greeks. The latter called it croton, a name 
bestowed by modern botanists on another ge- 
nus of euphorbiaceous plants, one species of 
which yields the strongly purgative oil called 
oleum tiglii or croton oil. Numerous varieties 
of R. communis exist in various localities, differ- 
ing not only in color and the peculiar condition 
of the stem, but in stature and duration. In 
warm countries it is ligneous and perennial ; in 
cold regions, annual and herbaceous. The en- 
tire plant possesses active properties, but the oil 
extracted from the seeds is alone employed in 



CASTOR OIL 



CASTOR AND POLLUX 



87 



Europe. The ancients administered the seeds 
entire, but their variable action, producing 
sometimes even fatal effects, led to their disuse. 
The oil is of comparatively recent introduction. 
The seeds were formerly known in the shops 
as semina ricini or semina cataputice majoris. 
They are about the size of a small bean, obtuse 
at both ends, the surface being smooth, shining, 
and beautifully marbled. The skin consists of 
three tunics ; the nucleus or kernel consists of 
an oily albumen and an embryo, the cotyledons 
of which are membranous or foliaceous. The 
outer shell is devoid of taste. According to 
Dr. Dierbach, the active principle resides in 
the inner coat ; others assert that the purga- 
tive principle resides in the embryo. Herat 
and De Lens have shown in the Dictionnaire 
des sciences medicales, t. xlix., that the active 
principle is diffused through the entire sub- 
stance of the kernel, though possibly with more 
intensity in the embryo. The quality of castor 
oil depends on the greater or less maturity of 
the seeds, the peculiar variety of the plant from 
which they have been obtained, and the acci- 
dental or intentional admixture of other seeds 
before the process of extraction. Both in India 
and America much heat was formerly employed 
in the process, and this was injurious to the 
quality of the oil. During the application of 
heat a volatile principle escaped, which was so 
irritating that the workmen had to protect 
their faces by masks. The French. method is 
the best. The fresh seeds are bruised, and 
then put into a cold press. The oil is express- 
ed and allowed to stand some time, to permit 
the albumen, mucilage, and other matters to 
subside; or it is filtered, to separate them more 
rapidly. The produce is equal to about one 
third of the seeds employed, and the oil pos- 
sesses all its natural qualities. Both the Frenph 
and Italian oils are much milder than oil pro- 
cured from tropical countries. Oil of good 
quality is a thickish fluid of a very pale yellow 
color, the best being almost limpid, with a 
slightly nauseous odor and an oily taste, mild 
at first, but causing a feeling at the back of the 
throat, more or less intense, according to the 
freshness of the specimen. Bad oil is rancid 
and disagreeable. Castor oil is much used in 
the East, France, Italy, and other countries, 
for burning, as well as for medicinal purposes. 

-The cathartic action of castor oil seems to 
lepend upon the development of an acrid 
jrinciple, identical with or analogous to that of 

roton, modified by the much larger amount 
af bland oil with which it is associated. When 
pure, it is a mild and certain aperient or laxa- 
tive, commonly operating without griping or 
sther inconvenience, very soon after it is taken. 
It is deemed the most proper laxative in many 

iflammatory states of the abdomen, the kid- 
leys, and the bladder. It is also deemed 
most eligible medicine in piles and other 
affections of the rectum. Its use is liable to be 
followed by more or less constipation. The 
chief objection to its use is its repulsive taste. 



From 15 to 20 drops of pure liquor potass will 
usually saponify half an ounce of castor oil, to 
which one ounce of distilled water and a drachm 
of spirits of pimento or of nutmeg may be add- 
ed. This makes an emulsion which is effective 
and not unpleasant to the taste. The manu- 
facture of castor oil is actively carried on 
in the United States, especially at St. Louis, 
the beans being produced in southern Illinois. 

CASTOR AND POLLUX, called also the Dios- 
CUEI, or sons of Zeus, famous heroes in Greek 
mythology. According to Homer, they were 
sons of Tyndareus and Leda, and brothers of 
Helen and Clytemnestra, and hence are often 
called the Tyndaridae. Castor excelled in 
taming horses, and Pollux in the game of box- 
ing. Though buried, they were taken from the 
earth before the siege of Troy, became im- 
mortal and honored as gods, and sometimes ap- 
peared among men. The legend was compli- 




Castor and Pollux. 

cated by subsequent poets. According to some, 
the Dioscuri were sons of Leda and of Jupiter 
disguised as a swan or a star; according to 
others, Pollux only had this divine origin and 
the privilege of immortality. The place of 
their birth was varioiisly said to be Amyclaa, 
Mount Taygetus, and the island of Pephnos. 
They are fabled to have attacked and ravaged 
Attica, and to have brought back their sister 
Helen, who had been stolen away by Theseus. 
They took part in the Calydonian boar hunt, 
and accompanied the expedition of the Argo- 
nauts, during which Pollux vanquished with the 
caestus the giant Amycus, king of the Bebryces, 
and founded the city of Dioscurias in Colchis. 
Associated with Idas and Lynceus, sons of 
Aphareus, they plundered Arcadia; but in a 
quarrel which arose concerning the division of 
the spoil, Castor, the mortal, perished by the 
hands of Lynceus, who in his turn fell under 



CASTOR RIVER 



CASTRES 



the blows of Pollux, while Idas was struck 
with a thunderbolt by Jupiter. According to 
another tradition, Castor was slain in a war 
between Athens and Lacedremon. Jupiter per- 
mitted Pollux to pass alternately one day with 
his brother on Olympus and another on the 
earth. The worship of these brothers was es- 
tablished by the Achseans, adopted by the 
Dorians, and spread throughout Greece, Italy, 
and Sicily. They were the tutelary gods of 
hospitality, presided over gymnastic exercises, 
and were eminently the mighty helpers of man. 
They calmed tempests, appearing as light 
flames on the tips of the masts. They some- 
times appeared in battle, riding on magnificent 
white steeds at the head of the army. By their 
assistance the Romans believed themselves to 
have gained the battle of Lake Regillus. Placed 
among the stars, they became the constellation 
Gemini. In works of art they are usually 
represented as young horsemen in white attire, 
with a purple robe, armed with the lance, and 
wearing a helmet crowned with stars. At Rome 
the men swore by the temple of Pollux, ^Ede- 
pol, and the women by that of Castor, jEcas- 
tor. Around the ancient temple consecrated 
to them in the forum the equites marched in 
magnificent procession every year on July 15. 

CASTOR RIVER, a stream of S. E. Missouri, 
which rises in St. Francois co., flows S., com- 
municates by several arms with a group of small 
lakes in Stoddard co., and afterward unites 
with the Whitewater river. The stream thus 
formed, which is sometimes called the Castor, 
but more frequently the Whitewater, flows 
through a low swampy region, in which most 
of the streams spread themselves over a large 
surface and form extensive marshes or lakes. 
It receives the outlet of Lake Pemisco, and 
finally discharges itself into Big lake. 

CASTRATION, a surgical operation practised 
upon some of the domestic animals, which con- 
sists in taking away the necessary and essential 
organs of reproduction, namely, the testicles in 
the male or the ovaries in the female. When 
performed upon the female, the operation is 
more commonly known as spaying. The object 
to be accomplished in either case is to moderate 
the impetuosity of the animals, to render them 
more docile and submissive, or more adapted 
to the kind of labor required of them, to in- 
crease their size, or to dispose the system to the 
accumulation of fat. The advantages which it 
sometimes confers in these respects are, how- 
ever, often more than counterbalanced by other 
effects. Thus it undoubtedly diminishes the 
activity, the courage, the endurance, and even 
the intelligence, or at least the quickness of its 
manifestation. It is not therefore an opera- 
tion to be performed on all animals, even of the 
male sex, indiscriminately, but should be ap- 
plied with judgment only to those cases in 
which it is required by the special conditions, 
the particular employment, or the peculiar nat- 
ural disposition of the animal. Castration may 
be performed at all ages ; but its effects are 



more decided if performed before than after 
the age of puberty. In the first case, the ani- 
mal never arrives at the usual fully developed 
adult condition, and, if of the male sex, does 
not acquire the external marks which distin- 
guish him from the female, nor the general 
masculine bodily contour. On the other hand, 
if these sexual characters have already been 
developed, they do not disappear on castration, 
and the animal simply loses the power of repro- 
ducing his species. (See EUNUCH.) 

CASTREN, Matthias Alexander, a Finnish philo- 
logist, born at Tervola, Dec. 2, 1813, died in 
Helsingfors, May 7, 1852. He devoted himself 
to collecting the monuments of the genius of 
Finland scattered through the various tribes, 
and as a preparation he undertook in 1838 to 
travel on foot through Finnish Lapland. He 
then visited Karelia, to make himself more fa- 
miliar with the language, with a view to the 
translation into Swedish of the celebrated pop- 
ular poem, the "Kalevala." Aided by govern- 
ment, he pursued his investigations through 
Norwegian and Russian Lapland, and even 
through the land of the Samoyeds of Europe 
and Siberia. He was appointed linguist and 
ethnographer to the academy of St. Petersburg, 
and with the aid of the university of Helsing- 
fors he extended his researches throughout 
Siberia, from the frontiers of China to the 
shores of the Arctic ocean. With feeble con- 
stitution and delicate health, he accomplished 
extraordinary labors, and sent home, in addi- 
tion to the documents connected with his own 
studies, reports and letters of great value. 
Many of these were published in the Russian 
and Swedish periodicals of the day. Castren 
was honored on his return to his country, in 
1851, a year before his death, with the office 
of first professor of the Finnish language and 
literature at the university of Helsingfors. 
The literary society of Finland and the academy 
of St. Petersburg caused his writings to be 
published after his death, the latter body ap- 
pointing Schiemer as editor of the works, pub- 
lished in St. Petersburg in German in 1853 and 

1856, while Finnish editions were brought out 
at Helsingfors in 1852, 1853, and 1855, and a 
German edition of part of them appeared also 
in Leipsic. Among his works are Elementa 
Grammatices Tscheremisice, Elementa Gram- 
matices Syrjance, De Affixw Personalibus Lin- 
guarum Altaicarum, and an Ostiak grammar 
in German. His Samoyed grammar and dic- 
tionary were published in St. Petersburg in 
1854 and 1855, and hisTungusian dictionary in 

1857. Borg published in 1853 a biographical 
sketch of Castren, and a monument has been 
dedicated to his memory at Helsingfors. 

CASTRES, a town of Languedoc, France, de- 
partment of Tarn, 20 m. S. E. of Albi ; pop. in 
1866, 21,357. It lies in a fertile valley on both 
sides of the river Agout, which is here crossed 
by two stone bridges. It is the seat of a Prot- 
estant consistory, having been one of the first 
towns to embrace the doctrines of Calvin. It 



CASTRI 



CASTRO DEL RIO 



89 



is noted for its fine wool-dyed cloths, and 
has manufactures of silk, woollen, and cotton 
goods, linen, paper, soap, &c. Castres was a 
flourishing place in the 12th century. It suf- 
fered much in the religious wars of the 16th 
century, and its fortifications were destroyed 
by Louis XIII. in 1629. It was long the resi- 
dence of Henry IV. during his religious wars. 

CASTRI. See DELPHI. 

CASTRIOT, George. See SOANDEKBEG. 

CASTRO, Henry, a Texan pioneer, of Portu- 
guese descent, born in France in 1786, died 
in Monterey, Mexico, in 1861. He was an 
officer of the Paris national guard in 1814, and 
after the overthrow of Napoleon came to the 
United States, where he was naturalized, and 
appointed in 1827 Neapolitan consul at Provi- 
dence, R. I. In 1838 he went to Paris as a 
partner in the banking house of Laffitte, and 
in 1842 he became consul general in that city 
of the republic of Texas. Having received a 
grant of land on the banks of the Medina 
river, he began in 1840 to send out emigrants 
to Galveston; and though the first attempt 
was unfortunate, he succeeded in 1844 in es- 
tablishing a settlement on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Oastroville ; and in the next two 
years he founded Quihi and Vandenberg. The 
number of his emigrant vessels amounted in 

1846 to 26, which brought over 485 families 
and 457 single persons, chiefly Alsatians. In 

1847 he founded Dhanis. All his settlements 
subsequently constituted Medina county, with 
Castroville as the capital. 

CASTRO, Ines de, wife of the crown prince Dom 
Pedro of Portugal, assassinated in 1355. She 
was a daughter of Dom Pedro Fernandez de 
Castro, a descendant of the royal house of Cas- 
tile, and a maid of honor to Constantia, first wife 
of Pedro. After Constantia's death in 1344, Pe- 
dro, fascinated by the extraordinary beauty of 
Ines, contracted a secret marriage with her, 
which, when a few years afterward it was dis- 
closed to his father Alfonso IV., met a violent 
opposition from the king. The apprehension 
that the children of Ines might interfere with 
the claims to the throne of Pedro's children by 
his first wife, also preyed upon the mind of Al- 
fonso. Her death was therefore resolved upon 
by the king, who caused her to be assassina- 
ted while Pedro was on a hunting excursion. 
When Pedro came home and found the bleed- 
ing corpse of his wife, his mother and the 
archbishop of Braga succeeded with the great- 
est difficulty in restraining him from taking ven- 
geance upon the king. After the king's death in 
1357 his wrath broke out with increased fury. 
One of the assassins succeeded in escaping to 
Aragon. The other two, who had sought pro- 
tection at the court of Pedro the Cruel in Cas- 
tile, were surrendered to the king of Portugal, 
who, after subjecting them to torture, had their 
hearts torn out, their bodies burnt, and their 
ashes scattered to the winds. He convened a 
council at Castanheda, when, in the presence 
of the nobility and the court, he produced the 



papal documents and the evidence of the arch- 
bishop of Guarda, the attending priest, in order 
to establish by irrefragable proof the legiti- 
macy of his marriage with Ines. The remains 
of Ines were then exhumed, her corpse was put 
upon the throne, clothed with the insignia of 
royalty, and the dignitaries of the kingdom 
approached to kiss the hem of the royal gar- 
ment. Ines was afterward buried with great 
pomp at Alcobaca, the king, the bishops, the 
lords and officers of Portugal following the fu- 
neral procession on foot, a distance of 60 miles. 
A superb monument was dedicated to her at 
Alcobaca. Gomes in Portugal, Count Soden in 
Germany, and Feith in Holland have founded 
tragedies upon the incidents of Ines de Castro's 
life ; but the most remarkable tribute paid to her 
memory is that of Camoens in the "Lusiad." 

CASTRO, Joao de, a Portuguese naval hero 
and explorer, born in Lisbon in February, 1500, 
died in Goa, June 6, 1548. He belonged to an 
ancient family, and early became proficient in 
mathematics, having as teacher Pedro Nunez, 
and as fellow student the infante Dom Luis. 
He accompanied the latter in the expedition to 
Tunis in 1533, after having been previously 
knighted by the governor of Tangier ; a similar 
honor was offered to him at Tunis by Charles 
V., but declined. In 1538 he was made^ com- 
mander of a small religious order, and soon 
afterward went with his uncle to Goa, where 
he served against the Moors. In 1540 he ex- 
plored the Red sea under Estevao da Gama ; 
in 1543 he was placed in command of a naval 
expedition for the extirpation of piracy ; and in 
1545 he was appointed councillor of the crown 
and governor of Goa. In 1546 he gained a cele- 
brated victory over the Moors at Diu, and was 
celebrated by Camoens as Castro forte (the pow- 
erful Castro). The king of Portugal, though 
never partial to him, appointed him viceroy of 
India, Oct. 13, 1547. He died soon afterward in 
the arms of St. Francis Xavier, a'nd a statue was 
erected in his honor at Goa. His remains were 
removed in 1576 to Portugal, and deposited with 
great pomp in the convent of Bemfica. His MS. 
log book (Roteiro) of his hydrographical investi- 
gations in the Red sea, preserved in the British 
museum, was first published in Paris in 1833, 
and possesses great scientific merit. He left 
also MS. narratives of his voyage from Lisbon 
to Goa, and from Goa to Diu. His biography 
was published in Lisbon in 1651, by Jacintho 
Freyre de Andrada. 

CASTRO DEL RIO, a town of Spain, on the 
Guadajoz, in the province and 16 m. S. E. of 
Cordova; pop. about 9,000. The ancient part 
of the town is surrounded by a dilapidated wall 
with towers. The entrance is by a single gate, 
once defended by an Arab castle, now in ruins. 
The modern portion is outside the walls, and 
is well and handsomely built. There are two 
colleges and several schools, convents, chapels, 
and hospitals. It has manufactures of woollen 
and linen fabrics, and earthen ware, and a 
trade in wine, wheat, cattle, oil, honey, &c. 



90 



CASTROGIOVANNI 



CASWALL 



CASTROGIOVAJWI, or Castro Giovanni (anc. 
Enna, from one form of the name of which, 
Catrum Ennce, corrupted by the Arabs to 
Cassar Jdnna, the modern designation comes), 
a city of Sicily, in the province and 13 m. N. 
E. of Caltanisetta ; pop. about 15,000. It is 
situated on the level summit of a precipitous 



and rocky height in the centre of the island, 
4,000 ft. above the sea, and is the highest in- 
habited site in Sicily, Its situation rendered 
it in ancient times one of the strongest natural 
fortresses in the world, and during the middle 
ages it bore the name of V Inespugndbile (the 
Impregnable). The appearance of the mod- 




CaatroglovannL 



era town is mean and wretched ; the dwellings 
are generally dilapidated, and have a dingy 
and stained appearance largely attributable to 
climatic influences. The old feudal fortress of 
Enna, erected in the 13th century by Frederick 
II. of Aragon, is the chief edifice. The height 
of Enna was the fabled birthplace of Ceres, and 
the site of her most famous temple. About 5 
m. distant is the lake of Pergusa, where Proser- 
pine, according to the poets, was carried off by 
Pluto. During the first servile war, about 100 
B. 0., the insurgent slaves made Enna their 
headquarters. 

CASTRIWIO-CASTRACANI, a leader of the Ghi- 
bellinesin Italy, born in Lucca about 1282, died 
Sept. 3, 1328. He was a member of the noble 
Antelminelli family, and in childhood was ban- 
ished with his relatives by the Guelphs. His 
military exploits in France, England, and Lom- 
bardy led to his being placed at the head of 
the Ghibellines in Lucca ; but his ally, Uguc- 
cione de la Faggiola of Pisa, after having aided 
him in putting down the Guelphs, sacked Luc- 
ca, and put him in prison, from which he was 
released by the people rising against Uguccione 
and expelling him and his followers. Castruc- 
cio was elected governor of Lucca, and during 
the 15 years of his administration was engaged 
in warfare with Florence, with a view of es- 
tablishing his supremacy over the Ghibellines 
of Tuscany. Louis IV., emperor of Germany, 
rewarded his services by investing him with 



the rank of duke of Lucca, count of the Late- 
ran, and Roman senator; but Pope Boniface 
VIII. resented his victories over the Guelphs 
by excommunicating him shortly before bis 
death. Nicol6 Negrini (Modena, 1496), Wie- 
land (Leipsic, 1779), and Mannzzi (Rome, 1820) 
have published works relating to him ; but the 
most celebrated is that by Machiavelli (French 
translation by Dreux du Radier, La vie de 
Castruccio-Castracani, Paris, 1753). 

( \S\KK.\. See CASBIN. 

CASWALL, Henry, an English clergyman and 
author, born at Yateley, Hampshire, in 1810, 
died in January, 1871. He was the son of a 
clergyman, received his early education in 
England, and subsequently went to the United 
States. He received the degree of B. A. at Ken- 
yon college, Ohio, in 1830, and that of M. A. in 
1834, and was ordained in 1837 by the bishop 
of Indiana. He was engaged as minister and 
professor of theology in the United States and 
Canada till 1842, when he returned to Eng- 
land. The disabilities of his American ordina- 
tion were removed by a private act of parlia- 
ment, and in 1848 he became vicar of Fighel- 
dean, Wiltshire, and subsequently proctor in 
convocation for the diocese of Sarum, and pre- 
bendary of Salisbury cathedral. In 1854 he 
received the degree of M. A. from the uni- 
versity of Oxford, and on revisiting the Uni- 
ted States in the same year that of D. D. 
from Trinity college, Hartford. He published 



CASWELL 



CAT 



91 



" America and the American Church " (1839), 
"City of the Mormons" (1842-'3), "Scotland 
and the Scottish Church" (1853), "The West- 
ern World Eevisited " (1854), and other works. 

CASWELL, a N. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on Virginia ; area, 400 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 16,081, of whom 9,494 were colored. 
It is intersected by Hycootee river and County 
Line creek, affluents of Dan river. The sur- 
face is undulating, and the soil fertile. The 
Richmond, Danville, and Piedmont railroad 
crosses the N. W. corner. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 80,597 bushels of wheat, 
237,257 of Indian corn, 93,646 of oats, and 
2,262,053 Ibs. of tobacco. There were 1,543 
horses, 2,126 milch cows, 1,984 other cattle, 
2,765 sheep, and 9,175 swine. There were 5 
manufactories of carriages and wagons, 2 of 
iron castings, 2 of chewing tobacco, and 9 flour 
mills. Capital, Yanceyville. 

CASWELL, Richard, an American revolution- 
ary general and statesman, born in Maryland, 
Aug. 3, 1729, died Nov. 20, 1789. In 1746 he 
removed to North Carolina, where in 1754 he 
became a member of the colonial assembly, in 
which he continued to hold a seat till 1771. 
He was then chosen speaker of the house of 
commons, and colonel of the county militia, 
and at the outbreak of the revolution identified 
himself with the patriots. He soon after be- 
came treasurer of the state. In 1776, in com- 
mand of a regiment of minute men, he defeated 
the loyalists at Moore's creek, and for this ser- 
vice was appointed brigadier general. For 
three years he was president of the provincial 
congress which framed the state constitution, 
under which he was elected the first governor. 
He was engaged in the disastrous battle of 
Camden in 1780, became comptroller general 
of the state in 1782, and was again elected 
governor in 1784, to which office he was twice 
reflected. In 1787 he was a delegate to the 
convention assembled at Philadelphia for the 
formation of the federal constitution ; in 1789 
he was speaker of the state senate, and he was 
subsequently one of the convention by which 
the federal constitution was ratified in North 
Carolina. He was presiding in the senate 
when he was struck with fatal paralysis. 

CAT, a general name for animals of the genus 
felis (Linn.), which comprises about 50 species 
of carnivorous mammalia, the characters of 
which are closely assimilated, and at the same 
time widely different from other genera. It is 
characterized by six incisor teeth above and 
below ; two canine teeth in each jaw, power- 
ful and formed for tearing ; molar or cheek 
teeth, four in the upper jaw and three in the 
lower, thin, pointed, and wedge-shaped, formed 
for cutting. The head is large, round, and 
wide ; the eyes have the pupil often oblong ; 
the tongue has strong horny papillae, directed 
backward. The feet are formed for walking ; 
the toes are five in number on the fore feet and 
four on the hind feet, armed with strong, sharp, 
and hooked claws, retracted when the animal 



walks. The intestines are very short, as in all 
animals living almost exclusively on animal 
food. The animals composing this genus (which 
includes the lion, tiger, panther, &c.) are the 
most powerful and ferocious of all predatory 
quadrupeds, as the eagles and birds of prey are 
among the feathered tribes. The different spe- 
cies are distributed over every portion of the 
globe, with the exception of Australia and the 
South Pacific islands ; but the most formidable 
are found in the warmest climates ; no species 
has been discovered common to the old and the 
new world. The favorite resorts of these animals 
are the thick forests of the tropics, where they 
lie concealed during the day, and prowl at 
night in search of prey ; the more northern and 
smaller species prefer rocky and well wooded 
situations. The cats hunt a living prey, which 
they secure by cunning and watchfulness, 
springing upon their unsuspecting victims from 
an ambush, or stealthily crawling up to them. 
Some species, as the leopard and jaguar, pur- 
sue their prey into trees. The couguar lies in 
wait on a branch or overhanging rock, and falls 
upon animals passing beneath. Their aspect 
is ferocious, their instincts bloody, and their 
strength great ; even their voice has something 
in it harsh and terrible. The anatomical struc- 
ture of the cats is indicative of great strength 
and activity; the jaws are very powerful* bear- 
ing teeth shaped like wedges, thin and sharp, re- 
quiring but little force to cut through the flesh 
on which they feed ; the structure of the joint 
admits of no lateral motion, and the whole 
force of the immense temporal and masseter 
muscles is exerted in a perpendicular or cutting 
direction. To assist in tearing their food, the 
surface of the tongue is covered with numer- 
ous horny papillae ; these may be felt, on a small 
scale, on the tongue of the domestic cat ; the 
tongue is rather an organ for removing muscu- 
lar fibres from bones, and for retaining flesh in 
the mouth, than an organ of taste. The neck, 
shoulders, and fore limbs display a remarkable 
muscular development ; the lion can drag away 
with ease cattle and horses which it has killed ; 
a single blow of the fore limb of a Bengal tiger 
has been known to fracture a man's skull. The 
mechanism by which their claws are retracted 
and prevented from being blunted during walk- 
ing is as follows : the claw itself is supported 
on the last bone, which consists of two por- 
tions united to each other at nearly a right an- 
gle ; the articulation is at the upper end of the 
vertical portion, while the flexor tendons are 
attached to the other portion ; the action of 
these muscles causes the whole bone to move 
through an arc of 90 round the end of the sec- 
ond bone. In the state of rest the claw is kept 
retracted by a slip of the extensor muscle, and 
by elastic ligaments ; in the state of action, the 
strong tendon of the flexor, with its circular 
sweep, protrudes the claw with prodigious pow- 
er. The domestic cat is generally believed to 
have sprung from the Egyptian cat (felis mani- 
culata, Etippell), a native of the north of Africa. 



92 



CAT 



This species is 2 ft. 5 in. long, of which the tail 
measures 9 in. ; the height at the shoulder is 
9i in. ; in size it does not differ from the do- 
mestic cat. The color above is an ochry gray, 
with a darker line along the back ; beneath, 
grayish white ; on the forehead are eight slen- 
der black lines, running forward to the upper 
part of the neck ; the cheeks, throat, and front 
of the neck are pura white ; two lines of an 
ochre-yellow color, one from the outer corner 




Egyptian Cat (Fells maniculata). 

of the eye, and the other from the middle of 
the cheek, meet under the ear, and two rings 
of the same color encircle the white of the 
neck ; the limbs have five or six blackish semi- 
circular bands ; the heels and wrists are black ; 
the tail is slender, and has two dark rings at 
the tip. There is no doubt that this species is 
the original of the domestic cat of the ancient 
Egyptians, as is shown by the representations 
of cats on their monuments, by mummies, and 
by the skeletons foimd in their tombs. It may 
be a question whether this domesticated spe- 
cies was transferred by them to the ancient 
nations of Europe. There certainly is often 
met with, in modern times, a grayish white 
cat possessing the most striking resemblance 
to the Egyptian species; others of our do- 
mestic cats resemble the wild species of Eu- 
rope. It is probable therefore that, as with 
all our domestic animals, different nations have 
domesticated different small kinds of native 
cats, which have produced, by the inter- 
mixture of their closely allied species, the nu- 
merous varieties now observed. At the same 
time it should be remembered that the whole 
genus/eZi* is susceptible of considerable varia- 
tion ; slight variety of color, therefore, does not 
necessarily imply diversity of origin. Temminck 
and Rtippcll are of the ppinion that the F. mani- 
culata is the species from which our domestic 
cat has sprung ; before \them most naturalists 
believed that the wild cat of Europe was the 
original stock ; it is altogether probable that 
the domesticated species has been crossed in 
many instances by the wild cat, as shown by 
the short legs and thick short tails of some va- 
rieties. All the small species of cats might be 
easily domesticated, though the common Egyp- 
tian species seems to be the only one generally 
employed in household economy. The domes- 
tic cat readily returns to a wild 'state ; neglect, 



insecurity of their young, or favoring circum- 
stances, drive or tempt them to the woods, 
where they prowl and hunt, and breed, in the 
manner characteristic of the genus. Cats, 
though they prefer flesh, will eat bread, fish, 
insects, and almost anything that is eaten by 
man. As a general thing, they have a great 
dislike to water, and will rarely enter it for the 
purpose of catching fish, of which they are 
extremely fond. They are capable of very 
strong attachment to man, and to animals 
reared with them. Among the most remarka- 
ble varieties of the domestic cat are the Mal- 
tese or Chartreuse cat, of a bluish gray color ; 
the Persian cat, with long white or gray hair ; 
the Angora cat, with very long and silky hair, 
generally of a brownish white color ; and the 
Spanish or tortoise-shell cat, the most beauti- 
ful of all. In Cornwall and the Isle of Man a 
breed of cats without a tail is quite common, 
analogous to a similar and more common breed 




Manx Cat 

of dogs. The common wild cat (F. catw, Linn.) 
is the only animal of the genus that inhabits 
the British islands, where it is still not uncom- 
mon in the wild districts of Scotland and Ire- 
land ; it is found in the wooded tracts of the 
European continent. The length of the wild 
cat is 33 in., the tail being 11 in. The fur is 
long and thick, but not shaggy ; the color va- 
ries from a yellowish to a blackish gray, dark- 
est on the back, where it forms a line, diver- 
ging into four on the neck and head ; the sides 
are brindled with broad, dark, but indistinct 
bands; the legs have two or three black bars, 




Wild Cat (Fells catus). 



running transversely upward ; the tail is thick, 
with black rings, indistinct toward the base, 
and a black tip. The wild cat is an active 



CATACOMBS 



93 



climber ; its food consists of small animals and 
birds ; its depredations among game are fre- 
quently very great. There are no long-tailed 
wild cats in North America ; the animal called 
wild cat here is a species of lynx. (See LYNX.) 
The catamount is the couguar of authors. (See 
COUGTTAE.) There are several small species of 
cats in the East Indies : the Sumatran cat, F. 
minuta (Temm.) and F. Javanensis (Horsf.) ; 
the Bengal cat, F. Bengalemis (Desm.) ; Di- 
ard's cat, F. Diardii (Desm.) ; and the Nepaul 
cat, F. Nepalemis (Horsf.). 

CATACOMBS (Gr. Kara, downward, and {;///3of, 
a hollow place), subterraneous places for bury- 
ing the dead. The catacombs of Egypt, from 
their vast extent and elaborate decorations, both 
of architecture and painting, are perhaps more 
remarkable than any others. The entire chain 
of mountains in the neighborhood of Thebes is 
mined by an immense number of these subter- 
ranean tombs. Those of the The ban kings, 
originally 47 in number, are the most ancient 
of all, some having been begun 4,000 years 



ago. Most of them have been defaced, but a 
few still exist to bear witness to their pristine 
magnificence. They occupy a deep ravine, 
flanked by the bed of a torrent in the centre 
of the mountain Libycus, and, lying some 6,000 
to 7,000 paces from the banks of the Nile, were 
reached by an artificial passage. Proceeding 
along the valley, the visitor discovers openings 
in the ground, with a gateway in a simple 
square frame, each gateway being the mouth 
of a gallery leading to the royal sepulchre. 
Forty paces within is another gateway open- 
ing to a second gallery 24 ft. in length, and on 
each side of this are small chambers. A third 
gallery succeeds, communicating with a cham- 
ber 18 ft. square, and from this is an entrance 
to another gallery 64 paces in length. This in 
its turn connects with several small apartments, 
beyond which lies a saloon 20 ft. square, con- 
taining the royal sarcophagus. The whole ex- 
tent of excavation in this single tomb is upward 
of 225 paces. All the sarcophagi of the kings 
have long since been violated, and the bodies 




The Catacombs of Thebes, Egypt. (From a Photograph.) 



destroyed, doubtless for the sake of plunder ; 
but M. Denon, the French traveller, found the 
fragments of a mummy in one of the royal 
tombs. Robbed as they have been, these tombs 
still preserve their wonderful paintings, after 
in some cases a lapse of 4,000 years. The more 
costly of the catacombs are covered in the 
whole extent of their interior by hieroglyphics 
and pictures, generally in fresco ; and in all, un- 
less wantonly injured by the Arabs, the colors 
are as fresh as if laid on but yesterday. The 
catacombs of the opulent Thebans were lower 
on the mountain than the royal sepulchres, and 
in proportion to the extent of their excava- 
tions they are more or less richly decorated, 
the hues of the paintings are brilliant, and the 
sculptures elegantly defined. Innumerable sub- 
jects are displayed in these tombs, one cham- 
ber being devoted to warlike representations, 
and another to husbandry or agriculture. Eve- 
ry ordinary occupation or amusement is exhib- 
ited, hunting, fishing, feasting, &c. Many of 
the figures are colored yellow on a blue ground, 



exhibiting homage paid to monarchs, execu- 
tions, religious or funeral processions, and in 
short every phase of human life. In some of 
the scenes gangs of African negro slaves, col- 
ored black, and accurately drawn in all leading 
characteristics, such as thick lips and woolly 
hair, are represented. In a group of a double 
file of negroes and Nubians, bound, and driven 
before the chariot of Rameses II., at Ipsam- 
bul, are delineated with perfect accuracy all 
the characteristics of the modern Ethiop. 
The paintings in the Egyptian catacombs 
also exhibit figures of colossal or pigmy 
size, as well as hawk-headed and fox-head- 
ed deities. The complete history of the 
ancient Egyptians may be read in these 
paintings, as every action of their lives is rep- 
resented, with accompanying furniture, even 
down to the playthings of infants. "The 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians," by Sir Gardner "Wilkinson (5 vols., 
London, 1847), contains many hundreds of 
drawings and colored plates directly copied 



CATACOMBS 



from these extraordinary frescoes, and makes 
the reader so intimately acquainted with the 
daily life of an extinct people, that he seems 
actually to dwell among them. The cata- 
combs for the poor were limited in space, rude 
in construction, and unadorned. In conse- 
quence, the mummies were packed together 
as closely as they could be laid, tier on 
tier, leaving a narrow passage between the 
walls of bodies. For nearly the whole pe- 
riod of the Christian era have the Roman 







Catacombs of St. Thraso and St. Saturninus, Rome. 

catacombs attracted the interest of Chris- 
tians, more especially during the last few cen- 
turies. Connected as they were with the trials 
of the early martyrs of the church, their ex- 
ploration and history has ever proved one of 
the favorite branches of research. Many of 
them are of great antiquity, having been origi- 
nally quarries hewn long before the Rome of 
Romulus and Remus was founded, and so ex- 
tended in the course of time, that every one of 
the seven hills on which the city stood was 
perforated and honeycombed by passages, dark 
galleries, low corridors, and vaulted halls, where 
sunshine never enters. The light and soft na- 
ture of the material to be quarried greatly facil- 
itated the work, and allowed the workmen to 
shape their shafts and galleries as they pleased ; 
the excavations being made in the soft volca- 
nic tufa and pozzolano, another volcanic sub- 
stance even softer. As the extent and wealth 
of the city increased, new quarries were contin- 
ually opened, even miles from the banks of the 
Tiber, and continued to be sought through the 
reigns of the Caesars, until the empire began 
to decline, and old edifices were resorted to as 
materials for new ones. None of the ancient 
writers have left any account of the uses of 
these recesses when they were no longer quar- 
ried ; but Horace, speaking of the caverns under 
the Esquiline hill, says : " This was the com- 
mon sepulchre of the miserable plebeians." 
During the time of the persecutions of the 
Christians, commencing with that under Nero, 
and followed by those of Domitian, Trajan, Ha- 
drian, Seve^us, Maximinus, to what is called the 
10th and las\\persecution, which began in A. D. 
303, under Diocletian, the catacombs were 
crowded with those for whom there was no 
\ 



safety in the face of day. It is conjectured 
that many of these sufferers were aided in ob- 
taining secure hiding places by the workmen 
in these caverns, who were well acquainted 
with their intricacies, and who became them- 
selves early converts to the new faith. Some 
modern writers, however, maintain that though 
the quarries were used to some extent as sep- 
ulchres, it is yet evident that the greater part 
of the catacombs were originally constructed as 
places of interment for the dead. They are 
found in every direction outside the walls of the 
city, to the number of about 60 in all. They 
are mostly within a circuit of 3 m. from the 
walls, the furthest, that of St. Alexander, being 
6 m. distant. Each catacomb forms a network 
of passages or galleries, intersecting each other 
generally at right angles, but sometimes diverg- 
ing from a centre. These galleries are usually 
8 ft. high by 3 or 5 ft. wide. The graves are 
in tiers on the sides, and when undisturbed are 
found closed with marble slabs or tiles, on 
which are often inscriptions or Christian em- 
blems. It is calculated that the entire length 
of the catacombs is not less than 580 m., and 
that they contain about 6,000,000 bodies. It 
was not until the year 1377, when the papal 
seat, which for nearly 70 years had been at 
Avignon, was restored to Rome, that the cata- 
combs appear to have attracted any serious 
attention from the government or the clergy. 
This was doubtless owing to the frightful state 
of society, which for some centuries after the ex- 
tinction of the Western empire rendered Rome 
little better than a robbers' stronghold, and 
finally forced the pontiff to flee from the Tiber 
and seek an asylum on the banks of the Rh6ne. 
At this period the catacombs, from having 
been the habitations of persecuted Christians, 
were thronged with outlaws and assassins; 
but as the papal authorities acquired strength, 
many of them were driven out and the en- 
trances to many of their retreats were closed. 
About 1535, under Pope Paul III., some few of 
the most remarkable of the crypts were ex- 
plored, cleared, and lighted by lamps. A deep 
interest in subterranean Rome having thus been 
awakened, Father Bosio, a humble priest, but 
an enthusiastic antiquary, spent more than 
30 years of his life in digging and groping in 
the catacombs ; he cleared the way into some 1 
of the innermost recesses, which had been 
blocked up for centuries, and made drawings 
of the ancient monuments, inscriptions, paint- 
ings, sculptures, lamps, vases, &c., found un- 
derground. He did not live to see his work 
published, as he died (1629) while writing tlie 
last chapter; but it appeared in 1632, edited 
by Father Severani, and under the title of 
Roma sotterranea. It was translated into 
Latin by Father Aringhi, and still forms the 
most important work on the Roman cata- 
combs. He was followed by Father Boldetti, 
who also spent more than 30 years in his sub- 
terranean research, and published in 1720 a 
folio volume, entitled "Observations on the 



CATACOMBS 



95 



Cemeteries of the Holy Martyrs and Ancient 
Christians of Rome." This work is exceedingly 
valuable. These two enthusiastic and meritori- 
ous priests have been succeeded by such inves- 
tigators as Bottari, Marangoni, Lupi, Fabretti, 
Filippo, Buonarotti, Allegranza, &c. Seroux 
d'Agincourt is one of the most distinguished 
authorities of modern times ; he went to Rome 
in the latter part of the last century to study 
Christian archaeology and remain there for six 
months, but he became so interested in his in- 
quiries that he stayed nearly 50 years. His 
great work, Histoire de Vart par les monumens, 
depim sa decadence au 4* siecle jusqu'd, son re- 
nouvellement au 16, treats of the catacombs 
with profound learning and discrimination. 
Among more recent works is the magnificent 
one published at the expense of the French 
government, Les Cataeombes de Home, by 
Louis Ferret (Paris, 1853); and in English, 
those of the Rev. Spencer Northcote, "The 
Roman Catacombs" (London, 1859), and 
"Roma Sotterranea" (London, 1869). The 
distinguished Roman antiquary, the chevalier 
de' Rossi, is preparing for publication a com- 
plete collection of all the Christian inscriptions, 
amounting to upward of 11,000, of which one 
voL folio appeared in 1861. The same author 
is engaged upon a general work under the title 
of Roma sotterranea cristiana, of which vol. i. 
appeared in 1866. Among other recent writers 
of importance on the Roman catacombs may be 
mentioned Maitland, "Church in the Cata- 
combs;" Kip, "The Catacombs of Rome;" 
Schaff, R6musat, Jehan, Martigny, and Bouix. 
Under Pius IX. their exploration has been car- 
ried on with much intelligence and energy, and 
has resulted in many interesting and valuable 
discoveries. A full statement of these re- 
searches since November, 1871, is given in De' 
Rossi's Bollettino di Archeologia, new series, 
No. IV. "When Bosio's discoveries were made 
known Pope Clement VIII. took the catacombs 
under his special protection, and decreed ex- 
communication and severe corporal punishment 
against any one who should enter them without 



leave, or remove from them the least object 
whatsoever. So highly were the virtues of the 
Christian martyrs esteemed, that personages of 
the highest distinction were buried in the cata- 
combs, and were happy if they thought that 
after their death such honor should be paid to 
their remains. Among illustrious men thus 
entombed were the popes Leo I., Gregory the 
Great, Gregory II. and III., and Leo IX. ; and 
the emperors Honorius, Valentinian, and Otho 
II. The catacombs of Naples have larger and 
higher chambers and galleries than those of 
Rome ; they are excavated in the volcanic tufa 
in the face of the hill of Capodimonte, forming 
a long series of corridors and chambers, ar- 
ranged in three stories communicating with 
each other by steps. The only entrance now 
open is that of the church of San Gennaro. 
Their construction has given rise to many spec- 
ulations among the antiquaries of Naples, but 
is now generally ascribed to the colonists from 
Greece. Subsequently they were used by the 
early Christians for purposes of sepulture as well 
as of worship. St. Januarius and other mar- 
tyrs were interred here. In the middle of the 
17th century they were made the burial place 
of the victims of the plague, and at the begin- 
ning of this century several bodies were found 
by Domenico Romanelli. The catacombs of 
Syracuse form an immense subterranean tqwn, 
with innumerable tombs cut out of the solid 
rock, containing the dead of all ages, nation- 
alities, and creeds. They, also, were con- 
verted by the early Christians into places of 
refuge from persecution. The entrance to 
them is under the church of San Giovanni. 
The catacombs of Malta are of small ex- 
tent, but in good preservation. They seem 
to have been used for a place of worship as 
well- as of sepulture. The so-called catacombs 
of Paris were never catacombs in the ancient 
sense of the word, and not devoted to sepulchral 
purposes until the year 1784, when the council 
of state issued a decree for clearing the cemetery 
of the Innocents, and for removing its contents, 
as well as those of other graveyards, into the 




161 



VOL. IV. 7 



The Catacombs of Paris. 



96 



CATACOMBS 



CATALEPSY 



quarries which had existed from a remote pe- 
riod beneath the southern part of Paris, and by 
which the observatory, the Luxembourg, the 
Od6on, the Val de Grace, the Pantheon, and the 
streets La Harpe, St. Jacques, Tournon, Vau- 
girard, and many others were completely un- 
dermined. Some excavations having taken 
place, a special commission was appointed to 
direct such works as might be required. En- 
gineers and workmen were immediately em- 
ployed to examine the whole of the quarries, 
and prop the streets, roads, churches, palaces, 
and buildings of all kinds which were in danger 
of being engulfed. The plan of converting the 
quarries into catacombs originated with M. 
Lenoir, lieutenant general of the police, and 
every preparation was made by sinking a shaft, 
propping up the cavities, and walling off various 
portions for receiving their future contents. 
The ceremony of consecrating the catacombs 
was performed with great solemnity on April 
7, 1786, and on the same day the removal 
from the cemeteries began. This work was 
always performed at night; the bones were 
brought in funeral cars, covered with a pall, 
and followed by priests chanting the service of 
the dead, and when they reached the cata- 
combs the bones were shot down the shaft. 
Such tombstones, monuments, &c., as were 
not claimed by the families of the deceased, 
were arranged in a field near the entrance of 
the shaft, and among these relics was the 
leaden coffin of Mine, de Pompadour. As other 
cemeteries were suppressed, the bones from 
them were removed to this general deposit 
by order of the government. The catacombs 
served also as convenient receptacles for those 
who perished in popular commotions or mas- 
sacres. At first the bones were heaped up 
without any kind of order, except that those 
from each cemetery were kept separate ; but in 
1810 a regular system of arranging them was 
commenced, and the skulls and bones were 
built up along the wall. The principal entrance 
to the catacombs is near the barriere d'Enfer, 
but for some years past admission into them 
has been strictly interdicted, on account of the 
dangerous state of the roofs of the quarries. 
From the entrance a flight of 90 steps descends 
to the catacombs ; a series of galleries are then 
seen branching in various directions, and sev- 
eral hundred yards from the steps is the vesti- 
bule, of octagonal form, and over the door is 
the following inscription : Has ultra metas re- 
nuiescunt beatam spem spectantea. The vesti- 
bule opens into a long gallery lined with bones 
from the floor to the roof; the arm, leg, and 
thigh bones are in front, closely and regularly 
piled together, and their uniformity is relieved 
by three rows of skulls at equal distances. Be- 
hind these are throi -n the smaller bo\es. This 
gallery conducts to .'everal rooms resembling 
chapels, lined with bones variously aiWnged. 
One is called the "Tomb of the Revolution," 
another the "Tomb of Victims," and contain 
the bodies of those who perished eitbe in 



the early period of the revolution, or in the 
massacres of September. Calculations differ 
as to the number of bones collected in this vast 
charnel house, but it is 'estimated to contain at 
least the remains of 3,000,000 human beings. 
A map of the catacombs and quarries under the 
city has been drawn up by the order of the 
municipal authorities. These excavations are 
3,000,000 square metres in extent. 

CATAHOULA, an E. central parish of Louis- 
iana, bounded E. and S. E. by Tensas and Black 
rivers, S. and S. W. by the Saline; area, 1,970 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,475, of whom 4,083 
were colored. Catahoula lake is in the S. part. 
It is watered by the Washita, Tensas, Black, 
and Little rivers, several of which are navi- 
gable by steamboats through the parish and on 
its borders. Near the Washita river the sur- 
face is partly occupied by hills. The soil in 
some parts is fertile, and lies upon a bed of 
sandstone. The chief productions in 1870 
were 76,165 bushels of Indian corn, 6,528 of 
sweet potatoes, and 8,872 bales of cotton. 
There were 1,449 horses, 8,062 milch cows, 
7,360 other cattle, 1,751 sheep, and 12,372 
swine. Capital, Harrisonburg. 

CATALANI, Angelica, an Italian singer, born at 
Sinigaglia about 1785, died in Paris, June 13, 
1849. When only seven years old she attracted 
general attention by the remarkable power and 
purity of her voice. People went in such 
numbers to the convent of St. Lucia, near 
Rome, where she received her education, to 
hear her, that the police had to check the 
pressure of the crowd. In 1802 she made her 
debut in opera in Rome with marked success,' 
and afterward fulfilled engagements in the 
principal cities of Italy. She next appeared in 
Italian opera in Lisbon, Madrid, Paris, and 
London, where her singing created the greatest 
enthusiasm. In 1815 she returned from Eng- 
land to Paris, where for about four years she 
was connected with the management of the 
Italian opera in coSperation with her husband, 
M. de Valabregue, formerly a captain in the 
French army. In this enterprise she was not 
successful. Her clear, powerful voice electri- 
fied the English, especially in " God save the 
King; " but her influence over continental au- 
diences was not so great. She sang in Ger- 
many, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, and Russia, 
returning also occasionally to her native coun- 
try, and afterward again made her appearance 
in Paris, but without meeting with great suc- 
cess. In 1830 she withdrew from the stage, 
and devoted herself at Florence to the educa- 
tion of her three children, and established a 
free singing school for girls. In June, 1849, 
during the revolution in Tuscany, she went to 
Paris with her daughters, but almost imme- 
diately after her arrival she fell a victim to the 
cholera. She had amassed a large fortune. 

CATALEPSY (Gr. /car^Y"?; seizure), a non- 
febrile affection, occurring in paroxysms, and 
characterized by a sudden deprivation of in- 
telligence, sensation, and voluntary motion. 



CATALEPSY 



CATALONIA 



9T 



The disease ia so seldom met with that some 
well known writers have doubted its existence, 
and have attributed the recorded cases to im- 
posture. Bourdin (Traite de la catalepsie, 
Paris, 1841), who collected all the recorded 
facts within his reach, was able to unite but 38 
well characterized observations. The attack 
is often preceded by headache, confusion of 
mind, loss of memory, &c. ; more commonly, 
however, nothing of the kind has been noticed. 
During the paroxysm the patient retains the 
position and expression of countenance he had 
at the moment of the seizure ; the face is com- 
monly pale, sometimes slightly flushed ; the 
pupils are dilated, but contract on exposure to 
a strong light ; the limbs can be moved with 
the exertion of a little force, and retain the 
new position which may be given them ; if the 
patient is standing and is pushed, he makes no 
effort to save himself; if placed in a painful and 
constrained attitude, it is retained during the 
paroxysm. The unvarying, motionless attitude 
and fixed expression give a strange and corpse- 
like look to the sufferer. The duration of the 
attack is variable ; sometimes it lasts but a few 
minutes, sometimes 12 or 14 hours ; cases are 
recorded in which it has been prolonged to 20 
or even 30 days. Many cases occur in which 
the attack is less characteristically marked, or 
in which a portion only of the symptoms is 
present. Although deprived of speech and 
voluntary motion, the patient is more or less con- 
scious of what is passing around him. In Dun- 
can's " Medical Commentaries," a case is related 
of a woman who in this state of partial cata- 
lepsy was taken for dead, and who was per- 
fectly conscious of what was occurring around 
her, while her body was being laid out and pre- 
pared for interment. In ecstasy, a disease 
allied to catalepsy, and which by imperceptible 
degrees passes into it, the patient is insensible 
to everything about him, while the mind is 
absorbed in some one object or train of ideas; 
the muscles are either relaxed or in a state of 
almost tetanic rigidity, while the patient speaks 
and sings, perhaps with greater readiness and 
ease than in his natural condition. This con- 
dition is frequently occasioned in nervous and 
hysterical persons by religious excitement, and 
is often produced in a similar class of persons 
by animal magnetism. It is one much more 
commonly assumed by impostors than true 
catalepsy. Both catalepsy and ecstasy seem to 
be closely allied to hysteria ; they occur for the 
most part in young females of nervous habit, 
and both the one and the other often com- 
mence or terminate in it; occasionally, how- 
ever, as is likewise the case with some of the 
more ordinary manifestations of hysteria, they 
have their origin in serious disease of the brain. 
The age and history of the patient will help the 
intelligent physician to discriminate such cases. 
Some strong moral excitement is generally the 
immediate cause of the disease, but when it is 
already formed, or when the predisposition to 
it is very strong, a most trifling cause a sud- 



den noise, the surprise of an unexpected visit, 
&c. may induce a paroxysm. In itself the 
disease is never fatal, and morbid anatomy 
throws no light upon it. In regard to the 
treatment, in the interval between the par- 
oxysms means should be employed to improve 
the general health and give tone to the nervous 
system. During the paroxysm the feet may 
be immersed in a mustard foot bath and cold 
applications made to the head ; of these, where 
it can be borne, the cold douche is best. 

CATALONIA (Span. Cataluna), a maritime di- 
vision of Spain, on the Mediterranean, lying 
between lat. 40 30' and 42 51' N., and Ion. 
15' and 3 21' E. ; area 12,504 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1867, 1,744,052. It is bounded N. by the 
Pyrenees, E. by the Mediterranean, S. by Va- 
lencia, and W. by Aragon. The coast line ia 
about 240 m. ; the principal ports are Barce- 
lona, Kosas, and Tarragona, connected by rail- 
way with other parts of the Spanish coast and 
with the interior. Catalonia is divided into the 
provinces of Barcelona, Tarragona, L6rida, and 
Gerona. The face of the country is much 
broken by spurs of the Pyrenees. Some of 
these mountain ranges diverge toward the 
Mediterranean ; others, of which the chief ia 
the Sierra de la Llena, pursue a S. W. direction 
to the Ebro, and form a watershed in which 26 
rivers have their rise, and flow either westward 
to the Ebro or eastward to the sea. The prin- 
cipal of these streams are the Segre, a tributary 
of the Ebro, the Noguera Pallaresa and Noguera 
Rivagorzana, tributaries of the Segre, the Llo- 
bregat, Francoli, Tordera, Ter, and Fluvia. 
None of these are navigable to any great ex- 
tent. The general grade of the country is a 
descent from the mountain altitudes of the Py- 
renees to the plateaus of upper Catalonia, and 
thence to the plains which skirt the Mediterra- 
nean. Most of the inland mountains are of 
granitic formation; those near the coast are 
limestone. Traces of volcanic origin are found 
especially in the vicinity of Barcelona. Val- 
leys of remarkable fertility intersect the moun- 
tains. Such are the plateau of Urgel, and 
the valleys of Cerdafia, Tarragona, Vails, La 
Selva, Igualada, Cervera, Ampurdan, and L6ri- 
da. About half the surface is susceptible of 
cultivation, the rest consisting of rocks, bar- 
rens, and woodlands. Forests of beech, pine, 
elm, and cork are found in the mountainous 
districts. Iron, copper, lead, and manganese 
are found ; coal is met with in quantity, but it 
has been turned to little account ; crystals, ame- 
thysts, topaz, jasper, and marble occur; and 
there are hot and mineral springs in various 
parts. Of alum, nitre, and rock salt the sup- 
plies are inexhaustible ; at Cardona is a mound 
of pure salt, 500 ft. in height and 3 m. in cir- 
cumference. Near Olot, 55 m. N. of Barcelona, 
is a remarkable district of extinct volcanoes. 
Montserrat is a single and precipitous moun- 
tain, composed of a number of conical hills 
heaped in confusion over one another, and 
broken into fantastic shapes of parti-colored 



CATALONIA 



OATALPA 



limestone. The climate of Catalonia varies 
with the altitude of the region, but is in gen- 
eral temperate, the heat being moderated by 
sea or mountain breezes. The country is con- 
sidered healthy, the interior more so than the 
coast. Although the 'orange, lemon, almond, 
olive, and fig grow on the plains, they are 
produced in less abundance than in other 
districts of Spain ; but orchard fruits ripen in 
perfection. The vine is exceedingly produc- 
tive, and wine is the staple export. Agricul- 
ture is further advanced in Catalonia than in 
any other part of Spain. This is partly owing 
to the industrious character of the people, 
partly to the nature of the soil, and in a con- 
siderable measure to the more equitable ten- 
ure of land. All kinds of grain are cultivated 
and consumed at home, leaving no surplus for 
export. The soil is usually a light loam, easily 
worked. Irrigation being necessary to make it 
productive, it is found profitable to grow wine 
and oil in preference to breadstutts. Flax, 
hemp, dyestutts, honey, and wax are produced 
in considerable quantity. Nuts and cork are 
important articles of export. Silk growing is 
but little attended to, and the raising of wool 
and cattle is of comparatively small extent. 
Since the liberation of the South American 
provinces, the commerce of Catalonia has 
greatly fallen off. The shoe trade, calico 
weaving, and ship building, which were for- 
merly important branches of industry, have al- 
most ceased to exist. Activity, however, con- 
tinues in the fabrication of silks, velvets, 
ribbons, hosiery, linen and laces, leather, hats, 
cordage, brandy, cannon and small arms, glass, 
soap, hollow ware, and copper utensils. These 
are exported to France, England, and Holland, 
in exchange for textiles, jewelry, codfish, her- 
ring, and other articles of consumption. Along 
the coast a large proportion of the inhabitants are 
engaged in the fisheries, and there are few good 
harbors. Catalonia under the Romans origi- 
nally belonged to Hispania Citerior, but in the 
time of Augustus it formed part of the Pro- 
vincia Tarraconensis. Caesar made Tarragona 
the centre of his operations during his first 
war in Spain, and it was the chief place of 
residence of the generals who succeeded him. 
Early in the 5th century the province was oc- 
cupied by the Goths and Alans, and its name 
is supposed by some to be derived from a com- 
bination of the names of these two nations, and 
to have been at first Gothalnnia. In 712 it 
was occupied by the Moors, who held it only 
a few years ; and in 788 it formed part of the 
vast empire of Charlemagne. His successors, 
however, maintained only a nominal sove- 
reignty over it, the real power being in the 
hands of several counts among whom its terri- 
tory was divided. In the early part of the 
12th century the most powerful among these 
was Raymond Berenger, count of Barcelona, 
who succeeded in reducing all the others to sub- 
jection. In 1137 he married Petronilla, heiress 
of the throne of Aragon, and Catalonia was 



united to that kingdom. It afterward rebelled 
several times, but toward the end of the 15th 
century it became an integral part of the 
Spanish empire, though still retaining many of 
its peculiar rights and privileges. Philip IV. 
having attempted to take these away, it revolted 
in 1640, and in 1641 gave itself up to Louis XIII. 
of France. It was restored to Spain in 1659, 
and again occupied by the French from 1094 
to 1697. During the war of the succession it 
supported the archduke Charles. After the 
treaty of Utrecht in 1713, by which the right 
of Philip V. to the throne of Spain was ac- 
knowledged, Catalonia continued for a year to 
resist, but was subdued and deprived of its 
ancient rights and liberties in 1714. The 
French occupied it in 1808, after having been 
strongly resisted by the inhabitants, and again 
evacuated it in 1813. In 1828 it ottered a 
staunch resistance to the restoration of abso- 
lutism under Ferdinand VII. Its rural in- 
habitants have always been warm supporters 
of the Carlist party, and it is at present (1878) 
the chief scene of their operations. Barcelona, 
on the other hand, has made itself equally con- 
spicuous by its republican spirit. 

CATALPA, a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order bignoniacece, whose generic char- 
acteristics are a two-parted calyx, a bell-shap- 
ed, swelling corolla, five stamens, two of which 
only are fertile, a long, slender, cylindrical 
pod, and broadly winged seeds. There are 
three species, all of them trees, with simple 
leaves and panicled, terminal flowers. The C. 
yringifolia (Loud.) is indigenous in the south- 
ern parts of the United States, and is cultivated 
as an ornamental tree in most of the cities of 
the northern states. It is distinguished by its 







Catalpa syringlfolla. 

silver-gray, slightly furrowed bark, its wide- 
spreading head, disproportioned in size to the 
diameter of its trunk, the fewness of its branch- 



CATALYSIS 



CATAMENIA 



99 



es, and the fine pule green of its very large 
heart-shaped leaves. Its showy flowers are 
white, slightly tinged with violet, and dotted 
with purple and violet in the throat. They 
are succeeded by pods, often a foot in length, 
which hang till the next spring. In its natural 
locality, this tree frequently exceeds 50 ft. in 
height, with a trunk from 18 to 24 in. in diame- 
ter ; but in Massachusetts it dwindles to a mere 
shrub, and is often killed by the frost. It is 
cultivated in gardens in England, and on the 
continent of Europe. One of the oldest and 
largest catalpas in England is in Gray's Inn 
gardens, and is said to have been planted there 
by Lord Bacon. In parts of Italy and in the 
south of France the catalpa is planted as a 
wayside tree, and along the avenues to country 
villas. It may be propagated either by seeds 
or from cuttings of the root. It usually reach- 
es the height of 20 ft. in 10 years, soon after 
which it begins to blossom. The wood is light, 
of a very fine texture, susceptible of a brilliant 
polish, and often used in cabinet-making. 

CATALYSIS (Gr. narakveiv, to resolve), in chem- 
istry, a name given by Berzelius to an obscure 
class of phenomena of which little is positive- 
ly known. He says : " Certain bodies exert, by 
their contact with others, such an influence 
upon these bodies, that chemical action is ex- 
cited; compounds are destroyed or new ones 
are formed, although the substance by which 
these actions are induced does not take the 
slightest part in their changes." It is now 
thought that this catalytic force is purely 
imaginary; most of the phenomena which 
have hitherto been referred to its agency being 
occasioned by several different causes, which 
often admit of being distinguished from each 
other, and which may be explained by the ac- 
tive operation of other known forces. 

CATAMARCA. I. A province of the Argen- 
tine Republic, lying between lat. 25 and 29 
S., and Ion. 66 and 69 W., and bounded 1ST. 
by the province of Salta, E. by Tucuman and 
Santiago, S. by Rioja, and W. by the Chilian 
Andes ; area, 35,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1869, 
79,551, most of whom, with the exception of 
411 foreigners, are mestizos and Indians of pure 
blood, descendants of the once numerous and 
formidable tribe of the Calchaquis. Catamar- 
ca, the most picturesque of all the Andine 
provinces, is intersected by lofty mountain 
chains, the highest and most generally known 
of which is the Sierra de Aconquija, nearly 
17,000 feet high. Watercourses are very nu- 
merous, but the only one deserving the name 
of river is the Santa Maria. Most of the 
streams become dry in summer, but in winter 
they swell to enormous proportions and com- 
mit great ravages. Some of the elevated plains 
are entirely deprived of water and all moisture, 
being sandy deserts ; while others are periodi- 
cally inundated, and when the water subsides 
are covered with immense crystallized cakes 
of salt, which are cut into blocks of about 24 
inches square, and transported on llamas to 



the neighboring provinces. The principal 
other minerals are gold and silver, rich mines 
of which were formerly worked, but afterward 
abandoned, and copper, which is extracted in 
large quantities. The vegetable productions 
comprise nearly all the grains, fruits, and vege- 
tables of tropical and temperate climates, ap- 
ples being especially plentiful. Cotton, said to 
be the finest in the world, is raised, though 
much less extensively than formerly ; and 
there are vast forests yielding many kinds of 
valuable timber. The inhabitants are mainly 
occupied in agriculture, the manufacture of 
earthenware, weaving of ponchos and horse 
covers, and other fabrics of llama, vicufia, and 
sheep's wool, and also of alpaca. Large herds 
of these animals, and likewise of horned cattle, 
asses, and mules, are raised for export. Ca- 
tamarca also exports raisins, tolerable wine, 
brandy, hides, leather, tobacco, red pepper, 
anise and cummin seeds, cochineal, copper in 
bars, &c. II. A city, capital of the province, 
situated in its centre, in a valley formed by the 
Ambato mountains, 725 m. N. W. of Buenos 
Ayres; pop. about 6,000. The streets are well 
laid out, and the houses, although extremely 
diverse in size, are strongly built and nearly 
all whitewashed, and surrounded by orange 
trees. The country immediately surrounding 
it is highly cultivated. The chief occupation 
of the inhabitants is the manufacture of woollen 
and silk hats. There are several flour mills 
and some other industrial establishments. 

CATAMENIA (Gr. Kara, according to, and fifjv, 
month), or Menses, a monthly flowing of san- 
guineous fluid, which occurs in the female 
economy. The function of menstruation gen- 
erally commences at the age of puberty, and 
terminates at the " critical period," or " change 
of life," including a period of some 30 years, 
between the ages of 14 and 45. The blood of 
the catamenial flux is exuded from the vessels 
of the uterus, and escapes through the vagina; 
the flow generally returns every 28 days, and 
continues from 3 to 6 days. The amount dis- 
charged varies from 4 to 8 oz. in most cases. 
The first menstrual flow is generally preceded 
by languor, pains in the back, headache, chil- 
liness, &c., which usually disappear when the 
discharge takes place. The after occurrences 
are often unaccompanied in healthy females by 
any premonitory or attendant symptoms. Du- 
ring the whole of a woman's menstrual life she 
is capable of bearing children. After it is clos- 
ed, she ceases child-bearing. The influence of 
climate in advancing or retarding the period 
of puberty and menstruation has been shown 
by recent observation to have been formerly 
much overrated, the average period being much 
the same all over the world, and exceptional 
cases about as numerous in one region as in 
another. Mr. Robertson has shown, from sta- 
tistical evidence, that menstruation does not 
occur more early in the negress than in the 
white female, and Dr. Vaigas affirms that pre- 
cocious menstruation is more common in the 



100 



CATAMOUNT 



CATANZARO 



white than in the colored races. Early mar- 
riages in Hindostan and other warm climates, 
then, do not depend on natural precocity, but 
on the habits and customs of the country. 
The uterus is congested during the menstrua- 
tion, and so are the ovaries and the Fallopian 
tubes ; the tissues of the vagina are relaxed, 
and the os uteri is softened and swollen; these 
conditions disappear when the flow ceases, and 
the parts return to their natural state. During 
pregnancy and lactation the menses usually 
cease, and they may also be suppressed from 
other local causes. Vicarious menstruation 
sometimes takes place as a means of obviating 
the ,ill efl'ects of suppressed menstruation, by 
substituting a similar discharge from some 
other part. It occurs from the gums, the nos- 
trils, the lungs, the stomach, or even from the 
eyes, and other parts of the body. 

CATAMOUNT. See COUOCAR. 

CATANIA. I. A province of Sicily, on the E. 
coast, bounded N. by Messina, E. by the Ionian 
tea, S. by Syracuse, and W. by Caltanisetta and 




Square of the Elephant 

Palermo; area, 1,970 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 479,- 
850. It comprises the four districts of Catania, 
Acireale, Caltagirone, and Nicosia. With the 
exception of the Piana di Catania (plain of Ca- 
tania), the province is mountainous, and in- 
cludes in its limits Mt. Etna. The chief rivers 
are the Giaretta and its affluents. The Piana 
is very fertile, but only imperfectly cultivated. 
Near Militello and Scordia there are, however, 
flourishing plantations of olives and oranges. 
The slopes of Mt. Etna are covered with rich 
pastures. The chief articles of export are sul- 
phur, grain (chiefly wheat), wine, oranges, 
lemons, nuts, oil, kid skins, linseed, sumach, 
soda, lava, and snow from Etna, which is sent 
to the ports of Sicily, to southern Italy, and 
Malta. Manufactures of silk and cotton are 
leading industries. A colony of Albanians in 
this province has preserved for more than 400 



years the Albanian language and the Greek 
rite in divine worship. II. A city (anc. Ca- 
tana or Catina), capital of the province, situ- 
ated on the E. coast, on the shore of the gulf 
of Catania, which is an inlet of the Mediter- 
ranean, at the foot of Mt. Etna, 30 m. N. N. 
W. of Syracuse ; pop. in 1872, 84,397. It is 
the handsomest city in Sicily, with wide and 
regular streets, and numerous and splendid 
public buildings. Its vicinity to Etna has in- 
troduced the use of lava for various purposes. 
The streets are paved with it, the finest build- 
ings are made of it, and it is formed also into 
ornamental chimneypieces, tables, and toys. 
It has many remains of the ancient Eoman 
city, among which are an amphitheatre, a 
theatre, and ruins of baths and temples. Its 
principal public edifices are the cathedral, re- 
built since the earthquake of 1C93, the senate 
house, the university, and a vast Benedictine 
convent. Since 1867 it has been the seat of an 
archbishop, formerly of a bishop. It is one of 
the three principal ports of Sicily, and is the 
leading mart for silk ; 
besides the silks retain- 
ed for the local manu- 
factories, considerable 
quantities are exported. 
Cotton manufactures, 
which were formerly 
limited to coarse cloths 
for home consumption, 
have recently received 
a great development. 
Cotton is also exported 
to France and England. 
There are also manufac- 
tures of linen, and car- 
vings of amber, lava, 
marble, and wood. 
The city is supposed to 
have been founded in 
the latter part of the 

8th century B. C. by 

^ "- *- _ " (Jreek colonists from 
the neighboring town 
of Naxos. It suffered 

severely during the Syracusan and Roman wars, 
and in the first Punic war sided with the Cartha- 
ginians, but was among the first of the Sicilian 
cities to submit to the Romans after its close. It 
has been several times destroyed by earthquakes 
and eruptions of Etna ; as in 121 B. C., A. D. 
1169, 1669, and 1693 ; but it has each time been 
rebuilt with greater beauty than before. In 
1848 and 1849 there were violent popular out- 
breaks; and on April 6, 1849, the Neapolitans 
expelled the Sicilians from the city. 

CATANZARO. I. Or Calabria Ulteriore II., a 
province of S. Italy, in the former kingdom 
of Naples, bounded N. by Cosenza, E. by the 
Ionian sea, S. by Reggio, and "W. by the Tyr- 
rhenian sea ; area, 2,307 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
412,226. It comprises the four districts of Ni- 
castro, Cotrone, Catanzaro, and Monteleone. 
One half of the province is level, the other 



\ 



CATAPLASM 



CATARACT 



101 



half partly hilly and partly mountainous. Only 
a small portion is watered by small rivers. The 
chief products are vegetables, chestnuts, acorns, 
inilk, cheese, butter, silk, wool, hemp, lumber, 
oil, and wine. It has several coal mines and mar- 
ble quarries. II. The capital of the province, 
situated on a mountain near the gulf of Squil- 
lace, 30 m. S. S. E. of Cosenza ; pop. in 1872, 
24,901. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a 
cathedral, several churches and convents, a cas- 
tle, a royal academy of sciences, and numerous 
schools and charitable institutions. Consider- 
able trade is carried on in cattle, corn, and 
wine, and there are manufactures of silk vel- 
vet, embroidery, and carpets. It suffered se- 
verely from the earthquake of 1783, which 
overthrew some of the principal buildings. 

CATAPLASM (Gr. KaTaxXdaaeiv, to spread over, 
to plaster), a poultice or soft substance applied 
externally to some part of the body, either to 
repress inflammation and allay pain, or to pro- 
mote inflammation or its consequences, and 
lessen the pain attending it. For the former 
purpose it is applied cold, and often contains 
a preparation of lead to increase its astrin- 
gent and refrigerating power; for the latter 
it is used at different degrees of temperature. 
When intended to hasten the progress of in- 
flammation and lead to suppuration, poultices 
should be of as high a temperature as the part 
will bear, but of a lower temperature when 
used as mere emollients. Cotton wool, steeped 
in water, and bound to the part with a light 
bandage, is a very simple and efficient applipa- 
tion, in most cases where a cold poultice is re- 
quired to allay pain and repress inflammation. 
Warm poultices may be made of bread, slip- 
pery elm bark, or flaxseed meal. 

CATAPULT (Gr. Kara, against, and ir&Ueiv, to 
hurl), an ancient military engine for throwing 
stones, darts, and other missiles, invented in 
Syracuse in the reign of Dionysius the Elder. 
It acted upon the principle of the bow, and 
consisted of wood framework, a part of which 
was elastic, and furnished with tense cords of 




Catapult. 

hair or gut. Catapults were of various sizes, 
being designed either for field service or bom- 
bardments. The largest of them projected 
beams 6 ft. long and weighing 60 Ibs. to the 



distance of 400 paces, and Josephus gives in- 
stances of their throwing great stones to the 
distance of a quarter of a mile. The Romans 
employed 300 of them at the siege of Jerusa- 
lem. From the time of Julius Caesar it is not 
distinguished by Latin authors from the lal- 
lista, which was originally used only for throw- 
ing masses of stone. 

CATARACT, a disease of the eye in which 
there is an opacity of the crystalline lens or of 
its capsular investment. It is most common in 
old persons, in whom it seems to be the natural 
consequence of age ; but it also occurs in infants, 
and is even congenital ; it appears to be more 
frequent in cold and damp climates than in 
warmer regions, and it is certainly hereditary 
in many instances. Among the exciting causes, 
especially of the capsular form, are wounds and 
inflammations of the internal eye ; but the 
ordinary cause is the diminished nutrition of 
the organ in common with others in advancing 
age. True cataract may be either lenticular, 
capsular, or capsulo-lehticular, according as the 
seat of the opacity is in the lens itself, in its 
capsule, or in both at the same time. Certain 
cases of opacity external to the crystalline ap- 
paratus have been called false cataracts, and 
may be caused by the effusion of lymph, blood, 
or pus, or by false membranes ; secondary cata- 
racts are those which follow the surgical opera- 
tions for the extraction or depression of the 
lens. The lenticular cataract may vary in 
hardness from stony to gelatinous ; its opacity 
is rarely uniform, being generally thickest in 
the centre and thinnest on the edges ; in some 
cases the opacity begins at the circumference 
in rays which slowly converge to the centre ; 
the color varies from pearly white to amber 
yellow. The capsular cataract, which Velpeau 
considers more common than the lenticular, 
offers a great variety of colors and streaks, and 
may occupy either the anterior or posterior 
surface, or both. In the last form of cataract 
both the lens and its capsules are involved, with 
the varieties common to both. The physical 
sign of cataract is a more or less troubled 
appearance behind the pupil, of a yellowish 
color, deepest in the centre, and becoming more 
distinct as the disease progresses ; the rational 
sign is a gradual diminution of vision, accom- 
panied by the sensation as if a cloud, specks, 
spiders' webs, or snowflakes were passing be- 
fore the eyes ; objects are seen best in certain 
positions of the head, as when turned on one 
side, and during the evening or in the shade 
when the dilated iris permits more light to 
enter the pupil; on looking at a candle the 
flame appears surrounded by a thick bright 
haze. The progress of the disease is very slow, 
generally unaccompanied by fever, pain, or any 
disturbance of the general health. It is very 
rare for a person to be unable to distinguish 
day from night. M. Sanson has proposed an 
excellent catoptric test for the detection of 
cataract by the reflection of light. When a 
lighted candle is held before the eye of a 



102 



CATARACT 



healthy person, three images of it may be seen : 
the first erect, moving upward when the can- 
dle is moved upward, produced by reflection 
from the cornea ; the second also erect, pro- 
duced by reflection from the anterior surface 
of the crystalline capsule, and moving upward 
with the candle ; the third very small and in- 
verted, reflected from the posterior surface of 
the capsule, moving downward when the light 
is carried upward. In cataract, the inverted 
image is from the beginning indistinct, and 
soon disappears entirely ; the deep, erect one 
is also soon rendered invisible. By dilating 
the pupil with belladonna, this experiment is 
rendered easy and striking. Cataract is for 
the most part remediable only by a surgical 
operation; certain forms, caused by inflamma- 
tion of the capsule, may disappear with the 
exciting cause without an operation ; and cases 
are on record of the spontaneous cure of len- 
ticular cataract by the rupture of the capsule 
and the escape of the lens into the anterior 
chamber of the eye, where it is gradually dis- 
solved. From the earliest antiquity surgeons 
have attempted to destroy cataract by means 
of needles and knives of various forms. When- 
ever the disease is confined to the lens and 
its capsule, and the eye in other respects is 
healthy, and the patient not too young or too 
old, an operation may be attempted with a 
prospect of success ; in infants, and in persons 
under 20 years of age, both eyes may be ope- 
rated on at once; after the age of 80, the 
chance of a successful issue is generally small. 
Before submitting persons to this operation, 
it is well to prepare them a day before by a 
mild diet and a gentle laxative, and to allay 
any inflammatory tendency of the organ ; and 
then to smear belladonna ointment around the 
orbit, or to put a few drops of its fluid extract 
into the eye, for the purpose of dilating the 
pupil to its utmost extent. All operations for 
cataract reduce themselves to three, which have 
for their object either to displace the lens, to 
break it up, or to remove it from the eye. 1. 
Operation for depression of the lens, or couch- 
ing. The description of this may be found 
even as far back as Cclsus ; it has undergone 
many modifications in modern times. The in- 
strument employed is ^ fine needle, either 
slightly curved at the end" or straight with the 
point spear-shaped ; Scarpa>'s needle is slightly 
curved at the end. When th needle is passed 
through the sclerotic, as ordinarily, the opera- 
tion is called scleroticonyxis ; when it is passed 
through the cornea, Keratonyxis. Different 
needles are preferred by different operators ; 
but, as in the case of the stethoscope, that in- 
strument is the best to which the surgeon is 
accustomed. In scleroticonyxu the needle, 
held like a pen, is passed through the sclerotic 
perpendicularly to its surface, a line or two 
from the cornea and a little below its trans- 
verse diameter ; the concavity of the instrument 
is turned down, in order to separate rather than 
to divide the fibres of the membrane ; when the 



needle is fairly in, its concavity is turned back- 
ward, so that it may pass under and before the 
lens without touching the iris or the capsule ; 
when it has reached as far as the pupil, the cap- 
sule is lacerated by delicate circular movements 
of the point ; then the needle is applied direct- 
ly to the lens, which is pushed outward and 
backward to the bottom of the globe, out of 
the line of the axis of vision ; it is held there 
a short time, that the cells of the vitreous hu- 
mor, into which it is pushed, may resume their 
position around it, and thus prevent its reas- 
cension in the line of the pupil. Some surgeons 
prefer the operation by reclination, which con- 
sists in turning the lens backward from an 
upright to a horizontal position ; and some 
always recline the lens before they depress it. 
In keratonyxw, the needle is passed through 
the cornea, about an eighth of an inch from 
the sclerotic, on its lower and exterior portion, 
and is directed through the dilated pupil to the 
lens, whose capsule it is made to lacerate ; 
and, if possible, the lens is depressed, reclined, 
or broken up. This method is objectionable 
on account of the danger of wounding the iris, 
and of the difficulty of reaching the lens, and 
is applicable only to exceptional cases. After 
the operation, the eye should be lightly covered, 
and the patient should remain in bed in a dark- 
ened room, with the head raised, and be kept 
on a low diet for a few days ; after four or five 
days in ordinary cases, a little light may be 
gradually let into the room, and at the end of 
three weeks the eye may be generally left un- 
covered. The accidents most to be feared are in- 
flammation of the iris, choroid coat, and retina, 
which should be treated by antiphlogistic mea- 
sures. 2. The operation for breaking up the lens, 
without depressing it, is very easily performed, 
and excites very little inflammation ; but it re- 
quires frequent repetition, is slow in its progress, 
and is adapted only to soft and especially to con- 
genital cataracts. The needle is inserted just as 
in the method for depression, the capsule is di- 
vided, and the lens is freely broken up without 
removing it from its place ; the cataract is thus 
brought into contact with the aqueous humor, 
and is gradually dissolved by it. 3. In the 
operation for extraction, the cornea is incised 
through rather more than half its circumference, 
the capsule is lacerated, and the lens is extract- 
ed from the eye entire ; it is performed with a 
triangular knife, with sharp point, straight and 
blunt back, the edge slanting obliquely, and the 
blade growing wider and thicker as it approaches 
the handle ; this kind of knife cuts by the simple 
motion of pushing, and fills up the incision as it 
makes it, thereby preventing the escape of the 
aqueous humor. The cornea may be cut on its 
inferior or superior half, or obliquely on its ex- 
ternal and lower portion, each of which has its 
special advocates. When the lower half is cut, 
the knife, with its edge downward and forward, 
is passed into the external side of the cornea, 
perpendicular to its axis, a little above its trans- 
verse diameter, and about a line from the scle- 



CATAKRII 



CATAWBA 



103 



rotic ; passing in front of the iris, the point is 
made to cut its way out on the inner opposite 
surface ; the cutting of this flap constitutes the 
first period of the operation, after which the 
lids are permitted to be closed for a few seconds. 
Taking care in the subsequent steps of the opera- 
tion not to make pressure upon the globe, the 
surgeon raises the flap, and, by means of a prop- 
er needle, lacerates extensively the capsule; 
if at this time the lens does not of itself come 
forward into the anterior chamber, gentle and 
properly directed pressure will cause it to 
come out; to complete the operation, it is 
sometimes necessary to remove also the pieces 
of the divided capsuJ. When the lower half 
of the cornea is opaque or in a condition unfa- 
vorable to cicatrization, or very small, Wenzel, 
Kichter, and Jager recommend the section of 
the upper half; the steps of the operation are 
about the same, though perhaps more difficult 
to execute ; it offer-?, the advantages of present- 
ing less liability of the iris being wounded, of 
the vitreous humcr escaping, and of the lips 
of the section being separated by the edges of 
the lids. By the oblique incision, which is the 
favorite mode in France, the lids could not pos- 
sibly interfere wi r h the apposition of the edges 
of the wound. More care is required after ex- 
traction than after depression, to avoid inflam- 
mation ; after it ;s certain that the patient can 
distinguish objer-ts, the eye is lightly covered 
and the person confined to bed in a dark 
room, with the Jiead but slightly elevated. 
Of these operations, extraction removes with 
certainty the obstructing lens, is very little 
painful, does not wound the ciliary vessels or 
nerves, the choroid, or the retina; but it may 
cause deformity of the pupil or the escape of 
the vitreous humor; the edges of the wound 
may not readily heal, or may ulcerate, with 
hernia of the iris or opacity of the cornea. 
Depression leaves a permanent cause of irrita- 
tion in the eye, and the lens is liable to reas- 
cend ; the needle perforates the choroid and 
retina, and may cause inflammation of the in- 
ternal eye ; but there is no danger of the escape 
of the vitreous humor, nor of spots or ulcers 
of the cornea, nor of hernia of the iris, nor of 
immediate evacuation of the globe. Depres- 
sion is best in children and intractable persons, 
where the eyes are small and deep-seated, the 
cornea flat, or the conjunctiva irritated. When 
the cataract is soft and the pupil small or 
adherent, extraction is best in old persons, in 
adults with a large anterior chamber and the 
eyes sound, and when the cataract is hard or 
membranous. Convex spectacles are necessary, 
under proper restrictions, to supply the place 
of the extracted crystalline lens. 

CATARRH) a non-inflammatory disease, char- 
acterized by an increased secretion of mucus 
from the glands of the mucoiis membranes. The 
name is popularly confined to disease of the 
membrane of the air passages, but it should be 
extended to that of the intestinal, urinary, and 
even genital mucous membranes. Children and 



adults of the lymphatic temperament are most 
subject to catarrh ; and it occurs most fre- 
quently in cold and damp seasons, accompa- 
nied by sudden changes of temperature, and in 
individuals weakened by insufficient food, foul 
air, and mental anxiety ; it also occurs epidem- 
ically. Catarrh of the air passages is rarely ac- 
companied by any constitutional disturbance ; 
the principal symptoms are sneezing, increased 
secretion of tears and mucus, and a snuffling 
nasal respiration. In many cases of catarrh of 
the bladder, the urine is loaded with mucus, 
and the state of its membrane highly irritable, 
without being positively inflamed. Catarrhal 
diseases often occur epidemically, under the 
name of catarrhal fevers, in which there seems 
to be a morbid disposition in all the mucous 
membranes to secrete an excess of mucus. 
Besides the conditions already mentioned, the 
genital mucous membrane may be affected, 
constituting some form of leucorrhcea and blen- 
norhcea ; the conjunctiva may also be attacked, 
giving rise to catarrhal ophthalmia ; some of 
these conditions, especially the last two, may 
become contagious, without the usual specific 
origin. These catarrhal diseases are not gene- 
rally dangerous; but they are apt to become 
chronic and exceedingly difficult to remedy, 
when the lungs, stomach, intestines, and geni- 
to-urinary organs are affected, and especially 
when occurring, as they often do, in old and 
debilitated persons. The treatment of the 
mild forms is entirely expectant; in the chron- 
ic stages, the principal dependence is on tonics 
and stimulants, especially quinine, and on local 
applications of a stimulating and alterative 
character whenever the seat of the disease is 
directly accessible. They form some of the 
most obstinate cases which the physician has 
to manage, both from the difficulty of direct 
medication, and from the age and weakness of 
the majority of persons who suffer from them. 

CATASAUQPA, a borough of Lehigh co., Penn., 
on the left bank of the Lehigh river, 3 m. 
above Allentown ; pop. in 1870, 2,853. It con- 
tains 7 churches, a bank, 4 hotels, a semi- 
monthly periodical, 2 machine shops, 2 rolling 
mills, gas works, and 5 blast furnaces, one of 
which produces 250 tons of iron a week. The 
Lehigh Valley and the Lehigh and Susquehan- 
na railroads are joined here by the Catasauqua 
and Fogelsville railroad. 

CATAWBA, a W. central county of North 
Carolina; area, 250 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,- 
984, of whom 1,703 were colored. It derives 
its name from the Great Catawba river, which 
forms its N. and E. boundary, and is drained 
by the South Catawba. The surface is diver- 
sified, and the soil fertile. Iron ore is abundant. 
It is crossed by the Western North Carolina 
railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 
34,746 bushels of wheat, 142,876 of Indian 
corn, 41,553 of oats, and 22 bales of cotton. 
There were 1,252 horses, 1,458 milch cows, 
2,135 other cattle, 4,644 sheep, and 6,768 
swine. Capital, Newton. 



104: 



CATAWBA 



CATEAU 



CATiWBA, or Great Catawba, a river of North 
and South Carolina. It rises in the Blue 
Eidge, in McDowell co., N. C., flows nearly E. 
through the gold region of North Carolina, 
makes a bend to the south at the W. border 
of Iredell co., and enters South Carolina near 
the mouth of the Little Catawba, or Catawba 
creek, in York co. After reaching Rocky 
Mount, and being joined by Fishing creek, it 
takes the name of the Wateree, and ultimate- 
ly unites with the Congaree to form the San- 
tee. The length of the Catawba is about 250 
m. ; that of the Wateree, 100 m. 

CATAWBAS, a tribe of Indians in North and 
South 'Carolina, on the Catawba river, now re- 
duced to a mere handful. At the time of the 
settlement of those states they were a pow- 
erful tribe with 1,500 warriors. Some affirm 
that they came from Canada, but their lan- 
guage has no affinity with that of any northern 
nation, is closely connected with that of the 
"Waccoes and the Carolina tribe, and has affini- 
ties with the Muskogee and even the Choctaw. 
They are said to have been called also Ushe- 
rees. They occupied Nauvasa and five other 
towns on the Catawba river, in a most delight- 
ful country. They were a warlike people, and 
were early engaged in hostilities with the 
Cherokees, and subsequently with the Shaw- 
nees and Iroquois. They were always friendly 
to the Carolina settlers, and served with them 
against the Tuscaroras and Cherokees, and in 
the revolution. Having improvidently leased 
their lands, they migrated to the Cherokees, 
but returned and settled on a reservation given 
to them. War and disease gradually reduced 
their numbers. From 7,500 at the time of 
the settlement, they had decreased to 2,000 in 
1728, and 450 in 1822. Peter Harris, the last 
full-blooded Catawba, was a revolutionary sol- 
dier. There are now perhaps 200 half-breeds 
bearing the name on the reservation. Pontiac, 
who attempted to destroy the English power 
in the northwest, is said by some to have been 
by birth a Catawba. This tribe was one of 
those which flattened the heads of infants. 

CATAWBA WINE. See AMERICAN WINES. 

CATBIRD (mimua Carolinensi*, Gray), a bird 
of the thrush family, peculiar to North Ameri- 
ca. It receives this name from its well known 
note, which resembles the mew of a half-grown 
cat; this is not, however, its only note; its 
morning and evening song of wild warbling 
melody is worthy of the musical family to 
which it belongs. The catbird is found from 
Maine to Florida, making its appearance from 
the south toward the last of February, reaching 
the middle states about the second week in 
April, and New England about May 1 ; it is 
one of the few species which follow the course 
of agriculture, being rarely found far from the 
habitations of the farmer. Its general form is 
more slender and graceful than that of the 
American robin. Its plumage is soft and blend- 
ed, the tail long and rounded at the tip; the 
bill is black, slightly arched ; the general color 



of the upper plumage is blackish gray or slate 
color, the head, tail, and inner webs of the 
quills being of a brownish black ; the cheeks 
and general under plumage are of a deep bluish 
gray, paler on the abdomen, the under tail 
coverts being brownish red; the outer tail 
feather is transversely striped with white on its 
inner web ; the plumage of the female is of a 
somewhat paler tint. Length 9 inches, extent 
of wings 12 inches, length of tarsus 1 T V inch. 
The nest is large, generally made in bramble 
thickets, and constructed of twigs and briers 
mixed with leaves, weeds, and grass, lined with 
dark fibrous roots arranged in a circular man- 
ner. The eggs are from four to six in number, 
of a greenish blue color, without spots. Its 
food consists of insects and fruits and berries of 
all kinds, especially of the sweetgum, poke, and 
sumach. It migrates during the night. It is 
very lively in its manners, and will follow with 
impudence for a considerable distance any in- 
truder on its locality, mewing as it sits on a 
twig, jerking its tail from side to side. It is very 
irritable, and hates especially cats and snakes. 
Its attachment to its young is very remarkable, 




Catbird (Mimus Curolincnsis). 

and it will often feed and raise the young of 
other species. Besides its own song, it pos- 
sesses considerable imitative power, mocking 
the notes of other birds in an imperfect manner ; 
according to Latham, it will, when in a do- 
mesticated state, imitate strains of instrumen- 
tal music. Though this bird is generally perse- 
cuted, it deserves the kindest treatment for its 
services to the agriculturist in devouring wasps, 
grubs, worms, and insects, which would have 
destroyed tenfold more growing fruit than it 
ventures to claim at the season of maturity. 
Its flesh is good, but is rarely used for food. 

CATEAU, Le, or Cateau lambresls, a town of 
France, in the department of Le Nord, on the 
river Selle, 17m. S. of Valenciennes; pop. in 
1866, 9,974. It is well built, has salt works, 
manufactories of merinoes, shawls, calicoes, 
soap, and tobacco, and is noted for producing a 
superior quality of linen thread. Two treaties 
were signed here on April 2, 1559, between 
England and the Netherlands on the one side, 
and France and Scotland on the other, and on 
the following day between France and Spain. 



CATECHISM 



CATEL 



105 



CATECHISM (Gr. narrixiofibs, instruction), in a 
general and modern sense, an elementary text 
book of any science or art. More commonly, 
however, it means a text book for the instruc- 
tion of the catechumens and children of a par- 
ish or congregation in the doctrines of the 
church, or the moral precepts of Christianity. 
The original form of this instruction was oral, 
by question and answer. The practice was to 
gather those who needed instruction into some 
suitable place, and there persons qualified either 
held disputations or delivered dogmatic lec- 
tures, and then questioned the hearers upon 
what had been said. It is probable that the 
early catechists followed no set forms, but en- 
deavored, by catechising their hearers, to awa- 
ken a train of thought, and then followed it 
whithersoever it might lead. But when the 
doctrinal theology of the church became more 
strictly defined, catechetical instruction became 
more dogmatic. These compends have of course 
varied with the variations of theological opin- 
ion in different ages and communions. A for- 
mula of doctrine, the Catechismus Romanus, 
was drawn up by order of the council of Trent, 
and published at Borne in 1566, under the 
sanction of Pope Pius V., and was subsequently 
approved by special bulls and adopted by vote 
of provincial synods in various Catholic coun- 
tries. It was ordered that it should be faith- 
fully translated into the vernacular languages, 
and expounded to the people by all pastors. 
But it was designed as a directory for the use 
of the clergy rather than as a system of popular 
instruction. It was not originally in the form 
of question and answer, though some later edi- 
tions are in that shape. In common use in va- 
rious parts of the Catholic world were the cate- 
chisms drawn up by Canisius (1554 and 1566), 
by Bellarmin (1603), and by Bossuet (1687). A 
catechism designated as Schema de Parvo, es- 
sentially that of Bellarmin, was decreed by the 
oecumenical council at Rome in 1870, its object 
being to provide a common catechism for the 
whole church. Strictly speaking, the Greek 
church has no authorized catechism ; but that 
of Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev (1642), was 
in 1672 recognized as a standard by a synod at 
Jerusalem. The principal Protestant catechisms 
are those of Luther (1529) and Calvin (1536) ; 
the Heidelberg catechism (1562), on the basis 
of which the Zurich catechism was drawn up 
(1639) for*the Reformed church of Germany; 
that of the Socinians, published at Rakow (1574 
and 1608); that of the English church, the 
work probably of Cranmer (1549), with the ex- 
ception of that part which relates to the sacra- 
ments, which was added by Bishop Overall in 
the first year of James I., after the conference 
of Hampton court ; and that of the Westmin- 
ster assembly, longer and shorter (1643), which 
serves as a basis for the Galvinistic and Pres- 
byterian churches both of Great Britain and 
the United States. There are many mediaeval 
writings and documents bearing the name of 
catechisms, which if collected together would 



form a work similar to the collections already 
made of old liturgies and hymns. The private 
or individual catechisms of German theologians 
are numerous, and many of them voluminous, 
thus departing from the primitive idea of the 
Christian catechism as an instrument for popu- 
lar and elemental instruction. 

CATECHU, an extract of the inner wood of the 
acacia catechu, a small tree which grows abun- 
dantly in the East Indies. The drug had long 
been in use before its origin was discovered. It 
is prepared by cutting off the exterior wood, 
and boiling the dark-colored chips of the inte- 
rior of the trunk in water. The solution is 
then evaporated to the consistence of sirup, 
when it is dried in the sun in the form of flat 
cakes, or moulded by pouring it into earthen 
vessels. There are many varieties, some of 
which probably never reach this country. That 
common in our markets is the preparation 
above described, and is imported from Calcutta. 




Acacia catechu. 

The pale catechu of the British pharmacopoeia, 
or gambir, is probably the substance formerly 
called terra japonica, and is the product of an- 
other tree, the uncaria gambir, of the family 
rubiacece. Catechu contains from 33 to 55 per 
cent, of that variety of tannic acid vrhich pre- 
cipitates the persalts of iron of a greenish black. 
Catechuic acid, in some respects resembling 
gallic acid, is found both in the dark and pale 
catechu. Catechu is used in dyeing and tan- 
ning under the name of cutch. It is used in 
medicine, in substance and tincture, as an as- 
tringent. It is said to be slightly tonic. 

CATEL, Franz, a German artist, born in Ber- 
lin, Feb. 22, 1778, died in Rome, Dec. 19, 1856. 
His early works were designs for illustrated al- 
manacs, and he first acquired reputation by his 
illustrations of Goethe's Hermann und Doro- 
thea. He went to Paris in 1807, where he was 
led to abandon water colors and begin paint- 
ing in oil. At this time, however, he designed 



106 



CATERPILLAR 



a series of beautiful vignettes for Caro's Italian 
version of the ^Eneid. Going to Rome in 1809, 
he -painted historical, genre, and landscape 
subjects successively, and greatly modified the 
style which he had acquired at Paris. In 1834 
he painted a "Resurrection of Christ" for 
the Luisenkirche at Charlottenburg near Ber- 
lin, a large work containing many figures. 
With this exception, his most celebrated paint- 
ings are landscapes. Of these, his views of 
Naples, Vesuvius, Sorrento, Salerno, and in 
Sicily, to which island he went in 1818, are 
considered the best. His works found their 
way over all Europe, and as they commanded 
high prices he became rich. In 1841 he was 
made a member and professor of the academy 
of Berlin. He left his fortune to be invested 
for the benefit of poor artists. 

CATERPILLAR, the common name of the lar- 
va? of lepidopterous insects, including butter- 
flies and moths. Caterpillars vary greatly in 
form and appearance, as may be judged from 
the fact that about 600 species are known in 




1. Smooth Caterpillar (Asterias). 2. Hairy Caterpillar 
(Acnea). 8. Spanner (Geometra). 

New England alone, and probably many are 
yet unknown. The body is composed of 13 
segments; the first constitutes the head, contain- 
ing the jaws and oral appendages; the second, 
third, and fourth form the thorax of the future 
insect, and the remaining ones make up the ab- 
domen. The head is rounded, and of a harder 
consistence than the body; on each side are 
six very small ocelli, or simple eyes, with a 
very convex cornea and a spherical crystalline 
lens, two short antenna?, and a mouth, with 
strong jaws moving transversely ; the mandi- 
bles are hard, for breaking up the food, while 
the maxilla) are soft and adapted rather for 
holding it ; in the mi&lle of the lower lip is a 
conical tube, through which issue the silken 
threads from which their nests and cocoons 
are made, and their suspensory fibres; a 
viscid fluid, enclosed in two long and slender 
bags, is poured out through the " spinneret " 
in a fine stream, and hardens hjto silk on con- 
tact with the air. The segments of the body 
are very nearly equally developed ; the second, 
third, and fourth have each a pair of tapering, 
jointed legs, covered with a shelly skin and 
ending with a little claw ; these are the rudi- 
ments or cases of the future limbs, and are 



the true organs of locomotion ; some of the 
other segments are furnished with soft, joint- 
less, fleshy, and contractile legs, called prop 
legs, which disappear with the larval condition, 
being only prolongations of the external cover- 
ing and shed with it, like the nails and claws of 
the higher animals ; the abdominal legs vary in 
number from four to ten, and are provided 
around the margin of the sole with rows of 
minute hooks capable of such direction as is 
necessary for a secure hold. The body is in 
some cases smooth, in others hairy, and even 
spiny ; these external appendages, whether for 
ornament or defence, are shed with the skin 
before the pupa state. Where the middle por- 
tion of the body is unprovided with feet, the 
caterpillar adopts the arched or looped manner 
of walking, so familiarly known in the common 
canker worm ; these species are hence called 
spanners, loopers, surveyors, and geometers; 
some, when in a state of repose, fix themselves 
by the hind legs only, and project in a rigid 
condition from branches, which they then much 
resemble in direction, form, and color; the 
power of remaining thus immovable for hours 
at a time must be due to a muscular force of 
which we have no idea in vertebrated animals ; 
the species which have eight to ten intermedi- 
ate feet walk by short steps, in a continuous 
worm-like manner. Some smooth caterpillars, 
as those of the sphinx moth (commonly called 
potato worm), have a spine or thorn upon the 
top of the last segment of the body, directed 
backward and curved ; though this looks like 
and has been considered an offensive or defen- 
sive weapon, its softness is such that it could 
inflict no wound. The larva? of some of the 
hymenopterous insects, as of the saw flies 
(tenthredinidce), resemble caterpillars both in 
form and habits; but these false caterpillars 
may be distinguished by their greater number 
of legs (18 to 22), and by the absence of the 
numerous hooks in their prop legs ; the larvro 
of other insects, having the same number of 
segments, are scaly and not soft and membra- 
nous. On each side of the body are nine oval 
apertures, spiracles, or stigmata, situated in the 
second, fifth, and following segments to the 
twelfth, provided with valves ; these commu- 
nicate directly with the internal respiratory 
organs, which are in the caterpillar branching 
tubes; in the perfect insect, the trachere are 
dilated into an immense number W vesicles 
permeating every part of the body. The intes- 
tine is short and straight. The nervous system 
is a series of ganglia connected by chords, one 
for each segment, the greater part of it in 
the perfect insect being concentrated in the 
head and thorax. Caterpillars vary greatly in 
size ; the mean may be taken at an inch, those 
much exceeding this being large, while those 
much below it may be considered small ; those 
which have only eight feet in all are the small- 
est, and are generally the moths' caterpillars. 
The size of a caterpillar compared to that of 
the egg is very great, and the rapidity of its 



CATERPILLAR 



107 



growth is truly astonishing; there is no large 
animal at all comparable to it for voracity, for 
some species will eat in 24 hours more than 
double their own weight ; though less voracious 
than locusts, they are quite as destructive from 
their greater fecundity and their wider distri- 
bution over the vegetable world. According to 
Count Dandolo, the common silkworm, during 
the 30 days in which it attains its full size, in- 
creases in length from 1 to 40 lines and in weight 
from Y^ to about 95 grains ; during this pe- 
riod, therefore, it has increased 9,500 times in 
weight, and has eaten 50,000 times its weight 
of food. The caterpillar of the privet hawk 
moth on leaving the egg weighs about -^ of a 
grain, and at the end of 32 days, when it has 
acquired its maximum size, it has been known 
to weigh 142 grains, and to measure over 4 
inches in length, thus increasing more than 
11,300 times its original weight. According 
to Lyonnet, the larva of one of the carpenter 
moths(e0sws ligniperda, Fabr., or genus xyleu- 
tes of Newman), during the three years in 
which it is supposed to remain in the cater- 
pillar state, increases 72,000 times its first 
weight by a great accumulation of fat for its 
nutriment in the pupa and perfect states. Most 
caterpillars feed on vegetable substances, the 
leaves, flowers, roots, buds, seeds, and even the 
wood of plants; many domestic pests gnaw 
woollens and furs, leather, and fatty substances ; 
while some are quite exclusive in their diet, 
others are more indiscriminate feeders. When 
they are very numerous, scarcely any plant 
escapes their attacks, and at such times their 
ravages are deplorable, reducing trees in mid- 
summer to their winter leafless livery. Plants 
with acrid juices are the favorite food of some 
species, and the nettle and other spiny shrubs 
are the natural habitats of many smooth and 
tender-skinned varieties. Most feed on the 
exterior of plants, but some of the most destruc- 
tive and most delicate live in the interior of 
branches and stems. The sweetest fruits, as 
pears, plums, and apples, ripen and fall prema- 
turely, the abodes of caterpillars ; plums are 
especially liable to be thus inhabited, while the 
peach and apricot are free from all larvse ; it has 
been observed that a single fruit rarely contains 
more than a single caterpillar, the second inhabi- 
tant, if there be one, being the larva of some 
other order of insects. Wheat, rye, barley, and 
other grains are infested by small caterpillars, 
which gnaw away the whole interior without 
any external perceptible trace, so that an appa- 
rently sound heap may be only a collection of 
useless skins ; a single grain contains just the 
quantity of provision necessary for the trans- 
formation of the insect. Another example of the 
instinct of the lepidoptera is seen in the fact of 
their depositing their eggs on the parts of the 
plant which will furnish an easily accessible sup- 
ply of food to the caterpillar when it is hatched ; 
their eggs are found glued to fruits, and to flow- 
ers that are to produce fruits, between the very 
petals, so that the young find themselves sur- 



rounded by an immediate supply. Caterpillars 
are remarkable for the eagerness with which 
some species will feed upon their fellows, in 
preference to vegetable substances in profusion 
around them. Different species select different 
times of day for feeding ; some eat at all hours, 
some in the morning and evening, and others 
only at night ; a knowledge of these habits is 
of great advantage for the easy destruction of 
many pests of the vegetable garden. Though 
generally disgusting objects, the contrast and 
brilliancy of the colors in some of them are em- 
inently beautiful. Some species herd together 
in great numbers, constructing their silken 
habitations in common ; others live solitary, 
exposed to light and air, or protected in rolled 
leaves or silken sheaths ; others burrow in the 
ground, or conceal themselves in the stems of 
plants and the pulpy substance of leaves. The 
caterpillars which live in one nest all come 
from the eggs of a single insect, and are gene- 
rally hatched on the same day ; from 200 to 700 
may thus be found together, and may remain 
so through the chrysalis condition, or may sep- 




Processionary Caterpillars. 

arate at different periods of life; some, though 
living in great numbers on the same tree, are 
solitary with respect to each other, performing 
no work in common ; the most solitary are 
the leaf-rollers, which are also the most re- 
markable for their vivacity. For the mecha- 
nism of the various abodes of caterpillars the 
reader is referred to the works of R6aumur, 
Latreille, Kirby and Spence, and other practi- 
cal entomologists. The attitudes assumed by 
caterpillars when attempts are made to catch 
them are characteristic of species in many 
cases; some roll themselves into a ring and 
remain as if dead, the hairy ones resembling 
little hedgehogs ; others fall instantly to the 
ground and try to escape by rapid flight ; 
some attempt to defend themselves by various 
motions of their bodies. The mode of marching 
adopted by the " processionary caterpillars" is 
very remarkable ; these live in society, and when 
they quit their nest they go in a regular proces- 
sion, a single caterpillar first and the others in 



108 



CATERPILLAR 



CATERPILLAR FUNGUS 



single file, or two, three, and four abreast ; the 
line is so perfect in the columns, that the head 
of one is never beyond that of another in the 
row ; following their leader, stopping when he 
stops, they make journeys from tree to tree in 
search of food, returning to their nest in the 
same order ; they form their ranks, march, and 
halt, with the precision of soldiers ; when sev- 
eral nests are in the same wood, the spectacle 
of these creeping battalions, issuing forth and 
returning at the same hour, is exceedingly in- 
teresting ; the processions generally take place 
toward night. Another species, common in 
pine forests and living together, walk in pro- 
cessipn in single file, often very long, the head 
of each in contact with the tail of the one in 
advance ; they defile in a straight line, or in a 
variety of graceful curves ; they sometimes go 
to great distances from the nest, always with 
the same slow and grave step, following exactly 
their leader; they return to the nest by the same 
path, which they find not by the sense of sight 
but of touch ; the path of exit is covered as they 
go by a silken tapestry, and they return upon the 
same delicate carpet, however tortuous may 
have been their way. Caterpillars change their 
skins several times before attaining their perfect 
state, spinning for themselves a sort of cocoon 
of silk, interwoven with hairs of their own, 
with bits of leaves, and even with particles of 
earth, suspending themselves by silken threads, 
or burying themselves in the ground. (See 
BTTTERFLY, vol. iii., p. 495.) Those lepidop- 
tera which pass the winter in the egg live in 
the caterpillar form during a part of the sum- 
mer ; the eggs are protected against cold by the 
shell and by the sheltered or subterranean sit- 
uations in which they are placed ; others pass 
the winter as caterpillars, concealing themselves 
under stones and the bark of trees, or descend- 
ing deep into the ground where the cold cannot 
reach them ; the social varieties retire to their 
warm and water-proof nests ; these come forth 
in the spring quite well grown, but most pass 
the winter in the form of chrysalis, in protected 
or in open situations ; a few pass this season as 
perfect insects. The natural enemies of cater- 
pillars are numerous ; almost all insectivorous 
birds and poultry devour them eagerly; other 
insects not unfrequently feed upon them ; and 
little maggots developed in their bodies from 
the eggs of the ichneumonidce cause thousands 
to perish prematurely. In the northern states 
there are about 1,000 different kinds of butter- 
flies and moths ; as each female lays from 200 
to 500 eggs, these species, from a single female 
each, would on an average produce in a year 
300,000 caterpillars ; if one half of these were 
females, the second generation would be 45 mil- 
lions, and the third 6,750 millions; with such 
fecundity it may well be imagined that the 
destructive powers of caterpillars must be 
very great. The work of Dr. Harris on "The 
Insects Injurious to Vegetation," under the 
head of "Lepidoptera," gives an extended and 
valuable account of the ravages of caterpillars 



in America, particularly in New England. Al- 
luding to laws in France and Belgium which 
require the people to " uncaterpillar " their 
gardens and orchards, under the penalty of a 
fine, he thinks similar regulations might be 
enacted here with advantage, or at least that 
the towns might offer a respectable bounty for 
caterpillars by the quart, thus affording remu- 
nerative and highly useful employment to chil- 
dren and otherwise idle persons. For notices 
of many destructive caterpillars see HAWK 
MOTH, MOTH, and articles under the popular 
names of the most noted species. 

CATERPILLAR 1 1 M.I s or Fnngold Parasites, 
a name given to many species of fungi which 
attack various insects, especially the larvre of 
beetles and moths, filling out their bodies, and 
sending out shoots into the air, so that the 
animal looks as if transformed into a vegeta- 
ble. They have been generally described in 
works on botany, the plant portion having at- 
tracted the most attention. Mr. G. R. Gray 
has specially described the insect portion, ta- 
king them up in the usual order of entomologi- 
cal systems. These parasitical plants or fungi 
infest insects of all orders, and in the larva, 
pupa, and perfect states; some, however, are 
from their habitats peculiarly exposed to these 
growths. The beetles, many of which in all 
their stages live in the ground, amid decaying 
vegetable and animal matters, are very liable 
to these attacks ; the growth, no doubt, begins 
internally, as specimens have been found in 
which the fungus was just bursting forth from 
some part of the body ; the most usual place 
for the fungus to appear is from the pec- 
toral surface of the thoracic segments; tho 
larvaj usually lie upon that side, and are gen- 
erally found dead, and either decayed or dried 
up ; one parasite is ordinarily all that is found 
on one larva, but two, three, or more are oc- 
casionally found. The diurnal lepidoptera have 
not been seen infested with fungi or moulds, 
while the nocturnal ones are very much affect- 
ed ; the muscardine, which destroys great num- 
bers of the silkworm, belongs to this class of 
vegetable parasites. Among orthoptera, the 
mole cricket ; among hymenoptera, ants, bees, 
wasps, and hornets; among hemiptera, the 
cicada ; and among diptera, the flies, are often 
seen more or less covered with a delicate mould 
or fungus, which bursts out between the seg- 
ments of the body, and sometimes grows with 
great rapidity. From numerous observations, 
it is certain that life is not extinct when the 
insect becomes the basis of the parasite. Most 
of the insects thus affected are vegetable feed- 
ers, and it is generally admitted that the spores 
or seeds of the fungus are swallowed with the 
food, and that the seeds do not become at- 
tached to the exterior of the body and thence 
penetrate to the interior; some believe that 
the seeds may also gain admission by the tra- 
chero or breathing apparatus. These spores 
are so exceedingly minute as to appear like 
smoke in the air, and Fries has estimated 



CATESBY 



CATFISH 



109 



above 10,000,000 in a single plant; tlieir mi- 
nuteness, however, is not so wonderful as that 
each contains the elements necessary for ger- 
mination. However admitted, the seeds begin 
to germinate, gradually grow if the circum- 
stances are suitable, and fill the animal com- 
pletely with the thallus ; the insect retains its 
external form, though internally its fluids are 
dried up by the growth of the fungus; the 
plant then forces its way through the skin at 
various places, through the articulations, and 
even through the hard surface of the head. It 
may be that the vegetable growth does not 
always depend on its being nourished by the 
fluids of the insect; but that the latter, en- 
feebled by the heavy rains that fall periodically 
in theintertropical regions, where these growths 
abound, receives the seed, which grows by the 
influence of external moisture, and by its thal- 
lus interferes mechanically with the functions 
of the insect, and finally destroys it. A vigor- 
ous larva might even devour the parasitic seed, 
which, not finding a suitable nidus, might be 
voided in the usual way. These growths vary 
in length from a mere protuberance to 10 
inches, and in diameter from a fine hair to one 
fourth of an inch. Most of them belong to the 
old genus sphceria, which has been subdivided 
into many genera, which, with many other ap- 
parently very different forms, may be more or 
less immature growths of totally dissimilar de- 
scribed genera. The fungi infesting insects 
are not peculiar to them, as they infest all 
organic and decaying matter. See " Proceed- 
ings of Boston Society of Natural History," 
vol. xi., p. 120, Feb. 6, 1867. 

CATESBY, Mark, an English artist and natural- 
ist, born about 1680, died in London, Dec. 24, 
1749. After studying the natural sciences in 
London, he went to Virginia, and remained in 
America seven years, returning to England in 
1719 with a rich collection of plants. En- 
couraged by Sir Hans Sloane and other friends 
of science to revisit America, he arrived in 
South Carolina in 1722, explored the lower 
parts of that state, and afterward lived for some 
time among the Indians about Fort Moore, 300 
m. up Savannah river ; after which he continued 
his researches through Georgia and Florida. 
After spending three years upon the continent, 
he visited the Bahama islands, constantly occu- 
pied in delineating and collecting botanical and 
zoological objects. He returned to England 
in 1726, and published in numbers his great 
work on the "Natural History of Carolina, 
Florida, and the Bahama Islands " (2 vols. fol., 
!731-'48; new eds., 1754 and 1771). The 
figures were etched by himself from his own 
paintings, and the colored copies were executed 
under his own inspection. He was a member of 
the royal society, and wrote Hortus Europce 
Americanus (1767), and a paper on "Birds of 
Passage " in the " Philosophical Transactions." 

CATFISH, one of the malacopterygii or soft- 
rayed fishes, of the family siluridce, and of the 
genus pimelodus of Cuvier ; characterized by a 



smooth palate, the palatic bones often having 
teeth, but with no band of teeth parallel to 
those of the upper jaw; the head ornamented 
with eight fleshy barbules; skin naked. Dr. 
Storer describes 16 species as occurring in the 
fresh-water streams and lakes of North America, 
and there are about 50 in various parts of the 
world. The common catfish, or horned pout 
(P. atrariiis, De Kay), is one of the most com- 
mon fishes of our rivers, and is by many pre- 
ferred as an article of food to all other fluviatile 
species except the pickerel ; specimens are oc- 
casionally met with weighing three quarters of 
a pound. Length 7 to 9 in. ; color dusky, almost 
black on the head and back, lighter on the 
sides, and white beneath, in front of the ventral 
fins, which are behind the pectorals. Upper 
jaw the longer ; tail nearly even and rounded ; 
head smooth and flattened ; skin naked and 
covered with a mucous secretion. It has two 
fleshy barbules on the top of the head be- 
tween the snout and eye; at the angle of 
the upper jaw are two thick fleshy barbules, 
reaching to the middle of the pectoral fins, 
and there are four others under the lower 




Horned Pout (Fimelodus atranus). 

jaw. The mouth is capacious. There are 
two blunt spines midway between the eye 
and the opening of the gills ; the first ray of 
the first dorsal fin is strongly spinous; the 
second dorsal is fatty ; the pectoral fins have 
also a set rated spine; these spines become 
fixed and immovable at the will of the animal, 
and serve as formidable defensive weapons. 
Varieties sometimes occur in this genus with- 
out ventral fins, and such have been described 
as a new genus, pimapterm. This species is 
the most common one in the New England and 
middle states, and is found in the great lakea 
and along the Atlantic states from Maine to 
Florida. It prefers muddy bottoms, as do all 
the species of the genus. The great lake catfish 
(pimelodus nigricans, Lesueur) is from 2 to 4 
ft. long, weighing from 6 to 30 Ibs. ; it is found 
in Lakes Erie and Ontario. This is of a deep 
olive brown color, and has the tail forked. 
Other species are the Huron catfish (P. ccenosus, 
Rich.), 10 in. long, found in Lake Huron; 
northern catfish (P. borealis, Rich.), 30 in. 
long, found in the northern regions ; the white 



110 



CATGUT 



CATHARINE I. (OF RUSSIA) 



catfish (P. allidus, Lesueur), of a whitish ash 
color, 12 to 15 in. long, from Delaware; the 
mudfish (P. jmnctulatus, Cuv.), 2 to 3 ft. long, 
of a brown color spotted with black, from 
Louisiana. Among the large species found in 
the Ohio river and its tributaries are the P. 
ceneus (Les.), 2 to 3 ft. long ; P. furcatus 
(Les.), 1 to 4 ft. long ; P. cupreus (Raf.), 1 to 
4 ft. long ; P. limosug, P. ccerulescens, and P. 
xanthocephalus. The catfish are sluggish in 
their movements, securing their prey rather 
by stratagem than by swiftness. The female 
moves about with her young, like a hen with 
her brood. Though their flesh is generally 
esteenied in the country and on the western 
rivers, it is very insipid to persons accustomed 
to salt-water (ishes. Catfish is a name applied 
to other species of different genera, and among 
others to the ferocious anarrhicas lupus (Linn.), 
more properly called wolf-fish. 

CATGUT, string made of the dried and twisted 
intestines of animals. Such strings are usually 
made from the intestines of sheep, but some- 
times from those of the horse, ass, or mule. 
They are used on violins, harps, and other mu- 
sical instruments, for the cords of bows, clocks, 
and whips, and for belting. They are pre- 
pared by first being freed from all feculent and 
fatty substances, then soaked and divested of 
the outside or peritoneal membrane by scra- 
ping, again soaked and the inner or mucous 
membrane taken away, and still further cleaned 
by the use of lye. They are next exposed to 
fumes of burning sulphur to purify them, and 
are slit and twisted into different sizes. They 
are then dyed, and afterward, as they are 
stretched upon frames, dried and hardened by 
exposure to a temperature of 180 to 200. 
Lastly, they are cut off and coiled up for sale. 
Otto, in his " Treatise on the Violin," says that 
the best strings are those from Milan, sold by 
the name of Roman strings ; and as these are 
imitated by inferior cords made in Bohemia and 
the Tyrol, he gives the following as the marks 
of the best article : " The Milanese strings are 
as clear and transparent as glass. The third 
string should be equally clean as the first. 
They must by no means feel smooth to the 
touch, for they are not ground or polished off 
by any process, v <is all other manufactured strings 
are. If a good string be held by one end in 
the finger and opened out, it will recoil to its 
former position like a watch spring. Every 
string when stretched on the instrument should 
look like a thin strip of glass on the finger- 
board; those which are of a dull and opaque 
appearance are useless. Their elasticity is after 
all the best criterion, as no other strings which 
I have tried have that strength and elasticity 
for which the Milanese are so much esteemed." 

CATHARINE I., empress of Russia, born ac- 
cording to some in Livonia, according to others 
in Sweden, about 1685, died in St. Petersburg, 
May 17, 1727. She was formerly believed to 
have been the daughter of a Swedish quarter- 
master, John Rabe, but is now more generally 



represented as the daughter of a Lithuanian 
peasant, Skavronski ; her own original name 
was Martha. Left an orphan in a village of 
Livonia, she was taken care of by the sexton 
of the place, and subsequently by Gltick, the 
Protestant minister at Marienburg, who edu- 
cated her with his children. In 1701 she mar- 
ried a Swedish dragoon of the garrison of 
Marienburg; but the campaign of 1702, in 
which he had to serve, and the capture of 
Marienburg (Aug. 23) by the Russians, under 
Sheremetieff, separated them for ever. Martha, 
together with the family of her protector, 
GlQck, was made captive by the Russian gen- 
eral, who treated the old clergyman kindly, 
but retained the females. At the distribution 
of the spoils, she was allotted to Gen. Bauer, 
whose mistress she was until she was ceded 
by him to Prince Menshikoff. It was in the 
house of the latter that Peter the Great saw 
her, was captivated by her beauty, and made 
her his mistress (1703). She adopted the 
Greek creed, and with it the name of Catha- 
rine Alexievna. In 1706 she bore a daughter, 
Catharine ; in 1708 (after having been privately 
married to Peter) Anna, afterward duchess of 
Holstein-Gottorp, and mother of Peter III. ; in 
1709 Elizabeth, afterward empress of Russia. 
She maintained her influence over Peter by 
her vivacity, activity, and good temper. She 
shared the troubles and fatigues of his cam- 
paigns, and frequently calmed the wild out- 
breaks of his savage temper. When in 1711 
his great rival, Charles XII., who after the 
defeat of Poltava (1709) had found refuge and 
protection in Turkey, had succeeded in arming 
that empire against the Russians, and Peter, 
after an imprudent march, found himself re- 
duced to the extremity of starving on the banks 
of the Pruth, or surrendering his army, Catha- 
rine, with the assistance of Ostermann and Sha- 
firoff, saved him by bribing the Turkish grand 
vizier with her jewels. Peter proved his grat- 
itude by acknowledging her as his wife in 1712, 
and declaring her empress in 1718. As such 
she was crowned in Moscow in 1724. The de- 
termination of Peter to make her his successor 
was shaken by his suspicions of her conjugal 
fidelity, and still more in 1724 by his conviction 
of her infidelity, in consequence of which the 
chamberlain Moens was beheaded (ostensibly 
for mismanagement in office), his sister igno- 
miniously flogged, and his two sons sent to the 
army in Persia. It has been asserted that Catha- 
rinc, having been shown by Peter the head of 
Moens, still hanging on the scaffold, said calmly, 
" What a pity that the people of the court are so 
corrupt." She succeeded, however, in strength- 
ening her position by reinstating Menshikoff 
in the favor of Peter, which he had previously 
lost by his devotion to her. But still so doubt- 
ful was her situation, that at the death of Peter 
(Feb. 8, 1725), which was kept secret until her 
succession was secured, she could not avoid 
the suspicion of having poisoned her huskmd. 
The archbishop of Pskov, Theophanes, declared 



CATHARINE II. (OF RUSSIA) 



111 



under oath to the people and the army that 
Peter on his deathbed had designated her as 
the worthiest of succession, and the guards, 
the synod, and the high nohility gave their 
consent, and the people their oath of fidelity 
to the first "empress " and autocrat of all the 
Russias. The policy of Peter was continued 
under the leading influence of Menshikoff; 
the Russian academy of sciences was found- 
ed, silver mines were opened in Siberia, and 
the naval exploring expedition under Behring 
was fitted out. But soon the caprices of 
the empress, who was guided by favorites, and 
intemperate in drinking, were felt in the man- 
agement of affairs, and blunders committed, 
while her ruined health prepared a sudden end. 
Her successor was Peter II., the grandson of 
Peter and son of the unfortunate Alexis. 

CATHARINE II., empress of Russia, born in 
Stettin, May 2, 1729, died in St. Petersburg, 
Nov. 17, 1796. She was the daughter of Chris- 
tian August, governor of Stettin, who was after- 
ward reigning prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and 
field marshal general of Prussia. Her mother 
was a princess of Holstein-Gottorp. Her pa- 
rents gave her the names Sophia Augusta, and 
a careful education. At an early age she was 
chosen by the empress Elizabeth, at the sug- 
gestion of Frederick the Great, to become 
the wife of her nephew and successor, Peter 
III. Her mother brought her to the court of 
Russia, where she adopted the Greek creed, 
received the name of Catharine Alexievna, 
and was married in September, 1745. But 
all the expectations she may have formed of a 
life of magnificence, influence, and delight as 
future empress of the greatest monarchy of 
the world, soon vanished under the indiffer- 
ence and repulsive treatment of her husband, 
who, though not incapable of good emotions, 
was rude, dissolute, and passionate. Her fiery 
and lively temper could not be contented with 
the consolation of continued studies, in the 
long retirement in which she lived during 
the life of Elizabeth, and she indulged in 
amorous connections which were no secret to 
any one. Among the persons who surrounded 
Peter and herself, Soltikoff won her liveliest 
affection by his spirit and good looks, and lost 
it only when favor and envy had sent him as 
ambassador to foreign courts. At that time 
Catharine became mother of Paul, afterward 
her successor in the empire. The handsome 
and highly accomplished Poniatowski won the 
place of Soltikoff at his first appearance at the 
court, and was protected in her favors by the 
empress Elizabeth, who caused Augustus III., 
king of Poland, to appoint him as his ambassa- 
dor ; but he was soon persecuted by intrigues 
of representatives of other courts, who saw in 
his sympathies for England, and in his influence 
over Catharine and Peter, a danger for the 
French-Russian-Austrian alliance. He was re- 
called, and Gregory Orloff became the object 
of her favors. When Peter succeeded Eliza- 
beth, Jan. 5, 1762, the ill feeling between him 
162 VOL. iv. 8 



and Catharine became still more embittered, 
and the conduct of both, particularly the gross 
public amours of Peter, gave each sufficient 
cause for hatred. Catharine was threatened 
with repudiation by her husband, and the 
Orloffs and their friends were ready to save 
and revenge her. The hetman Razumovski, 
Count Panin, and Princess Dashkoff, a bold 
and enterprising woman, became their chief 
assistants in the conspiracy against Peter, 
which was greatly promoted by the general 
antipathy created in the nation and army by 
the Prussian predilections and discipline, as 
well as by the character and policy of the un- 
fortunate monarch, and was eagerly joined by 
malcontents, romantic adventurers, and am- 
bitious courtiers. But the plot was nearly 
detected and one of the conspirators imprison- 
ed, when they hastened its execution. In the 
night of July 8-9, 1762, Catharine came over 
from Peterhof to St. Petersburg, a part of the 
way on a peasant's wagon, and appeared before 
the guards, who hailed her as empress, though, 
according to the original plan, her son Paul 
was to be declared emperor and herself regent ; 
but this had been changed by the Orloffs, and 
the future senator Teploff read, instead of the 
prepared manifesto, a new onein the Kazan 
church. Peter was soon seized, and after a 
few days strangled in prison. The sooner to 
gain pardon for her part in the crime, Catha- 
rine made the most splendid promises to the 
nation, flattered its prejudices, exhibited great 
devotion to the national religion and its priests, 
was crowned with great pomp at Moscow, and 
made a show 'of extraordinary zeal for im- 
provements in industry, commerce, and the 
navy, and for reforms in the administration of 
justice, as well as in the management of the 
external affairs of her vast empire. Conrland 
was compelled to depose its duke, Charles of 
Saxe, and to submit again to the rule of Biron, 
who had made himself hatefu^ by his cruelty. 
Her influence prevailed in Poland after the 
death of Augustus III. (1763), in the election 
of her favorite Poniatowski as king under the 
name of Stanislas Augustus, from whose affec- 
tion and weakness she justly expected the ex- 
tension of her influence over the neighboring 
state, distracted as it was by religious and civil 
dissensions. But this happy commencement 
could not allay the hatred of national malcon- 
tents ; attempts against the empress were plot- 
ted at Moscow and St. Petersburg, with the aim 
of setting upon the throne of the czars Ivan, son 
of Anna Carlovna, who had already atoned by 
24 years of imprisonment under Elizabeth and 
Catharine for having worn as a child, for a 
few months, the imperial title before the ac- 
cession of the former. The violent death of 
Ivan, in his prison at Schlusselburg (1764), put 
an end to these schemes, and Catharine could 
now enjoy more easily the pleasures and festiv- 
ities of her court, troubled but little by its in- 
trigues about favors and favorites. The con- 
vocation at Moscow of representatives from all 



112 



CATHARINE II. (OF RUSSIA) 



the provinces of the empire for discussing the 
reorganization of justice, was a new manifesta- 
tion of her political activity, as were the rules 
elaborated by her, and read in the first session, 
of her political wisdom. But the rude Samoyeds 
spoke of oppression by their governors, and a 
proposition for the enfranchisement of the serfs 
was soon made. Catharine was afraid of the 
consequences, and hastily dissolved the assem- 
bly, who declared her mother of the country. 
Greater were the results of her external diplo- 
macy. Poland, undermined by her intrigues 
and her protection bestowed on the dissidents, 
soon became a prey to its neighbors. The con- 
federation of Bar (1768), under the Pulaskis, 
Potocki, and other patriots, the weak opposition 
of France to Russia, and a declaration of war by 
the Turks, could not save that unhappy coun- 
try; and its first division by Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia ensued in 1772, and Catharine re- 
ceived a proportionate share. The Turks were 
humbled by her armies under RurniantzefF, 
on the Pruth and on the Kagul (1770), by the 
conquests of Khotim and Bender, as well as 
by her fleet under Alexis Orloff, which won 
the great naval victory of Scio, and burned 
the Turkish fleet in the bay of Tchesme ; and 
the last disasters compelled the Porte to ac- 
cept the peace of Kutchuk-Kainarji (1774), 
and to cede Kinburn, Azov, Yenikale, Kertch, 
and both Kabardas to Russia. The Crimea 
was made independent, soon to become a prey 
to Russia. Having happily subdued and severe- 
ly punished the revolt of the Cossack Puga- 
tcheff, a pseudo-Peter, in the eastern provinces 
(1771-'4), she now formed the plan of expel- 
ling the Turks from Europe, and founding a new 
Byzantine empire under a prince of her house. 
This scheme, favorably regarded by some phi- 
losophers of France, was eagerly promoted by 
her new favorite, the ambitious Potemkin, who 
ruled her no less arrogantly than he did the 
empire. One of the gates of Moscow received 
this inscription, " Way to Constantinople ;" one 
of her grandsons the name of Constantino ; and 
plans were made on the banks of the Neva for 
the restoration of Sparta and Athens. After a 
journey through the eastern provinces which 
had been the scene of the revolt, she undertook 
a new one, in 1787, through the southern parts 
of her empire, to the lately conquered Taurida 
(in part the ancient Tauris). Potemkin made 
this a most magnificent triumph. The eyes of 
the empress were (Jazzled by enchantments; 
palaces rose on desert prairies, to shine for a 
day ; villages and cities, of which only the walls 
were real, were seen from afar, covering the 
barren plains of the Tartar nomads ; masts and 
flags rising above the sands showed fictitious 
canals; festivities and bonfires followed each 
other ; and dances and songs, got up by official 
order, were supposed to show the happiness of 
a population of a hundred nationalities. Catha- 
rine, who delighted in the applause of the 
French philosophers, amused herself and her 
court at the same time with translating Mar- 



montel's Beliwire, but still pursued her dip- 
lomatic schemes. Poniatowski, who came to 
see her after 23 years, near the frontiers of his 
dismembered state, was repaid with kind prom- 
ises for ancient personal affection and new po- 
litical fidelity. Joseph II. of Austria, who came 
to Kherson, was won for a common war against 
Turkey, which ended for Austria with his death 
(1790), and without gain, and for Russia, after 
the conquest of Otchakov by Potemkin, after 
the great victories of Suvaroff, and his bloody 
conquests of Ismail and Bender, with the peace 
of Jassy (1792), and the acquisition of Otchakov 
and the country between the Bog and Dniester. 
This result, so slight in comparison with the 
expected overthrow of the Turkish empire, was 
owing in part to a war with Gustavus III. of 
Sweden, who marched against St. Petersburg, 
but was happily checked in Finland by his 
officers refusing to advance, and was thus com- 
pelled to make peace (1790); in part to the op- 
position of England and Prussia ; but princi- 
pally to the bravery of the Turks in defence 
of their country. The progress and victories 
of the French revolution, though giving her 
a kind of satisfaction by the humiliation of 
several states once mighty, filled Catharine 
with horror, and made her soon forget all her 
predilections for France, and her own vaunted 
liberalism ; she assisted the emigres, broke off 
every communication with the French govern- 
ment, and even made an alliance with England. 
Poland was in the mean time the chief object 
of her attention. Catharine, while at war with 
Turkey, had approved of its new constitution 
of May 8, 1791, which promised to give union 
and vigor to the nation, as did also Frederick 
William II. of Prussia, who was at war with 
France. But scarcely were these wars ended 
when Poland was treacherously attacked from 
both sides. A Russian army of 100,000 men 
was sent to support the aristocratic faction that 
had formed the confederation of Targovitza 
against the constitution. The nephew of the 
king, the future French marshal, Joseph Ponia- 
towski, in vain led the Polish army against 
them ; Kosciuszko proved in vain to be a 
worthy disciple of Washington. The king, per- 
suaded by Catharine, deserted them, and went 
over to the confederation, and the second par- 
tition of Poland followed, executed by Russia 
and Prussia alone. The Russian cannon com- 
pelled the diet of Grodno to sanction it (1798). 
The great rising of the betrayed nation in the 
following year commenced with the massacre 
of the Russians, and with glorious victories un- 
der Kosciuszko as dictator, but ended with his 
defeat at Maciejowice (Oct. 10, 1794), and with 
the taking of Praga (Nov. 3) by SuvarofF, who 
repeated there the slaughter of Ismail and 
Bender. " Bravo, field marshal ! " was Catha- 
rine's answer to his report, " Hurrah, Praga 
Suvaroff." The three great neighbors of Po- 
land now took the whole of it, and destroyed 
even its name (1795). A year before Catha- 
rine had annexed Courland to Russia. She 



CATHAKINE OF ARAGON 



CATHARINE OF FRANCE 113 



next undertook a war against Persia, but 
died of apoplexy, after an agony of 30 hours, 
leaving her empire, so greatly enlarged, to her 
son Paul. Catharine was possessed of great 
talents, susceptible of great ideas, and showed 
often a manly spirit and energy ; her ambition 
appeared grand ; but at the same time she was 
a woman in caprice, a slave of her sensuality 
and vanity, extremely selfish, and sometimes 
cruel. Her numerous favorites, some of them 
her tools and some her masters, were elevated 
by their official situation in the palace, by 
privileges, promotions, and presents, to dignity 
in the state ; while she was, on the other hand, 
prompted by the love of glory to flatter the 
representatives of public opinion, particularly 
in France, to invite Voltaire to her court, to 
call D'Alembert to complete the French Ency- 
clopedic in St. Petersburg, to suffer the famil- 
iarities of Diderot, to have a regular literary 
agent (Grimm) in Paris, and to write herself 
several books in French ; to promote literature 
and art, industry and agriculture, in her em- 
pire ; to reform its laws, and attempt the aboli- 
tion of many abuses ; to build fortresses, cities, 
canals, hospitals, and schools ; to organize ex- 
ploring expeditions on land and sea ; to annex 
and to conquer. She had the satisfaction of 
being called the Semiramis of the North, of 
being ranked by philosophers with Lycurgus 
and Solon, of hearing the words of Voltaire, 
" Light comes now from the North." But her 
fame was only a transient applause; her re- 
forms, undertaken for show, vanished without 
result ; most of her works came to nothing be- 
fore she died ; and her civilization did more to 
corrupt Russia than to elevate it. Lives of 
Catharine II. were written by Cast6ra, J. G. 
von Struve, and Tannenberg; and Hertzen pub- 
lished in London (1859) Memoir es de Vimpe- 
ratrice Catherine II. ecrits par elle-meme et 
precedes d'une preface. 

CATHARINE OF ARAGON. See HENRY VIII. 

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, queen of England, 
born in 1638, died Dec. 31, 1705. She was 
the daughter of John IV., after 1640 king of 
Portugal, and in 1662 married Charles II., 
king of England, bringing her husband, be- 
sides a rich dowry, Tangiers in Africa and 
Bombay in India. She had been bred in a 
convent, and was not accustomed to the free 
conversation and licentious manners which pre- 
vailed at the court of her husband. Her in- 
fluence was unavailing to produce any change, 
nor was she able to restrain the dissolute 
conduct of the king or to gain his love. In 
1678 accusations against her of plots in favor 
of the Catholic religion were received favor- 
ably by the house of commons, but rejected 
by the lords. After the death of Charles 
(1685), she was treated in England with atten- 
tion and respect. She returned to Portugal 
in 1693. Made regent of that country by her 
brother, Dom Pedro, in 1704, she proved her 
ability in the war with Spain, which she carried 
on with success, though 67 years old. 



CATHARINE FIESCHI ADORNO, Saint, born in 
Genoa in 1447, died Sept. 14, 1510. Her fa- 
ther was viceroy of Naples. At the age of 13 
she desired to* consecrate herself to God in the 
religious state ; but in obedience to her parents 
she married at the age of 16 Julian Adorno, a 
gay young nobleman of Genoa. Her life with 
him was for ten years a series of sorrows, suf- 
ferings, and mortifications. He was profligate, 
brutal, and prodigal in the use of the fortune 
which she brought him. In a short time they 
found themselves reduced to poverty ; but her 
patience and good example caused his reforma- 
tion, and he died a penitent. After his death 
Catharine was for many years mother superior 
of the great hospital of Genoa, and extended 
her care to the sick and suffering throughout 
the city. St. Catharine, next to St. Theresa, 
is the most profound female writer that the 
Roman Catholic church has produced. Her 
two principal treatises, which for the most 
part may be considered as the records of her 
own experience, are entitled "Purgatory" and 
"Dialogue between the Soul and the Body." 
She was canonized in 1737 by Clement XII., 
and her anniversary is celebrated on Sept. 
14. An American translation of her treatises 
and of her life, written by her confessor, Mara- 
botto, appeared in 1858. 

CATHARINE OF FRANCE, or of Valois, queen of 
England, born in Paris, Oct. 27, 1401, died in 
the abbey of Bermondsey, England, Jan. 3, 
1438. She was the youngest child of Charles 
VI. of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. Henry 
V. of England, having asserted his claim to 
the crown of France, applied for her hand, but 
demanded an enormous dowry in money and 
the cession of Normandy and several other 
provinces. The court of France declining these 
terms, Henry V. invaded the country, and, 
after the victory of Agincourt and the capture 
of Rouen, renewed his application, which was 
this time favorably entertained./ By the treaty 
of Troyes, May 21, 1420, it was agreed that 
Henry should receive the hand of Catharine 
and succeed to the throne of France after the 
death of Charles VI., the regency of the 
kingdom being placed in his hands until that 
time. They were married at Troyes, June 
2, with great ceremony, and in the following 
year sailed for England, where Catharine was 
crowned Feb. 24, 1421. Henry, being obliged 
to return to France, left his young wife in Eng- 
land, where she gave birth on Dec. 6 to a son, 
afterward Henry VI. She was soon recalled 
to France, where she found her husband dying. 
Immediately after his death (Aug. 31, 1422), his 
infant son was proclaimed king of France and 
England. A few years later, but when is not 
certainly known, Catharine was secretly mar- 
ried to Owen Tudor, a young and handsome 
"Welsh knight of good family, who had fought 
at Agincourt, and after holding the office of 
squire of the body to Henry V. had become 
clerk of the wardrobe to Catharine. By this 
husband she had three sons, the eldest of 



114 CATHARINE DE' MEDICI 



CATHARINE PARR 



whom, Edmund of Hadham, so called from 
Hadham house, where he was born, was made 
earl of Richmond by Henry VI., who also pro- 
cured his marriage with Margaret Beaufort, 
the heiress of the house of Somerset. The issue 
of this marriage was a son, afterward Henry 
VII., the first sovereign of the house of Tudor. 
The marriage of Queen Catharine with Owen 
Tudor does not seem to have been discovered 
till a few months before her death. She was 
sent to a convent and Tudor to Newgate jail, 
whence he escaped to Wales, and after some 
years was taken into favor by Henry VI., in 
whose service he fought against Edward IV., 
by whom he was taken prisoner and put to 
death in 1460. 

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, queen of France, 
born in Florence in 1519, died at Blois, France, 
Jan. 5, 1589. She was the only daughter of 
Lorenzo de' Medici, and in 1538 Pope Clement 
VII., her uncle, negotiated her marriage with 
Henry, duke of Orleans, second son of Francis I. 
Entering the court of France in a somewhat se- 
condary position, she applied herself to concili- 
ate all parties, win all affections, and be every- 
thing to all persons, affecting in the mean time to 
care nothing for affairs of state and to shun the 
turmoil of business. "When she came to France, 
the duchess d'Etampes and the celebrated 
Diana of Poitiers, afterward duchess of Va- 
lentinois, were ostensibly the mistresses of her 
father-in-law, the king, and of her husband ; 
and to both she assiduously paid her court, 
though they notoriously hated one another. 
His elder brother, the dauphin, having died, 
Henry in 1547 succeeded his father as king 
of France. Catharine, however, did not al- 
ter her policy or interfere, whether in the 
affairs of state or in his social and domestic 
arrangements, with her husband, or with his 
mistress. In 1559 Henry was accidentally 
killed at a tournament held at the castle of 
Tournelles ; and his son, Francis II., a delicate 
stripling, weak both in health and intellect, 
lately espoused to Mary Stuart, queen of 
Scots, who was on her mother's side a Guise 
de Lorraine, succeeded to the throne. During 
his short reign Catharine did not exercise much 
influence at court, for the king was completely 
under the rule of his wife and her maternal 
uncles, the celebrated Le Balafr6, Francis duke 
of Guise, and the cardinal Lorraine, who were 
not favorable to the schemes of the queen 
mother. Catharine, who cared nothing for 
religion, connected herself with the Huguenot 
leaders, Cond6, Coligni, and the king of Na- 
varre, and a plan was laid for seizing and im- 
prisoning the young sovereigns at Amboise, ' 
bringing the Guises to the scaffold, and govern- 
ing the realm by a council of regency, com- 
posed of the Huguenot princes under the gui- 
dance of Catharine. The plot, however, was 
detected ; the princes were compelled, in order 
to avoid the suspicion of complicity in the con- 
spiracy, to witness the slaughter of their par- 
tisans ; while Catharine immediately deserted 



them, and joined the party of the Catholic 
league. The next plan was to assassinate the 
duke of Cond6 in the presence of both Francis 
and Mary at Orleans, which city they were 
about to visit in state, on a royal progress; 
and on Francis positively refusing to give his 
assent to the murder, one of the Guises is said 
to have exclaimed, " Now, by the double cross 
of Lorraine, but we have a poor creature for 
our king! " Francis II. died soon after, and 
such was the condition of court morals at the 
time that his death was attributed to poison, 
dropped into his ear while sleeping, not with- 
out the privity of Catharine, who by the ac- 
cession of Charles IX., a minor, succeeded as 
regent (1560) to the actual if not the nominal 
sovereignty of the realm. She now gave full 
swing to her atrocious genius. She first 
plunged all her children into such licentious 
pleasures and voluptuous dissipations, that they 
were speedily unfitted for mental activity or 
exertion. On the occasion of the marriage of 
her daughter, Marguerite of Valois, with Hen- 
ry of Navarre, Catharine prevailed on Charles 
to give the orders for the fatal massacre of St. 
Bartholomew's, an event which greatly in- 
creased her power, of which she boasted to 
Catholic governments, and which she excused 
to Protestant ones. Charles IX. died in 1574, 
and the belief was that he had been poisoned by 
his brother Francis, duke of Alencon, with the 
connivance of his mother. Her son Henry of 
Valois, then in Poland, of which he had been 
elected king by the diet, left that country se- 
cretly, returned to France, and claimed the 
throne. During his reign, which ended Aug. 
2, 1589, Catharine had until her death a princi- 
pal but concealed share in the plots and party 
contests which distracted France. She is sup- 
posed to have instigated the death of Henry of 
Guise and bis brother the cardinal, who were 
assassinated by the king's order. This was the 
ruin of Henry and of the schemes of Catharine. 
It united all Catholic France against the king, 
brought about his death by assassination, and 
made her an object of aversion to all parties. 
She died unheeded in the fierce strife of wars 
which she had stirred up. 

CATHARINE PARR, queen of England, the 
sixth and last wife of Henry VIII., born nt 
Kendal castle, Westmoreland, about 1513, died 
at Sudely castle in Gloucestershire, Sept. 7, 
1548. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Parr, who was at the time of her birth master 
of the wards and comptroller of the king's 
household. He died when she was but five years 
old, leaving her education in charge of her 
mother, under whose tuition and care Catha- 
rine became one of the most learned and ac- 
complished women of her time. She was 
married when very young to Edward, Lord 
Burgh, an elderly widower, who died in 1528. 
Shortly after this the family of the Parrs, al- 
ready distantly connected with the royal house, 
became more nearly allied with it through the 
marriage of Catharine's brother William to a 



CATHARINE PARR 



CATHARISTS 



115 



kinswoman of the king ; and two of the Parrs 
now became attached to the court. These 
circumstances seems to have led at this early 
day to some degree of friendly intercourse be- 
tween Henry and Catharine. While still under 
20 years of age she was married again, this time 
also to a widower, John Neville, Lord Latimer, 
an earnest Catholic, who died in 1542 or 1543. 
Soon after his death Catharine embraced the 
Protestant faith, of which she became from this 
time an earnest friend and defender, her home 
at Snape hall being a resort of some of the most 
famous reformers. During this second wid- 
owhood her hand was sought by Sir Thomas 
Seymour; and she had already consented to 
marry him, when she received the alarming 
and unwelcome news that she had been select- 
ed for the sixth wife of the king. It was im- 
possible to resist the royal will, and Catharine 
was married to Henry on July 12, 1543. The 
influence of the new queen at court was excel- 
lent. She behaved toward Henry with the 
greatest tact, and used his favor, which she 
successfully retained, for the best purposes, 
even venturing to occasionally interfere in be- 
half of persecuted Protestants. She devoted 
much of her time to study, composition, and 
scholarly pursuits, and impressed the impor- 
tance of these upon the king's children. Her 
relatives received places of influence, and she 
so skilfully managed her husband's caprices as 
to gain some power even in state affairs. When 
Henry went to France in 1544, he left her re- 
gent of the kingdom. Even her known sym- 
pathy for the unfortunate Anne Askew did not 
suffice to turn the fickle king against her ; and 
it was a comparatively trivial matter which 
brought her into her first real danger of shar- 
ing the fate of her predecessors. In one of the 
theological discussions hi which she occasion- 
ally engaged with Henry, she allowed herself 
to support her views with more warmth than 
usual, and he became greatly incensed. One 
of her Catholic enemies who was present took 
advantage of the king's anger to poison his mind 
against the queen, and, aided by others, in- 
duced him to permit several of his councillors 
to consult as to the drawing up of a warrant 
against her. This warrant and an order for 
her arrest were actually signed a few days 
later ; but Wriothesley, the lord chancellor, 
to whom they had been given, accidentally 
dropped them, and they were found and car- 
ried to Catharine. Thus warned, she so skil- 
fully flattered and soothed her husband that he 
became completely reconciled to her. He sa- 
luted Wriothesley, when he came to arrest the 
queen, with a torrent of abusive epithets, and 
bade him " avaunt from his presence." From 
this time Catharine enjoyed apparent favor till 
Henry's death in 1547 ; but there seems little 
doubt that in secret the king considered several 
plans for ridding himself of her. She did not long 
remain a widow. After passing a few months in 
her jointure house at Chelsea, she became the 
wife of her old lover Sir Thomas Seymour, now 



lord admiral. But her married life with him 
was embittered by his familiarity with the 
young princess Elizabeth, and by his growing 
neglect of herself. Though without children 
by her former marriages, she bore Sir Thomas 
a daughter on Aug. 30, 1548, the infant's birth 
costing her her life. Catharine's literary works 
are admirable specimens of a pure early Eng- 
lish style. She wrote " Queen Catharine Parr's 
Lamentations of a Sinner," published by Lord 
Burleigh in 1548. In her lifetime she pub- 
lished a volume of prayers and meditations. 
Her letters are preserved in Strype's annals, 
Hayne's collection of state papers, and in the 
Ashmole collection. She employed scholars to 
translate from the Latin into English Erasmus's 
paraphrase on the New Testament, and wrote 
a Latin letter to the princess, afterward Queen 
Mary, exhorting her to translate the paraphrase 
on St. John. 

CATHARINE PAULOVNA, queen of Wurtern- 
berg, grand duchess of Russia, daughter of 
Paul I. and younger sister of Alexander I., born 
May 21, 1788, died Jan. 9, 1819. In 1809 she 
married George, duke of Holstein-Oldenburg, 
who died in 1812. She accompanied her 
brother Alexander on his campaigns in Germa- 
ny and France (18 13-' 14), and to Paris, Lon- 
don, and the congress of Vienna (1815), assist- 
ing him by her talents and resolute spirit. In 
1816 she married William, crown prince of 
Wurtemberg. During the famine of 1816 in 
that country she proved her benevolence by 
the formation of female associations and an 
agricultural society! She was active in pro- 
moting the education of the people. She left 
two sons by her first and two daughters by her 
second marriage. 

CATHARINE OF SIENA, Saint, born at Siena in 
1347, died in Rome, April 29, 1380. She en- 
tered at 20 years of age the order of Domini- 
can nuns, and became distinguished for her 
charity and devotion. She restored the Flor- 
entines to the favor of Gregory XL, and ex- 
horted that pontiff to leave Avignon for Rome. 
She wrote in defence of Pope Urban VI., when 
his authority was contested by Clement VII. 
She was canonized by Pius II. in 1461, and her 
anniversary is celebrated on April 30. The 
works of this saint are principally treatises 
upon devotional subjects, letters, and poems, 
collected in Qpere della sera/flea Santa Cata- 
rina (4vols., Siena and Lucca, 1707-'13). 

CATHARISTS, or Cathari (Gr. Ka6ap6c;, pure), a 
name assumed by heretics of the middle ages 
to justify their opposition to the alleged cor- 
ruptions of the Roman Catholic church. They 
were also called in Italy Patavini or Paterini, 
in France Publicani, and at a later period 
Bulgarians ; and from the time of the Albigen- 
sian war the name Albigenses became more 
common than any other. (See ALBIGENSES.) 
According to some, the Catharista appeared as 
early as 1035 near Turin, but the first undis- 
puted trace of them is in 1101 at Agen. They 
spread from southern France into the neigh- 



116 



CATHARISTS 



CATHARTICS 



boring countries. Their central point in France 
was Toulouse, and in upper Italy, Milan. In 
order to secure uniformity of policy and doc- 
trine, they held in 1167 a synod at Toulouse, at 
which even a Catharist bishop of Constantino- 
ple, Nicetas, was present. As they were pro- 
tected by a considerable number of the nobles, 
the decrees of the popes and councils against 
them remained without effect, and a crusade 
against them in 1181, headed by the cardinal 
legate Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, was likewise 
unsuccessful. At the close of the 12th century 
a branch of the sect passed from Dalmatia into 
Bosnia, where they became very numerous. 
In southern France they even became the 
dominant party, but the issue of the protracted 
and bloody Albigensian war left them without 
patrons and at the mercy of the inquisition. 
Nevertheless they maintained themselves in 
southern France till the 14th century, increased 
in upper Italy and in Bosnia and Bulgaria, 
where they appear to have for some time been 
in the ascendant, and spread more or less into 
other European countries. In England, where 
they made their appearance in 1159, they 
were quickly suppressed. In most other 
countries they succumbed to the inquisition 
and to crusades in the first half of the 14th cen- 
tury. In Bosnia, however, they became once 
more predominant, under King Stephen Tvart- 
ko, as late as 1376, and in southern France and 
the Basque provinces the Cagots traced their 
origin to the Albigenses. Our knowledge of 
the Cathari is almost exclusively derived from 
Roman Catholic writers, and chiefly from the 
inquisitors, who had the mission, if necessary, 
to exterminate them by fire and sword. Their 
reports frequently differ. According to some 
writers, they were distributed into three chief di- 
visions : the Albigenses, who professed dualism, 
and the Concorrezenses and Bagnolenses, who 
assumed one supreme principle. Others do not 
give any of these names, and merely distinguish 
between the dualistic Cathari and the adhe- 
rents of one supreme principle. The former as- 
sumed two opposite principles, without begin- 
ning and without end ; the latter believed in 
one supreme God, but generally rejected the 
doctrine of the Trinity. All parties appear to 
have regarded Satan as the creator of the visi- 
ble world, and as the Jehovah of the Old Testa- 
ment. From him, in the opinion of the Ca- 
tharists, the greater portion of men derive 
their origin, and they cannot be redeemed; 
but there is also a higher class of men, whose 
souls are the fallen angels, and for the redemp- 
tion of whom the God of light sent the angel 
Jesus, who taught them that they were of a 
higher nature, and that by despising every- 
thing material they could emancipate them- 
selves from the prince of this world. The an- 
cient system of the strict dualists is said to have 
been considerably modified about 1230 by their 
bishop Johannes de Lugio, who taught that 
good and evil had limited each other from 
eternity, and had already intermingled in the 



world above. The Cathari rejected all the 
fundamental doctrines of the Catholic church, 
as the Trinity, incarnation, and resurrection. 
They renounced baptism by water, and laid 
great stress on the baptism of the Spirit, which 
should be performed by the imposition of hands 
in connection with prayer. Their church edi- 
fices had neither images, cross, nor bell, and the 
worship consisted only of the reading and expo- 
sition of a passage of the New Testament, fol- 
lowed by the benediction. Marriage was classed 
among the mortal sins, inasmuch as it increases 
the number of fallen souls. One of the most im- 
portant rites of the sect was the comolamentum, 
consisting of the imposition of hands and the 
putting on of a garment ; by means of this rite 
the members also advanced into the higher class 
of the perfecti, which had to practise the most 
rigorous asceticism, while those of the lower 
class (credentes) are said to have been at liberty 
to give themselves to a licentious life, provided 
they vowed to enter at some future time the 
higher class. Their hierarchy consisted of four 
degrees, the highest of which was that of the 
bishop. Some are of the opinion that a pope 
stood at the head of the hierarchy. Besides 
the New Testament, the Cathari held the 
apocryphal book Visio I&aia in high estima- 
tion. A Catharist translation of the New Tes- 
tament in a Romaic dialect, with an appendix 
containing a short liturgy, an act of confession, 
acts of reception among the credentes and 
among the perfecti, some special directions for 
the faithful, and an act of consolation in case 
of sickness, was discovered in 1851. The best 
works on the Catharists are Schmidt's Histoire 
et doctrines de la secte des Cathares (2 vols., 
Paris, 1849) and Hahn's Oeschichte der Ketzer 
im Mittelalter (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1845-'50). 

CATHARTICS (Gr. Ka0apr<5f, from Kadalpecv, to 
cleanse), medicines used to promote evacuation 
of the intestines. Their number is very large, 
and they may be divided into several classes, 
such as mechanical, including unbolted meal 
of various kinds, fruits, and mustard seed; 
oily, as croton and castor oil ; saline, as mag- 
nesia and its carbonate, sulphate, and citrate, 
sulphate and phosphate of soda, bitrate of po- 
tassa, &c. ; acid or bitter, as rhubarb, senna, 
colocynth, and aloes; resinous, as jalap, scam- 
mony, gamboge, and podophylline ; and mercu- 
rial, calomel and blue pill. Their action va- 
ries, partly with the dose, from the mild and 
almost natural effect of magnesia and aloes, to 
the violent purging of jalap, gamboge, or elate- 
rium. For a more detailed statement of indi- 
vidual peculiarities, see the several titles. The 
modw operandi of cathartics is chiefly in stim- 
ulating the intestines to more active contrac- 
tion, and thus either hastening the discharge 
of the more watery contents of the upper 
bowels, before they have time to experience 
the loss of fluid which usually takes place by 
absorption in the large intestine, or else un- 
loading the colon of its normal contents. The 
saline cathartics are probably always absorbed 



CATHCART 



CATHEDRAL 



117 



to some extent, and if they fail to act upon the 
bowels may be eliminated in part or wholly by 
the urine. Some of the others, as senna and 
scammony, demonstrate their occasional ab- 
sorption by causing purgation in infants when 
taken by the nurse. The coloring matter of 
rhubarb sometimes appears in the secretions. 
Cathartics are very largely used, both singly 
and in the most various combinations with 
each other and with tonics and aromatics, from 
the natural salines of mineral springs to the 
numerous quack compounds with which the 
country is flooded. They are probably more 
abused than any other class of drugs, since a 
resort to them is so easy as to often lead to 
a neglect of highly important hygienic rules. 
They should never be allowed to take the 
place of due attention to diet, exercise, and 
habit. The common use of powerful cathar- 
tics at the beginning of acute diseases, to " work 
otf a cold " for instance, is as a rule to be dep- 
recated. Their use, however, is often neces- 
sary, not only to relieve constipation, but to 
withdraw water primarily from the intestinal 
canal, and secondarily from other parts of the 
body, as in dropsy, or to control the circula- 
tion by calling a large amount of blood into 
the capacious veins and arteries of the abdo- 
men. The uterus, from its nearness to the 
bowel, may be injuriously affected by the ac- 
tion of violent purges. 

CATHCART, William Schaw, earl, a British gen- 
eral and diplomatist, born at Petersham, Sept. 
17, 1755, died at Cartside, near Glasgow, June 
17, 1843. He was the eldest son of the 9th 
Baron Cathcart, studied law, although without 
intention of practising that profession, and on 
the breaking out of the American war entered 
the British army, where he speedily rose to be 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Spencer Wilson and Sir 
Henry Clinton. Subsequently he commanded 
the 29th regiment of infantry, and finally was 
appointed quartermaster general. Recalled to 
England, he joined the Walcheren expedition 
with the rank of brigadier general. After dis- 
tinguishing himself at Bommel and elsewhere 
on the retreat, he returned to England, where 
he was promoted. In 1807 he took his seat as 
a representative peer of Scotland. The same 
year he was appointed commander-in-chief of 
the troops destined to act against Copenhagen, 
and on the fall of that city and capture of the 
Danish fleet was created a peer of England 
as Viscount Cathcart and Baron Greenock. 
In 1812 lie was sent as minister plenipotentiary 
to Russia. The emperor Alexander being then 
with the army, Lord Cathcart joined him at 
headquarters, where he remained during the 
campaigns of 1813 and 1814. He entered Paris 
with the allied sovereigns, subsequently acted 
as British plenipotentiary at the congress of 
Vienna, and was made an earl, June 18, 1814. 
On the final overthrow of Napoleon he again 
repaired to Paris and signed the treaty of peace 
which followed Waterloo. He was afterward 
for some time minister to Russia. His later 



years were passed at his country house of 
Cartside. 

CATHEDRAL (Lat. cathedra, a seat), a church 
containing a bishop's throne or seat, the chief 
church of the diocese. Its usual form is a Lat- 
in or Greek cross, and it is not distinguished 
architecturally from the basilica. In the old 
basilicas there was a transverse hall at the end, 
not intentionally resembling a cross ; but more 
modern architects, perceiving the resemblance, 
changed the position of the transept, making 
the church cruciform. The church of St. John 
of Lateran at Rome, founded by Constantino, 
is the episcopal church or cathedral of the pope, 
and bears over its chief portal the inscription, 
Omnium urbis et orbis eeclesiarum mater et 
caput, " Mother and head of all the churches 
of the city and the world." At its chief altar 
none but the pope can read mass, for it covers 
another ancient altar at which the apostle Pe- 
ter is said to have officiated. The basilica of 
St. Peter's at Rome is surpassed by no cathe- 
dral in antiquity and splendor, and equalled by 
none in -magnitude. In the year 90 Anacletus, 
bishop of Rome, who was said to have been 
ordained by St. Peter himself, erected an ora- 
tory on the site of the apostle's burial, after his 
crucifixion. In 306 Constantine built a ba- 
silica on the spot. In 1450 Nicholas V. com- 
menced a building on plans of Bernardino and 
others. Paul II. continued it, and Julius II. 
secured the services of Bramante, whose plan 
was a Latin cross and an immense dome on 
arches springing from four large pillars. The 
latter died in 1514, and Leo X. appointed Giu- 
liano Sangallo, Giovanni da Verona, and Ra- 
phael, who strengthened the pillars for the 
dome ; but Sangallo dying in 1517, and Raphael 
in 1520, Leo employed Baldassari Peruzzi, who 
changed the plan to a Greek cross. Paul III. 
employed Antonio Sangallo, who returned to 
Bramante's plan ; but he died very shortly, and 
the pope appointed Giulio Romano, who also 
died. The work was then given to Michel An- 
gelo, then in his 72d year. Paul III. died in 
1549, but Julius III. continued Michel Angelo in 
his place, giving him full authority to change 
whatever he wished in the building as it then 
stood. He returned to the Greek cross, and 
strengthened the piers for supporting the dome. 
The drum of, the dome was completed before 
he died in 1563. Pius V. appointed Vignola 
and Pirro, with orders that they should adhere 
to Michel Angelo's plans. The present dome, 
finished in 1590 by Giacomo della Porta, is light- 
er and higher than that designed by Raphael. 
Sixtus V. gave 100,000 gold crowns annually to- 
ward its completion. In 1605 Paul V. employ- 
ed Carlo Maderno, who changed the ground 
plan back to the Latin cross. The nave was 
finished in 1612, the facade and portico in 1614. 
The church was dedicated by Pope Urban VIII. 
on Nov. 18, 1626. Under Alexander VII., in 
1667, Bernini finished the colonnade. The 
building of St. Peter's, from its foundation in 
1450 till its dedication, occupied 175 years; 



118 



CATHEDEAL 



and if we include the work done under Pius 
VI., three and a half centuries passed be- 
fore it was completed, during which time 43 
popes reigned. The dimensions of the church 
are as follows: length of the interior 613| Eng- 
lish ft., of transept from wall to wall 446 ft. ; 
height of nave 152^ ft., of side aisles 47 ft. ; 
width of nave 77-89 ft., of side aisles 83f ft. ; 
circumference of pillars which support the 
dome 253 ft. The cupola is 193 ft. in diameter. 
The height of the dome from the pavement to 
the base of the lantern is 405 ft., to the top of 
the cross 448 ft. The dome is encircled and 
strengthened by six bands of iron. A stairway 
leads to the roof, broad and easy enough to 
allow a loaded horse to ascend. The annual 
cost of keeping the church in repair is 30,000 
scudi. At Milan the first cathedral was de- 
stroyed by Attila; the next one was injured 
by fire ; and the first stone of the present struc- 
ture was laid by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti on 
March 15, 1387. The ground plan is a Latin 
cross terminated by an apsis. Its dimensions 
are : length 486 ft. ; breadth of body 252 ft., 
between the walls of the transept 288 ft. ; 
width of nave from centre to centre of the col- 
umns 63 ft., which is double the width of the 
side aisles ; height of the crown of the vaulting 
of nave 153 ft. ; height from the pavement to 
top of the statue of Madonna 355 ft. The in- 
terior is divided into a nave and four aisles, by 
four ranges of clustered pillars. Fifty-two pil- 
lars, each formed of eight shafts, support the 
arches of the roof. These pillars are 80 ft. high, 
viz. : a base 4 ft., shaft 57 ft. 6| in., capital 18 ft. 
6| in. ; diameter of shaft 8 ft. There are fine 
interior doorways in Roman style. The pave- 
ment is laid in mosaic in red, blue, and white 
marble. The white marble exterior has niches 
and pinnacles for 4,500 statues, of which over 
8,400 are completed at present. The duomo 
at Florence is one of the most beautiful speci- 
mens of the Italian-Gothic style. It was begun 
in 1298 upon the plan of Arnolfo di Cambio da 
Calle, and was finished about 1444. Several ar- 
chitects were employed upon it, among them 
Giotto, Taddeo Gaddi, and Andrea Orgagna. Its 
completion was intrusted to Brunelleschi, who 
designed the cupola. The cathedral is in length 
500 ft., the transept 806 ft. ; the nave is 153 ft. 
high, the side aisles 96 ft. 6 in. .The cupola is 
octagonal in form, 138 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and 
in height from cornice of the drum to the eye 
of the dome 133 ft. 6 in. Michel Angelo used 
this dome as a model for that of St. Peter's. 
The interior of the duomo is rather dark, the 
windows being small and the glass darkly 
stained. The pavement is tessellated in red, 
blue, and white marble. The frescoes in the 
cupola are from designs by Vasari. The entire 
edifice covers 84,802 sq. ft. The cathedral at 
Cologne, begun about the middle of the 13th 
century, is one of the most imposing Gothic 
structures in Europe. The original architect 
is unknown. The choir was not consecrated 
till 1322, and the north and south aisles of the 



nave had only been carried up to the capital* 
of the columns in 1509, and were covered 
with a wooden roof. Work was suspended 
till 1830. In 1842 Frederick William IV. laid 
the first stone of the transept, which with the 
north and south portals WHS finished before 
1863, when the whole interior was thrown 
open. The length of the cathedral is 511 ft., 
breadth 231 ft., and the towers will be 511 ft. 
high. Externally it has a double range of flying 
buttresses and intervening piers, and a perfect 
forest of pinnacles. The cathedral of Dantzic 
was begun in 1343 and finished in 1503. It is 
of brick, and 358 ft. long. The vaulted roof is 
98 ft. high, supported by 26 slender brick pil- 
lars. Around the interior are 50 chapels found- 
ed by citizens of the place as family burial 
places. The great ornament of this building 
is a painting of the " Last Judgment," attrib- 
uted to Jan van Eyck. According to tradition, 
it was painted for the pope, but on its way 
from Bruges to Rome was captured by pirates. 
Being retaken by a Dantzic vessel, it was de- 
posited in the cathedral in 1467. The cathe- 
dral of Notre Dame in Antwerp is one of the 
largest and most beautiful Gothic buildings in 
the Netherlands. It was commenced between 
1352 and 1411. The west front and tower are 
of the 15th century. It is 890 ft. long and 
250 ft. wide. In 1566 it was sacked and much 
injured. It contains the celebrated masterpiece 
of Rubens, the "Descent from the Cross." 
The cathedral at Rheims was commenced in 
1211 and the choir dedicated in 1241. It was 
completed in 1430, and is 466 ft. long. The 
cathedral at Amiens was begun in 1220 ; it is 
469 ft. long, and has a central spire 422 ft. 
high, which dates however only from the 16th 
century. The cathedral at Strasburg, one of 
the grandest Gothic churches in Europe, is 
remarkable for its spire, designed by Erwin 
of Steinbach. The work was half finished in 
1318, when he died, and was continued by 
his son and afterward by his daughter Sa- 
bina. It rises 468 ft., and is an open fretwork 
of stone bound together by iron ties. The tow- 
er was completed in 1439, but a second tower, 
which the cathedral was intended to have, is 
still unfinished, and mars somewhat the effect. 
During the siege of the city by the Germans in 
1870 it was badly injured by shells and other 
projectiles. The cathedral of Notre Dame in 
Paris stands upon the spot once occupied by a 
Roman temple. It is said that a church dedi- 
cated to St. Stephen was erected on the same 
site about 365, in the time of Valentinian I., 
and was enlarged in 522 by Childebert, son of 
Clovis. Robert, son of Hugh Capet, under- 
took to rebuild this church, which was called 
Notre Dame from a chapel which Childebert 
had dedicated to the Virgin. But this church 
was never finished and fell into ruins. The 
first stone of the present edifice was laid about 
1163, by Pope Alexander III., Maurice de Sa- 
liac being bishop of the diocese. The high 
altar was consecrated in 1182 by Henry, legate 



CATHEDRAL 



119 



of the holy see, and in 1185 Heraclitus, patri- 
arch of Jerusalem, officiated in the church. 
The west front was finished by Maurice de 
Sally, the bishop, in 1223. The southern tran- 
sept with its portal was completed in 1257, 
and the northern transept and portal in 1312 
by Philip the Fair. The western doors with 
their iron work were made about 1570-'80 by 
Biscourette. The dimensions are as follows : 
length 390 ft., width of transept 144 ft., height 
of vaulting 105 ft., height of western towers 
224 ft., width of front 128 ft., length of nave 
to transept 186 ft. The pillars of the nave are 
4 ft. in diameter, resting on gravelled beds 18 
ft. below the surface. The style of architec- 
ture is pure pointed. The nave and side aisles 
are paved with marble ; the aisles around the 
choir are paved with stone and black marble. 
An immense vault, extending the entire length 
of the nave, was constructed in 1666 for the 
interment of chaplains, &c. The organ is 45 
ft. high, 36 ft. wide, and has 3,484 pipes. The 
interior of Notre Dame is not so rich in deco- 
rations as the exterior. The arches of the 
nave are pointed ; the piers are circular pillars, 
with large and well formed capitals. The pil- 
lars of the aisles are alternately circular and 
clustered. The cathedral covers 64,108 sq. ft. 
England has many cathedrals worthy of par- 
ticular mention. That at Salisbury is the most 
perfect and beautiful specimen. It was founded 
by Bishop Richard Poore in the year 1220, in the 
reign of Henry III., and was finished hi 1260. 
Its plan is a double cross, in extreme length 
442 ft., length of greater transept 203 ft. The 
cathedral at Canterbury dates from shortly af- 
ter the Norman conquest. It was built on the 
site of an earlier cathedral, and modelled after 
that of St. Stephen at Caen, from which plan 
subsequent alterations have deviated. It has 
three towers, one in the centre and two at the 
west end. The northwestern tower, of Nor- 
man date, was replaced by a new one in 1832. 
The centre tower, which is 235 ft. in height, 
was begun toward the end of the 15th century. 
The cathedral is 574 ft. long and the greater 
transept 159 ft. The crypts, which extend 
under the entire building, are the finest in 
England. The interior of the eastern part, 
known as Becket's corona, had but recently 
been finished when the cathedral was partly 
destroyed by fire in 1872. Ely cathedral is 
517 ft. in length and 190 in breadth, and has a 
nave 203 ft. long, 81 wide, and 74 high. The 
style of the building externally is Norman and 
early English. The centre tower and lantern, 
270 ft. high, supported on eight large piers, is 
a remarkable feature. Lincoln cathedral is 
one of the most perfect examples of the early 
English style. It is 524 ft. long outside, and 
482 inside. The greater transept is 250 ft. 
long outside by 222 inside. The chief tower is 
300 ft. high. The cathedral at York is irregu- 
lar in plan, and its parts are of different date, 
yet its aspect is imposing from its grand di- 
mensions. It is 524 ft. long, 222 wide, and has 



a superb centre tower. The nave, from door to 
choir, is 264 ft. long, and is 106 ft. wide and 93 
high. It has a small crypt, a consistory court, 
and an elegant octangular chapter house, 
which leads from the north transept. St. 
Paul's, London, was commenced in 1675, Sir 
Christopher Wren being the architect, and 
was finished in 1710. It is built of fine Port- 
land stone, in the form of a Latin cross, its 
length being 500 ft., the transept 285 ft. long, 
and the west front 1 80 ft. wide. The campanile 
towers at the west front are each 222 ft. high. 
The dome is 365 ft. from the ground, and 356 
from the floor of the church, and it is 145 ft. in 
diameter. Simple ratios exist between the 
principal dimensions. The windows are main- 
ly 12 ft. wide by 24 high, the aisles 19 ft. clear 
width by 38 in height; the central avenue is 
41 by 84 ft. ; the domed vestibule at the west 
end is 47 ft. square by 94 ft. high. The archi- 
tectural elevation has two orders, the lower 
being Corinthian and the upper composite. The 
interior lacks in ornament, disappointing one 
who has seen the cathedrals on the conti- 
nent. A still graver defect is the darkness un- 
der the dome, the light being scantily admitted 
and not well distributed. It was begun and 
finished under one architect, with a few mean 
exceptions. The organ was built in 1694 by 
Bernard Smydt. St. Paul's is the fifth in size 
of the great churches of Europe, being smaller 
than St. Peter's and the cathedrals of Florence, 
Milan, and Amiens. In America, the cathedral 
of St. Peter and St. Paul at Philadelphia was 
commenced from designs by Le Brun in Sep- 
tember, 1846, and opened for worship in 1862. 
It is built of red stone after the style of the 
modern Roman cruciform churches. The dome 
is 210 ft. in height. It has a fine organ, frescoes, 
and an altarpiece by Brumidi. At Baltimore the 
Catholic cathedral is built of granite, and is 190 
ft. long, 177 ft. broad, and 127 ft. high from the 
floor to the top of the cross which surmounts 
the dome. It has a large organ of 6,000 pipes 
and 36 stops, a painting presented by Louis 
XVI., and one the gift of Charles X. of France. 
St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, now building 
(1873), was projected by Archbishop Hughes, 
who laid the corner stone, Aug. 15, 1858. The 
material is a brilliant micaceous marble, which 
is especially well adapted to the decorated 
Gothic style of architecture chosen for the 
work. It is 332 ft. in length and 132 ft. in 
general width, with an extreme width at the 
transepts of 174 ft. There will be two towers 
328 ft. high. The cathedral of Notre Dame in 
Montreal is 255 ft. long and 135 broad, and is 
capable of seating 10,000 persons. It has two 
towers, each 220 ft. high, one of which con- 
tains a chime of bells and the other a single 
bell, the Gros Bourdon, weighing 29,400 Ibs. 
There are cathedrals, some of them of im- 
posing architecture, in several cities of south- 
ern America. That hi Mexico, begun in 1573, 
completed in 1667, is built in an irregular 
mixture of the Gothic and Italian styles, and is 



120 



CATHELINEAU 



CATILINE 



500 ft. in length and 420 in breadth. That of 
Lima is a massive stone structure, 320 ft. long 
and 180 wide, the facade painted red and yel- 
low, with lath and plaster towers at each angle. 
Notices and illustrations of the principal 
cathedrals throughout the world will be found 
under the names of their respective places. 
See "Essays on Cathedrals," edited by J. 8. 
Howson (London, 1872). 

CATHELINEAU, Jacques, generalissimo of the 
Vendeans in the revolt of 1793 against the 
revolutionary government of France, born at 
Pin-en-Mauges, in Anjou, Jan. 5, 1759, died 
at St. Florent, July 11, 1793. After having 
been engaged in the business of his father, who 
was a mason, he became a linen peddler, and 
after the outbreak of the French revolution was 
poor, with a large family. His religious de- 
votion was so well known in the province, that 
he was called the saint of Anjou. A bloody 
fight that took place at St. Florent, March 12, 
1793, between the republican troops and the 
royalists, on the occasion of a levy for the army 
according to a recent decree of the convention, 
roused the spirit of Cathelineau, and at the head 
of a body of youth he attacked and expelled 
the garrisons of Jallais and Chollet. As the 
number and courage of his bands, though with- 
out regular arms, were continually increasing, 
he fought several engagements, mostly with 
success. After the taking of Saumur, June 
13, he was elevated to the dignity of general- 
in-chief, us the most popular of the leaders. 
He marched against Angers, which made no 
resistance; but an attack on Nantes ended, 
after a whole day of desperate struggle (June 
29), in the dispersion of his troops. Cathe- 
lineau was wounded and carried to St. Florent, 
where he died after 12 days. After the res- 
toration of the Bourbons his surviving children 
were rewarded with pensions, and a statue was 
erected to his memory at his birthplace, which 
was broken in 1832 by the soldiers of Louis 
Philippe. His son, also named JACQUKB, born 
March 28, 1787, took part in an anti-Napoleonic 
movement in La Vendee in 1815, and was shot 
in 1832 while engaged in the conspiracy of the 
duchess of Berry. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. Bee ROMAN CATHOLIC 
CHURCH. 

CATILINE, or fatilina, Lnclns Sergins, a Roman 
conspirator, killed in the engagement of Fte- 
sulse, 62 B. 0. He was the descendant of an 
ancient but decayed patrician family, and is 
said by his enemies to have spent his youth 
and early manhood in a career of profligacy 
and crime, taking a bloody part in the pro- 
scriptions of Sulla, when even some of his own 
relations became his victims. He was sus- 
pected of criminal intercourse with a vestal, 
and believed guilty of the secret murder of his 
first wife and his son, committed in order to 
marry another woman. All this did not pre- 
vent him from obtaining important offices and 
aspiring to the highest dignities in the republic, 
being able by his mental and bodily powers, 



of which even his enemies speak with admira- 
tion, to undertake every task. Having been 
sent as praetor to Africa, he returned in 66 
B. 0. to Rome, to become a candidate in the 
next consular election, but was disqualified by 
a charge of extortion in his province, directed 
against him by Clodius Pulcher, known by his 
later enmity to Cicero. The newly elected 
consuls were convicted of bribery, and Cotta 
and Torquatus, their accusers and competitors, 
took their places. On these Catiline resolved 
to wreak his vengeance, conspiring against 
their lives with Autronius, one of the deposed 
consuls, Cn. Piso, and others. The first day 
of the consulship was fixed for the assassina- 
tion, but Catiline, it is said, frustrated the at- 
tempt by his impatient haste in giving the 
signal. This failure only stimulated him to 
greater undertakings. He now, it is alleged, 
formed a new conspiracy with the purpose of 
exterminating the whole body of the senate, 
murdering all the magistrates of the republic, 
and sharing its sway and treasures with his 
followers. Such is the representation of great 
contemporary writers, though their impartiality 
may be questioned. The corruption of the 
times favored his designs ; ruined nobles of all 
ranks, profligates, and intriguing persons of 
both sexes, joined him ; many veterans of 
Sulla were found ready to renew the familiar 
scenes of proscription; the restless populace 
could easily be used. His chief cooperators 
were P. C. Lentulus and P. Autronius, ex-con- 
suls, L. Calpurnius Bestia, tribune elect, Cethe- 
gus, two nephews of Sulla, and others. It was 
now his interest to be elected consul ; he be- 
came a candidate, but was again unsuccessful. 
Cicero was elected with C. Antonius. Catiline 
now pushed on with greater vigor. The plot 
was matured ; troops were levied, especially 
under C. Manlius, a centurion of Sulla, in the 
vicinity of Frosulse, in Etruria ; arms were pro- 
vided, the lists of proscription made out, and 
the day fixed for the assassination of the con- 
suls and the general conflagration of the city. 
The watchfulness of Cicero saved himself and 
the republic. Fulvia, the mistress of one of 
the conspirators, was induced to communicate 
all the particulars ; 0. Antonius was made harm- 
less by the promise of Macedonia as a prov- 
ince. Informed by Cicero, the senate intrust- 
ed the consuls with absolute power to save the 
republic from the threatening danger. At the 
following consular election Catiline was again 
rejected, and in the night of Nov. 6, 63, he de- 
clared in a secret meeting to his ringleaders 
that the time of action had arrived. Cicero, 
who knew their every movement, summoned 
the senate, and delivered his first great oration 
against Catiline, giving full and ample informa- 
tion of all the facts. Catiline was bold enough 
to be present and to attempt his justification ; 
but his voice was drowned by the cries of 
"Enemy " and " Parricide " from the indignant 
senators, and he was left on his deserted bench 
a spectacle to the assembly. He left Rome in 



OATINAT DE LA FAUCONNERIE 



CATNIP 



121 



the following night to join the camp of Manlius, 
leaving the management of affairs at the capital 
to Lentulus and Cethegus. Cicero now ad- 
dressed the people in the forum, justifying his 
conduct ; the senate declared Catiline and Man- 
lius enemies of the republic, while legal evi- 
dence against the conspirators at Home was 
furnished by the communications of the am- 
bassadors of the Allobroges, who, being sent to 
Rome for the redress of grievances, were 
tempted by Lentulus to join the conspiracy, 
and to induce their nation to assist in it. Cice- 
ro, who received the information from their 
patron, persuaded them to feign an active par- 
ticipation, and to draw from Lentulus a list of 
the conspirators, as if by it to induce their 
countrymen to join in the enterprise. Lentulus 
and his friends fell into the snare. They were 
now brought before the senate, assembled in 
the temple of Concord (Dec. 4), and their guilt 
was proved. Having delivered his third oration 
before the people, Cicero on the next day again 
convoked the senate to deliberate on the pun- 
ishment of the traitors. The debate was ani- 
mated. Silanus, the consul elect, gave his 
opinion for the immediate death of all of them ; 
this was opposed by Julius Caesar, who was satis- 
fied with their arrest and the confiscation of 
their estates, and who indeed has been suspect- 
ed by historians of having been connected with 
the plot. Cicero gave no opinion, but painted 
in strong terms the dangers of the state. Cato, 
voting for death and for immediate efforts 
against the rebels in the field, made an appeal 
to the patriotism of the senate, and prevailed. 
A decree was passed, and Lentulus and his 
companions were strangled in the night in 
prison, in direct violation of Roman law. An 
army was sent against Catiline under the consul 
Antonius; but, unwilling to fight against his 
friend, he gave the command to his legate 
Petreius. They met near Fsesulaa. Catiline de- 
fended himself desperately, but in vain ; when 
the battle was lost he threw himself into the 
midst of his enemies, and fell fighting. Sal- 
lust's masterly life of Catiline is our chief au- 
thority for his history, but is too obviously the 
work of a partisan to be implicitly trusted. 
Catiline was the leader of the ultra democratic 
party, and the supporters of the optimates who 
overthrew him may be suspected of having 
exaggerated his faults and misrepresented his 
designs. 

CAT1NAT DE LA FAUCOMERIE, Nicolas de, a 
French general, born in Paris, Sept. 1, 1637, 
died Feb. 25, 1712. He entered the army as 
an ensign, and at the siege of Lille in 1667 so 
conducted himself as to attract the notice of 
Louis XIV. His subsequent exploits obtained 
for him in 1688 the rank of lieutenant general, 
and in 1693, after he had conquered the great- 
est part of Savoy, he received the marshal's 
staff. In 1701 he commanded the army in 
Italy against Prince Eugene; but failing to 
arrest the progress of the prince, Villeroi 
was appointed to his place. Catinat served 



under him, and in attacking the intrenchments 
at Chiari he was repulsed and wounded. He 
commanded in Germany for a short time, and 
spent the rest of his life at his estate of St. 
Gratien, near St. Denis. 

CATINEAU-LAROCHE, Pierre Marie Sebastlen, a 
French lexicographer, born at Saint-Brieuc, 
March 25, 1772, died May 22, 1828. He 
studied at Poitiers, and in 1791 emigrated to 
St. Domingo, where he published at Port-au- 
Prince a journal, L?ami de lapaix et de Vunion. 
He gave such offence to the colonists by his anti- 
slavery sentiments that he was prosecuted, and 
would have been sentenced to death by the 
local tribunals but for the interference of the 
agent of the home government. He went to 
Cape Haytien (then called Cap Francais), where 
he alone of 17 of his countrymen was saved 
from the massacre which broke out in that city. 
He then visited the United States and England, 
and on his return to Paris in 1797 established 
a printing office and composed several diction- 
aries. His printing office having been de- 
stroyed by fire, the government employed him, 
and in 1819 he was sent to study the climate and 
resources of Guiana. His notes on that country 
appeared in 1822. 

CATLI1Y, George, an American artist, born at 
Wilkesbarre, Penn., in 1796, died in Jersey 
City, K J., Dec. 23, 1872. He studied law in 
Connecticut, and practised there for two years. 
Afterward he devoted himself to painting in 
Philadelphia, without any previous instruction. 
Some Sioux Indians arriving on a delegation in 
the city, he was struck with their appearance, 
and determined to visit their homes. He started 
from St. Louis in 1832, in a steamer called the 
Yellowstone, being greatly assisted by Pierre 
Chouteau, one of the owners of the boat. After 
a passage of three months he reached the mouth 
of the Yellowstone river, where he was left. 
He visited during the next eight years about 
48 tribes, numbering in the aggregate 400,000 
souls, and collected much information concern- 
ing their habits and character. He returned 
to the east by the way of the Indian territory, 
Arkansas, and Florida, and after finishing his 
Indian portraits and scenes sailed for Europe 
in 1840. In 1841 he published in London " Il- 
lustrations of the Manners, Customs, and Con- 
dition of the North American Indians," con- 
taining 300 steel engravings (2 vols. 8vo) ; in 
1844, a portfolio of hunting scenes in the west 
containing 25 plates; in 1848, notes of his 
eight years' travels in Europe with his col- 
lection of paintings ; in 1864, a curious volume 
called "The Breath of Life, or Shut your 
Mouth," showing the hygienic importance of 
exclusive breathing through the nostrils. After 
several visits to and long residence in Europe, 
exhibiting and endeavoring to sell his Indian 
gallery, he returned to the United States in 
1871, where he remained until his death. 

CATMANDOO. See KATMANDU. 

CATNIP, or Catmint, the leaves of a perennial 
herbaceous plant, nepeta cataria, of the family 






122 



CATO 



labiatce, which is very common in the fields 
throughout the United States, though supposed 
to have been introduced from Europe. The 
plant possesses medicinal virtues, so that it is 




Catnip (Nepeta catarla). 

recognized in the pharmacopoeias, and is em- 
ployed as a domestic remedy, but rarely in regu- 
lar practice. The leaves, which alone are used, 
are aromatic and somewhat bitter and pungent 
to the taste, and of disagreeable odor ; cats eat 
them with great relish. Catnip is administered 
in infusion. It acts as a tonic and excitant, 
and possibly as an antispasmodic and emmena- 
gogue, being frequently given with reference to 
such supposed qualities. 

CATO, a surname, signifying the Wise, first 
given to the Roman Marcus Porcius, known in 
history as Cato the Censor, and afterward borne 
by that family of the (plebeian) Porcian gens of 
which he was the first famous member. I. Mir- 
ens Porflns, afterward called PRISCUS, and sur- 
named CATO and CENSOBIUB, a Roman states- 
man and patriot, born at Tusculum, probably in 
234 B. C., died in Rome in 149. His father, 
the descendant of a family for many genera- 
tions resident in Latium, died when he was 
very young, and left him a small estate at a 
considerable distance from his birthplace, in 
the territory of the Sabines. Here he spent 
his early youth in work upon his land, leading 
a simple life, and studying such subjects as 
he thought would beet advance the career of 
patriotic service which he had already marked 
out for himself. When 17 years of age, in 217, 
he entered the Roman army, and served in 
the campaign of that year against Hannibal. 
In 214 he served at Capua, and in 20^ he was 
with Fabius Maximus at Tarentum. During 
the short periods between his various terms of 
service he devoted his time to labor on his farm. 
Near this favorite resort a Roman patrician, 
Lucius Valerius Flaccus, had a large estate. 
Cato was constantly brought into contact with 



him, and impressed the noble so favorably 
that the latter begged him to go to Rome with 
him, and under his patronage, as the custom 
was, to study law and oratory. Cato con- 
sented, and made his entry into the Roman 
political world with marked success, rapidly 
acquiring celebrity as a pleader and orator in 
the forum, and becoming a candidate for the 
qusestorship, an office which he attained in 
205. In this capacity he accompanied Scipio 
Africanus to Sicily in 204, but went back to 
Rome before the return of his general, whom 
he accused to the senate of prodigality and 
mismanagement. This is the story given by 
some authorities, though Livy says the inhabi- 
tants of Locri were the complainants against 
Scipio, and does not mention Cato by name as 
having pleaded their cause. A commission of 
investigation was the result of the complaint, 
and Scipio was acquitted. Concerning the next 
few years of Cato's life we have slight details, 
but know that he was aedile in 199, and that 
in 198 he was made praetor, and received the 
province of Sardinia. Here he showed in his 
administration and mode of life the economy, 
simplicity, and impartial justice which distin- 
guished his whole career. By the frugality of 
his habits, by his example in public, and his 
prompt punishment of venality and corrupt 
practices, he endeavored to combat the intro- 
duction of habits of luxury and extravagance 
from Greece, and to restore the old severity 
and strength of the Roman character. In 1 95 
he was chosen consul, Lucius Valerius Flaccus, 
his former patron, being his colleague. It was 
then customary for one of the consuls to take 
the governorship of a distant portion of the 
Roman possessions, and Cato was assigned to 
that of Hither Spain, a province then in a state 
of revolt and great disorder. Here he showed 
remarkable ability as a military leader, sup- 
pressed the rebellion, compelled the Spanish 
cities to destroy the greater part of their fortifi- 
cations, and restored affairs to their old condi- 
tion. On his return to Rome in 194 he re- 
ceived the honor of a triumph. In the consul- 
ship of Manius Acilius Glabrio, which immedi- 
ately followed his own, Cato accompanied that 
officer as legate in his campaign against Anti- 
ochus in Greece. Here, by a sudden and re- 
markably difficult march, he decided the princi- 
pal battle of the war in flavor of the Romans, 
and compelled the retreat of the enemy. Re- 
turning to Rome, he from this time abandoned 
military life, and resumed his place as a popular 
orator in the forum and the courts. In 184 he 
was made censor, again having his old friend 
Flaccus as his colleague. In the exercise of the 
censorship Cato gamed the most enduring fume 
of his life. He was now in a position to power- 
fully oppose the growing corruption, luxury, 
and immorality at Rome, and to do more tlian 
ever toward restoring his old ideals of simplicity 
and severity of manners. He raised the taxes 
on luxuries of many kinds, degraded officers 
for the most trifling acts of levity as well as 



CATO 



123 



for actual crimes, and bitterly persecuted those 
who opposed his acts. He improved the public 
works of the city, while introducing economy 
in the contracts, and stopped many abuses of 
the privileges of the citizens. Now, as during 
his whole life, he was warmly on the side of 
the plebeians, and opposed the nobles by every 
means given him either by his official or per- 
sonal influence ; so that his censorship was a 
constant struggle with the patricians, both 
in petty and important matters. In revenge 
they began against him several prosecutions, 
but he defended himself successfully in every 
case from their charges of maladministration. 
At the close of his censorship the people caused 
his statue to be erected and a commemorative 
inscription to be placed upon its pedestal. 
Cato now ceased to hold public office, except 
as a senator, but continued a remarkable ac- 
tivity in political affairs, never relaxing in his 
opposition to all forms of luxury, and attacking 
bitterly the vices of the nobles. He was em- 
ployed in several important cases : in the pros- 
ecution of M. Matienus and Publius Furius 
Philus for maladministration in Spain (171) ; 
in the defence of the Rhodians from the charge 
of treachery toward Rome ; and in others of 
equal moment. He took a leading part in the 
debates of the senate on all great questions, 
always favoring a policy intensely hostile to 
foreigners ; his hostility toward all outside na- 
tionalities is shown in many familiar anecdotes. 
The patricians continued to manifest their 
hatred of him, and as late as 153, when he was 
81 years old, Caius Cassius brought against him 
a serious accusation, the nature of which is not 
recorded, which compelled him to defend him- 
self, with ultimate success. In 150 he began 
in the senate to urge an immediate declara- 
tion of war against Carthage (the third Punic 
war). "With nine other deputies he was sent 
in that year to investigate the condition of the 
rival city, and was so impressed by its appear- 
ance of power and prosperity that he declared 
on his return that Rome could no longer per- 
mit so powerful an enemy to exist. His hatred 
of Carthage now became the absorbing passion 
of his life ; he urged upon the people the im- 
portance of war, and never rose to speak or 
give his vote in the senate without adding to 
whatever else he said, no matter how foreign 
was the subject, Ceterum censeo, Carthaginem 
esse delendam ("I vote, moreover, that Car- 
thage must be destroyed ") a sentiment more 
familiar in the form Delenda est Carthago, 
which Cato himself probably never used in 
formal debates. A part of the last year of his 
life was spent in aiding the prosecution of S. 
Sulpicius Galba for treachery ; but this, though 
undoubtedly just, was unsuccessful. Soon after 
its conclusion Cato died, at the age of 85. 
The character of Cato was bitter and severe ; in 
private life, and especially in the treatment of 
inferiors and slaves, he exhibited the greatest 
harshness. His personal morality, tried by a 
modern standard, was in some respects not so 



pure as it has been often represented by par- 
tial historians. After the death of his first 
wife Licinia he for a long time cohabited secretly 
with a female slave, and only married again, 
when nearly 80, on his son's discovery of his 
concealed course. But his honesty and patriot- 
ism were incorruptible at a time when those 
around him possessed little of either virtue. 
His energy was extraordinary, and his frugal- 
ity, temperance, and simplicity were like those 
of the early patriots whom he endeavored to 
imitate. Though opposed to the influence of 
Greek literature, the principal source of refi- 
ning education in his time, he possessed con- 
siderable culture and literary skill, and left an 
essay on agriculture (De Be Rustica), still ex- 
tant, and the Origines, only fragments of which 
remain, besides less important works of which 
we also have a few portions. A collection of 
these was published in Leipsic, by Jordan, 
in 1860. Cato left two sons ; one, M. Porcius 
Cato Licinianus, afterward became a jurist of 
eminence ; the other, M. Porcius Cato Saloni- 
anus, by his second wife Salonia, was born in 
his father's 80th year, and lived to become 
praetor. II. Marcus Porcius, surnamed UTICEX- 
818 from the place of his death, a Roman 
statesman, philosopher, and general, great- 
grandson of the preceding, born in Rome in 
95 B. C., died by his own hand at Utica in 46. 
Having lost his parents when he was very 
young, he was brought up and educated by 
his maternal uncle, Marcus Livius Drusus, and 
after the death of the latter by Sarpedon. As 
a boy and young man he was conspicuous for 
his gravity, firmness, and bravery when his 
anger was aroused. Going with Sarpedon 
upon one occasion to visit Sulla, and seeing the 
heads of several famous Romans, victims of the 
proscription, carried from the tyrant's house, 
it is said that young Cato asked why no one 
put an end to the despot ; and on being told 
that none dare do so, he demanded a sword 
of Sarpedon, that he himself might free his 
country. Although he received an ample for- 
tune from his father's estate, he imitated his 
ancestor the Censor in his extreme frugality 
and simplicity, opposing luxury, practising 
rigid economy, and strengthening his body by 
every form of difficult exercise and exposure. 
In the corrupt state of Rome in his time, he 
thus acquired a not undeserved popularity as 
the advocate of purer customs, and a reputation 
for moral rectitude such as had formerly dis- 
tinguished the elder Cato. His first military 
experience was gained, in 72 B. C., as a volunteer 
under Gellius Publicola in the war with Spar- 
tacus, but he did nothing noteworthy in this 
earliest campaign. In 67 he became a candi- 
date for the office of military tribune, and was 
elected in spite of his neglecting the ordinary 
corrupt means taken to gain the post. With 
his legion he was stationed in Macedonia, under 
the propraetor Marcus Rubrius. He was ex- 
ceedingly popular with his command, and lived 
with the simplicity of a common soldier among 



124 



CATO 



them, always sharing their hardships and diffi- 
culties. In his youth he had begun the study 
of philosophy, and had become a disciple of the 
Stoics. He continued the practice of their 
doctrines and the study of their works, and 
while stationed hi Macedonia obtained a leave 
of absence that he might visit the philosopher 
Athenodorus Cordylion at Pergamus, whom 
he persuaded to go back with him when he 
returned to his legion. At this time Cato lost 
his brother, Servilius Ceepio, to whom he was 
warmly attached. Hearing of his having an 
attack of illness at a Thracian town, Cato hur- 
ried to meet him, but did not arrive in time to 
see him alive. He was overcome with grief, 
and, after celebrating Caepio's funeral with 
great splendor, set sail for Rome on the ship 
bearing his brother's ashes. After several 
years of study in Rome, where Athenodorus 
was still his companion, he was elected quaes- 
tor in 65, and so distinguished his administra- 
tion of the office by honesty, economy, and 
rigid justice, that he left it at the expiration of 
his term with his popularity greatly increased. 
A journey to Asia, as to the date of which 
authorities disagree, probably took place about 
this time. He visited King Deiotarus of Gala- 
tia, who received him with many marks of re- 
spect, but offered him presents, which so dis- 
gusted Cato that he pursued his journey the 
day after his arrival. Pompey, then in the East, 
also received him with respect, but without 
cordiality. In 63 Cato was elected tribune, 
consenting to be a candidate after having once 
refused, in order to defeat certain plans of 
Pompey, who was already plotting for the con- 
trol of the state. In the same year, and in the 
consulship of Cicero, the Catilinarian conspir- 
acy occurred. Cato voted for the death of the 
conspirators, and conferred on Cicero the title 
of pater patrics. TMfe great conflict for power 
between Caesar and Pompey was now begin- 
ning. Cato, with the purest patriotism, not 
only opposed them both by every means in his 
power, but constantly warned the people of 
the danger of the state's falling under the con- 
trol of any one man. His patriotism, however, 
was greater than his political ability, and he 
was easily outgeneralled by Caesar, who in 
spite of his opposition carried almost every end 
he had in view. Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, 
to finally rid themselves of his interference 
with their plans, determined to send him 
against Ptolemy, king of Cyprus, although no 
possible cause for war existed, and to annex the 
island to the Roman possessions. Cato sent a 
message to Ptolemy telling him of the deter- 
mination; and Ptolemy, rather than oppose 
Rome, poisoned himself, leaving Cato to take 
peaceful possession of his kingdom. This he 
did, returning to Rome in 56. In the next year 
he opposed the election of Pompey and Crassus 
to the consulship, but without success. He 
was exposed to great danger in the election 
riots, and was even wounded. In 55 also he 
was defeated in the election for praotor, in 



great part because he refused to employ bribery 
to gain the office. During the next year he 
was again a candidate, and this time he was 
elected. As praetor he devoted himself to the 
suppression of the prevailing corruption, and 
made himself so unpopular by his severe prose- 
cutions for bribery that he was even attacked 
in the streets by a mob, which he with diffi- 
culty succeeded in quieting. In 52 he sup- 
ported the proposition to make Pompey sole 
consul ; but repenting the next year of his 
share in giving him power, he himself became 
a candidate for the consulship, only to be de- 
feated by two rivals, in the interest of Pompey 
and Caesar. In 49, when the civil war began, 
and Caesar approached the city with his army, 
Cato, after resisting by every means in his 
power the plans of the great leader, left Rome 
with the consuls, and went to Campania, 
where for some time he seemed to completely 
despair of the preservation of the state. He 
was soon, however, intrusted with the defence 
of Sicily, but abandoned it on the approach of 
Caesar's army, and hurried to Pompey's camp 
at Dyrrhachium. He was left in charge of 
this during the battle of Pharsalia (48), but 
on Caesar's victory he again withdrew his 
troops, and set sail with them for Corcyra, 
whence he continued his journey to Africa, to 
join Pompey. But he did not arrive until 
after Pompey's assassination, and took refuge 
in Cyrene, the inhabitants of which consented 
to admit him with his command. In 47 he 
again marched out of the city, and across the 
desert, to join Q. Metellus Scipio, to whom he 
yielded the command of his troops, advising 
him, however, not to risk an immediate en- 
gagement. Scipio persisted in doing so, and 
was defeated at Thapsus in April, 46. Utica 
alone, of all the African towns, held out against 
Caesar ; and even its inhabitants could not be 
persuaded by Cato longer to resist the con- 
queror. Cato had now no refuge ; but he ex- 
hibited the greatest calmness. He made ar- 
rangements for the flight of his friends from 
the city, and for giving them an opportunity 
to make terms with Caesar ; but he himself re- 
mained behind, and resolved to die by his own 
hand rather than fall into the power of the ene- 
my. He spent the last day of his life in pleasant 
intercourse with those about him, and at night 
retired early to his room, where he for a long 
time lay upon his bed reading Plato's "Phae- 
do." Then, drawing his sword, he stabbed 
himself, and fell to the floor, the noise arous- 
ing his friends, who hastened to bandage his 
wound. But he tore the bandages away, and 
almost immediately expired. The people of 
Utica buried him with every honor, and erect- 
ed a statue to his memory. Caesar is said to 
have cried out, on hearing of his suicide, 
" Cato, I begrudge thee thy death, since thou 
hast begrudged me the glory of sparing thy 
life." As a man and a statesman Cato was 
pure, sincere, and conscientious to a degree 
most remarkable in his time ; he had not the 



CATOOSA 



CATSKILL . MOUNTAINS 



125 



harshness of his ancestor the Censor, yet he 
possessed unusual firmness. In politics, how- 
ever, he had little skill, and his expedients to 
defeat his opponents, though never corrupt, 
were almost always clumsy and ill-advised. 
As a general he exhibited little ability. He 
was twice married : first to Attilia, a daughter 
of Serranus, who bore him two children, but 
was divorced for adultery ; second to Marcia, 
by whom he had three children. Singularly 
enough, he is recorded to have lent or yielded 
his second wife to his friend Quintus Horten- 
sius, about 56 B. 0., with her father's consent ; 
taking her back after his friend's death, and 
living with her as before. 

CATOOSA, a N. W. county of Georgia, border- 
ing on Tennessee, and watered by affluents of 
the Tennessee river ; area, 175 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 4,409, of whom 616 were colored. It is 
traversed by the Western and Atlantic rail- 
road. The surface is hilly and partly covered 
with forests. The chief productions in 1870 
were 43,366 bushels of wheat, 90,855 of Indian 
corn, 19,909 of oats, 40,879 Ibs. of butter, and 
96 bales of cotton. There were 542 horses, 
834 milch cows, 1,225 other cattle, 2,447 sheep, 
and 4,399 swine. Capital, Ringgold. 

CATRON, John, an American jurist, born in 
Wythe co., Va., in 1778, died in Nashville, 
Tenn., May 30, 1865. He received a common 
school education, removed to Tennessee in 
1812, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1815. In the New Orleans campaign he 
served in the army under Jackson, and was 
afterward elected state's attorney. He settled 
in Nashville in 1818, and was one of the su- 
preme judges of Tennessee from 1824 to 1836. 
In 1837 President Jackson appointed him as- 
sociate justice of the United States supreme 
court. He opposed secession, and was con- 
sequently obliged to leave the state. His de- 
cisions on the state bank are contained in 
" Yerger's Tennessee Reports," and his federal 
decisions in the later volumes of Peters, the 
20 vols. of Howard, and the 2 vols. of Black. 

CATS, Jakob, a Dutch statesman and poet, 
born at Brouwershaven in Zealand, Nov. 10, 
1577, died at Zorgvliet, near the Hague, Sept. 
12, 1660. He studied law at Ley den, Orleans, 
and Paris, and on his return to his native land 
practised his profession for a while, and also 
published some successful poems. In 1627 he 
was ambassador to England, from 1636 to 1651 
grand pensioner of Holland, and in 1652 again 
ambassador to England. He wrote a poem en- 
titled " Country Life " (Buitenleveri), and nu- 
merous "Moral Emblems," fables, and songs. 
A new edition of his works, in 19 vols., ap- 
peared in Amsterdam in 1790-1800. A Ger- 
man translation of part of them was published 
at Hamburg in 1710-'17. His "Emblems" 
have been translated into English. A monu- 
ment was dedicated to him at Ghent in 1829. 

CAT'S EYE, a semi-transparent variety of 
quartz penetrated by fibres of asbestus. It is 
commonly of a greenish gray color, though 



sometimes yellow, red, or brown. "When pol- 
ished, it reflects a pearly light resembling the 
pupil in the eye of a cat. 

CATSKILL, a village and the capital of Greene 
co., New York, situated on the W. side of the 
Hudson river, about 110 m. abov.e New York; 
pop. in 1870, 3,791. There are several 
churches, a court house, jail, and some manu- 
factories. It is the landing place for visitors 
to the Catskill mountains, and a ferry here 
crosses the Hudson, connecting with the rail- 
road on the eastern bank. 

CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of the Appa- 
lachian chain, on the W. side of the Hudson 
river, lying mostly in Greene co., N. Y. Their 
E. base is 7 or 8 m. distant from the village of 
Catskill. These mountains range parallel with 
the river only for about 12 m., spurs from their 
N. and S. terminations turning respectively N. 
"W. and W., and giving to the group a very 
different form from that of the parallel ranges 
of the Appalachians, as seen in Pennsylvania. 
It differs from these also in assuming more 
of the Alpine character of peaks considerably 
elevated above the general summits. It re- 
sembles them in the precipitous slopes toward 
the east, and the gentler declivities, which are 
lost in the high lands on the W. side. Its geo- 
logical structure is almost a repetition of that 
of the main Alleghany ridge throughout Penn- 
sylvania, the same formations succeeding in the 
same order from the E. base to the summit, and 
giving to it, even in a more marked degree than 
is there witnessed, the terraced outline due to 
the alternation of groups of strata, some of 
which are easily worn away, and others pow- 
erfully resist denuding forces. Along its E. 
base the strata of the old red sandstone forma- 
tion are seen dipping in toward the central 
axis. These are succeeded by the gray slaty 
sandstones of hard texture, which make up the 
most precipitous slopes, except those of the 
highest summits, which are capped by the con- 
glomerate of white quartz pebbles. This is 
the floor of the coal formation. Upon the Al- 
leghany mountain it forms the highest knobs, 
which present their vertical fronts to the east 
and slope away to the west. The dip in this 
direction being there steeper than the declivity 
of the mountain, the coal beds find a place 
above the conglomerate; but upon the high 
peaks of the Catskills this rock lies too hori- 
zontally for higher strata to appear, and a 
descent to lower levels in a "W. direction only 
brings to view again the same formations met 
with on the E. side. Thus, for want of 100 ft. 
perhaps of greater elevation, the Catskills miss 
the lowest coal beds. Even in the midst of 
the strata of the conglomerate its carboniferous 
character is seen by the black shales here ano 
there pinched among its massive blocks, and 
by seams of anthracite of a few inches in thick- 
ness contorted into strange forms. These, be- 
fore their real relations were understood, led 
to futile explorations to discover workable beds 
of coal in the hard sandstones of these sum- 



126 



CATSKILL MOUNTAINS 



CATTARAUGUS 



mits. But it is now well understood that the 
Catskills can never claim regard for the value 
of their mineral productions. Their chief in- 
terest lies in the variety and beauty of their 
scenery. In a field of very limited area, easy 
of access and soon explored, they present a 
multitude of picturesque objects, which have 
long made them a favorite resort of artists and 
of those who find pleasure in the wild haunts 
of the mountains. From the village of Cats- 
kill a stage road of 12 m. leads to the "Moun- 
tain House," a conspicuous hotel, perched 
upon one of the terraces of Pine Orchard moun- 
tain, at an elevation of 2,500 ft. above the river. 
Here the traveller finds a cool and quiet re- 
treat, and a convenient starting point for 
his explorations. A hotel has recently been 
erected on the summit of " Overlook " moun- 
tain, a few miles south of the Mountain house, 
at a height, it is asserted, of 3,800 ft. It is ac- 
cessible from Rondout. From these hotels are 
obtained extensive views of the fine country 
around, of the Hudson river, visible with all 
the towns upon its banks from the High- 
lands to Albany, and of the mountains of Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The 
most striking features of the Catskills are the 
cascades of the mountain streams, and the deep 
gorges or " cloves " through which these find 
their way to the lower lands. The highest sum- 
mits are Round Top, High Peak, and Overlook, 
the elevation of which, according to barometri- 
cal measurements, is about 3,800 ft. The clove 
of the Catterskill, or Kaaterskill, which com- 
mences a mile W. of two small lakes, lies be- 
tween these and Round Top, the latter being 
on the S. and the lakes on the N. side. High 
Peak is 6 in. distant from the head of the 
clove, and is reached by a foot path. The 
clove is a ravine of 5 m. in length. At its 
head the rivulet from the lakes meets another 
branch from the north, and their united waters 
flow with increasing swiftness to a point where 
the mountain divides like the cleft foot of a 
deer, leaving a deep hollow for the brook to 
tumble into. The descent of the first cascade 
is 180 ft., that of the second 80, and below 
these there is another fall of 40 ft. In the 
winter the upper fall becomes encased in a 
hollow column of blue ice, which reflects in the 
rays of the sun the brilliant colors of the prism. 
Below the falls the sides of the gorge rise in a 
succession of walls of rock to the height of 300 
ft. or more. Other falls are met with by fol- 
lowing the stream down toward the Hudson, 
till 2 m. above the village of Cat-kill th waters 
are discharged into the stream of this name. 
The Stony clove is 6 m. "W. from the head of 
the Catterskill, in a portion of the group called 
the Shandaken mountains ; it is only 1 m. 
long. The clove of the Plattekill is 5 m. S., 
beyond the Round Top and High Peak; its 
scenery possesses the same wild character as 
the Catterskill. Numerous side streams de- 
scend the steep mountain on its S. side from an 
altitude of 2,000 ft., leaping from ledge to ledge 



till they mingle their waters with the Platte- 
kill. Where the stream first falls into the 
clove it is said to descend in successive falls 
1,000 ft. in a few hundred yards ; and, as stated 




Catterskill Falls. 

by others, 2,500 in 2 m. The streams which 
flow down the E. slopes of the mountains soon 
find their way into the Hudson. On the W. side 
the drainage is into the Schohariekill, which 
runs northward and falls into the Mohawk 50 m. 
above its junction with the Hudson. The for- 
est growth near the foot of the mountains is 
black and white oak, interspersed with hick- 
ory, chestnut, butternut, and several species of 
pine. Cedars and swamp ash are found in the 
swamps. The hard-wood growth of maple, 
beech, and birch is met with upon the better 
soils up the mountain sides, while hemlock, 
spruce, and the balsam fir occupy the more 
barren and rocky places. The valleys beyond 
the E. ridge contain forests of hemlock, with 
beech, birch, and wild cherry trees intermixed. 
CATTARAIGIS, a S. W. county of New York, 
bordering on Pennsylvania; area about 1,250 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 43,909. It is partly 
bounded N. by Cattaraugus creek. The sur- 
face is hilly, but there are few mountains of 
considerable altitude. The soil is rich and pro- 
ductive, yielding good crops of grain and afford- 
ing excellent pasturage. The Alleghany river 
and the numerous creeks which flow through 
the county furnish motive power. Bog iron 
ore, peat, marl, manganese, and sulphur are 
found in different places; salt springs have 
been discovered, and petroleum springs exist 
in the E. part. Cattle and lumber are the prin- 
cipal exports, the transportation of which is 
greatly facilitated by the Erie railway, which 
traverses the county, and by the Genesee val- 
ley canal, which extends from Rochester to 



CATTARO 



CATTI 



127 



Olean. The county is also traversed by the 
Bradford branch of the Erie and by the Atlan- 
tic and Great Western railroads. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 84,926 bushels of 
wheat, 160,602 of Indian corn, 783,387 of oats, 
340,803 of potatoes, 144,919 tons of hay, 889,- 
132 Ibs. of cheese, 2,700,265 of butter, 110,063 
of wool, 458,723 of maple sugar, and 35,121 of 
hops. There were 10,687 horses, 44,463 milch 
cows, 18,583 other cattle, 26,739 sheep, and 
10,738 swine. There were 44 cheese factories, 
15 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, 76 saw 
mills, 8 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 11 of cheese boxes, 38 of carriages and 
wagons, 12 of furniture, 6 of iron castings, 18 
of saddlery and harness, 7 of sashes, doors, 
and blinds, 14 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron 
ware, 2 of woollen goods, and 13 grist mills. 
Capital, Little Valley. 

CATTARO (Slavic, Kotor), a town of Dalmatia, 
Austria, capital of a circle of its name, at the 
foot of the Montenegro mountains, at the S. E. 
extremity of the gulf of Oattaro, 337 m. S. E. 
of Trieste, and 43 m. N". W. of Scutari, Albania ; 
lat. 42 25' K, Ion. 18 46' E. ; pop. about 
3,000; of the circle, 36,000. The town was 
almost entirely destroyed by the earthquakes 
of 1563 and 1667. The streets are narrow, 
but the town is fortified by a castle on a 
cliff in the vicinity, and the port was made a 
naval depot in August, 1854. The harbor, al- 
though one of the best in the Adriatic, is little 
frequented by shipping; but it has a fair share 
in the commerce of Dalmatia. The trade of 
Oattaro is carried on by tribes : the Dobrotas, 
who trade with Trieste, the Perastros, with Ven- 
ice, and several others. The principal articles 
of trade are wine, oil, figs, wool, silk, honey, 
wax, tallow, smoked meat, dried fish, butter, 
eggs, cheese, and charcoal. Outside the E. 
gate of the town is the bazaar, which is sup- 
plied with provisions by the Montenegrins. 
The principal buildings are the cathedral, a col- 
legiate church, numerous other Koman Catholic 
churches, 2 Greek churches, 6 convents, a hos- 
pital, a gymnasium, and the residences of the 
governor and the bishop. The popular language 
is the Slavic dialect of Herzegovina, but Italian 
is the language of the educated classes, and used 
in the transaction of public affairs. The major- 
ity of the population of the town and circle con- 
sists of descendants of the Slavs who invaded the 
country in the 7th century ; the rest of Italians, 
Bosnian Greeks, Serb Morlaks, Jews, Greeks, 
and gypsies. The Roman Catholic is the estab- 
lished religion, but about a quarter of the popu- 
lation profess the Greek faith. In the middle 
ages Cattaro was the capital of a prosperous re- 
public. In 1420 it submitted to the Venetians ; 
in 1797 it was annexed to Austria; in 1805, by 
the treaty of Presburg, it was incorporated into 
the French kingdom of Italy, but did not pass 
into the possession of the French till 1807, hav- 
ing been occupied by the Russians in the inter- 
val. Finally, in 1814 it reverted again to Aus- 
tria. In 1849 Cattaro organized an independent 
163 VOL. IT. 9 



government, but in January, 1850, was brought 
back under the sway of Austria. The circle 
of Cattaro was the seat of the Dalmatian in- 
surrection of 1869. The gulf of Cattaro, or 
Bocche di Cattaro, the Rhizonic gulf of an- 
tiquity, is a tortuous inlet of the Adriatic, 
30 m. long, forming three basins connected 
by narrow straits, with an entrance from the 
sea only a mile and a half wide. It is sur- 
rounded by mountains, and is renowned for the 
beauty (jf its scenery. The fort of Castelnuovo 
defends the entrance. 

CATTEGAT, or Kattegat, a large strait lying be- 
tween Gothland in Sweden and Jutland, com- 
municating with the North sea through the 
Skager Rack on the north, and with the Baltic 
through the Sound and the Great and Little 
Belts on the south ; length 150 m. ; breadth in 
the central part about 90 m. It is difficult of 
navigation, being not only shallow toward the 
shores and irregular in depth, but obstructed 
by several sand banks, one of which lies in the 
middle of the channel. The chief islands are 
Laeso, Anholt, and Samso. 

CATTER9IOLE, George, an English artist, bom 
at Dickleburgh, Norfolk, in 1800, died in 1868. 
He is best known as a painter in water colors, 
although in his later years he worked chiefly in 
oil. Scenes from the feudal ages and the times 
of the English civil wars, which permitted* him 
a variety of 'ornamentation and warm coloring, 
were his favorite themes. His most celebrated 
pictures are " Luther before the Diet of Spire," 
"Raleigh witnessing the Death of Essex," and 
the "Skirmish on the Bridge." He painted 
innumerable interiors of church and castle, 
together with designs illustrative of Scott's 
novels, Shakespeare's plays, the times of the 
English cavaliers, &c. 

CATTI, or Chatti, an ancient German people, 
who according to Caesar lived beyond the Ubii, 
whose seat was about Cologne, and were divi- 
ded inland from the Cherusci by <a wood which 
he calls Bacenis. Tacitus states that their 
country lay between the Rhine and Danube, 
extending from the Black Forest on the south 
to what were called the Decumates Agri, a tract 
of land which paid tithe to the Romans, and 
lay along the latter river, to the northward. 
If both statements be accurate, their territory 
must have been very extensive, including Hesse- 
Cassel on the north and Baden on the south. 
Tacitus describes their character, habits, and 
manner of life as far less barbarous, so far at 
least as regards their military tactics, than those 
of the other German tribes. Their force lay in 
their infantry, whom, besides their arms, they 
loaded with tools and provisions. They did 
not allow their young men to cut their hair or 
trim their beards until they had slain an enemy ; 
and all youths of unusual strength and size 
were compelled to wear an iron ring until 
they should have gained the right to remove 
it by slaying a man in battle. They had no in- 
dividual property in land or houses, but held 
everything in common. The Romans gained 



128 



CATTLE 



many advantages over them under Drusus and 
under Germanicus, who destroyed Mattium, 
their chief town, hut never wholly conquered 
them. They are last mentioned as existing 
toward the close of the 4th century, and after- 
ward disappear among the Franks. 

CATTLE, a class of domestic animals. In its 
primary sense, horses and asses are included 
in the term, as well as oxen, cows, sheep, 
goats, and perhaps swine. In England, beasts 
of the ox species are more precisely described 
as black cattle or neat cattle. In the United 
States, the term cattle is usually applied to 
horned animals alone. Like that of many 
other species of animals now domesticated, as 
the sheep, the dog, and our common barnyard 
poultry, the origin of the domestic ox cannot 
be traced distinctly to any type now existing 
in a state of nature. The distinctive character- 
istics of the common domestic cattle are smooth 
unwrinkled horns, growing sideways at their 
origin, and directed upward, or in some breeds 
downward and forward, with a semi-lunar 
curve. The forehead of the common ox is tlat, 
longer than it is broad, and has the round 
horns placed at the two extremities of a pro- 
jecting horizontal line, separating the front 
from the occiput ; but the horns themselves 
differ so widely in the different breeds, which 
have been the result of thousands of years of 
domestication, that no specific character can 
be founded upon them. In color, like all 
highly cultivated domestic animals, they run 
through all hues and shades, from the plain 
blacks, whites, browns, reds, duns, grays, and 
blues, to every variety of piebald, mottled, 
spotted, flecked, or brindled ; the colors being 
in some degree distinctive of the various select 
breeds. Thus the Devonshires run to self-col- 
osed red and light tan or dun ; the Durhams 
to dark red piebald, with the white portions 
sometimes flecked or sanded, though this is 
rather an Ayrshire mark; the Alderneys to 
light red or yellow, and white ; the Ayrshires 
to roan and piebald; and the small Scottish 
kyloes, or mountain oxen, to self-colored blacks, 
reds, and brindles. In Calabria there is still a 
large breed of snow-white cattle, fonnerly in 
great request for sacrificial purposes, which 
has descended unchanged from classic ages; 
and every traveller in Italy knows the large, 
gentle, gray and mouse-colored oxen of the 
Campagna. In Hungary there is a remarkable 
breed of gray or dark blue cattle, which have 
wide-spreading horns and coarse flesh, but fat- 
ten easily. In the East there exist many sin- 
gular and distinct species, the most remarkable 
of which is perhaps the celebrated sacred or 
Brahman bull; a heavy, indolent, phlegmatic 
animal, with short reflected horns, large pen- 
dulous ears, and an enormous hump and dew- 
lap of solid fatty matter. Its coat is smooth, 
and sleeker than even that of the common 
cattle, while its form approaches nearer to that 
of the bison. Besides this, they have the huge, 
morose, almost hairless buffalo, both wild and 



half domesticated, with its great, erect, cres- 
cent-shaped horns, of 18 inches girth at the 
root, and 4 or 5 feet measure round the exte- 
rior curve ; the little, hump-backed zebu ; the 
yak, or grunting ox of Thibet, with a tail like 
that of a horse ; and probably many other varie- 
ties, yet imperfectly known and undescribed. 
It was formerly supposed that domestic cattle 
were descended from the wild European bison, 
los urus (see AUROCHS) ; but Cuvier has shown 
this idea to be erroneous, by pointing out per- 
manent characteristic distinctions in the osseous 
structure, particularly in the formation of the 
skull and insertion of the horns. It appears 
that there has been generally overlooked by 
naturalists a race of perfectly wild cattle pecu- 
liar to the British isles, which, formerly known 
as the wild bull of the great Caledonian forest, 
seems to have ranged all the woody northern 
regions of the island. They were of medium 
size, compactly built, invariably of a dingy, 
cream-colored white, with jet-black horns and 
hoofs, and the upper half of the ears either 
black or dull red. They are represented as 
having formerly had manes ; but that charac- 
teristic is lost. Within a few years three herds 
of these cattle were in existence : one in the 
chase of Chillingham castle, the property of 
the earl of Tankerville, in Northumberland ; 
one in that of the duke of Hamilton, at Hamil- 
ton castle, in Scotland ; and one at Drumlanrig, 
in Dumfriesshire. Lord Tankerville's herd 
were red-eared ; those of the duke of Hamilton 
had the black ears which are considered char- 
acteristic of the pure Scottish race. Although 
kept in confinement within vast enclosed chases, 
these cattle were perfectly wild, tameless, and 
savage. They would hold no connection with 
other cattle, more than the red deer will with 
the fallow ; they would not brook the approach 
of man, and evinced their original wild nature 
by the pertinacity with which the cows con- 
cealed their calves in deep brakes of fern or 
underwood, and resisted any approach to their 
lair. The structural characteristics of these 
cattle differ in no respect from those of the do- 
mestic ox ; their invariable self-color is a cer- 
tain evidence of the purity and antiquity of 
their breed, as it is a strong proof that they are 
not the descendants of tame animals, relapsed 
into a savage state ; since such, as is the 
case with the South American herds, long re- 
tain their variegated hues, the tokens of do- 
mestication and servitude. Of the cattle of 
continental Europe, the Polish or Ukraine ox- 
en are large and strong, and fatten readily, the 
flesh being succulent and well flavored. The 
cows are shy, not fit for the dairy ; color light 
gray, seldom black or white; oxen docile at 
work. On the plains of Jutland, Holstein, and 
Schleswig there is a fine breed with small, 
crooked horns, supposed to be allied to the 
Friesland and Holderness breed ; colors various, 
mouse or fawn interspersed with white being 
most common. Red cows of this breed are 
seldom seen. The cows are good milkers in 



CATTLE 



129 



moderate pastures. The oxen fatten well 
when grazed or stall-fed at the proper age, 
being fine in horn and bone, wide in loin, but 
not as hardy and strong for labor as the Hun- 
garian breed. Nearer the Alps the cattle are 
stronger and more active. The largest are 
among the Swiss. The Fribourg race have 
very rich pastures in the vicinity of Gruyeres. 
The cows most prized are large and wide in 
the flank, strong in the horn, short and strong 
in bone; they show a prominence about the 
root of the tail which would be considered a 
blemish by short-horn breeders. Their milk 
is rich in pasture, or when stall-fed on clover 
or lucern ; the oxen are good workers, but 
heavy and slow, and fatten well. In the Jura 
there is a small, active mountain breed, that 
keep well on little food ; they are of a light 
red color; oxen active and strong for their 
size, drawing by the horns. They are not 
profitable for stall-feeding, but good for moun- 
tain cottagers, as they climb like goats, feeding 
on the patches of pasture. The Norman breed 
give character to all the cattle in the north of 
France, except near the eastern frontier ; they 
are light red, sometimes spotted with white; 
horns short, set well out, and turned up with 
a black tip ; legs fine and slender ; hips high ; 
thighs thin ; good milkers, with rich milk. 
They are usually fed on thin pastures, along 
roads and the balks which divide fields. In 
Normandy the pastures are better, and the 




Alderney Bull. 

cattle larger. The Alderneys or Jerseys, in 
France, are supposed to be a smaller variety 
of the Norman, with shorter horns and more 
deer-like forms. This breed is very docile, 
having been for generations accustomed to be 
tethered in fields, along the roads, or in yards. 
They are found in gentlemen's parks and plea- 
sure grounds in England. A large number 
have been brought to the United States, but 
they are not considered so profitable as some 
other breeds. The Italian breed is most re- 
markable for immense length of horn. No 
pains is expended on ' this breed except in 
northern Italy, where the Parmesan cheese is 
made. The Italian cattle resemble the Swiss. 
In England the breeding of cattle has been 
carried to the greatest perfection. Ca?sar 



states that the British in his time had great 
numbers of cattle, though of no great bulk 
or beauty. The island being divided into 
many petty sovereignties, cattle were the 
safest kind of property, as they could be driv- 
en away from danger. When more peace- 
ful times returned, cattle were neglected for 
other productions, their size and number di- 
minished, and not until within the last 150 
years was any considerable effort made to im- 
prove them. The breeds in England are as 
various as the districts they inhabit, or the fan- 
cies of the breeders. A curious classification 
by the horns has obtained, having been found 
useful. The long-horns, originally from Lan- 
cashire, were much improved by Mr. Bakewell 
of Leicestershire, and are now found in the 
midland counties. The short-horns first ap- 
peared in Lincolnshire and the northern coun- 
ties, but are now found in most parts of the 
island. The middle-horns, a valuable and 
beautiful breed, came from the north of Devon, 
the east of Sussex, Herefordshire, and Glou- 
cestershire. The crumpled horn is found in 
Alderney, on the south coast, and in almost 
every park in small numbers. The hornless or 
polled cattle were first derived from Galloway, 
and now prevail in Suffolk and Norfolk. Which 
is the original breed of all has been disputed. 
It is held by some that the long-horns are 
of Irish extraction ; that the short-horns were 
produced by the efforts of breeders ; while the 
polled, though found in certain places from time 
immemorial, are supposed to be accidental ; and 
that to the middle-horns must therefore be as- 
cribed the honor of being the original breed. 
As the natives of Britain retired before inva- 
ders, they drove their cattle to the fastnesses of 
north Devon and Cornwall, the mountain re- 
gions of Wales, the wealds of Sussex ; and there 
the cattle have been the same from that time 
until now, while on the eastern coast the cat- 
tle became a mongrel breed, conforming them- 
selves to pasture and climate. Observation 
proves that the cattle* in Devonshire, Sussex, 
Wales, and Scotland are essentially the same 
middle-horned, not great milkers, active 
workers, easy to fatten ; all showing traces of 
likeness to one breed, however changed by 
soil, climate, and time. The earliest importa- 
tion of cattle to America was made by Colum- 
bus in 1493 ; he brought a bull and several cows. 
Others were brought by succeeding Spanish 
settlers, of the Estremadura breed, and the vast 
pampas or plains of nearly the whole of Spanish 
America are now covered with immense herds 
of cattle descended from these. They are of 
large size, long-legged, as various in color as 
other breeds, and their distinguishing charac- 
teristic is their long and widely extended horns. 
Herds numbering many thousands roam at will 
in a wild state, under the care of a race of herds- 
men called gauchos. (See GAUCHOS.) Every 
year the calves are caught, branded with the 
marks of the respective owners of the herds, 
and turned loose again. The mode of captur- 



130 



CATTLE 



ing the cattle is by the lasso or the bolas, and 
when thus caught the wildest are soon reduced 
to submission. Those which are retained for 
dairy and other domestic purposes are kept in 




Long-Horned Brazilian Ox. 

staked enclosures, capable of holding thousands 
of head, and called estancias. The lactiferous 
qualities of the cows of this breed are far be- 
low those of European and American domesti- 
cated cattle, but the milk is exceedingly rich, 
and particularly adapted to cheese making. 
Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and the Argen- 
tine Republic are the great cattle-raising coun- 
tries of South America. In Ecuador, Chili, 
Peru, and Bolivia the cattle are domesticated. 
For many years cattle raising was almost the 
only pursuit of Culitbrnians, and it is still the 
calling of a large number of the people. In 
California, and also in Texas, the cattle of 20 
or 50 owners roam over the pastures of all, 
every animal bearing on the left hip the brand, 
or " iron r as it is termed, of its owner ; and 
the keepers or herders of these cattle are as 
expert as the South Americans with the las- 
so. (See BOLAS, and LASSO.) The Portuguese 
took cattle to Newfoundland about 1553, but 
no trace of them now exists. Norman cattle 
were brought to Canada about 1600. In 1611 
Sir Thomas Gates brought from Devonshire 
and Hertfordshire 100 head to Jamestown. In 
1624 Francis Winslow brought three heifers 
and a bull to Massachusetts. At this period 
no fixed breeds, as such, were known in Eng- 
land. In the United States there is now a class 
of native cattle, arising from a mixture of va- 
rious breeds imported by the early settlers, who, 
for the want of barns, and from habits establish- 
ed in a milder climate, allowed their cattle to 
suffer severely; many perished, the survivors 
degenerating in size and quality. As agricul- 
ture advanced and settlers became more pros- 
perous, the cattle were improved ; and there 
are to be found in different districts native cat- 
tle varying with the richness of soil, salubrity 
of climate, and care of breeders. The English 
breeds, gaining celebrity, attracted the atten- 
tion of enterprising breeders here, who com- 



menced importing the Durhams, Devons, Ayr- 
shires, Hereford?, and Alderneys, with a few 
Galloways and some long-horns, and occasion- 
ally a few Scotch cattle. These cattle, import- 
ed at great cost, and not inured to our climate 
and rough treatment, prospered only in the 
best situations, and for a long period attracted 
little attention from ordinary farmers. At pres- 
ent there are many places where the pure 
breeds are propagated, each having its advo- 
cates; while farmers who make money from 
milk, butter, and cheese, stoutly maintain the 
value of native cattle and their crosses with the 
best breeds. There are, however, few neigh- 
borhoods where traces of imported blood may 
not be found; indeed, the high prices for cattle 
and their products which have prevailed since 
1850 have done much to stimulate breeders to 
improvement. The short-horn or Durham is 
becoming the favorite breed in the West. The 
model of this breed forms a solid rectangle, or 
parallelepiped, when the head and legs are re- 




Short-Horn Durham Bull. 

moved, leaving no unfilled space and much 
solid meat with little offal. Of this breed " Al- 
len's American Short-Horn Herd Book " says : 
u They are, as a race, good milkers, remarkable 
in the richness of its quality, and the quantity 
is frequently surprising. For beef, they are 
unrivalled. Their capacity to accumulate flesh 
is enormous, and they feed with a kindliness 
and thrift never witnessed in our native breeds. 
In milk, instances have been frequent in which 
they have given 24 to 36 quarts a day, on grass 
pasture only, for weeks together; yielding 10 
to 15 Ibs. of butter per week. Cows have 
slaughtered 1,200 to 1,500 Ibs. neat weight, 
with extraordinary proof; and bullocks upward 
of 2,500 Ibs." The short-horn crosses with na- 
tive stock are much prized, forming good milk- 
ers, easy keepers, and profitable animals for 
beef, and in the hands of ordinary farmers 
prove better than the pure breed of short-horns. 
About 1835 some Ayrshires were imported, and 
this breed has ever since borne in the United 
States a high character for milk, yoke, and 



CATTLE 

shambles. The Hereford breed does not seem 
to find general favor. A large herd of Alder- 
neys, of the most symmetrical proportions for 
that breed, was imported some years since, and 



CATULLUS 



131 




Dolly Ayrshire Cow. 

seem admirably adapted to light thin pastures. 
Though their milk is very rich, tlie quantity is 
small. They are poor for beef, and not famous 
as workers ; some breeders in the eastern states, 
however, believe them to be very profitable for 
butter and cheese. The long-horns have been 
sparingly imported, and do not find favor. The 
Sussex are better liked, though few have been 
introduced, while their supposed congeners, the 
Devons, are held by many intelligent men to be 
superior to the Durhams for all the southern and 
most of the older states. Being an original 
breed, and without cross or admixture of blood, 
they have sustained a superior capability of 
improvement among the best breeders wher- 
ever they have been bred with care. The hide 
is soft and mellow, indicating an aptitude to fat- 
ten, the bones small, and in color, grace, and 
elegance of carriage, they possess a superiority 
over all other British cattle. The little Kerry 
cow of Ireland, termed the "poor man's cow," 




Kerry Bull. 

lias been recommended for poorer lands in 
mountainous regions, but as yet no steps have 
been taken to introduce her there. Cattle have 
many complaints, yet generally they are exempt 



from great mortality. Sometimes, however, 
an epidemic, spreading even to remote coun- 
tries from its starting point, carries off great 
numbers. (See MURRAIX.) Occasionally the 
" milk sickness " appears in some districts W. 
of the Alleghanies, when the animal sickens 
and dies, giving the peculiar disease to all who 
partake of her milk or flesh. It is supposed to 
originate from the rhus toxicodendron or poison 
ivy. The remedy is feeding large quantities of 
Indian corn. The horn distemper and heof ail 
sometimes prevail extensively, and about cities 
where the cattle are closely confined and badly 
fed, they become ulcerated and otherwise dis- 
eased. No class of animals are so free from 
maladies as neat cattle when well treated. Good 
pasturage, good hay, grain, roots, and water, 
and airy stables, with sufficient exercise, are 
necessary to maintain good health in cattle or 
to improve their condition. Variety of food is 
essential, and the feeding of roots in winter is 
particularly necessary. The practice of soiling 
in summer has found favor with those who have 
fairly tried it. The cattle are kept in cool, clean 
stables, and green rye, oats, corn sown broadcast, 
lucern, clover, and sorghum are cut and carried 
to them. (See CALF, and Ox.) 

CATTYWAR, or Kattywar, a peninsula in N. 
W. India, forming a considerable part of the 
province of Guzerat, or the Guicowar's do- 
minions, bounded N. by the gulf and run of 
Cutch, N". E. by the British provinces of Raj- 
pootana and Malwa, E. by the gulf of Cambay, 
and S. and W. by the" Arabian sea. It lies be- 
tween lat. 20 42' and 23 10' K, and Ion. 69 
5' and 72 14' E. The principal product is cot- 
ton. The grains chiefly cultivated are wheat, 
maize, and millet. The sugar cane is grown 
extensively, but is only made to produce rno- 
lasses or goor. The Catty war horse, once cele- 
brated, has deteriorated. A breed of kine 
called desam and buffaloes are much valued. 
The soil is sandy and not fertile 7 , but numerous 
streams and wells afford ample means of irri- 
gation, all the rivers taking their rise in the 
central part of the province. Toward the 
south some of the hills are over 1,000 ft. 
high. Deep ravines and caverns are very nu- 
merous, and afford safe retreats against attack. 
A locality of wooded hills called the Gir is 
haunted by wild animals of the most ferocious 
kind, and noted for its deadly climate. The 
ravages of migratory rats produced such a ter- 
rible famine in 1814, that this year has since 
been called the rat year. (See GUZERAT.) 

CATULLUS, Cains Valerius, a Roman poet, born 
in Verona in 87 B. C., died in or after 47. He 
belonged to a noble family, and his father was 
a hospes of Julius Caesar, a tie sacred among the 
Romans. The son went to Rome, and became 
acquainted with Cornelius Nepos, Cicero, and 
other notable men ; but possessing a moderate 
fortune, he did not enter upon public life, liv- 
ing in retirement at Rome and at his villa near 
Tibur. He is the earliest Latin lyric poet of 
any importance. We have 110 poems of Ca 



132 



CATULUS 



CAUCA 



tullus, mostly short and without arrangement 
by subjects; a few are strictly lyrical, some are 
elegiac, one is heroic, but most are epigram- 
matic. From his imitation of the Greeks, 
Catullus was called doctus, but he possessed 
much originality ; there is in his style a certain 
air of antiquity which the Komans greatly ad- 
mired. The text of Catullus seems to have 
been early corrupted; all MSS. are derived 
from one source, and that an imperfect one. 
There are several poems of unknown author- 
ship which are ascribed to Catullus ; the elder 
Pliny mentions De Incantamentis ; and Ciris 
and Pervigilium Veneris have been attributed 
to him, but the latter is now generally believed 
to have been written by Florus in the 2d cen- 
tury. In his epigrammatic poems the Roman 
spirit prevails, and in the elegiac the Greek. 
Most of his epigrams are pleasant light impromp- 
tus, full of irony and satire, of various forms 
and on a great variety of subjects ; they con- 
tain many obscure passages and some allusions 
offensive to modern ears ; they are composed 
in 13 different metres. The elegies are imita- 
tions of the Greek, especially of Callimachus 
and Sappho; they exhibit, however, great 
vigor of language, and less frivolity than his 
epigrams. A good edition of his works is that 
of Sillig (Gottingen, 1823); of more recent 
editions, one of the best is that of E. Ellis 
(1866). They have been translated into Eng- 
lish byG. Lamb (1821), T.Martin (1861), J. 
Cranstoun (1867), and R. Ellis (1871). 

(ATI LI s. the name of a Roman family of the 
plebeian gens Lutatia. I. Cains Lntatius, con- 
sul with Aulus Postumius Albinus in 242 B. 
C. On March 10, 241, he won a great and 
decisive naval victory over the Carthaginians, 
near the island of JEgusa. This buttle put 
an end to the first Punic war, compelling 
Hamilcar to agree to most disadvantageous 
terms of peace. Catulus claimed find obtained 
a triumph, which was celebrated on Oct. 4. 
II. Qiiintus Lulntiiis, consul with Caius Marius 
in 102 B. C., died in 87. He entered upon 
his term of office just as a powerful body of 
northern tribes were preparing to descend upon 
Italy. Marius, with one portion of the army, 
was sent to oppose the Teutons, who were 
about to enter the country from Gaul in the 
neighborhood of the modern Nice; while Ca- 
tulus undertook to oppose the Cimbri who were 
advancing from the Tyrol. He took up a posi- 
tion not far from the source of the Adige, 
and awaited their attack; but the enemy, in 
spite of his opportunities fur defence, assailed 
him with such violence as to drive his army 
across the Po. Marina, who had meanwhile 
defeated the Teutons at the battle of Aqua? 
Sextise, and returned to Rome, now hastened 
to aid his colleague. His army and that of 
Catulus recrossed the Po and defeated the 
Cimbri at Vercellro (Vercelli). The accounts 
of this battle, which was fought in July, 101, 
are rendered most obscure by the jealousy of 
partisan writers, some of whom give all the 



glory to Marius, others to Catulus. It un- 
doubtedly belonged to the former, if the ac- 
counts of the public feeling at Rome are to be 
trusted. In the civil war Catulus espoused the 
cause of Sulla, and was among those named in 
the lists of the proscription of 87 B. C. He 
preferred suicide to falling by the hands of his 
'enemies, and killed himself by suffocation with 
the fumes of charcoal. III. Quint as Lntatias, 
son of the preceding, died in 60 B. C. He 
earned distinction by his honesty and patriot- 
ism, and was made consul in 78. lie quelled 
a revolution which his colleague Lepidus ex- 
cited after the death of Sulla. In 65 he was 
made censor. Catulus is highly praised by 
Cicero, whom he earnestly aided in the sup- 
pression of Catiline's conspiracy. 

CATIIRZE, Jean, a French heretic, born at Li- 
moux, died at the stake at Toulouse in June, 
1532. He was a popular professor of law and 
other sciences, and was driven in 1531 from 
his native place on account of his heretical 
doctrines. The next year he was arrested in 
Toulouse and sentenced to be burned. The 
accounts are conflicting in regard to the pre- 
cise facts, but it is certain that he was put to 
death as a heretic, and that his friends, and 
especially his pupils, regarded him as a martyr. 
Etienne Volet, who defended him in a public 
speech (Oct. 9, 1532), was himself eventually 
doomed to a martyr's death in Paris, Aug. 3, 
1546. Rabelais alludes to the tragic end of 
Caturze in his Puntagruel. 

CAtCA, a river of South America, rising in 
that part of the Colombian Andes called Para- 
mo de Guanacos, in the United States of Co- 
lombia, lat. 2 N., Ion. 76 30' W. On de- 
scending from the mountains, its course is W. 
until about 15 m. W. of the town of Popayan, 
where it bends N., and flows with the impetu- 
osity of a mountain stream almost parallel to 
the Magdalena, which river it enters at the 
town of Nechi, lat. 9 N. The whole course 
of the Cauca is about 600 m. ; it is navigable 
only for small craft, and not above Cali, which, 
with Toro, Buga, Antioquia, and Neohi, are 
the principal towns upon its banks. The val- 
ley which it waters, lying between the W. and 
central Cordilleras of the Andes, is one of the 
most fertile in the western continent. 

CAUCA, a state of the United States of Colom- 
bia, bounded N. by the Caribbean sea, E. by 
Cundinamarca, S. by Ecuador, and W. by the 
Pacific ocean ; area, 260,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 
435,000. It is traversed by the river of the 
same name, and is one of the richest, most fer- 
tile, and most populous districts in South Amer- 
ica. It consists of two plateaus of different 
elevation, and consequently of different tem- 
perature ; the land is well cultivated, and pro- 
duces the various cereals, coffee, sugar, tobac- 
co, cotton, and cocoa, the last being especially 
abundant; and vast and rich pastures afford 
nourishment for innumerable herds of cattle 
and mules. The fields and farmhouses present 
the appearance of wealth and comfort. Gold 



CAUCASIA 



CAUCASUS 



133 



has been found in the upper part of the valley. 
Capital, Popayan. 

CAUCASIA. See CAUCASUS. 

CAUCASIAN BACE. See ETHNOLOGY. 

CAUCASUS, a general name given to the region 
and the chain of mountains therein which 
stretch between the Black and Caspian seas, 
the mountains forming part of the boundary 
between Europe and Asia. The region trav- 
ersed by the range diagonally from N. W. to 
S. E. forms the Russian lieutenancy of Caucasia. 
It lies between lat. 38 50' and 46 30' N., and 
Ion. 37 and 50 30' E. Its longest diameter, 
N. W. to S. E., is about 800 m. ; area about 
170,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 4,661,824. It is 
divided into the following governments and 
districts : Kuban, Stavropol, Terek, Daghestan, 
Zakatal, Tiflis, Kutais, Sukhum, Tchernomore 
(Black Sea), Elisabethpol, Baku, and Erivan. 
The first five, which lie in Europe, are called 
Ciscaucasia, and embrace, among others, the 
territories of the Kuban and Nagai Cossacks, 
the Kabarda, the Tchetchna, and the land of 
the Lesghians; the last seven lie in Asia, are 
designated as Transcaucasia, and include Cir- 
cassia, Abkhasia, Mingrelia, Imerethia, Georgia, 
Russian Armenia, and Shirvan. An outline of 
the central part of the country would represent 
a system of round-topped mountains, exhibit- 
ing few of those peaks which distinguish the 
Alpine and other chains, their sides seamed 
with deep but fertile valleys, descending to the 
steppes or plains which stretch N. into the 
main country of the Cossacks, and S. E. toward 
Persia. The Caucasus range commences in a 
line of cliffs fronting on the Caspian sea, at 
the peninsula of Apsheron, whence the main 
chain stretches in a N. W. direction to the 
shores of the Black sea, a distance of 700 m., 
and terminates in the promontory where the 
sea of Azov unites with the Black sea, near the 
Russian fortress of Anapa. From the main 
chain other ranges branch N. and S., giving 
the hill country a width of from 65 to 150 m. 
The principal subsidiary chains are on the 
north. The principal summits are Mount 
Elbruz or Elburz, on the N. E. confines of 
Abkhasia, 18,514 ft. high; Kasbek, W. of the 
road from Mozdok to Tiflis, about 16,500 ft. 
(like the preceding, first ascended by three 
young English tourists, Freshfield, Tucker, and 
Moore, in July, 1868) ; and Syrkhubarsom, be- 
tween Elbruz and Kasbek, about 15,600 ft. 
The passage of these mountains is effected 
through defiles, some of which have a historic 
celebrity. Such are the Caucasian, now called 
the Darial pass or pass of Vladikavkas ; the 
Albanian or Sarmatic pass in Daghestan ; and 
the Iberian, now called the Sharapan pass, in 
Imerethia. Only one road is practicable for 
carriages, that from Mozdok to Tiflis, by the 
Darial pass and the valley of the Terek. The 
mountains of the Caucasus are either flat or 
round-topped. The geological structure of 
the greater portion is of secondary forma- 
tion, interspersed with volcanic rocks. The 



summits and central ridge are granitic; on 
each side the granite has schistose mountains 
joining it, and these are succeeded by calcare- 
ous hills whose bases are covered by sandy 
downs. The mountains are more abrupt on 
their north face; southward they descend by a 
succession of terraces. Snow rests on summits 
over 11,000 ft. in altitude throughout the year. 
The glaciers are but of limited extent, and no 
active volcanoes are known. Earthquakes oc- 
cur. There are few lakes. Twelve watersheds 
or channels are counted, six on the N. slope, 
and six on the S. The principal rivers on the 
northward are the Kuma and the Terek, flow- 
ing E. to the Caspian, and the Kuban, W. to 
the Black sea. On the S. the Kur (the Cyrus 
of the ancients) flows E., and the Rion (Phasis) 
W. The country of the Caucasus possesses 
every variety of climate, from the arid heats of 
the valley to the cold of perpetual snow. Veg- 
etation in the habitable districts is luxuriant. 
Forests of the finest timber clothe the hills al- 
most to the snow line. Grain will grow at an 
elevation of 7,000 ft. In the central belt the 
ordinary species of fruits produce well. Dates, 
pomegranates, and figs ripen in the valleys. 
Rice, flax, tobacco, and indigo are sure crops. 
The culture of sugar cane, silk, and cotton has 
been introduced into some localities. The tea 
plant has been recently introduced at Sukhum 
Kaleh, on the Black sea. Among the produc- 
tions peculiar to the Caucasus are a species of 
cochineal insect ; a hard-wood tree called lo- 
cally utchelia, with wood of a rose color, suit- 
able for cabinet work ; also the Caucasian goat, 
celebrated for the value of its hair ; and a wild 
animal of the feline species, called by the na- 
tives chaus. The horses of the Caucasus bear 
a high character for endurance and docility. 
Wild cattle are found in the forests. Wolves, 
bears, jackals, lynxes, and the minor fur-bearing 
animals, are numerous. The wool of the ordi- 
nary breeds of sheep is long and fine. Almost 
every species of birds known to the latitude 
are found here. Few minerals have been dis- 
covered ; gold appears to be totally wanting ; 
iron, copper, saltpetre, and lead are found, the 
last in considerable quantity. The Caucasians 
proper, including Circassians, Mingrelians, Ab- 
khasians, Ossetes, Tchetchentzes, Lesghians, 
Grusians, and many other tribes, of Indo-Eu- 
ropean race, are generally a bold and resolute 
people, hunters, robbers, and guerillas from 
choice, shepherds and agriculturists only from 
necessity. Although hospitable, they are jeal- 
ous and revengeful. They live in villages built 
of stone. Formerly their youth of both sexes 
were raised for sale in the slave markets of 
Constantinople; but that traffic has been sup- 
pressed. Their political organization was for- 
merly a loose sort of republicanism, under 
the nominal presidency of a hereditary prince ; 
but the rule of Russia is now firmly estab- 
lished over them. Literature they have none. 
Their religion is an offshoot of Mohammed- 
anism, corrupted from many sources. An- 



134 



CAUCASUS 



CAUCHY 



cient history makes frequent mention of the 
Caucasus. Here Prometheus was chained. 
Deucalion, Pyrrha, and the Argonauts, Sesos- 
tris and the Egyptians, the Scythians, Mithri- 
dates, Pompey, and Trajan are associated with 
its history. The Arabs, Tartars, and Turko- 
mans successively ravaged the country to its 
base. Russia and Persia then struggled for its 
possession, until in 1813 the Russians, after 
having occupied Mingrelia, Imerethia, and 
Georgia, became nominally possessed of the 
S. E. parts of the mountains by treaty. A 
desultory warfare of several years ended by the 
mountaineers being reduced to a condition 
nearly approaching subjection. But in 1823 a 
new movement sprung up in the mountains. 
Mohammed, the mollah, commenced against 
the Russians a campaign in Daghestan. A 
chieftain named Kasi-Mollah was soon recog- 
nized as the head of the movement, having for 
his aid a young man named Shamyl. In 1829 
the N. W. portion of the mountains fell into 
the hands of the Russians by the treaty of 
Adrianople, but the Circassians soon rose in 
arms against them. The various tribes now 
united in resistance, but the Lesghians and 
Tchetchentzes bore the brunt of the struggle. 
Kasi kept up a resistance to the Russian 
power till 1831, when ho was shut up in 
Himry. The Russians stormed the place, and 
the chief was slain. Hamsad Bey next took 
the field, but his career was cut short by 
assassination. The mollah Mohammed being 
now dead, Shamyl was elected his successor, 
and carried on the war with varying success. 
In 1837 Shamyl inflicted a severe defeat on 
the Russians under Gen. Ivelitch. During 
1838 the Caucasians were employed in pre- 
paring themselves for future resistance. The 
passes of the mountains were fortified, and 
the strong position of Akulgo was put in 
readiness to stand a siege. In 1839 the Rus- 
sians, under Gen. Grabbe, entered the territory, 
defeated the Caucasians, and drove them back 
upon Akulgo, which was finally taken, Aug. 
22, after a blockade of 72 days, and three 
days' hand-to-hand fighting. The Caucasians 
once more nominally succumbed to the Rus- 
sian power, but in March, 1840, they again re- 
volted. Having found European tactics inef- 
fective in the previous campaign, they fell 
back on their old system of guerilla warfare. 
Gen. Grabbo again attempted to penetrate into 
the mountains, but was compelled to retreat. 
The next attempt was made in 1845 by Prince 
Vorontzoft', governor general of the Russian 
Caucasian provinces. He penetrated to Dargo, 
which he found in flames. The campaign be- 
ing over, n new plan of action was introduced 
against the mountaineers. Hitherto the tactics 
had been to bring them to pitched battle, with 
the hope of breaking their strength at a single 
blow. Now the plan was to send detached 
columns against isolated spots, and wherever a 
footing was obtained to erect a fort on it. Not- 
withstanding this, the Caucasians continued to 



carry on offensive operations. In 1846 they 
swept the line of Russian forts, and returned 
to their mountains laden with plunder. In 
1848 and 1850 they made similar expeditions, 
and in 1853 they took from the Russians sev- 
eral guns, and drove them back from eight 
leagues of territory. During the Crimean war 
there was a pause in the operations in the 
Caucasus. In 1856 the Russians opened a war- 
fare, which they continued till April, 1859, 
when the capture of the stronghold of Veden 
virtually decided the contest. Shamyl retreated 
to his last stronghold, the mountain fort of 
Ghunib, near the Caspian sea. Here, on Sept. 
6, he was defeated after a desperate conflict 
and forced to surrender, and was carried a 
prisoner to Moscow and St. Petersburg, but 
treated with the utmost consideration. The 
Caucasus had in many parts become desolate. 
The bulk of surviving Circassians emigrated to 
Turkey. (See SHAMYL.) 

CAUCASUS, Indian. See HiNDoo-Koosn. 

CAUCHON, Joseph, a Canadian statesman and 
journalist, born in Quebec in 1820. He studied 
law, but, though admitted to the bar, never prac- 
tised. In 1844 he was elected to the legislature 
for the county of Montmorency, and has been a 
member of parliament since that time. In 1851 
he was ottered a seat in the cabinet, but declined. 
The next year he attempted to form a French 
Canadian conservative opposition, but without 
success. In 1855 he became a member of the 
administration as commissioner of crown lands, 
and under his name a report was published 
attacking the monopoly of the Hudson Bay 
company. From 1867 to 1872 he was speak- 
er of the senate. He afterward resigned his 
place in the administration and went into 
opposition. In 1842 he founded the " Quebec 
Journal," and has conducted it ever since. 

CAUCHY, Angnstln Louis, a Frencli mathema- 
tician, born in Paris, Aug. 21, 1789, died May 
23, 1857. Admitted in 1805 to the polytech- 
nic school, he distinguished himself by the solu- 
tion of difficult problems. He was admitted to 
the academy in 1816, and about the same time 
appointed professor of mechanics in the poly- 
technic school. The journals of the academy 
and several European mathematical journals 
contain numerous memoirs from his pen. His 
attachment to Bourbon legitimacy prevented 
him from taking the oath of allegiance, by 
which alone he could retain the public offices 
which he held in 1830, or accept those offered 
him on subsequent occasions. In 1848, how- 
ever, he was appointed to the chair of mathe- 
matical astronomy which was then instituted 
at the Paris university ; but refusing to take 
the oath of allegiance, he relinquished his post 
in June, 1852. He made contributions to al- 
most every branch of mathematics, but his 
reputation rests chiefly on his residual and 
imaginary calculus. Among his numerous 
wnrks are: Covrs ^analyse (Paris, 1821); 
Leyons sur leg applications du ealcul infinite- 
simal d la geometric (2 vols., 1826-'8) ; Exer- 



CAUCUS 



135 



cices mathematiques (1826-'9); Sur V applica- 
tion du calcul de residua (1827); Lefons sur le 
calcul differential (1829) ; Memoire sur la dis- 
persion de la lumiere (1836) ; and Exercices 
(^analyse et de physique mathematique (3 vols., 
1839). His politico-religious writings testify 
both to his faith in legitimacy in politics, and in 
Roman Catholicism in religion. One of his most 
characteristic works of the kind is his poem 
Charles V. en Espagne (1834). 

CAUCUS, a word of American origin, em- 
ployed in the United States to designate a part 
of the political machinery of the country, 
which, though resting merely on usage, forms 
a marked feature of the American political 
system. The oldest written use of this word 
is probably in the following passage in John 
Adams's diary, dated Boston, February, 1763 : 
"This day learned that the caucus club meets 
at certain times in the garret of Tom Dawes, 
the adjutant of the Boston regiment. He has 
a large house, and he has a movable partition in 
his garret which he takes down, and the whole 
club meets in one room. There they smoke 
tobacco till you cannot see from one end of the 
garret to the other. There they drink flip, I 
suppose, and there they choose a moderator 
who puts questions to the vote regularly, and 
selectmen, overseers, collectors, wardens, fire 
wards, and representatives are regularly chosen 
before they are chosen by the town. They 
send committees to wait on the merchants' 
club, and to propose and join in the choice of 
men and measures. Capt. Cunningham says 
they have often selected him to go to those 
caucuses," &c. Gordon, in his " History of the 
American Ee volution," under date of 1775, 
traces this practice to a much earlier date: 
" More than 50 years ago Mr. Samuel Adams's 
father and 20 others, one or two from the north 
end of the town where all the ship business is 
carried on, used to meet, make a caucus, and 
lay their plans for introducing certain persons 
into places of trust and power. When they 
had settled it, they reported and used each 
their particular influence with his own circle. 
He and his friends would furnish themselves 
with ballots, including the names of the parties 
fixed upon, which they distributed on the days 
of election. By acting in concert, together 
with a careful and extensive distribution of 
ballots, they generally carried the elections to 
their own mind. In like manner it was that 
Mr. S. Adams first became a representative for 
Boston." It has been conjectured that caucus 
is a corruption of calkers. Very possibly the 
caucus club which met in Tom Dawes's garret 
was originally a mechanics' club, called from 
the leading trade in it the calkers' club, which 
name, with a variation, it still retained after it 
had passad into the hands of politicians. Mr. 
J. II. Trumbull derives the term from an 
Algonquin word meaning to speak, encourage, 
instigate. The singular of the Indian noun is 
said to have been kaw-kaw-wus, plural Tcaw- 
Icaw-wus-souc/h, "counsellors," which the Vir- 



ginians changed into cockarouse, designating a 
petty chieftain, and that thence come caucusers 
and caucus. The change of government conse- 
quent on the revolution led, in the northern 
states especially, to a great increase in the 
number of elective offices, while the prevailing 
idea of the impropriety of self-nominations and 
of a personal canvass for votes made some 
nominating and canvassing machinery neces- 
sary. Meetings held for this purpose received 
the name of caucuses. Each party held in 
eacn election district its own caucus to nomi- 
nate candidates. Public notice of the time and 
place was given, and every voter of the party 
was at liberty to attend. A moderator and 
clerk being chosen, a nomination list was open- 
ed. Each person present nominated whom he 
pleased. Several copies of the list were made 
and distributed through the meeting, each per- 
son placing a mark against the candidate whom 
he proposed, and the candidate having the 
highest number of marks was declared the 
nominee. This method, however, was evident- 
ly inapplicable where the constituency was 
large or the district extensive. Hence the sub- 
stitution of a representative caucus, delegates 
being appointed at meetings like that above 
described, held in case of cities and large towns 
in the wards, and in country districts in the 
townships. These elective caucuses commonly 
took to themselves the name of nominating 
conventions, and their introduction marks a 
third era in the development of the caucus sys- 
tem. A considerable period, however, elapsed 
before this convention system Avas applied to 
state or presidential nominations. The mem- 
bers of the state legislatures in the one case 
and of congress in the other, those of each 
party holding their own separate caucus, took 
upon themselves to make these nominations. 
At first these legislative and congressional cau- 
cuses were held privately. Afterward, how- 
ever, they came to be formally' and avowedly 
held. Committees were appointed to look after 
the elections, and besides a state committee the 
legislative caucuses assumed the power of nomi- 
nating the chairmen of the local county and 
district conventions. At length it began to be 
objected that in these legislative caucuses only 
those districts in which the party was in the 
majority were represented, and this and other 
causes led, between 1820 and 1830, to the sub- 
stitution in New York and Pennsylvania of 
state conventions in their place ; a custom since 
universally imitated. Congressional caucuses 
about the same time fell into disfavor. That 
held in 1823 to nominate a successor to Monroe 
was but slenderly attended ; and its nomination 
was extensively disregarded, so that Mr. Craw- 
ford, its nominee, was behind both Jackson and 
Adams in the popular vote. At the presiden- 
tial election of 1828 Adams became the candi- 
date of one party and Jackson of the other, 
without any formal nomination. The congres- 
sional caucus system being exploded, the Jack- 
son or democratic party held in 1832 a national 



136 



CAUDEBEC 



CAUL 



nominating convention, eacli state being en- 
titled to the same number of votes as in the 
presidential election; and similar conventions 
of that party have been held to nominate can- 
didates for each succeeding presidential term. 
The opposition, then known as wbigs, adopted 
the same policy in 1837, and since that period 
all nominations for the presidency, by whatever 
party or fragment of party, have been made by 
a similar agency. The power of assembling 
these bodies usually rests with a committee ap- 
pointed by the previous convention. Besides 
judging the qualifications of their own members, 
and. nominating candidates, they assume the 
power of drawing up party creeds or platforms, 
as they are called, and of determining, in case 
of new and important questions, what position 
the party shall take. 

CAt'DEBEC, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Seine-Inferieure, on the Seine, 26 m. E. 
of Havre; pop. in 1866, 9,184. The principal 




Caudebec. 

edifice is the parish church, a celebrated Gothic 
building in the florid style of the 15th century, 
with a spire 330 ft. high. It has manufactures 
of cotton and wool, and a brisk trade. It was 
formerly the capital of the Pays de Oaux, but 
declined in consequence of the emigration of 
the Protestants after the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes. It was taken by the English in 
1419, and by the Protestants in 1562. In 1592 
it was besieged and taken by a Spanish force 
under Alexander Farnese. who received a 
wound beneath its walls which proved fatal. 

CAUDIXE FORKS (Furcula Caudina, rarely 
Furccs Caudina or Caudina Fances), two nar- 
row passes through the mountains of ancient 
Samnium, affording access from opposite sides 
to an enclosed plain that lay between them. 
Most authorities consider them to have been 
identical with the valley now called the Val 
d'Arpaja, by which passed the road from Capua 
to Beneventum ; but this does not at all accord 



with the description of Livy, and in recent 
works the most weighty objections have been 
made to the received theory of their position, 
several writers contending that the valley of 
the little river Isclero, a short distance away, is 
the locality described by the Roman historians. 
The Caudine Forks are famous for the great 
disaster which here overtook the Eoman army 
under Veturius and Postumius in 321 B. C., 
during the Samnite war. The consuls, misled by 
a false report that the Samnites were besieging 
Luceria, an important town of northern Apulia, 
hurriedly broke ug their camp near Calatia, 
and prepared to hasten across Samnium to the 
rescue. The nearest way led through the 
Caudine passes. Supposing the whole Samnite 
army to be in Apulia, the Romans without pre- 
caution entered the first pass, and marched 
through it without opposition to the plain. 
When they crossed this, however, and en- 
deavored to pass out through the second de- 
file on the opposite side, 
they found the passage 
blocked up with stones, 
trees, earth, and all 
manner of obstructions. 
Turning back, they 
found the gorge by 
which they had entered 
filled in the same man- 
ner. The Samnites now 
appeared on the sur- 
rounding heights, and 
the Romans understood 
the trap into which they 
had been led. With but 
little attempt at resist- 
ance, they surrendered. 
The Samnites compelled 
them all to submit to 
the disgrace of passing 
under the yoke (a spear 
resting across two oth- 
ers fixed upright in the 
ground), and took the 
opportunity of this victory to force the gen- 
erals to consent to terms of peace, which, 
although moderate and by no means humilia- 
ting, the Roman senate declared void, deciding 
that Veturius and Postumius had exceeded 
their authority in consenting to them. 

CAUL (Lat. caula, a fold), a membrane which 
sometimes envelopes the head of a child when 
born. It is of interest only for the superstitious 
feelings with which it has long been regarded. 
The child that happened to be born with it was 
esteemed particularly fortunate ; and the pos- 
session of it afterward, however obtained, was 
highly prized, as of a charm of great virtue. 
The superstition is thought to have come from 
the East; and according to Weston, in his 
" Moral Aphorisms from the Arabic," there are 
several words in that language for it. With the 
French, etre ne coiffe was an ancient proverb, 
indicative of the good fortune of the individual. 
The alchemists ascribed magical virtues to it ; 



CAULAINCOURT 

and according to Grose, the health of the per- 
son born with it could in after life be judged 
of by its condition, whether dry and crisp, or 
relaxed and flaccid. Medicinal virtues are 
probably ^till imputed to it by the ignorant, as 
is the property of preserving the owner of it 
from drowning. 

C.U'LAI.V I'OIUT, Armand Angustin Louis de, duke 
of Vicenza, a French general and diplomatist, 
born at Caulaincourt, near Saint-Quentin, in 
1773, died in Paris, Feb. 19, 1827. His father, 
the marquis of Caulaincourt, was a general 
officer, and the son served in the army from an 
early age, both in the ranks, under the con- 
scription, and as a staff officer. He was im- 
prisoned for a time after 1792, but followed 
Gen. Aubert du Bayet to Constantinople in 
1797, and made the campaign of 1800 under 
Gen. Moreau, and those of 1805, 1806, and 
1807 under Napoleon. Upon the accession of 
the emperor Alexander in 1801, he was sent 
as diplomatic agent to St. Petersburg. He was 
afterward appointed by Napoleon grand equerry 
and duke of Vicenza, and in 1807 was sent as 
ambassador to Russia, in the place of the duke 
of Kovigo. Being suspected of complicity in 
the death of the duke d'Enghien, he was coldly 
received by the Russian nobility, until Alex- 
ander wrote him a letter declaratory of his 
innocence, and gave him special marks of per- 
sonal esteem. He subsequently disapproved of 
the foreign policy of Napoleon, and in 1811 
asked to be recalled. He also opposed the in- 
vasion of Russia. After the burning of Moscow 
Napoleon chose him as his companion on his 
flight to France. He was plenipotentiary to the 
allied sovereigns during the campaign of Sax- 
ony, signed the armistice of Plaswitz, June 4, 

1813, and was appointed French plenipotentiary 
to the abortive congress of Prague. He was 
attached to the person of Napoleon in the cam- 
paign that followed. On April 5, 1813, he was 
made senator, and in September minister of 
foreign affairs, and in this capacity he went to 
the congress of Chatillon. When Napoleon 
seemed about to abdicate, Caulaincourt used 
his influence with the emperor Alexander to 
secure the best terms possible, and it is thought 
that the sovereignty of Elba was secured by his 
efforts. He signed the treaty of April 11, 

1814, and retired to his country seat. On the 
return of Napoleon in 1815 he was again made 
minister of foreign affairs. His circular of April 
3 to the French diplomats abroad represented the 
second accession of Napoleon in the best light, 
and gave assurance of respect for the rights of 
other nations. He took part in the delibera- 
tions of the two chambers in regard to the 
second abdication, and was a member of the 
commission of government which preceded 
the second return of Louis XVIII. His name 
was upon the list of July 24, but by the influ- 
ence of the emperor Alexander it was erased. 
From this time his life was wholly private, 
except that the old accusation of complicity in 
the death of the duke d'Enghien was revived ; 



CAULIFLOWER 



137 



upon which he published the letter of Alex- 
ander exonerating him. This accusation 
weighed upon him, and he referred to it in his 
will, protesting his entire innocence. He left 
unpublished memoirs, said to be of value. 

CAULIER, Madeleine, a French peasant girl 
who during the siege of Lille, Sept. 8. 1708, 
volunteered to penetrate into the city for the 
purpose of conveying an important order to 
Marshal Boufflers. She succeeded in her mis- 
sion through her brother, who was a soldier in 
the besieged army. Though Lille was obliged 
to capitulate (Oct. 23), the duke of Burgundy 
offered her a reward, which she declined; but 
she was permitted at her request to enlist in a 
regiment of dragoons. She displayed great 
gallantry, and fell in the battle of Denain, July 
24, 1712. 

CAULIFLOWER (brassica oleracea lotrytis, De 
Candolle), a cultivated plant of the cabbage 
tribe. It has a compact rounded head of deli- 
cate flavor, standing on a stalk 18 to 26 inches 
in height, and surrounded by long leaves. The 
leaves are not closely packed as hi the cabbage. 




Cauliflower. 

/ 

It is more tender than the cabbage, and in 
transplanting should have a ball of earth lifted 
with the roots to secure a continuous growth. 
In the vicinity of New York two crops are 
raised in the kitchen garden in one season. If 
the early cauliflower does not come to perfec- 
tion by the end of June, it will usually fail to 
head, from the excessive heat at that time. To 
obtain plants for this crop seeds should be sown 
in September in good soil, and in about four 
weeks transplanted to a cold frame, set two or 
three inches apart, and carefully protected by 
glass during the winter, being opened to the 
air only during warm days. In February they 
should be set into another frame, eight to twelve 
inches apart, to prevent a spindling growth. 
They should be transplanted as early in the 
spring as possible, at a distance of three feet 
from each other, and well watered and fre- 
quently hoed during the dry weather. At the 
time of heading, the larger leaves may be 
broken over the head to protect it from the 
sun, and the waterings should be frequent. 



138 



CAUMONT 



CAUTLEY 



For a late crop the seeds are sown in an open 
bed in May, and the transplanting is in July. 
Those plants which do not head before frost 
may be removed to a warm shed or cellar, 
covered with coarse litter, and allowed to head 
during early winter. 

CADMONT, Aldriek Isidore Ferdinand, a French 
jurist and author, born at Saint Vincent- 
Cramesnil, May 15, 1825. Despite his poverty 
he studied law in Paris, and acquired eminence 
at Havre as a marine lawyer and professor of 
mercantile jurisprudence. His tude sur la 
tie et let travaux de Hugo Grotius, ou le droit 
naturel et le droit international (1862), was 
crowned by the academy of Toulon. His prin- 
cipal work, consisting of over 50 separate es- 
says, is the Dictionnaire universel de droit 
commercial maritime (1855-'69). He published 
in 1867 Langue universelle de Fhumanite, ou 
telegraphie parlee par le nombre, reduisant d 
Vunite tons les idiomes du globe. 

CAURA, a river of Venezuela, formed by the 
junction of the Yurani, Erevato, and Mare- 
guare. It unites with the Orinoco alter a N. 
course of about 150 m. 

CAUS, or < ;inl\. I. Salomon de, a French en- 
gineer, born at or near Dieppe about 1576, died 
in Paris about 1630. Being a Protestant, he 
went to England about 1612. From 1614 to 
1620 he resided at Heidelberg, as architect to the 
elector palatine Frederick V., and afterward re- 
turned to Paris. There is no historical ground 
for the story that he died insane in the hos- 
pital of Bicetre. He was one of the foremost 
physicists of his day ; but his writings long re- 
mained almost unknown until Arago called 
attention to them. In his work, Let rations des 
force* mouvantes (Frankfort, 1615; Paris, 1624; 
also in German under the title Von gewaltsamen 
Bewegungen, Frankfort, 1615), he gave a plan 
of an apparatus for raising water by the power 
of steam. Hence Arago considers him to have 
been the real inventor of the steam engine. 
Some have imagined that the marquis of Wor- 
cester derived from Caus the idea of the ap- 
paratus vaguely described in his " Century of 
Inventions" (1638), and " Exact and true Defi- 
nition of the most stupendous Water-com- 
manding Engine, invented by the Right Honor- 
able Edward Somerset, Lord Marquis of Wor- 
cester." The other works of Caus are : La per- 
spective, avec la raison des ombres et miroirs 
(London, 1612); Institution harmonique 
(Frankfort, 1615); Hortus Palatinus (Heidel- 
berg, 1620); La pratique et demonstration des 
horologues solaires (Paris, 1624). lit Isaac de, 
a relative (perhaps son) of the preceding, a 
native of Dieppe, was also an engineer and 
architect, and published among other things, 
Nouvelle invention de lever Peau plus haut que 
sa source (London, 1644). 

CAFSSIX DE PERCEVAL. I. Jean Jaeqnes An- 
toine, a French orientalist, born at Montdidier, 
June 24, 1759, died July 29, 1835, He pub- 
lished good editions of some Arabian works, 
among which were "Lokman's Fables" and 



the first three chapters of the Koran, and 
various translations of a historical or scientific 
character. II. Armand Pierre, son of the prece- 
ding, born in Paris, Jan. 13, 1795, died there in 
March, 1872. In 1813 he was attached to the 
French embassy at Constantinople to qualify 
himself for the post of dragoman, which he 
subsequently filled at Aleppo, after having ex- 
plored Asia Minor, and spent a year with the 
Maronites on Mt. Lebanon. In 1821 he became 
Arabic professor at the school for modern ori- 
ental languages in Paris, and in 1833 he was 
installed in the chair of philology and Arabic 
literature at the college de France. Besides 
an Arabic grammar and a revised edition of 
Ellious Bocthor's French and Arabic diction- 
ary, he published Essais sur Vhistoire des 
Arabes avant VIslamisme, pendant Vepoque de 
Mahomet et jusqu'd la reduction de toutes les 
tribus sous la loi musulmane (3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 
1847), and translations from the Turkish. 

CAUSTICS (Gr. naieiv, fut. natou, to burn), or 
K>< hanitirs substances which destroy the life of 
the tissues upon which they act. They may 
be classified according to the depth and nature 
of their action. Nitric and hydrochloric acids, 
acid nitrate of mercury, nitrate of silver or 
lunar caustic, and sulphate of copper remove 
only a very superficial layer of tissue. Arse- 
nious acid and chloride of zinc cause deeper 
sloughs, which require several days for their 
separation. The former agent may under some 
circumstances be absorbed and give rise to 
general poisoning. Caustic potassa and strong 
chromic acid melt down the tissues and leave 
but little solid slough ; hence the neighboring 
parts should be protected during their applica- 
tion. The first class find a somewhat extensive 
application in modifying the unhealthy or spe- 
cific character of an ulcerating surface, and 
substituting for it a condition of normal granu- 
lation. The articles of the second class are 
sometimes used to remove tumors, and are 
combined with other ingredients in various 
cancer cures. Though cases sometimes occur 
in which, for special reasons, this treatment is 
allowable, yet in general the knife, if properly 
used, possesses many advantages over it, espe- 
cially in the avoidance of pain. The third class 
are sometimes used for similar purposes, to re- 
move an excess of indurated tissue, or to open 
an abscess. Caustics are much less used than 
formerly in the formation of issues for purposes 
of counter-irritation, or for removing imagi- 
nary impurities from the system. 

CAUTERETS, a watering place of France, in 
the department of Hautes-Pyr6nees, situated 
in a fertile basin 3,254 feet above the sea, and 
enclosed by rugged mountains, 26 m. S. by W. 
of Tarbes. It has 22 hot sulphur springs whose 
temperature varies from 102 to 140. The 
permanent population is about 1,800; but the 
number of visitors reaches 15,000 a year. 

CADTLEY, Sir Proby Thomas, an English en- 
gineer and palaeontologist, born at Roydon in 
1802, died at Sydenham, Jan. 25, 1871. He 



CAUVET 

was the son of a clergyman, studied at the 
Charterhouse, London, and at Addiscorabe, en- 
tered the Bengal artillery in 1819, and served 
in Oude (1820-'21), and at the siege of Bhurt- 
pore (1825-'6). He was subsequently era- 
ployed in the department of public works in 
India, and acquired eminence by projecting and 
completing the Ganges canal (1848-'54). He 
was knighted after his return to England in 
1854, became a member of the Indian council 
in 1858, and chairman of its committee on pub- 
lic works in 1859. He presented to the Brit- 
ish museum a large collection of fossil mam- 
malia, and wrote much on Hindoo palaeontol- 
ogy and on kindred topics for the periodicals 
of scientific societies. 

CAUVET, Gilles Paul, a French sculptor and 
architect, born at Aix, Provence, April 17, 
1731, died in Paris, Nov. 15, 1788. He belong- 
ed to a rich family and was destined for the 
law, but indulging his taste for artistic pursuits 
against the wishes of his parents, he fled to 
Paris, where he eventually acquired profession- 
al eminence. He published in 1777 Becueil 
d 1 ornaments a Vusage des jeunes artistes qui se 
destinent a la decoration des bdtiments. 

CAVA, a city of Italy, in the province of 
Salerno, 26 m. S. E. of Naples ; pop. in 1872, 
19,480. It is the seat of a bishop, suffragan to 
the pope, and has a cathedral, several other 
churches, and a convent for gentlewomen. 
The district is unproductive, but the town 
flourishes by commerce and by manufactories 
of silk, cotton, and wool. About one mile 
from Cava is the celebrated Benedictine mon- 
astery of La Trinita di Cava, whose archives 
contain 40,000 parchment rolls and upward 
of 60,000 MSS. on paper, 1,600 papal diplomas 
and bulls, and many rare early printed books. 
The library also formerly contained a rich col- 
lection of MSS., but many of them have been 
lost or removed. 

CAVAIGNAC. I. Jean Baptlste, a French rev- 
olutionist, born at Gordon in 1762, died in 
Brussels, March 24, 1829. In 1792 he was 
elected to the national convention, where he 
voted for the death of Louis XVI. As commis- 
sioner to the army in La Vendee, and afterward 
to that in the Pyrenees, he gave evidence 
of energy and talent. He took part with the 
Thermidoreans against Robespierre, and was 
sent on a third mission to the army of the 
Rhine and Moselle. On the 1st Prairial (May 
20), 1795, he commanded the troops who 
vainly attempted to protect the convention 
against the insurgents. On the 13th Vende"- 
miaire (Oct. 5) he was assistant to Barras and 
Bonaparte in repelling the attack by the sec- 
tions. For a short time he was a member of 
the council of 500. In 1806 he entered the 
service of Joseph Bonaparte at Naples, and 
was continued under Murat. In 1815, during the 
hundred days, he was prefect of the Somme. 
On the second restoration, he was expelled 
from France as a regicide, and took up his 
residence in Brussels, where he lived in ob- 



CAVAIGNAC 



139 



scurity. II. Kleonorc Lonls Codefroy, a French 
journalist, son of the preceding, born in Paris 
in 1801, died May 5, 1845. He was one of the 
most popular leaders of the republican party 
during the restoration and the reign of Louis 
Philippe. He distinguished himself in the 
revolution of July, but upon the elevation of 
Louis Philippe to the throne he took part in 
the conspiracy for the overthrow of the new 
dynasty, and was several times arrested and 
put on trial. He was one of the founders of the 
societe des amis du peuple. and of the societe 
des droits de Vhomme. After the outbreak of 
April, 1834, he was arrested and sent to prison, 
but escaped, July 13, 1835, and retired to Bel- 
gium. In 1841 he returned to France, and be- 
came one of the editors of the Heforme, the most 
violent of the opposition journals. III. Louis 
Eugene, a French general, brother of the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris, Oct. 15, 1802, died at 
his country seat, Chateau Ournes, department 
of Sarthe, Oct. 28, 1857. He was educated 
at the polytechnic school, entered the army 
as sub-lieutenant of engineers, took part in 
the French expedition to the Morea, and 
was appointed to a captaincy in 1829. .On 
the revolution of 1830 he declared for the new 
order of things, but soon entered the association 
nationale, an organization of the opposition, 
in consequence of which he was for a while 
discharged from active service. In 1832 he was 
sent to Africa. Being intrusted in 1836 with 
the command of Tlemcen, he held this ad- 
vanced fortified post for three years against 
the assaults of the Arabs. In 1839, his health 
having been impaired, he asked to be placed 
on leave ; he was then a major. A few months 
later he returned to Africa, where his defence 
of Cherchell was no less brilliant than that of 
Tlemcen. In 1840 he was promoted to the 
colonelcy of the zouaves, and in 1844 he was 
made brigadier general and governor of the 
province of Oran. On the revolution of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, he was appointed governor gen- 
eral of Algeria, and promoted to the rank of 
general of division. The same year he was 
elected to the constituent assembly, and was 
allowed to leave Algeria to take his seat as a 
representative. He reached Paris two days 
after the disturbance of May 15, and was im- 
mediately appointed minister of war. In a few 
weeks 75,000 regular troops were gathered 
within the walls, while 190,000 national guards 
were ready to support them against the threat- 
ened rising of the working classes. Yet the in- 
surrection broke out on the dissolution of the 
ateliers nationaux. On June 22 barricades 
were erected in the most central parts of the 
city. Cavaignac concentrated his troops in 
order finally to bear on the principal points 
with irresistible force. The assembly having 
invested him with dictatorial powers, the 
struggle commenced June 23, and was con- 
tinued with internecine fury for 70 hours, re- 
sulting in a complete government victory. On 
June 29 Cavaignac resigned his dictatorship, 



140 



CAVAILLON 



CAVALLO 



and the assembly unanimously elected him 
chief of the executive power. Several propo- 
sitions, which he declined, were made in the 
assembly to make him president for four years 
without recourse to an election. The election 
for president took place Dec. 10 ; and out of 
7,327,345 votes, Cavaignac received but 1,448,- 
107. After the coup d'etat of December, 1851, 
he was arrested and taken to the castle of Ham, 
his name being placed at the head of the list 
of the proscribed. Having been set at liberty, 
he lived for a time in retirement in Belgium, 
and when he returned to France resided mainly 
at his country seat in the department of Sarthe. 
In 1852 he was elected to the legislative body, 
but refused to take the oath of allegiance to the 
emperor. In 1857 he was again chosen by the 
electors of the third district of Paris, but again 
refused to take the oath. This was the last 
public act of his life. One morning, as he was 
leaving the house to visit a friend, he suddenly 
expired in the arms of an attendant without 
uttering a word. 

CAVAILLON (anc. Calellio), a town of Pro- 
vence, France, in the department of Vaucluse, 
on the Durance, 14 m. S. E. of Avignon ; pop. 
in 1866, 8,304. It has an active trade in raw 
silk, fruits, and preserves, and manufactories 
of vermicelli and madder. During the revo- 
lution its fortifications were destroyed. It 
was an ancient Roman town, but having 
been repeatedly pillaged by barbarians, and 
having suffered much from an earthquake in 
1731, it has few remains of antiquity. The 
most remarkable of its ruins is a triumphal 
arch supposed to have belonged to the Augus- 
tan age. The country round Cavaillon is 
justly called the garden of Provence. 

CAVALCANTI, Gnldo, an Italian philosopher 
and poet, born in Florence in the early part 
of the 13th century, died in 1300. Dante in- 
troduces Cavalcanti's father in his Inferno on 
account of his Epicurean philosophy. Caval- 
canti was distinguished for the lofty style of 
bis poetry, which consisted for the most part 
of sonnets and canzonets, the most celebrated 
of which are those dedicated to Mandetta, a 
lady whom he had met at Toulouse after his 
return from a pilgrimage to Compostela. Hav- 
ing married a daughter of the Ghibelline chief 
Farina degli Uberti, he succeeded his father-in- 
law as head of that party. When the leaders 
of both factions were exiled by the citizens, 
Cavalcanti was sent to Sarzana, where his 
health was so much injured by the bad air, 
that he died soon after his return. His Rime, 
edite ed incdite, were published by Cicciaporri 
at Florence in 1813. 

CAVALIER, Jean, a leader of the Camisards 
or insurgent Protestants in the C6vennes, born 
at Ribaute, in Languedoc, about 1679, died at 
Chelsea, near London, in May, 1740. The son 
of a poor peasant, he was first a shepherd, then 
a baker. Religious persecution forced him to 
leave his country, but after living a few months 
at Geneva he secretly went back, and was 



foremost among the promoters of the insurrec- 
tion of 1702. He was at once a preacher and 
a soldier, and his talents gave him an author- 
ity almost equal to that of the Camisard com- 
mander-in-chief. When Marshal Villars took 
the command of the royal troops, Cavalier had 
an interview with him at Nimes, and agreed 
on terms of peace : the young chief was to be 
received into the king's service, with the rank 
of colonel and a handsome pension ; a regiment 
was to be raised among the Camisards, who 
were now to enjoy the free exercise of their 
religion. This treaty did not suit the other 
chiefs or the people. Cavalier was immediate- 
ly discarded by them, and departed for Paris 
attended by very few companions. There he 
was treated with contempt by the king ; and 
having received secret advice that he was to be 
put in prison, he made his escape to Switzer- 
land, whence he went to Holland. Having 
entered the service of England, he organized a 
regiment of French refugees, whom he took to 
Spain to support the cause of Charles. At the 
battle of Almanza this regiment engaged a 
battalion of French troops, which fought with 
such fury that the greatest part of both corps 
were left dead on the battle field. Cavalier 
afterward joined the army of Prince Eugene, 
who entered Provence and besieged Toulon. 
After the peace of Utrecht he repaired to 
England, where he was received with great 
favor, obtaining the rank of general, and being 
appointed governor of the island of Jersey. 

CAYALIEKI, or ( avallcri, Bonavr ntura, an Italian 
mathematician, born in Milan in 1598, died in 
Bologna, Dec. 3, 1647. He studied mathe- 
matics at Pisa under B. Castelli, a disciple of 
Galileo, officiated as professor in Bologna, and 
was author of several mathematical works, the 
most prominent of which was entitled Oeome- 
tria Indivisibililiis, &c. Having expressed in 
this wcrk some original ideas concerning the 
abstruse sciences, the Italians claim him to be 
the inventor of the infinitesimal calculus. 

CAYALLI, Pietro Francesco, an Italian compo- 
ser, born at Crema about 1599, died in Venice 
in April, 1676. His real name wns Caletti- 
Bruni, but the governor Cavalli of Crema be- 
came his patron ; and assuming his name, he 
became under his auspices chapelmaster of St. 
Mark's church at Venice. He composed Ser- 
se, ISOrione, UErcole amante, and nearly 40 
other operas. According to Dr. Burney, he was 
the first to introduce in his opera of Giasone 
(1649) the ornamental stanza called aria. 

CAVALLINI, Pietro, an Italian painter, born in 
Rome, who flourished in the early part of the 
14th century. He is said to have been the 
disciple of Giotto, and is considered the first 
painter of the Roman school who was worthy 
of competing with the great Florentine mas- 
ters. His most celebrated work, the " Cruci- 
fixion," is at Assisi. Most of his other works 
have perished. 

CAVALLO, Tlberlo, an English electrician, born 
in Naples in March, 1749, died in London in De- 



CAVALRY 



141 



cember, 1809. Tie was the son of a Neapolitan 
physician, completed his education in the uni- 
versity of his native city, and went at an early 
age to England with a view of becoming a 
merchant ; but he devoted himself to natural 
philosophy, and gained reputation as a writer 
and experimenter in electricity and the physi- 
cal sciences. He invented an instrument called 
a condenser, and another called a multiplier of 
electricity, and other instruments. His best 
work was his "Elements of Natural and Ex- 
perimental Philosophy" (4 vols. 8vo, London, 
1803). 

CAVALRY (Fr. cavalerie, from cavalier, a 
horseman), a body of soldiers on horseback. 
The use of the horse for riding, and the intro- 
duction of bodies of mounted men into armies, 
naturally originated in those countries to which 
the horse is indigenous, and where the climate 
and gramineous productions of the soil favored 
the development of all its physical capabilities. 
While the horse in Europe and tropical Asia 
soon degenerated into a clumsy animal or an 
undersized pony, the breed of Arabia, Persia, 
Asia Minor, Egypt, and the north coast of 
Africa attained great beauty, speed, docility, 
and endurance. But it appears that at tirst it 
was used in harness only ; at least in military 
history the war chariot long precedes the armed 
horseman. The Egyptian monuments show 
plenty of war chariots, but with a single ex- 
ception no horsemen ; and that exception ap- 
pears to belong to the Roman period. Still it 
is certain that at least two centuries before 
the country was conquered by the Persians, 
the Egyptians had a numerous cavalry, and 
the commander of this arm is more than once 
named among the most important officials of 
the court. It is very likely that the Egyptians 
became acquainted with cavalry during their 
war with the Assyrians ; for on the Assyrian 
monuments horsemen are often delineated, and 
their use in war with Assyrian armies at a 
very early period is established beyond a doubt. 
With them, also, the saddle appears to have 
originated. In the older sculptures the soldier 
rides the bare back of the animal ; at a later 
epoch we find a kind of pad or cushion intro- 
duced, and finally a high saddle similar to that 
now used all over the East. The Persians and 
Medians, at the time they appear in history, 
were a nation of horsemen, though they re- 
tained the war chariot, and even left to it 
its ancient precedence over the newer cavalry. 
The cavalry of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and 
Persians consisted of that kind which still pre- 
vails in the East, and which up to very recent 
times was alone employed in northern Africa, 
Asia, and eastern Europe, irregular cavalry. 
But no sooner had the Greeks so far improved 
their breed of horses by crosses with the eastern 
horse as to fit them for cavalry purposes, than 
they began to organize the arm upon a new 
principle. They are the creators of both regu- 
lar infantry and regular cavalry. They formed 
the masses of fighting men into distinct bodies, 



armed and equipped them according to the pur- 
pose for which they were intended, and taught 
them to act in concert, to move in ranks and 
files, to keep together in a definite tactical 
formation, and thus to throw the weight of 
their concentrated and advancing mass upon 
a given point of the enemy's front. Thus or- 
ganized, they proved everywhere superior to 
the undrilled, unwieldy, and uncontrolled mobs 
brought against them by the Asiatics. We 
have no instance of a combat of Grecian cav- 
alry against Persian horsemen before the time 
the Persians themselves had formed bodies of a 
more regular kind of cavalry ; but there can be 
no doubt that the result would have been the 
same as when the infantry of both nations met 
in battle. Cavalry, at first, was organized only 
by the horse-breeding countries of Greece, 
such as Thessaly and Boeotia; but, very soon 
after, the Athenians formed a body of heavy 
cavalry, besides mounted archers for outpost 
and skirmishing duty. The Spartans, too, had 
the elite of their youth formed into a body of 
horse guards ; but they had no faith in cavalry, 
and made them dismount in battle and fight 
as infantry. This is the earliest mention made 
of mounted infantry, which forms so impor- 
tant an element in modern warfare. From 
the Greeks of Asia Minor, as well as from the 
Greek mercenaries serving in their arm,y, the 
Persians learned the formation of regular cav- 
alry, and there is no doubt that a considerable 
portion of the Persian horse that fought against 
Alexander the Great were more or less trained 
to act in compact bodies in a regular manner. 
The Macedonians, however, were more than a 
match for them. With that people horseman- 
ship was an accomplishment indispensable to 
the young nobility, and cavalry held a high 
rank in their army. The cavalry of Philip and 
Alexander consisted of the Macedonian and 
Thessalian nobility, with a few squadrons re- 
cruited in central Greece. It/ was composed 
of heavy horsemen (cataphracti), armed with 
helmet and breastplate, cuisses, and a long 
spear. It usually charged in a compact body, 
in an oblong or wedge-shaped column, some- 
times also in line. The light cavalry, composed 
of auxiliary troops, was of a more or less irreg- 
ular kind, and served like the modern Cossacks 
for outpost duty and skirmishing. The battle 
of the Granicus (334 B. C.) offers the first in- 
stance of an engagement in which cavalry 
played a decisive part. The Persian cavalry 
was placed at charging distance from the fords 
of the river. As soon as the heads of columns 
of the Macedonian infantry had passed the 
river, and before they could deploy, the Persian 
horse broke in upon them and drove them 
headlong down into the river. This manoeuvre, 
repeated several times with perfect success, 
shows at once that the Persians had regular 
cavalry to oppose to the Macedonians. To 
surprise infantry in the very moment of its 
greatest weakness, that is, when passing from 
one tactical formation into another, requires the 



H2 



CAVALRY 



cavalry to be well in hand, and perfectly under 
the control of its commanders. Irregular levies 
are incapable of it. Ptolemy, who commanded 
the advanced guard of Alexander's army, could 
make no headway until the Macedonian cuiras- 
siers passed the river, and charged the Persians 
in flank. A long combat ensued, but the Per- 
sian horsemen, being disposed in one line with- 
out reserves, and being at last abandoned by the 
Asiatic Greeks in their army, were ultimately 
routed. The battle of Arbela (331 B. C.) was 
the most glorious for the Macedonian cavalry. 
Alexander in person led the Macedonian horse, 
which formed the extreme right of his order 
of battle, while the Thessalian horse formed 
the left. The Persians tried to outflank him, 
but in the decisive moment Alexander brought 
fresh men from the rear so as to overlap them 
in their turn ; they at the same time left a gap 
between their left and centre. Into this gap 
Alexander at once dashed, separated their left 
from the remainder of the army, rolled it up 
completely, and pursued it for a considerable 
distance. Then, on being called upon to send 
assistance to his own menaced left, he rallied 
his horse in a very short time, and passing be- 
hind the enemy's centre fell upon the rear of 
his right. The battle was thus gained, and 
Alexander from that day ranks among the 
first of the cavalry generals of all times. And 
to crown the work, his cavalry pursued the 
fugitive enemy with such ardor that its ad- 
vanced guard stood the next day 75 miles in 
advance of the battle field. It is very curious 
to observe that the general principles of cav- 
alry tactics were as well understood at that 
time as they are now. To attack infantry in 
the formation of the march, or during a change 
of formation ; to attack cavalry principally on 
its flank; to profit by any opening in the 
enemy's line by dashing in and wheeling to the 
right and left, so as to take in flank and rear 
the troops placed next to such a gap ; to follow 
up a victory by a rapid and inexorable pursuit 
of the broken enemy these are among the first 
and most important rules that every cavalry 
officer has to learn. After Alexander's death 
we hear no more of that splendid cavalry of 
Greece and Macedon. In Greece infantry again 
prevailed, and in Asia and Egypt the mounted 
service soon degenerated. The Romans never 
were horsemen. What little cavalry they had 
with the legions was glad to fight on foot. 
Their horses were of an interior breed, and 
the men could not ride. But on the southern 
side of the Mediterranean a cavalry was formed, 
which not only rivalled, but even outshone 
that of Alexander. The Carthaginian gener- 
als, Hamilcar and Hannibal, had succeeded 
in forming, besides their Numidian irregular 
horsemen, a body of first-rate regular cavalry, 
and thus created an arm which almost every- 
where insured them victory. The Berbers of 
north Africa are still a nation of horsemen, 
at least in the plains, and the splendid Barb 
horse which carried Hannibal's swordsmen 



into the deep masses of the Roman infantry, 
with a rapidity and vehemence unknown be- 
fore, still mounts the finest regiments of the 
whole French cavalry, the chasseurs cTAfriqite, 
and is by them acknowledged to be the best 
war horse in existence. The Carthaginian in- 
fantry was far interior to that of the Romans, 
even after it had been long trained by its two 
great chiefs ; it would not have had the slightest 
chance against the Roman legions, had it not 
been for the assistance of that cavalry which 
alone made it possible for Hannibal to hold out 
16 years in Italy; and when this cavalry had 
been worn out by the wear and tear of so many 
campaigns, not by the sword of the enemy, 
there was no longer a place in Italy for him. 
Hannibal's battles have that in common with 
those of Frederick the Great, that most of them 
were won by cavalry over first-rate infantry ; 
and, indeed, at no other time has cavalry per- 
formed such glorious deeds as under those two 
great commanders. From what nation, and 
upon what tactical principles, Hamilcar and 
Hannibal formed their regular cavalry, we are 
not precisely informed. But as their Numid- 
ian light horse are always clearly distinguished 
from the heavy or regular cavalry, we may con- 
clude that the latter was not composed of 
Berber tribes. There were very likely many 
foreign mercenaries and some Carthaginians ; 
the great mass, however, most probably con- 
sisted of Spaniards, as it was formed in their 
country, and as even in Crosar's time Spanish 
horsemen were attached to most Roman armies. 
Hannibal being well acquainted with Greek 
civilization, and Greek mercenaries and soldiers 
of fortune having before his time served under 
the Carthaginian standards, there can scarcely 
be a doubt that the organization of the Grecian 
and Macedonian heavy cavalry served as the ba- 
sis for that of the Carthaginian. The very first 
encounter in Italy settled the question of the su- 
periority of the Carthaginian horse. At the Ti- 
cinus(218B. C.), the Roman consul Publius Sci- 
pio, while reconnoitering with his cavalry and 
light infantry, met with the Carthaginian cav- 
alry led by Hannibal on a similar errand. Han- 
nibal at once attacked. The Roman light in- 
fantry stood in first line, the cavalry formed 
the second. The Carthaginian heavy horse 
charged the infantry, dispersed it, and then fell 
at once on the Roman cavalry in front, while 
the Numidian irregulars charged their flank 
and rear. The battle was short. The Romans 
fought bravely, but they had no chance what- 
ever. They could not ride ; their own horses 
vanquished them ; frightened by the flight of 
the Roman skirmishers, who were driven in 
upon them and sought shelter between them, 
they threw off many of their riders and broke 
up the formation. Other troopers, not trusting 
to their horsemanship, wisely dismounted and 
attempted to fight as infantry. But already 
the Carthaginian cuirassiers were in the midst 
of them, while the inevitable Numidians gal- 
loped round the confused mass, cutting down 



CAVALRY 



143 



every fugitive who detached himself from it. 
The loss of the Romans was considerable, and 
Publius Scipio himself was wounded. At the 
Trebia, Hannibal succeeded in enticing the Ro- 
mans to cross that river, so as to fight with 
this barrier in their rear. No sooner was this 
accomplished than he advanced with all his 
troops against them and forced them to battle. 
The Romans, like the Carthaginians, had their 
infantry in the centre; but opposite to the 
wings of the Roman army, formed by cavalry, 
Hannibal placed his elephants, making use of 
his cavalry to outflank and overlap both wings 
of his opponents. At the very outset of the 
battle, the Roman cavalry, thus turned and out- 
numbered, was completely defeated ; but the 
Roman infantry drove back the Carthaginian 
centre and gained ground. The victorious Car- 
thaginian horse now attacked them in front 
and flank ; they compelled them to desist from 
advancing, but could not break them. Hanni- 
bal, however, knowing the solidity of the Ro- 
man legion, had sent 1,000 horsemen and 1,000 
picked foot soldiers under his brother Mago by 
a roundabout way to their rear. These fresh 
troops now fell upon them and succeeded in 
breaking the second line ; but the first line, 
10,000 men, closed up, and in a compact body 
forced their way through the enemy, and march- 
ed down the river toward Placentia, where 
they crossed it unmolested. In the battle of 
Cannae (216 B. 0.), the Romans had 80,000 in- 
fantry and 6,000 cavalry; the Carthaginians, 
40,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. The cav- 
alry of Latium formed the Roman right wing, 
leaning on the river Aufidus ; that of the allied 
Italians stood on the left, while the infantry 
formed the centre. Hannibal, too, placed his 
infantry in the centre, the Gallic and Spanish 
levies again forming the wings, while between 
them, a little further back, stood his African 
infantry, now equipped and organized on the 
Roman system. Of his cavalry, he placed the 
Numidians on the right wing, where the open 
plain permitted them, by their superior mobil- 
ity and rapidity, to evade the charges of the 
Italian heavy horse opposed to them; while 
the whole of the heavy cavalry, under Hasdru- 
bal, was stationed on the left, close to the river. 
On the Roman left, the Numidians gave the 
Italian cavalry plenty to do. In the centre, 
the Roman infantry soon drove back the 
Gauls and Spaniards, and then formed into 
a wedge-shaped column in order to attack the 
African infantry. These, however, wheeled in- 
ard, and charging the compact infantry in line, 
roke its impetus; and there the battle now 
became a standing fight. But Hasdrubal's 
heavy horse had in the mean time prepared the 
defeat of the Romans. Having furiously charg- 
ed the Roman cavalry of the right wing, they 
dispersed them after a stout resistance, passed, 
like Alexander at Arbela, behind the Roman 
centre, fell upon the rear of the Italian cavalry, 
broke it completely, and, leaving it an easy prey 
to the Numidians, formed for a grand charge 
164 VOL. iv. 10 



on the flanks and rear of the Roman infantry. 
This was decisive. The unwieldy mass, at- 
tacked on all sides, gave way, opened out, was 
broken, and succumbed. Never was there 
such complete destruction of an army. The 
Romans lost 70,000 men; of their cavalry, only 
70 men escaped. The Carthaginians lost not 
quite 6,000, three eighths of whom belonged 
to the Gallic contingents, which had to bear 
the brunt of the first attack of the legions. 
Of Hasdrubal's 6,000 regular horse, which had 
won the whole of the battle, not more than 
200 men were killed and wounded. The Ro- 
man cavalry of later times was not much bet- 
ter than that of the Punic wars. It was attached 
to the legions in small bodies, never forming an 
independent arm. Besides this legionary cav- 
alry, there were in Caesar's time Spanish, Gal- 
lic, and German mercenary horsemen, all of 
them more or less irregular. No cavalry serv- 
ing with the Romans ever performed anything 
worthy of mention ; and so neglected and in- 
effective was this arm, that the Parthian ir- 
regulars of Khorasan remained extremely for- 
midable to Roman armies. In the eastern half 
of the empire, however, the ancient passion for 
horses and horsemanship retained its sway; 
and Byzantium remained, up to its conquest by 
the Turks, the great horse mart and riding 
academy of Europe. Accordingly, we .find 
that during the momentary revival of the By- 
zantine empire under Justinian, its cavalry 
was on a comparatively respectable footing; 
and in the battle of Capua, in A. D. 552, the 
eunuch Narses is reported to have defeated the 
Teutonic invaders of Italy principally by means 
of this arm. The establishment, in all coun- 
tries of western Europe, of a conquering aris- 
tocracy of Teutonic origin, led to a new era 
in the history of cavalry. The nobility took 
everywhere to the mounted service, under the 
designation of men-at-arms, forming a body of 
horse of the heaviest description, in which not 
only the riders but also the horses were cov- 
ered with defensive armor. The first battle at 
which such cavalry appeared was that of Poi- 
tiers (732), where Charles Martel beat back 
the torrent of Arab invasion. The Frankish 
knighthood, under Eudes, duke of Aquitania, 
broke through the Moorish ranks and took 
their camp. But such a body was not fit for 
pursuit; and the Arabs accordingly, under 
shelter of their indefatigable irregular horse, 
retired unmolested into Spain. From this bat- 
tle dates a series of wars in which the massive 
but unwieldy regular cavalry of the West 
fought the agile irregulars of the East with 
varied success. The German knighthood meas- 
ured swords, during nearly the whole of the 
10th century, with the wild Hungarian horse- 
men, and totally defeated them by their close 
array at Merseburg in 933, and at the Lech in 
955. The Spanish chivalry for several cen- 
turies fought the Moorish invaders of their 
country, and ultimately conquered them. But 
when the occidental " heavies " transferred the 



144 



CAVALRY 



seat of war during the crusades to the eastern 
homes of their enemies, they were in their 
turn defeated, and in most cases completely 
destroyed ; neither they nor their horses could 
stand the climate, the immensely long marches, 
and the want of proper food and forage. These 
crusades were followed by a fresh irruption 
of eastern horsemen into Europe, that of the 
Mongols, who, under the leadership of the 
great khans, organized cavalry armies number- 
ing according to Marco Polo as many as 300,- 
000 men. Having overrun Russia and the 
provinces of Poland, they were met at Wahl- 
stadt in Silesia, in 1241, by a combined Polish 
and German army. After a long struggle, 
the Asiatics defeated the worn-out steel-clad 
knights, but the victory was so dearly bought 
that it broke the power of the invaders. The 
Mongols advanced no further, and soon, by di- 
visions among themselves, ceased to be danger- 
ous, and were driven back. During the whole 
of the middle ages cavalry remained the chief 
arm of all armies ; with the eastern nations the 
light irregular horse had always held that rank ; 
with those of western Europe, the heavy regu- 
lar cavalry formed by the knighthood was in 
this period the arm which decided every bat- 
tle. This preeminence of the mounted arm was 
not so much caused by its own excellence, for 
the irregulars of the East were incapable of 
orderly light, and the regulars of the West 
were incredibly clumsy in their movements; it 
was principally caused by the bad quality of 
the infantry. Asiatics as well as Europeans 
held that arm in contempt ; it was composed 
of those who could not afford to appear mount- 
ed, principally of slaves or serfs. There was 
no proper organization for it ; without defensive 
armor, with a pike and sword for its sole 
weapons, it might now and then by its deep 
formation withstand the furious but disorderly 
charges of eastern horsemen ; but it was easily 
ridden over by the invulnerable men-at-arms 
of the "West. The only exception was formed 
by the English infantry, which derived its 
strength from its formidable weapon, the long- 
bow. The numerical proportion of the European 
cavalry of these times to the remainder of the 
army was certainly not as gteat as it was a few 
centuries later, nor even as it is now. Knights 
were not so exceedingly numerous, and in many 
large battles we find that not more than 800 
or 1,000 of them were present. But they were 
generally sufficient to dispose of any number 
of foot soldiers, as soon as they had succeeded 
in driving from the field the enemy's men-at- 
arms. The general mode of fighting of these 
men-at-arms was in line, in single rank, the 
rear rank being formed by the esquires, who 
usually wore a less complete and heavy suit of 
armor. These lines, once in the midst of the 
enemy, soon dissolved themselves into single 
combatants, and finished the battle by sheer 
hand-to-hand fighting. Subsequently, when 
firearms began to come into use, deep masses 
were formed, generally squares ; but then the 



days of chivalry were numbered. During the 
15th century, not only was artillery generally 
introduced into the field of battle, while part 
of the infantry, the skirmishers of those times, 
were armed with muskets, but a general change 
took place in the character of the infantry. This 
arm" began to be formed by the enlistment of 
mercenaries who made war a profession. The 
German Landslcnechte and the Swiss were such 
professional soldiers, and they very soon intro- 
duced more regular formations and tactical 
movements. The ancient Doric and Mace- 
donian phalanx was in a manner revived ; a 
helmet and a breastplate somewhat protected 
the men against the lance and sword of the 
cavalry; and when, at Novara (1513), the 
Swiss infantry drove the French knighthood 
from the field, there was no further use for 
such valiant but unwieldy horsemen. Ac- 
cordingly, after the insurrection of the Nether- 
lands against Spain, we find a new class of 
cavalry, the German Reiter (reitres of the 
French), raised by voluntary enlistment, like 
the infantry, and armed with helmet and 
breastplate, sword and pistols. They were 
fully as heavy as the modern cuirassiers, yet 
far lighter than the knights. They soon proved 
their superiority over the heavy men-at-arms. 
These now disappear, and with them the lance ; 
the sword and short firearms now form the 
general armature for cavalry. About the same 
time (end of the 16th century) the hybrid arm 
of dragoons was introduced, first in France, 
then in the other countries of Europe. Armed 
with muskets, they were intended to fight, ac- 
cording to circumstances, either as infantry or 
as cavalry. A similar corps had been formed 
by Alexander the Great under the name of di- 
machce, but it had not yet been imitated. The 
dragoons of the 16th century had a longer ex- 
istence, but toward the middle of the 18th 
century they had everywhere lost their hybrid 
character, except in name, and were generally 
used as cavalry. The most important feature 
in their formation was that they were the 
first body of regular cavalry which was com- 
pletely deprived of defensive armor. The 
creation of real hybrid dragoons was again 
attempted, on a large scale, by the emperor 
Nicholas of Russia; but it was soon proved 
that before the enemy they must always be 
used as cavalry, and consequently Alexander 
II. very soon reduced them to simple cavalry, 
with no more pretensions to dismounted ser- 
vice than hussars or cuirassiers. Maurice of 
Orange, the great Dutch commander, formed 
his reiters for the first time in something like 
our modern tactical organization. He taught 
them to execute charges and evolutions in sep- 
arate bodies, and in more than one line; to 
wheel, break off, form column and line, and 
change front, without disorder, and in separate 
squadrons and troops. Thus a cavalry fight 
was no longer decided by one charge of the 
whole mass, but by the successive charges of 
separate squadrons and lines supporting each 



CAVALRY 



145 



other. His cavalry was formed generally five 
deep. In other armies it fought in deep bodies, 
and where a line formation was adopted it was 
still from five to eight deep. The 17th century, 
having completely done away with the costly 
men-at-arms, increased the numerical strength 
of cavalry to an enormous extent. At no other 
period was there so large a proportion of that 
arm in every army. In the thirty years' war 
from two fifths to nearly one half of each army 
was generally composed of cavalry; in single 
instances there were two horsemen to one foot 
soldier. Gustavus Adolphus stands at the head 
of cavalry commanders of this period. His 
mounted troops consisted of cuirassiers and 
dragoons, the latter fighting almost always as 
cavalry. His cuirassiers, too, were much lighter 
than those of the emperor, and soon proved 
their incontestable superiority. The Swedish 
cavalry were formed three deep ; their orders 
were, contrary to the usage of the cuirassiers 
of most armies, whose chief arm was the pistol, 
not to lose time in firing, but to charge the 
enemy sword in hand. At this period the cav- 
alry, which during the middle ages had gen- 
erally been placed in the centre, was again 
placed, as in antiquity, on the wings of the 
army, where it was formed in two lines. In 
England, the civil war gave rise to two dis- 
tinguished cavalry leaders. Prince Rupert, on 
the royalist side, had as much " dash " in him 
as any cavalry general, but he was almost 
always carried too far, lost his cavalry out of 
hand, and was himself so taken up with what 
was immediately before him, that the general 
always disappeared in the "bold dragoon." 
Cromwell, on the other hand, with quite as 
much dash where it was required, was a far 
better general ; he kept his men well in hand, 
always held back a reserve for unforeseen events 
and decisive movements, knew how to manoeu- 
vre, and thus proved generally victorious over 
his more inconsiderate opponent. He won the 
battles of Marston Moor and Naseby by his cav- 
alry alone. With most armies the use of the 
firearm still remained the chief employment of 
cavalry in battle, the Swedes and English alone 
excepted. In France, Prussia, and Austria, 
cavalry was drilled to use the carbine exactly 
as infantry used the musket. They fired on 
horseback, the line standing still all the while, 
by files, platoons, ranks, &c. ; and when a 
movement for a charge was made, the line 
advanced at a trot, pulled up at a short distance 
from the enemy, gave a volley, drew swords, 
id then charged. The effective fire of the 
long lines of infantry had shaken all confidence 
the charge of a cavalry which was no longer 

protected by armor ; consequently, riding was 

leglected, no movements could be executed at 
quick pace, and even at a slow pace frequent 

iccidents happened to both men and horses. 
" drill was mostly dismounted work, and 
icir officers had no idea whatever of the way 

if handling cavalry in battle. The French, it 
true, sometimes charged sword in hand, and 



Charles XII. of Sweden, true to his national 
tradition, always charged full speed without 
firing, dispersing cavalry and infantry, and 
sometimes even taking field works of a weak 
profile. But it was reserved for Frederick the 
Great and his great cavalry commander, Seyd- 
litz, to revolutionize the mounted service, and 
to raise it to the culminating point of glory. 
The Prussian cavalry, heavy men on clumsy 
horses, drilled for firing only, such as Frederick's 
father had left them to his son, were beaten in an 
instant at Mollwitz (1741). But no sooner was 
the first Silesian war brought to a close than 
Frederick entirely reorganized his cavalry. Fir- 
ing and dismounted drill were thrown into the 
background, and riding was attended to. " All 
evolutions are to be made with the greatest 
speed, all wheels to be done at a canter. Cav- 
alry officers must above all things form the men 
into perfect riders ; the cuirassiers to be as 
handy and expert on horseback as a hussar, and 
well exercised in the use of the sword." The 
men were to ride every day. Riding hi difficult 
ground, across obstacles, and fencing on horse- 
back, were the principal drills. In a charge, no 
firing at all was allowed until the first and sec- 
ond lines of the enemy were completely broken. 
"Every squadron, as it advances to the charge, 
is to attack the enemy sword in hand, and no 
commander shall be allowed to let his troops 
fire under penalty of infamous cashiering ; the 
generals of brigades to be answerable for this. 
As they advance, they first fall into a quick 
trot, and finally into a full gallop, but well 
closed ; and if they attack in this way, his ma- 
jesty is certain that the enemy will always be 
broken." "Every officer of cavalry will have 
always present to his mind that there are 
but two things required to beat the enemy: 
1, to charge him with the greatest possible 
speed and force ; and, 2, to outflank him." 
These passages from Frederick's instructions 
sufficiently show the total revolution he car- 
ried out hi cavalry tactics. He was seconded 
admirably by Seydlitz / who always commanded 
his cuirassiers and dragoons, and made such 
troops of them that for vehemence and order 
of charge, quickness of evolutions, readiness for 
flank attacks, and rapidity in rallying and re- 
forming after a charge, no cavalry has ever 
equalled the Prussian cavalry of the seven 
years' war. The fruits were soon visible. At 
Hohenfriedberg the Baireuth regiment of dra- 
goons, 10 squadrons, rode down the whole left 
wing of the Austrian infantry, broke 21 battal- 
ions, took 66 stand of colors, 5 guns, and 4,000 
prisoners. At Zorndorf, when the Prussian 
infantry had been forced to retreat, Seydlitz, 
with 36 squadrons, drove the victorious Russian 
cavalry from the field, and then fell upon the 
Russian infantry, completely defeating it with 
great slaughter. At Rossbach, Striegau, Kes- 
selsdorf, Leuthen, and in ten other battles, Fred- 
erick owed the victory to his splendid cavalry. 
When the French revolutionary war broke out, 
the Austrians had adopted the Prussian system, 



146 



CAVALRY 



but not so the French. The cavalry of the 
latter nation had, indeed, been much disorgan- 
ized by the revolution, and in the beginning of 
the war the new formations proved almost use- 
less. When their new infantry levies were met 
by the good cavalry of the English, Prussians, 
and Austrians, they were, during 1792 and 
1793, almost uniformly beaten. The cavalry, 
quite unable to cope with such opponents, was 
always kept in reserve until a few years' cam- 
paigning had improved them. In 1796 and 
afterward every division of infantry had cav- 
alry as a support ; still, at Wiirzburg, the whole 
of the French cavalry was defeated by 59 Aus- 
trian squadrons (1796). When Napoleon took 
the direction of affairs in France, he did his 
best to improve the French cavalry. He found 
about the worst material that could be met 
with. As a nation, the French were the worst 
horsemen of Europe, and their horses, good for 
draught, were not well adapted for the saddle. 
He made great improvements, and after the 
camp of Boulogne his cavalry, in great part 
mounted on German and Italian horses, was 
no despicable adversary. The campaigns of 
1805 and 1806-'7 allowed his cavalry to absorb 
almost all the horses of the Austrian and 
Prussian armies, and moreover reenforced the 
French army by the excellent cavalry of the 
confederation of the Rhine and the duchy of 
Warsaw. Thus were formed those enormous 
masses of horsemen with which Napoleon 
acted in 1809, 1812, and the latter part of 
1813, which, though generally designated as 
French, were in great part composed of Ger- 
mans and Poles. The cuirass, which had been 
entirely done away with in the French army 
shortly before the revolution, was restored to 
a portion of the heavy cavalry by Napoleon. 
In other respects the organization and equip- 
ment remained nearly the same, except that 
with his Polish auxiliaries he received some 
regiments of light horse, armed with the lance, 
the costume and equipment of which were 
soon imitated in other armies. But in the 
tactical use of cavalry he introduced a complete 
change. According to the system of composing 
divisions and army corps of all three arms, a 
portion of the light cavalry was attached to 
each division or corps ; but the mass of the arm, 
and especially all the heavy horse, were held 
together in reserve lor the purpose of striking 
at a favorable moment a great decisive blow, 
or, in case of need, of covering the retreat of 
the army. These masses of cavalry, suddenly 
appearing on a given point of the battle field, 
have often acted decisively; still they never 
gained such brilliant successes as the horsemen 
of Frederick the Great. The cause of this is 
to be looked for partly in the changed tactics 
of infantry, which, by selecting chiefly broken 
ground for its operations, and always receiving 
cavalry in a square, made it more difficult for 
the latter arm to achieve such great victories 
as the Prussian horsemen had obtained over 
the long, thin infantry lines of their opponents. 



But it is also certain that Napoleon's cavalry 
was not equal to that of Frederick the Great, 
and that Napoleon's cavalry tactics were not 
in every instance an improvement upon those 
of Frederick. The indifferent riding of the 
French compelled them to charge at a com- 
paratively slow pace, at a trot or a collected 
canter ; there are but few instances where they 
charged at a gallop. Their great bravery and 
close ranks made up often enough for the cur- 
tailed impetus, but still their charge was not 
what would now be considered good. The old 
system of receiving hostile cavalry standing, 
carbine in hand, was in very many cases re- 
tained by the French cavalry, and in every 
such instance* were they defeated. The last 
example of this happened at Danigkow, April 
5, 1813, where about 1,200 French cavalry 
thus awaited a charge of 400 Prussians, and 
were completely beaten in spite of their num- 
bers. As to Napoleon's tactics, the use of 
great masses of cavalry with him became such 
a fixed rule, that not only was the divisional 
cavalry weakened so as to be completely use- 
less, but also in the employment of these mass- 
es he often neglected that successive engage- 
ment of his forces which is one of the principal 
points in modern tactics, and which is even more 
applicable to cavalry than to infantry. He in- 
troduced the cavalry charge in column, and even 
formed whole cavalry corps into one monster 
column, in such formations that the extrication 
of a single squadron or regiment became an utter 
impossibility, and that any attempt at deploying 
was entirely out of the question. His cavalry 
generals, too, were not up to the mark, and 
even the most brilliant of them, Murat, would 
have cut but a sorry figure if opposed to a Seyd- 
litz. During the wars of 1813, '14, and '15, 
cavalry tactics had decidedly improved on the 
part of Napoleon's opponents. Though to a 
great extent following Napoleon's system of 
holding cavalry in reserve in large masses, and 
therefore very often keeping the greater por- 
tion of the cavalry entirely out of an action, 
still in many instances a return to the tactics 
of Frederick was attempted. In the Prussian 
army the old spirit was revived. Blucher was 
the first to use his cavalry more boldly, and 
generally with success. The ambuscade of 
Haynau (1813), where 20 Prussian squadrons 
rode down 8 French battalions and took 18 
guns, marks a turning point in the modern his- 
tory of cavalry, and forms a favorable contrast 
to the tactics of Lutzen, where the allies hold 
18,000 horse entirely in reserve until the battle 
was lost, although a more favorable cavalry 
ground could not be found. The English h.-ul 
never adopted the system of forming large mass- 
es of cavalry, and had therefore many success- 
es, although Napier himself admits that their 
cavalry was not so good at that time as that of 
the French. At Waterloo, where the French 
cuirassiers for once charged at full speed, the 
English cavalry was admirably handled and 
generally successful, except where it followed 



CAVALRY 



147 



its national weakness of getting out of hand. 
Since the peace of 1815, Napoleon's tactics, 
though still preserved in the regulations of 
most armies, have again made room for those 
of Frederick. Noticeable advancement in the 
proper organization and use of cavalry was 
made in the United States during the civil war, 
the men of both armies, as well as the horses 
of all sections, being admirably adapted to this 
branch of the military service. At first the 
confederate cavalry had the advantage both in 
organization and commanders, and yet took no 
very important part in the battles which were 
fought. A large number of cavalry regiments 
were organized by both armies, but being com- 
posed of men almost entirely ignorant of mili- 
tary life, they were at first used for scouts, or- 
derlies, and outpost service, and were attached 
to corps, and in some cases to divisions of in- 
fantry. Gen. Hooker, while in command of the 
army of the Potomac, collected the cavalry into 
a corps, and made an effort to use it in connec- 
tion with the infantry in battle, but met with 
no success worthy of record. In the west the 
practice and result were similar, but attention 
was drawn to the cavalry by the successful 
march of a small brigade of horse under Col. 
Grierson from the neighborhood of Memphis, 
through Mississippi, to Port Gibson. But the 
first successful organization of the cavalry was 
made under the direction of Gen. Grant, by 
Gen. Sheridan, who was placed in command of 
all the mounted troops serving with the army 
of the Potomac. This organization was known 
as the cavalry corps of the army of the Po- 
tomac, and consisted of three divisions each 
about 5,000 strong, or of two or three brigades 
of three or four regiments each. They were 
mostly armed with repeating carbines and 
sabres, and habitually fought on foot, though 
they showed a partiality for charging with the 
sabre when opportunity offered. Up to this 
period of the war (the spring of 1864) the im- 
provements in the organization and use of cav- 
alry kept even pace with each other in the con- 
tending armies ; but Gen. Grant having detach- 
ed Sheridan with his entire force after the bat- 
tle of Spottsylvania Court House, the latter met 
and defeated the confederate cavalry at Yellow 
Tavern, near Eichmond, killing their leader, 
Gen. Stewart, and ever after, till the termina- 
tion of the war, retained his superiority over his 
opponents, increased the efficiency of his own 
troops, and made them an important portion 
of the army, taking an essential part in all 
the campaigns and battles. The battle of the 
Opequan, near Winchester, in which Sheridan 
defeated Early, was begun and ended by the 
cavalry, Wilson's division having broken through 
the enemy's picket line and under cover of 
darkness secured the position upon which the 
battle was mainly fought, while Merritt's divi- 
sion, later in the day, turned the enemy's right, 
and, aided by the advance of the infantry, swept 
the confederate infantry from the field. The 
part taken by the cavalry in the final battles 



near Petersburg, and especially at Five Forks, 
and in the capture of the confederate army 
near Appomattox Court House, was no less con- 
spicuous and important. The western armies had 
with them a large number of mounted regiments, 
which were organized at various times into 
brigades and divisions, but hone of the com- 
manding generals seemed to appreciate their 
value, or to know how to use them effectively. 
Sherman made several efforts to concentrate the 
mounted regiments and to give them a coherent 
organization, but met with nothing but disap- 
pointment, till Gen. Grant sent Gen. Wilson to 
take the place of chief of cavalry. Sherman 
gave this officer a carte blanc'he, and put him 
in command of 73 regiments (each nominally 
1,200 strong), comprising all the cavalry and 
mounted infantry of the armies of the Ohio, 
Cumberland, and Tennessee. Gen. Wilson or- 
ganized these regiments, after mustering out and 
disbanding a number, into seven divisions, most- 
ly of two brigades each, forming a corps designa- 
ted as the cavalry corps of the military division 
of the Mississippi. At the time of its organiza- 
tion (on paper), in October, 1864, the troops con- 
stituting it were scattered from Gaylesville, 
Alabama, to the Big Blue river in Missouri, and 
were mostly dismounted. They had worn out 
their horses by hard usage, and the war de- 
partment had so little confidence in the utility 
of this arm of service, that it made but feeble 
efforts to furnish horses for a remount, so long 
as they were to be used as they had been here- 
tofore. The success of, Sheridan in the army 
of the Potomac, however, gave renewed confi- 
dence, and the war department made extra- 
ordinary efforts to secure horses. The secre- 
tary of war authorized the cavalry to seize and 
impress horses wherever they could be found. 
Meanwhile Sherman had marched toward the 
sea, and Hood had invaded Tennessee, and press- 
ed back the forces of Gen. Schofield to Frank- 
lin, where a stand was made, and a decided 
victory gained both by the infantry and caval- 
ry over the corresponding arms under Hood 
and Chalmers. During the 15 days of the 
siege of Nashville Wilson increased his effective 
mounted force, by the impressment of horses 
and the use of remounts forwarded from the 
north, from 5,000 to 15,000. At the battle of 
Nashville, on the 15th and 16th of December, he 
had 12,000 mounted cavalry and infantry, be- 
sides 3,000 dismounted men, and a detached 
force of 3,000 men operating in Kentucky. Du- 
ring the first day's operations he turned the left 
wing of Hood's army, capturing 16 guns and 
many prisoners, and on the second day contin- 
ued his operations upon the left wing and rear 
of the enemy, pressing them by repeated char- 
ges of his dismounted horsemen under Hatch, 
Coon, and Hammond, till Hood sent word to 
Chalmers, " For God's sake drive the Yankee 
cavalry from our left and rear, or all is lost." 
But Chalmers failed, and by nightfall the con- 
federate army was broken, scattered, and in 
full retreat. The cavalry pursued with vigor, 






148 



CAVALRY 



and, notwithstanding the swollen streams and 
wintry weather, did not relinquish the chase 
till the remnant of Hood's army had crossed the 
Tennessee river. Wilson's corps went into can- 
tonments on the hanks of the river, below the 
Muscle shoals at the head of navigation, early 
in January, about 7,000 effectives. During the 
next six weeks the number was increased to 
27,000 men, 17,000 of whom were mounted 
and thoroughly equipped. This did not include 
Kilpatrick's division, then detached with Sher- 
man. A system of drills and instruction was 
instituted, the single-rank formation prescribed 
by the new tactics was discarded, and the 
double-rank adopted, as being better calculated 
for manoeuvring so large a command in a thick- 
ly wooded country. After detaching one divi- 
sion of 5,000 men to join Canby in Louisiana, 
and leaving another in camp dismounted, 8,000 
strong, Wilson marched from Eastport toward 
Selma on the 22d of March with nearly 15,000 
men, 12,000 of whom were well mounted, and 
8,000 dismounted. All of these men, except 
about 1,200, were armed with the Spencer 
magazine carbines or rifles. On the 2d day of 
April they arrived in front of Selma, having 
met and defeated a part of Forrest's cavalry the 
day before. This place, although strongly forti- 
fied by a continuous line of earthworks and 
stockades, and defended by 82 guns and nearly 
8,000 men, composed about equally of regular 
troops and militia, was assaulted and captured, 
the principal attacking force consisting of 1,550 
men and officers. After bridging the Alabama 
river, this corps marched rapidly through Mont- 
gomery toward Macon, Georgia, capturing on the 
way West Point and Columbus, the former by 
assault during the daytime, and the latter by a 
night attack conducted under the immediate 
supervision of Generals Upton and Winslow. 
On April 20 it reached Macon, where it was 
arrested by the termination of the war. Up to 
this time it had subsisted upon the country, 
marched 525 miles in 28 days, captured 6,820 
prisoners and 280 guns, and destroyed two gun- 
boats, 99,000 stands of small arms, 285,000 bales 
of cotton, and all the mills, collieries, iron works, 
factories, railroad bridges, rolling stock, and 
military establishments which were found on 
the line of march. The lessons taught by the 
operations of the national cavalry daring the 
closing events of the civil war are not new, but 
they seem to have been neglected by the Euro- 
pean commanders of the present time. They 
are, that cavalry should constitute a large part 
of the army in time of war, and be so organized, 
mounted, equipped, and directed as to act with 
vigor and celerity upon the flanks, rear, and 
communications of the enemy. It should be 
armed with magazine rifles and carbines, using 
cartridges with metallic cases, march with great 
rapidity, at the rate of 40 or 50 miles per day, 
and fight generally dismounted like light in- 
fantry. It should usuaily subsist upon the en- 
emy's country, and on long marches, or in the 
presence of the enemy, have no trains except 



for the purpose of carrying extra ammunition. 
It should be kept in large bodies and be used 
mainly for great purposes. Properly handled 
and organized, it is capable of doing almost 
all the services of infantry, besides march- 
ing with twice or thrice their rapidity. In 
modern European armies riding is better at- 
tended to than formerly, though still not at ;ill 
to the extent it should be. The idea of re- 
ceiving the enemy carbine in hand is scouted ; 
Frederick's rule is everywhere revived, that 
every cavalry commander who allows the ene- 
my to charge him, instead of charging himself, 
deserves to be cashiered. The gallop is again 
the pace of the charge ; and the column attack 
has made way for charges in successive lines, 
with dispositions for flank attack, and with a 
possibility of manoeuvring with single detach- 
ments during the charge. Still much remains 
to be done before the European cavalry can 
claim to have caught the spirit of the Ameri- 
can improvement in the use of this great arm. 
The cavalry took but a comparatively insignifi- 
cant part in the last great wars between Prussia 
and Austria and between Prussia and France. 
It may be said that neither of the combatants 
showed any appreciation of the immense ad- 
vantages to be gained by using mounted troops 
in masses, upon the flank and rear of the enemy. 
From the history of cavalry let us now turn 
to its present organization and tactics. The 
recruiting of cavalry, as far as the men are 
concerned, is not different upon the whole from 
the way the other arms recruit themselves in 
each country. In some states, however, the 
natives of particular districts are destined to 
this service ; thus in Russia, the Malorussians 
(natives of Little Russia) ; in Prussia, the 
Poles. In Austria, the heavy cavalry is re- 
cruited in Bohemia, the hussars exclusively in 
Hungary, and the lancers (ulans) mostly in Ga- 
licia. The recruiting of the horses, however, 
deserves especial notice. In England, where 
the whole cavalry does not require in time of 
war above 10,000 horses, the government finds 
no difficulty in buying them ; but in order to 
insure to the service the benefit of horses not 
worked till nearly five years old, three-year-old 
colts, mostly Yorkshire bred, are bought and 
kept at government expense in depots till they 
are fit to be used. The price paid for the 
colts (20 to 25), and the abundance of good 
horses in the country, make the British cavalry 
certainly the best mounted in the world. In 
Russia a similar abundance of horses exists, 
though the breed is inferior to the English. 
The remount officers buy the horses by whole- 
sale in the southern and western provinces of 
th empire; they resell those that are unfit, 
and hand over to the various regiments such as 
are of its color (all horses beinjr of the same 
color in a Russian regiment). The colonel is 
considered as it were proprietor of the horses ; 
for a round sum paid to him he has to keep the 
regiment well mounted. The horses are ex- 
pected to last eight years. Formerly they were 



CAVALRY 



149 



taken from the large breeding establishments 
of Volhynia and the Ukraine, where they are 
quite wild ; but breaking them for cavalry pur- 
poses was so difficult that it had to be given 
up. In Austria the horses are partly bought, 
but the greater portion have of late been fur- 
nished by the government breeding establish- 
ments, which can part every year with above 
5,000 five-year-old cavalry horses. For a case of 
extraordinary effort, a country so rich in horses 
as Austria can rely upon the markets of the 
interior. Prussia at the beginning of the cen- 
tury had to buy almost all her horses abroad, but 
now can mount the whole of her cavalry, line 
and landwehr, in the interior. For the line, the 
horses are bought at three years old, by remount 
commissaries, and sent into depots until old 
enough for service; 3,500 are required every 
year. In case of mobilization of the landwehr 
cavalry, all horses in the country, like the men, 
are liable to be taken for service ; a compensa- 
tion of from $40 to $70 is however paid for them. 
There are three times more serviceable horses 
in the country than can be required. France, 
of all European countries, is the worst off for 
horses. The breed, though often good and 
even excellent for draught, is generally unfit 
for the saddle. Government breeding studs 
(haras) have been long established, but not 
with the success they have had elsewhere. 
Though the depots and studs have been much 
improved, they are still insufficient to fully 
supply the army. Algeria furnishes a splendid 
breed of cavalry horses, and the best regiments 
of the service, the chasseurs cFAfrique, are ex- 
clusively mounted with them, but the other 
regiments scarcely get any. Thus, in case of a 
mobilization, the French are compelled to buy 
abroad. Cavalry is essentially of two kinds : 
heavy and light. The real distinctive charac- 
ter of the two is in the horses. Large and 
powerful horses cannot well work together 
with small, active, and quick ones. The former 
in a charge act less rapidly, but with greater 
weight ; the latter act more by the speed and 
impetuosity of the attack, and are moreover 
far more fit for single combat and skirmishing, 
for which heavy or large horses are neither 
handy nor intelligent enough. Thus far the 
distinction is necessary ; but fashion, fancy, and 
the imitation of certain national costumes, have 
created numerous subdivisions and varieties, 
to notice which in detail would be of no inter- 
est. The heavy cavalry, at least in part, is in 
most countries furnished with a cuirass, which, 
however, is far from being shot-proof. Light 
cavalry is partly armed with the sword and 
carbine, partly with the lance. The carbine 
is now generally rifled. Pistols are added in 
most cases to the armature of the rider; the 
United States cavalry alone carries the revolver. 
The sword is either straight, or curved to a 
greater or less degree ; the first preferable for 
thrusts, the second for cuts. The question as 
to the advantages of the lance over the sword 
is still under discussion. For close encounter 



the sword is undoubtedly preferable ; and in a 
charge the lance, unless too long and heavy to 
be easily wielded, can scarcely act at all, but in 
the pursuit of broken cavalry it is most effec- 
tive. Of nations of horsemen, almost all trust 
to the sword ; even the Cossack abandoned his 
lance when he had to fight against the expert 
swordsmen of Circassia. The carbine is very 
effective if rifled, and more so if it is a breech- 
loading one furnished with a magazine; the 
revolver in skilful hands is a formidable weapon 
for close encounter. Besides the saddle, bridle, 
and armed rider, the cavalry horse has to carry 
a valise with reserve clothing, camp utensils, 
grooming tackle, and in a campaign also food 
for the rider and forage for itself. The sum 
total of this burden varies in different services 
and classes of cavalry, between 250 and 300 
Ibs. for the heavy marching order, a weight 
which will appear enormous when compared 
with what private saddle horses have to carry. 
This overweighting of horses is the weakest 
point of all cavalry. Great reforms are every- 
where required in this respect. The weight of 
the men and accoutrements can and must be 
reduced; but as long as the present system 
lasts, this drag upon the horses is always to 
be taken into account whenever we judge 
of the capabilities of exertion and endurance 
of cavalry. Heavy cavalry, composed of 
strong but, if possible, comparatively * light 
men, on strong horses, must act principally 
by the. force of a well closed, solid charge. 
This requires power, , endurance, and a cer- 
tain physical weight, though not as much 
as would render it unwieldy. There must 
be speed in its movements, but no more than 
is compatible with the highest degree of 
order. Once formed for the attack, it must 
chiefly ride straight forward ; but whatever 
comes in its path must be swept away by 
its charge. The riders need not be individ- 
ually as good horsemen as those of light cav- 
alry ; but they must have full 'command over 
their horses, and be accustomed to ride straight 
forward and in a well closed mass. Their 
horses, in consequence, must be less sensible to 
the leg, nor should they have their haunches too 
much under them ; they should step out well 
in their trot, and be accustomed to keep well 
together in a good, long hand gallop. Light 
cavalry, on the contrary, with nimbler men 
and quicker horses, has to act by its rapidity and 
ubiquity. What it lacks in weight must be 
made up by speed and activity. It will charge 
with the greatest vehemence ; but when prefer- 
able, it will seemingly fly in order to fall upon 
the enemy's flank, by a sudden change of front. 
Its superior speed and fitness for single combat 
render it peculiarly fit for pursuit. Its chiefs 
require a quicker eye and a greater presence 
of mind than those of heavy horse. The men 
must be individually better horsemen ; they 
must have their horses perfectly under control, 
start from a stand into a full gallop, and again 
stop in an instant ; turn quick, and leap well ; 



150 



CAVALRY 



the horses should be hardy and quick, light in 
the mouth, and obedient to the leg, handy at 
turning, and especially broken for working at a 
canter, having their haunches well under them. 
Besides rapid flank and rear attacks, ambus- 
cades, and pursuit, the light cavalry has to do 
the greater part of the outpost and patrolling 
duty for the whole army ; aptness for single 
combat, the foundation of which is good horse- 
manship, is therefore one of its principal re- 
quirements. In line, the men ride less close to- 
gether, so as to be always prepared for changes 
of front and other evolutions. In the United 
States, army there are 10 regiments of cavalry, 
all of which are really mounted infantry. The 
tactical unity in cavalry is the squadron, com- 
prising as many men as the voice and imme- 
diate authority of one commander can control 
during evolutions. The strength of a squadron 
varies from 100 men in England to 200 men 
in France ; those of the other armies also being 
within these limits. A regiment comprises 4, 6, 
8, 10, or 12 squadrons. The weakest regiments 
are the English, 400 to 480 men ; the strong- 
est the Austrian light horse, 1,600 men. Strong 
regiments are apt to be unwieldy ; too weak 
ones are very soon reduced by a campaign. 
Thus the British light brigade at Balaklava, not 
two months after the opening of the campaign, 
numbered in five regiments of two squadrons 
each scarcely 700 men, or just half as many as 
one Russian hussar regiment on the war foot- 
ing. Peculiar formations are : with the British 
the troop or half squadron, and with the Aus- 
trians the division or double squadron, an in- 
termediate link which alone renders it possible 
for one commander to control their strong regi- 
ments of horse. Before Frederick the Great, 
all cavalry was formed at least three deep. 
He first formed his hussars, in 1743, two 
deep, and at the battle of Rossbach had his 
heavy horse formed the same way. After the 
seven years' war this formation was adopted by 
all other armies, and is the only one now in 
use. For purposes of evolution the squadron is 
divided into four divisions. Wheeling from line 
into open column of divisions, and back into 
line from column, form the chief and funda- 
mental evolution of all cavalry manoeuvres. 
Most other evolutions are only adapted either 
for the march (the flank march by three, &c.), 
or for extraordinary cases (the close column by 
divisions or squadrons). The action of Euro- 
pean cavalry in battle is generally a hand-to- 
hand encounter; its fire is of subordinate im- 
portance ; steel, either sword or lance, is its 
chief weapon ; and all cavalry action is concen- 
trated in the charge. Thus the charge is the 
criterion for all movements, evolutions, and po- 
sitions of cavalry. Whatever obstructs the fa- 
cility of charging is faulty. The impetus of the 
charge is produced by concentrating the high- 
est effort both of man and horse into its crown- 
ing moment, the moment of actual contact with 
the enemy. In order to effect this, it is neces- 
sary to approach the enemy with a gradually in- 



creasing velocity, so that the horses are put to 
then- full speed at a short distance from the 
enemy only. The execution of such a charge 
is about the most difficult matter that can be 
asked from cavalry. It is extremely difficult 
to pre.serve perfect order and solidity in an ad- 
vance at increasing pace, especially if there is 
much not quite level ground to go over. The 
difficulty and importance of riding straight for- 
ward is here shown ; for unless every rider rides 
straight to his point, there arises a pressure 
in the ranks, which is soon rolled back from 
the centre to the flanks, and from the flanks to 
the centre ; the horses get excited and uneasy, 
their unequal speed and temper come into 
play, and soon the whole line is straggling along 
in anything but a straight alignment, and with 
anything but that closed solidity which alone 
can insure success. Then, on arriving in front 
of the enemy, it is evident that the horses will 
attempt to refuse running into the standing or 
moving mass opposite, and that the riders must 
prevent their doing so ; otherwise the charge is 
sure to fail. The rider, therefore, must not only 
have the firm resolution to break into the ene- 
my's line, but he must also be perfectly master 
of his horse. The regulations of different ar- 
mies give various rules for the mode of advance 
of the charging cavalry, but they all agree in 
this point, that the line, if possible, begins to 
move at a walk, then trot, at from 300 to 150 
yards from the enemy canter, gradually increas- 
ing to a gallop, and at from 20 to 80 yards from 
the enemy full speed. All such regulations, how- 
ever, are subject to many exceptions; the state 
of the ground, the weather, the condition of the 
horses, &c., must be taken into consideration in 
every practical case. If in a charge of cavalry 
against cavalry both parties actually meet, 
which is by far the most uncommon case in 
cavalry engagements, the swords are of little 
avail during the actual shock. It is the mo- 
mentum of one mass which breaks and scatters 
the other. The moral element, bravery, is here 
at once transformed into material force ; the 
bravest squadron will ride on with the greatest 
self-confidence, resolution, rapidity, ensemble, 
and solidity. Thus it is that no cavalry can do 
great things unless it has plenty of " dash " 
about it. But as soon as the ranks of one party . 
are broken, the swords, and with them individ- 
ual horsemanship, come into play. A portion 
at least of the victorious troop has also to give 
up its tactical formation, in order to mow with 
the sword the harvest of victory. Thus the 
successful charge at once decides the contest; 
but unless followed up by pursuit and single 
combat, the victory would be comparatively 
fruitless. It is this immense preponderance of 
the party which has preserved its tactical com- 
pactness and formation, over the one which has 
lost it, that explains the impossibility for ir- 
regular cavalry, be it ever so good and so nu- 
merous, to defeat regular cavalry. There is no 
doubt that so far as individual horsemanship 
and swordmanship is concerned, no regular 



CAVALRY 



151 



cavalry ever approach the irregulars of the 
nations of horse warriors of the East ; and yet 
the very worst of European regular cavalries 
has always defeated them in the field. From the 
defeat of the Huns at Chalons (451) to the se- 
poy mutiny of 1857, there is not a single in- 
stance where the splendid but irregular horse- 
men of the East have broken a single regiment 
of regular cavalry in an actual charge. Their 
irregular swarms, charging without concert or 
compactness, cannot make any impression upon 
the solid, rapidly moving mass. Their supe- 
riority can only appear when the tactical for- 
mation of the regulars is broken, and the com- 
bat of man to man has its turn ; but the wild 
racing of the irregulars toward their opponents 
can have no such result. It has only been when 
regular cavalry, in pursuit, have abandoned 
their line formation and engaged in single com- 
bat, that irregulars, suddenly turning round and 
seizing the favorable moment, have defeated 
them ; indeed, this stratagem has made up almost 
the whole of the tactics of irregulars against 
regulars, ever since the wars of the Parthians 
and the Romans. Of this there is no better 
example than that of Napoleon's dragoons in 
Egypt, undoubtedly the worst regular cavalry 
then existing, which defeated in every instance 
the most splendid of irregular horsemen, the 
Mamelukes. Napoleon said of them, two Mam- 
elukes were decidedly superior to three French- 
men; 100 Frenchmen were a match for 100 
Mamelukes; 300 Frenchmen generally beat 
300 Mamelukes ; 1,000 Frenchmen in every in- 
stance defeated 1,500 Mamelukes. However 
great may be the superiority in a charge of 
that body of cavalry which best preserves its 
tactical formation, it is evident that even this 
body must, after the successful charge, be com- 
paratively disordered. The success of the 
charge is not equally decisive on every point ; 
many men are irretrievably engaged in single 
combat or pursuit ; and it is comparatively but 
a small portion, mostly belonging to the second 
rank, who remain in some kind of line. This 
is the most dangerous moment for cavalry ; a 
very small body of fresh troops, thrown upon it, 
would snatch the victory from its hands. To 
rally quickly after a charge is therefore the 
criterion of a really good cavalry, and it is in 
this point that not only young but also otherwise 
experienced and brave troops are deficient. 
The British cavalry, riding the most spirited 
horses, are especially apt to get out of hand, 
and have almost everywhere suffered severely 
for it (e. g., at Waterloo and Balaklava). The 
pursuit, on the rally being sounded, is generally 
left to some divisions or squadrons, especially 
or by general regulations designated for this 
service ; while the mass of the troops re-form 
to be ready for all emergencies. For the dis- 
organized state, even of the victors, after a 
charge, is inducement enough to always keep a 
reserve in hand which may be launched in case 
of failure in the first 'instance ; and thus it is 
that the first rule in cavalry tactics has always 



been, never to engage more than a portion of 
the disposable forces at a time. This general 
application of reserves will explain the variable 
nature of large cavalry combats, where the 
tide of victory ebbs and flows to and fro, either 
party being beaten in his turn until the last 
disposable reserves bring the power of their 
unbroken order to bear upon the disordered, 
surging mass, and decide the action. Another 
very important circumstance is the ground. 
No arm is so much controlled by the ground 
as cavalry. Heavy, deep soil will break the 
gallop into a slow canter ; an obstacle which a 
single horseman would clear without looking 
at it, may break the order and solidity of the 
line; and an obstacle easy to clear for fresh 
horses will bring down animals that have been 
trotted and galloped about without food from 
early morning. Again, an unforeseen obstacle, 
by stopping the advance and entailing a change 
of front and formation, may bring the whole 
line within reach of the enemy's flank at- 
tacks. An example of how cavalry attacks 
should not be made was Murat's great charge 
at the battle of Leipsic. He formed 14,000 
horsemen into one deep mass, and advanced 
on the Russian infantry which had just been 
repulsed in an attack on the village ofWachau. 
The French horse approached at a trot ; about 
600 or 800 yards from the allied infantry they 
broke into a canter ; in the deep ground the 
horses soon got fatigued, and the impulse of the 
charge was spent by the time they reached the 
squares. Only a few battalions which had 
suffered severely were ridden over. Passing 
round the other squares, the mass galloped on 
through the second line of infantry, without 
doing any harm, and finally arrived at a line of 
ponds and morasses which put a stop to their 
progress. The horses were completely blown, 
the men in disorder, the regiments mixed and 
uncontrollable ; in this state two Prussian regi- 
ments and the Cossacks of the guard, in all less 
than 2,000 men, surprised their flanks and 
drove them all pell mell back again. In this 
instance there was neither a reserve for unseen 
emergencies, nor any proper regard for pace 
and distance; the result was defeat. The 
charge may be made in various formations. 
Tacticians distinguish the charge en muraille, 
when the squadrons of the charging line have 
none or but very small intervals between each 
other ; the charge with intervals, where there 
are from 10 to 20 yards from squadron to squad- 
ron ; the charge en echelon, where the succes- 
sive squadrons break off one after the other 
from one wing, and thus reach the enemy not 
simultaneously but in succession, which form 
may be much strengthened by a squadron in 
open column on the outward rear of the squad- 
ron forming the first echelon ; finally, the charge 
in column. This last is essentially opposed to 
the whole of the former modes of charging, 
which are all of them but modifications of the 
line attack. The line was the general and fun- 
damental form of all cavalry charges up to Na- 






152 



CAVALEY 



poleon. In the whole of the 18th century we 
find cavalry charging in column in one case on- 
ly, i. e., when it had to break through a sur- 
rounding enemy. But Napoleon, whose cav- 
alry was composed of brave men but bad riders, 
had to make up for the tactical imperfections 
of his mounted troops by some new contrivance. 
He began to send his cavalry to the charge in 
deep columns, thus forcing the front ranks to 
ride forward, and throwing at once a far greater 
number of horsemen upon the selected point of 
attack than could have been done by a line at- 
tack. The desire of acting with masses, during 
the campaigns succeeding that of 1807, became 
with Napoleon a sort of monomania. He in- 
vented formations of columns which were per- 
fectly monstrous, and which, happening to be 
successful in 1809, were adhered to in the later 
campaigns, and helped to los'e him many a bat- 
tle. He formed columns of whole divisions 
either of infantry or of cavalry, by ranging de- 
ployed battalions and regiments one behind the 
other. This was first tried with cavalry at Eck- 
muhl, in 1809, where ten regiments of cuiras- 
siers charged in column, and two regiments de- 
ployed in front, four similar lines following at 
distances of about 60 yards. With infantry, 
columns of whole divisions, one battalion de- 
ployed behind the other, were formed at Wa- 
gram. Such manoeuvres might not be danger- 
ous against the slow and methodical Austrians 
of the time, but in every later campaign, and 
with more active enemies, they ended in de- 
feat. We have seen what a pitiable end the 
great charge of Murat at Wachau, in the same 
formation, came to. The disastrous issue of 
D'Erlon's great infantry attack at Waterloo 
was caused by its being made with this forma- 
tion. With cavalry the monster column ap- 
pears especially faulty, as it absorbs the most 
valuable resources into one unwieldy mass, 
which, once launched, is irretrievably out of 
hand, and, whatever success it may have in 
front, is always at the mercy of smaller bodies 
well in hand that are thrown on its Hanks. 
With the materials for one such column, a sec- 
ond line and one or two reserves might be pre- 
pared, the charges of which might not have 
such an effect at first, but would certainly by 
their repetition ultimately obtain greater results 
with smaller losses. In most services, indeed, 
this charge in column has either been abandon- 
ed, or it has been retained as a mere theoretical 
curiosity, while for all practical < purposes the 
formation of large bodies of cavalry is made in 
several lines at charging intervals, supporting 
and relieving each other during a prolonged 
engagement. Napoleon, too, was the first to 
form his cavalry into masses of several divi- 
sions, called corps of cavalry. As a means of 
simplifying the transmission of commands in a 
large army, such an organization of the reserve 
cavalry is eminently necessary; but when 
maintained on the field of battle, when these 
corps had to act in a body, it never, except 
in the American civil war, produced any ade- 



quate results. In the present European armies 
the cavalry corps is generally retained, and in 
the Prussian, Russian, and Austrian services 
there are even established normal formations 
and general rules for the action of such a corps 
on the field of battle, all of which are based on 
the formation of a first and second line and a 
reserve, together with indications for the pla- 
cing of the horse artillery attached to such a 
body. We have hitherto spoken of the action 
of cavalry so far only as it is directed against 
cavalry. But one of the principal purposes for 
which this arm is used in battle, in fact its prin- 
cipal use at present, is its action against infan- 
try. We have seen that in the 18th century 
infantry, in battle, scarcely ever formed square 
against cavalry. It received the charge in line, 
and if the attack was directed against a flank, 
a few companies wheeled back, en potence, to 
meet it. Frederick the Great instructed his 
infantry never to form square except when an 
isolated battalion was surprised by cavalry ; 
and if in such a case it had formed square, " it 
may march straight against the enemy's horse, 
drive them away, and, never heeding their at- 
tacks, proceed to its destination." The thin 
lines of infantry in those days met the cavalry 
charge with full confidence in the effect of their 
fire, and indeed repelled it often enough ; but 
where they once got broken, the disaster was 
irreparable, as at Hohenfriedberg and Zorndorf. 
At present, when the column has replaced the 
line in so many cases, the rule is that infantry 
always, where it is practicable, form square to 
receive cavalry. There are indeed many in- 
stances in modern wars where good cavalry has 
surprised infantry in line and had to fly from 
its fire ; but they form the exception. The old 
question, whether cavalry has a fair chance of 
breaking squares of infantry, has lost a good 
deal of its importance, owing to the im- 
provement in firearms and to the new ten- 
dency in the use of cavalry. It appears to be 
generally admitted that, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, a good, intact infantry, not shatter- 
ed by artillery fire, stands a very great chance 
against cavalry ; while with young foot soldiers, 
who have lost the edge of their energy and 
steadiness by a hard day's fighting, by heavy 
losses and long exposure to fire, a resolute cav- 
alry has the best of it. There are exceptions, 
such as the charge of the German dragoons 
at Garcia Hernandez in 1812, where each of 
three squadrons broke an intact French square ; 
but as a rule, a cavalry commander will not 
find it advisable to launch his men on such 
infantry. At Waterloo, Ney's grand charges 
with the mass of the French reserve cavalry 
on Wellington's centre could not break the 
English and German squares, because these 
troops, sheltered a good deal behind the crest 
of the ridge, had suffered very little from the 
preceding cannonade, and were almost all as 
good as intact. Such charges, therefore, are 
adapted for the last stage of a battle only, when 
the infantry has been a good deal shattered and 



CAVALRY 



CAVE 



153 



exhausted both by actual engagement and by 
passivity under a concentrated artillery fire; 
and in such cases they act decisively, as at 
Borodino and Ligny, especially when supported, 
as in both these cases, by infantry reserves. 
"We cannot enter here into the various duties 
which cavalry may be called upon to perform 
on outpost, patrolling, and escorting service, &c. 
A few words on the general tactics of cavalry, 
however, may find a place. Infantry hav- 
ing more and more become the main stay of 
battles, the manoeuvres of the mounted arm are 
necessarily more or less subordinate to those of 
the former. And as modern tactics are founded 
upon the admixture and mutual support of the 
three arms, it follows that for at least a portion 
of the cavalry all independent action is entire- 
ly out of the question. Thus the cavalry of an 
army is always divided into two distinct bodies : 
divisional cavalry and reserve cavalry. The 
first consists of horsemen attached to the vari- 
ous divisions and corps of infantry, and under 
the same commander with them. In battle, 
its office is to seize any favorable moments 
which may offer themselves to gain an advan- 
tage, or to disengage its own infantry when 
attacked by superior forces. Its action is natu- 
rally limited, and its strength is not sufficient 
to act any way independently. The cavalry of 
reserve, the mass of the cavalry with the army, 
in European armies acts in the same subordi- 
nate position toward the whole infantry of the 
army as the divisional cavalry does toward the 
infantry division to which it belongs, but in 
America, as already shown, it is more indepen- 
dent. Accordingly, the reserve cavalry will be 
held in hand till a favorable moment for a great 
blow offers itself, either to repel a grand infan- 
try or cavalry attack of the enemy, or to exe- 
cute a charge of its own of a decisive nature. 
From what has been stated above, it will be 
evident that the proper use of the cavalry of 
reserve is generally during the latter stages 
of a great battle, or in an independent move- 
ment upon the rear or communications of the 
enemy. Such immense successes as Seydlitz 
obtained with his horse may not be expected 
hereafter ; but still, many great battles of mod- 
ern times have been very materially influenced 
by the part cavalry has played in them. But 
the great importance of cavalry lies in pursuit. 
Infantry supported by artillery need not de- 
spair against cavalry so long as it preserves its 
order and steadiness; but once broken, no 
matter by what cause, it is a prey to the 
mounted men that are launched against it. 
There is no running away from the horses; 
even on difficult ground, good horsemen can 
make their way ; and an energetic pursuit of a 
beaten army by cavalry is always the best and 
the only way to secure the full fruits of the 
victory. Thus, whatever supremacy in battles 
may have been gained by infantry, cavalry still 
remains an indispensable arm, and will always 
remain so; and now, as heretofore, no army 
can enter the lists with a fair chance of suc- 



cess unless it has a cavalry that can both ride 
and fight. 

CAVAN. I. The southernmost county of the 
province of Ulster, Ireland, bounded by the 
counties Fermanagh, Monaghan, Meath, West- 
meath, Longford, and Leitrim; area, 746 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871, 140,555. The soil is wet 
and marshy, but with drainage it is rendered 
productive. The mountainous districts, which 
include a considerable part of the county, are 
barren. Coal, iron, lead, and copper are found ; 
marl, fuller's earth, potter's and brick clays are 
plentiful. There are many mineral springs, of 
which that of Livalinbar is the most noted. 
Cavan was anciently called Breifne (Brenny), 
and was part of the territory of O'Rourke, the 
Irish chief, the seduction of whose wife by Der- 
mot MacMurrogh, king of Leinster, was the 
immediate cause of the English invasion. It 
was first made shire ground toward the close of 
the 16th century. The county was divided into 
baronies among the native possessors, five falling 
to the lot of the O'Reilly family. The O'Reillys 
having forfeited their possessions by rebellion 
at the beginning of the 17th century, Cavan 
reverted to the British crown. It now returns 
two members to parliament. II. The county 
town, on the Dublin and Galway railway, 85 m. 
K E. of Galway, and 65 m. N. W. of Dublin ; 
pop. about 3,000. Petty and quarter sessions, 
annual fairs, and a weekly market are held in 
the town. It contains a fine parish church, a 
Catholic chapel and nunnery, Presbyterian and 
Methodist meeting houses, a fever hospital, an 
infirmary, a royal endowed school, a barracks, 
and a public pleasure ground, bequeathed to 
the town by Lady Fernham. 

CAVE, Edward, an English printer and book- 
seller, born at Newton, Warwickshire, Feb. 29, 
1691, died in London, Jan. 10, 1754. He 
founded the " Gentleman's Magazine," the first 
number of which appeared in January, 1731, 
and which still continues to be published. The 
original purpose of this periodical, according to 
the prospectus, was to preserve from the news- 
papers " essays on various subjects for enter- 
tainment." Original communications, however, 
were afterward admitted, Dr. Johnson being 
a favorite contributor, and he wrote the " par- 
liamentary speeches" which appeared in this 
magazine from 1740 to 1743. It has undergone 
many changes of management, but its special 
and most valuable features were always till 
recently antiquarian research and contempo- 
rary biography and history. The success of 
the magazine led to the establishment of the 
"London Magazine" and other rival publica- 
tions of the same class, in which the " Gentle- 
man's Magazine " was the pioneer. Cave was 
the early friend and patron of Dr. Johnson, 
and for a long time was his only publisher. 
Dr. Johnson was present at his deathbed, and 
he wrote the " Life of Cave " which was pub- 
lished in the " Gentleman's Magazine " for Feb- 
ruary, 1754. Cave had some claims to author- 
ship, and wrote an "Account of Criminals." 



154 



CAVE 



CAVENDISH 



CAVE, William, an English scholar and divine, 
born at Pickwell, Leicestershire, Dec. 80, 1637, 
died at "Windsor, Aug. 4, 1713. He was edu- 
cated at St. John's college, Cambridge, and be- 
came successively vicar of Islington, rector of 
Allhallows the Great, London, and chaplain to 
Charles II., who made him canon of Windsor. 
Having selected as his residence the quiet vil- 
lage of Isleworth, Middlesex, he devoted his 
life to researches into the history of the church. 
He produced a great number of works, the most 
important of which are his "Primitive Christi- 
anity" (1672), " Lives of the Apostles" (1675), 
and "Lives of the Fathers" (Ecclesiastic^ 
1682). His style is concise, simple, and easy, 
and his sentiments so liberal that he has been 
accused of Socinianism. A monument in Is- 
lington church marks his burial place. 

CAVEAT (Lat. cavere, to beware), a formal 
notice or caution given by a party in interest 
to a court, judge, or public officer against the 
performance of certain acts, such as permitting 
a will to be proved, granting letters of admin- 
istration, or patents for inventions, or for lands. 
Its object is to prevent any proceedings being 
taken without such notice to the party giving 
it as shall enable him to appear and show cause 
against the proposed action. 

CAVEAIJ, a Parisian literary and convivial as- 
sociation, initiated in 1729 in the shop of the 
grocer Gallet, who was a witty songster and a 
friend of Crebillon the younger and other lit- 
erary men. Subsequently the suspicion arose 
that Gallet was deriving too many pecuniary 
advantages from the habitues, and the place of 
meeting was removed to a tavern known as the 
Caveau (cave), whence the name. The dinners 
on the first Sunday of every month were at- 
tended by Helvetius and other celebrated per- 
sons. The association was discontinued toward 
the end of 1739. Cappelle and Armand Gouffe 
established in 1806 the Caveau moderne in 
the cafe de Cancale, and the dinners, which 
took place on the 20th day of the month at the 
Rocher de Cancale, were presided over by 
Pierre Laujon, and after his death in 1811 by 
Desaugiers, most of whose songs were com- 
posed especially for these reunions. The latter 
invited Beranger, who was here first encour- 
aged to publish his songs. After various vi- 
cissitudes the Caveau was reorganized in 1834 
by Albert Montemont, at the Pestel restau- 
rant near the cafe de la Regence ; and subse- 
quently the monthly dinners took place in the 
cafe Corazza, in the palais royal, and Jules 
Janin was received as a member in 1866. At 
the present day the meetings are rather more 
ceremonious and academical than formerly. 

CAVEDONE, Jaeopo or Glacomo, an Italian paint- 
er, born at Sassuolo, Modena, in 1577, died in 
Bologna in 1660. Escaping from & home made 
unendurable to him by his father's \iolence, he 
became page to a nobleman in Bologca, whose 
picture gallery gave him an opportunity of cul- 
tivating artistic tastes, which were developed 
under the tuition of several masters, especially 



Annibale Carracci, who soon ranked him among 
his ablest pupils. Subsequently he studied in 
Venice, and on his return to Bologna he execu- 
ted pictures of the " Nativity " and the " Adora- 
tion of the Magi " for the San Paolo church, 
which gave him great reputation. His master- 
piece in the church of the Mendicanti di Den- 
tro, representing St. Alp and St. Petronio 
kneeling before the Virgin and child, with a 
glory of angels, is celebrated for the imposing 
and yet simple cast of the drapery, and for its 
matchless beauties of composition, coloring, and 
expression; it has been often ascribed, like 
many of his other productions, to his teacher 
Carracci, and to other illustrious masters. Guido 
took him as a model in fresco painting, in which 
he produced the finest and most harmonious 
effects by using a limited but the most suitable 
variety of tints. In richness of coloring he was 
unrivalled among the artists of the Bolognese 
school. The latter part of his life was sadden- 
ed by charges of witchcraft brought against his 
wife by superstitious people, and by the death 
of an only son who was a promising artist. 
Distracted to the verge of madness and reduced 
to starvation by his inability to work, he fell 
senseless in the streets while unnvailingly ask- 
ing for alms, and was removed to a stable, 
where he soon breathed his last. Besides the 
pictures mentioned, most of his other works 
are in Bologna. Florence possesses his portrait 
painted by himself, Munich his " Dead Christ 
mourned by an Angel," and the Louvre in 
Paris his "St. Cecilia." 

CAYEDONI, Celestino, an Italian archaeologist 
and numismatist, born near Reggio, May 18, 
1795, died in Modena, Nov. 26, 1865. He was 
educated in the episcopal seminary at Modena, 
studied archaeology, Greek, and Hebrew at 
Bologna, became director of the numismatic 
collections of the library of Modena, and from 
1830 to 1863 was professor of hermeneutics at 
the university. His principal works are Nu- 
mismatica Biblica (Modena, 1850; German 
translation by Werlhof, 2 vols., Hanover, 
1855-'6), and Confutazione dei principali er- 
rori di Ernesto Henan nella sua Vie de Jesus 
(Modena, 1863). 

CAVELIER, Pierre Jules, a French sculptor, 
born in Paris, Aug. 30, 1814. He studied un- 
der Delaroche and David d'Angers, early ob- 
tained the grand prize, and was for some years 
supported in his studies at Rome by the French 
academy. He acquired celebrity in 1849 by 
his statue of Penelope, the medal of honor be- 
ing conferred upon him, with a three years' 
pension of 4,000 francs. In 1865 he became a 
member of the institute. His works are re- 
markable for purity and grace. His statue rep- 
resenting " Truth " is in the Luxembourg; that 
of Abelard is in the new Louvre ; and he has 
also made busts of Ary Scheffer, Horace Ver- 
net, Napoleon I., and others. 

CAVENDISH, Henry, an English philosopher, 
born at Nice, Oct. 10, 1731, died in London, 
Feb. 24, 1810. He was a man of great wealth 



CAVENDISH 



CAVOUR 



155 



and of high attainments in chemistry and in 
general physics. He was the discoverer of the 
composition of water and of nitric acid, and 
proved that the electric spark will generate 
nitric acid from common air. He measured 
the density of the earth by direct comparison 
with balls of lead, and improved the modes 
of dividing astronomical instruments. He was 
the first chemical experimenter and discoverer 
in many important branches of that science. 
His writings may be found in the "Philosophi- 
cal Transactions." 

CAVENDISH, or Candlsh, Sir Thomas, an Eng- 
lish adventurer of the 16th century. He was 
the son of a gentleman of good estate, residing 
at Trimley St. Martin in Suffolk ; but having 
spent his patrimony, he engaged in a predatory 
excursion against the Spanish American colo- 
nies, fitting out three vessels of 120, 60, and 40 
tons. This expedition started July 22, 1586, 
and entered the straits of Magellan Jan. 6, 
1587. They were 33 days in clearing the 
straits, spending some time in examining the 
coast. On the Pacific coast they burnt Payta, 
Acapulco, and other towns, and finally cap- 
tured the Spanish galleon Santa Anna, of 700 
tons, loaded with a valuable cargo and 122,- 
000 Spanish dollars. Cavendish then started 
from California, crossed the Pacific to the La- 
drone islands, through the Indian archipelago 
and strait of Java, and around the Cape of 
Good Hope, reaching England Sept. 9, 1588, 
and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. In 
August, 1591, he started again, but he expe- 
rienced bad weather and sickness, his crew 
grew mutinous, and he died at sea in 1593. 

CAVERY, or Canvery (anc. Chaleris), a river 
of southern India, rises among the Coorg hills, 
near the W. or Malabar coast, 4,000 ft. above 
the level of the sea, in lat. 12 25' N., Ion. 75 34' 
E. It flows in a circuitous course mainly S. E., 
traversing the whole breadth of the peninsula, 
and falls into the bay of Bengal, on the E. or 
Coromandel coast. In the vicinity of Tri- 
chinopoly it separates into several branches 
(the principal of which is the Coleroon river, 
92 m. long), which descend in separate falls 
of 200 and 300 ft, and enter the sea by numer- 
ous mouths in the province of Tanjore. The 
whole course of the Cavery is about 470 m., 
and it is navigable only for small boats. The 
craft in use are circular baskets, from 9 to 14 
ft. in diameter, covered with buffalo leather. 
In these produce is brought down the river, 
but as the violence of the stream makes up- 
ward navigation impossible, they are taken to 
pieces and the leather carried back on the 
heads of the crew. 

CAVIANA, an island of Brazil, 35 m. long and 
20 m. wide, in the N. mouth of the Amazon, 
under the equator. It is level, fertile, and well 
stocked with cattle. The small town of Ro- 
berdello is on its S. E. side. 

CAVIARE, a kind of food prepared from the 
roes of large fish, especially the sturgeon. It 
ii chiefly made in Russia, which country mo- 



nopolizes this branch of commerce. From As- 
trakhan alone 30,000 bbls. have been exported 
in a single year. The process of manufac- 
turing consists in thoroughly cleaning the roe 
from its membranes. Salt is then well mixed 
in, and the liquor pressed out. It is then dried 
and packed for sale. The best kind, that which 
is most thoroughly freed from the membrane, 
does not easily become fetid, and is packed in 
kegs ; the inferior kind is made into small thin 
cakes. It is much used during seasons of fast 
in Italy, Russia, Greece, and Turkey, being 
eaten on^bread with oil and vinegar or lemon. 

CAVITE. I. A province of Luzon, Philippine 
islands, situated on the S. E. side of the bay 
of Manila; area, 489 sq. m. ; pop. about 57,- 
000. II. A town of the province, the naval 
depot of and the strongest place in the Spanish 
possessions in the East, 7 m. S. W. of Manila ; 
pop. about 3,000. It is built on the E. ex- 
tremity of a low bifurcated peninsula stretching 
about 3 m. into the sea, having between its ex- 
tremities the outer harbor, while the inner har- 
bor is S. of the town. Neither has more than 
four fathoms of water, though large ships moor 
near the inner harbor. The houses are two 
stories high, built chiefly of wood, the win- 
dows being furnished with semi-transparent 
shell instead of glass. It has two churches, 
three convents, an arsenal, magazine, and hip 
yard, and enjoys a considerable trade, but has 
declined of late years. During half the year it 
is the port of Manila. 

CAVOUR, Camillo Benso, count, an Italian 
statesman, born in Turin, Aug. 10, 1810, died 
there, June 6, 1861. Being a younger son of a 
noble and wealthy family, he was destined for 
the army, entered the military academy at an 
early age, and in 1828 was appointed lieuten- 
ant of engineers, and stationed at Genoa. In 
1831 he left the army because he disliked gar- 
rison life, and had moreover incurred the dis- 
pleasure of King Charles Albert by speaking 
favorably of the French revolution of 1830. 
He retired to his estates, and devoted himself 
to their improvement, but still gave much at- 
tention to science and political economy. He 
made long visits to France and England, in 
order to study the industrial and political sys- 
tems of those countries. Returning to Turin, 
he became attached to the reform party, and 
in 1842 was one of the founders of the associa- 
zione agraria, a semi-political society, and in 
1847, in conjunction with Cesare Balbo, estab- 
lished the journal II Risorgimento (" The Res- 
urrection "), which became a powerful politi- 
cal organ. He was elected to the Sardinian 
parliament, and had much to do in inducing the 
king to grant the constitution of 1848, and to 
declare war against Austria. The campaigns 
both of 1848 and 1849 ended disastrously, and 
Charles Albert abdicated. In 1850 Cavour 
was called to the cabinet of Victor Emanuel 
as minister of commerce and agriculture. Soon 
after he became also minister of the marine,and 
finance, and in 1852 was named president of 



156 



CAVOUR 



CAVY 



the council, in place of D'Azeglio. At this 
time what is now the kingdom of Italy was 
divided into several governments, having in all 
a population of about 25,000,000, and all over- 
awed by the military power of Austria, which 
had reconquered Lombardy and Venetia, rees- 
tablished the archducal and ducal authorities 
in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma, and occupied 
a portion of the papal territory by its troops. 
Though one of the smaller divisions in point 
of population, Sardinia was by far the most ad- 
vanced in industry and national military force. 
All the energies of Cavour were now bent on 
preparing his state, which was slowly but 
steadily recovering from the shocks and hu- 
miliations suffered in 1848-'9, for the speedy 
resumption of the struggle with the Hapsburgs, 
with the object of uniting all Italy into one 
nation under the king of Sardinia. He ob- 
tained a European reputation by the course he 
took in opposing the pope and the ultramon- 
tanes at home, and in joining France, Great 
Britain, and Turkey against Russia in the 
Crimean war. In conjunction with the mar- 
quis Villamarina, he represented Sardinia in 
the peace conference held at Paris in the 
spring of 1856. During the sittings of this 
conference he succeeded in winning over Na- 
poleon III. almost completely for his pur- 
poses, energetically protested against the con- 
tinued occupation of the Pontifical States by 
foreign troops, and represented the necessity 
of inducing the king of Naples to moderate 
his system of government. He also carried 
through the Sardinian parliament the measure 
for suppressing convents and monasteries, and 
secularizing their estates, which drew down 
upon him, and all who participated in the en- 
actment and execution of this statute, the ma- 
jor excommunication of the pope, and the hos- 
tility of a large portion of the Sardinian clergy 
and their supporters in parliament. Early in 
1859 the contest between Austria and Sardinia 
broke out afresh, the latter counting upon the 
support of France. The Sardinian army was 
put upon a war footing; and on April 23 Aus- 
tria demanded by an ultimatum that Sardinia 
should at once disarm. This was refused, and 
on the 27th the Austrians invaded Piedmont. 
The emperor Napoleon had promised to sup- 
port Sardinia in case of invasion, and on May 
8 he declared war against Austria. The vic- 
tories of Magenta and Solferino put it in the 
power of the allies to dictate their own terms, 
and nothing less than the entire abandonment 
of Italy by the Austrians was looked for. The 
treaty of Villafranca, leaving Austria in pos- 
session of Venetia, and eventually involving the 
cession of Savoy and Nice to France, which 
Napoleon unexpectedly concluded with Francis 
Joseph, without consulting Victor Emanuel, 
disgusted Cavour. He resigned his post as 
prime minister, and was succeeded by Rattazzi, 
whoso administration proved unsuccessful. In 
January, 1860, Cavour was again placed at the 
head of the government, with a ministry of his 



own choice. He ostensibly opposed the move- 
ment of Garibaldi against Sicily and Naples, 
but soon secretly aided him with all means at 
his disposal ; and Garibaldi, having been pro- 
claimed dictator there, made over his authority 
to Victor Emanuel, and the people of the Two 
Sicilies accepted him as their sovereign. Gen. 
Cialdini, first operating in the north against 
Lamoriciere, and then cooperating with Gari- 
baldi, completed the work, with the aid of the 
Sardinian fleet under Persano. On Dec. 23, 
1860, the decree appeared by which Sardinia 
(which had already absorbed Lombardy, Tus- 
cany, Parma, and Modena) and the Two Sici- 
lies, together with Umbria and the Marches, 
wrested from the pope, were united together 
as the kingdom of Italy, under the sceptre of 
Victor Emanuel. On Feb. 18, 1861, Cavour 
opened the first parliament of united Italy. 
Near the end of April there was a public avowal 
of the reconciliation between him and Gari- 
baldi, who had reproached him, among other 
things, with supineness in resisting the en- 
croachments of Napoleon. This was the last 
public act of Cavour. On May 30 he was at- 
tacked with a fever which ended his life. Ca- 
vour was one of the most enlightened, ver- 
satile, and energetic statesmen of the age ; and 
though by several of his proceedings he in- 
curred the bitter censures of D'Azeglio, Gari- 
baldi, and Mazzini, it is now conceded on all 
hands that to him more than any other man is 
owing the achievement of the unity of Italy. 
See Botta, " Life, Character, and Policy of Count 
Cavour" (New York, 1862), and Treitschke's 
brilliant essay, Cavour, in his Historische und 
politische Aitfsatze (new series, Leipsic, 1870). 
CAVY, a mammal of the order rodentia, family 
histricidcp, subfamily catiina (Waterhouse), and 
genera dolichotis and cavia. This subfamily is 
exclusively South American ; the molar teeth 
are f, without roots, those of the upper 
jaw converging and nearly meeting in front, 
incisors short ; four toes on the fore feet, and 
only three on the hind, and without clavicles. 
The cavies have been generally associated with 
the agoutis, and classed under the section sul- 
ungulata of Illiger, erroneously in the opinion 
of Mr. Waterhouse, though the two groups ap- 
proach each other in many respects. In some 
members of the subfamily, and probably in all, 
the fauces, or entrance to the throat, form a 
funnel-shaped cavity, opening backward into 
the pharynx by a small aperture capable of ad- 
mitting only very finely chewed food ; by the 
action of the muscles this conical cavity is made 
to pass over the epiglottis, preventing the en- 
trance of the food into the windpipe ; the stom- 
ach is simple, but the crecum is large and com- 
plicated. The molar teeth of the upper jaw 
have the entering fold of enamel on the inner 
side, while in the lower it is on the outer side ; 
the palatic portion of the skull in front of them 
is much contracted, and between them trian- 
gular, the posterior emargination being very 
deep, and exposing the anterior sphenoid bone ; 



CAVY 



in the lower jaw a well marked ridge extends 
along the outer side from the first molar, at 
first horizontally backward, but afterward 
curving upward to the condyloid portion, dis- 
tinguishing them from all other rodents; 
the condyle is but little elevated above the 
crowns of the molars, and the coronoid pro- 
cess is extremely small, in this and other par- 
ticulars resembling the tailless hares (lago- 
mys). The genus dolichotis (Desm.) is char- 
acterized by long limbs ; ears half as long as 
the head, pointed, broad at the base; tail 
very short, and curved upward; metatarsus 
clothed with hairs anteriorly, posteriorly with 
the heel naked ; molars small, the three front 
upper and the three posterior lower divided by 
folds of enamel into two equal lobes, the last 
upper and the front lower being three-lobed. 
The long legs, large ears, and distinct tail dis- 
tinguish this from the genus cavia, of which 
the Guinea pig is a well known example. 
The cavies approach the hares in their com- 
paratively short incisor teeth, the imperfect 
condition of the palate before alluded to, the 
narrow bodies of the sphenoid bones, and the 
small brain cavity ; the skull, however, is not 
so large in its facial portion, and is more de- 
pressed, with much smaller incisive openings. 
Uniting the two groups of the true cavies and 
the hares, comes the typical species of the genus 
dolichotis, the Patagonian cavy (D. Patachoni- 
ca, Shaw). This animal is from 2-J- to 3 ft. in 
length, about 13 inches high at the shoulders, 
weighing from 20 to 36 Ibs. when full grown. 
It inhabits the desert and gravelly plains of 
Patagonia, from about lat. 48 to 37i S., 
on the Atlantic coast, and extending into La 
Plata as far as Mendoza, 33i S. The fur is 
dense and crisp, gray on the upper parts of 
the head and body, yellowish rusty on the 
sides; chin, throat, and abdomen white ; rump 
black, with a broad white band immediately 




Patagonian Cavy (Dolichotis Patachonica). 

above the tail ; limbs rusty yellow, but gray- 
ish in front. It lives in burrows, but wan- 
ders occasionally to great distances from home 
in parties of two or three; it runs much 



like the rabbit, though not very fast ; it sel- 
dom squats like the hare, is very shy, and feeds 
by day ; it produces two young at a birth, in 
its burrow ; its flesh is white, but dry and 
tasteless. It has been generally mistaken by 
travellers for a hare, which it resembles in its 
legs, ears, and tail ; the head is large, termina- 
ting in a blunt muzzle clothed with hairs ; the 
upper lip is slightly notched; the mustaches 
are very long and black. The genus cavia 
(Klein) is characterized by short limbs and ears, 
by feet naked beneath, and by molars nearly of 
equal size, each with two principal lobes. The 
genus presents two modifications of the mo- 
lars: in one, the lobes are nearly equal, and 
the hinder lobe of the upper series has no dis- 
tinct indenting fold of enamel; for this F. 
Cuvier has instituted the genus cerodon, which 
Waterhouse retains as a subgenus ; in the other 
(containing the Guinea pig), the hinder lobe is 
the larger, and in the upper series has a deep 
indenting fold of enamel on the outer side, and 
the corresponding half of the lower molar 
with a deep fold on the inner side. The fol- 
lowing species belong to the subgenus cerodon; 
those of cavia proper will be described under 




Rock Cavy (Cerodon mpestris). 

GUINEA PIG. The rock cavy (C. rupestris, Pr. 
Max.) inhabits the rocky districts of the in- 
terior of Brazil, in the higher/ parts of the 
river courses. The nails are short, obtuse, 
and projecting from large fleshy pads ; the soft 
fur is of a grayish color, with a rufous tint on the 
back ; lower parts white, with a pale ochreous- 
yellow tint on the abdomen ; fore legs whitish 
with a rufous tinge, hind legs chestnut red 
behind. The length is about 14 inches, and it 
stands higher than most cavies. Its flesh is 
much esteemed by the Indians. The rufous- 
brown cavy (C.flamdens, Brandt) is somewhat 
larger than the Guinea pig, but its head, ears, 
and fur are shorter ; the incisors are yellow ; 
the color above inclines to a yellowish brown, 
below to yellowish white; it inhabits Brazil. 
Some of its varieties are of a rich rufous-brown 
color. Spix's cavy (C. Spixii, Wagler) in- 
habits Brazil from Rio de Janeiro to the Ama- 
zon ; the general color is gray, with a tinge of 
brown on the back; the space between the 
eye and ear, a patch behind the ear, and the 
lower parts white ; the incisors yellow. It is 
larger than the Guinea pig, with shorter and 
softer fur. The Bolivian cavy (C. Bolimentii, 



153 



CAWDOR 



CAXATAMBO 



Waterh.) inhabits the elevated regions of Boli- 
via ; the incisors are orange yellow ; general 
color of the fur gray, with a faint yellow tinge ; 
throat, abdomen, and feet whitish. It rarely 
exceeds 10 inches in length. Some of the 
lofty plains of the Andes are so undermined by 
the burrows of these animals, that every step 
of a horse is attended with danger. It is very 
shy. The southern cavy (C. amtrali*, Is. 
Geoff.) is found in Patagonia from the straits 
of Magellan to lat. 39 S. The incisors are 
white ; the fur soft and of a light grayish 
color; the eyes edged with white, and a spot 
of this color behind the ears. It is about 9 
inches long, and is very tame ; it lives in fami- 
lies, digging burrows in sandy hills overgrown 
with bushes; its food consists of seeds and 
green herbage, and it has been seen to ascend 
trees to feed on their fruits. It may be dis- 
tinguished from all others of the group by the 
shortness of the head and the comparative 
length of the tarsi. Numerous remains of 
fossil cavies have been found in the diluvial 
strata of Brazil ; M. Lund has described four 
species from the caverns of that country. 

CAWDOR, or Calder, a parish of Scotland, 
mostly in the county of Nairn, with a small 
section in Inverness ; area, 4 sq. m. It contains 
Cawdor castle, built in the 15th century, in 
which tradition asserts that King Duncan was 
murdered by Macbeth, thane of Cawdor, as 
narrated by Shakespeare. The murder, how- 
ever, took place in the llth century. Lord 
Lovat lay long concealed in this castle after the 
rebellion of 1745. 

CAWNPORE. I. A district of British India, 
in the Northwest Provinces, bounded N. E. by 
the Ganges, which separates it from Oude, and 
S. TV. by the Jumna, which divides it from 
Bundelcund; area, 2,348 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 
1,152,628, mostly Hindoos. The chief produc- 
tions are cotton, sugar, indigo, opium, satflower, 
wheat, barley, maize, pulse, tobacco, oil seeds, 
and potatoes. Schools are numerous. Good 
roads traverse the whole district, and the 
Ganges canal and great East Indian railway 
pass through it. It was ceded to the East 
India company in 1801 by the nawaub of Oude. 
II. The principal town of the district, situated 
on the right bank of tlie Ganges, here about a 
mile wide, near the junction with the Ganges 
canal, and on the East Indian railway, 120 m. 
N. TV. of Allahabad, 220 m. S. E. of Delhi, 
and 1,000 m. from Calcutta by river; pop. 
about 100,000, of whom half are distributed 
among the cantonments. It i& poorly built, 
and has but one mosque of any pretension to 
elegance ; but since its selection as a station for 
troops in 1777 it has acquired great commercial 
as well as military importance. The lines have 
accommodations for about 7,000 troops. The 
civilians, whose offices are in the native town, 
usually reside in the suburbs. There is here a 
Protestant church, and a free school, partly 
supported by a grant from the government, 
and attended by Hindoos, Mohammedans, and 



Europeans. "While the rebellion was raging 
throughout Bengal in 1857, the military force 
at Cawnpore, commanded by Sir Hugh Wheel- 
er, consisted of 3,800 men, of whom about 200 
were Europeans. In June, apprehending a re- 
volt, he threw up an intrenchment on the pa- 
rade ground, enclosing two barrack hospitals 
and a few other buildings, into which he with- 
drew with about 900 Europeans, of whom two 
thirds were women, children, and other non- 
combatants. On the 5th the rising took place. 
The native regiments marched off, taking with 
them horses, arms, and ammunition, and set- 
ting fire to the bungalows on their way. They 
placed themselves under the leadership of the 
rajah of Bittoor, commonly known as the Nena 
Sahib, seized 35 boat loads of shot and shell on 
the canal, and the next day appeared before 
the intrenchment. The siege lasted until the 
27th, when the Europeans, now reduced to 
less than half their original number, surrender- 




Memorial Building on the Scene of the Massacre. 

ed on promise of a safe passage to Allahabad. 
But no sooner had they embarked on the 
Ganges than they were fired upon from a 
masked battery. Many were killed in the 
boats, three or four made their escape, and the 
rest were captured and brought to land. The 
men were put to death ; the women and chil- 
dren were kept alive till July 15. when the 
Nena, hearing of Gen. Havelock's advance to- 
ward Cawnpore, caused them to be massacred, 
and had their bodies thrown into a well. 
After defeating in three battles a strong nativr 
force sent out to oppose his march, Haveloci 
entered the city July 18, while the Nena re- 
treated to Bittoor. Memorial gardens have 
been laid out around the scene of the massacre, 
and a church erected; also, a fine octagon 
building around the well, without a roof, en- 
closing an elaborate tomb. 

CAXAMARCA. See CAJAMABCA. 

CAXATAMBO. See CAJATAMBO. 



CAXIAS 



CAYENNE 



159 






CAXIAS, an inland town of Brazil, on the 
navigable river Itapicuru, in the province and 
about 300 m. S. S.E. of Maranhao, and 1,230 m. 
N. of Rio de Janeiro. It is a large town, the 
centre of an important trade with the interior 
in cotton, rice, and cattle, which last are raised 
in large numbers in the surrounding country. 

CAXIAS, Luis Alvrs de Lima, duke de, a Brazilian 
soldier and statesman, born in Rio de Janeiro 
about 1800. He entered the army while a boy, 
and rapidly rose to the ranks of general and 
baron, and subsequently to those of marshal, 
marquis, senator, and aide-de-camp of the 
emperor. He was twice a minister of war and 
also president of the council, exerting great 
political influence as a conservative leader. 
He defeated Rosas in 1851, and commanded 
against Lopez, 1866-'9. On account of ill 
health he was superseded by the count d'Eu 
after the capture of Asuncion, the emperor con- 
ferring upon him the title of duke. 

CAXTON, William, the first English printer, 
born in Kent about 1412, died in 1491 or 1492. 
In his 15th or 16th year he was apprenticed to 
Robert Large, a London mercer, who became 
lord mayor in 1439. In 1441 Caxton became 
a freeman of the mercers' company, who ap- 
pointed him their agent in the Low Countries, 
where he remained 23 years. In 1464 he was 
joined with Robert Whitehill in a commission 
to continue a treaty between Edward IV. of 
England and Philip, duke of Burgundy, or, if 
they thought it better, to make a new one. 
When the English princess Margaret of York 
married Charles of Burgundy, she took Caxton 
ito her household. While in her service he 
ranslated from the French into English Raoul 
le Fevre's Recueil des histoires de Troye. 
From the prologues and epilogues of this work 
appears that he was acquainted with the art 
of printing, and from the character of his types 
it is evident that he learned it in the Low 
Countries. The first three printed works of 
3axton were the original of Raoul's " History," 
the oration of John Russell on Charles, duke 
of Burgundy, being created a knight of the 
garter, and the translation of Raoul, the last 
completed in 1471. There is no certain evi- 
dence of the exact period of Caxton's return to 
England ; the usual supposition dates it in 1474 ; 
it is beyond doubt, however, that in 1477 he had 
aken up his quarters in the vicinity of West- 
linster abbey, London. His printing office 
was in the Almonry, as appears from an old 
placard preserved at Oxford, which reads as 
follows: "If it plese any man spirituel or tem- 
porel to bye ony Pyes of two and thre come- 
moracious of Salisburi vse enprynted after the 
forme of this present lettre whiche ben wel 
and truly correct, late hym come to West- 
monester in to the Almonesrye at the reed 
pale, and he shal have them good chepe." 
Caxton appears to have made use of several dif- 
ferent sets of letters, the facsimiles of all which 
are to be found in Dibdin's account of Caxton's 
works. He had at first two kinds of the sort 



called secretary; afterward he used three 
founts of great primer, a rude one employed in 
1474, and two improved sets later ; one fount 
of double pica, which first appears employed 
in 1490; and one of long primer. All his 
works were printed in black letter. Some 
entries in the parish accounts of St. Margaret, 
Westminster, in the year 1491 or 1492, are 
the only information we have of the date of 
his death: "Item; atte bureyng of William 
Caxton for iiij. torches vj". viij". Item; for 
the belle at same bureyng, vj d ." The largest 
collections of books from Caxton's press are 
those in the British museum, and in the library 
of Earl Spencer at Althorp. The names of 
about 64 productions are known. Warton 
says that by translating a great number of 
works from the French he did much in his day 
to enrich English literature. See Lewis's 
"Life of Caxton" (London, 1737); "The Old 
Printer and the Modern Press," by Charles 
Knight (1854 ; new ed., 1861) ; and " Life and 
Typography of William Caxton," by William 
Blades (2 vols. 4to, London, 1861). 

CAYCOS. See CAICOS. 

CAYENNE, a fortified maritime city, capital of 
French Guiana, on the W. point of an island of 
the same name, at the mouth of the Oyak river ; 
lat. 4 56' N., Ion. 52 20' W. ; pop. estimated 
at 5,700. Cayenne is a -penal settlement, the 
seat of a court of assize and an apostolic pre- 
fecture, and the centre of all the trade of the 
province. It has two distinct divisions, the old 
and the new town ; the former, with the gov- 
ernment house and the Jesuits' college, is ir- 
regular, and the houses are indifferently built ; 
while the streets of the latter are well laid out 
and paved, and kept in good order, and the 
dwellings neat, solid, and for the most part of 
pleasing appearance. The old and new towns 
are separated by the Place d'Armes, a spacious 
parallelogram fringed with orange trees. There 
are numerous warehouses, and/ but few public 
buildings worthy of mention. The port, one 
of the finest and most commodious on the 
coast, is protected by a fort commanding the 
town and several batteries ; but it is too shal- 
low to receive ships of much draft. It has 
convenient quays for loading and discharging 
vessels. The roadstead, though small, is unri- 
valled for beauty and convenience by any other 
on the W. shore of the South Atlantic. The 
island, 32 m. in circumference, is separated 
from the mainland by a narrow channel ; its 
surface is interspersed with small villages, in- 
habited chiefly by negroes (about 2,500). The 
principal products are sugar, molasses, cotton, 
coffee, and spices, which, with cacao, indigo, 
vanilla, and ebony, form the main exports. The 
climate is extremely unwholesome for Europe- 
ans, and large numbers of the convicts trans- 
ported thither have been carried off on many 
occasions by yellow and other malignant fevers. 
During the first French revolution the practice 
began of exiling political. offenders to Cayenne, 
the convention in 1795 decreeing the deporta- 



165 



VOL. IV. 11 



160 



CAYENNE PEPPER 



CAYLUS 



tion of Billaud-Varennes, Collot d'Herbois, 
Harare, and 13 others. Many were sent there 
by Napoleon III. Cayenne became a French 
colony about 1635. It was taken by the Eng- 
lish, who held it from 1654 to 1664, when it 
was retaken by the French. It again fell into 
the hands of the British in 1667 ; was conquer- 
ed by the Dutch in 1672, and recovered by the 
French in 1675; taken by the Portuguese and 
British in 1809, and finally restored in 1814. 

CAYENNE PEPPER. See CAPSICUM. 

CAYES, Anx. See Aux CAYES. 

CAYLA, Zo Victoire do, countess, a favorite 
of Louis XVIII., born at Boullay-Thierry, near 
Dreux, Aug. 5, 1785, died at Saint-Ouen, near 
Paris, March 19, 1852. She was the daughter 
of the royalist advocate Antoine Omer Talon 
(1760-1811) and the countess Pestre, and was 
educated under the direction of Madame Cam- 
pan. She acquired celebrity by her beauty, 
grace, and accomplishments, and married in 
1802 M. de Baschi, count du Cayla, who died 
in 1851. The union was unhappy, and they 
were formally separated after a protracted liti- 
gation. In 1807 she obtained the release of 
her father, who had been sentenced to trans- 
portation in 1804 as an agent of the Bourbon 
princes. After the restoration she gained con- 
siderable influence over Louis XVIIL, though 
the relation was, according to most authorities, 
purely platonic. The clerical party turned her 
influence to account in furthering their de- 
signs. Lafayette asserts in his memoirs that, 
at the king's request, she destroyed papers 
relating to an important lawsuit in which 
her father had been engaged as one of the 
Bourbon advocates. The aged monarch en- 
dowed her with a fine palace at Saint-Ouen, 
and lavished other gifts and favors upon her ; 
and she was believed to have increased her 
wealth by receiving bribes for securing appoint- 
ments to public offices. After her patron's 
death in 1824 she became chiefly known by 
industrial and agricultural enterprises. She 
founded the Savonnerie, a carpet manufactory 
(originally one of soap), which in 1826 was 
transferred to the Gobelins. Mehemet All 
having presented her with a long-haired Nu- 
bian rain, she raised by crossing with English 
sheep a new breed of these animals, to which 
her name has been given. 

CAYLEY, Arthur, an English mathematician, 
born at Richmond in 1821. He was educated 
at King's college, London, and afterward at 
Trinity college, Cambridge. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1849, and subse- 
quently practised as a conveyancer till 1863, 
when he was called to the newly instituted 
Sadlerian professorship of pure mathematics 
in Cambridge university, which post he still 
occupies (1873). He is a fellow of the royal 
society, and correspondent of the French insti- 
tute for the section of astronomy. He has 
contributed numerous valuable papers to the 
" Philosophical Transactions " and other scien- 
tific publications. 



CAYLEY, Sir George, an English philosopher,, 
born at Brompton, Yorkshire, in 1773, died 
Dec. 15, 1857. He undertook the analysis of 
the mechanical properties of air under chemical 
and physical action, and his papers on the sub- 
ject gave rise to many experiments on the 
navigation of balloons. His experiments on the 
steam engine led to his invention of the air 
engine. His discoveries in optics were followed 
by the invention of an instrument for testing 
the purity of water by the abstraction of light. 
He was also the inventor of an ingenious ar- 
rangement for obtaining and applying electric 
power to machinery. He was one of the ori- 
ginal promoters of the polytechnic institution 
at London. Toward the end of the last cen- 
tury he applied to his extensive estates in 
Yorkshire a new system of arterial drainage. 
He was also the father of the cottage allotment 
system. As a politician, he took a prominent 
part in the election of liberal members of par- 
liament. Upon the passing of the reform bill 
he was himself chosen member for Scarborough, 
but on account of age he soon retired. 

CAYLIIS, or Caylnx, a town of France, depart- 
ment of Tarn-et-Garonne, on the river Bon- 
nette, an affluent of the Aveyron, 26 m. N. E. 
of Montauban; pop. in 1866, 4,950. It has an 
active trade in agricultural products, and con- 
tains the ruins of a fortified castle. 

CAYLIIS. I. Marthe Margnerite de llllette de 
Murray, marquise de, a French woman of fash- 
ion, born in Poitou in 1673, died April 25, 1729. 
A descendant of D'Aubigne, she was converted 
to Roman Catholicism by her relative Mme. de 
Maintenon, and acquired celebrity as one of 
the brilliant wits and social leaders of the 
French court. Of a precocious beauty, she mar- 
ried in 1686 the marquis de Caylus, a drunkard, 
who died in November, 1704. Racine, delight- 
ed with her histrionic genius, wrote for her the 
prologue to his tragedy of Esther. Her fond- 
ness for raillery caused her banishment from 
the court. Her unhappy marriage led her on 
her return to accept the duke of Villeroi as 
her lover. Voltaire remarked that she could 
not have chosen better, but Mme. de Main- 
tenon, whom she humorously called Nero, 
had her once more sent out of the capital. She 
came back in February, 1707, and after Mme. 
de Maintenon's death in 1719 her lover resided 
permanently at her house. Her famous Sou- 
venirs were edited with notes and a preface by 
Voltaire (1770 ; new eds., 1804 and 1806), who 
regarded them as masterpieces of candor and 
wit ; and Sainte-Beuve assigned to her a distin- 
guished place in his Galeries des femmes celi- 
bres (1858). II. Anne Clande Philippe de Tnbieres, 
count, a French archaeologist, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris, Oct. 31, 1692, died Sept. 
5, 1765. He early entered the military ser- 
vice, and distinguished himself in the war of 
the Spanish succession. He then devoted him- 
self to literary pursuits and to travel, and pub- 
lished the results of his studies and researches 
in Recueil (Tantiquites egyptiennes, etrusques, 



CAYMAN 



CAZENOVIA 



161 



grecques, romaines et gauloises (7 vols. 4to). 
The last volume appeared in 1767, two years 
after his death. He wrote also several shorter 
works on art and antiquities, and a number 
of novels of no great merit. In 1805 appeared 
the Souvenirs du comte de Caylw (2 vols. 12mo). 

CAYMAN. See ALLIGATOR. 

CAYMANS, three small islands of the British 
West Indies, in the Caribbean sea, forming a 
dependency of Jamaica. They are low islands 
of coral formation, and two of them are barren 
and uninhabited. Grand Cayman, the largest, 
is 24 m. long by 2-J- broad, is covered with 
cocoanut trees, and has an anchorage on the 
S. W. side ; pop. about 1,600. The inhabitants 
are bold sailors, and much employed as pilots. 
They also catch large numbers of turtles on 
their shore, to supply the markets of Jamaica. 

CAYUGA, a central county of New York, 
bounded N. by Lake Ontario, W. by Cayuga 
lake, touching Skaneateles lake on the E., and 
traversed by the Seneca river and other smaller 
streams, which furnish abundant water power; 
area, about 752 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 59,550. 
The surface is undulating, the soil fertile; 
salt, gypsum, and limestone abound. Owasco 
lake, 10 m. long, lies in its centre. The South- 
ern Central, the New York Central, and Au- 
burn branch railroads traverse it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 622,237 bushels of 
wheat, 703,148 of Indian corn, 916,168 of oats, 
732,140 of barley, 397,747 of potatoes, 87,604 
tons of hay, 2,392,238 Ibs. of butter, 324,792 of 
wool, and 96,287 of tobacco. There were 14,- 
453 horses, 21,332 milch cows, 14,256 other 
cattle, 58,915 sheep, and 14,929 swine. There 
were 13 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 5 of boots and shoes, 1 of carpets, 31 of 
carriages and wagons, 2 of planes, 24 flour mills, 
27 saw mills, 6 manufactories of woollen goods, 
13 of iron, 10 brick kilns, 2 manufactories of 
files, 7 of furniture, 2 of hardware, 1 of sad- 
dlers' tools, 11 of ground plaster, 15 of tin, cop- 
per, and sheet-iron ware, and 7 of tobacco and 
cigars. Capital, Auburn. 

CAYUGA LAKE, in the central part of New 
York, separates Cayuga from Seneca coun- 
ty, and extends S. into Tompkins county. 
It is about 38 m. long, and from 1 to 3 m. 
wide, and is navigable in all parts, but for 
about 6 m. from its N. extremity it is compara- 
tively shallow. On advancing S. it becomes 
much deeper, and in some places is said to be 
unfathomable. It is rarely frozen over, except 
at the shallow portion. Its surface is 146 ft. 
above Lake Ontario, and 377 ft. above the sea. 
Its outlet is Seneca river on the north, which 
connects it with Seneca and Oneida lakes. 

CAYUGAS, one of the tribes of the Hotinonsi- 
onni or Iroquois, commonly known as the Six 
Nations. They called themselves Goiogwen or 
Gweugwen. They inhabited three or four 
villages in a pleasant district on Cayuga lake. 
They numbered when first known to the French 
about 300 warriors, and comprised the three 
families common to all, Turtle, Bear, and Wolf, 



and also the Beaver with the Deer, Snipe, 
Hawk, and Heron. They gave ten hereditary 
sachems to the league. As early as 1656 the 
French, by their missionaries Chaumonot and 
Menard, attempted to win them over; but 
though these missions were renewed and con- 
tinued by Carheil down to 1684, they made 
little impression on the tribe, which took part 
in all the wars against the French. In 1667 
a part of the tribe, hard pressed by the 
Susquehannas, crossed over to Quinte bay. 
Among the great chiefs of the tribe were Sa- 
onchiogwa, who became a Christian in 1671, and 
Oureouhare or Tawerahet, who was taken and 
sent to the galleys in France, but on his return 
became a firm friend of the French. During 
the American revolution they joined the Eng- 
lish, having already been in arms against the 
colonists at Point Pleasant in 1774. They 
greatly annoyed Gen. Clinton in his march to 
cooperate with Sullivan in 1779, and soon saw 
their villages destroyed. After the war they 
ceded all their land to the state of New York 
except a small reservation, which they aban- 
doned in 1800. Some joined the Senecas, some 
went to Grand river in Canada, and others to 
Sandusky, whence they were removed to the 
Indian territory. They have now dwindled to 
about 250. 

CAYX, Remi Jean Baptist* Charles, a Trench 
historian, born at Cahors in 1795, died in Paris 
in 1858. He studied in Paris, and became in 
1850 rector of the academy of the department 
of the Seine, after having occupied other im- 
portant positions as teacher and librarian, and 
from 1840 to 1845 a seat in the chamber of dep- 
uties. His Recits d'histoire ancienne (1823) 
and his Histoire de France pendant le moyen 
age (1835) passed through many editions; and 
his other writings include Histoire de I 'empire 
romain (2 vols., 1828). 

CAZALLA DE LA SIERRA, a town of Andalu- 
sia, Spain, in the province and 40 m. N. E. of 
Seville ; pop. about 6,500. It contains numer- 
ous religions edifice.?, ruined villas, and Roman 
and Arabic antiquities. 

CAZEMBE, a negro state in the interior of S. 
E. Africa, so called from the title of its sove- 
reign. It is situated S. of Lake Tanganyika 
and E. of Muroque, but its boundaries are not 
precisely known. Kecent travellers estimate 
the area at 120,000 sq. m., and the population 
at 500,000. The western part of the country 
consists of elevated plains. The most important 
river is the Luapula. The chief articles of trade 
are slaves, ivory, salt, and copper. The Ca- 
zembe resides in Lunda or Lucenda, a large 
town situated upon Lake Moero, lat. 9 30' S., 
Ion. 29 16' E. The country was visited in 1831 
by Gamito de Tete, a Portuguese. An account 
of his travels was published at Lisbon in 1854. 
Livingstone visited the country in 1867. 

CAZENOVIA, a town and village on a small 
lake of the same name in Madison co., New 
York; pop. of the town in 1870, 4,265; of the 
village, 1,718. It is the seat of a Methodist 



162 



CAZORLA 



CEBES 



seminary, which in 1871 had 12 instructors, 
655 pupils, and a library of 2,500 volumes. 

CAZORLA, a town of Andalusia, Spain, on 
the Vega, in the province and 44 m. E. N. E. 
of Jaen; pop. about 5,000. It is well built, in 
the form of an amphitheatre, on the sides of a 
mountain valley, and contains two spacious 
squares, one of which is adorned with a fine 
central fountain. It is defended by two old 
castles, one of them of Moorish origin, and has 
in its environs many gardens and public walks. 
Cazorla figured conspicuously in the Moor- 
ish contests of the 13th century. After re- 
peated attempts it was taken and partly burned 
by the French in 1811. 

CAZOTTE, Jacques, a French writer, born at 
Dijon in 1720, guillotined in Paris, Sept. 25, 
1792. He became first known by a prose poem, 
Olivier, somewhat in the style of Ariosto's 
poems. Soon a number of tales, full of wit and 
originality, among them Le didble amoureux 
and Le lord impromptu, added to his fame. He 
was endowed with such facility and power of 
imitation that in one night he wrote a sequel 
to Voltaire's poem, La guerre civile de Geneve, 
and so perfect was the imitation that no one 
doubted the addition to be Voltaire's own. 
Cazotte in his later years became one of the 
most fervent adepts of Illuminism and Martin- 
ism. Being a faithful royalist, he was arrested 
during the revolution, and escaped death in the 
September massacres through the heroism and 
entreaties of his daughter Elisabeth, but was 
soon arrested again, condemned by a tribunal, 
and executed. 

CEAN-BERMITDEZ, Joan Agnsttn, a Spanish 
archaeologist, born at Gijon, in Asturias, Sept. 
17, 1749, died in Madrid, Dec. 3, 1829. He 
devoted himself early to the study of the fine 
arts, into which he was initiated by Raphael 
Mengs. After holding a public office at Ma- 
drid, he retired to Seville, where he founded an 
academy of fine arts, and occupied himself with 
the study of their history. He was elected a 
member of the royal academies of history and 
fine arts at Madrid, and published several val- 
uable works connected with his favorite pur- 
suits, including a Diccionario historico de las mas 
ilustres profesores de las Bellas artes en Espafla 
(6 vols., Madrid, 1800), and Noticias de los ar- 
quitectos y arquitectura de Espafla (4 vols., 
1829). His most important book, entitled Su- 
mario de las nntiguedades romanas que hay en 
EspaHa, appeared posthumously in 1832. 

CEARl, a maritime province of Brazil, bound- 
ed N. by the Atlantic ocean, E. by the provinces 
of Rio Grande do Norte and Parahyba, S. by 
Pernambuco and W. by Piauhy; area, 42,634 
sq. m. ; pop. about 550,000. The province is 
divided into two portions by a line of moun- 
tains running from the coast, near the capital, 
S. S. W. to the Serra de Ibiapaba, a narrow 
range of highlands bordering the W. portion 
of the province. The S. E. half forms a single 
basin watered by the Jaguaribe, the most im- 
portant river in the province, and its affluents ; 



and the W. half is drained by a host of small 
rivers all flowing directly into the sea. The 
coast line is one vast sandy belt of inconsider- 
able elevation, varying in width from 12 to 18 
m. ; and the lands beyond, though so low and 
flat as to remind one of the pampas of the 
Argentine Republic, are very fertile. Still 
further westward the face of the country 
gradually rises toward the mountains, the 
whole region adjacent to which is made ex- 
tremely fertile by innumerable springs forming 
small streams. The climate, moist and tem- 
pered by refreshing sea breezes on the coast, 
is in the interior very hot and dry, although 
the temperature never rises above 95 F., nor 
descends below 64. The rainy season begins 
about February and lasts till June; the re- 
mainder of the year being without rain, all the 
running streams and rivers dry up, and the 
want of water is such at times as to oblige the 
inhabitants to abandon their homes. Among 
the more important natural productions are 
quina, ipecacuanha, tatajuba, mahogany, cedar, 
pao d'arco, carnahuba, and numberless other 
species of timber and woods valuable for build- 
ing, dyeing, &c. The caoutchouc tree (corypha 
cerifera, Martins) is so abundant in some parts 
that Gardner says he " rode for about two days 
through a forest of almost nothing else. Cot- 
ton, coffee, sugar cane, mandioca, maize, rice, 
some wheat, and other cereals are cultivated ; 
and most varieties of intertropical fruits are 
exceedingly abundant. The exports consist 
mainly of cotton, sugar, hides, India rubber, 
coffee, horns and bones, horse and cow hair, 
carnahuba wax and half-tanned hides. Cear& 
has about 100,000 horses and 600,000 head of 
horned cattle, and considerable cheese is made ; 
but large quantities of butter, cheese, and lard 
are imported. Much has been done by gov- 
ernment to improve the communication with 
the interior, and a railway from the capital to 
the great coffee district called Serra de Batu- 
rit6 is now (1873) in process of construction. 
The mineral productions are amethysts, gyp- 
sum, saltpetre, salt, alum, magnesia, carbonate 
of potassium, amianthus, lignite, gold, copper, 
zinc, galena, and graphite. Bones, and even 
perfect skeletons of huge mastodons, mega- 
theria, and other mammals, are abundant in 
many parts. The capital is Portaleza, and 
there are seven other small cities. 

CEBES, a Greek philosopher, lived in the 5th 
century B. C. at Thebes in Bceotia. He was a 
disciple of Socrates, and is introduced by Plato 
as one of the interlocutors in his " Phaedo." He 
was the author of three dialogues, " The Sev- 
enth " ('E/?(tyuj7), "Phrynichus," and " The Pic- 
ture " (Rival;), of which the last only is extant. 
It presents a picture of human life in the form 
of a philosophical allegory, and has been trans- 
lated into almost all the modern languages, 
even into Arabic. The best editions are those 
of Schweighauser (Strasburg, 1806) and of 
Coraes, in his edition of Epictetus (Paris, 
1826). 



CEBU 



CECIL 



163 



CEBfr , or Zebfi. I. An island in the Philip- 
pine archipelago, between Bohol and Negros, 
and between lat. 9 35' and 11 N., and Ion. 
123 and 123 50' E. It is a narrow strip of 
land, stretching N. N". E. and S. S. W. ; area, 
about 2,200 sq. m. It is of uneven surface and 
stony soil, little suited to agriculture, though 
there are some valleys of remarkable fertility, 
yielding cotton, sugar, rice, millet, tobacco, and 
cacao, the last of which is far superior to that 
of all the other Philippines. The climate, spite 
of its excessive heat, which is tempered by al- 
ternate land and sea breezes, is delightful and 
very salubrious. Magalhaens discovered the isl- 
and in 1521, and induced or constrained the 
people to embrace Christianity; but he was 
murdered on the adjacent island of Mactan in 
the same year. In 1565 Legarpi, the first 
Spanish governor, resorted to coercive meas- 
ures to reclaim the apostate natives, who after 
the death of Magalhaens had relapsed into idola- 
try; but their final and lasting conversion is 
due to the disinterested zeal and untiring efforts 
of Urdaneta, a Spanish priest. II. A town 
on the above island, capital of a province of the 
same name, comprising the islands of Cebu, 
Bohol, Mactan, Batayan, Sicijor, and Camotos, 
situated on the eastern shore of the island of 
Mactan. The houses are well built of stone, 
and are in general handsome and spacious. 
The most noteworthy among the public edi- 
fices are the cathedral and the episcopal pal- 
ace, both of elegant exterior; and there are 
besides a hospital for lepers and some school 
houses. The inhabitants comprise three races : 
the pure-blooded natives, mostly of the Bisa- 
yan race, with a few Tagals, though these are 
mostly confined to Luzon; Europeans; and 
mestizos descended from the early Spanish set- 
tlers and the native women. The mestizos, 
though extremely industrious, at the head of 
the commercial interests, and by far the wealthi- 
est class of the three, are yet constrained to 
live entirely by themselves ; and one half of the 
town, which is pretty equally divided by a 
stream or small river, is exclusively occupied 
by these half-castes, who are held in utter aver- 
sion by the pure-blooded races, foreigners as 
well as natives. Cebti is the seat of a bishop- 
ric, which has under its jurisdiction 13 of the 
35 provinces comprising the Spanish Philip- 
pines, and of the civil and military authorities 
of the province. The town carries on a con- 
siderable trade, chiefly with Manila. 

CECCO D'ASCOLI, an Italian savant and mar- 
tyr, whose real name was FRANCESCO (of which 
Cecco is a diminutive) STABILI, born at Ascoli 
in 1257, died in Florence, Sept. 16, 1327. He 
taught astrology, philosophy, and mathemat- 
ics, and to escape from penalties imposed upon 
him by the inquisition for his alleged hetero- 
doxy, he went in December, 1324, to Florence, 
where however he was handed over to the sec- 
ular courts as a heretic and sentenced to die 
at the stake. It has been asserted that he had 
been for some time physician to Pope John 



XXII. ; that from having been a friend of 
Dante he became an adverse critic of his wri- 
tings and of those of Guido Cavalcante ; and 
i that the admirers of the illustrious poet joined 
! the inquisitors who clamored for his death. 
But there is no conclusive authority for these 
and other statements in regard to him, except- 
ing in respect to the circumstances attending 
his death. He possessed an extraordinary 
amount of information for his day, as attested 
by his principal work, UAcerba, a kind of 
poetic cyclopasdia, in four parts, devoted to the 
sciences and to ethics, and finished only to the 
beginning of the fifth part, which he had re- 
served for theology. His writings were chiefly 
founded upon personal observations and experi- 
ments, and foreshadowed even the principle of 
the circulation of the blood. The work passed 
through 20 editions from the time of its first 
appearance (about 1473) to about 1523, the 
least imperfect being that of Venice, 1510. 

CECIL, a N". E. county of Maryland, border- 
ing on Pennsylvania and Delaware, and situ- 
ated at the head of Chesapeake bay, which 
forms its S. W. boundary ; area, about 300 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 25,874, of whom 4,014 were 
colored. Several bays indent it. Its W. bor- 
der is washed by the Susquehanna, and Sassa- 
fras river bounds it on the south. The surface 
is slightly uneven and the soil fertile. At Port 
Deposit are immense granite quarries, and the 
county also contains gneiss, slate, iron, chrome, 
and sulphate of magnesia. It is intersected by 
the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, 
the Port Deposit branch, and the Philadelphia 
and Baltimore Central railroads. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 365,818 bushels of 
wheat, 683,683 of Indian corn, 305,307 of oats, 
110,839 of potatoes, 19,986 tons of hay, 445,- 
720 Ibs. of butter, and 14,102 of wool. There 
were 4,824 horses, 5,797 milch cows, 7,471 
other cattle, 4,579 sheep, and 9,716 swine. 
There were 21 flour mills, 1 / manufactory of 
cotton goods, 7 of iron, 4 of paper, 2 of sashes, 
doors, and blinds, 5 saw mills, and 4 manufac- 
tories of woollen goods. Capital, Elkton. 

CECIL, Robert, earl of Salisbury, an English 
statesman, son of Lord Burleigh by Mildred, 
his second wife, born about the middle of the 
16th century, died at Maryborough, May 24, 
1612. He was of weakly constitution and 
deformed in person, but gifted with great 
acuteness and energy. On his election to par- 
liament as member for Westminster, his abili- 
ties attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth, 
who attached him to the French mission, and 
subsequently appointed him assistant secretary 
of state. The earl of Essex was at this time 
the queen's favorite. His influence and that 
of the Cecils, father and son, continually came 
into collision ; consequently a rivalry sprung up 
between them, which continued, openly or se- 
cretly, until Essex perished on the block. In 
1590 Secretary Walsingham died. Essex de- 
manded the office for a nominee of his own, 
while Burleigh requested it for his son Robert. 



164 



CECIL 



CEDAR 



The queen, unwilling to offend her favorite, 
left the appointment open, and Cecil was not 
installed as principal secretary of state till 
1596. While Essex was absent on the second 
Spanish expedition, Cecil contrived to procure 
for himself the chancellorship of the duchy 
of Lancaster, which the earl had requested for 
a friend. That quarrel was however made 
up, and Cecil, being sent to France, much 
against his will, to negotiate a peace between 
Henry IV. and the Spaniards, deemed it an 
effectual way of tying his rival's hands to con- 
fide the secretaryship to him during his own 
absence. Essex discharged the trust honorably. 
Cecil's first act on his return was to thwart 
Essex in his attempt to obtain the deputyship 
of Ireland for Sir George Carew, an incident 
which brought about the celebrated quarrel 
in which Elizabeth boxed her favorite's ears 
and told him to "go to the devil." Essex's 
fall was rapid, and Secretary Cecil was soon 
relieved from his rivalry. He is accused of 
having in like manner sacrificed Sir Walter 
Raleigh, while professing to be his friend. On 
the death of his father he was made pre- 
mier. Elizabeth placed confidence in his great 
ability, and he was at all times ready in appear- 
ance to sacrifice his own views to the "divine 
judgment of his sovereign." Yet in reality he 
endeavored with success, both in Elizabeth's 
reign and that of her successor, to restrain 
the power of the crown. Having secretly fa- 
vored the interests of James I., he was re- 
warded by that sovereign on his accession by 
being continued in office, and by being created 
in 1603 baron of Essendine, in 1604 Viscount 
Cranborne, and in 1605 earl of Salisbury. In 
1608 he succeeded Dorset as lord high treasurer, 
notwithstanding the exertions of his new rival, 
but former friend, Henry Howard, earl of 
Northampton, to obtain the office. When the 
gunpowder plot was found to be no fiction, he 
entered actively into the detection of the con- 
spirators. A work of his is extant, entitled 
" A Treatise against Papists." James had the 
highest opinion of his sagacity in discovering 
plots, and called him on that account by the 
familiar appellation of " my little beagle." He 
could not be brought, however, to assent to 
James's project for the incorporation of the 
two kingdoms. In all other matters the king 
followed his lead, asking nothing in return but 
money to carry on his extravagant expendi- 
ture. Thus the whole cares of the govern- 
ment were thrown on his shoulders. James 
had no order in his expenditure. The ordi- 
nary revenues being insufficient to meet his 
wants, imposts were laid on articles of com- 
merce by proclamation. The country denied 
the constitutionality of this proceeding, bat the 
court of exchequer decided in favor of the king. 
Cecil interposed between the king and the peo- 
ple. He asked, in conference of the two house* 
of parliament, that an immediate subsidy should 
be voted to liquidate the royal debt, and that 
an addition of 200,000 be made to the annual 



income, to prevent the recurrence of a similar 
exercise of the king's prerogative. Parliament 
retorted on the king by a demand for numerous 
reforms. After protracted conferences, both 
houses adjourned without granting the required 
supplies. The failure of his proposition was a 
source of bitter mortification to the treasurer. 
His health sank under a complication of disor- 
ders. Having tried the mineral waters of Bath 
without benefit, he set out for London, but died 
on the way. Lord Hailes published " Secret 
Correspondence of Sir Robert Cecil with James 
VI. of Scotland " (12mo, 1766). 

CECIL, William. See BUBLEIGH, LOBD. 

CECILIA, Saint, a Roman lady of high descent, 
born about the middle of the 2d or the com- 
mencement of the 3d century. Compelled by 
her parents to marry Valerian, a noble youth 
of Rome, although she had at an early age 
made a vow to consecrate her life to religion, 
she was eventually doomed to suffer martyr- 
dom ; and her husband, her brother-in-law, and 
another Roman, whom she is believed to have 
converted, were supposed to have met with the 
same fate. St. Cecilia is the chosen patroness 
of musicians, and from her skill in singing is 
especially regarded as the patroness of sacred 
music. St. Cecilia's day, Nov. 22, is annually 
celebrated in England by a musical festival. 
Several churches were built in her honor at 
Rome. Beautiful pictures of the saint were 
executed by Raphael and other celebrated 
painters, and Pere de Braillon of the Oratoire 
published in 1668 a work entitled, La se- 
pulture admirable de Sainte Cecile dan* sort 
eglise de Rome. 

CECROPS, first king of Attica, said to have 
reigned about 1550 B. C., and represented in 
the ancient legends as the civilizer of that 
country. He founded Cecropia, which at a 
later period became the Acropolis of Athens, 
and several other places ; divided Attica into 
12 communities; taught its inhabitants mo- 
rality and manners, marriage, and the wor- 
ship of the gods ; abolished bloody sacrifices, 
and introduced agriculture, navigation, ship 
building, and the culture of the olive. Ac- 
cording to some he was of Pelasgian origin, 
while others say he was the leader of an 
Egyptian colony from Sais. He reigned 50 
years. His merits were commemorated by a 
monument in the temple of Minerva, in favor 
of which goddess he is said to have decided a 
dispute with Neptune concerning the possession 
of Attica. He was also worshipped in the 
constellation of Aquarius. In sculpture he 
was represented as half man half woman, or 
half man half serpent ; hence he is sometimes 
styled &0wfa, twofold. 

CEDAR, the name of several species of ever- 
green trees of the order coniferce, the principal 
of which are the cedar of Lebanon (pinus ce- 
drus, Linn.), the cedar of Goa (cupressu* Lmi- 
tanica, Linn.), the Indian cedar (pinus deodara, 
Lambert), the white cedar (cupressus thyoides, 
Linn.), and the red cedar (juniperm Virginiana, 






CEDAR 



165 



Linn.). The cedar of Lebanon, or cedar larch, 
is a native of the coldest parts of Mt. Lebanon 
and the range of the Taurus, and from its 
superior magnificence became with Scripture 




Cedars of Lebanon. 



writers a favorite emblem for greatness, splen- 
dor, and majesty. The durability and fragrance 
of its wood caused it to be sought for costly 
buildings, as the palace of David and the tem- 
ple of Solomon. Though it formerly covered 




Cones of Cedar of Lebanon. 



Lebanon with dense forests, so that fourscore 
thousand hewers were employed by Solomon 
in obtaining timber from them, yet the de- 
struction of the trees for architectural purposes 
was more rapid than their growth, and in 
the 6th century Justinian found it difficult to 
procure cedar timber enough for the roof of 
a single church. At present they appear to 
be confined to a few localities, the most fre- 
quently visited among them being a valley in 
the Lebanon range, about 15 m. from the sea, 
&t an elevation of 6,000 ft. Belon, in 1550, 



counted here 28 cedars; Rauwolf, in 1574, 
found 24, and two others the branches of 
which were decayed through age ; De la 
Roque, in 1588, found 20; Maundrell, in 1696, 
16 ; Pococke, about 
1740, counted only 15. 
Graham measured 12 
trees whose circumfer- 
ence was from 22 to 
40 ft., the largest trees 
having a diameter of 
about 16 ft. Around 
these there is a grove 
of several hundred 
smaller trees, appar- 
ently of a different 
species of cedar. See- 
tzen, Ehrenberg, Berg- 
gren, and Bov6 have 
described other groves. 
Henry H. Jessup, an 
American missionary 
in Syria, in 1867 de- 
scribed eleven distinct 
groves of cedars, five 

in northern and six in southern Lebanon. 
The cedar of Goa is found wild in parts of 
India and Japan, and has been naturalized in 
Portugal around Cintra. It is the handsom- 
est tree of the genus cupressm, and distin- 
guished by its abundance of long dichoto- 
mous pendent branchlets. The Indian cedar 
is a large tree found wild on the mountains 
of Nepaul and Thibet, at a height of about 
10,000 ft. above the sea. Its timber possess- 
es the qualities attributed by the ancients to 
the cedar of Lebanon, being compact, resin- 
ous, and fragrant. It is much used for build- 
ing in India, and has been introduced into 




Bed Cedar. 



England as an ornamental tree. The white 
cedar is an abundant tree in swamps in the 
United States southward from Massachusetts 
and Ohio, reaching a height of from 30 to 70 



160 



CEDAR 



CEDRON 



ft. It has a fibrous, shreddy bark ; leaves of 
a dull, glaucous-green color, very small and 
scale-like; and an exceedingly durable wood 
of a reddish color. Every part of the tree is 
strong-scented. It is used as a material for 
fences, and is in the highest esteem for shingles 
and coopers' staves. The red cedar is a native 
of North America, the West Indies, and also 
Japan, and attains a height of from 15 to 30 
ft. Its wood is odorous, of a bright red color, 
very compact and durable, and offensive to 
most insects. It is much used for the purposes 
of the cabinetmaker and for the outsides of 
black-lead pencils. In California several va- 
rieties of the cedar attain an immense size. 

CEDAR. I. An E. county of Iowa, inter- 
sected by Cedar and Wapsipinicon rivers ; 
area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 19,731. Cedar 
river, from which the county is named, flows 
through a narrow pass in the W. part, on 
either side of which its rocky banks rise per- 
pendicularly to a great height. The surface 
is diversified by fertile undulating prairies and 
woodlands. The S. W. corner is touched by 
the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad, 
and the Chicago and Northwestern railroad 
passes through it. The chief productions in 
1870 were 632,878 bushels of wheat, 2,203,802 
of Indian corn, 723,312 of oats, 141,182 of 
barley, 92,937 of potatoes, 20,916 of flax-seed, 
38,820 tons of hay, 28,656 Ibs. of cheese, 741,- 
650 of butter, and 35,087 of wool. There were 
8,553 horses, 9,194 milch cows, 15,403 other 
cattle, 7,481 sheep, and 31,898 swine. There 
were 8 manufactories of carriages and wagons 
and 6 of saddlery and harness. Capital, Tip- 
ton. II. A N. E. county of Nebraska, sepa- 
rated from Dakota on the N. E. by the Mis- 
souri river, and watered by its affluents and 
those of the Elkhorn ; area, 650 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 1,032. The surface is diversified, the 
noil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 
24,555 bushels of wheat, 16, 900 of Indian corn, 
11,875 of oats, 12,190 of potatoes, and 3,214 tons 
of hay. There were 224 horses, 557 milch 
cows, 1,324 other cattle, and 752 swine. Cap- 
ital, St. James. III. A S. W. county of Mis- 
souri, intersected by Sac river ; area, 435 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,474, of whom 111 
were colored. Its surface is uneven, the soil 
productive. A railroad connects it with Fort 
Scott, Kansas, and with the Atlantic and Pacific 
railroad at Lebanon. The chief productions in 
1870 were 59,377 bushels of wheat, 326,060 of 
Indian corn, 49,588 of oats, 17,070 of potatoes, 
1,102 tons of hay, and 37,465 Ibs. of tobacco. 
There were 3,089 horses, 2,347 milch cows, 
5,680 other cattle, 7,750 sheep, and 11,774 
swine. Capital, Stockton. 

CEDAR BIRD (bombycilla cedrorum,, Vieill. ; 
ampelis cedrorum, Baird), a bird of the wax- 
wing family, smaller, more southern, and less 
migratory than the A', garrulu*, Linn. (See 
WAXWING.) The general color is reddish olive, 
passing into purplish cinnamon anteriorly, ashy 
behind, and yellow below ; chin black ; under 



tail coverts white, but no white on the wings - T 
in other respects like the waxwing. It occurs 
throughout North America, from Canada to 
Central America ; it is usually seen in flocks, 




Cedar Bird (Bombycilla cedrorum). 

flying high and rapidly. The food consists of 
berries and small fruits of all kinds, which it 
eats to repletion and sometimes to its destruc- 
tion ; it takes its name from its fondness for 
the berries of the red cedar ; it also eats in- 
sects. It is a handsome and sprightly bird, 
but has no song. It becomes very fat in sum- 
mer and autumn, and is then highly esteemed 
as food in the southern states. It breeds in 
June, making a nest of grass in orchard and 
cedar trees ; the eggs are three or four, pur- 
plish white with black spots. There is a spe- 
cies in Japan, which has no red appendages on 
the wings. 

CEDAR MOUNTAIN, an isolated conical hill in 
Culpeper co., Virginia, near which was fought, 
Aug. 9, 1862, a sharp action between a Union 
force under Gen. Banks, belonging to the army 
of Virginia under Gen. Pope, and the con- 
federates under Gen. Jackson. Toward even- 
ing Gen. Banks fell back to meet supports 
which Gen. Pope had pushed forward. The 
confederates retained possession of the battle 
field, but two days afterward fell back to Gor- 
donsville, toward which Gen. Lee was moving 
with his whole army. The confederate loss was 
223 killed, 1,060 wounded, and 81 missing; to- 
tal, 1,314. The Union loss was about 1,400 
killed and wounded, and 400 prisoners, besides 
many stragglers who never returned to their 
commands. 

CEDAR SPRINGS, a post village of Spartan- 
burg co., S. C., 5 m. E. S. E. of Spartanburg. It 
is an old watering place, and the seat of a deaf 
and dumb asylum, which in 1871 had two in- 
structors and 15 pupils. The Spartanburg 
and Union railroad passes through the village. 

CEDRON, a medicinal extract from the seeds 
of simaruba cedron, a small tree of the order 
simarubacece, growing in Colombia and Cen- 
tral America. The whole plant appears to 
be impregnated with a bitter principle, al- 



CEFALU 



CELEBES 



though the seeds only are used. Its action on 
the system appears to be that of a pure bitter. 
(See BITTER PRINCIPLES.) Antiperiodic virtues 
are claimed for it when given in larger doses 
than the ordinary ones of one or two grains. 
For nearly two centuries it has had a great 
reputation in its native country as a remedy 
for the bite of serpents and for the prevention 
of hydrophobia. It is applied both internally 
and locally. 

CEFALU (anc. Cephalcedis), a fortified sea- 
port town of Sicily, on tlie N. coast, in the 
province and 39 m. E. S. E. of Palermo ; pop. 
about 12,000. It is the seat of a bishopric, 
and contains a fine cathedral and several other 
churches. The remains of a Phoenician edifice, 
a castle built by the Saracens, and several mar- 
ble quarries are in the vicinity. Sea fishing is 
prosecuted with great activity. The port is 
capable of receiving only a small number of 
vessels. 

CEIIEJI1V, a town of Spain, on the Caravaca, in 
the province and 35 m. W. by N. of Murcia ; pop. 
about 6,200. It contains numerous handsome 
houses built of marble from the neighboring 
quarries, and has manufactories of paper, cloth, 
soap, and pottery, oil and brandy distilleries, 
and commerce in wine, fruits, grain, wool, 
hemp, flax, and cotton. 

CEILLIER, Dom Remi, a French theologian, 
born at Bar-le-Duc in 1688, died at Flavigny, 
Burgundy, Nov. 17, 1761. He was a member 
of the Benedictine order, president of the con- 
gregations of St. Vannes and St. Hydulphe, 
and prior of the abbey of Flavigny. His prin- 
cipal work, Histoire generale des auteurs sacres 
et ecclesiastiques (24 vols., Paris, 1729-'82 ; new 
ed., 8 vols., 1858), is celebrated for accuracy 
and good judgment. 

CELAKOVSKY, or Czelakowsky, Frantisek Ladis- 
la?, a Bohemian poet and philologist, born at 
Strakonitz, March 7, 1799, died in Prague, Aug. 
5, 1852. He studied at Pisek, Linz, and subse- 
quently at Prague, where he became interested 
in the Czech language. In 1821 he became 
instructor in the family of Count Chotck, 
which left him time for literary pursuits, and he 
published " Poems " (Prague, 1822 ; new ed., 
1830), "Slavic National Songs" (3 vols., 1822- 
'7), and a metrical translation of Scott's "Lady 
of the Lake " (1828). In 1828 he became as- 
sociate editor of the " Quarterly Review for 
the Catholic Clergy," and in 1829 published a 
translation of Russian national songs, which 
occupies a high place in Bohemian literature. 
When the Polish insurrection broke out in 1830 
he sympathized with Russia ; but after the in- 
surrection was suppressed he Avrote an article in 
the "Bohemian Gazette," of which he had be- 
come editor, in which he denounced the sever- 
ity of the Russian government against Poland. 
In consequence of this article he was deprived 
of his post as editor of the " Gazette," and also 
of that of professor of Bohemian literature in 
the university of Prague, to which he had been 
appointed. He then became librarian of 



Prince and afterward of Princess Kinsky, and in 
1842 professor of Slavic languages and litera- 
ture at the university of Breslau. In 1848 he 
returned to Prague, where in the following 
year, as an act of concession toward the Czech 
nationality, he was appointed by the Austrian 
government professor of Slavic philology. One 
of his latest works was the " Popular Philoso- 
phy of the Slavic Nations in their Proverbs " 
(Prague, 1851). He was engaged from the 
year 1835 in a comparative study of all the 
Slavic dialects, and parts of its results were 
published in the form of additions to Jung- 
mann's Czech dictionary. 

CELANDINE (chelidonium majm), a plant of 
the order papaveracece, indigenous in Europe, 
but never wild in this country. It is one or 
two feet high, bears pinnate leaves and small 
peduncled umbels of yellow flowers, and when 
wounded emits a yellow, opaque juice. It 
contains several peculiar acid and alkaline prin- 
ciples, one of which, chelerethrine, is probably 




Celandine (Chelidonium majus). 



identical with the active principle of bloodroot, 
a plant to which celandine is botanically al- 
lied. Chelerethrine, which receives its name 
from the intensely red color of its salts, ap- 
pears to be an acrid narcotic poison. The 
whole plant is an acrid purgative. The juice is 
exceedingly irritant, and when applied to the 
skin produces inflammation and even vesica- 
tion. It was formerly esteemed in jaundice, in 
which affection it may have been useful on ac- 
count of its purgative properties, although it is 
not improbable that its reputation was largely 
founded upon the color of its juice. This is 
applied locally in some skin diseases, and the 
whole plant is used externally in the south of 
Europe as a vulnerary. Its real value is prob- 
ably not greater than that of many other vio- 
lent purgatives and irritants. 

CELEBES, an island of the Malay or East In- 
dian archipelago, under the control of the 
Dutch, situated E. of Borneo, and like that 



168 



CELEBES 



island crossed by the equator. It lies between 
lat. 1 50' K and 5 30' S., and Ion. 119 and 
125 E., and is bounded N. by the Celebes sea, 
E. by the Molucca passage and Banta sea, S. by 
the Flores sea, and W. by Macassar strait, which 
separates it from Borneo by an average distance 
of 120 m., though the breadth of the strait is 
only about 60 m. at the narrowest part. The 
outline of Celebes is exceedingly irregular, and 
has been compared to the form of a huge grass- 
hopper. The island is perhaps best described 
as a nucleus with its centre on the 120th me- 
ridian, 2 S. of the equator, whence radiate four 
penins'ulas : one northward along the 120th 
meridian to about lat. 1 N., and thence easter- 
ly and northerly about 380 m. to near Ion. 125 
E., which is sometimes called the Menado penin- 
sula, and terminates at Cape Polesan in the 
province of Minahasa ; one eastward, known as 
the Balante peninsula, 182 m. in length, and 
separated from the preceding by the gulf of 
Tomini or Gorontalo ; one in a southeasterly 
direction to a distance of 170 m., called the 
Tabunku peninsula, with the Tolo gulf lying 
between it and Balante; and one southward, 
W. of the Boni gulf, which also washes the 
W. shore of the Tabunku peninsula, to the 
southernmost extremity of the island, including 
the Dutch settlement of Macassar. The maxi- 
mum length of Celebes from N. to S. lies along 
the 120th meridian, and is nearly 500 m. The 
greatest distance from E. to W., measured 
along the northern peninsula, is not far from 
800 m. There are about 2,600 m. of seacoast. 
Wallace says the size of Celebes is about equal 
to that of Ireland ; by the Dutch and other 
authorities its area is stated to be upward of 
70,000 sq. m., or more than twice as great. 
The population was formerly estimated at be- 
tween 2,000,000 and 3,000,000, but probably 
does not exceed 1,000,000. The interior of 
Celebes is elevated and generally mountainous, 
but nowhere volcanic except near the eastern 
end of the northern peninsula, in a district 
which it has been conjectured was once a sepa- 
rate island. Each peninsula is traversed by a 
range of mountains, the loftiest summit in Cel- 
ebes being Lompo-Batang, near Macassar, 8,200 
ft. high. The prevailing rock in this part of the 
island is limestone, resting on basalt. A consid- 
erable thickness of vegetable mould is found 
even on the hill tops and steeper mountain 
slopes. There are 11 volcanoes in Minahasa, and 
earthquakes are of frequent occurrence there. 
The principal volcanic peaks are Mt. Klabat, 
6,560 ft.; Mt. Lokon, 5,140 ft.; Mt. Sudara, 
" the Sisters," consisting of twin cones, of which 
the highest is 4,390 ft. ; and Batu Angus, in Ma- 
lay "the Hot Rock," which is in fact a volcano 
with its top blown off, and has an elevation of 
2,290 ft. The rocks of this region are trachytic 
lavas, volcanic sand and ashes, pumice stone, 
and conglomerates. The decomposition of vol- 
canic products has rendered whole districts 
prodigiously fertile. Hot springs and miniature 
volcanoes which emit boiling mud exist in this 



I portion of Celebes. The largest river of the 
island is the Chinrana, which flows from Lake 
Labaya a distance of 53 m. into the Boni gulf. 
The lake, which is also called Sedenveng, is in 
the country of the Bughis, whose boats throng 
its waters. It is 24 m. long, 13 m. wide, and 
varies in depth, according to the season, from 
32 to 60 ft. In Minahasa, the lower part of an 
elevated plateau is occupied by a beautiful lake 
called Tondano, at a height of 2,272 ft. above 
the level of the sea. It extends about 17 m. 
j in a northerly and southerly direction, and is 
! from 2 to 7m. wide. Its greatest depth is 74 
j ft. A stream of considerable size known as 
the Boli enters the sea on the N. coast, and on 
the W. coast, S. of Macassar, is the mouth of 
another river. The island is for the most part 
well watered by small streams. The natural 
history of Celebes presents some striking pecu- 
liarities. The island is not only remarkable 
for the individuality of its animal productions, 
but also for the absence of groups found else- 
where throughout the region of zoological dis- 
tribution of which it is the geographical centre. 
Wallace says that in order to account for the 
number of animal forms possessed by Celebes 
which show no relation to those of India or 
Australia, we must assume that it is one of the 
oldest parts of the archipelago, and dates from 
a period when the land that constitutes Bor- 
neo, Java, and Sumatra had not risen above 
the ocean. Of the 14 species of terrestrial 
mammalia, 10 are peculiar to the island, a 
lemur, a deer resembling a Javan species, and 
the common Malay civet being met with else- 
where as well. Among those which are dis- 
tinctive, the most noteworthy is the sapi-utan 
or wild cow of the Malays (anoa depressicor- 
wis), which frequents the mountains only, and 
is described as a creature resembling the ox- 
like antelopes of Africa. The other mammalian 
species peculiar to Celebes are : a black baboon - 
Hke monkey (cynopithecug nigresceiui), with a 
tail scarcely long enough to be visible ; a pecu- 
liar wild hog; five species of squirrels ; and two 
species of eastern opossums. Seven species of 
bats are known to exist. The island is the chief 
habitat of the babyroussa. Of birds there 
are 191 species, 128 of which are land birds, 
and 80 strictly confined to Celebes. They com- 
prise hawks, crows, parrots, owls, woodpeck- 
ers, cuckoos, bee-eaters, hornbills, fly-catchers, 
starlings, pigeons, and the curious maleo (mega- 
cephalon rubripes), a gallinaceous bird allied to 
the Australian brush turkey. Pythons and other 
serpents are very numerous, the former attain- 
ing a length of 15 ft. Insect life is abundant, 
the number of peculiar species being large. 
Millipeds 8 and 10 inches long frequent houses 
in the rainy season. The uncultivated portions 
of Celebes are covered with forest, abounding 
in the luxurious vegetation of an equatorial 
climate, such as pandani, tree ferns, the wild 
jackfruit tree, and palms, including the cocoa- 
nut, the betelnut, the sago, the sugar palm 
(arenga saccharifera), and the gomuti palm, the 



CELEBES 



CELERY 



169 



fibres of which are manufactured by the natives 
into a sort of coarse rope called coir. The 
fruits of Celebes are bananas, breadfruits, duri- 
ans, lansiums, limes, mangosteens, oranges, pine- 
apples, pompelmuses or shaddocks, and those 
already referred to. Rice and coffee are the most 
important agricultural productions. Cacao, cot- 
ton, maize, and tobacco are also raised, the last j 
named only for home consumption. Rice can 
be profitably cultivated up to an elevation of 
4,500 ft., and coffee between that and an alti- j 
tude of 1,000 ft. above the sea level. The an- i 
nual yield of the Dutch government coffee plan- ! 
tations on the table lands of Minahasa is about 
5,000,000 Ibs. The coffee raised here is supe- 
rior to any from Java, and commands a higher 
price. Gold occurs in very considerable quan- 
tities, not only throughout the whole northern 
peninsula, but also near the southern extremity 
of the island, S. of Macassar. It is sold by the j 
native chiefs to the Bughis, who pay for it 
more liberally than the Dutch. The iron ore j 
of the island is of a superior quality, and tin 
and copper are also found. The native inhabi- 
tants of Celebes are in part governed by their 
own kings, but these are dependent upon the 
Dutch government. All appear to belong to the 
Malay race. The Bughis constitute the most 
numerous and active portion of the population, 
And are famed as sailors and traders through- 
out the archipelago, every important island of 
which is visited by their light vessels known as 
praus. They occupy that part of the S. W. 
peninsula lying between lat. 3 30 and 5 S. 
They are one of the four true Malay tribes, 
Mohammedans in religion, and speak the Bughis 
and Macassar languages, for which they have 
two different written characters. The Bughis 
sailors are wild and ferocious in appearance, 
but of quiet and peaceable disposition. The 
.aborigines of northern Celebes are classed with 
the savage Malays, although the civilizing in- 
fluence exerted by the Dutch since the intro- 
duction of coffee cultivation in 1822 has greatly 
promoted their advancement. They are short 
in stature, of light-brown complexion, with 
projecting cheek bones, and have long, straight, 
black hair. Up to a comparatively recent period 
they were addicted to head-hunting like the 
Dyaks of Borneo, and even to cannibalism ; 
but they are obedient servants, gentle and in- 
dustrious, and readily assume the manners and 
habits of civilized life. A people called the 
Mandhars dwell in the most western part of 
the island, N. of Macassar. Menado, the Dutch 
capital of the northern portion of the island, is 
& free port and town of 2,500 inhabitants, on 
the Celebes sea. Kema is a place of 2,000 in- 
habitants on the opposite shore, used as the 
port of the province during the prevalence of 
the western monsoon, which renders Menado 
difficult of access for ships. Macassar or 
Vlaardingen, the chief Dutch town on the 
island, in lat. 5 9' S., Ion. 119 36' E., is a | 
fortified free port, with good anchorage, and 
carries on a considerable trade with China, 



especially in tripang or sea slugs, of. which the 
yearly exports are valued at $600,000. Other 
articles of export from Celebes, in addition to 
coffee and rice, comprise tortoise shell, which 
is abundantly obtained on the coasts, Macassar 
horses, which are sold in Java, and variegated 
mats. The first mention of Celebes by any 
European writer is believed to be in a work by 
the Portuguese historian De Barros, who lived 
in the 16th century and wrote an account of 
the conquests of his countrymen in the East 
Indies. According to this, the island was dis- 
covered in 1525 by Portuguese from the Moluc- 
cas, who sought si Icibih, "still more" gold 
and spices than they had already found. Touch- 
ing at the points of two peninsulas, they be- 
lieved they had visited two islands, and so de- 
scribed the discovery in their report as as ilhas 
Cellebes, a designation which has remained 
substantially unchanged. This name, however, 
is not known to the natives, who generally call 
the country Negri Bughis, or Bughis land. 
The conversion of the more advanced tribes of 
the island to Mohammedanism was effected a 
few years after the arrival of the Portuguese, in 
spite of the efforts of their Christian mission- 
aries. The first intercourse of the Dutch with 
the island was in 1607. They expelled the 
Portuguese from the Macassar country in 1660, 
and establishing themselves on the island main- 
tained their position there until expelled by the 
British in 1811. Their possessions were re- 
stored to them by the treaty of 1815. 

CELEBES, in Roman antiquity, a body guard 
instituted by Romulus, composed of 300 young 
men of the most illustrious families. They 
were elected by the suffrages of the 30 curia3, 
each of which furnished 10. The name has 
been derived by some from the name of their 
first chief, but more probably was given to 
them in allusion to the rapidity with which 
they executed their orders. Their commander 
was called the tribune of the celeres, and was, 
after the king, the highest officer in the state. 
This office was held by Brutus when he ex- 
pelled the Tarquins from Rome. The celeres 
are thought by Niebuhr to have been the pa- 
tricians in general, so called because they could 
keep horses or fought on horseback, and thus to 
correspond with the later equites or knights. 

CELERY (apium graveolens, Linn.), an um- 
belliferous plant chiefly cultivated for salad. In 
its wild state, in which it is found in ditches 
throughout Europe, it is rank, coarse, and even 
poisonous; but by cultivation in gardens it be- 
comes sweet, crisp, juicy, and of an agreeable 
flavor. Its green leaves, stems, and seeds are 
used in soups, and the blanched stalks either 
in that way, or more usually as a salad. One 
variety, called the celeriac, is raised only for 
the root or base of the leaves, which becomes a 
white, solid bulb. Celery requires a deep, 
rich, well drained soil. The seed is sown in a 
bed, from which the plants are transferred to 
another when they are 2 or 3 inches high. At 
8 or 12 inches' height they are transferred for 



170 



CELESTE 



CELESTINE 



blanching to trenches which are nearly a foot 
in depth. The plants are repeatedly earthed up 
till they have risen two feet or more above the 




Celery (Aplum graveoleng). 

natural surface. Celeriac is not blanched, but 
grows openly, exposed to the light. 

CELESTE, 'Madame, an English dancer and 
actress, born in Paris, Aug. 16, 1814. Though 
of French parentage, and a pupil of the con- 
servatory of the then royal academy of music, 
she has been connected from her earliest life 
with the English and American stage. In her 
15th year she came to the United States, where 
she married Mr. Elliot ; but her husband soon 
dying, she left for England, and in 1830 made 
her first appearance in Liverpool as Fenella 
in Masaniello. She soon became very popu- 
lar, especially in London, as Matilda in the 
"French Spy." In 1834-7 she again per- 
formed in the United States, where she ac- 
quired a considerable fortune. In 1837 she 
first appeared as an actress at Drury Lane and 
the Haymarket theatres, London, and in 1838- 
'40 in the United States. In 1843 she joined 
Mr. Webster in the management of a theatre 
at Liverpool, and in 1844 of the Adelphi in 
London ; and subsequently she was the lessee 
of the Lyceum till about 1861, having revisited 
the United States in 1851-'3, where she ap- 
peared again in 1865, still displaying undimin- 
ished histrionic power. Her most popular 
parts were Miami in the "Green Bushes," 
Miriam, and the Woman in Red. She returned 
to England in 1868, and retired from the stage 
Oct. 22, 1870. 

CELESTINE, the name of five popes. I. Saint, 
a Roman, died April 6, 432. He was related 
to the emperor Valentinian II., was created 
cardinal deacon by Innocent I., and succeeded 
Pope Boniface, Nov. 3, 422. The heresy of 
Nestorius induced him* to convoke the coun- 
cil of Ephesus in 431, at which there were 200 
bishops assembled, and which was presided 
over by his three legates. Celestius, the chief 



of the Pelagians, having retired into Britain, 
he sent missionaries there, who in the space of 
two years brought back that country to the 
faith. Shortly after this he sent Palladius to 
Scotland, and St. Patrick to Ireland. Some 
epistles of this pope have been preserved, but 
those written to the bishops who had taken 
part in the election of Nestorius and to Fuen- 
gius have been lost. II. Gnido di Castello, a 
disciple of. Ab61ard, died March 8, 1144. He 
was created cardinal priest by Honorius II., 
and made governor of Benevento by Innocent 
II., at whose death he was elected pope, Sept. 
26, 1143. As soon as he had ascended the pon- 
tifical throne he received ambassadors from 
Louis VII., who came to supplicate peace, and 
also absolution from the ecclesiastical censures 
under which the kingdom had been laid by his 
predecessors. The pope granted their request 
in the presence of the nobles of Rome. He held 
the see five months. Only three epistles of his 
are extant. III. Giacinto Orsinl, born in Rome 
in 1106, died Jan. 8, 1198. He was created 
cardinal by Honorius II., and elected pope 
when past 80 years of age, March 30, 1 191. The 
day after his consecration he crowned the em- 
peror Henry VI. and his empress Constance. 
After the coronation the emperor restored to 
the pope the city of Tusculum, which the latter 
gave to the Roman citizens, who, to avenge 
some former disputes, destroyed it. He after- 
ward excommunicated the emperor, because he 
kept Richard Coeur de Lion in prison. Among 
other noteworthy events of Celestine's pon- 
tificate was his confirmation of the Teutonic 
military order in 1192. IV. Goffredo Castlgllone, 
of Milan, elected pope, Sept. 20, 1241, died 
Oct. 8. 1241. He was appointed canon and 
chancellor of his native city, and afterward be- 
came a monk in the monastery of Altacomba. 
In 1227 Gregory IX. created him cardinal, 
and sent him as legate into Tuscany, and after 
this to Lombardy and to Monte Casino, where 
he found the emperor Frederick II. preparing 
to send succors to the Holy Land. Advanced 
in years at the time of his election, and with 
health much impaired, he died without having 
received consecration, and without having pub- 
lished any bull. V. Pletro Angelerier, born at 
Isernia, in Naples, died May 19, 1296. He was 
known as Pietro da Murrorie, from a mountain 
near Sulmona, where he led a solitary life. 
When 17 years old he became a Benedictine 
monk in the monastery of Faifoli, in the diocese 
of Benevento. After performing extraordinary 
penances for many years, he went to Rome, 
where he was ordained priest in 1239. Having 
spent five years at Murrone, he afterward re- 
moved to Mount Majella, near Sulmona, where 
he lived with two other priests in a large cav- 
ern. He fasted every day except Sunday, and 
observed four Lents in the year, living on bread 
and water, working and praying during the 
entire day and most of the night. About 1254 
he founded the religious order called Celestins, 
which prospered so much during his lifetime 



CELESTINS 



CELIBACY 



171 



that it consisted of 600 monks and 36 monas- 
teries. This order was approved by Urban IV., 
who incorporated it with the Benedictine order. 
Gregory X. confirmed it in 1274, in the second 
general council of Lyons. It spread through- 
out Italy, France, and Germany, and was sup- 
pressed in 1778. Pietro was elected pope July 
5, 1294, after an interregnum which followed 
the death of Nicholas IV. The account of his 
election being forwarded to him in his retire- 
ment, he refused to accept the dignity, though 
the cardinals and Charles II. of Naples and 
Andrew III. of Hungary urged him strongly to 
do so. He attempted to fly from his retreat, but 
was prevented by a vast concourse of people. 
At length he consented, and proceeded to 
Perugia accompanied by the kings of Naples 
and Hungary, and was crowned Aug. 29. He 
made his public entrance into the city amid the 
applause of more than 200,000 people. In the 
city of Aquila he appointed twelve cardinals, 
five of whom were Italians and seven French, 
and then went to Naples. He made two con- 
stitutions which provided for the cardinals en- 
tering into conclave on the election of a pope, 
thus renewing a constitution already made by 
Gregory X. in the council of Lyons; and also 
another respecting the pope resigning his of- 
fice. After occupying the pontifical see du- 
ring five months, he' renounced the tiara, Dec. 
13, 1294, on finding that he was but little ac- 
quainted with temporal matters, and still re- 
tained his unconquerable love for solitude. The 
see remained vacant ten days, when Boni- 
face VIII. was elected his successor. Celestine 
then retired again to his solitude at Majella, 
to devote himself altogether to prayer and to 
mortification. Boniface VIII., fearing difficul- 
ties might be caused by artful persons, who 
would turn his simplicity to their own ac- 
count, wished to keep him under his control, 
and at first confined him in a house in Anagni 
near his own residence, and afterward trans- 
ferred him to Fumone, near Ferentiuo in the 
Campagna, where he languished for ten months 
in a climate so sickly that the religious who 
waited on him were obliged to be changed 
every two months. He finally died there, and 
was canonized at Avignon by Pope Clement 
V., May 5, 1313. He wrote the following 
treatises, which were published at Naples in 
1640: Relatio Vita suce; De Virtutibm ; De 
Vitiis ; De Hominis Vanitate ; De Exemplis ; 
De Sententiis Patrum. Several lives of this 
pope have been written ; among them one by 
LelioMarini (Milan, 1630). 

CELESTL\S. See CELESTINE V. 

CELIBACY (Lat. ccelebs, unmarried), the state 
of being unmarried, whether the person be a 
bachelor or a widower, a maid or a widow. In 
its restricted and more usual sense, it means 
the state of those who have formally renounced 
matrimony for the future, especially by a reli- 
gious vow. In ancient Greece and Koine celi- 
bates, outside of the priesthood, were sub- 
jected to various penalties. In Sparta un- 



married men were regarded as infamous, and 
by the laws of Lycurgus might be seized 
and severely punished by the women in the 
temple of Hercules. Plato, in his imaginary 
republic, declared all those who had remain- 
ed unmarried till they were 35 years old to be 
incapable of holding any public office. At 
Rome celibates were forbidden to bear witness 
in courts, or to leave a will, and it was believed 
that special penalties were reserved for them 
in the future life. It is remarkable that while 
celibacy was proscribed in Europe, it was au- 
thorized in the East. There celibates bore hon- 
orable names, were raised to high positions, 
and styled favorites of heaven. With the prog- 
ress of civilization in Greece and Rome celiba- 
cy became more common. Thus often the men 
of letters, the philosophers, athletes, gladiators, 
and musicians, some from taste, and some from 
necessity, remained unmarried. This was fre- 
quently the case with the disciples of Pythago- 
ras and Diogenes. Celibacy was early regard- 
ed as a peculiar privilege and duty of the priest- 
hood. Among the Hebrews, persons intended 
for the service of the temple were permitted to 
marry, but under certain restrictions. Among 
the Egyptians, the priests of Isis were bound to 
chastity. The gymnosophists of India and the 
hierophants of the Athenians lived in celibacy. 
There were maidens among the Persians con- 
secrated to the worship of the sun, and vestal 
virgins among the Romans, who alone were 
permitted to guard the sacred fire. The celi- 
bacy of religious persons was regarded by the 
Greeks as a grace almost divine. No sacrifice 
was regarded as perfect without the interven- 
tion of a virgin. In the primitive Christian 
church celibacy came gradually to be esteemed 
a higher state than matrimony. The early 
fathers, especially St. Jerome, enthusiastically 
celebrated the virtue of continence. Yet there 
was no law nor uniformity of opinion or action 
on the subject, and it was not tall the 4th cen- 
tury that even the higher clergy began gene- 
rally to live in celibacy. The council of the 
Spanish and African churches at Elvira, in 
Spain, about A. D. 305, commanded ecclesiastics 
of the three first grades to abstain from conju- 
gal intercourse under penalty of deposition. A 
motion to the same effect was made in the 
general council of Nice, in 325, but it was 
rejected. Yet a tradition became prevalent 
about that time, that priests once admitted into 
holy orders should not afterward marry; and 
this practice, being once established, led natu- 
rally to the opinions that persons who were 
married should not be admitted into orders, 
and that celibacy was a holier state than mar- 
riage. In the Latin church the usage of celi- 
bacy was most strictly observed. Near the close 
of the 4th century Pope Siricius forbade con- 
jugal intercourse to priests without distinction, 
and this interdiction was repeated by the sub- 
sequent popes and councils. The emperor Jus- 
tinian declared the child of an ecclesiastic ille- 
; gitimate, and incapable of being an heir. The 



172 



CELL 



CELLAMARE 



council of Tours in 567 decreed that married 
monks and nuns incurred excommunication, 
and that their marriage was null. The Greek 
church opposed the action of the Latins, and the 
regular clergy of that church cannot be celi- 
bates. A priest, however, can be married only 
once, and if his wife dies he must go into one 
of the monastic orders. The monks and the 
bishops, who are chosen from among them, 
are unmarried. In the Roman church coun- 
cils were frequently occupied with rigor- 
ous measures against violations of the law 
of celibacy ; and observance of the law was 
most strictly insisted upon under the pontifi- 
cate of Gregory VII., who excommunicated 
every married priest, and every layman who 
should be present at a service celebrated by 
him. The reformers rejected celibacy as con- 
trary to natural law, and permitted Protestant 
ministers to marry. This innovation brought 
the question up again in the Catholic church, 
and although the emperor, the king of France, 
and many of the electors and princes were 
favorable to the marriage of priests, yet the 
council of Trent, which closed its sittings in 
1563, decided finally to retain the discipline of 
celibacy. From that time the law has been 
absolute in the Roman Catholic priesthood. 
One who has been married cannot be ordained 
if his wife is living, unless a separation takes 
place between the parties by mutual consent. 
Those who have yet attained only the lower 
orders may renounce their benefices, forsake 
their orders, and be married ; but it is otherwise 
with subdeacons and the higher degrees. To 
such the pope alone, notwithstanding the in- 
delibility of the character of priests, may grant 
permission to retire from the priesthood, and 
consequently to contract marriage. See " His- 
tory of Clerical Celibacy," by H. C. Lea (Phi- 
ladelphia, 1867). 

CELL, a microscopic anatomical form, very 
abundant in most vegetable and many animal 
tissues. It has received its name from the fact 
that in its simplest form it consists of a closed 
membranous sac or utricle, more or less globu- 
lar in shape, enclosing a cavity which is filled 
with a fluid or semi-fluid material. This is the 
variety of cell which is found in many loose 
and succulent vegetable tissues. The cell wall 
usually has upon some part of its inner surface 
a well defined rounded or oval spot, termed the 
nucleus ; and the nucleus exhibits also a smaller 
rounded spot of a darker color than the rest, 
termed the nucleolus. In tissues where the 
component cells are very abundant and closely 
set, they are often polyhedral in form, being 
flattened against each other by mutual com- 
pression. Sometimes they are elongated and 
tubular or prismatic. The elongation of the 
vegetable cell is sometimes so great, as in cer- 
tain of the algae or cryptogamic water plants, 
that they form, by being connected with each 
other end to end, long and slender filaments. 
This also occurs in some of the higher vegeta- 
ble structures. Other cells send out radiating 



processes or prolongations, so as to present a 
stellated figure. The internal cavity is some- 
times partly occupied by a solid deposit upon 
the inner surface of the cell wall ; sometimes 
it contains a gelatinous liquid, granules of chlo- 
rophyl or the green coloring matter, starch 
grains, and sometimes perfectly formed crys- 
tals. There are three great groups of the cryp- 
togamic vegetables, namely, algro, lichens, and 
fungi, which consist exclusively of cells ; in the 
higher vegetable forms we find also fibres, air 
tubes, and vessels. The simpler vegetable cells 
often multiply very rapidly by a process of 
budding, or by spontaneous division, or by 
both combined. They have the power of ab- 
sorbing nutritious material from the exterior, 
and converting it into the substance of their 
own material. The cells of animal tissues are 
not precisely similar to those of vegetables. 
They are usually much smaller, and surrounded 
by a larger proportion of intercellular substance. 
They do not, as a rule, present a well marked 
cell wall enclosing a distinct cavity, but consist 
rather of a mass of soft animal matter, the con- 
sistency of which is nearly or quite the same 
throughout. Very frequently a nucleus and 
nucleolus, similar to those seen in vegetable 
cells, are imbedded in its substance. Thus the 
red globules of the blood in birds, reptiles, and 
fish contain a well marked nucleus, though it 
is absent in those of the mammalia. The 
nucleus and nucleolus are both very distinct in 
the cells of the gray nervous matter, and the 
various kinds of epithelial cells have always a 
nucleus and usually also a nucleolus. Animal 
cells also vary in form. The red globule of 
human blood is flattened and circular ; in birds, 
reptiles, and fishes, it is flattened and oval. 
The epithelial cell covering the surface of 
mucous membranes is thin, membranous, and 
pentagonal or hexagonal in the mouth, fauces, 
and oesophagus; columnar or prismatic in the 
rest of the alimentary canal; furnished with 
vibratile cilia in the air passages, the oviducts, 
the Eustachian tube, and the ventricles of the 
brain. There are also hexagonal pigment cells 
in the choroid coat of the eye, and stellated 
pigment cells in the web of the frog's foot. 
The glandular cells of the liver always contain 
one or more minute oil drops imbedded in their 
substance. It has been a favorite theory with 
many microscopists that all the anatomical ele- 
ments of the animal tissues are directly pro- 
duced by the development or transformation 
of simple cells ; but this view has never been 
universally adopted, and the evidence in its 
favor does not become more convincing with 
the progress of microscopic discovery. 

CELLAMARE, Antonio Gindlee, prince of, duke 
of Giovenazzo, a Spanish diplomatist of Genoese 
origin, born in Naples in 1657, died in Seville, 
May 16, 1733. Brought up at the court of 
Charles II. of Spain, he afterward fought the 
battles of his successor, Philip V., against the 
imperialists. Taken prisoner in 1707, he was 
detained till 1712. Three years after his re- 



CELLARER 



CELLINI 



173 



turn to Spain he was sent to France as ambas- 
sador. Here he joined in the conspiracies 
planned against the duke of Orleans, witli a 
view of vesting the regency of France in Philip 
of Spain ; but the plot was discovered, and the 
seizure of Cellamare's despatches laid bare the 
whole details. He was sent out of France at 
once, and on his return was appointed captain 
general of Old Castile, in which post he died. 

CELLARER (Lat. cellarius), under the Roman 
emperors, a functionary who examined the ac- 
counts, and to whom was committed the care 
of their domestic affairs. The name was sub- 
sequently given to the purveyors or agents for 
prelates and monasteries. The cellarer was one 
of the four great officers of monasteries, and 
had under his orders the bakehouse and the 
brewhouse. He regulated the harvesting and 
storing of the corn, and managed the whole 
economy of the provisions. His compensation 
was T ^ of all the grain received, and a furred 
gown. The office was sometimes held by per- 
sons of illustrious birth. Philip of Savoy, in 
1243, was cellarer to the archbishop of Vienna. 

CELLARIUS, Christoph, a German scholar, born 
at Smalcald, Nov. 22, 1638, died in Halle, June 
4, 1707. He devoted himself so closely to the 
study of the oriental languages and literature, 
that it is related of him that during the 14 
years he was professor of history and eloquence 
at the university of Halle, he only once went 
out for a walk. He edited more than 20 Greek 
and Latin classical works, and wrote several 
volumes on the grammar, geography, history, 
and languages of oriental countries. 

CELLE, or Zelle, a town of Prussia, in the 
province of Hanover, on the river Aller, which 
is here navigable, and on the Hanover and 
Harburg railway, 24 m. N. E. of Hanover; 
pop. in 1871, 16,147. It is a well built and 
paved town, the seat of the supreme court of 
Hanover, contains churches of different denomi- 
nations, an old castle formerly occupied by the 
dukes ofLtineburg, a Protestant gymnasium, 
two public libraries, an agricultural society, and 
various other public institutions. Celle is also 
noted for its annual horse races. In the castle 
park is the mausoleum of Caroline Matilda, 
queen of Denmark, who died here. The in- 
habitants are employed in the manufacture 
of tobacco, cigars, and stearine, and carry on 
transit trade in wool, wax, honey, and wood. 

CELLINI, Benvennto, an Italian artist, born in 
Florence in 1500, died there, Feb. 25, 1570. He 
was intended for the musical profession, to 
which his father was devoted, but gave the 
preference to the pursuits of a gold worker and 
engraver, and soon distinguished himself in 
chasing sword handles, cutting dies, and en- 
graving medals. His headstrong disposition in- 
volved him in brawls and quarrels ; and at the 
age of 15, when his genius had already excited 
the admiration of his townsmen, he was ban- 
ished to Siena for having taken part in a duel. 
After wandering for some time from one town 
to another, he found his way to Rome, where 



a gold medal of Clement VIL. of which he had 
furnished the die, secured him the favor of the 
papal court. The pope took him into his ser- 
vice, and this position gained him employment 
in cutting seals for many eminent prelates. He 
also took part in the defence of the castle of 
San Angelo, against the imperial troops com- 
manded by the constable de Bourbon, and as- 
serted that he killed the constable and the 
prince of Orange. At Mantua, where he re- 
mained until an affray compelled him to leave 
the town, he became acquainted with Giulio 
Romano, and through him with the grand 
duke, who gave him some commissions. On 
his return to Florence, where his military ex- 
ploits at Rome had reinstated him in the good 
graces of the authorities, he formed an intima- 
cy with Michel Angelo. While at Florence he 
devoted himself principally to the execution of 
medals, the best of which are Hercules and the 
Nemean lion, and Atlas supporting the globe. 
But another quarrel in which he became em- 
broiled compelled him to leave Florence in dis- 
guise. He went to Rome, and was there ap- 
pointed engraver to the mint. He soon found 
himself again in trouble, and a mistress of his 
named Angelica having fled to Naples, he 
followed her thither. He afterward returned 
to Rome, and remained for a considerable time 
in the service of the new pope Paul HI., al- 
though his natural son, Pier Luigi, was hostile 
to him, and caused him to be imprisoned upon 
a charge of having robbed the castle of San 
Angelo during the war. He effected his escape, 
and through the interference of the cardinal of 
Ferrara obtained pardon. Subsequently he was 
employed in France, at the court of Francis I. ; 
but in consequence of differences with the 
duchess d'Etampes he returned to Florence, 
where the grand duke Cosmo de' Medici sup- 
plied him with a studio. Here he commenced 
his celebrated " Perseus," which as soon as it 
was exposed to public view created the utmost 
enthusiasm. He was employed upon many 
important works, and was not able to accept 
a proposition made to him by Catharine de' 
Medici to superintend the execution of a monu- 
ment to be dedicated to Henry II. He re- 
mained in the grand duke's service until his 
death, and was buried with great pomp in the 
church of Sta. Annunziata. He left an auto- 
biography, which is interesting as a record of 
the incidents of his stirring life, and of the his- 
tory and manners of his times. It has been 
translated into German by Goethe, into French 
by Farjasse and A. Marcel, and into English by 
Nugent and by Roscoe. The best edition, from 
which Roscoe's translation was made, is that 
of Carpani of 1812. Cellini also left MSS. on 
various branches of art, and the academy della 
Crusca quotes him frequently as a classic. 
The best part of his artistic works are his 
smaller productions in metals, the embossed 
decorations of shields, cups, salvers, ornament- 
ed sword and dagger hilts, clasps, medals, and 
coins; the most celebrated specimens of his 



174 



CELLULAR TISSUE 



skill in these branches of art are a richly or- 
namented salt-cellar in the imperial gallery at 
Vienna, and a magnificent shield at Windsor 
castle. Of his larger works, the bronze group 
of Perseus, with the head of Medusa, in the 
piazza del Gran Duca at Florence, and his 
" Christ " in the chapel of the Pitti palace, are 
the finest. 

CELLUL1R TISSUE, a name given by the 
older anatomists to a tissue formed by a mix- 
ture of white and yellow fibres, extensively dif- 
fused in the animal body under the names of 
cellular, fibro-cellular, areolar, and fibrous tis- 
sue. The best name is areolar tissue, derived 
from the appearance of areolce, or meshes, left 
between the intricate crossings of the compo- 
nent fibres ; these were formerly mistaken for 
cells or cavities ; the old term cellular tissue, 
however, is so well and universally under- 
stood, that, though inaccurate, it will probably 
long be employed in this application. Its 
principal use seems to be to connect other 
tissues, allowing at the same time more or 
less freedom of motion between them ; it sup- 
ports the vessels and nerves in their minutest 
branches ; it is abundant under the skin and 
the mucous and serous membranes; it enters 
largely into the formation of membranes, hence 
often called cellular membranes, protecting the 
organs and cavities by their toughness and 
elasticity. The spaces of the cellular tissue are 
continuous throughout the body, as may be 
proved by artificial inflation by the blowpipe, 
and as is frequently seen in cases of emphysema 
and anasarca, where air or fluid is effused into its 
meshes. Under the microscope this tissue pre- 
sents two kinds of fibres, inextricably mingled 
in various proportions. The one is white and 
inelastic, disposed to a waved or zigzag arrange- 
ment in bands of unequal thickness, creased 
longitudinally by numerous streaks ; the lar- 
gest of these bands are often -5^-5 of an inch 
wide ; the component fibres do not branch, ac- 
cording to Hassall; this is the white fibrous 
tissue. The other kind of fibre is elastic, of a 
yellowish color, composed of branched fila- 
ments disposed to curl when not put on the 
stretch ; they are generally about -^jVy of an 
inch thick, interlacing with the others without 
becoming continuous with them ; this is the 
yellow fibrous tissue. These two elements of 
the cellular tissue may be at once distinguished 
by submitting it to the action of dilute acetic 
acid, which instantly causes the former to swell 
up and become transparent and soft, while it 
causes no change in the latter. Cellular tissue 
is especially abundant in parts which enjoy 
free motion, as in the face about the eyes and 
cheeks, the anterior part of the neck, the arm- 

Eit, the flexures of the joints, the palm of the 
and, and the sole of the foot ; the superficial 
and most movable muscles are separated by 
thicker layers than the deep-seated ones, and 
the constituent fibres are held together by it 
during contraction; almost every part of the 
vascular system is held in place by this tissue, 



wjiose elasticity protects the vessels during the 
necessary movements of the body ; even its own 
minute but numerous vessels are conducted and 
enveloped by this all-pervading tissue. It is 
difficult to say where cellular tissue is not 
found, unless it be in the teeth, in bone, in 
cartilage, and in the cerebral substance, where 
its presence would be manifestly useless. The 
internal vital organs most exposed to external 
violence are protected by large quantities of 
this substance, as the pancreas, kidneys, colon, 
and genito-urinary apparatus ; every organ has 
its investing covering of cellular tissue, and its 
processes of the same penetrating and holding 
together its component parts. It is especially 
abundant just under the skin, to facilitate its 
movements, and it exists in uncommon quan- 
tity about and in the interior of the mammary 
glands. Thus this tissue seems to serve as a 
bond of union between parts, as an element of 
strength and protection rather than as a sub- 
stance of primary importance in itself; wher- 
ever elasticity is required, the yellow fibrous 
tissue is most abundant, while the white fibrous 
tissue prevails in parts demanding resistance 
and tenacity ; and the openness of the meshes 
is in proportion to the amount of mobility need- 
ed. The amount of cellular tissue varies with 
age and temperament, being greatest in youth 
and least in old age ; the plumpness and round- 
ness of the arms in children and females de- 
pend to a great extent on the presence of this 
substance around the joints, which in man are 
prominent and angular. Like other soft solids, 
it contains a small quantity of serous fluid in 
its interstices, which is favorable for the free 
movement of the fibres ; an unnatural increase 
of this fluid in the subcutaneous cellular tissue 
causes the form of dropsy called oedema, so 
common about the feet and ankles, and indi- 
cated by the skin pitting under the pressure of 
the finger. In the English training process it is 
rapidly lessened, with a remarkable diminution 
of the bulk of the body ; its natural and slow 
disappearance is seen in old age and in chronic 
disease, in which the skin, especially about the 
face and neck, becomes wrinkled and flabby. 
Its power of reproduction is great, and it is 
rapidly formed both in healthy and morbid 
growths ; it undergoes the putrefactive process 
slowly, and when boiled yields gelatine from 
its white fibrous element. So extensive a tis- 
sue as this must of necessity become involved 
in many diseases ; it is subject to all the effects 
of inflammation, with suppuration and mor- 
tification; to the infiltration of blood, serum, 
air, and urine ; to induration, tumors, and un- 
natural increase and degeneration. In com- 
mon inflammation of this tissue, the capillaries 
become congested, and a part of their contents 
escapes, more or less tinged with blood; the 
coagulable lymph thus effused causes the hard- 
ness of circumscribed inflammation ; this may 
be removed by absorption, or may become 
softened by the deposition of purulent matter, 
constituting an abscess, whose walls are formed 



CELSIUS 



CELTIBERIANS 



175 



by an indurated layer of the tissue which pre- 
vents the pus from spreading indefinitely. When 
an abscess is formed, the cellular tissue between 
it and the surface of the skin is removed by 
ulceration or absorption, or the pus is evacuated 
by the knife ; when from excess of inflamma- 
tion or other cause the capillary circulation is 
permanently suspended, the vital properties of 
the tissue are destroyed, and mortification takes 
place, the dead parts being removed in offensive 
fluids and pulpy shreds. In chronic inflamma- 
tion the cellular tissue becomes indurated. In 
debilitated conditions of the system, after 
poisoned wounds, and in certain epidemic alter- 
ations of the air, the usual barrier of circum- 
scribing lymph is not effused, and the products 
of inflammation spread extensively through the 
areolas of the subcutaneous and internal cellular 
tissue ; this is familiarly seen in phlegmonous 
erysipelas, and constitutes a most dangerous 
disease from the extensive suppuration and 
sloughing of the tissues. In wounds of the 
lungs a communication is often established be- 
tween the air passages and this tissue, when 
the integuments are variously raised by the 
infiltration of air in the areolee, constituting 
external emphysema ; a similar condition is 
artificially produced by the butcher when he 
blows up his meat. It grows with such ra- 
pidity that tumors, often of large size, are de- 
veloped from it; most so-called "fibrous" 
tumors are composed of this tissue ; in such 
cases the microscopist is able to detect the 
fusiform cells and fibres characteristic of the 
natural tissue. 

CELSIUS. ! Anders, a Swedish astrono- 
mer, born Nov. 27, 1701, died in Upsal, April 
25, 1744. His grand-uncle, Magnus Celsius 
(1621-'79), an astronomer, was the discoverer 
of the Helsing runes. His uncle, Olaf Celsius 
(1670-1756), a theologian, was one of the 
founders of the scientific society of Upsal, au- 
thor of Hierobotanicon (Upsal, 1745-'7), and 
the first to recognize the genius of Linnaeus. 
His father, Nils Celsius (1658-1724), was a 
mathematician and naturalist. Anders was 
professor of astronomy at Upsal l730-'32, 
when he visited Doppelmayr in Nuremberg, 
where he published Observationes Lwninis Bo- 
realis. He next went to Rome, and in 1734 to 
Paris, where he subsequently joined Mauper- 
tuis and his associates in the measurement of 
the Lapland degree of longitude. On his re- 
turn to Upsal he published De Obsersationibus 
pro Figura Telluris determinanda in Gallia 
hdbitis. The observatory of Upsal was estab- 
lished in 1740 under his auspices. He was the 
first to employ the centigrade, also known as 
the Celsius thermometer. II. Olof de, a Swe- 
dish historian, cousin of the preceding, born in 
1716, died in 1794. In 1747 he became pro- 
fessor of history at Upsal, was afterward raised 
to the nobility, and in 1756 founded the first 
literary journal in Sweden. In 1777 he be- 
came bishop of Lund, and in 1786 a member of 
the Swedish academy. His principal works 

166 VOL. iv. 12 



are a history of Gustavus I. (2 vols., Stock- 
holm, 1746-'53 ; 3d ed., 1792 ; German trans- 
lation, Copenhagen, 1753), and a history of Eric 
XIV. (1774 ; German and French translations, 
1777). 

CELSUS, an Eclectic philosopher of the 2d 
century. He was the author of a work against 
Christianity, entitled 'A/lj?% A.ay6s. The work 
itself is not extant, but a large part of it is con- 
tained in the answer to it written by Origen a 
century later. He was skilled in both the 
Epicurean and Platonic philosophies, and ar- 
gued d priori against the doctrines of the 
Christian religion. From the statement given 
by Origen of his arguments, however, his chief 
reliance would seem to have been on sarcasm 
and ridicule. He is admitted by some of the 
Christian fathers to have exhibited great keen- 
ness and wit. His work was the first which 
was written in opposition to Christianity after 
it became known to the Greeks. 

CELSrS, Aulus Cornelius, a Roman author, who 
lived probably during the reigns of Augustus 
and Tiberius. He wrote a kind of cyclopedia, 
De Artibus, containing a series of treatises on 
rhetoric, history, philosophy, jurisprudence, 
war, agriculture, and medicine, of which, be- 
sides some fragments, only De Medicina is 
still extant. This work is in eight books. He 
makes known in it the system of Hippocrates, 
following besides Asclepiades and the Alexan- 
drians. The first two books treat of diet and 
the general principles of therapeutics and pa- 
thology ; the others of particular diseases and 
their treatment, as well as of surgery. Of its 
numerous editions, those by Fortius (Florence, 
1478), Milligan (Edinburgh, 1826), and Ritter 
and Olbers (Cologne, 1835), are the best. 

CELTIBERIANS (Lat. Celtiberi), the people 
who during the time of the Romans occupied 
the inland district of Spain lying between the 
Ebro and the Tagus. The name was sometimes 
used in a wider sense, including also nearly 
all the inhabitants of Hispania CJterior. The 
Celtiberians arose from the mixture of two 
races, the Celts and the Iberians. Many have 
supposed that the Iberians were the original 
inhabitants of Spain, and that the Celts crossed 
the Pyrenees and invaded their country. Nie- 
buhr was of the contrary opinion, and believed 
that the Celts once occupied Spam as far south 
perhaps as the Sierra Morena, and that the 
Iberians afterward landed from the Mediterra- 
nean and drove them northward, expelling 
them where they were not protected by the 
nature of the country. - The Celts would seem, 
in Niebuhr's opinion, not to have been ex- 
pelled from the mountainous country between 
the Ebro and the Tagus, but merely to have 
been subdued by the Iberians, who settled 
among them, and the two nations became 
amalgamated. The race thus ' produced re- 
tained in a high degree the qualities of the 
original Iberians. They were with great dif- 
ficulty subdued by Hannibal, and made a long 
and obstinate resistance to the Romans. Scipio 



176 



CELTS 



induced them to become allies of the Romans ; 
but they revolted in 181 B. C., and renewed 
the war from time to time during more than a 
century. After the fall of Sertorius, 72 B. C., 
they began to adopt the Roman language, dress, 
and manners, and their country gradually be- 
came an integral part of the Roman empire. 
The great mass of the people inhabiting the 
central portions of Spain under all these changes 
retained, and indeed still retain, the essential 
characteristics of their ancestors. The Celti- 
berians, like the modern Spaniards, were grave 
in dress, sober and temperate in their habits, 
and of an unyielding disposition. Like the 
modern Spaniards, they were remarkable for 
the bitter animosity with which they warred 
against their neighbors, and for the obstinate 
courage with which they endured protracted 
sieges. (See IBKHIA.) 

CELTS (Lat. Celtas ; Gr. KWrat), a people of 
the Aryan or Indo-European family, who in 
prehistoric times, and probably before the mi- 
gration of any other Aryan tribes, passed over 
from Asia into Europe. Subsequent migra- 
tions drove them gradually further and fur- 
ther to the westward ; and after overspread- 
ing many regions in their passage (for evidences 
of their residence are found in most of the Eu- 
ropean countries), they appear at the very be- 
ginning of the historic period to have so en- 
tirely passed away from the eastern portion of 
the continent, and to have so firmly settled in 
the regions afterward called Transalpine Gaul 
and the British isles, that ancient historians 
believed them to be an autochthonous race, 
the natives and original possessors of those 
lands. This theory was strengthened by the 
fact that the tide of their progress now began 
to return upon itself; the earliest records 
showing that even at a remote period they 
sent out armies and emigrants toward the 
east, in a direction exactly opposite to the first 
current of their migration. As early probably 
as the 5th century B. C. Celts had subdued 
that part of northern Italy afterward called 
from their later name Gallia (Cisalpina), and 
had become firmly settled in the country ; 
they had planted vigorous colonies (Vindeli- 
cians, &c.) in southern Germany, near the E. 
bank of the Rhine ; and from these in turn they 
penetrated, chiefly under the names of Rhieti, 
Boii, Norici, and Carui, into the western re- 
gions of modern Austria. Nearly all the terri- 
tory now included in Switzerland seems also to 
have been held by them. Celtic tribes, too, 
had crossed the Pyrenees into Spain, and set- 
tled in the country ; and from them and the 
Iberians, the older residents of the peninsula, 
sprung the mixed race of the Celtiberi, form- 
ing a famous nation in the centuries which 
followed. The Spanish branch of the Celts 
was the first to find mention under the name 
of the race in authentic written records ; and 
Herodotus only noticed this tribe briefly, as 
living "beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and 
bordering on the Cynesians, who dwell at 



the extreme west of Europe." (Book ii., 33.) 
But soon after his time the great body of the 
Celtic race began to fill a prominent place in 
general history. About 390 B. C., according 
to what is little more than a historical tradi- 
tion, vast hordes of Celts, under their leader 
Brennus (a word probably equivalent merely 
to general or king), poured into Italy and 
sacked Rome, from which they were driven 
by Camillus. About the same period others ap- 
peared along the lower Danube, and succeeded 
in the establishment of an enduring power there. 
From this colony many formidable armies went 
out to carry devastation through Thrace, 
Macedonia, and Greece. In 280 B. C. one of 
these, under another Brennus, poured its 
overwhelming numbers into the kingdom of 
Ptolemy Ceraunus, defeated and killed that 
monarch, overran Thessaly, entered central 
Greece at Thermopylae, and reached Delphi with 
the intention of destroying it, when they were 
at last successfully opposed and driven back. 
They founded at the same time a kingdom 
in Thrace, which remained for many years 
a formidable power, but was finally destroy- 
ed by the Thracians around it. From the 
same branch of the Celts which sent out these 
armies (a branch often called the Illyrian 
Celts from the district, Illyricuin, in which 
their place of settlement was subsequently in- 
cluded) sprung also another offshoot. This con- 
sisted of an army which, about the time of the 
expedition of the second Brennus, crossed the 
Hellespont into Asia Minor, and appears to have 
overrun much of the peninsula, until at last the 
invaders were compelled to confine themselves 
to the region called after them Galatia. This 
was successfully held by them, and they estab- 
lished there one of the most enduring of their 
kingdoms, in which they long preserved many 
peculiarities of the race. In the earliest 
writings the Celts had been called K.Mrai (Cel- 
t) ; but as they became better known to the 
Greeks and Romans, the names Galli and Ga- 
latffi (Ta^drai) were more commonly applied to 
them, these being probably nothing more than 
corrupted forms of the original word. The 
names were for a long time used indiscrimi- 
nately of all the race ; but gradually their appli- 
cation was limited Galli (Gauls) signifying 
those who lived in Europe ; Galatse (Galatians), 
those who settled in Asia Minor ; while the name 
Celt gradually disappeared. The looseness 
with which ancient writers use the word Galli, 
employing it now to denote a Teutonic, now a 
Celtic people, and generally understanding it 
to mean any northern barbarians, whoever they 
were, is perhaps the greatest cause of our in- 
ability to trace with exactness the gradual de- 
cline of the Celts before the advance of other 
races. Their career after the various wander- 
ings and settlements we have noticed becomes 
inextricably involved with that of other peo- 
ples ; and all that can be affirmed with cer- 
tainty concerning them is the fact that they 
were gradually absorbed into the Roman, 



CELTS (LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE) 



177 



Germanic, and mixed races that overran Eu- 
rope daring the centuries which followed the 
beginning of the period of authentic history. 
In this way they became merely an element 
in the formation of the nations now popula- 
ting the European continent, and as a distinct 
power entirely disappeared from all the region 
they once had occupied. But although they 
no longer form an independent nation or peo- 
ple, there remain in the British isles, and in a 
district of Brittany in France, descendants of 
the race who retain many of its prominent 
characteristics, and who continue to make use 
of different dialects of the ancient Celtic lan- 
guages. In Wales, Ireland, and the Scottish 
highlands are found the most marked and dis- 
tinct types of these ; while but a short time 
has passed since the dying out of a branch of 
the Celtic race in Cornwall. (See BELG.E, 
CELTIBERIANS, CIMBEI, CIMMEEII, and GAUL.) 

CELTS, Languages and Literature of the. The 
various families of the race described in the 
preceding article termed themselves Celts 
(pronounced Kelts, for in all their languages 
and dialects the letter was always hard, 
and K was absent from their alphabets). 
Omitting Spain and the north of Italy (the 
so-called Celtic plain, whose inhabitants be- 
came thoroughly Eomanized, and of whose 
ancient literary remains in their own tongue 
there are no specimens existing), it may be 
stated generally that two distinct languages 
were spoken and written by these people, each 
divided into several dialects. These two lan- 
guages are still living, spoken and written. 
They are : 1, the Breton (Breizad), including 
the Welsh, the Cornish, which has become ex- 
tinct only within the memory of men, and the 
Bas Breton, now spoken in the western half 
of Brittany in France ; and 2, the Gaedhilic 
(Gaelic), which includes the speech of the 
Scottish Highlanders, of the aboriginal Irish, 
and of the Manx. To avoid confusion, it 
must be understood that the Welsh call their 
own language, not Welsh, but Cymraeg (a 
term perhaps related to the ancient Cim- 
merian and Cimbric) ; and it is only in speak- 
ing English that they ever accept the name 
of Welsh at all. Their language is still to 
be heard commonly spoken throughout the 
principality, having held its ground better than 
any of the other Celtic tongues. The other 
Cymric language, the Bas Breton, is retiring 
by degrees before the French, and now exists as 
a living tongue only in that western region of 
Brittany which the French call la Bretagne 
bretonnante. As for the other family of Celtic 
languages, it is properly termed the Gaelic; 
but the Scottish highlanders call it the Erse 
(pronounced Erish), that is, Irish. The Irish 
themselves, however, speak of it only as the 
Gaelic. This is one and the same language, 
only varying slightly from Caithness to Kerry. 
The course of ages has introduced some dia- 
lectic differences ; but even at the present day 
the speech of the highlanders of Argyle is as 



readily understood in Donegal as that of 
Kerry or Cork. The language of the Isle 
of Man differs slightly from all these, but 
in its roots and general structure it is the 
same. The Celtic languages, then, distribute 
themselves into the Cymric and the Gaelic. 
The BAS BEETON, even within its limited 
range, has four distinct dialects, those of Tr6- 
guier, Leon, Vannes, and Cornouaille ; in each 
of these there are remains existing, in the 
shape of ballads and romantic or fairy legends. 
Modern scholars connected with that portion of 
France, especially the count de la Villemarqu6, 
have done much for the preservation of these 
singular literary relics of a bygone civilization. 
There are also dictionaries and grammars : stu- 
dents may consult Le Gonidec, Dictionnaire 
breton-francais et francais-breton, with a val- 
uable introduction by La Villemarqu6 (2 vols. 
4to, St. Brieuc, 1850) ; also the dictionary of 
the dialect of Vannes, by M. Leide, published 
in 1774. Rostrenen published both a diction- 
ary and a grammar of his native tongue, so 
far back as 1734. But the most indispensable 
aid to investigation, not only as to the Breton 
but as to all other Celtic tongues, is the work 
of J. C. Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, e Monu- 
mentis veteribus tarn HiberniccB Linguae quam 
Britannicce, necnon e Gallic priscce Reli- 
quiis (2 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1853). For the gen- 
eral character of the literary remains of Brit- 
tany, see La Villemarque, Barzaz-Breiz (popu- 
lar songs printed in the original, with a French 
translation). All the four dialects of the Bas 
Breton have been more modified by the Latin 
than other Celtic tongues, owing to the length 
of Eoman domination. It employs Roman 
letters, some of which (a, b, d, e, f, g, Ji, *, I, 
m, n, o, p, r, *, , , v) sound as in the ancient 
Latin, others (&, w, z) as in English, two (J and 
the combination cK) as in French, and the com- 
bination c'Ji like the German ch (strongly gut- 
tural) ; I and n are sometimes what the French 
call mouille, and n is sometimes nasal ; w is also 
used; as a vowel ; the diphthongs are genuine 
and distinct. Some initials of nouns and of 
verbs are altered after the finals of the preceding 
words, viz. : b to v and p, as bdz (Lat. baculus), 
ar vdz, the stick ; Tc to g, c'h, as ki (canis), ar 
c'hi, the dog ; cur (curia), eur ger, a city ; d to 
, z; gw to lew, w ; mto v, as mamm (mater), ar 
vamm, the mother ; p to b, f, as penn, head, 
tri fen, three heads ; t to d, z ; s to z. The 
definite article has three forms, ann before- 
vowels and before d, n, t, al before I, ar every- 
where else; the indefinite article also varies, 
eunn, eul, eur, in the same positions as the defi- 
nite. Both are thus used in the singular and 
plural sense. The genitive is denoted by edz, 
the dative by ''d, in both numbers. The plural 
is made by suffixing ou or ion (atel-ou, winds ; 
Irezel-iou, wars), or ien, ed, en (kaneri-en, sing- 
ers; Uen-ed, animals; stered-en, stars). Irregu- 
lar are : Breizad, plural Breiziz ; askoum, bone, 
askern, bones ; mdb, son, plural mipien. There 
are two genders, masculine and feminine. The 



178 



CELTS (LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE) 



comparative degree is formed by oc*h, thus, 
kaeroc'h, more beautiful; the superlative by 
prefixing the article, thus, ar c'haera, most 
beautiful. The numerals are : unan, 1 ; daou, 
2 ; tri, 3 ; pevar, 4 ; pemp, 5 ; c'houec'h, 6 ; seiz, 
7; eiz, 8; ndo, 9; dek, 10. The ordinals are 
made by suffixing ved (trived, third, &c.) ; these 
are irregular: kenta, first; eil, second. The 
personal pronouns are me, I ; te, thou ; hen, he ; 
hi, she. The terminations of the verbs are: 
ann for I, ez for thou, the radical for he, she, 
it, omp for we, it for you, ont for they ; thus, 
ro-ann, ro-ez, ro, ro-omp, r&-it, ro-ont I give, 
thou givest, he, she, it gives, we, you, they 
give. The past tense is formed by iz, the fu- 
ture by inn, &c. Each verb is preceded by 
the particle a before nouns and pronouns, by e 
(or ez, ec'h) before adverbs. There are three 
auxiliary verbs, viz.: leza, to be; kaout, to 
have; ober, to do. There are some specific 
prefixes. The syntax is free, with some anom- 
alies ; thus, the third person singular of a verb 
may be joined to the first and second personal 
pronouns, as me aro, which is / gives, instead 
of give. The structure of Breton poetry is 
generally in tercets or triads, as in the kin- 
dred language of Wales. The principal su- 
pernatural agents in the popular poetry of 
Brittany are the dwarfs and the fairies. The 
common appellation of these elfish beings is 
korrigan, whether masculine or feminine, from 
korr, little (diminutive, korrik), and gan or 
gwen, genius. The goddess Koridgwen is said 
by the Welsh bards to have had nine attendant 
virgins, called the nine Korrigan. This also 
was the name of the nine priestesses of the 
isle of Sein. We may refer here, as character- 
istic examples, to several of the ancient poems 
collected and translated by La Villemarque, 
especially "The Prophecy of Gwenchlan," 
"The Submersion of the City of Is," "The 
Changeling," and "The March of Arthur." 
"The Plague of Elliant" and the "Tale of 
Lord Nann and the Fay," as preserved until 
this time, retain the technical bardic form, 
which was alliterated and arranged in strophes 
of three lines. This " Lord Nann," which is 
said to date from the 5th or Gth century, com- 
mences thus : 

Lord Nann and his bride, both plighted 
In yonthtbl days, soon blighted, 
Were early disunited. 

Of snow-white twins a pair 
Yestreen the lady bare, 
A son and daughter fair. 

" What cheer shall I get for thee, 
Who givest a son to me? 
Bay, sweet, what shall it be? 

" From the forest green a roe, 
Or a woodcock from where. I trow, 
The pond In the vale lies low ? M 

" For venison am I fain. 
But would nut give thee pain 
For me the wood to gain." 

But while the lady spoke, 
Lord Nann took his lance of oak. 
And mounting his jet-black steed 
Bode forth to the wood with speed. 



When he gained the greenwood shade, 
A white hind from the glade 
Fled, of his lance afraid. 

Swift after the hind he flew ; 
The ground shook 'neath the two, 
So swiftly on they flew, 
And late the evening grew. 

It ends in this gallant huntsman coming " un- 
der the ban of a Korrigan," and the death of 
himself and his wife, from whose grave sprang 
forth " two spreading oaks." As a specimen 
of the Bas Breton tongue itself, we give the 
following from the tale of Koadalan (dialect 
of Tr6guier) : " Neuz6 a krogas ann aotro en- 
han hag a savas gant-han en er, uhel, uhel. 
Diskenn a eure gant-han e-kichenn ur c'hastell- 
kaer, en un ale vraz, lec'h ma oe souezet o 
welet skrivet war delio ar gwez : Ann hini a 
antre aman, na sorti k6n. Ma teuas c'hoant 
d'ehan mont-kuit, met penoz? Antren a reont 
ho daou bars ar c'hastell ; debri hag eva a 
reont, ha goude koan, a kousk mad en ur 
gvv616-plun." Which is thus translated: "The 
knight then took him up, and lifted him very 
high into the air. He descended near to a fine 
castle, in a grand avenue, where Koadalan was 
much surprised to see written on the leaves of 
the trees, 'He who enters here never goes 
away again. 1 Which gave him a desire to go 
at once ; but how ? They enter together into 
the castle ; they eat together ; and after sup- 
per Koadalan sleeps well in a bed of feathers." 
On the whole it may be said that the relics of 
Bas Breton literature are entirely confined to 
childish fairy tales and stories of romance, of- 
fering little or nothing of the antiquarian his- 
toric interest which is found in the remains of 
the Cymric tongues of Wales and in the Gaelic 
of Ireland. THE WELBII (Cymraeg). The al- 
phabet of this language consists of thirteen 
simple and seven double consonants and seven 
vowels, with numerous diphthongs and triph- 
thongs. The letter e always has the sound of 
1c ; ch is sounded gntturally, as in the Scottish 
word loch ; dd is equivalent to th in English ; 
f has the sound of the English t>, ff of the 
English f, II a peculiar sound similar to that 
of the French I mouille, u and y that of the 
Italian i or English ee, and w of oo in fool. 
The accent is always on the ultimate or 
penultimate syllable. Initial consonants are 
changed by declension and by the effect of 
preceding words ; e. g. : tdd, a father ; ei ddd, 
his father ; ei thdd, her father ; vy nhdd, my 
father. Thus p is changed into I, mh, and ph ; 
t into d, nh, and th; & into /and m; d into dd 
and n, &c. There is one article, which is not 
declined, but varies according to the initial let- 
ter of the following word. Substantives are 
declined by prepositions, by terminations, and 
by changes in their radical vowels ; e. g. : perth, 
bush, plural perthi ; bwa, bow, plur. bwaau ; 
tyrfa, throng, troop, plur. tyrfaoedd; march, 
horse, plur. meirch; ffordd, road, iplur. Jfyrdd ; 
alarch, swan, plnr. elyrch; mat, son, plur. 
meibion ; nant, brook, plur. nentydd ; maen, 
stone, plur. meini. There are but two genders, 



CELTS (LANGUAGES AND LITEEATUEE) 



179 



masculine and feminine. Adjectives are form- 
ed from substantives, and verbs by means 
of the terminations aid, gar, ig, in, lyd, og, 
and us. The comparative is formed by the 
ending ach, the superlative by of; e. g. : du, 
black; duach, blacker; duaf, blackest. The 
feminine adjective is formed from the mas- 
culine by softening the initial letter, and also 
by changing the radical vowel. The verb has 
no present tense, to express which the future 
is used, or the substantive verb wyv (I am) 
with the infinitive. There are, however, im- 
perfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future tenses, 
which are formed, both in the optative and 
indicative moods, by endings and changes of 
vowels without auxiliary verbs ; e. g. : carwn, 
I loved; cerais, I have loved; caraswn, I had 
loved; caraf, I shall love. Each tense has 
three persons both in the singular and plu- 
ral ; e. g. : carwn, earit, carai, carem, earech, 
carent. The passive voice is wanting, and is 
expressed by a peculiar circumlocution. There 
are several irregular verbs besides wye. The 
adjective is usually placed after the substan- 
tive, but is often placed before. The numerals 
are : un, dau or dwy, tri or tair, pedwar or 
pedair, pump, chwech, saith, wyth, naw, deg. 
The personal pronouns are: mi, I; ti, thou; 
ev, he ; hi, she ; ni, we ; chwi, you ; Jiwy or 
hwynt, they. "The language," says Ferdinand 
Walther, "has great power, simplicity, and 
precision. It is very rich especially in roots, 
and has a remarkable capacity to express an 
entire abstraction in a single word." The 
literature of the Cymri has laid claim to a 
very ancient origin, but modern criticism shows 
that even the earliest Welsh writings are sub- 
sequent to the Christian era. The first eminent 
bard of whose period of existence we have a 
distinct record was Myrddin, the bard of Prince 
Emrys, the first Merlin of romance, who flour- 
ished about 450. Aneurin, identified by some 
with the Gildas of ecclesiastical history, Talie- 
sin, prince of bards, Llewarch Hen, and Myrd- 
din Wyllt or Merlin the Wild, belong to the 5th 
and 6th centuries ; of them all numerous po- 
ems remain. The most gifted among more 
modern bards was perhaps Dafydd ap Gwylem 
(129S-1356), sometimes called the Ovid of 
Wales, the poet of love and nature. A volume 
of translations from his writings has been pub- 
lished in London (1834). Huw Morris (1622- 
1709) wrote songs, carols, and elegies, and 
sometimes violent political satires. The last 
remarkable poet of Wales, Goronwy Owen 
(1722-1780), died poor in New Brunswick, and 
his productions, including the Cwydd y Farn 
(" Day of Judgment "), regarded as the finest 
work of genius in the language, were first 
printed in 1819. The earliest Welsh prose litera- 
ture is the triads, said to be of druidic origin, a 
sort of maxims in triplets, each setting forth a 
historical event or a moral principle. Next is 
the " Chronicle of the Kings of the Isle of 
Britain," supposed to have been written by 
Tysilio in the 7th century, and said to be the 



original of the chronicle of Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. It was continued to the year 1152 by 
Caradwg of Llancarvan, whose work is also in 
existence. The "Code of Howel Da," of the 
12th century, is also an important literary 
monument, as is the " Biography of Gruffydd 
ap Cynan," of the 15th century. The Mabino- 
gion ("Juvenile Diversions"), made accessible 
to English readers by the translations of Owen 
Pugh and Lady Charlotte Guest, is a collec- 
tion of Cymric legends and fairy stories of 
unknown antiquity, but committed to writing 
in the 14th century. " The Sleeping Bard," 
written about 1700 by Elis Wyn, a moral and 
religious allegory, divided into the " Vision of 
the World," "Vision of Death," and "Vision 
of Hell," is a work of great originality and 
power ; it has been translated into English by 
George Borrow (London, 1860). The first 
translation of the New Testament into Welsh 
was made by William Salesbury (1597), and 
the first translation of the whole Bible was 
completed by William Morgan and published in 
1588. Considerable bodies of Welsh emigrants 
have brought their native language to the 
United States, and there are communities in 
which it is the prevailing tongue. Welsh peri- 
odicals, newspapers, and religious tracts and 
books are also published in the United States 
for the use of citizens of Welsh origin. A 
convenient Welsh grammar for students is that 
of William Spurrell (London, 1848 ; 2d ed., 
1853). Of the Cornish branch of the Cymraeg, 
now extinct as a spoken language, the inde- 
fatigable Zeuss, in the Vocabularium Corni- 
cum of his Grammatica Celtica, has given 
almost all that is now known. There is also 
the "Ancient Cornish Drama," edited and 
translated by Edwin Norris. THE GAELIC. For 
this language, spoken in Scotland and Ireland, 
there are many grammars and dictionaries. 
Among these may be mentioned the dictionary 
of Edward O'Eeilly (4to, Dublin, 1817), a book 
which has lately acquired much additional val- 
ue by a new edition and supplement prepared 
by the eminent Gaelic scholar John O'Donovan, 
editor of the " Four Masters." This work may 
be taken for the present as the nearest ap- 
proach to a standard dictionary of the language. 
Of grammars there are also several ; of which 
we name that of Neilson, that of Owen Con- 
nellan (Dublin, 1844), and the " College Irish 
Grammar," by the Kev. Ulick J. Burke, of 
St. Patrick's college, Maynooth (Dublin, 1856). 
The literary and historic remains of this lan- 
guage are very voluminous, and have been in- 
dustriously collected, translated, and annotated 
by modern scholars, both in Scotland and in 
Ireland. They consist mainly of annals, laws, 
and genealogies, but with a large infusion of 
romantic and fairy tales like those of Brittany. 
The Gaelic speech has varied considerably from 
age to age ; and a great portion of the industry 
of its professors has been expended upon the 
"glosses," that is, partial translations of sen- 
tences and phrases, from the Lathi, or into th 



180 



CELTS (LANGUAGES) 



CEMENTS 



Latin, made by monks in all the monasteries 
of Europe for many ages. The spoken lan- 
guage of Connaught or of Inverness gives but 
little help in these researches ; for the speakers 
of this language could not understand an an- 
cient manuscript of the 12th century if read 
to them. The alphabet of the language con- 
sists of 18 letters, named from trees (ailm, elm ; 
beithe, birch ; coll, hazel, &c.). The letters k, q, 
v, x. y, and z are wanting. Many consonants are 
not pronounced. The pronunciation varies in 
different periods and localities. The indefinite 
article, the neuter gender, and a special form 
for the present tense of the verbs are wanting 
in Gaelic. There are two declensions and two 
conjugations. A peculiar metaphony is much 
used, as : fear, a man ; fir, of a man ; fhir, O 
man ! The system of prefixes and suffixes re- 
sembles that of the Semitic tongues. The nu- 
merals are : aon, a h-aon, 1 ; dhd, a dhd, 2 ; 
tri, 3 ; ceithir, 4; cuig, coig, 5 ; se, sia, 6 ; seachd, 
7 ; ochd, 8 ; naoi, naoth, 9 ; deich, 10 ; aon 
deug, 11, &c. ; fichead, 20 ; deich ar fhichead, 
30 (10 + 20); da fhichead 40 (2x20), &c. ; 
ceud, dad, 1,000, &c. The nominative plu- 
ral is formed by adding ean, as cldr sairean, 
harpers. The sexes are distinguished by three 
methods : by different words, by prefixing ban 
or bain for feminines, and by an adjective. 
The personal pronouns are : mi, mhi, I ; tu, thu, 
thou ; e, se, he ; i, si, she ; sinn, we ; sibh, you ; 
iad, siad, they. The relative pronouns are : a, 
who, which; an, whose, and to whom; na, 
that which ; nach, who not. The possessives 
are : mo, my ; do, thy ; a,, his, her ; ar, our ; 
bhur, ur, your; anjam, their. The interroga- 
tives are : co, who ; cia, which ; ciod, what. 
The indefinite pronouns are: each, the rest; 
cuid, some ; eile, other. Among the verbs are : 
phaisg mi, I wrapped ; phaisg thu, phaisg e, 
&c. ; negatively, do phaisg mi, &c. Abair, to 
say ; thubhairt mi, I have said ; air radh, said ; 
ag radh, saying. Verb to be : to mi, I am ; to 
thu, thou art ; to e, he is ; to sinn, we are, &c. ; 
am bheil mi, am I ; cha'n eil mi, I am not. 
Among the prepositions are: a, as, of; ag, at; 
air, on ; an, in ; bhdrr, off; ear, during ; do, to, 
of; eadar, between; gu, till; mar, as, like; o, 
from; re, during; re, ri, ris, to; trid, through, 
&c. The best authorities to be consulted as to 
the actual literary remains which now exist in 
the Gaelic are the Grammatica Celtica of Zeuss, 
before cited, and the works of the late Eugene 
O'Curry and John O'Donovan, both members of 
the royal Irish academy. O'Curry has left a spe- 
cially valuable book of reference for Gaelic stu- 
dents, ' ' Lectures on the MS. Materials of Ancient 
Irish History" (Dublin, 1861). This elaborate 
work contains almost all that is now accessible 
concerning the writings still existing in the 
Gaelic tongue, with catalogues and descriptions 
of the "lost books v " which appear to have 
been very numerous. But still many works 
have not been lost; atd the zeal of antiquarian 
societies, the archaeological, the Celtic soci- 
ety, and others, has presented to the public a 



whole library of Gaelic lore, generally with 
translations and careful notes by John O'Don- 
ovan. The most voluminous of these is the 
"Annals of the Four Masters," in 7 vols. 
4to, a book which was compiled in its present 
form so late as the beginning of the 17th 
century, but which was necessarily founded 
upon chronicles of very remote times. This 
book, with its notes, together with the pub- 
lications of the Celtic and Ossianic societies 
and the series of volumes put forth by the 
archaeological society, may be said to furnish 
all the information which is extant on the sub- 
ject. The chevalier Nigra, late Italian minis- 
ter at Paris, is one of the most zealous Celtic 
students. His Glossee Hibernica VeUres Codi- 
cis Taurinensis (Paris, 1869), from Gaelic MSS. 
and glosses found in the monastic libraries of 
Milan and Turin, has been highly praised by 
Celtic scholars. It ought to be mentioned that 
the work of Zeuss was revised and almost re- 
constructed after his death by H. Ebel ; and it 
is now the most authoritative book of reference 
for students either of Gaelic or Cymric. 

CEMENTATION, a chemical process chiefly em- 
ployed in the manufacture of steel and of por- 
celain glass. To convert wrought iron into 
steel, the bars are selected with care, broken 
into convenient lengths, and placed in lay- 
ers in pots, mixed with and surrounded by 
charcoal. These pots are subjected to an 
intense heat, by which the carbon gradually 
penetrates the iron, and combines with it. 
Different views are entertained with regard 
to the formation of cement steel, but it is 
most probable that the carbonization of the 
iron bars, when heated in powdered coal with 
the exclusion of air, takes place by means of 
cyanogen compounds which are formed in the 
state of gas, rather than by a direct reaction 
of carbon or carbonic oxide gas. The American 
bank note company cement their engraved 
plates in carbon obtained from fine ivory turn- 
ings. Bottle glass is cemented with gypsum 
powder or sand, to form Reaumur's porcelain. 

CEMENTS, certain substances which by their 
interposition cause the surfaces of solid bodies 
to adhere together or to unite, the action being 
either mechanical or chemical, or both. The 
history of the fabrication of cements, like that 
of many other arts, reaches so far back into 
the early ages that it is impossible to ascertain 
with much exactness where it was first skilfully 
practised. The ancient Egyptians 4,000 years 
ago possessed the knowledge not only of ma- 
king building mortar, but of mixing earthy ma- 
terials which would set and harden under water. 
In the construction of the pyramid of Cheops, 
a cement made of Nile mud and gypsum is be- 
lieved to have been used. Many of their sculp- 
tures in bass relief were executed in cement, 
and examples are still preserved of Egyptian 
ceilings in painted stucco of a date much earlier 
than Solomon's temple. The pictures in relief 
which have been discovered in the excavations 
at Nineveh were mostly executed in alabaster ; 



CEMENTS 



181 




iut the Babylonians, not having such materials, 
covered their bricks with plaster, on which 
they made their designs. It was upon the 
" plaster of the wall " of Belshazzar's palace 
that the mystic hand traced the fatal letters. 
Under Nebuchadnezzar Babylon became the 
first city in the world, and mortars and ce- 
mts of various kinds, of a bituminous and 
rthy character, were used in enormous quan- 
;ies in the construction of edifices and public 
orks. The Greeks gave the subject much 
.telligent attention, as is evidenced by the 
.emical composition and state of preservation 
mortars and cements which have been found 
their ancient temples; and it is a matter 
history that in the earlier development of 
the architectural and engineering arts by the 
Eomans, the Greeks were often consulted by 
them. The Romans, however, attained to the 
greatest distinction for the magnitude and du- 
rability of their works. They prepared an ex- 
cellent cement for hydraulic purposes, which 
they used in making concrete with broken 
stones for the construction of various piers and 
harbors on the Mediterranean. They early be- 
came acquainted with the properties of poz- 
zuolana, which mixed with burned lime gave 
them a hydraulic cement that can scarcely be 
said to have been since excelled. The mole or 
breakwater of Pozzuoli is one of the monu- 
ments of the durability of their hydraulic struc- 
tures. It was composed of 24 arches, sustained 
upon piers, built of brick faced with stone, and 
held together with cement made of pozzuolana 
and lime. Thirteen of the piers are still above 
the water, although they were built more than 
1,800 years ago. The arched construction was 
for the purpose of preventing a collection of sand 
behind the mole. Vitruvius, in his work De Ar- 
chitecture^ says : " There is found in the neigh- 
borhood of Baise, and the municipal lands lying 
at the foot of Vesuvius, a kind of powder 
which produces admirable effects ; when mixed 
with lime and small stones it has not only the 
advantage of giving great solidity to common 
buildings, but possesses the further property 
of forming masses of masonry which harden 
under water." Cements may be divided into 
those which are chemical and those which are 
mechanical, or into the stony and the resinous 
and glutinous. The stony cements may be 
again subdivided into those which harden on 
exposure to the air, such as common building 
mortar ; those which harden when immersed in 
water, as the hydraulic cements; and those 
which harden principally by combining with 
water, as gypsum and gypseous cements. Com- 
mon building mortar is made of lime and sand. 
The preparation of lime by calcination from 
limestone, chalk, marble, and other forms of 
carbonate of lime, is treated of in the article 
LIME. Many kinds of limestones contain car- 
bonate of magnesia as well as carbonate of 
lime, and are called dolomitic limestones. 
When the proportion of carbonate of magnesia 
is 46 per cent., the stone is called dolomite, 



and has been pronounced unfit for making 
building mortar. It does not become so hot 
in slaking nor set so soon as pure lime; but 
those who use it assert that in time it becomes 
harder. Some of the best lime in this country 
is made from stone obtained along the Hud- 
son river, much of which is almost pure dolo- 
mite. Before mixing with sand, the lime is 
slaked, a process that requires to be carefully 
performed in order to secure good results. 
Three volumes of quicklime moistened with 
one of water slakes with much violence and 
the evolution of heat, which often reaches 
300 F. If enough water is used to cover the 
lime, it will be made to boil. Slaked lime is a 
hydrate of the protoxide of calcium, and is two 
and a half or three times the volume of the 
quicklime used. All the water used in slaking 
should be added at once. Less than is required 
to convert all the lime to a hydrate will cause 
a granular powder to be formed, which is of 
inferior value. After the slaking is completed 
the mass should be allowed to lie one or two 
days before it is made into mortar. In the 
south of Europe it is often put in boxes and 
kept for months, a practice which is thought 
to increase its power of conferring hydraulic 
energy to pozzuolanas. When used, the slaked 
lime should be made into a creamy paste by 
the addition of about an equal quantity of 
water. The quantity of sand to be added de- 
pends upon the use which is to be made of the 
mortar, and also upon the quality of the sand. 
In order to prevent shrinking, there should not 
be much more lime paste than is sufficient to 
fill the void spaces between the particles of 
sand. Coarse sharp sand will therefore take 
more lime than that which is fine, and will in 
time generally become harder. For bricklay- 
ing and the rough or foundation coat of wall 
plastering, the proportions vary from two to 
three parts of sand to one of lime paste. In 
the rough coat in wall plastering about one 
sixth part by measure of cows' hair is mixed, 
to aid in binding. Mortar may be mixed by 
hand, in which case a common hoe is the im- 
plement generally used. A mill, however, 
mixes the materials more thoroughly, and when 
a large quantity is required will repay the out- 
lay. A common pug mill, such as is used for 
grinding clay for brick, answers the purpose very 
well, or one having a pair of heavy rollers mov- 
ing round an axis in a circular pan. A form 
used in Europe is a conical mill, which empties 
into a trough or tube in which a spiral band 
wound round a shaft revolves, while it mixes 
the mortar and carries it to the end, when it is 
delivered into tubs. The setting and hardening 
of mortar are two distinct processes. Setting 
is caused partly from the adhesion that takes 
place between the particles of sand and lime, 
and which is no doubt increased by incipient 
chemical action, partly from the formation of 
more or less crystalline hydrate, and probably 
to some extent by evaporation. The hardening 
of common building mortar consists in the 



182 



CEMENTS- 



alow conversion of the hydrate of lime into 
carbonate and silicate, and the deposition of 
crystalline hydrate, and also in the cohesion 
that naturally results from the long-continued 
apposition of particles of matter with one an- 
other. There has been a long and an unset- 
tled controversy among chemists, architects, 
and engineers in regard to the changes which 
take place in mortar after it has been laid in 
walls exposed to the air, some maintaining that 
the hardening is chiefly caused by the conver- 
sion of the hydrate of lime into carbonate; 
others believing that it is principally due to the 
slow formation of a silicate ; and others again 
that it is due to both these changes, and also to 
the crystallization of hydrate and consequent 
packing of void spaces aided by the force of 
cohesive attraction. From the investigations 
of Prof. F. Kuhlmann of Lille, in regard to the 
action of alkaline silicates upon limestones and 
chalk, it is probable that the lime after becom- 
ing carbonated is susceptible of combining with 
a certain portion of silica, if this is present in a 
soluble condition in combination with an alkali, 
and forming a silico-carbonate of lime. Petz- 
holdt examined several old mortars. Some that 
were 300 years old yielded lime water when 
digested in fresh water, thus showing the pres- 
ence of caustic lime. Some portions effervesced 
in cold dilute hydrochloric acid, yielding in a 
short time a stiff jelly, thus revealing the pres- 
ence of a soluble silicate of lime. He moreover 
found that in similar mortars, those which were 
300 years old contained three times as much 
soluble silicate of lime as those which were only 
100 years old. These experiments not only 
show that silicification takes place in building 
mortar made of lime and sand, but that it takes 
place in a pretty constant rate of progress, 
which would appear to be somewhat indepen- 
dent of the degree of carbonization attained 
by the lime. Hydraulic cements are used in 
the construction of fortifications, breakwaters, 
aqueducts and reservoirs, canals, foundations 
of bridges, and other works of military and 
civil engineering, as well as in the construction 
of cellars and cisterns. The useful property 
which they possess of rapidly setting when 
immersed in water, and of continuously hard- 
ening under the same influence, chiefly results 
from the strong affinity of caustic lime for 
silica and alumina, and from the affinity the 
resulting compounds have for water, and their 
insolubility. They are divided into two princi- 
pal classes, natural and artificial cements. The 
former are entirely made from certain rocky 
strata or earthy substances, without any admix- 
ture of foreign material ; while those which are 
artificial are made by combining earthy sub- 
stances with caustic lime, and sometimes small 
portions of an alkali. Certain geological for- 
mations contain beds which are composed of 
such proportions of lime, alumina, silica, the 
alkalies, and a few other bodies of less conse- 
quence, that after they are calcined insoluble 
compounds are formed on the addition of water. 



Other formations exist, of a less calcareous con- 
stitution, which need the addition of caustic 
lime to enable them to perform the same or 
similar reactions ; and there are others which 
contain too much lime to be capable of being 
used for hydraulic cement, but which may be 
employed in making what is termed hydraulic 
lime. The stone from which hydraulic cement 
is made in the United States is found in strati- 
fied rocky beds of aqueous deposits, lying prin- 
cipally in strata of the Silurian system connect- 
ed with the Appalachian chain of mountains. 
It is an argillaceous limestone, which yields 
on calcination the proper proportions of lime, 
alumina, and silica to unite with water and 
form a hard substance without slaking or ex- 
panding, and also to indurate continuously in 
consequence of other chemical reactions. The 
Silurian system, in the classification of the New 
York geologists, lies in strata in the following 
order : 



SILURIAN BTBTEM. 


! 


Lower Helderberg. 


Lower Helderberg. 


Salina. 


Saliferous. 


Niagara. 


Niagara. 
Clinton. 
Medina. 
Oneida. 




Hudson. 


Hudson river. 
Utica. 


Trenton. 


Trenton. 
Black river. 
Birdseye. 
Cbazy. 


Potsdam. 


Calclferous sandstone. 
Potsdam sandstone. 



This formation covers a large space in Canada, 
N. of New York, about the size of that state, 
and also a large area N. W. of Lake Ontario. 
In the United States it covers about half of the 
state of New York and the western part of 
Vermont, whence it extends in a belt S. W. 
through eastern New York, and through the 
states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
Virginia, and East Tennessee. It also appears 
in Middle Tennessee and Kentucky, and covers 
a vast area W. and N. W. of Lake Michigan, 
600 m. in longitude and from 200 to 500 in 
latitude. Most of the hydraulic cement in New 
York is obtained from beds in the Trenton and 
lower Helderberg formations. In Ohio beds are 
found in the upper coal measures, and in Illinois 
in the lower carboniferous formation and in the 
Niagara group. In Canada there are beds in the 
saliferous group. Only a few layers of these 
groups are used, most of them either contain- 
ing too little or too much lime. Those of the 
Trenton group which furnish hydraulic cement 
extend from Vermont, in a narrow belt, south- 
ward through the eastern tier of counties in 
Ifew York, passing into Orange county at 
Newburgh ; thence through Sussex and War- 
ren counties, New Jersey, into the state of 



CEMENTS 



183 



Pennsylvania, appearing in Berks, Chester, 
Lancaster, and York counties, and passing 
through Maryland into Virginia, where they 
are found in Rockingham, Augusta, Rock- 
bridge, Roanoke, and other counties. The 
tentaculite, or water limestone of the lower 
Helderberg formation, however, furnishes most 
of the hydraulic cement that is used in the 
United States. Large deposits are found in 
Oneida, Onondaga, Madison, Niagara, Erie, 
Ulster, and Sullivan counties, New York. The 
largest development of the manufacture has 
taken place in Ulster county. The deposits 
there occupy a narrow belt in the valley of the 
Rondout creek, along the line of the Delaware 
and Hudson canal, and pass into New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, but have not been found 
east of the Hudson river. The following table, 
made from a larger one in the work of Gen. Q. 
A. Gillmore " On Limes, Hydraulic Cements, 
and Mortars," gives analyses made by Prof. E. 
C. Boynton of four samples of hydraulic lime- 
stone, and the localities from which they were 
taken : 



CONSTITUENTS. 


Shepherdetown, 
Va. 


8 

lj 

gfc 


High Falls, 
Ulster co., N.Y. 


Layer 11. 


Layer 12. 


Carbonate of lime 


58-25 
11-16 
17-84 
4-60 
74 
8-26 
1-70 
20 


85-60 
19-26 
&3-80 
8-96 
50 
6-18 
88 
14 


80-74 
14-48 
89-74 
6'00 
66 
7-42 
1-44 
24 


80-72 
35-10 
19-64 
7-52 
64 
4-10 
2-88 
18 




Silica, clay, and insoluble silica . . 
Alumina 


Sulphuric acid 


Chloride of sodium & potassium. 
Peroxide of iron 


Hygrometric water lost at 212 F. 
Total 


97-75 


100-82 100-72 


100-28 





The limestone from which cement is made, 
as has been intimated, varies considerably in 
quality even in the same locality, the difference 
depending much upon the relative position of 
the layer from which it is taken. The nearer 
it lies to those strata that are decidedly cal- 
careous, the more it approaches in character 
what is called a rich lime, slaking and expand- 
ing more or less. Again, when the more 
highly argillaceous strata are approached, and 
the deposit contains less lime, it loses energy 
and capability of hardening. Some of the 
stones require greater time for calcination than 
others, from 20 to 40 hours being the range. 
If the temperature is raised too high, the sili- 
cate is partially fused and the property of set- 
ting under water destroyed. It is therefore 
evident that such stones should not be burned 
together, although they may be mixed after- 
ward. Careful inspection is not always suffi- 
cient to detect the difference, nor is chemical 
analysis always to be relied on, although it is 
quite probable that those limes which contain 
much alkaline silicates should not be so highly 
calcined as others. Trial kilns capable of 
burning from 100 to 300 Ibs. should be fre- 
quently used. In preparing hydraulic cement 



for the market, similar kilns to those used for 
calcining common limestone are employed, and 
the processes are also similar. The perpetual 
flame kiln, or the draw kiln, such as is used 
on the continent of Europe, particularly the 
one invented by Friedrich Hoffmann of Berlin, 
is preferable. Kilns which are charged with 
alternate layers of fuel and limestone do not 
furnish so equable or controllable a degree of 
heat, and it is more important to secure this 
condition in calcining hydraulic limestone than 
in making quicklime. The process of calcina- 
tion is described in the article LIME. After 
burning, the stone is passed through a crush- 
ing mill and reduced to small pieces of the size 
of beech nuts, and is then finely pulverized by 
ordinary millstones. The crushers in general 
use are capable of preparing for the mill about 
250 bbls. per day each ; and one millstone will 
grind about 10 bbls. per hour. One cubic 
yard of stone from the quarry yields about 9 
bbls. of ground cement, of 300 Ibs. each. In 
Ulster county it is packed in barrels as it comes 
from the spout. The color of most of the 
hydraulic cement made in this country is a 
lighter or darker drab, the depth of hue de- 
pending principally upon the amount of oxide 
of iron which may be present. It will be ob- 
served from the table that the hydraulic lime- 
stones of Ulster and Erie counties, N. Y., as 
well as the one at Shepherdstown, Va., contain 
a large proportion of carbonate of magnesia. 
This might be regarded as a defect from what 
has been said of the effect of the presence of 
magnesia in common lime; but the case is 
altered in respect to hydraulic cements, and 
they are considered by Vicat and Marshal 
Vaillant, as well as by MM. Rivot and Cha- 
toney, as being superior for hydraulic pur- 
poses on this account. When hydraulic ce- 
ment is to be used, it is made into a paste with 
water, but no definite rules as to the propor- 
tion can be prescribed ; the bes't plan being to 
add just that quantity which will form a paste 
of such a consistence as can be manipulated 
with facility by the trowel. When the cement 
is used to form grout for filling in walls, it re- 
quires to be made thinner. The setting and 
hardening of hydraulic cement are processes 
not so distinctly separated as they are in the 
case of common building mortar. The setting 
and much of the hardening take place simul- 
taneously, or rather the setting and hardening 
are mostly one and the same process ; and with 
some cements it takes place almost immediately, 
further hardening proceeding slowly by cohe- 
sion, and by further chemical changes that have 
been commenced. The time varies with the kind 
and quality of the cement, some kinds taking not 
more than ten minutes, while others require 
more than as many hours, to become hard 
enough to fracture. MM. Rivot and Chatonay 
state that in calcination of an argillaceous lime- 
stone, when it has been just sufficient to expel the 
carbonic acid from the carbonate of lime, there 
will be formed a silicate and an aluminate of 



184: 



CEMENTS 



lime, SiO 3 , 3CaO, and A1,0 S , 3CaO, which 
on the addition of water become hydrates, SiOs, 
3CaO, 6HO, and A1 S O S , 3CaO, 6HO. But if 
the calcination has been effected with intense 
heat, so as to produce partial vitrification, the 
reaction will become more complex, silicate of 
alumina and silicate of lime being formed first ; 
after which, on the addition of water, de- 
composition takes place with the formation 
of hydrosilicate and hydroaluminate of lime, 
each containing three equivalents of water 
instead of six. From the fact that increased 
hydraulicity is conferred on some earths which 
are used in making hydraulic cement by mix- 
ing them with lime that has been slaked a 
long time and exposed to the air, and therefore 
partially reconverted to a carbonate, it would 
appear that double decomposition is often fa- 
vorable to the silicification of the lime ; or in 
other words, that on quitting its union with 
carbonic acid it more readily combines, in con- 
sequence of being in a nascent state, with the 
silica, which on leaving its union with an 
alkali is also in a nascent condition. What in- 
fluence oxide of iron may have on the harden- 
ing of cements is still a matter of discussion. 
Experience sometimes seems to favor the idea 
that it is beneficial in ultimate hardening ; but 
very hard cements have been made which con- 
tained scarcely a trace of iron, and the subject 
must be considered as involved in doubt. The 
hydraulic cements principally employed in Eu- 
rope are the Eoman, Portland, Medina, Mul- 
grave, and those made on the continent from 
pozzuolana, trass, santorin, and Teil lime. 
Modern Roman cement, so called because of its 
similarity to the old Roman cement, is princi- 
pally made in England and France. The Eng- 
lish article is made from nodules, or septaria, 
found in the Kimmeridge and London clays. 
The first modern Roman cement was made by 
Mr. Parker of London, who patented his pro- 
cess in 1796 ; it consisted in calcining the sep- 
taria stones nearly to the point of vitrification, 
and then crushing and grinding them to powder 
without admixture of any other material, the 
product being therefore a natural cement. Ro- 
man cement is also made at Boulogne from 
nodules of septaria lying in the same geological 
formation, and does not essentially differ in 
quality from that made in England. Roman 
cement is now made in England from a clay 
shale found above the chalk formation in the 
isle of Sheppey and the isle of Wight. In 
Germany Roman cement is also made from 
limestones of a similar character. All the Ro- 
man cements contain a notable quantity of 
oxide of iron, as will be seen in the following 
table of analyses by Michaelis : 



CONSTITUENTS. 


1. 


2_ 


a 


4. 


Lime 


B848 


65-50 


47-88 


66'88 


Magnesia 


6-00 


1-78 


24-26 


2-25 


Silicic acid 


28-88 


25-00 


Ml 


28-66 


Alumina 


6-40 


6-96 


1-60 


724 


Oxide of iron... 


4-80 


9-68 


jo-so 


7-97 



No. 1 is Roman cement from the Rudersdorf 
limestone ; 2, from limestone shale from the 
isle of Sheppey ; 3, from limestone forming the 
under bed of the lead ores at Tarnowitz ; and 
No. 4 is from Hausbergen limestone. Portland 
cement, an artificial compound, so named from 
its resemblance to Portland stone, was first 
manufactured by Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, Eng- 
land. His method was, according to his let- 
ters patent, to pulverize limestone and burn it 
in a kiln ; then to add an equal weight of clay 
and thoroughly knead the mixture with water 
to a plastic mass, which was dried, broken in 
pieces, and again burnt to expel all the car- 
bonic acid. Since that time, however, great 
improvements have been made in its manufac- 
ture, both in England and on the continent. 
To obtain the best results, it has been found 
that the lime should be in a state of carbonate 
when it is mixed with the clay, and there- 
fore, on account of greater facility and cheap- 
ness, chalk is employed instead of limestone. 
Two methods are practised, one in England 
and the other in Germany, which are some- 
what different. In England the wet method 
is followed, which consists in mixing the ma- 
terials together with water and grinding them 
to a pulp, which, after evaporation to the 
proper degree of stiffness, is made into balls 
or bricks, which are dried and then calcined to 
near the point of vitrification, after which they 
are ground in a mill. The proportions of the 
ingredients are from 65 to 75 per cent, of 
chalk to 25 or 35 per cent, of clay. In Ger- 
many the dry method is preferred, which con- 
sists in first drying the materials and reducing 
them to powder separately, after which they 
are mixed with water in the proper propor- 
tions, and made into bricks, which are then 
dried, calcined, and ground, as in the English 
method. The Germans also add a certain 
quantity of alkali, either soda or potash, de- 
pending upon the quantity which may already be 
contained in the clay, but enough to bring the 
amount to 3 or 4 per cent, of the whole, for the 
purpose of forming a soluble silicate to act upon 
the lime in setting; and sometimes a small 
amount of finely pulverized sand or quartz 
rock is added. In making mortar of Portland 
cement Mr. Lipowitz, a German manufacturer, 
recommends the use of about 100 parts of ce- 
ment to 44 parts of water, but the propor- 
tions are subject to variation. Analyses of 
four varieties of Portland cement made in Eng- 
land and Germany are given by Michaelis : 



CONSTITUENTS. 


1. 


2. 


8. 


4. 


Lime 


69-06 


62-8J 


CO-88 


56-06 


Silicic acid 


24-07 


28-22 


26-98 


22-92 




6-92 


6-27 


T-IVI 


8-00 


Oxide of iron 


8-41 


2-00 


2-46 


6-46 




0-62 


1-14 


0-28 


0-77 


Potash 


0-78 


( 1 0- I 


0-94 


1-18 


Soda 


0-87 


1-2 ' \ 


0-80 


1-70 


ftiilpjmt* nf Hm , . . . 


2-85 


' 1-80 


1-62 


1-75 


Clay sand 


1-47 


2-64 


1-04 


2-27 












Total... 


100-20 


99-55 


99-84 


99-06 



CEMENTS 



185 



Nos. 1 and 4 are English Portland cements, 
No. 2 made at Stettin, and No. 3 at Wildau. 
It will be remarked that in these instances the 
English cements contain the largest propor- 
tions of alkalies. In France a similar method 
is employed. The hydraulic lime of Saint- Leger 
is made of four parts of chalk to one of clay. 
The ingredients are ground together in a mill 
with water, and when sufficiently firm the 
mixture is made into bricks, which are cal- 
cined in a common kiln, mixed with coke, a 
lower degree of heat being employed than in 
burning Portland cement. Gen. Pasley is re- 
garded as the founder of artificial cement man- 
ufacture in England. In 1826 he made a ce- 
ment by burning the river mud from the Med- 
way with limestone or chalk. This mud, on 
account of its argillaceous composition, as well 
as from the presence of sodium salts, is well 
adapted to the purpose; but other materials 
are now used, such as marls mixed with clay, 
and generally the deposits at the deltas of riv- 
ers. A natural Portland cement is made at 
Boulogne! from a layer of Kimmeridge clay 
which lies about 160 ft. below the strata in 
which the septaria nodules are found. It is 
burned and ground without the addition of 
lime or any other material. In burning this 
earth the best results are obtained by bringing 
it to a white heat, so that vitrification begins to 
take place. It has a greater specific gravity 
than English Portland cement, and requires 
less water for making into paste than either 
that article or the Boulogne Roman cement ; 
and it also sets more slowly, requiring from 10 
to 20 hours. The reason of its taking less wa- 
ter is explained by the theory of MM. Rivot 
and Chatoney that where cements are cal- 
cined at a high heat silicate of alumina and 
silicate of lime are formed, which on the addi- 
tion of water undergo decomposition with the 
formation of aluminate and silicate of lime, 
containing each three instead of six equivalents 
of water, which is the case when a heat only 
sufficient to drive off" the carbonic acid of the 
carbonate of lime is employed ; and the de- 
composition which must take place before the 
final hydration also explains the slow setting. 
Pozzuolana is found not only at the foot of 
Mt. Vesuvius, but in various places in Europe : 
in Sicily, in Mauritius, in Guadeloupe and Mar- 
tinique, and in several places in France. It 
is mixed, without calcination, with caustic 
lime. Sometimes, however, the lime is al- 
lowed to stand for several months after sla- 
king before being used, and this practice is said 
in some instances to increase the hydraulic en- 
ergy of the product, probably in consequence 
of the partial recarbonization of the lime facil- 
itating the process of silicification which takes 
place between the lime and the alkaline sili- 
cates contained in the volcanic pozzuolana. 
A substance of volcanic origin called trass is 
found in the valley of the Rhine, which has 
long been much used, especially by the Dutch 
engineers, for hydraulic works in Holland, and 



CONSTITUENTS. 




Tn 


IM. 






Sol. In HC1. 


InioLInHCl. 


Silica 


44-5 


11*50 


87-44 


Lime 


8*8 


8 - 16 


2-25 


Magnesia 


4'7 


2-15 


0-27 


Potash 


( r * 1 


0-29 


0*08 


Soda 


1 5 ' 5 f 


2-44 


1-12 


Alumina 


( 150' 


17-70 


1-25 


Oxide of iron 


12-0 


11-17 


0-75 


Water 


9-2 


7-65 












Total 


99-7 


56-06 


48-16 



the Romans also employed it many centuries 
ago. It possesses qualities nearly identical 
with Italian pozzuolana, and is treated with 
lime in the same manner. It is of a grayish 
color, and lies in beds composed of fine parti- 
cles and small lumps. The following table 
showing the chemical composition of pozzuo- 
lana and trass is taken from Wagner's " Chem- 
ical Technology : " 



A hydraulic lime obtained at Teil, in the de- 
partment of Ard^che, France, has been found 
to possess properties which eminently fit it for 
use in marine constructions, as it sets and hard- 
ens well in salt water. As analyzed by Prof. 
Rivot, it has the following composition : 



THE UNBUBNED STONE. 



Lime 46-8 

Oxide of iron 07 

Silica, quartz sand, and 

clay 15-0 

Carbonic acid and water. 87-6 



Total, 



99-6 



THE BURNED LIME. 



Lime 78-29 

Oxide of iron traces 

Silica 18-20 

Alumina 1-80 

Quartz sand 1-71 

Total. . . ... 100-00 



Various methods are employed for ascertain- 
ing the hardness and tensile strength as well as 
the power to resist pressure. The apparatus 
of M. Vicat for testing the hardness and deter- 
mining the time of setting employs a pointed 
pin, which, by means of a suitably adjusted 
frame, is driven against the surface of a pre- 
pared brick of cement with any given force, 
and which is determined by different weights 
which are used as the motive power. The 
tensile strength is found by fastening each end 
of a brick in a suitable clamp or socket, and 
suspending it with a weight attached at the 
lower end. The force required to produce 
fracture in this case will represent the power 
of cohesion attained by the particles of the 
brick. The power of resisting pressure is 
found by placing a prepared brick, having per- 
fectly plane sides, under a weight which may 
be increased at pleasure. The crushing and 
tractile force necessary to overcome the resist- 
ance of the cement may be found by mathe- 
matical calculation, by supporting a brick edge- 
wise and applying a weight in the middle, 
which will exert a crushing force at the upper, 
and a tractile force at the lower edge. The 
jetties which form the harbor at Port Said, 
the Mediterranean terminus of the Suez canal, 
were constructed of blocks of concrete made 
of hydraulic lime from Teil mixed with beach 



186 



CEMENTS 



sand, and exposed for several weeks to the 
action of the air. This has also been used with 
good results in the harbors of Marseilles and 
Toulon, and at various other places, in both 
fresh and salt water. The piers enclosing the 
harbor at the ocean terminus of the North sea 
canal of Holland are laid in Portland cement, 
and the same material enters into the struc- 
ture of the Cherbourg breakwater. The 
foundations of Fort Tompkins and Fort Rich- 
mond in New York harbor are composed of 
concrete made of hydraulic cement, sand, and 
fragments of granite, hi the proportion of one 
part of cement to three of sand and five of 
granite. Exterior stucco work is now to a 
great extent made of hydraulic mortar. For 
further information in regard to the details of 
the technical manipulation employed in man- 
ufacturing, using, and testing hydraulic, ce- 
ments and mortars, see " Practical Treatise on 



Calcareous Mortars and Cements," by L. J. 
Vicat (London, 1837) ; " Observations on Cal- 
careous Cements," &c., by Major Gen. Sir 0. 
W. Pasley, K. C. B. (London, 1847) ; Henry 
Reid's treatises on Portland cement and on 
concrete (London, 1868 and 1869) ; the prac- 
tical essay of A. Lipowitz on Portland cement 
(translated by W. F. Reid, London, 1868) ; the 
work of Dr. W. Michaelis, Die hydraulischen 
Mortel (Leipsic, 1869) ; Gen. Q. A. Gillmore's 
treatise on "Lime, Hydraulic Cements, and 
Mortars" (New York, 1872); and "Report 
on the Hydraulic Lime of Teil," by Leonard F. 
Beckwith, 0. E. (New York, 1873). The fol- 
lowing table of the composition of ancient mor- 
tars, with the names of the analysts, is taken 
from Mr. Reid's treatise on concrete, and will 
be found interesting to peruse in connection 
with the various theories of the hardening of 
mortars : 



Ij 



CONSTITUENTS. 



Carbonate of lime. . I 9'47 
of