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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"




r 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



VOL. V. 
CODE-DEMOTICA 



206 



^ 

% 



THE 



AMEKICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



utmmyi 



OF 



GENEKAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME V. 
CODE-DEMOTIC A. 



NEW YOKK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LOKDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIK 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



5 



v/.S 




Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Fifth Volume of the Revised 

Edition are the following : 

MORALES. 



ANTONIO BACHILLER Y 
CUBA. 

WILLARD BARTLETT. 
CONGO EIVEB. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

COKE, THOMAS, D.D. 
CROOKS, GEORGE KICHAED, D. D. 
CURRY, DANIEL, D. D. 
DEEMS, CHARLES F., D. D. 

JULIUS BING. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, 

COPENHAGEN, 

COPERNICUS, 

and other articles in history, geography, and bi- 
ography. 

DELAVAN BLOODGOOD, M. D., U. S. N. 
DAHLGREN, JOHN ADOLF. 

FRANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

CORNET-A-PlSTONS, 

COSTA, SIR MICHAEL, 

and other musical articles. 

Rev. CHARLES H. BRIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

COOLET, THOMAS MC!NTYRE, LL. D. 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 
DATE PALM, 

and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D. 
COMMUNE DE PARIS, 

and other historical articles. 

ROBERT CARTER. 

CONFEDERATE STATES. 
DAVIS, JEFFERSON. 

J. D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 
COSTA EICA, 
CROSS, 

CRUCIFIXION, 
DAHOMEY, 
DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

COMMON CARRIER. 
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. 
CORPORATION, 
CUSTOMS AND USAGES, 
DEED, 

and other legal articles. 

S. II. DADDOW, St. Clair, Pa. 

COLLIERY. 

Prof. J. 0. DALTON, M. D. 

CREATINE, 

DAY, GEORGE EDWARD, 

and various ruedical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, 

CONNECTICUT, 

COPYRIGHT, 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY, 

COTTON, 

and various articles in American geography. 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

COLEBROOKE. HENRY THOMAS. 
CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. 
DELUGE. 

A. K. FISKE. 

COOPER, SIR ASTLEY. 
COOPER, JAMES FENIMOEE. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 

CONSUMPTION. 
CROUP. 



ALFRED II. GUERNSEY. 
CONFLAGRATION. 

J. W. HAWES. 

COINS, 
COLORADO, 

COOLY, 

DELAWARE, 

and various articles in American geography. 

CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

COHESION. 
COMPRESSIBILITY. 
CONCRETE. 
DAM. 

Prof. T. STERRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 
COPPER. 
COPPERAS. 
COPPER MINES. 
COPPER SMELTING. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

CREDIT MOBILISE. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

CONGO SNAKE, 
Cow BIRD, 
CTENOPHOB.E, 
DASYURE, 

and other articles in zoology. 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 
CONSCIENCE, HENDRIK. 
CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL. 
COQUEREL, ATHANASE LAURENT CHARLES. 
CBYPTO-CALVINISTS. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

COLUMBA and COLUMBANUS, STS. 

CONCLAVE. 

CONSTANCE, COUNCIL OF. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, COUNCILS OF. 

CYPRIAN, THASCIUS C^ECILIUS. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M. 

COMET. 

CONSTELLATIONS . 

CHARLES REBELLO. 

CONCHA, JOSE DE LA, and MANUEL DE LA. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

COMBUSTION, SPONTANEOUS. 
COPE, EDWARD DRINKER. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 
CROATIA, 

and other geographical articles. 

JOHN G. SHEA, LL. D. 
CREEKS. 
DAKOTAS. 
DELAWARES. 

Prof. SIDNEY I. SMITH, Yale College. 
CRAB. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 
Corr, THOMAS WINTHROT. 
COSIN, JOHN, D. D. 

HENRY WINTER SYLE, M. D., Institution fortha 
Deaf and Dumb, New York City. 
DEAF AND DTTMB. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

COLOMBIA, UNITED STATES or. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

COMMON PRAYER, BOOK OF. 
COURBET, GUSTAVE. 

Prof. E. L. YOFMANS. 

CORPULENCE. 
CORRELATION OF FORCES. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



CODE 



CODE (Lat. codex, manuscript, originally des- 
ignating any writing, but afterward used 
specially for a law, or some form prescribed by 
law ; hence codicillus, the diminutive of codex, 
was a supplement to a will), in jurisprudence, 
a compilation of laws made by public authority. 
In a popular sense it is understood to be a 
complete body of law, or if it relate to a par- 
ticular subject, that it is to that extent com- 
plete ; in other words, that if it be intended 
as a general system of laws, it supersedes all 
previously existing laws not embraced in it ; 
and so of a partial code, that so far as it goes 
it excludes all other sources of decision. This 
is however erroneous. No compilation of laws 
was ever made which was so complete as to 
provide for all the cases that could arise. 
Positive or statute law is comparatively a small 
part of the laws of any country. There is 
always a law of custom growing out of the 
habits and peculiar circumstances of a people. 
Legislative authority may take hold of cer- 
tain principles developed by custom and give 
to them the form of written law, but it will 
still be incomplete, and the deficiency must 
be supplied by the same process which in the 
first instance brought into exercise those prin- 
ciples which have been incorporated in the 
written law. A code of laws contains no in- 
herent power of further production. Analogies 
may be furnished for many cases, yet even these 
will yield to the imperious force of changing 
circumstances and necessities. Other cases 
must incessantly occur, for the determination 
of which no analogy is furnished in the written 
law, and in these the constitution of society, 
from which a law of custom is continually ger- 
minating, must be the sole authority. Still 
more erroneous would it be to suppose that in 
any community a code was ever preenacted as 
the basis of social organization and civil rights, 
and that the national character was derived 
therefrom. The reverse of this has been the 
uniform course, so far as we have historic rec- 
ords ; and it is only when these are deficient 



that the unsupported hypothesis has been sub- 
stituted whereby a lawgiver is supposed to 
have moulded a whole people by his legislative 
enactments. There have indeed been govern- 
ments, especially in eastern countries, which 
have had unlimited power to make and un- 
make laws without regard to the rights or 
wishes of the people ; but this is only saying 
that a people may be subject to such a despot- 
ism as to be virtually without law except the 
arbitrary will of an autocrat. Under a des- 
potical government the laws may be enforced 
for a time, however unacceptable to the peo- 
ple ; yet there is a limit beyond which no sov- 
ereign can go without the danger of revolution, 
as when he attempts to interfere with the an- 
cient usages of the mass of the people. The 
form of the government may be changed, and 
political rights abrogated ; but customs gener- 
ally prevailing in domestic life or social rela- 
tions, or involving religious faith, if such cus- 
toms have become venerable by their antiquity, 
cannot be wholly suppressed except by the en- 
tire subjugation of the people to a foreign ene- 
my, nor even then unless by a perfectly mer- 
ciless war, as when the Britons were conquered 
by the Anglo-Saxons. The common version 
as to the mode in which laws were established 
in the Grecian states is in great part fabulous. 
As to Crete we have no authentic records re- 
maining ; but as to Sparta, Thirl wall and Grote 
maintain that Lycurgus, to whom is commonly 
attributed the formation of the constitution 
and laws of that state, in fact introduced no 
new principles in either the political or social 
organization of the people, but merely brought 
into systematic arrangement the usages pre- 
viously existing, with some modifications or 
additional provisions essential to the conserva- 
tion of the peculiar form of nationality already 
existing, and by a public enactment with a re- 
ligious sanction gave permanence to the entire 
system as digested by him. The double lines 
of kings, the gentsia or council of elders, the 
assembly of the people, even the ephors, with 



6 



CODE 



less authority than they afterward acquired 
all these existed before the legislation of Lycur- 
gus; so also the distinction between Spartans 
and Laconians, and the still greater distinction 
between the former and their serfs the helots. 
Usages had grown up corresponding to this 
isolation of a sm^ll number in the midst of a 
numerous subject people, and it was for the 
carrying out more efficiently the design of these 
usages that Lycurgus prepared the code which 
thenceforth became the fixed law of Sparta. In 
like manner the Athenian state was harmonized 
by the laws of Solon, but more particularly by 
his constitution of political powers. The ar- 
chonship, the areopagus, and the council of 400 
were constituent parts of the government before 
his revision of the laws. The assembly of the 
people had also taken some part in public affairs, 
but in a rude, irregular manner, without any 
fixed authority or prescribed mode of proceed- 
ing. Solon constituted it the chief legislative 
body, yet with the restriction that they were 
to consider only what was proposed by the 
senate. This restriction was afterward evaded, 
because the assembly could modify any propo- 
sition that came before them without sending 
it back to the senate for approval ; and again, 
when a law was desired by the people, any one 
could present it to the senate and procure the 
preliminary action necessary for bringing it be- 
fore the people. A still greater popular power 
was conferred by the judicial authority given 
to the dicasteries, which were composed of a 
large number of citizens, drawn by lot, pre- 
sided over by one of the archons. The num- 
ber of jurors in important cases was very large, 
sometimes including the whole body of citizens 
qualified to serve. The other laws of Solon 
corresponded with this development of the 
popular element. All citizens over the age 
of 20 were entitled to speak and vote in the 
assembly, and to sit as jurors in the dicasteries ; 
trade and manufacturing industry were en- 
couraged, and intercourse with foreigners was 
promoted by giving to them greater privileges 
than were allowed by any other Grecian state. 
Still it appears that all his legislation was in 
consonance with the spirit of the people, and 
the particular laws were probably for the most 
part ree"nactinents of customs already existing, 
but with some wholesome restraints or new 
provisions intended for the maintenance of the 
largest liberty within the proper limit of civil 
order. The same principle is again exhibited 
in the Roman laws of the twelve tables. The 
nit given by Livy is, that commissioners 
were sent into Greece to examine the laws and 
'itions of the principal states, and to 
transcribe the laws of Solon ; that alter their 
return, another commission (the decemvirs) 
was constituted to draw up a code of laws, the 
result of which was the compilation of the 
e tables. But the laws of Solon were 
nly not incorporated in the code of the- 
.virs, nor, so far as we are able to judge 
of the original from the fragments remaining 



and the commentaries of Eoman writers, was 
that code transplanted from any foreign state. 
Acquaintance with the laws of other countries 
might have suggested a systematic form, per- 
haps have furnished some analogy for a rule in 
cases not otherwise provided for ; but the law 
of the twelve tables was essentially Roman, 
and was undoubtedly compiled from preexist- 
ing sources peculiar to the Roman people. As 
in the legislation of Solon, so in that of the 
decemvirs, one great object was to quiet politi- 
cal dissensions between the aristocracy and 
common people. It had been a subject of 
complaint by the people that the consuls, who 
had the whole judicial power, decided arbi- 
trarily not that there was no law, but no 
sufficient sanction to prevent perversion ; and 
the remedy proposed was, that the laws should 
be made certain, and that the patrician ma- 
gistrates should be compelled to conform there- 
to (quo omnes uti deberent), which it was sup- 
posed would be accomplished by having the 
laws written out and published. This proposi- 
tion was what led ultimately to the appoint- 
ment of the decemvirs, and the laws which 
they reported were engraved first on wood and 
exposed in the forum ; after the destruction of 
the city by the Gauls they were engraved on 
brass, and are mentioned as still existing in 
public view as late as the 3d century of the 
Christian era. It is often said that the twelve 
tables constituted the basis of the Roman law for 
ten centuries; but this is in no proper sense 
well founded. Themselves founded on custom 
(mores majorum), they constituted but a frag- 
ment of the'vast body of law elaborated by the 
energizing force of social and political elements 
in all the diversified relations incident to a free 
and prosperous commonwealth. The judicial 
discretion of the praetors (jus cequuni), the 
opinions and writings of jurists (auctoritas pru- 
dentum), the rescripts of the imperial court, 
and the decisions of cases (sententice receptce), 
were the voluminous exponents of the Roman 
common law, founded not upon legislative en- 
actments (leges), but upon custom (mores). The 
edicts of the praetors, in which it was allowed 
annually to incorporate new applications of 
the jus cequum, were in the reign of Hadrian 
revised by Salvius Julianus, and the revision 
was confirmed by the imperial council, from 
which time it remained substantially unchanged. 
In a limited sense this might be called a code of 
the equitable laws administered by the praetor. 
Legislative ordinances, or what we should call 
statutes (leges, pleMscita, and senatm consulta), 
made comparatively little addition to private 
law; they related chiefly to political rights 
and to the forms of judicial administration. So 
the decrees of the senate and the edicts of the 
emperor, after the popular government was 
subverted, during a long period related chiefly 
to public affairs ; and even when they related 
to private law, it was rather in the nature of 
a decision or declaration of the law than any 
new provision. The distinction between legis- 



CODE 



lative and judicial functions was little observed. 
The rescripts of the emperor (or of those au- 
thorized to make answers in his name) for the 
resolution of doubtful cases, the decrees in ac- 
tions brought by appeal before the imperial 
court, and the edicts, as well those relating 
to the administration of the government as for 
the regulation of private rights, were all em- 
braced under the general designation of consti- 
tutiones principum. The great number of 
these constitutions, and the crudity of many 
of them, rendered compilations and commen- 
taries indispensable. Among these the prin- 
cipal are the imperial decrees or decisions col- 
lected by Paulus ; " Rescripts of the Divi Fra- 
tres," collected by Papirius Justus ; rescripts of 
Hadrian, compiled by Dositheus ; the collection 
by Ulpian, in his work De Officio Proconsulis, 
of all the ordinances issued against Christians ; 
and lastly, two general collections (codices) of 
constitutions from Hadrian to Constantine, the 
one by Gregorius, the other by Hermogenes 
(the latter a supplement to the first), both of 
which consisted chiefly, as is understood, of 
rescripts. All of these were private compila- 
tions, and do not strictly come under the defi- 
nition of codes as given at the beginning of 
this article. The Codex Theodosianus, pub- 
lished A. D. 438, by order of Theodosius the 
Younger, was a compilation of all the edicts of 
the emperors which were deemed important, 
and also many of the rescripts. This was a 
work of great importance, not merely as the 
initiative of the great work of digesting the 
whole Roman law afterward completed by Jus- 
tinian, but for its influence upon several of the 
Germanic nations, by whom it was adopted or 
in some degree made the basis of their laws be- 
fore the revision had been made which is now 
known by the name of Corpus Juris Gimlis. 
The compilations made by order of Justinian 
in 528-'35, the Institutes, Pandects, and code, 
and the new constitutions which were pub- 
lished after his death in 565, have been de- 
scribed in the article CIVIL LAW. In the same 
article will also be found an account of three 
of the barbaric codes, viz. : the edict of Theo- 
doric, king of the Ostrogoths, in 500 ; the 
Breviarium Alaricianum, issued by Alaric II., 
king of the Visigoths, in 506 ; and the Lex 
Romano, of the Burgundians, published in 
517-534. All of these were intended chiefly 
for Roman subjects. But there were also dis- 
tinct laws for the barbarians themselves, which 
it will be proper to notice more in detail. 
First as to the Franks. There were two 
tribes, one called Salian (probably from the 
river Sala, or Yssel, upon which they were 
first established), the other Ripuarian (from 
the Latin ripa, the name expressing their loca- 
tion upon the banks of the Rhine). These 
tribes had separate compilations of laws, which 
continued in force even after the union of 
the two tribes under Clovis. Of the Salic 
law our knowledge is derived from manuscripts 
still extant, most of which are an unmixed 



Latin text, but others have an intermixture of 
Germanic words. The latter are entitled Lex 
Salica antiqua (or antiquissima, or vetusta), 
the other Lex Salica recentior (or emendata, 
or reformata}. M. Wiarda, in a work entitled 
Histoire et explication de la loi salique, has 
proved that none of the compilations are of an 
earlier date than the 7th century, and that the 
manuscripts containing Germanic words and 
purporting to be the more ancient are in fact 
later in time than the others. The laws them- 
selves he supposes to have been compiled after 
the Franks had become established in Belgium, 
and that they were originally written in Latin. 
He also concludes that they were not pub- 
lished as a code by public authority, but were 
compiled from customs and judicial decisions ; 
and that they do not constitute all the laws of 
the Salian Franks. The earliest historical no- 
tice of any such compilation is in the 8th 
century, in a work called Gesta Francorum. 
Guizot (Histoire de la civilisation en France) 
deduces from a critical examination of all the 
manuscripts that the law is essentially penal. 
It contains 343 penal articles, and only 65 
upon all other subjects. The nature of the 
crimes and punishments which are specified 
indicates an exceedingly rude condition of so- 
ciety. There is no generalization, but a cha- 
otic mingling together of the various individ- 
ual cases of crime that might occur in an un- 
civilized community, without definition, classi- 
fication, or any arrangement. One peculiarity 
is observable, which indeed may be found in 
the laws of all the Germanic nations at an 
early period, viz., the extreme mildness of 
punishments as respects free men, whether 
Franks or Romans. Pecuniary composition, 
Wehrgeld or Wiedergeld (prohibition money), 
was the only penalty prescribed by the Salic 
law, and this only as a substitute for the right 
of the injured party to take personal ven- 
geance ; but if accepted, the law merely fixed 
the amount. In respect to slaves it was differ- 
ent; they were subject to cruel corporal pun- 
ishments, imprisonment, and death. Another 
peculiarity, which also belonged to the laws of 
other tribes, was the mode of proof in judicial 
trials. This was by the oath of compurgators 
or conjurators, that is to say, a certain number 
of the friends of the accused who deposed that 
he had not done what was imputed to him ; 
and on the other hand, conjurators could be 
produced by the accuser. There was no ex- 
amination of witnesses nor discussion of the 
facts, but a simple attestation under oath of 
the truth of the charge or a denial thereof.. 
The laws of the Ripuarian Franks were essen- 
tially the same as those above described, with 
only the following distinguishing circum- 
stances : 1, that there is more of precision and 
legislative form, and that the subjects are less 
exclusively penal ; 2, that the mode of proof by 
compurgators or conjurators is more distinctly 
regulated ; 3, judicial combat is recognized as 
a mode of deciding controversies. This cus- 



s 



CODE 



torn seems to have been intended as a check 
upon the right of jrrivate revenge. If the 
offended party insisted upon personal ven- 
geance, then it was to he subject to certain 
terms, and was to be in the presence of wit- 
nesses. The Ripuarian laws, it is supposed, 
were compiled in the 7th century. The laws 
of the Burgundians are of an earlier period, 
probably between the years 468 and 534, the 
latter being the date of 'the final conquest of 
the Burgundians by the successors of Clovis. 
The chief characteristic of those laws is that 
they apply to Romans and Burgundians alike, 
and that civil rights and procedure are more 
prominent than in the laws of the Franks, 
probably by reason of the great interfusion of 
Roman law. The capitularies of Charlemagne 
and several of his successors have been com- 
monly classed among compilations of laws. 
They are, in truth, the acts of the government 
in all its functions, including instructions to 
magistrates, financial regulations, political, civ- 
il, and canonical legislation, judicial decisions, 
even moral precepts, and propositions or ques- 
tions for consideration. Guizot has arranged 
the acts of Charlemagne into 1,150 articles. 
Of these the greater proportion belong to ca- 
nonical legislation, including under that term 
the acts of councils and the ordinances of the 
emperor in relation to affairs of the church. 
The next most considerable subject is political 
legislation, relating to administrative offices, 
courts, and police, and is contained in 293 ar- 
ticles. Penal provisions are numerous, but 
differ little in character from the previous 
penal laws of the Ripuarians, Lombards, and 
other barbarian nations who had become sub- 
jects of Charlemagne. There is one exception, 
in the severity with which he punished the 
conquered Saxons. Legislation concerning 
private rights is comparatively inconsiderable. 
Among the capitularies are some additions to 
the ancient laws, as the Salic and Ripuarian, 
the laws of the Lombards, Bavarians, &c. ; 
there are also extracts from these laws, which 
were probably intended for some particular 
purpose. It is said that a revision of the Salic 
law, and of the laws of the Lombards and 
others, was made by order of Charlemagne, 
but only fragments of such revision appear 
in the capitularies. In fact, the capitularies 
themselves are but fragmentary, many of 
them being imperfect, and others being re- 
ft- m-d to which are lost. The most complete 
edition of the capitularies was published by 
Baluze (Paris, 1677). The laws compiled by 
Alfred the Great in the 9th century have been 
celebrated as the supposed origin of the pecu- 
liarities of the English common law. Trial by 
jury is commonly referred to this monarch as 
it tit xt introduced by him. But this is certain- 
t sustained by authentic evidence. It was 
.liliar principle in the usages of all the 
nanic nations that a freeman should be 
only by his peers. In the laws attributed 
to Alfred we find the same general character- 



istics as in those of the Franks and other Ger- 
manic nations, pecuniary compositions for 
every species of crime, proof by compurgators, 
and the like. A law was indeed enacted by 
Alfred, making wilful murder a capital offence, 
but it seems not to have been enforced. There 
is one provision in these laws which may have 
originated in the humanity of the sovereign, 
but more probably in the regard which the 
Anglo-Saxons had for a man's house as being 
sacred, which feeling has been transmitted to 
their descendants, and exists to this day. If a 
man who had committed an injury should 
keep within his own house, his adversary 
might besiege him for seven days without at- 
tacking him ; but if within that time the be- 
sieged person should be willing to surrender 
himself and his arms, his adversary might detain 
him 30 days, but after that must restore him 
safe to his kindred, and be content with the 
compensation prescribed by law. Trial by or- 
deal and other superstitious methods appear to 
have been frequent among the Anglo-Saxons. 
Judicial combat, if in use at all, was seldom 
resorted to until the Normans substituted it in 
place of compurgation. Coming down to a 
more recent period, we find a peculiar law of 
custom developed under the feudal system, 
especially in France. In the southern part of 
that monarchy, which had been occupied by 
the Visigoths and Burgundians, the Roman 
municipal institutions, judicial forms, and rights 
of property, were to a considerable extent pre- 
served. That part of the country was for that 
reason called pays du droit ecrit. Yet even 
here, in some districts, many peculiar customs 
(droits coutumiers) were established in the feu- 
dal anarchy. In other provinces, especially the 
northern, the Roman law was almost entirely 
lost, at least was no longer distinguishable, 
and a new system succeeded, of various charac- 
ter, according to the degree of independence 
maintained by the great feudal lords ; and these 
provinces were designated as pays du droit cou- 
tumier. The laws of Normandy are the most 
important on account of their bearing on the 
English law of landed property. The customs 
of the county of Paris were next in importance, 
as they were regarded as precedents in other 
districts. Many of these local systems were 
collected in the fitablissements de St. Louis. 
In the reign of Charles VII., in 1453, it was 
decreed by the assembly of the states that all 
customary laws should be reduced to writing. 
This brought into distinct and recognized legal 
existence a vast number of systems, a collection 
of several hundred of which has been made by 
Bourdot de Richebourg (Goutumier general, 
Paris, 1724). This diversity, instead of being 
relieved by general legislation as the authority 
of the crown increased, was only made more 
perplexed by ordonnanccs not founded upon 
comprehensive principles, and therefore hav- 
ing no tendency to assimilate the heterogeneous 
elements before existing, Collections of these 
ordonnances were repeatedly made, some of 



CODE 



9 



which received the inappropriate designation 
of codes ; as the Code Henri, made by Brisson 
in the reign of Henry III. ; the Code Murmllac 
or Nichau, under Louis XIII. (1629), relating 
to judicial procedure; and the Code Louis XV., 
by Ohaussepierre, containing the ordonnances 
from 1722 to 1740. Several comprehensive 
ordonnances, which were in fact codes of laws 
relating to particular subjects, were enacted in 
the reign of Louis XVI. But the necessity of 
a general compilation, and the- assimilation of 
all the different systems into a homogeneous 
jurisprudence for the use of the whole nation, 
became more and more pressing, till the revo- 
lution paved the way for its accomplishment. 
It was early the subject of discussion, and pro- 
jects were reported by Cambaceres in 1793 
and 1795, which, though incomplete in details, 
and on the whole unsatisfactory, yet furtiished 
a perspicuous and well arranged outline. By a 
consular decree, Aug. 12, 1800, a commission 
was constituted " to compare the order which 
had been followed in the preparation of the 
projects for a civil code hitherto published, to 
determine the plan which the commissioners 
should think best to adopt, and to discuss the 
chief principles of civil legislation." Portalis, 
Tronchet, Bigot de Preameneu, Maleville, and 
the minister of justice were the commissioners. 
In 1801 they reported a draft of a civil code, 
which was submitted to the court of cassation 
and other courts of appeal, and with the re- 
ports of the judges was finally brought before 
the council of state, in which Napoleon (then 
first consul) presided in person. The discus- 
sion, which was consecutive and thorough, may 
be found in a work entitled Conference du code 
civil, avec la discussion particuli&re du conseil 
d'etat, &c. (Paris, 1805). In the discussion and 
adjustment of the code, Tronchet, Eoederer, 
Portalis, Thibaudeau, Cambaceres, and Le 
Brun were the most conspicuous. Of these, 
Tronchet was the most regarded by the first 
consul for profound and enlightened views ; Le 
Brun was the best qualified as a redacteur. In 
the same manner the other codes were reported, 
discussed, and amended. The whole revision 
was finally adopted under the title of Lea cinque 
codes, consisting of the civil code (which, as the 
first in order, and most important, was distin- 
guished by the appellation of the Code Napo- 
leon), the code of criminal procedure, penal 
code, code of civil procedure, and code of com- 
merce. Another was added by Charles X. 
(1827), entitled the Code forestier, which is a 
collection of laws relating to the administra- 
tion of the wood lands belonging to the king, 
of to cities, villages, &c. ; and the whole is now 
published under the title of Les six codes. Of 
the merits of this great work we have sufficient 
evidence from the fact that it still continues, 
with but little change, to be the law of France, 
notwithstanding the subversion of the govern- 
ment by which it was established. The extent 
of its influence upon the laws of other countries 
has been very great. Civil codes modelled 



after the Code Napoleon were promulgated in 
the Two Sicilies in 1819, the Netherlands in 
1822 and 1837, Hayti in 1826, Sardinia in 
1837, the Swiss cantons from 1819 to 1855, 
and Bolivia in 1843 ; and everywhere the Latin 
races appear to be following these examples. 
In Germany, until a recent period, the laws, 
both civil and criminal, have been in a state 
of great confusion. In 1532 the statutes com- 
monly known as the Carolina Criminalis were 
enacted by the emperor Charles V. for the 
regulation of criminal proceedings. Prior to 
that time the law of the empire relating to 
crimes was threefold: 1, the Germanic, con- 
tained in the ancient barbaric codes and subse- 
quent local usages ; 2, the provisions of the 
Roman law in the compilations of Justinian, 
particularly the Libri Terribiles of the Digest, 
and the 18th title of the Institutes; 3, the 
various penal provisions of the canon law 
(Corpus Juris Canonici). The Carolina Cri- 
minalis purported to be " a simple instruction 
for unlearned judges, to teach them how to 
proceed in criminal cases." It did not super- 
sede the previously existing laws, but referred 
to them, sometimes defining what was obscure, 
and fixed punishments with more exactness, 
but more particularly regulated the form of 
criminal proceedings. Being in form didactic 
rather than statutory, a large license was taken 
by judges in administering the law as thus 
prescribed, and uncertainty still prevailed. 
The revision of the Prussian laws known as the 
Code Frederic, published 1749-'57, revised after 
1780, but not put in force till 1794, was intend- 
ed to obviate, according to its preface, 1, the 
difficulties of the Roman codes; 2, the dis- 
putes of the commentators ; 3, the contradic- 
tions of Roman and German law. Like the In- 
stitutes, it divides the subject into the law of per- 
sons, of things, and of obligations. The penal 
laws have since been repeatedly revised. In 1826 
a commission was appointed to prepare a new 
penal code, in pursuance of which six different 
projects were presented and discussed at vari- 
ous times, during a period of 25 years ; and 
the code which is now in force was finally 
adopted in 1851, and has been highly praised. 
Other German states made efforts toward 
codification in the last century. A criminal 
code for Bavaria was promulgated in 1751, and 
for Austria in 1768, and again in 1786. In the 
latter country a civil code was produced in 
1811, founded in great measure on the Prussian 
code ; and a code of criminal procedure was 
published in 1852, which adopts the classifica- 
tion of offences contained in the French penal 
code. In Bavaria a penal code prepared by 
Feuerbach was adopted in 1813, which was 
received with such favor as to be accepted by 
several other states. In Russia a commis- 
sion, which originated with Peter the Great, 
reported in 1832 the Svod zaTconov, which 
became the exclusive source of law in 1835. 
This comprises eight codes, devoted respec- 
tively to 1, the state and imperial family; 2, 



10 



CODE 



public services; 3, finance; 4, the classes of 
persons ; 5, civil law ; 6, administration ; 7, 
police; 8, penal law. It contains about 38,000 
articles, each of which is referred to some 
preexisting ordinance. In the United States 
the first experiment at a legislative remodelling 
of the entire law was made in Louisiana. That 
state was originally a French colony ; it was 
afterward ceded to Spain, when the Spanish 
law was introduced, but again reverted to the 
French, and from them was acquired by the 
United States. The confusion of laws intro- 
duced by these numerous changes of govern- 
ment made a revision necessary, and a code 
was prepared and adopted in 1806-'8, which 
did not, however, supersede the ancient laws, 
except so far as they conflicted with it. A 
further revision was found necessary, and in 
1822 commissioners were appointed for that 
purpose, who reported a complete civil code, 
which was adopted in 1824. Mr. Edward 
Livingston, one of the commissioners, and who 
is understood to have had the chief part in the 
compilation, had been familiar with the com- 
mon law, and introduced from it many valuable 
provisions, though the basis of the work was 
mainly the French civil code. Mr. Livingston 
also reported a penal code, which was received 
with favor by the legislature, but not formally 
adopted. It brought to its author great rep- 
utation, especially in Europe. A penal code 
and code of procedure have since been adopted. 
The most important, however, of the attempts 
at codification which have been made in the 
United States are those of the state of New 
York, which had their origin mainly in the 
able and persistent efforts of David Dudley 
Field, which he began in 1839, by a public 
letter on the subject, addressed to Gulian 0. 
Verplanck, then a state senator, and continued 
by a series of addresses to legislative commit- 
tees, of articles in the newspapers, and of 
pamphlets. The result of this agitation was 
that the revised constitution of New York, 
adopted in 1846, had two separate provisions 
in relation to codification. The first directed 
the appointment of three commissioners to re- 
duce into a code the whole body of the law of 
the state, or so much thereof as might be 
deemed expedient. The other directed the 
appointment of three other commissioners 
to revise the rules of practice and pleadings 
in courts of record. Both commissions were 
filled by the legislature in 1847. The practice 
commissioners made a partial report on Feb. 
29, 1848, containing an incomplete code of civil 
procedure, in such shape as to cover the prin- 
cipal reforms proposed in the practice of courts 
of record in civil cases, and this report was 
immediately adopted by the legislature. The 
complete codes of civil and criminal procedure 
were not reported until Dec. 31, 1849, and 
were never adopted by the legislature, al- 
though some portion of the amendments sug- 
gested by the commissioners were gradually 
incorporated by legislation into the text of the 



original and incomplete code enacted in 1848. 
On April 6, 1857, the legislature created a 
new commission to prepare codes of all the 
law not covered by the reports of the practice 
commission, and appointed David Dudley Field, 
William Curtis Noyes, and Alexander W. 
Bradford the commissioners, for a term of five 
years, which was afterward extended for three 
years further. They reported a political code, 
a penal code, and a civil code. These codes 
have not up to the present time been adopted 
by the legislature of New York ; and indeed, 
although reported by committees, the legisla- 
ture has always been too much occupied with 
special legislation to give the necessary time 
for their consideration. The code of civil pro- 
cedure, in whole or in part, has been adopted 
into the laws of 23 states and territories of the 
Union, viz. : New York, Ohio, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, California, Oregon, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, 
Washington, Montana, Idaho, Dakota, Wyo- 
ming, Utah, and Arizona. It has also been 
adopted for the consular courts of the United 
States in Japan. The code of criminal proce- 
dure has been adopted in ten or more states 
and territories. In California a code commis- 
sion created by the legislature reported in Janu- 
ary, 1872, a complete series of codes framed 
upon the basis of the projected New York 
codes, all of which were adopted by the legis- 
lature, to take effect on Jan. 1, 1873. This 
consisted of a political code, a civil code, a pe- 
nal code, and a code of civil procedure ; the 
practice in criminal cases being regulated by 
the penal code. The territory of Dakota in 
1864 also adopted the civil and penal codes of 
the New York commissioners. The principal 
feature of the code of civil procedure thus 
adopted in New York and other states was 
the entire fusion of law and equity by which 
the same principles were for the first time in 
the history of New York, or of any other 
states inheriting the English practice, applied 
to all species of actions. The courts of Penn- 
sylvania had from the organization of the state 
decided actions at law upon the principles 
of equity, but they have never been clothed 
with all the powers of courts of equity as de- 
fined by the English practice. The union in 
one tribunal of all the powers belonging to a 
court of chancery as well as to a court of com- 
mon law, and the application of all the princi- 
ples of both systems to every controversy ari- 
sing before the courts, was therefore an abso- 
lute novelty in 1848 in any state or colony 
founded by Englishmen and inheriting English 
law. The practice in English law courts being 
entirely different from that of courts of equity, 
it was necessary to devise a single and homo- 
geneous system including the most useful parts 
of each form of procedure, and this was done by 
the code of civil procedure reported by the 
New York commissioners. Without this pre- 
liminary reform it would have been almost im- 



CODE 

possible to frame an intelligible code of law for 
an English-speaking community, inasmuch as 
many elementary questions were disposed of 
in one court upon precisely the opposite prin- 
ciples from those enforced by the other court. 
This difficulty being removed, however, it has 
been found as practicable to reduce the com- 
mon law of England to the form of a code as 
the law of any other country. The civil code, 
defining the rights of individuals as between 
each other, is the one most interesting to the 
public at large. This code, as reported in New 
York and adopted in California and Dakota, 
consists of three principal divisions, viz., per- 
sons, property, and obligations, and a fourth 
or supplemental division containing general 
provisions applicable to more than one of the 
chief divisions already mentioned. Under the 
head of "Persons" are treated the subjects of 
personal rights and relations, including mar- 
riage, parentage, guardianship, &c., with the 
rights and duties growing out of them. Under 
the head of "Property" the rules, conditions, 
limitations, and incidents of ownership in both 
real and personal property are stated, inclu- 
ding the modes of transfer by grant, will, in- 
heritance, and otherwise. Under the head 
of "Obligations" the interpretation, transfer, 
and extinction of obligations are treated, to- 
gether with the entire subject of contracts, 
under which special title are set forth the rules 
governing the creation, interpretation, and ex- 
tinction of contracts, and the particular rules 
governing sale, exchange, deposit, loan, hiring 
of property, personal service, carriage or 
transportation, trusts or confidential relations, 
agency, partnership, insurance, indemnity, 
guaranty, liens (including pledge and mort- 
gage), and negotiable instruments. Under the 
fourth division there are five titles : 1, relief, in- 
cluding the law of damages, injunctions, spe- 
cific performance, &c. ; 2, debtor and creditor, 
including fraudulent transactions, and assign- 
ments for the benefit of creditors ; 3, nuisance ; 
4, maxims of jurisprudence ; 5, definitions. 
The civil code of California has, in addition to 
the matter contained in the New York code, 
extensive and detailed provisons regulating the 
management of corporations, and the business 
of mining, which has in that state an excep- 
tional importance. The subject of codification 
has for many years been under discussion in 
England and the United States, especially since 
the time of Jeremy Bentham; but the codes 
framed by the New York commissioners were 
the first in which any real attempt was made 
to embody the old law of any English-speak- 
ing community. Since their publication the 
expediency of codification has become a sub- 
ject of renewed interest in England, and the 
adoption of a code has been urged not only by 
private individuals but by members of the 
present government (1873), with every pros- 
pect of ultimate success. A commission was 
some time since appointed in England to pre- 
pare a digest of the existing law as the basis 



COD-LIVER OIL 



11 



for the construction of a code, and the result 
of its efforts is generally understood to be 
strong conviction in the minds of the leaders 
of the legal profession that a pomplete code 
rather than a mere digest must become an ab- 
solute necessity. 

CODEIA (Gr. Kbdeta, head of poppy), an alka- 
loid found in opium, in which it exists com- 
bined, like morphia, with meconic acid. It has 
the formula C 36 H 2 oN0 6 . It is soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether, but is insoluble in alkaline 
solutions. It combines with acids to form 
crystallizable salts. (See OPIUM.) 

CODEX (Lat.), in Roman antiquity, originally 
the trunk of a tree, afterward applied to the 
wooden tablets smeared with wax which were 
used for writing. At a later period it became 
the name of all large manuscripts (codices 
manuscript^ as the works of the historians 
and poets ; and under the emperors and sub- 
sequently, it designated collections of civil and 
ecclesiastical laws. Of the last, the oldest and 
most celebrated are the Codex Theodosianus, 
the Codex Justinianus, the Codex Canonum 
Ecclesiasticorum, belonging to the time of 
Pope Innocent I., and the Codex Canonum 
EcclesicB universes, revised by the monk Diony- 
sius about 527. Its principal modern applica- 
tion is to the uncial manuscripts of the New 
Testament, as the codices Alexandrinus, Va- 
ticanus, Ephraemi, Bezcs or Cantabrigiewu, 
Claromontanus, &c., 41 in all, which are also 
designated by the Roman letters, as codices 
A, B, C, D, or by combinations, as F a , W b , or 
by the Greek letters, as A, 9. A codex re- 
scriptus (Lat., a rewritten codex), now usually 
termed a palimpsest, is an ancient parchment 
on which the original writing has been defaced, 
and a different composition copied. 

CODICIL (Lat. codicillus, diminutive of co- 
dex), an addition or supplement to a will, re- 
quiring the same formalities of execution and 
the same testamentary capacity. The distinc- 
tion between the two formerly was, that by a 
will an executor was appointed, and by a cod- 
icil not ; but now an executor may be ap- 
pointed by either or by neither, and the codicil 
is employed to meet changes of purpose on the 
part of the testator, and to provide for new 
circumstances. A will and codicil are to be 
construed together, and the latter, as the more 
recent expression of the testator's purpose, 
will modify and control the other wherever 
they are not in harmony ; but in other partic- 
ulars the will is to stand. There may be sev- 
eral codicils to a will, all of which must be pro- 
bated with it ; but any one may be rejected 
for want of the legal requisites, and the others 
will remain and have effect as if that had never 
been made. 

COD-LIVER OIL, the oil drained or express- 
ed from the livers of the cod, and also of 
the pollock, hake, and haddock, largely used 
in medicine. Other fish oils are sometimes 
fraudulently substituted; the adulteration is 
to be detected by the taste and smell, the ab- 



12 



COD-LIVER OIL 



sence of the violet or red color reaction with 
sulphuric acid characteristic of the biliary 
acids, and by the specific gravity, that of shark 
liver oil, which also gives the violet reaction 
with sulphuric acid, being 0-866, which is less 
than that of cod liver oil. The latter varies 
in color from a light yellow fro a dark brown, 
and in taste and smell from a slight and hardly 
disagreeable, though characteristic flavor an<J 
odor, to a nauseous taste and a repulsive odor. 
These varieties depend upon the condition of 
the livers at the time of the extraction of the 
oil, and upon its subsequent treatment. That 
which is derived from fresh livers is the lightest 
in color and has the least smell. The darker 
and more disagreeable varieties are procured 
from livers which have undergone more or 
less putrefaction. The chemical composition 
of cod liver oil is not yet satisfactorily made 
out. It contains a dark brown, odorless and 
tasteless substance called gaduine ; oleine and 
margarine; butyric and acetic acids; biliary 
principles; iodine, chlorine, and bromine in 
exceedingly small quantities ; phosphoric and 
sulphuric acids; phosphorus, lime, magnesia, 
soda, and iron. The volatile alkaloid propy- 
lamine, which imparts a peculiar odor to herring 
pickle, and which is probable identical with 
secalia obtained from ergot, may be derived 
from cod-liver oil by distillation with ammo- 
nia. Cod-liver oil is employed with advantage 
in diseases which are characterized by impaired 
nutrition. It is regarded as one of the most 
useful remedies known in medicine. In pul- 
monary consumption, although not a specific, it 
contributes, when well borne, to the nourish- 
ment of the patient, relieves many unpleasant 
symptoms, and often prolongs life. Its action 
is probably that of an* easily assimilated fat, 
furnishing in itself an important element of 
food, and assisting in the assimilation of other 
nutritive principles. Considerable importance 
has been attributed to the therapeutic action 
of the minute quantity of iodine and other in- 
organic constituents which cod-liver oil con- 
tains, and with better reason to the biliary 
acids and other peculiar substances that enter 
into its composition. The biliary principles 
may probably be found in larger proportion 
in the "extract of cod liver," prepared by 
evaporating the watery liquid which escapes 
from the liver when the oil is extracted, than 
in other preparations of oil. This preparation 
has been declared, chiefly however by those 
interested in its sale, to possess a degree of 
remedial efficacy that has not yet been proved. 
The chief objection to the administration of 
cod-liver oil, and one that is sometimes insu- 
perable, is its taste. This may be more or less 
completely disguised by aromatics, bitters, oil 
of bitter almonds, or the froth of porter. It 
may be partially saponified by an alkali, or 
made into an emulsion. One of the simplest 
and easiest methods of avoiding its disagree- 
able taste is to masticate a few cloves and 
swallow the oil before their pungent impres- 



CODRINGTON" 

sion upon the mouth has departed, when the 
taste of the oil will not be perceived. Cod- 
liver oil is chiefly used as a remedy in pul- 
monary consumption, but its efficacy is not 
confined to this affection. It may be advan- 
tageously prescribed in many forms of impaired 
nutrition, and especially in the protean de- 
rangements resulting from impaired nervous 
power. It should not be administered when 
it reduces the appetite or disturbs digestion. 
It is usually borne best if it is taken about an 
hour after a meal. Its good effects are most 
evident when it has been taken for several 
months consecutively. The dose is from a 
teaspoonful to a tablespoonful three times a 
day. Four or five grains of pancreatine added 
to each tablespoonful will make the oil set 
better. 

CODOGNO, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the 
province and 32 m. S. E. of Milan, between the 
Po and the Adda; pop. about 9,000. It has 
broad streets, several colleges and schools, good 
private buildings, some handsome churches, a 
hospital, and a theatre. It is noted for its silk 
manufactures, and for being the principal mart 
in Italy for Parmesan cheese. The Austrians 
were defeated here in 1746 by the Spaniards, 
and in 1796 by the French. 

CODRINGTON. I. Sir Edward, an English ad- 
miral, born in 1770, died in London, April 28, 
1851. He became a lieutenant in the navy in 

1793, and served on board Lord Howe's flag 
ship at the victory over the French, June 1, 

1794. He was soon after made a post cap- 
tain, and at the battle of Trafalgar commanded 
the Orion, 74. Subsequently he took part in 
the bombardment of Flushing, in Strachan's 
expedition to the Scheldt, and in the defence of 
Cadiz ; and commanded a squadron against the 
French on the coast of Catalonia. In 1814 he 
was promoted to the rank of rear admiral, and 
employed on the American station. On July 
10, 1821, he became vice admiral, and in 1826 
was placed in command of the fleet in the 
Mediterranean. In this capacity he had the 
chief command of the combined British, Rus- 
sian, and French fleets at the battle of Nava- 
rino, Oct. 20, 1827, and, although that action 
was spoken of by the British government as 
an "untoward event," he was rewarded both 
by England and Russia. He represented the 
borough of Devonport in parliament from 
1832 to 1839. A memoir of his life has been 
edited by his daughter, Lady Bourchier(2 vols., 
London, 1873). II. Sir William John, an Eng- 
lish general, son of the preceding, born in 
1800. He entered the Coldstream guards in 
1821, and rose through the successive grades 
to the rank of major general, which he at- 
tained in 1854. His promotion having left 
him unattached, he joined the army in the East 
as an amateur, but the commander-in-chief, 
Lord Raglan, soon gave him the first brigade 
of the light division, with which he played a 
distinguished part at the battles of the Alma 
and Inkerman; and when Gen. Sir George 



CODRUS 

Brown was wounded, he succeeded to the 
command of the light division. He directed 
the attack on the redan, but his conduct on 
that occasion subjected him to depreciating 
comments from some quarters. On the resig- 
nation of Gen. Simpson he was appointed to the 
chief command, and in that capacity brought 
the troops home. He was elected member of 
parliament for Greenwich in April, 1857, and 
sat till 1859, when he was appointed governor 
of Gibraltar. The colonelcy of the 23d fusiliers 
was bestowed upon him in 1860, and he was 
promoted to the rank of general in July, 1863. 

CODRUS, the last king of Athens, son of Me- 
lanthus, reigned, according to tradition, about 
1008 B. 0. The legend relates that when 
Attica was invaded by the Dorian Heracjidse 
from Peloponnesus, the oracle declared that 
those would be victorious whose king should 
be slain. Codrus thereupon determined to 
sacrifice himself, entered the camp of the 
enemy in disguise, provoked a quarrel with the 
common soldiers, and was slain in the fray. 
The Dorians, having learned the death of the 
Attic king, abstained from hostilities and re- 
turned home ; and the Athenians, thinking no 
one worthy to succeed Oodrus, abolished the 
kingly dignity, and instituted in its stead the 
office of archon. Medon, son of Codrus, was 
the first archon. 

COEHORN, or Cohorn, Menno ran, baron, a 
Dutch general and engineer, born in Friesland 
in 1641 (according to some in 1632), died at 
the Hague, March 17, 1704. A captain at the 
age of 16, he distinguished himself at the siege 
of Maestricht, and at the battles of Senef, Cas- 
sel, St. Denis, and Fleurus. During the in- 
tervals of active duty he devoted much atten- 
tion to the subject of fortification, with the 
view of equalizing the chances between be- 
siegers and besieged, the new system of his con- 
temporary Vauban having given great advan- 
tages to the latter. While a young man he 
gained a name as an engineer, and by the time 
he had reached middle life was recognized as 
the best officer of that arm in the Dutch service. 
The prince of Orange promised him a colonelcy, 
but as he was remiss in fulfilling the pledge, 
Coehorn retired in disgust, with the intention 
of offering his services to the French. His wife 
and eight children, however, were arrested by 
order of the prince as hostages for his return, 
which quickly brought him back, when he re- 
ceived the promised rank, and was afterward 
appointed successively general of artillery, di- 
rector general of fortifications, and governor of 
Flanders. His whole life was spent in connec- 
tion with the defences of the Low Countries. 
At the siege of Grave, in 1674, he -in vented and 
for the first time made use of the small mor- 
tars called cohorns, for throwing grenades, and 
in the succeeding year elicited the applause 
of Vauban by successfully crossing the Maas, 
and carrying a bastion which was considered 
as protected by the river. After the peace of 
Nimeguen (1678) he was employed in strength- 



CCELUS 



13 



ening various already strong places. Nime- 
guen, Breda, Bergen-op-Zoom, and other for- 
tresses, attest the value of his system. The 
last named place he considered his master- 
piece, but it was taken after a long siege in 
1747 by Marshal de Lowendal. During the 
campaigns from 1683 to 1691 he was in active 
service. The siege of Namur in 1692 gave 
him an opportunity to test his system against 
that of Vauban, for these two great engineers 
were there opposed to each other, Coehorn in 
defending a work which he had constructed to 
protect the citadel, and Vauban in attempting 
to reduce it. Coehorn made an obstinate de- 
fence, but, being dangerously wounded, was 
compelled to surrender to his rival. He was 
afterward engaged at the attacks on Trarbach, 
Limburg, and Liege, and in 1695 aided in re- 
taking Namur. In the war of the Spanish 
succession he besieged successively Venloo, 
Stephensworth, Roeremond, and Li6ge; and 
in 1703 he took Bonn, on the Rhine, after three 
days' cannonade of heavy artillery aided by a 
fire of grenades from 500 cohorns. Next he 
passed into Flanders, where he gained several 
successes over the French, and subsequently 
directed the siege of Huy. This was his last 
service, for he died soon afterward of apoplexy, 
while waiting a conference with the duke of 
Marlborough on the plan of a new campaign. 
Cochorn's greatest work, Nieuwe Vestingbouw 
(fol., Leeuwarden, 1685), was translated into 
several foreign languages. His plans are most- 
ly adapted to the Dutch fortresses, or to those 
which are similarly situated on ground but 
a few feet above water level. Wherever it 
was practicable, he encircled his works with 
two ditches ; the outermost full of water, the 
inner dry, and usually of the width of about 
125 ft., serving as a place d'armes for the be- 
sieged, and hi some cases for detachments of 
cavalry. The theory of his system, both of 
attack and defence, was the superiority of a 
combined mass over isolated, fire. Profession- 
ally, Coehorn was accused of wasteful expen- 
diture of life, in which respect he contrasted 
unfavorably with Vauban, who was sparing 
of men. He refused inducements offered by 
several foreign governments. Charles II. of 
England knighted him. He was buried at 
Wijkel, near Sneek, in Friesland, and a monu- 
ment was dedicated there to his memory. His 
biography was written by his son Theodorus 
(new ed., by Sypestion, 1860). For his sys- 
tem of fortifications, see Zastrow, Geschichte 
der Befestigung (3d ed., 1854). 

COELLO, Clandio, a painter, born in Madrid, 
of Portuguese parents, in 1621, died there in 
1693. He excelled both in color and design, 
and was made painter to Charles II., for whom 
he executed many works in the Escorial. His 
chief work is the altarpiece in the sacristy, rep- 
resenting the ceremony of the collocation of 
the host. His works are numerous in Madrid, 
Salamanca, and Saragossa. 

CCELUS. See UEANUS. 



CCEUR 



COFFEE 



C(EFR, .liu-qiio. a French merchant and royal 
treasurer, born at Bo urges near the end of the 
14th century, died in the island of Scio, Nov. 
25, 1456. He was at first one of the masters 
of the mint at Bourges, and afterward engaged 
in commerce on a vast scale, visiting Egypt and 
Syria, establishing depots throughout the East, 
and covering the Mediterranean with his ships. 
Thus he acquired a great fortune and attracted 
the attention of Charles VII., who in 1435 
appointed him head of the French mint, and 
afterward treasurer. His excellent management 
of affairs caused the king to ennoble him, and to 
intrust him with high functions in the French 
provinces, and with diplomatic missions in 
Italy. Coeur contributed 200,000 crowns to 
help the king in rescuing Normandy from the 
English. After the successful end of the war, 
his influence became so great as to give offence 
to envious persons, who after the death of the 
king's mistress, Agnes Sorel, charged him with 
having poisoned her, and caused him to be 
arrested (1451), and his vast property to be 
confiscated. Although the charge was proved 
to be groundless, he was detained in prison 
till 1455, when he effected his escape. Re- 
pairing to Rome, he was kindly received by 
Pope Nicholas V., and was enabled to gather 
the broken remains of his fortune. Pope Ca- 
lixtus III. selected him in 1456 as captain gen- 
eral of a fleet against the Turks. On this ex- 
pedition Cceur was overtaken by illness, died, 
and was buried in the church of the Francis- 
cans in Scio. He had vainly implored the clem- 
ency of Charles VII. in favor of his family. 
Under Louis XI. his memory was exculpated 
from all charges, and a part of his property 
was afterward restored to his descendants. 
See Jacques Cceur et Charles F//., on la France 
au XV siecle (2 vols., Paris, 1853). 

CfflUBS D'ALEVE (Awl-hearts), an Indian 
tribe in Idaho and "Washington territories, of 
the Selish family, although their dialect differs 
greatly from others of the language. They call 
themselves Skizoomish, or Skitzuish, but are 
known generally by the above name, given them 
by the French voyageurs. They were poor, 
distrustful, and cruel, and lived on fish, roots, 
and small game, not visiting the bison grounds. 
Although estimated in 1822 at 2,000, they num- 
bered but 300 in 1870. In 1841 Father De 
Smet visited them. In 1842 a Catholic mission 
was begun, which was removed in 1846 to a 
place 30 m. from Cceur d'A16ne lake (the source 
of Spokane river), where they had a church, a 
mill, and dwellings. The tribe became Chris- 
tians, but viewed with jealousy the entrance of 
whites into their country ; and in 1 858 their chief, 
Vincent, with 100 warriors, joined Kamiakin, 
the Yakama chief; in his attack on Col. Steptoe. 
They were defeated by Col. Wright in the bat- 
tles of Four Lakes and Spokane plains, and have 
since been peaceful. A part of the tribe in 
Idaho had a reservation set apart for them by 
an executive order of June 14, 1867: and by 
order of July 2, 1872, those in Paradise valley 



were removed against their protest to a reser- 
vation between the Okinakane and Columbia 
rivers and British America. 

COFFEE (Turkish, kahve), the seeds of the 
plant coffea Arabica, of the order cinchona- 
cece; .also the beverage prepared by infusion 
or decoction of them in boiling water. In 
southern Abyssinia the plant grows wild in 
great profusion, and there it has been in use 
from very remote times. Its name is therefore 
generally derived from Kaffa, the name of a 
district S. of Abyssinia. It also grows wild 
in western Africa. The coffee-producing belt 
of the world lies between the isothermal lines 
of lat. 25 N. and 30 S. The plant grows 
at an altitude as high as 6,000 ft. above the 
sea ; but it does not flourish where the tem- 
perature is below 55. It thrives in warm 
situations upon the slopes of hills and in soil 
not retentive of rain. The cultivation of coffee 
is widely diffused throughout the tropics, the 




The Coffee Plant. 



principal countries being .Brazil, Java, Ceylon, 
Sumatra, the isle of Reunion, the western coast 
of India, Arabia, Abyssinia, the West Indies, 
Central America, Venezuela, Guiana, Peru, 
Bolivia, and some of the Pacific islands. The 
plant attains the height of 8 to 20, and some- 
tunes 30 ft. The trunk is covered with a 
grayish bark, and its white flowers grow in 
thick clusters around the branches. It is usu- 
ally kept down by pruning to about 5 ft. in 
height, to increase its productiveness and for 
convenience in gathering the fruit. The slender 
and pliable branches then spread out and bend 
down like those of an apple tree. The plants 
are raised from the seed in nurseries, and when 
a year old are transplanted and set out in rows. 
In three years they begin to yield fruit, but 
are not in full bearing till the fifth year ; they 
continue to yield for 20 years or longer. The 
leaves, of oblong-ovate and pointed form, grow 
in pairs, one opposite the other. They are 
four or five inches long, smooth and shining, 
and of dark green color. The plant being an 



COFFEE 



15 



evergreen, the foliage is always fresh; and 
though at certain seasons the blossoms sudden- 
ly appear scattered among the dark leaves like 
flakes of snow, they are hardly ever entirely 
absent. They continue to put forth while the 
fruit of former blossoms is coming to matu- 
rity, and so the ripe coffee may be gathered at 
almost every season ; but the real harvests are 
usually two, and sometimes three, in the course 
of the year. The fruit when ripe becomes red 
and finally dark purple. It resembles a cherry, 
and the fleshy portion which surrounds the 
seeds is very sweet and palatable. Each berry 
contains two seeds ; their flat sides are opposed 
to each other in the centre of the pulp, and are 
separated by a thin layer of this and by the 
tough membrane which closely envelopes both. 
Sometimes one seed is abortive, and the other 
becomes round. This is the case with the 
Wynaad coffee from India, and the so-called 
" male berry " coffee. As the fruit dries, 
the pulp forms a sort of shell or pod, which 
is removed by a process of curing in order 
to prepare the seed for market. In the West 
Indies the fruit is picked by hand at inter- 
vals during the seasons of harvest; but in 
Arabia, where no rains prevail which would 
beat it from the trees, it is allowed to remain 
till ready to fall, and is then shaken off upon 
cloths spread upon the ground. Its perfect 
ripeness may be one reason of its superior 
quality. It is next dried in the shade, and the 
pulp is afterward removed by hand. In the 
East and West Indies and South America the 
curing is usually performed by exposing a layer 
of the fruit several inches in thickness to the 
heat of the sun, so that fermentation takes 
place. When the moisture has disappeared, 
the dried fruit is passed between wooden roll- 
ers, and sometimes pounded in wooden mor- 
tars, and the pulp is then washed away. The 
tough membrane is separated after the seeds 
are dry by a similar process with a heavy pair 
of rollers. The chaff is next removed by win- 
nowing. From Ethiopia the use of coffee is 
said to have been introduced into Persia as 
early as A. D. 875, and into Arabia from the 
latter country or from Africa about the 15th 
century. The earliest written accounts of 
the use of coffee are by Arabian writers of 
this period; and it appears that in the city 
of Aden it became in the latter half of this 
century a very popular drink, first with law- 
yers, studious persons, and those whose occu- 
pations required wakefulness at night, and 
soon after with all classes. Its use gradually 
extended to other cities, and to those on the 
eastern shores of the Mediterranean. It is said 
to have been publicly sold in Constantinople in 
1554, and to have found its way thence to 
Venice in 1615. Eauwolf, a German (in 1582) 
is said to be the first European who makes 
mention of it. The plant is described in the 
works De Plantis JEgypti and De Medicina 
jflgyptiorum of Prospero Alpini, 1591 and 
1592. Burton in his "Anatomy of Melan- 
207 VOL. v. 2 



choly " (1621) is supposed to be the first Eng- 
lish writer who notices it. "The Turks," he 
says, " have a drink called coffee (for they use 
no wine), so named of a berry as black as soot 
and as bitter, which they sip up as warm as 
they can suffer, because they find by experi- 
ence that that kind of drink so used helpeth 
digestion and procureth alacrity." A Greek 
servant of a Turkey merchant opened the first 
coffee house in London in 1652, the first in 
England having been opened a year before at 
Oxford by a Jew, Jacob. At the close of 
the century the annual consumption of cof- 
fee in the kingdom amounted to about 100 
tons. Its culture was introduced into Java 
from Arabia by the Dutch between 1680 and 
1690, and it was thence extended throughout 
the East India islands. In 1715 Louis XIV. 
received from the magistrates of Amsterdam a 
fine coffee tree, then bearing both green and 
ripe fruit. This, according to Du Tour, was 
the stock of all the West India coffee. The 
Dutch introduced its cultivation into Surinam 
in 1718. (See H. Welter, Essai sur Vhistoire du 
cafe, Paris, 1868). The raw coffee beans are 
tough and horny, difficult to reduce to powder, 
and consequently require a preparatory roasting, 
that water may take up their soluble ingredients. 
Even after this the hardness of the fragments 
is such that the genuine particles may by this 
quality be distinguished from those of other 
substances used as adulterants. The average 
composition of raw coffee, as determined by M. 
Pay en, is in 100 parts : 

Cellulose 84-00 

Water 12-00 

Fat 10 to 13-00 

Glucose, dextrine, and organic acid 15-50 

Legumine and caseinc 10*00 

Other nitrogenous substances 8-00 

Caffeine (free) 0-80 

Caffetannate of caffeine and potassium 8'5 to 5-00 

Viscid essential oil (insoluble in water) 0-001 

Aromatic oils, some lighter, others heavier than water. 0-002 
Ash 6-70 

Some authorities state that it contains from 6 
to 8 per cent, of cane sugar ; in the roasting 
this must be nearly or quite all converted into 
caramel. The most important principles are 
the caffeic acid, resembling in its astringent 
character, and also in containing much gluten, 
the tannin of tea ; the alkaloid, caffeine, which 
is identical with the theine of tea ; and the 
fragrant volatile oil, called caffeone. This oil 
is distinguished by the microscope in minute 
drops in the cells or between the outer mem- 
brane and the body of the seed, and may be 
taken up by distillation with water. Roasting 
disperses it through the solid substance, and in 
part or wholly expels it, if the process is push- 
ed too far. The caffeic acid, especially, is mod- 
ified by roasting, and is supposed by chemists 
to afford the greater portion of the flavor and 
peculiar properties of the coffee. The propor- 
tion of caffeine is only about one half that of 
theine in an equal weight of tea. (See CAF- 
FEINE.) Coffee when roasted loses its hygro- 
scopic water, which should first be allowed to 



16 



COFFEE 



escape at a moderate heat from an open vessel. 
The process may then be continued at a higher 
temperature in a vessel closed to prevent the 
escape of the aroma, and constantly agitated 
to avoid charring the grains and expelling the 
oil, by which its bitter quality is made to pre- 
dominate and the aromatic is lost ; a slight ex- 
cess of heat injures the quality of the coffee. 
The process should be stopped when the beans 
are of a chestnut brown ; they have then lost 
about 20 per cent, in weight and gained 50 per 
cent, in bulk. When removed from the fire, 
the vessel should be kept closed until cool, that 
the aromatic vapor may be reabsorbed as much 
as possible. After roasting, it deteriorates by 
exposure, and should therefore be soon used, 
unless kept in tight vessels. It may be injured 
by absorbing the odor of other substances. 
Even the raw coffee is liable to be damaged 
from this cause, and it is found objectionable 
to ship it in vessels that have been previously 
freighted with sugar; a few bags of pepper 
have spoiled a whole cargo of coffee. Freshly 
roasted and ground coffee tied up in linen has 
been found to ignite spontaneously. After 
roasting, the coffee is ground to powder. Boil- 
ing, if continued, will cause a loss of the aroma, 
and increase the bitterness ; hence an infusion 
obtained by steeping is preferable to a decoc- 
tion, but the water should remain in contact 
with the coffee long enough to extract the 
greater portion of its agreeable qualities, which 
is not the case in the use of the percolating 
apparatus introduced by Count Rumford, and 
afterward variously modified. In Arabia the 
berry is coarsely broken in a mortar, boiled 
smartly, and strained before drinking. In Asia 
coffee is used in a thick decoction. In Sumatra 
the natives make use of the leaf of the plant in- 
stead of the seed, ascribing to it more of the 
bitter and nutritious property. It may also be 
cultivated for the leaves where the production 
of seed would fail from unsuitableness of cli- 
mate or soil. The leaves are moderately roast- 
ed and then rubbed to powder in the hands, 
and this powder is used like tea. The infusion 
is said to resemble in taste coffee, as usually 
prepared, and tea combined. It is a remark- 
able fact that the same peculiar principle should 
exist in three or more vegetable productions, 
which, though not at all resembling each other 
in other respects, have been selected as bever- 
ages by almost all nations, some adopting one 
of them and others another. This fact, pointed 
out by Liebig, as also that this principle fur- 
nishes the elements of the bile, is suggestive 
of a peculiar adaptation of it to the needs of 
the human system. This principle, called the- 
me in tea and caffeine in coffee, is theobromine 
in cocoa, and the same is recognized in the 
gvarana officinali* and the ilex Paraguensis, 
which have long served the aborigines of South 
America the purposes of tea. Coffee and tea 
are both used in temperate regions; but in 
the colder climes tea appears to be general- 
ly preferred, and is frequently exclusively em- 



ployed. The northern limit of the coffee-con- 
suming portion of the world is about 60. 
The best coffee of commerce is the Mocha, 
and next to this is the Java. The seeds of the 
former are small and of a dark yellow color ; 
those of Java and the East Indies are larger 
and of a paler yellow ; while those of the West 
Indies and Brazil have a bluish or greenish 
gray tint. The Mocha coffee is grown in the 
province of Yemen, in Arabia ; but much of 
the coffee sold under that name is produced in 
the East Indies and sent to Mocha, where -it is 
reshipped, while no inconsiderable portion of 
it comes from Africa and Brazil. Java coffee is 
distinguished into pale yellow, the newest and 
cheapest, and brown, which is the oldest and 
most esteemed. These varieties depend on the 
curing and the age of the coffee. The princi- 
pal markets for Java coffee are Holland and 
the United States. The greatest coffee-produ- 
cing country is Brazil, more than half the 
coffee consumed in the world being produced 
there. It is the great commercial staple of the 
empire, and its principal market is the United 
States. Besides the provinces adjacent to Rio 
de Janeiro, the coffee plant flourishes in the 
shade of the Amazon forests, and, with mod- 
erate care, yields two annual crops ; and the 
Ceara coffee, much esteemed, grows on the 
mountain slopes, at an elevation of from 2,000 
to 3,000 feet above the sea. In the province 
of Para the coffee plant is seen growing on 
almost every roadside, thicket, or waste. The 
coffee of Brazil has little reputation, and is 
even underrated. This is attributed by Prof. 
Agassiz to the fact that " a great deal of the 
best produce of Brazilian plantations is sold 
under the name of Java, or as the coffee of 
Martinique or Bourbon, while the so-called 
Mocha coffee is often nothing but the small 
round beans of the Brazilian plant found at 
the summits of the branches and very carefully 
selected." The total exports from Eio de Ja- 
neiro and Santos are stated at 401,127,200 Ibs. 
in 1869-'70, 468,063,200 Ibs. in 1870-'71, and 
327,226,080 Ibs. in 1871-'2. The amount of 
coffee received into the United States from Bra- 
zil has been as follows for a series of years: 



Year 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1860 
1865 
1866 
186T 

1868 


156,583,272 
80,529,223 
166,929,289 
147,136,981 
199,326,171 


116,984,135 

7,798,370 
13,707,820 
15,386,844 


1869 

1870 
1871 
1872 


205,473.604 
183,413,456 
257,472,708 
194,218,511 


$19,255,967 
18,322,580 
24,339,488 
23,970,822 





In 1868, 15,822,501 Ibs. of coffee from Brazil 
were imported into Great Britain ; in 1869, 
22,267,953 ; in 1870, 14,057,893 ; and in 1871, 
23,066,344. Next to Brazil in extent of pro- 
duction is Java. The amount exported from 
Java and Sumatra to Europe in 1860 is stated 
at 122,790,923 Ibs. ; in 1869, 121,655,798 ; and 
in 1870, 156,010,912. Almost the entire pro- 
duction of Java is shipped to Holland. The 
amount thus received into Holland in 1867 was 



COFFEE 



17 



157,036,316 Ibs. ; in 1868, 145,935,724; in 
1869, 110,456,626; and for the 11 months end- 
ing Nov. 30, 1870, 142,039,928. Great Britain 
is the principal market for the coffee produced 
in Ceylon, which ranks third as a coffee-pro- 
ducing country. In 1860, the amount imported 
from Ceylon into Great Britain was 63,244,900 
Ibs., valued at 1,599,293 ; in 1868, 101,929,153 
Ibs., valued at 2,986,479; in 1869, 95,103,970 
Ibs., valued at $2,867,724; in 1870, 97,964,922 
Ibs., valued at 2,790,898 ; and in 1871, 90,- 
680,570 Ibs., valued at 2,623,263. The most 
extensive coffee-consuming countries are the 
United States, Great Britain, France, and Ger- 
many. In the United States, according to the 
report of the chief of the bureau of com- 
merce and navigation, the consumption for 
several years, ending June 30, has been as fol- 
lows: 



Year. 

1867 
1868 
1869 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


159,644,977 
212,379,267 
230,814,376 


$17,805,087 
22,815,816 
22,779,574 


1870 
1871 

1872 


253,571,664 
120,932,617 
239,735,829 


$25,630,715 

29,428,894 
26,140,339 



The total amount of coffee imported into the 
United States for a series of years, with the 
value, is as follows : 



Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1860 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 


200,998,751 
40,474,917 
80,461,614 
181,622.782 
104,316,581 
174,280,674 


$21,768,939 
4,767,117 
10,395,860 
16,621,586 
10.966,541 
19,739,381 


1S67 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 


187,236,580 
248,983,900 
254,160,993 
235,256,574 
817,992,048 
298,805,946 


$20,696,259 
25,288,451 
24,531,743 
24,234,879 
30,992,869 
37,942,225 



The chief countries whence coffee was import- 
ed into the United States in 1872 were: 



COUNTRIES. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Brazil 


194,218,511 


$23 970 822 


British East Indies 


4 141 547 


516 074 


British West Indies 
Central American States 
Dutch East Indies 


2,841,261 
9,598,954 
14 722 299 


383,924 
1,182,053 
8 800 417 


England 


5,979,350 


948,312 


France . 


7 695 324 


1 175 003 


Germany 


3 093 489 


476 572 


Hayti 


8,874,781 


468 864 


Holland 


843243 


154,180 


Mexico 


1 878 301 


248022 


Porto Eico 


2 021,891 


319 558 


United States of Colombia 
Venezuela 


4,142,067 

28,183,607 


498^696 
3,604,496 









The total amount of coffee imported into 
Great Britain for the year ending Dec. 31, 
1871, was: 



FROM 

; 


Pounds. 


Computed real 
value. 


Brazil... 


23066344 


564,611 


British India.. . 


33 413 058 


960923 


Central America. . . 


19,544,519 


568,262 


Ceylon 


90 680,570 


2,623,263 


Other countries . . 


25 288 289 


677,452 








Total... 


191.992.780 


5.394.511 



The imports and the quantities retained for 
home consumption have been : 



YEARS. 


Import., Ibt, 


Value. 


Home Contamp 
lion, Ibs. 


1865. 


187 997 451 


4 600 887 




1866... 


127044,816 


4 O'J :$"< 


80 680 236 


1867 


187 729 716 


4W 7f,o 


81 282 023 


1868 


173902477 


4,858 101 


80 35ft 81 ft 


1869... 


178416832 


4 927 805 


2ft 83Q 10A 


1870 


179'90l'864 


4 '4'-' T0' 




1871... 


191 992 780 


5894,511 


80 602 028 


1S72 


166,269 052 


5257403 


81 178 565 











The amount of coffee imported into France for 
home consumption was 104,268,255 Ibs. in 
1867, 115,380,744 Ibs. in 1868, 110,996,852 
Ibs. in 1869, and for the six months ending 
June 30, 1870, 59,913,571 Ibs. From 1789 to 
1830 a duty of 2 cents per pound was im- 
posed upon coffee imported into the United 
States. In the latter year this duty was re- 
moved, but again imposed in 1861. It varied 
from 3 to 5 cents per pound until July 1, 1872, 
when the importation of coffee was again made 
free. An infusion of roasted coffee contains 
three constituents which differ somewhat in 
their action. These are tannic acid, caffeine, 
and empyreumatic products of the albumen 
and legumine of the raw berry. Only a small 
portion of the caffeine is destroyed in the 
roasting, and that is mostly converted into 
methylamine. (See CAFFEINE.) Coffee in- 
creases the frequency of the pulse and activity 
of the mind, which is often so prolonged as to 
prevent sleep. Large doses produce palpita- 
tion of the neart, and habitual coffee drinkers 
are liable to have the digestion considerably 
impaired. In the absence of belladonna, it 
may be used as an antidote in cases of poison- 
ing by opium, a strong infusion of the burnt 
berry being used and given in doses according 
to the symptoms. It is sometimes given to 
relieve vomiting, particularly of a nervous 
character. Koasted coffee neutralizes noxious 
odors, and is antiseptic in a mild degree. It is 
best applied by first drying and crushing the 
raw beans, and then roasting the powder at a 
moderate heat to a dark brown color, when it 
may be sprinkled about or simply exposed on a 
plate where the effluvium exists. It is often 
adulterated (see ADULTEBATION, and CHIO- 
COEY), and this may be suspected when water 
is quickly colored by it, and the presence of 
chiccory or burnt sugar inferred. One of the 
readiest means of detecting foreign vegetable 
or animal matter is by using the microscope. 
Venetian red or native sesquioxide of iron may 
be detected in the ashes either by inspection or 
the application of chemical reagents. 

COFFEE. I. A S. E. county of Georgia, 
bounded N. by the Ocmulgee river, S. W. by 
the Allapaha, and intersected by the Satilla 
and its branches; area, 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 3,192, of whom 678 were colored. The 
surface is level and sandy. The Macon and 
Brunswick railroad touches the 1ST. E. corner, 
and the Brunswick and Albany railroad passes 
through the S. part. The chief productions in 
1870 were 49,022 bushels of Indian corn, 19,- 



18 



COFFEY 



949 of oats, 45,996 of sweet potatoes, 15,845 Ibs. 
of rice, 42,366 of wool, 261 bales of cotton, and 
12,231 gallons of molasses. There were 403 
horses, 3,925 milch cows, 10,384 other cat- 
tle, 16,036 sheep, and 12,779 swine. Capital, 
Douglas. II. A S. E. county of Alabama, 
watered by Pea river; pop. in 1870, 6,171, of 
whom 1,020 were colored. The former area 
was 900 sq. m., but portions have been taken 
to form Crenshaw and Geneva counties. The 
surface is somewhat hilly, and the soil gen- 
erally poor. Pine timber grows in great abun- 
dance. The chief productions in 1870 were 
121,352 bushels of Indian corn, 28,254 of sweet 
potatoes, 2,004 bales of cotton, 13,098 gallons 
of molasses, and 8,975 Ibs. of rice. There were 
617 horses, 2,142 milch cows, 5,346 other cat- 
tle, 4,059 sheep, and 9,433 swine. Capital, 
Elba. III. A central county of Tennessee; 
area, 320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,237, of whom 
1,501 were colored. It has an elevated and 
hilly surface, and a fertile soil. It is traversed 
by the McMinnville and Manchester railroad. 
The principal productions in 1870 were 43,- 
075 bushels of wheat, 10,226 of rye, 309,503 
of Indian corn, 25,462 of oats, and 30 bales of 
cotton. There were 2,506 horses, 1,881 milch 
cows, 2,979 other cattle, 8,107 sheep, and 17,- 
226 swine ; 3 flour mills, 5 saw mills, 1 paper 
mill, 1 distillery, and 2 wool-carding and cloth- 
dressing establishments. Capital, Manchester. 

COFFEY, a S. E. county of Kansas, inter- 
sected by the Neosho river ; area, 576 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 6,201. The Missouri, Kansas, 
and Texas railroad crosses it. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 47,745 bushels of wheat, 
268,218 of Indian corn, 90,190 of oats, 26,879 
of potatoes. 14,275 tons of hay, 140,602 Ibs. of 
butter, and 36,702 of wool. There were 2,762 
horses, 3,459 milch cows, 6,247 other cattle, 
11,917 sheep, and 2,855 swine ; 5 manufactories 
of carriages and wagons, 3 of saddlery and 
harness, 1 of woollen goods, 2 flour mills, and 
7" saw mills. Capital, Burlington. 

COFFIN, Sir Isaac, an English admiral, born 
in Boston, Mass., May 16, 1759, died at Chel- 
tenham, Eng., July 23, 1839. He was educated 
at the public schools in Boston, and having en- 
tered the British navy as midshipman in 1773, 
under the patronage of Admiral Montagu, 
served in various ships on the American sta- 
tion, being finally attached to the Romney, flag 
ship of his patron, off Newfoundland. In 1778 
he was appointed lieutenant, and in 1781 com- 
mander. On March 16, 1781, he acted as sig- 
nal lieutenant to Admiral Arbuthnot in the 
action off Cape Henry, and in 1782 was present 
as a volunteer under Admiral Hood in the en- 
gagement between Rodney and De Grasse. In 
1788, irritated at having been deprived of his 
commission for an informality then common 
in the service, he went to Brabant and gave 
his aid to the patriots. The sentence against 
him was soon reversed, and he reentered the 
British navy with his former rank. In at- 
tempting to save the life of a sailor who fell 



COGHETTI 

overboard he received an injury which incapa- 
citated him from active duty, and was placed 
in charge of the depot at Leith ; thence was 
sent commissioner to Corsica; thence to Elba; 
subsequently to Lisbon as head of the naval 
establishment there; and in 1798, when Minor- 
ca fell into the hands of the English, he was 
appointed superintendent of the arsenal at Port 
Mahon. In 1804 he was advanced to the rank 
of rear admiral of the blue; next year was 
made a baronet ; in 1808 vice admiral, and in 
1814 admiral. In 1818 he was elected member 
of parliament for Ilchester, and retained his 
seat till the dissolution in 1826. His speeches 
were chiefly on naval affairs, and distinguished 
for blunt, sailor-like honesty, with a strong 
vein of facetiousness. He always retained a 
warm affection for his native city, and visited 
it many times. In 1826 he founded a school 
in Nantucket, still called by his name. 

COFFIN, James Henry, an American mathema- 
tician, born in Northampton, Mass., Sept. 6, 
1806, died in Easton, Pa., Feb. 6, 1873. He 
graduated at Ainherst college in 1838, was after- 
ward professor in Williams college till 1843, and 
superintended the establishment of Greylock 
observatory, on the mountain of that name in 
western Massachusetts, with the first combined 
self-registering aerometer and barometer. He 
was professor of mathematics and astronomy 
in Lafayette college, Easton, Pa., from 1846 
till his death. He published " Solar and Lu- 
nar Eclipses," " A Discussion on the Meteoric 
Fire Ball," and " Winds of the Northern Hem- 
isphere " (issued by the Smithsonian institu- 
tion, 1851 ; enlarged and revised, 1873). 

COGALNICEANO, or Cogalnitehann, Michael, a 
Roumanian historian and statesman, born about 
1806. He filled the newly established chair of 
history at Jassy, founded scientific, literary, 
and political journals, promoted the emanci- 
pation of the gypsies, and became prominent, 
under Prince Alexander Cuza's administration, 
in the legislature and as minister for Moldavia. 
After the union of Wallachia and Moldavia in 
December, 1861, he became prime minister, and 
was the chief promoter of the new electoral 
law of May 14, 1864, and of the arbitrary con- 
stitution ; but he was obliged to retire shortly 
before the forced abdication of Cuza, Feb. 23, 
1866. He was chiefly instrumental in the 
foundation of the university at Jassy. He has 
since been reelected to the chamber, and under 
Prince Charles was minister of the interior from 
November, 1868, to Jan. 24, 1870. He has pub- 
lished Histoire de la Valachie et de la Moldavie 
(Berlin, 1837) ; Archiva romanesca (1841) ; and 
Letopisitz, a collection of Roumanian historical 
documents (3 vols., Jassy, 1845-'52). 

COGHETTI, Francesco, an Italian painter, born 
in Bergamo, Oct. 4, 1804. He studied in that 
city under Diotti, and in Rome under Camuc- 
cini, and executed various fine altarpieces for 
churches in Bergamo, which led to his being 
employed upon paintings for the cathedral and 
other buildings. For the villa Torlonia at 



COGNAC 

Rome he painted the exploits of Alexander the 
Great, and he also embellished Prince Torlo- 
nia's villa at Castel-Gandolfo and his palace at 
Rome. In his frescoes in the basilica of Savo- 
na and many of his oil paintings, including the 
"Condemnation of St. Stephen," which pro- 
cured for him an order of knighthood, he has 
closely imitated the old masters ; and he stands 
at the head of a new school, which strives to 
revive the classical style of painting. 

COGNAC, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Charente, 22 m. W. of Angoul4me; 
pop. in 1866, 9,412. It is situated upon an 
eminence on the left bank of the Charente, 
and is well built. It enjoys a great celebrity on 
account of the brandy to which it has given its 
name. All the brandy of Charente and Cha- 
rente-Infe"rieure is sold as Cognac, but the gen- 
nine article is made in the immediate vicinity 
of the town ; the best second qualities are pro- 
duced at Blanzac, Jarnac, Rouillac, Aigre, and 
Ruffec. The whole trade in brandy amounts 
to about 80,000,000 francs annually. The 
town also has a trade in cattle, sheep, grain, 
spirits, and truffles. An ancient castle, in 
which Francis I. was born, is now used for a 
brandy warehouse. 

COGNATES, in Scotch law, collateral kindred 
on the mother's side, as agnates are collateral 
kindred on the father's side. The terms were 
employed in the Roman civil law somewhat dif- 
ferently, agnates being persons related through 
males only, while cognates might trace relation- 
ship through one or more female links. Thus, a 
brother's son was the uncle's agnate, but a sis- 
ter's son was his cognate. Generally speaking, 
however, cognates were all who were descend- 
ed from a common ancestor through a legal 
marriage, and the term included agnates also. 

COGNIARD, Theodore, a French playwright, 
born April 30, 1806, died in Paris, May 25, 
18.72. With his surviving brother, HIPPOLYTE 
(born Nov. 20, 1807), he wrote hundreds of 
vaudevilles and fairy plays, many of which had 
a great run, especially La, biche aux bois. 
He brought into vogue the opera bouffe. Of- 
fenbach's Belle-Helene, Barbe-bleue, Grande 
Duchesse, and Perichole were first performed 
under his sole direction at the Varietes theatre, 
his brother Hippolyte having retired in 1869. 

COGNOVIT, a plea in an action at law which 
admits the cause of action, and expresses or 
by implication consents that judgment may be 
entered up for the plaintiff. In a suit to re- 
cover damages, the plea may or may not admit 
the amount due. If it does, and the plaintiff 
accepts the admission, he may enter up judg- 
ment therefor. If it does not, there must be 
an assessment of damages by court or jury. A 
warrant of attorney for the execution of a 
cognovit is sometimes demanded and taken 
when a debt is created ; and by means of it, if 
payment is not made, judgment may be entered 
up without delay. 

COGSWELL, Joseph Green, LL. D., an American 
scholar, born at Ipswich, Mass., Sept. 27, 1786, 



COGSWELL 



19 



died in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 26, 1871. After 
graduating at Harvard college in 1806, he made 
a voyage to India as supercargo of a vessel, 
and on his return studied law with Fisher 
Ames in Dedham. He commenced the prac- 
tice of law at Belfast, Maine, where he married 
a daughter of Gov. Gilman of New Hampshire. 
Her death, and a distaste for the profession, 
led him to abandon it, and to accept in 1814 a 
position as tutor at Cambridge. In 1816 he 
visited Europe, and joined his friends Edward 
Everett and George Ticknor in studies at 
Gottingen and other German universities, and 
in travelling on the continent. He remained 
abroad about four years, giving special atten- 
tion to the principles of instruction and educa- 
tion, and already entertained the idea of form- 
ing a great public library in the United States. 
Returning home in 1820, he was appointed 
professor of mineralogy and geology and li- 
brarian in Harvard college. In 1823 he united 
with George Bancroft in founding the Round 
Hill school at Northampton, Mass. The plan 
of this institution had been suggested by ob- 
servation of the best English and German 
preparatory schools, and during the five years 
that Dr. Cogswell was associate head of it, 
and for about the same period during which 
he conducted it alone, it attracted students 
from every part of the country, and exerted 
an important influence in advancing the stand- 
ard of American education. After leaving 
Northampton he had charge of a similar insti- 
tution in Raleigh, N. C. ; but prior to 1839 he 
settled in New York city, where he became 
editor of the " New York Review." Being 
introduced by Fitz-Greene Halleck to John 
Jacob Astor, he soon became interested and 
engaged in the great work of his later years. 
During the closing years of Mr. Astor's life 
Dr. Cogswell was in daily intercourse with 
him, living, at his request, in his house as his 
friend and companion, and arranging the plans 
and selecting the titles of the books for the 
great library which it was Mr. Astor's purpose 
to endow. It was the unnoticed preparatory 
labors of many years which gave to the Astor 
library, so soon after the realization of its en- 
dowment, its complete and orderly develop- 
ment. Dr. Cogswell was appointed by Mr. 
Astor one of the trustees of the fund, and 
designated by the trustees as superintendent 
of the library before its opening. He made 
three visits to Europe, examining the principal 
libraries and book marts of the old world, and 
collecting the books for the Astor library. The 
character of the collection demonstrates his 
appreciation of the value of all branches of 
knowledge, and his liberal sympathy with 
every intellectual pursuit. He presented to 
the Astor library his own bibliographical col- 
lection, which was one of the largest and most 
valuable in this country. He had previously 
united with Mr. Andrew Ritchie in purchasing 
in Germany, and presenting to Harvard col- 
lege, a cabinet of about 5,000 minerals; and 



20 



COHASSET 



had made to the botanic garden at Cambridge 
a donation of nearly 4,000 very choice speci- 
mens of dried plants of central Europe, which, 
with the assistance of Mr. Seringe of Bern, he 
had collected in Switzerland. During Dr. 
Cogswell's active superintendency of the Astor 
library, he prepared a valuable alphabetical 
and analytical catalogue of its contents, which 
was published in eight large volumes, display- 
ing his extraordinary knowledge of the history, 
comparative value, and significance of the books 
he had collected. He continued to perform 
the active duties of superintendent with singu- 
lar industry and fidelity, until the pressure of 
advancing years induced him to retire in 1860. 
Two years later, having changed his residence 
to Cambridge, Mass., he resigned the office of 
trustee. After that time it was his habit to 
make annual visits of several weeks to his 
friends in New York. While his physical 
strength gradually failed, his intellectual pow- 
ers remained unimpaired to the advanced age 
of 85, and his sparkling conversation was as 
interesting as in earlier years. His remains 
were interred in his native place, where a 
handsome monument is to be erected by his 
Round Hill pupils, to testify their affection for 
their old friend and instructor. He bequeathed 
one fourth of his moderate fortune to the Man- 
ning school of Ipswich, Mass. 

COHASSET, a town of Norfolk co., Massa- 
chusetts, on the South Shore railroad, 15 m. 
S. E. of Boston ; pop. in 1870, 2,130. It 
borders N. E. and E. on Massachusetts bay, 
and is surrounded on all other sides by Ply- 
mouth co., being separated on the west by 
Hingham from the main body of Norfolk co. 
The peninsula of Nantasket, constituting the 
main portion of the town of Hull, and forming 
the S. E. side of Boston harbor, projects N. W. 
from Cohasset about 5 m., and contains Nan- 
tasket beach, 4 m. in length, which is much 
resorted to for its beauty, fine shell fish, sea 
fowl, and good bathing. The coast of Cohas- 
set is very rocky, and is noted as the site 
of Minot's ledge lighthouse. The Conohasset 
river, which anciently formed the boundary 
between Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies, 
flows through a portion of the town. In the 
S. W. part is a pond of 90 acres, abounding in 
fresh-water fish. The situation of the town is 
delightful and romantic, and its ready access 
from Boston has rendered it a popular summer 
resort. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in 
mackerel fishing and the coasting trade. Co- 
hasset until 1770 formed a part of Hingham, 
and was called Conohasset, an Indian name 
signifying a fishing promontory. 

COHESION, that kind of attraction by which 
the particles of bodies are held together, as 
the molecules of water, of iron, or of stone. It 
is manifested in a high degree in solids, less 
in liquids, and but very little or not at all in 
gases. The molecules of which bodies are 
composed would seem, from the various phe- 
nomena observed in nature and in experiments, 



COHESION 

to be under the influence of two opposing forces, 
which under varying conditions alternate with 
each other in preponderance. One of these 
forces is molecular attraction, and the other is 
molecular repulsion. The first is exerted only 
at inappreciably small distances, but the laws 
by which it is governed are not known. Be- 
pulsion is exerted at greater distances, and is 
principally controlled by the action of heat, 
increasing as the heat increases, the abstrac- 
tion or addition of this agent being usually suffi- 
cient to cause matter to assume either the 
solid, liquid, or gaseous form. Molecular attrac- 
tion manifests itself in three ways, by cohesion, 
by adhesion, and by chemical affinity. The 
degree of cohesion in the same solid depends 
much upon the arrangement of its particles, 
as may be observed in the different degrees of 
hardness between tempered and untempered 
steel, and the difference in tenacity of metals 
in ingots or in hammered or rolled plates. The 
distinction between cohesion and adhesion is 
not always easily to be established. Adhesion 
is commonly spoken of as existing between the 
particles of dissimilar bodies, but it is more 
accurately defined by calling it that molecular 
force which holds two distinct bodies together, 
whether they are of the same substance or not. 
If two pieces of lead have plane surfaces cut 
upon them, and these are firmly pressed to- 
gether, they will continue to be so held by the 
force of adhesion (independently of atmospheric 
pressure), and not of cohesion, because that 
term cannot strictly be applied except when 
such a union has taken place as to render the 
structure continuous between the original 
bodies. To consider, also, cohesion as only 
capable of existing between particles of the 
same kind, would lead to conclusions that can- 
not well be maintained, because in an alloy of 
two or more metals, even when they are not 
mingled in the proportions of their atomic 
weights, it seems proper to consider the par- 
ticles as being held together by the force of 
cohesion. As has been intimated, the laws 
which govern molecular attraction are so im- 
perfectly understood that the relations between 
cohesion, adhesion, and chemical affinity can- 
not be stated. The last named force is exerted 
between atoms or molecules of matter which 
are not of the same kind ; it is manifested 
with more intensity than is observed in the 
phenomena of cohesion and adhesion, and is 
also followed by a more intimate union of the 
particles, by which the formation of a new 
body, unlike in its physical properties either 
of those of which it is composed, is accom- 
plished. Heat exerts a remarkable influence 
upon these forces, and indicates the differences 
which exist in their nature. Adhesion does 
not seem to be so uniformly diminished by its 
action as cohesion, for the adhesion between 
substances is often increased thereby, while 
cohesion is constantly diminished. Chemical 
affinity is also generally increased with the in- 
crease of heat, certainly while union is taking 



COHESION" 

place, whatever may be its effect upon the 
compound after union ; but that heat has the 
power of diminishing the affinity with which 
the atoms of a compound are held together 
is shown by its decomposing action on some 
of the metallic oxides, as those of silver and 
mercury. The manifestations of chemical 
affinity between two uniting bodies are no 
doubt often heightened by the application of 
heat, hi consequence of its diminishing the co- 
hesion or increasing the repulsion between the 
molecules of each of such uniting bodies. The 
conversion of water into steam is an example 
of the neutralization of the force of cohesion 
by the application of heat, without any ap- 
preciable diminution of the force of chemical 
affinity. The cohesive force of the atoms or 
the molecules of bodies depends on their dis- 
tance from one another, decreasing as the 
distance increases, and disappearing entirely 
when that becomes sensible ; but the law by 
which the decrease takes place is not known. 
It has been questioned, however, whether mo- 
lecular attraction may not follow the law of 
attraction of gravitation, varying inversely as 
the squares of the distance ; or, in other words, 
whether the two are not modifications of the 
same force. Under this assumption the ex- 
planation of the cessation of cohesive attrac- 
tion at sensible distances is furnished by the 
obvious fact that any sensible distance is al- 
most infinitely so much greater than the dis- 
tance between the centres of the adjacent 
atoms or molecules of a solid or liquid, that 
the difference in the attractive forces becomes 
practically infinite. The question as to the 
amount of cohesive force which exists between 
the molecules of liquids is attended with dif- 
ficulty. The fact that water will boil in a 
vacuum at a low temperature might suggest 
the inference that there exists no positive co- 
hesive force between its particles; but the 
formation of spherical drops of water is op- 
posed to such a conclusion. Again, when a 
liquid boils in the open air it is usually con- 
sidered that the repulsion between the mole- 
cules is sufficient to overcome the pressure of 
the atmosphere, and therefore it would appear 
as if there were no cohesive attraction between 
them ; but the irregularity with which ebulli- 
tion takes place under certain circumstances, 
as when the air which is usually contained 
in water has been expelled, would seem to 
confirm the opinion that in reality there are 
present both attractive and repulsive forces, 
which alternate in predominance ; the attrac- 
tive force predominating when the molecules 
are within certain distances, especially when 
they are comparatively at rest, and the re- 
ipulsive force predominating when the distances 
are deranged by motion, or increased by the in- 
trusion of particles of vapor or air. (See BOIL- 
ING POINT.) Moreover, water may be consider- 
ably reduced in temperature below its freezing 
point without congelation taking place, when a 
jar given to the vessel, or a pebble or crystal 



COHOES 



21 



dropped into it, will cause the immediate mani- 
festation of intense cohesive force and the for- 
mation of ice. It would therefore appear that 
the molecules of a liquid may have slight co- 
hesive attraction for each other, even when the 
temperature is sufficient to cause repulsion be- 
tween the particles of its vapor ; and also that 
when the freezing point is reached, the co- 
hesion may not be sensibly increased until 
some disturbing cause operates. The modifica- 
tions of cohesive attraction are the cause of 
those different properties of bodies which are 
called tenacity, hardness, ductility, and elas- 
ticity, and will be treated under their appro- 
priate heads, and in the article STRENGTH OF 
MATERIALS. 

COHOES, a city of Albany co., New York, on 
the right bank of the Mohawk river, at its 
confluence with the Hudson, and on the Erie 
canal near its junction with the Champlain 
canal, 8 m. N". of Albany ; pop. in 1850, 4,229 ; 
in 1860, 8,800; and in 1870, 15,357, of whom 
7, 947 were natives and 7, 41 foreigners. Cohoes 
falls, 70 ft. in perpendicular height, and re- 
markable for their picturesque beauty, are just 
above the city. The Albany division of the 
Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad and the Troy 
and Schenectady (New York Central) railroad 
pass through Cohoes, and horse cars run to 
Troy. Among the public buildings, the Roman 
Catholic church of St. Bernard, built of brick, 
with high towers, is particularly worthy of 
mention. It cost $100,000, is finely decorated 
within, and is furnished with a chime of bells. 
The Episcopal church of St. John, with the 
parsonage connected, is of Schenectady blue 
stone, and cost $75,000. Each of the stained 
windows illustrates one of the figures in Revela- 
tions ; and being formed of hammered or rolled 
glass, by which the light is reflected rather than 
transmitted, they possess great brilliancy and 
depth of color. Cohoes derives its importance 
from the extent of its manufactures, ample 
water power being supplied by the falls. The 
Cohoes company, organized in 1826, and hav- 
ing a capital of $500,000, owns the entire water 
power of the river from half a mile above the 
falls to a mile below, the total fall in this dis- 
tance being 120 ft. 'A stone dam, 1,443 ft 
long, was built in 1865 above the falls, at a 
cost of $180,000. This structure was preceded 
by a series of wooden dams, the first of which 
was erected in 1831. The water is used in 
five successive canals, having falls of 18 to 25 
ft. ; and again from the level of the state dam be- 
low the falls, which was built to supply the 
canal at this point. The water power is leased 
by the company at the rate of $20 a year for 
each horse power, including the necessary land. 
The Harmony company, having a capital of 
$2,000,000, owns all the cotton factories in Co- 
hoes, and its mills, comprising six distinct facto- 
ries, are the largest in the city, the most recent 
containing 2,700 looms and 130,000 spindles. 
One of these mills (the first in the United States) 
has lately been supplied with machinery for 



COHOES 



COHOSH 



making cotton printing cloths of a yard in 
width, having the same texture as those of 
the English mills. In 1871, 4,400 looms and 
230,000 spindles were in operation in all the 
mills; the number of hands was 3,100, of 
whom two thirds were women and girls ; num- 
ber of water wheels, 15, of 3,000 horse power. 
To July 1 of that year $1,750,000 had been 
expended for machinery and $2,275,000 for 
real estate. The average monthly product is 
6,500,000 yards of cloth. In 1870, 52,342,000 
yards were manufactured, worth $4,053,254 ; 
amount of cotton consumed, 9,012,000 Ibs., 
worth $2,545,887; wages paid, $855,350. The 
company have recently erected a large brick 
depot on the New York Central railroad, 
capable of containing 15,000 bales of cotton. 
They own large storehouses, and 700 or 800 
dwellings occupied by their employees, which 
are situated on wide streets, regularly laid out, 
well paved, lighted with gas, and bordered 
with trees. Knit goods, including undershirts, 
drawers, and stockings, are a prominent fea- 
ture of the industry of Cohoes, which produces 
a third of all the hosiery manufactured in the 
country. In 1870 there were 18 knitting mills, 
with an aggregate capital of $1,157,000, re- 
quiring 1,066 horse power; amount of wages 
paid, $535,362 ; value of materials used, 1,394,- 
948 ; value of products, $2,345,226. The first 
knitting mill in the United States was estab- 
lished here in 1832, but it is only within a few 
years that the business has assumed its present 
proportions. The Cohoes rolling mill occupies 
an area of 600 by 160 ft., and produces shaft- 
ing, bar and band iron, and a superior quality 
of axe, pick, and mattock poles, as well as an 
excellent iron for tool makers, which is said to 
have superseded to some extent the Norway 
iron formerly used. In 1870 this establish- 
ment produced 2,500 tons of band iron and 
8,000 axe poles, of the aggregate value of 
$299,000. There are two axe factories, pro- 
ducing articles to the value of $380,000. The 
Empire pin company has a capital of $25,000, 
and in 1870 manufactured 175,000 packages of 
pins, worth $38,359. A new factory 40 by 
100 ft., and six stories high, has recently been 
erected by the company. The Cohoes knitting- 
needle factory in 1870 produced 2,804,000 
dozen needles, worth $14,450. Besides the 
establishments mentioned, there are two foun- 
deries, three machine shops, a planing mill, a 
sawing and bevelling establishment, a paper 
mill, and manufactories of straw board, bed- 
steads, and tape. The city contains two banks, 
with an aggregate capital of $350,000. It is 
divided into four wards, and is governed by a 
mayor, who, together with the board of alder- 
men, consisting of two members from each 
ward, constitute the common council. The 
public schools, under the control of two com- 
missioners in each ward, are 22 in number, 
including a high school, and have 28 teachers 
and 1,430 pupils. There are night schools for 
the operatives. The Harmony company sup- 



ports a Sunday school, which has an average 
attendance of 420 pupils, and is furnished with 
an elegant school room, a library of 1,800 
volumes, and a well appointed reading room. 
There are also several parish schools, and two 
weekly newspapers. There are 7 churches, of 
which 2 are Roman Catholic. One of the 
Catholic churches is supported by French Ca- 
nadians, who are largely represented among 
the mill hands. Previous to 1811 the site of 
Cohoes was a barren waste. In that year the 
Cohoes manufacturing company was incorpo- 
rated, " for the purpose of manufacturing cot- 
ton, woollen, and linen goods, bar iron, nail 
rods, hoop iron, and ironmongery;" but it 
failed about 15 years later. In 1831 the popu- 
lation of the neighborhood did not exceed 150. 
It was incorporated as a village in 1848, and 
as a city in 1869. 

COHORT, in Roman antiquity, a division of 
an army, comprising three maniples or six cen- 
turies, and being the tenth part of a legion. 
It contained from 400 to 600 men, according 
to the number in the legion. There was one 
cohort (coJiors milliaria) which had precedence 
over the others, and consisted of 1,000 select 
men. It marched in the van, carried the eagle, 
and was commanded by a tribune of approved 
valor. Marius, who during the wars with the 
Cimbri introduced tactical reforms into the 
Roman army, was the first who organized the 
legion into ten cohorts. The prastorian co- 
horts were the special guards successively of 
the generals, triumvirs, and emperors, and ex- 
erted great influence during the decline of the 
empire. Augustus organized nine of them, 
which he retained as a standing army in the 
vicinity of Rome, under the command of two 
prefects. Tiberius placed them under a single 
prefect, and gave them a fortified camp within 
the walls. (See PBJSTORIANS.) When Napo- 
leon organized the legion of honor, he divided 
it into 16 cohorts. 

COHOSH, an Indian name applied to cimicifuga 
racemosa (Gray), or black snakeroot, a plant of 
the order ranuncu- 
lacecB. Two varie- 
ties ofactcea spicata 
are known respec- 
tively as red and 
white cohosh. The 
black snakeroot has 
a perennial root 
and herbaceous 
stem, which rises 
to the height of 4 
to 8 ft., and grows 
in shady woods 
from Canada to 
Florida. Its phys- 
iological action has 
not been well de- 
termined, but it is 
regarded as a stim- 
ulant tonic, and is 
Cohosh (Actaea spicata). said to diminish 




COIF 



COINS 



both the force and frequency of the pulse. 
It has been used in a great variety of diseases, 
most frequently perhaps in rheumatism and 
cholera, and has had a reputation in snake 
bites. Cimicifugine is a name improperly ap- 
plied to an impure resin derived from this 
plant. The name cohosh, or blue cohosh, is 
also given to caulopJiyllum thalictroides or 
pappoose root. 

COIF, a head dress. In the middle ages a 
defensive covering for the head was called by 
this name, but it was applied more particularly 
to the covering for the shaven crown of the 
priests, and to the cap of the advocates. A 
barrister becoming a sergeant is said to be ad- 
vanced to the degree of the coif, and takes 
position accordingly. 

COIMBATORE. or Coimbatoor. I. A district 
of British India, in the presidency of Madras, 
between lat. 10 14' and 12 19' K, and Ion. 
76 36' and 78 16' E. ; area, 8,099 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1871, 1,754,705. The district is enclosed on 
the north by the group of mountains border- 
ing the table land of Mysore, and on the south 
by the Pulnai or Vurra- 
giri mountains, and by 
the Animali range. The 
principal rivers are the 
Cavery, Bhowani, No- 
yel, and Ambrawutty. 
Although the climate is 
rendered insalubrious by 
several extensive mo- 
rasses, it is better than 
that of the maritime 
parts of the Carnatic. 
Elephants abound. The 
vegetable productions 
consist mainly of dry 
grains. Among the pro- 
ductions are gram, va- 
rious sorts of panic and 
of millet, turmeric, and 
tobacco. Teak and other valuable timber is pro- 
duced, as well as castor oil and cotton ; the last 
two articles form the principal exports. Experi- 
ments have been made with American cotton 
and Mauritius sugar, proving the fitness of the 
soil for their cultivation. The language spoken 
is the Tamil. II. The capital of the district, 
a well built town, occupying an elevated and 
dry situation on the banks of the Noyel, on the 
railway from Madras to Beypoor, 268 m. S. W. 
of Madras, and 600 m. S. S. E. of Bombay ; pop. 
about 20,000. It contains a mosque built by 
Tippoo Sultan, who made this place one of his 
principal military stations. About 2 m. from 
the town, at Peruru, is a Hindoo temple, called 
Mail Chittumbra. It is roughly constructed, 
but covered with a profusion of Hindoo orna- 
ments. Some time ago an ancient tumulus 
near Coimbatore was opened, and found to con- 
tain various weapons and other articles, such 
as were formerly in use among the Romans. 
The town was twice taken by the British: 
once in 1783, and again in 1790. A detach- 



ment of native infantry is stationed here. The 
European quarter is eastward and detached 
from the town. 

COIMBRA, a city of Portugal, capital of the 
province of Beira, 120 m. N. N. E. of Lisbon ; 
pop. about 19,000. It is situated on the river 
Mondego, in the midst of a mountainous but 
fertile and well cultivated tract. Its principal 
public building is the university, the only one 
in Portugal, founded at Lisbon in 1291, and 
transferred hither in 1308. It consists of 18 
colleges, is divided into 6 faculties, employs 33 
professors hi ordinary and 22 assistant profes- 
sors, has a library of over 30,000 volumes, and 
is attended by about 1,500 students ; it is high- 
ly endowed, the courses of study are long, and 
the annual examinations are said to be severe. 
Coimbra is the seat of a bishopric, and has the 
wealthy Augustinian convent of Santa Cruz, 
with its immense Gothic structure. There are 
also a college of arts belonging to the Jesuits, 
a cathedral, eight churches, and several mon- 
asteries. On a hill near Coimbra is the splendid 
convent and church of the nuns of Santa Clara, 




Plaza, Coimbra. 

and in the valley of the Mondego opposite to it 
is the Quinta das Lagrimas, famed in poetry as 
the scene where Ines de Castro was slain. Sev- 
en kings of Portugal were born and four died 
here, and several princes derived their title 
from the town. Coimbra is said to be the Co- 
nimbrica of the Romans. It sustained many 
sieges in mediasval times. 

COIN, a town of Andalusia, Spain, in the prov- 
ince and 20 m. W. of the city of Malaga ; pop. 
about 8,500. It is well built, has good streets 
and squares, and a promenade with a fountain. 
Besides two large churches, there are several 
chapels and convents, an episcopal palace, and 
a number of schools. In the vicinity are plea- 
sure grounds and gardens, and in the adjoining 
hills are marble quarries and great quantities 
of jasper. Paper, linen, woollens, and other 
articles are manufactured, and the principal 
articles of trade are cattle, cereals, fruits, and 
wine. An annual fair is held in August. 

COINS (Fr. coin, a die or stamp), metallic 
money; specie; pieces of metal, generally gold, 



COINS 



silver, or copper, bearing certain marks or de- 
vices to indicate their origin and value, and 
designed to be used as money. How early gold 
and silver began to be used as money, history 
does not inform us. Nearly 2,000 years before 
Christ Abraham returned from Egypt "very 
rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold ;" and in his 
purchase of the cave of Machpelah, he weighed 
out the consideration agreed upon, "400 she- 
kels of silver, current money with the mer- 
chant." The use of the metals, however, in 
the form of wedges or bars, though an immense 
improvement upon simple barter, or the use of 
cattle, grain, and other commodities, was still 
attended with inconveniences. At every trans- 
action the precise weight of metal must be 
computed; a hammer and chisel must be at 
hand to cut it off, and a balance to weigh it. 
The fineness of the metal was also to be ascer- 
tained. All these troubles were at length end- 
ed by the expedient of shaping the metals into 
pieces of convenient size, and stamping upon 
each its exact value. He who first did this 
was the inventor of coins ; but history is silent 
respecting his name, his country, or the date 
of his invention. Homer, although he speaks 
of workers in metals, makes no mention of 
coined money. Herodotus says that the Ly- 
dians, as far as he knew, were the first who 
struck money ; and although the oldest speci- 
mens of coin now extant have usually been 
supposed to be Grecian, there are reasons for 
thinking with Herodotus that the invention 
was Asiatic. Coins were probably used as 
early as the 8th century B. C., and by the 4th 
century money was found throughout the civ- 
ilized world, every state having its proper 
coinage. Most of the commoner metals have 
in turn been used for making coins. The early 
corns of Asia Minor were of electrum, a mixture 
of gold and silver, in the proportion of three 
of the former to one of the latter. Lycurgus 
banished gold and silver, and made the money 
of Sparta of iron, $100 worth of which required 
a cart and two oxen to remove it. Copper 
formed the early money of the Komans ; and 
when Caesar landed in Britain, coins of brass 
and iron were found in use. Tin was coined 
by Charles II., and James II. even resorted to 
gun metal and pewter. At the present day, 
however, the precious metals, gold and silver, 
with copper for the lowest denomination, are 
almost universally employed as the material of 
coins. Coins of platinum were formerly struck 
in Russia, but its use for this purpose has re- 
cently been abandoned. Gold and silver in a 
state of purity are soft and ductile ; and coins 
made of these metals would suffer loss and in- 
jury to a certain degree by abrasion, if there 
no means of hardening them. The addi- 
tion of a small quantity of alloy is found to 
produce this effect, without materially impair- 
ing the ductility or beauty of the metals. Al- 
though in a few countries coins are issued of 
almost absolute purity, such as the gold sequins 
of Tuscany and the silver florins of Hanover 



yet for the most part the coins of the world 
consist not of pure gold and silver, but of these 
metals alloyed with some other, generally cop- 
per, in definite proportions fixed by law. The 
difficulty of ridding gold entirely of the silver 
with which it is always found combined in na- 
ture has led in some countries to the practice 
of leaving enough silver to serve for alloy. 
This is the case in Spanish America, as is indi- 
cated by the paleness of their doubloons. In 
some European countries the silver is entirely 
removed, and copper introduced for alloy, giv- 
ing to the coins a reddish cast. In the United 
States the practice of the mint is to imitate the 
true color of gold in the coinage, by using an 
alloy of about T 9 7 copper and T V silver ; that is, 
in 1,000 oz. of standard gold there are 900 oz. 
pure gold, 10 oz. silver, and 90 oz. copper. 
The term standard, as applied to coins, means 
strictly the conditions of fineness and weight 
to which they are required by law to conform. 
Thus, in the United States, the gold coins must 
be made of metal consisting of ^ftfc P ure g^ 
and T^Pfe alloy ; in other words, they must be 
T 9 fine. This is the standard fineness, and gold 
of this quality is called standard gold. The 
weight of such gold required by law in each 
gold coin is its standard weight. Thus in the 
eagle there must be 258 grains. In estimating 
the value of coins, it is the quantity of fine metal 
contained, in them which is considered; the al- 
loy goes for nothing. The practice of the world 
is not uniform in regard to standard fineness of 
coins; some countries issuing coins of as low 
fineness as 250 thousandths, and others aiming 
at absolute purity. Great Britain still retains 
the old proportion of -fa alloy ; while in the 
United States, France, Spain, Belgium, and some 
other countries, the decimal proportion of T V 
alloy has been adopted. Different modes of ex- 
pressing the fineness of coins and bullion prevail 
in different countries. Where the decimal sys- 
tem of notation is employed, it is expressed in 
thousandths. Thus the standard fineness of 
fr would be written -j^ftfc, or simply -900 ; and 
bullion containing three fourths pure metal 
.would be said to be '750 fine. In Great Britain 
two systems prevail, one for gold and one for 
silver. The fineness of gold is expressed in 
carats, absolute purity being 24 carats fine. 
The standard fineness of British gold coins is 
22 carats, which is equivalent to |, or 916f 
thousandths; so that if a given weight of Amer- 
ican gold coin is worth $54, the same weight of 
British coin is worth $55. For the purpose of 
expressing minute degrees of fineness in bullion, 
the carat is divided into four carat grains, and 
these again into quarters. At the British 
mint, assays are carried to the half quarter, 
or the ^V P art f * ne carat. In this system 
the United States standard of -j 9 ^ would be 
expressed 21 carats. The fineness of silver 
is estimated by stating the number of ounces 
of fine silver in a pound troy of the metal. 
Thus pure silver is 12 fine ; and English silver 
coins, are 11 T V fine, because in a pound troy of 



COINS 



standard silver the law requires 11 T V oz. pure 
silver and T 9 T of an oz. alloy. Thus it will be 
seen that while the British standard for gold 
coins is 91 6f thousandths, that of silver coin is 
925 thousandths. Coins are generally made 
flat, circular, and thin. By being flattened 
they receive better impressions, and are con- 
veniently handled and piled. The circular form 
simplifies the process of fabrication, diminishes 
the abrasion to which the coins are subjected 
in circulation, and fits them for being carried 
in the pocket. Though the circular form was 
aimed at in ancient coinage, it was not till the 
Vth or 8th century that a true circle was at- 
tained. This is effected by striking the coin in 
a ring or collar. The exceptions to the circu- 
lar form are not numerous. We have, however, 
the square ducat of Nuremberg, the square 
rupees of the Mogul empire, the parallelo- 
grams of Japan, the octagonal pieces of Assam, 
and the $50 octagons which were formerly 
struck in California. The thickness of coins 
is generally proportioned to their diameter, 
though in this particular there is great variety. 
The size of corns is also exceedingly variable. 
In the United States silver coins range from 
the three-cent piece to the dollar, or from 11 
grains to 412 in weight, and from about 
inch to 1^ inch diameter. Gold coins range 
from the dollar of 25^- grains to the double 
eagle of 516 grains. The cent coin (copper 
and nickel), issued under the act of 1857, is 
about three fourths of an inch in diameter, and 
weighs 72 grains, while the bronze cent, under 
the act of 1864, weighs only 48 grains, but re- 
tains the same diameter. The impressions upon 
coins present an endless variety. In monar- 
chical countries the obverse of the coin usually 
bears the likeness of the reigning sovereign, 
and from this circumstance that side of the 
coin is in common parlance called the head. 
In republics it is usual to substitute some de- 
vice emblematic of liberty. This is often a 
female figure, or head, with a pileus, or Koman 
liberty cap. The date is also placed upon the 
obverse in coins of the United States. The re- 
verse of a coin commonly exhibits in the cen 
tre the national shield, or the denomination of 
the piece surrounded by a wreath. Running 
round the coin near the border, there is usual- 
ly inscribed the name of the country in which 
it was struck. It is customary also in countries 
having more than one mint to distinguish the 
coinage of each by a letter or monogram. The 
several branches of the mint of the United 
States, at Charlotte, Dahlonega, New Orleans, 
and San Francisco, used to employ for this 
purpose the initials C., D., 0., and S., re- 
spectively, coins from the mint at Philadelphia 
having no mark; but since the civil war 
no coinage has been executed at Charlotte, 
Dahlonega, or New Orleans, and the mints at 
the last two places have been discontinued by 
the coinage act of 1873, that at Charlotte be- 
ing retained as an assay office only. In the 
United States the power to coin money is 



vested by the constitution in congress, and is 
prohibited to the separate states ; and yet in- 
dividual citizens are left perfectly free to coin 
money, provided only that the coins thus made 
be not in " resemblance or similitude " of the 
gold or silver coins issued from the mint. In 
the case of copper coins, however, in addition 
to the penalties of counterfeiting, the offering 
or receiving any other copper coin than the 
cent and half cent is prohibited by fine and for- 
feiture. Very large amounts of private gold 
corns have been struck and extensively circula- 
ted in different parts of the country. Such were 
the coins issued by Reid of Georgia, the Becht- 
lers of North Carolina, the Mormons in Utah, 
and several private mints in California. The 
earliest coinage for America is said to have been 
made in 1612 for the Virginia company, at the 
Somers islands, now called Bermudas. The 
coin was of brass, with the legend " Sommer 
Island," and a "hogge on one side, in memory 
of the abundance of hogges which were found 
on their first landing." On the reverse was a 
ship under sail firing a gun. As early as 1645 
the assembly of Virginia, " having maturely 
weighed and considered how advantageous a 
quoine current would be to this collony, and 
the great wants and miseries which do daily 
happen unto it by the sole dependency upon 
tobacco," provided by law for the coinage of 
copper pieces of 2d., 3d., 6d., and $d. ; but this 
law was never carried into effect. The earliest 
colonial coinage was in Massachusetts, in pur- 
suance of an order of the general court, pass- 
ed May 27, 1652, which established "a mint 
howse" at Boston. The order required the 
coinage of "12 pence, 6 pence, and 3 pence 
pieces, which shall be for forme flatt, and 
stamped on the one side with N. E., and on 
the other side with Xlld., VLZ., and IILZ., ac- 
cording to the value of each peece." These 
coins were to be of the fineness of " new ster- 
ling English money," and every shilling was 
" to weigh threepenny troy weight, and lesser 
peeces proportionably." They were soon after 
in circulation; but owing to the excessive 
plainness of their finish, they were found to 
be greatly exposed to "washing and clipping." 
To remedy this, the general court, on Oct. 19 
of the same year, ordered a new die, and 
required that "henceforth both shillings and 
smaller peeces shall have a double ring on 
either side, with this inscription, (Massachu- 
setts), and a tree in the centre, on the one side, 
and New England and the date of the year on 
the other side." In 1662 a twopenny piece 
was added to the series. These coins are now 
known as the "pine tree shilling," &c. The 
Massachusetts mint existed about 34 years ; 
but all the coins issued bear only the dates 
1652 and 1662, the same dies having probably 
done service throughout the period. In the 
reign of William and Mary copper coins were 
struck in England for New England and Caro- 
lina, having on the obverse an elephant, and on 
the reverse respectively, " God preserve New 



corns 



England, 1694," and " God preserve Carolina 
and the lords proprietors, 1694." As early as 
1662 an act was passed by the provincial as- 
sembly of Maryland "for the getting up of a 
mint within the province." It is probable, 
however, that the mint was never established ; 
but shillings, sixpences, and fonrpences of sil- 
ver were made in England under the direction 
of Lord Baltimore, and sent to the colony, hav- 
ing on the obverse a profile bust of Lord Balti- 
more, with the legend Cacilius: Dns: Terra: 
Maria : &c. ; reverse, an escutcheon with fam- 
ily arms, value of the piece, and the legend, 
Crescite : et : Multiplicamini. There were 
also copper halfpennies with the same obverse, 
and having on the reverse the legend, Denari- 
em : Terra- Maria, and in the centre two flags 
on a ducal coronet. New Hampshire legislated 
for a copper coinage in 1766 ; but, as in the 
case of Virginia and Maryland, nothing more 
was done. In the reign of George I. an attempt 
was made to introduce into general circulation 
in the colonies coins made of Bath metal or 
pinchbeck, having on the obverse the head of 
that king and the legend, Georgius D. G. Mag. 
Bri. et Hib. Rex ; and on the reverse a large 
double rose with the legend Rosa Americana, 
Utile Dulci, 1722 and 1723, in the last the 
rose being crowned. These coins were made by 
William Wood, under a royal patent " for coin- 
ing small money for the English plantations, 
in pursuance of which he had the conscience 
to make 13 shillings out of a pound of brass." 
This "Wood's money," however, was vehe- 
mently rejected both here and in Ireland, 
where strenuous efforts were made to intro- 
duce it. From 1778 to 1787 the power of 
coinage was exercised not only by the confed- 
eration in congress, but also by several of tne 
individual states. In Vermont a mint was 
established by legislative authority in 1785, in 
the town of Rupert, and copper cents were 
issued of the following description : Obverse, 
a sun rising from behind hills, and plough in the 
foreground, with the legend, Vermontensium 
Res Publica, 1786; reverse, a radiated eye sur- 
rounded by 13 stars, with the legend, Quarta 
Decima Stella. Some of the cents of 1786 
and all those of 1787-'8 have on the obverse 
a head, with the legend, Auctoritate Vermon- 
tensium, and on the reverse a woman, with the 
legend, Inde. Et Lib. Connecticut followed 
the example of Vermont, and in the same year, 
1785, authorized the establishment of a mint 
at New Haven, and copper coins were issued, 
weighing six pennyweights, and having on 
the obverse a head with the words Avctori. 
Connec: reverse, a female figure holding an 
olive branch, with the legend, Inde. Et Lib. 
1785. This mint continued in operation three 
years. New Jersey authorized a copper coin- 
age in 1786. The parties procuring the patent 
established two mints, one at a place known 
as Solitude, about two miles west of Morris- 
town, and the other at Elizabeth. The coins 
are thus described : Obverse, a horse's head 



with a plough beneath legend, Nova Casarea, 
1786, &c. ; reverse, a shield legend, EPluribus 
Unum. Massachusetts, by act of Oct. 17, 1786, 
directed the establishment of a mint, and the 
following year the necessary works were erect- 
ed on Boston neck and at Dedham. In 1788 
cents and half cents were issued, exhibiting on 
the obverse the American eagle with arrows 
in the right talon and an olive branch in the 
left, a shield on its breast bearing the word 
" Cent "legend, " Massachusetts, 1788 ;" re- 
verse, an Indian holding a bow and arrow 
legend, "Commonwealth" and a star. As 
early as January, 1782, a plan for an American 
coinage was submitted to congress by Eobert 
Morris, the head of the finance department, 
the authorship of which is, however, claimed 
for Gouverneur Morris. In February follow- 
ing congress approved the establishment of a 
mint, but no further action was taken till 1785, 
when congress adopted the plan of a national 
coinage presented by Thomas Jefferson, and in 
1786 decided upon the following names and 
characters of the coins : An eagle, to contain 
246 T 2 m g rs - of fi ne g ld , value $10, and half 
eagle in proportion, both to be stamped with 
the American eagle ; a dollar, to contain 
375 T 6 ^ grs. of fine silver ; a half dollar, double 
dime, and dime, in proportion. The copper 
coins were a cent and half cent. In October, 
1786, congress framed an ordinance for the es- 
tablishment of a mint ; but nothing further was 
done till 1787, when the board of treasury, by 
authority of congress, contracted with Mr. 
James Jarvis for 300 tons of copper coin of the 
federal standard. These cents were coined at 
the New Haven mint, and are of the following 
description: On one side, 13 circles linked to- 
gether, a small circle in the middle with the 
words " United States " around it, and in the 
centre the words, " We are one ;" on the other 
side, a sun dial with the sun above it, and 
Fugio, 1787, on opposite sides, and below the 
dial, " Mind Your Business." A few of these 
pieces are said to have been struck in the Ver- 
mont mint at Rupert. On April 2, 1792, a 
code of laws was enacted for the establishment 
and regulation of the mint, under which, with 
slight amendments, the coinage was executed 
for 42 years. The denominations of coin and 
their rates were as follows: Gold, the eagle 
of $10, to weigh 270 grs., the half eagle and 
quarter eagle in proportion, all of the fineness 
of 22 carats, or 91 6# thousandths; silver, the 
dollar of 100 cents, to weigh 416 grs., the half 
dollar, quarter dollar, dime of 10 cents, and 
half dime in proportion, the fineness to be 
1,485 parts fine in 1,664, or 892-4 thousandths ; 
copper, the cent of 264 grs., the half cent in 
proportion. The same act declared the dollar 
to be the unit of federal money, and directed 
that all public accounts should be kept in con- 
formity to the decimal system of coins above 
described. After the act of 1792 the following 
changes in the currency occurred: Jan. 14, 
1793, the cent reduced to 208 grs., and half 



COINS 



cent in proportion ; Jan. 26, 1796, cent reduced 
to 168 grs., and half cent in proportion ; June 28, 
1834, the weight of the eagle reduced to 258 
grs., and the parts in proportion, of which 232 
grs. were to be fine gold, equal to a fineness of 
899 T 2 o 2 A thousandths, being an increase of 6-j^ 
per cent, on the former value of gold as com- 
pared with silver, which remained unchanged. 
The disadvantages of the complex standards 
both of gold and silver determined Mr. R. M. 
Patterson, the director of the mint, to attempt 
an improvement. He accordingly drew up a 
well considered code of mint laws, which was 
enacted by congress, Jan. 18, 1837, by which 
the French standard of fineness of i^%, for 
both gold and silver, was adopted. The weight 
of the gold coins remained unchanged, but the 
dollar was reduced to 41 2 grs., and the lesser 
silver coins in proportion. By the act of 
March 3, 1849, there were added to the series 
of gold coins the double eagle and the dollar ; 
and by act of Feb. 21, 1853, the three-dollar 
piece. By act of March 3, 1851, there was 
added to the silver coins a three-cent piece (a 
legal tender for sums not exceeding 30 cents), 
of the fineness of T V$j> and 12| grs. in weight, 
at which rates it continued to be coined till 
April 1, 1853, when its fineness was raised 
to '900, and its weight reduced to -^ of the 
half dollar, or lly 6 ^ grs. At this date also, in 
pursuance of the act of Feb. 21, 1853, an im- 
portant change was effected in the silver coin- 
age. The preexisting laws had made both 
gold and silver coins (except the three-cent 
piece) a legal tender for any amount. At the 
ratio of silver to gold of 16 to 1, silver was un- 
dervalued in the United States as compared 
with Europe, and our silver coins were largely 
exported. The remedy provided was a seign- 
iorage upon the silver coins, and making gold 
alone the legal tender. The weight of the 
half dollar was reduced from 206} grs. to 192 
grs., and the smaller coins in proportion. The 
mint ceased coming silver for individuals, but 
purchased silver at the market price and made 
the coins for government account a policy 
with respect to silver which was adopted in 
England as early as 1817. The effect of this 
change was to give to the silver coin of the 
country a current value sufficiently above its 
market price as bullion to prevent its exporta- 
tion, and at the same time to make silver mon- 
ey subsidiary to gold. It is a legal tender now 
only to the extent of $5. The price at which 
the mint buys silver is fixed from time to time 
according to its value in the market, and in 
1872 was $1 22 per standard ounce ('900 fine). 
The silver dollar was not included in this 
change. It was still a legal tender for all 
amounts, and its weight continued at 41 2|- grs., 
while that of two half dollars, or an equivalent 
sum in smaller coins, was 384 grs. It was there- 
fore intrinsically worth 7-^ per cent, more 
than a dollar's worth of the other silver coins ; 
but as compared with their current value, only 
about 4 per cent. more. A further change 



in the currency was effected by the act of Feb. 
21, 1857, by which the copper cent and half 
cent were discontinued, and a new cent, com- 
posed of 88 per cent, of copper and 12 per cent, 
of nickel, and weighing 72 grs., was substitu- 
ted ; which continued to be coined until the act 
of April 22, 1864, provided for the coinage of 
the bronze cent, consisting of 95 per cent, of 
copper and 5 per cent, of tin and zinc, and 
weighing 48 grs. The same act authorized, 
the coinage of two-cent pieces weighing 96 
grs. ; and by the act of March 3, 1865, a three- 
cent coin, three fourths copper and one fourth 
nickel, weighing 30 grs., was authorized. The 
act of May 16, 1866, provided for the coinage 
of a five-cent piece, three fourths copper and 
one fourth nickel, weighing 77'16 grs. The 
one- and two-cent coins were made a legal ten- 
der only to the amount of 4 cents, while the 
three-cent and five-cent pieces were a legal ten- 
der for sums not exceeding 60 cents and $1 re- 
spectively. The act of Feb. 12, 1873, known 
as the coinage act of 1873, prepared under the 
supervision of John Jay Knox, comptroller of 
the currency, and the passage of which was 
largely due to his exertions, has consolidated 
the regulations governing the coinage of the 
United States. Under this act the fineness of 
all gold and silver coins is to be -900. The al- 
loy of the silver coins consists of copper ; the 
alloy of the gold coins is copper, or copper and 
silver, the silver in no case to exceed one tenth 
of the whole alloy. The gold coins are a one- 
dollar piece, "which, at the standard weight 
of 25'8 grs., shall be the unit of value;" a 
quarter eagle, or two-and-a-half-dollar piece, 
64*5 grs. ; a three-dollar piece, 77 '4 grs. ; a 
half eagle, or five-dollar piece, 129 grs. ; an ea- 
gle, or ten-dollar piece, 258 grs. ; and a double 
eagle, or twenty-dollar piece, 516 grs. These 
coins are a legal tender to any amount. The sil- 
ver coins are a "trade dollar," weighing 420 
grs. ; a half dollar, or fifty-cent piece, 12^ grams, 
or 192*9 grs. ; a quarter dollar, or twenty-five- 
cent piece, and a dime, or ten-cent piece, re- 
spectively one half and one fifth the weight 
of the half dollar. These coins are a "legal 
tender at their nominal value for any amount 
not exceeding five dollars in any one payment." 
The trade dollar is intended for the convenience 
of commerce with China and Japan; while 
the half dollar, being half the weight of the 
five-franc silver coin of France, Belgium, and 
Switzerland, of the five-lire silver coin of Italy, 
the five-peseta silver coin of Spam, the five- 
drachma silver coin of Greece, and having the 
same weight as the new silver florin of Austria, 
is a step in the direction of international coin- 
age. The minor coins are a five-cent and a 
three-cent piece, three fourths copper and one 
fourth nickel, weighing respectively 77*16 and 
30 grs., and a one-cent piece, 95 per cent, cop- 
per and 5 per cent, tin and zinc, weighing 48 
grs., which are a " legal tender at their nomi- 
nal value for any amount not exceeding 25 
cents in any one payment." The issuing of 



COINS 
COINS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Quarter Dollar 25 cents (Silver). 




Half Dollar-50 cents (Silver). Dime 10 cents (Silver). 

COINS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 




Sovereign (Gold). 




Half Crown (Silver). 




Sixpence (Silver). 



COINS 
COINS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE. 





Twenty-Mark Piece (Gold). Ten-Mark Piece (Gold). 

COINS OF PRUSSIA. 




Thaler (Silver). 

COINS OF FRANCE. 



Silbergroschen (Silver). 



Five-Franc Piece of the Eepublic (Silver). 



One Franc (Silver). 

COIN OF SPAIN. 




One Hundred Eeales, Isabella II. (Gold). 



Dollar (Silver). 



30 



COINS 
COIN'S OF RUSSIA. 




Twenty-Copeck Piece (Silver). 



Ruble, 1849 (Silver). 



COINS OF JAPAN. 




Fifty Sen (Silver). 



coins other than those enumerated in the act 
is prohibited. It is provided that upon the 
coins of the United States there shall be the 
following devices and legends : Upon one side 
an impression emblematic of liberty, with an 
inscription of the word "Liberty" and the 
year of the coinage ; and upon the reverse the 
figure of an eagle, with the inscriptions " Uni- 
ted States of America " and " E Pluribus Unum " 
and a designation of the value of the coin ; but 
on the gold dollar and three-dollar piece, the 
dime, five-, three-, and one-cent piece, the figure 
of the eagle shall be omitted ; and on the reverse 
>f the silver trade dollar the weight and the 
fineness of the coin shall be inscribed ; and the 
motto " In God we trust " may be added when 
practicable. A new coinage has been struck 
m Germany, having the mark worth 23'8 cents 
as the unit, which after 1875 is to be the ex- 
isive specie currency of the empire. In the 
following table of gold and silver coins of dif- 
ferent countries, taken from the annual report 
of the Hon. James Pollock, director of the 



United States mint, for the year ending June 
80, 1872, the gold values are computed ac- 
cording to the value of United States coins 
($18 60-4 per oz. standard) ; the silver values 
according to the mint price for that year of 
silver ($1 22 per oz. standard). 

GOLD. 



COUNTRY AND DENOMINATION. 


Weight in 
ounces. 


Fineness, 

lOOOths. 


Value. 


AUSTRIA. 
Ducat ... . 


0'112 


986 


$2 28 '3 


Souverain 


0-863 


900 


6 75-4 


Four florins 


0-104 


900 


1 93-5 


BELGIUM. 
Twenty-five francs 


0-254 


899 


4 72 


BOLIVIA. 
Doubloon . . . 


0-867 


870 


15 59-3 


BRAZIL. 
Twenty milreis 


0-575 


917-5 


10 90-6 


CENTRAL AMERICA. 
Two escudos 


0-209 


853 '5 


3 68-8 


Four reals 


0'027 


875 


48'8 


CHILI. 
Old doubloon 


0-867 


870 


15 59-3 


Ten pesos. . . 


0-492 


900 


9 15'4 



COINS 



31 



GOLD COINS Continued. 



COUNTRY AND DENOMINATION. 


Weight in 
ounces. 


Fineness, 
1000th. 


Value. 


COLOMBIA. 
Old doubloon, Bogota 
" " Popayan 
Ten pesos 
DENMARK. 
Ten thalers 


0*868 
0-867 
0*525 

0-427 


870 
858 
891-5 

895 


15 61-1 
15 37-8 
9 67-5 

7 90 


ECUADOR. 
Four escudos. 


0-433 


844 


7 55-5 


ENGLAND. 
Pound or sovereign, new . . . 
" average 
Guinea (1793) . . 


0-256-7 
0-256-2 
0-269-6 


916-5 
916 
916-6 


486*8 
4 85-1 
5 12 


FRANCE. 
Twenty francs, new 
u average.... 
GERMANY. 
Ten thalers, Prussian 


0-207-5 
0-207 

0*427 
0*256 


899 
899 

908 

900 


8 85-8 
8 84-7 

7 97*1 
4 76*2 


GREKCE. 
Twenty drachmas 


0*185 


900 


8 44'2 


INDIA (BRITISH). 
Mohur 


0*374 


916 


7 08-2 


ITALY. 
Twenty lire 


0-207 


898 


8 84- 3 


JAPAN. 
Old cobang 


0-362 


568 


4 44 


Twenty yens 


0-289 
1-072 


572 
900 


3 57-6 
19 94*4 


MEXICO. 
Doubloon, average 


0-867-5 


866 


15 53 


" new.. 


0-867-5 


870*5 


15 61'1 


Twenty pesos (Maximilian) 
" (Republic).. 
NAPLES. 


1-086 
1-031 

0-245 


875 
873 

996 


19 64-3 
19 51-5 

5 04"4 


NETHERLANDS. 
Ten guilders 


0'215 


899 


3 99-7 


PERU. 
Old doubloon . 


0-867 


86S 


15 55*7 


Twenty soles 


1-055 


898 


19 21*8 


PORTUGAL. 
Gold crown. 


0-308 


912 


5 80'7 


RUSSIA. 
Five rubles 


0'210 


916 


8 97" 6 


SPAIN. 
One hundred reals 
Eighty reals. ; 


0-268 
0'215 


896 
869 '5 


4 96-4 
8 86' 4 


Ten escudos 
SWEDEN. 
Ducat 


0-270*8 
0*111 


896 

875 


5 01*5 
2 28 -7 


Carolin, ten francs. . . . 


0*104 


900 


1 93-5 


TUNIS. 
Twenty-five piastres 
TURKEY. 
One hundred piastres 


0*161 
0-231 


900 
915 


2 99-5 
4 36*9 


TUSCANY. 
Sequin . 


0*112 


999 


2 31-3 


UNITED STATES. 
Double eagle 
Eagle (before 1834) 
" (since 1834) 
Half eagle. .. 


1*075 
0-562-5 
0-537*5 
0*268 ? 


900 
9161 
900 
900 


20 00 
10 65*8 
10 00 
5 00 


Three dollars 


0*16U 


900 


8 00 


Quarter eagle . . . 


0-134"! 


900 


2 50 


Dollar....!..., 


0-053J 


900 


1 00 



STLVEE. 



COUNTRY AND DENOMINATION. 


Weight in 
ounces. 


Fineness, 
lOOOths. 


Value. 


AUSTRIA. 
Old reichsthaler 


0-902 


883 


$1 02-3 


Old scudo 


0-836 


9()2 


1 02*6 


Florin (before 1858).. . . 
New florin 
New union reichsthaler 
Maria Theresa reichsthaler 
(1730). 


0-451 
0*397 
0-596 

0*895 


833 
900 
900 

838 


51-1 
43-6 
78-1 

1 02' 1 


BELGIUM. 
Five francs 


0*803 


897 


98 


Two francs 


0-320 


835 


36-4 


BOLIVIA. 
New dollar. 


0-801 


900 


98-1 


BRAZIL. 
Double milreis... 


0-820 


918-5 


1 02-5 



SILVER COINS Continued. 


COUNTRY AND DENOMINATION. 


Weight In 
ounce*. 


Finenew, 

1000th*. 


Value. 


CANADA. 
Twenty cents 


0-150 
0-187*5 
0*875 

0*866 

0*864 
0-801 

0-866 
0-087 

0-808 
0-927 

0-182*5 
0*178 
0-368-6 
0-454-5 

0-800 
0-320 
0*160 

0-712 
0-595 

0-840 
0-340 

0-719 
0-874 

0-800 
0-160 

0-279 
0-279 
0*866-7 
0-402 

0-867-5 
0-866 
0*861 

0-844 
0-804 
0-927 

0-866 
0-766 
0-483 
0-802 

0-400 
0*864 
0*667 

0*800 
0*160 

1*092 
0*820 
0*511 
0*770 

0*859*4 
0*400 
0*200 
0*080 
0*040 
0*024 

0*875 
0*401*8 
0*200*9 
0*080*8 


925 
925 
925 

850 

908 
900*5 

901 
901 

896 

877 

924-5 
925 
925 
925 

900 
885 
900 

750 
900 

900 
900 

900 
916*5 

900 
885 

991 
890 
900 
800 

903 
901 
902-5 

830 
944 

877 

901 

909 
650 
900 

912 

900 
875 

900 
835 

750 
835 
898*5 
830 

900 

900 
900 
900 
900 
900 

900 
900 
900 
900 


18*9 
28-6 
47-2 

1 00-2 

1 06-8 
98-2 

1 06-2 
10-6 

93 
1 10-T 

28 
22-4 
45 
56 

98 
86-4 
18*2 

72*7 
72*9 

41-7 
41-7 

88*1 
46* 

98 

18-2 

87*6 
88*8 
1 00*8 
44-6 

1 06-6 
1 06*2 
1 05*5 

95*3 
1 03*3 
1 10*7 

1 06-2 
94-8 
83*8 

98-2 

49*6 
1 05-8 
79-4 

98 
18*2 

1 11*5 
86*4 
6*2*5 

87 

1 04*5* 
50 
25 
10 
5 
3 


Twenty-five cents. 


Fifty cents. . . 


CENTRAL AMERICA 
Dollar 


CHILI. 
Old dollar 


New dollar. . . 


CHINA. 
Dollar (English). . . . 


Ten cents ...... 


COLOMBIA. 
Dollar of 1857.... 


DENMARK. 

Two rigsdalers 


ENGLAND. 
Shilling, new 


" average . 


Florin (1852) 


Half crown (1845) .. . 


FRANCE. 
Five francs, average 


Two " 


Franc (1860) 
GERMANY, NORTH. 
Thaler (before 1857). . 


New thaler 
GERMANY, SOUTH. 
Florin (before 1857).... 


New florin 


GREECE. 
Five drachmas 


INDIA (BRITISH). 
Rupee 


ITALY. 
Five lire 


Lira 


JAPAN. 
Itzebu 


New itzebu 


Yen 


Fifty sens 


MEXICO. 
Dollar new .. 


Dollar, average 


Peso of Maximilian 


NAPLES. 
Scudo 


NETHERLANDS. 
Two and a half guilders 
NORWAY. 
Specie daler 


PERU. 
Old dollar 


Dollar of 1858 


Half dollar (1835 and 1838). 
Sol 


PORTUGAL. 
Five hundred reis .... 


ROME. 
Scudo 


RUSSIA. 
Ruble 


SPAIN. 
Five pesetas (dollar) 


Peseta (pistareen) 


SWEDEN. 
Specie daler 


SWITZERLAND. 


TUNIS. 


TURKEY. 


UNITED STATES. 


Half dollar (since 1853). . . . 




Half dime 




(Act of 1873.) 
Dollar 


Half dollar 


Quarter dollar. 


Dime 


* A compared with the half dollar. 



208 



VOL. V. 3 



COINS 



The following table, compiled from the last re- I aggregate United States coinage from the estab- 
port of the director of the mint, exhibits the | lishment of the mint in 1793 to June 30, 1873 : 



PERIOD. 


Gold Coinage. 


Stiver Coinage. 


Minor Coinage. 


Entire Coinage. 


1798tolS17 


$5,610,957 50 


$8,268,295 75 


$319,340 28 


$14,198,593 58 


1818 to 1837 


17,839,882 50 


40,566,897 15 


476,574 30 


58,682,858 95 


1888 to 1847 


49,554,452 50 


22,831,719 00 


849,676 68 


72285848 18 


1848 to 1S57 


408856176 14 


85791.807 63 


517222 34 


445164706 11 


1858 to 1867 


408,717,501 97 


80,956,287 51 


5,752,310 00 


440,426099 48 


1S63 


24,141,235 06 


1,592,986 48 


1.713,385 00 


27 447 606 54 


1S69 


82,031,126 43 


1,575,619 05 


1,279055 00 


34 885 801 48 


1970 


29,931,789 78 


2,474,653 54 


611,445 00 


33,017,838 32 


1871 


84,888,187 12 


5,518,501 70 


288760 00 


40,190598 82 


1872 


36,198,073 77 


18,421,779 87 


123020 00 


49 887 778 14 


1873 


55744958 61 


9967710 00 


494 050 00 


66 206 713 61 












Total.... 


$1,097,688,511 22 


$172,892,780 28 


$11.919.888 55 


$1,281,996.180 00 



Of the total gold coinage, $280,805,517 85 con- 
sisted of bars ; the silver bars amounted to $27,- 
770,503 66. The number of gold coins struck 
was 181,673,669; silver coins, 524,624,186 ; mi- 
nor coins, 674,597,467, of which 105,522,000 
were five-cent pieces, 26,845,000 three-cent 
pieces, 45,601,000 two-cent pieces, 488,644,244 
one-cent pieces, and 7,985,223 half-cent pieces. 
For the process of coinage, see MINT ; and for 
ancient coins, NUMISMATICS. The subjoined ta- 
bles exhibit the comparative value of 'the coins 
of different countries and ages. The tables of 
ancient coins are those of Dr. Arbuthnot, whose 
authority, however, has been called in question. 



JEWISH COINS. 



NAMES AND PROPORTIONS. 


Vali 
English money. 


ein 
U. S. money. 


Gerah 




s.d. 
OI"/ ieo 

ll/i 
2Sy a 
5 14 0% 
342 3 9 

12 0^ 
1 16 6 


$ cts. 
02-766 

27-66 
55-32 
27 66 
1,659 60-9 

2 92 

8 85 


lOBek 
20 2 
1000 100 
600006000 


ih 


Shekel . 


Maneh, Mina > 
50 Hebraica.. ) 

8000 60 Talent.... 


Solidus aureus, or sextula, 
worth 


Siclus aureus, worth 



GRECIAN COINS. 



NAMES 


AND PROPORTIONS. 


Value in 
English money. U. S. money. 


Lepton 






*. d . qrs. 
003i/ 336 

l/ 4a 

o o iv >4 

2V 12 
1 We 
2 21/3 
5 02 /, 
073 
182 
270 
323. 


$ cts. 
00-0466 

00-826 
00-652 
01-305 
02-61 
05-22 
010-44 
15-66 
81-82 
62-64 
78-31 


7 


Chalcus 


14 


2 


Dichalcus 


28 


4 


2 


Hemiobolum 


56 


8 


4 


2 


Obolus 


112 


16. 


8 


4 


o 


Diobolum 


224 


82 


16 


8 
12 


4 
6 


2 
~T 


Tetrobolum 


886 


48 


24 


H D 


rachma 




672 


96 


48 


24 


12 


6 


8 


2 Didrachma 


1844 
1680 


192 


96 


48 


24 


12 


6 


4 2 Tetradrachma 


240 


120 


60 


80 I 15 


7* 


5 2* 1 1J 


Pentadrachma 



Of these, the drachma, didrachma, &c., were 
of silver, the rest for the most part of brass. 
The drachma is here, with most authors, sup- 
posed equal to the denarius ; though there is 
reason to believe that the drachma was some- 
what heavier. 

The Grecian gold coin was the stater au- s. d. $ cts. 
reus, weighing 2 Attic drachmas, or half of 
the stater argenteus, and exchanging usu- 
ally for 25 Attic drachmas of silver 16 1J 8 91-5 

But according to our proportion of gold to 
silver, it was worth.. 



Th.-r- wore likewise the stater Cyzicenus 
exchanging for 28 Attic drachmas, or. ... 

The stater Philippicus and stater Alexan- 
drinus were of the same value. 

The stater Daricus, according to Josephus, 
was worth 50 Attic drachmas 1 12 <U 7 

The stater Croesius was of the same value. 



109 

18 1 



508 



EOMAN COINS. 



NAMES AND PROPORTIONS. 


Value in 
English money. U. S. money. 


Term 
2 
~T 
10 
20* 
40 


icius 
Sem 

~T 

5 
10 
20 






8. d. qrs. 

o o o"/iooo 

l/ioo 
8V, 
1 83/ 4 
8 3V 3 
73 


tcts. 
00-3915 

00-788 
01-566 
03-91 
07-83 
15-66 


bella 




Libella 
ITse 
5 2 
10 4 


As 


stertius 


Quinarius, or ) 
Victcriatus f ... 

2 Denarius 



The denarius and quinarius were of silver ; the 
other coins were also of brass or copper, the 
three smaller being generally of the base metals. 



COIRE 



COKE 



33 



The Roman pold coin, or aureus, weighed! s. d. 
generally double the denarius; its value, | 
according to the proportion of gold to silver 
mentioned by Pliny, was [1 4 8f 

According to the proportion that now obtains 
among us 

According to the decuple proportion men- 
tioned by Livy and Julius Pollux 

According to the proportion mentioned by 
Tin-it us, by which the aureus exchanged 
for 26 denarii, its value was 



109 
1211 



16 



$ cts. 

5 89-6 
508 
8 18-2 

891-5 



An English writer says of these tables of an- 
cient coins that they " are constructed on the 
hypothesis that the consular denarii weighed by 
Greaves were of the same purity as English 
standard silver, and that no subsequent dimi- 
nution was made either in their weight or fine- 
ness. The conclusion derived from such data, 
though differing in degree, are of the same 
character as those which we should arrive at 
if, in estimating the value of the pound sterling 
during the last 100 years, we took for granted 
that it contained a pound weight of standard 
silver, as in the period frpm the conquest to 
the reign of Edward I." 

COIRE, or Chnr (Romansch, Cuera ; anc. Cu- 
ria Rhatorum), a town of Switzerland, capital 
of the canton of Grisons, 59 m. S. E. of Zurich ; 
pop. in 1870, 7,552. It occupies a picturesque 
site at the mouth of the defile of the Plessur, 
about a mile from the Rhine, and is the princi- 
pal depot on the route from Italy into Switzer- 
land and western Germany by the Splugen and 
Bernardino passes. The church of St. Lucius 
and the bishop's palace are curious old build- 
ings, portions of which date back to the 8th 
century or earlier. There are also a town 
hall, public library, Catholic seminary, and 
cantonal schools. It is the seat of probably 
the oldest bishopric in Switzerland, dating from 
the 5th century. The Romansh, a corruption 
of Latin, is spoken here, and a newspaper is 
published in that tongue. It is the birthplace 
of the painter Angelica Kauffman. 

COIT, Thomas Wiathrop, an American clergy- 
man, born in New London, Conn., June 28, 
1803. He graduated at Yale college in 1821, 
entered the ministry of the Episcopal church, 
and became rector of St. Peter's church, Sa- 
lem, Mass., in 1827, and two years later rector 
of Christ's church, Cambridge. In 1834 he 
was elected president of Transylvania univer- 
sity, Lexington, Ky. This office he resigned in 
1839, and became rector of Trinity church, 
New Rochelle, N. Y., which position he 
held for about ten years. In 1854 he was 
elected professor of ecclesiastical history in 
Berkeley divinity school, Middletown, Conn., 
the duties of which post he discharged in 
connection with the rectorship of St. Paul's 
church, Troy, N. Y. He resigned the rector- 
ship in 1872, and has been since chiefly occu- 
pied in the duties of his professorship. Dr. 
Coit ranks among the foremost of living schol- 
ars in the Episcopal church, and is the author 
of several able works in defence of its doc- 
trines and position. Besides a large number 
of occasional addresses and sermons, and con- 



tributions to the "Church Review," he has 
published "A Theological Commonplace 
Book ; " " The Bible and Apocrypha in Para- 
graphs and Parallelisms" (2 vols., 1834); 
" Remarks on Mr. Norton's Statement of Rea- 
sons" (1834); "Townsend's Chronological 
Bible " (2 vols., 1837) ; " Puritanism, a Church- 
man's Defence against its Aspersions" (1844) ; 
" Lectures on the Early History of Christian- 
ity in England" (1859) ; and a report on the 
" Standard Prayer Book " (1868). 

COJUTEPEC, or Cojutepeqne, a town of San 
Salvador, Central America, in the department* 
of Cuscatlan, a few miles N. of a lake of the 
same name, and about 15 m. E. of San Salva- 
dor; pop. 15,000. It was the seat of govern- 
ment from 1854 to 1858, San Salvador, the 
capital, having been destroyed by an earth- 
quake in the former year. The country around 
it is volcanic. Lake Cojutepec, sometimes 
called Ilopango, is 12 m. long and 5 m. broad. 
It is surrounded by high abrupt hills, and is 
probably the crater of an ancient volcano. It 
receives no tributary streams, but has a small 
outlet flowing through a deep ravine into the 
Rio Jiboa, near the base of the volcano of San 
Vicente. After a gale its waters assume a 
dark greenish hue and exhale a disagreeable 
sulphurous odor, and dead fish are cast ashore 
in large numbers. 

COKE, the solid product left behind when 
the volatile matters are expelled by distillation 
from bituminous coal. There are two kinds : 
gas coke, obtained from the retorts of gas 
works after the gases have been separated; 
and oven coke, which is made in ovens or pits, 
and which is considered by manufacturers as 
the only true coke, gas coke being merely cin- 
der. Oven or pit coke is made upon a large 
scale at mines of bituminous coal, for the pur- 
pose in part of saving the fine refuse coal by 
conyerting it into a valuable fuel, and in part 
of converting the lump coal into a form better 
adapted for metallurgic operations, and for the 
use of locomotives when the flame and smoke 
of bituminous coal would be objectionable, as 
upon underground railways and in populous 
streets. It was formerly the opinion of some 
engineers that the calorific qualities of bitumi- 
nous coal exist undiminished in the coke, not- 
withstanding that the gases expelled in the 
process of making the coke possess also a con- 
siderable heating power. Mr. Josiah Parker 
states, in vol. ii. of the " Transactions of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers," that he has 
" found that 75 Ibs. of coke, produced from 
100 Ibs. of coal, evaporated as much water as 
100 Ibs. of the self-same coal." He also cites 
the experience of Mr. Apsley Pellatt in his glass 
furnaces, which were especially well adapted 
for showing the relative calorific value of coke 
and coal, provision being made in them for the 
full combustion of the volatile products of the 
coal. Of late years, however, after much dis- 
cussion upon the subject, bituminous coal has 
come into use in place of coke upon the prin- 



COKE 



cipal railway lines in England, the use of the 
latter being retained only when flame and 
smoke require to be avoided. Coke has never 
been used on American railroads, and now 
that locomotives are so constructed that crude 
coal can be burned with facility and economy, 
the occasion will probably never arise. In con- 
sequence of its freedom from sulphur, coke is 
much better adapted to metallurgic processes, 
and therefore special attention has been di- 
rected in Europe, not only to the best methods 
of preparing it, but to the selection of that 
-kind of coal which is best adapted to the 
purpose; and it has been found in practice 
preferable to incur considerable expense to 
procure it of the best quality, some compa- 
nies even preferring to obtain it from Eng- 
land rather than use the cheaper but infe- 
rior qualities made from the coals of France 
and Belgium. The cause of the superiority of 
the English coke is attributed to the coal beds 
of England containing but few seams of slate 
interstratified with the coal ; so that this is 
obtained clear of the impurities which in the 
French and Belgian coals add largely to the 
proportion of ash, and render it necessary to 
subject the coal to processes of washing and 
sorting before coking. Iron pyrites is the prin- 
cipal objectionable material in coal for melting 
metals, and to get rid of it is the chief problem 
of the coke maker. A protracted application 
of heat expels a great part of the sulphur, 
with the formation of bisulphide of carbon and 
carburet of iron. The bisulphide^of carbon, be- 
ing volatile, passes off, and the carburet of 
iron which remains does no injury unless there 
is silica present, which is not the case in good 
coking coal. In the north of England it has 
been found that when the coal contains much 
pyrites, if it is first treated with a very strong 
brine the elimination of the sulphur is very 
greatly facilitated. The tendency to vitrifac- 
tion possessed by clays and lime salts renders 
these substances objectionable in coke, and 
therefore good coking coal is only found in cer- 
tain districts. (See COAL.) Two methods of 
coking are in use : one in ovens constructed for 
the purpose, and the other in large open heaps, 
upon the ground. The ovens are built of fire 
brick or stone of various sizes, and frequently 
arranged several together in one stack, in 
which case dimensions of 12 ft. square and 10 
ft. high are found most convenient. They are 
arched over at the top, a hole being left for the 
exit of the gases, and another for the introduc- 
tion of the coal, closed by an iron door in front. 
About two tons of coal are introduced through 
the latter, filling the oven to the springing of 
the arch, and leaving room above for the coal 
to swell. The charge is ignited by the heat 
left in the walls by the process just previously 
completed. Air is allowed to enter in proper 
quantity at the lower door, and the gases es- 
cape at the top. In 24 hours the air holes be- 
low are closed, and for 12 hours more the gases 
pass out at the top. The upper hole is then 



closed with a slab of stone or iron and covered 
with sand, and left for 12 hours more to partial- 
ly cool down the charge. After this the door 
below is opened, the coke taken out quickly, 
quenched with water, and carried off in iron 
wheelbarrows. Where it is an object to save 
the coal tar, the ovens are provided with a flue 
at the top, through which the volatile products 
are conducted into a receptacle in which the 
liquid matters are condensed. The product of 
bituminous coal in coke, gas, and tar varies 
with its quality. As it approaches anthra- 
cite in quality, the yield of coke is large and 
of gas small, while the reverse is the case with 
the fat or highly bituminous coals. From 50 
to V5 per cent, is the general range of the yield 
of coke. Upon some of the railroads in Eng- 
land the size of the ovens is stated to be 30 ft. 
square, and the charges about 8 tons each, 
spread in a thickness of about 4 ft. The du- 
ration of the process is 96 hours. With the 
same coals and ovens, by making the charges 
lighter and increasing the quantity of air ad- 
mitted, and thus raising the temperature, so as to 
complete the process in 48, 24, or even 12 hours, 
the coke will be obtained lighter and more fri- 
able according as it may be desired. It has been 
found that the higher the heat of the oven the 
larger the yield of coke. This fact seemed for 
a long time anomalous, but is explained by well 
known chemical laws. When coal is melted, 
its hydrogen and carbon combine in the form 
of bicarburetted hydrogen, which in passing up 
through the red-hot coal above is decomposed 
into solid carbon and light carburetted hydro- 
gen. Thus one half of the carbon of the gas is 
saved. The principle is illustrated by passing 
bicarburetted hydrogen through a red-hot tube, 
which after a while will become filled with 
a solid carbonaceous deposit. Coking in the 
open heap is the most common practice at the 
mines of bituminous coal of the United States, 
and this is the oldest method. The coal is 
piled up in long ranges, extending sometimes 
200 ft. in length, with a width of 12 ft. at the 
base, and a height of 6 ft. The piles are made 
so that along the whole length an air passage 
extends through the centre on the ground. 
The largest lumps are placed in the middle por- 
tion, and smaller and smaller pieces toward the 
outside. Stakes are set up at intervals along 
the central line of the heap, which reach down 
to the base ; when the pile is completed, these 
are taken out, and the passages they leave 
serve for the introduction of burning coals to 
fire the heap alopg its whole length. When- 
ever the thick black smoke and flame cease in 
any portion, and this begins to show appear- 
ance of ashes, the fire is kept down by the ap- 
plication of coke dust or ashes ; and this goes 
on until the whole heap is thus covered. It is 
then left for a few days to cool. Portions ex- 
posed to the full action of the wind require, as 
in the process of making charcoal, a thicker cov- 
er of dust or ashes to check the consumption of 
the product. When sufficiently cool, the coke 



COKE 



35 



is drawn out. The process is not an economi- 
cal one, much of the inside coal being always 
consumed to waste before the inner portions 
have been coked. A method has been adopted 
at the Clyde iron works in Scotland, by which 
a part of this waste is obviated. A mound is 
built up of a circular form around a central 
chimney of brick, which may be 3 ft. square 
at the base and rise 3 or 4 ft. from the ground. 
Openings of the size of a brick are left at inter- 
vals in its sides, for the passage of the gases, 
and from the lowest of these the coal around is 
so piled that flues extend through it to the cir- 
cumference of the heap. The diameter of the 
mound maybe 20 ft., and its ashes 4 ft., suffi- 
cient with the cover of ashes and cinders to 
reach above the top of the chimney. The heap 
is lighted by burning coals thrown into the chim- 
ney, from which the flames reach through the 
aperture. In four or five days, when the mound 
has become thoroughly on fire, the apertures on 
the outside and the top of the chimney are 
closed with plates and ashes, and the heap is 
left to cool for three days, after which the 
coke is drawn out. It is the practice now in 
Europe to utilize the heat produced in making 
coke. At some chemical works salt is made by 
using the waste heat ; in blast furnaces the air 
has been heated from the same source, and in 
many others the heat from the burning of the 
escaping gases is used to increase the heat of 
the coking oven itself. Many of these are in 
use on the continent of Europe. A species of 
coke called "charred coal" is now used in 
place of charcoal in the manufacture of tin 
plates. It is made by spreading fine coal on 
the red-hot floor of a reverberatory furnace to 
the depth of four or five inches. Much gas is 
given off and ebullition takes place, producing 
a spongy mass which is removed after an hour. 
COKE, Natural. At the coal mines of the 
lias formation, on both sides of the James 
river, and near Richmond, Va., beds of natu- 
ral coke of good workable quality are met 
with, interstratified with the slates, sandstones, 
fire clay, and coal. On the N. side of the 
river is a bed 5 ft. thick, which lies slightly 
inclined toward the west. Several vertical 
shafts cut it, the deepest about 207 ft. below 
the surface. The coke is of a nearly uniform 
character, and is heavier than common coke, 
vesicular in texture, and of a dull black col- 
or. The volatile ingredients of the coal are al- 
most wholly wanting, and the coke does not 
differ in its properties and appearance from 
much of the more compact artificial varieties. 
Twenty feet above the coke, the agent which 
effected this change, and also altered the beds 
of fire clay and slate, is seen in an intercala- 
ted layer of trap rock of 15 to 30 ft. in thick- 
ness. Immediately beneath the trap is a bed of 
carbonaceous fire clay and cinder 5 ft. thick, 
baked and hardened by the action of the trap. 
Under the coke bed is another stratum of in- 
durated fire clay, and beneath this one of coal 
elates 20 ft. thick. Another carbonaceous bed 



is then cut by the shaft; this is a thin layer of 
half-coked coal. Twenty feet below this is 
another coal bed of the usual bituminous com- 
position, its structure unaltered. 

CORE, Sir Edward, an English jurist, born at 
Mileham, Norfolk, Feb. 1, 1552, died at Stoke 
Pogis, Buckinghamshire, Sept. 3, 1633. Noth- 
ing of particular interest is related of his school 
days at the grammar school in Norwich, or in 
the university of Cambridge. He left Cam- 
bridge without taking a degree, and at the age 
of 20 commenced the study of law at an inn of 
chancery, where he spent a year in acquiring a 
knowledge of the forms of writs and proceed- 
ings in courts, and then entered upon the study 
of general jurisprudence in the Inner Temple. 
He was called to the bar a year before the ex- 
piration of the time prescribed for legal studies 
(at that time seven years), in 1578, and was 
soon after appointed reader (lecturer) of Lyon's 
Inn (an inn of chancery), which office he held 
three years, and so distinguished himself by his 
lectures that he gained much repute for le- 
gal learning. Within that time he rose to the 
highest rank in the profession by his argument 
in Shelley's case, the most celebrated case re- 
lating to real estate which is to be found in the 
English reports. He was thenceforth employed 
in most of the important cases in Westminster, 
was successively elected recorder of Coventry, 
then of Norwich, and lastly of London, and 
was appointed reader (law professor) of the 
Inner Temple. In 1592 he was, at the in- 
stance of Lord Burleigh, appointed solicitor 
general, and the following year he was re- 
turned to parliament as the representative of 
Norfolk, and was chosen speaker of the house. 
In 1594, the office of attorney general becom- 
ing vacant, Coke expected to succeed to it in 
regular course, but was unexpectedly met by 
a formidable claimant, Francis Bacon, backed 
by the influence of the earl of Essex. Queen 
Elizabeth resisted the solicitation of her favor- 
ite, and appointed Coke ; but it was the com- 
mencement of bitter hostility between the ri- 
vals, which, with alternating success, was ulti- 
mately disastrous to both. In 1598 Coke lost 
his first wife, to whom he had been married 16 
years, and within four months married Lady 
Hatton, a wealthy young widow, who within a 
year bore to him a daughter, but refused to 
take his name, being always known as Lady 
Hatton. In 1600 he published the first of the 
11 parts of his reports. The other parts were 
published in the following reign. The preface 
is characteristic of the author. He proposes 
no diminution of the student's labor by any 
facility which his reports are to furnish. 
"My advice to the reader," he says, "is that 
in reading of these or any new reports, he neg- 
lect not in any case the reading of the old 
books of years reported in former ages, for as- 
suredly out of the old fields must spring and 
grow the new corn." In his subsequent works 
he often reiterates the same advice. He did 
not encourage the use of abridgments, except 



36 



COKE 



for reference to the original cases, but insists 
upon the study of the cases themselves. The 
trial of the earls of Essex and Southampton 
for high treason, which occurred early in 1601, 
brought out harsh traits in the character of 
Coke. His statement of facts in opening the 
case was exaggerated, and his manner abu- 
sive, and this was continued throughout the 
trial. In the first year of King James, the 
trial of Sir Walter Raleigh upon a charge of 
high treason for a conspiracy to place the lady 
Arabella Stuart on the throne again exhibited 
Coke (who still remained attorney general) as 
a public prosecutor, and on this occasion to 
arrogance and vituperation he added an unfair 
attempt to convict the prisoner upon evidence 
which he knew to be insufficient, and in fact 
inadmissible. The advancing favor of Bacon 
with King James now exasperated the former 
enmity of Coke against him. The literary re- 
nown of Bacon, and the personal regard shown 
for him by Elizabeth, although it had not pro- 
cured him official station other than the hon- 
orary one of queen's counsel, had excited the 
jealousy of Coke, and sharp encounters had 
taken place between him and Bacon. As at- 
torney general Coke rendered efficient service 
in the unravelling of the gunpowder plot and 
the prosecution of the parties concerned. On 
the trial Coke opened the case to the jury 
at enormous length, interlarding his diatribe 
against the prisoners with quaint conceits. To 
Sir Everard Digby, one of the prisoners, who 
confessed the charge, but prayed the mercy of 
the king as to the mode of death, and also in 
behalf of his family, Coke answered that he 
must not look to the king to be honored in the 
manner of his death, but was rather to admire 
the moderation of the king in that for so im- 
portant a crime no new torture answerable 
thereto had been devised to be inflicted on 
him. The trial of Garnett, the superior of the 
Jesuits, who was implicated in the same plot, 
called forth still greater effort on the part of 
Coke to show his zeal for the king and se- 
verity to the prisoner. In 1606 Coke was 
appointed chief justice of the common pleas, 
and Bacon in 1607 solicitor general. From 
the time he entered upon his office he exhib- 
ited an integrity and independence in striking 
contrast with his former violation of private 
rights in his zeal to serve the crown. Indeed, 
the difference is so great that we hardly rec- 
ognize Coke the chief justice as the same per- 
son with Coke the attorney general. Thus he 
granted writs of prohibition to restrain the 
court of high commission from issuing process 
for the arrest of parties complained against, 
which practice, recently introduced in place 
of citation, Coke maintained to be contrary to 
Magna Charta. He resisted the pretension of 
King James to the right of sitting in person 
to hear causes, which was a device suggested 
for the purpose of getting rid of prohibition 
and appeal. Prohibitions were also issued 
from the common pleas to check the arbi- 



trary proceedings of the lord president of 
Wales, and of the lord president of the North. 
Complaint having been made to the king of 
these prohibitions, and the judges having been 
summoned before the council, Coke justified 
the judges ; and in like manner, when the ques- 
tion came up as to the king's prerogative to 
impose penalties and otherwise alter laws by 
proclamation, and the opinions of the judges 
were demanded by the king for the purpose of 
enforcing the power claimed, Coke resisted, 
and finally got the rest of the judges to concur 
in an answer that a proclamation was no 
law. The effect of this bold opposition to 
arbitrary power can hardly be overestimated. 
It at least checked abuses, and it led to in- 
vestigation as to the limit imposed by law. 
Although Coke had but little turn for abstract 
reasoning about natural rights, he was in- 
flexible in maintaining such rights as had been 
recognized by law. In 1613 Coke was remov- 
ed from the office of chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas to the chief justiceship of the king's 
bench. The change was intended partly as a 
penalty for his conduct in the matters before 
referred to, but chiefly to favor the advance- 
ment of Bacon, who wished the place of attor- 
ney general, and Hobart, who then held the 
office, was willing to exchange for the chief 
justiceship of the common pleas, but not of 
the king's bench. The reluctance of Coke to 
leave the common pleas may be explained by 
the fact that far the larger part of the civil 
business of the kingdom was transacted in that 
court, it having exclusive jurisdiction of all ca- 
ses relating to real property. It appears from 
a letter of Bacon to the king that it was de- 
signed to put Coke upon his good behavior, 
and to prepare the way for his final dismissal 
from office if he should fail to become conform- 
able to the views of the court. He was in fact 
dismissed three years afterward, but in the 
mean time, with the certainty of losing his 
place by persistence in the course of judicial in- 
dependence which he had heretofore pursued, 
he fearlessly resisted the encroachment of royal 
prerogative, and the corrupt attempts of court 
minions to pervert his administration of the 
law to improper purposes. Two memorable 
instances occurred of Coke's inflexibility in 
maintaining what he believed to be right, al- 
though exceedingly obnoxious to the king : his 
contest with the court of chancery, and his re- 
sistance of the interference of the king in the 
matter of the commendams. The court of 
chancery had exercised the power of correct- 
ing judgments of other courts. The limit of 
this power had not been well defined. There 
were many cases where, by the rigid practice 
at common law, great injustice was done, and 
relief could be had only by the equitable ad- 
ministration of chancery; but some of the 
chancellors had proceeded as if they had a 
general right to review the judgments of all 
other courts. Coke wholly denied the author- 
ity of the court as thus claimed. He and his 



COKE 



37 



associate judges declared it to be an indictable 
offence to question a judgment of the king's 
bench or common pleas; and an effort was 
made to get an indictment against the parties, 
solicitors, and officers of the court of chancery, 
in two cases in which injunctions had been 
granted by the chancellor against judgments 
at law. But as it appeared that gross fraud 
had been committed in the obtaining of these 
judgments, the grand jury could not be per- 
suaded to bring in a bill. The proceeding hav- 
ing attracted public attention, the king ap- 
pointed commissioners to inquire into the sub- 
ject of dispute. The report of the commis- 
sioners sustained the proceeding of the chan- 
cellor. Proceedings were thereupon instituted 
in the star chamber against the private parties 
concerned in resisting the authority of the 
chancellor. The conduct of Coke on this oc- 
casion has been generally censured ; but there 
can be no doubt that it had the effect of estab- 
lishing with more precision the rule by which 
the interposition of the court of chancery 
should be regulated. The case as to the com- 
mendams was this : In a suit against the bish- 
op of Lichfield and Coventry respecting a bene- 
fice, the defendant pleaded that he held it in 
commendam, which was an appointment by the 
king in certain cases until a new incumbent 
could be regularly appointed. The question 
was involved as to the right of the king to 
make such grants. Upon being advised of the 
discussion, the king sent a message to Coke 
signifying his pleasure that all proceedings 
should be stayed till the judges should have a 
conference with his majesty on the subject. 
A meeting of all the judges having been held 
for consultation, it was resolved by them that 
the court ought to proceed as though they had 
received no notice, which was accordingly done, 
and a memorial signed by the 12 judges was 
sent to the king, in which they say : " We hold 
it our duty to inform your majesty that our 
oat-h is in these express words, * that in case 
any letter come to us contrary to law, we do 
nothing therefore but certify your majesty 
thereof, and go forth to do the law notwith- 
standing the same.' We have advisedly con- 
sidered the said letter of Mr. Attorney, and 
with one consent do hold the same to be con- 
trary to law, and such as we could not yield to 
the same by oath." A sharp response followed 
from the king, ordering the judges to proceed 
no further till his coming in town. He then 
called them before him, and commented se- 
verely upon their course of proceeding and the 
form of their letter; upon which the judges 
kneeled and craved pardon. But Coke, though 
he expressed sorrow for any error of form, 
still persisted in defending the substantial right 
of what he had done. The king himself seems 
to have been impressed by the noble bearing 
of the chief justice, for the court was permitted 
to proceed in the cause of the bishop, which 
was finally decided against him. The active 
measures taken by Coke for the conviction of 



the murderers of Sir Thomas Overbury gave 
further offence to James, and he probably in- 
tended the removal of Coke upon the first fa- 
vorable opportunity. This intention was no 
doubt precipitated by the enmity of the new 
favorite Villiers, who had been thwarted by the 
chief justice in a corrupt attempt at the dispo- 
sition of a lucrative clerkship in the king's 
bench. The removal was, however, put upon 
very different grounds. Among the charges 
which he was required to answer before the 
council were : 1, the alleged concealment of a 
bond belonging to the crown ; 2, his miscon- 
duct in the dispute with the chancellor respect- 
ing injunctions; 3, his disrespectful conduct to 
the king in the matter of the cornmendams. A 
few days afterward he was again called before 
the council, when sentence was pronounced 
that he be suspended from the council and from 
his judicial functions till the king's pleasure 
should be further known, and in the mean 
time that he should revise his books of reports, 
wherein it was alleged that " many extravagant 
and exorbitant opinions were set down for 
good law." After the summer vacation he was 
again cited before the privy council to answer 
as to revision of errors in his reports, when he 
made aspecification,showingthat there were not 
more errors in his 11 books of reports, contain- 
ing 500 cases, than could be found in a few cases 
in Plowden. The whole charge was indeed 
frivolous ; but a supersedeas nevertheless issued, 
removing him from his office (1616), and Mon- 
tague was appointed in his place. Not long 
after his disgrace Coke offered his daughter in 
marriage to Sir John Villiers, brother of the 
duke of Buckingham, the royal favorite. She 
was only 14 years of age, but was a rich heir- 
ess, as the estate of her mother, Lady Hatton, 
was entailed upon her, and she also had an ex- 
pectancy from her father's immense wealth. 
The match had been sought by Villiers, who was 
poor, and had been rejected by Coke while chief 
justice. He determined on availing himself of 
it now for the purpose of recovering from his 
disgrace and humbling Bacon, who was now 
his open enemy. Lady Hatton, who was not on 
good terms with her husband, and had not been 
consulted, refused consent, and carried off her 
daughter to a place of concealment. Coke, hav- 
ing ascertained where they had fled, pursued, 
broke open the house, and took his daughter 
away. The mother appealed to the privy coun- 
cil. Bacon, who had been appointed lord keep- 
er, warmly supported her, and proceedings were 
instituted in the star chamber against Coke. 
The king, however, who was then in Scot- 
land, sharply reproved the lord keeper, and 
on his return the parties were so far reconciled 
that the marriage took place. Coke was re- 
stored to his place in the privy council (1617), 
but received no other appointment, except 
temporarily as one of the commissioners of the 
treasury while the office of lord treasurer was 
vacant. Bacon, on the other hand, entirely 
recovered a good understanding with the king, 



38 



COKE 



and was shortly after made lord chancellor. 
The lord treasurer's office, which Coke expect- 
ed to have had, was finally given to Montague, 
who had succeeded him as chief justice ; and 
instead of his being restored to the chief jus- 
ticeship, that place was filled by an obscure 
lawyer. After his removal from office Coke 
did not intermit his legal pursuits. The 12th 
and 13th parts of his reports were prepared, 
though not published, as they contained the 
obnoxious opinions he had expressed upon pro- 
clamations, the court of high commission, and 
some other matters. He had also commenced 
his great work, the " Commentary on Little- 
ton." Utterly destitute of orderly arrange- 
ment, this work is exuberant in legal learning 
and curious illustrations of English customs ; 
vigorous in style, and interesting even to non- 
professional readers by the quaint and amusing 
analogies with which the gravest discussions 
are interspersed. The commentary is written 
in English, for which he deemed it necessary to 
make an apology in the preface. The reports, 
that is, the 11 parts which had then appeared, 
were printed in Norman French; the 12th 
and 13th parts were not published till 1654, 
having been translated into English, as were 
subsequently the other parts. The reports had 
one peculiarity which has never been adven- 
tured upon by any other author, viz. : that 
they represent many questions to have been 
resolved which in fact did not arise in the 
cause, or which were not at all events decided ; 
and these he disposes of according to his own 
judgment, with abundant citations of authori- 
ties. Yet such was the respect entertained for 
his opinion, that these resolutions were always 
regarded as of equal weight with the opinions 
of the judges actually expressed. The closing 
period of the life of Coke was brilliant and event- 
ful. He was a member of parliament in 1621, 
and when the motion for a supply was made, 
secured a reference of the subjects of supply 
and grievances to a committee of the whole 
house. His first measure was a report upon the 
illegal grants of monopolies to Sir Giles Mom- 
pesson and Sir Edward Villiers, which report 
was agreed to, and sent to the upper house for 
concurrence. Consentaneously with this, an in- 
vestigation of judicial abuses was instituted, 
which was aimed at Bacon ; and although Coke 
declined acting as chairman of the committee, 
yet he directed all the proceedings, prepared 
the charges, and prescribed the mode of prose- 
cution. Coke was to have been the manager 
of the prosecution before the house of lords ; but 
Bacon shrank from the contest, and by a plea 
of guilty sought to shelter himself from his re- 
vengeful adversary under the sympathy of the 
lords and the dispensing power of the crown. 
Coke followed up his success by carrying 
through the house an address against the pro- 
posed match of Prince Charles with the infanta 
of Spain. This called forth a threatening re- 
sponse from the king, in which he mentioned 
Sir Edward Coke by name as particularly ob- 



noxious to censure. Finally, in a letter to the 
speaker, the king intimated his intention "to 
punish any man's misdemeanor in parliament, 
as well during the sitting as after." Coke im- 
mediately moved a protestation for the privi- 
leges of the house, which having been reported 
by a committee, setting forth the right of every 
member of the house to freedom of speech, 
and the "like freedom from all impeachment, 
imprisonment, and molestation," on account of 
anything said or done in parliament, it was car- 
ried and entered on the journals of the house. 
The king immediately prorogued parliament, 
sent for the journals, and with his own hand 
tore out the offensive protestation. This was 
followed by a dissolution, and the arrest of Coke, 
Philips, Pym, and other leaders of the com- 
mons. The ex-chief justice was confined in the 
tower, but after some months' imprisonment 
was set at liberty, upon the intercession of 
Prince Charles ; his name was however stricken 
out of the list of privy councillors. He was 
returned again as member of parliament on the 
accession of Charles I. (1625), and obtained the 
appointment of a committee on expenditures, 
which was proceeding so vigorously that the 
king suddenly dissolved parliament. An at- 
tempt was made to keep him out of the next 
parliament by appointing him sheriff of the 
county of Norfolk ; nevertheless, he was re- 
turned as a member, but the parliament was 
dissolved before his right to a seat was settled. 
In 1628 he was again elected, and he proceeded 
at once to attack the recent illegal measures of 
the king. The first was commitments by order 
of the privy council, without specifying the 
cause in the warrant ; and he carried through 
two resolutions, which constituted the basis of 
the famous habeas corpus act, passed many years 
after, in the 31st of Charles II. (16T9). He then 
framed the famous petition of right, which 
enumerated the prominent grievances of the 
nation from the abuse of prerogative, and de- 
clared them all to be contrary to the laws and 
customs of the realm. This was carried through 
the house in spite of all the subterfuges of the 
king, and finally passed by the lords after a 
fruitless attempt to nullify the bill by a clause 
which was rejected by the commons ; and after 
a treacherous attempt by the king to cheat the 
house by an evasive form of assent, he was 
finally compelled to approve the bill and it 
became a law. In every step of this arduous 
contest, Coke, now in his 76th year, rendered 
important service by his sagacity and firmness. 
It was his last appearance in public ; though 
he survived six years, he lived in retirement. 
During this time he prepared a new edition of 
the commentary on Littleton, and wrote the 
second, third, and fourth Institutes. In 1633, 
when he was on his deathbed, his house was 
searched by order of the king for seditious 
papers, and all his manuscripts were carried off. 
He died two days afterward, in his 82d year. 
It is said that, except a slight attack of the 
gout, he was never sick until his 80th year. 



COKE 



COKE, Thomas, the first bishop of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, born at Brecon, South 
Wales, Sept. 9, 1747, died at sea, May 2, 1814. 
At the age of 16 he was sent to Oxford, and 
the succeeding year entered as gentleman com- 
moner at Jesus college in that university. Af- 
ter graduating he returned to Brecon, of which 
place he was elected mayor at the age of 25. 
Meanwhile he pursued his studies, and in 1775 
received the degree of D. 0. L. Soon after- 
ward he entered the ministry of the established 
church, and obtained a curacy at South Peth- 
erton. His preaching was thought too evan- 
gelical, and he was finally excluded from the 
pulpit. Sympathizing strongly with the Meth- 
odists, he sought an interview with Wesley, 
which resulted in his joining the Wesley an 
society, and being appointed to London, where 
his zeal and talents soon brought him into 
notice. He rendered valuable assistance to 
Wesley in procuring what was called the deed 
of declaration, which provided for the settle- 
ment of the Methodist chapels hi the connec- 
tion, and restricted the conference to 100 of 
the preachers, and their successors. So fully 
had he gained the confidence of Wesley, that 
he was appointed president of the Irish con- 
ference in 1782. The American revolution 
having resulted in dissolving not only the po- 
litical but the ecclesiastical relation between 
England and the former colonies, Wesley in 
1784 ordained Coke as bishop of the Methodist 
church in America. In the same year he reach- 
ed New York, and sought an interview with 
Francis Asbury, to whom he communicated 
the object of his mission. The authority of 
Coke was fully recognized, and he ordained 
Asbury as bishop, and both were duly accred- 
ited as the joint superintendents of the church 
in America. In company with Asbury he 
travelled through the different conferences 
until June, 1785, when he returned to England, 
and visited Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Subsequently he went again to America, and 
attended the conferences throughout the en- 
tire connection. Thenceforth he devoted him- 
self to missionary work. The first mission 
which he established was among the blacks in 
the West Indies, in 1786, whence, after visit- 
ing the several islands, he went to South Caro- 
lina, travelled through the states, and embark- 
ed for England in 1787. Soon after the ses- 
sion of the English conference, he went with 
Wesley to the Channel isles, and having spent 
some time there returned to England. The 
conference having appointed three mission- 
aries for the West Indies, Coke accompanied 
them in 1788 ; and having passed through the 
islands he sailed for the continent, and arrived 
at Charleston in 1789. After visiting all the 
conferences, and with Asbury making pro- 
vision for the wants of the churches under 
their care, he returned to England. Again in 
1790 we find him among the West India isl- 
ands, whence he proceeded to the continent 
and made the round of the conferences. While 



in Virginia he heard of the death of Wesley, 
and resolved on returning immediately to Eng- 
land, where he was chosen secretary of the 
conference. The revolution in France open- 
ing a field for Protestant missionaries, he set 
out for that country ; but as he could not ob- 
tain a congregation in Paris, he returned to 
England, and devoted his time to soliciting aid 
for missions, and to preparing with Mr. Moore, 
who, with himself and Dr. Whitehead, had been 
designated by Wesley as his biographers, a life 
of that distinguished man. The conference 
this year engaged him to make a commentary 
on the Scriptures, and he made preparation for 
entering upon that work, which he prosecuted 
at intervals during another visit to the West 
Indies and the United States, ending in 1793. 
With a view of settling some difficulties which 
had arisen in the West Indies, he visited Hol- 
land; and on his return in 1794, he devoted 
himself to his commentary and to soliciting 
subscriptions for his missions. In 1795 he pro- 
jected a mission among the Foolahs in Africa, 
and sent out a company of mechanics, but it 
proved a failure. In 1796 he again embarked 
for America, where he continued fulfilling his 
duties as bishop till 1797, when he went to 
Scotland and thence to Ireland. After the ses- 
sion of the English conference he again turned 
his course to America, where he arrived plun- 
dered of everything but his books, the vessel 
having been taken by a privateer. Again in 
England in 1798, he devised a plan of domes- 
tic missions for Ireland, and also established a 
mission in Wales. Before leaving once more 
for America, he published parts of his com- 
mentary, comprising the Old Testament ; the 
remainder was not completed till 1807. The 
years 1802-'3 were mostly occupied in this 
work, so that he did not make his ninth and 
last visit to America till 1803. When his labors 
here were finished, he returned, and established 
a mission in Gibraltar. From this time till 
1808 he was engaged in travelling in aid of the 
missionary cause. Meanwhile he had finished 
his commentary, made preparations for a his- 
tory of the West Indies and a history of the 
Bible, and had compiled a system of philosophy. 
Through his influence a mission was established 
in 1811 at Sierra Leone, and several mission- 
aries were sent out. In 1813 he opened a cor- 
respondence with the Rev. Claudius Buchanan 
in regard to India, which resulted in a determi- 
nation on his part to establish a mission on the 
island of Ceylon. At the conference this year 
five preachers volunteered to go with him ; and 
such was his zeal that when the conference 
hesitated on account of the expense that would 
be incurred, he furnished 6,000 from his own 
private fortune. The missionaries embarked 
Dec. 30, and after having been out four months, 
Coke was found dead hi his cabin, and was 
buried at sea. He was a voluminous writer. 
Besides numerous addresses and letters to the 
church, he published " Life of John Wesley," 
written in conjunction with Henry Moore 



COKE 



COLBERT 



(1792) ; " A Commentary on the Holy Scrip- 
tures " (6 vols. 4to, 1807); "History of the 
West Indies " (3 vols., 1808-'!!) ; " History of 
the Bible," and "Defence of the Doctrine of 
Justification by Faith and the Witness of the 
Holy Spirit." 

COKE, Thomas William, earl of Leicester of 
Holkham, an English agriculturist, born May 
4, 1752, died June 30, 1842. He was regard- 
ed, after the death of the duke of Bedford, as 
the first, agriculturist in the kingdom. His 
estate of Holkham, in Norfolk, the rental of 
which he raised in the period of some 60 
years that it was in his possession from 2,000 
to above 20,000, was the pride of the county. 
His annual sheep shearing, at which he en- 
tertained hundreds of guests for several days, 
was reckoned the greatest agricultural festival 
in the world. His methods of cultivation 
were based upon scientific principles. He in- 
troduced choice breeds of cattle and the rota- 
tion of crops, and recommended the extensive 
planting of turnips. He represented the county 
of Norfolk in parliament, with a brief interval, 
from 1776 to 1832. An intense hatred of tory- 
isra constituted almost the whole of his political 
system, but he spoke little except when agricul- 
tural measures were before the house. In 1837 
he was created earl of Leicester of Holkham. 
Sixty years before he had been twice offered a 
peerage ; but he refused to accept anything but 
the earldom of Leicester, which had been held 
by his maternal great-uncle, whose estates he 
inherited, but not his title, which had mean- 
time been given to another person. As this 
earldom was still held by Marquis Townshend, 
the title was varied for Mr. Coke by the addi- 
tion of the name of his own estate. 

COLAPOOR, or Rolapoor. I. A rajahship of 
Bombay presidency, British India, bounded N. 
and K E. by Sattara, E. and S. by Belgaum, 
and W. by the Ghauts ; area, 3,445 sq. m. ; pop., 
including dependencies, about 500,000, mostly 
Mahrattas and Rainooses. The latter are a 
predatory, warlike tribe, resembling the Bheels, 
to whom, however, they are superior in intelli- 
gence. The people of certain maritime towns 
formerly subject to the rajah were much ad- 
dicted to piracy, and in 1765 the Bombay gov- 
ernment undertook to check them by sending 
an expedition against Colapoor. The fort of 
Malwan was captured, but the evil was not en- 
tirely suppressed till 1812. The country was af- 
terward repeatedly occupied by British troops. 
In 1842 the government was confided to an 
agent of the British, against whom a general 
rebellion was aroused in 1844. The rising was 
put down, and the control of the state was 
thenceforth exercised directly by the British in 
the name of the rajah. II. The capital of the 
rajahship, situated in a secluded valley, little 
visited by Europeans, 185 m. S. S. E. of Bom- 
bay, and 130 m. S. of Poonah. It is fortified, 
though with little strength. The first decided 
outbreak in the Bombay presidency, during 
the rebellion of 1857, occurred here. 



COLBERG, or Kolberg, a town of Pomerania, 
Prussia, in the circle and 24 m. W. of the city 
of Koslin, on the Persante, near its mouth in 
the Baltic ; pop. in 1872, 13,130, exclusive of a 
garrison of about 1,600 men. It possesses a 
harbor called Miinde, and contains a cathedral, 
an ancient ducal castle, now used for a char- 
itable institution, several churches, hospitals, 
factories, salt works, distilleries, extensive sal- 
mon and lamprey fisheries, and considerable 
export trade. The town house and aqueduct 
are worthy of note. Colberg has a gymnasium 
and a house of correction, and is noted for its 
sea bathing. It is memorable for the sieges 
it stood in 1760 and again in 1761 against the 
Russians, to whom it capitulated in the latter 
year, and in 1806-'7 against the French, when 
it was successfully defended by Gneisenau. In 
February, 1873, the government proposed to 
dismantle the fortress. 

COLBERT, a N. W. county of Alabama, re- 
cently formed from a portion of Franklin coun- 
ty, bounded N. by the Tennessee river, and 
W. by Mississippi; pop. in 1870, 12,537, of 
whom 4,639 were colored. It is intersected 
by Big Bear creek and other affluents of the 
Tennessee. The Memphis and Charleston rail- 
road passes through it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 12,682 bushels of wheat, 291,402 
of Indian corn, 14,347 of oats, and 3,986 bales 
of cotton. There were 1,190 horses, 799 mules 
and asses, 1,623 milch cows, 2,699 other cattle, 
2,735 sheep, and 8,267 swine. Capital, Tus- 
cumbia. 

COLBERT. I. Jean Baptist*, marquis de Sei- 
gnelay, a French statesman, born at Rheims, 
Aug. 29, 1619, died in Paris, Sept. 6, 1683. 
The son of a merchant, he obtained employ- 
ment as a clerk in an Italian banking house at 
Paris, at the recommendation of Mazarin, who 
soon after intrusted him with the management 
of his private affairs. On his deathbed the 
cardinal said to Louis XIV. : " Sire, I am in- 
debted to you for all that I possess ; but I think 
I am requiting all your majesty's favors by giv- 
ing you Colbert." At once admitted to the 
king's confidence, he began by exposing the 
maladministration of Fouquet, whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1661 as comptroller general. Col- 
bert's administration became a blessing to 
France. Order was restored in the finances, 
the revenue was increased, and the treasury 
was enabled to furnish the means for foreign 
wars as well as for internal improvements. 
The public debt was greatly reduced, and the 
manufacturing interest was revived. Several 
large manufactories were established at the ex- 
pense of the government, the most celebrated 
of which was that of the Gobelins. Land taxes 
were lessened and more justly assessed ; the 
excise upon salt was reduced ; highways and 
roads were kept in repair, and new ones estab- 
lished ; the Atlantic was united to the Medi- 
terranean by the canal of Languedoc, and 
water communications were extended through 
nearly all parts of France. He was appointed 



COLBURN 



minister of the navy in 1669, and the French 
fleet, which then consisted of but 50 ships, 
numbered in a few years 198 men-of-war. 
Colbert also encouraged literature, science, 
and art. He founded the academies of in- 
scriptions and belles-lettres, of science, and of 
architecture, sculpture, and painting, and at 
Rome reestablished the French school of paint- 
ing. He founded the observatory and the 
jar din des plantes; increased the royal library 
and the collection of coins and medals; be- 
stowed pensions on eminent artists and schol- 
ars; and enriched Paris with the garden of 
the Tuileries and the colonnade of the Louvre, 
and with many quays, bridges, boulevards, 
public buildings, triumphal arches, and monu- 
ments. He opposed the wars and follies of 
Louis XIV., and succeeded for many years in 
restraining him within the limits of reasonable 
ambition. But about 1670 his favor was on 
the wane, and the influence of Louvois, the min- 
ister of war, prevailed. Then commenced a 
series of European wars that partly exhausted 
the wealth and resources accumulated by Col- 
bert. He continued however serving the gov- 
ernment, but the reckless course which was 
now pursued impaired his usefulness. He had 
been so long engaged in public affairs that he 
was loath to retire, but he suffered much from 
the ingratitude of the king. During his last 
moments he gave vent to his feelings by say- 
ing : "If I had done for God what I have for 
that man (Louis XIV.), I would have more than 
deserved salvation, and I do not know now 
what will become of me." Thus died one of 
the greatest ministers of France. He was hated 
by his colleagues, perhaps by the king, and 
certainly by the people, who held him respon- 
sible for taxes which had been established not- 
withstanding his remonstrances, and for vexa- 
tions of which he was not the author. To 
protect his funeral against the attacks of the 
mob, it took place at night, attended by a 
military escort. A monument was erected by 
his family in the church of St. Eustace, and his 
statue was placed in 1844 in the Palais Bour- 
bon. Posterity has placed Colbert among the 
most eminent statesmen ; and although his 
commercial policy has been the object of se- 
vere animadversion, it cannot be denied that it 
was perhaps the best adapted to his time and 
country. An edition of the Lettres, instruc- 
tions et memoires de Colbert was published at 
Paris in 1872. II. Jean Baptiste, marquis de 
Seignelay, son of the preceding, born in Paris 
in 1651, died Nov. 3, 1690. He succeeded his 
father as minister of the navy, and raised the 
French navy to its highest power by his capa- 
city and energy. In 1684 he led in person the 
maritime expedition against Genoa. 

COLBURN, Warren, an American mathemati- 
cian, born at Dedham, Mass., March 1, 1793, 
died at Lowell, Sept. 15, 1833. He was the 
eldest son of a large family. His parents were 
poor, and during his childhood made frequent 
removals to different manufacturing villages, 



where Warren as well as some of the other 
children found employment in the factories. 
He early manifested a remarkable taste for 
mathematics, and having acquired the trade of 
a machinist, he entered Harvard college in 
1816. He graduated in 1820, and soon after- 
ward opened a select school in Boston. In 
the autumn of 1821 the first edition of his 
"First Lessons in Mental Arithmetic " was is- 
sued. ^ While in college the necessity of such a 
work 'had been forced upon his mind, and its 
plan digested. He was accustomed to say that 
"the pupils who were under his tuition made 
his arithmetic for him ; " that the questions 
they asked, and the necessary answers and ex- 
planations which he gave in reply, were em- 
bodied in that book. No other elementary 
work on arithmetic ever had such a sale. It 
has been translated into most of the languages 
of Europe, and into several of those of India. 
After teaching nearly three years, he accepted 
the situation of superintendent of the Boston 
manufacturing company at Waltham, in April, 
1823 ; and in August, 1824, he was appointed su- 
perintendent of the Merrimack manufacturing 
company at Lowell. Here he projected a sys- 
tem of lectures of an instructive character, pre- 
senting commerce and useful subjects in such 
a way as to gain attention. In the autumn of 
1825 he commenced a course of lectures on the 
natural history of animals. This he followed 
in subsequent years with lectures on light, the 
eye, the seasons, electricity, hydraulics, astron- 
omy, &c. His " Sequel " had been published 
just before he left Waltham. In 1828 he pub- 
lished his " Algebra." In May. 1827, he was 
elected a fellow of the American academy of 
arts and sciences. He was also for a number 
of years one of the examining committee on 
mathematics in Harvard college, and some time 
superintendent of schools at Lowell. 

COLBURN, Zerah, an arithmetical prodigy, 
born at Cabot, Vt., Sept. 1, 1804, died March 
2, 1840. In his 6th year he began to give evi- 
dence of those extraordinary powers of compu- 
tation which afterward excited the wonder of 
the learned and curious in the United States and 
Europe. His father decided to exhibit them in 
public, and accordingly left Vermont with Zerah 
in the winter of 1810-'!!. Passing through 
Hanover, N. H., Dr. Wheelock, then president 
of Dartmouth college, offered to take upon 
himself the whole care and expense of his edu- 
cation, but his father rejected the offer. At 
Boston the performances of the boy excited 
much attention. He was visited by the pro- 
fessors of Harvard college, and by eminent men 
in all professions, and the newspapers were 
filled with articles concerning his wonderful 
powers of computation. Questions in multipli- 
cation of four and five places of figures, reduc- 
tion, rule of three, practice, involution, evolu- 
tion, compound fractions, and the obtaining of 
factors even of large numbers, were answered 
with accuracy and with a rapidity to which the 
most experienced mathematicians could not at- 



COLBURN 



COLCHESTER 



tain. At this time he was unable to give any 
account of the mental processes by which these 
results were reached ; but a few years later he 
could explain them satisfactorily, and from 
these explanations it appeared that his process- 
es did not differ materially from those ordina- 
rily adopted in mental computation. Among 
the questions proposed to him were the follow- 
ing: How many days and hours in 1,811 years? 
His answer, given in 20 seconds, was 661,015 
days, 15,864,360 hours. How many seconds in 
11 years? The answer, given in four seconds, 
was 346,896,000. When 8 or 9 years of age, 
he gave answers with a delay of but a few sec- 
onds to such questions as these : What is the 
square of 999,999 ? Multiply the square twice 
by 49 and once by 25. (The answer requires 
17 figures.) What are the factors of 4,294,- 
967,297 ? (=2 sa + 1). The French mathemati- 
cians had announced this as a prime number. 
Colbnrn immediately gave 641 x 6,700,417. 
What are the factors of 247,483 ? He replied, 
" 941 and 263, which are the only factors." 
The rapidity of his mental processes and the 
power of his memory must have been at this 
time almost inconceivable. After leaving Bos- 
ton, Mr. Colburn exhibited his son for money 
throughout the middle and part of the southern 
states, and in January, 1812, sailed with him 
for England. After travelling over England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, they spent 18 months in 
Paris. Here young Colburn was placed in the 
lycee Napoleon, but was soon removed by his 
father, who at length, in 1816, returned to Eng- 
land in the deepest penury. The earl of Bris- 
tol soon became interested in the boy, and 
placed him in Westminster school, where he 
remained till 1819. In consequence of his 
father's refusal to comply with certain arrange- 
ments proposed by the earl, he was removed 
from Westminster, and Mr. Colburn now pro- 
posed to his son that he should qualify himself 
to become an actor. Accordingly, he studied 
for this profession, and was for a few months 
under the tuition of Charles Kemble. His first 
appearance, however, satisfied both his in- 
structor and himself that he was not adapted 
for the stage, and accordingly he accepted a 
situation as assistant in a school, and soon 
afterward commenced a school of his own. 
To this he added the performing of some as- 
tronomical calculations for Dr. Thomas Young, 
then secretary of the board of longitude. In 
1824, on the death of his father, he was en- 
abled by the earl of Bristol and other friends 
to return to America. He went to Fairfield, 
N. Y., as assistant teacher of an academy ; but 
not being pleased with his situation, he re- 
moved in March following to Burlington, Vt., 
where he taught French, pursuing his studies 
at the same time in the university. Toward 
the end of 1825 he connected himself with the 
Methodist church, and after nine years of ser- 
vice as an itinerant preacher, he settled in 
Norwich, Vt, in 1835, where he was soon 
after appointed professor of languages in Nor- 



wich university. In 1833 he published his 
autobiography. From this it appears that his 
faculty of computation left him about the time 
he reached the age of manhood ; and aside from 
his early talent for calculation, he gave no evi- 
dence of remarkable abilities. 

COLBY, Thomas, an English engineer, born 
at Rochester, Sept. 1, 1784, died in Liverpool, 
Oct. 9, 1852. He was educated at the royal 
military academy at Woolwich, and received 
his first commission as second lieutenant of 
engineers when 17 years old. The next year 
he became chief personal assistant of Captain 
Mudge, then superintendent of the ordnance 
survey. During the four following years he 
passed the summers in making observations at 
various prominent points, and the winters in 
preparing the results for publication and super- 
intending the engraving of the ordnance maps. 
He became identified with the great trigonome- 
trical survey of England, and upon the publica- 
tion of the third volume of the records his 
name appeared associated with that of Col. 
Mudge upon the title page. In 1807 he was 
raised to the rank of captain. In 1813 it was 
determined to extend the meridian line into 
Scotland, and Capt. Colby was placed in charge 
of the work. In 1817 he accompanied Biot, a 
scientific agent of the French government, on 
his trip to Shetland, and afterward assisted in 
connecting the French with the English tri- 
angulation by observations across the straits 
of Dover. Upon the death of Gen. Mudge in 
1820, Colby was appointed his successor as su- 
perintendent of the survey and in the board 
of longitude, was elected a fellow of the royal 
society, and promoted to the rank of major, and 
soon after to that of lieutenant colonel. Hav- 
ing undertaken a thorough survey of Ireland, 
he received the sanction of the duke of Wel- 
lington for raising and training three compa- 
nies of sappers and miners to aid in the work. 
After a series of experiments on the heating 
and cooling of metallic rods, he succeeded in so 
uniting a bar of brass and iron that its extrem- 
ities always remained the same distance apart 
whatever the temperature. With this " com- 
pensation bar" he measured a base line of 
eight miles on the south side of Lough Foyle ; 
and such was the exactitude obtained that the 
same apparatus has since been used in the re- 
measurement of the English bases, in measuring 
a base at the Cape of Good Hope, and also 
those required for the great arc of the meridian 
in India. Col. Colby continued his superin- 
tendence of the survey till his promotion in 
1846 to the grade of major general, when by 
the regulations of the service his active connec- 
tion with it ended. He had brought English 
maps to an excellence not before attained, 
marking the seconds of latitude and longitude 
on the margin, and introducing into them 
geological facts and features. 

COLCHESTER, a municipal and parliamentary 
borough, market town, and river port of Essex, 
England, on the river Colne, and the Great 



COLCHESTER 

Eastern railway, 51 m. N. E. of London; pop. 
in 1871, 26,361. It is built on a hill close to 
the river, and has three bridges, one of which 
is of cast iron. Among the public buildings 
are eight churches, one built before the time 
of Edward II. and another mentioned in the 
Domesday Book, nine dissenting chapels, a 



COLCHICUM 



43 




Abbey Gate. 

library, and the ruins of an old castle, of a 
Benedictine abbey founded under Henry I., 
and of St. Botolph's priory, an interesting 
structure of the 12th century. There are 
many charitable and other schools, a mechan- 
ics' institute, a literary and scientific associa- 
tion with a museum, a botanical and horticul- 
tural society, several almshouses, hospitals, and 
other charities, and a theatre. The woollen 




St. Botolph's Priory. 

manufacture, formerly important, was subse- 
quently superseded by that of silk, which em- 
ploys 300 or 400 hands. Some velvet is also 
manufactured. The most important branch of 
industry is the oyster fishery, for which the 
town has long been noted. There are iron and 
brass founderies, machine shops, rope, sail, and 



carriage factories, breweries, vinegar works, &c. 
Colchester was made a bonding port in 1808, 
but the custom house and warehouses are at 
Hythe, one of its suburbs, situated a short dis- 
tance below, at the head of navigation on the 
Colne. The foreign commerce is inconsidera- 
ble, but a large coasting trade is carried on 
with London and the northern counties. Col- 
chester is supposed to be the Camulodunum of 
the Romans, and there is probably no town in 
England richer in remains of that people. Corns, 
vases, urns, lamps of bronze and pottery, rings, 
bracelets, tessellated pavements, and various 
other antiquities, have been found near it in 
great profusion. The Saxons, uniting the Latin 
castra with the name of the river on which it 
stands, called it Colne Ceaster. It was fortified 
by Edward the Elder, and at the time of the 
Domesday survey was a place of no small note. 
It was taken and occupied by the royalists in 
1648 after a memorable siege, and was soon 
after blockaded by the parliamentarians, to 
whom the garrison surrendered after 11 weeks' 
resistance. 

COLCHESTER, a county of Nova Scotia, 
bounded N. by Northumberland strait, and S. 
and S. W. by Mines basin, Cobequid bay, and 
the Shubenacadie river; area, 1,300 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1871, 23,331. It is intersected by numerous 
rivers, and traversed by the Cobequid range 
of hills. The soil is of variable fertility. 
Among the minerals are coal, gypsum, and 
limestone. The principal occupations are ag- 
riculture, lumbering, and ship building. The 
county was originally settled by the French, 
who on their expulsion were replaced by emi- 
grants from the north of Ireland and Massa- 
chusetts. Capital, Truro. 

COLCHESTER, Lord. See ABBOT, CHABLES. 

COLCHICUM (from Colchis, a country where 
it abounded), a common name of the colcMcum 
autumnale (Linn.), or meadow saffron, a peren- 
nial bulbous-rooted plant, growing naturally in 
the temperate climates of Europe, and culti- 
vated for its medicinal properties. It prefers 
wet meadows, which it often covers with its 
bright, purple, crocus-like blossoms. The bulb 
or corm resembles that of a tulip, and feeds 
the growing plant, being exhausted and re- 
placed every year. Colchicum closely resem- 
bles the autumn crocus, from which it is dis- 
tinguished by having six stamens instead of 
three, and three styles instead of one. The 
corm, seeds, and flowers all possess the medi- 
cinal properties of the plant, which depend 
upon the alkaloid, colchicia. From the corm 
and seeds are prepared wines, extracts, and 
tinctures. Colchicum is employed in the treat- 
ment of gout and rheumatism, and allied af- 
fections. The preparation for gout, celebrated 
under the name of eau medicinale cTHusson^ 
is said to be a vinous infusion of colchicum 
It materially lessens the duration of the parox- 
ysms of gout, but is apt when too freely used 
to depress the system and thereby induce a 
more speedy recurrence of the disease. It 



44 



COLCHIS 



COLDER 



has been shown to increase not only the water, 
bnt the organic solid constituents of the urine ; 
this increase, however, is not due to uric acid, 
as might perhaps be supposed from its action 
in gout. It has a marked sedative action upon 
the heart, stimulates the secretions, and is apt 
to excite nausea and catharsis. While there 
is no doubt that advantage may be obtained 
from the administration of colchicum in cer- 
tain forms or conditions of gout, rheumatic 
gout, and rheumatism, yet grave disadvantages 
are apt to result if it is given injudiciously. 
It should never be administered in the asthe- 
nic forms of gout or rheumatism ; the doses 
should always be small at first, and gradually 
increased ; it should not be allowed to excite 
continued nausea, or vomiting or purging; it 
should not be given for more than a week or 
ten days continuously, as its effects are apt to 
accumulate in the system ; it should rarely or 
never be given to aged people or young chil- 




Colchicum. 

dren. In fine, its appropriate use is limited to 
the sthenic forms of gout and acute forms of 
rheumatism that occasionally occur in people 
of robust constitution, who are in the prime 
of life. It should be remembered that where 
neuralgia occurs in persons who come of a 
gouty or rheumatic race, it sometimes yields to 
a judicious course of colchicum. The dose of 
the acetic extract of colchicum is from 1 to 2 
grains three times a day ; of the wine of the 
root from 10 to 20 drops, and of the wine of 
the seeds 20 to 30 drops, three times a day. 
The tincture of the seeds may be given in the 
dose of half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful. 

COLCHIS (modern Mingrelia and part of 
Imerethia), an ancient country of Asia, at the 
E. extremity of the Euxine, bounded N. by the 
Caucasus, E. and S. E. by Iberia and the Mos- 
rhi.-m mountains, S. by Armenia, 8. W. by 
Pontus, and W. by the Euxine. Colchis was 
celebrated in Greek mythology as the destina- 
tion of the Argonauts, and as the country of 



Medea and the golden fleece. Its early history 
is involved in obscurity. The early Greek 
writers speak of it only under the name of M&, 
the seat of King ^Eetes. Cyrus or his imme- 
diate successor seems to have annexed it to the 
Persian empire ; but its inhabitants soon recov- 
ered their liberty, and erected their territory 
into an independent state. During the Mithri- 
datic war it was tributary to the kingdom of 
Pontus. On the overthrow of Mithridates it 
was annexed by the Romans; and after the 
conclusion of the civil wars it was incorporated 
with Pontus, and subjected to the rule of a pro- 
consul. Under the later emperors it was know: 
as Lazica, from Lazi, a predominant tribe. In 
A. D. 572 the Colchians rose in rebellion, and 
joined the Persians against the Byzantine em- 
pire. Colchis, according to Strabo, abounded in 
fruit of every kind, and in material for ship build- 
ing. It was inhabited by a number of tribes, 
whose dark complexion, crispy hair, language, 
and customs indicated, in the opinion of Hero- 
dotus, their Egyptian origin. They were fa- 
mous for the manufacture of linen. Their 
chief town was Dioscurias. The Phasis (now 
the Rion) is the celebrated river of this country. 

COLD. See CATAERH. 

COLDEN. I. Cadwallader, a physician and 
statesman, born in Dunse, Scotland, Feb. 17, 
1688, died on Long Island, N. Y., Sept. 28, 1776. 
He studied at Edinburgh, and at the age of 20 
emigrated to America, and practised as a phy- 
sician for some years in Pennsylvania. He 
then visited England, but returned to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1716, and in 1718, at the solicitation of 
Gov. Hunter, settled in New York. The next 
year he was appointed the first surveyor general 
of the colony, became in 1720 a member of the 
king's council of the province, and in 1761 was 
appointed lieutenant governor of New York, 
and held the commission during the remainder 
of his life. He was repeatedly placed at the 
head of the government by vacancies in the 
governorship. He published works upon a 
variety of subjects, medicine, philosophy, and 
history; his "History of the Five Indian Na- 
tions of Canada, depending on New York " 
(New York, 1727; 3d ed., 2 vols., London, 
1755) is especially worthy of mention ; but 
his favorite pursuit was botany, and he sent 
to Linnaeus several hundred American plants, 
of which that botanist published descriptions. 
II. Cadwallader David, grandson of the prece- 
ding, born near Flushing, L. I., April 4, 1769, 
died at Jersey City, Feb. 7, 1834. He com- 
menced the practice of law in New York in 
January, 1791, removed his office for a time to 
Poughkeepsie, and in 1796 resumed his sta- 
tion at the New York bar, where he received 
the appointment of district attorney, and soon 
became eminent in the profession, which he 
practised for several years, intermitted only 
by a voyage to France for the benefit of his 
health. In 1812 he was colonel of a regiment 
of volunteers ; in 1818 was elected a member 
of the house of assembly ; in the same year 



COLD HARBOR 



COLE 



succeeded De Witt Clinton as mayor of New 
York city; in 1822 was elected to congress, 
and in 1824 to the senate of his own state, 
from which he withdrew in 1827. He was an 
active promoter of internal improvements, his 
name being especially connected with the com- 
pletion of the Erie and Morris canals. Public 
education and the reformation of juvenile of- 
fenders were also subjects to which he de- 
voted much attention. For many years he was 
one of the governors of the New York hospi- 
tal. He wrote a biography of Robert Fulton 
(1817) and "Memoir of the Celebration of the 
Opening of the New York Canals " (1825). 
COLD HARBOR, Battles of. See CHICKA- 

HOMINY. 

COLDSTREAM, a town of Berwickshire, Scot- 
land, 12 m. S. W. of Berwick ; pop. about 2,200. 
It is situated on the left bank of the Tweed, 
here spanned by a handsome bridge. Besides 
the parish church, there are several places of 
worship, and a number of schools and libraries. 
The principal trade is in agricultural products 
and in cattle. Adjoining the town is the cele- 
brated ford of the Tweed which was repeatedly 
crossed by the invading armies of both Scotland 
and England. Monk raised a corps here in 1 65 9- 
'60, which was at first known as Monk's regi- 
ment, but subsequently it was included, under 
the name of Coldstream guards, in the brigade 
which parliament allowed to Charles II. ; it 
retains this designation as a regiment in the 
foot guards or household brigade, and is one 
of the oldest corps in the British army. 

COLDWATER, a city, the capital of Branch 
co., Michigan, on the Cold water river and the 
Michigan Southern railroad, 103 m. W. S. W. 
of Detroit; pop. in 1870, 4,381. It is the 
commercial centre of a fertile country. The 
river affords good water power, which has been 
improved. There are six or eight churches, two 
banks, two weekly newspapers, and a monthly 
periodical. In 1871 there were 18 schools, of 
which one was a high school, with 20 teach- 
ers and 1,128 pupils. 

COLE, a central county of Missouri, bounded 
N. E. by the Missouri river, S. E. by the Osage, 
which joins the Missouri at the E. extremity 
of the county, and drained by Moreau creek ; 
area, 410 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,292, of 
whom 1,251 were colored. It has an undu- 
lating surface, and a generally fertile soil, 
| ' though in some places the land is too rocky 
for cultivation. Timber, limestone, and buhr- 
stone are abundant. The Pacific railroad of 
Missouri passes through it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 115,299 bushels of wheat, 
165,550 of Indian corn, 60,668 of oats, 24,599 
of potatoes, and 2,798 tons of hay. There 
were 1,570 horses, 1,520 milch cows, 2,496 
other cattle, 4,701 sheep, and 8,402 swine ; 2 
manufactories of boots and shoes, 1 of carriages 
and wagons, 1 of furniture, 1 of saddlery and 
harness, 3 flour mills, 2 saw mills, and 3 brew- 
eries. Capital, Jefferson City, which is also 
the capital of the state. 



COLE, Thomas, an American painter, born at 
Bolton-le-Moor, Lancashire, England, Feb. 1, 
1801, died at Catskill, N. Y., Feb. 11, 1848. 
His father, a small woollen manufacturer, after 
repeated reverses in business, emigrated to 
America in 1819, and established himself in 
Steubenville, Ohio. The artist's childhood was 
unmarked by striking incidents, but the direc- 
tion of his tastes could be seen in his employ- 
ment as a designer in a print factory, and in 
making woodcuts for printers. A fine organ- 
ization and great fondness for poetry and 
scenery were his chief characteristics. Two 
years were spent at Steubenville in the employ- 
ment of his father, who kept a small shop, when 
a portrait painter named Stein passed through 
the town in the pursuit of his vocation, and 
Cole, fascinated by the sight of his canvas and 
colors, at once determined to become a painter. 
With rude materials, mostly prepared by him- 
self, he attempted landscapes and miscellaneous 
subjects, and finally portraits. In February, 
1822, he went on foot to Clairsville, where he 
proposed to establish himself as a portrait 
painter. The western states did not then af- 
ford a promising field for artists, and both at 
Clairsville and Zanesville, which he subsequent- 
ly visited, he not only failed to meet with any 
encouragement, but when he rejoined his 
family in the spring at Pittsburgh he was in 
debt for the means of support during his 
absence. Undiscouraged by reverses, he spent 
the spring and summer of 1823 in making 
careful studies from nature in the vicinity of 
Pittsburgh, and the autumn saw him estab- 
lished in Philadelphia as a landscape painter. 
The ensuing winter was one of great priva- 
tion. He painted small landscapes and comic 
pieces, and was often glad to find regular em- 
ployment in ornamenting chairs, brushes, and 
japanned ware. His powers however were 
rapidly developing, and in the works of this 
period may be seen the germ of that rich and 
harmonious style for which he was afterward 
distinguished. In the spring of 1825 he re- 
moved to New York, where his family were 
now established, and fixed his studio in the 
garret of his father's house in Greenwich 
street. The scenery of the Hudson called out 
all his artistic enthusiasm, and during a visit to 
the Catskills in the autumn of this year he 
painted several landscapes, which were ex- 
hibited on his return to the city. These pic- 
tures attracted the attention and praise of 
Durand, Dunlap, and Trumbull, and "from that 
time," says Bryant in his funeral oration on 
Cole, " he had a fixed reputation, and was num- 
bered among the men of whom our country has 
reason to be proud." The next four years 
found Cole in the enjoyment of great pros- 
perity ; commissions flowed in upon him from 
all quarters; and visits to the White moun- 
tains, the Catskills, and Niagara afforded 
varied and striking studies. But in the midst 
of a career from which few artists would have 
cared to deviate, Cole felt that the literal re- 



COLE 



COLEBROOKE 



production of natural scenery, however profit- 
able it might be, could not satisfy him ; and he 
determined to enter the higher sphere of im- 
aginative composition. The fruit of this deter- 
mination was witnessed in his pictures of the 
*' Garden of Eden " and the " Expulsion," ex- 
hibited in 1828. The merit of these works 
was admitted, but they failed to satisfy the 
public taste so completely as his simple land- 
scapes. In June, 1829, Cole sailed for Europe, 
and for two years painted in London, where he 
contributed to several of the annual exhibi- 
tions ; but from ignorance of the peculiar fea- 
tures of American scenery, or the injustice of 
hanging committees, his pictures were either 
regarded as exaggerations of nature, or were so 
disadvantageously placed that they attracted 
less attention than their merits deserved. In 
May, 1831, he visited Florence, and made care- 
ful studies in the chief galleries. In the suc- 
ceeding February he visited Rome, and return- 
ing to Florence in July, worked with an assidu- 
ity which surprised himself, finishing more pic- 
tures in three months than he had done in 
double that time before. Among these were 
views on the Arno and in the vicinity of Rome 
and Naples. The influence of Italian scenery 
and of his studies of old Italian art had mean- 
while wrought a change in his style, and the 
public were disappointed with these works upon 
their arrival in America, complaining that the 
artist had lost his first freshness and originality, 
and that his Italian landscapes were overcharged 
copies from the old masters. In November, 
1832, he returned to New York, and during 
the ensuing year, while at Catskill, he received 
from Mr. Luman Reed of New York an order 
to fill an entire room of his house with pictures. 
The magnitude of the undertaking required 
several years of undivided labor, the most of 
which was devoted to the " Course of Empire," 
a series of five pictures, in which are presented, 
to use his own words, " an illustration of the 
history of the human race, as well as an epit- 
ome of man, showing the natural changes of 
landscape, and those effected by man in his 
progress from barbarism to civilization, to lux- 
ury, to the vicious state, or state of destruction, 
and to the state of ruin or desolation." The 
series has been called " a great epic poem." 
Mr. Reed died before the completion of the 
work, and at the distribution of his estate it 
was purchased by the New York gallery of 
fine arts, and is now in the gallery of the New 
York historical society. For the next few 
years Cole was engaged upon works of a similar 
class, chief among which were the "Depar- 
ture " and the " Return," the " Dream of Ar- 
cadia," and the " Voyage of Life." The last, 
an allegorical series of four pictures, represent- 
ing childhood, youth, manhood, and old age, 
are among the most popular of his works, and 
through the engravings by Smillie are most ex- 
tensively known. They are now owned by J. 
Taylor Johnston of New York. In November, 
1836, he married Miss Maria Bartow. The 



autumn of 1841 found him again in Rome, 
where he executed a duplicate of his " Voyage 
of Life," which elicited the praise of Thorwald- 
sen, who visited his studio repeatedly to see it. 
In the succeeding spring he travelled over 
many parts of Sicily, and returned to New 
York in the summer. An exhibition of his 
works was opened in Boston and New York 
in the winter of 1843-'4, for which he painted 
a number of Sicilian views of great beauty, in- 
cluding a large picture of Mount Etna from 
Taormina, executed in five days ; this is now in 
the Wadsworth gallery, Hartford, Conn., as are 
also the "View of the White Mountains" and 
the " View of Northwest Bay on Lake Win- 
nipiseogee." The " Angel appearing to Shep- 
herds " is in the Boston Athenaeum. Thence- 
forth until his death he painted with in- 
dustry, executing among other works the 
"Cross in the Wilderness," "L' Allegro" and 
" II Penseroso," " Home in the Woods," 
the "Hunter's Return," the "Mountain Ford," 
&c. The "Cross and the World," a work 
in two parts, dictated by earnest religious 
conviction, he left unfinished. His life and 
genius were made the subject of a funeral 
oration by his friend William Cullen Bryant. 
In all the relations of life Cole's amiability and 
generosity were engagingly displayed, and to 
those who could sympathize with his enthu- 
siastic and impressible nature, he especially en- 
deared himself. His life was one of singular 
purity, and in the latter part of it he manifest- 
ed a sincere and unostentatious piety. His 
poetic feeling, so amply illustrated in his works, 
frequently found expression in rhythmical 
forms, and his miscellaneous papers in prose 
and verse, few of which were ever made pub- 
lic, possess considerable literary merit. 

COLEBROOKE, Henry Thomas, an English ori- 
entalist, born in London, June 16, 1765, died 
there in March, 1837. He was the son of Sir 
George Colebrooke, who in 1769 was appointed 
chairman of the board of directors of the East 
India company. His early education was con- 
ducted by a private tutor. In 1782 he was 
appointed to a writership in the East India 
company, and in 1783 he arrived in Madras. 
He soon went to Calcutta, and was employed 
in the company's board of accounts. In 1786 
he was appointed assistant collector of revenue 
in Tirhoot. In the mean time he had devoted 
much attention to the study of Sanskrit, but 
his interest in it does not seem to have been 
so much literary as scientific, his love of as- 
tronomy and mathematics leading him to de- 
sire to ascertain what the Hindoos knew in re- 
gard to these sciences. In 1789 he was trans- 
ferred to Purneah, and in 1793 to Nattore. 
He had now become interested in the religion, 
philosophy, and laws of the Hindoos. In 1794 
he presented to the Asiatic society his first 
paper, "On the Duties of a Faithful Hindoo 
Widow." At the same time his views on com- 
merce and finance were far in advance of his 
age ; and though a servant of the East India 



COLEBROOKE 

company, he favored the withdrawal of its 
special privileges, and advocated free trade be- 
tween India and England. Just after the 
death of Sir William Jones in 1794, Colebrooke 
was transferred from the financial to the judi- 
cial branch of the service. The code of laws 
compiled under the direction of Warren Has- 
tings, and published in 1776, being very imper- 
fect, at the solicitation of Sir William Jones 
the government had determined to have a more 
extensive and accurate compilation made. This 
was performed chiefly by a learned pundit, 
Jagannatha, and was to have been translated 
by Jones, but the task was committed to Cole- 
brooke. The work was published under the 
title, " A Digest of Hindu Law on Contracts 
and Successions, with a Commentary by Ja- 
gannatha" (4 vols. 4to, Calcutta, 1797-'8). 
From that time until his death Colebrooke stands 
forth as the first of European Sanskrit scholars. 
While occupied with this work he had resided 
at Mirzapore, near Benares, the chief seat of 
Hindoo learning. In 1798 he was sent on a 
diplomatic mission to Nagpore, the capital of 
Berar ; in 1801 he returned to Mirzapore, and 
shortly after Avas summoned to Calcutta, and 
appointed a member of the court of appeal. 
He was also appointed professor of Sanskrit 
in the college then recently established at 
Fort William, but he took no active part in 
teaching, acting rather as a director of the 
course of studies and as an examiner. In the 
same year appeared his essay on the Sanskrit 
and Prakrit languages, which showed that he 
was bringing within the range of his studies 
every part of Hindoo literature. In 1805 he 
became president of the court of appeal. Du- 
ring this interval from 1801 to 1805 he worked 
on the supplement to his " Digest of Laws," 
and at deciphering ancient inscriptions, assist- 
ed Roxburgh in the preparation of his "Flora 
Indica," wrote the first volume of his "Gram- 
mar of the Sanskrit Language," and prepared 
several essays. The first volume of his " San- 
skrit Grammar " was published in 1805, and 
though it was never finished, it forms the best 
existing introduction to the study of the native 
grammarians. In the same year he published 
his famous essay "On the Vedas or Sacred 
Writings of the Hindus," which will always be 
regarded as a landmark in the history of the 
study of Sanskrit literature by Europeans. In 
1806 he became president of the Asiatic so- 
ciety, and he contributed to its volumes es- 
says " On the Sect of Jina," " On the Indian 
and Arabic Divisions of the Zodiac," and va- 
rious others. The highest honor of a civilian 
in the service of the East India company, a 
seat in council, was conferred upon him in the 
same year. In 1810 he published translations 
of two important treatises on the Hindoo law 
of inheritance. In 1815, after having resided 
in India 33 years, he returned to England. 
The remainder of his life was' devoted almost 
uninterruptedly to the prosecution and promo- 
tion of Sanskrit studies. In 1817 he published 
209 VOL. v. 4 



COLENSO 



47 



"Algebra, with Arithmetic and Mensuration, 
from the Sanskrit of Brahmagupta and Bhas- 
kara," preceded by a dissertation on the state 
of the sciences as known to the Hindoos. In 
the following year he presented to the East 
India company his collection of MSS., one of the 
most valuable ever brought to Europe. Pecu- 
niary matters compelled him to spend a year 
at the Cape of Good Hope, and on his return 
to England in 1822 he was elected president 
of the astronomical society, succeeding Sir 
William Herschel. He also exerted himself to 
found the royal Asiatic society, of which he 
declined the presidency, but became its most 
active member; and for several succeeding 
years he contributed to its volumes essays upon 
the philosophy of the Hindoos, the value of 
which is yet unimpaired. These were his last 
contributions to the study of oriental literature. 
Many of his works yet remain unpublished. A 
collection of his miscellaneous essays was pub- 
lished in London in 1837; a second edition 
appeared in 1858; and in 1872 a third, in 3 
vols. 8vo, including a selection from his corre- 
spondence, and a biography by his son, Sir 
Edward Colebrooke. 

COLEMAN, a W. county of Texas, watered by 
Pecan bayou, Jim Ned creek, and other afflu- 
ents of the Colorado ; area, 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 347, of whom 7 were colored. The 
surface is broken and rocky, adapted to stock- 
raising. Timber is scarce, and the climate dry 
and salubrious. The chief productions in 1870 
were 5,050 bushels of Indian corn, and 35 tons 
of hay. There were 14,198 cattle. Capital, 
Camp Colorado. 

COLEMAN, William, an American journalist, 
born in Boston, Feb. 14, 1766, died in New 
York, July 13, 1829. He was educated for the 
bar, and commenced practice in Greenfield, 
Mass. During Shays's rebellion he took up 
arms against the insurgents. In 1794 he re- 
moved to New York, where for a short time 
he was a partner of Aaron Burr in the practice 
of law. Subsequently he was appointed re- 
porter of the supreme court of the state of New 
York, a position which he lost after the defeat 
of the federal party in 1800. In 1801 Hamilton 
and other leading federalists conceived the 
idea of establishing a daily paper in the city 
of New York, and Coleman was selected to 
conduct it. The new organ, under the name 
of the "Evening Post," appeared Nov. 16, 
1801, and for nearly 20 years Coleman re- 
mained its sole editor. His connection with it 
ceased only with his death. His attachment 
to federalist principles never wavered, and even 
after the party became extinct he continued to 
be its warm defender. He enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of an able, honest, and fearless man. 

COLENSO, John William, D. D., an English 
clergyman and colonial bishop, born in Corn- 
wall, Jan. 24, 1814. He took his degree at St. 
John's college, Cambridge, with distinguished 
honor, in 1836, and became fellow of his col- 
lege. In 1838 he became assistant master at 



COLEOPTERA 



COLERIDGE 



Harrow, in 1842 tutor of St. John's college, 
and in 1846 rector of Forncett St. Mary. In 
1854 he was appointed bishop of Natal, S. 
Africa. He had previously published text 
books in arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, 
a volume of sermons, and an edition of the 
communion service, with selections from the 
writings of F. D. Maurice. In 1861 he pub- 
lished "The Epistle to the Romans, newly 
translated, and explained from a Missionary 
Point of View," and in 1862 " The Pentateuch 
and Book of Joshua, Critically Examined." 
This last work, in which he called in question 
many of the statements contained in those 
books, excited much animadversion, and was 
formally condemned by the convocation of the 
province of Canterbury, and he was declared 
by the bishop of Cape Town to be deposed 
from the office of bishop. An appeal to the 
privy council was taken upon the ground that 
th crown had no right to create a bishop in 
any colony where there was an independent 
legislature, and that therefore there was in law 
no bishop either of Cape Town or Natal. In 
England he found many sympathizers, and 
previous to his return to Natal in 1865 a pub- 
lic meeting was held, and he received a testi- 
monial of 3,300. In 1866 he published a vol- 
ume entitled "Natal Sermons," and several 
papers justifying his course in the controversy. 
In January, 1869, the Rev. William Kenneth 
Macrorie was consecrated bishop of Maritz- 
burg in Natal, it being held that the see was 
duly vacated by his predecessor ; but in 1872 
the colonial assembly passed an act vesting in 
Dr. Colenso the property belonging to the see 
of Natal. In 1871 he published "The new 
Bible Commentary, by Bishops and other Clergy 
of the Anglican Church, critically examined." 
In 1872 appeared an abridgment of his work 
on the Pentateuch, and in 1873 "Lectures on 
the Pentateuch and the Moabite Stone," with 
appendices. 

COLEOPTERA. See BEETLE. 

COLERAUVE, a maritime town and parliamen- 
tary borough of Ireland, county of London- 
derry, situated on both sides of the river Bann, 
4 m. from the sea, and 47 m. N. W. of Belfast, 
on the railway from Belfast to Portrush ; pop. 
in 1871, 6,236. It is distinguished for the 
manufacture of a fine quality of linen called 
coleraines. It is fast improving in spinning 
and weaving factories, and also in pork-curing 
establishments. There is regular connection 
by steamer with Toome, and arrangements 
were completed at the beginning of 1873 to 
increase the depth of water in the river Bann, 
so as to enable larger vessels to discharge their 
cargoes on the quay of Coleraine. It is con- 
nected by a handsome bridge over the Bann 
with the village of Killowen or Waterside 

GOLHUDGE, Hartley, the eldest son of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge, born at Clevedon, near Bris- 
tol, Sept. 19, 1796, died at Rydal Water, Jan. 
6, 1849. His birth was commemorated by his 
.father in two sonnets, and his early peculiari- 



ties were described and his wayward career 
almost prophesied in an exquisite poem ad- 
dressed to him when six years old by Words- 
worth. He was reared in the lake district in 
the north of England, and after a visit to Lon- 
don in 1807 he and his brother Derwent be- 
came day scholars of a clergyman at Amble- 
side. Yet the best part of his education was 
by intercourse with the friends of his father ; 
and he speaks of himself as having been formed 
I by the living voice of Coleridge, Southey, 
Wordsworth, Lloyd, Wilson, and De Quincey. 
In his school days he showed both imaginative 
and conversational powers by weaving long 
and wild stories, the recital of which would 
occupy him and his listeners night after night 
for months. In 1815, having become a stu- 
dent at Merton college, Oxford, his accom- 
plishments and brilliant conversation gained 
him numerous invitations to social gatherings, 
and he acquired habits of wine-drinking over 
which he afterward had little control. He 
passed a highly honorable examination for his 
degree in 1818, and obtained a fellowship at 
Oriel college ; but before the close of his pro- 
bationary year his intemperance caused the 
forfeiture of this position. The punishment 
fell heavily upon his sensitive temperament, 
and in his despondency and morbid conscious- 
ness of shame he resisted less and less the 
weakness which had caused the overthrow of 
his fortunes. He left Oxford and resided for 
two years in London, contributing his first 
sonnets to the " London Magazine." A scheme 
to receive pupils at Ambleside failed, and 
proved that he was unfit for any future exer- 
tion of the kind ; yet he remained till his death 
in the lake district, excepting a short residence 
at Leeds, beloved by all his neighbors and 
watched over by the family in whose house he 
lived. His father expressed in his will great 
solicitude to secure to him the tranquillity ne- 
cessary to the exercise of his literary talents, 
and by a bequest provided him with "the 
continued means of a home." Wordsworth 
was his near neighbor, and was most atten- 
tive to the child-like man whose life he had 
traced from the cradle. Hartley was a diligent 
reader, a deep thinker, and an easy writer. 
His verse and his prose are alike exquisite. 
His sonnets are among the finest in the Eng- 
lish language, and his volume of biography, 
the " Lives of Northern Worthies," is written 
in a pleasant, vivacious style, with a vein of 
fine philosophy. During his latter years he 
wrote a " Life of Massinger," and many short 
poems. His grave is in the Grasmere church- 
yard, by the side of that of Wordsworth. 

COLERIDGE, Henry Nelson, an English lawyer 
and author, nephew of Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge, born about 1800, died Jan. 26, 1843. He 
was first a scholar at Eton, and became in due 
course a scholar and subsequently a fellow of 
King's college, Cambridge, where he received 
the degree of A. B. in 1823. While in college 
he won several prizes for Greek and Latin 



COLERIDGE 



odes, was recognized as a man of superior tal- 
ent and scholarship, and was associated with 
Praed, Macaulay, Moultrie, and others of his 
university, in writing for " Knight's Quarterly 
Magazine." His papers, which were under 
the signature of "Joseph Haller," treated 
chiefly questions of English history, and were 
distinguished for their soundness of opinion 
and breadth of view. On account of ill health 
in 1825 he accompanied his uncle, the bishop 
of Barbadoes, on a voyage to that island, and 
on his return published a lively and very suc- 
cessful narrative of his experiences, under the 
title of " Six Months in the West Indies." He 
was called to the bar in 1826, and attained a 
good practice in the court of chancery, but de- 
voted his leisure to an assiduous study of litera- 
ture, and to the society and conversation of 
his uncle, S. T. Coleridge, whose daughter he 
married. In 1830 he published an " Introduc- 
tion to the Study of the Greek Classic Poets." 
A more important task devolved upon him as 
literary executor of his uncle, and under his 
care the volumes of the " Table Talk," " Liter- 
ary Remains," and " Confessions of an Inquir- 
ing Spirit " were given to the public. He en- 
dured a painful illness during the latter years 
of his life, and was often prostrated for months, 
but suffered with a cheerful mind. 

COLERIDGE, Sir John Duke, an English law- 
yer, son of Sir John Taylor Coleridge, born in 
1821. He studied at Eton and at Balliol college, 
Oxford, and became fellow of Exeter college. 
He was called to the bar in 1847, was recorder 
of Portsmouth from 1855 to 1865, and was 
made queen's counsel in 1861. In 1865 he was 
returned to parliament for Exeter, in 1868 was 
made solicitor general, and in 1871 attorney 
general. In 1873 he became chief justice of 
the court of common pleas. 

COLERIDGE, Sir John Taylor, an English judge, 
nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, born at 
Tiverton, Devonshire, in 1790. He received 
his education at Corpus Christi college, Ox- 
ford, where he distinguished himself by bril- 
liant scholarship, and in 1819 was called to the 
ir. For many years he went the western 
rcuit, and in 1835 he was appointed a justice 
the king's bench. For 23 years he* occu- 
)ied this post, retiring in June, 1858, when he 
Tas appointed a privy councillor. On the oc- 
rion of his retirement from the bench, in the 
resence of a full court, the attorney general 
Idressed him in behalf of his associates at the 
in an impressive speech, to which Jus- 
ice Coleridge feelingly replied. His remarks 
memorable as containing advice to the 
younger members of the profession directly 
in conflict with the dogma of Lord Brougham, 
that the lawyer should know nobody but his 
client and no interests but his client's interests. 
He became editor of the " Quarterly Review" 
upon the retirement of Gifford in 1824 ; but 
resigned in 1825, on account of his professional 
engagements, and was succeeded by Lockhart. 
He published an annotated edition of Black- 



stone's "Commentaries" (4 vols., 1825), and a 
" Memoir of the Rev. John Keble " (1869). 

COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor, an English poet 
and philosopher, born at Ottery St. Mary, Dev- 
onshire, Oct. 21, 1772, died at Highgate, Lon- 
don, July 25, 1834. He was the youngest 
child of a learned and singularly amiable cler- 
gyman, and became an orphan at the age of 
nine years. By the kindness of a friend he was 
presented to Christ's hospital, in London, where 
he received the principal part of his education, 
and began a lifelong intimacy with Charles 
Lamb, who was one of his schoolfellows. His 
juvenile character prefigured his future career. 
He was a playless day-dreamer, solitary and 
uninterested in the ordinary amusements of 
childhood ; yet he made great advances in clas- 
sical knowledge, and was early distinguished 
by rare powers of discourse. Charles Lamb 
speaks of him as " the inspired charity boy, to 
whom the casual passer through the cloisters 
listened entranced with admiration, as he un- 
folded in deep and sweet intonations the mys- 
teries of lamblichus or Plotinus, or recited the 
Greek of Homer or Pindar." Before his 15th 
year he had read through a London circulating 
library, catalogues, folios, and all, and had be- 
wildered himself in metaphysical studies and 
in meditating on the problems of theology. So 
great was his pleasure in abstract speculations 
that he describes himself as having lost all in- 
terest in particular facts, in history or romance, 
and even poetry seemed insipid to him. With- 
out ambition or worldly wisdom, he at one time 
proposed apprenticing himself to a shoemaker 
whose shop was near the school. In his 17th 
year the sonnets of William Lisle Bowles were 
presented to him, and such was his admiration 
of them that he used frequently to transcribe 
them for presents to the friends for whom he 
had most regard. These simple poems recalled 
his idealizing mind to a juster estimate and love 
of realities, and having in 1791 become deputy 
Grecian, or head scholar, at Christ's hospital, 
he obtained a presentation thence to Jesus col- 
lege, Cambridge. He remained in the univer- 
sity but two years, during which he paid no 
attention to mathematics, but gained the prize 
for a Greek ode. At the outbreak of the French 
revolution he became obnoxious to his superi- 
ors from his acceptance of the revolutionary 
principles. With an enthusiastic and hopeful 
view of human nature, and an impetuous zeal 
in the cause of freedom, he hailed the early 
events of that epoch of continental history as 
the promise of a new era. His feelings at this 
period form the theme of one of his odes, enti- 
tled "France," and pronounced by Shelley the 
finest ode of modern times. Suddenly leaving 
Cambridge in the midst of his university career, 
he wandered about for a day or two in London, 
gave his last penny to a beggar, and enlisted in 
a regiment of cavalry under the assumed name 
of Comberback. The poet, however, made but 
an awkward dragoon, and wrote letters for his 
comrades while they attended to his horse and 



50 



COLERIDGE 



accoutrements. After four months' service, a 
Latin sentence which he had inscribed on the 
stable wall under his saddle revealed his scholar- 
ship, and the captain of his troop, having suc- 
ceeded in learning his real history, restored 
him to his friends. He now became associated 
at Bristol with two other poetical enthusiasts, 
Southey, a student from Oxford, and Lovell, a 
young Quaker. Southey, like Coleridge, was an 
ardent republican and Unitarian, and for his 
faith had just forfeited the honors of Oxford. 
These three conceived a splendid scheme of 
emigration. They determined to found amid 
the wilds of the Susquehanna a commonwealth 
which was to be free from the evils and tur- 
moils which then agitated the world, in which 
a community of goods was to be enjoyed, and 
from which selfishness was to be proscribed. 
But this scheme of pantisocracy, as it, was 
termed, failed from want of money and from 
other practical difficulties ; and the three pan- 
tisocratists, having married in 1795 three sis- 
ters, the Misses Fricker of Bristol, began to turn 
their attention to the reformation of England. 
Coleridge had already collected a small volume 
of his juvenile poems, for which he had receiv- 
ed 30* guineas from a benevolent and appre- 
ciative publisher, Mr. Joseph Cottle; and he 
now entered upon an undertaking from which 
he expected great results, namely, the estab- 
lishment of a periodical in prose and verse to 
be entitled "The Watchman," and to advocate 
liberal opinions. He himself canvassed the 
northern manufacturing towns for subscribers, 
preaching wherever he stayed on Sunday in 
Unitarian chapels, and returned with a sub- 
scription list full of promise. Yet the periodi- 
cal, owing partly to a want of punctuality in its 
issue, partly to its learned philosophical con- 
tents, and partly to the fact that its opinions 
were not those which its supporters had ex- 
pected, was dropped at the 10th number with 
a loss. In 1796 Coleridge took a cottage at 
Nether Stowey, in Somersetshire, where his 
means were increased by receiving into his fam- 
ily a Cambridge friend and poet, Charles Lloyd, 
the son of a wealthy banker, who, merely from 
love and admiration, had proposed living with 
him. He published in 1796, in connection 
with Charles Lamb, a small volume of poems, 
the greater number of his own contributions 
to which had been written at earlier periods ; 
and to a second edition in the next year verses 
were added by Lloyd. Wordsworth having 
moved to Allfoxden, about two miles from 
Stowey, the kindred feelings of the two poets 
united them in the closest friendship. They 
rambled together over the Somerset hills, dis- 
cussing the principles of poetry and planning 
their famons lyrical ballads. It was in this 
happiest period of Coleridge's life that he wrote 
his most beautiful poetry, the first part of 
" Christabel," the " Ancient Mariner," and the 
" Ode to the Departing Year ;" and a mutual 
ition of the poets to write a play produced 
his tragedy of "Remorse." He received in 



1798 an invitation to become a Unitarian min- 
ister in Shrewsbury, and preached his proba- 
tion sermon there, the great impression pro- 
duced by which has been recorded by Haz- 
litt, who was one of his audience ; but he did 
not preach again. The munificence of Josiah 
Wedgwood enabled him to visit Germany, and 
immediately after the publication of the 
" Lyrical Ballads " he and Wordsworth set out 
upon the journey together. He attended the 
lectures of Blumenbach and Eichhorn at Got- 
tingen, formed an acquaintance with Tieck, 
and obtained a familiarity with German litera- 
ture and philosophy. At no other period of 
his life did he work so industriously as du- 
ring his residence in Germany; and on his 
return in 1800 he brought back, in addition to 
his mental acquisitions, a large collection of 
materials for a life of Lessing. He passed six 
months in London engaged in translating Schil- 
ler's " Wallenstein," and in writing for the 
" Morning Post ;" after which he joined South- 
ey, who had settled at Keswick, amid the lakes 
and mountains of the north of England, in the 
neighborhood of Wordsworth, who resided at 
Grasmere. His opinions had now changed; 
the republican had become a royalist, and the 
Unitarian a devoted champion of the estab- 
lished church. In 1804 he went to Malta, 
hoping to improve his health, and acted as 
secretary to Sir Alexander Ball, the governor. 
He returned in 1806 by the way of Sicily and 
Italy, his health not improved ; nor was im- 
provement to be expected, since he went to 
Malta an opium eater, and returned with the 
habit growing upon him. His nominal resi- 
dence from this time till 1810 was at Keswick, 
but his absences were frequent, and his re- 
turns, according to Southey, more incalculable 
than those of a comet. He was often with 
Wordsworth at Grasmere, was occasionally in 
London lecturing, and during the year 1809 
was engaged in writing "The Friend," his 
second periodical, which extended to 27 num- 
bers. In 1810 he left the lakes for London, and 
resided for a time with Mr. Basil Montagu. He 
then made his home for three or four years 
with Mr. Morgan at Hammersmith, and in 
1816 placed himself under the care of Mr. 
Gillman, a surgeon at Highgate, in the hope 
that he might be broken of his fatal propensity 
to opium. In Mr. Gillman he found the kindest 
of friends, and lived in his house during the 
last 18 years of his life. It was here that he 
published the wild and wondrous tale of 
" Christabel," which had been written long 
before his second tragedy, entitled "Zapoyla," 
and several prose works, the principal of which 
were his "Statesman's Manual," two "Lay 
Sermons," "Biographia Literaria," and "Aids 
to Reflection." Here, too, he was visited by 
numerous friends and admirers, who came to 
listen to his marvellous conversation. The 
published volumes of his " Table Talk " can 
give but a faint idea of those extraordinary 
monologues which attracted many thoughtful 



COLERIDGE 



51 



young men to the feet of the sage of Highgate. 
With an infirm will, he could not overcome 
the irksomeness of writing out his dreamy 
idealities and preternatural subtleties of 
thought ; but the gentle excitement of a social 
circle loosed his powers, and he uttered his 
lightest fancies and most comprehensive spec- 
ulations without impediment. His discourse 
can be judged now only by the effect which it is 
recorded to have produced upon the listeners, 
and in his happiest moods it must have been 
magnificent and most impressive. The poems 
of Coleridge exhibit his manifold powers. They 
comprise tragedy, songs of love, strains of 
patriotism, and wild, shadowy tales of super- 
stition; they are marked sometimes by a 
mysterious and wondrous imaginative witch- 
ery, sometimes by philosophical thought and 
retrospection ; and their style is according to 
the subject, either most melodious and flowing, 
or severe and stately. Several of them are 
fragmentary, but have no other imperfection, 
all that there is of them being faultless. The 
"Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the "Hymn 
before Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny," 
and the unfinished story of "Christabel," are 
unsurpassed in any language in vivid imagery, 
solemn intensity of feeling, and skilful modu- 
lation of verse. No other poems could so 
justly be termed purely, absolutely imagina- 
tive. The musical versification of " Christabel " 
delighted Byron and Scott, and was imitated 
by them both ; it was the acknowledged model 
of the metre of the " Lay of the Last Min- 
strel." His translation of Schiller's " Wallen- 
stein " is equally remarkable. His tragedy of 
" Remorse " was brought out with great success 
at Drury Lane in 1813, but exhibits scenery 
and sentiment rather than character, and has 
not since been revived. The prose writings 
of Coleridge embrace theology, metaphysical 
and political philosophy, and literary criticism. 
His philosophical, more than his poetical works, 
are marked by a splendid incompleteness, and 
much as they have served to stimulate and 
direct the minds of others, they do not contain 
a fully developed system. He was born a 
Platonist, and he could not rest content, with 
Locke, to seek all knowledge in phenomena, 
or with Paley, to seek all good in happiness. 
His familiarity with the philosophy of Ger- 
many, which he first introduced to the notice 
of British scholars, supplied to him more spirit- 
ual theories. Above the understanding which 
generalizes from the data of perception, and 
gathers laws from experience, he enthroned the 
reason which seizes immediately upon universal 
and necessary truths, and whose intuitions are 
more certain than sensible phenomena, and 
more authoritative than the promptings to 
happiness. It is the clearness and earnestness 
with which Coleridge has illustrated this truth 
that has given to his name its philosophical 
significance, and made him the prompter of 
many English and American divines and 
thinkers. He also defended enthusiastically 



but not clearly the self-determining power of 
the human will. Coleridge's critical pieces 
need only completeness to have been alone 
sufficient to establish his fame. His remarks 
upon numerous authors and passages scattered 
upon the margins of books were such as to 
make his friends always eager to lend him their 
books for his reading. His review of Mr. 
Wordsworth's poetry, in the "Biographia 
Literaria," is one of the most philosophical 
pieces of criticism in the language; and his 
lectures upon Shakespeare retain their place 
notwithstanding the many important works on 
that author which have more recently been 
published. The prose style of Coleridge is not 
always marked by that immaculate taste which 
distinguishes his poems, but is occasionally dis- 
figured by obscurities and prolixities. More 
impprtant than the works which he executed 
are those which he planned. The life of Les- 
sing, the dream of his German residence, was 
never really commenced. It was one of his 
later long-cherished schemes to compose a 
work of colossal proportions which should 
embrace the whole range of spiritual philoso- 
phy, show Christianity to be the only revela- 
tion of permanent and universal validity, unite 
the insulated fragments of truth, and reduce 
all knowledge into harmony. He also con- 
ceived an epic poem on the destruction of 
Jerusalem, a subject which would interest all 
Christendom as the siege of Troy interested 
Greece. His glowing conceptions and his am- 
bition to achieve some great work, joined to 
that infirmity of will which made him recoil 
from effort, he himself has depicted with great 
pathos in a poem which he addressed to Words- 
worth. His life ebbed away hi the contempla- 
tion of mighty projects, and the legacy which 
he left to mankind, though a valuable one, was 
but a fragment from the mine of his genius. 
The unpublished writings of Coleridge were 
carefully edited after his death by his nephew 
Henry Nelson Coleridge, his daughter Sara, and 
his son Derwent. All his works have been fre- 
quently republished separately. A collected 
edition, in nine volumes, with an introductory 
essay upon his philosophical and theological 
opinions, edited by the Rev. William T. Shedd, 
appeared in New York in 1853-'4. It also 
contains James Marsh's admirable preliminary 
essay to the "Aids to Reflection."- The best 
illustrations of his life are found in the "Per- 
sonal Recollections " of Joseph Cottle, and in 
the biographies and letters of his associates, 
Charles Lamb, Wordsworth, and Southey. 
The " Fragmentary Remains of Sir Humphry 
Davy," edited by his brother John Davy (Lon- 
don, 1858), contains letters by Coleridge. 

COLERIDGE, Sara, the only daughter of Sam- 
uel Taylor Coleridge, born at Keswick, Dec. 
22, 1802, died May 3, 1852. She is described 
as the inheritor of her father's genius, and her 
life until her marriage was passed at Keswick 
in diligent study, in mountain rambles with 
Wordsworth, and in lending literary assistance 



52 



COLES 



COLET 



to Southey. At the age of 19 she made an 
admirable English translation of Dobrizhoffer's 
" Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian 
People of Paraguay " (3 vols., 1822). In 1829 
she married her cousin Henry Nelson Cole- 
ridge, and devoting herself to domestic duties, 
her next publication was entitled "Pretty 
Lessons for Little Children," which was pri- 
marily designed for her own children, but 
speedily passed through several editions. On 
the death of her father her husband was ap- 
pointed his literary executor, and she assisted 
in editing his works ; and after -the death of 
her husband she took upon herself the whole 
of the important duty. She edited alone the 
" Aids to Reflection," "Notes on Shakespeare 
and the Dramatists," and " Essays on his own 
Times ;" and the elaborate discourses on 
weighty matters which she affixed to these 
works manifest both her erudition and her crit- 
ical and logical ability. The beautiful romance 
of " Phantasmion " (1837) reveals also her 
imaginative faculty, and, though not in verse, 
is poetry from beginning to end. Yet in the 
annotations upon the writings of her father 
will be found the best evidence of her rare 
gifts and acquirements, and the chief founda- 
tion of her literary reputation. A memoir of 
her life, with selections from her letters, by her 
daughter, was published in 1873. 

COLES, a S. E. county of Illinois, intersected 
by Embarras river ; area, 550 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 25,235. The surface is diversified by 
forests and prairies; the soil is fertile. The 
Indianapolis and St. Louis railroad and the 
Chicago division of the Illinois Central pass 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 157,136 bushels of wheat, 2,133,111 of 
Indian corn, 315,954 of oats, 161,925 of pota- 
toes, 22,371 tons of hay, 260,409 Ibs. of butter, 
59,017 of wool, and 50, 102 gallons of sorghum 
molasses. There were 9,397 horses, 5,448 
milch cows, 11,364 other cattle, 20,546 sheep, 
and 33,619 swine; 8 flour mills, 10 saw mills, 
1 brewery, 2 manufactories of boots and shoes, 
1 of agricultural implements, 1 of bricks, 17 of 
carriages and wagons, 3 of furniture, 1 of iron 
castings, 4 of marble and stone work, 7 of sad- 
lery and harness, 5 of tin, copper, and sheet- 
iron ware, 2 of tobacco and snuff, and 2 of 
woollen goods. Capital, Charleston. 

COLES, Cowper Phipps, an English naval of- 
ficer, born in 1819, died at sea, Sept. 7, 1870. 
He entered the navy in 1831, and served with 
distinction on various stations, and particularly 
in the naval attack upon Sebastopol in October, 
1854. He claimed to be the inventor of the 
system of revolving turrets for the protection 
of the guns in naval warfare. He says that the 
idea was suggested to him during the Crimean 
war, and that in 1855 he sent to the British 
admiralty drawings for an armored vessel of 
light draught, " the guns to be protected by a 
stationary hemispherical tower." No action was 
taken upon this suggestion. In March, 1859, he 
sent in other drawings in which this tower, or 



shield, was placed upon a turn-table, thus 
rendering it a revolving turret. In 1860 ap- 
peared in " Blackwood's Magazine " an article 
on this subject, with a drawing of such a tur- 
ret, with the mechanism for turning it by hand. 
But the invention had been previously set 
forth by John Ericsson in a, memorial to Na- 
poleon III. (1854), and still earlier by Theodore 
K. Timby, an American inventor, who made 
a small model of a revolving turret in 1838, 
filed a caveat in the patent office in 1841, and 
publicly exhibited a large model in 1843. (See 
IEON-CLAD SHIPS.) After the success of the 
experiment of the Monitor in 1862, however, 
Coles put forth a statement in which he says : 
" My plans were so exactly similar to that of 
the Monitor, that I think it will be apparent 
that this invention is of English origin, and I 
claim it." In 1864 the British government 
had a man-of-war, the Royal Sovereign, altered 
into a " shield " ship under the direction of 
Capt. Coles, and subsequently constructed sev- 
eral other turreted vessels. One of these was 
the Captain, an iron vessel, which foundered 
off Cape Finisterre, and of 540 persons on 
board only 17 were saved. Among those lost 
was Capt. Coles, who was a passenger. 

COLET, John, an English clergyman, born in 
London in 1466, died there, Sept. 16, 1519. 
He completed his education at Oxford, and 
afterward visited France and Italy. On re- 
turning to England he was ordained, delivered 
at Oxford free lectures on the epistles of St. 
Paul, and was successively appointed rector of 
Dennington in Suffolk, prebendary of York, 
canon of St. Martin's-le- Grand, London, and 
dean of St. Paul's. He was one of the first 
of the Anglican clergy who introduced the cus- 
tom of expounding the Scriptures on Sundays. 
This innovation caused Dr. Fitzjames to de- 
nounce him as a heretic, but the archbishop 
dismissed the complaint. In 1508 the dean 
conceived the idea of founding and endowing 
a school in which the children of the poor 
should receive a free education. This institu- 
tion was completed in 1512, and, from its con- 
nection with the cathedral, was denomina- 
ted the St. Paul's school. He wrote various 
philological and devotional works, the most 
important of which are his " Accidence," 
"Syntax," "Daily Devotions," and "Moni- 
tions to a Godly Life." 

COLET, Louise, a French poetess, born at 
Aix, Sept, 15, 1810, died in Nice in 1876. Her 
maiden name was Revoil, and she married in 
1835 Hippolyte Colet of Nimes, a musical 
composer. Soon after her marriage she ac- 
companied her husband to Paris, where he 
became professor in the conservatory. ID 
1837 she published a volume of poems, Fleurs 
du midi, which was criticised by Alphonse 
Karr with so much severity in Les Guepes, 
that the author attempted to stab him with a 
knife, and was subjected to some ridicule in 
consequence. She did not, however, abandon 
literature, but published various novels in the 



COLFAX 



53 



Retue de Paris, one of which, Silvio Pellico, 
attracted much attention. She obtained the 
prize for poetry from the French institute in 
1839 (also in 1843, 1852, and 1854), and was 
granted a pension by the government. In 1842 
she became one of the circle frequenting the 
salon of Mme. R6camier, upon whose death her 
own salon became a resort of the literati of 
Paris. Her husband died in 1851, and she 
went to England, whence she returned in the 
following year. In 1859 she went to Italy, 
where she wrote Madeleine. George Sand 
having published a representation of her rela- 
tions with Alfred de Musset in a book entitled 
Elle et lui, Paul de Musset, his brother, an- 
swered it with Lui et elle. To this Mme. Colet 
while in Italy wrote a reply in a romance en- 
titled Lui, of which several editions were 
published. In 1864 she went again to Italy, 
where a strong prejudice was excited against 
her on account of the supposed irreligious ten- 
dencies of her writings, and her house at Ischia 
was surrounded by a mob who threatened her 
life. Among her volumes of poetry are Le 
marabout de Sidi Brahim, Reveil de la Po- 
logne, and Le poeme de la femme; and among 
her romances and prose works are Lajeunesse 
de Mirdbeau, Histoire d'un soldat, Folles et 
saintes, Deux femmes celebres (1846, repub- 
lished in 1854 under the title of Mme. Du- 
chdtelet), Deux mois dans les Pyrenees, and 
Vltalie des Italiem (4 vols., 1862-'4). She 
also published dramas entitled La jeunesse de 
Gcethe, Charlotte Corday, and Madame Ro- 
land, and various translations. Among her 
latest works are Les derniers marquis, Cour- 
tisanes de Capri, Journee d'une femme du 
monde, Satires du sidcle, and Les derniers 
dbles (1869). 

COLFAX. I. A N. E. county of Mississippi, 
formed since the census of 1870, bounded E. 
by the Tombigbee river, and S. partly by the 
Oktibbeha, which with its branches intersects 
the W. portion ; area, about 400 sq. m. The 
surface is level ; the soil fertile and well adapted 
to cotton. The Mobile and Ohio railroad passes 
through the county seat. Capital, West Point. 
IL An E. county of Nebraska, bounded S. 
by the Platte river, and watered by Shell and 
Maple creeks ; area, about 500 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 1,424. The Union Pacific railroad passes 
through it, and the Elkhorn Valley road 
will cross the N. E. corner. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 13,529 bushels of 
wheat, 27,164 of Indian corn, 15,017 of oats, 
8,354 of potatoes, and 2,203 tons of hay. 
There were 231 horses, 351 milch cows, 423 
other cattle, and 295 swine. Capital, Schuyler. 
III. A N. E. county of New Mexico, formed 
in 1869 from Mora co., bounded N, by Colora- 
do and W. by the Rio Grande; pop. in 1870, 
1,992. In the western portion gold has been 
found, and in 1871 there were two quartz mills. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 5,491 
bushels of wheat, 11,000 of Indian corn, 
14,398 of oats, 836 tons of hay, and 13,500 



Ibs. of wool. There were 56 horses, 355 
milch cows, 1,726 other cattle, 9,300 sheep, 
and 427 swine. Capital, Elizabethtown. 

COLFAX, Sehnyler, 17th vice president of the 
United States, born in New York city, March 
23, 1823. His grandfather, Capt. Colfax, was 
an officer of the revolutionary army and the 
commandant of Washington's body guard. His 
father died before Schuyler was born, and 
when he was ten years old his mother married 
again, and for the next three years he was em- 
ployed in his stepfather's store. In 1836 the 
family emigrated to Indiana, and settled in 
New Carlisle, St. Joseph co. During the five 
following years Schuyler was a clerk in a 
country store. In 1841 his stepfather, Mr. 
Matthews, was elected county auditor and re- 
moved to South Bend. Schuyler was ap- 
pointed his deputy and began to study law ; 
but after serving for two years as senate re- 
porter for the Indianapolis " State Journal," 
he established in 1845 a weekly paper at South 
Bend called the " St. Joseph Valley Register," 
of which he was both proprietor and editor. 
In politics it supported the whig party, and in 
1848 Mr. Colfax was sent as a delegate to the 
whig national convention at Philadelphia, of 
which body he was elected secretary. In 1850 
he was a member of the Indiana state consti- 
tutional convention, in which he spoke and 
voted against the clause prohibiting free col- 
ored persons from entering the state. In 1851 
he was a candidate for congress, and was de- 
feated by a majority of only 216, though his 
district was strongly democratic. In 1852 he 
was a delegate to the whig national conven- 
tion at Baltimore, which appointed him its 
secretary. Two years later he was elected a 
representative in congress by the newly formed 
republican party, and was reflected for the 
six following terms. In 1856 he supported Mr. 
Fremont for president, and during the canvass 
a speech made by him in congress, on the ex- 
tension of slavery and the aggressions of the 
slave power, was circulated to the extent of 
more than half a million copies. In the 35th 
congress Mr. Colfax was made chairman of the 
committee on post offices and post roads, 
which place he continued to occupy until his 
election, Dec. 7, 1863, as speaker of the 38th 
congress. He was reflected speaker in 1865, 
and again in 1867. In 1865 he made a journey 
across the continent to the Pacific coast ; and 
in May, 1868, the republican national conven- 
tion at Chicago nominated him for vice presi- 
dent of the United States, with Gen. Grant as 
candidate for president. He received 522 
votes of the 650 that were polled by the con- 
vention, and was elected in November; and on 
March 4, 1869, he was inaugurated vice presi- 
dent, and took his seat as president of the sen- 
ate. In 1870 he wrote a letter, which was 
published, declaring his purpose to withdraw 
from public life at the close of his term as vice 
president. He was subsequently led to change 
this determination, and in the republican na- 



COLIC 



COLIGNI 



tional convention at Philadelphia in 1872 he 
was a candidate for the nomination as vice 
president, and received 314 votes, 384 being 
given to Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, who 
was accordingly nominated on the first ballot 
and chosen in the subsequent presidential elec- 
tion. In 1873 Mr. Colfax was implicated in 
the charges of corruption brought against 
members of congress who had received shares 
of the credit mobilier of America, and was 
repeatedly examined before the congressional 
committee appointed to investigate the matter. 
A resolution directing the judiciary committee 
of the house of representatives to inquire if 
the evidence taken by the committee called 
for the impeachment of any officer of the gov- 
ernment, brought forth a report, on Feb. 24, 
1873, declaring that there was no ground for 
the impeachment . of Mr. Colfax, inasmuch as 
the alleged offence of bribe-taking, if com- 
mitted at all, had been committed before he 
became vice president. This report was ac- 
cepted, and nothing more done with the matter. 
COLIC, in its strictest sense, a severe and 
moving pain in the colon, or large intestine ; 
but pains having their seat in the small intes- 
tines, and in any of the abdominal viscera, are 
now included under this term. Bilious colic 
is attributed to excessive secretion or acridity 
of the bile ; flatulent colic to the accumulation 
of intestinal gases ; painters' colic to the poi- 
sonous and paralyzing influences of lead ; hepa- 
tic colic to the passage of gall-stones along the 
biliary ducts. Besides these there are menstrual 
colic, preceding or accompanying the menstru- 
al discharge; nephritic colic, in inflammation 
of the kidney, or during the passage of cal- 
culi along the ureters; verminous colic, due 
to the irritation of worms in the intestines ; 
uterine colic, having its seat in the uterus ; ner- 
vous colic, arising from a spasmodic contraction 
of any part of the alimentary canal, from the 
stomach to the colon ; so that colic, or shifting 
abdominal pains, is a symptom of a great vari- 
ety of diseased conditions, both functional and 
organic. ^ The disease generally understood by 
colic has its seat in the small intestines, which 
seem to be variously rolled and twisted, ac- 
companied by very severe pain and constipa- 
tion. The treatment is as various as the 
causes, consisting of opiates to relieve pain, 
antispasmodics to arrest irregular nervous ac- 
tion, stimulating cathartics and enemata, hot 
external applications to the abdomen, carmina- 
tives to remove flatulence, the inhalation of 
ether during the passage of biliary and renal 
calculi, and antiphlogistic and demulcent rem- 
edies when accompanied by any inflammatory 
symptoms. Children are particularly subject 
to colic, but are easily relieved by familiar do- 
mestic remedies. Lead colic will require fur- 
ther mention in its proper place ; copper colic 
resembles it, except that it is generally accom- 
].;uikd by diarrhrea, instead of the obstinate 
constipation which is so characteristic of the 
> produced by lead. 



COLIGNI, or Coligny, Gaspard de, leader of the 
French Huguenots, and principal victim of the 
St. Bartholomew massacre, born at Chatillon- 
sur-Loing, Feb. 16, 1517, murdered in Paris, 
Aug. 24, 1572. He was introduced in 1539 to 
Francis I. by his uncle, the great constable Anne 
de Montmorency, and was knighted for his ser- 
vices in the battle of Ceresole, and appointed 
to the command of an infantry regiment. He 
soon acquired the reputation of being one of 
the best officers in the army. His stern sense 
of duty and indomitable bravery contrasted in 
a striking manner with the gay and frivolous 
disposition of the young nobles of his time. 
On the accession of Henry II. he was pro- 
moted to the rank of colonel general of the 
French infantry. Owing to his skilful efforts 
the strictest discipline soon prevailed among 
soldiers who had heretofore been notorious for 
insubordination. The rules he established be- 
came the basis of the French military code, 
and he may be regarded as one of the founders 
of the French system of infantry. Soon after- 
ward he received the commission of admiral, 
which office, being more of a military than 
naval character, placed him in power next to 
the constable. His colonel-generalcy he re- 
signed to his brother Dandelot. He accompa- 
nied Henry II. in his conquest of the " three 
bishoprics," Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and sub- 
sequently contributed to the victory won at Ren- 
ty by the French over the army of Charles V. 
Appointed governor of Picardy, he displayed 
remarkable intrepidity in conducting the de- 
fence of St. Quentin against the Spanish 
troops. Although all hopes of holding the 
town were gone, Coligni refused to surrender, 
and was taken prisoner (1557) while fighting 
desperately at the head of a few soldiers, and 
sent to the castle of Sluis, where he was con- 
fined for several months, but finally recovered 
his liberty on paying a ransom of 50,000 
crowns. With the genius of a warrior he 
combined the fervor of a religious reformer. 
He was a devoted Calvinist, having for years 
meditated upon the opinions promulgated by 
the great French reformer ; and although not 
yet openly avowing the new creed, he had 
proved an active supporter of the French Prot- 
estants. He now proposed to secure for them 
a place of refuge, and sent several expeditions 
to America, one of which, intrusted in 1562 to 
Jean Ribault of Dieppe, erected Fort Charles 
on the coast of Carolina, but soon abandoned 
it and returned to France; another in 1564, 
placed under the command of Laudonniere, 
settled near the mouth of St. John's river, 
Florida, but they were expelled and nearly 
exterminated by the Spaniards, who claimed 
the ownership of the country. After the 
death of Henry II. (1559), Coligni came bold- 
ly forward as the leader of the Huguenots, 
and his attempts to secure religious liberty for 
his followers having been defeated by the in- 
trigues of the duke of Guise and of Catharine 
de' Medici, he reluctantly took up arms in 1562. 



COLIGNI 

At the battle of Dreux, fought in that year, 
the prince of Cond6 was taken prisoner ; and 
after this prince's death at the battle of Jarnac 
(1569), Coligni gathered the remains of the 
Protestant army, and was soon able to confront 
again the Catholics at Moncontour. In this 
last encounter he was defeated ; but although 
severely wounded, and unable to ride on 
horseback, he led the retreat from his litter, 
preserving such good order and presenting 
such an unbroken front to the enemy that the 
Catholics themselves became favorable to a 
termination of the war, and peace was actual- 
ly made a few months afterward. It has been 
very justly said of Coligni that he was never 
more to be dreaded than after a defeat, and he 
has been called the "general of retreats." 
After the treaty of St. Germain in August, 
1570, Coligni reappeared at the court, where 
he submitted to Charles IX. plans for the im- 
provement of his government and the direc- 
tion of his foreign policy. Charles seemed to 
receive his advice with great deference, but he 
was surrounded by courtiers who would not 
tolerate the influence 
of a Huguenot, and the 
great admiral was des- 
tined to be the first vic- 
tim of the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew. Two 
days previous to the 
consummation of this 
tragedy, Coligni had 
been shot at from a 
house belonging to the 
Guise family by a man 
named De Maurevel, a 
creature of the queen. 
Charles IX. called on 
the wounded warrior, 
seemed to sympathize 
with his misfortune, 
and swore that the mur- 
derer should not escape 
punishment ; but his 
mother persuaded him 
that the Huguenots were 
about to attempt a mas- 
sacre of the Catholics, and that they must be an- 
ticipated. The admiral was abandoned to the 
same fate which overcame all the other Hugue- 
nots. A band of murderers, led by Behme, a 
German in the service of the duke of Guise, 
invaded the admiral's house. On entering his 
room, they were at first subdued by the pres- 
tige of his presence ; but Behme, soon recover- 
ing his presence of mind, stabbed him in the 
stomach with a boar spear and threw the body 
into the court, where the duke himself was in 
waiting. This young prince had always, but 
unjustly, accused Coligni of having been an ac- 
complice in his father's murder, and could only 
be satisfied by his death. The head of the un- 
fortunate hero was brought to Catharine, who 
had it embalmed and sent to Rome. His lacer- 
ated remains were dragged through the streets, 



COLIMA 



55 



and at last placed on the gallows at Montfaucon 
where it is said Charles IX. went to look at 
them, accompanied by his courtiers. Some 
faithful servants of Coligni carried them away 
during the night, at the peril of their lives, and 
his cousin Montmorency had them secretly 
buried in Chantilly. In 1786 Montesquieu 
transferred them to his estate of Maupertuis, 
where he dedicated a chapel and a monument 
in honor of the admiral. After the revolution, 
the latter was removed to the musee des momt- 
ments francais. Coligni left memoirs of his 
own time, but they were destroyed. The only 
work of his which has been preserved is his 
delation du siege de St. Quentin. An essay 
entitled Souvenirs Jiistoriques sur Vamiral 
Coligni, sa famille et sa seigneurie de Chdtil~ 
lon-mr-Loing, was prepared in 1858 by M. 
Becquerel, a member of the French academy, 
and read before that body. 

COLIMA. I. A state of Mexico, between lat. 
18 and 19 30' 1ST., and Ion. 102 40' and 104 
20' W., bounded N". by Jalisco, E. and S. E. by 
Michoacan, and S. W. by the Pacific; area, 




Colima. 

2,393 sq. m. ; pop. in 1869, 48,649. It has a 
coast line of about 100 m. Its surface is gen- 
erally level, no part of it, excepting a few 
mountain peaks, rising more than 1,000 ft. above 
the sea. The climate is very hot, and the soil 
produces largely. Coffee, tobacco, cotton, 
cacao, indigo, vanilla, various fruits, and the 
mulberry grow to perfection. The inhabitants 
are chiefly Indians. The volcano of Colima, 
which is in the state of Jalisco, is 12,000 ft. 
high, and forms the S. W. extremity of the chain 
which traverses Mexico from E. to W. For 40 
years it had been inactive, and was supposed 
to be extinct ; but on July 12, 1869, it began 
to smoke, and a few weeks later to pour forth 
a stream of pumice stone intensely heated, 
which spread for miles and covered hundreds 
of acres. It was still in eruption in 1873. 



56 



COLLAMER 



COLLEGE 



II. The capital and principal city of the state, 
situated in a fertile plain watered by several 
rivers, two of which pass the town, in lat. 19 
N., Ion. 103 7' W., 270 m. W. by S. of Mexico ; 
pop. about 20,000. It is a well built city, with 
regular streets, mostly paved. There are two 
squares, the principal of which is the Plaza de 
Armas. It has a government house, a number 
of churches, a college, and several schools. 
There is a considerable demand for manufac- 
tured goods, cottons, linens, woollens, and 
hardware. Its port, Manzanilla, 60 m. S. by 
W. of the city, has fine anchorage and a good 
commerce with San Francisco. There are no 
buildings there, it being only a landing place. 
Colima was founded by Gonzalo de Sandoval 
in 1522, incorporated nnder the name of Santi- 
ago de los Caballeros by Philip II., and made 
a city in 1824. 

COLLAMER, Jacob, an American senator, born 
at Troy, N. Y., in 1792, died at Woodstock, 
Vt., Nov. 9, 1865. He was a son of Samuel 
Collamer, who was a native of Scituate, Mass., 
and a soldier of the revolution. In childhood 
the family removed to Burlington, Vt., and 
Jacob graduated at the university of Vermont 
in 1810. He studied law at St. Albans, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1812, after which he 
made the frontier campaign as a lieutenant of 
artillery in the detached militia in the United 
States service. He accomplished his course 
of preparatory, collegiate, and professional stud- 
ies without any other pecuniary means than 
such as his own industry supplied. Until 1833 
he practised law in "Washington, Orange, and 
Windsor counties, commencing at Barre. In 
1821, '22, '27, and '28 he represented the town 
of Royalton in the general assembly. In 1833 
he was elected an associate justice of the 
supreme court of Vermont, and was continued 
on the bench till 1841, when he declined a re- 
election. In 1842 he was chosen a member of, 
congress, and was reflected in 1844 and 1846, 
but in 1848 declined to be again a candidate. 
In October, 1848, the whig party of Vermont 
formally recommended him through a legisla- 
tive caucus for a cabinet appointment, and on 
March 7, 1849, he was appointed postmaster 
general by President Taylor, in which office 
he continued till July 20, 1850. On Nov. 8, 
1850, he was elected judge of the supreme 
court, and was annually reflected until Oct. 
14, 1854, when he was elected United States 
senator. He continued in that office until his 
death, and served as chairman of the committee 
on post offices and post roads and on that of 
the library. The degree of LL. D. was con- 
ferred upon him by the university of Vermont 
and byJJartmouth college. 

COLLE, Charles, a French dramatist and song 
writer, born in Paris in 1709, died Nov. 3, 
1783. He was appointed by the duke of Or- 
leans, the son of the regent, his reader and pri- 
vate secretary, and during 20 years wrote 
plays for the private theatre of the duke. He 
also wrote songs, which have more merit than 



his plays, and were in the same vein with those 
of his imitators, Desaugiers and Beranger. The 
plays have been published under the title of 
Thedtre de societe, and the songs in two volumes. 

COLLE, Raffaellino dal, an Italian painter of the 
earlier part of the 16th century, studied under 
Raphael and afterward under Giulio Romano, 
and was the assistant of both these artists. His 
manner of painting resembled that of Raphael. 
He worked for a time under the direction of 
Vasari. Among his paintings are a picture of 
the "Resurrection," in the church of St. Roc- 
co at San Sepolcro; an "Assumption," in the 
church of the Oonventuali at Oitta di Oastello ; 
a "Nativity;" and two pictures representing 
scenes in the life of St. Benedict, painted in 
fresco, in the chapel of the Olivet monks at 
Gubbio. Raffaellino is considered one of the 
best masters of the school of Raphael. 

COLLEGE (Lat. collegium, an association), in 
its primary and most general meaning, the 
union of several persons (collegw, colleagues), 
with like powers, privileges, and customs, in 
one office for a common end. Thus, in Roman 
antiquity, colleges consisted of at least three 
persons, forming a corporation for religious, 
political, or industrial purposes. The four prin- 
cipal colleges of priests were the collegium 
pontificum, C. augurum, C. septemmrorum or 
epulonum, and C. quindecimmrorum. These 
were instituted by the earliest kings, and be- 
sides them there were many designed for the 
service of inferior divinities, or at a later period 
for the worship of the emperors after their 
apotheosis. Of the last class the C. Augus- 
talium and C. Flamalium were examples. 
Among the Roman political colleges were the 
C. Capitolinorum, which presided over the 
Capitoline games, the C. tribunorum plefiis, 
which protected the plebeians from the abuse 
of patrician magistrates, and the C. qucestorum, 
which managed the public revenues. There 
were also from the time of Numa or Servius 
Tullius colleges of artificers, carpenters, butch- 
ers, bakers, locksmiths, potters, and finally of 
persons engaged in nearly every other branch 
of industry. Their original design was either 
to bring the old and new citizens into closer 
union, or, according to Plutarch, to prevent 
the danger of any general conspiracy, by or- 
ganizing separate assemblies, festivals, and 
finances for different portions of the citizens. 
During the latter period of the republic these 
colleges increased in number, and became in- 
triguing and violent parties in the comitia, so 
that the senate ordered the dissolution of all 
those newly formed. They were revived during 
the civil wars, and suppressed by Csesar and 
again by Augustus, being regarded as centres 
of conspiracy. In the Byzantine empire they 
were encouraged and patronized, in return for 
which they furnished to the government the 
products needed for the public services. 
Among more recent applications of the term 
are the collegium tenuiorum, a mediaeval union 
of poor men who engaged to procure for each 



COLLEGE 



57 



other proper burial ; the sacred college, or col- 
lege of cardinals, which assembles in conclave 
and elects the pope ; the colleges or courts of 
admiralty, having maritime jurisdiction at Am- 
sterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn, and other sea- 
ports of Holland ; the colleges of the Armin- 
ians, or their assemblies 'held twice each week 
on Sunday and Friday ; the three colleges of 
electors or their deputies, of princes or their 
deputies, and of the deputies of imperial 
cities, which composed the Germanic diet 
prior to the dissolution of the German em- 
pire in 1806 ; the college of electors of presi- 
dent and vice president in the United States, 
chosen by the people once in four years for 
that purpose only ; the college of justice, or 
supreme civil court, of Scotland, embracing the 
advocates and clerks as well as the lords of 
council and session ; the college of heralds in 
England, incorporated by charter of Richard 
III. with various privileges, and subordinate to 
the earl marshal of England, who held his 
court of chivalry in its hall assisted by its 
members; the college of general superinten- 
dence in Russia, or that department of gov- 
ernment which has direction of all benevolent 
institutions, schools, and houses for the sick and 
poor ; the London college of civilians, or doc- 
tors' commons, founded by Dr. Harvey, the 
members of which live in a collegiate manner, 
and in whose common hall the principal spiritual 
court and the high court of admiralty are held ; 
the London college of physicians, chartered by 
Henry VIII., and endowed by that monarch 
and his successors with various privileges, such 
as the power to inspect the apothecaries' shops 
and superintend the drugs sold in and about 
London, and without a license from which no 
person, though he may have received a medi- 
cal degree from a university, is permitted to 
practise medicine within seven miles of that 
city ; the Edinburgh college of physicians, in- 
stituted in 1681, to make laws for promoting 
the art and -regulating the practice of physic, 
having similar powers to those of the corre- 
sponding college at London, but obliged to ad- 
mit the professors of physic in the universities 
of Scotland as honorary members, and to li- 
cense all those who have received medical de- 
grees from the universities ; and several other 
European colleges of surgery, medicine, or 
health, which have both a power of police over 
matters pertaining to the public health and the 
privilege of instructing and examining candi- 
dates for medical degrees. The oldest of these in 
Germany was established by Frederick Wil- 
liam, elector of Brandenburg, in Berlin, in 
1685. This was followed by a similar college 
of health in each of the Prussian provinces, 
and in 1725 there were twelve Provinzial- Col- 
legia medica under the general supervision of 
the Berlin Ober- Collegium medicum. By the 
constitution of 1808 "the provincial colleges 
gave way to medical committees, which were 
organized in 1815 and 1817 as sections of the 
administrative government. The London col- 



lege of surgeons, which dates from the reign 
of Edward IV., is composed of persons em- 
powered to practise the art of surgery in Great 
Britain, and has 24 councillors and over 500 
fellows, with extended rights and privileges. 
A competent education and at least eight years 
of surgical practice are requisite before an ex- 
amination for a fellowship. The Edinburgh 
college of surgeons has a corporate character 
as a royal college. It consists of the surgeons 
of Edinburgh, has the privilege of examining 
and of licensing or rejecting all practitioners 
in surgery in the neighboring counties, and its 
diplomas are recognized by the army and navy 
medical boards, and by the East India com- 
pany, as qualifications for their surgeons. 
Colleges as departments of a university arose 
about the beginning of the 13th century. When 
the repute of the great scholastic teachers had 
attracted thousands of students to the uni- 
versity towns, collisions became frequent be- 
tween the citizens and so many for the most 
part rich and noble youths. In order to secure 
to the students a more fixed mode of life, so 
that their manners and morals should be under 
stricter supervision, hotels or boarding houses 
were established, in which the scholars lodged 
together under the direction of a superior. 
These hotels, which were termed colleges, were 
gradually endowed by the gifts of charitable 
persons, till they were able to furnish free 
lodgings and finally entire support to a certain 
number of poor scholars. The name college 
was soon applied to any institution for aca- 
demic purposes, endowed with revenues, and 
possessing a private code of laws, whether it 
were wholly independent or subject to the 
general government of a university. Collegiate 
foundations do not appear to have existed in 
the Saracen schools of Spain, but were first 
established hi Paris, and soon afterward in Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, in Bologna and Padua, 
and in Prague and Vienna. In the 15th cen- 
tury the endowments of popes, kings, digni- 
taries of the church, and powerful families had 
made colleges so common in many of the Euro- 
pean universities, that every person connected 
with a university was usually a member of 
some one of its colleges. Some of them were 
in the interest of the monastic orders, and their 
design to train ministers for the church still 
appears in the prohibition of the fellows of the 
English colleges from marrying. They were 
sometimes not only schools for the young, but 
hospitals for the old. Sion college in London 
was in the 14th and 15th centuries both a 
priory and a hospital. It is now a corporation 
of the clergy of the city of London, and also a 
hospital for 20 poor men and women. St. 
Peter's college, Westminster, may also be men- 
tioned, as well as the royal naval college at 
Portsmouth. Among the oldest French colleges 
are the Sorbonne, founded about 1250, in which 
at first 16 students of theology were gratuitously 
supplied ; the col!6ge de Bons Enfants, founded 
in 1257; d'Harcourt, in 1280 ; and de Navarre, 



58 



COLLEGE 



in 1304. Though they were charitable insti- 
tutions, some of them became so renowned for 
the learning and eloquence of their lecturers 
that nobles and princes of the blood placed 
their children in them. In the university of 
Paris, 15 colleges were founded in the 13th 
century, and the number has since been in- 
creased to about 100, more than half of which 
are of slight importance. Each college be- 
came a distinct faculty, having lectures and dis- 
putations only in a single department, and the 
university was a collection of colleges, each 
of which gave instruction exclusively in one 
branch of learning. The colleges in the Eng- 
lish universities assumed at first a different 
character, being not designed to confer instruc- 
tion, but to administer royal or private munifi- 
cence in aiding students through the uni- 
versity. The task of instruction was, however, 
gradually transferred from the university to 
the colleges, till at present the former retains 
only such general powers as the conferring of 
degrees or other honors. Each college, instead 
of limiting its instructions to one department, 
assumes the entire task of qualifying its mem- 
bers for degrees. The funds support a certain 
number of graduates termed fellows, who may 
retain this position for life, unless they inherit 
estates of greater income, or marry ; and there 
are scholarships, exhibitions, and other stipends 
which give entire or partial support to a por- 
tion of the undergraduates, all of whom are 
under the superintendence of tutors. Besides 
those who receive aid from the foundations, 
there are other independent students, who are 
styled, according to their rank and expendi- 
tures, noblemen, fellow commoners, or com- 
moners. Oxford has 20 colleges and 5 halls, 
the latter being merely unendowed boarding 
places, where each student lives at his own ex- 
pense. Cambridge has 17 colleges. Gresham 
college was established in 1575 by Sir Thomas 
Gresham, founder of the royal exchange. The 
lectures commenced, after his death, in his 
own house near Broad street, in June, 1597 ; 
and there, too, the founders of the royal so- 
ciety met in 1645. After the destruction of 
this building in 1768, the lectures were con- 
tinued in a room over the royal exchange. 
On Nov. 2, 1843, the present edifice in Ba- 
flinghall street was opened. It is only within 
the last 50 years that collegiate establishments 
belonging to Roman Catholics and dissenters 
have enjoyed the privilege of obtaining aca- 
demic degrees for their pupils, without having 
to subscribe to the thirty-nine articles. An 
attempt to remedy this injustice, and to provide 
a complete university and scientific education 
for the inhabitants of the metropolis, led to 
the founding of University college, King's 
college, and the university of London. The 
project originated with the poet Campbell and 
Lord Brougham. The latter in 1825 intro- 
duced a bill into parliament for incorporating 
the university of London, which was lost. 
The next step was to found and organize the 



institution at first named London university. 
The deed of settlement was dated Feb. 11, 
1826 ; the building in Gower street was com- 
menced April 30, 1827, the first stone being 
laid by the duke of Sussex ; and it was opened 
by an inaugural lecture from Prof. Bell, Oct. 1, 
1828. As the course of instruction was free 
to persons of every creed, and did not embrace 
positive religious teaching, a warm and persis- 
tent opposition was at once set on foot by 
members of the church of England, supported 
by Oxford and Cambridge, and even by roy- 
alty itself. George IV. gave toward the foun- 
dation of a rival establishment the ground on 
which stood the east wing of Somerset house. 
The new college, named after him King's col- 
lege, was incorporated by royal charter Aug. 
14, 1829, and opened Oct. 8, 1831. Every 
effort made to obtain a charter for London 
university proved ineffectual until Nov. 28, 
1836, when two charters were granted by 
William IV., one to London university, th< 
name of which was now changed to Universit, 
college, and the other establishing the univer- 
sity of London. This latter obtained a new 
charter in 1837, empowering it to confer de- 
grees on the pupils of King's college, as well 
as those of University college and all other 
like proprietary collegiate institutions in Eng- 
land. These powers have again and again 
been enlarged, and the university of London 
is now (1873) represented in parliament by 
Robert Lowe, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Among the many colleges which at the present 
time are connected with it in the British isl- 
ands and colonies, the following may be men- 
tioned : Manchester Independent college, found- 
ed for educating persons of the Independent 
persuasion ; the Owens college at Manches- 
ter, from which theological instruction is ex- 
cluded ; Manchester New college, belonging to 
the Unitarians; the Catholic colleges of Stoney- 
hurst, Lancashire (known as a first-rate scien- 
tific as well as classical school), and St. Cuth- 
bert's, Ushaw, Durham county, the rival of 
Stoneyhurst, and in which the historian Lingard 
counted among his pupils the late Cardinal Wise- 
man and the late Rev. John Larkin. Colleges 
in France are now a grade of public schools, 
corresponding nearly to the gymnasia of Ger- 
many, and educating pupils between about the 
ages of 10 and 18. They are either state or 
communal, according as they are sustained by 
the funds of the state or of particular cities. 
There are 83 of the former class (termed ly- 
ceums since 1850), including 5 in Paris, under 
the direction of an inspector appointed by the 
academy ; and 253 of the latter, superintended 
by the minister of public instruction. The 
course of study embraces religion, the French, 
Latin, and Greek languages, one or two foreign 
modern languages, philosophy, history, geog- 
raphy, mathematics, the natural sciences, and 
drawing. The college of France, founded by 
Francis I. in 1530, presents a system of instruc- 
tion hardly surpassed in vastness by any uni- 



COLLEGE 



59 



versity. Its origin was due to the impulse 
given to learning in the "West by the labors of 
exiled Greeks from Constantinople, and to the 
solicitations of Guillaume Bude, a disciple of 
Johannes Lascaris. Its professors have always 
borne the name of lecteurs royaux. At first 
having chairs of but three ancient languages, it 
has now 28 professors and distinct courses, em- 
bracing astronomy, mathematics, mathematical 
physics, experimental physics, medicine, com- 
parative embryology, chemistry, natural history 
of organic and of inorganic bodies, the law of 
nature and of nations, comparative legislation, 
political economy, the ethics of history, archae- 
ology, the Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syriac, Arabic, 
Persian, and Turkish languages, the Chinese, 
Mantchoo Tartar, Sanskrit, and Greek languages 
and literatures, Latin poetry and eloquence, 
Greek and Latin philosophy, the mediaeval and 
the modern French languages and literature, 
the foreign modern European languages and 
literatures, and the Slavic languages and litera- 
tures. All these courses are gratuitous. Among 
the distinguished men who have taught in this 
college are Gassendi, Tournefort, Lalande, De- 
lambre, Cuvier, Ampere, Thenard, Batteux, 
Eollin, De Guignes, Delille, Andrieux, Syl- 
vestre de Sacy, and Abel Remusat. This col- 
lege and the jardin des plantes are almost the 
only establishments of public instruction in 
France which survived the tumults of the first 
revolution. Besides the colleges under the 
direct control of the university, there are in 
France a large number of proprietary colleges, 
denominated colleges libres according to the 
law of 1850. The great majority were founded 
by the clergy ; but not a few are under exclu- 
sive lay government. Among the latter class 
are the colleges Ste. Barbe, Stanislas, Rollin, 
and Juilly ; among the former we may mention 
the college Ste. Genevieve, belonging to the 
Jesuits, and the college de Yaugirard, both of 
high excellence in scientific and classical edu- 
cation, as well as the college des Cannes, 
which under the late Bishop Cruice had the 
reputation of one of the best scientific schools 
in Paris. In Rome many colleges have been 
founded for the purpose of training able mis- 
sionaries for the various nations of the globe. 
The college of the Propaganda was founded in 
1627 by Urban VIII., for the education of young 
men of every color and nationality. The col- 
legia Romano was built in 1582 by Gregory 
XIII., and has ever been exclusively under the 
management of the Jesuits ; besides the splen- 
did library and the Kircherian museum, the 
Roman observatory is also attached to this 
college, and under the direction of Fathers de 
Vico and Secchi has rendered important services 
to modern science. There are moreover the 
collegium Germanicum, the English, Irish, and 
Scotch colleges, and two founded by Pius IX., 
the collegium Americanum for natives of the 
United States, and the collegium Eispano- 
Americanum for natives of Spanish America. 
"When a separate college contains within itself 



all the faculties and privileges of a university, 
it is often designated by the latter name, and 
therefore the terms college and university are 
in many cases used indiscriminately. Thus 
Trinity college in Dublin is also called a uni- 
versity, and there is no fixed distinction be- 
tween colleges and universities in the usage of 
the United States. All American colleges con- 
fer degrees in the arts, and the older and more 
flourishing of them have faculties and give in- 
struction also either in medicine, divinity, or 
law, or in a few instances in all the professional 
studies. (Particular accounts of colleges are 
given under their names in special articles. 
See also UNIVERSITY.) The following table, ar- 
ranged in the alphabetical order of the states, 
presents a general view of the universities, 
colleges, and collegiate departments in the 
United States in 1872, as reported by the 
United States bureau of education, omitting 
however many institutions of little importance. 
The list reported by that department com- 
prises 298 institutions, and the names of 52 
others were given from which no information 
had been received. Many of these institutions, 
though classified as colleges, are doubtless such 
only in name, being in fact merely ordinary 
high schools; but owing to the great diffi- 
culties of classification, the results here given 
possess as high a degree of accuracy as can 
practically be attained. Many of the colleges 
in the list have professional schools connected 
with them which are not included in the re- 
sults given. Business colleges and institutions 
for the superior instruction of females, as well 
as technical and professional schools, are also 
excluded. For each institution having a pre- 
paratory school, the statistics for that depart- 
ment and for the collegiate department proper 
are presented separately. Of the 298 institu- 
tions reported, 217 report collegiate students 
in attendance. The total number of instructors 
in all the institutions was 3,040, and of students 
45,628, including 19,476 in the preparatory 
courses, 19,260 in collegiate courses, 6,694 un- 
classified, and 198 resident or post-graduate 
students. Among the students were 5,680 fe- 
males, of whom 4,261 were in the preparatory 
and 1,419 in the collegiate department. The 
course of study in 209 of these institutions is 
reported to be four years, in 9 three years, in 7 
two years, and in 25 more than four years, in- 
cluding evidently the preparatory and collegiate 
courses ; while 48 make no report of the num- 
ber of years in the course. At the last com- 
mencement the degree of A. B. was conferred 
in course upon 1,963 persons, the degree of 
A. M. in course upon 746, and various honor- 
ary degrees were conferred upon 341. There 
were, however, 124 institutions that made no 
report of the degrees conferred in course. In 
Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Louisiana, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, 
Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington 
territory, no institutions are reported to have 
conferred the degree of A. B. 



60 



COLLEGE 



TABLE OF COLLEGES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Date of organization. 


Denomination. 


Professors and in- 
structors. 


Number of students unclassified. 


Prepar'y 
Depart. 


No. of students collegiate dep't. 


Volumes in library. 


Whole number of faculty. 


"c 


fc 


1 


j 


Endowed professorships. 


I 

! 


, 




Greensborough, Ala 
Marion, Ala 
Spring Hill, Ala... 
Tuscaloosa, Ala 
Little Eock, Ark.. 

Benicia, Cal 


1887 
1829 
1831 

1857 

1868 
1867 
1855 

isr>r> 

1S68 

1859 
1868 
1851 
1852 
1861 
1870 
1823 
1831 
1700 
1870 
1801 
1888 
1888 
1855 
1857 

1866 
1867 
1859 
1870 
1852 
1854 
1872 
1857 
1841 
1880 
1828 
1866 
1856 
1861 
1835 
1867 
1855 


Methodist Episcopal. . 
Baptist 


13 

10 


10 










'6 


120 


'i 
'6 

2 

4 
4 


'46' 
"6" 

102 

65 
45 
149 
300 
200 
90 
40 
80 


95 
150 
112 


10.000 
1,200 
5,000 
2,000 




8t Joseph's College 


Eoman Catholic 
None 


1C 
11 
<\ 


16 
11 
8 




1 


9 





i 




11 




University of Alabama 
St John's College 


Masonic 


Missionary College of St. Au- 


Protestant Episcopal. 
Eoman Catholic 


5 


4 
,\ 


1 


& 


2 








29 

147 

150 
18 
90 




St Vincent's College 


Los Angeles, Cal... 
Oakland, Cal 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Santa Clara, Cal... 
San Jose, Cal 
Santa Eosa, Cal.... 
Vacaville, Cal 
Hartford, Conn. . . . 
Middletown, Conn. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Newark Del 


1,000 
3,000 
5,200 
1,400 


University of California 


State 


18 












59 


St Ignatius College 


Eoman Catholic 


19 
12 
2:5 
9 
15 
B 


11 

S 
23 
6 
6 

^ 


8 
4 

'6 

4 










G 
10 
3 
3 
8 


St. Mary's College 


10 
3 
6 

8 
7 








University College 


Presbyterian 
Eoman Catholic . ... 


2 

2 

& 
2 








2,000 
10,000 


Santa Clara College 









University of the Pacific . . 


Methodist Episcopal . 


Pacific Methodist College 


Meth.Epis. South.... 
Baptist 


9 


6 












"68 


3 


110 


50 


500 
1,000 
15,000 
22,000 
86,000 
6,000 
20,000 
5,000 
3,000 


California College 


Trinity College 


Protestant Episcopal.. 
Methodist 


17 
13 
57 
5 
1 


8 
7 
52 
5 


9 
2 

16 

2 






1 








88 
190 
517 
12 
255 
82 
189 
76 


Wesleyan University. .' 


2 
2 


16 

1 


7 
4 





io 


"93 
55 


Yale College 


Congregational 


Delaware College 


State 


University of Georgia. 


Athens, Ga 
Macon, Ga 


State 




7 


Mercer University 


Baptist 


B 


















Oxford Ga 


Meth. Epis. South 
Disciples. 


6 
g 


6 


'6 


G 
9 


'i 





.... 


i 


50 


Abingdon College 


Abingdon, 111 


Illinois Wesleyan University.. 
St. Viatur's College 


Bloomington, 111... 
Bourbonnais Grove, 
111. 


Methodist Episcopal. . 

Eoman Catholic 
Presbyterian 


10 
*? 


10 

13 

7 





10 





3 




5 


175 


102 
150 


1,500 


Blackburn University 


Carlinville. Ill 
Chicago, 111 




7 




5 




5 
'2 

's 

> 

c, 


196 
154 
23 

'806 
60 
101 


79 
75 
44 
216 
146 


1,000 


Chicago University 


Baptist 
Eoman Catholic 
Disciples 

Methodist 


13 
10 

i 


10 

's 

R 


'6 
'6 


3 
6 

'a 


2 

2 

'6 


'6 
'i 


52 
'i28 


St Ignatius College. 




5,000 

' 22,666' 


Eureka College 


Eureka, 111 
Evanston 111. 


Northwestern University 
Freeport College 


Freeport, 111 


Presbyterian 


Lombard University 


Galesburg, 111 

Jacksonville, 111... 
Lebanon, 111 
Lincoln 111 


Universalist. 




i 


s 












Knox College 
Illinois College 




15l 














127 
234 
126 
87 
140 
128 
103 
174 
22 

142 
60 


61 
25 
189 
44 
121 
22 
46 
41 
44 
211 
89 
88 
17ft 


6,200 
8,000 
8,000 
2,000 
2,000 
600 
4,250 
300 
8,000 
6,000 
12,000 
3,000 


Methodist Episcopal.. 
Cumb'd Presbyterian. 
United Presbyterian. . 
Evangelical Associat'n 
Baptist 
Unit'dBreth. in Christ 


18 

6 
7 
9 
8 
12 
5 
10 
24 
8 


G 
6 
4 

5 
12 
5 

B 
24 

R 


2 


1 

3 
1 



2 



3 

I 


2 

1 


4 


5 


.... 


4 
3 
4 

7 
5 
3 


McKendree College 


Lincoln University 


Monmouth College 


Monmouth, 111. . . . 
Naperville, 111 
Upper Alton, 111... 
Westfield, 111 
Wheaton 111 


Northwestern College. . . 


7 

15 

'ft, 


1 

'2 
1 


'G 


3 


'.'.'.'. 


Shurtleff College 


Westfield College 


Wheaton College 


Indiana University 


Bloomington, Ind. . 
Crawfordsville, Ind 
Fort Wayne, Ind.. 
Greencastle, Ind. . . 
Hanover, Ind 
Hartsville, Ind.... 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 
Kokoma, Ind 
Merom, Ind 
Moore's Hill, Ind.. 
Notre Dame, Ind. . 
Eichmond,Ind.... 
Burlington, Iowa. . 
Fayette, Iowa 
Grinnell, Iowa 
Iowa City, Iowa. . . 
Mt. Pleasant, Iowa 
Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 
Pella,Iowa 
Tabor, Iowa 
Baldwin City, Kan. 
Lawrence, Kan .... 
Danville, Ky 
Georgetown, Ky. 


1828 
1834 
1850 
1835 
1833 
1854 
1854 
1869 
1858 

1842 
1859 
1853 
1853 
1843 
1860 
1855 
1857 
1854 
1866 
1857 
1864 
1819 


None 




'5 


Wabash College 


Presbyterian 


Concordia College 


Lutheran. 


4 














Indiana Asbury University 
Hanover College 


Methodist Episcopal . . 
Presbyterian 


9 9 

7 7 




'a 


1 
1 


7 
3 


196 




2 
3 
4 


44 
110 

100 


74 

7 
81 
69 


7,000 
503 
5,000 


Harts ville University 


United Brethren 
Disciples 


7 
16 


5 

1 r > 





9 




a 






Northwestern Christian Univ. 
Howard College 


a 




None 


B 






4 








Union Christian College 


Christian 


4 


\ 




7 






6 
46 


3 

io 

4 
1 


147 
130 
155 
101 
10 


9 

12 

58 
66 
41 
38 
31 
131 
129 
20 
18 
18 
44 
27 
57 
94 
173 
175 
79 

63 
62 


400 
840 
12,000 
3.300 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 
4,500 
2,500 
4,000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 

5,666' 
' 20,666' 

1,000 
800 


Moore's Hill College . . 


Methodist Episcopal.. 
Eoman Catholic 
Friends (Orthodox). . . 
Baptist 


5 5 

3585 
6 6 
5! 2 
1010 
10 5 
3210 
9 9 
18 8 
7 * 


'6 

3 


5 
2G 
7 
5 






University of Notre Dame 
Earlham's College 


Burlington University 
Upper Iowa University 








Methodist Episcopal. . 
Congregational 
None 






74 


Iowa College . . 


'<j 

'6 


12 
5 
5 
Q 


2 


2 


42 


7 


170 


Iowa State University.. . 


Iowa Wesleyan University 
Cornell College 


Methodist Episcopal.. 
Baptist 


'6 


'i 


"56 


'5 

2 


98 
262 
105 
161 


Central University of Iowa 
Tabor College.... " 
Baker University 


Congregational 
Methodist Episcopal . . 
State 


B 

8 

<,' 


5 

G 


6 

2 


G 




i 






1 




21 
"12 




State University 


'3 
1 


"so 

41 


Centre College 






,, 




,, 




'3 

8 

'6 


Georgetown College 
Kentucky University 


Baptist 
Disciples 


7 
26 
8 

7 
11 
LC 


7 
26 
G 

7 
7 

w 


'6 
'6 


1 

's 


1 

2 
2 

'6 


Lexington, Ky 
Eussell ville, Ky... 
St. Mary's Station, 
Ky 


1858 
1856 

1821 
1860 
1837 

1859 
1798 


Bethel College... 


Baptist 


St Mary's College 


Eoman Catholic 
None 




1 

7 
1 


14 

47 
15 


Louisiana State University. . . 
St Charles College 


Baton Eouge, La.. 
Grand Coteau, La. . 

New Orleans, La.. 
Brunswick, Me.... 


Eoman Catholic 


4,000 

8,000 
85,000 


College of the Immaculate Con- 
ception 


Eoman Catholic 


9 












?00 


Bowdoin College 


Congregational 


22,16 


G 


4 


i 


12 









136 



COLLEGE 



61 



TABLE OF COLLEGES. Continued. 



NAME. 


Location. 


Date of organization. 


Denomination. 


ProfeMon and in- 
ttructon. 


Number of student* unclassified. 


Prepw'y 
D.pt. 


} 

1 

3 

4 


! 

t 

6,000 
10,000 
8,000 
2.i. mil) 
6,800 
4,000 
8,000 
2,800 
2.600 
88,000 
8,000 
184,000 
12,000 
15,000 
10,000 


> 

~ 

^ 

i 

? 


} 





;. 
\ 

1 

t 
a 


| 

i 

i 

2 


I 

1 

1 


1 

O 

| 
/. 


| 


Bates College 


Lewiston,Me 
Waterville, Me 
Annapolis, Md 
Baltimore, Md 
Ellicott City, Md.. 

Emmettsburg, Md 
Frederick, Md . . . . 
Westminster, Md. 
Amherst, Mass . . . 
Boston, Mass 
Cambridge, Mass. 
College Hill, Mass. 
Williamst'n. Mass. 
Worcester, Mass . . 
Adrian, Mich 
Albion, Mich 
Ann Arbor, Mich.. 
Hillsdale, Mich... 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Olivet, Mich 
Minneapolis, Minn 
Clinton, Miss 
Oxford Miss 


1863 

mo 


Baptist 


7 
7 

8 

8 


4 

: 
c 
u 


i 
'2 


6 

ii 


2 




;;; 


4 


68 

"ei 


96 
52 
64 




Baptist. 




1789 
1858 
1867 

1848 
1808 


State 


Loyola College 


Roman Catholic 


Rock Hill College 
St. Charles College 


State . . . 


22 
12 
20 

v 


14 
12 


8 


'} 


.. 




iso 

161 

88 


s 


110 


46 


Mt. St. Mary's College 






Frederick College 


1797 
1863 
1821 
1864 

1I13S 

1N>5 

1793 

1-43 
1858 
1860 
1841 

1855 
1859 
1868 
1851 
1848 
1870 
1844 
1840 
1871 




21 
78 

268 


Western Maryland College 
Amherst College 


Methodist Protestant 
Congregational 


13 
>\ 


f 


N 
1 


g 




6 

7 




4 


86 


Boston College 


Roman Catholic 


Q 


















Harvard College 


None 


8 

13 
13 
12 

H 


ii 

! 
]( 
K 
( 



2 


12 
17 
1 
3 

i 



2 

8 


13 

5 








637 

n 

119 


Tufts College 


Universalist 
Congregational 
Roman Catholic 


.... 






Williams College 


College of the Holy Cross 
Adrian College 








Methodist 


80 




71 
158 

"74 

121 
123 
196 
184 
138 
210 


26 
20 
85 
178 
90 
820 
450 

175 


82 
83 
892 

"so" 

5i) 
36 
25 

'". 

159 
294 
78 
49 
78 

'52' 
81 
89 

264 
144 
369 
100 
80 

53' 


Albion College 


Methodist Episcopal 


ft 






1 










2^666' 
4,500 
2,100 
4,000 
6,000 
2,000 
5,000 

6.566' 
7,000 


Michigan University 


None 


15 

8 
f| 


15 



d 


15 

13 
5 


'i 


'i 


28 


is 

r. 


Hillsdale College 


Free Baptist... 
Baptist 


Kalamazoo College 


Olivet College ... 


Congrega'l & Presby'n 
State 


13 
11 
10 
19 
10 

9 

1fi 


5 
5 

1! 

i^ 


1 




( 
( 

r 


5 
6 

3 

12 
8 


..; 


4 


.... 


University of Minnesota 
Mississippi College 


Baptist 


2 




'2 
1 
if 
5 


"ei 
"si 


5 

4 

7 
< 

e 

3 


University of Mississippi 
Tougaloo University 


State 


Tougaloo, Miss... 
CapeGirardeau,Mo 
Columbia, Mo 
Fayette, Mo 


Roman Catholic '.'.'.'.'. 
State 


St Vincent's College. .... 


University of Missouri 


Central College 


Meth. Epis. South... 
Presbyterian 


5 

l] 


I 


( 

( 


( 
( 




i 


Westminster College 


Fulton, Mo 
Hannibal Mo 
St. Joseph, Mo.... 
St. Louis, Mo 


1852 
1868 
1867 
1832 


2,600 
400 
600 
24,000 


Hannibal College 
St. Joseph's College. 


Meth. Epis. South... 
Roman Catholic 

None 


5 
10 
20 
41 
25 
33 
23 
1C 
8 

( n 


I 

1! 
24 
IN 
H 
12 
I'- 


( 
11 



I 

r 

i 

18 


( 
'( 

(. 

t 




1 



'(' 

tj 


"56 

8 


2 
3 
3 
22 
15 



10 




Washington University 
College of the Chris'n Brothers 
Dartmouth College 


Hanover, N. H 
NewBrunsw'k,N.J 
Princeton, N. J. . . 
South Orange, N.J 
Alfred N.Y 


1859 
1770 
1771 
1748 
1856 
1830 
1859 
1858 
1870 
1870 
1862 
1812 
1840 
1824 
1832 
1868 
1866 
1847 
1754 
1863 
1831 
1850 
1795 
1871 
1837 

1870 
1833 
1852 
1804 


Roman Catholic 
Congregational 
Reformed 

Presbyterian . 


10,000 
46,000 


Rutgers College 


College of New Jersey 
Seton Hall College 


* 

( 




20,000 
8,000 
6,000 

2,666' 


Roman Catholic 
Baptist 


Alfred University 






938 




90 
"17 


St. Bonaventura College 


Allegany, N. Y. . 
Annandale, N.Y . 
Brooklyn, N. Y. . 
Buffalo, N.^Y... - 

Clinton, N.Y!" '. 
Fordham, N. Y. . 
Geneva, N.Y... . 
Hamilton, N. Y. . 
Ithaca, N. Y 
New York, N.Y . 

n n 

Rochester, N. Y''. 
Schenectady, N.Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y... 
Davidson Vill.,N.C 

Excelsior, KG.... 
Wake Forest, N.C. 
Trinity, N. C 


Roman Catholic 


14 
G 
6 


ll 




'o 


'4 


( 


( 


120 
140 


"o 


St Stephen's College 


St John's College 


Roman Catholic 


Canisius College 
St. Joseph's College. 




10 


q 


1 














71 

iei ' 

63 
44 

113 
506 


2,000 
1,500 
12,000 
15,000 
13.0UO 
10,454 
85,000 
21,000 
16,000 
15.0UO 
6,500 
8,046 
11,000 
18,000 
1.563 
6,000 


Presbyterian 


14 
12 
24 

12 
49 
15 
34 
9 
10 
35 
9 
15 
9 


13 
11 
23 
6 
11 
21 
15 
22 
8 

9 

35 
9 
15 

N 

7 


li 


K 
11 

( 

i^ 

3< 

I 

| 
11 

( 


f 


( 

'i 

u 

22 



( 

( 
( 
1 






's 
1 
5 
4 

6 
I 

1 

( 


231 


4 


150 


Hamilton College 


St. John's College 


Roman Catholic 
Protestant Episcopal. 
Baptist 







70 


Hobart College 






4 


46 


Cornell University 




College of the City of N. Y. . . . 
College of St. Francis Xavier. . 
Columbia College 






30 
13 


540 
867 


844 
90 
124 

85 
57 
148 
119 
104 
96 

234 
100 
107 
40 
98 
69 
61 
194 
51 
61 

'52 
K 

87 

153 
141 

7- 


Roman Catholic 


Manhattan College 


Roman Catholic 
None 




M 


680 


University of City of N. Y 
University of Rochester 


Baptist 


3 

12 


6 






Union College 


None 


4 


.... 




Methodist Episcopal. 


Davidson College 


(1 


9 






Rutherford Male and Female 
College 


None 


5 


I 


, 




? 







1 


18 


Wake Forest College 


Baptist 


6 
( 

5 


5 

4 


! 


1 
I 


i 



1 


( 
( 




8.000 
6,000 
5,000 
1,000 

10.000 

10,000 
13,060 
12,000 
11,000 
2,500 
10,000 
600 
24,000 
8,500 
11,000 
9,000 


Trinity College 


Meth. Epis. South... 


.... 


3 

1 

'4 

3 

e 

2 
3 
2 
4 
K 
1 


18 
28 
67 
84 
2fi 
211 
1 
IOC 
30'2 
44 
IOC 
7C 
181 
688 
2 


Ohio University 


Baldwin University 


Berea, Ohio 
Cincinnati, Ohio . 

Delaware, Ohio. . 
Gambier, Ohio. . . 
Gran ville, Ohio.. . 
Hiram, Ohio 


185C 

1>32 
1851 
1845 
1826 
isrtl 

IShf 

1827 


Methodist Episcopal. 
Roman Catholic 
" " 
Methodist Episcopal! 
Protestant Episcopal 
Baptist 
Christian 


10 
18 
6 
11 
5 
9 

7 
3 
10 
17 
29 

r> 


9 
1 

6 

7 
5 
7 

7 
3 
7 
11 
12 
1 


i 

"i 
1 

3 


ij 


J 
's 

3 
2 
8 



1 
1 

"G 


i 


97 
214 

"ii 


St. Xavier College . 


Mt. St. Mary's of the West. . . . 
Ohio Wesleyan University 
Kenyon College. . . . 


Denison University 


.! 

( 



'3 

14 


Hiram College 


Western Reserve College 
Ohio Central College 
Marietta College 


Hudson, Ohio 
Iberia Ohio. . .. 


United Presbyterian. 


Marietta, Ohio.... 
Mount Union,0hio 
Oberlin, Ohio 
Oxford, Ohio 
Scio, Ohio 


1885 
1853 
1S33 
1624 
1859 


Mount Union College 


Methodist Episcopal. 
Congregational 
State 


Oberlin College . ... 


Miami University 


" One Study " University 


Methodist Episcopal.. 


13 


1 


4 












"I*" 



62 



COLLEGE 



TABLE OF COLLEGES. Continued. 



NAME. 


Location. 


1 
5 


Denomination. 


Professors and in- 
structors. 


1 

- 

& 


Prepar'y 
Depart. 


I 

1 

s 



* 


J 
1 


1 

* 

1 
t 


i 

2 


! 
1 
I 


e 

2 
1 


H 


i 

I 

"3 



8 

1 

to 


1 


Wittenberg College 


Springfield Ohio 




Evangelical Lutheran. 
Reformed 
Presbyterian 


p 

5 
9 
7 
7 
6 
D 


5 
5 
9 
5 

7 
5 


'2 

'6 


( 


2 
1 

'4 


5 

'6 


""i 

24 

85 
96 

5?, 


ff 

r 
i 

8 


66 
83 
35 
94 
26 
50 
46 
79 
190 
82 
163 


79 
61 
134 
5 
88 
16 
13 
126 
42 
66 
25 
87 
OVT 


8,000 
4,000 
2,500 
3,000 
850 
5,000 
5,000 


Heidelberg College 
University of Wooster 


Tiffin, Ohio 
Wooster, Ohio 
Xenia, Ohio 

Yell'w Springs, O.. 
Forest Grove.Oreg 
Monmouth, Oreg. 
Salem, Oreg 


1850 
1870 
1856 
1850 
1858 
1859 

is5i 

1848 
1866 
1788 
1832 
1882 
1853 
1847 
1853 
1815 

1852 
1862 
1749 
1819 
1866 
1869 
1802 
1850 
1833 
1846 
1765 
1789 
1806 
1853 
1867 
1868 
1868 


Wilberforce University 


Methodist 
Methodist Episcopal. . 
Unitarian Cong 






Antioch College 


( 
3 


3 


5 






Christian College 




9 

7 
6 
6 
7 
25 
10 
7 
6 
19 
6 












Willamette University 
Muhlenberg College 
Lebanon Valley College 


Methodist Episcopal. . 
Lutheran 


7 
6 
5 
7 
16 
9 
5 
6 
6 
f, 


'6 



3 

1 



8 


'6 



1 
1 


'4 


'i 

2 
2 
5 
3 

2 


i 





5 
2 

2 


2,000 
8,000 

' 80,666' 


Allentown, Pa 
Annville Pa 


United Brethren 
Methodist Episcopal . . 


Dickinson College 

Lafayette College 


Carlisle Pa 












Pennsylvania College 


Gettysburg, Pa... 
Lancaster, Pa 
Lewisburg, Pa 
Lower Oxford, Pa. 
Meadville, Pa 
Myerstown, Pa... 
Wilmington, Pa... 
Philadelphia, Pa. . 

Pittsburgh, Pa...'! 
8. Bethlehem, Pa. 
Swathmore, Pa. . . 
Washington, Pa... 
Waynesburg, Pa.. 
W. Haverford, Pa. 
Westmorel'd co., " 
Providence, B. I.. 
Charleston, S. C... 
Columbia, S. C.... 
Spartanburg, S. C. 
Athens, Tenn 
Bristol, Tenn 
Greenville Tenn . 


Lutheran 


5 

2 
4 



6 
"<o 


2 
2 
3 
4 


47 
42 
71 
89 
46 


74 
72 
73 
85 
53 


18,300 
12,000 
5,000 
3,000 
11,050 
600 
3,000 
8,000 
20,000 
2,700 
2,000 
2,000 
10,000 
1,500 
8,750 
6,000 
42,000 


Franklin and Marshall College. 
Lewisburg University 


German Reformed . . . 
Baptist 


Lincoln University 


Presbyterian 




Methodist 


Palatinate College 




8 












BRR 




United Presbyterian. . 
Roman Catholic 
None 


5 
15 
31 
14 
7 
7 
11 
9 

r> 


5 





1 








4 


41 


85 


La Salle College 






91? 


University of Pennsylvania 
Western University of Penn.. 
Lehigh University 


30 
9 
6 
6 
10 
7 

a 


1 


1 
1 
1 

2 


4 
5 
6 
13 

'9 


'6 



3 


11 

23 
180 


'4 

20 
6 
3 


'iis 

'190 
48 
96 


88 
41 

TO* 
100 
112 
44 
145 
224 


14 


Protestant Episcopal. 
Friends 


Swathmore College 


Washington and Jefferson Col. 
Wayne sburg College 


Presbyterian 
Cumb'd Presbyterian. 
Friends . 


'6 


1 
4 


"68 


Haverford College 


8t Vincent's College 


Roman Catholic 
Baptist 


26 
11 


'q 














36 


Brown University 




a 




4 






College of Charleston 


None 


5 


5 










50 






University of South Carolina. . 
Wofford College 




12 


10 


'?, 


1 






'6 
i 

i 


70 

"ei 
ifw 








27,000 
15,000 
2,200 

5,666" 


Meth.Epi's. South... 
Methodist Episcopal.. 


6 
7 
4 


6 
7 
4 






6 

7 


'i 


2 

'2 
1 


29 

"S5 

87 


92 
80 
86 
12 


E. Tennessee Wesleyan Univer 
King College 


Greenville and Tusculum Col. . 
West Tennessee College 




6 
4 


4 


2 


7 


i 


Jackson Tenn 






East Tennessee University 
Cumberland University 


Knoxville, Tenn.. 
Lebanon, Tenn . . . 
Maryville, Tenn. . . 
Murfreesborough, 
Tenn 


1869 
1842 
1819 

1848 
1866 
1785 
1867 
1868 
1854 
1871 
1846 
1801 
1797 
1824 
1838 
1775 
1871 
1839 
1852 
1693 
1841 
1867 
1847 
1855 
1848 
1867 

1865 

1863 

1865 
1789 
1864 
1822 
1858 
1866 
1870 
1850 


None 


14 


ft 




^ 


i 


ft 




4 
2 
3 


182 

87 
86 


62 
103 
30 


1,200 
1,000 
2,000 


CurnVd Presbyterian . 


22 
g 


5 
R 


2 


7 



4 
1 







Maryville College 


Union University. 


Baptist 


5 












161 


Central Tennessee College 
University of Nashville 


Nashville, Tenn. . . 

u u 

Sewanee, Tenn . . . 
Galveston, Tex... 
Henderson, Tex.. 
Independence,Tex 
Burlington, Vt... 
Middlebury, Vt. . . 
Charlottesville,Va. 
Emory, Va 


Methodist Episcopal.. 
None ... ... 


6 
28 

5 
8 

S 


6 
20 
5 
8 
8 












6 

7 
7 

'4 


241 
221 
33 

'il5 


'si' 
12 

'35' 


450 
10,000 
720 
5,000 
500 







3 


4 










'228 


Fisk University 


H 


University of the South 


Protestant Episcopal.. 


University of St. Mary 


Henderson College 










7 





2 
1 
2 
15 


315 


Baylor University 


Baptist 


8 
14 
7 
19 
5 


5 

8 
7 
15 


3 
5 
1 


2 

2 
8 
4 


1 








.... 


120 
47 
54 
240 
92 
88 
240 
800 
118 

103' 


2,700 
15,000 
12,000 
37,000 
18,580 
7,000 
10,000 
5,000 
9,000 
6,000 


University of Vermont 


None 


Middlebury College 


Congregational 
State 
Meth Epis South 




.. 


"88 


University of Virginia 
Emory and Henry College 
Hampden Sidney College 


Hamp. Sidney, Va. 
Lexington, Va 

Salem, Va 




5 
20 


5 
13 





5 

7 







..... 





Washington & Lee University. 
Virginia Military Institute. . . . 
Koanoke College 




None 


12 
6 
6 
5 


12 
6 
5 








's 

6 


'2 

1 
1 


2 




'?i 


"2 

2 


"32 
85 




College of William and Mary . . 
Bethany College 
West Virginia University. . . 
Beloit College 
Galesville University 


Williamsburg, Va. 
Bethany, W. Va.. 
MorgantVn,W.Va 
Beloit, Wis 
Galesville, Wis.... 
Madison, Wis 
Milton, Wis 
Prairie du Chien, 
Wis 


Episcopal 


Disciples 


State 


islio 

7| 6 
4 4. 


3 



13 
7 


1 




13 
6 




3 

2 


108 
103 
105 
153 
160 


71 
54 
83 

68 
78 


8,000 

7,200 
4,500 
4,600 
1,500 


Congregational 


Methodist Episcopal 


University of Wisconsin 
Milton College ...., 


State 
Seventh-Day Baptist. 

Roman Catholic 


27 
9 


l l 




10 
3 


2 


- 


ISO 


9 
9 


St. John's College 


Racine College 


Racine, Wis 
Ripon, Wis 
Watertown, Wis. . 
Georgetown, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 

Santa F6, N. Mex. 
SaltLakeCVUtah 
Seattle, Wash. Ter. 
Vancouver City, " 


Episcopal 


7 


fi 






1 






10 


155 
150 
102 

'24 
72 
107 


65 
50 

18 
50 
18 
40 


2.500 
3,000 
1,800 
80,000 
600 
5,000 


Northwestern University 
Georgetown College ... . 


Congregational 
Evangelical Lutheran . 
Roman Catholic 
National 


1 

10 

id 


i 

22 
<) 




'2 

2 

2 


11 
2 
19 
1 
2 


4 

'a 

i 


4 



'56 
4 


2 

's 

7 


National Deaf-Mute College... 
Columbian College 


Baptist 


Gonzaga College 
Howard University 


Roman Catholic .... 


Q 








22 
4 


16 


6 


5 


i 





'i 


5 


100 


85 


7,850 
40 
2,205 


Santa F6 University 


Presbyterian 


University of Washington 


Mormon 


8 
2 


8 .. 

21 


IH 


5 .. 




6 
2 


855 
48 


12 


Holy Angels College 


1872 


Roman Catholic 


3 3 .. 






56 







COLLEGE HILL 

COLLEGE HILL, a post village of Hamilton 
co., Ohio, 6 m. N. of Cincinnati, and the seat 
of two institutions of learning, viz. : Farmer's 
college, formerly Carey's academy, founded in 
1846, and having in 1870 4 instructors and 45 
students ; and the Ohio female college, founded 
in 1848, and having in 1870 13 instructors, 130 
students, and a library of 1,000 volumes. 

COLLES, Christopher, an American engineer, 
born in Ireland about 1738, died in New York 
in 1821. He was educated under the care of 
Richard Pococke, the oriental traveller, after 
whose death he emigrated to America, and in 
1773 delivered lectures in New York upon in- 
land lock navigation. He was the designer of 
one of the first steam engines built in the 
country. In 1774 he submitted proposals for 
the construction of a reservoir for the supply 
of the city of New York with water. After- 
ward he gave instruction to the artillery of the 
United States upon the use of projectiles, until 
the arrival of Baron Steuben in 1777, when a 
change was made in the organization of the 
department. In November, 1784, he presented 
a memorial to the New York assembly recom- 
mending that Lake Ontario should be connected 
with the Hudson by means of canals and other 
improvements. He surveyed the obstructions 
in the Mohawk river, and the results of the 
survey were published in 1785. He also pub- 
lished an elaborate pamphlet in regard to in- 
land navigation. The revolution having pre- 
vented the construction of the reservoir which 
he had projected, he offered to undertake the 
supply of New York from outside of the city 
by means of pipes, and was probably the first 
person who drew attention to the subject. He 
personally explored the roads of the state of 
New York and published a book describing 
them. He exhibited much ingenuity in a great 
variety of employments, but was always poor. 
At length he was appointed superintendent of 
the academy of fine arts in New York. He was 
the friend of Hamilton, Jefferson, and other 
eminent men, and was honored as the original 
suggester of the canal system of New York. 

COLLETOff, a S. county of South Carolina, 
bordering on the Atlantic, bounded S. W. by 
the Combahee river; area, 1,672 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 25,410, of whom 16,492 were colored. 
The Edisto, Ashepoo, and Salkehatchie are the 
principal rivers. Much of the land is flat, 
alluvial, and swampy ; the drier parts are fer- 
tile. The palmetto and cabbage palm are here 
indigenous. The South Carolina and the Sa- 
vannah and Charleston railroads traverse the 
county. The chief productions in 1870 were 
207,927 bushels of Indian corn, 52,825 of 
sweet potatoes, 2,335 bales of cotton, 8,742,271 
Ibs. of rice, and 1,040 hhds. of sugar (all that 
was produced in the state except 15 hhds.). 
There were 1,679 horses, 4,264 milch cows, 
6,237 other cattle, 3,314 sheep, and 17,508 
swine. Capital Waterborough. 

COLLETOflf, James, a colonial governor of 
South Carolina. He was appointed in 1686, 
210 VOL. v. 5 



COLLIER 



63 



during the attempt to carry out Locke's con- 
stitution, and in the interest of the lords pro- 
prietors, one of whom was his brother. He 
received with his appointment the dignity of 
landgrave and 48,000 acres of land. On his 
arrival he found the colonial parliament un- 
willing to recognize the constitution, and he at 
once excluded the refractory members. A 
new assembly was elected in 1687, in avowed 
opposition to the governor, and the people re- 
sisted his collection of quitrents. The assem- 
bly imprisoned his secretary, seized the rec- 
ords, and defied the governor and his patrons. 
In 1689 Colleton, pretending danger from 
Spaniards and Indians, called out the militia 
and declared martial law ; but as the militia 
were the people themselves, this effort was 
futile. In 1690 William and Mary were pro- 
claimed, and the representatives of South Caro- 
lina deposed Colleton and banished him. 

COLLETTA, Pietro, a Neapolitan patriot, born 
in Naples, Jan. 23, 1775, died in Florence, 
Nov. 11, 1831. He was an officer of artillery 
and civil engineer, took an active part in poli- 
tics during the French invasion of Naples, dis- 
tinguished himself in the army under Joseph 
Bonaparte, and was made by Murat in 1808 
intendant of Calabria, and in 1812 general and 
director of bridges and public roads. When 
the Bourbons returned to power, he was for 
some time imprisoned. On the outbreak of 
the revolution of 1820 he was sent as vice- 
roy to Sicily, but was soon recalled and ap- 
pointed minister of war. After the Austrian 
intervention he was banished to Brunn in 
Moravia, but afterward he was permitted to 
reside in Florence. He wrote Storia del reame 
di Napoli dal 1734 sino al 1825 (2 vols., Ca- 
polago, 1834; 2d ed., 4 vols., 1837; English 
translation by S. Horner, with a supplementa- 
ry chapter, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1858). 

COLLIER, Arthur, an English clergyman, born 
at Langford Steeple, Wiltshire, in 1680, died 
in 1732. He was rector of Langford, a living 
which had belonged successively to his great- 
grandfather, grandfather, and father. In 1713 
he published a work entitled Clavis Universalis, 
maintaining the non-existence and the impossi- 
bility of the existence of any objects external 
to the mind. Berkeley had three years before 
advanced incidentally a similar theory, but the 
two philosophers appear to have had no knowl- 
edge of each other. Collier was inferior to his 
contemporary rather in the graces of composi- 
tion than in acuteness or method; and yet, 
while Berkeley's publication produced a pro- 
found impression, the Clavis Universalis at- 
tracted not the slightest attention in England. 
In Germany a copious and able abstract of its 
contents was given in 1717, in a supplemental 
volume of the Acta Eruditorum, and in 1756 
a complete translation of it into German was 
made by Eschenbach. Thus rendered acces- 
sible in Germany, Collier has enjoyed among 
the thinkers of that country high repute for 
talent and originality. The best view of his 



COLLIER 



COLLIERY 



doctrines, as compared with those of Berke- 
ley, is that given by Tennemann. Reid was 
the first to call attention to the Clavis Uni- 
versalis in England; and in 1837 it was pub- 
lished in London as part of the contents of 
a volume of metaphysical tracts, which had 
been prepared for the press by Dr. Parr. In 
the same year the memoirs of his life and 
writings, by Robert Benson, appeared in Lon- 
don. The Clavis was subsequently reprinted 
in Edinburgh. Other publications of Collier 
were the "Specimen of True Philosophy" 
(1713), the "Logology " (1732), and two con- 
troversial sermons. In religion he was an 
Arian, and also a high churchman on grounds 
which his associates could not understand. 

COLLIER, Jeremy, an English nonjuring clergy- 
man, born at Stow Qui, Cambridgeshire, Sept. 
23, 1650, died in London, April 26, 1726. He 
was educated at Caius college, Cambridge, and 
became successively chaplain to the countess 
dowager of Dorset, rector of Ampton in Suf- 
folk, and in 1685 lecturer of Gray's Inn, Lon- 
don. Upon the revolution he engaged in con- 
troversy with Bishop Burnet and others, and 
opposed the new organization of church and 
state during many years in numerous pam- 
phlets, which were written with great ability. 
He was imprisoned for a short time in 1688 for 
a publication in favor of the dethroned mon- 
arch. He was again arrested in 1692 on the 
Kentish coast, on the supposition that he was 
in communication with the Jacobites across 
the channel, and refusing to acknowledge the 
jurisdiction of the court by putting in bail, he 
was again imprisoned, but was finally released 
without trial. In 1696, when Friend and Par- 
kyns were condemned for plotting to assassi- 
nate King William, Collier attended the pris- 
oners in Newgate, accompanied them to the 
gallows at Tyburn, and there gave them absolu- 
tion. The result was that a warrant was issued 
for his arrest, but he made his escape, and it 
could not be executed. From his hiding place 
he published a defence of his conduct, which 
immediately received many answers, one of 
which was signed by the two archbishops and 
all the bishops then in London, 12 in number. 
He again refused to acknowledge the jurisdic- 
tion of the court by putting in bail, and suffered 
sentence of outlawry, which was not reversed 
during the remainder of his life. He pub- 
lished in 1697 the first volume of his "Essays 
upon several Moral Subjects," and in the next 
year his " Short View of the Immorality and 
Profaneness of the English Stage." The latter 
engaged him in a lively controversy with Con- 
greve and Vanbrugh, and the wits of the time. 
The discussion lasted ten years, and contributed 
decidedly to the improvement of the English 



stage. Among his later publications were a 
translation of Moreri's " Historical Dictionary " 
(1701-'21), an "Ecclesiastical History of Great 
Britain " (1708-'14), two additional volumes of 
"Essays upon Moral Subjects," and a volume 
of "Practical Discourses" (1725). 



COLLIER, John Payne, an English author and 
commentator on Shakespeare, born in London 
in 1789. He studied law, and was for several 
years parliamentary reporter for the " Morn- 
ing Chronicle " newspaper. He published in 
journals and reviews criticisms and annota- 
tations on the old English poets, in 1820 the 
"Poetical Decameron," a series of dialogues 
on the poets chiefly of the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I., and in 1825 a poem entitled the 
" Poet's Pilgrimage." In 1825-'7 he edited a 
new edition of Dodsley's "Old Plays," adding 
11 additional plays to it. In 1831 appeared his 
" History of English Dramatic Poetry," contain- 
ing a great variety of information collected from 
original sources. Many valuable collections, 
such as the library of the duke of Devonshire 
and that of Lord Ellesmere, were in conse- 
quence of this publication opened to his re- 
searches. In Lord Ellesmere's collection of 
MSS. he found most of the materials for his 
series of " New Facts" and "Further Particu- 
lars " concerning Shakespeare and his works, 
published between 1835 and 1839. In 1844 he 
completed the publication of a new life of 
Shakespeare, and a new edition of his works, 
for which he had collected materials during 20 
years, the text being founded on a new colla- 
tion of the old editions. In 1852 he publish- 
ed " Notes and Emendations " to the text of 
Shakespeare, from early manuscript correc- 
tions on the margin of a recently discovered 
copy of the folio of 1632, and the next year a 
new edition of the plays, with the text regu- 
lated by collation of this folio and of other old 
editions. These publications excited much in- 
terest and discussion concerning the date and 
authority of the manuscript corrections. Mr. 
Collier has been a zealous member of both the 
Camden and Shakespeare societies, for which 
he has edited several interesting works, as the 
"Memoirs of Edward Alleyn" (1841), the 
" Diary of Philip Henslowe " (1845), "Memoirs 
of the principal Actors in Shakespeare's Plays " 
(1846), and "Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers' Company from 1557 to 1580 " 
(1848-'9). In 1865 he published a "Biblio- 
graphical Account of Rare Books" (2 vols.), 
and in 1866 commenced a series of reprints of 
the early English poets and pamphleteers. He 
receives an annual pension from the crown of 
100, granted by Sir Robert Peel. 

COLLIERY, a term applied to coal-mining 
establishments, including the mines, buildings, 
and machinery employed. In their simplest 
form, as now seen in the Alleghany coal field, 
where the strata lie nearly horizontal, and 
generally in the hills or mountains above the 
level of the streams, or common water level, 
the collieries employ little or no machinery ; 
but at the deep and extensive mines of the 
Pennsylvania anthracite fields, and in the older 
mining districts of Europe, these establish- 
ments are of immense proportions, employing 
hundreds of hands and a vast capital. Primi- 
tively, the process of digging coal and other 



COLLIERY 



65 



minerals consisted in simply removing the sur- 
face earth, and quarrying the coal on the out- 
crops of the beds, and this was continued even 
to a late day. The most notable instance of 
modern surface coal mining was at the old 
Summit mines of the Lehigh, where the great 





FIG. 1. The Great Open Quarry of Anthracite, Summit Hill, 
Mauch Chunk Mountain, Pa. 

Mammoth bed was uncovered to the extent of 
30 acres, and produced 2,000,000 tons of coal 
up to 1847, when it was abandoned. The 
great bed, which was nearly 70 ft. thick at 
this place, formed an anticlinal with the axis 
near the surface where the quarry was opened. 
A tree which had grown over this spot and 
extended its roots into the coal bed below, 
having been uprooted by the wind, revealed 
the coal to a huitter, who reported the discov- 
ery, and from this grew the famous Lehigh 
coal mines. From 
the quarry method, 
the next step in ad- 
vance introduced the 
art of mining, or 
under-ground work, 
and the establishment 
of collieries. Where 
the coal beds ex- 
isted above water level, or near the surface, 
rude excavations were made into the bed; 
where they were small, simple galleries were 
formed in the solid coal from 4 to 12 ft. wide, 
with arched top and without timber. At the 
old Butterknowle workings on the southwest 
outcrops of the Newcastle (English) coal field, 
these galleries are three yards wide, with 
square pillars of coal of equal dimensions on 
each side. These mines are supposed to be 
200 years old, and are from 40 to 50 ft. deep. 
In the Richmond, Va., coal field, galleries of 
the same character are found, driven at right 
angles to each other between square pillars, 
or at random when in faulty ground. These 
works are also in shallow pits, as all the coal 
of that field exists below the water level. 
They are apparently more than 100 years old, 
and are situated at Springfield on the N". E. 



FIG. 2. Mammoth Coal Bed 
a. The great quarry on the 
Mammoth coal 



edge of the Richmond coal field, where trees 
over 100 years of age were found during the 
year 1857 growing on the heaps of waste ex- 
tracted from them. The most noted of these 
in the Pennsylvania anthracite fields were on 
the outcrops of the Mammoth, locally known 
as the Baltimore bed, near Wilkesbarre, and 
on the B bed, known as Smith's bed, below 
Plymouth, in the lower end of the Wyoming 
valley. These excavations were large, corre- 
sponding to the size of these great beds, and 
wide enough to admit horses and wagons to 
drive in and turn in the rooms or galleries thus 
formed. All or most of the coal of England 
and Belgium exists below water level, and is 
mined by pits. Until the application of steam 
for general purposes in 1800, both coal and 
water were raised from these mines by horse 
power or by women ; and this was continued 
even up to 1845, when the employment of 
women in the mines was prohibited by act 
of parliament. During 1842, 2,400 girls and 
women were at work in the mines of Scotland 
alone, mostly employed in conveying the coal 
to the surface. In some favored localities near 




Fio. 3. The old Baltimore Mines. 

the streams, water power was made use of for 
pumping; in others, horse wains or gins and 
sometimes hand windlasses were used to raise 
both coal and water; but more frequently 
women were employed as beasts of burden, 
not only to convey the coal along the low 
entries, in which they could not stand upright, 
but also up long lengths of ladders from the bot- 
tom of small pits to the surface. The work 
that was performed by women in these old 
collieries is almost incredible. Robert Bald, in 
his " General View of the Coal Trade of Scot- 
land " (1808), says : " We have seen a woman 
take on a load of 170 pounds of coal and 
travel with this up the dip of the bed, 150 
yards, and then ascend a pit by stairs or lad- 
ders 117 ft., no less than 24 times during a day 
of 10 hours." Formerly the colliers of Eng- 
land were practically serfs, and kept in a state 
of bondage to the proprietors of the collieries 
where they were born. They were held to be 
part of the establishment for carrying on the 
coal mines, and if the mines were leased the 
colliers were included in the lease. In the 



COLLIERY 



habeas corpus act it was declared " that this 
present act was in no way to be extended to 
colliers and salters." But in 1775 an act of 
parliament declared that colliers and salters 
were no longer "transferable with the collier- 
ies and salt works;" and upon certain condi- 
tions they were to be gradually emancipated, 
while others were prevented from coming into 
such a state of servitude. Even after the gen- 
eral introduction of the steam engine at the 
British mines, for raising coal and hoisting or 
pumping water (though pumps were seldom 
used until a much later day), women were em- 
ployed to convey the coal from the mines to 
the bottom of the pit, a distance of from 100 
to 300 yards, with loads of 100 or 150 pounds 
in bags on their backs, traversing a total dis- 
tance of nearly 10 miles a day in going and 
returning. About this time wheelbarrows 
were also used, and afterward sleds or 
"cauves," which were pulled by women or 
boys; and at a still later day "bogies," pushed 
or pulled by boys, were introduced. These 
were provided with narrow tram wheels, 
which ran in grooved rails of wood. Boys of 
very tender age were employed in the British 
mines up to a late date to work the " steel 
mills," which gave light by the production of 



sparks from a circular wheel armed with steel 
striking against flints ; as "trappers" to open 
and shut the many doors then used to regulate 
and guide the air currents ; to blow the small 
fans often used to convey air to points beyond 
the range of the air currents; and to "put" 
or push the bogies. But for the last 20 years 
boys under 12 years of age have been pro- 
hibited from working in the British coal mines. 
In Belgium, however, both women and chil- 
dren are still employed in and about the mines. 
Wages are so small that it requires the united 
exertions of fathers, mothers, and children to 
earn a livelihood. In England, Belgium, and 
France, most of the coal lies deep below water 
level, and can only be reached by expensive 
pits, which are owned and worked by wealthy 
proprietors or large companies. In the older 
mining districts, where the outcrop coal has 
been long since exhausted, or partially worked 
by the old methods, in which from half to two 
thirds of the coal was lost, these pits are con- 
stantly growing deeper, and now reach a great 
depth. W. W. Smith states that a coal pit 
exists in the province of Hainaut in Belgium, 
at the colliery des Viviers at Gilly, near 
Charleroi, which has been sunk 3,411 ft. We 
do not know that coal has been mined at that 




FIG. 4. English Coal Measures and TJnconfonnable Bock. 

1, 2, 8, &c., pits ; a, coal measures ; 6, Permian ; c, cretaceous, &c. ; d, slip dike ; e, trap dike ; g, trap dike ; &, Devonian ; 

t, Silurian ; #, Cambrian ; m, gneiss ; ., granite. 



depth, however. In many cases these pits pen- 
etrate the overlying Permian formation, be- 
neath which most of the carboniferous forma- 
tions of England and France are concealed, 
and where the existence of coal was formerly 
doubted. Indeed, more than two thirds of the 
English coal measures are supposed to lie be- 
neath the more recent rocks ; while over 40,- 
000 sq. m. of France is covered by the Permian, 
triassic, cretaceous, and tertiary formations, 
beneath which coal may exist; or, if it does 
not exist, it is the exception and not the rule. 
The geological order of the sedimentary rocks 
requires the existence of the carboniferous be- 
low the Permian ; and as far as we know, from 
their outcrop and from the evidence of the 
deepest pit yet sunk, this succession does in 
fact prevail, though there may be localities in 
which the regular order is interrupted. This 
alone would create doubt, and make the most 
enterprising cautious. Yet, step by step, the 
miners of England have approached this doubt- 
ful ground, and are now 2,000 ft. beneath the 
Permian rocks, where no one but William 
Smith, the father of English geology, ever 
dreamed of looking for coal in his day. And 
this advance into unknown ground will doubt- 



less be continued until the deep coal beds, re- 
posing 10,000 to 20,000 ft. beneath the sea, 
will be won and worked. In the great Ameri- 
can bituminous fields mining operations are 
much more diversified than in the bituminous 
fields of Europe. In the Alleghany and cen- 
tral coal fields the carboniferous rocks are the 
latest and highest geological formations ; con- 
sequently their wide horizons, covering nearly 
100,000 sq. m., may be penetrated at any point 
without hazard. While the coal of the former 
is generally found in the hills or mountains, 
and accessible by drifts or tunnels above the 
natural drainage, that of the latter is generally 
below the water level, yet may be entirely de- 
veloped by pits less than 1,000 ft. in depth. 
Of the 17,000,000 tons of coal mined from the 
Alleghany field in 1871, less than 1,000,000 
tons were mined below the water level, and 
the remainder from drift or tunnel collieries, 
and generally from the former. Drift is a 
technical term for a tunnel, entry, or gallery 
driven through the coal horizontally, while the 
tunnel is a horizontal gallery driven through 
the rocky strata to reach the coal. The dip or 
undulations of the strata vary considerably, 
even in coal fields which have a general dip in 



COLLIERY 



one direction, or that may be nearly horizon- 
tal. These elevations and depressions thus 
formed in the coal beds are locally termed 
saddles, horsebacks, swells, troubles, &c. ; 




Fia. 5. Alleghany Coal Measures. 

a, location of drift; /, improper location; &, location of 
slope ; &', location of tunnel ; c, location of pit. 

where they are frequent they interfere seri- 
ously with the drainage. In locating col- 
lieries these peculiarities of dip are important 
questions, which may generally be determined 
by surface indications, when the coal beds and 
accompanying strata are above the water level. 
Yet hundreds of thousands of dollars are fre- 
quently expended in building railroads, houses, 
and other colliery appurtenances, before these 
preliminary investigations are made, and when 
it is too late to remedy the great inconve- 
niences entailed. Many instances of this kind 
might be -cited in the Alleghany coal field and 
elsewhere. One on the Philadelphia and Erie 
railroad involved $500,000 of useless expendi- 
ture. The drift should always be located at 
the lowest available point of dip (&, fig. 5); 
but if the lowest point to which mining opera- 
tions should extend cannot be reached by 
drift, started on the outcrop of the bed and 
continued horizontally in the same, a tunnel 
may be made use of commencing in the rocky 
strata above or below the coal bed, in order to 
reach the bed horizontally, and secure natural 
drainage. When this mode is not available, 
the slope or the shaft method is resorted to. 
In many parts of the Alleghany coal field and 
its outlying basins the most productive beds 
of coal are on or near the tops of mountains, 
or at a considerable elevation above the val- 
leys. In these situations locomotive railroads 
are impracticable, and inclined planes are 
used ; they are operated by gravity, the load- 
ed cars in descending drawing up the empty 
cars. On the Youghiogeny, Pa., and in the 
Frostburg, Md., mining districts, this form of 
colliery establishment is in general use ; 1,000 




FIG. 6. Incline and Drifts. 



tons of coal per day are sometimes run over a 
single double-track plane. The most eleva- 
ted coal of the Alleghany field is about 2,300 
ft. above tide, while the lowest is probably 



2,000 ft. below the Ohio river, near the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha, which is considerably 
deeper than the lowest coals of the central 
coal field in Indiana, Illinois, or Kentucky, but 
much less than the deepest coals of the west- 
ern coal field in Kansas and Colorado, where 
the lower coal measures are probably 5,000 ft. 
beneath the tertiary rocks. In the Pennsylva- 
nia anthracite fields, however, we find still 
greater diversity of mining operations as the 
necessary results of a contorted or highly pli- 
cated form of stratification, in which the undu- 
lations of dip are most extreme and irregular. 
In these anthracite coal basins every known 
plan of drift, tunnel, slope, and shaft is em- 
ployed. When the coal beds exist in the hills 
above the water level, drifts and counter- 
drifts, or upper levels, are used where the out- 
crop of the bed is exposed in an available lo- 
cality ; otherwise tunnels are made at the low- 
est practicable point. In these basins the coal 
beds usually incline at high angles of dip. 
However high the mountain may be on which 
they crop out, it is rare that they do not dip 
below the water level or into the basins at the 
base of the mountain; and still more seldom 
are the beds found in horizontal strata, except 
in the synclinals or at the bottom of the basins, 
where they often occur in horizontal position 
before curving to the opposite dip. The great 
basins of the anthracite fields are generally 
bordered by parallel mountain ranges, against 
the sides of which the coal beds crop out. 
These mountains, particularly in the interior 
of the fields, are cut through by numerous 
watercourses, which form gaps or gorges at 
right angles to the strike of the strata, and in 
these the outcrops of the coal beds descend to 
the water level. Thus the broken ends of the 
strata are exposed, and in these most of the 
drift collieries of the anthracite basins have 
been located. But when the outcrops are not 
thus exposed, and the elevation of the outcrop 
is sufficiently high above water level, the coal 
beds are cut by tunnels which penetrate the 
base of the mountains at right angles to the 
strike of the strata. When the coal is thus 
exhausted above the natural drainage, or when 
the amount of available coal above water level 
will not justify the expense of a tunnel, the 
slope method is generally adopted, particularly 
where the angle of dip is great. The slope is 
always formed in the coal, except when the 
undulations of dip require it to pass a short 
distance in the overlying or underlying strata. 
In this respect, technically speaking, the slope 
differs from the oblique or underlying shaft, 
which penetrates the rocky strata to reach the 
coal ; though generally a shaft is perpendicu- 
lar, however the strata may dip. In addition 
to these peculiarities of the Pennsylvania an- 
thracite formations and the consequent form 
of the mines and methods of development, a 
singular feature of the colliery establishments 
is the immense and costly structures known 
as breakers. These are generally masses of 



68 



COLLIERY 



a 




FIG. 7. Plications of Anthracite Measures near Pottsville, Pa. 
a, Sharp mt. ; ft, Pottsville ; c, Deep pits ; c', Hickory and St. Clair pits ; d, Mine hill ; , irregular axis ; /, Broad mt. 




heavy framework of great elevation and 
strength, and are used for the fourfold pur- 
pose of breaking, selecting, separating, and 
storing the prepared coal. The breaker is 
built near the mouth of the mine, and the 
coal cars from the drift, tunnel, slope, or shaft 
are elevated by machinery to the top of 
the breaker. Here 
the coal is dumped 
into a wide shute 
provided with bar or 
flat screens and plat- 

FIG. 8. Drift with dip and strike f nrrn<a TliA nnol i 
of inclining coaf beds, forms. I tie coal IS 

separated by pass- 
ing over the screens and selected by the work- 
men on the platforms. The purest and best 
lump or large coal is thrown into a bin pro- 
vided for the purpose, while the second size, 
or steamboat coal, passes into a second bin ; 
and the remainder, excepting the dirt and slate 
or impurities, is put through the breaking rolls, 
which consist of from two to four heavy iron 
rollers provided with steel or chilled cast-iron 
teeth. In passing through these, the coal is 
broken into small pieces, and descends into a 
system of large circular screens which are con- 
stantly revolving, and which separate the coal 
into sizes known as pea, chestnut, stove, egg, 
and broken coal ; and sometimes a larger size 
used for large ranges or heaters in hotels, pud- 
dling furnaces, &c. The sizes above this are 
steamboat and lump, which last is the largest, 
and generally used for blast furnaces, though 
the steamboat size is often mixed with the 
lump for this purpose. Formerly this prepa- 
ration of anthracite was exceedingly wasteful, 
owing to imperfect breaking machinery, and a 
careless habit of crowding the whole mass, 
both large and small coal, through the break- 
ing rolls without regularity or order. It is es- 
timated that 20 to 25 per cent, of the coal was 
thus lost. To these defects must also be added 
that both pea coal and chestnut were wasted 
in "dirt banks" during the early days of the 
anthracite trade. Those old banks now yield 
a large amount of small 
or screened coal, the re- 
mainder being converti- 
ble into pressed blocks 
of patent fuel, or car- 
bonic oxide gas as a 
fuel. The waste is now 
considerably less, as the 
chestnut, pea, and some- 
times lime burners' coal is screened, and only the 
dust and impurities are rejected, which in well 




arranged colliery establishments do not much 
exceed 10 per cent, of the whole. Yet this does 
not include a much greater waste in the inside 
of the mines, where a large percentage of small 
coal is often left in the "goaf," and not less 
than one third of the whole bed is abandoned 
as pillars. At the anthracite collieries, where 
the imperfect systems of " post and stall " and 
" pillar and breast " are still in general use, 
not less than one half the entire contents of the 
coal beds is wasted or lost ; and in some cases 
the waste is still greater. In comparison with 
the English bituminous mines, this waste is 25 
per cent, greater than that of the longwall and 
30 per cent, greater than the bord and pillar 
systems of mining. The coal breaker was in- 
vented by a Mr. Batten, who appears to have 
conceived the idea from the crushing rollers 
used in Cornwall, England, for the purpose of 
breaking copper, tin, and other ores. His pat- 
ent, however, was seriously defective, in not 
specifying or claiming the combination of the 
mechanical devices, instead of the direct appli- 
cation of the toothed rollers to breaking coal, 
I while his patent fees were thought exorbitant 
by the colliery owners, and were successfully 
resisted. The invention ruined the inventor, 
while it has conferred immense benefits upon 
the anthracite trade. This method was intro- 
duced in 1844, before which time the coal was 
broken to sizes by hand hammers. To break the 
amount of coal now produced by one of these 
large collieries would require not fewer than 
100 men, and in some cases 200 would be re- 
quired. There are now more than 400 such 
coal breakers in use in the anthracite fields. 
The process is peculiar to the Pennsylvania 
anthracite mines, where the coal, owing to its 
great hardness, requires special preparation for 
economical combustion. It is thought by some 
that this preparation could be more economi- 
cally done near the great coal marts, where all 
the waste, except actual impurities, could be 
sold, because the coal dust thus wasted is the 
best portion of the coal. The Pennsylvania 
anthracite collieries are not only modified by 
the peculiar structure of the coal measures, 
but also by numerous distortions and faults 
which often seriously interfere with mining 
operations. The form and character of those 
faults are as peculiar and varied as the litho- 
logical structure. Dislocations of s-trata and 
crushed graphitic coal are the predominating 
forms of fault, but the replacement of the coal 
by rock and slate or shale is also frequent in 
the upper and smaller beds ; while small local 



COLLIERY 



69 



.slips and narrow dikes or walls of rock some- 
times occupy cracks in the coal beds, but 
these do not penetrate above or below the 
bed. The great dikes and slips found in the 
English and some of the French coal strata are 
unknown in American coal fields, which, with 
the exception of the anthracite fields, are 
singularly free from faults and dislocations. 
But the anthracite fields of Virginia and New 
England are still more seriously injured, and 




Fin. 10. Slip Dike. 

even partially destroyed, by faults resulting 
from excessive heat, violent lateral contrac- 
tion, and the consequent contortion of the 
strata and pulverization or partial consump- 
tion of the carbon. These irregularities are 
important considerations in the establishment 
of collieries, as permanence and success de- 
pend greatly on the uniformity of the coal bed 
and the purity of the coal. These and other 
considerations have made the anthracite busi- 




FIG. 11. Change of Horizon. 

ness more precarious and costly than the bitu- 
minous, and in all countries where anthracite 
is mined these peculiarities are observable to 
a greater or less extent. In addition to the 
cost of the great coal - preparing establish- 
ments, which frequently amounts to $100,000 
or $150,000, the expense of sinking the pit 
or slope and opening the mines is also much 
greater than in the bituminous regions for 
corresponding depths. Both the measures 




FIG. 12." Trouble "volcanic formations. 

and the coal are harder in the former than in 
the latter ; and while the mining is conducted 
with but little powder in the one, the other re- 
quires immense quantities. Anthracite is almost 
exclusively obtained by blasting. At some of 
the mines more than 500 kegs of powder are 
used per month. The value of these collieries 
ranges from $30,000 to $500,000 each, but the 
average value cannot be less than $100,000 for 
the 437 collieries in existence in 1871, at which 



52,227 men and boys were employed. The 
United States census of 1870 makes the value 
of 1,550 colliery establishments of the country 
$86,087,251 ; while the wages paid the 93,805 
men and boys employed is given at $43,647,- 
118. Hitherto the greatest amount of the 
Pennsylvania anthracite has been mined from 
the outcrops of the beds, by drifts, tunnels, 
and slopes ; but as this portion of the beds ap- 
proaches exhaustion shafts become necessary 
to penetrate the interior of the basins. The 
deepest shaft yet sunk in the anthracite fields 
is the Dundee pit in the Wyoming field, S. W. 
of Wilkesbarre, which is 7*00 ft. deep ; but it 
only penetrated the upper beds, when it was 



3 





FIG. 18. Section of Slope. 

a, travelling way; 6, 6, hoisting ways; c, pump way; d, 
pump. 1, 1, legs ; 2, centre props ; 8, coDar ; 4, sill ; 5, 
backing or laggins. 

abandoned. The next in depth is the great 
Hickory shaft near St. Glair, in the southern 
anthracite field, which is 680 ft. deep to the 
Mammoth bed. Near the latter two large pits 
are now in progress (1873), which are each ex- 
pected to penetrate 1,500 ft. to the same bed, 
and to cut nine or ten workable beds above the 
Mammoth. The depth of the slopes varies 
greatly ; some of them have penetrated 900 ft. 
vertically and from 1,200 to 1,500 ft. on the 
inclination of the bed. The large slopes are 
often 20 to 24 ft. wide and 7 to 10 ft. high, 
and provided with two hoisting ways and a 
double pump way, or a pump and a travelling 
way. The following table shows the number 
and condition of the anthracite collieries of 
Pennsylvania : 



DISTRICTS. 


No. 
Collieries. 


No. 
ShalU. 


No. 
Slope.. 


No. Drift. 

and 
Tunnels. 


Schuylkill 


164 


18 


141 


102 


Northumberland 
Columbia . ... 


88 

8 






18 

7 


52 
4 




4 





4 


11 


Luzerne East 


80 


46 


21 


68 


West 
Lehigh District 


102 
46 


81 
1 


43 
59 


42 
11 


Total 


487 


91 


298 


290 













| Some of the recent anthracite shafts are of 

very great size. Several near Wilkesbarre are 

more than 40 by 20 ft. in dimensions, but this 

is generally acknowledged to be an unnecessary 

| size in square or oblong shafts, as this_ form 

! demands timber for support, and the timber 

| must be proportionately large and of great 

I length. This is an element of weakness and 

! danger, and at best only of temporary utility. 



70 



COLLIERY 



The natural decay of wood unfits it for use in 
pits. But the chief defect is in the form of the 
pit, and the English mining engineers long 
since discovered this serious objection to square 
or oblong pits, and substituted the round pit, 




FIG. 14. Pennsylvania Anthracite Shaft (section). 

a, pump and rods ; &, pump apartment ; c, c', hoisting apart- 
ments ; d, travelling apartment ; <?, ladders. 1, 1, support- 
ing timbers ; 2, pump timbers ; 3, 3, 8, dividing timbers ; 
4, backing plank. 

in which brick, stone, or iron can be economi- 
cally used to secure the sides of the shafts. 
Besides, this seems to be the only sure method 
of damming back the water, which in the tim- 
bered pits is allowed to enter the shafts and 
must consequently be pumped out at constant 
expense. But in circular pits all the water 
above the coal, and particularly the more 
abundant surface drainage, which is most seri- 
ously felt in the upper 300 to 500 ft., is dammed 
back with masonry or iron tubing. As the 
surface drainage always varies considerably in 
wet and dry weather, a portion of the pit is 
sometimes wet and sometimes dry, and this 
alternation, with the incident changes of tem- 
perature, induces decay when the pit is tim- 
bered, and replacement is dangerous and diffi- 
cult. The great size of the Pennsylvania an- 
thracite pits is the natural outgrowth of the 
great size of the coal beds. Nine tenths of the 
anthracite mines are from beds varying from 
10 to 30 ft. in thickness. Mine cars of great 
size and of unwieldy proportions are used in 
many of them, with doubtful economy, since 
the most available systems of mining, known 
as bord and pillar and longwall, cannot be 
properly followed in steep-dipping beds with 
cars of greater capacity than one ton of coal 
each ; yet the cars used in the anthracite mines 
generally contain from one and a half to three 
tons of coal, and weigh with their contents as 
much as five tons. They cannot be taken up 
the steep pitches by mules or be handled by the 
men ; and this involves a second handling of 
the coal and some contrivance for getting it 
from the mines to the cars, which cannot 
leave the levels or gangways. Shutes are 
commonly used, but when the dip is too steep 
to admit the use of mules to draw the cars up 
to the mines, and too low for the coal to slide 
down a shute, great trouble and expense are 
involved. Besides, these systems of breast and 
pillar or post and stall mining are defective in 
many other respects. Some of the large an- 
thracite pits are capable of producing 1,000 



tons of coal per day ; yet this has rarely been 
accomplished, from the difficulty of handling 
so many heavy cars at the top and bottom of 
the pit, or the greater difficulty of getting them 
to the bottom of the pit through a single level 
or double gangway, one on each side of the 
pit, to which the system in use, and the neces- 
sity of working the larger beds only, confine 
most of the anthracite mines. But this pro- 
duction is exceeded by much smaller and deep- 
er English pits, in which cars or bogies hold- 
ing from 8 cwt. to one ton are used. In some 
of these deep pits a regular production of 2,000 
tons per day is not unusual, though 250 to 500 
tons is more common. The late mining laws 
both of England and Pennsylvania require two 
openings for ingress and egress to each mine, 
so as to secure the safe retreat of the workmen 
in case of accident, and more perfect ventila- 
tion. Some of the most serious and fatal acci- 
dents have been occasioned by the absence of 
a second outlet ; one of the most notable was 



-< ^'T 


3 


3 


i 


C 


1 


3 






C r 


'2 


2-' 




3 




\ 



FIG. 15. English Circular Shaft. 

a, pump way ; &, travelling way ; c, c', hoisting ways ; eZ, brick 
or stone lining ; e, rock. 

the Avondale disaster, in the Wyoming valley, 
near Plymouth, Pa., in 1871. This was oc- 
casioned in all probability (though the fact 
was never established) by the exceeding dry- 
ness of the timbers in the upcast portion of the 
pit, which was divided by a partition of wood. 
One portion of the pit was used for hoisting 
coal and the admission of air, and the other 
for the egress of the mine vapors. At the bot- 
tom of the latter a furnace was in constant 
use, the heat from which made the timbers 
like tinder, and the soot could not fail to ac- 
cumulate, as in ordinary chimneys. A spark 
only was necessary to ignite the one or the 
other. But in other cases, the burning of the 
structures erected over the pit's mouth, the 
destruction of a portion of the pit by explosion 
or caving, flooding of the mine by water, or 
the derangement of machinery, all point to the 
necessity of a second outlet from each mine, as 
a matter of common prudence. The methods 
of descending and ascending deep pits have 
been and still are very generally defective and 



COLLIERY 



71 



insecure. In the great mining districts of the 
world, both in coal and metalliferous mines, 
the ladder and the hoisting apparatus are the 
alternatives. To ascend and descend a pit of 
1,000 to 1,500 ft. on ladders is nearly a day's 
work, while descent or ascent on the cages is 
dangerous. The number of accidents caused 
by the falling of cages or cars in the anthracite 
mines during 1871 was 13 ; and this has always 
been a fruitful source of mining accidents, part- 
ly from the crowding of men anxious to be first 
at work or first at home, on the cages or into 
the mining cars. The mining laws of most of 
the great mining districts prohibit the use of 
unsafe cages, and the crowding of men on either 
the car or the cage ; but these laws are seldom 
enforced. The hoisting apparatus, elevators, 
or lifts used in hotels and manufactories are too 
slow for mining purposes ; and though numer- 
ous safety cages have been invented, few 
if any are perfectly secure. Many " safety- 
catch" arrangements, however, are in use, 
which if kept in order would generally prevent 
serious accidents. The two most practical 
forms of clutches seem to be the " claw " and 
the "eccentric." The former are thrust out 
into the timbers or guides, and the latter hugs 
the guides on opposite sides when the rope 
breaks. One defect, however, of all such ar- 
rangements, very difficult to overcome, is that 
they sometimes act during the rapid descent 
of the cage, which in some cases is equal to the 
speed of a railroad train, and little short of the 
motion at the start in falling from a broken 
rope. Consequently all such devices are de- 
fective in pits, and the best cages are unsafe 
means of conveyance for the workmen. Yet 
on these, or still more rude and dangerous con- 
veyances, or on ladders, ninety-nine out of every 
hundred miners depend for descent to and 
ascent from their work. In a few cases, du- 
ring late years, " travelling rods " have been 
used with considerable success, though but 
rudely contrived and fitted up. They consist 
of two perpendicular oscillating rods, generally 
of wood, placed side by side and parallel to 
each other in the travelling apartment of the 
pit. Some of these are simply provided with 
steps, without guards, while in others the rods 
have platforms securely guarded against danger. 
In other cases, however, a single rod is used, 
on which platforms are fixed at intervals, with 
corresponding stationary platforms in the rock ; 
but the latter plan is much inferior to the for- 
mer, in which the rods are so balanced that the 
power required jto operate them is but little, 
while the single rod must be lifted with its 
weight of men, ascending or descending. In 
descending the miner steps on one of the mov- 
ing platforms which comes to the top of the 
pit, and as this only remains a few seconds, 
during the slow motion of turning the upper 
centre of the operating wheel, he must be 
ready to step on without delay, though a fail- 
ure to do so would not be dangerous. The 
motion may be five to ten strokes per minute 



without difficulty. Immediately on reversing 
the rod descends 8 to 12 ft., meeting a corre- 
sponding platform on the ascending parallel 
rod ; on this the miner steps, and the platform 
he left ascends, and the one he is on descends. 
Thus he steps from platform to platform and 
descends from 100 to 200 ft. per minute. In 
ascending the same rule is observed, except 
that the miner steps upon the ascending plat- 
form instead of the descending one ; but whe- 
ther ascending or descending, he is alternately 
now on one, and now on the other ; and though 
20 or more miners may be going up or going 
down at once, the balance is always nearly 
equal. The best mode of constructing these 
rods is to place them close together, with the 
platforms on opposite sides; and 
instead of two, four rods are 
preferred. In stepping from 
one platform to the other, the 
miners pass between the rods. 
In order to prevent accidents 
from carelessness or otherwise, 
the platforms should fit the 
compartments neatly, so that 
the men could not even by 
thoughtlessness endanger life or 
limb. In the construction of 
such means of vertical convey- 
ance, in pits of great depth, 
iron or steel bands, links, or 
ropes could be judiciously made 
use of, connected on top by 
square links over a toothed 
wheel, making alternate reverse 
revolutions. The methods of 
sinking pits have been consid- 
erably improved within a few 
years, by the use of new me- 
chanical contrivances, or inven- 
tions in boring, blasting, and 
contending with water, quick- 
sands, clays, or hard materials. 

FIG 16 Travel- ^ n W astm ^ tne U8e ^ dualline 
iing Bods, is preferred by miners to other 
a, basket plat- new explosive compounds, on 
forms; 6, c, par- accoun t O f its superior safety 
SSSJ^USt and effectiveness; while elec- 
tricity is now generally used 
by experienced engineers both in sinking 
and tunnelling. It is not used, nor is it de- 
sirable, in ordinary coal or iron mining for 
the discharge of single blasts ; but where the 
simultaneous discharge of numerous blasts is 
required, nothing but electricity is available. 
In the sinking of two deep vertical shafts by 
the Philadelphia and Reading coal and iron 
company 1| m. N. of Pottsville, a novel meth- 
od was adopted, which promises to produce a 
revolution in that branch of mine engineering. 
The mammoth coal bed in that locality lies at 
a great depth below the surface, estimated to 
be 1,560 ft., and as the mining law of the 
state requires at least two openings separated 
by not less than 150 ft. of solid strata, two 
shafts were necessary. The plan adopted wa.<* 



72 



COLLIERY 



to sink the shafts as usual down to the solid 
rock, and then by means of a number of dia- 
mond drills, each driven by its own machinery, 
to bore a series of holes about 300 ft. deep. 
The bit used is concave, with circular grooves 
and cylindrical holes for the outlet and circula- 
tion of water, which is forced down through 
the centre of the boring rods, made of gas 
pipe 1 in. in diameter, and the holes when 
drilled are If in. The water takes up the 
fine sand or pulverized rock, carries it away 
from uDder the bit, and rises outside of the 
rods or pipe to the surface. In the W. shaft, 
which is 25 ft. 8 in. long by 13 ft. 10 in. wide, 
35 holes are bored in five rows of seven holes 
in each, the outside rows being along the sides 
and in the corners, making the holes 4 ft. 3 in. 
one way and 3 ft. 6 in. the other from centre 
to centre. As soon as one of the holes has 
been bored to the required depth the machine 
is moved to the next, and the operation is con- 
tinued until all the holes in the shaft are 
drilled. Two or three machines can work at 
the same time on the same bed plate. No 
cores are removed, all the rock being ground 
to powder and carried off by the water, and it 
is therefore not found necessary to take out 
the rods very often. Steam may be used as 
the power to drive the boring machines, but 
in the lower levels compressed air is obviously 
much better. When all the holes are bored to 
a depth of 250 or 300 ft. the machines, pumps, 
Ac., are taken to the other shaft to bore the 
holes there. During the boring in the second 
shaft the rock is blasted and removed in the 
first, which requires much more time than the 
drilling. On the completion of the holes they 
are filled to the top with sand, and the work 
of blasting and removing the rock is done by 
removing the sand by means of a sand pump 
from all the holes, except those along the sides 
and in the corners, to a depth of from 3 to 4 
ft. Clay is then forced into each hole so as to 
made a plug 6 in. to a foot long, and on top of 
this a cartridge of dualline is placed and the 
holes are then tamped with clay. The car- 
tridges are connected together by wires lead- 
ing to a galvanic battery, and are all fired at 
once. The loosened rock is removed, and the 
remainder of the holes are then charged and 
fired in the same way, but only those on one 
side at a time. When all the holes have been 
fired, the miner begins again by taking out 
more sand, and the work goes on until the 
depth to which the holes have been bored is 
reached. The drilling machines are then brought 
from the other shaft, and the holes are again 
bored from 250 to 300 ft. deeper. No diffi- 
culty is found even at a depth of over 1,000 ft. 
in maintaining a rate of speed in sinking of 
from 50 to 60 ft. a month, which is 50 per 
cent, greater speed than has been attained in 
hand drilling through similar rock in shafts of 
equal sectional area, which in these shafts is 
224 and 364 sq. ft. The greatest depth blasted 
in one month was 112 ft., and 125 ft. of the 



shaft was timbered in the same month. The 
cost per foot is about the same as by hand 
drilling, but the great advantage of this sys- 
tem is the saving of time, which is a considera- 
tion of immense importance in an operation 
involving the outlay of so much money. By 
the old system, as only a few men could work 
at a time in so small a space, the sinking of 
the shaft was very slow, the large capital in- 
vested was unproductive, and the profits to be 
derived from the mine in active operation were 
lost. When it is necessary to put in metal 
casing or tubing to dam back water, quick- 
sands, or decomposing fire clays, such as are 
met with in some of the bituminous coal fields 
at great depths below the surface, the usual 
method is employed. The casing is taken down 
the pit in sections and bolted together to form 
the tube at the bottom ; and this may be done 
below or above the shield. When the surface 
water has been properly stopped and all the 
heavy springs dammed back as they are met, 
the water will not be difficult to manage with 
buckets, even when great springs or under- 
ground watercourses are met with. But when 
the accumulation of many streams descends to 
the bottom of the shaft, any great feeder of 
water might overcome both buckets and pumps. 
The purpose of such walling, cementing, and 
tubing is to avoid the use of pumps either 
during sinking or permanently, because the 
water can be drained more effectively. This 
method of damming back the water has not 
been used in the anthracite mines of Pennsyl- 
vania, and rarely if ever in any American pits, 
most of which are square or oblong, and both 
sinking and permanent drainage are effected 
by pumps, at great and constant cost. The 
best pump for sinking is that known as the 
Cornish bucket pump, with the column pipe 
larger than the working barrel, so that both 
the buckets and the clack valve may be drawn 
to the surface through the pipes, if necessary 
for repairs, in case of accident. The pump rods 
must work inside of the pipes in this plan. 
This pump may be greatly improved for ordina- 
ry permanent lifts by reversing the above or- 
der and providing a working barrel of double 
the capacity of the pipes, and combining the 
plunger and bucket principle in the working 
barrel. Thus the down stroke forces one half 
the water from the barrel, and the up stroke 
draws the remainder. This is the cheapest, 
simplest, and most effective style of pump for 
all purposes, worked from the surface. But 
most of the large collieries of the world are now 
drained by the common Cornish plunger or force 
pump, the principle of which is well known. 
Some of these are operated by complicated ma- 
chinery, but the best are those in which the 
pump rods are connected directly with the 
steam piston of the engine, without additional 
gearing. These are used to force water 500 
ft. high, but 200 to 250 ft. vertical height 
is far more economical and safe. Mining pumps 
of a new and far more effective style have been 



COLLIERY 



T3 



introduced during the last 10 or 15 years. 
They are direct-acting force pumps, but instead 
of being connected with the engine by rods, 
the steam is carried in pipes to the bottom of 
the mine, where both steam cylinder and pump 
are connected by a very simple arrangement, 
as a single piece of machinery. The Allison and 
Bannan pump is generally used where pumps 
of this class are employed in anthracite mines, 
while the Cameron pump is used in England 
and this country for the same purposes. One 
of these has recently been placed in the mines 
at Bishop Auckland, England, with a steam cyl- 
inder of 26 in. and a pump barrel of 6 in. diam- 
eter, with 6 ft. stroke to each. This pump 
throws a steady stream of 120 gallons per min- 
ute up a vertical height of 1,040 ft. in a single 
lift, under a water pressure of 700 Ibs. per 
square inch. At the close of 1870, 130 of these 
pumps were at work in the mines near New- 
castle and Durham, England. The raising of 
coal from deep mines is now almost exclusively 
done by cages, on the principle of the elevators 
used in hotels. These cages are moved with 
the speed of a railroad train. They are pro- 
vided with " shoes," or projecting guide slots 
or holes, which move on or in guides of wood, 




FIG. ia Underground Mining Pump. 

iron, or rope, extending from the top to the 
bottom of the pit. These cages are in one or 
two stories, and carry one or two mine cars on 
each story. They are provided with rails cor- 
responding to the track both at the bottom 
and top of the pit. The time occupied in 
shifting the cars and hoisting through 2,400 ft., 
in the Rosebridge pits, near Wigan in England, 
is less than one minute. When the water is 
properly dammed back there is generally very 
little in deep pits ; and when the mines are 
dry and dusty, as they very generally are, 
there is scarcely enough water to moisten the 
air and allay the dust, if properly distributed 
over the mines, which however is rarely done. 
But when the water is in excess, and not very 
abundant, a tank may be placed beneath the 
cage, which dips into the water and fills through 
self-acting valves at the bottom of the pit, and 
discharges by automatic arrangement at the 
top. This is simple, cheaper, and better than 
pumps in very deep mines, when the water is 
not excessive; but when it is abundant, the 
pump is the most available. The cages are 
now generally raised by means of two engines 
or steam cylinders connected directly, without 
spur gearing, to the cranks of the drum on 



which the rope is wound. The engines are 
connected with link motion, so that one is on 
the "live centre" or half stroke while the 
other is on the " dead centre " or full stroke, 
and are reversed at each ascent and descent of 
the cages, of which there are always two, one 
descending while the other is ascending. Round 
wire or steel ropes are generally used; but 
there can be no doubt that flat steel ropes are 
the best for deep pits. These should be made 
of uniform steel, and composed of several round 
ropes combined, or served together with steel 
wire, and very carefully stretched and adjust- 
ed before they are put to work. Flat ropes 
work on or in grooved drums, and lap on them- 
selves. Thus at starting, when the strain 
on the engines is the hardest, the diameter 
of the drum is the smallest, and much in 
favor of the lift; while the descending car 
and cage, which act as counter-balance, are 
on the larger diameter of the drum, because 
on this side the rope has lapped on itself and 
increased the diameter say two inches at each 
revolution, so that if the drum or groove was 
10 ft. in diameter at starting the cage from the 
bottom, and the pit 2,000 ft. deep, its diameter 
would be about 20 ft. when the cage arrived on 
the top. Another very desirable method of 
elevating coal or water is the "pneumatic 
lift," now in general use to supply the new 
material to the top of blast furnaces, and in 
a few cases to elevate coal in pits. For very 
deep pits this seems to be an admirable 
method, and where a pair of circular pits are 
used, with brick and cast-iron lining, it is the 
most economical method, both in regard to first 
cost and permanent operation. The plan is 
very simple, but difficult to explain without 
elaborate engravings. The elevation may be 
effected by means of suction or compression of 
the air, as now practised hi the pneumatic des- 
patch tubes. This mode of elevating coal or 
water may be extended to any practicable 
depth, or perhaps as deep as the English or 
French and Belgian coal basins descend below 
the sea level, without complicated machinery, 
and with perfect safety ; while the power em- 
ployed to raise the material supplies the venti- 
lation, because the entire area of the pits can 
be used to supply air under pressure or vacuum. 
Thus compressed air may be used for all under- 
ground purposes, except the mere handling and 
breaking down of the coal, as machinery is 
successfully used for "undermining," which is 
the most laborious and costly item in mining 
bituminous coal ; while in anthracite mines 
drilling holes for blasting is the most laborious 
part, and this also can be done more effective- 
ly and cheaply by machinery. (See MINE.) 
The increase of temperature is the only great 
apparent obstacle to increased depth of pits. 
According to English experience, the tempera- 
ture rises 1 degree for every 60 ft. of depth. 
It appears that the old Kuttenberger pit, in 
Bohemia, was abandoned at 3,778 ft. on ac- 
count of the high temperature at that depth ; 



COLLIERY 



but this pit was sunk before the invention of 
gunpowder, when blasting was performed with 
lime, or the rocks were cut with picks and 
gads or "feather and wedges," and when 
mining science had made little progress and the 
best methods of ventilation were not under- 
stood. A Belgian coal pit has been sunk 3,411 
ft., and one of the largest English collieries is 
in successful operation at 2,445 ft. The dan- 
gers, diseases, and hardships of the collier's 
life are not the result of deep mining, but of the 
rude and barbarous character of the mines, and 
the system of working. Even at the present 



day nine tenths of the mines of the world, 
whether of coal or of metals, are not only 
dangerously imperfect, but unworthy the scien- 
tific attainments of the age. In mines which 
are provided with proper means of ingress and 
egress, and are well ventilated and drained, 
the collier's employment is not remarkably 
dangerous or unhealthy ; but this is the excep- 
tion and the reverse is the rule. The following 
table of comparisons shows the relative econ- 
omy of production, and the ratio of danger be- 
tween the different systems of mining during a 
period of three years ending 1869 : 





| u 


S 


| 


i %i 


. 


2 


c 


5 






1 i 


!i 


ji 


'III 


il 


Ii 


I! 


I 


DISTRICTS. 


SYSTEM OF MINING. 


j* 


!i 


1 




ii 


Is 


!! 


i i 






ll 


s | 

o "3 


o| 


III 


;1 


|i 


i! 


H 






* 




fc 


ta 




A 


i H 


1. Northumberland, Durham, and Cumber- 
















i 


land, England 


Bord and pillar 


4,738,471 
1 522 400 


7 249 

80 979 


352,863 
519000 


133,810 
163698 


100-00 
32-12 


67-98 387 
100-00 887 


2 South Durham 




3. Manchester 


Longwall * 


574,194 


86 


218 


284,897 


94,821 


12-11 


45-25 271 


4. Yorkshire.. . . 


Mixed chiefly post and 


















stall 


78180 


871 


KQK 


273,632 


48,746 


1'65 


52-72 '269, 


5. West Lancashire and North Wales 


Mixed 


124,739 


192 ;521 


157,565 


45,969 


2-68 


30-36 


287 


6. Midland District 




1 908 250 


12 189 


805 870 


125 818 


40-27 


58-82 


97^ 


7. N. Staffordshire (Potteries) 
8. 8. Staffordshire (special for 80 ft. coal). . 
9. Southwestern district, including Coal- 


Bord and pillar 
Longwall 


104166 
870,514 


168 
35 


316 
324 


265,150 
179,274 


55,379 
94,037 


2-19 

18-58 


51-08 
34-53 


233 
858 


brookdale 


Mixed 


1 438 461 


18 


213 


154545 


87,798 


30-35 


29-77 


OOQ 


10. South Wales 


Post and stalls 


135983 


202 


588 


166477 


51536 


2-86 


32-07 810- 


11 East Scotland 


Longwall & bord & pillar 
Longwall & bord & pillar 
Breast and pillar 


1.320,791 
2,302,136 
200,000 


17 
8 
25 


135 
120 
101 


380,567 
259,395 
55,000 


166,821 
153,475 
50,000 


27-87 
48-58 
5-00 


73-72 291 
49-98 |285 
10-00 250 


12. West Scotland 


18. Schuylkill Regions, Pa. (one year, 1871). 



The production of coal in Great Britain du- 
ring 1871 was 117,439,251 tons, by 370,881 men 
and boys. In producing this large amount 
there were 826 accidents and 1,075 deaths; 
and 109,246 tons of coal were raised for each 
death, and one life lost to every 345 persons 
employed. 

TABLE OF ACCIDENTS AND DEATHS IN THE 
BKITI8H MINES FOE TWO YEARS. 





Aocn 


ENT8. 


DEA 


TH8. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


Explosions of gas 


56 


52 


185 


269 


Falls of coal, rock, &c 


402 


426 


411 


485 


Ascending and descending pits. . 
Accidents about pits. . . 


87 
81 


39 
79 


47 
82 


41 

82 


Miscellaneous underground acci- 
dents, explosions of powder, &c. 
Miscellaneous surface accidents . 


174 

80 


161 
69 


186 

80 


176 

72 


Total 


880 


826 


991 


1 075 













In the anthracite mines of Pennsylvania the 
number of deaths from all kinds of mining 
accidents during 1871 was 274, and the num- 
ber of tons of coal mined per death 64,500. 
There were 52,227 men and boys employed in 
and about the mines, and one life was lost for 
every 190 employed. This great excess of fa- 
tality in the Pennsylvania anthracite regions is 
partly owing to the large size of the coal beds ; 
but the chief defect is in the bad system of 
mining, and recklessness in regard to life. In 



South Wales (No. 10 of the preceding table) 
similar methods are employed and similar re- 
sults observed, though the coal beds are not 
much if any larger than those of the New- 
castle district (No. 1), and not as thik as 
the coal beds of Scotland (Nos. 11 and 12). 
Where the longwall and bord and pillar sys- 
tems of mining are used, the best results are 
obtained; and where the post and stall and 
breast and pillar methods are in use, the worst 
results follow; though in the Staffordshire dis- 
tricts, where iron ores and fire clays or the 
thick coals are mined, the dangers are greatly 
increased, whatever system is used. There are 
no data for comparing the mining casualties of 
the present with those of the past, in propor- 
tion to the number of employees or the annual 
production ; but it is gratifying to observe that 
the ratio of deaths and accidents is constantly 
diminishing at the collieries of the great pro- 
ducing districts, notwithstanding that the mines 
are constantly becoming deeper. Moreover, 
the many causes of disease incident to the old- 
er mining communities, resulting from defec- 
tive ventilation and the poisonous vapors of the 
mines, carbonic acid (black damp), carbonic 
oxide (sweet or white damp), sulphurous acid 
(powder, smoke, &c.), soot, dust, and a general 
deficiency of pure air, are gradually disappear- 
ing. The pay of colliers differs so greatly that 
it is not possible to give any regular price. In 
the anthracite regions laborers in 1871 were 



COLLIN 

paid from $9 to $11 a week, and miners from 
$12 to $15 ; but most of the latter work by 
contract, and earn from $15 to $20 a week, 
and sometimes $100 a month, and the cost of 
coal then ready for market, exclusive of roy- 
alty, is about $2 a ton; but the wages have 
been as low as $4 50 a week for laborers and 
$6 for miners, and the cost of coal less than 
$1 a ton. At the English mines, miners' wages 
are even now much lower than at American 
mines, though nearly double the rates of ten 
years ago. The average cost of Newcastle 
coal during 20 years, on top of the pit, was 2s. 

d., 



COLLINGWOOD 



75 



., and onboard at Newcastle, 5s. 6d., made 
up as follows : rent or royalty, Gd. ; delivered 
in cars, 2s. 8%d. ; freight, Is. Qd. ; interest, lOd. 
In Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Lancashire, Scot- 
land, and Wales the average cost of bituminous 
coal was 5s. 8d. during 1845, but during 1871 
twice as much. During 1850 the number of 
the employees, men, boys, women, and girls, in 
the Belgian mines, and their wages, were as 
follows : 



EMPLOYEES. 


No. below 
ground. 


No. above 
ground. 


Wages in 
frs. above 
ground. 


Wages in 
frs. below 
ground. 


Men 


28,471 
4,464 
2,274 
1,221 


7,581 
1,075 

1,771 
1,142 


1-70 
0-65 
92 
56 


1-74 

0-94 
1-30 
85 


Boys 


Women 


-Girls 





The great advance in the price of coal in Eng- 
land during 1871, 1872, and 1873 is largely 
due to the greater demand for both coal and 
iron, and the decrease in the hours of labor and 
increase of the wages of miners. The increase 
of collieries, and the use of machinery in mi- 
ning coal, will without doubt eventually reduce 
the price of coal even below its former rate, 
without reducing the prices of labor to the 
mere pittance formerly paid in England, and 
still paid in France and Belgium, for under- 
ground work. 

COLLIN, a N. E. county of Texas, watered 
by the E. fork of Trinity river and its tributa- 
ries; area, 870 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,013, of 
whom 1,653 were colored. About two thirds 
of the county is prairie, the rest timbered. 
Banning and stock raising are about equally 
pursued. The chief productions in 1870 were 
42, 827 bush els of wheat, 674,565 of Indian corn, 
123,325 of oats, 32,159 of sweet potatoes, 204,- 
915 Ibs. of butter, and 4,371 bales of cotton. 
There were 10,668 horses, 1,582 mules and 
asses, 5,065 milch cows, 15,360 other cattle, 
4,812 sheep, and 15,550 swine. Capital, Mc- 
Kinney. 

COLLIN. See KOLIN. 

COLLINGWOOD, a town of Simcoe co., Onta- 
rio, Canada, on the S. shore of Georgian bay, 
72 m. N. W. of Toronto; pop. in 1871, 2,829. 
It derives its importance from being the north- 
ern terminus of the Northern railway, whence 
steamers connect with the N. shore and with 
ports on Lake Superior. Two lines of steam- 
ers ply between here and Lake Superior. 



COLLINGWOOD, a suburb of Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, situated on low ground between that 
city and the Yarra Yarra to the northeast; 
pop. about 19,000. It is almost a town of it- 
self, having a council chamber, banks, numer- 
ous churches and public buildings, and many 
manufactories. 

COLLINGWOOD, Cnthbert, lord, an English ad- 
miral, son of a merchant of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
born there, Sept. 26, 1750, died March 7, 1810. 
He went to sea at the age of 11, as midship- 
man under Capt. Brathwaite. After some years 
afloat he made a cruise under Admiral Rod- 
dam, and thence was transferred to Graves's 
fleet acting against the Americans, reaching 
Boston in 1774. On the day of the battle of 
Bunker hill he was appointed fourth lieutenant 
of the Somerset, and placed in charge of a par- 
ty of marines who kept open communication 
between the troops and the ships. Next year 
he was given command of the sloop Hornet, 
with which he went to Jamaica, where he re- 
newed acquaintance with Horatio Nelson, then 
lieutenant of the Lowestoffe, whom he had 
known in boyhood. The career of these emi- 
nent men was closely united during the rest of 
their lives. In 1780 Nelson, being in command 
of the Hinchinbroke, was ordered to conduct 
a boat expedition to the Pacific along the San 
Juan river and Lakes Nicaragua and Leon. 
He was prostrated by fever and sent home, 
and Collingwood took his place. His robust 
constitution carried him through, but he buried 
180 of his 200 men. The expedition was found 
impracticable. In the succeeding year he was 
wrecked in the Pelican, 24 guns, on Morant 
keys, West Indies. Thereafter he was trans- 
ferred to the Samson, 74, in which he served 
till the peace, and in 1783 was sent with the 
frigate Mediator to reenforce the squadron 
employed in preventing the Americans from 
trading with the West India islands. On his 
release from that duty in 1786, he revisited 
his home at Newcastle, after an absence of 
25 years. On the breaking out of the war with 
the French, he served on board the Barfleur, 
which bore a conspicuous part in Lord Howe's 
victory, June 1, 1794. In 1797 he was placed 
in command of the Excellent, 74, which he 
fought with effect in Jervis's victory off Cape 
St. Vincent, Feb. 14. When Nelson heard 
that the Excellent was coming to reenforce 
him, he exclaimed : " That counts two ! " In 
1799 he was made rear admiral of the white ; 
in 1801, admiral of the red ; and in 1804, of the 
blue. He was detailed in 1803 to watch the 
French fleet off Brest, which he did for nearly 
two years. His crowning achievement was at 
Trafalgar, Oct. 21, 1805, where he was second 
in command, and when Nelson fell took the 
chief command and finished the day. For this 
service he received the thanks of parliament, 
with a peerage, and a pension for his family of 
2,000. His subsequent career was a succes- 
sion of semi-political missions to the Mediter- 
ranean, which taxed his endurance and skill 



76 



COLLINS 



to the utmost. He repeatedly requested leave 
to retire, but the government informed him 
that they could not spare his services. Worn 
out at length, he died at sea while cruising off 
Minorca. His remains were brought home and 
deposited in St. Paul's cathedral, near Nelson's. 
Selections from his despatches and correspon- 
dence were published at London in 1828, by 
G. L. N. Collingwood. 

COLLINS, Anthony, an English philosophical 
and skeptical writer, born at Heston, Middle- 
sex, June 21, 1676, died in London, Dec. 13, 
1729. He was educated at Eton and at King's 
college, Cambridge, and was afterward entered 
a student in the Temple at London, but applied 
himself chiefly to literary studies. In 1703 he 
began a correspondence with Locke, who cher- 
ished an enthusiastic affection for him, ad- 
miring in him " as much of the love of truth 
for truth's sake as ever he met with in any- 
body." In 1707 he published a treatise con- 
cerning the use of reason in propositions de- 
pending on human testimony, and in the same 
year engaged in the controversy between Dod- 
well and Dr. Samuel Clarke concerning the 
natural immortality of the soul. In 1709 he 
published "Priestcraft in Perfection," assailing 
the 20th article of the church of England, which 
affirms the power of the church to decree rites 
and ceremonies and to determine controversies 
of faith. Numerous answers were written to 
this work, the most noted of which was by Dr. 
Bennet, to which Collins replied in his "Essay 
on the Thirty-nine Articles." He advocated 
the necessitarian scheme in his " Vindication 
of the Divine Attributes " (1710), which views 
he developed more fully in his " Philosophical 
Inquiry concerning Liberty and Necessity" 
(1715). Though he endeavors to prove that 
man is a necessary agent morally as a clock is 
physically, he yet does not deny the power in 
man of doing as he wills and pleases ; and in 
several of his views he anticipated Jonathan 
Edwards, the ablest subsequent champion of 
necessity. In answer to his opinions Dr. Clarke 
published in a tract one of the most important 
of his metaphysical arguments. In 1711 Col- 
lins resided in Holland, where in the society 
of Le Clerc and others he matured his " Dis- 
course on Free Thinking," which was publish- 
ed on his return in 1713, and excited much an- 
imadversion. Its aim was to show that in all 
ages the most intellectual men and most admi- 
rable characters have been free thinkers, rely- 
ing rather on philosophical thought than estab- 
lished opinion. The most remarkable of the 
numerous answers to it were by Bentley in 
England and Crousaz in France. In 1718 he 
became treasurer of the county of Essex, and 
soon after published his " Grounds and Reasons 
of the Christian Religion," maintaining that 
though Christianity is founded upon Judaism, 
and the assertions of the New Testament are 
proved in part by propositions from the Old, 
yet there is nothing in the latter which has a 
direct or other than a typical or allegorical 



bearing upon anything in the former. Within 
two years 35 answers appeared to this work, 
among others, by Whiston and Drs. Clarke, 
Sykes, and Sherlock ; to which Collins replied 
finally in his "Scheme of Literal Prophecy." 
His last work was written in 1727, in reply 
to eight sermons by Dr. Rogers on the neces- 
sity of a divine revelation. Collins was a 
subtle and ingenious rather than a profound 
writer. His personal amiability was remarked 
even by his opponents, and his large and very 
curious library was open to all men of letters. 

COLLINS, Charles Allston, an English painter 
and author, brother of Wilkie Collins, born at 
Hampstead, Jan. 25, 1828, died in London, 
April 9, 1873. From 1848 to 1858 he was en- 
gaged in painting, and exhibited several pic- 
tures at the royal academy and elsewhere, 
which attracted attention. Afterward he de- 
voted himself to literature. Among his works 
are : " A Cruise upon Wheels " (1862), a humor- 
ous account of a journey in France; "Strath- 
cairn " (1864) ; and " At the Bar " (1866). He 
married a daughter of Charles Dickens. 

COLLINS, Isaae, an American printer and pub- 
lisher, born in Delaware, Feb. 16, 1746, died 
at Burlington, N. J., March 21, 1817. His 
father emigrated to the United States from 
Bristol, England. Collins served an appren- 
ticeship to the printing business, and at its 
completion went to Philadelphia, where he 
worked 18 months as a journeyman, and then 
went into partnership with Joseph Cruikshanks. 
In 1770 he removed to Burlington, having been 
chosen colonial printer to George III. Here 
he married and became the father of 14 chil- 
dren. In 1771 he commenced printing an al- 
manac, and continued it for 20 years. He was 
also at this time the publisher of several other 
works. Removing to Trenton, N. J., in 1778, 
he projected what was in the publishing busi- 
ness of that time a great enterprise, namely, 
the publication of an octavo family Bible. In 
order to secure the utmost accuracy in typog- 
raphy, the whole was subjected to 11 proof- 
readings, the last of which was by his daughter 
Rebecca. So free from errors was this edition 
of the Scriptures, that it became at once the 
standard for all critical appeal, when the Eng- 
lish translation alone was concerned. 

COLLINS, William, an English poet, born at 
Chichester, Dec. 25, 1720, died there, June 12, 
1756. He was destined for the church, and in 
1733 was admitted a scholar at Winchester. In 
1740 he stood first in the list of scholars to be 
entered at New college, Oxford, but no vacancy 
occurred, and this circumstance Dr. Johnson 
calls the original misfortune of his life. He 
became a commoner of Queen's college, 
whence he was transferred to Magdalen. 
While at Winchester school he had written 
his "Eclogues," which he printed in 1742. 
They appeared without his name, and attracted 
little notice. He took his bachelor's degree at 
Oxford in 1744, and soon left the university 
abruptly, repairing to London as a literary ad- 



COLLINS 

venturer. Having no fixed purpose, little perse- 
verance, and withal great impatience for dis- 
tinction, he was for several years engaged in 
drawing up proposals for works which were 
never written, and destroying what little he 
wrote. He was much annoyed also by duns, 
and was at one time in the hands of bailiffs. He 
borrowed some money from a bookseller as an 
advance on a projected translation of Aristo- 
tle's Poetics ; but having inherited about 2,000 
from his uncle, Col. Martin, he repaid the 
publisher and thought no more of the transla- 
tion. In 1746 he published his" odes. He was 
much disappointed in the reception of his pro- 
ductions, and died probably with little idea of 
the celebrity they were to attain. The latter 
part of his life was passed in a state of insanity, 
with only occasional lucid periods, and for 
some time he was confined in a lunatic asylum. 
COLLINS, William, an English painter, born in 
London, Sept. 18, 1787, died Feb. 17, 1847. 
His earliest ideas in painting were derived from 
watching the process by which Morland exe- 
cuted his animal pieces. In 1807 he studied at 
the royal academy, and from that time until 
his death, with the exception of two years 
spent in Italy, never omitted to send pictures to 
the annual exhibitions. In 1820 he was elected 
an academician. In 1836 he went to Italy, and 
on his return made an unsuccessful appear- 
ance at the academy exhibitions as a historical 
painter. Many of his pictures have been en- 
graved, as "Prawn Fishers at Hastings," 
"Happy as a King," the "Shrimpers Even- 
ing," the " Fisherman's Widow," &c. 

COLLINS, William Wilkie, an English novelist, 
son of the preceding, born in London in Janu- 
ary, 1824. After being educated at a private 
school, and spending two years with his parents 
in Italy, he was articled for four years to a firm 
in the tea trade. Exchanging commerce for 
law, he was a student in Lincoln's Inn at the 
time of his father's death ; and his first literary 
performance was an admirable biography of 
him, with selections from his journals and cor- 
respondence (1848). He devoted himself from 
this time entirely to literature, and published 
iccessively, between 1850 and 1854, " Antoni- 
la, or the Fall of Rome," "Rambles beyond 
~ lil ways, or Notes in Cornwall," "Basil," 
"Mr. Wray's Cash Box," and "Hide and 
3k." He soon after became a contributor 
Household Words." All his later novels 
Anally appeared as serials in periodicals, 
principal of them are : " After Dark " 
L856), "The Dead Secret" (1857), "The 
leen of Hearts" (1859), "The Woman in 
r hite" (1860), "No Name" (1862), "Arma- 
ile" (1866), "The Moonstone "(1868), "Man 
id Wife" (1870), "Poor Miss Finch" (1872), 
id "The New Magdalen" (1873). In 1863 
jpeared "My Miscellanies" (2 vols.), made 
ip of contributions to journals. He has also 
written three dramas, "The Frozen Deep," 
"The Lighthouse," and "Black and White." 
At the end of 1873 he visited the United 



COLLODION 



77 



States, where he gave public readings from his 
works in the principal cities. 

COLLINSON, Peter, an English botanist, born 
at Hugall Hall, Westmoreland, Jan. 14, 1693, 
died Aug. 11, 1768. He was a member of the 
society of Friends, and a merchant in London. 
His studies in natural history gained him the ac- 
quaintance and correspondence of the most 
eminent naturalists of his time. He corre- 
sponded with Cadwallader Golden and Frank- 
lin, and is said to have made known to the lat- 
ter (1743) the first experiments in electricity, 
and sent to him the first electrical machine that 
went to the colonies. He gave special atten- 
tion to botany, and to the naturalization of 
plants and trees in regions remote from their 
original habitats. He sent to Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, and other Atlantic colonies, many 
foreign ornamental shrubs, which found in 
America a congenial soil and climate ; and he 
introduced into England many American forest 
trees. He was one of the first to suggest the cul- 
ture of the grape in Virginia. A genus of 
labiate plants is named Collinsonia after him. 
He was also familiar with the antiquities of 
England, and read many interesting papers be- 
fore the society of antiquaries. 

COLLN, Georg Friedrieh Wilibald Ferdinand von, 
a German author, born at Oerlinghausen, 
Lippe-Detmold, in 1766, died in Berlin, Jan. 
13, 1820. He held various offices in different 
places, and was for a time editor of the Sta'ats- 
Ameiger in Berlin, but in 1808 was imprisoned 
in the fortress of Glatz on account of damaging 
disclosures of maladministration made in some 
of his books. In 1810 he was permitted to 
visit a watering place, whereupon he fled to 
Austria. The king of Prussia subsequently 
pardoned him, and he was even pensioned and 
employed in the public service. His works 
were chiefly anonymous. Among them are: 
Neue Feuerbrdnde (6 vols., Leipsic, 1807-'8) ; 
Wien und Berlin in Parallele (5 vols., 1808); 
Vertraute Briefe uber die innern VerMlt- 
nisse am preussischen Hofe (3 vols., Amster- 
dam and Cologne, 1807-'9) ; Die neue Staats- 
wissenschaft (2d ed., Berlin, 1816); and His- 
torisches Archw der preussischen Provinzial- 
(1819-'20). 



COLLODION, or Coilodinm (Gr. *6Ua, glue, 
and eUoe, form), an adhesive substance pro- 
duced by dissolving gun cotton in ether and 
alcohol. The proportions recommended are, 
prepared cotton 8 parts by weight, rectified 
ether 125 parts, and rectified alcohol 8 parts. 
The presence of water in the alcohol and ether 
should be carefully avoided. The cotton is to 
be agitated in a bottle with the ether a few 
minutes, when the alcohol may be added, and 
the shaking continued. The product, a cle.ar, 
colorless liquid, of the consistency of sirup, is 
next strained through a cloth, and the liquid 
kept in a tight bottle. It is very volatile, and 
on evaporating leaves a film which adheres 
with extraordinary tenacity to the surface of 
bodies. This property makes it a convenient 



78 



COLLODION 



OOLLOREDO 



application to cuts and wounds in the place of 
sticking plaster, either by brushing it alone 
over the edges of the incision, or by spreading 
it upon strips of linen. It was first applied to 
this use by Dr. J. Parker Maynard, of Boston, 
to whom the name was suggested in 1848 by 
Dr. A. A. Gould. Collodion is best prepared 
from gun cotton made by the process of Prof. 
Ellet. Gun cotton made by steeping the fibre 
in nitric acid does not always dissolve in ether 
and alcohol. Prof. Ellet's, being always solu- 
ble, is preferred for this purpose, prepared as 
follows : 8 fluid oz. of sulphuric acid are add- 
ed to 10 oz. of nitrate of potassa, mixed, and 
triturated in a mortar ; \ oz. of fine clean cot- 
ton is then thoroughly stirred into the mixture 
for about four minutes ; the free acid is next 
removed by washing in water till all traces of 
it disappear. The gun cotton, being opened by 
picking and dried at a gentle heat, is dissolved 
in 2 pints of ether already mixed with a fluid 
ounce of alcohol. The solution is to be strain- 
ed, and kept in closely stopped bottles previ- 
ously well dried. A similar method is given 
by Lauras, and the cotton, which he calls 
xyloidin, produces by his process a quality of 
collodion possessing elasticity and suppleness, 
which adapt it for application to the skin, es- 
pecially on the articulations where freedom of 
motion is an important object. To a mixture 
of 300 grins, of sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 1*847, 
and 200 grms. of dry nitrate of potassa, he 
Adds 10 grms. of carded cotton. After being 
in contact 12 minutes the cotton is taken out 
and washed with cold water, rinsing it two or 
three times. 'It is then immersed in a solu- 
tion of 30 grms. of carbonate of potassa to 100 
of water, again well washed with water, and 
dried at 77 to 86 F. Of this xyloidin 8 grms. 
are placed in a flask with 125 of ordinary ether, 
and 8 grms. of alcohol are added of sp. gr. 
825. The mixture is well agitated and then 
combined with a preparation of Venice turpen- 
tine 2 grms., castor oil 2 grms., and white wax 
2 grms., to which, 1 after being heated, 6 grms. 
of ether should be added. Collodion was first 
applied to photographic purposes in 1847, by 
Mr. Archer of England. It is used as a men- 
struum for affixing to a glass plate a film of 
some iodide, as of potassium, ammonia, or cad- 
mium, a solution of which is mixed with it. 
Collodion is used in medicine exclusively as 
an external application. Besides its use as an 
adhesive application to slight cuts and wounds, 
already referred to, it is often applied with de- 
cided advantage to sore and cracked nipples 
and to chapped hands, and used as a protec- 
tion in some diseases of the skin, especially in 
chronic erythema, intertrigo, and herpes labi- 
alig. Whenever there is acute inflammation 
of any surface, the contractile action of collo- 
dion is apt to produce pain and irritation, and 
it should not then ba used. The annoying 
bleeding which sometimes follows the cut of a 
razor while shaving may be instantly stopped 
by an application of collodion. A mixture of 



100 parts of collodion with 2 parts of glyce- 
rine makes a more agreeable application than 
collodion alone, and one equally efficacious. 
It forms with cantharides a convenient blister- 
ing agent. Collodion should be applied with a 
camel's hair pencil. It may be kept for a long 
time fit for use in a well stoppered bottle. 

COLLOMBET, Francois Zenon, a French author, 
born at Sieges, in the department of Jura, 
March 28, 1808, died in Lyons, Oct. 16, 1853. 
He studied theology in accordance with the 
wishes of an uncle, but having inherited some 
property he turned to literature. He resided 
at Lyons, where he occupied a single room for 
23 years. He wrote for Feller's Dictionnaire 
historique, the Biographic universelle, and the 
Revue du Lyonnais. In 1848 he received from 
the academy of Lyons a prize for an JEloge de 
Chateaubriand. He died from overwork, leav- 
ing 40 volumes of writings, including GOUTS de 
litterature profane et sacree (4 vols. 8vo) ; 
Histoire de Saint Jerome (2 vols., 1844) ; Eis- 
toire critique de la suppression des Jesuites 
(2 vols., 1846) ; and Histoire de la Sainte JUglise 
de Vienne (3 vols.). 

COLLOREDO, a noble family of Austria, repre- 
sented also in Italy, a branch of the house of 
Wallsee or Waldsee, which held the vice-comi- 
tat of Mels in 1031, and was divided at the 
death of During II. in the 13th century into 
three lines: Mels-Colloredo, Prodolone, and 
Venzone. The earliest direct ancestor of the 
house was probably Wilhelm, who built in 1302 
the castle of Colloredo in Friuli, near the vil- 
lage of Mels. His three surviving sons, Asquin, 
Bernhard, and Weickardt, became the founders 
of three separate branches. To the Asquin line 
belong the following prominent names : RU- 
DOLPH VON COLLOEEDO, born Nov. 2, 1585, dis- 
tinguished himself in the thirty years' war, and 
especially at the defence of Prague in 1648, as 
field marshal of the imperial army, and died 
Jan. 24, 1657. HIEEONYMUS, his brother, born 
in 1582, served as cavalry general during the 
same war, and fell in the battle of St. Omer 
in 1638. The last of this line was LTTDWIG, 
son of the last named, who died Dec. 28, 
1693, with the rank of feldzeugmeister. In 
the Bernhard line the following distinguished 
themselves : JOHANN BAPTIST VON COLLOEEDO- 
| WALLSEE in 1648 took command of the Vene- 
j tian forces in Candia against the Turks, and 
j fell during the siege in October, 1649. FEANZDE 
! PAULA, count of Colloredo, born Oct. 29, 1799, 
was attached to the English legation in 1820, 
was minister at Copenhagen in 1825, at Dresden 
in 1830, at Munich in 1836, at St. Petersburg 
in 1843, again at London in 1852, and subse- 
quently ambassador in Rome; and in 1859, 
after the preliminaries of Villafranca, he was 
appointed first plenipotentiary of Austria to 
negotiate the terms of peace at Zurich, where 
he suddenly died, Oct. 26, 1859, leaving no 
issue. The Weickardt line produced the fol- 
lowing prominent men : FABEIZIO, a Floren- 
tine statesman, born in 1576, was sent as am- 



COLLOREDO 

bassador to the emperor Rudolph II. by Cosmo 
II. de' Medici, whose successor, Ferdinand II., 
appointed him chief minister of state. He 
died in 1645. The story of his journey to the 
Austrian court was written in Latin by Daniel 
Eremita, and forms an interesting work on the 
'manners of that age. HIEEONYMUS, count of 
Oolloredo, born in 1674, was governor of Mo- 
ravia from 1714 to 1717, was appointed chief 
marshal of the Austrian court in 1725, and 
died in 1726. Count RUDOLPH JOSEPH, his 
son, born July 6, 1706, was for 50 years vice 
chancellor of the German empire, and died 
Nov. 1, 1788. His son, JOSEPH MARIA, count 
of Colloredo-Mels and Waldsee, born Sept. 11, 
1735, distinguished himself in the seven years' 
war, was appointed lieutenant field -marshal 
and councillor of war, and accompanied the 
emperor Joseph II. to France. On his return 
to Austria he was intrusted with the general 
direction of the artillery, and soon after he 
was made feldzeugmeister. He participated in 
the Turkish war, and was made field marshal 
and commander-in-chief of the army of ob- 
servation on the Prussian frontier. From 1805 
to 1809 he was minister of state and conference, 
and director of the council of war. He died 
Nov. 26, 1818. Count WENZEL JOSEPH VON 
COLLOKEDO, born Oct. 15, 1738, brother of the 
preceding, participated in the seven years' 
war, was made lieutenant field marshal in 
1784, feldzeugmeister during the Turkish war, 
and field marshal in 1808. He died Sept. 4, 
1822. COLLOREDO-MANSFELD has been since 
1771 the name of the princely branch of the 
house, forming a part of the Weickardt line, 
of which the following are to be noted : FRANZ 
DE PAULA GUNDACCAR, prince of Colloredo- 
Mansfeld, born May 28, 1731, married the coun- 
tess of Mansfeld, and added her name to his 
own. He was ambassador at Madrid from 1767 
to 1771, and vice chancellor of the German em- 
pire from 1789 to 1806. He died Oct. 7, 1807. 
FERDINAND, count of Colloredo-MansfeJd, born 
in Vienna, July 30, 1777, was in 1801 ambas- 
sador at Ratisbon, in 1803 at Naples, and in 
1806 at Palermo. He fought valiantly in the 
battles of Aspern and Wagram in 1809, and 
rendered valuable assistance in the organiza- 
tion of the landwehr. He retired to his estates 
in 1815, whence he issued during the revolu- 
tion of 1848 to take command of the academical 
legion. He died in the same year. HIERON- 
YMUS, count of Colloredo-Mansfeld, born in 
1775, took part in nearly all the campaigns of 
his time, and distinguished himself Aug. 30, 
1813, in the battle at Culm, where Russia and 
Austria have jointly erected a monument to 
his memory. At the battle of Leipsic, having 
previously obtained the rank of feldzeugmeis- 
ter, he took the chief command in place of the 
prince of Homburg, who had been wounded. 
He died in Vienna, July 23, 1822, from the 
effect of his wounds. FRANZ DE PAULA GUN- 
DACCAR, prince of Colloredo-Mansfeld, son of 
the preceding, born in Vienna, Nov. 8, 1802, 
211 VOL. v. 6 



COLMAN 



79 



was rapidly promoted, and commanded in 1848 
as major general in Trieste and Theresienstadt. 
He distinguished himself in the Hungarian war 
at Kapolna and Comorn, and obtained the 
chief command of an army corps. He died 
May 29, 1852. JOSEPH FRANZ HIERONYMUS, 
prince of Colloredo-Mansfeld, cousin and heir 
of the preceding, was born Feb. 26, 1813. He 
is a hereditary member of the upper house in 
the Austrian diet. His eldest son, Count 
HIERONYMUS, born July 20, 1842, took part in 
the Schleswig-Holstein war of 1864, and mar- 
ried in 1865 the countess of Festetics-Tolna. 

COLLOT D'HERBOIS, Jean Marie, a French 
revolutionist, born in Paris about 1750, died in 
Cayenne, Jan. 8, 1796. His name was origi- 
nally Collot, but having become an actor he 
adopted the additional name of d'Herbois. 
He appeared upon the stage for many years, 
and was the author of a large number of 
plays, some of which had considerable success. 
When the revolution broke out he joined the 
Jacobins at Paris, and acquired great influence 
by his sonorous voice, theatrical attitudes, and 
impulsive elocution. He was particularly en- 
ergetic in his efforts to procure the release of 
a body of soldiers who had been imprisoned 
for having taken part in an insurrection at 
Nancy. After having been released they en- 
tered Paris in a grand procession, in which a 
conspicuous place was assigned to Collot. He 
also obtained the prize offered by the Jacobin 
club for the best almanac for 1792, which 
should make the advantages of constitutional 
government understood by the people. His 
work, called the Almanack du pere Gerard, 
brought him great celebrity. He presided 
over an assembly held for the nomination of 
deputies to the convention, was himself elected 
a member, and in that capacity favored the 
most violent measures. He was chosen pres- 
ident of the convention, June 13, 1793, and 
in September of the same year he was placed 
with Billaud-Varennes upon the committee of 
public safety. In November Collot was sent 
with Fouch6 and Couthon to Lyons to punish 
the city for an insurrection. This was done 
by the slaughtering of the inhabitants en masse 
with grape shot, and the demolition of the 
buildings. When he returned to Paris he 
found that odium had been created against 
him by his proceedings at Lyons. His popu- 
larity was in some measure restored by an at- 
tempt to assassinate him, May 23, 1794. From 
a supporter of Robespierre he now, however, 
became his opponent ; but the reaction proved 
too strong for him. He was removed from the 
committee of public safety ; and although ac- 
quitted on some charges brought against him, 
he was found guilty on others, and sentenced 
to be transported to Cayenne. 

COO1AN, Beiu'amin, an American clergyman, 
born in Boston, Oct. 19, 1673, died there, 
Aug. 29, 1747. In 1692 he graduated at Har- 
vard college, and not long afterward began to 
preach. He embarked for England in 1695, 



80 



COLMAN" 



but the vessel in which he sailed was captured 
by a French privateer, and he was carried to 
France as a prisoner. Being exchanged soon 
after, he passed over to England, where he re- 
mained till 1699, preaching in different places. 
In that year, having accepted an invitation to 
become pastor of a society just formed in 
Brattle street, Boston, he returned to America 
and entered upon his new duties. Of this so- 
ciety he remained pastor until his death. In 
1724 he was chosen president of Harvard col- 
lege, which office he however declined, and in 
1731 he received the degree of D. D. from the 
university of Glasgow. He published many 
sermons, some poems, and a tract in favor of 
inoculation for the smallpox. 

COLMA.V. I. George, the elder, an English 
comic dramatist, born in Florence about 1733, 
died atPaddington, Aug. 14, 1794. His father 
was British resident at the court of the grand 
duke of Tuscany. After receiving his early 
education at Westminster school, he became a 
student at Christchurch college, Oxford. He 
acquired a reputation for wit and talent, and 
published a weekly periodical called the " Con- 
noisseur," from January, 1754, to September, 
1756, which delineated the manners of the 
time with admirable humor. He studied law 
at Lincoln's Inn, and was admitted to the bar, 
but devoted himself to dramatic pursuits, wri- 
ting "Polly Honeycomb" and "The Jealous 
Wife." At the death of his uncle, Lord Bath, 
he came into possession of a handsome fortune. 
In 1766 he joined with Garrick in writing "The 
Clandestine Marriage," and in 1767 he became 
part owner of Covent Garden theatre, and was 
acting manager of it for seven years. In 1777 
he purchased the Haymarket theatre, which 
he supplied with pieces either original or 
translated. He was the author of more than 
30 dramatic pieces, a few of which still keep 
possession of the stage. He was also a classical 
scholar, and made a translation of the com- 
edies of Terence, and of Horace's "Art of 
Poetry." A paralytic stroke in 1790 resulted 
in his mental derangement, and he was remov- 
ed to a lunatic asylum at Paddington. His 
"Dramatic Works" were published in 1777 
(4 vols. 8vo), and his "Miscellaneous Works" 
in 1787 (3 vols. 12mo). II. George, the younger, 
eon of the preceding, born Oct. 21, 1762, died 
Oct. 26, 1836. In 1785, in consequence of the 
illness of his father, he assumed the manage- 
ment of the Haymarket theatre, and retained 
it for a long time. In the latter part of his 
life he held the office of examiner of plays. 
He was distinguished as a wit, and divided 
with Sheridan the admiration of the London 
circles. He wrote "John Bull," " The Iron 
Chest," and "The Poor Gentleman," which 
still retain their popularity. He also wrote 
"Broad Grins," "Poetical Vagaries," &c., 
and various small poems. 

('OLMA.V, Henry, an American clergyman and 
author, born in Boston, Sept. 12, 1785, died 
in London, Aug. 14, 1849. He graduated at 



COLOCOLO 

Dartmouth college in 1805, and was ordained 
minister of a Congregational church at Iling- 
ham, Mass., in 1807, remaining there till 1820. 
From 1825 to 1831 he officiated as pastor of a 
Unitarian society in Salem, and afterward re- 
moved to Deerfield, where he devoted himself 
to agricultural pursuits. He was appointed 
agricultural commissioner of the state of Mas- 
sachusetts, and after passing some time in 
making a tour of inspection in that state, and 
in preparing several reports, he spent six years, 
from 1842 to 1848, in Europe. The results of 
his observations during this time were publish- 
ed after his return in his "Agricultural and 
Rural Economy of France, Belgium, Holland, 
and Switzerland," "European Agriculture and 
Rural Economy," and "European Life and 
Manners, in Letters to Friends." He also pub- 
lished a report on silk culture and reports on 
the agriculture of Massachusetts. In 1849 he 
revisited Europe, for the benefit of his health, 
but died soon after his arrival in England. 

COLMAR (under the Franks Columbaria), 
city of Germany, capital of Upper Alsac^, 
(formerly of t^e French department of Haut- 
Rhin), 40 m. S. S. W. of Strasburg ; pop. in 
1872, 23,045. It is situated near the foot 
of the Vosges mountains, on the Lauch and 
Fecht rivers, both tributaries of the 111, a 
feeder of the Rhine, and on the railway from 
Strasburg to Basel. Colmar is one of the chief 
seats of cotton manufacture in Germany, and 
possesses also various other manufactures. The 
principal factory for cotton prints employs 
about 1,200 persons. It has normal schools 
for teachers, a gymnasium, a public library 
with 60,000 volumes, a Bible and a literary so- 
ciety, a civil and military hospital, a theatre, a 
Protestant church, several Catholic churches, 
and Jewish synagogues. The cathedral is a 
Gothic edifice of the 14th century, containing 
a remarkable painting of Martin Schon, who 
was a native of Colmar. Gen. Rapp was also 
born there, and a monument has been erected 
to his memory. Colmar was made a free im- 
perial city in the 13th century, figured con- 
spicuously in the civil wars under Rudolph of 
Hapsburg and Adolphus of Nassau, was taken 
by the Swedes in 1632, and later by the French, 
returned for a time to Germany, but was re- 
taken by Louis XIV., and annexed to France 
in 1697 by the treaty of Ryswick. In 1871 it 
was ceded with the rest of Alsace to Germany. 

COLNE, a market town of Lancashire, Eng- 
land, on the Colne, an affluent of the Calder, 
26 m. N. of Manchester ; pop. about 8,000. It 
is one of the most ancient seats of woolten 
manufacture in England ; but since the intro- 
duction of the cotton manufacture, toward the 
close of last century, the population has been 
chiefly employed in producing cotton goods for 
the Manchester market. 

COLOCOLO (felis ferox), a large cat of the 
size of the ocelot, living in the northern parts 
of South America. The color is grayish above, 
white below, with black longitudinal streaks 



COLOCOTRONIS 

on the body and limbs, and the tail with par- 
tial black rings, the. stripes edged with tawny. 
It is very savage, and commits great havoc 
among the monkeys and small mammals of 



COLOGNE 



81 




Colocolo. 

Guiana. In its flat and wide head, large round- 
ed ears, stout limbs, and short tail it somewhat 
resembles the African serval. 

COLOCOTRONIS, Theodores, a modern Greek 
general, born in Messenia, April 3, 1770, died 
in Athens, Feb. 4, 1843. His father and 
grandfather both fell fighting against the 
Turks, and Theodores was habituated from 
his youth to the hardships of guerilla warfare. 
In 1806 he was compelled to fly from the 
Morea in order to escape the Turks, to whom 
his name had become a terror, and entered 
the military service of the Ionian Islands. Im- 
mediately on the outbreak of the revolution 
in 1821 he landed in the Morea, and was soon 
at the head of a large band of Greeks. In 
the two following years he was actively en- 
gaged in the operations against the Turks, dis- 
tinguished himself especially at the taking of 
Tripolitza and Corinth, and contributed greatly 
to the victory over Mahmoud Dramali in 1822. 
But instead of bending all his energies toward 
the achievement of Grecian independence, he 
engaged in quarrels with his brother chiefs, 
and at last made open war upon the recognized 
government. He was unsuccessful in his re- 
volt, however, and, having been defeated and 
taken prisoner, was confined on the island' of 
Hydra. But the Grecian leaders were soon 
compelled to liberate him, and to place him at 
the head of affairs in the Morea, in order to 
satisfy the people of that part of Greece, among 
whom he was very popular, and to oppose the 
progress of Ibrahim Pasha. In 1827 he assist- 
ed to elect Capo d'Istria president of Greece, 
and was afterward confirmed by him in his 
command of the Morea. He was a member of 
the provisional government established after 
the assassination of that statesman in 1831. 
Opposed to the regency which was established 
during the minority of Otho, and detected in a 
conspiracy against that government, he was 
condemned to death in April, 1 834. His punish- 
ment was, however, in consideration of the 
valuable services he had rendered the state, 



commuted to imprisonment for 20 years in the 
citadel of Nauplia ; and Otho on his being de- 
clared of age in the following year granted 
him a full pardon, restored him to his old rank 
as general, and bestowed on him the decora- 
tion of the order of the Saviour. From this 
time until his death he lived quietly at Athens, 
where he composed his "Memorabilia" re- 
lating to the history of Greece from 1770 to 
1836, which were published at Athens in 1851 
COLOCYNTH, the fruit of citrullus colocyn- 
this, a plant of the order cucurbitacea, some- 
what resembling a small watermelon, and 
growing in various parts of Asia and Africa. 
The pulp of the fruit, deprived of rind and 
seeds, is intensely bitter and powerfully ca- 
thartic. These properties are due to colo- 
cynthine, a neutral bitter substance existing 
in the dried pulp in the proportion of about 
14 per cent. Colocynth is used in medicine 
chiefly in the form of compound extract, hi 
which it is combined with aloes, scammony, 




Colocynth. 

cardamom, and soap. This combination ren- 
ders its action milder, but not less efficacious. 
It is still further combined with calomel, jalap, 
and gamboge, in the compound cathartic pill. 
A tincture is used in Germany. The unripe 
fruit is said to be eatable when pickled. A 
hybrid between the colocynth and the water- 
melon has been produced in this country, which 
possesses the bitterness and purgative proper- 
ties of the former. 

COLOGNE (German, Kolri), a city of Prussia, 
capital of the province of the Rhine and of a 
district of the same name, situated on the left 
bank of the Rhine, in lat. 50 58' N., Ion. 7 
E., 38 m. E. N. E. of Aix-la-Chapelle ; pop. in 
1871, 129,233, mostly Roman Catholics. The 
suburb of Deutz, upon the opposite bank of the 
Rhine, is connected with it by a bridge of 
boats and by an iron railway bridge 1,352 ft. 
long. The city forms a semicircle which rests 
upon the Rhine, and is surrounded by strong 



COLOGNE 



walls and protected by forts. Most of the 
streets are narrow and crooked. Of the public 
places the finest are the Heumarkt, Waid, 
Altmarkt, and Neumarkt. The city is the 
seat of courts of appeal, and of an archbish- 
opric founded in the 8th century. The most 
noted manufacture is that of eau de Cologne, 
for the production of which there are 24 estab- 
lishments. Among the other manufactures are 
silk and cotton goods, machines, tobacco, lace, 
paper, wax, soap, and musical and optical in- 
struments. The Rathhaus or town hall has a 
Gothic tower and a marble porch in the re- 
naissance style. It contains the Hansa-Saal, in 
which the Hanseatic merchants held their 
meetings. Another fine building is the Kauf- 
haus, also called the Gurzenich, from the per- 
son who gave the ground upon which it stands. 
In the hall on the first floor diets of the empire 



have been held and emperors entertained. It 
is now used for balls, concerts, &c. The Tem- 
plars' house is now used for an exchange. The 
buildings for the government offices, the court 
of appeals, and the archbishop's palace are all 
handsome. But the most remarkable building 
is the cathedral, commenced about 1250, but 
still unfinished. It is 511 ft. in length, 231 in 
breadth, and the towers when completed will 
be 511 ft. high. It is said to be the largest 
specimen of Gothic architecture in the world. 
(See CATHEDEAL.) The repair of the building 
was commenced in 1 830 under King Frederick 
William III., and its construction was carried 
forward under Frederick William IV. Large 
sums were appropriated by the government, 
and money was also raised by private sub- 
scription, and by an association called the 
Dombauverein, with branches throughout Eu- 




Cologne Cathedral in its present condition. 



rope. The nave, aisles, and transept were 
consecrated in 1848, and the whole interior 
was thrown open in 1863. The portals, after 
designs by Zwirner, are finished; the one fa- 
cing toward the south is greatly admired. 
Cologne has many other beautiful churches, 
of which those of St. Gereon, St. Peter, St. 
Cunibert, St. Ursula, and those of the Jesuits 
and of the Apostles are the finest. It has also 
a handsome synagogue, in the oriental style, 
for the construction of which the banker Op- 
penheim furnished the funds and Zwirner the 
designs. The Wallraf-Richartz museum was 
built by Richartz to contain a large collection 
of paintings bequeathed to the city by Wall- 
raf. The university of Cologne, famous in the 
middle ages, no longer exists. There is a pub- 
lic library of G0,000 volumes. Cologne had its 
origin in a camp which was pitched upon its 



site by the Romans in the time of Marcus 
Agrippa. Afterward the Ubii were trans- 
ferred to it from the right bank of the Rhine, 
and it became the Oppidum Ubiorum. Agrip- 
pina, the daughter of Germanicus and the 
mother of Nero, a native of this place, induced 
her husband Claudius to found a colony here in 
A. D. 51. The town then received the name 
Colonia Agrippina, which it still retains in 
part. The foundations of the Roman walls re- 
main, and may be traced through the heart of 
the city. Some suppose that traces of the Ro- 
man descent of its inhabitants may be found in 
their features and complexion. Down to the 
time of the French revolution the leading citi- 
zens were styled patricians, and the two burgo- 
masters wore the consular toga and were at- 
tended by lictors. From the beginning of the 
13th to nearly the end of the 15th century 



COLOGNE WATER 

Cologne was one of the principal cities of the 
Hanseatic league. When most powerful it 
could put 30,000 men into the field. In 1259 
it obtained the right to require that all goods 
which arrived in vessels should be unloaded 
and shipped in Cologne bottoms. Important 
commercial privileges were granted to it in 
England. It was the channel of commerce 
with the East, and had business relations with 
Spain, Portugal, and Italy. The celebration 
of the carnival, and the exhibition of puppets, 
which are still kept up, bear witness to the in- 
fluence of Italian tastes. Cologne was some- 
times called the Rome of the north. Various 
causes contributed to the diminution of its pros- 
perity. The route of commerce was changed. 
The clergy acquired undue influence, and feuds 
arose between them and the citizens. The Jews 
were expelled. Disturbances were afterward 
created by the weavers, and the magistrates 
caused their looms to be destroyed, in conse- 
quence of which they left the city. In the 16th 
century restrictions were placed by the Dutch 
upon the navigation of the Rhine ; and in 1618 
the Protestants were banished from the city. 
As prosperity diminished, the number of beg- 
gars and priests increased, until it was said that 
the beggars were 12,000 in number, and that 
there were as many steeples in Cologne as there 
are days in the year. In 1794, when the city 
fell into the hands of the French, it contained 
about 40,000 inhabitants, of whom more than 
one fourth lived by mendicity. The French 
government at once attacked this social evil. 
It secularized many churches and religious 
foundations, and adopted the most stringent 
measures against the abuses which had grown 
out of them. In 1814 it was restored to Prus- 
sia. The restrictions upon the navigation of 
the Rhine were removed in 1837 ; steamboats 
have been introduced, and railways have been 
constructed, by which Cologne is connected 
with all the principal cities of the continent. 
In February, 1873, a proposition was submit- 
ted by Prince Bismarck to appropriate $9,000,- 
000 for the erection and improvement of forti- 
fications. The Kolnische Zeitung is one of the 
most influential newspapers in Germany, being 
the organ of the liberal party, as the Kolnische 
Vollcsoldtter is of the Roman Catholics. 

COLOGNE WATER. See EAU DE COLOGNE. 

COLOMBIA, United States of (Estados Unidos 
de Colombia}, formerly NEW GBANADA, a re- 
public of South America, lying between lat. 
12 21' N. and 1 20' S., and Ion. 68 52' and 
83 5' W. It is bounded N. by the Caribbean 
sea, N. E. and E. by Venezuela, S. E. by Brazil, 
S. by Ecuador, and W. by the Pacific ocean 
and Costa Rica. Its extreme length from N. 
to S. is about 1,000 m., extreme breadth about 
760 m. ; but its average breadth is much less, 
it being only 28 m. wide at the isthmus of 
Panama. The area is estimated at from 480,- 
000 to 521,000 sq. m. The republic is divided 
into nine federal states, which, with their areas, 
population, and capitals, are as follows : 



COLOMBIA 



83 



STATES. 


Are., 
q. m. 


Population, 
1870. 


CAPITALS. 


Popul*- 

tion. 


Antioquia. . . 


24828 


865 974 


MedeUin 


14 00(1 


Bolivar . 


27027 


'2'' r > u 




. r. u . 


Boyaca 


33'849 


48^874 




K..HMI 


Cauca 
Cundinamarca .. 
Magdalena 
Panama 
Santander. 
Tollma 


2fAOOO 
7!),*45 
26,950 
81,921 
16,293 
18,476 


485'078 
409,602 
85,256 
220,542 
425,427 
230821 


Popayan . . . 
Bogota 
Santa Marta. 
Panama 
Socorro 
Ibaeue 


8.000 
46,000 
2,000 
18,000 
12,000 
5000 












Total 


518,884 


2 880 638 

















Bogota, the national capital, with its environs, 
forms a federal district, but the city is also the 
capital of the state of Cundinamarca. The 
coasts of Colombia are deeply indented by 
large and fine bays, the principal of which are 
the gulfs of Darien and Maracaibo on the Ca- 
ribbean sea and the gulf of Panama on the Pa- 
cific. There are many smaller bays on both 
oceans, which make excellent harbors. Among 
the chief ports, besides the free ports of Pa- 
nama and Aspinwall or Colon, are Cartagena, 
Sabanilla, Santa Marta, and Rio Hacha on the 
Atlantic, and Buenaventura on the Pacific. 
Chiriqui lagoon and Porto Bello, on the Carib- 
bean sea, and Humboldt, Cupica, and San 
Juan or Chirambira, on the Pacific, also fur- 
nish good harbors. There are numerous isl- 
ands along the coast, none of which are very 
large. In the Caribbean sea are the islands of 
San Andres and Providence. In the Chiriqui 
lagoon are 11 islands, of which Boca del Toro 
is the largest, and there are many more along 
the coast of Cartagena. In the gulf of Panama 
are the island of Tobago and a group called the 
Archipelago of Pearls. The surface of Colom- 
bia is more equally diversified than that of 
any other South American state, being nearly 
evenly divided into mountain, valley, and plain. 
Not far from the borders of Ecuador, about 
lat. 1 20' N., the range of the Andes separates 
into two branches. The W. branch, which 
follows the line of the coast, is called la Cordi- 
llera de la Costa. The E. branch pursues a N. 
E. course from the point of separation until it 
reaches lat. 1 50' K, when it again divides 
and forms two chains nearly parallel, between 
which lies the valley of the Magdalena. The 
most easterly of these chains, which follows 
the right bank of the Magdalena, is called the 
E. Cordillera of Cundinamarca. Between the 
central and the coast range is the valley of the 
Cauca, and W. of the latter the mineral region 
of Choco. By some the eastern range is called 
the Cordillera de la Suma Paz, from the moun- 
tains of the name near Bogota ; the central, 
the Quindiu ; and the western, the Choco. The 
latter, though comparatively low, has few and 
difficult passes. The E. branch is much the 
greatest in extent, and consists of a series of 
table lands or plateaus, from 8,000 to 14,000 
ft. in elevation. In this plateau, which is cool 
and salubrious, the ancient Chibchas had their 
seat. It produces in the greatest profusion the 
fruits and grains of the temperate zone, and 



Lon.~West from Greenwich 



COLOMBIA 




?*Kqjgy i? *^S ,- ; "*J\ < v ,^r<r s >. 

^3 t*--^r 2<1|1 

. Morosaut?0 K ,.. ^^Mffcna^^'r 



Gobi 




contains more than one third of the popula- 
tion of the republic. About lat. 5 N. the E. 
range rises to the height of perpetual snow, 
but the highest peak is that of Tolima, in the 
middle chain, lat. 4 46' N., which rises 18,020 
ft. This is the most lofty summit of the An- 
des proper north of the equator. The range 
of Santa Marta, which extends along the N". 
coast between the central and the E. chains, is 
19,000 ft. high, but it does not belong to the 
Andes. The name Andes is here used only as 
a systematic denomination, for it is unknown 



in the countries N". of the equator. The moun- 
tains of the isthmus of Panama, by their di- 
rection and their geographical position, may be 
considered as a continuation of the mountains of 
Antioquia and Choco, or the western Cordille- 
ra. Between the mountain chains lie immense 
valleys and plains, which differ much in charac- 
ter. On the east the llanos, extending to the 
Orinoco, are generally either swarnps or sun- 
burnt deserts destitute of trees. In the rainy 
season immense herds of cattle and horses find 
pasturage on them. The W. coast and a great 



COLOMBIA 



85 



part of the isthmus are covered with luxuriant 
and almost impenetrable forests, and are little 
known. The whole Atrato valley was once a 
vast estuary of the sea, whose waves broke 
upon the very feet of the Cordilleras. The 
fossiliferous rocks near the head waters of the 
Tuira show that the country was at one time 
submerged by the Pacific ocean, shell fish of 
the same character as the fossils being found 
living both in the Pacific and the Atlantic at 
the present time. The swamps about the 
Atrato river rest on beds of gold-bearing clay, 
which the natives wash with considerable 
profit. Toward the close of the last century 
a channel was cut by a monk across the so- 
called isthmus of Raspadura, connecting the 
head waters of the Atrato and of the San Juan, 
passing near Quibdo, lat. 5 50' IT., by which 
communication by boats is still maintained be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Pacific. The val- 
ley of the Cauca, between the W. and central 
ranges of the Cordilleras, is one of the richest, 
most fertile, and most populous districts in 
South America. It consists of two plateaus 
of different elevation and temperature. The 
soil is deep, and tinged with a red or yellow 
color. The pastures are rich, and the lands 
are well cultivated. The valley of the Magda- 
lena comprises an area of about 75,000 sq. m. 
The soil is very fertile, but the climate is hot, 
and in portions insalubrious. Owing to the 
wide ramifications of the Andes, a large part 
of Colombia lies at an elevation of from 5,000 
to 10,000 ft. above the sea ; but in consequence 
of the unhealthfulness of the coast and the in- 
accessibility of the mountain passes, the great 
resources of the country are comparatively 
undeveloped. On the east the river Orinoco 
forms a part of the boundary line between 
Colombia and Venezuela, and on the south the 
Putumayo separates it from Ecuador. Into 
the former flow the Guaviare, Vichada, Meta, 
and a number of smaller streams. The princi- 
pal affluents of the Marafion or Amazon in the 
republic, besides the Putumayo, are the Rio 
Caqueta, sometimes called the Japura or Hya- 
pura, and the Rio Negro. The Vaupes or 
Ucayari is a branch of the latter. Colombia 
has the right of navigating the Amazon and 
the Orinoco. But the most important of all 
its rivers is the Magdalena, with its tributary 
the Cauca. They traverse nearly the entire 
country from N. to S. They both rise in the 
Andes, about lat. 2 IS"., and pursue a nearly 
parallel course, the former on the east and the 
latter on the west of the central range, until 
they unite in lat. 9 20' K, again to divide in 
lat. 9 57', and fall into the Caribbean sea by 
two deltas, one in lat. 10 and the other in lat. 
11 7', forming an island of 3,150 sq. m. The 
Magdalena, navigated by steam to Honda, is 
on an average 1,750 ft. lower than the Cauca, 
whose stream is therefore very impetuous. 
The Funza, which rises 100 m. 1ST. of Bogota, 
runs in a S. W. direction to Tequendama, 
where it plunges down a precipice over 600 ft. 



high, falling from the region of oaks, willows, 
and wheat, to that of the palm and sugar cane. 
The Atrato rises in lat. 5 20' N., flows N., 
and falls into the gulf of Darien. To the dis- 
tance of 180 m. from the sea it is deep enough 
for the largest ships ; and extensive traffic be- 
tween Quibdo and Cartagena is carried on by 
bongos, or large canoes. The navigation of 
this river and those of the isthmus was pro- 
hibited on pain of death by Philip II., lest for- 
eign powers should gain a knowledge of means 
of connecting the two oceans. The rivers 
draining the W. chain of the Cordilleras into 
the Pacific are small. The most important are 
the Patia and the San Juan, which communi- 
cate with the high, salubrious, and fertile dis- 
tricts of Popayan, Pasto, Tuquerres, and the 
famous valley of Cauca, which Bolivar called 
the "Italy of America." Small lakes are nu- 
merous in the mountains, but there are none 
of large extent. Paletara, Las Papas, Una, 
and Caucagua are the most noteworthy. Into 
Guatavita, a small lake near Bogota, the In- 
dians are said to have thrown their treasures 
when about to abandon the country to the 
Spaniards. Curious and valuable articles 
have been fished up from its depths, but at- 
tempts made to drain it have proved a failure. 
The geological conditions of Colombia are 
equally extraordinary and perplexing. Every- 
where are found traces of stupendous cata- 
clysms, and a disarrangement and intermixture 
of primitive and sedimentary rocks, which 
seem to set classification at defiance. In some 
places great rivers and even small streams have 
cut through mountains of the hardest rocks, 
leaving dizzy escarpments on each side; in 
others are enormous subsidences in the earth, 
as if the props of its surface had suddenly 
given way, or vast caverns glistening with 
stalactites ; while everywhere colossal masses, 
lifted high above the general level, attest the 
violence of volcanic agencies. These agencies 
are still active in places, as in Batan near So- 
gamoso, where the soil is so much heated that, 
although in the heart of the Andes, it pro- 
duces all the fruits of the tropics. The cele- 
brated Colombian geologist, Joaquin Acosta, 
describes great glaciers which he saw in the 
Paramo of Ruiz, a phenomenon which escaped 
the attention of both Humboldt and Boussin- 
gault. Col. Codazzi demonstrated that in the 
highlands of Bogota, Tunja, and Velez, where 
is now the densest population, there once 
existed a system of broad and deep lakes, 
which, breaking through their barriers, pre- 
cipitated themselves through what is now the 
river Suarez or Sogamoso into the ocean, leav- 
ing the traces of their irruption boldly marked 
on the face of the country. The same author- 
ity conceives that this great cataclysm may 
have occurred within the past four centuries. 
Some evidence in support of his theory is af- 
forded by two great stones which have been 
discovered on opposite sides of what must have 
been the borders of the principal lake ; both 



86 



COLOMBIA 



face toward the points of rupture of the moun- 
tains, and the faces of both are covered with 
sculptures, among which are distinguishable 
figures of the frog (the Chibcha sign of water) 
with outspread feet, and human figures with 
upraised arms, in attitude of surprise or alarm. 
Among the natural curiosities of the country 
are the falls of Tequendama; the natural 
bridge of Pandi or Icononzo, spanning the 
river Suma Paz at an elevation of 600 ft. ; the 
cascade of the Rio Vinagre, so called from 
the sulphuric acid with which its waters are 
charged ; the great orifices called Hoyo del 
Aire and Hoyo de los Pajaros, near Velez ; the 
Pelion de Quitisoque, from the symmetrically 
pierced summit of which fall three beautiful 
streams of water; the Fura-Tena (man and 
woman in the Chibcha language), and the Bo- 
queron de Pefia Armada, which are two stu- 
pendous cuts or excavations made by the Rio 
Minero, the second 10,650 ft. deep; and the 
natural tunnel of the Rio Suarez. From Costa 
Rica to Venezuela, Colombia abounds in au- 
riferous alluvions of great extent. There is 
hardly a state which does not possess in its 
soil more or less gold. It is claimed that Cho- 
co, Antioquia, Mariquita, Popayan, Pamplona, 
Ocafia, Bucaramanga, and other places are ex- 
ceedingly rich in that metal. The auriferous 
sands of Antioquia, according to M. Dufrenoy, 
afford results very nearly coinciding with those 
of California. Small diamonds are found with 
the gold, and in the same district the sulphate 
of mercury is abundant. Choco produces plat- 
inum, and Muzo emeralds ; and in various parts 
of the country are mines of silver, copper, lead, 
iron, quicksilver, coal (in Bogota, Cali, Soata, 
Chiriqui, &c.), amethysts, and other varieties 
of rare and valuable stones and minerals. The 
great coal bed of Cali, it is believed, extends 
beyond the Cordilleras to the Pacific. On the 
table lands of Bogota, Tuquerres, Tunja, and 
Pamplona rock salt abounds, and lime, sul- 
phur, alum, magnesia, asphaltum, and other 
valuable minerals exist in inexhaustible quan- 
tities in various parts of the republic. 
The climate of Colombia presents remarkable 
contrasts and nearly every variety of tem- 
perature. The lower part of the valley of the 
Magdalena is oppressed with almost tropical 
heat. The waters of the river are lukewarm, 
and at Honda, 1,000 ft. above the level of the 
sea, stones exposed to the sun's rays are too 
hot to place the hand upon. The mortality in 
this region is great, more especially among 
children. At Cartagena, as well as on the 
"W. coast, the yellow fever is endemic, and the 
lowlands are dangerous to both Europeans and 
the people of the highlands. On the plateaus 
the air is salubrious and the temperature is 
that of perpetual spring. On the plain of 
Bogota, which is 8,000 ft. above the sea, the 
thermometer ranges from 55 to V0 F., and 
the rain in the wet season falls but a few hours 
daily in the afternoon. The summits of the 
Cordilleras are usually covered with mists, and 



the tops of the highest with perpetual snow. 
In the forests of Darien the rain falls almost 
unceasingly, and the gulf of Choco is seldom 
free from violent storms. The flora combines 
almost all the products of the tropical, inter- 
tropical, and temperate zones. Within a single 
day's journey one may encounter the four 
seasons of the year and the vegetable peculiar- 
ities of all these zones. Rice, cotton, tobacco, 
sugar cane, and all tropical fruits grow along 
the coast ; and the elevated plains yield maize, 
wheat, potatoes, and all the European fruits. 
The vast forests, yet imperfectly explored, 
abound with valuable productions. In Po- 
payan the cinchona grows to perfection, and 
the sides of the mountains of Tolima are 
clothed to an elevation of 8,500 ft. with wax 
palms 200 ft. high. Besides these are found 
the pitayo, cedar, balsam of Tolu, vanilla, lig- 
num vitae, mahogany, caoutchouc, and the 
three trees perhaps most precious of all, the 
albataque, the vine of the cross, and the arisa, 
all remarkable specifics, the first against in- 
flammation, the second for stanching effusions 
of blood, and the third for instantaneously 
stopping bleeding at the nose. Notwithstand- 
ing the luxuriance of the vegetation, the spe- 
cies are not intermingled. Each kind occupies 
some tract of its own, where it flourishes to 
the almost total exclusion of others. Colombia 
abounds in animal life. The rivers swarm with 
alligators and wild fowl, and myriads of flies 
render life almost unendurable in the lowlands. 
Boa constrictors and poisonous serpents, the 
jaguar, the puma, and others of the feline 
tribe, and monkeys of many species abound in 
the tropical forests. The sloth, armadillo, ant- 
eater, and cavy also inhabit the lower forests ; 
deer of different kinds are found at all heights ; 
and the bear and marmot approach the limits 
of perpetual snow. At the height of about 
3,000 ft. the alligator and boa constrictor dis- 
appear, and the tapir, the largest quadruped of 
the country, is seen. Popular tradition re- 
ports the existence in the vast unexplored 
forests of the panchique and mancarita, enor- 
mous quadrupeds never seen alive, but whose 
tracks, those of the first round, and those of 
the second marked with three great toes, have 
been often observed in the mountains of Coco- 
nuco in Popayan, and at Piedecuesta in San- 
tander. It is affirmed that on the line of the 
tracks of the panchique the branches of the 
trees have been broken off to the height of 15 
feet. The condor soars above the snow line 
of the Andes, and the forests are alive with 
innumerable varieties of insects and birds. 
Among these the changeable butterfly of 
Muzo is without a rival in its beauty, and the 
troopial is not excelled by the nightingale for 
its song. The bird of Velez, called sol y luna, 
(sun and moon), has the image of both those 
luminaries on its wings. On the coast turtles 
and fish abound, and pearls and coral are found 
in the bay of Panama and near Cartagena. 
The population of Colombia is made up of 



COLOMBIA 



87 



whites, mostly of Spanish origin, negroes, and 
Indians, and their mixtures. The whites con- 
stitute rather less than 1,000,000 of the total 
population, and the mestizos about the same 
number. Of mulattoes and civilized Indians, 
there are about 300,000 each, and the remain- 
der is made up of negroes, zambos, and savage 
Indians numbering 120,000. The better classes 
of the people are distinguished for intelligence, 
festive humor, hospitality, and generous im- 
pulses. The educated classes rank among the 
first in South America for their scientific and 
literary culture. The people of Socorro and 
Antioquia are laborious and enterprising. The 
women of Antioquia, Bogota, Ocafia, and other 
cities are celebrated by travellers for their grace 
and beauty. In Bogota the French fashions 
predominate, and the inhabitants incline to 
European manners. Gaming is universal, and 
cock fighting is a favorite sport. On the coast 
the people, from the climate, are wanting in 
energy and color. The llaneros on the plains 
wear nothing but a shirt and light drawers, a 
straw hat, and bark sandals. They ride with- 
out a saddle^ and live almost entirely on beef. 
The language is generally Spanish, excepting 
among the uncivilized Indians, who speak their 
own aboriginal tongues. Industry is generally 
backward. Agriculture is mostly in the hands 
of the converted Indians, who cultivate the 
soil in the rudest manner, and the reclaimed 
land bears but a small proportion to the whole. 
The cereals are raised to some extent on the 
elevated plains, and rice, cotton, sugar, coffee, 
tobacco, cacao, and tropical fruits along the 
coast. On the eastern plains, toward the Ori- 
noco, the inhabitants, who are chiefly Creoles, 
are devoted almost exclusively to the raising 
of horses, mules, and cattle. For want of 
both capital and labor, the mining industry is 
vastly inferior to the mineral resources of the 
country. The chief silver works are those of 
Santa Ana, near Bogota. Gold abounds in 
the entire Atlantic region, and, in spite of the 
rude machinery used, the quantity obtained is 
far from insignificant ; the washings on all the 
tributaries of the Atrato are extremely pro- 
ductive, but less so E. of the Cordilleras. The 
emerald mines of Muzo, in the valley of Tunja, 
near Bogota, are worked carelessly, but pro- 
duce enough to meet the constant demand from 
Europe. The pearl fisheries are mostly neglect- 
ed. Coal, copper, and iron are mined to some 
extent near Bogota; and the salt mines at 
Cipaquira, about 30 m. N". E. of Bogota, pro- 
duce enough to supply the neighboring states. 
Manufactures can scarcely be said to exist, na- 
tive industry not sufficing to supply the wants 
of the country. Almost all manufactured ar- 
ticles in use are imported. In Bogota and 
some other towns cotton and woollen cloths, 
carpets, straw hats, soap, and leather are pro- 
duced, but not to any great extent. The com- 
merce of Colombia, though fast increasing, is 
still far below the capabilities of the country. 
The exports consist mainly of cotton, cinchona, 



COUNTRIES. 


Export.. 


Import*. 


England 


$1 849000 


jo vi i ^^9 


Germany 


" T-'OOHO 


!G-> r j'r' 


France 


1 49l'oOO 


1 47'' 4 0-< 


Venezuela and Peru 


888,000 


240261 


United States 


6G3GOO 


407284 


West Indies 


238,000 


211 326 


Other countries 


i ooo'ooo 


d>{ r>-> 








Total 


$8,284,000 


$6,063,772 



coffee, cacao, India rubber, raw hides, tobacco, 
silver ore, cochineal, indigo, other dyestuffs, 
and emeralds ; and the imports, of cotton, linen, 
woollen, and silk fabrics, clocks and watches, 
hardware, machinery, firearms, gunpowder, 
fermented liquors, &c. The total value of the 
exports and imports for 1870 was as follows: 



One half the trade is carried on through the 
isthmus, the exports and imports of which in 
transitu average each about $50,000,000. The 
direct exports and the imports for 1873 show 
an increase of 75 per cent, as compared with 
those of 1870, chiefly due to a larger number 
of steamship lines to Colon (Aspinwall). About 
75 per cent, of the goods exported through 
that port go to the United States. Most of the 
Colombian commodities are known in England 
only as Venezuelan (Maracaibo) productions. 
Steamers run weekly from Panama to the prin- 
cipal Pacific ports S., and to San Francisco 
and intermediate ports N". ; to Aspinwall there 
are American steamers bi-monthly, and several 
British and French lines ; and in 1873 an Amer- 
ican line was established between New York, 
Santa Marta, Sabanilla, and Cartagena. The 
annual shipping movements in all the principal 
ports comprise about 1,200 vessels, steam and 
sail, with an aggregate of 300,000 tons. Steam- 
ers ply on the Magdalena, but the navigation of 
this river is growing more and more difficult 
each year. The internal carrying trade is done 
by bongos (large canoes) on the rivers, and by 
mules. Many new roads are in process of con- 
struction ; but much has yet to be done in this 
respect. Besides the railways from Panama to 
Aspinwall (48 m.), and from Sabanilla to Bar- 
ranquilla (18 m.), both in prosperous operation, 
proposals were made in 1873 to build other 
lines to the extent of 800 in., to be completed 
in 12 years, at a nominal cost of $85,000,000. 
Some surveying and grading have already been 
performed (January, 1874). With the telegraphs 
on the two railways now running, and that from 
Bogota to La Mesa, it is expected that at the end 
of 1874 1,500 m. of wires will be established. 
A submarine cable from Aspinwall to King- 
ston, Jamaica, has not been in use for over a 
year. Bogota, Medellin, and some of the other 
state capitals have each a university or col- 
legiate school, besides seminaries, and scien- 
tific, normal, and primary schools. Large ap- 
propriations were made by congress in 1873 
for the establishment of neAV schools, so that 
Colombia will soon be in the matter of primary 
instruction among the most advanced of the 



88 



COLOMBIA 



South American states. The government sup- 
ports a district school in each parish. The 
government of Colombia is republican, founded 
on a written constitution adopted in 1863, 
modelled after that of the United States, but 
differing in some particulars. The executive 
power is vested in a president elected for two 
years; the legislative authority in a congress, 
consisting of an upper house, or senate, and a 
house of representatives. The senate has 27 
members, each of the nine states sending three. 
The house of representatives, elected by uni- 
versal suffrage, is made up of delegates from 
the several states, each sending one member 
for every 50,000 inhabitants, and an additional 
one for a fraction of 20,000 and over. A vice 
president, elected for the same term as the 
president, acts as chairman of the senate. The 
president's powers are exercised through four 
ministers, or secretaries, viz., of the interior 
and of foreign affairs, of finances, of the treas- 
ury and the national credit, and of war, all re- 
sponsible to congress. The highest court of 
justice is the supreme court, which has three 
judges and a procurator general. Each of the 
states has its own legislature and executive 
officer. The Eoman Catholic faith predom- 
inates, the head of the hierarchy being the 
archbishop of Bogota; but there is absolute 
independence of church and state. All other 
religions are tolerated, and there is perfect 
freedom of worship. The army in time of 
peace consists of 1,420 men; in time of war, 
each state furnishes a contingent of 1 per cent, 
of the population. There is no navy. The 
national income, about one half of which is de- 
rived from the customs, was made up of the 
following elements in 1870 : 

Customs receipts $1,431,928 

Salt monopoly '. 758,329 

Panama railway 250,000 

Mint 29,213 

Postal service 51,282 

National property 26,600 

Public lands 6,817 

Sundry receipts 185,613 

Total $2,789,777 

The expenditures of the same year were a little 
over $3,000,000. The total income for the 
year ending Aug. 31, 1872, was $3,219,733; 
for 1873 it reached $3,400,730; and the ex- 
penditures for the latter year were $3,250,730, 
leaving a surplus of $150,000. According to 
the president's message of April 4, 1872, the 
foreign debt amounted to $33,362,250, and the 
home debt to $9,899,710. The interest paid 
on the former was about $750,000 annually, 
under the act of congress decreeing that 37 
per cent, of the net customs receipts should be 
thus applied. The foreign debt has been, how- 
ever, by agreement with the creditors, trans- 
formed into a debt of $10,000,000, at an annual 
jnterest of $450,000, dating from Jan. 1, 1873. 
The inhabitants of the country on its discov- 
ery were, like those of Mexico and Peru, distin- 
guished into two grand branches: the savages 



of the lowlands and coast regions, and the 
semi-civilized family of the table lands. The 
Colombian highlanders were the Muyscas, or 
more properly Chibchas, the word Muysca in 
the Chibcha tongue merely signifying "men" 
or "people." The origin and the elements of 
civilization introduced among them were at- 
tributed to two mythical beings, Bochica, or 
Bochia, and Nemterequeteba, who are fre- 
quently confounded with one another. Bochia 
was the more mythical of the two, was regard- 
ed as divine, and even as equal to the sun. 
His companion Chia, or Huitaca, occasioned 
through her magical art the submersion of the 
beautiful valley of Bogota, and for that rea- 
son was banished from the earth by Bochia, 
and made to revolve round it as the moon. 
Bochia next struck the rocks of Tequendama, 
and thereby opened a passage through which 
the waters flowed off in the neighborhood of 
the Giant's Field. Such is the traditional ori- 
gin of the picturesque falls of Tequendama. 
Nemterequeteba, surnamed Chinzapogua (the 
messenger of God), corresponding to the sec- 
ond Buddha of the Hindoos, was regarded as a 
human being. The country was ruled by three 
powers. The spiritual chief was the electoral 
high priest of Iraca or Sogamoso ; the temporal 
princes were the zaqui of Hunsa or Tunja, and 
the zipa of Funza, who would seem to have 
been in the feudal constitution originally subor- 
dinate to the zaqui. The Chibchas had a regu- 
lar system of computing time ; for money they 
used small circular gold plates, all cast of equal 
size. Their temples of the sun were built with 
stone columns, some vestiges of which were dis- 
covered in Leiva at the beginning of the present 
century. Their language was rich, sweet, and 
harmonious. The people were frugal and in- 
dustrious, but little versed in the art of war, for, 
although numbering about 2,000,000, Quesada 
subjugated them with 200 Spaniards. Other 
architectural relics in various parts of the coun- 
try were probably the work of a still more highly 
cultivated race than the Chibchas, and perhaps 
allied to the Aymaras of Upper Peru. Of the 
origin of the coast Indians, such as the Mesayas, 
Goajiros, &c., still mostly in a savage state, and 
speaking their own languages, little is known, 
except that they bear no resemblance to any 
of the other American families. The coasts of 
Colombia were discovered by Alonso de Ojeda 
in 1499, and visited by Eodrigo Bastidas in 
1501, and by Columbus in 1502. It was first 
called Tierra Firme by the Spaniards, and Cas- 
tilla de Oro, or "Golden Castile." The con- 
quest was effected in 1536-'7, and the country 
erected into a viceroyalty called New Granada 
in 1718. The first efforts for emancipation from 
Spain were made in 1781 and 1795; indepen- 
dence was proclaimed in 1811, and secured by 
Bolivar in 1819, when a union was formed with 
Venezuela and Quito, under the name of the 
republic of Colombia. (For an account of the 
struggle for independence, see BOLIVAE.) This 
union was dissolved in 1829 by the withdrawal 



COLOMBIA 



89 



of Venezuela, and in 1830 Ecuador also with- 
drew. The republic of New Granada was or- 
ganized Nov. 21, 1831. In 1832 a constitution 
was promulgated and the republic was divided 
into provinces, each of which controlled its 
local affairs. Under this constitution the presi- 
dent's term of office was four years. Gen. San- 
tander was president from 1833 to 1837 in- 
clusive ; Dr. Marquez, 1837-'40 ; Gen. Herran, 
1841-'4 ; Gen. Mosquera, 1845-'8 ; Gen. Lopez, 
1849-'52 ; Gen. Obando, whose term was con- 
cluded by the vice presidents Obaldia and 
Mallarino, 1853-'6 ; Dr. Ospina, 1857-'60. In 
the beginning of 1860 an important revolu- 
tion broke out. The liberal party, under the 
leadership of Gen. Mosquera, rose in arms 
against President Ospina, who was the rep- 
resentative of the federal or conservative par- 
ty. Bogota was captured July 18, 1861, and 
the reins of government were assumed by 
Mosquera. The federals, who controlled the 
southern portion of the republic, made An- 
tioquia the seat of their government. The 
representatives of the liberal states met in a 
congress at Bogota which closed Oct. 20, 1861, 
assumed the name of the United States of Co- 
lombia, adopted a new constitution, and con- 
ferred dictatorial power on Mosquera. In No- 
vember, 1862, Gen. Arboleda, the leader of the 
conservative troops, was assassinated, and was 
succeeded by Gen. Canal. An agreement was 
finally made between the latter and Mosquera, 
Dec. 29, 1862, which put an end to the civil 
war. Gen. Canal and his troops submitted to 
the authority of the United States of Colombia, 
and the latter granted an anmesty to politi- 
cal offenders. Deputies from all the states met 
in convention at Rio Negro, in Antioquia, Feb. 
4, 1863. Mosquera resigned to this body his 
dictatorial powers, and the convention appoint- 
ed a provisional government, composed of five 
ministers, who were to hold office during the 
forming of the new constitution. The consti- 
tution which was framed bears the date of 
May 8, 1863. Mosquera was appointed pro- 
visional president, to hold office till April 1, 
1864, when the executive elected by the peo- 
ple in 1863 was to take his place. During 
Mosquera's administration there was to be no 
fixed capital, he having the power to move it 
where he pleased ; after the close of his term 
it was to be at Bogota. The president's term 
of office was fixed at two years. Among the 
provisions of the constitution was one grant- 
ing religious liberty, and another confiscating 
church property. These acts called forth an 
encyclical letter from the pope to the bishops 
of the republic, urging them to use every effort 
to secure their repeal, which, however, was 
not effected. Dr. Manuel Murillo Toro was 
elected president for the term 1864-'6. He 
was succeeded by Mosquera, who was chosen 
for the two years ending in 1868. He re- 
signed Dec. 6, 1866, giving as reasons that it 
was impossible to replenish the treasury, which 
had been robbed of upward of $1,000,000 by 



false certificates ; that the archbishop of Bogo- 
ta and other bishops were in rebellion against 
the executive ; and that there was a general 
desire to disturb the public peace and to 
make way with him by assassination. His 
resignation was not accepted. In 1867, in 
consequence of attacks made on his policy by 
the majority in congress, Mosquera ordered 
that body to adjourn, and arbitrarily arrested 
68 senators and representatives. Congress 
passed a resolution of impeachment April 29, 
and on the same day the president published a 
decree dissolving that body and declaring the 
country in a state of war. Most of the states 
declared in favor of congress, and Mosquera 
was arrested, May 25. His adherents were 
soon put down and peace restored throughout 
the country. Mosquera was tried and sentenced 
to two years' imprisonment and to lose all civil 
and political rights ; but the sentence was com- 
muted to two years' exile, and he went to 
Peru. The remainder of his term was filled 
by Gen. Santos Gutierrez. In 1868 Don San- 
tos Acosta was sent to the United States to 
conclude arrangements with the government 
at Washington in regard to the proposed canal 
across the isthmus. The Hon. Caleb, Gushing 
was sent to Bogota for a similar purpose. 
Santos Gutierrez was elected president for 
1868-' 70. Under his administration the state 
of Panama suffered much from internal dis- 
sensions. An act of general amnesty per- 
mitting the return of Mosquera, passed by the 
lower house of congress, was rejected by the 
senate. In January, 1869, a treaty was con- 
cluded between the plenipotentiaries of the 
United States and of Colombia granting to the 
former power the right to construct a canal 
across the isthmus. It was approved by the 
president, but through foreign influence reject- 
ed by the Colombian senate. In the same 
year the United States government sent out an 
expedition under Commander Selfridge to make 
surveys in the valley of the Atrato. (See CA- 
NAL.) In 1870 a new treaty for an inter- 
oceanic canal was concluded between Gen. 
Hurlbut, the United States minister, and the 
Colombian commissioners, Senor Justo Arose- 
mena and Dr. Jacob Sanchez ; and it was ap- 
proved by the Colombian congress, with some 
modifications. Gen. E. Salgar, the liberal can- 
didate, was elected president for 1870-'72. He 
took great interest in popular education, and 
secured the passage by congress of a bill making 
an appropriation for normal schools. The 
bank of Bogota, with a capital of $235,000, 
was established Nov. 25, 1870. Manuel Mu- 
rillo Toro succeeded to the presidency for the 
term 1872-'4. Among the important mea- 
sures of his administration is the proposal to 
build an interoceanic railway from the bay of 
Buenaventura on the Pacific, across the valley 
of the Cauca, and thence down the Magdalena 
to the Atlantic. The portion from Buenaven- 
tura to the river Cauca has been put under 
contract. A contract has also been made for 



90 



COLOMBO 



a submarine cable from Aspinwall to Carta- 
gena and Santa Marta. The act amending tbe 
constitution for the establishment of a federal 
district, comprising Bogota and its environs, 
was ratified by the senate Feb. 6, 1872. In 
December of the same year troubles broke out 
again in the state of Cauca between the conser- 
vatives and liberals, the latter led by Gen. 
Mosquera, who returned from exile in 1870. 
In 1873 Santiago Perez was elected president 
of the republic for the term 1874-'6. The 
interoceanic canal question had not been set- 
tled in 1873, but explorations were still making 
in the valley of the Atrato for a feasible route. 
COLOMBO, or Colombo, a city of Ceylon, the 
seat of government and principal seaport, on 
the W. coast ; pop. in 1871, 100,238. It con- 
sists of an open and a fortified town. The lat- 
ter stands on a rocky peninsula, jutting out 
into the sea, and having on the land side a 
lake, a moat, and drawbridges. The interior 




Cathedral of Colombo. 

presents more of the appearance of a Euro- 
pean town than any other place in India ex- 
cept Goa, The houses are built after a plain 
Dutch fashion, and many of the streets are 
shaded by trees. It is the residence of the 
civil and military authorities and most of the 
European families of Ceylon. The climate is 
humid but salubrious. The temperature in 
winter is about 79-1 ; in summer, 80*9. East 
of this portion of Colombo lies the open town, 
which is inhabited by a mixed population of 
Dutch and Portuguese descent. The suburbs 
are peopled by native Cingalese. The princi- 
pal edifices are the government house, court 
house, English, Dutch, and Portuguese church- 
-es, chapels, barracks, a military hospital, and 
a lighthouse. There are various museums, 
schools, hotels, and libraries. The harbor, 
which is small, is defended by several forts. 
The roadstead is safe only during the S. E. 
monsoon. Colombo is the entrepot for most 
of the foreign trade of Ceylon, and has a nuin- 



COLON 

ber of commercial houses. It is the seat of an 
Anglican bishop, and of a Roman Catholic 
vicar apostolic. The town was occupied by 
the Portuguese in 1517, taken by the Dutch in 
1603, and by the English in 1796. The Na- 
tande canal, from Colombo to Putlam, was 
opened Sept. 23, 1856, and the opening of the 
first railway in Ceylon was celebrated with 
great pomp at Colombo in 1858. In 1872 the 
streets were lighted with gas. 

COLON. See ASPINWALL. 

COLON, the portion of the large intestine 
extending from the caecum to the rectum, from 
the right to the left iliac region. It is divided 
into four portions : the ascending colon, on the 
right side, from the caecum to the edge of the 
ribs ; the transverse, or arch of the colon, from 
one hypochondrium to the other, below the 
stomach and above the small intestine ; the de- 
scending colon on the left side ; and the sigmoid 
flexure, in the shape of the letter S, in the left 
iliac region, terminating in the rectum or last 
portion of the intestine. Along its course it 
presents prominences of its walls, interrupted 
by three fleshy longitudinal bands, and many 
fatty appendages formed in the folds of tho 
peritoneum. The peritoneal or serous coat, after 
covering the intestine, fixes it loosely to the ver- 
tebral column by the folds called mesocolon ; 
the muscular coat consists of both circular and 
longitudinal bands, as in the caecum ; the mu- 
cous coat presents a great number of mucous 
I follicles. The arteries of the large intestine are 
I derived from the superior and inferior mesen- 
teric, proceeding directly from the aorta ; the 
veins open into the portal vein of the liver ; the 
nerves are furnished by branches of the solar 
plexus. The colon in man will average about 
4 feet in length, and about 2 inches in diam- 
eter, being about a quarter as long and twice 
as wide as the small intestine ; though the ca- 
pacity is nearly the same, the absorbing surface 
is scarcely half that of the smaller tube, and 
this difference is increased by the absence of 
folds in the large intestine. The ascending colon 
lies upon the right kidney and quadratus lum- 
borum muscle; above it is the duodenum, and 
in front the* folds of the small intestine ; the 
descending portion is on the left kidney and 
corresponding muscle, and is also covered by 
the small intestine. The sigmoid flexure is 
generally in contact with the abdominal walls, 
though, from its freedom of movement, it m 
assume a variety of curvature and positic 
The whole colon is very liable to displacement 
by the pressure of its own accumulated con- 
tents, by tumors from within, and by corset 
and other articles of dress from without. It 
retains its sacculated shape throughout, but 
very gradually decreases in size toward the 
rectum ; the fatty appendages (appendices 
ploicm) appear to be small reservoirs of fattj 
matter, and are sometimes greatly increas : 
in cases of remarkable obesity. After the fo( 
has passed the caecum, little is left but exci 
mentitious matter, which collects in the 



COLONIZATION SOCIETY 



91 



of the colon, the forms of which it assumes 
and preserves even after having passed through 
the rectum. When, from want of tone in the 
bowel, or other causes, the fasces are delayed 
in these sacs, they often acquire extreme hard- 
ness and roundness, causing painful and even 
dangerous symptoms. Like the rest of the 
intestine, the colon is subject to inflammation, 
ulceration, and other diseases of mucous mem- 
branes ; it is also the seat of dysentery. The 
colon is separated from the small intestine in 
fishes by a slight constriction; this is the case 
with most reptiles. In birds the short and 
straight large intestine is continued from the 
small without a distinct separating valve, and 
ends in a cloaca common to the digestive, 
urinary, and generative organs. In mammalia 
there is generally a well marked colon, though 
in some of the edentata there is no distinction 
between large and small intestine ; in carnivora 
it is short, wide, and cylindrical ; in the herb- 
ivora, long and sacculated ; in the horse, whose 
intestines are ten times as long as the body, the 
colon has a length of 19 feet, much curved and 
sacculated, and the lower portion attached 
loosely by a very long mesocolon ; in rodents it 
is not much larger in diameter than the small 
intestine, but is provided with deep sacs ; in the 
monotremata it gradually increases in size to 
the rectum ; in the monkeys it is very similar 
to that of man. 

COLONIZATION SOCIETY. The idea of send- 
ing a colony of persons of African descent from 
the United States to Africa appears to have first 
occurred to the Eev. Samuel Hopkins and the 
Rev. Ezra Styles of Newport, R. I. They is- 
sued a circular on Aug. 31, 1773, in which they 
invited contributions toward the founding of 
such a colony. A contribution was made Feb. 
7, 1774, by a society of ladies of Newport, and 
aid was received from Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut. The revolutionary war interrupted 
these labors. In 1784 and 1787 Dr. Hopkins 
renewed his efforts to obtain funds for coloniza- 
tion, and endeavored to make an arrangement 
by which free blacks from America might join 
the English colony of Sierre Leone. Not being 
successful in this, he published in 1793 an ap- 
peal in which he urged that the plan of colo- 
nization ought to be adopted in the several 
states and by the federal government. He con- 
tinued to agitate the subject from time to time 
until his death, Dec. 20, 1803. The first emi- 
grants sent from the United States were a com- 
pany of 38 colored persons who were taken 
from New Bedford to Sierra Leone in 1815. 
The subject of colonization in Africa was 
brought before the legislature of Virginia in 
1800-'2, but no definite results were obtained. 
Samuel J. Mills, Robert Finley, Elias B. Cald- 
well, and Francis S. Key were conspicuous 
for their exertions in drawing attention to the 
plan; and a meeting was held at Princeton, 
N. J., in the autumn of 1811, to consider the 
steps to be taken for the organization of a 
colonization society. A second meeting was 



held Dec. 23, and the constitution of the 
" American Colonization Society " was adopted 
Dec. 28. The first oflScers were elected Jan. 1, 
1817, and the same year Samuel J. Mills and 
Ebenezer Burgess were sent to Africa to select 
a site for the colony. They chose Sherbro 
island and the coast adjoining. Mills died on 
the return voyage. In March, 1819, congress 
appropriated $100,000 for the purpose of carry- 
ing back to Africa such slaves as should be 
surreptitiously imported. Under the construc- 
tion which was put upon this law by President 
Monroe, part of its design was that a residence 
should be provided in Africa for the agents of 
the United States and such slaves as were sent 
back. For this purpose it was necessary that 
emigrants should be sent out and a settlement 
made. The formation of such a settlement 
being the object for which the colonization 
society was organized, the government and the 
society determined to cooperate. The society 
designated 88 persons as emigrants, and the 
government chartered a ship, appointed an 
agent, and placed $30,000 at his disposal. The 
ship sailed Feb. 6, 1820. The emigrants were 
to erect huts for the reception of at least 300 
recaptured Africans, and cultivate land for their 
own support. They did not succeed in estab- 
lishing themselves on Sherbro island, but in 
April, 1822, made their settlement at Cape 
Mesurado, between Sierra Leone and the Ivory 
coast. The society was represented in the 
colony by Jehudi Ashmun, who arrived there 
Aug. 9, 1822. Under his leadership the colo- 
nists repulsed on Nov. 11 an attack made by 800 
natives, and a second assault on Dec. 2, made 
by about twice the number. The agents of the 
United States were instructed not to attempt 
to exercise any power or authority over the 
colonists, and the government of the colony 
was assumed by the society. The board of 
managers adopted, on Jan. 26, 1820, a constitu- 
tion for the colony, by which the powers of 
government, legislative, executive, and judicial, 
were vested in the society's agents. Ashmun 
undertook to exercise the powers which were 
conferred upon him, but the colonists were 
not disposed to acquiesce, and Ashmun for a 
time abandoned his undertaking. The United 
States government and the colonization society 
deputed Ralph R. Gurley to investigate the con- 
dition of affairs. He had a conference with 
Ashmun, the result of which was that in 1824 a 
plan for the civil government of Liberia was 
adopted, by which the society retained the 
ultimate decision on all questions of govern- 
ment. A more formal constitution was adopt- 
ed Oct. 22, 1828, by which a considerable part 
of the civil power was secured to the colonists. 
This constitution was changed from time to 
time, and the share of the people in the gov- 
ernment was made greater and greater. After 
the death of Governor Buchanan in 1841, Joseph 
J. Roberts, who had previously held the office 
of lieutenant governor, through election by the 
people, was appointed governor by the society. 



92 COLONIZATION SOCIETY 



COLONNA 



A legislature was in existence, but its laws 
were subject to the veto of the society, as were 
also all treaties made by the colony. Several 
valuable tracts of land had been acquired by 
treaties made with native chiefs, and duties 
had been imposed on goods imported. British 
subjects who traded on the coast included 
within the territory of the colony landed goods 
without paying duties ; and when their goods 
were seized by the government of Liberia, they 
applied to the British government for redress. 
The British authorities applied to the govern- 
ment of the United States, and were informed 
that Liberia was an independent political com- 
munity, and not a colony of the United States ; 
whereupon the British took the ground that 
Liberia had no existence as a nation, inasmuch 
as its powers were derived from an association 
of private individuals, which did not possess 
and could not impart any political authority ; 
and that the levying of imposts being a prerog- 
ative of sovereign power, the rights of British 
subjects to free commercial intercourse would 
be enforced by arms. In this emergency the 
directors of the society, in January, 1846, sur- 
rendered such governmental power as they still 
retained, and recommended the colony to pub- 
lish to the world a declaration of its true char- 
acter as a sovereign and independent state. 
The colonists appointed delegates, who on July 
26, 1847, adopted a declaration of indepen- 
dence and a new constitution. In 1848 the in- 
dependence of the republic was acknowledged 
by Great Britain and France, and afterward by 
most of the powers of Europe and America. 
The Maryland colony, which had maintained a 
separate existence, united in 1857 with Libe- 
ria. The credit therefore is due to the coloni- 
zation society of having been mainly instru- 
mental in the foundation of Liberia, and of 
having guided its destinies until it became a 
self-supporting state. Since relinquishing all 
direct control over the government of Liberia, 
the colonization society has continued to send 
out emigrants, and to furnish them with pro- 
visions and temporary dwellings, and has aided 
in developing commerce and agriculture. It 
has also labored for the dissemination of Chris- 
tianity, and for the promotion of education and 
the general welfare of the country. The aboli- 
tion of slavery has not by any means put an 
end to the usefulness of the society; on the 
contrary, since that event the number of appli- 
cations for passage to Liberia has very much 
increased. The receipts of the society from its 
foundation to Jan. 1, 1872, were $2,364,648 47, 
and those of the auxiliary societies more than 
$400,000. The whole number of emigrants 
which had been sent out at that date by the 
parent society was 13,598; and 1,227 had been 
sent out by the Maryland society, and 5,722 
recaptured Africans by the United States gov- 
ernment. The presidents of the society have 
been Bushrod Washington, Charles Carroll, 
James Madison, Henry Clay, and J. II. B. 
Latrobe. (See LIBEBIA.) 



COLONNA, a princely family of Italy, of 
which the founder claimed that he brought 
from Jerusalem a part of the column (colonna) 
to which Christ was bound when scourged. 
It is now divided into the three lines of Colon- 
na-Paliano, Colonna-Stigliano, and Colonna di 
Sciarra. Pope Martin V. (Ottone Colonna), 
several personages who took a conspicuous 
part in the contest between the Guelphs and 
the Ghibellines, and many other persons of 
historical or literary distinction, were members 
of this family. I. Fabrizio, lord high constable 
of Naples, died there in 1520. He served in 
the armies of France, and afterward in those 
of the king of Aragon. In 1512 he was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Kavenna by the duke 
of Ferrara, by whom he was treated with 
much consideration. II. Prospero, a general, 
cousin of the preceding, died in 1523. When 
Charles VIII. of France invaded Italy, Pros- 
pero embraced his cause, chiefly because the 
Ursini, the hereditary enemies of his house, 
took the opposite side. He afterward changed 
sides, and fought against France. At the bat- 
tle of Villafranca, in 1515, he was taken pris- 
oner ; but having been restored to liberty, he 
again took the field against the French, gained 
the battle of Bicooca in 1522, and distinguished 
himself by the vigor of his operations, which 
were cut short by his death. III. Vlttoria, a 
poetess, daughter of Fabrizio Colonna, born in 
the castle of Marino in 1490, died in Rome in 
February, 1547. She was affianced by her pa- 
rents when four years of age to Ferdinando 
Francesco d'Avalos, son of the marquis of Pes- 
cara, a child of the same age ; and in their 17th 
year they were married. Shortly afterward 
her husband engaged in the war between 
France and Venice, receiving from Vittoria at 
parting a superb pavilion and an embroidered 
standard, as well as some leaves of palm in to- 
ken of her hope that he would return crowned 
with honor. In his absence she occupied her- 
self with literature and with her correspon- 
dence with him. In order to see him occasion- 
ally, she removed from Ischia to Naples. In 
the battle of Pavia (1525), at which Francis I. 
fell into the hands of his enemies, Vittoria's 
husband received wounds which brought on a 
fever, and he found it necessary to warn his 
wife of his dangerous condition. She at once 
set out for Milan, and at Viterbo was met by 
the intelligence that her husband was dead. 
Her grief caused her to lose her reason for a 
time. When restored she resisted offers of a 
second marriage from several princes who 
sought her hand. She turned again to literary 
studies, and consoled herself with the composi- 
tion of poems in memory of her husband. She 
also composed canzonets and sonnets of a devo- 
tional character, to which she gave the title of 
Rime spirituali. In 1541 she entered the 
convent di Sucre in Orvieto, aud afterward 
that of St. Catharine in Viterbo. Her beauty 
and virtues have been celebrated by Michel 
Angelo, Ariosto, and other poets. Her bust 



COLONSAY 



COLONY 



93 



was placed in one of the collections of the cap- 
itol in 1845. A selection of her poems is con- 
tained in Gironi's Raccolta di lirici italiani 
(Milan, 1808). A memoir of her is appended 
to the Life of Michel Angelo by John S. Har- 
ford (London, 1857). IV. Blare Antonio, duke 
of Paliano, distinguished for the part which he 
took in the battle of Lepanto (1571), died Aug. 
2, 1584. On his return to Rome after that bat- 
tle, he was received with the highest marks of 
honor, and was afterward made viceroy of 
Sicily by Philip II. of Spain. V. Fabio, born 
in Naples in 1567, died there in 1650. He was 
the author of many books on botany, and the 
first to write a botanical work with copper- 
plate illustrations (^vropdaavoc, Naples, 1592). 

COLONSAY, one of the Hebrides or Western 
islands of Scotland, S. W. of Argyleshire, be- 
tween the isles of Islay and Mull, and con- 
nected at the S. end with that of Oronsay, 
from which it is separated at high water 
only ; pop. about 800. Including Oronsay, the 
length is 12 m., the breadth from 1 to 3 m. 
A great portion of the soil is well cultivated, 
producing potatoes and barley ; and cattle and 
sheep of a superior breed abound. The cod 
fisheries are extensive, and there are two 
capacious roadsteads and a good quay at Port- 
nafeamin, the harbor of the island. The ruins 
of a stronghold of the early lords of the isles 
are situated in the middle of a lake on this 
island. Colonsay and Oronsay were among 
the early monastic stations, and next to Ion a 
they contain the most famous remains of reli- 
gious edifices in the Hebrides. LITTLE COLON- 
SAY, an islet between Staffa and Gometra, af- 
fords good pasturage for sheep, but contains 
few inhabitants. 

COLONY (Lat. colonia, from colere, to culti- 
vate), a word originally applied to a body of 
people established in a foreign country, whether 
remaining subject to the government of the 
mother country, or having an independent gov- 
ernment of their own. It is now used as a 
designation of the territory inhabited by such 
persons. The Phoenicians first set the exam- 
ple of colonization. Their colonies, established 
upon the islands of the Mediterranean, and the 
coasts of Africa and Spain, were founded for 
the purpose of promoting commerce, but con- 
tributed powerfully to the progress of civiliza- 
tion. Carthage, itself a colony of the Tynans, 
in turn sent forth colonies in the prosecution 
of its commerce, which were remarkable for 
their number rather than for their importance. 
Her colonies, unlike those of Tyre, remained 
in political dependence upon the mother coun- 
try. The Greeks founded colonies upon the 
coasts of Macedonia, Thrace, and Asia Minor, 
upon the islands of the Archipelago and the 
Ionian sea, in Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, southern 
Italy, Sicily, and Cyrene, and on even remoter 
shores of the Mediterranean. The colonies 
were generally distinguished as Dorian, Ionian, 
or ./Eolian, according to the Grecian tribe from 
which they originated, and soon surpassed even 



their mother countries in poetry, philosophy, 
and art. Their prosperity was promoted by 
political independence. Miletus possessed four 
ports and more than 100 vessels, and in its turn 
became a colonizing power. Ephesus, Syra- 
cuse, Rhodes, and Cyrene were all rich and 
powerful cities. In many cases the political 
institutions of the colonies resembled those of 
the mother country, but there were some whose 
institutions were a great improvement upon 
those which prevailed in Attica and Pelopon- 
nesus. As fast as the Romans extended their 
conquests they established colonies in the coun- 
tries conquered, for the purpose of consolidating 
their power. The Roman colonies were parts 
of the Roman state, their members retaining all 
the rights of Roman citizens, including that of 
suffragium or voting, and that of the honores or 
of holding ofiice. Land was assigned to them 
from the conquered territory. The original in- 
habitants among whom these colonists were 
sent, though subjects of Rome, were not Roman 
citizens in the full meaning of the word. The 
privileges allowed them varied according to cir- 
cumstances. After the decline and fall of the 
Roman power, there were no new colonies 
established up to the time when Genoa and 
Venice became powerful states. The Genoese 
colonies were on the shores of the Hellespont, 
of the Black sea, and of the sea of Azov. 
Those of the Venetians were in Candia and 
Cyprus. When the discovery of the Cape of 
Good Hope changed the direction of commerce 
with the East, the Portuguese established colo- 
nies along its route, upon the coasts of Africa 
and the shores of the Persian gulf. Among 
their colonies in India were those at Goa, Diu, 
and Damaun on the Malabar coast, Negapatam 
on the Coromandel coast, and Malacca. They 
had also colonies in Java, Sumatra, Celebes, 
Borneo, and the Spice islands. Upon the an- 
nexation of Portugal to Spain, many of the 
Portuguese colonies passed into the hands of 
the Spaniards, from whom they were taken by 
the Dutch. Brazil, the greatest of the Portu- 
guese colonies, declared itself independent in 
1822. The more important colonies belonging 
to Portugal at the present day are the Azores, 
the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo, the 
archipelago of Cape Verd, some settlements 
in Senegambia, Angola (including Benguela, 
&c.), Congo, Prince's island, Mozambique, Goa, 
Diu, Macao, Dili, and Kambing. Spain began 
to send out colonies after the discovery of the 
new world. Her first colony was that of 
Hispaniola (Hayti), which was founded by Co- 
lumbus in 1492. Those of Cuba, Porto Rico, 
and Jamaica were next founded. When Mexico 
was conquered by Cortes (1519-'21), and Peru, 
Quito, and Chili by Pizarro and his associates, 
colonies were established in those countries. 
One of the points kept in view by the Span- 
iards in the establishments of their colonies was 
the propagation of the Catholic religion ; but 
the principal object was to secure for Spain the 
possession of their gold and silver mines, and 



94: 



COLONY 



the government therefore reserved to itself 
the exclusive control of commerce with them. 
Squadrons set sail twice a year from a desig- 
nated port (at first Seville, afterward Cadiz) 
for Porto Bello and Vera Cruz, which upon 
their return voyage brought back treasure to 
the same port. The interests of the natives 
were sacrificed to those of the colonists, and 
those of the latter to the home government. 
At the same time the interests of the people 
of Spain were favored by securing them the 
exclusive right of supplying the colonies with 
certain European productions, such as wine, 
hemp, flax, ships, powder, and salt. The 
practical operation of this system was in the 
long run unfavorable to Spanish commerce. 
Its activity was increased upon the removal in 
1778 of the restrictions upon it. The colonies 
on the American continent declared themselves 
independent early in this century. The more 
important of those belonging to Spain at the 
present day are the Philippines, the Mariana 
and Caroline islands, Ceuta, Peiion de Velez, 
Melilla, Alhucemas, the Canaries, Cuba, Porto 
Rico, Mona, Tortugas, and Los Roques. In 
some of these colonies slavery is still main- 
tained, though the principal Spanish statesmen 
favor its early extinction. In combating for its 
independence the Dutch republic undertook to 
place its navy in a condition that might enable 
it to cope with that of Spain. Not satisfied with 
fighting the Spaniards upon land, the Dutch 
pursued them on the seas ; and after the colo- 
nial possessions of the Portuguese passed un- 
der Spanish dominion, they attacked the Portu- 
guese and Spanish settlements indiscriminately. 
The expedition which sailed in 1595, under the 
command of Cornelis Houtinan and De Moli- 
naer, was the first which was sent to the Indies 
by the Dutch. Early in the 17th century they 
had deprived the Portuguese of all their settle- 
ments in India, with the exception of Goa. In 
the middle of that century their power was at 
its height. They obtained exclusive possession 
of the commerce with Japan, and established 
a colony at the Cape of Good Hope. The 
capita] of their empire in the East was Batavia, 
on the island of Java. They had establishments 
in St. Eustache, in Guiana, and for a time in 
Brazil. The discovery of New Holland, Car- 
penter's Land, Van Diemen's Land, and New 
Zealand was due to them. Their only attempt 
at colonization in North America was made in 
the territory discovered by Henry Hudson in 
1609, which they called New Netherlands, but 
which was taken from them by the English 
in 1664 and named New York. The object 
of the Dutch in the establishment of their 
colonies was the promotion of commerce, and 
their government was confided to trading 
companies. No attempt was made to change 
the religion of the people among whom they 
were founded. Their importance declined with 
that of the Dutch commerce. Among the 
more important of those of which Holland 
still retains possession are the islands of Bo- 



nair, Curacoa, St. Eustache, Saba, half of St. 
Martin and part of "Guiana, Java, Sumatra, 
Bencoolen, Madura, Celebes, Borneo, the archi- 
pelago of Sumbawa, Timor, the Moluccas, and 
Papua. Slavery was abolished in the Dutch 
colonies in 1861. Denmark, under the reign of 
Christian IV., in 1618 established a colony at 
Tranquebar on the Coromandel coast, and af- 
terward others upon the coast of Malabar and 
in Bengal. Trading companies were organized 
for the management of these enterprises, but 
they interfered with each other and were aban- 
doned. A new company was organized in 1732, 
which was more successful. The Danish pos- 
sessions in India were sold to the English East 
India company in 1845, and in 1849 the Danish 
colony in Guinea was sold to Great Britain. 
Denmark retains the colonies of St. Thomas, 
St. John, and St. Croix in the West Indies ; and 
Danish merchants have a trading station, with 
the encouragement of the government, in 
Greenland. The island of St. Bartholomew 
belongs to Sweden. Austria founded the Os- 
tend company in 1722, for the purpose of open- 
ing commerce with the East Indies, but has 
never accomplished anything of importance in 
the way of colonization. The policy of coloniza- 
tion was introduced and maintained in France 
by Richelieu and Colbert. Possession was ob- 
tained of Canada, Acadia, of part of New- 
foundland, Hayti, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. 
Lucia, Grenada, and Cayenne. A factory was 
established by the French East India company 
at Pondicherry, and colonies were founded 
upon the isles of France and Bourbon. At 
the beginning of the 18th century the French 
colonies in the different quarters of the world 
were in a flourishing condition. The French 
settlements in the East, while Dupleix was 
governor at Pondicherry, had at their com- 
mand large fleets and were strong and suc- 
cessful ; but under the reign of Louis XV. the 
French colonies did not receive adequate pro- 
tection from the home government, and they 
fell one after another into the power of other 
countries. France was deprived of her settle- 
ments in Newfoundland by the British in 1713, 
and surrendered Canada, Cape Breton, and 
some of the West India islands at the close of 
the seven years' war in 1763. She lost Hayti 
by revolt during the revolution. Louisiana was 
ceded to Spain, afterward resumed by France, 
and then sold (1803) to the United States. 
But in more recent times French colonies 
have begun again to acquire importance. The 
colony which was founded in Algeria in 1830 
is the most important one which ever belonged 
to her. Under Napoleon III. particular atten- 
tion was paid to the French colonies in the 
East. Establishments were made upon the 
islands of New Caledonia and of Pines, at Sai- 
gon in Cochin China, in Senegainbia, and else- 
where. Among the most important colonies 
of France at the present day are Algeria, 
Cochin China, Reunion, Martinique, Guade- 
loupe, Senegal, Pondicherry, St. Pierre and 



COLONY 

Miquelon, Cayenne, Tahiti, New Caledonia, 
and the settlement on tne Gaboon. England 
began to establish colonies under Queen Eliza- 
beth. They were sent chiefly toward the 
East, where they came in conflict with the es- 
tablishments which had been previously found- 
ed by the Portuguese and the Dutch. In 
1623 the English were driven from the isl- 
ands which they had occupied, and confined to 
their settlements at Madras and on the Coro- 
mandel and Malabar coasts. The English colo- 
nies in India were under the administration of 
the East India company, which received its 
charter from Queen Elizabeth Dec. 31, 1600. 
Its charter was renewed, and a new company 
was chartered with similar powers. These 
companies were afterward united, and their 
union was ratified by act of parliament in 
1708. The East India company was secured 
in the enjoyment of all benefits directly ob- 
tained from the English colonization of India. 
(See EAST INDIA COMPANIES.) The British 
colonization of North America was conducted 
upon different principles. Though the settle- 
ment made at Jamestown in 1607 was a matter 
of private enterprise, it was taken under the 
protection of the British government in 1624. 
Neither that colony nor the one planted by 
the Puritans in New England in 1620 was 
ever subjected to the exclusive control of a 
privileged trading company. The great suc- 
cess attained by the colonies in America which 
threw off their allegiance to Great Britain, 
tended to show that the prosperity and de- 
velopment of a colony is promoted by the ab- 
sence of control and regulation on the part of 
the mother country. This principle has been 
introduced into the British colonial system, 
and although the particular forms of adminis- 
tration vary in the different colonies, they are 
in general encouraged as far as possible to pro- 
vide for their own government. Compulsory 
transportation to remote colonies was long a 
means adopted by the British government for 
the punishment of criminals. James I. in 1619 
authorized the sending of 100 dissolute persons 
to Virginia ; and the practice was continued 
afterward. It was found that the criminals 
were gradually absorbed into society, and the 
working of the system was upon the whole sat- 
isfactory. But a similar success never attended 
the transportation for crime to Australia, which 
took the place of that to America; and the 
system was finally abandoned in 1857. The 
British colonies and foreign possessions at the 
present day are India, Ceylon, the Straits Set- 
tlements, Hong Kong, Mauritius, Aden, St. 
Helena, Ascension, Cape Colony, Natal, the 
Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Australia, 
Tasmania, New Zealand, Labuan, Sarawak, 
Malta, Gibraltar, Heligoland, the Dominion 
of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador, British 
Honduras, British Guiana, the Bermudas, the 
Bahamas, the Leeward islands, Jamaica, St. 
Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, Grenada, To- 
bago, Trinidad, Falkland islands, and several 
212 VOL. v. i 



COLOR 



95 



small islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans. 
The course of proceeding which is followed 
by the United States in reference to the settle- 
ment of unoccupied territory is a system of 
colonization. The land is granted to actual set- 
tlers gratuitously, or on favorable terms, and 
the territory is governed by the United States 
until its population reaches a number sufficient 
to form a state, when the territory is admitted 
into the Union on an equal footing with the 
other states. 

COLOPHON, one of the twelve Ionian cities 
on the coast of Asia Minor, situated about 9 m. 
N. W. of Ephesus on the banks of the Halesus, 
a small stream, famed for the coldness of its 
waters. It was 2 m. from the coast, on which, 
however, it had a port, named Notium. The 
city and the port were connected by long walls. 
It suffered much from the Lydian king Gyges, 
from the Persians during the Peloponnesian 
war, and afterward from Lysimachus, king of 
Thrace. The name Colophon was finally trans- 
ferred to Notium. Only a few miserable cab- 
ins now mark its site. Colophon, according to 
Strabo, was celebrated both for its navy and its 
cavalry ; indeed, the latter was so efficient, that 
it was said to carry victory wherever it went. 
Livy tells us that it was one of the cities hon- 
ored by the Romans with exemption from taxa- 
tion. It was one of the seven cities which 
claimed the honor of having given birth to Ho- 
mer. Mimnermus and Hermesianax the elegiac 
poets, Polymnestus the musician, Antimachus, 
Xenophanes, and Nicander were born there. 

COLOR, one of those simple and obvious 
qualities of physical objects, as perceived by 
us, which can only be defined by its syno- 
nymes, hue, dye, &c., or by some theory re- 
specting the nature of light, of bodies, or of 
vision, but the mode of manifestation or pro- 
duction of which is far from being equally ob- 
vious. The color of healthy arterial blood in 
the higher animals is always florid red ; that 
of pure sky or air, blue ; that of most growing 
leaves, some shade of -green. Many chemical 
compounds are known by certain colors, but 
by heat or other agencies these colors are 
often changed. The colors of certain paints 
and dyes are to a certain degree permanent, 
but by exposure to light and air they undergo 
a gradual change. Probably no colors are ab- 
solutely permanent, but those thus named are 
each so during a certain condition of the sub- 
stance to which it belongs. Other colors, as 
those shown by a diamond cut in certain 
forms, or by a prism, those of mother-of-pearl, 
of the plumage of birds, and of soap bubbles, 
depend on some accident of form or size of 
bodies, or of the structure of their surfaces, 
and these change with the position of the ob- 
server ; hence these are known as variable col- 
ors. When white or solar light is transmitted 
through triangular prisms of glass, or other 
media differing in dispersive power from the 
air, the beam or ray of white is analyzed, being 
separated into the seven primary colors, red, 



COLOR 



orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. 
The proof that these are the elements of white 
light was first furnished by the experiments of 
Sir Isaac Newton, in 1672. It must be added, 
however, that between any two of the simple 
colors of the spectrum there is a gradual inter- 
change of hue, so that in fact the different 
colored rays existing in and obtainable from 
the white ray are not seven, but indefinite in 
number. The same sensible hue of certain 
colors which, when found in the spectrum, 
cannot be further decomposed, can always be 
separated by the prism when found in natural 
objects, giving two or more, but not all of the 
spectral colors; that is, the colors of natural 
objects are always compound. Light from 
white paper gives a complete spectrum ; from 
yellow, a fragment of a spectrum, showing the 
yellow space bright, with some green and or- 
ange, sometimes a faint tinge additionally of 
blue and red ; blue paper gives a whole spec- 
trum, less the orange and red ; and so of 
others. The light of the purest yellow flower, 
analyzed, shows also some green and orange. 
On account of the impossibility of obtaining 
pure pigments, a colored solution or glass 
transmits not only the rays that make up its 
own color, but other colors that *in the spec- 
trum are neighboring to these. Light coming 
through a blue glass is found to contain a 
strong blue element, feebler green and indigo, 
and still feebler yellow and violet. Looking 
through the blue glass at a spectrum, the same 
colors are seen, and in corresponding degrees 
of vividness. The blue medium passes through 
itself also the closely related rays, but it ex- 
tinguishes or cuts off the more distant. Bodies 
vary in color with their mechanical division. 
Light when reflected from the surface of gold 
is yellow, and when transmitted through thin 
leaves of this metal is green ; but when gold 
is reduced to a fine powder and suspended in 
water, the mixture will transmit, according to 
the state of division, blue, purple, or ruby 
light, as was shown by Faraday. Finely di- 
vided sulphur ordinarily transmits red light, 
but on precipitating it from a solution of sul- 
phydric acid, and adding sesquichloride of iron, 
the liquid will for a short time transmit purple 
light. By decomposing sulphydric acid in so- 
lution with heat, the water holding the sus- 
pended sulphur appears blue. The theory now 
commonly received is that proposed by Sir. 
David Brewster, namely, that when a body 
appears permanently of any given color, simple 
or compound, it is because it absorbs the re- 
maining colors of the spectrum, i. e., of the 
complete or white ray, and reflects those which 
constitute the color of which it appears. Thus 
a scarlet flower is a body having such relations 
to light that it absorbs violet, blue, &c., re- 
flecting only certain proportions of red, orange, 
and yellow. In this view, bodies, as snow and 
milk, appear white when they reflect or trans- 
mit entire or white light; others, as certain 
inks and coal, appear black, because they ab- 



sorb all the colored rays in the proportions 
which form white light. But as all bodies 
both absorb and reflect in some degree, the 
proportion of light which white bodies absorb 
and black bodies reflect is also a mixture of 
the various colors in the proportions forming 
white. To prove that the most intensely black 
body still reflects some light, look through a 
long narrow tube into a room completely dark- 
ened ; this may be considered as presenting 
before the eye an absolutely black spot. Let 
a piece of coal or black velvet be brought 
against the inner end of the tube ; the body is 
at once visible, as something differing clearly 
from the black space. Oersted separated *he 
light coming from bodies into two parts. 
First, he found that all bodies have in some 
degree the property of mirrors, but that in 
those not polished the light is reflected from so 
many small surfaces in various directions that 
no image is produced. Secondly, he found 
that illuminated bodies gave out another por- 
tion of light not reflected, which had the prop- 
er color of the bodies themselves. A beam of 
light, in passing through certain media, or in 
being reflected from a surface at a certain 
angle, has all its vibrations reduced to a com- 
mon plane, and is then said to be polarized. 
(See LIGHT.) Arago proved that from illumi- 
nated unpolished bodies a small and usually 
imperceptible amount of light having the color 
of the luminary is returned to the eye, and 
that this light is polarized by reflection ; while 
much the larger portion of their light, having 
the color of which the body is seen, is polar- 
ized by refraction, and hence must have come 
from beneath the surface of the bodies emitting 
it. A theory Jong since proposed in sub- 
stance by Euler is explained at length in his 
" Letters to a German Princess." Two viols 
or other stringed instruments being attuned in 
unison, though many feet apart, if a string of 
one be made to give out a musical sound, 
the corresponding string of the other, being 
fitted to vibrate in the same times, takes up the 
vibrations from the air, and actually emits the 
same sound, or some chord of that sound. The 
first induces vibrations in the second ; the sec- 
ond reciprocates the vibrations of the first ; but 
the conditions of the second must first be suit- 
able. In this view, when sunlight falls upon 
various bodies, it induces (according to the 
undulatory theory, by the communication of 
agitation from the ethereal medium to the mo- 
lecules of the bodies) a luminous condition or 
power in the illuminated body, but which in 
most bodies remains only so long as the action 
of the original luminary is exerted upon them. 
But though the body receives the whole impul- 
sion of white light, it will in turn reproduce 
the whole, or such part as the condition of its 
molecules fits it for reciprocating. If it recipro- 
cate all the colored rays in due proportion, and 
in considerable amount, it will be white ; if in 
like proportion, but in almost imperceptible 
amount, it will be called black. If a body re- 



COLOR 



97 



ciprocate mainly the blue and allied rays, it will 
be some shade of blue ; and so of all colors. 
Moreover, whatever rays the molecular condi- 
tion of the body forbids it to reciprocate, it will 
of necessity extinguish ; but as force can no 
more be destroyed than matter, this extinguish- 
ed light is not lost, but becomes manifest again 
as heat in the body receiving the rays, or per- 
haps in certain circumstances as affinity or 
electricity. According to Brewster's theory, 
a body is exactly of the color which it rejects, 
or does not possess ; according to Euler's, the 
body is of the color it shows, and color is not 
a quality of light merely, but a secondary phys- 
ical quality of bodies, due to a primary me- 
chanical one. Thus a white body, as a screen, 
can respond to any color thrown upon it ; but 
a colored body can only respond to rays within 
a certain limit, and if it receive rays only of 
colors beyond this limit, it must appear black. 
In the undulatory theory, as now received by 
the highest authorities in physics, there is as- 
sumed to be a fixed and invariable connection 
between the color of a given ray and its re- 
frangibility ; and the latter again depends on 
its rate and time of vibration. Thus, as cal- 
culated by Dr. Young, the middle red ray has 
a wave length of ^-.J-g-o f an inch, and cor- 
responds to 477" millions of millions of pulsa- 
tions per second of the ether, or of the retina; 
while the middle violet has a wave length of 
BT.TT^ f an inch, and corresponds to 699 
millions of millions of pulsations per second ; 
the other colors having wave lengths interme- 
diate to these. Sir David Brewster, however, 
who set out with a partiality for the now ex- 
ploded corpuscular theory, examined the spec- 
trum with variously colored glasses, and de- 
clared that he detected some red, yellow, and 
blue in all parts of it. He accordingly pro- 
posed a theory of white light as composed of 
three elementary colors only, those just named ; 
each color having all the various degrees of 
refrangibility, and the other colors being mix- 
tures of these three. Helmholtz has shown 
that many of Brewster's results were due to 
using imperfect prisms, and that when these 
sources of error are in a high degree removed, 
the mixture of rays through the spectrum fails 
to appear. Complementary Colors. Solar or 
white light being regarded as a whole pro- 
duced by the union of many elements (colors), 
it is plain that any portion of these elements 
being blended to form a composite hue, the 
remainder will form by mixture some other 
hue; and either of these being added to the 
other, the result will be the reproducing of 
complete or white light. In mathematical lan- 
guage, that which by addition to any part 
completes it, or makes a whole, is termed a 
complement. Transferring the mathematical 
conception to light, any hue, simple or com- 
pound, so related to another that by blending 
it produces with the latter white light, is term- 
ed its complementary color, and vice versa. 
Suppose the four higher prismatic colors blend- 



ed ; their dominant hue is blue. If now the 
three lower colors, red, orange, and yellow, be 
mingled in a separate hue, this will be an orange- 
red. But this combined with the compound 
blue just named must produce complete or 
white light. Hence, in the particular hues of 
each thus obtained, blue and orange-red are 
complementary ; but there may be many slight 
variations of these hues which shall go by the 
same names, and yet not be exact comple- 
ments, the result of their mixture being then 
a white tinged with whatever color happens 
to be in excess ; i. e., a light tint of that color. 
All the colors but yellow and green being 
blended give a hue of violet-red ; and of this 
the yellow-green is complementary. If one 
of the compound hues be varied by the incor- 
poration of more of a certain element, the 
other must lose an equivalent of the same ele- 
ment. If the yellow-green be moved toward 
green by adding blue, the violet-red, in order 
still to be complementary, must be moved 
toward red, by losing the same amount of blue 
as the other gains. If one of the hues be, ir- 
respective of light or shade, increased in inten- 
sity, the other must also be made more intense ; 
since, if the relative quantities of each color 
existing in the normal spectrum be not main- 
tained, an uncompensated portion of one or 
more colors must remain. The following pairs 
of colors are complementary to each other: 
Red bluish-green ; orange blue (azure) ; yel- 
low indigo ; green reddish-violet ; blue 
orange-red ; indigo orange-yellow ; violet 
yellow-green. M. Ohevreul, superintendent 
of the dyeing department of the Gobelins man- 
ufactory, constructed a chart of 24 hues, each 
shown in 24 different tones, and so arranged 
that not only the composition and relations, but 
also the complementary color of each of these, 
are obvious at a glance. Subjective or Acciden- 
tal Colors. Place on a sheet of white paper a 
red wafer, and look on it intently for some 
seconds ; move the wafer suddenly away, and 
in its place is seen a bluish-green spot of sen- 
sibly the same size. After looking at an orange 
wafer an azure image will appear ; indigo will 
follow yellow, and violet succeed yellowish 
green, and the reverse. The color of the 
image is in all cases complementary to that 
of the original object. If small objects of any 
colors be well illuminated and viewed on a 
black ground, the complementary image is 
seen upon closing the eyes. Under the same 
circumstances, a white object will give a black 
image. The color thus following upon the 
contemplation of its complement has been 
termed accidental, and also, from the fact that 
it arises from some state produced within the 
visual organ itself, subjective. A complete 
account of the ordinary phenomenon may be 
summed up thus : The color of the object itself 
grows gradually more faint, as it is viewed; 
after the cessation of the direct action of the 
object on the retina, there is, 1st, the persis- 
tence for about -fa of a second of the primitive 



98 



COLOR 



impression ; 2d, the appearance of the acciden- 
tal image ; 3d, the permanence for a longer or 
shorter period of the latter, its intensity and 
duration depending on the intensity and time 
of the direct impression, while the color grad- 
ually fades and then gives place to others ; or 
if the eyes be successively opened and shut, or 
directed to light and dark surfaces in turn, a 
succession of appearances and disappearances 
of the image, usually attended with changes of 
its color. Any one may witness these curious 
results by taking a momentary glance at the 
sun or a candle flame, or looking steadfastly on 
a strongly lighted colored object, and then pro- 
ceeding as already indicated. The subjective 
color obtained from the red sun of morning or 
evening will be a hue of green, passing, if the 
eyes be kept closed, gradually to darker hues, 
as blue and violet, or restored to red by looking 
momentarily on a white surface, and then fol- 
lowed by green on closing the eyes ; that ob- 
tained from the yellowish-white sun of midday 
will be indigo or violet. In either case, if the 
eyes are turned at once to a white surface, 
the image at first appears of its darkest color, 
passing successively through the lighter colors 
to white ; and whatever color appears when the 
eyes are closed, its complementary is seen when 
they are fixed on a white surface. Place, again, 
any small colored object upon a white surface, 
and look on it for some time : colors will be 
seen to develop themselves about the edges of 
the object, the color being in each case the com- 
plement of that of the object, bluish green 
surrounding red, and so on. The general ex- 
planation of these phenomena is, that the re- 
tina, having been once impressed with any 
color, gradually loses its sensibility to that 
color, and acquires a disposition to be affected 
by its complementary ; and that this tendency 
is manifested both successively, or in time, 
and simultaneously, or in space. M. Scherffer 
considers that the continued or powerful ac- 
tion of certain colored rays enfeebles or fa- 
tigues the sensibility of the retina to those 
rays; so that when the eye afterward receives 
white light, it is affected for a, time by the 
other or complementary rays only. M. Pla- 
teau explains both the persistence of the ori- 
ginal, and the appearance and changes of the 
successive accidental colors, by supposing these 
changes to constitute the transition in time of 
a portion of the retina from an excited to its 
normal state ; while irradiation and the simul- 
taneous accidental color constitute a similar 
transition in space, or from the actually excited 
portion of the retina to that which is in repose. 
When we look continuously on any color, as 
red, this color loses its vividness and beauty, 
because a color the opposite of red is excited 
in the eye, and blends with it; but its comple- 
mentary, or any color near to this, as green, 
being now presented, the latter is at once im- 
proved, rendered more pure and vivid, by the 
acquired tendency of the eye to see that color. 
This is successive contrast ; and it is thus shown 



that colors which will harmonize, or affect the 
eye agreeably, and be mutually improved, by 
being viewed in succession, are opposites or 
complements of each other. Colors nearly al- 
lied will be injured when thus beheld, and will 
affect the eye unfavorably. A purchaser who 
is shown in succession several pieces of bright 
red cloth will pronounce those last seen to be 
much inferior in brightness and beauty of color 
to the first ; but if his attention be now directed 
to green stuffs, he will declare these extremely 
bright ; and after them will see red stuffs quite 
as favorably. Again, two hues of red or blue 
seen side by side are not improved, because 
the impression made by either tends to excite 
an impression of green or orange in its neigh- 
borhood, which impression blends with the 
actual color of the other piece, and impairs it. 
But if blue and orange strips be viewed side by 
side, the blue throws orange upon the orange, 
and vice versa, so that the brilliancy and purity 
of both colors are improved. This effect con- 
stitutes simultaneous contrast; and it shows 
that harmony in colors viewed at once and near 
to each other also requires that these should be, 
or approach to, complernentaries of each other. 
If different tones be associated, the effect is al- 
ways to make the tinted appear lighter, and 
the shaded darker, than it really is. This is 
easily shown by placing side by side several 
gray strips, passing gradually from quite light 
to dark ; although the shade of each strip is 
homogeneous, yet its side toward a darker strip 
will appear to be the lighter, and that toward a 
lighter strip the darker. Chevreul's law, both 
for hues and tones, deduced from facts such 
as those now stated, may be thus expressed : 
" When the eye sees at the same time two con- 
tiguous colors, they will appear as dissimilar as 
possible, both in optical composition and in 
height of tone. Guided by this principle, the 
juxtaposition of colors in painting, in dress, in 
furniture, in the planning of gardens, in bou- 
quets, and indeed wherever colors are employ- 
ed with a view to artistic effect, ceases to be a 
matter of accident or an ill-understood experi- 
ence, and becomes a subject for the rules and 
predictions of science. In all chromatic ar- 
rangements, harmonies of contrast are first to 
be sought. But as these are limited, harmonies 
of analogy are also called into requisition, with 
less striking, but often with very pleasing re- 
sults. These may be secured in three ways : 
by arranging different tones in a series ; by as- 
sociating nearly related hues of a like tone, ex- 
cept where these, as blue and violet, distinctly 
injure each other; and by viewing appropriate 
groupings of colors by colored light, as that 
from a stained window, which modifies them 
all in a particular direction. The effect of the 
contiguity of white is to deepen . all hues in 
whatever tone, unless it may be a light yellow ; 
but with the deeper hues and tones, the con- 
trast with white is generally too violent. Black 
accords well with almost any hue or tone, ex- 
cept that the deeper, as indigo or violet, render 



COLORADO 



99 



it apparently gray and faded. The reader is 
referred to M. Chevreul's work on this subject, 
or to Prof. Youmans's "Household Science," 
for full details in relation to the arrangement 
or matching of colors. A few examples may 
be given. Thus, to trim orange articles of dress 
with yellow, to bring violet and deep blue flow- 
ers into juxtaposition, to upholster mahogany 
chairs with crimson or dark orange stuffs, with- 
out an intervening band of black or green, or 
to place heavy gilt frames near to strong red 
or orange in a picture, is a violation of chroma- 
tic harmony. Black and dark colors diminish, 
white and lighter tones enlarge, the apparent 
size of the wearer. Large figures or horizon- 
tal stripes shorten, while narrow vertical stripes 
heighten, the apparent stature. All colors in 
the vicinity of the face influence the complex- 
ion, as already explained. Hues and tones of 
green improve a pale or blonde complexion, by 
throwing on it their complement of rose ; while 
orange throws blue on the too abundant orange 
of the brunette complexion, and blending with 
the latter produces a whitening effect. Light 
or tinted colors agree best with light, deep or 
shaded colors with dark complexions. Oar- 
pets, paper hangings, curtains, and furniture 
for rooms should be of colors chosen with ref- 
erence both to their effects upon each other, 
and upon the complexions of .the inmates. The 
beauty of red flowers is heightened by the 
neighborhood of green foliage ; and in the hues 
of flowers it is easily observed that chromatic 
discords are seldom met with. The association 
of a yellow or orange pollen with a violet, pur- 
ple, or blue corolla is familiar. An eye deli- 
cately susceptible to colors will note also the 
frequent examples of modification of color by 
contrast, that come under daily observation. 
Thus an orange-red sunset appears heightened 
to bright scarlet when seen through openings 
in green foliage ; narrow bands of gray clouds 
moving over such a sky appear of a rich light 
or olive green ; and at a later hour, when the 
distant forest is simply black, it appears bor- 
dered at the top with a vivid green from the 
same cause. One who looks intently at a bright 
horizon will see after some seconds a dark cur- 
tain appear to drop down to near the horizon, 
while between this and the earth a brightened 
band of sky of changing width will be visible. 
The colors of thin plates and films, as mica, 
mother-of-pearl, and soap bubbles, and similar 
phenomena, are treated of in the article LIGHT. 
COLORADO, a territory of the United States, 
bounded N. by Wyoming territory and Ne- 
braska, E. by Nebraska and Kansas, S. by the 
Indian territory and New Mexico, and W. by 
Utah. It is situated between lat. 37 and 41 
N., and Ion. 102 and 109 W., forming nearly a 
parallelogram ; average length E. and W., 380 j 
m. ; breadth N. and S., 280 m. ; area, 104,500 
sq. m. It is divided into 21 counties : Arapa- 
hoe, Bent, Boulder, Clear Creek, Conejos, Cos- 
tilla, Douglas, El Paso, Fremont, Gilpin, Green- 
wood, Huerfano, Jefferson, Lake, Larimer, Las 



Animas, Park, Pueblo, Saguache, Summit, and 
Weld. The principal cities and towns are: 
Denver, the capital and chief city, in Arapahoe 
co., pop. in 1870, 4,759; Central City, 2,360, and 
Black Hawk, 1,068, in Gilpin co. ; and George- 
town, Pueblo, Golden City, Trinidad, Greeley, 
Kit Carson, Boulder City, Cafion City, and Col- 
orado City, with populations less than 1,000. 
According to the United States census, the pop- 
ulation in 1860 was 34,277; in 1870, 39,864, 
which included 456 colored persons, 7 Chinese, 
and 180 Indians. The tribal Indians of Colo- 
rado are the Tabequache band of Utes, at the 
Los Pinos agency, numbering 3,000 in 1872, 
and the Yampa, Grand River, and Uintah 
bands of the White River agency, numbering 
800. They have a reservation of 14,784,000 
acres, extending from the S. boundary of the 
territory to 15 m. N. of the 40th parallel, and 
from the 107th meridian to the W. boundary. 
The White River agency, on the river of that 
name, is in the N. part of the reservation ; the 
Los Pinos agency is in the S. E. part. These 
agencies are under the charge of the Unita- 
rians. At the White River agency there is a 
school attended by 40 scholars. These Indians 
receive annuities in goods', clothing, &c., of 
$40,000, and a like sum in subsistence. There 
are also a few Indians roaming in the E. part 
of the territory. Colorado ranks fourth among 
the territories in point of population. The 
number of male citizens of the United States 
in 1870, 21 years old and over, was 15,515. Of 
the total population, 24,820 were males and 
15,044 females; and 33,265 were native and 
6,599 foreign born. Of the natives, 6,344 were 
born in the territory, 8,378 in New Mexico, 
1,812 in Illinois, 809 in Indiana, 1,310 in Iowa, 
1,704 in Missouri, 621 in Massachusetts, 2,778 
in New York, 2,057 in Ohio, and 1,552 in Penn- 
sylvania ; of the foreigners, 1,685 were born 
in Ireland, 1,456 in Germany, 1,358 in England, 
and 753 in British America; and 1,235 per- 
sons born in the territory were living in other 
states and territories. The number of families 
was 9,358 ; of dwellings, 10,009. There were 
6,297 persons 10 years old and upward unable 
to read ; 6,823 were unable to write, of whom 
255 were foreigners, and 2,368 were males and 
2,122 females 21 years old and over. There 
were 26 blind persons, 4 deaf and dumb, 12 
in-sane, and 3 idiotic. The homicides during 
the year were 37, 4 of which were by Indians. 
There were 6,462 engaged in agriculture, 3,625 
in professional and personal services, 4,681 in 
manufactures and mechanical and mining in- 
dustries, and 2,815 in trade and transportation. 
Colorado has three natural divisions: the 
mountain range, including the park system, 
the foot hills, and the plains. The territory is 
intersected N. and S. near the centre by the 
Rocky mountains, which here attain their 
greatest elevation, 200 peaks nearly 13,000 ft. 
high and about 25 of 14,000 ft. and over being 
visible from Mt. Lincoln. Between lat. 38 
30' and 40 30' the chain is about 120 m. broad, 



100 



COLORADO 



consisting of three parallel ranges running 
nearly N. N. W. The E. one, called the Front 
or Colorado range, as seen from Denver, ap- 
pears to rise abruptly from the plain, stretching 
with snow-capped summits from 1 Pike's peak 
on the south to a group 20 m. N. of Long's 
peak, a distance of 120 m. Six of its peaks 
are from 14,000 to 14,200 ft. above the sea, 
viz. : Long's peak, Mt. Torrey, Gray's peak, 
Mt. Rosa, Mt. Evans, and Pike's peak. W. of 
this range lie the parks, separated from each 
other by comparatively low or broken cross 
ridges ; and parallel with it and about 40 m. 
further W. is the Park range, forming the W. 
boundary of North, Middle, and South parks. 
Its highest points are in the Mt. Lincoln group, 
near the dividing ridge between South and 
Middle parks; 20 peaks exceed 13,000 ft. in 
height, and Mt. Lincoln and Quandary peak 
rise above 14,000 ft. The Blue River group 
lies 20 m. N., having many peaks of 13,000 ft., 
and the culminating points reaching 13,300 ft. 
The northernmost and highest summit is Mt. 
Powell, beyond which there are no high peaks 
to North park; opposite this an altitude of 
12,000 ft. and over is attained. W. of the S. 
part of the Park range is the Arkansas valley, 
and beyond this is the National range, also 
called the Sawatch range or Sierra Madre, 
dividing through nearly its whole extent the 
waters of the Atlantic from those of the Pa- 
cific. It is parallel with and about 16 m. W. 
of the Park range, terminating some 40 m. N. 
W. of Mt. Lincoln in the mount of the Holy 
Cross, about 13,400 ft. high. The highest part 
of this range commences in Grand mountain, 
about 14,200 ft. above the sea, 20 m. S. of the 
Holy Cross, whence for 50 m. further S. the 
whole range is 13,000 ft. high, with 10 peaks 
rising at intervals of from 5 to 8 m. to a height 
of from 14,000 to 14,400 ft. The principal 
summits are Mts. Elbert, La Plata, Harvard, 
and Yale. W. of the National range and con- 
nected with it are the Elk mountains, lying 
between the Grand river on the north and the 
Gunnison on the south. The most elevated 
peaks form a ridge about 30 m. long, nearly 
parallel with the National range and 35 m. W. 
of it. At the N". end of this ridge, in lat. 39 
15', is Mt. Sopris, 13,000 ft. high, S. of which 
are the Capitol (14,100 ft.), the White House 
(14,050 ft.), and Maroon mountain and Castle 
peak, each 14,000 ft. high. W. of this group 
there are no high mountains, the ridges chang- 
ing within 20 m. to plateaus, which fall off to 
the Colorado river. The " timber line " of the 
ranges, the highest point at which timber 
grows, is determined by the lying snow, and 
varies from 11,000 to 12,000 ft. On the E. 
side of the mountains and parallel thereto, ex- 
tending from the Black hills on the north to 
the Wet mountains on the south, are the foot 
hills, having an average elevation of 8,000 ft. 
The Wet mountains branch out from the main 
range S. of Pike's peak, and extend in a S. E. 
direction to the Huerfano river. Between the 



Huerfano and Purgatory rivers are the Span- 
ish peaks, an independent series of mountain 
cones. The Raton mountains, running in an 
E. direction from the main range, form the S. 
base of Colorado. W. of the main range, in 
the S. portion of the territory, the Sierra San 
Juan extends nearly N. and S., forming the W. 
wall of San Luis park. The Rio Grande forms 
the N. and E. limit of this range. The Sierra 
la Plata, also S. of the Rio Grande, extends W. 
from the San Juan range to the S. W. bound- 
ary. The S. W. portion of Colorado is trav- 
ersed by the Uncompahgre mountains, extend- 
ing W. from the Sawatch range, and forming 
the divide between the Rio Grande and the 
principal southern tributaries of the Colorado. 
The Sierra San Miguel forms the extreme S. W. 
portion of the series of ranges extending W. 
from the main range in southern Colorado. 
The Roan or Book mountains are near the W. 
limits of the N. portion of the territory, be- 
tween the White and Grand rivers. The N. 
W. corner is occupied by the Sierra Escalante. 
The " plains " constitute the geographical di- 
vision of Colorado E. of the mountain belt, and 
embrace more than one third of the entire ter- 
ritory. The surface of this section is not one 
continuous level, but a series of valleys sepa- 
rated by ridges and traversed by innumerable 
watercourses. The average elevation above 
tide water is about 6,000 ft. The most promi- 
nent feature of this vast plateau is the "di- 
vide," an elevation reaching a height of 7,500 
ft. above the sea level, which separates the 
waters of the South Platte and Arkansas, and 
supplies many of their affluents. It branches 
out from the foot hills N. of Pike's peak, and 
gradually slopes N., S., and E. into the gene- 
ral level of the plains. The numerous swift 
streams, having their sources in elevated regions 
and flowing in various directions, render irri- 
gation practicable, except in the E. central 
portion of the plains, where the streams are 
too remote. The most remarkable physical 
characteristic of Colorado is its park system. 
The parks consist of extensive irregular pla- 
teaus or basins shut in on all sides by lofty 
mountain ranges. The surface of these pla- 
teaus is diversified by numerous hills or ridges 
and valleys, containing streams which form the 
head waters of all the great rivers that rise in 
Colorado. These valleys are clothed with 
luxuriant grasses and flowering plants of vari- 
ous species, and possess an extremely fertile 
soil. The hills are covered with dense forests 
of pine, abounding in game, such as the bear, 
elk, and deer. The beds of the streams fur- 
nish many varieties of minerals and fossils, 
and aftord a remarkable field for geological 
investigations. Mineral springs, with waters 
possessing rare medicinal properties, are nu- 
merous, while salt and coal beds seem to un- 
derlie the entire surface. The four princi- 
pal parks are in the central portion of the 
territory, and constitute the greatest part of 
a belt running N. and S. between Ion. 105 



COLORADO 



101 



30' and 106 30' W. The most northerly is 
North park, which embraces an area of about 
2,500 sq. m., and has an elevation of nearly 
9,000 ft. above the level of the sea. It is trav- 
ersed by affluents of the north fork of the 
Platte, which unite near its N. limits, and flow 
N. beyond the borders of Colorado. Next to 
this, on the south, and separated from it by 
mountain spurs, is Middle park, walled in by 
the Front range of the Rocky mountains on the 
E., and on the W. by the Park mountains. It 
embraces an area of about 3,000 sq. m., ex- 
tending about 65 m. N. and S. and 45 m. E. 
and W., and is also about 9,000 ft. high. The 
streams, most of which flow in a S. W. direc- 
tion, are all tributaries of the Grand. On a 
tributary of this river, about 12 m. from the 
S. boundary of the park, are the hot sulphur 
springs, whose valuable medicinal qualities 
have attracted the attention of invalids and 
tourists. S. of Middle park, on the E. side 
of the Park range, is South park, embracing 
within its rocky barriers about 2,200 sq. m., 
the greater portion of which is adapted to. 
agriculture, and nearly all of which affords ex- 
cellent pasture lands. The maximum eleva- 
tion above the sea is 10,000 ft., while the 
average elevation is about 9,000 ft. The 
streams, which are supplied by melting snows 
from the surrounding mountains, are tributa- 
ries of the South Piatte, and flow E. through 
the park to the plains. The largest of these 
parks is San Luis, which has an area not less 
than that of the other three combined. It lies 
8. of South park, from which it is separated 
by the main range, which forms its N. and E. 
boundary, while its W. boundary is formed by 
the Sierra San Juan. Its highest elevation 
does not exceed V,000 ft., which, with its 
southern location and mild climate, makes it 
well adapted to agriculture. The park is wa- 
tered by the Rio Grande and its numerous 
tributaries, which flow in a southerly direction, 
and afford abundant water power. Other 
smaller parks, presenting similar features, are 
scattered through the mountains W. of the 
main range. Of this vast region little is known. 
The river system of Colorado embraces the 
principal tributaries of the Rio Colorado, 
Rio Grande, Arkansas, Platte, and Smoky 
Hill and Republican forks of the Kansas. 
The Arkansas rises at the base of Mt. Lincoln, 
on the W. slope of the Rocky mountains, flows 
S. E. along the base of the range, W. and S. 
W. of South park, and, in a deep canon, pass- 
es through the range at Canon City, whence it 
continues across the plains in a S. E. direc- 
tion. It traverses in Colorado a distance of 
about 500 m., no part of which is navigable. 
Its principal tributaries on the south are : the 
Greenhorn, which rises in the Wet moun- 
tains, flows N. E., and joins the main river a 
few miles E. of Pueblo ; the Huerfano and its 
branch, the Cuchara, which unite about 18 m. 
from the Arkansas; the Apisha, which rises 
in the Spanish peaks, and flows into the Ar- 



kansas about midway between Pueblo and Fort 
Lyon; the Purgatory, which rises from the 
S. and W. declivities of the Spanish peaks and 
the N. slopes of the Raton mountains, and 
flows in an E. and N. E. direction ; and tho 
Cimarron, which rises on the S. slope of the Ra- 
ton mountains, flows E. to the S. E. corner of 
the territory, and reaches the Arkansas in the 
Indian territory. The principal northern trib- 
utaries of the Arkansas are Fontaine qui Bout, 
which flows in a S. direction from the N. base 
of Pike's peak, near the foot of South park, 
joining the main river at Pueblo; Squirrel 
creek, the Little Sandy, and Big Sandy, flow- 
ing S. E. from the divide to the Arkansas. N. 
of the divide, the E. slopes of the mountains are 
drained by the South Platte and its tributaries. 
This river rises near the foot of Mt. Lincoln, 
in the N. W. corner of South park ; it flows in 
a S. E. direction, receiving numerous smaller 
streams from the surrounding ranges and spurs, 
and leaves the park about 70 m. N. of the base 
of Pike's peak. After passing through the 
foot hills, it pursues a N. course for over 100 
m. to the junction with its branch, the Cache 
a la Poudre, whence it flows E. and N. E. un- 
til it leaves the territory at its N. E. corner. 
The principal tributaries of the South Platte 
from the mountains have an E. direction, and 
join the main river before its confluence with 
the Cache a la Poudre, which also rises in the 
mountains N. of Long's peak. Beginning from 
the south, they are : the North fork of the 
South Platte ; Clear creek, which, rising near 
the base of Gray's peak, flows through Clear 
Creek and Gil pin counties'; St. Vrain, and Big 
Thompson. Flowing into the South Platte 
from the divide are Plum, Cherry, Terrapin, 
Kiowa, Bijou, and Beaver creeks. From the 
N. limits of the territory, flowing in a S. di- 
rection into the South Platte, are the Crow, 
Pawnee, and Horse Tail creeks. The Smoky 
Hill and Republican forks of the Kansas rise 
in the E. central portion of the plains, and pur- 
sue an E. direction to the limits of Colorado. 
The region W. of the main range, and N. of the 
Uncompahgre mountains, is drained by the trib- 
utaries of the Rio Colorado and the head waters 
of the North fork of the Platte ; the latter are in 
the North park and surrounding mountains and 
flow northward. The principal northern tribu- 
taries of the Colorado are Bear river, flowing 
W., which has numerous branches rising in 
Elk Head, Rabbit Ears, and Escalante moun- 
tains ; White river, which rises in the N. W. 
part of the territory, and flows W. until it 
empties into the Green, a tributary of the Col- 
orado in the N. E. part of Utah ; and Grand 
river, which rises near the base of Mt. Lincoln, 
and, receiving numerous tributaries from Mid- 
dle park and the surrounding mountains, flows 
W. to its confluence with the Gunnison (also 
called the South fork of the Grand), near the 
W. central border of Colorado ; its course is 
exceedingly tortuous, winding around moun- 
tain bases, and forming cafions of unknown 



102 



COLORADO 



depth in the rocky barriers. The Gunnison 
rises in the Sawatch and Uncompahgre moun- 
tains, and pursues a N. W. course, through a 
continuous series of mountain chasms, to its 
confluence with the Grand ; it has numerous 
tributaries. The Kio San Miguel and the 
Dolores rise in the San Miguel and La Plata 
mountains, flow N. W., and after uniting fall 
into the Grand. The Rio Grande rises in the 
S. W. part of the territory, E. of the Sierra La 
Plata, flows E. about 150 m., then bends ab- 
ruptly, and pursues a S. course through the 
middle of the San Luis valley. Along the 
S. W. border of the territory are. numerous 
streams which flow S. to the San Juan in New 
Mexico. On the plains many of the smaller 
tributaries of the Arkansas and the Platte dis- 
appear in the sands during the greater portion 
of the summer. E. of the main range of moun- 
tains, a portion of the country N. of the divide 
has been to some extent geologically examined. 
Denver is situated on the tertiary rocks which 
contain the coal beds of the west. The rocks 
here are thickly covered with superficial drift. 
Passing S. up the valley of the South Platte, 
the tertiary sandstones are occasionally exposed 
in the banks of the river. About 1C m. S. W. 
of Denver are some remarkable soda lakes, 
resting on middle cretaceous rocks. From 
these lakes to the great divide the cretaceous 
and tertiary beds are concealed by superficial 
gravel and sand. On each side of the divide, 
beds of whitish-yellow and reddish sandstones 
appear, holding a nearly horizontal position. 
In the N. part of Qolorado, near the E. base 
of the mountains, beds of tertiary coal have 
been found. The main range of mountains, 
particularly the gold and silver lodes, is com- 
posed of gneissic and granitic rocks. In the 
mountain valleys are immense deposits of mod- 
ern drift. Bowlder drift is conspicuous in the 
mountains that wall in South park on the N. 
and N. W., while along the W. and N. sides 
appear lofty eruptive peaks, which seem to be 
old volcanoes. The mountains E. of the park 
have a gneissic and granitic nucleus. Within 
the park ' sedimentary rocks are found, and 
there are also salt springs and deposits of gyp- 
sum. The portion of Colorado W. of the main 
range of mountains forms part -of the great 
volcanic basin which stretches S. into New 
Mexico, arid N. W. into Utah and Idaho ter- 
ritories. In this region are many extinct 
volcanoes. The lava rocks which abound are 
not usually metalliferous, though they contain 
much mineral glass (obsidian). During the 
process of liquefaction which these rocks have 
undergone, vast areas, which now resemble 
lakes of black solidified sea water, have in 
some instances been submerged by the liquid 
overflowing from fissures hundreds of miles 
in length. The technical name of this forma- 
tion is pedrigaL while the rocks are called 
malpais. The Rio Grande, from its source to 
beyond the limits of Colorado, flows through 
a pedrigal of extraordinary dimensions. In 



Middle park all the sedimentary rocks known 
in the country are found. Carboniferous beds 
are probably wanting, but the triassic, Juras- 
sic, cretaceous, and tertiary are well devel- 
oped. There are two groups of tertiary de- 
posits : the lignite, or older tertiary, and the 
modern pliocene marls and sands. Grand 
river, just above the hot springs, passes through 
a high ridge of basalt, which has the lignite 
tertiary beds above and the cretaceous shales 
beneath. The tertiary rocks are of great thick- 
ness, and are composed mostly of fine sand- 
stone and pudding stone. At the Grand canon, 
just below the hot springs, the river cuts 
through a ridge of massive feldspathic granite 
for a distance of 3 m. between high walls. 
Vast deposits of useful minerals of almost 
every kind occur in nearly every portion of 
Colorado. The most important of these are 
gold and silver, which are found in large quan- 
tities in a belt about 50 m. wide stretching N. 
and S. across the central portion of the ter- 
ritory. Gold occurs in lodes, or fissure veins, 
having a N". E. and S. W. direction, and in gul- 
ches or in placers ; the latter being superficial 
deposits which have been washed from moun- 
tain summits and slopes to the plateaus, gul- 
ches, and valleys below. The veins occur in 
groups, often presenting the most complicated 
network on the surface. These groups are 
usually one or two miles in width and two or 
three in length, and there may be two or three 
distinct groups abreast of each other. The 
principal gold-bearing minerals are copper and 
iron pyrites. These mostly occur together; 
the latter, however, nearly always predomi- 
nates, and is often found without the former. 
When both are present, the copper pyrites is 
always the richer in gold. These ores assay in 
bulk from $30 to $40 per ton. About 70 per 
cent, of the gold bullion is extracted from the 
ores of Gilpin, Clear Creek, Boulder, Park, 
and Lake counties, 50 per cent, or more being 
furnished by Gilpin county, the bullion ship- 
ped from which for the year ending July 
1, 1870, amounted to $1,378,100. The deposits 
at the branch mint at Denver for the year 
ending June 30, 1872, amounted to $1,001,- 
564 81, of which $16,336 54 were silver. The 
total deposits of gold which had been made 
at this office up to June 30, 1872, amounted 
to $5,552,371 69, of which $4,985,754 67 were 
the product of Colorado. According to offi- 
cial mint returns, the deposits of gold from 
Colorado at the United States mint, branches, 
and assay offices, up to June 30, 1872, have 
been as follows : 



YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1859. 


$4,171 70 


1867. . . 


$1,026,276 83 


1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 


599,846 30 
2,091,197 17 
2,035,416 50 
2898336 87 


1868 
1869 
1870 
1871... 


1,081,040 16 
1,652,492 21 
1,551,102 81 
1,495,035 66 


1864 


2,136,684 69 


1872 


1,176,518 09 


1865 


1 622 249 45 






1866 


1,018,052 52 


Total 


$20,838,420 96 



COLORADO 



103 



Reckoning the deposits at one third of the total j 
product of the mines, the total yield of gold 
for the territory to June 30, 1872, was more 
than $60,000,000. For the extraction of the 
gold, the common stamp-mill process, with 
amalgamation in battery and upon copper 
plates, is now almost exclusively employed, 
although it is generally admitted that only a 
portion of the precious metals is secured in 
this way. According to the best statistics at- 
tainable, which are somewhat imperfect, the 
number of stamp mills in Colorado in 18TO 
was 105, with more than 1,800 stamps. Of 
these mills, 94 for the reduction of gold, with 
1,607 stamps, of which 857 were in operation, 
were in Gilpin county, and the remainder in 
Clear Creek, Boulder, Park, and Lake counties; 
and 4 for the reduction of silver, with 70 
stamps, in Clear Creek county, and 2 for the 
reduction of gold and silver in the same county. 
Although the discovery of silver in Colorado 
dates as far back as that of gold, it is only 
within a few years that rich deposits of this 
metal have been known to exist in the lodes 
of the mining counties. The silver ores have 
been divided into surface and galena ores. 
The former generally contain, besides more 
or less zinc blende, a little decomposed ga- 
lena and sulphuret of silver ; and very often 
the zinc blende is also decomposed. With in- 
creasing depth the amount of galena and zinc 
blende gradually increases, until at a depth not 
exceeding 100 ft. they decidedly predominate. 
The principal silver-producing county is Clear 
Creek. The actual development of the prom- 
inent silver lodes was begun in 1867 ; the 
whole amount of ore mined up to April 1, 
1869, is estimated at 1,100 tons, which yielded 
$250,000 in coin. The production of silver ore 
in Clear Creek county amounts to about 2,000 
tons per annum. The estimated yield of silver, 
including shipments of ore, during 1870, was 
about $400,000. The deposits of silver from 
Colorado at the United States mint, branches, 
and assay offices, to June 30, 1872, have been: 



YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1866.. . 


$419 00 


1871... 


$367,510 31 


1867 

1868 


543 78 
46881 13 


;1872 


264,821 18 


1869.. . 
1870 


197,678 54 
236,689 49 


1 Total 


$1,114,543 43 



The following statement made by E. E. Burlin- 
game, Feb. 17, 1871, shows the coin value "per 
ton of 2,000 Ibs. of specimens of ore from differ- 
ent districts of Gilpin and Clear Creek counties : 



[35, of smelting ore, 1st class, 

32, " " " 

23 ; 

72, of mill ore, 2d 

56, 

59' 

13. of smelting ore, 1st " 

22, " 
39, of mill ore, M " 



Gold. 

$138 92 
90 80 
50 28 
24 10 
22 51 
20 07 
18 44 



87 62 
61 90 

11 37 

12 85 
17 14 



Total. 



$169 24 
127 92 
112 18 
3547 
85 26 
37 21 



228 90 247 34 



I 409 81 

85 97 

I 8631 



409 81 
43 79 
86 81 



Iron pyrites is universal in the mines, occur- 
ring in cubes from the size of a pin's head to 
an inch on the sides. Copper, almost always 
in the form of pyrites, occurs in the prominent 
lodes in considerable quantities ; the first class 
ores of some of the mines contain from 10 to 
15 per cent, of it. Besides copper and iron 
pyrites, almost every lode contains a little zinc 
blende and galena; in some districts these 
minerals form a considerable part of the ore. 
Large beds of lignite, pronounced superior to 
any other found in the west, occur on the 
E. declivity of the mountains, in Boulder and 
Jefferson counties. The coal obtained resem- 
bles anthracite in appearance, but burns with 
a strong yellowish white flame, gives little 
soot, and from 2 to 3 per cent, of ashes of 
a reddish yellow color. It has been found in 
veins 14 ft. thick, of which 13 ft. are workable 
coal. The value of these beds of lignite is 
greatly enhanced by the simultaneous occur- 
rence of fire clay and iron ore. The former, 
found in layers from 3 to 5 ft. thick between 
the different strata of coal, is of a grayish blue 
color, burns almost white, and compares favor- 
ably with the standard clays of Europe. Lig- 
nite is also found in the vicinity of the Raton 
mountains near Trinidad, and in the Arkansas 
valley E. of Cafion City. The iron ore oc- 
curs, scattered over the surface, all the way 
from South Boulder to Coal creek. At a 
depth not exceeding 5 ft. masses of 1,000 Ibs. 
have been found in the sand ; and though no 
defined bed has yet been discovered, the great 
quantity of superficial bowlders indicates that 
such a deposit exists. The ore yields from 50 
to 60 per cent, of iron. Salt springs occur 
in South park, where extensive works have 
been erected. Valuable soda springs exist 
near the base of Pike's peak, and in other por- 
tions of Colorado. Hot sulphur springs, pos- 
sessing valuable medicinal qualities, occur on a 
tributary of the Grand, in Middle park, about 
12 m. from its S. boundary. The climate of 
Colorado is remarkably equable and healthy. 
The winters are mild, and the summers cool 
and bracing. Hot, sultry nights are unknown. 
On the plains the temperature averages from 
50 to 55. At Denver during 1870 the mean 
temperature for each month and the amount 
of rain and melted snow were as follows : 





TE 


MPEEATU 


RE. 


Rain and 




Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


inches. 




60 


5 


29-4" 


MB 




64 


1 


85-5 


1-70 




67 


8 


82-7 


70 


April 


80 


16 


48-1 


2-80 


May 
June 

J u ly 


86 
94 
98 


40 

48 
58 


56-1 
68-2 
74-2 


85 
52 
51 




97 


45 


64-8 


12 


September 
October 
November 
December 


89 
83 
68 
60 


40 
27 
20 

18 


601 
47-8 
41-8 
23 


2-85 
63 
54 
78 


Year 






48-5 


12-65 













104 



COLORADO 



The average temperature for 1871 was 54'1 ; 
rainfall, 12*35 inches. For 1872 the average 
temperature was 49'8 ; rainfall, 18-77 inches. 
The average temperature of the foot hills is 
from 45 to 50, and of the mountains from 
40 to 45. On the summits of the mountain 
ranges and in the higher parks the cold is 
often extreme; but in the mountain valleys 
arid foot hills the thermometer seldom falls 
below zero, and in midwinter there is much 
delightful weather. The greatest extremes of 
cold and the most severe storms occur in No- 
vember and December. In the mountains the 
greatest fall of snow occurs in September, Oc- 
tober, and April ; except on and near the 
summits, where the fall is considerable, it does 
not remain long on the ground. On the plains, 
in the latitude of Denver, the fall of snow never 
exceeds 10 or 12 inches, and seldom remains 
longer than 24 hours. In the S. portion of the 
plains there is little snow, and the winters are 
very mild. There is no rainy season in Colo- 
rado. On the plains the rains generally fall in 
the spring and early summer, scarcely any falling 
in autumn or winter. In the mountains, rains 
are frequent in the summer and autumn, but 
rain storms of long duration are unknown. 
Heavy wind storms are common in all parts of 
the territory. The extreme rarity of cloudy 
weather and of mists and fogs is remarkable. 
The atmosphere is wonderfully clear and in- 
vigorating, and remarkably free from humidity. 
These characteristics of climate, together with 
the great altitude, 4,000 to 10,000 ft., and the 
beautiful scenery, have made Colorado a resort 
for persons afflicted with throat and lung dis- 
eases, who derive much benefit from a residence 
here. In 1870 there were 375 deaths, of which 
32 occurred from consumption. About one 
third of Colorado is good agricultural land. 
In the plains and the parks the soil of the val- 
leys is peculiarly fertile, and produces in abun- 
dance the hardier cereals and vegetables. The 
arid sands of the plains have been proved to be 
merely surface deposits, covering a soil of re- 
markable fertility when moistened. The neces- 
sary moisture is supplied by irrigating canals, 
which have already been constructed to a great 
extent. The chief crops are wheat, barley, 
oats, and rye. The average yield of wheat is 25 
bushels per acre. Except in the S. districts, the 
nights are rather cold for corn ; but in the val- 
leys of the Arkansas and tributaries 30 bushels 
per acre may be raised. Large crops of buck- 
wheat and hay are produced ; 500 bushels of 
potatoes have been obtained from a single acre. 
Vegetables grow to an enormous size. Apples, 
pears, plums, cherries, and grapes have been 
cultivated with great success; while it is not 
doubted that peaches,, apricots, quinces, necta- 
rines, &c., may be successfully raised. The 
grapes are of exquisite flavor and superior 
size, and the small fruits grow with remarkable 
luxuriance. But Colorado excels as a grazing 
and dairy country, deriving great advantages 
from the peculiarity of its nutritious grasses, 



upon which cattle thrive the whole year, and ot 
which there is a great variety in the valleys 
and on the mountain sides. The uplands and 
ridges between the watercourses are covered 
with a short, crisp, drab-colored grass. These 
grasses are not destroyed -by frosts, but, becom- 
ing cured during the winter months, retain 
their nutritious qualities, and afford excellent 
pasturage at all seasons. Except the parks 
and valleys, the vast region W. of the central 
mountain range is not suitable for cultiva- 
tion, but pine forests and excellent pasturage 
abound. The principal varieties of timber are 
pine, hemlock, spruce, cedar, fir, cottonwood, 
box elder, and quaking aspen. The sides of the 
mountains below the timber lines and the foot 
hills are covered with forests of pine, larch, and 
aspen, which afford valuable timber and fuel. 
The wild animals are the bear, couguar, wolf, 
buffalo, elk, deer, antelope, lynx, wildcat, bad- 
ger, hare, fox, mink, pine marten, beaver, and 
prairie dog, the last resembling the fox squirrel. 
Of game birds there are the wild turkey, moun- 
tain grouse, sage hen, prairie chicken, ducks, 
geese, swans, ptarmigan, &c. According to the 
census of 1870, the number of acres of improved 
land was 95,594; cash value of farms, $3,385,- 
748 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$272,604; total amount of wages paid during 
the year, including value of board, $416,280. 
The productions were 255,932 bushels of spring 
and 2,535 of winter wheat, 5,235 of rye, 231,- 
903 of Indian corn, 332,940 of oats, 35,141 of 
barley, 178 of buckwheat, 7,500 of peas and 
beans, 121,502 of potatoes, 19,787 tons of hay, 
890 Ibs. of tobacco, 204,925 of wool, 392,920 
of butter, 33,626 of cheese, and 19,787 gallons 
of milk sold. There were 6,446 horses, 1,173 
mules and asses, 25,017 milch cows (and 6,871 
not on farms), 5,566 working oxen, 40,153 
other cattle (and 88,720 not on farms), 120,928 
sheep, and 5,509 swine. Value of live stock, 
$2,871,102; of home manufactures, $57,658; 
of animals slaughtered, or sold for slaughter, 
$252,394 ; of all farm productions, including 
betterments and additions to stock, $2,335,106. 
The value of the agricultural products for 1872 
was estimated at $4,650,000. The returns of 
the assessors to the auditor of the territory 
for that year show the number of horses to be 
23,000; asses, 10,000; cattle, 243,000; sheep, 
270,000 ; goats, 10,000. There is an abundance 
of water power in Colorado, which has as yet 
been little utilized. The total number of man- 
ufacturing establishments reported by the cen- 
sus of 1870 was 256, having 49 steam 
engines of 1,433 horse power, and 31 wa- 
ter wheels of 792 horse power, and employ- 
ing 876 hands. The capital invested amount- 
ed to $2,835,605; the wages paid during 
the year were $528,221 ; value of materials 
used, $1,593,280 ; value of products, $2,852,820. 
Besides quartz mills, the only important es- 
tablishments are a few for the manufacture of 
iron, wool, and flour, which have recently been 
established at Denver. Within a few years 



COLORADO 



105 



railroad enterprise has been active in Colorado. 
The territory contained on Jan. 1, 1872, 392 
m. of completed railroads. The lines in opera- 
tion are as follows : the Denver Pacific, from 
Cheyenne, Wyoming territory, to Denver, 106 
m. ; the Kansas Pacific, from Kansas City, Mo., 
to Denver, 639 m. ; the Denver and Boulder 
Valley, from Hughes, on the Denver Pacific, 
18 m. from Denver, to Erie (to be extended to 
Boulder City, 16 m. further); the Colorado 
Central, which will open a line of communica- 
tion between Denver and the mountain towns 
and cities (completed to Black Hawk, 38 m., 
with branches from Fork's Creek to Floyd 
Hill, 4 m., and from Golden City to Longmont, 
41 m.) ; the Arkansas Valley, from Kit Carson 
on the Kansas Pacific to Pueblo (completed to 
West Las Animas) ; and the Denver and Rio 
Grande railroad, which will connect Denver 
with El Paso in Mexico (completed to Pueblo, 
118 m., with a branch to Coal Banks, 38 m.). 
The following table shows the length of rail- 
roads in operation in the territory in 1873, 
with the capital stock and cost of construction 
of the entire lines so far as ascertainable : 



LINES. 


Length in 
the territory. 


Capital stock. 


Cost of road and 
equipments. 


Denver Pacific. . 
Denver and 
Boulder Valley 
K:ins:us Pacific.. 
Colorado Central 
Denver and Kio 
Grande 


96 miles. 

i " 

83 " 
156 " 


$2,500,000 

9,688,950 
1,474,300 

4500000 


$5,000,000 

450,000 
36,747,800 
3,300,000 

7 520 500 


Arkansas Valley 


56 " 














Total 


590 miles. 















The Denver and Rio Grande was the first nar- 
row-gauge railroad built in the United States. 
The gauge is 3 ft., the rails weighing only 30 
Ibs. to the yard. The maximum curvature is 
6 in 100 ft., and the maximum grade 75 ft. to 
the mile. The use of this gauge has proved 
very successful, both from its effects in cheap- 
ening transportation, and its practicability over 
routes presenting insuperable obstacles "to the 
construction of a wider road bed. A line of 
telegraph from Denver connects with the trans- 
continental line at Julesburg, Nebraska, and 
another connects Denver with Santa F6, New 
Mexico. The entire length of telegraph lines in 
operation, Jan. 1, 1873, was 862 m. Colorado 
contains 6 national banks, with an aggregate 
capital of $575,000, of which 3, with a capital 
of $400,000, are in Denver; and 27 fire, 12 life, 
and 2 accident insurance companies have agen- 
cies in Colorado. The government is similar 
to tli at of the other territories. The legislature 
consists of a council of 13 and a house of rep- 
resentatives of 26 members ; its sessions are bi- 
ennial. The election is held on the first Tuesday 
in October. The executive power is vested in 
a governor, secretary, treasurer, auditor, adju- 
tant general, attorney general, superintendent 
of public instruction, and secretary of the board 
of agriculture. The salary of the governor is 



$2,500; secretary, $1,800; treasurer, $700; 
auditor, $1,000. The judicial power is vested 
in a supreme court, district courts, probate 
courts, and justices of the peace. The supreme 
court is composed of a chief justice and two 
associates, one of whom holds a district court 
in each of the three judicial districts into which 
the territory is divided. The supreme and dis- 
trict courts have general jurisdiction in law 
and equity. The salary of each judge is 
$4,500. The principal executive and judicial 
officers are appointed for four years by the 
president of the United States. The territory 
is entitled to one delegate in congress. There 
is no territorial debt. In 1870 the county 
debts amounted to $678,829, for which bonds 
had been issued to the amount of $620,000 ; 
town, city, &c., debts, $2,329. The total taxa- 
tion not national was $362,197, of which $63,- 
425 was territorial, $267,207 county, and $31,- 
571 town, city, &c. In 1871 the internal rev- 
enue collections amounted to $69,993. In 
1870 the assessed value of real estate was 
$8,840,811, personal $8,497,290; total assessed 
value, $17,338,101 ; true value of real and per- 
sonal property, $20,243,303. Colorado has a 
good school system, administered by a territo- 
rial superintendent and a county superinten- 
dent for each county, who are elected bien- 
nially by the people. There are also three di- 
rectors for each of the districts into which each 
county is divided, elected annually. In 1872 
the number of public schools was 175; teach- 
ers, 230 ; pupils, 5,640 ; value of school build- 
ings, $180,645 ; amount of school fund, $121,- 
372. The total expenditure for school purposes 
in 1871 was $98,105, of which $45,250 were 
for teachers' wages. High schools have been 
organized in a number of the chief towns. 
According to the census of 1870, there were 
18 private schools, with 32 teachers and 516 
pupils. There were 175 libraries of all classes, 
with 39,344 volumes; of these 30, containing 
11,385 volumes, were public, of which 2 (2,000 
vols.) were school libraries, and 22 (5,685 vols.) 
were connected with Sunday schools. The 
territorial library at Denver, which also con- 
tains a valuable collection of mineral speci- 
mens, had 2,600 volumes. There were 14 
newspapers and periodicals, issuing 1,190,600 
copies annually, and having an average circu- 
lation of 12,750. Of these 4 were daily, circu- 
lation 2,200 ; 9 weekly, circulation 9,550 ; and 
1 monthly, circulation 1,000. The number of 
church organizations was 55 ; of church edi- 
fices, 47; sittings, 17,495; value of church 
property, $207,230. The principal religious 
denominations were : 



DENOMINATIONS. 


Church 
edifices. 


Sittings. 


Value of 
property. 


Baptist 


4 


855 


$11.090 




4 


1,050 


28,200 


Episcopal 


8 


2,000 


46,040 


Methodist 


18 


8,815 


50,600 




5 


1.200 


21.800 


Roman Catholic 


18 


8,575 


49,800 











106 



COLORADO 



Colorado was organized as a territory by act 
of congress of Feb. 28, 1861, from parts of 
Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Utah. 
The portion N. of the Arkansas river and E. 
of the Rocky mountains formed part of the 
Louisiana purchase from the French in 1803 ; 
the remainder was included in the Mexican 
cession of 1848. The "first well authenticated 
account of the discovery of what is now Colo- 
rado is the record of Vasqnez Coronado, who 
under Spanish auspices commanded an expedi- 
tion from Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1540. In 1806 
the United States government fitted out an ex- 
pedition for the purpose of exploring this re- 
gion, under command of Lieut, (subsequently 
Major) Zebulon M. Pike. This expedition trav- 
elled from N. to S. in the mountain region 
nearly across the territory, and discovered the 
peak which has since been called Pike's peak 
from its commander. In 1820 another expedi- 
tion, under command of Col. S. H. Long, visit- 
ed this region ; and in 1842- 1 4 occurred the 
celebrated exploration of Gen. (then Col.) John 
0. Fremont across the Rocky mountains. Be- 
fore the commencement of the present century 
there is no record of any inhabitants in what 
is now Colorado, except in the S. portion, 
where a few Mexicans and Spaniards were set- 
tled. Besides these, before the discovery of 
gold, there were only a few American traders, 
hunters, and trappers in the region. Nothing 
definite was known of the existence of gold in 
the territory before 1852, when a Cherokee 
cattle trader discovered the metal near the 
mouth of what is now called Clear creek. The 
first person to organize a party to explore the 
mining district was W. G. Russell, a Georgian,- 
who in 1858 found gold on Dry creek, about 
7 m. S. of Denver. These discoveries were 
speedily known throughout the country, and 
about 400 persons had reached the mining re- 
gion in the winter of 1858-'9. The first dis- 
covery of a gold-bearing lode was made by 
John H. Gregory, May 6, 1859, in what is now 
Gregory mining district, Gilpin county. The 
first act of the miners toward organizing a 
government was the erection of Arapahoe 
county, with Auraria as its county seat ; soon 
after which, Nov. 6, 1858, they elected a rep- 
resentative to the Kansas legislature, and a del- 
egate to congress, who was instructed to urge 
the separation of this district from Kansas, and 
the organization of a new territory. In the 
autumn of 1859 a convention of 128 members 
assembled at Denver, which decided to me- 
morialiee congress for a territorial form of gov- 
ernment. Within a few years a number of 
colonies organized in the east have been estab- 
lished in Colorado ; the most important of these 
is Union colony, at Greeley, in Weld county, 
on the Denver Pacific railroad. Since 1870 
the population has rapidly increased. 

COLORADO, a S. E. county of Texas, compri- 
sing one of the best cotton-growing portions of 
the state ; area, 905 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,326, 
of whom 3,701 were colored. It has an abnn- 



dant supply of timber, about one half the area 
being bottom land heavily wooded, or upland 
covered with post oak, live oak, &c. The soil 
is fertile and well watered by the Colorado 
and other streams. The Buffalo Bayou, Bra- 
zos, and Colorado railroad terminates at the 
county seat. The chief productions in 1870 
were 130,423 bushels of Indian. corn, 14,442 
of sweet potatoes, and 2,796 bales of cotton. 
There were 2,751 horses, 4,370 milch cows, 
26,125 other cattle, 2,987 sheep, and 6,280 
swine. Capital, Columbus. 

COLORADO, a river of Texas, rising in Bexar 
district, between the 32d and 33d parallels, 
about Ion. 102 W. It flows successively S. E., 
E., S., and again S. E., and empties into Mata- 
gorda bay. Its length is over 900 m. ; average 
width 250 ft. The only important tributaries 
are in the upper part of its course, where it re- 
ceives from the S. W. the Rio Concho, San Sa- 
ba, and Llano, and from the N. W. Pecan ba- 
you. In winter it is navigable for steamboats 
to Austin. It flows for more than two thirds 
of its length through a highly fertile region, 
and is a beautiful clear stream. It owes its 
name to an interchanging of the names of Colo- 
rado and Brazos, which the first discoverer be- 
stowed on these neighboring streams, calling 
the present Colorado the Brazos de Dios, and 
the present Brazos the Colorado or ruddy. 

COLORADO, Rio Colorado, or Colorado River of 
the West, a river formed by the junction of the 
Green and Grand rivers in S. E. Utah, about 
lat. 38 N., Ion. 110 W. Green river rises in 
the Rocky mountains near Fremont's peak, in 
the W. part of Wyoming territory, flows S., 
turns S. E. through the N. E. corner of Utah, 
entering the N. W. corner of Colorado, then 
bends S. W. and reenters Utah, and afterward 
pursues a general S. course to its junction with 
the Grand. Among its tributaries are the 
Yampah or Bear, the White, Uintah, and San 
Rafael. Grand river rises in the Rocky moun- 
tains, in Middle park, W. of Denver, Colorado, 
and has a S. W. course. Its principal tribu- 
taries are the South fork or Gunnison, Rio San 
Miguel, and Dolores. Below the junction the 
Colorado flows S. W. into Arizona. Near the 
36th parallel it makes a bend, and pursues a 
winding course in a general W. direction to 
the border of Nevada, whence it flows S., 
separating Arizona from Nevada and Califor- 
nia, and Sonora from Lower California, until 
it discharges its waters into the gulf of Califor- 
nia. The principal tributaries from the east 
are the San Juan in Utah, and the Colorado 
Chiquito, or Little Colorado, Bill Williams 
fork, and Gila, in Arizona. From the west 
the only noticeable affluents are the Dirty 
Devil and Escalante in Utah, the Paria, Ta- 
peat's river, and the Kanab, from Arizona, and 
the Rio Virgen, which enters from Nevada. 
In many respects the Colorado is remarkable. 
Above Callville, Nevada, the river, as well as 
its tributaries, flows through deep canons, the 
walls of which in some places rise nearly 7,000 



COLORADO 



107 



ft. above the surface of the water. Upon the 
generally treeless plateaus divided by these 
rivers rise other terraces, with nearly perpen- 
dicular walls 1,000 ft. or more in height. Both 
the loftier and lower plateaus are covered with 
massive ruins of once populous walled towns 
and cities, which are supposed to have been 
occupied by the Toltecs, the predecessors of 
the Aztecs. The Moqui Indians in N. E. Ar- 
izona, near the Colorado Chiquito, are sup- 
posed to be descendants of this race. The 
Green river first enters the Uintah mountains 
in the extreme 1ST. W. corner of Colorado, at a 
point called Flaming Gorge, just below which 
the walls of the canon are nearly 1,500 ft. 
high. The stream is swift, the descent being 
in places 20 ft. to the mile. Rapids and cata- 
racts, some of them of great height, are fre- 
quent. Above the junction of the Grand there 
is generally on the one side or the other a nar- 
row strip of land forming the valley of the 
river. The extent of these canons is over 500 
m. The largest and most noted of them, the 
Grand canon, extends down the river, from the 
mouth of the Little Colorado, a distance of more 
than 200 m. The height of the walls varies from 
4,000 to 7,000 ft. The channel is from 50 to 
300 ft. in width, and the descent of the stream 
from 5 to 200 ft. to the mile. "The banks of 
the river,' 1 says Major Powell, " are cliffs of solid 
rock, often vertical for hundreds or thousands 
of feet ; but in places these cliffs or walls of 
the canon are broken down in steep slopes, and 
in other places they are terraced on a grand 
scale, the glacis often being from a half mile to 
a mile in width, and the step to a higher ter- 
race several hundred feet. There is no proper 
flood plain along the river through this canon, 
but usually rocks have fallen down from the 
walls on one or both sides, so as to form a 
talus, varying from 25 to 300 ft. in height. 
But in other places there is no talus, the river 
filling the channel from wall to wall. Numer- 
ous streams come down from the high plateaus 
on either side, each having its own winding 
cafion, and these have tributary cafions, making 
the topography adjacent to the river exceed- 
ingly intricate." In the valley of the Colorado 
below the canons is found a large extent of 
fertile bottom land, easily cultivated by arti- 
ficial irrigation. This valley varies in width 
from 3 to 8 m. The greater part of it is covered 
with timber, chiefly cottonwood and mezquite. 
Just below Callville is the Black cafton, about 
25 m. long, with walls in places from 1,000 to 
1,500 ft. 'high, which is the only canon below 
the Grand canon. After receiving the Gila, the 
Colorado takes a sudden turn westward, for- 
cing its way through a chain of rocky hills, 70 
ft. high and about 350 yards in length. In 
this passage it is about 600 ft. wide, but soon 
expands to 1,200 ft., which it retains. After 
sweeping round 7 or 8 m., it resumes its S. di- 
rection, and pursues a very tortuous course of 
nearly 180 m. to its mouth. The bottom lands 
are here from 4 to 5 m. wide, and covered with 



a thick forest. The length of the Colorado, 
from the sources of Green river, is about 2,000 
m. It is navigable for steamers to Callville, 612 
m. ; and it is thought that navigation may be 
carried to the foot of Grand cafion, 57 m. above. 
Arnold's point, 35 m. from the mouth, is the 
head of navigation at low water (winter) for ves- 
sels drawing 9. ft. To the head of tide water, 40 
m., navigation is difficult and dangerous, from 
the rapid rise of the tide and the shifting of 
the channel. Above this point the current, ob- 
structed by small snags and sawyers, runs from 
1 to 3 m. an hour (in fres'hets from 2 to 6 m.) 
through a narrow channel. The rise of ordi- 
nary spring tides is 12 ft. In freshets the river 
rises at Arnold's point 15 ft. above low water, 
and in seasons of unusual height it flows back 
over the California desert, filling up several 
basins, and what is known as New river, in 
Lower California. This water remains one or 
two years, when it is swallowed up by the 
sands, or evaporated by the hot sun. At the 
mouth of the river a good harbor was discov- 
ered in 1864. It consists in fact of a second 
mouth of the Colorado, which branches off 
some 80 m. up, and empties in such a way as 
to afford secure shelter from the terrible " bo- 
rers " of the gulf. It is from 50 to 80 yards 
broad, and with perpendicular banks of hard 
clay some 25 ft. high at low tide. At high 
tide the banks overflow a few inches, but the 
anchorage remains good. About 6 m. up there 
is an abrupt fall extending across the stream, 
some 4 or 5 ft. high at low water, but disap- 
pearing at high tide. The depth of water in 
this singular harbor at low tide is from 15 to 
25 ft. This harbor is now used almost exclu- 
sively by the vessels in the Colorado trade. 
Their cargoes are here transferred to the small 
river boats and barges, and they here receive 
their outward-bound freights. In 1540 Fer- 
nando Alarcon, in a voyage to explore the gulf 
of California, by order of the viceroy of Spain, 
discovered the mouth of the Colorado, which 
he describes as " a very mighty river, which ran 
with so great a fury of stream, that we could 
hardly sail against it." He fitted out two boats 
with which he sailed up the river. Father 
Kino, about the year 1700, also sailed up to 
the confluence with the Gila, where he es- 
tablished a mission. Lieut, Ives explored the 
Colorado below the canons in a steamer in 
1857. The first descent through the canons 
was made in 1867 by James White, from a 
point on Grand river about 30 m. above its 
junction with the Green. White, Capt. Baker, 
an old miner and an ex-officer of the confede- 
racy, and Henry Strole were prospecting for 
gold in the W. portion of Colorado. Having 
met with ill success, and having lost Capt. 
Baker during an attack by Indians in a lateral 
canon of the Grand, which they had descended 
for water, White and Strole determined to at- 
tempt an escape by the river rather than re- 
trace their steps through a country beset by 
Indians. They constructed a frail raft of a 



108 



COLORADO 



COLOR-BLINDNESS 






few pieces of drift wood, and, having secured 
their arras and provisions, commenced their 
downward journey on the night of Aug. 24. 
Subsequently the raft was generally secured 
by night and allowed to drift only during the 
day. On the 28th, while descending a cataract, 
Strole was drowned, and all the provisions 
were washed overboard. White continued the 
journey alone, amid great peril from cataracts, 
rocks, and whirlpools, hemmed in by the walls 
of the canon, and 10 days after reached Call- 
ville, having tasted food but twice during that 
period. Once he obtained a few green pods 
and leaves from bushes growing along the 
stream, and the second time he was given some 
food by Yampais Indians who occupied a low 
alluvial strip of land along the river, the trail 
to which from the plateau was known only 
to themselves. In 1869 a corps fitted out 
by the United States government, under the 
command of Prof. J. W. Powell, started in 
boats from the upper Green river in Wyoming 
territory, and, after much peril and many 
hair-breadth escapes, reached Callville, having 
passed through the whole length of the canons. 
In 1871 another expedition under Prof. Powell 
was fitted out for the exploration of the Colo- 
rado valley. The portion of the river embraced 
in this exploration is about 1,000 m. in length, 
commencing where the Union Pacific railroad 
crosses Green river, and extending down the 
stream to the end of the Grand canon. E. and 
S. of the river the survey runs back from 10 to 
40 m. from the stream. On Jan. 1, 1873, the 
exploration had been completed of the region 
N. and W. of the Colorado, drained by its 
tributaries, from the Rio Virgen on the south 
to the Dirty Devil on the north, embracing a 
territory 300 m. long and 175 m. wide. N. of 
this a general reconnoissance had also been 
made of the territory between the Wasatch 
mountains and San Pete valley on the west 
and Green river on the east, embracing the 
valley of the Uintah, the ranges of mountains 
and extensive plateaus lying S., the valley of 
Price river, the Wasatch plateau, the valley 
of the San Rafael, and the plateau and moun- 
tains in which this river has its sources. The 
survey of the region embraced in Prof. Powell's 
plan is to be completed in 1875, when the en- 
tire valley of the Colorado will have been ex- 
plored, the portion above the Union Pacific 
railroad and that below the Grand canon hav- 
ing been already surveyed. 

COLORADO, or Cobn Lenbn, a river of the Ar- 
gentine Republic, rising in the Andes about 
lat. 35 S., and flowing S. E. across the pam- 
pas through an imperfectly known country to 
the Atlantic, which it enters in lat. 39 51' S., 
Ion. 62 4' W. ; length about 600 m. By some 
authorities it is supposed to receive the waters 
of the Mendoza and the Desaguadero, which 
drain the great system of lakes in San Luis 
and Mendoza. It discharges through several 
mouths, the principal one having two fathoms 
of water at low tide. It is obstructed seaward 



by shifting sand banks. The tide rises at its 
mouth from six to nine feet. It is said to be 
navigable only about 120 m. 

COLOR-BLINDNESS, a curious defect in vision, 
depending on a want of sensibility in the eye, 
or perceptive capacity in the brain, in conse- 
quence of which certain colors are not distin- 
guished, or all colors are alike invisible as 
such. It is believed that attention was first 
called to this defect by the publication by 
Dr. Dalton, the distinguished chemist, in 1794, 
of the particulars of his own case. The name 
given to the affection is that proposed by Dr. 
George Wilson, from whose work on the sub- 
ject (Edinburgh, 1855) the following summary 
is chiefly condensed. It has also been called 
Daltonism. A cause for the lateness of the 
discovery of this phenomenon may be found in 
the fact that while the ignorant would not in- 
vestigate a disability of the kind under which 
they might labor, the educated and intelligent 
would learn to compensate for it by the use of 
other senses. No mention of color-blindness 
has been found in ancient or modern writers up 
to the period named ; but the examples of the 
affection already collected are numerous, and 
among its subjects were Dugald Stewart and 
Sismondi, contemporaries of Dalton. The diffi- 
culty shows itself in three forms or degrees: 1, 
in an inability to distinguish nicer shades and 
hues, such as grays and neutral tints; 2, in 
inability to distinguish certain primary colors 
from each other, as red from green, or these 
from secondary or tertiary hues, as scarlet, pur- 
ple, &c. ; 3, in inability to discern any color as 
such, the person seeing only white and black, 
lights and shades. In the first degree, this af- 
fection is, among males, rather the rule than 
the exception. Dr. Wilson found that of 1,154 
persons examined by him in Edinburgh, more 
than one in 18 were in a greater or less degree 
color-blind ; and that of 60 persons in the chem- 
ical class of the Edinburgh veterinary college, 
the majority declined to name any colors be- 
yond red, blue, yellow, green, and brown; 
while they failed entirely in attempting to ar- 
range nearly related hues of yarns or stuffs, or 
those of varying shades of the same hue. He 
found that pink and other pale colors, especial- 
ly pale yellow and blue and green, were often 
confounded. The same thing happened with 
orange and yellow, lilac and bluish gray, <fec. 
In the second degree, in the less marked cases, 
red and green, or these with olive and brown, 
fail to be distinguished. And it is apparently 
singular that colors among the most distinct to 
a normal eye are in these cases the most easily 
confounded, red and green being more readily 
so than yellow and purple ; while green is in 
these respects the most delinquent of all the 
colors. Dugald Stewart could not distinguish 
the red fruit of the Siberian crab from the green 
color of its leaves. Three brothers, Harris, 
mistook red for green, orange for grass green, 
yellow for light green. A tailor at Plymouth 
regarded the solar spectrum as consisting only 



COLOR-BLINDNESS 

of yellow and light blue; while indigo and 
Prussian blue he pronounced black. Dr. Dai- 
ton could not by daylight tell blue from pink ; 
he scarcely saw the red of the spectrum, and 
considered the remainder of it as showing but 
two colors. But a failure to perceive the more 
refrangible rays is most common. Seebach con- 
cludes that all eyes, however imperfect other- 
wise, see yellow ; and that the sensations of 
complementary colors are inseparable, so that 
if the eye be sensible or insensible to either 
it will be so to both, the eye that fails to 
see orange also mistaking blue, &c. In the 
third degree, however, admitted by other ob- 
servers, all colors are recognized only as giv- 
ing certain degrees of light or shade. This form 
is rare. Dr. Wilson found but one case ; and 
in this some of the colors could be named by 
gas light or transmitted light, none by reflected 
daylight. The color-blind very often do not 
know their own defect; and in the lower walks 
of life their lack incapacitates them for cer- 
tain employments, or may even imperil life. 
These evils particularly befall weavers, tailors, 
gardeners, railway attendants, sailors in the 
steam service, and others dependent on the use 
of colored articles or the perception of colored 
signals. The importance of a correct percep- 
tion of colors, in the present modes of signal- 
ling upon railways and shipping, cannot be 
overestimated. For example, the English ad- 
miralty orders require a,t night a green light 
on the starboard, a red light on the port side 
of vessels ; and by the color the steersman must 
know which -side of the vessel is toward him, 
consequently whether it is going to right or left, 
and whether to starboard or port his helm. 
Although no case of accident has yet been 
traced to color-blindness in the attendants, yet 
such a result is easily conceivable, especially 
as their powers of vision are not tested; and 
the most doubtful complementaries, red and 
green, are much in use as signals. Practical 
inferences are that the ability in this respect 
of candidates for the posts of sailors and rail- 
way men should always be first carefully test- 
ed ; but, better still, that form and position 
of signals should, as far as practicable, be sub- 
stituted for color, as the former are qualities 
less liable to be mistaken, and the color-blind 
generally perceive form even more correctly 
than other persons. The cause of color-blind- 
ness probably lies somewhere between the eye, 
as an organ, and the mind ; or more correctly, 
in a want, partial or total, of a certain percep- 
tive faculty, that of color, as an element of ac- 
tive mind. Dalton thought the retina or hu- 
mors of his eyes must be colored, and probably 
blue ; a nice post-mortem dissection of his eyes 
revealed no abnormal coloration or appear- 
ance whatever. Dr. Trinchinetti proposed as 
a cure the extraction of the crystalline lens ; 
but Wilson gives a case of cataract, in which 
color-blindness supervened on the extraction 
of the lens. In one instance, the latter found 
the difficulty to follow permanently on concus- 



OOLORIMETER 



109 



sion of the brain ; sometimes it was tempo- 
rary, and dependent on congestion, dyspepsia, 
or hepatic derangement; most frequently it 
was congenital. Color-blindness is generally 
hereditary. Leber, who examined many cases, 
found it a frequent sympton of atrophy of the 
optic nerve, and of scotoma (muscce volitante*, 
&c.). Dr. Argyll Robertson (Edinburgh " Medi- 
cal Journal," February, 1869) found it accom- 
panying a case of spinal disease. Dr. Chisholm 
of Charleston, S. C., observed it in a case of in- 
flammation of the optic nerve. It is often, how- 
ever, unaccompanied with any impairment of 
vision. It has been observed during pregnancy, 
and Lawson met with a case which was pro- 
duced by over use of the eyes in sorting colors. 
As has already been noticed, the ethereal waves 
of light in the different colored rays vibrate 
in different times, the number of vibrations in 
the middle red ray being about 477,000,000,- 
000,000, while the number in violet light is 
699,000,000,000,000 times in a second. There 
are also waves on either side of these limits 
which are too slow on the one hand, and too 
rapid on the other, to be perceived by the hu- 
man eye, just as some vibrations in the air may 
be too slow or too rapid to be perceived by 
the ear. That some persons can perceive a 
lower tone of red, or the more extreme rays 
of the violet spectrum, as well as that some 
can perceive lower or higher notes in music, is a 
matter of observation, as also the fact that the 
perception of the depth and tone of various 
colors varies in different individuals. It is 
then a matter of no great surprise that in some 
persons the retina should fail to perceive the 
difference between the vibrations which take 
place in some of the colored rays. In the con- 
genital cases, and in some others, the attempt 
at cure by medicines has been found utterly 
hopeless ; of a cure through education no case 
is established. Th,e want may be alleviated by 
carrying about a chromatic scale, named, for 
purposes of comparison ; but little help is thus 
derived. It is strange that the substitution 
of artificial for solar light seems as yet to otter 
decided relief in the largest number of cases ; 
and a draper has been known to keep his shop 
lighted with gas during the day for this pur- 
pose, and with success. Very white light is 
less useful in these cases ; the best being a light 
yellow by passing through glass stained with 
preparations of silver, uranium, or iron. Dr. 
Wilson found that a good test for persons con- 
founding red and green, and who may be un- 
aware of the fact, was obtained by placing be- 
fore their eyes a red glass; the beholder is at 
once astonished at the difference which he dis- 
covers in looking at the two colors. 

COLORIMETER, an instrument for measuring 
the depth or color in a liquid by comparison 
with a standard liquid of the same tint. The 
comparison is made either by varying tho 
depth of the stratum of liquid under examina- 
tion till it exhibits the same intensity of color 
as the normal liquid, and then measuring the 



110 



COLOSSI 



COLOSSEUM 



depth of the stratum, or by diluting the 
stronger-colored liquid with water till equal col- 
umns of the two exhibit the same color. 

COLOSS E, an important ancient city of S. W. 
Phrygia, on the river Lycus, an affluent of the 
Maeander. Xenophon speaks of it as being a 
large and flourishing place at the close of the 
6th century B. 0. At a still earlier period 
(481) Xerxes passed through it on his way to 
Greece. Colossae was famous for beautifully 
dyed wool, and carried on an extensive trade 
in that article. After the time of Cyrus the 
Younger it seems gradually to have fallen into 
decay. It was the seat of one of the earliest 
Christian churches, to which one of St. Paul's 
epistles is addressed. During the middle ages 
it was called ChonaB. Khonos, a modern town 
on its site, is 120 m. S. E. of Smyrna. 

COLOSSEUM, Coliseum, or Colisaenm, an im- 
mense amphitheatre in Rome, the largest per- 
manent structure of the kind ever built, stand- 



ing near the centre of the ancient city, upon 
the spot once occupied by the reservoir of 
Nero, about 500 yards S. E. of the Roman 
forum, and 200 S. W. of the baths of Titus. 
Its ruins are still sufficiently complete to show 
the form of almost the entire structure, and 
are among the best preserved and most mag- 
nificent remains in modern Rome. The build- 
ing was at first called the Flavian amphitheatre, 
the name Colosseum being first used some cen- 
turies later with reference to its immense size. 
It was begun by Vespasian, built by him as far 
as the top of the third row of arches, and fin-, 
ished by his son Titus, by whom it was dedica- 
ted in A. D. 80, with games, gladiatorial shows, 
and scenic exhibitions of unprecedented splen- 
dor, a great number of gladiators and several 
thousand wild beasts being killed in contests in 
the arena. The building, which covers nearly 
five acres, and in its complete state had ac- 
commodation for 80,000 spectators, is in the 




The Colosseum. 



form of an ellipse ; its longer diameter is 615 
ft., its shorter 510 ; the height of its outer wall, 
where it is still entire, is 164 ft. The arena 
within is 281 ft. in length and 176 in breadth. 
The exterior wall of the edifice consists of four 
stories, of three different orders of architecture ; 
the first (lowest) is Doric, the second Ionic, 
the third and fourth Corinthian. The ma- 
terial was chiefly travertine for the principal 
walls, the spaces between being filled in with 
brick. The part of the Colosseum designed 
for spectators is in its leading features arranged 
like that in other ancient structures of the 
same design (see AMPHITHEATEE) ; but the fact 
that in the ruin no traces are to be found in- 
dicating that the ranges of seats ever rose 
higher than at present, i. e., to the bottom of 
the third story, or half the whole height, 



has perplexed all antiquaries. It is hardly to 
be supposed that the whole upper part of the 
building, erected at immense expense, was 
added for no object but to increase the exterior 
height ; yet, if the places for spectators never 
extended to a higher point than would appear 
from the remains now existing, the upper 
stories would seem to have been only useful 
for that purpose. Various theories have been 
advanced on this subject; one of the most 
plausible is that the extra stories were in some 
way rendered necessary by the machinery of 
the velarium (awning or temporary roof) some- 
times spread over the whole ; another, that 
narrow galleries ran round the inner circum- 
ference of these upper walls; but this must 
remain a matter of conjecture. What was the 
position of the dens for the wild beasts used 



COLOSSIANS 



COLOSSUS 



111 



in the combats of the arena has been another 
vexed question, as no traces of them are 
found; it appears probable, however, that 
they were situated under the podium, where 
they would open directly into the arena. The 
best known events in the history of the Colos- 
seum are those connected with the history of 
the Christian church. Many of the early 
Christians suffered martyrdom in its arena. 
St. Ignatius is said to have been the first, he 
having been given to the lions in this amphi- 
theatre in the earliest days of Christianity. 
St. Potitus, St. Prisca, St. Martina, and many 
others, are recorded as having been put to 
death in the Colosseum in the 2d and 3d cen- 
turies, with hundreds of unnamed martyrs, of 
whom the only records remaining are notes 
of the number suffering together on the occa- 
sion of one festival or another. A cross now 
stands in the centre of the arena, erected 
in memory of their martyrdom ; and around 
the edge, close to the wall of the podium, 
are small chapels or stations, marking the 
stages of the Via Crucis, the devotional ex- 
ercise of the Roman Catholic church com- 
memorative of Christ's progress to the cruci- 
fixion. These devotions are still performed 
in the Colosseum on Friday of each week. 
Excepting the record of these martyrdoms, 
carefully compiled by ecclesiastical historians 
and undoubtedly largely mixed with tradition, 
the Colosseum finds singularly little mention in 
the works of ancient authors. The building is 
supposed to have remained entire until Rome 
was invaded by Robert Guiscard, who began 
its demolition to prevent its being used as a 
fortress. It served that purpose in the middle 
ages, however, and was long held as a strong- 
hold by the family of Frangipani, until they 
were dislodged by their enemies the Annibaldi. 
In 1312 the muncipality took possession of it, 
and it was again used for public entertain- 
ments, especially for bull fights. In 1387 the 
canons of the Lateran were allowed to use it 
for a hospital. After the 14th century it be- 
gan to be despoiled by the great Roman fami- 
lies, who used its stone to build their palaces. 
In the time of Sixtus Y. it was proposed to 
turn it into a place of trade, erecting shops 
under the arcades ; but the plan was unsuc- 
cessful. Clement XL endeavored to erect 
within it a manufactory of saltpetre, but he 
failed to carry out his design, and was per- 
suaded to finally consecrate it to the memory 
of the martyrs, thus throwing over it a protec- 
tion which preserved it from further injury. 

COLOSSIANS, Epistle to the, one of the smaller 
Pauline epistles of the New Testament, ad- 
dressed to the church of Colossa3. It bears a 
great similarity to the Epistle to the Ephesians, 
and is directed against some heretical doctrines 
which had crept into the Colossian church, and 
which this epistle represents as endangering the 
purity of the Christian religion. In the opinion 
of former exegetical writers these heretical 
doctrines were the views of Judaistic theo- 



sophists, or of some pagan philosophical sys- 
tem ; Credner and Thiersch believed a kind of 
Christian Essenism to be referred to ; but the 
prevailing opinion now is that we find here 
early traces of Gnosticism. The Pauline origin 
of the epistle was generally recognized until 
Mayerhoff (Der Brief an die Kolosser, Berlin, 
1838) denied its authenticity. He was followed 
by Schwegler (Das nachapostolische Zeitalter, 
Tubingen, 1845-'6), and by F. C. Banr(P<mZw, 
der Apostel Jesu Christi, Stuttgart, 1845). 
Ew&l&(Die Sendschreiben des Apostels Paulvs, 
Gottingen, 1857) expressed the opinion that the 
epistle was written by Timothy after receiving 
from Paul special instructions with regard to 
the contents. But the great majority of exe- 
getical writers adhere to the tradition of the 
Pauline origin of the epistle. According to 
David Schulz (1829), with whom several other 
modern writers (as Schenkel) agree, the epis- 
tle was written during the captivity of Paul 
at Cffisarea, in 60 or 61 ; but the almost uni- 
versal testimony of tradition, according to 
which it was written by Paul from Rome in 
62, is ably defended by Bleek (Vorlesungen 
uber die Briefe an die Kolosser, &c., Berlin, 
1865) and others. 

COLOSSUS (Gr. Kohooc6s\ a statue of gigantic 
size. Such statues were often erected in an- 
cient times, and many still remain in existence, 
especially among the ruins of Thebes in Egypt. 
The most celebrated colossus of ancient or 
modern time was that at Rhodes. This city 
had been besieged by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 
king of Macedon; but, assisted by Ptolemy 
Soter, king of Egypt, the citizens repulsed their 
enemies. To express their gratitude to their 
noble friends, and to their tutelary deity, they 
erected a brazen statue to Apollo. Chares of 
Lindus, the pupil of Lysippus, commenced the 
work ; but having expended the whole amount 
intrusted to him before it was half completed, 
he committed suicide, and it was finished by 
Laches. The statue was 105 ft. high, and hol- 
low, with a winding staircase that ascended to 
the head. After standing 56 years, it was 
overthrown by an earthquake in 224 B. C., 
and lay nine centuries on the ground, and 
then was sold to a Jew by the Saracens, who 
had captured Rhodes, after the middle of the 
7th century. It is said to have required 900 
camels to remove the metal, and from this 
statement it has been calculated that its 
weight was 720,000 Ibs. According to Pliny, 
Rhodes had 100 colossi of inferior size. ^ The 
researches of Cesnola in Cyprus have discov- 
ered many colossi in that island. Phidias erect- 
ed several colossi. His Minerva in the Par- 
thenon was 39 ft. high, composed of gold and 
ivory. Upon the shield was sculptured the 
battle of the Athenians and Amazons ; on the 
buskins the battle of the centaurs and Lapi- 
th*B ; on the pedestal, the birth and history of 
Pandora. He likewise erected for the Eleans 
a statue of Jupiter 60 ft. high. Lysippus, in 
the time of Alexander the Great, constructed 



213 



VOL. v. 8 



112 



COLOT 



at Tarentum a colossal statue, 60 ft. high, which 
Fabius, on the capture of that city during the see- 
on d Punic war, was anxious to remove to Rome, 
but was prevented by its weight. The earliest 
colossus at Rome was that of Jupiter Capitoli- 
nus, in bronze, erected by Spurius Carvilius 
after his victory over the Samnites ; but colos- 
sal statues soon became common. Those par- 
ticularly remarkable were that of Jupiter in 
bronze upon the capitol; one in bronze of 
Apollo, at the Palatine library; another in 
bronze of Augustus, in the forum Augusti ; a 
marble statue of Nero, said to have been 120 
ft. high, placed in the vestibule of the golden 
house, afterward supplied with a new head by 
Vespasian, and converted into an Apollo ; and 
a gilt bronze statue of Domitian as the deity of 
the sun, in the forum. There are two statues 
which belong to recent art deserving the name 
of colossal. One is the statue of San Carlo 
Borromeo, at Arona, near the S. extremity of 
Lago Maggiore, erected in 1697. It stands on 
a hill. Its pedestal is 40 ft. in height, and the 
statue itself 66 ft. The head, hands, and feet 
are cast in bronze; the rest of the figure is 
formed by laying sheets of hammered copper 
upon a pillar of masonry. The statue may be 
entered and ascended ; there is sufficient room 
for three persons inside of the head, and for one 
person inside of the nose. The other is that of 
Bavaria, at Munich, in bronze, 61 ft. high, with 
a pedestal of 28 ft.; it was designed by 
Schwanthaler, and completed in 1850. 

COLOT, Laurent) a French surgeon, born at 
Tresnel, near Troyes, lived in the middle of the 
16th century. He was instructed by Octavien 
Deville, a pupil of Marianus Sanctus, in the 
art of extracting stone from the bladder. He 
kept the process secret, and upon the death of 
Deville was appointed by Henry II. lithoto- 
mist at the Hotel-Dieu. The secret was trans- 
mitted to his grandson PHILIPPE (born in 1593, 
died in 1656), who had an extensive practice 
in lithotomy. He taught the process to Res- 
titut Girault and Severin Pineau. FBANQOIS 
COLOT, who died June 25, 1706, was instructed 
in the art by the son of Girault, and wrote a 
treatise upon the subject (Paris, 172V). 

COLQl'HOnV, Patrick, a British author, born 
at Dumbarton, Scotland, March 14, 1745, died 
in London, April 25, 1820. In early life he 
went to America, but returned to Scotland in 
1756. On the outbreak of the American war 
he contributed to a fund for raising a regiment 
against the colonists. In 1782 he was elected 
chief magistrate of Glasgow. In 1789 he re- 
moved to London, and in 1792 was appointed 
a police magistrate. He published " A Trea- 
tise on the Police of the Metropolis " (London, 
1796), "A Treatise on the Police of the River 
Thames," U A New System of Education for 
the Laboring People," "A Treatise on Indi- 
gence," and "On the Population, Wealth, 
Power, and Resources of the British Empire " 
(London, 1814). The first and last named 
works were translated into German. 




COLT 

COLOJCITT, a S. W. county of Georgia, bo 
ed E. by the Withlacoochee river, and inter- 
sected by the Ocopilco and branches of the 
Ocklockonee ; area, 600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
1,654, of whom 137 were colored. The sur- 
face is level. The chief productions in 1870 
were 24,132 bushels of Indian corn, 11,834 of 
sweet potatoes, 24,468 Ibs. of wool, and 327 
bales of cotton. There were 183 horses, 1,804 
milch cows, 3,852 other cattle, 9,061 sheep, and 
6,348 swine. Capital, Moultrie. 

COLT, Samuel, an American inventor, born in 
Hartford, Conn., July 19, 1814, died there, Jan. 
10, 1862. His restless spirit led him even when 
a child to prefer the work room to the school 
room, and he entered at the age of 10 a factory 
belonging to his father, who was a manufac- 
turer of woollen and silk goods. In his 14th 
year he was sent to school in Amherst, Mass., 
but ran away and shipped as a boy before the 
mast for an East India voyage. While at sea 
he made a model in w'ood of a revolving pistol, 
which was the germ of the celebrated weapon 
bearing his name. This model is still in exist- 
ence. After his return from Calcutta he fa- 
miliarized himself with the principles of chem- 
istry under the tuition of the manager of the 
dyeing and bleaching department in his father's 
factory at Ware, Mass. ; and having become a 
dexterous manipulator, he travelled through 
the United States and Canada, giving lectures 
on chemistry in almost every city. During the 
two years spent in this way he acquired means 
sufficient to prosecute his invention. In 1835 
he visited England and France and secured 
patents for revolving firearms, and on his re- 
turn took out patents in this country. On a 
subsequent visit to Europe he discovered that 
there were in the tower of London ancient guns 
having a rotary chambered breech ; and in or- 
der to free himself from the imputation of 
claiming an invention which had previously 
been made, he read before the institution of 
civil engineers in England (of which he was 
the only American associate), in 1851, an elab- 
orate paper on the subject, in which he de- 
scribed the various early revolving firearms, 
and demonstrated the principles on which 
his own were constructed. In 1835, with the 
aid of New York capitalists, he established a 
company for the manufacture of his arms in 
Paterson, N. J., with a capital of $300,000. A 
large amount was expended in machinery and in 
experiments, but the company did not succeed 
in securing the general adoption of the weapon, 
though a few were used with success in the war 
with the Seminoles in 1837. In 1842 the patent 
arms company, as it was named, became insol- 
vent, and for five years no revolvers were 
made. In 1847, during the Mexican war, Gen. 
Taylor, who had learned the value of the 
weapon in Florida, sent for a supply, but none 
were to be found. The government ordered 
1,000 to be made. Mr. Colt advertised in vain 
for one to serve as a model, and was compelled 
to make a new model, in which he incorpora- 



COLTON 



113 



ted improvements suggested by the experience 
of officers. He manufactured these pistols in 
an armory at Whitneyville, near New Haven, 
Conn.; but other orders following, he pro- 
cured more commodious workshops in Hart- 
ford, and began business on his own account. 
In 1852, finding that his means for manufac- 
turing were insufficient to supply the great de- 
mand which had arisen for revolvers, in conse- 
quence of the emigration to California and Aus- 
tralia, he purchased 250 acres of low meadow 
land in the S. part of the city of Hartford, sur- 
rounded it with an immense dike to prevent its 
annual overflow by the river, and began the erec- 
tion within it of the armory, which has since 
become one of the most extensive hi the world. 
The original building, which is of Portland 
freestone, consists of two parallel structures, 
500 ft. in length and 60 and 40 ft. respectively 
in breadth, connected by a central one 250 ft. 
by 50, the whole being in the form of the letter 
H. In 1861 a second building, similar in most 
respects, was erected ; and in connection with 
these are offices, warerpoms, and other out- 
buildings. "Within the dike were subsequently 
built numerous dwellings for workmen and 
other structures, the whole involving an ex- 
penditure of more than $2,500,000. This armo- 
ry is capable of manufacturing over 1,000 fire- 
arms a day. A part of the establishment is 
devoted to the construction of machinery for 
making the revolving weapons, and from it 
were supplied the machines used for that pur- 
pose in the armory of the British government 
at Enfield and in that of the Russian govern- 
ment at Tula. All the accessories of the wea- 
pons, balls, cartridges, bullet moulds, powder 
flasks, lubricators, &c., are made at the armo- 
ry, from models of Mr. Colt's or developed from 
his ideas by his workmen. Besides the revol- 
ver, Mr. Colt invented a submarine battery for 
the defence of harbors, which has met with the 
approval of distinguished naval officers. He 
devised also a method of insulating submarine 
telegraphic cables, and in 1843 laid a cable 
from Coney and Fire islands to the city of New 
York, which was operated with success. He 
received from almost all the European govern- 
ments, and from several Asiatic sovereigns, 
decorations, medals, diplomas, and other tokens 
of their appreciation of his merits. 

COLTOX, Calvin, an American clergyman and 
political writer, born at Longmeadow, Mass., 
in 1789, died in Savannah, Ga., March 13, 1857. 
He graduated at Yale college in 1812, studied 
theology at Andover, and was ordained and 
settled in the Presbyterian church at Batavia, 
N. Y., in 1815. On account of the failure of 
his voice, he relinquished preaching in 1826, 
began writing for periodicals, and went to Eng- 
land in 1831 as a newspaper correspondent. 
On his return in 1835 he published a work en- 
titled "Four Years in Great Britain." About 
this time he became a member of the Episcopal 
church, took orders, and wrote a book entitled 
"Thoughts on the Religious State of the Coun- 



try, and Reasons for preferring Episcopacy." 
But soon returning to his former occupation, 
he distinguished himself as a writer of political 
pamphlets and fugitive pieces, in which he de- 
fended the views of the whig party. Those 
which had the widest circulation were a series 
called the " Junius Papers," published original- 
ly in 1840, republished hi 1844 with additions. 
He edited a newspaper hi Washington from 
1842 to 1844 ; in 1846 published the " Life and 
Times of Henry Clay;" in 1848, "Public 
Economy for the United States," containing an 
elaborate argument in favor of a protective 
policy; and in 1853, " The Genius and Mission 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States." In 1852 he was appointed 
professor of public economy in Trinity college, 
Hartford. He also published "Private Cor- 
respondence of Henry Clay" (1855), "Last 
Seven Years of the Life of Henry Clay " (1856) 
and " Speeches of Henry Clay " (2 vols., 1857). 

COLTOff, Caleb Charles, an English writer, born 
in 1780, died by his own hand at Fontaine- 
bleau, France, April 28, 1832. He graduated 
at Cambridge in 1801, was chosen fellow of 
King's college, and hi 1818 obtained the vicar- 
age of Kew and Petersham. But he contracted 
habits of life which destroyed all the hopes 
formed from his brilliant abilities. He became 
a gambler, and was involved in so much em- 
barrassment that he was obliged to flee to 
America. He afterward went to Paris, where 
he acted for a time as correspondent of the 
London " Morning Chronicle." He is said to 
have won in Paris 25,000 at play within two 
years; but he committed suicide through ap- 
prehension of a surgical operation that had 
become necessary. His principal works are : 
"Hypocrisy, a Satirical Poem" (1812); "Na- 
poleon, a Poem" (1812); "Lines on the Con- 
flagration of Moscow " (1816) ; and " Lacon, or 
Many Things in Few Words" (1820). The 
last named is a collection of ethical aphorisms, 
and is the most popular of his works. 

COLTOff, Walter, an American clergyman and 
writer, born in Rutland, Vt., May 9, 1797, died 
in Philadelphia, Jan. 22, 1851. He gradua- 
ted at Yale college in 1822, at Andover theolo- 
gical seminary in 1825, and became professor 
of moral philosophy and belles-lettres in the 
scientific and military academy at Middletown, 
Conn. In 1830 he edited a journal in Wash- 
ington, and in the following year was appoint- 
ed chaplain in the navy, and ordered to the 
Mediterranean. While on that station he 
gathered the materials for his " Ship and Shore 
in Madeira, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean" 
(New York, 1835), "Visit to Athens and 
Constantinople" (1836), "Land and Lee in 
the Bosporus and^Egean" (1851), and "Notes 
on France and Italy" (1851). In 1835 he 
was assigned to the naval station at Charles- 
town, Mass. ; in 1837 he edited the " Coloniza- 
tion Herald," and in 1838 was assigned to the 
chaplaincy of the naval station at Philadelphia. 
In 1845 he was ordered to the Pacific coast, 



114 



COLTSFOOT 



and on July 28, 1846, was appointed alcalde of 
Monterey in California by the American mili- 
tary authorities. Having discharged the duties 
of this office for nearly two months under a 
military commission, he was elected by the 
citizens of Monterey as alcalde or chief judge, 
with a jurisdiction extending over 300 m. of 
territory. He established the first newspaper 
and built the first school house in California. 
The first public announcement of the discovery 
of gold in California was made by him in a let- 
ter to the Philadelphia " North American," in 
May, 1848. He returned to Philadelphia in 
1849. His "Deck and Port" and "Three 
Years in California" were published in 1850 ; 
and a volume of "Literary Remains," with a 
memoir by Henry T. Cheever, in 1851. 

COLTSFOOT (tussilagofarfara), an herb grow- 
ing wild in Europe and North America; 
found in this country in the northern and mid- 
dle states. Though the whole plant is used, its 
virtue is principally in the leaves. These are 




Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). 

gathered and dried, and used generally in the 
form of a decoction. Coltsfoot is employed in 
pulmonary complaints, as a demulcent, often 
in the form of cough candy. It is said to have 
been smoked by the ancients in aifections of 
the lungs. 

COLUBER, the principal genus of a family of 
ophidian reptiles, characterized by an elongated 
head, distinct from the neck, and covered above 
with smooth polygonal plates ; the snout rather 
rounded ; the eyes large, and the pupil round ; 
the body long, cylindrical, and tapering, cov- 
ered above with rhomboidal scales, generally 
smooth, but sometimes carinated. The tail has 
always double plates on the under surface ; the 
plates of the abdomen are transverse ; the jaws 
furnished with numerous sharp teeth, direct- 
ed backward, without poisonous fangs. Some 
species are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. 
In the old Linnaean genus coluber were in- 
cluded all ophidians having double plates on 
the under surface of the tail ; this embraced 
many venomous serpents ; the genus has since 



COLUMBA 

been restricted by Boie, Schlegel, and others, 
so that it now forms a very natural one, recog- 
nized rather byilfs general than by any isolated 
characters. Its numerous species are found in 
most parts of the globe where any ophidians 
can exist ; they are generally terrestrial, rarely 
entering the water unless from necessity ; most 
of them climb trees easily, where they lie in 
wait for their prey ; some are found in marshy 
districts, some in thick woods, some in open 
sandy plains, and the locality impresses various 
habits of life upon them ; they generally pursue 
small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They at- 
tain a considerable size, sometimes a length of 
8 ft. The abdominal plates and the ribs are 
exceedingly numerous, sometimes as many as 
300. The sides of the snout are rarely con- 
cave, and the plates over the eye are not very 
prominent, giving to their physiognomy a gen- 
tle expression, which is confirmed by the dis- 
position of many of the species living in the 
vicinity of man. The colors are rarely bril- 
liant, brown shading into black or green being 
the prevailing tints ; some are striped or spot- 
ted, but all undergo considerable changes in 
their progress to maturity. The genus has 
since been subdivided into many. Among the 
best known species is the one dedicated to 
jEsculapius (G. ^Ssculapii, Lacep.), emblem 
of the sagacity and health-bestowing qualities 
of the great physician; and, in this country, 
the black snake (basoanion constrictor, B. and 
G.), the corn snake (scotophis guttatus, B. and 
G.), the chicken snake (ophibolus eximius, B. 
and G.), the indigo snake (Georgia Couperi y 
B. and G.), the green snake (cTilorosoma ver- 
nalis, B. and G.), and the striped snake (entce- 
nia sirtalis, B. and G.). 

COLUGO. See FLYING LEMUR. 

COLUMBA, called by his countrymen COLTJMB- 
KILLE or CILLE (" dove of the cell "), a saint of 
the Eoman Catholic church, styled also the 
apostle of Caledonia, born at Gartan, Done- 
gal, Ireland, in 521, died in lona, June 9, 597. 
His father was of the royal race of Niall or 
O'Donnell, his mother a princess of the reign- 
ing family of Leinster. Educated from boy- 
hood by the priest who had baptized him, he 
passed into the great monastic school of Clo- 
nard, under Finnian, styled magister sancto- 
rum, who ordained him deacon, and finished 
his course in the monastery of Maghbile, Down, 
under another Finnian or Finbar, afterward 
bishop of Lucca in Italy. His own wealth and 
powerful connections enabled him to found in 
Ireland 37 monasteries before his 25th year. 
He resided at Derry, superintending the other 
establishments, and fostering in all the love of 
rural labor, the culture of sacred and profane 
letters, and the work of translating the Old 
and New Testaments. A copy which he had 
furtively made of a rare manuscript of the psal- 
ter involved him in a suit with his old master 
Finnian, which was carried before the king at 
Tara, who decided against Columba ; and soon 
after, a young prince of Connaught who had 



COLUMBA 

fled to his monastery for asylum having been 
taken thence by the king's officers and exe- 
cuted, Columba vowed revenge. He hastened 
into his native province of Tyrconnell, roused 
all his kinsfolk to arms, and led them against 
the king, who was defeated at Cool-Drewny. 
Excommunicated in a synod for this bloodshed, 
Columba wandered from monastery to monas- 
tery, until his confessor as an expiation of his 
guilt commanded him to leave Ireland for ever. 
With 12 companion monks he landed on lona 
(then- called I or Hy, afterward named from 
him I-Columb-Kill or Icolmkill), where they 
built cells and devoted themselves to the bod- 
ily and spiritual wants of the inhabitants of 
this and the neighboring isles and the main- 
land, lona being in the territory of an Irish 
colony of Dalriadians, their prince Connal, a 
kinsman of Columba, bestowed the island on 
him in 563. His biographer and contemporary 
Adamnan describes the moral transformation 
which took place in him. Subdued by re- 
morse for the blood he had caused to be shed, 
he sought out guilt and suffering that he might 
purge away the one and alleviate the other. 
His reputation grew with his community, and 
the churches and monasteries which they 
founded on every side. The Dalriadian colony 
was renovated in 574. Aidan, Connal's suc- 
cessor, sought Columba on his island to con- 
fess his sins, and was there blessed and crowned 
king by the abbot, the first instance of such a 
ceremony in the history of the West, and the 
stone which served Aidan for a seat is now in 
Westminster abbey. From the territory of the 
Irish-Scots, Columba and his monks had pushed 
their missionary excursions into the adjoining 
districts inhabited by the heathen Picts. The 
opposition of their king was overcome by a 
miracle ; while miracles of patience and- devo- 
tion overcame the long resistance of the druids, 
until all Scotland was Christian, and the mon- 
astery of Deir (or " Tears " ) arose on the re- 
motest shore of Buchan, where it flourished 
1,000 years. Ancient traditions attribute to 
Columba the foundation of 300 monasteries or 
churches. Modern learning has discovered 
and registered the existence of 90 churches 
whose origin goes back to him. King Aidan 
was still held tributary to Ireland ; and at his 
urgent solicitation and that of the Irish com- 
munities which had never ceased to regard 
Columba as their superior, he consented to 
visit Ireland, A parliament was held in Drum- 
keath, the king of Ireland and Aidan presi- 
ding ; princes, nobles, bishops, and abbots dis- 
cussed for a whole year the interests of church 
and state. The tribute was remitted to the 
Dalriadian prince, and his thorough inde- 
pendence acknowledged ; the institution of the 
bards was saved from outlawry, old feuds were 
healed, a solid basis for future concord was es- 
tablished, and salutary laws were enacted. 
Columba maintained exact discipline in all his 
houses. The time not given to missionary la- 
bors, prayer, and chanting the divine office, 



COLUMBANUS 



115 



was devoted to manual and intellectual labor. 
Agriculture was a prime necessity for the 
monks, and they taught it to the people. Out 
of doors they labored in the fields, built or 
repaired churches and monasteries, and con- 
structed wicker boats covered with hides, in 
which the missionaries ventured to the Faroe 
isles and to Iceland. Indoors they transcribed 
the classics, and copied and illuminated the Bible. 
In all these duties Columba was foremost to 
the very last ; his cell in lona remaining until 
his 76th year what it had been at first, made 
of willow rods and hay, with the bare ground 
for a bed and a stone for pillow. He died sud- 
denly, having before predicted the hour, while 
celebrating the midnight office. His life and 
the fragments of his poems are in Montalem- 
bert's "Monks of the West." 

lOLOIBAjYlS, a saint of the Roman Catholic 
church, born in Leinster, Ireland, in 543, died 
at Bobbio, Italy, Nov. 21, 615. Educated with 
great care from childhood, he fled from his 
native place to avoid the dangers to which his 
personal beauty exposed him, became a monk 
in the great monastic school of Bangor, and 
finally in 575 with 12 companions passed over 
into Brittany, and thence into Gaul. After 
sojourning for a time in various provinces, 
where his preaching, charity, and the pure life 
led by himself and his companions did much to 
revive religion, he was invited by King Gontran 
to fix his abode in Burgundy. He chose the 
ancient Roman castle of Annegray, near Fau- 
cogney, in the present department of Haute- 
Sa6ne. It was in a forest, where after great 
hardships a monastery was built, the ground 
cleared and cultivated, and a large community 
sprung up. Soon their increasing number 
forced him to beg another residence from the 
royal favor, and he chose in 590 Luxeuil, the 
site of another Roman castle, at the foot qf the 
Vosges, and on the confines of Austrasia and 
Burgundy, and another at Fontaines. Noble- 
men flocked to Columbanus in such numbers 
that he was able to establish the laus perennis, 
or perpetual praise, successive choirs of monks 
singing unceasingly night and day the praise of 
God. At length a double storm burst upon 
him : from the bishops, who desired him and 
his monks to abandon their manner of celebra- 
ting Easter; and from Queen Brunehaut and 
her grandson Thierry, whom Columbanus re- 
proved openly, the king for his licentious life, 
and the queen for pandering to the king's 
vices in order to rule in his stead. Banished 
from Burgundy with all his Irish monks, 
Columbanus embarked for Ireland, but was 
cast by a tempest on the shores of Brittany. 
Thence he proceeded to Laon, where the king 
of Neustria, Clotaire II., held his court; he re- 
proved him and his mother Fredegonda for 
their disorders, but was favored and encouraged 
by both. Having made up his mind to pass 
over into Italy with his companions, he set out 
from Laon to Metz, the capital of Theodebert, 
king of Austrasia. On his way through Cham- 



116 



COLUMBIA 



pagne and Brie clergy, nobility, and people 
flocked around him, his journey to Metz be- 
coming one unbroken series of preachings, con- 
versions, and foundations. He resolved on his 
way to Italy to convert the Ehine provinces of 
Austrasia. Embarking below Mentz, he as- 
cended the river, landing and preaching on his 
way, and finally established himself at Bre- 
genz, on the lake of Constance. The Ale- 
manni and Suevi, who held all eastern Helvetia, 
were worshippers of Wodin, violent and cruel 
in their disposition. A monastery was built, 
and for three years Columbanus labored to 
make the idolaters give up their gods. At 
length his protector Theodebert fell into the 
hands of Brunehaut, who put him to death, 
and compelled Columbanus to fly. His disciple 
Gall remained behind to found the great mo- 
nastic school which bears his name. Colum- 
banus, crossing by the St. Gothard pass, arrived 
in Lombardy, where he immediately com- 
menced preaching against the Arian heresy. 
King Agilulf bestowed upon him the territory 
of Bobbio on the banks of the Trebbia, where 
he set about erecting a church and monastery. 
Clotaire II., having vanquished Thierry and 
Brunehaut, sent a deputation to Bobbio pressing 
Columbanus to return to Gaul, but in vain. 
Wishing to withdraw from all human inter- 
course some time before his death, Columbanus 
hid himself in a cavern in the Apennines, re- 
turning to the monastery only on Sundays and 
holidays. The excessive bodily punishment 
imposed on offenders by his rule, with other 
imperfections, soon caused it to be superseded 
in all hjs monasteries by the rule of St. Bene- 
dict. His Regula Ganobitalis cum Pcsnitentia- 
li is contained in the Codex Regularum, with 
the notes of the Benedictine Hugues Menard 
(Paris, 1638). The collection of his works 
was published by Sirin, with the notes of 
Fleming (fol., Louvain 1667) ; also a Latin 
poem in vol. ii. of Sirmond's CEuvres diverses. 
A life of St. Columbanus and his disciples At- 
talus and Bertulfus was written in Latin hex- 
ameters in the 10th century by Flodoart, canon 
of Rheims. See also A. Gianelli, Vita di S. 
Colombano (Turin, 1844) ; and Montalembert's 
" Monks of the West." 

COLUMBIA, the name of seven counties in the 
United States. I. An E. S. E. county of New 
York, bounded E. by Massachusetts, and W. 
by the Hudson river ; area, 620 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 47,044. In the E. part the surface is 
hilly, but in the W. and central portions it is 
generally level. The soil is fertile and highly 
cultivated. Iron, lead, limestone, slate, and 
marble are obtained in various places, and at 
New Lebanon are warm springs which are 
much resorted to. It is traversed by the Hud- 
son River, the Harlem, the Boston and Albany, 
and the Hudson and Boston railroads. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 3,932 bushels 
of wheat, 426,408 of rye, 336,281 of Indian 
corn, 942,307 of oats, 108,971 of buckwheat, 
678,480 of potatoes, 112,878 tons of hay, 1,227,- 



274 Ibs. of butter, 233,196 of wool, and 58,199 
of hops. There were 9,101 horses, 14,030 
milch cows, 11,704 other cattle, 53,798 sheep, 
and 8,865 swine ; 13 manufactories of cotton 
goods, 2 of drugs and chemicals, 7 of hosiery, 
3 of pig iron, 7 of iron castings, 20 of paper, 2 
of woollen goods, 3 breweries, 32 flour mills, 
44 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 9 of 
agricultural implements, 8. of bricks, 10 of ma- 
chinery, 19 of saddlery and harness, 17 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 8 of cigars, and 6 
saw mills. Capital, Hudson. lit An E. county 
of Pennsylvania, intersected by the N. branch 
of the Susquehanna, and drained by Catawis- 
sa and Fishing creeks ; area, 375 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 28,766. Knob mountain, Catawissa 
mountain, and the Muncy hills, which traverse 
the county, are branches of the Alleghany 
range, and are wholly unproductive. The val- 
leys lying between them are very fertile, and 
some of the uplands are also fit for cultivation. 
Limestone and iron ore are found in great 
abundance. The North Branch canal, and the 
Catawissa and the Lackawanna and Blooms- 
burg railroads traverse the county. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 240,759 bushels of 
wheat, 50,616 of rye, 589,472 of Indian corn, 
406,031 of oats, 82,676 of buckwheat, 182,124 
of potatoes, 22,132 tons of hay, 468,398 Ibs. of 
butter, and 22,337 of wool. There were 4,718 
horses, 5,615 milch cows, 4,718 other cattle, 
6,823 sheep, and 11,911 swine; 4 flour mills, 3 
planing mills, 2 manufactories of machinery, 1 
of cars, 2 of pig iron, 8 of iron castings, 19 of 
carriages and wagons, 9 of lime, 4 of woollen 
goods, 7 saw mills, and 12 tanneries. Capital, 
Bloomsburg. III. An E. county of Georgia, 
separated from South Carolina by the Savannah 
river, bounded N. W. by Little river, and trav- 
ersed by the Georgia railroad; area, 500 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 13,529, of whom 9,449 were 
colored. It has an uneven surface, and a soil 
once fertile but impaired by improper tillage. 
. A gold mine near Little river has been worked. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 8,699 
bushels of wheat, 121,160 of Indian corn, 11,- 
864 of oats, 15,092 of sweet potatoes, 46,311 
Ibs. of butter, and 7,434 bales of cotton. There 
were 910 horses, 1,219 mules and asses, 2,058 
milch cows, 3,858 other cattle, and 7,997 swine. 
Capital, Appling. IV. A N. E. county of 
Florida, bordering on Georgia, bounded S. by 
the Santa Fe and N. W. by the Suwannee 
river; area, 864 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,335, 
of whom 3,228 were colored. The surface is 
level, and the soil light and sandy. Pine forests 
cover a considerable part of the county. The 
Jacksonville, Pensacola, and Mobile railroad 
passes through it. The chief productions in 
1870 were 103,317 bushels of Indian corn, 24,- 
798 of oats, 32,316 of sweet potatoes, 15,526 
gallons of molasses, and 1,264 bales of cotton. 
There were 733 horses, 3,562 milch cows, 7,168 
other cattle, 1,654 sheep, and 8,957 swine. 
Capital, Lake City. V. AS. W. county of 
Arkansas, bordering on Louisiana, watered by 






COLUMBIA 



117 



Bayou Dorcheat ; area, about 950 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 11,397, of whom 3,718 were colored. 
In 1871 a portion was taken to form Nevada 
co. The surface is level, and the soil fertile. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 3,149 
bushels of wheat, 245,388 of Indian corn, 48,- 
024 of sweet potatoes, and 5,565 bales of cot- 
ton. There were 1,042 horses, 944 mules and 
asses, 2,217 milch cows, 3,889 other cattle, 
5,472 sheep, and 13,652 swine. Capital, Mag- 
nolia. VI. A S. county of "Wisconsin, inter- 
sected by the Wisconsin and Neenah rivers ; 
urea, 751 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 28,802. The 
surface is rolling or hilly, and the soil rich. 
The "Wisconsin is navigable by steamboats to 
Winnebago Portage, whence a canal connects 
it with the Neenah, 1 m. distant. The Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul railroad crosses the 
county. The chief productions in 1870 were 
1,517,332 bushels of wheat, 40,844 of rye, 528,- 
541 of Indian corn, 678,907 of oats, 51,745 of 
barley, 202,068 of potatoes, 44,184 tons of hay, 
706,516 Ibs. of butter, 168,255 of wool, and 
230,762 of hops. There were 9,758 horses, 
9,659 milch cows, 10,628 other cattle, 40,413 
sheep, and 11,743 swine; 3 manufactories of 
boots and shoes, 13 of carriages and wagons, 2 
of bricks, 8 of saddlery and harness, 4 flour 
mills, 6 breweries, 2 planing mills, 2 saw mills, 
and 2 leather-currying establishments. Capi- 
tal, Portage City. VII. A N. W. county of 
Oregon, bounded N. and E. by the Columbia 
river, separating it from Washington territory, 
and watered by the Klaskanine ; area, 470 sq. 
m.; pop. in 1870, 863. The W. border is 
mountainous. Coal and iron are found; the 
soil is good. The chief productions in 1870 
were 1,619 bushels of wheat, 1,169 of Indian 
corn, 2,260 of oats, 10,337 of potatoes, and 
1,850 tons of hay. There were 307 horses, 724 
milch cows, 1,303 other cattle, 1,602 sheep, 
and 1,206 swine. Capital, St. Helens. 

COLUMBIA, a city of Lancaster co., Penn., 
situated on the Susquehanna river, at the ter- 
minus of the Philadelphia and Columbia rail- 
road, and of the eastern division of the state 
canal; pop. in 1870, 6,461. The Columbia 
branch railroad connects it with Harrisburg, 
and another with York and Baltimore. It is 
the principal depot of the lumber which is 
rafted down the Susquehanna. There are two 
weekly newspapers and several churches. 

COLUMBIA, a city, capital of South Carolina, 
and seat of justice of Richland county, situated 
on the E. bank of the Congaree, just below the 
falls, and at the confluence of the Broad and 
Saluda rivers, 100 m. K W. of Charleston ; 
pop. in 1860, 8,052 ; in 1870, 9,288, of whom 
5,295 were colored. The Congaree is naviga- 
ble to this point, and there is ample communi- 
cation with the surrounding country by means 
of the South Carolina, the Greenville and Co- 
lumbia, the Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, 
and the Wilmington, Columbia, and Augusta 
railroads. There is an iron bridge over the 
Congaree, immediately opposite the city, con- 



necting the counties of Richland and Lexing- 
ton, recently rebuilt at a cost of $40,000 ; while 
the approach on the north and west is aided by 
the Broad river bridge, 1,054 ft. long. Colum- 
bia occupies a plain some 200 ft. above the bed 
of the river, and before the civil war was one 
of the handsomest places in the south ; it was 
laid out in regular squares, well built, with 
streets 100 ft. wide, and covered an extent 
each way of more than 2 m. The view from 
Arsenal hill is very beautiful. Sydney park 
contains about 25 acres of ground handsomely 
laid out in plots, and adorned with trees and 
shrubbery. The streets are abundantly shaded, 
and there are many splendid drives in the 
vicinity. The fair grounds of the South Caro- 
lina agricultural and mechanical society, in the 
N. W. suburbs, are well supplied with foun- 
tains and fish ponds, and contain about 30 
acres. A race course is attached to them, and 
large fields for the exhibition of agricultural 
implements. The principal building is 175 ft. 
long and 135 deep, with an amphitheatre in 
front capable of seating 3,000 persons. The 
new state house, of granite, occupies an emi- 
nence in the centre of the city. Though un- 
finished, it has been covered with a tempo- 
rary roof, and is now occupied. It has cost 
upward of $3,000,000, and about $1,000,000 
will be required to complete it. The executive 
mansion has grounds laid out hi walks, gardens, 
and drives, and commands a full view of the 
Congaree valley. The new city hall, in process 
of construction, will be of brick, three stories 
high, with a Mansard roof, and a tower at each 
end ; besides the city offices, it will contain an 
opera house capable of seating 1,500 persons. 
The United States court house and post office, 
also in process of construction, will be of gran- 
ite, three stories high, with a Mansard roof, 
and a tower. . The market house, near the cen- 
tre of the city, is a one-story brick building, 
about 150 ft. long, well ventilated and con- 
veniently arranged. The gas works occupy an 
acre of ground, and consume annually about 
800 barrels of rosin and 500 cords of wood. 
The gas produced gives a steady and brilliant 
light. The water power is extensive. Canals 
were early constructed around the falls, to im- 
prove the navigation of the river, which were 
sold by the state in 1868 to Senator Sprague 
of Rhode Island. The principal manufacturing 
establishments are 4 iron works, which pro- 
duce steam engines, machinery, cotton presses, 
iron railings and building fronts, bells, and 
iron and brass castings; an oil factory, pro- 
ducing and refining about 3,000 gallons of cot- 
ton-seed oil per week ; 2 manufactories of 
sashes, doors, and blinds; 1 of brooms, 1 of 
blank books, and a brewery. The car shops 
of the Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta rail- 
road occupy four acres of ground, and furnish 
locomotives, cars, and machinery for the use 
of the road. In the vicinity of Columbia are 
forests of yellow pine, oak, walnut, maple, 
poplar, fec., furnishing material for 15 or 20 



118 



COLUMBIA 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 



saw mills, which produce about 5,000 ft. of 
lumber a day. The high bluffs of the river 
supply material for good bricks, and two com- 
panies are engaged in the manufacture. Ex- 
cellent granite exists within the city limits, 
and is used in the construction of the public 
buildings. There are three national banks, 
with a capital of $500,000 ; a bank and trust 
company, capital $200,000; and two savings 
banks, with $644,000 capital. The South 
Carolina penitentiary, begun in 1867, occupies 
a plot of 20 acres, at the junction of the 
Broad and Saluda rivers, within the city limits. 
It is to be five stories high, with two wings, 
each containing 250 cells. Each cell is 5 ft. 
wide, 8 ft. long, and 7 ft. high. The number 
of prisoners, Oct. 31, 1872, was 224, of whom 
10 were females; 90 per cent, were colored. 
They are employed in the garden, carpenter, 
blacksmith, and shoe shops, marble works, 
weaving rooms, and broom factory attached to 
the institution, and in quarrying the granite for 
the building, as well as in its erection. The lu- 
natic asylum, situated in the N. E. part of the 
city, occupies two principal buildings. That for 
the use of female patients is four stories high, 
and consists of two wings, with a centre build- 
ing rising above them, crowned by a cupola. It 
can accommodate more than 100 patients. The 
building occupied by the men is about 300 yards 
from the other, and has capacity for 120 pa- 
tients. An additional wing 100 ft. long, 40 
ft. wide, and 4 stories high, is in process of 
construction. There are also smaller buildings 
for the colored patients. The asylum in 1871 
contained 285 inmates; of whom 90 were 
white males, 45 colored males, 115 white fe- 
males, and 35 colored females. It is a well 
appointed institution, supported principally by 
the state. The grounds, 4 acres in extent, 
are surrounded by an enclosure, and beautified 
with gardens, hothouses, and walks. The uni- 
versity of South Carolina, founded in 1804, 
has an observatory connected with it. The 
grounds are about 12 acres in extent, and the 
buildings are substantially constructed of brick. 
In 1871 it had 14 instructors, 70 students, and 
a library of 27,000 volumes. The Presbyterian 
theological seminary, founded in 1831, had 7 
professors, 41 students, an endowment of $145,- 
715, and a library of 18,340 volumes.; the Lu- 
theran theological seminary, founded in 1859, 
had 2 professors, an endowment of $29,000, 
and a library of 4,000 volumes. The Columbia 
male academy, founded in 1785, is in a flour- 
ishing condition. The Ursuline convent at 
Valle Crucis, 2 m. from Columbia, has 20 in- 
mates, who conduct a female seminary, and 
also have under their charge a day school in 
the city. The public school system is in its 
infancy, and is hampered by lack of funds ; but 
in 1871 there were 10 free schools, with 32 
teachers and 1,029 pupils. The state library 
contains about 3,000 volumes. There are 2 
daily, 1 tri-weekly, and 7 weekly newspapers, 
and a monthly and a quarterly periodical. 






There are 10 or 15 churches, several of which 
are for colored people. The denominations 
represented are the Baptist, Episcopal, Lu- 
theran, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman 
Catholic. Columbia became the capital of the 
state in 1790, under an act of the legislature of 
March 22, 1786, which provided for the found- 
ing of the city. Toward the close of the 
civil war it was entered by the forces under 
Gen. Sherman, Feb. 17, 1865. Shortly before 
a large amount of cotton had been taken 
from the warehouses and piled in the streets, 
preparatory to removing it outside the city 
and burning it, to prevent its falling into the 
hands of the Unionists. This not having been 
effected, however, on the evacuation of the 
city by the confederate troops under Gen. Wade 
Hampton, the cotton was set on fire as it lay, 
whether by accident or design is unknown. 
Under the influence of a high wind, the flames 
spread rapidly, and 84 of the 124 blocks of 
the city, containing over 500 buildings and 
embracing the entire business quarter, were 
burned. The old state house, containing the 
legislative library of 25,000 volumes, five 
churches, the Ursuline convent, and the rail- 
road depots were consumed. The city has been 
rapidly rebuilt, and is increasing in population. 

COLUMBIA, the capital of Maury co., Tennes- 
see, on the left bank of Duck river, 38 m. S. by 
W. of Nashville; pop. in 1870, 2,550, of whom 
1,108 were colored. The surrounding country 
is fertile and productive. It is the seat of 
Jackson college, a female athenaeum, female 
institute, and conference college. A weekl 
newspaper is published here. There are tw 
banks, with $200,000 capital. Columbia was 
the residence of President Polk previous to hi 
election. It was at one time the capital of th 
state. The Nashville and Decatur railr 
passes through it. 

COLUMBIA, a village, capital of Boone co 
Missouri, 115 m. W. N. W. of St. Louis; po[ 
in 1870, 2,236, of whom 798 were colored. ] 
is situated in a populous and fertile region, 
and is the seat of the state university. The uni- 
versity building is a large and elegant struc- 
ture, erected at the expense of the citizens of 
the county. In 1871 it had 12 instructors, 217 
students, of whom 40 were females and 118 
were in the preparatory department, and a li- 
brary of 5,000 volumes. There are two weekly 
newspapers. A branch of the North Missouri 
railroad terminates here. 

COLUMBIA, British. See BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

COLUMBIA, District of. See DISTEICT OF CO- 
LUMBIA. 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE, a seat of learning in the 
city of New York, originally called King's col 
lege. The institution comprises an academi 
department, law school, medical school, an 
school of mines. The government of the col 
lege proper is vested in 24 trustees. Besid 
the president, there are 9 professors and 2 tu 
tors. The professorships are : 1, Greek lan- 
guage and literature ; 2, German language and 



I 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 



119 



literature ; 3, chemistry ; 4, mathematics ; 5, 
mathematics and astronomy ; 6, philosophy and 
English literature; 7, mechanics and physics; 
8, Latin language and literature; 9, evi- 
dences of natural and revealed religion. Each 
student is required to devote fifteen hours a 
week to scholastic exercises. During the senior 
year eight hours a week are assigned to re- 
quired and seven hours to elective studies. The 
elective studies are Greek, Latin, physics, cal- 
culus, psychology, technology, and organic 
chemistry ; two hours a week are allotted to 
each of the four first named and three hours to 
each of the others. The course of study is four 
years, at the end of which period the degree of 
bachelor of arts is conferred upon those stu- 
dents who have passed successful examinations. 
The academic year, which is divided into two 
terms, begins on the first Monday in October, 
and closes with commencement day on the last 
Wednesday in June ; there being a vacation of 
two weeks about Christmas. There are two pub- 



m 




Columbia College. 

lie examinations annually of all the classes, one 
in February, and the other at the close of the 
academic year. Private examinations are held 
monthly in all the classes, and there is an ex- 
amination for honors at the end of each year, 
open to members of the senior class. The an- 
nual tuition fee is $100 ; by a vote of the trus- 
tees this charge may be remitted to indigent 
students. In 1873 the number of students 
thus receiving instruction free was 24. Prizes 
amounting to $450 are annually awarded upon 
examination for proficiency in 'Greek ; in Ger- 
man, $100 ; in studies relating to theology, $50 ; 
and "to the most faithful and deserving stu- 
dent of the graduating class," $50. 'By means 
of free scholarships established by the college, 
certain societies and corporations, including 
each religious denomination in the city of New 
York, may send students to be educated free of 
charge. By a recent resolution of the board of 



trustees, twelve scholarships have been estab- 
lished of the annual value of $100 dollars each 
and two fellowships of the annual value of $500 
each. The fellowships are one in science and 
one in literature, which are open to competi- 
tion by the senior class. The fellows are re- 
quired to continue their studies for three years 
wherever they may choose, but under the di- 
rection of the president of the college. The 
law school was opened in 1858, since which 
time 930 students have graduated. The plan 
of instruction combines the study of selected 
text books with lectures. There are four pro- 
fessors, viz. : of municipal law, of constitutional 
history and public law, of ethics, and of juris- 
prudence and medical jurisprudence; and lec- 
tures are also delivered by prominent members 
of the New York bar. The course of study 
occupies two years, and a third year, or post- 
graduate course, has been organized for those 
students who may desire to pursue then- studies 
beyond the regular course. Two moot courts, 

==== with a professor as pre- 

| siding officer, are held 
Jj every week of the term, 
at each of which a cause 
previously assigned is 
argued by six students. 
The term commences on 
the first Wednesday in 
October, and continues 
till May 15. Three prizes, 
aggregating $500, are 
annually awarded upon 
examination to such stu- 
dents as shall -have at- 
tained the highest excel- 
lence in their respective 
classes. The tuition fees 
are $100 a year. The 
degree of LL. B. is con- 
ferred upon those stu- 
dents who have pur- 
sued the entire course 
of study, and have 
passed the requisite ex- 
amination. By the provisions of an act of 
the legislature of New York, graduates of 
this law school are admitted to practice in 
all the courts of the state on receiving the col- 
lege diploma. The school of mines was es- 
tablished in 1864, and in 1873 had 21 profes- 
sors and instructors. The course of instruction 
occupies three years. Those who complete it 
receive the degree 1 of engineer of mines, civil 
engineer, or bachelor of philosophy. There is 
a post-graduate course of one year for the de- 
gree of doctor of philosophy, and a preparatory 
course for candidates not qualified to enter the 
first year. The year is divided into two ses- 
sions. The first commences on the first Mon- 
day in October; the second on the 16th of Feb- 
ruary. The lectures close on the last Friday 
of May, and are followed by an examination 
on the studies of the year. There are five par- 
allel courses of study : 1, civil engineering; 2, 



120 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 



mining engineering; 3, metallurgy; 4, geology 
and natural history ; 5, analytical and applied 
chemistry. The plan of instruction includes 
lectures and recitations in the several depart- 
ments of study ; practice in the chemical and 
metallurgical laboratories ; projects, estimates, 
and drawings for the establishment of mines, 
and for the construction of metallurgical and 
chemical works ; reports on mines, industrial 
establishments, and field geology. Written and 
oral examinations are held at the end of each 
session. During the vacation, at the close 
of the first and second years, students are 
required to prepare and submit memoirs on 
subjects assigned to them by the faculty, and 
journals of travel, containing descriptions of 
mines and metallurgical or chemical works 
visited, and any interesting mineralogical or 
geological observations they may have made. 
The fee for the full course is $200 a year for 
each student; but those unable to pay may 
be admitted without charge. The library con- 
tains more than 2,000 volumes of works on 
science, besides the current literature of Europe 
and America relating to science. The various 
cabinets include 500 crystal models; 10,000 
specimens of minerals; a complete collection of 
metallurgical products, illustrating the different 
stages of the typical processes in use in the 
extraction of each metal in Europe and Amer- 
ica ; an extensive collection of models of fur- 
naces; several thousand specimens of mate- 
rials and products, illustrating applied chemis- 
try ; and a geological collection embracing over 
60,000 specimens. The total amount invested 
by Columbia college for purposes of instruc- 
tion is $591,850, in addition to which it owns 
real estate and personal property amounting to 
$4,184,426. The college debt in 1872 amount- 
ed to $1,240. The income for the year ending 
Sept. 30, 1872, was $240,405 12, and the ex- 
penditures were $172,240. The medical school 
is not included in these returns. The gen- 
eral library of the college in 1873 contained 
16,364 volumes; law library, 3,860 volumes; 
library of the school of mines, 2,140 vol- 
umes; botanical library, 1,000 volumes. The 
herbarium, presented to the college by Dr. 
John Torrey, is valued at about $15,000, and 
the chemical and the philosophical apparatus 
at nearly $100,000. According to the trien- 
nial catalogue of 1870, the total number of 
graduates of all the schools was 3,834, of 
whom 2,721 were living. There were 2,109 
graduates in arts, 868 in medicine, 487 in law, 
37 in mining, and 333 honorary graduates. In 
1873 there were 123 students in the academic 
department, 371 in the law school, 136 in the 
school of mines, and 359 in the medical school. 
In 1746 an act was passed by the colony for 
raising 2,250 by lottery " for the encourage- 
ment of learning, and toward the founding of a 
college." By other similar acts this sum was 
increased in 1751 to 3,443, and vested in ten 
trustees, one of whom was a Presbyterian, 
two were of the Reformed Dutch communion, 






and seven were Episcopalians, some of whom 
were also vestrymen of Trinity church. In 
1753 the trustees invited the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Johnson, of Stratford, Conn., to become the 
president of the proposed college. The royal 
charter constituting King's college passed the 
seals Oct. 31, 1754, but the organization of the 
college under it was not effected till May 7, 
1755, when the charter was presented by 
Lieut. Gov. De Lancey to the persons named 
in it as governors of the college, who consisted 
of the archbishop of Canterbury, the principal 
civil officers of the colony, the principal clergy 
of the five religious denominations in the city, 
and 20 private gentlemen. Money was col 
lected in England, and books were sent out 
The college, however, had opened July 17, 
1754, with a class of eight, nnder Dr. John- 
son's own instruction, in a vestry room 
longing to Trinity church. The corner stoi 
of the college building was laid Aug. 23, 175( 
on the block now bounded by Murray, Churcl 
and Barclay streets, and College place, an< 
intersected by Park place. An English trav- 
eller described it as facing the Hudson, anc 
being "the most beautifully situated of 
college in the world." On June 21, 1758, the 
first commencement was held, when 10 bach( 
lors and as many masters of arts were grad- 
uated. The students began to lodge and m( 
in the college building in May, 1760, and 01 
June 26 the procession moved from there 
St. George's chapel to hold the third 
mencement. At Dr. Johnson's request, 
Rev. Myles Cooper, fellow of Queen's colle^ 
Oxford, was sent out in 1762 by the arc! 
bishop of Canterbury, and appointed fellow 
the college, professor of moral philosophy, am 
to assist the president in instruction and gov- 
ernment, with the understanding that he w* 
to succeed him, which he did the followii 
year. In 1767 a grant of land was made 
the college of 24,000 acres, which was subs 
quently lost in consequence of lying in thj 
part of the colony afterward set off to consti- 
tute a portion of Vermont. The instruction 
appears to have been conducted by the presi- 
dent and three tutors or professors, who w< 
always able men, till 1767, when a faculty 
medicine was created, consisting of six profes 
sors of great eminence. The chief studies wer( 
natural law, physic, logic, ethics, metaphysk 
mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy, 
geography, history, chronology, rhetoric, H 
brew, Greek, Latin, modern languages, an 
the belles-lettres. To the college was als 
annexed a grammar school for the due prep* 
ration of those who proposed to complete theii 
education in the arts and sciences. Dr. 
per was a strong loyalist, and had a 
phlet controversy with his pupil Alexand( 
Hamilton. At length his politics became 
obnoxious that the college was attacked by 
mob in the night of May 10, 1775, and he wa 
obliged to flee for his life. Six days after his 
escape the Rev. Benjamin Moore, afterwj 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 

bishop of the diocese, was made president pro 
tern. In 1776 the college was ordered by the 
committee of safety to be prepared for the 
reception of troops. The students were dis- 
persed, the library and apparatus deposited in 
the city hall, and in consequence lost, and the 
building became a military hospital. Six hun- 
dred volumes were recovered 30 years after in 
a room in St. Paul's chapel, their existence 
having been known only to the sexton. The 
library had received, among great numbers of 
valuable presents, a copy of every work from 
the university press of Oxford. This state of 
things continued for eight years. In 1784 re- 
gents of a state university were appointed, of 
which the governor, Clinton, was chancellor, 
who demanded and received what property 
belonged to King's college, the name of 
which was changed to Columbia college by 
the same aot which gave them the power. 
The regents organized four faculties : a faculty 
of arts, with seven professors ; one of divinity, 
with such professors as might be established 
by the different religious societies within the 
state ; a faculty of medicine, of seven profes- 
sors ; and one of law, of three. Besides all 
these, there were to be nine extra professors, 
a president, secretary, and librarian. For sev- 
eral years there was no president, his duties 
being discharged by the professors in turn. 
There were no funds to carry out the scheme 
of the regents. In 1787 the original charter 
was confirmed to Columbia college, and it was 
placed under the care of 24 trustees. These 
held their first meeting May 8, 1787, and on 
the 21st elected William Samuel Johnson, 
LL. D., son of the first president, and one of 
the most eminent lawyers and statesmen of the 
day, as president. In 1792 there was a full 
corps of professors, including one of oriental 
languages, one of natural history, chemistry, 
agriculture, and botany, occupied by Dr. 
Mitchill, and one of law, by James Kent. 
Dr. Johnson resigned in 1800, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Eev. Dr. Wharton of Philadel- 
phia. It is believed, however, that Dr. Whar- 
ton never entered upon the duties of the 
office. From this period the president took no 
part in the instruction, but exercised only a 
general supervision ; and under this arrange- 
ment Bishop Moore accepted the presidency, 
Dec. 31, 1801. He did not reside in the col- 
lege, nor on ordinary occasions take part in 
the discipline. In 1810 a new charter was 
obtained. In June, 1811, Bishop Moore paving 
resigned, the Rev. William Harris was elected 
president, and the Rev. Dr. John M. Mason 
provost, the statutes of the college having been 
altered for the latter purpose. In 1812 Dr. 
Mason was also elected a trustee, a previous 
act of the legislature allowing it having been 
obtained. He was one of the most learned of 
the clergy of his time, and distinguished for 
the life and interest which he gave to the 
exercises of the lecture room. On Nov. 1, 
1813, the medical school was incorporated with 



COLUMBIA RIVER 



121 



that of the college of physicians and surgeons. 
Dr. Mason resigned in 1816, and the office he 
held was discontinued. In 1817 the college 
received from the state the gift of the botanic 
garden ground, and a little after a grant of 
$10,000. In 1823 the Hon. James Kent deliv- 
ered the course of lectures which were the 
basis of his celebrated commentaries. Upon 
the resignation of President Harris in 1829, 
William A. Duer, LL. D., was made president. 
He resigned in 1842, and was succeeded by 
Nathaniel F. Moore, LL. D., who was suc- 
ceeded in 1849 by Charles King, LL. D. In 
1830 the college opened a " scientific and liter- 
ary course," accessible to others besides matric- 
ulated students, and professors were appointed 
in engineering, analytic chemistry, and other 
branches. This course was discontinued in 
1843 for want of patronage. The power to 
endow and nominate to new professorships was 
extended to religious bodies and individuals, and 
some 20 free scholarships were constituted, to 
be in the gift of various religious and civil cor- 
porations in the city. In 1843 a professorship 
of German was founded by a bequest of $20,000 
from Mr. Frederick Gebhard. In 1857 the col- 
lege was removed to its present location in 49th 
street, the building formerly occupied by the 
institution for deaf mutes being fitted up for 
that purpose. The college grounds comprise the 
block bounded by Madison and Fourth avenues 
and 49th and 50th streets. In 1858 the law 
school was opened in Lafayette place. From 
1813 to 1860 there was no faculty of medi- 
cine ; but in the latter year it was revived by 
the adoption of the college of physicians and 
surgeons as the medical department of Colum- 
bia college. This college is situated on the 
corner of 23d street and Fourth avenue. The 
connection, however, is little more than nomi- 
nal, as the medical college is governed by an 
independent board of trustees. In 1864 Presi- 
dent King resigned, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., who still 
retains the office (1873). In 1872 the college pur- 
chased at a cost of $375,000 nearly ten acres of 
land near 160th street, on Washington Heights, 
extending from the Boulevard to the Hudson 
river, as a possible future site of the institution. 
COLUMBIA (or OREGON) RIVER, a river of N. 
W. America, rising in Otter lake on the W. slope 
of the Rocky mountains, in British Columbia, 
in lat. 50 30' N., Ion. 116 W. It flows N. W. to 
lat. 52 10', where it receives the Canoe, which 
rises in about lat. 52 40', then turns W. and 
S., and flows in a general S. direction to the 
boundary of the United States, whence, en- 
tering Washington territory, its course lies 
through the great plain between the Cascade 
and Rocky mountains to the 46th parallel. 
Here turning somewhat abruptly, it flows in 
a general W. direction, forming the boundary 
between Washington territory and Oregon, 
and falls into the Pacific in about lat. 46 15', 
Ion. 124 W. There is a remarkable bend in 
lat. 47 55', Ion. 118 10', where the river turns 



122 



COLUMBIANA 



COLUMBRETES 



nearly due W., and continues in that direc- 
tion about 120 m. to the mouth of the Okina- 
kane. It then flows S. "W. about 50 m., when 
it turns S. E., and flows in that direction 
about 165 m. to the 46th parallel. Through- 
out its entire length the Columbia is very rapid, 
often passing through mountain gorges and 
broken by many cataracts. The tide sets up 
.165 m. to the Cascades, which are a series of 
rapids caused by the passage of the stream 
through the Cascade range. At a distance of 
about 30 m. from the ocean the river expands 
into a kind of bay from 3 to V m. wide, which 
forms its mouth. At low tide there is about 
20 ft. of water over the flats at the entrance 
to this bay, while the depth of the channel is 
24 ft. Ocean steamers can ascend to Vancou- 
ver, 115 m. above the mouth, and steamers of 
200 or 300 tons to the Cascades, around which 
there is a railroad 6 m. long. The Dalles, 40 
m. further, again obstruct navigation. Here 
the river bends like a horseshoe to the south, 
and flows with a rapid current through a ba- 
saltic trough with walls 20 ft. high and 200 
yards apart. Other falls, with stretches of 
navigable water between, are Priest rapids, 
179 m. above the Dalles; Buckland rapids, 
66 m. further ; and Kettle falls, 274 m. above. 
The last is a perpendicular fall of 15 ft. At 
high water (from the middle of May to the 
middle of July) steamers could probably ascend 
from the Dalles to Kettle falls. Above Kettle 
falls the river is again navigable about 50 m. 
to falls just N. of the 49th parallel. Above 
the head of Upper Arrow lake, lat. 50 30', 
there is no navigable water. At Vancouver 
the Columbia is a mile wide. Its total length 
is over 1,200 m. The rise at Vancouver du- 
ring high water is 19 or 20 ft., and so great is 
the force of the current as to overcome the 
effect of the tide, and render the water drink- 
able even on the bar. The principal E. branches 
are the Kootenay (also called McGillivray or 
Flat Bow), which joins the Columbia in British 
territory about 20 m. N. of the boundary; 
Clarke's, or Flathead river ; the Spokane ; and 
Lewis fork (also called the Saptin or Snake 
river), which is the great southern tributary, 
and rises in the Rocky mountains in TV. Wyo- 
ming, about lat. 44, Ion. 110 30'. The tribu- 
taries from the west are smaller ; the chief are 
the Nehoialpitkwu, Okinakane, and Yakama. 
Below the great bend several streams empty 
into the Columbia from the north, the largest 
of which is the Cowlitz ; from the south it re- 
ceives the Umatilla, John Day's river, the Des 
Chutes, and the Willamette. Columbia river 
was discovered in 1792 by Capt. Robert Gray, 
who entered it May 11 of that year, in the Co- 
lumbia Rediviva, of Boston, Mass. It was from 
this vessel that the river received its name. 
The first exploration of the Columbia was made 
in 1804-'5, by Captains Lewis and Clarke, un- 
der the direction of the war department. 

COLUMBIAN!, an E. county of Ohio, separated 
from Pennsylvania on the S. E. by the Ohio 



river, and drained by several streams; area, 
490 sq. m. ; pop, in 1870, 38,299. The south- 
ern portion is hilly, the northern level or gently 
undulating. The soil is fertile. Coal and iron 
are found. It is traversed by the Sandy and 
Beaver canal, and by the Cleveland and Pitts- 
burgh, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chi- 
cago, and the New Lisbon railroads. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 270,190 bush- 
els of wheat, 25,175 of rye, 566,242 of Indian 
corn, 653,001 of oats, 163,484 of potatoes, 
45,301 tons of hay, 848,882 Ibs. of butter, 
573,561 of wool, and 602,978 of flax. There 
were 8,827 horses, 9,519 milch cows, 9,137 
other cattle, 131,527 sheep, and 15,996 swine; 

8 flour mills, 18 manufactories of stone and 
earthen ware, 6 of machinery, 1 of pig iron, 
10 of iron castings, 4 of agricultural impl 
ments, 8 of bricks, 20 of carriages and wagoi 

2 of hardware, 2 of lightning rods, 15 of 
dlery and harness, 12 of tin, copper, and she( 
iron ware, 3 of woollen goods, 4 planing mil 

9 saw mills, 17 tanneries, and 16 c 
establishments. Capital, New Lisbon. 

COLUMBICM, a metal extracted from the mil 
eral columbite, found in Connecticut. It 
first discovered by Mr. Hatchett in 1801, 
is identical with the metal called by Rose 
obium. Tantalum, afterward extracted by 
Swedish chemist from the mineral tantalih 
was long supposed, on the authority of Wol 
laston, to be the same substance, but is no 
known to be distinct from it. Oolumbium 
of a yellowish white or gray color, and wh< 
burnished has a metallic lustre. The nai 
was probably given from its being origh 
discovered in North America. 

COLUMBO, or Calnmba, the root of cocculi 
palmatm or jateorrhiza palmata, and of 
calumla, climbing plants of the order mem 
spermacece, growing in Mozambique. The r( 
is cut into -transverse slices, which are from 
eighth of an inch to near an inch in thickness, 
from one to two inches in diameter, and when 
of good quality of a tolerably bright yellow 
color in the cortical portion, somewhat lighl 
in the interior, and covered with a browni 
wrinkled epidermis externally. Columbo 
tains a crystallizable neutral bitter principle 
called colombine, and an alkaloid, berberin 
Its medical virtues are those of a pure bitt 
slightly if at all stimulating, and genei 
acceptable to the stomach. American colui 
bo, the root of Frasera Walteri, of the 01 
gentianacea, and a false columbo from 
nium fenesiratum, belonging to the same ord( 
with the genuine, have been sold in Euroj 
instead of the genuine. 

COLOIBRETES, or Colombrctes, a group < 
small islands in the Mediterranean, belongii 
to Spain, about lat. 39 54' N., Ion. 44' 
29 m. S. E. of Cape Oropesa. They are 
volcanic origin, and very picturesque, th( 
broken masses seeming like the fragments of \ 
larger island. There is deep water betw< 
them, and a deep and capacious harbor in 



COLUMBUS 



123 



largest island, Santa Maria do Columbretcs. 
On this island there is a hill of some elevation 
called Monte Colibre. The surface is much 
broken, and exhibits lavas and scoria, but 
there is an exuberance of dwarf olives, gerani- 
ums, prickly pears, myrtles, and brushwood, 
and crops are raised of rye, maize, pulse, po- 
tatoes, and hemp. The island swarms with 
snakes, which seem to b harmless. This 
group is important as a military station. 

COLUMBUS, a S. E. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on South Carolina, bounded S. E. by 
the Waccamaw river, and 1ST. W. by Lumber 
river; area, 600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,474, 
of whom 2,948 were colored. The surface is 
level and partly marshy. The Wilmington, 
Columbia, and Augusta railroad traverses it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 65,972 
bushels of Indian corn, 79,307 of sweet pota- 
toes, 119 bales of cotton, and 216,964 Ibs. of 
rice. There were 368 horses, 1,960 milch 
cows, 3,550 other cattle, 5,383 sheep, and 12,- 
759 swine; 3 saw mills and 1 saddle and har- 
ness factory. Capital, Whiteville. 

COLUMBUS, a city of Georgia, capital of Mus- 
cogee co., on the left bank of the Chattahoo- 
chee river, 300 m. above Appalachicola bay, 
and 95 m. S. S. W. of Atlanta; pop. in 1870, 
7,401, of whom 3,204 were colored. It enjoys 
superior advantages for trade and great facili- 
ties for the erection of mills and factories. 
The Chattahoochee is navigable from Columbus 
to the gulf of Mexico during eight months of 
the year ; and from the end of October to the 
1st of July its waters are traversed by numer- 
ous steamboats laden with cotton. Opposite 
Columbus the river rushes over huge, rugged 
rocks, forming rapids, valuable for the excel- 
lent water power which they furnish, and in 
the improvement of which large sums of money 
have been expended. A dam 500 ft. long has 
been constructed at this point. A handsome 
bridge connects the city with Girard village, 
Alabama. Columbus is regularly laid out, 
with streets from 99 to 165 ft. wide. The 
principal public buildings are the court house, 
Presbyterian church, temperance hall, bank of 
Columbus, and two hotels. Three flour and 
grist mills are in operation, consuming annually 
100,000 bushels of wheat and 60,000 of Indian 
corn. There are two banks, with $150,000 
capital, and eight public schools, with 14 
teachers and 545 pupils. Two daily and two 
weekly newspapers are published. The South- 
western (Georgia), the Mobile and Girard, and 
the Western (Alabama) railroads meet here. 
Columbus was laid out in 1828. 

COLUMBUS, a city and the capital of Lowndes 
co., Mississippi, on the left bank of the Tom- 
bigbee river, which is navigable at all seasons, 
25 m. S. of Aberdeen, and 132 m. N. E. of 
Jackson; pop. in 1870, 4,812, of whom 2,738 
were colored. It has regular steamboat com- 
munication with Mobile. A branch railroad 
extends to Artesia on the Mobile and Ohio 
railroad. It is situated in a fertile region, and 



is the shipping place of large quantities of cot- 
ton. One tri-weekly and four weekly news- 
papers and a monthly are published. It con- 
tains a handsome court house, a United States 
land office, several churches, and a bank with 
$300,000 capital. 

COLUMBUS, a town of Hickman co., Ken- 
tucky, on the Mississippi, 18 m. below Cairo, 
111. ; pop. in 1870, 1,574, of whom 761 were 
colored. It is situated on the S. slope of a 
high bluff commanding the river for about 5 m. 
There is some trade in lumber. A weekly 
newspaper is published. The Mobile and Ohio 
railroad connects here by ferry with the St. 
Louis and Iron Mountain line. Columbus was 
strongly fortified by the confederates, who 
occupied it Sept. 4, 1861. They regarded it as 
the northern key to the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, and had in the town and its vicinity 
about 30,000 men. After the capture of 
Forts Henry and Donelson by the federal 
troops in February, 1862, Columbus was aban- 
doned by the confederate forces, March 2. 

COLUMBUS, a city and the capital of Ohio, 
seat of justice of Franklin co., built mostly on 
the E. bank of the Scioto, just below the mouth 
of the Olentangy, in the centre of the state, 
100 m. K E. of Cincinnati. It lies in lat. 39 
57' K, Ion. 83 3' W., on the great alluvial 
plain which stretches from the E. part of Ohio 
to the Mississippi river, and has therefore no 
great natural features of mountain, lake, or 
sea to make it remarkable. Its growth and 
wealth are largely due to the concentration of 
the state institutions and the liberal expendi- 
ture of public money, together with the nat- 
ural advantage of a rich country. Its popula- 
tion has been as follows : in 1820, 1,400 ; 1830, 
2,437; 1840, 6,487; 1850, 17,882; 1860, 18,- 
554; 1870, 31,274, of whom 7,611 were for- 
eign born, and 1,897 colored. The streets are 
very wide, and are regularly laid out in squares. 
Broad street is 120 ft. wide for more than two 
miles, and is beautifully shaded with maple 
and elm trees. Many of the handsomest resi- 
dences are in this street. High street, the 
principal business thoroughfare, is 100 ft. wide. 
Capitol square, which is beautifully laid out 
and surrounded with elms, occupies the square 
of 10 acres between High and Third and 
Broad and State streets, in the centre of the 
city. In it an artesian well has been sunk to 
a great depth. Goodale park, presented to 
the city by Dr. Lincoln Goodale, is at the N. 
end of the city, and contains about 40 acres of 
native forest, which has been improved. City 
park, at the S. end of the city, is similar in all 
respects to Goodale park. The grounds of the 
Franklin co. agricultural society, 83 acres in 
extent, on the E. border, are the finest in the 
state. The gardens of the Columbus horticul- 
tural society occupy 10 acres, in the vicinity 
of the agricultural grounds. Of the five ceme- 
teries the most beautiful is Green Lawn. The 
most interesting feature of Columbus to the 
stranger is its numerous and important public 



124 



COLUMBUS 



buildings and institutions. In this it is not ex- 
celled by any city in the United States except 
Washington, and much surpasses any other 
town of the Ohio valley. The state has con- 
centrated here nearly all the public buildings 
devoted to its business, benevolence, or justice. 
The most conspicuous among these are the 
capitol, the penitentiary, the lunatic asylum, 
the deaf and dumb asylum, and the blind asy- 
lum. These are all on a large and liberal 
scale. The capitol is one of the largest in the 
United States. It is 304 ft. long and 184 in 
width, and covers 65,936 square feet. The 
rotunda is 157 ft. high and 64 ft. in diameter. 
The building is in the Doric order, of fine gray 
limestone, approaching marble in its texture 
and appearance, and is perhaps as fine a speci- 
men of architecture as can be found in this 
country. The interior is elegantly finished. 
The hall of the house of representatives is 84 
ft. long by 72 ft. wide. The senate chamber 
is 56 by 72. There are rooms for all the 
state officers, besides 26 committee rooms. All 
the arrangements for heat, light, -water, and 
grounds, are planned with the utmost improve- 
ment which modern skill has been able to in- 
vent. The penitentiary is another striking 
building. It is of hewn limestone, and with 
its yards and shops covers six acres of ground 
on the E. bank of the Scioto. Its entire front 
is 456 ft, the centre being 56 ft.*, containing 
the warden's house and offices, with two wings, 
each 200 ft. front and three stories high. 
These wings each contain 350 cells for prison- 
ers, arranged in five tiers, and isolated from 
the main wall of the building by open galleries. 
The central Ohio lunatic asylum was burned 
in 1868. In 1870 a new series of buildings was 
commenced on 300 acres of elevated ground 
W. of the city. These buildings will be in the 
Franco-Italian style, with a frontage of about 
1,200 ft., depth 300 ft., centre tower 165 ft. 
high, and a capacity for 600 patients. The 
asylum for idiots, a plain Gothic structure, 272 
by 198 ft., occupies grounds 123 acres in ex- 
tent, adjoining those of the lunatic asylum. 
The new blind asylum in the E. part of the 
city, on the grounds of the old one, will be a 
stone structure, 340 by 270 ft., in the Gothic 
style of the Tudor period. The deaf and dumb 
asylum, centrally situated on large and hand- 
some grounds in Town street, is built in the 
Franco-Italian style. There is a large and 
well built state arsenal. The United States 
arsenal, situated on extensive and handsome 
grounds, beautifully wooded, in the N. E. sub- 
urb of the city, comprises, besides an immense 
central structure, numerous other buildings, 
used for offices, quarters, storehouses, &c. The 
city hall, on the S. side of State street, is a 
Gothic building, 187 by 80 ft., with a central 
tower 138 ft. high. The high school building 
is a fine specimen of the simple Norman or 
church style of architecture. The Holly wa- 
ter works occupy a building 132 by 98 ft., 
near the junction of the Scioto and Olentangy 






rivers, and are abundantly supplied with ma- 
chinery. The county buildings are the court 
house and a poorhouse, or county infirmary. 
There are also a fine opera house and a new 
odd fellows' building. Columbus has great 
advantages for internal commerce. It is situ- 
ated on a branch of the Ohio canal, at the inter- 
section of the following railroads : Cleveland, 
Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis; Cen- 
tral Ohio; Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. 
Louis; Little Miami; Columbus and Xenia; 
Columbus, Chicago, and Indiana Central; 
Cleveland, Mt. Yernon, and Delaware; Co- 
lumbus and Hocking Valley. The last named 
road, opened in 1870, penetrates a very rich 
iron and coal region, and has given a gre* 
impetus to the business interests of the city. 
There are several lines of street railroad. Tl 
manufactures are important, the principal 
tablishments being 7 founderies, 7 breweries, 
10 machine shops, 8 planing mills, 7 tanning 
and currying establishments, 2 manufactories 
of agricultural implements, 3 of boilers, 
of brushes, 3 of cars and car wheels, 17 ol 
carriages, 7 of chairs, 3 of edge tools, 2 of 
files, several of furniture, 8 of hair work, 3 of 
lard oil, 3 of lime, 1 of paper, 3 of ploughs, 
of pumps, 14 of saddlery and harness, 2 of soap, 
1 of tools, 1 of wire work, 6 flour mills, 6 book 
binderies and blank book manufactories, 2 bli 
furnaces, 1 manufactory of bolts and nuts, 
of boots and shoes, 1 of rope, 1 of saws, 3 
silver plating, and 2 rolling mills. There 
24 hotels, 3 national banks, with an ag 
capital of $650,000, 2 state banks, and 5 insu- 
rance companies, of which one is a life insurance 
association. The city is divided into 9 wards, 
and is governed by a mayor and a common 
council of 17 members. The fire department 
is under the control of a chief engineer. There 
are 3 steam engines, a hook and ladder com- 
pany, and 11 fire alarm boxes. In 1870 the 
penitentiary contained 1,053 prisoners and 7S 
officers and employees; the lunatic asylum, 
320 patients ; idiot asylum, 232 ; blind asylum, 
193 patients and 30 employees and officers; 
and the deaf and dumb asylum, 266 inmat 
and 15 instructors. There are also several 
hospitals and orphan asylums. A convent of 
the sisters of the Good Shepherd has been 
established at Franklin, in the neighborhood. 
The board of education consists of a president, 
secretary, and one member from each ward. 
In 1871 there were two high schools, with 19 
teachers and 621 pupils; and seven evening 
schools, with 43 teachers and 1,241 pupils, 
The other schools (grammar and primary) had 
102 teachers and 4,003 pupils. The total ex- 
penditure on account of schools for the year 
was $121,255 27, of which $53,158 35 were for 
sites and buildings, and $53,759 92 for teach- 
ers' wages. The Koman Catholics have foui 
parish schools, with an average attendance of 
1,020, and several academies and seminaries. 
Other educational institutions are Capitol uni- 
versity (Lutheran), and Starling medical col- 



COLUMBUS 



125 



lege, which in 1871 had 10 professors and 42 
students. The Ohio agricultural and mechan- 
ical college, endowed with the congressional 
land grant, was opened in September, 1873. 
The state library contains over 36,000 volumes. 
There are two musical societies, two daily 
newspapers, four tri- weekly (one German), five 
weekly, and four monthly periodicals (two 
German). One of the weeklies, "The Mute's 
Chronicle," is published by the institution for 
the deaf and dumb. The churches, 44 in num- 
ber, are as follows : 4 Baptist (one for colored 
people), 4 Congregational, 1 Disciples, 3 Epis- 
copal, 2 Evangelical Association, 1 Friends, 
1 Independent Protestant, 1 Jewish, 4 Luther- 
an (1 German), 9 Methodist, 5 Presbyterian, 
4 Roman Catholic, 4 United Brethren, and 1 
Universalist. Columbus was laid out in 1812 ; 
it was incorporated as a borough in 1816, and 
as a city in 1834. It became the seat of the 
state government in 1816, and was made the 
county seat in 1824. 

COLUMBUS. I. Christopher, the discoverer of 
America, born in Genoa, Italy, died in Valla- 
dolid, Spain, May 20, 1506. The time of his 
birth is uncertain. The earliest date given 
(1430), derived from a statement of Eamusio, 
is irreconcilable with admitted facts, and must 
be set aside. Peschel has recently endeavored 
to show that he was born in 1456, the ultimate 
evidence for which is a letter of Columbus, 
dated in 1503, stating that he was then 48 
years of age. This is so much at variance with 
admitted facts that it seems probable that there 
is an error in writing (48 for 58, or even 68). 
Between 1435 and 1449 there is hardly a year 
which has not been fixed upon by different au- 
thors. Beroaldez, whose intimate connection 
with Columbus gives special weight to his 
statement, says that he died "at the age of 70 
years (setenta, afros), a little more or less." 
This would fix the date at 1435 or 1436, which 
has been generally accepted. But D'Avezac 
has recently argued that instead of 70 (setenta) 
years should be read 60 (sesenta), and presents 
plausible reasons for the alteration. This 
would give the date of his birth at 1445 or 
1446. Either date, 1435-'36, or 1445-'6, is 
reconcilable with ascertained data. According 
to the custom of the time, he f Latinized his 
name of Cristoforo Colombo into Columbus, 
and when he went to Spain adopted the 
Spanish form of it, Cristobal Colon.- He was 
the eldest son of Domenico Colombo, a wool 
comber, and Susanna Fontanarossa. They had 
two other sons, Bartolommeo and Giacomo 
(the latter called in Spain Diego), and a 
daughter. Columbus having early evinced a 
decided inclination for the sea, his education 
was mainly directed to fit him for maritime 
life. Besides the ordinary branches, he was 
instructed in Latin, and made some proficiency 
in drawing. For a short time he was sent to 
the university of Pavia, where he studied 
geometry, geography, astronomy, and naviga- 
tion. He then returned to Genoa, and assisted 



his father hi his trade of wool-combing. When 
about 14 years of age he began his nautical 
career with a distant relative of the same name, 
an admiral in the Genoese service. Little is 
known of Columbus during the many years he 
spent at sea. He is supposed to have served 
in the naval expedition fitted out in Genoa in 
1459 by John of Anjou, duke of Calabria, to 
make a descent upon Naples in the hope of 
recovering that kingdom for his father, King 
Ren6; but he appears to have been princi- 
pally engaged in commercial voyages on the 
Mediterranean and up the Levant. About 
1470 he went to Lisbon, where he supported 
himself by making maps and charts. He 
also sailed occasionally in the expeditions to 
the coast of Guinea. Soon after he had 
settled at Lisbon he married Dona Felipa, 
daughter of Bartolommeo Monis de Perestrello, 
an Italian cavalier, lately deceased, who had 
been one of the most distinguished navigators 
under Prince Henry, and had colonized and 
governed tlje island of Porto Santo. Colum- 
bus now resided for some time on that island, 
where his wife had inherited some property, 
and where his son Diego was born. Here he 
studied the papers, charts, and journals which 
had been left by his father-in-law ; and here 
he was brought into association with persons 
interested in maritime discovery, among wnom 
was Pedro Correo, a navigator of note, who 
had married the sister of the wife of Columbus. 
Columbus determined upon sailing west, not to 
discover a new continent, but to reach India 
by a new route ; and his confidence in the 
practicability of this project was greatly en- 
hanced by the recent application of the astro- 
labe to navigation. His theory, according to 
his son Fernando, was founded upon the nature 
of things, the authority of learned writers, and 
the reports of navigators. He set down as a 
fundamental axiom that the earth was a terra- 
queous sphere or globe, the circumference of 
which from east to west at the equator he 
divided into 24 hours of 15 degrees each, ma- 
king 360 degrees. Comparing the globe of Ptol- 
emy with the earliest map of Marinus of Tyre, 
he concluded that 15 hours had been known to 
the ancients, extending from the Canary islands 
to the city of Thinse in Asia ; and that the Por- 
tuguese had advanced the western frontier one 
hour more, by the discovery of the Azores and 
the Cape Verd islands ; leaving 8 hours, or one 
third of the circumference of the earth, un- 
known and unexplored. This space might in 
a great measure be occupied by the eastern 
regions of Asia ; and by pursuing a direct 
course from east to west through the interve- 
ning ocean, a navigator would arrive at the ex- 
tremity of that country. This supposition was 
corroborated by the narratives of Marco Polo 
and John Mandeville, who in the 13th and 14th 
centuries had visited the remote parts of Asia, 
far beyond the regions laid down by Ptolemy ; 
and also by the opinion of Strabo, who be- 
lieved that the earth was surrounded by the 



126 



COLUMBUS 



ocean which washed India on the east and 
Spain and Mauritania on the west. Moreover, 
various indications of land in the west had 
heen -found. A Portuguese pilot had taken 
from the water, 450 leagues west of Portugal, 
a piece of curiously carved wood, while a simi- 
lar piece which had drifted from the same 
quarter was seen on the island of Porto Santo. 
Canes of tropical growth had heen washed on 
the Madeiras, huge pine trees on the Azores, 
and even two drowned men, of appearance un- 
like Europeans, had been found on the island 
of Flores all from the west. The precise time 
when Columbus first conceived the design of 
seeking a western route to India cannot be 
determined; but in the summer of 1474 he 
opened a correspondence upon this subject 
with Paulo Toscanelli, a learned cosmographer 
of Florence, who had already, in a letter to 
Alfonso V. of Portugal, expressed his views 
on a western passage to India. In reply to 
Columbus he said : "I praise your desire to 
navigate toward the west; the expedition you 
wish to undertake is not easy, but the route 
from the- west coasts of Europe to the spice In- 
dies is certain, if the tracks I have marked be 
followed." He also sent him a map projected 
partly according to Ptolemy and partly accord- 
ing to the descriptions of Marco Polo. On 
this map Asia was laid down in front of the 
western coasts of Africa and Europe, with a 
moderate space of ocean between them, in 
which were placed Cipango (supposed to be 
Japan), Antilla, and other islands. This map, 
by which Columbus sailed upon his first voyage 
of discovery, has been lost. In 1477 he made 
a voyage, apparently of exploration, to the 
northwest, 100 leagues beyond " the island of 
Thule," supposed to have been Iceland, into 
lat. 73, where he was astonished to find the 
sea not frozen. Next he is reported to have 
visited the Portuguese settlement of San Jorge 
da Mina, on the coast of Guinea. It is asserted 
that Columbus first applied for aid in his under- 
taking to his native country, Genoa, but with- 
out success ; and he is supposed to have vainly 
solicited the patronage of Portugal before the 
death of Alfonso. But the first application for 
royal patronage of which there is any clear 
and indisputable record was made to John II., 
who ascended the throne of Portugal in 1481. 
This monarch had imbibed the passion for dis- 
covery from his grand-uncle Prince Henry, and 
with his reign all its activity revived. King 
John seems to have received the proposition 
with favor, and referred it to a learned body 
charged with all matters relating to maritime 
discovery, and subsequently to a council com- 
posed of prelates and persons of the greatest 
learning in the kingdom, both of which treat- 
ed the project as extravagant and visionary. 
Meantime he sent a caravel with the ostensible 
design of carrying provisions to the Cape Verd 
islands, but with secret instructions to pursue 
the route indicated by Columbus. After cruis- 
ing for several days the caravel returned with 






the report that no indications of land had been 
seen. The king was not yet inclined to aban- 
don the project, but Columbus, who had lost 
his wife and was now reduced to poverty, de- 
termined to abandon Portugal and seek else- 
where for # patronage. Accordingly, with his 
son Diego, he left Lisbon for Spain toward the 
end of 1484, secretly, lest his departure should 
be prevented by King John, or, as some have 
asserted, by his creditors. He had already en- 
gaged his brother Bartolommeo to apply for 
aid to the king of England, though he does not 
appear to have entertained great hope from 
that quarter. It is said that Columbus 
leaving Portugal made proposals to the govern- 
ment of Genoa for the second time, and al 
to Venice, which were declined. In 1485 
was in the south of Spain, where he endeavor 
to interest the dukes of Medina Sidonia ai 
Medina Celi. The latter recommended th< 
project to Queen Isabella, who requested tht 
Columbus might be sent to her. Having 
rived at Cordova, and while waiting for 
opportunity to appear at court, Columbus 
came attached to Dona Beatriz Enriquez, 
whom he had a son, Fernando, born in 1487, 
who became the historian of his father, 
lumbus followed the court to Salamanca, whei 
he was introduced to the king by Pedro G( 
zalez de Mendoza, grand cardinal of Spaii 
the most important personage about the court 
Ferdinand heard him without disfavor, and 
ferred the matter to a council of learned mei 
mostly ecclesiastics, under the presidency 
the confessor of the queen. The conferenc< 
assembled in the Dominican convent of Sai 
Estevan at Salamanca, but, instead of investi- 
gating the project on scientific grounds, cont 
verted it by Scriptural texts ; and it was n( 
till 1491, after many renewed applications, tin 
the commission reported "the project in qu< 
tion vain and impossible, and not becomii 
great princes to engage in on such slendt 
grounds as had been adduced." Columbi 
however, appears, during the seven years h< 
attended the court, to have experienced per 
sonally the favor of the king and queen, and 
have had frequent communication with thei 
although the king at least could not be brought 
to believe in his wonderful projects. The Spi 
ish sovereigns were during this period engag 
in the war against the Moors of Granada, ar 
Columbus seems to have borne arms as a vol- 
unteer. A passage in Diego Ortiz's " Ai 
of Seville " incidentally mentions his bravery. 
Records are also extant of his having been pr< 
vided with free quarters at the king's char 
with pay equal to his personal expenses. Du 
ring this period of hope deferred, Columbus sm 
tained himself with undiminished confidem 
Endued with a poetic temperament, the augi 
ries he sought for in the mystic language of th< 
Scriptures gave a bias to his mind, which 
his later years amounted almost to delusior 
He sought in prophecy for assurance that th< 
time had come when Christianity should 



COLUMBUS 



127 



extended to the ends of the earth, and came to 
regard himself as the destined instrument of 
Heaven for that end. While in this frame, and 
assisting at the siege of Baza, in December, 
1489, two pilgrims having brought to the camp 
the threat of the sultan of Egypt to raze the 
tomb of Christ, Columbus registered a vow to 
devote the proceeds of his discoveries to rescue 
the holy sepulchre. In 1488 he received a 
letter from John II. of Portugal, inviting him 
to return. Henry VII. of England also invited 
him by letter to that country, and held out 
promises of encouragement. In 1491 he set 
out to lay his project before Charles VIII. 
of France, who had also written to him. On 
his way he stopped at the gate of the Fran- 
ciscan monastery of La Eabida, near the sea- 
port of Palos de Moguer in Andalusia, and 
asked for some bread and water for his boy. 
The prior of the convent, Juan Perez de Mar- 
chena, became greatly interested by the con- 
versation of Columbus, and detained him as 
his guest. The mariners of Patos were then 
the most enterprising of Spain, and Juan Perez, 
himself a learned man, took much interest in 
their adventures. Dazzled by the stupendous 
projects described to him, but distrusting his 
own judgment, the worthy prior consulted with 
his friend Garcia Fernandez, physician of the 
village, and also with Alonso Pinzon, an ex- 
perienced navigator of Palos. Pinzon was en- 
thusiastic, and- offered not only to advance 
money, but to command a ship. Perez had 
been the queen's confessor, and presuming on 
this sacred relation, he wrote a letter to Isa- 
bella, which he sent by the hands of Sebastian 
Rodriguez, an influential navigator of Palos, 
beseeching her to grant him an interview. 
Receiving a favorable reply, the prior mounted 
his mule at midnight, and rode to the camp at 
Santa Fe, where the king and queen were, and 
procured for Columbus an opportunity to ex- 
plain his views personally. Isabella, on ap- 
pointing an interview, considerately sent Co- 
lumbus 20,000 maravedis (about $216), to put 
himself in condition to appear at court. Co-- 
lumbus related his story before the king and 
queen ; but the terms upon which he insisted 
were characterized as exorbitant and ridiculous 
by the queen's confessor, Fernando de Talavera, 
archbishop of Granada, who had been appoint- 
ed one of the negotiators ; they were accord- 
ingly rejected. Columbus had left the royal 
presence, and was already two leagues from 
Granada on his way to Cordova, whence he 
intended to depart for France, when a messen- 
ger from the queen summoned him to return to 
Santa Fe. The brief space of time that had 
intervened gave to Spain the empire of the new 
world. When Columbus left the queen's pres- 
ence, Juan Perez, Alonso de Quintanilla, Luis 
de San Angel, receiver of ecclesiastical revenues 
of Aragon, and the lady Beatriz, marchioness 
of Moya, remonstrated. Ferdinand coldly sig- 
nified that the exchequer was empty. Isabella 
exclaimed, " I undertake the enterprise for my 
214 VOL. v. 9 



own crown of Castile, and will pledge my 
jewels to raise the necessary funds." The 
necessity of raising money by this means was 
obviated by San Angel offering to advance the 
funds on behalf of the crown of Castile, and 
17,000 florins were advanced out of the treas- 
ury of Ferdinand. Accordingly, Columbus on 
his return had but to join their majesties in 
signing the agreement, on his own terms, as 
drawn up by Juan de Colonna, the royal secre- 
tary. This document, signed at Santa Fe, 
April 17, 1492, contained five articles: 1, that 
Columbus and his heirs male for ever should 
have the office of admiral over all lands he 
might discover, with honors equal to those of 
the grand admiral of Castile in his jurisdiction ; 
2, that he should be viceroy and governor 
general, with right to name governors for the 
sovereigns' approval ; 3, that he should receive 
one tenth of the net value of all pearls, precious 
stones, gold, silver, spices, and merchandise 
obtained within his jurisdiction ; 4, that he and 
his lieutenants should be the sole judges in all 
disputes that might arise between his jurisdic- 
tion and Spain; and 5, that he might at any 
time advance one eighth in any venture, and 
receive a corresponding share of the profits. 
A letter of privilege also permitted Columbus 
to take the title of don. The royal documents 
were signed both by Ferdinand and Isabella, 
but her separate crown of Castile defrayed all 
the expense ; and during her life few persons 
except Castilians were permitted to establish 
themselves in the new territories. On May 8 
young Diego was appointed page to Prince 
John, the heir apparent, and on May 12 Co- 
lumbus took leave of the king and queen to 
superintend the fitting out of the expedition at 
Palos. He, with the aid of Perez and the 
brothers Pinzon, contributed an eighth of the 
expense. Trouble was found in procuring 
crews. Some were induced to join by four 
months' pay in advance, and by a decree that 
volunteers should be free from arrest for two 
months after their return. The complement 
was made up by impressment. Three ships, 
the Santa Maria, a decked vessel, and two 
caravels, or undecked boats, the Pinta and 
Nina, were fitted out. The Santa Maria was 
of 90 ft. keel and had four masts, of which two 
were square-rigged, and two fitted with lateen 
sails. It was decked from stem to stern, having 
besides a poop 26 ft. in length, beneath which 
was the armament of heavy guns, with small 
pieces forward, for throwing stones and grape. 
It was provided with eight anchors and carried 
66 seamen. The other two vessels were of 
small size, which was considered an advantage 
for exploring rivers and coasts. Columbus 
commanded the Santa Maria ; Martin Alonso 
Pinzon, having his second brother, Francisco 
Martin, for pilot, the Pinta; and the third 
brother, Vicente Yanez Pinzon, the Nina. 
Three other pilots were attached to the ex- 
pedition, namely : Sancho Ruiz, Pedro Alonso 
Nino, and Bartolom6 Roldan. Rodriguez San- 



128 



COLUMBUS 



chez was inspector general of the fleet ; Diego 
de Arana, principal alguazil ; Kodrigo de Esco- 
bar, royal notary. There were also a surgeon, 
a physician, some few adventurers, and 90 sea- 
men ; in all, 120 souls. There were provisions 
for one year. Before leaving, Columbus, with 
most of his officers and crew, confessed to Juan 
Perez, and received the sacrament ; and from 
the roads of Saltez, near Palos, on Friday 
morning, Aug. 3, 1492, they set sail on their 
expedition. They reached the Canaries with- 
out incident, except an accident to the Pinta's 
rudder, but hastened their departure from 
those islands, Sept. 6, on learning that a 
Portuguese fleet of three frigates was near, 
which the admiral was apprehensive might 
have been sent to intercept him. When night 
fell, and they lost sight of the last land on the 
ma'rgin of the sea of darkness, the full measure 
of their hardihood burst on the adventurers. 
Many wept, and declared they should never re- 
turn. Columbus calmed their fears, and ex- 
cited their cupidity by picturing the gorgeous 
regions of the east, drawing for descriptions on 
his imagination of Cathay. 'After leaving the 
Canaries the winds were light and baffling, but 
always from the east. On Sept. 11 they saw 
floating a tree, or mast, as of a vessel of 120 
tons. On the afternoon of the 13th Columbus 
was startled to find a variance of the needle, 
which no longer pointed to the pole. The 
crew becoming alarmed, he invented a plausible 
theory about the attraction of the polar star, 
which quieted the pilots' fears. He also took 
observations of the sun evefry day with an as- 
trolabe, and kept two logs, one correct for 
himself, and the other, showing a smaller pro- 
gress, for his crew, thus keeping them in igno- 
rance of the great distance they were from 
Spain. As they advanced, the oldest sailors 
were deceived by frequent indications of land. 
On the night of the 15th a meteor fell within 
five lengths of the admiral's ship. On the 16th 
the ships entered into the region of the trade 
winds. "This day, and all the following," 
says Columbus, " the air was so mild that it 
wanted but the song of nightingales to make it 
like the month of April in Andalusia." The 
same day they came into the sea of seaweed, 
yet known as the Sargasso sea; and on the 18th 
Martin Alonso, who had been ahead in the 
Pinta, assured Columbus that, from indications, 
they would see the land next day. The 19th 
was calm ; they sounded, and found no bottom 
at 200 fathoms. On the 20th a change of wind 
to the S. W. cheered the crews with the belief 
that they were not urged forward by an ever- 
blowing east wind, against which it would be 
impossible to return. On the 23d was a storm, 
during which the crews insisted that the ad- 
miral should tempt Providence no further. On 
the 25th the wind became favorable. Colum- 
bus was studying a chart in his cabin, when 
Martin Pinzon cried " Land ! " pointing to the 
S. W., where a dark mass was visible at the 
apparent distance of 25 leagues. The Gloria 






in excelsis was sung in all the ships, and the 
course was altered, only to find on the morrow 
that they had mistaken a cloud for the shore. 
For several days they sailed due west with a 
favoring breeze. On Oct. 1 Columbus estima- 
ted that he was 707 leagues from the Azores, 
and that in 40 more he would make some part 
of Asia. On the Yth the Nina gave the signal 
for land ; but this was again an illusion. The 
crews had long been in a state of mutiny, 
often despairing, at other times turbulent, and 
even plotting to throw the admiral overboard. 
Columbus never swerved. Impressed by the 
one great idea of Asia to the westward, he re- 
fused to turn from the course, not even in 
search of islands which the pilots imagined to 
be near. During the 8th, 9th, and 10th they 
sailed W. S. W., following the flight of birds. 
On the llth the Pinta picked up a piece of 
wood rudely carved, and the Nina a branch of 
thorn, with red berries. As night set in, th< 
course was again changed due west. Af 
evening prayer the admiral ordered a double 
watch to be set, and promised a silken doublet, 
in addition to the 10,000 maravedis guaranteed 
by the Crown, to him who should first see the. 
land. At 10 o'clock P. M. Columbus was 
seated on his deck, gazing wistfully seaward, 
when he saw a light. He called to Pedro 
Gutierrez, who also saw it, but Rodriguez San- 
chez did not. No one slept that night. At 
o'clock A. M. of Friday, Oct. 12, 1492, after 
having been 71 days at sea, the Pinta fired a 
gun, the signal for land. Rodrigo Triana, a 
sailor of the Pinta, was the first who saw the 
new world ; but the reward was afterward ad- 
judged to Columbus, for having previously 
perceived the light. When morning dawned 
a wooded island was seen about two leagues 
distant, with crowds of natives running along 
the beach. At sunrise, the boats being low- 
ered, Columbus with the royal standard of 
Castile, and the brothers Pinzon bearing each 
a flag with a green cross, were rowed to th< 
shore. Columbus first stepped on the beach. 
All knelt down, kissing the ground with tears 
and thanks to God. Then rising and drawing 
his sword, Columbus, as grand admiral and 
viceroy, unfurled the royal banner, took pos- 
session in the name of the crown of Castile, 
and named the island (one of the Bahama 
group) San Salvador. The astonished natives 
gazed in silence at their visitors, whom they 
imagined to be gods come down from heaven. 
Presents were exchanged of toys and trinkets 
for cotton yarn and cassava bread. Some of 
the natives, who wore ornaments of gold, on 
being interrogated whence the metal came, in- 
dicated by gestures a country in the south, 
whereon Columbus carried off seven of them 
and set out in search of this auriferous region, 
which he supposed to be Cipango. In the 
search, which proved fruitless as far as golc 
was concerned, he discovered the islands of 
Conception, Exuma, Isla Larga, and Cuba. 
The last he at first thought was the Cipango he 



COLUMBUS 



129 



sought, but afterward concluded it was the 
mainland of India. He also discovered Hayti, 
which he thought was the Ophir of Solomon, 
but which he called Hispaniola, or Little Spain. 
On the bay, since called bay of Caracola, of 
this island, he built a fort with the timbers of 
the Santa Maria, and leaving in it 39 men, 
sailed on Jan 4, 1493, for Spain, taking with 
him several natives in the Nina, Martin Pinzon 
having already gone in search of gold on his 
own account in the Pinta. During the voyage 
a storm threatened the Nina with destruction. 
Columbus, fearful lest the knowledge of his 
discovery should perish, prepared a written 
statement of it, and heading it up in a cask 
committed it to the deep. On March 15, 1493, 
the ship reached the port of Palos, having a 
few days before been driven by storm into the 
Tagus, where he was favorably entertained by 
King John. The Spanish sovereigns, then at 
Barcelona, received him with great relaxation 
of court etiquette, ordered him to relate his 
adventures seated in their presence, confirmed 
all the dignities previously bestowed, and 
placed him in command of a fleet of IV ships 
and 1,500 men, to prosecute the discovery. 
With this fleet he sailed from Cadiz, Sept. 25, 
1493. From this day his good fortune forsook 
him. Many of those who sailed with him were 
adventurers in search of gold. Mutinies and 
quarrels broke out, and many of those who 
expected to find fortunes, but met nothing 
but disappointment, threw the blame on the 
admiral. Having discovered the Windward 
islands, Jamaica, and Porto Eico, and founded 
a colony in Hispaniola, of which he left his 
brother Bartolommeo adelantado^ or lieutenant 
governor, he returned home against the trade 
winds, and reached Cadiz June 11, 1496. He 
was successful in clearing himself of the clamor 
against him. On some courtiers depreciating 
the value of his discovery, he invited them to 
make an egg stand on end. When they had 
exhausted their efforts to accomplish the feat, 
Columbus struck the egg on the table, break- 
ing the shell, and thus left it upright. " Any 
one can do that !" cried the courtiers. " When 
I have shown you the way," replied Columbus, 
leaving them to make the application. Colum- 
bus sailed on his third voyage to the new 
world, May 30, 1498, from San Lucar de Bar- 
rameda, with six ships. On this occasion he 
kept further to the south, discovering the 
mouth of the Orinoco, which he imagined was 
the great river Gihon, having its rise in the 
garden of Eden ; also the coast of Para, and the 
islands of Trinidad, Margarita, and Cubaqua; 
then he bore away to Hispaniola, there to 
recruit his enfeebled health. He found the 
colony disorganized, and in his efforts to re- 
store it became again the victim of malice and 
misrepresentation. A commissioner, Francisco 
de Bobadilla, was sent from Spain ostensibly 
to inquire into the difficulties. His -first act 
was to put Columbus and his brother in chains, 
and send them to Spain. The account given 



of this indignity is touching. " Are you taking 
me to death, Vallejo?" inquired Columbus 
sadly, when that officer came to lead him from 
his cell. " Your excellency is to be conducted 
to Spain," replied the officer, whereupon the 
admiral relapsed into silence. The officers of 
the ship offering to liberate him from his fet- 
ters, he replied proudly that the chains had 
been put upon him by authority of their ma- 
jesties, and he added, "I will wear them until 
they shall order them to be taken off, and I 
will preserve them afterward as relics and me- 
morials of the reward of my services." The 
indignation expressed throughout Spain at this 
outrage caused the king to disclaim having au- 
thorized it ; but it is evident that the nobles 
were jealous of the superior rank of the ad- 
miral, and the king dissatisfied with the un- 
productiveness of the new countries. After 
nine months' polite evasion of his entreaties for 
redress, Ferdinand appointed Nicolas Ovando 
governor of Hispaniola in his stead. Bobadilla 
had meantime been recalled, and was drowned 
on the way. The only subsequent employment 
of Columbus, now old, was the command of 
four caravels with 150 men, to search for a 
passage through the sea now known as the 
gulf of Mexico to the East Indies. He sailed 
from Cadiz, May 9, 1502 ; was refused permis- 
sion to refit at his own colony, tHispaniola; 
coasted the south side of the gulf of Mexico ; 
and after much suffering from famine and 
hardship returned home, reaching San Lncar 
Nov. 7, 1504. He lay sick some months at 
Seville, and recovered only to have his claims 
for redress finally rejected by the king, Queen 
Isabella being now dead. An old man, broken 
in body, although in full possession of his men- 
tal faculties, having, in his own words, "no 
place to repair to except an inn, and often with 
nothing to pay for his sustenance," the dis- 
coverer of the new world died, in the act of 
repeating the words, in Latin : " Lord, into thy 
hands I commit my spirit." Seven years af- 
terward a marble tomb was placed over his re- 
mains, with an inscription ordered by the king: 

A Castillo, y A Leon 
Nu&co mundo did Colon. 

("To Castile and Leon a new world gave 
Colon.") Death did not end his voyages. His 
remains, first deposited in the convent of St. 
Francis, were transferred in 1513 to the Car- 
thusian monastery of Las Cuevas ; were taken 
in 1536 to Santo Domingo, and deposited in 
the cathedral of that city ; thence were con- 
veyed with great pomp in 1796 to the cathe- 
dral of Havana, where they now repose. The 
character of Columbus is impressed on his life : 
lofty, daring, and ambitious in design, indomi- 
table in conduct, moderate in success, unde- 
pressed in adversity, and in all imbued with a 
spirit of devotion. In person he was above 
the middle height, his countenance oval, with 
aquiline nose, bluish gray eyes, and fresh com- 
plexion. His hair had been auburn in youth, 



130 



COLUMBUS 



COLWELL 



but whitened early. The nobleness of his 
bearing commanded respect. He spoke fluently, 
and his conversation was vivacious, although 
at a later period, when he had been tried by 
misfortune, he says his "speech was abrupt 
and little amiable." In personal habits he 
was temperate, and toward his family enter- 
tained the warmest affection. His sons were 
more fortunate than himself. Diego sued the 
king in the high council of the Indies, and, re- 
covering the viceroyalty of Hispaniola, mar- 
ried Maria de Toledo, niece of the duke of 
Alva. Their eldest son, Luis, exchanged the 
hereditary dignity of admiral for a pension and 
the title of duke of Veragua, marquis of Jamai- 
ca. Luis's eldest daughter married her cousin 
Diego, and died without issue, the male line 
thus becoming extinct. Finally the property 
and titles became in 1608 merged by marriage 
through the female line in a branch of the 
house of Braganca. See Fernando Colon, Eis- 
toria del Almirante Cristoforo Colombo, suo 
padre (Italian translation from the Spanish 
MS., Venice, 1571) ; Navigatio Christophori 
Columbi (Vicenza, 1507) ; Godice diplomatico 
Colombo-Americano (Genoa, 1523) ; Oviedo, 
Historia general de las Indias (1535-'7) ; Her- 
rera, Indias Occidentals (1601); Robertson's 
''History of America" (1777); Bossi, Vita 
di Colombo (Milan, 1818) ; Navarrete, Rela- 
tion de los quatro viajes de Cristobal Colon 
(1825); Washington Irving, "Life and Voy- 
ages of Columbus " (New York, 1828) ; Pres- 
cott, "Ferdinand and Isabella" (Boston, 1838) ; 
Schneidawind, ChristopJi Columbus, Americas 
Entdecker (1843) ; A. Sanguinetti, Vita di C. 
Colombo (1846) ; Roselly de Lorgues, CJiris- 
tophe Colombe, sa meetses voyages (Paris, 1856) ; 
Patria e biografia di Cristoforo Colombo (Ge- 
noa, 1858); Peschel, Ueber das G-eburtsjahr 
des Entdeckers von America (in Das Ausland, 
1866); H. Harrisse, BibliotJieca Americana 
Vetustissima (New York, 1866); D'Avezac, 
Annee veritable de la naissance de Christophe 
Colombe (in the Bulletin de la societe de geo- 
graphic, July, 1872). The complete works 
(Raccolta completa) of Columbus were pub- 
lished by Torre in 1864 (Lyons). II. Barto- 
lommeo, elder brother of the preceding, born in 
Genoa about 1432, died in 1514. In 1470 he 
was established as a mariner and constructor 
of maps at Lisbon, whither many adventu- 
rous navigators had been drawn by royal pa- 
tronage. He is believed to have visited the 
Cape of Good Hope with Bartholomew Diaz. 
It is not known how long he was absent when 
his brother sent him to England to seek the 
aid of Henry VII., but it appears certain that 
Christopher was ignorant of his fate, further 
than that he was captured by pirates. He 
did, however, attain the ear of the English 
monarch, and presented him with a map of 
the world, but it does not appear that he suc- 
ceeded hi procuring English aid. On his re- 
turn through France lie learned that his bro- 
ther had already discovered the new world, 



and had sailed on a second voyage. Hasten- 
ing to the Spanish court, he was received as 
became the brother of the admiral. Queen 
Isabella sent him in command of three store 
ships to the new colony of Hispaniola, where 
Christopher received him with joy, and ap- 
pointed him adelantado or lieutenant governor 
of the Indies. In this position Bartolommeo 
showed great bravery and decision. He shared 
his brother's imprisonment, and with him was 
liberated on reaching Spain, where the Spanish 
monarchs confirmed his title, and gave him the 
lordship of the small island of Mona near Santo 
Domingo, with 200 Indians as his personal body 
guard. The fierce energy of his character, 
however, made them jealous of giving him 
much latitude in affairs. He died childless. 

( OLHIKLLA, Lneins Jmiius Moderates, a R 
man writer on rural affairs, flourished abou 
A. D. 40. He was a native of Gades (Cadiz 
but resided chiefly at Rome. His treatise 
Re Rustica is one of the most valuable wor 
on agriculture which have come down to 
from antiquity. It is divided into 12 books, o 
which the 10th is in verse. The earlier ed 
tions of this work contain also his treati 
De Arboribus, in one book. According to Pliny, 
Columella wrote a work on ancient sacrifi 
for obtaining the fruits of the earth, but this i 
lost. The editio princeps, printed in folio b 
Jenson at Venice, in 1472, and forming 
of a collection of Rei Rusticce Scriptores vari 
is very rare. The most complete edition 
contained in the Scriptores Rei Rustic o 
Schneider (4 vols. 8vo., Leipsic, 1794). 

COLUSA, a N. county of California, bound 
E. by the Sacramento river and W. by t'. 
Coast range of mountains; area, 2,376 sq. m. 
pop. in 1870, 6,165, of whom 271 were Chin 
Several streams rise in the Coast range, b 
sink before reaching the Sacramento ; S 
and Sycamore creeks traverse the count; 
Quicksilver, sulphur, and salt are found. Th 
soil is fertile. The chief productions in 187 
were 701,174 bushels of wheat, 386,468 of 
ley, 11,214 tons of hay, and 1,086,599 Ibs. 
wool. There were 5,905 horses, 2,666 mil 
cows, 19,368 other cattle, 175,963 sheep, an 
33,540 swine. Capital, Colusa. 

COLWELL, Stephen, an American merch 
and author, born in Brooke co., W. Vir 
March 25, 1800, died in Philadelphia, Jan. 1 
1871. He was educated at Jefferson colle 
where he graduated in 1819 ; was admitted 
the bar in 1821, and practised his professi 
for seven years in St. Clairsville, Ohio, 
from 1828 to 1836 in Pittsburgh. He t 
ward became an iron merchant in Philadelphi 
and a manufacturer of iron, first at Weymou 
N. J., and afterward at Conshohocken on 
Schuylkill. He was an active member 
officer of many philanthropic societies, a 
rector of several railroads, a trustee of t 
Presbyterian general assembly, and a commi 
sioner under an act of congress in 1865 " 
inquire and report upon the subject of raisi 






COLZA OIL 

by taxation such revenue as may be necessary 
to supply the wants of the government." He 
had long before made himself known as an 
original thinker and an able writer on political 
economy and other subjects. His principal 
writings, besides articles in reviews and maga- 
zines and reports from the revenue commission, 
are : "Letter on the Removal of the Deposits 
from the United States Bank " (1834) ; " New 
Themes for the Protestant Clergy " (1851) ; 
"Politics for American Christians" (1852); 
"Hints to a Layman" (1853); "The Ways 
and Means of Payment " (1859) ; " The Five 
Cotton States and New York" (1861); 
"Southern Wealth and Northern Profits" 
(1861) ; "The Claims of Labor and their Pre- 
cedence to the Claims of Free Trade " (1861) ; 
"Gold, Banks, and Taxation" (1864); "Fi- 
nancial Suggestions and Remarks" (1867). 
Sec "A Memoir of Stephen Col well," by Hen- 
ry C. Carey (Philadelphia, 1872). 

COLZA OIL. See RAPE, a plant. 

COMA (Gr. Kw/za, lethargy), a condition re- 
sembling profound sleep, in which the activity 
of the sensory ganglia is more or less complete- 
ly suspended. The sensorium consists of the 
ganglionic masses lying along the basis of the 
skull in man, and partly included in the me- 
dulla oblongata, described in the article BKAIN, 
as the tubercula quadrigemina, olfactory lobes, 
corpora striata, and optic thalami, in which 
the nerves of special sense and of common sen- ' 
sation have their central terminations. In com- 
plete coma the activity of these ganglia is sus- 
pended, so that the individual is neither con- 
scious of impressions derived from the organs 
of sense, nor has any perception of self-existence 
from the recognition of cerebral changes ; shut 
off from the external world, and from internal 
sensation, his existence is to all intents and 
purposes a nonentity, a state of psychical anni- 
hilation. In the simpler forms of coma there 
is only a suspension, not a perversion; of the 
cerebral functions ; but in the graver cases the 
accompanying delirium shows an affection of 
the hemispheres. Coma may be produced by 
congestion or haemorrhage in the brain, by any 
abnormal pressure on this organ, by the agency 
of narcotic poisons and alcohol, by exhaustion 
from loss of blood, by concussion of the brain, 
and by action on the blood of various morbid 
products generated within the system. Slight 
coma differs but little from profound sleep; 
the heavy sleep of the drunkard, or that after 
severe and long mental or physical exertion, 
is almost comatose, the person being quite in- 
sensible to ordinary external stimuli ; this con- 
dition cannot be regarded as disease, but as the 
rest required for the regeneration of the body 
by the slow and unobstructed performance of 
the nutritive processes ; so in the coma from 
concussion or deficient supply of blood to the 
brain, the person cannot be aroused from his 
deep sleep without danger of violent and per- 
haps fatal reaction. Medical writers describe 
two varieties or stages of coma : coma vigil, in 



COMANCHE 



131 



which the patient opens his eyes when spoken 
to, instantly shutting them again, with deliri- 
um, muttering, and agitation, as in unnatural 
wakefulness ; and coma wmnolentum, in which, 
after momentary revival, the patient sinks im- 
mediately into an apparently profound sleep ; 
they are simply two different degrees of the 
same affection. 

COMACCHIO, a fortified town of Italy, in the 
province and 28 m. S. E. of the city of Fer- 
rara, 3 m. from the Adriatic ; pop. about 6,500. 
It is the seat of a bishop. The chief occupation 
of the inhabitants is pisciculture. A series of 
canals has been constructed to connect the la- 
goon in the midst of which the town is situated 
with the Adriatic, so as to admit the fry of the 
eel, the mullet, the sole, and other fishes into 
the lagoon, where they are fattened. The an- 
nual product now averages 1,000,000 Ibs. The' 
manufacture of salt is also of importance, about 
2,000,000 Ibs. being obtained annually. 

COMAL, a S. W. central county of Texas, 
bounded S. W. by the Cibolo river, and inter- 
sected by the Guadalupe ; area, 575 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 5,283, of whom 377 were colored. The 
surface is rolling, and in some parts mountain- 
ous; live oak and mezquite cover about one 
third of the land. The soil is fertile in the val- 
leys, but fit only for grazing elsewhere. The 
county was settled by Germans. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 169,250 bushels of 
Indian corn, 3,972 of rye, 8,913 of sweet pota- 
toes, 1,309 tons of hay, 69,305 Ibs. of butter, 
and 1,303 bales of cotton. There were 3,993 
horses, 5,978 milch cows, 15,413 other cattle, 
1,783 sheep, and 2,671 swine; 1 cotton and 
woollen mill, 3 flour mills, 1 saw mill, 5 tanne- 
ries, and 15 manufactories of saddles and har- 
ness. Capital, New Braunfels. 

COMMA. I. An ancient city of Cappadocia 
(supposed to be the modern Bostan), on the 
river Sarus, celebrated in antiquity for its tem- 
ple of Ma (the moon-goddess), or according to 
others of Enyo (Bellona), and for the great 
devotion of its inhabitants to the worship of 
that goddess. Over 6,000 persons were en- 
gaged in the service of the temple. The city 
was governed by the high priest, who was al- 
ways a member of the reigning family, and 
took rank next to the king, if he did not ex- 
ercise royal functions himself. II. A city of 
Pontus, on the river Iris, devoted to the same 
goddess as the Cappadocian Comana, of which 
it was believed to be a colony. On its site is 
now Gumenek, about 7 m. N. E. of Tokat, and 
about 70 m. S. S. E. of Samsun on the Black sea. 

COMANCHE. I. A N. W. central county of 
Texas, intersected by Leon river ; area, 1,050 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,001, of whom 24 were 
colored. A mountain ridge forms its S. W. 
boundary ; the rest of the surface is generally 
undulating and well timbered, about a third 
part being covered with oak, ash, elm, &c. 
The soil is fertile in the river bottoms, but un- 
productive in other places. Stock raising is the 
leading occupation. The native mustang grape 



132 



COMANCHES 



COMAYAGUA 






is abundant. The chief productions in 1870 
were 3,368 bushels of wheat, 39,292 of Indian 
corn, 1,722 of sweet potatoes, and 28 bales of 
cotton. There were 275 horses, 17,246 cattle, 
and 5,337 swine. Capital, Comanche. II. A 
S. W. county of Kansas, bordering on the In- 
dian territory ; area, 780 sq. m. ; yet unsettled. 
It is intersected by the Nescatunga and Cimar- 
ron rivers. 

COMANCHES, a tribe of American Indians be- 
longing to the great Shoshone family. They 
are a roving race, living in skin lodges with no 
fixed villages, roaming when first known from 
the head waters of the Brazos and Colorado to 
those of the Arkansas and Missouri, and in 
some bands penetrating to Durango in Mexico 
and to Santa Fe in New Mexico. They are 
great hunters and warriors, and have been at 
war with the Spaniards, and with the Osages, 
Pawnees, and other tribes of the plains, from 




A Comanche Warrior. 

an early period. Their traditions are vague, 
but they claim to have come from the west. 
They believe in a supreme being called Niatpo 
(my father), and have medicine men called 
puhacan. They call themselves Naiini (" live 
people ") ; but the Kansas called them Padou- 
cas, the name adopted by the French, and the 
Spaniards Comanches, a term adopted in the 
United States. They are divided into eight 
bands. The Comanches have a martial air, 
and, though rather heavy and ungraceful on 
foot, are splendid on horseback. They pro- 
cured horses from the Spaniards at an early 
day by theft, accident, or purchase, and be- 
coming expert riders acquired additional power. 
The French under Dutisn6 first reached their 
country in 1719, and began to buy horses from 
them. In 1724 an expedition under De Bourg- 
mont visited their principal bands and made a 
treaty with them. They were then scattered 



over a tract of 200 leagues, those near the 
Spaniards in villages more or less fixed, those 
remote moving as game required. One village 
visited by De Bourgmont contained 140 lodges, 
800 warriors, 1,500 women, and 2,000 children. 
Both sexes were then and have always been 
more decently dressed than Indians generally, 
the men wearing a regular pantaloon and good 
moccasins, those of the women extending up 
till they reached the tunic. They had long 
and bloody wars with the Spaniards till Anza 
in 1783, in a vigorous campaign, defeated and 
killed 30 chiefs, among them the great war 
chief Tabivonaritgante, called by the Spaniards 
Cuernoverde. This established peace for some 
time, and a chief named Maya sent his son to 
Mexico, who after receiving a little education 
returned to succeed his father, and thus kept 
up the good feeling. Morfi, the historian of 
Texas, about 1780 estimated them at 5,( 
warriors. In 1816 they lost 4,000 by smalli 
and in 1822 were estimated at about 9,000 
all ; but Catlin some years later put their m 
bers much higher. President Burnet in II 
estimated them at 10,000 or 12,000, 2,000 
2,500 being warriors. They have always b( 
dangerous and troublesome. They were at 
time on a reservation in Texas, but were 
pelled and have since been unrelenting enemi* 
of that state. The United States governing 
has collected some of them on a new res 
vation in the western part of the Indian 
ritory. One part, the Quauhada, or Stak< 
Plain Comanches, ridicule the idea of settlii _ 
down, but were chastised by Col. McKenzie 
at McClellan's creek in 1872. The Comanches 
were estimated in 1872 at 3,218, the rovh 
bands numbering perhaps 1,000 more. Th< 
individual property was estimated at $400, ( 
They have consequently lost greatly, their nui 
bers not being recruited as formerly by you] 
Mexican captives of both sexes. 

COMAYAGUA. I. A department of Hondui 
Central America; area, 4,800 sq. m. ; 
about 75,000. It occupies the S. central 
tion of the state, and consists chiefly of 
plains of Comayagua and of Espino, b< 
watered by the Humuya river. In the S. 
part are the mountains of San Juan or Gi 
jiquero, occupied exclusively by Indians d< 
scended from the aboriginal Lencas, who ci 
tivate the cereals and the fruits of the high< 
latitudes, and raise a fine and hardy race 
mules. The soil is rich, and the plains 
well adapted for the production of cochii 
coffee, and the other staples of semi-tropi< 
regions. Like the rest of Honduras, it p< 
sesses great mineral wealth, which however 
neglected from want of enterprise and capit 
Eich silver mines exist in the mountains, 
copper ores abound. There are also vast d< 
posits of blue and veined marble and inej 
haustible beds of ochre of various colors ai 
fine quality. Pine and oak abound on 
hills, and mahogany, cedar, li^numvitaa, 
other useful woods are found in the valle] 



COMB 

The district is famed for its superior breed of 
cattle. Among the principal towns are Las 
Piedras or Villa de la Paz, Villa de San An- 
tonio, Opoteca, Espino, San Antonio del Norte, 
Goascoran, and Caridacf. II. The capital of 
the department and of the state of Honduras, 
situated on the S. border of the plain of Co- 
mayagua, in lat. 14 28' N., Ion. 87 39' W., on 
the Humuya river; pop. about 12,000. It is 
very nearly midway between the two oceans. 
Previous to 1827 it was a flourishing town, 
embellished with fountains and monuments, 
and having many fine buildings; but in that 
year it was taken and burned by the monarchi- 
cal faction of Guatemala, and it has never since 
recovered. It is the seat of a bishopric, and has 
a large cathedral, a university, a hospital, and 
several churches and convents. Its trade is 
small on account of the difficulty of communi- 
cation with the coast ; but as it is on the route 



COMBACONUM 



133 




Comayagua. 

of the interoceanic railway now building from 
Puerto Cavallos to the bay of Fonseca, it will 
probably increase in importance. Comaya- 
gua was founded in 1540 by Alonso Caceres, 
aiid originally called Valladolid. The country 
around it has many remarkable ruins, and 
bears evidences of having sustained in ancient 
times a large and flourishing population. 

COMB (Sax. camfy, an instrument of wood, 
horn, shell, ivory, or other material, cut on one 
or both sides into a series of teeth, serving to 
disentangle and adjust the hair, and often worn 
by women as an ornament to the head, or to 
retain the hair in place. Its invention belongs 
to the remotest antiquity. The combs of the 
ancient Egyptians were usually of wood, having 
on one side large, and on the other fine teeth, 
the central portion being sometimes inlaid or 
ornamented with carved work. When having 
but a single row of teeth, the opposite side was 
often surmounted by a figure of the ibex or 
some other animal. They were about four 



inches long and six deep, the teeth on either 
side being over two inches in length. The 
Greeks, who dressed their hair with great care 
used combs made of boxwood obtained from 
the shores of the Euxine. Golden combs were 
ascribed by the poets to the goddesses. Three 
combs, similar to modern small-tooth combs, 
are represented on the Amyclsean marbles. 
Roman combs, like the Greek, were made of 
boxwood, especially that obtained from the 
mountains of Cytorus, in Asia Minor, and re- 
mains of them have been found at Pompeii. 
Wood long continued the common material for 
combs, but during the later middle ages horn, 
ivory, and gold were sometimes employed, and 
pearls and precious and artificial stones were 
added for ornaments; and the comb was thus 
made an elegant part of the coiffure. Some 
modern sculptors, as Canova, have introduced 
it with fine effect as a part of feminine costume 
in statuary. Ornamen- 
tal combs of gold or sil- 
ver have often been in 
general use by women ; 
but the material longest 
and most commonly em- 
ployed for this purpose 
is tortoise shell. The 
pieces of shell, as found 
in commerce, are never 
of suitable forms for 
combs. They are there- 
fore softened with boil- 
ing water and put be- 
tween iron or brass 
moulds of the desired 
shape until they cool. 
The place for the teeth 
is next marked. The in- 
terstices of the teeth 
were formerly cut with 
a thin steel saw, but a 
machine has been invent- 
ed in which, by means 
of pressure, two combs are cut at the same 
time from the same strip of shell or ivory. The 
sides of the strip are to be the backs of the two 
combs, the teeth lying in the middle portion. 
The strip is fastened to a carriage, which is 
moved forward until it comes under the action 
of a ratchet wheel toothed upon a part of its 
circumference. The teeth of this wheel bring 
down a lever furnished with a chisel, which 
cuts out the two combs from the flat piece, the 
teeth of one lying between those of the other. 
This process is called parting, and is performed 
very rapidly and with great precision. So deli- 
cate are some of the saw machines, that from 
80 to 100 teeth may be cut in an inch of ivory. 
Combs are now manufactured from vulcanized 
India rubber. 

COMBACONUM, or Kumbakonam, a city of Brit- 
ish India, in the Carnatic, 20 m. K E. of Tan- 
jore ; pop. about 40,000. It is a place of great 
antiquity, is esteemed a holy city, and has sev- 
eral pagodas, gateways, and water tanks of 



134 



COMBALOT 



very superior construction. One of these tanks 
is said to be filled every 12th year by the 
waters of the Ganges, 1,200 m. distant, which 
enter the reservoir by a subterranean channel. 




Great Gopura at Combaconum. 

This water is held capable of purifying from 
sin and uncleanness every one who bathes in 
it, and thousands journey thither at the proper 
season to participate in its benefits. The great 
gopura or gate pyramid, at one of the entrances 
to the town, is referred to by Fergusson in his 
" Architecture " as one of the most imposing 
structures of its class. It has 12 stories, the 
lowest of granite, and the others of brick 
covered with the most elaborately ornamented 
stucco. A multitude of figures of men and 
animals cover it from top to bottom, forming a 
mass of peculiar ornamentation which greatly 
detracts from the imposing effect of the whole. 
COMBALOT, Theodore, abbe", a French priest 
and author, born at Chatenay (Is&re), Aug. 21, 
1798, died in Paris, March 15, 1873. He 
studied philosophy and theology, was ordained 
priest hi 1821, and acquired celebrity as an elo- 
quent ultramontane preacher. Pope Gregory 
XVI. appointed him apostolic vicar, and in the 
latter part of his life he was vicar general of 
Rouen, Arras, and Montpellier. In 1844 he was 
sentenced to a month's imprisonment in conse- 
quence of his violent Memoire adresse aux 
eveques de France et aux peres de famille sur 
la guerre faite d la societe par le monopole 
universitaire. His other writings include La 



COMBE 

connaissance de Jesus- Christ, &c. (4th ed., 
1852) ; Conference sur les grandeurs de la 
Sainte Vierge (1845 ; new ed., 1854) ; and 
Nouvelles conferences prechees d Paris, d Ly- 
ons, en Belgique, &c., depuis le decret dog- 
matique de Vimmaculee conception (2 vols., 
Lyons, 1864). 

COMBE. I. George, a Scottish phrenologist, 
born in Edinburgh, Oct. 21, 1788, died at Moor 
Park, England, Aug. 14, 1858. He studied 
law, and continued in practice till 1837, when 
he resolved to devote himself to science. On 
the visit of Spurzheim to Edinburgh in 1816 
Combe became a convert to his system of 
phrenology, and advocated it in his lectures 
and writings. In 1819 he published " Essays 
on Phrenology, or an Inquiry into the System 
of Gall and Spurzheim," which was subse- 
quently developed into his " System of Phre- 
nology" (2 vols. 8vo, 1824). His principal 
work, " The Constitution of Man considered in 
relation to External Objects " (1828), produced 
a wide and deep impression. It has passed 
through numerous editions and been translated 
into several languages. The object of this 
work was to show that the intellectual and 
moral procedure of man, as well as the phys- 
ical procedure of the universe, is regulated by 
natural laws which must be studied in order to 
carry out successfully his physical, moral, and 
social improvement. In 1823, assisted by a 
few friends, George and Andrew Combe estab- 
lished the " Edinburgh Phrenological Journal," 
and for more than 23 years gratuitously con- 
tributed to its pages. In 1833 he married a 
daughter of Mrs. Siddons, the celebrated ac- 
tress. In 1837 he visited Germany; and in 
1838, accompanied by his wife, he visited the 
United States, delivered 158 lectures in various 
parts of the country, and returned home in 
June, 1840. In 1842 he revisited Germany, 
and in the summer of that year delivered in 
Heidelberg a series of lectures on phrenology, 
in the German language. He was the first to 
spread a knowledge in England of the new re- 
ligious movement in Germany, of which Ronge 
was the chief leader, by writing " Notes on the 
Reformation in Germany" (London, 1845). 
Among his other works are: "Elements of 
Phrenology " (1824) ; " Lectures on Popular 
Education" (1833); "Moral Philosophy, or 
the Duties of Man, Individual, Domestic, and 
Social" (1840) ; "Notes on the United States 
of America" (3 vols., 1841); "Thoughts on 
Capital Punishment," and "Remarks on Na- 
tional Education" (1847); "Principles of 
Criminal Legislation and Prison Discipline 
Investigated" (1854); "Phrenology applied 
to Painting and Sculpture " (1855) ; and " Re- 
lation between Science and Religion" (1857). 
II. Abraham, elder brother of the preceding, 
born Jan. 15, 1785, died Aug. 11, 1827. He 
was a disciple of Owen, and sacrificed his for- 
tune in establishing "the cooperative society" 
in Edinburgh, in furtherance of his socialistic 
theories. Long after this had failed, he made 



I 



COMBERMERE 

a new attempt in 1825, by forming a similar 
establishment on a large scale at Orbiston, 
near Glasgow, which however proved unsuc- 
cessful. He wrote " Sketches of the Old and 
New Systems," and "The Religious Creed of 
the New System." III. Andrew, a Scottish 
physician and author, brother of the preceding, 
born in Edinburgh, Oct. 27, 1797, died there, 
Aug. 9, 1847. He studied medicine in Edin- 
burgh and Paris, and began practice in Edin- 
burgh in 1823. In 1836 he was appointed 
physician to King Leopold of Belgium, and 
afterward physician in Scotland to Queen Vic- 
toria. He contributed largely to phrenological 
and medical journals. His principal works, all 
of which have passed through many editions, 
are : " Observations on Mental Derangement " 
(1831) ; " Principles of Physiology " (1834) ; 
"The Physiology of Digestion" (1836); and 
"The Management of Infancy" (1840). His 
death was hastened by exposure to the vitiated 
atmosphere of an emigrant ship in which he 
made a voyage to America; the knowledge 
which he gained on this voyage was embodied 
in a letter to the " Times," published a month 
after his death, which led to the passage of a 
law regulating the sanitary arrangements in 
emigrant vessels. His "Life and Correspon- 
dence " was published by his brother, George 
Combe (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1850). 

COMBERMERE, Stapleton Cotton, viscount, a 
British soldier, born in Denbighshire, Nov. 17, 
1773, died at Clifton, Feb. 21, 1865. He entered 
the army at an early age, and served in India in 
the war against Tippoo Saib. In 1808 he was 
sent to the peninsula in command of a brigade of 
cavalry, and participated in nearly all the great 
actions, from Talavera to the close of the war. 
In 1810 he was appointed to the command of 
the whole allied cavalry under the duke of 
Wellington. He was repeatedly thanked by 
parliament for his services, and upon the con- 
clusion of peace was elevated to the peerage. 
He was afterward governor of Barbadoes, and 
commanded the British forces in India from 
1822 to 1826. He also distinguished himself at 
the capture of Bhurtpoor (1826), for which he 
was made a viscount. In 1834 he .was made a 
privy councillor, and in 1852 succeeded the 
duke of "Wellington as constable of the tower 
of London and lord lieutenant of the Tower 
Hamlets. In 1855 he became field marshal. 

COMBES, Edmond, a French traveller, born 
June 8, 1812, died in 1872. He was vice con- 
sul at Scala Nova, Asia Minor, and at Rabat, 
Morocco ; explored the coasts of the Red sea, 
a portion of Arabia, Abyssinia, and E. Africa, 
where he was the first to ascertain the altitude 
of the mountains of the Moon ; and in 1841 he 
travelled in Nubia and Egypt. With his com- 
panion, M. Tamisier, he published Voyage en 
Abyssinie, dans les pays des Gallas, de Choa et 
d'Ifat, precede d'une excursion dans VArabie 
Heureuse (4 vols., Paris, 1837-'8). 

COMBINATIONS, Theory of, in mathematics, a 
statement of the laws which determine the 



COMBUSTION 



135 



possible variations in the grouping of any num- 
ber of given signs. The signs and groups are 
known as elements and forms. There are three 
processes of combination. The first, which 
is termed permutation, consists in changing the 
order of the given elements so that the same 
arrangement is never repeated. The second, 
which is specially termed combination, consists 
in arranging the elements into partial groups, 
so that, without regarding the arrangement, 
precisely the same elements are not repeated in 
any form. In permutation, all the elements 
are contained in each form. In combination, 
each form may consist of two, three, or any other 
number of elements less than the whole num- 
ber given. The third process, termed variation, 
is a union of the other two. It consists in first 
making all the forms possible by combination, 
and then multiplying each of these forms by 
permutation. In permutation there is a change 
in the order ; in combination, in the contents 
or matter; and in variation, in both. The 
complication and possible number of forms is 
greatly increased when the elements are re- 
peated. The theory of combinations has ap- 
plication to ideas, sounds, colors, and even to 
fo.od and other material compounds; but its 
principal use is hi mathematical analysis and in 
the calculation of chances. The first important 
contribution to its development was by Buteo 
(1559), who represented all the throws possible 
with four dice. Pascal applied it to games, 
Mersenne to musical tones, and Guldin reckon- 
ed the number of words which could be formed 
from 23 letters. Leibnitz recognized its sig- 
nificance, and sought in vain to make use of it 
in discovering philosophical truths. Bernoulli 
and Euler labored upon it, but the first who 
gave it a scientific character was Hindenburg 
in 1778 ; and it was subsequently developed by 
Lagrange, Laplace, Poisson, Pfaff, Eschenbach, 
and Rothe. Among the treatises on the sub- 
ject are the Lehrbuch der comlinatorischen 
Analysis, by Weingartner (Leipsic, 1800-1801), 
and Vollstandiger Lehrbegriff der reinen Com- 
linationslehre, by Spehr (Brunswick, 1824). 

COMBUSTION, a chemical process, in which 
bodies combine to form a new compound, with 
the evolution of heat, and usually light. In 
ordinary cases of combustion, oxygen is one of 
the combining bodies, and the substance with 
which it unites disappears with it in a gaseous 
form. It was formerly regarded as an essential 
element in combustion, but the phenomena of 
light and heat, characteristic of rapid combus- 
tion, are observed when chlorine combines with 
phosphorus and with some metals when these are 
in a powdered state ; also in the action of cyan- 
ogen and potassium, and of sulphur upon iron 
filings and copper leaf. Some bodies also burn 
in the vapors of iodine, bromine, and fluorine. ^ 
As commonly witnessed, combustion is a pro- 
cess taking place in the presence of atmospheric 
air, which furnishes the oxygen to support^ it; 
and it is conducted, not, as most other chemical 
operations are, for the sake of its products, but 



136 



COMBUSTION 



for the phenomena which attend it. The de- 
velopment of these depends upon the rapidity 
with which it goes on, and this distinguishes it 
from the other cases of oxidation, which are 
sometimes called slow combustion, as when 
metals rust, spirituous liquors turn to acetic 
acid, and the blood by respiration is oxidized. 
The views which prevailed respecting the na- 
ture of combustion before the discovery of 
oxygen gas by Priestley in 1774, and the de- 
velopment of its properties by Lavoisier in the 
succeeding year, were necessarily incorrect. 
With the ancients, fire was an element that de- 
voured other bodies and converted them into 
itself. Dr. Hooke in 1665, and Mayow soon 
after, advanced the opinion that there existed 
in the air a "nitrous spirit," which dissolved 
bodies susceptible to its influence when their 
temperature was suitably raised, and that the 
light and heat were the sensible effects of the 
rapid motions taking place. This theory, though 
close to the truth, was for a long time lost 
sight of in the general acceptance of the cele- 
brated phlogistic theory, which was advanced 
soon afterward by Becher, professor at Mentz, 
and ably sustained by Stahl, professor at Halle. 
They considered that in combustion a certain 
element, which Stahl named phlogiston (from 
Gr. 9/loytt>, to burn), left the burning body, 
and the product was this body deprived of its 
phlogiston, by regaining which it was restored 
to its original character ; as sulphur or phos- 
phorus when consumed became sulphuric or 
phosphoric acid, and on regaining their phlo- 
giston were again sulphur or phosphorus. It 
was known that the earthy "calx," into which 
some of the metals were transformed by fire, 
gained rather than lost weight; but this was 
explained by attributing to phlogiston a prin- 
ciple of levity. Notwithstanding the defects 
of the theory, it was still an important step in 
the progress of chemical science, serving first 
to group correctly together the phenomena of 
combustion, acidification, and respiration. Its 
nomenclature was incorporated with the sci- 
ence, and when Priestley made his great dis- 
covery of the new kinds of air, he gave to 
nitrogen, which he supposed to be a combina- 
tion of air with the phlogiston of the combus- 
tible, the name of phlogisticated air, and to 
oxygen or pure air that of dephlogisticated air. 
Lavoisier, by subjecting the products of com- 
bustion to the test of weighing, showed that the 
combustible gained weight by the process, and 
he proved, on restoring it to its former condi- 
tion (as in the case of a metallic oxide), that 
the substance taken up and given out again 
was the pure air of Priestley, to which he gave 
the name of oxygen, from its acidifying prop- 
erty (b&s and yevvdu). Thus was established 
the antiphlogistic theory, that in every case of 
combustion oxygen combines with the burning 
body. Dr. Black's theory of latent heat was 
adopted to account for the production of light 
and heat ; the latter being evolved or rendered 
sensible when substances without change of 






form pass from a rarer into a denser state, also 
when a gas becomes liquid or solid, or a liquid 
solidifies. The oxygen of the air was supposed 
to contain heat and light in a latent state, 
which were evolved with its change into a 
more condensed form, and the products of 
combustion were supposed to have less com- 
bined or specific heat than the original sub- 
stances. But this application failed in the case 
of combustion of solid bodies by explosion, the 
gaseous compounds expanding in some instances 
to 2,000 times their original bulk, and-yet pro- 
ducing intense heat instead of cold, as the 
theory would require ; and the specific heat of 
the new compounds, in this as in the combus- 
tion of charcoal, it was shown by Dulong and 
Petit, was often quite equal to, and sometimes 
exceeded, that of the combining bodies, and this, 
moreover, bore no relation to that evolved in 
combustion. Davy considered that the burn- 
ing body and the supporter of combustion were 
in opposite electrical conditions, and that the 
heat and light were evolved in the discharge of 
these electricities ; which view was also held 
by Berzelius, though unsustained by any posi- 
tive proof. Despretz ascertained the number 
of pounds of water which the burning of 1 Ib. 
of different combustibles would heat from the 
temperature of 32 to 212 F. The following 
are some of his results : 

T lb. of Lbs. of water. 

Pure charcoal 78 

Charcoal from wood 75 

Baked wood 36 

Bituminous coal 60 

Wood containing 20 per cent, of water 27 

Turf. 25 to 30 

Alcohol 67-5 

Olive oil, wax, &c 90 to 95 

Ether 80 

Hydrogen 236 4 

Carbon and hydrogen are the two common 
elements, which by uniting with oxygen pro- 
duce combustion. They are furnished in a 
variety of forms suitable to this application, 
the source of all which is traced to vegetable 
growth ; and this ever continues to gather up 
the products of combustion, and, separating 
them by decomposition, places them again in 
condition to renew the process. In combina- 
tion they assume a volatile form, and float up- 
ward with the air rarefied by the heat, thus 
allowing the admission of fresh supplies of 
oxygen to constantly reach the ignited body. 
Though the combustible bodies are enveloped 
in the atmospheric air, and are ever disposed 
to unite with its oxygen, the process cannot 
commence until the temperature of the com- 
bustible has been raised to a certain point, 
when it is said to catch fire ; the process thus 
begins, and afterward evolves the heat neces- 
sary for its continuance. The condition of the 
air as to temperature, density, and the pres- 
ence of aqueous vapor, variously affects the 
process of combustion. Increase of density 
adds to the quantity of oxygen in a given vol- 
ume, and consequently may be expected to in- 
crease the rate of combustion. The effect of 



COMBUSTION 

temperature is less understood, but so far as it 
diminishes the density of air it must retard 
combustion. A sensible difference is perceived 
in the rate of combustion of large fires con- 
nected with metallurgical operations in sum- 
mer and winter, which is no doubt correctly 
attributed to the volatile products of combus- 
tion not so freely quitting the burning bodies to 
rise up in the rarefied air of summer as in the 
denser winter atmosphere, and thus retarding 
the operations. Aqueous vapor in some cir- 
cumstances is found to retard combustion, in 
others to accelerate it. Unless subjected to 
the degree of heat necessary to decompose it, 
it takes the place of atmospheric air, and di- 
minishes the proportion of effective oxygen 
present. Steam is employed as an active 
agent for extinguishing fires, and also in small 
quantity to increase their effect. For this pur- 
pose a jet of steam is discharged under the 
grate bars of a furnace, or the ash pit is made 
a reservoir for water, which is evaporated by 
the heat radiated downward, and the vapor 
carried up by the draught is decomposed in 
passing through the incandescent coals. Its 
oxygen takes up a portion of carbon, forming 
carbonic oxide, which, as it meets more oxy- 
gen, is converted into carbonic acid gas with 
the production of much heat. So its hydrogen 
seizes a portion of the highly heated carbon, 
and is converted into carburetted hydrogen, 
or in part escapes, till meeting an equivalent 
of oxygen it is burned with the reproduction 
of water. It was shown by the numerous ex- 
periments of Bunsen and Fyfe that a consider- 
able increase of heat was thus gained over that 
consumed in the decomposition of the vapor. 
Its use, however, in practical operations, de- 
mands the exercise of some judgment; for in 
excess, or with insufficient supplies of air, its 
effect would be the reverse of that intended. 
So also the vapor should be made to come up 
through the bars, and not be raised from among 
the coals at the cost of a portion of the avail- 
able heat generated by their combustion. An 
opinion has long been current, and not among 
the unlearned alone, that combustion was re- 
tarded by the light of the sun shining upon the 
fire. This apparent effect is accounted for by 
some on the principle that all flames are less 
visible in a strong light. On the other hand, 
a series of experiments made by Dr. Thomas 
McKeever of England, and published in the 
" Annals of Philosophy" in 1825, support by 
their results the popular impression, and these 
conclusions are referred to by Grnelin in his 
"Handbook of Chemistry," without question- 
ing their soundness. In these experiments ta- 
pers and candles were burned alternately in a 
dark room and in the sunshine in the open air, 
the result always being a more rapid combus- 
tion in the former. The chemical rays of the 
solar beam were supposed to interfere with 
the oxidation of the fuel, and this was con- 
firmed by the apparent greater rapidity with 
which a taper was made to burn in the red 



COMBUSTION (SPONTANEOUS) 137 

than in the violet extremity of the solar spec- 
trum. In 1857 a paper was read before the 
American association for the promotion of sci- 
ence, by Prof. J. L. Le Conte, describing a 
series of experiments recently made by him 
with the object of further testing this question. 
In these he adopted the precaution of securing 
absolute calmness in the atmosphere around 
the burning body, and of depriving the beam 
of light of its sensible heat, which might, by 
rarefying the air, retard combustion. He also 
by concentrating the rays increased the inten- 
sity of the solar light nearly tenfold, with the 
view of thus exaggerating and rendering more 
apparent their supposed influence. The cone 
of sunlight was made to strike upon the flame 
of a wax candle, counterpoised in a balance, 
its lower margin illuminating the charred por- 
tion of the wick, while the upper boundary of 
the pencil traversed the flame near its apex. 
In each experiment the candle was allowed to 
burn for 10 or 15 minutes, till a steady flame 
was obtained ; and then, as soon as its weight 
was reduced to that in the opposite scale, a 
certain quantity (60 or 100 grs.) was removed 
from this, and the combustion was continued 
till the equilibrium was again established. 
Whether in the dark or in the sunlight, no 
sensible difference was found in the rate of 
combustion; but this decidedly varied with 
the conditions of the atmosphere as to baro- 
metric pressure and temperature. 

COMBUSTION, Spontaneous, the ignition of in- 
flammable bodies without the application of 
fire, and without obvious cause of increase of 
temperature. Occurrences of this sort, for- 
merly very mysterious, are now explained by 
the well understood liability of certain bodies 
to undergo chemical changes which develop 
sufficient heat to set them on fire. Recently 
expressed fixed oils are particularly disposed to 
oxidize when exposed to light and air. They 
then absorb oxygen, and give out carbonic acid 
and hydrogen. If the process goes on rapidly, 
as it usually does when the oil is diffused 
through light inflammable substances, as cot- 
ton, tow, the waste used for lubricating ma- 
chinery, oatmeal, &c., the heat may be sufficient 
to set these on fire. This is the most frequent 
cause of spontaneous combustion. Cloths sat- 
urated with oil, or covered with varnish of oil 
and turpentine, have thus been inflamed. By 
being piled together in quantity, the danger 
is increased by the accumulation of heat. In 
consequence of the frequent occurrence of 
cases of spontaneous combustion in " charged 
silks," or silks that have been treated with 
grease or oil for the purpose of increasing their 
weight, the German railways in 1872 refused 
to receive them for transportation. Bitumi- 
nous coal lying in large heaps is liable to be 
ignited by the heat evolved in the decomposi- 
tion of the sulphuret of iron which it commonly 
contains. At the mouths of the pits the slates 
and refuse coal, which contain the most of 
this mineral, and in which the process of de- 



138 



COMBUSTION" (SPONTANEOUS) 



composition is hastened by the heaps being wet 
with the rains, are often seen in combustion 
from this cause. The liability to it seriously 
affects the value of those coals in which pyri- 
tes is found in considerable quantity, rendering 
it hazardous even to transport them by ships. 
In 1794 a fire occurred from this cause in the 
royal shipyard in Copenhagen, which consumed 
1,600 tons of coal and 1,400 houses. The 
rapid absorption of water by quicklime is also 
attended with development of heat sufficient 
to ignite combustible bodies in contact with 
the lime. Freshly burned charcoal has the 
property of absorbing moisture and rapidly 
condensing it in its pores, generating thereby 
so much heat that it is set on fire. This often 
occurs about collieries and in the wagons used 
for transporting the coal from the woods, and 
is commonly attributed to the fire not being 
entirely extinguished in all the pieces of char- 
coal. Several cases are recorded in the 
"American Journal of Science" (vol. xlii., 
1842, pp. 169 to 195) of combustion occurring 
in heaps of hard-wood ashes which had long 
lain undisturbed. The cause not being under- 
stood, they were in several instances regarded 
as cases of spontaneous combustion. It would 
seem, however, that addition of fresh ashes 
had been made to the heaps within a few days, 
or 14 at the most. Still no satisfactory ex- 
planation is given of the manner in which a 
heap of 25 bushels, accumulated during two 
years previous, could become completely igni- 
ted, as occurred in the cellar of President Lord 
of Dartmouth college ; nor how the combus- 
tion could commence in the centre of a box of 
ashes which had received no addition for about 
two weeks, as described by Dr. J. T. Plummer 
of Richmond, Ind. Such instances, however 
they may be explained, exhibit the danger in- 
curred by placing ashes in wooden vessels or in 
contact with combustible bodies ; and the dan- 
ger would appear to be at all times imminent, 
though the ashes may have thus remained 
quietly for two years. Human Spontaneous Com- 
bustion. This is now generally believed to be 
a fiction ; but it has been used with great ef- 
fect by modern temperance lecturers and by 
novelists. Herman Melville so disposes of an 
obnoxious character in " Redburn " (1849) ; 
and Dickens, in "Bleak House " (1853), made 
the case of Krook famous, and excited an ani- 
mated discussion which revived public interest 
in the subject. But that it has been firmly 
believed by many eminent medical authorities, 
and has been a matter of earnest though not 
entirely satisfactory inquiry by others, will be 
evident from the citation of the following au- 
thorities and cases. Fodere notes an instance 
which occurred in Lyons in 1644. Devergie, 
in his M'edecine legate, records 20 cases, the 
earliest in 1692, and two thirds of them before 
the beginning of the present century. The 
Dictionnaire de Medecine, article Combustion 
humaine, cites the opinions of different writers 
down to the year 1833. Dr. Apjohn, in the 



"Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine," gives 
what he considers authentic cases. The fullest 
information on the subject is in the Journal de 
Physique, in an article by Pierre Aime" Lair, 
translated and published in "Philosophical 
Transactions," vol. vi. Among the remark- 
able cases recorded are the following : Le Cat 
narrates that while he was lodging in the house 
of Millet at Rheims, on the morning of Feb. 20, 
1725, the body of Mme. Millet, a habitual in- 
ebriate, was found at the distance of a foot 
and a half from the hearth in her kitchen. A 
part of the head only, with a portion of the 
lower extremities and a few of the vertebrae, 
had escaped combustion. A small portion of 
the floor under the body had been consumed, 
but a kneading trough and a tub which stood 
very near were uninjured. Millet was arrest- 
ed for the murder of his wife, a supposed in- 
trigue with his servant girl furnishing the mo- 
tive. He was tried and convicted; but on 
appeal to a superior court he was acquitted on 
the plea of spontaneous combustion. A more 
celebrated case, six years later, was that of the 
countess Cornelia de Baudi Cesenati, of Vero- 
na. She was 62 years old, and was accustom- 
ed to bathe in camphorated spirits of wine. 
Retiring one night in good health, the next 
morning her body was found on the floor, four 
feet from the bed, a mass of cinders. The 
walls and furniture of her room, and the walls, 
shelves, and utensils in an adjoining kitchen, 
were coated with a moist black soot, and a 
crust of bread was so contaminated that it was 
rejected by the cat. Prebendary Giuseppe 
Bianchini minutely investigated the case, and 
published an account of it at Verona in 1731, 
and afterward at Rome. It furnished, as is in- 
timated in the preface to " Bleak House," the 
precedent for the remarkable death of Krook. 
" The appearances beyond all rational doubt 
observed in that case," says Dickens, " are 
the appearances observed in Mr. Krook's case." 
The case of Mary Clues first appeared in the 
"Annual Register" for 1773. She was 50 
years old, and was much addicted to intox- 
ication. One night she retired, leaving a 
lighted candle on a chair near her bed. The 
next morning her remains were found on the 
floor between the bed and the chimney. The 
skin, muscles, and viscera were destroyed ; the 
bones of the cranium, breast, spine, and upper 
extremities were calcined and covered with a 
whitish efflorescence ; one leg and a thigh were 
still entire. The room was filled with a very 
disagreeable vapor ; the walls and everything 
in the room were blackened; but, except the 
body, nothing exhibited any very strong traces 
of fire. An almost parallel case is that of 
Grace Pitt, aged 60, published in the " Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of London " in 
1774. Foder6 records the remarkable death 
of Don Gio Maria Bertholi, in 1776. The ac- 
count is abridged by Paris and Fonblanque in 
their " MedicalJurisprudence," and the case 
is one of the best authenticated to be found. 



COMBUSTION (SPONTANEOUS) 

In 1840 the Bulletin de Therapeutique publish- 
ed an account by M. Bubbe-Lievin, surgeon in 
the army in Algeria in 1839, of the death of 
a Moor, a habitual drunkard, where the phe- 
nomenon was a bluish flame running all over 
the body, making frightful burns; but the sur- 
geon saw only the results of the combustion, 
and derived the details from the natives, who 
probably embellished the facts. In 1839 Du- 
puytren investigated a supposed case of spon- 
taneous combustion. The victim was an ex- 
cessively fleshy woman, and addicted to drink ; 
but Dupuytren discovered that she had been 
sitting over a foot stove filled with burning 
charcoal, and his theory was as follows : Stupor, 
due first to alcohol, and heightened by the 
fumes of the charcoal ; the clothes take fire ; 
the epidermis cracks open and streams of 
melted human fat run out and burn ; com- 
bustion continues as long as any fragments 
of cloth saturated with fat remain unconsumed ; 
the room is filled with dense black smoke; 
and, finally, the victim presents only a mass 
of charred flesh and bones. The case of the 
countess of Gorlitz, found dead in her chamber, 
June 13, 1847, excited attention throughout 
Europe. The upper part of her dress was 
burned, and her head, neck, and arms were 
charred. The floor and furniture were much 
damaged by fire. The physician who exam- 
ined the remains pronounced the case one of 
spontaneous combustion. In the year follow- 
ing, Aug. 11, the remains were exhumed, and 
Liebig and Bischoff, who examined them, pub- 
lished in 1850 their report, exploding the the- 
ory of spontaneous combustion. In March of 
that year Stauff, the count's valet, was tried 
and convicted for murdering the countess. 
Subsequently he confessed the crime, and said 
that the countess having surprised him in an 
attempt to rob her room, he strangled her, 
and afterward piled furniture around her body 
and set it on fire. In 1850 a supposed case 
had a wide circulation in the French and Eng- 
lish journals, and was quoted by Dean in his 
"Medical Jurisprudence." It was that of a 
laborer, drinking in a cabaret near the bar- 
riere de 1'Etoile, Paris. He wagered that he 
would eat a lighted candle, and had hardly 
brought it near his mouth when, with a faint 
cry, he fell lifeless. A bluish flame flickered 
about his lips, he consumed inwardly, and in 
half an hour his head and part of his chest 
were reduced to charcoal. On the publication 
of this extraordinary case, Liebig at once 
wrote to Professors Kegnault and Pelouze, and 
to Carlier, the prefect of police, asking for 
further information. This he immediately re- 
ceived from Carlier, to the effect that the case 
was wholly imaginary, originating only in the 
fertile fancy of a sensational journalist. In 
two cases in England, one in 1854 and the 
other in 1860, where all the accepted phe- 
nomena of spontaneous combustion were pres- 
ent, rigid examination by experts discovered 
that the victims had been murdered, and an 



COMENIUS 



139 



attempt made to burn the bodies to conceal 
the crime. But in the apparently authenti- 
cated cases cited above, as the victims were 
generally drunkards, the hypothesis has been 
that their bodies were rendered exceptionally 
combustible, and for a long while this theory 
obtained credence. But after a while chemists 
began to discredit the cases. It was shown 
that combustion could not occur without an 
abundant supply of oxygen ; that the soft parts 
of the human body contain 72 per cent, of 
water, which must be evaporated before con- 
sumption by fire can take place ; and instances 
of the extraordinary difficulty of consuming 
the bodies of persons burned at the stake 
were adduced. It is noteworthy, too, that 
nearly all of the supposed authentic cases 
agree essentially in the following particulars : 
That the victim is almost always a fat woman, 
an inebriate, and in some instances addicted to 
getting up in the night to smoke a pipe, or to 
sit by the fire ; nine out of ten of the supposed 
cases have occurred in cold weather ; and in 
nearly every case the remains were found near 
a grate, fireplace, or candle. Dr. Robert Mac- 
nish, in his "Anatomy of Drunkenness " (Edin- 
burgh, 1827), says that when "writers like 
Vicq d'Azyr, Le Cat, Maffei, Jacobseus, Rolli, 
Bianchini, and Mason and Good, have given 
their testimony in support of such facts, it re- 
quires some effort to believe them unfounded 
in truth." But he thinks that the witnesses 
in supposed cases " have been led into an un- 
intentional misrepresentation," and says fur- 
ther : " The subject has never been satis- 
factorily investigated ; and notwithstanding 
the cases brought forward in support of the 
doctrine, the general opinion seems to be that 
the whole is fable, or at least so much involved 
in obscurity as to afford no just grounds for 
belief." This was written long before the 
thorough examinations by Liebig, Bischoff, and 
other experts, since 1850, whose reports are 
decidedly adverse to the hypothesis of spon- 
taneous human combustion. 

COMEDY. SeeDEAMA. 

COMENIUS, John Amos, a Czech, whose real 
name was KOMENSKY, remarkable for his early 
attempts at reforming education, born at Kom- 
na in Moravia, March 28, 1592, died in Hol- 
land, Nov. 15, 1671. He studied in Heidel- 
berg and Herborn, and was a teacher in Pre- 
rau and Fulneck from 1614 to 1620, when, in 
the general persecution of Protestants which 
followed the reverses of the insurgents in Bo- 
hemia and Moravia, he lost all his fortune and 
was expatriated, and for some time lived a? 
a teacher in a retired part of the Bohemian 
mountains. From 1632 he was pastor of the 
sect of the Bohemian Brethren at Lissa, then 
in Poland. In 1641 he was invited to England 
to reform the schools, in which however he did 
not succeed, on account of the civil dissensions. 
At the request of Oxenstiern he now applied 
himself to the organization of a system for 
Swedish .schools, though residing in Elbing, "W. 



140 



COMET 



Prussia. He subsequently repaired to Transyl- 
vania, and in 1650 elaborated rules for the Prot- 
estant college of Saros-Patak in Hungary. Re- 
turning to Lissa in 1654, he again lost all his 
books, manuscripts, and fortune by the Polish 
war of 1657, and spent the latter part of his life 
in Holland. As a writer in the Czech language 
he is highly esteemed for his classical style. 
As a school reformer he was the forerunner of 
Rousseau, Basedow, and Pestalozzi, suggested 
a mode of instruction which renders learning 
attractive by pictures and illustrations, and 
wrote the first pictorial school book, Orbis 
Sensualium Pictus (Nuremberg, 1658). For 
instruction in foreign languages he recom- 
mended combining with the teaching of the 
foreign words explanations of the ideas they 
express. His most celebrated works in this 
department, Janua Linguarum Reserrata (Lis- 
sa, 1631), and PansopJiicB Prodromus (Lissa, 
1639), were translated into many languages. 

COMET (Gr. KOfifrw, long-haired), a celestial 
body presenting a nebulous aspect, and travel- 
ling under the sun's attraction. Many of these 
bodies are distinguished by a remarkable tail- 
like appendage. The greater number of those 
hitherto known have revolved round the sun 
on a path whose observed portion belonged to 
an exceedingly elongated ellipse, or was even 
parabolic or hyperbolic. A few, however, travel 
in closed orbits around the sun in known pe- 
riods. It has been supposed that some among 
the ancients suspected the periodic motions of 
the planets ; but the only evidence we have on 
the subject is vague and indefinite. Tycho 
Brahe was the first to prove by direct obser- 
vation that, comets are not mere phenomena 
of pur own atmosphere, but certainly further 
away than the moon. Newton, after estab- 
lishing the theory of gravitation, asserted that 
comets obey the laws of solar attraction, and 
therefore move either on elliptic, parabolic, or 
hyperbolic paths. From observations of the 
comet of 1680 (commonly called Newton's 
comet) Dorfel, a clergyman of Saxony, was led 
to the conclusion that the course of this object 
was parabolic. But the first real proof of the 
nature of cometary orbits was afforded by 
the researches of Halley into the motions of 
the comet of 1682 (Halley's comet). Halley 
computed the orbit of this comet, and having 
found that the figure of the orbit was either 
parabolic or a very extended ellipse, he exam- 
ined the records of ancient comets, and after 
incredible labor succeeded in discovering two 
whose motions agreed very closely with those 
of the comet of 1682. One had been observed 
by Appian in 1531, the other by Kepler in 
1607; and Halley noticed that the intervals 
between the three years 1531, 1607, and 1682 
are near enough to equality to suggest that one 
and the same comet had been observed on all 
three occasions. Finding that comets were ob- 
served in 1305, 1380, and 1456, he was further 
confirmed in the idea of the periodicity of this 
comet's returns ; and he was thus led to pre- 



dict the return of the comet about the end of 
1758 or the beginning of 1759. He placed the 
return somewhat later than the former observ- 
ed intervals would have suggested, because he 
found that the attraction of Jupiter would re- 
tard the comet. When the time for its return 
approached, many eminent mathematicians re- 
computed the date of its perihelion passage, 
and Clairaut announced that this passage would 
occur between March 13 and May 13, 1759. 
The event actually took place on March 13, 
1759 ; and it has been shown that a large part 
of the discrepancy between this date and the 
mean date of Clairaut's two months would have 
been removed had Clairaut known of the ex- 
istence of Uranus, and so taken the disturbing 
influence of that planet into account. On the 
next return of the comet in 1835, the epoch of 
perihelion passage was predicted much more 
accurately ; indeed, the actual event occurred 
within two or three days of the dates severally 
announced by Pontecoulant and Rosenberger. 
The observations of other comets have still 
further confirmed Newton's theory of cometic 
motions. All comets show a coma or haze of 
light. In nearly all cases there is a bright 
nucleus within this haze, and in a considerable 
number of instances, but not by any means in 
all, the comet shows a tail. When a large and 
complete comet, that is, a comet which pos- 
sesses a coma, nucleus, and tail, is approach- 
ing the sun, the haze of light usually changes 
from a rounded to an elongated figure. After- 
ward the comet's light presents a streaky or 
"combed out" appearance, and then presently 
a tail is thrown out on the side away from the 
sun. The tail usually grows longer and bright- 
er as the comet approaches the sun, and con- 
tinues in existence for some time after the 
comet has begun to pass away from the sun's 
neighborhood. But there is a considerable 
variety in this respect among different comets. 
Some which have shown beautiful tails as they 
neared the sun, have reappeared after the peri- 
helion passage with only a short tail or with- 
out any tail at all. Others which have shown 
only insignificant tails while approaching their 
perihelion, have "reappeared magnified and 
glorified, throwing out an immense tail and 
exhibiting every appearance of violent excite- 
ment." Most of the comets of short period are 
tailless or have tails barely discernible. An ex- 
amination of the drawings prepared for the 
third volume of the "Annals of the Observa- 
tory of Harvard College," to accompany the 
record of Prof. Bond's observations on Dona- 
ti's comet of 1858, will teach more respecting 
the actual processes of change which large 
comets undergo than any amount of verbal de- 
scription. It has been justly remarked by Sir 
John Herschel that these "engravings, in point 
of exquisite finish and beauty of delineation, 
leave far behind everything hitherto done in 
that department of astronomy." Among the 
comets most remarkable either for great splen- 
dor or enormous real dimensions in recent times 






COMET 

must be mentioned those of 1780, 1807, 1811, 
1815, 1819, 1825, 1843, 1847, 1858, and 1861. 
Among the most remarkable phenomena pre- 
sented by individual comets we may mention 
the six tails of the great comet of 1744, and 
the division of Biela's comet into two distinct 
comets, each having coma, nucleus, and tail. 
The latter phenomenon was first observed on 
Jan. 12, 1846, at the Washington observatory. 
Three days later European observers noted the 
same phenomenon. The two comets pursued 
their course side by side, with singular inter- 
changes of lustre, now Qne, now the other ap- 
pearing the brighter. At the return of the 
comet in 1852 both the comets were still visi- 
ble in the same telescopic field of view. The 
perihelion passage of 1859 took place (if at all) 
under circumstances unfavorable for observa- 
tion. The return of 1865 should have been 
readily observable; but the comet was not 
seen, nor has it since made its appearance. 
" Can it have come," says Sir John Herschel, 
" into contact with some asteroid as yet undis- 
covered, or perad venture plunged into and got 
bewildered among the rings of meteorites, 
which astronomers more than suspect ? " The 
recent discovery of the fact that the November 
and August meteor systems follow in the track 
of two comets (the November meteors follow- 
ing the telescopic comet No. I., 1866, and the 
August meteors following the conspicuous 
comet of 1862), has led to some interesting 
speculations respecting the nature of comets 
and meteors. Schiaparelli, to whom the dis- 
covery is in part due, considers the meteors to 
be dispersed portions of the comet's original 
substance, that is, of the substance with which 
the comet entered the solar domain. Thus 
comets would come to be regarded as consist- 
ing of a multitude of relatively minute masses. 
Others, however, regard comets as chiefly gas- 
eous, and the meteors as due to the solidifi- 
cation of portions of the gaseous coma which 
have been swept off by the repulsive action 
which forms the tail. Spectroscopic analysis 
has thrown some light on cometic structure, 
though hitherto only faint comets have been 
subject to careful analysis according to recent 
methods. Four comets examined by Dr. Hug- 
gins of England showed spectra indicative of 
gaseousness, so far as the nucleus and the bright- 
er part of the coma are concerned. The outer 
part of the coma seems to shine in part by re- 
flecting solar light. Two of the comets thus 
examined have shown a spectrum singularly 
like one of the spectra of carbon. Yet it is 
difficult to understand how carbon can be pres- 
ent in the form of luminous gas under the 
conditions actually existing in the case of 
these comets. The spectroscopic observations 
by Dr. Huggins on the latest arrival, Encke's 
comet, have been in all respects confirmed by 
Prof. Young of Dartmouth college. The mo- 
tions of Encke's comet, observed on many suc- 
cessive returns, seem to indicate the existence 
of a resisting medium ; but Sir John Herschel 



COMINES 



141 



has suggested another explanation ; and Prof. 
Asaph Hall has shown in the " American Jour- 
nal of Science and Arts " for December, 1871, 
that if resistance is actually in question, such 
resistance affects Encke's comet in an excep- 
tional manner, for other well known periodic 
comets show no traces of its effects. All the 
comets having a period not exceeding seven 
years' travel in the same direction around the 
sun as the planets. Among comets with pe- 
riods less than 80 years long, five sixths travel 
in the same direction as the planets. 

COMFREY (symphytum officinale), a plant of 
the order borraginacem, a native of Europe, 
but raised in our gardens. It was formerly 
imagined to promote the healing of wounds, or 
even of broken bones, a superstition of which 




Comfrey (Symphytnm offlcinale). 

traces have remained until the present time. 
Its virtues are simply those of a demulcent. 

COMINES, or Comynes, Philippe de, a French 
statesman and historian, born at the chateau 
of Comines, near Lille, in 1445, died at his dp- 
main of Argenton in 1509. He stood high in 
the favor of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 
and on occasion of Louis XL's imprisonment 
by Charles at Peronne succeeded in bringing 
about a treaty of peace between them. In 
1472 he forsook the cause of the duke of Bur- 
gundy and became councillor and chamberlain 
of Louis XL, who compensated him so amply 
for the loss of his property, which had been 
confiscated by Charles, that he soon became 
one "of the most wealthy and influential noble- 
men in France. The death of Louis, however, 
proved fatal to his fortunes. He was no favor- 
ite with Anne de Beaujeu, the regent, and 
was imprisoned on a charge of conspiracy 
against her. On the accession of Charles VIII. 
he was again employed in the public service, 
but went into retirement after the advent of 
Louis XIL, who seemed reluctant to favor 
him, although he left him in possession of a 
pension. The fame of Comines rests not only 
upon his astuteness as a statesman, but still 



COMITAN 



more upon his Memoires, which give a com- 
plete view of the political affairs of his time, 
and present a vivid picture of the character of 
Louis XI. They have been frequently print- 
ed. Lenglet Dufresnoy's edition (4 vols. 4to, 
London, 1747) is especially valuable on account 
of its annotations ; but the best and most re- 
cent is that published by Mile. Dupont for the 
society of French history (3 vols. 8vo, Paris, 
1850). Comines figures in Scott's romance of 
"Quentin Durward." 

COMITAN, or Comitlan, a town in the state 
of Chiapas, Mexico, on the river Grijalva, an 
affluent of the Tabasco, about 40 m. S. E. of 
San Cristobal; pop. 10,000. It is well built, 
and has a fine church and a large Dominican 
convent, and some trade in cochineal, sugar, 
and cotton. Its inhabitants are generally in 
prosperous circumstances, living on the in- 
comes of their haciendas in the neighborhood, 
which they cultivate by the labor of Indians. 

COMITIA, the public assemblies of the Eoman 
people for the transaction of important politi- 
cal business. There were three different kinds 
of comitia, corresponding to the three great 
divisions of the Romans: the comitia curiata, 
the comitia centuriata, and the comitia tributa. 
The comitia curiata, or assemblies of the curice, 
were the original assemblies said to have been 
instituted by Eomulus, and managed all the 
great concerns of state prior to the establish- 
ment of the comitia centuriata. They elected 
the kings and other chief magistrates, enact- 
ed and abrogated laws, and judged capital of- 
fenders. After the institution of the comitia 
centuriata, their prerogatives were gradually 
abridged, till almost all the great powers which 
they once exercised were wrested from them, 
and hardly any remained with them, save 
those minor ones which they had possessed 
from the beginning, in common with the higher 
rights annulled. The comitia curiata were 
originally called together by the kings, but in 
republican times generally by some great secu- 
lar or sacerdotal magistrate. They were com- 
posed of those Roman citizens who were mem- 
bers of the curisa, dwelt within the pomcerium, 
and conformed to the customs and rights of 
their respective wards. The meetings were 
not held periodically, but as often as there was 
business to transact. When the members 
were assembled, and the omens propitious, the 
rogatio, or matter to be considered, was read, 
and then each curia, after deciding apart on 
the question, gave its vote, and the votes of 
the majority of the curiae determined the fate 
of the measure, or, if it was a case of election, 
that of the candidates. These assemblies were 
held in that part of the forum called the comi- 
tium. The comitia centuriata were instituted 
by Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, with 
the view apparently of uniting in one body the 
different sections of the Roman people. Hav- 
ing compelled every man to give in an accurate 
account of his property, he divided the citi- 
zens into six classes, according to their wealth, 



COMITIA 



which he subdivided, according to Dionysius, 
into 193 centuries. Of these centuries he 
composed the comitia centuriata, which were 
held in the Campus Martius, for the election of 
consuls, censors, and praetors, for the trial of 
persons accused of what was termed crimen 
perduellionis, or treason, and for the confirma- 
tion or rejection of such laws as might be sub- 
mitted to their consideration. The most usual 
time of meeting was about the end of July or 
beginning of August in each year. When the 
centuries were assembled, they cast lots for 
priority of suffrage, and the century to which 
the lot fell voted. first, and was styled centuria 
prcerogativa. All the others voted in the or- 
der of their classes, and as they were sum- 
moned, and were thence termed jure vocatce. 
The presiding magistrate having ordered the 
prerogative century to be called out to give 
their suffrages, its members came forward and 
entered an enclosed space named septum or 
ovile, where, if it was a case of election, every 
man received as many tablets as there were 
candidates, every tablet having inscribed on 
it the initial letters of one candidate's name. 
The septa contained numerous large ballot 
boxes, and into one of these the voter cast that 
tablet which bore the initials of the name of 
the candidate whom he favored. If, however, 
it was a question of the confirmation or rejec- 
tion of a law, only two tablets were handed to 
each voter, on one of which were written V. 
j?., the initial letters of Uti rogas, "As thou 
desirest," and on the other A., the first letter 
ofAntiquo, "For the old," i. e., the old law 
(against the new). At each ballot box were 
stationed certain officers called custodes, who 
took the tablets of every century out of the 
ballot box, and numbered them by putting a 
puncture in another tablet for every one de- 
posited. Before the introduction of the bal- 
lot system, however, when every citizen voted 
viva voce, an officer called a rogator, stationed 
at the entrance of the septum, asked each indi- 
vidual for his vote. In the election of magis- 
trates, or the confirmation or rejection of laws, 
equality of suffrages nullified the vote of the 
century; but in juridical cases equality of suf- 
frages was deemed an acquittal of the accused. 
The comitia tributa, or assemblies of the 
tribes, were not established till 491 B. C. 
They were sometimes presided over by the 
tribunes of the people, sometimes by the con- 
suls or praetors, and were summoned for the 
election of tribunes, sediles, quaestors, and other 
inferior magistrates, for the trial of minor 
criminals, and for the enactment of special 
and general statutes. Their place of meeting 
was not fixed; occasionally they were con- 
vened in the Campus Martius, occasionally in 
the forum, and at times in the circus Flamin- 
ius. These were the democratic comitia. 
Their laws were termed plebiscita, or decrees 
of the plebs, and, unlike the other comitia, 
they could be called together without the sanc- 
tion of the senate. Besides these great assem- 






COMMANDERY 

blies, there were in the later ages of the repub- 
lic lesser comitia, termed comitia calata, which 
were held for the election of priests and the 
regulation of testamentary matters, and in 
which the people acted only as witnesses. 

COMMANDERY, a species of benefice, or an 
honorary dignity, belonging to certain of the 
orders of chivalry, and conferred upon aged 
knights who had rendered worthy services to 
the order or to the state. The term was first 
used in the 13th century, and was applied to 
sums saved from the revenues of the order for 
the support of warriors fighting against the 
Mohammedans. It was afterward applied to 
benefices distant from the residence of the or- 
der, and over which a knight was set to col- 
lect the revenues. Subsequently, the system 
of benefices having been abolished with the 
decline of feudalism, the orders of chivalry 
preserved the name after they had lost the sub- 
stance, and conferred the honorary dignity and 
the title of what had formerly been a revenue. 
Among the knights of Malta, those to whom 
commanderies were given were called com- 
manders, .and were rather the farmers than the 
beneficiaries of the order, since they paid a 
certain rent or tribute to the common treasury. 
The grand commander was the first dignitary 
of the order after the grand master. When 
the religious houses in England were suppressed 
by Henry VIII. there were more than 50 com- 
manderies in the country. There were com- 
manderies also in the orders of St. Bernard 
and St. Anthony, and in the Spanish orders of 
Santiago, of Calatrava, and of Alcantara. 

COMMODORE (It. commendatore, a com- 
mander), a naval officer who usually commands 
a squadron of ships upon particular service, 
his 'own ship being distinguished by a broad 
pennant worn at the main. In the navy of the 
United States, by an act of congress of July 
16, 1862, a commodore ranks between a rear 
admiral and a captain ; the grade corresponds 
with that of a brigadier general in the army. 
Previous to that act commodore was only a 
title of courtesy in the American navy, captain 
having been the highest actual rank till 185T, 
when a law of congress created the title of 
flag officer for the commander of a squadron. 

COMMODUS ANTONINUS, Lucius Anrelins, em- 
peror of Eome, born at Lanuvium, A. D. 161, 
assassinated Dec. 31, 192. He was the son of 
Marcus Aurelius and the younger Faustina, 
daughter of Antoninus Pius. He inherited all 
the vices of his mother, without any of the 
virtues of his father, and his advent to the 
throne in 180 was the signal for a series of 
cruelties, rivalling if not surpassing those of 
Caligula and Nero. Hastily making peace 
with the Quadi and other German tribes, he 
gave himself up to the vilest debauchery, and 
even his own sisters became the victims of his 
lust. Appearing as Hercules before the people, 
he slew thousands of beasts with bow and 
spear, and fought publicly as a gladiator many 
hundred times, while the affairs of the govern- 
215 VOL. v. 10 



COMMON 



143 



ment were left in the hands of the freedmen 
Perennis, Anterus, Cleander, Leetus, Eclectus, 
and other worthless favorites. The enormous 
taxes requisite to support his extravagance, a 
conflagration of Rome, and a famine, at length 
drove the people to despair, and disturbances 
broke out which caused the death of Cleander. 
Finally, his own favorites, finding that they 
were marked for execution, resolved upon his 
death; and the poison administered by his 
concubine Marcia working too slowly, the 
gladiator Narcissus was called to strangle him. 
The senate declared him an enemy of the 
republic, and commanded his statues to be 
broken, and his name to be erased from the 
public inscriptions. Several detected conspir- 
acies, some victories over the Caledonians 
achieved by Ulpius Marcellus, and the addition 
of an African corn fleet to that of Egypt, are 
the principal events of his reign. 

COMMON* Rights of, the use for certain pur- 
poses of land belonging to another. In the 
ancient law they were designated as common 
of pasture, of piscary, of turbary, and of 
estovers, and this classification is retained by 
Blackstone ; but it lacks precision, for piscary 
does not belong to lands at all ; and again, the 
right to the use of the water for fishing, &c., 
is in many cases all the estate that can be 
claimed by any one, and there are instances 
where such use is common to all persons with- 
out distinction. There is but one case which 
would come within the definition, and that is 
common of piscary in inland waters, the land 
under which is by the common law held 
to belong to the owner of the soil adjoin- 
ing the water. This would give such owner 
the exclusive use of the water, except for 
navigation, but a prescriptive right may be 
acquired by another having no interest in the 
fee. The other rights relate altogether to 
husbandry, and consist of the right to pasture 
cattle or other animals belonging to farmers 
upon lands of another, and to cut turf and 
wood for necessary fuel and repairs. The 
common of pasturage is the most important of 
these, and has been treated of hi the books 
much more fully than the others, but the prin- 
ciples applicable to each are substantially the 
same. This right is in the old cases held to be 
appendant, appurtenant, because of vicinage, 
or in gross. It was appendant when it be- 
longed to arable lands which were originally 
part of the manor in which the common was 
claimed, and the commonable right was in such 
case limited to beasts of the plough, and such 
as were used for manure. Common appurte- 
nant had no necessary connection of tenure, 
but might be claimed in other manors than 
that to which the land whereto the common 
was appurtenant originally belonged. Nor 
was it limited to any particular animals, but 
included every description, as hogs, goats, &c., 
as well as those which were used in tillage. 
The difference in origin between these two 
was that the former grew out of the origi- 



144 



COMMON 



COMMON CARRIER 



nal tenure, and was a general right incident to 
all smaller estates parcelled out from larger 
ones, which did not need prescription to sus- 
tain; the latter was founded solely upon grant, 
or upon prescription which always implied a 
grant. Both continued to exist notwithstand- 
ing the alienation of the lands to which the 
common was appendant or appurtenant, and 
in case of alienation of part of such lands, the 
alienee acquired a commonable right in the 
proportion the lands conveyed bore to the 
entirety to which the right originally belonged. 
This equitable principle was adopted to prevent 
the overcharge of commonable lands by the 
multiplication of rights from the successive 
division of estates, so that there could be no 
increase of the original right ; but whatever 
number of tenants became entitled, they could 
each have only their proportionate share. 
Thus the claim of a tenant who by the process 
of subdivision had become the proprietor of 
one yard of land, but set up a right of com- 
mon appendant for the pasturage of 64 sheep 
(which was the whole right that belonged to 
the entirety of the original premises), was re- 
jected. (Bennett v. Reeve, Willes's Rep., 227.) 
This case attracted much attention on account 
of the great amount of learning and ability 
which it elicited, but the principle had been 
long before recognized by Coke as appli- 
cable both to common appendant and appur- 
tenant. In Wilde's case, 8 Coke's Rep., 156 
(Coke being at that time chief justice of the 
common pleas, in which the case was argued), 
it was held: 1, that common appendant or 
appurtenant was apportionable ; 2, that the 
commonable land ought not to be subject to 
any other or greater charge than originally 
existed; though the court perhaps erred in 
assuming as matter of fact that there could be 
no increase if limited to cattle levant and 
couchant on the original premises, although 
the land might have been subsequently divided 
among several owners ; 3, that in case of pur- 
chase of a part of the commonable land by a 
tenant claiming a right of common appendant, 
the right is diminished in proportion to the 
land purchased ; but in the case of common 
appurtenant, it would be wholly extinguished 
by such purchase. And it was said in this case 
that if alienation was not allowed, all common 
appurtenant in England would be destroyed, 
for no land continues in so entire a manner, 
every acre together with another, as it had 
been db initio, but for preferment of younger 
sons, advancement of daughters, payment of 
debts, &c., part has been severed. In Tyr- 
ringham's case, 4 Coke, 36, the origin of com- 
mon appendant is thus stated : " When a lord 
enfeoffed another of arable land to hold of 
him in socage (per sermtium socce), as every 
such tenure at the beginning was, the feoffee 
should have common of the lord's wastes for 
his cattle which ploughed and manured his 
land; because it was tacite implied in the 
feoffinent, for the feoffee could not plough and 



manure the land without cattle, and they 
could not be kept without pasture. The second 
reason was for the maintenance and advance- 
ment of tillage, so that such common appen- 
dant is of common right, and it is not necessary 
to prescribe therein." In case of the purchase, 
by the proprietor of the commonable lands, of 
any part of the lands to which common is 
appendant or appurtenant, the right is wholly 
extinguished as to the purchased lands, and 
the same rule if the whole should be pur- 
chased. Unity of possession of the lands to 
which and the lands in which the common 
belongs is an extinguishment of the right. It 
has long been settled that the proprietor of 
lands in which there is a right of common 
may enclose and improve part, provided he 
leave a reasonable amount for common. Com- 
mon because of vicinage is when the inhabi- 
tants of towns contiguous to each other have 
intercommoned without hindrance on either 
side. Yet this is merely permissive so far as 
to excuse what in strictness is a trespass ; but 
no length of time, according to the opinion of 
Blackstone, will establish a prescription, but 
either town may bar out the other. Common 
in gross is not attached to lands at all, but 
merely to the person. This right is not, how- 
ever, multipled according to the number of a 
man's heirs. By the English law, if the right 
descend to several, as in the case of coparce- 
ners (i. e., where the descent is to daughters), 
the eldest shall take, but be liable to contribu- 
tion. In the United States a different rule is 
held, viz. : that all the heirs must jointly pos- 
sess or convey. The right of common has 
been comparatively less important in this 
country than in England ; but the principles 
of the common law have been, with few ex- 
ceptions, recognized here. It would probably 
not be admitted in any of the states, not even 
in those newest settled, that the grant of a 
piece of land parcel of a larger tract held by 
the grantor would carry with it common of 
pasturage or fuel. It can arise only by express 
grant or by prescription, which, as before 
mentioned, is always founded upon a supposed 
grant. The common of estovers, or the right 
to take wood for fuel, or for other use of the 
house or farm of the party entitled on the 
land of another, is held in New York not to 
be apportionable ; so that if partition is made 
of the premises among several, without re- 
serving the right of common to one, it is gone 
entirely. Other somewhat analogous privi- 
leges are sometimes spoken of as rights of 
common ; as where the inhabitants of a town 
or village are permitted to pasture their beasts 
upon lands owned by the municipality, or in 
the public highways. 

COMMON CARRIER, one who undertakes for 
compensation to carry goods from place to 
place for all who see fit to employ him. Of 
this class are proprietors of stage coaches, 
owners of vessels, railroad and express com- 
panies, and also wagoners and others, who, 



lev 



COMMON CARRIER 



either on particular routes or as they may be 
directed, hold themselves out as carriers for 
the public indifferently. Persons who thus 
become general carriers assume peculiar ob- 
ligations, and are subjected by the law to re- 
sponsibilities from which mere private carriers, 
or tftos'e who only undertake to carry on par- 
ticular occasions or for certain persons, are 
exempt. A common carrier is considered as 
in a public employment, and he is bound to 
carry without discrimination for all who may 
offer to employ him, and is liable for a refusal 
so to do. His business may be the transporta- 
tion of all kinds of movable property, or it 
may be restricted to particular kinds or descrip- 
tions; or he may carry movables generally, 
but exclude particular articles the carriage 
of which would be peculiarly inconvenient or 
extra-hazardous to persons or property carried, 
such for instance as nitro-glycerine ; and where 
the business is thus restricted, the public can- 
not insist upon an obligation to carry beyond 
what has been voluntarily assumed. (23 Ver- 
mont Rep., 186.) The liability of the carrier 
is to carry safely, and to deliver within a rea- 
sonable time ; and he is said in general terms to 
be an insurer against all loss or damage to the 
property carried, except such as may occur by 
the act of God or of the public enemy. A 
loss by lightning, tempest, the perils of the sea, 
or any inevitable accident which human care 
and foresight would not have guarded against, 
he is not responsible for ; but he must respond 
to the owner for fires occurring by negligence, 
whether of himself or his servants, or of third 
persons ; for injuries through defects of ma- 
chinery and vehicles ; for losses by collisions, 
thefts, embezzlements ; and for those occurring 
in consequence of unreasonable delay in carriage 
or delivery. If, however, he be plundered by 
the public enemy without his fault, or robbed 
by pirates, he is excused. But in any case 
where the carrier relies upon matter of excuse, 
he will nevertheless be held responsible if his 
own act or default concurred in producing the 
injury. (12 Maryland Rep., 9 ; 30 New York 
Rep., 630 ; 41 Penn. State Rep., 378.) A car- 
rier may contract with his employer for a limi- 
tation of his common-law liability (6 Howard, 
344), and this is very often done by provisions 
inserted in the bill of lading or other corre- 
sponding instrument ; but he cannot impose 
restrictions by his own act merely, and it has 
accordingly been held that notices posted at 
his office or other place of business that he 
would not be responsible beyond a specified 
amount, or for losses caused by particular 
perils, were of no force unless it could be 
shown that they were brought home to the 
knowledge of the consignor, and that he as- 
sented thereto. (19 Wendell, 234, 251.) No- 
tices, however, prescribing reasonable regula- 
tions for the conduct of the business, are not 
regarded as limitations of liability, and the 
consignor must conform to them, as he must 
also to the general regulations established by 



custom, and which, being generally under- 
stood, are supposed to be known by every one 
having transactions which would come within 
them. A common regulation is one requiring 
the nature or value of the property offered for 
carriage to be stated, and limiting the liability 
of the carrier to the value actually stated, 
where untruthful information has been given. 
It is a disputed point how far a common car- 
rier may contract for exemption from respon- 
sibility for losses caused by his own negligence. 
In some cases it has been held that certain 
new kinds of business from their very nature 
imposed certain restrictions; as, for instance, 
the transportation of live cattle, which are al- 
ways understood to be accompanied by the 
owner or his servant, whose charge and super- 
vision are inconsistent with the unlimited lia- 
bility of the carrier as insurer, and must be 
understood to modify it accordingly. (21 Mich- 
igan Rep., 165.) Limitations upon the carrier's 
liability are sometimes imposed by statute ; as in 
the case of the act of congress of March 3, 1851, 
which exempts the masters and owners of ves- 
sels from liability for losses by fires happening 
without their design or neglect, and for the loss 
of certain valuable articles not made known to 
them and entered truly in the bill of lading. 
The character of delivery to be made by the 
carrier will depend upon the nature and usages 
of the business and modes of conveyance. 
A wagon will be expected to deliver at the 
consignee's place of business ; but in the case 
of goods transported by railroad, the consignee 
is expected to receive them at the warehouse 
of the railroad company, unless the company 
adds to its ordinary business that of draymen 
also. By some courts it is held that the re- 
sponsibility of a railroad company as common 
carriers ceases as soon as the goods are received 
at the point of destination and placed in their 
warehouse ; while others hold that it continues 
until the consignee has been notified of the 
receipt of the goods, and has had reasonable 
time to take them away ; after which time, if 
they remain in warehouse, the company is no 
longer insurer, but liable like other warehouse- 
men for negligence. A carrier is entitled of 
right to demand payment of his charges in ad- 
vance ; but if he does not do so, he has a lien 
therefor on the goods carried, and also for any 
advances which may have been made by him 
in payment of the charges of other carriers over 
whose lines the goods have come to him. In 
England, where a railroad company receives 
goods to be carried over a connecting line and 
gives receipt accordingly, it is held liable as 
carrier to the point of ultimate destination (8 
Meeson and Welsby, 421); but this doctrine 
is rejected in America, and it is held liable to 
the extent of its own route only and for safe 
and prompt delivery to the next carrier, unless 
by contract, express or implied, it has assumed 
a further liability. (6 Hill, 157; 18 Vermont 
Rep., 140; 22 Conn. Rep., 1.) The responsi- 
bility of the carrier begins as soon as the goods 



146 



COMMON CARRIER 



COMMON LAW 



are delivered to him for carriage, unless they are 
retained for the convenience of the owner, or 
awaiting his orders. Common carriers of per- 
sons are those who hold themselves out as car- 
riers for hire of such as may offer, and who 
thereby become bound to carry all who offer. 
Their undertaking is to furnish suitable ve- 
hicles and to carry with reasonable despatch 
'and without negligence. They are not, how- 
ever, insurers for the safety of their passen- 
gers, but are held to the highest degree of 
care and vigilance, and must supply them- 
selves with the most approved appliances 
for the conduct of their business. An injury 
through defect of machinery renders the car- 
rier liable, unless the defect was one which 
no degree of watchfulness on his part would 
enable him to detect and guard against. The 
negligence of the carrier's agent or servant 
is his own negligence; but he is not liable 
for the servant's intentional wrongs, except 
where they are perpetrated in the exercise of 
an authority which the carrier has conferred, 
and on his behalf; as, for example, when a 
railroad conductor thrusts a passenger from 
the cars to his injury on a wrongful charge 
of non-payment of fare. (See MASTEE AND 
SERVANT.) Where, however, the injury occurs 
through the concurring negligence of the car- 
rier and the passenger, the former is not liable, 
as the law will not undertake to apportion the 
responsibility in such cases. But if the want of 
prudent conduct on the part of the passenger 
is in consequence of fright or alarm caused by 
the carrier's negligence, he cannot excuse him- 
self on that ground. The common law does 
not make a carrier liable civilly for a death 
caused by his negligence; but this has been 
regarded as a serious defect, and now by Lord 
Campbell's act (9 and 10 Victoria, ch. 93), and 
by statutes in the United States, all persons by 
whose wrongful act, neglect, or default a death 
is caused, are made liable to the payment of a 
pecuniary compensation for the benefit of the 
family or next of kin. An injury to a passen- 
ger while he is on the carrier's vehicle in the 
proper place for carriage is prima facie through 
the carrier's negligence. The carrier may, 
however, establish reasonable rules and regula- 
tions for the management of his business, which 
passengers must observe at their peril, and 
may eject from his conveyance any who refuse 
to comply ; and the reasonableness of such 
rules and regulations is a mixed question of 
law and fact, except where they are so palpa- 
bly improper as to be void on their face. 
Every passenger has a right to take with him 
reasonable baggage and money for his journey, 
and for these the carrier is liable as insurer to 
the same extent as any carrier of goods. What 
is baggage and what a reasonable amount will 
depend upon the nature and extent of the jour- 
ney, and upon the passenger's condition and 
circumstances in life. Such articles of clothing 
and personal convenience as are usually taken 
on- going abroad, a watch and common articles 



of personal ornament, would be included, but 
not articles taken in connection with the pas- 
senger's business, or money beyond what might 
in prudence be provided for the contingencies 
of the journey.- If, however, the easier is 
accustomed to take with his passengers other 
goods besides their baggage, for a compensa- 
tion to be paid him, he assumes as to such 
goods all the responsibilities of a common car- 
rier of goods, and consequently may be liable 
for a loss thereof, though occasioned by such 
circumstances as would excuse him from lia- 
bility to the passenger for a personal injury. 
The carrier may always demand his compensa- 
tion in advance ; but if he fails to do so, the 
non-payment prior to an injury will not excuse 
him from liability. 

COMMON LAW. By this term: in English ju- 
risprudence is sometimes designated that part 
of the law of England which has grown up from 
usage, as distinguished from acts of parlia- 
ment ; the former being also classified as leges 
non scriptce, the latter as leges scriptm. This- 
last classification is, however, far from ac- 
curate ; for, as we shall have occasion to show 
more particularly in another part of this article, 
the laws were at an early period repeatedly 
collected and promulgated by royal authority,, 
and in later times have been contained in re- 
ported decisions of the courts and treatises of 
writers upon law ; and again, many ancient 
statutes, the records of which are now lost r 
were incorporated into the common law, many 
others of which we have the record being 
merely declaratory of the common law as it 
was claimed to have existed before. Such was* 
the Magna Charta, as confirmed by parliament, 
9 Henry III., the oldest of the statutes of which 
an original record is now extant ; so the stat- 
ute 25 Edward III., relating to treason, the pe- 
tition of right, which was passed in 1628, and 
various other statutes of more modern date, 
purporting merely to declare the existing law, 
and not to enact any new provision. The defi- 
nition of common law above given includes 
not merely the indigenous customs of the Eng- 
lish people, but also so much of the Roman 
and canon laws as have been introduced in 
the admiralty and ecclesiastical courts, as well 
as the rules or maxims which were borrowed 
by English judges and writers from either of 
those systems. The term is also sometimes 
used to express the whole law, statutory or 
customary, as administered in the most ancient 
or what was termed common law courts, in 
distinction from the system of equity as de- 
veloped in the court of chancery, the latter 
being of more recent growth, and intended for 
relief in cases where there was no adequate 
remedy by the strict rules of the common law. 
In a still larger sense, it is the common appel- 
lation of the entire English law, including even 
the foreign elements intermingled with it, in 
distinction from the civil law generally re- 
ceived among European nations, and from the 
canon law, except so far as adopted in the 









COMMON LAW 



147 



ecclesiastical courts of England. It is in the 
last sense that it is commonly understood in 
the United States, yet with some modifications, 
growing out of its limited application under 
our peculiar political organization. In all the 
states except Louisiana the common law has 
been received, hut this has been understood 
not to include statutes, except so far as they 
had by their antiquity become merged in the 
common law, or had been recognized by colo- 
nial legislation or by general usage. The gene- 
ral course has been to re&nact the English 
statutes which it was deemed important to re- 
tain. In some of the states, however, many 
of the statutes have been admitted as having 
acquired legal validity without such reenact- 
ment. The ecclesiastical administration of law 
is also excluded, but this has been chiefly by 
a statutory establishment of courts in which 
the ecclesiastical has been united with civil 
jurisdiction. The principles of the canon law, 
with that exception, have remained in force 
in this country so far as they had become part 
of the common law. In the exposition of the 
subject it will be proper to consider it in a two- 
fold aspect, viz. : the development of the com- 
mon law from its primary sources, and the pecu- 
liar principles by which it is distinguishable 
from other systems of law. The first branch 
of our inquiry is deeply interesting, as con- 
taining the true history of the English people, 
and thus illustrating the chief element of our 
own nationality. No other modern European 
nation has produced for itself an entire system 
of law. The Roman is the basis of all con- 
tinental jurisprudence, and in some countries, 
as Italy and some of the German states, is still 
in full force as an original authority, modified 
only by political changes and local usages, 
which, however, have a similar relation and 
as limited a proportion to the original as the 
statutory has to the common law in England. 
In other countries, as Spain, it has been digest- 
ed in common with the modern additions, but 
this does not supersede a reference to the 
original source for the resolution of any diffi- 
cult questions ; and lastly, in other countries, 
as France, Prussia, and Austria, it has been 
reconstructed into the form of a code, though 
it still furnishes the elementary principles, 
legal language, modes of reasoning, and in 
general the forms of proceedings of all these 
compilations. On the other hand, whatever 
foreign element may have been intermingled 
with the English law has been assimilated by a 
process that may be compared to chylification 
in the animal system. The primitive constitu- 
ent of this law may be safely assumed to be the 
Saxon. Nothing can be traced from the Brit- 
ons, either of local usages or of the Roman law 
as administered while they were subject to the 
imperial government. Whatever has been de- 
rived from the latter source was introduced 
long afterward, and chiefly through the Nor- 
mans. The very language which we may sup- 
pose to have been spoken by the common peo- 



ple when Britain was a Roman province was 
lost, or is to be traced only in Wales and Brit- 
tany. Sir John Fortescue, who wrote in the 
reign of Henry VI., in his zeal to magnify the 
common above the civil law, maintained that 
the former was the more ancient, for that the 
customs upon which it was founded had exist- 
ed from the earliest period, without interrup- 
tion by the Roman, Saxon, Danish, and Nor- 
man conquests ; and Selden, in his notes upon 
Fortescue, does not dispute the assertion, further 
than that he says customs were also introduced 
by the Saxons, Danes, &c. Coke also asserts 
that the common laws of England were of 
greater antiquity than any other human laws 
(Pref. 2d Reports), and quotes the opinion of 
Fortescue at full length (Pref. 6th Rep.). This 
extravagant hypothesis is worthy of mention 
only as an illustration of the singular partiality 
of the English mind for whatever was of na- 
tive origin, and the prejudice existing at every 
period against whatever was of foreign growth. 
In estimating the proportion that Saxon usages 
contributed in the formation of English law, 
it would be too limited a view if we should 
take into account only the records now extant 
of particular laws and forms of proceedings. 
These records are imperfect, and even if we 
had the entire body of laws so far as they were 
ever reduced to writing, it would furnish but a 
part of what then existed and was perpetuated, 
and again it would be leaving out the self- 
developing power inherent in the habits of the 
people. The nation continued to be essentially 
Saxon even after the Norman conquest. The 
tenure of real estate was indeed radically 
changed by the introduction of the feudal 
laws, yet with steady perseverance the middle 
class gradually obtained amelioration of that 
system, and ingrafted upon it many peculiar 
rules and forms congenial with the national 
character. So the Norman sovereigns under- 
took to revolutionize the whole judicial ad- 
ministration. The aula regis, consisting of the 
king and council, sought to convoke to itself 
the judicial business, which had before been 
chiefly transacted in the Saxon county courts, 
presided over by a sheriff and bishop. The 
Norman language was introduced as the 
law language at least of the aula regis, and 
of the superior courts into which that tri- 
bunal was subsequently resolved, and Nor- 
man lawyers and judges sought to introduce 
the forms of practice and even rules of de- 
cision to which they had been accustomed. 
Yet in spite of these disadvantages, Saxon cus- 
toms still maintained their hold of the people. 
Terms were invented in Norman phraseology 
to express many of the judicial proceedings. 
The pleadings were indeed in Latin, but 
trials were conducted and decisions reported 
in the Norman. But underlying these exterior 
forms can be seen the same principles of right 
which constitute the earlier law of the country, 
and the administration of justice was still in 
fact practically in accordance with Saxon 



148 



COMMON LAW 



usages. This may be attributed in a consider- 
able degree to the large amount of business 
which continued to be transacted in the county 
courts, where the Saxon language and usages 
were strictly adhered to. The appointment 
of itinerant justices to go into the several 
counties of the kingdom for the trial of civil 
and criminal causes, which became a fixed cus- 
tom in the reign of Henry IL, must have also 
contributed largely to the perpetuation of pro- 
vincial forms. Hence it may be justly said 
that the laws continued to be formed as new 
cases arose, by the same habit of mind after 
the conquest as before, and that the common 
law continued to be developed from the Saxon 
original even under the Norman sovereigns. 
Of the collections of Saxon laws there are men- 
tioned: 1. The Dom Bole or Liber Judicialis 
of Alfred the Great, which was designed as a 
code for the government of the whole king- 
dom, and is supposed to have consisted of the 
local customs of different parts of the country, 
viz. : a, the Mercian laws, which prevailed in 
the counties bordering on "Wales, and which 
may have retained some of the old British 
customs; >, the West Saxon, which apper- 
tained to the southern and southwestern coun- 
ties ; Cj the Danish, which had been intro- 
duced on the eastern coast, where the Danes 
had settled. It appears that some laws were 
taken from the Old Testament, and it is likely 
that Alfred may have taken some liberty with 
existing regulations, particularly with the 
penal laws, as by a new enactment making 
murder a capital offence. But whatever was 
not in accordance with the spirit of the people 
came very little into use, and the whole was 
much interfered with by wars and consequent 
civil disorders. It has been said by some 
writers (Blackstone and others) that this code 
was extant as late as the reign of Edward IV., 
but it is now lost. Hallam, however, questions 
the authenticity of the work referred to. 2. 
The compilation of Edward the Confessor, the 
basis of which was the previous code of Al- 
fred, and was intended to be a complete collec- 
tion of laws both customary and statute. This 
obtained great celebrity, being the system 
which was in force immediately prior to the 
conquest, and consequently identified by the 
Saxons with their nationality. When there- 
fore they often demanded of the Norman kings 
confirmation of the laws of the confessor, 
they meant only the guarantee of the laws by 
which they had been formerly governed. This 
compilation is also lost. In some old writers 
there is a reference to a compilation begun by 
King Edgar, grandfather of the confessor, but 
this is supposed to be the same that was after- 
ward completed by the latter. 3. A collec- 
tion of ancient Saxon laws, canons, decrees of 
councils, and other public acts, was made by 
Lambard in the reign of Elizabeth, under the 
title of Apxaiovdfiia, sive de Priscis Anglorum 
Legibm. These laws are in Anglo-Saxon, and 
among them are some of Ethelbert, king of 



Kent (about 560). To this collection additions 
have been since made by Dr. Wilkins. The 
extent of the change of the laws made by the 
Normans has been the subject of much debate. 
It was chiefly in the tenure of real estate and 
the incidents resulting therefrom. On the 
one hand, it has been maintained by Coke, 
Selden, and others, that the feudal tenure 
existed among the Saxons before the conquest, 
but by Hale, and especially by Sir Martin 
Wright, that it was first introduced by the 
Normans. Without entering upon that dis- 
cussion, it will be sufficient here to say that 
principles relating to real estate are apparent 
soon after the conquest, radically differing 
from those recognized by the Saxons before 
that time. Among these may be specified, 
that landed property according to the Saxon 
laws was hereditary, that, with some excep- 
tions, it descended to all the sons, and that it 
could be aliened, mortgaged, or devised at the 
pleasure of the owner; whereas, not long 
after the accession of the Norman sovereigns, 
we find the descent of lands to the heir de- 
pending, at least in theory, upon the consent 
of the superior lord, as shown by the exaction 
of a compensation, called a relief, which the 
heir was compelled to pay; that the land 
descended to the eldest son, in exclusion of 
the others, and during the infancy of the heir 
the seignior or lord had the custody of his 
person and the care of his estate ; the land 
could not be aliened nor mortgaged, nor de- 
vised without the consent of the lord, nor 
sold under judgment for the payment of debts. 
Some of these restraints were relaxed in no 
long period afterward, as by a law of Henry 
I., which allowed a man to alien lands he had 
himself acquired, and which had not come to 
him by descent; this was modified in the 
reign of Henry II. by allowing alienation of 
purchased lands if he had other lands by de- 
scent sufficient to provide for his children, and 
if he had not, then he could only alien a part. 
So likewise in the reign of Henry II. aliena- 
tion of a part of the inheritance was allowed 
upon the same conditions. But disposal of 
lands by devise was never allowed until the 
reign of Henry VIII., when the statute rela- 
ting to wills was passed. In the system of 
judicature, among other changes was one 
which at the time was perhaps not designed 
to affect the mode of administering the laws, 
but which became the occasion of a vast 
extension of the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical 
courts and the bringing in of a foreign canon- 
ical law. This was an ordinance of William 
the Conqueror, by which the bishop, who had 
formerly sat in the county courts with the 
sheriff (the two together disposing of all causes, 
civil and ecclesiastical), was directed to hold a 
separate court -for the trial of ecclesiastical 
cases. The bishops, being thus made inde- 
pendent of the secular courts, proceeded to 
appropriate to their separate jurisdiction a 
large number of cases, under pretence of their 






COMMON LAW 



149 



involving something of a spiritual nature, as 
tithes and benefices. So they claimed exclu- 
sive cognizance of all questions relating to 
marriage, on the ground that it was a spiritual 
contract, and this claim involved not merely 
the power of annulling marriages and granting 
divorces, but also of determining questions of 
legitimacy and bastardy. The probate of tes- 
taments, it appears, had previously belonged 
to them, and this carried with it the cognizance 
of legacies. Thus, for a considerable time, 
any questions relating to either, when inciden- 
tally involved in a civil court, were referred to 
the ecclesiastical court for an answer to the 
particular question, when the civil court pro- 
ceeded with the determination of the case. 
Jurisdiction of the estates (that is to say, the 
personal effects) of persons dying intestate was 
obtained under a custom which is spoken of in 
a law of Henry I., that such effects were to be 
disposed of pro animo, sua. This custom must 
have grown up after the conquest, for by the 
Saxon laws both real and personal estate de- 
scended in the same manner in case of intes- 
tacy. What would be most for the benefit of 
the soul of the intestate, it was maintained, 
the bishops were most competent to decide. 
In King John's charter (the original Magna 
Oharta) it was expressly provided that the 
chattels of an intestate should be disposed of 
by the next of kin per visum ecclesim. This 
clause, though it is said to have been also con- 
tained in the charter of Henry III., was left 
out in the exemplification on the roll, 25 
Edward L, from which the Magna Charta was 
copied in the statute books. Under this it be- 
came an admitted right of the ecclesiastical 
courts to issue letters of administration in 
cases of intestacy. The law to which eccle- 
siastical courts had been formerly subject had 
been first established by a national synod held 
in 670, and was called the codex canonum vetus 
ecclesm Romance. Various laws were passed 
after that time for the regulation of ecclesias- 
tical matters, all of which, together with the 
original code, were reviewed by William the 
Conqueror with the assent of his great coun- 
cil. There was, therefore, a national canon 
law which had been prescribed or sanctioned 
by the legislature, and which did not depend 
upon pontifical authority. Under the new 
constitution of ecclesiastical courts, the clergy 
now, however, sought to introduce the entire 
canon law as promulgated at Rome. A com- 
pilation by Ivo de Chartres, in the reign of 
Henry I., contained many innovations upon 
the ancient law ; but after the digest of the 
whole pontifical canon law by Gratian had been 
adopted at Rome, it became a favorite object 
with the English clergy to procure its recogni- 
tion as the basis of their ecclesiastical law. 
As this compilation was derived chiefly from 
the Roman or civil law, the latter was also 
regarded with much favor by ecclesiastics, and 
they introduced public instruction at Oxford 
upon both the canon and civil law. Such, 



however, was the national jealousy, that in 
1152 the king prohibited the reading of books 
of canon law, referring, it may be presumed, 
to the two compilations by Ivo de Chartres 
and Gratian. The doctrines of this foreign 
canon law being in many respects subversive 
of the authority previously exercised by the 
civil government over the ecclesiastical courts, 
a struggle took place in which the whole pon- 
tifical power was brought to bear in their favor. 
The constitutions of Clarendon, which were 
enacted by Henry II. with the assent of the 
great council, in 1164, and confirmed at a 
council held at Northampton in 1176, were 
intended as a final settlement of the disputed 
points. By these it was determined that ques- 
tions concerning benefices (that is to say, the 
right of presentation) should be tried by the 
king's secular courts ; that ecclesiastics should 
be bound to come into the king's courts to 
answer to any matters cognizable there ; that 
there should be no appeal from the arch- 
bishop's court except to the king in person ; 
questions in relation to benefices, when the 
matter involved was whether the benefice 
were lay or eleemosynary, were to be deter- 
mined in the king's court by a recognition of 
12 men (a jury) ; lastly, the ecclesiastical courts 
were excluded from jurisdiction of pleas of 
debt, which they had lately assumed upon 
pretence that they were due fide inlerposita. 
In consequence of the king's remorse for the 
murder of Becket, these constitutions were not 
strictly executed during the rest of his reign, 
but they were not repealed. It would exceed 
our limits to trace further the history of the 
ecclesiastical laws of England. It will be suffi- 
cient to say that by various legatine and pro- 
vincial constitutions, the former being enacted 
by national synods, the latter by provincial 
synods, held either by the archbishop of Can- 
terbury or of York, the canon law has been 
settled with sole reference to the exigencies of 
the church and kingdom of England, and its 
authority now rests upon a statute of Henry 
VIII., by which it was declared that all canons, 
constitutions, &c., then existing, and which 
were not repugnant to the law of the land or 
the king's prerogative, should remain in use. 
An incidental effect of the enlargement of 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was that the civil 
law was referred to for the decision of many 
questions, and the rules thus adopted were of 
course recognized by other courts; but in 
addition to this, the law of England relating to 
personal property, which was comparatively 
deficient, received a large accession from the 
civil law, with which the judges had now 
become somewhat acquainted. The rules of 
consanguinity and therefore of descent, except 
the law of primogeniture, were taken wholly 
from the canon law, which in this particular 
differed from the civil. And even as to pri- 
mogeniture, there was for a time an alternation 
between the feudal principle, which gave to 
the eldest son the entire inheritance, and the 



150 



COMMON LAW 






Jewish or canonical rule, which allowed a 
double portion to the eldest, but gave to the 
others also a share of the estate. Thus in the 
reign of Henry I. it appears that the eldest son 
took only the primum patris fadum (the prin- 
cipal manor), the rest being left to descend to 
the other sons ; but this rule was of short dura- 
tion, for in the reign of Henry II. the eldest 
son was considered the sole heir of the whole 
inheritance. This related to lands held by mili- 
tary tenure or knight's service; socage lands 
(which were held by other services, and finally 
for a mere pecuniary compensation), even as 
late as the reign of Henry II., descended to all 
the sons, but the eldest was entitled to the 
capital messuage. This was not, however, uni- 
versal. The doctrine of representation was not 
entirely settled, and Glanville (who wrote in 
that reign) says that it was a question, when a 
man left a younger son, and a grandson by an 
elder son, which should succeed ; and he ex- 
presses the opinion that if the elder son had 
been provided for by an appointment of land 
during his life, the grandson should have no 
claim against the uncle for the remainder, 
though perhaps the eldest son might himself 
have done so had he survived. Gradually, 
however, all lands became subject to the strict 
feudal rule of primogeniture, except in certain 
places, where, by special custom which had 
been unbroken, it was otherwise. As to per- 
sonal property and contracts, how extensively 
the rules of the civil law were adopted may be 
seen in the treatise of Bracton, De Legibus et 
Consuetudinibus Anglia, which was published 
in the reign of Henry III. The arrangement 
of the subject is similar to that of Justinian's 
Institutes, and many principles are extracted 
from the Pandects, sometimes in the very lan- 
guage of the original. But Bracton was no 
servile copyist. He had a great legal mind, 
and he selected and applied the rules of law, 
from whatever sources derived, with much dis- 
crimination, and defined and explained them 
with precision. Such was his adaptation of le- 
gal principles to the peculiar circumstances and 
habits of the English people, that it was not 
understood by his contemporaries how largely 
he had drawn upon the civil law. During a 
long period, down even to the time of Coke, he 
held much the same relation to the common 
law that in later times Pothier had to the French 
law, with only this difference, that Bracton was 
also profoundly versed in the practice of the 
courts and forms of proceeding. As our object 
is simply to develop the primitive sources of the 
common law, and the general principle or pro- 
cess of its formation, it will be unnecessary to 
trace minutely the successive changes, from 
its earlier form to the later and more compli- 
cated system. It will be sufficient to refer 
summarily to some of the important incidents. 
1 . The relaxation of the feudal principle of non- 
alienation, until all restriction was removed by 
the statute Quia emptores, 18 Edward I., and 
other acts ; then the introduction of conditional 



fees, or estates tail, which, by the statute De 
Donis, 13 Edward I., were restricted from alien- 
ation, and the evasion of the statute by new 
forms of conveyance, viz., fines and common 
recoveries. 2. The prohibition of conveyances 
to religious houses and persons. This was first 
by the Magna Charta of Henry III., which was 
construed to relate to religious houses only; 
and in consequence the act De Religiosis, V Ed- 
ward I., commonly called the statute of mort- 
main, was passed, by which the prohibition was 
extended to all persons holding for similar pur- 
poses; and in the statute Quia emptores, above 
referred to, which gave general liberty of alien- 
ating lands, a proviso was inserted that this 
should not authorize any kind of alienation in 
mortmain. Common recoveries were resorted 
to by the ecclesiastics to avoid the effect of 
these disabling statutes; but this device was 
checked by statute 13 Edward I., which pro- 
vided that the fiction should be disregarded, and 
the real right should be tried, and if not found 
in the religious corporation, the land should be 
forfeited. Next the ingenuity of the clergy de- 
vised a form of conveyance, by which, instead 
of the fee, the use only was given to the reli- 
gious beneficiary, while the seisin remained in 
a nominal feoffee ; and courts of equity, which 
were then under the direction of the clergy, 
held that the feoffee was bound in conscience 
to account to the cestuy que use for the profits 
of the estate. This device was, however, de- 
feated by the act 15 Richard II., which enacted 
that uses should be subject to the statutes 
of mortmain as well as the lands. When the 
statute relating to wills, 32 Henry VIII., was 
passed, devises to corporations were excluded. 
By a subsequent act, 43 Elizabeth, a devise to 
a corporation for a charitable use was allowed, 
and this is now the sole right which religious 
corporations have for the acquisition of real 
estate either by deed or will. 3. The intro- 
duction of uses, as before mentioned, gave rise 
to a complicated part of the English law of real 
property. Great landed proprietors, for the 
purpose of perpetuating estates in their fami- 
lies, and to prevent alienation, resorted to the 
expedient which had been invented by the 
clergy, of conveying the use instead of the fee, 
and in the court of chancery such conveyance 
was held binding for any length of time. This 
gave rise to the statute of uses, 27 Henry VIII. , 
by which the use was transferred into posses- 
sion, or in other words, the estate vested in the 
cestuy que use. By a narrow construction of 
the act, its operation was to a great extent 
evaded by the substitution of trusts for uses, 
and under that denomination conveyances have 
been introduced which are enforced in chan- 
cery, but with some important modifications in 
regard to their legal effect. (See BAKGAIN AND 
SALE.) 4. The various provisions of law in re- 
lation to personal liberty and rights. This is 
perhaps the most important part of the com- 
mon law, but it would greatly exceed our lim- 
its to attempt to give even a summary of its 






COMMON LAW 



151 



history. A multitude of statutes were passed, 
at various periods, declaratory of the common 
law, or in aid of what was claimed as constitu- 
tional rights, the most important of which 
were the Magna Charta of King John, confirmed 
by Henry III. ; the petition of right, passed in 
the reign of Charles I. ; the habeas corpus act, 
in that of Charles II. ; the bill of rights, in 
that of William and Mary; and the act of 
settlement under William III. Three subjects 
remain to be considered, viz.: chancery, ad- 
miralty, and the modern commercial law. As 
to the equity law as administered in the court 
of chancery, see CHANCERY. The courts of 
admiralty have jurisdiction of maritime causes, 
which were considered to be out of the reach 
of the ordinary courts of justice. It was a 
peculiarity of the common law that every ac- 
tion was considered local, and was triable in 
a particular county. Hence causes of action 
which arose at sea, or in foreign ports, whether 
upon contracts or for injuries, could have no 
venue in any county in England. The objec- 
tion in cases of contracts or injuries in foreign 
places has been obviated in later times by a fic- 
tion which represents the transaction to have 
taken place in an English county, and the com- 
mon law courts have taken jurisdiction of that 
class of cases, with the exception only of what 
are purely maritime in their nature, which have 
been left exclusively to the admiralty. The pro- 
ceedings in these courts are analogous to those 
of the civil law, yet not directly or entirely de- 
rived therefrom. The maritime laws of other 
countries are referred to, as well in respect to 
rules of decision as to the mode of proceeding, 
yet not as binding authority ; for the law of Eng- 
land recognizes no foreign law as such. Com- 
mon usage limited by divers acts of parliament 
has, however, admitted to a certain extent the 
principles contained in maritime codes, espe- 
cially the Khodian laws and laws of Oleron. 
The modern English commercial law has grown 
up chiefly within the last 200 years, and has at- 
tained its present complete state by the mere 
development of principles recognized by the 
common law. It is a memorable instance of 
the expansive power of law from natural re- 
sources. Statutes have had but little to do with 
it. The civil law, and the modern codes or 
systems founded thereon, have been no other- 
wise availed of by English judges than to aid 
their own reasoning. Lord Mansfield and other 
eminent judges were familiar with foreign ju- 
risprudence, but they were able to decide com- 
mercial questions by a process of reasoning en- 
tirely congenial with the common law. The 
second inquiry which was proposed at the be- 
ginning of this article was a summary of the 
peculiar principles by which the common law 
is distinguishable from other systems of law. 
1. Security for life, liberty, and property. We 
have already referred to the declaratory stat- 
utes by which personal rights are guaranteed. 
But it would be a mistake to suppose that these 
statutory provisions have constituted the real 



defence of English liberty. They are in fact 
but the expression of the stern, indomitable 
spirit of independence which has been the 
honorable distinction of the national character, 
and without which no charter or statutes could 
have availed anything against arbitrary power. 
The statutes themselves at an early period were 
in fact too general in their terms to have fur- 
nished any sure protection against corrupt ju- 
dicial construction by subservient courts, had 
it not been for the constantly renewed exhibi- 
tion of persistent public, feeling which could 
not be safely trifled with. The famous clause 
in the Magna Charta, which has been often 
called the foundation of civil freedom in Eng- 
land, was in these words : Nullus liber homo 
capiatur vel imprisonetur, aut disseisiatur de 
libero tenemento suo, vel libertatibus tel liberis 
consuetudinibus suis, aut utlagetur aut exulet, 
aut aliquo modo destruatur, nee super eum 
ibimus nee super eum mittemus, nisi per legate 
judicium parium tsuorum vel per legem terras. 
Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus. aut differe- 
mus rectum vel justitiam. (No free man shall 
be arrested, or imprisoned, or disseised of his 
freehold, or disfranchised of his liberties or 
customary rights, nor be outlawed or expelled 
from the country, or in any other manner de- 
stroyed, except by the judgment of his peers 
or by the law of the land. We will sell justice 
to no one, nor deny it to any, nor delay its due 
administration.) These are energetic expres- 
sions, yet of what avail would they have been 
against a tyrannical Henry VIII., who would 
have held, as he did in some instances, that his 
own will was the law of the land, or a faith- 
less Charles I., who could assent to the petition 
of right and evade its effect by falsifying the 
record, if the liberties of the commoners had 
depended upon a mere charter ? Some of the 
later statutes are more specific in their provi- 
sions. The petition of right required the cause 
of arrest to be specified in the warrant under 
which any man was imprisoned. The habeas 
corpus act further provided for a determination 
of the sufficiency of the cause of arrest, and a 
discharge if such arrest should be found to 
be illegal. Other acts provided against the 
exaction of bail for an excessive amount, in 
cases where the arrest was lawful. It is to be 
remembered that all these and many similar 
statutes purported only to guard against en- 
croachments upon rights claimed to exist by 
common law. It has always been customary 
in the United States to incorporate in the con- 
stitutions of the several states, or to declare by 
statutes, some of the most important of the 
personal rights which have been the subject 
of controversy in England. There is, however, 
but little occasion for such reenactment. The 
privileges thus declared are inherent in the 
very structure of our society, and recognized 
by our common legislation. Our danger does 
not lie in that direction, but rather in too un- 
checked license. The Athenian state would, 
perhaps, furnish us a more apt precedent of 



152 



COMMON LAW 



COMMON PRAYER 



the evils to which we are exposed, and the ap- 
propriate counteraction. 2. Trial by jury has 
been the most noticed of common law rights, 
because it belongs exclusively to the English, 
having been admitted in no other country un- 
til within a very recent period. It has been 
attended with doubtful success in France and 
some other states where the French code 
has been introduced either as law or prece- 
dent. Sir John Fortescue insisted that this 
mode of trial had not been introduced in other 
countries because a class of men could not be 
found there fitted to serve on juries. " For 
though there be in them men of great power 
and of great riches and possessions, yet they 
dwell not nigh one to another, as such great 
men do in England ; neither so many inherit- 
ors and possessors of land are elsewhere as in 
England." (Fortes. De Laud. Ang., c. 29.) 
The meaning of this is, that in his time there 
was no middle class of men between the no- 
bility and the impoverished peasantry ; and it 
was undoubtedly true that no country in Eu- 
rope then had a common people as well pro- 
vided and intelligent as the English. But al- 
though at the present time there may not be 
the same difference that then there was, be- 
tween England and other countries, in the 
comforts of the commonalty, yet it is equal- 
ly true in our time that there is a comparative 
deficiency of qualification still existing in con- 
tinental countries for that office. It requires a 
training for many successive generations to fit 
men for judicial functions; it requires above 
all an individual independence, which has been 
peculiarly the characteristic of the English 
people. Possession of a competence is also im- 
portant. It is related by the old writers that 
during a considerable period after the conquest, 
when the common people were oppressed and 
impoverished, it was difficult to maintain the 
Saxon administration of justice in the county 
courts, by reason of the lapsed integrity of the 
freeholders, who were usually assembled in 
those courts as jurymen. This led to a pro- 
ceeding called an attaint, by which a jury was 
put upon trial for a false verdict, and a severe 
penalty followed conviction. The English 
character afterward improved, however, and 
the trial by jury has always been maintained 
in a great degree of purity. 3. The mode of 
proof in trials. The English law of evidence is 
an extensive branch of the law, and has been 
founded upon good sense. In criminal cases, 
the accused parties are not compelled to testify 
against themselves; and although, upon pre- 
liminary examination before magistrates, the 
accused is permitted to make his statement, he 
is not compelled to do so. Much less was it ever 
permitted in England, except for a short period 
under the Tudors and the first Stuart, to put 
a man to torture to extort his confession. This 
is mentioned by Fortescue as one superiority 
of the English laws, from which it may be in- 
ferred that the practice did not then exist, 
though the introduction of the rack is referred 



by Coke to the duke of Exeter, in the reign of 
Henry VI. It was not used in England after 
the reign of James I. 4. The rules of the com- 
mon law relative to husband and wife cannot 
challenge the merit of superiority to the cor- 
responding law in other countries. The per- 
sonal property of the wife became the hus- 
band's so far as he could get possession ; and it 
was with extreme difficulty, and only by the 
aid of the court of chancery, that she could 
formerly be protected in the enjoyment of any 
part of her property. The law has within a 
recent period, and especially in the United 
States, been ameliorated in favor of the wife, 
but this change has been by statute and not by 
any self-amelioration of the common law. Mar- 
riage can be dissolved only for one offence com- 
mitted after the marriage, viz., adultery. For 
some preexisting causes, as impotence, fraud, 
&c., the contract may be declared null; but no 
subsequent cause but the one above mentioned 
is a ground of divorce. Under the same head 
we may mention the steady persistence in the 
ancient doctrine that a child born before the 
marriage is illegitimate. There has always 
been a special prejudice against any change of 
the law in this respect, perhaps at an early 
period, owing to the general opposition to the 
canon law. Nolumus leges A-mglice, mutari 
qucB hucusque mitatce sunt et approbate, said 
the barons when it was proposed in the reign 
of Henry 111. to legitimate children born be- 
fore marriage. Fortescue praises the good 
sense of the rule of the common law, and Black- 
stone maintains the same view. It is enough 
for our present purpose to say that in that re- 
spect it differs from the laws of most other 
countries. 5. The English law of descent, in- 
cluding primogeniture, is another peculiarity 
which has been already sufficiently noticed. 
6. Passing over many other points of lesser 
consideration, the last and principal circum- 
stance distinguishing the common law is the 
mode in which it has been promulgated. This 
has been by the decisions of courts. Treatises 
of writers have no authority, except as sus- 
tained by decisions. It was thought as early 
as the time of Bacon that the decisions had be- 
come so numerous that they needed to be 
digested, and digests were in fact prepared, 
though not by public authority. Still the cases 
have gone on accumulating ; abridgments and 
digests have followed ; the older books are no 
longer cited, but the rules and reasons have been 
reproduced in other forms. The law seems to 
be still in growth, while the richness of our 
legal learning is the detritus from ancient trib- 
utaries, the sources of which we can no longer 
trace with distinctness. 

COMMON PRAYER, Book of, the formulary of 
public worship of churches of the Anglican 
communion. The early British church appears 
to have adopted, many years previous to the 
departure of the Romans from Britain, a litur- 
gy almost identical with that of the Gallican 
churches, and which, like the latter, was 






COMMON PRAYER 



153 



derived from the Ephesine liturgy of St. John. 
To this the remnant of native Christians in the 
west and southwest, who had escaped the fury 
of the Saxon invaders, clung with great te- 
nacity, and Augustin upon his arrival in Eng- 
land in 596, on his mission to convert the 
Saxons, found it in common use wherever 
Christian worship was tolerated. Being de- 
sirous of establishing the Roman ritual, to 
which the British bishops strongly objected, 
he applied for instructions to Pope Gregory the 
Great, who authorized him to choose either 
the Gallican or the Roman services, or selec- 
tions from various forms, as he might find most 
suitable. The result Avas a species of amalga- 
mation of liturgies. Different dioceses or dis- 
tricts adopted different modifications of the 
forms of public worship, in all of which, how- 
ever, the influence of the early English liturgy 
was more or less perceptible. After the Nor- 
man conquest a vigorous effort was made to 
secure uniformity in the performance of divine 
service, and about 1085 Osmond, bishop of Salis- 
bury, compiled the "Sarum Use," or prayer 
book of the diocese of Salisbury, which even- 
tually became the principal devotional rule of 
the Anglican church for nearly four centuries 
and a half. Other local uses, however, pre- 
vailed, such as those of Bangor, Hereford, 
York, and Lincoln ; and the Roman system was 
recognized in most of the monasteries. The 
service books of the several English uses were 
in the Latin language ; but long before the 
period of the reformation books of private de- 
votion in the vernacular, called "Prymers," 
had been introduced, of which three, contain- 
ing the Lord's prayer, the creed, the ten com- 
mandments, and other offices of worship, were 
put forth between 1535 and 1545. Early in 
the reign of Henry VIII. amended editions of 
the Salisbury breviary and missal appeared, 
and subsequent to 1538 many editions of the 
Epistles and Gospels in English were publish- 
ed. In 1544 the litany was translated, with 
the omission of the names of saints which had 
accumulated in the Latin litanies. These pub- 
lications were but the preliminary steps to ward 
the introduction of a reformed prayer book. 
In 1542 a committee of convocation was ap- 
pointed, with the sanction of Henry VIII., to 
consider what revision should be made in the 
existing service books. The committee sat 
for several years, and during the life of Henry 
were compelled to act with extreme caution, 
as the " statute of six articles," passed 
through his personal influence, made their 
labors penal. After his death in 1547 their 
number was enlarged, and, the obnoxious 
statute having been repealed, they produced 
at the close of the year " a form of a certain 
ordinance for the receiving of the body of our 
Lord in both kinds, viz., of bread and wine," 
which was ratified by parliament in March, 
1548, and was authorized to be used until the 
whole of the projected service book should be 
prepared. In the following December they 



laid before parliament a reformed book of 
common prayer, which, together with an " act 
for uniformity of service," was adopted by 
that body in January, 1549, and came into 
general use on Whitsunday, June 9. This 
book, known as the first service book of Ed- 
ward VI., was the result of six years of dili- 
gent labor on the part of the revisers, who 
endeavored to reduce the different uses prev- 
alent in England to one, the reformed Salis- 
bury use of 1516 and 1541 forming their basis, 
and to make their work simple and intelligible. 
They translated into English from the existing 
service books the prayers, psalms, hymns, 
epistles, and gospels, omitting what appeared 
to them to have been derived from other 
sources than Scripture or primitive practice, 
and expunging, especially from the communion 
service, the prayers of invocation to the Virgin 
Mary and the saints. Where new elements of 
thought are visible, the sources which supplied 
them were the reformed breviary of Cardinal 
Quignones, recommended by Pope Paul III., 
and especially the " Consultation " of Her- 
mann, archbishop of Cologne, compiled in 
1543 with the aid of Bucer and Melanchthon. 
To the latter formulary the baptismal office 
was largely indebted, and through it to one of 
Luther's compilations, made as early as 1523. 
The new book comprised the order for matins 
and even song, corresponding with morning 
prayer and evening prayer in the modernized 
prayer book, and which were a condensation 
of the " seven hours of prayer" in the brevi- 
ary; the introits, collects, epistles, and gos- 
pels used at the celebration of the holy com- 
munion ; the office of the communion; the 
litany ; the rite of baptism ; confirmation, 
which included the catechism; matrimony; 
the visitation and communion of the sick ; the 
burial of the dead ; the purification of women ; 
and a form of service for Ash Wednesday. 
The psalms appointed to be sung at matins and 
even song were taken from the " Great Eng- 
lish Bible " of Cranmer, and this version is 
used in the "Book of Common Prayer" to 
the present day in preference to that contained 
in the authorized version of the Scriptures. 
This service book did not require absolute uni- 
formity in outward observances, but allowed 
the practice in minor details of public wor- 
ship to be guided by individual tastes and 
preferences. But a statute passed both houses 
of parliament in January, 1549, enjoining un- 
der the severest penalties that after the feast 
of Pentecost following, all ministers of the 
church within the realm of England should be 
bound to use the form of the said book and 
no other. In 1550 a "Form for the Order- 
ing of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons" was 
drawn up, which was subsequently incorpo- 
rated with the prayer book. Scarcely had 
the new book come into use when it encoun- 
tered opposition from the more radical school 
of reformers, headed by Hooper, bishop of 
Gloucester, and several continental Protes- 



154 



COMMON PRAYER 



tants, of whom the most eminent were Peter 
Martyr, Martin Bucer, and John a Lasco, who 
had come to England after the accession of 
Edward VI., and made their way to important 
posts. Calvin also urged upon the protector 
Somerset the necessity of pushing the reforma- 
tion in England further than it had gone. The 
court yielded to these influences, and the young 
king declared himself in favor of a more tho- 
rough revision of the prayer book. Cranmer, 
archbishop of Canterbury, one of the framers 
of the first book, was induced to give his con- 
sent to the undertaking, and another commit- 
tee of divines, who are conjectured to have 
been the same who prepared the ordinal of 
1550, undertook the preparation of a second 
prayer book, which was duly ratified by par- 
liament, and came into use on All Saints' day, 
1552. This is substantially the "Book of 
Common Prayer " in use at the present day. 
The difference between this book and that of 
1549 consists chiefly in the following particu- 
lars : To the offices of matins and even song, 
which began with the Lord's prayer, were 
prefixed the sentences, exhortations, confession, 
and absolution. In the communion service the 
ten commandments were added, the title of 
the prayer "for the whole state of Christ's 
church " was changed to that of a prayer " for 
the whole state of Christ's church militant here 
on earth," and the commendation of the de- 
parted to divine mercy was omitted. In the 
prayer of consecration the invocation of the 
Holy Spirit to sanctify the elements was omit- 
ted, and in the administration of the elements 
a different form of words was used. In the 
office of baptism the practices of exorcism, 
anointing, putting on the chrisome, and trine 
immersion, prescribed in the first book, were 
abolished in the second. In the burial service 
the prayers for the dead were changed into 
thanksgiving, and the service for Ash Wednes- 
day was entitled "A Commination against 
Sinners." Certain changes were also made in 
the vestments of the clergy. A few months 
after this book came into use Edward VI. 
died, and the first parliament of his successor, 
Mary, by an act passed in October, 1553, re- 
stored the services to the condition in which 
they were in the last year of Henry VIII. In 
November, 1558, Elizabeth succeeded to the 
throne; and early in April, 1559, the second 
book of Edward VI. was restored to use, with 
certain slight modifications, prominent among 
which was the omission of the litany clause, 
" from the tyranny of the bishop of Rome, and 
all his detestable enormities." The "orna- 
ments " of the church and the ministers which 
had been in use under the first book of Edward 
VI., but had been curtailed by the second, 
were also restored. The prayer book thus 
modified, of which a Latin version was also 
published, was at length acquiesced in by the 
great body of the English people, and, accord- 
ing to Sir Edward Coke, was even approved by 
Pope Pius IV., who offered to give it his full 



sanction " so as her majesty would acknowledge 
to receive it from the pope, and by his allow- 
ance.'' This statement of Coke's, however, is 
not accepted as authentic by Catholic authori- 
ties. With the exception of a revision of the 
calendar, no further changes were made in the 
prayer book until the accession of James I. in 
1603. The Puritan or nonconformist party had 
meanwhile gathered strength, and soon after the 
arrival of the new sovereign in London they pre- 
sented to him a petition in favor of a further re- 
vision and purification of the liturgy. The result 
was the so-called Hampton Court conference, 
participated in by eminent clergy of the estab- 
lished church and of the nonconformist bodies, 
and which met on Jan. 14, 1604, in presence 
of the king and the privy council. The king 
considered the demands of the Puritans unten- 
able, and broke up the conference on the third 
day ; but under the clause of the act of unifor- 
mity by which Elizabeth had authorized a re- 
vision of the calendar, he directed a few changes 
to be made in the prayer book, of which the 
most important seem to have been the questions 
and answers concerning the sacraments sub- 
joined to the catechism, and the restriction of 
the administration of baptism to regularly or- 
dained ministers. With the triumph of parlia- 
ment in the reign of Charles I. the opponents 
of the prayer book succeeded in 1 645 in getting 
it entirely suppressed, and for fifteen years it 
passed almost out of sight. The restoration 
of the royal family brought it again into favor, 
and subsequent to July, 1660, as Evelyn records, 
it was publicly used in the churches. In March, 
1661, Charles II. summoned a number of di- 
vines, representing equally the established 
church and the nonconformists, to meet in 
London and review the " liturgy of the church 
of England, contained in the Book of Common 
Prayer, and by law established." This assem- 
bly, called from its place of meeting the " Sa- 
voy conference," was the last official attempt 
to reconcile the differences of opinion between 
the advocates and the opponents of the prayer 
book. Its sessions extended from April 15 to 
July 24, 1661, and were barren of any practi- 
cal result. A strong reaction had taken place 
in favor of the church party, and the noncon- 
formists, though represented by such men as 
Baxter and Calamy, were not sufficiently uni- 
ted in their plan of opposition to accomplish 
their object. Baxter even drew up a substi- 
tute for the prayer book, which failed to meet 
the approval of his friends. The work of re- 
vision was then committed to the convocations 
of the provinces of Canterbury and York, by 
which a number of slight changes were made, 
which seem to have been in the opposite di- 
rection from that desired by the nonconfor- 
mists. A service was also provided for the 
baptism of those of riper years, and a form of 
prayer to be used at sea. The prayer book 
thus revised, together with an act for unifor- 
mity of public worship, was approved by par- 
liament in 1662, and went into immediate use. 






COMMON" PRAYER 



155 



A further attempt in the reign of William III. 
to revise it proved unsuccessful, and the prayer 
book of 1662 remained unaltered till 1872, 
when a new lectionary or course of lessons 
from the Scriptures was introduced, which is 
made optional till 1879. In the new lection- 
ary many chapters from the Apocrypha are 
omitted. Previous to 1859 it was customary 
to include in modern editions of the Book of 
Common Prayer four services for special days 
of the year, known as "state services," which, 
however, properly formed no part of the book. 
Three of these services, being forms of prayer 
for the 5th of November, in commemoration of 
the disco very of the gunpowder plot of 1605; the 
30th of January, the anniversary of the execu- 
tion of Charles I. ; and the 29th of May, the birth- 
day of Charles II. and the anniversary of the 
restoration of the royal family, were in the year 
above mentioned abolished by act of parlia- 
ment. The fourth, a form of prayer for the 
accession of the reigning sovereign, has been 
retained. For many years after the reforma- 
tion no attempt was made to introduce a uni- 
form system of worship in Scotland, although 
Knox's " Book of Common Order " was very 
generally used. In deference to the wishes of 
James I. the general assembly in 1616 decided 
in favor of a uniform order of liturgy; but 
nothing was done in the matter till after the 
accession of Charles I., who was very desirous 
of having the English prayer book adopted by 
the church of Scotland. The Scottish bishops, 
however, preferred to frame a liturgy of their 
own, and eventually an episcopal committee 
was appointed to carry this design into execu- 
tion. The committee after several years' labor, 
in which they were aided by suggestions from 
Archbishop Laud, completed their prayer book 
in 1636, and in 1637 it was imposed upon the 
church of Scotland by letters patent and the 
authority of the bishops, without having been 
submitted to the general assembly. It was 
modelled after the English prayer book of the 
time, with a number of slight variations ; but 
the communion office rather followed the form 
in the first book of Edward VI. The book en- 
countered vehement opposition, and was al- 
most immediately suppressed. From that time 
until the close of the 18th century the Scottish 
Episcopal church and its liturgy remained in 
comparative obscurity, being for many years 
under the operation of penal laws. The prayer 
book was several times revised, notably in 
1765, and is now in most respects identical 
with that of the church of England. The 
communion office, however, retains many fea- 
tures peculiar to the first book of Edward VI. ; 
and certain ancient usages, such as the sign 
of the cross at confirmation, the mixture of 
water with wine at the eucharist, and the dis- 
missal previous to the consecration of the ele- 
ments of those not intending to communi- 
cate, are still enjoined by rubric. Until the 
'disestablishment of the Irish Episcopal church 
on Jan. 1, 1871, its prayer book was identi- 



cal with that of the church of England, ex- 
cept that it contained a few additional ser- 
vices, such as a form for the visitation of 
prisoners, a form of consecration or dedica- 
tion of churches and chapels, and a prayer for 
the lord lieutenant. One of the declarations 
prefixed to the constitution of the disestablished 
church enjoins the use of the Book of Common 
Prayer, "subject to such alterations only as 
may be made therein from time to time by the 
lawful authority of the church." In the first 
synod, which met in April, 1871, a number of 
attempts to alter the liturgy and formularies 
failed of success, and the subject of revision 
was referred to the bishops and to a mixed 
committee of clergy and laymen, who were 
directed to report in the succeeding year. The 
synod of 1872 declared the word priest to be 
synonymous with presbyter, and authorized 
the shortening of the services on week days 
and the dividing of them. It also approved of a 
recommendation for the omission of the rubric 
on ornaments. Propositions to remove the 
damnatory clauses from the Athanasian creed, 
and to allow deacons to pronounce absolution, 
were defeated, which was declared to be equiv- 
alent to a withdrawal of those subjects from 
further consideration by the synod. The com- 
mittee was then reappointed and directed to 
report in 1873. Previous to the American 
war of independence members of the church 
of England in the British North American 
colonies were under the episcopal supervision 
of the bishop of London, and used the English 
Book of Common Prayer. Immediately upon 
the acknowledgment by Great Britain of the 
political independence of the United States, 
measures were taken to establish an American 
Episcopal church, and to compile a service book 
for its use. The initiatory step was taken by 
Connecticut, where in March, 1783, a convention 
of Episcopal clergy recommended Dr. Samuel 
Seabury to the English bishops for consecration 
to the episcopate. Owing to certain technical 
legal difficulties, this could not at once be effect- 
ed, and Dr. Seabury went by advice to Scotland, 
where on Nov. 14, 1784, he was consecrated 
at Aberdeen by the bishops of the Scottish. 
Episcopal church. Meanwhile a convention, 
participated in by Episcopalians from various 
states, had met in New York in October, 1784, 
and adopted a series of articles, one of which 
provided " That the said (American) church 
shall maintain the doctrines of the gospel as now 
held by the church of England; and shall adhere 
to the liturgy of the said church, as far as shall 
be consistent with the American revolution, 
and the constitutions of the respective states." 
Pursuant to the recommendations of this body, 
another convention assembled in Philadelphia 
in September, 1785, which put forth a volume 
known as "the proposed book," embodying 
many important variations from the English 
Book of Common Prayer. These were of two 
kinds, political and doctrinal. Under the for- 
mer head all passages referring to the royal fam- 



156 



COMMON PRAYER 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



ily and government of Great Britain were either 
entirely omitted or adapted to the new political 
relations of the country, and the so-called 
"state services" of the English prayer book 
were stricken out. The chief changes under 
the second head were the rejection of the 
Nicene and Athanasian creeds, and the omission 
of the words " He descended into Hell " from 
the apostles' creed. The convention of 1785 
also recommended to the English church for 
consecration as bishops Dr. William White 
of Philadelphia and Dr. Samuel Provoost of 
New York. But before this act was consum- 
mated a copy of the " proposed book " reached 
England, and elicited from the archbishops of 
Canterbury and York an expression of disap- 
probation, not only at various verbal altera- 
tions that seemed uncalled for, but at the radi- 
cal changes made in the three ancient confessions 
of faith which had always been accepted by 
the church of England. Whether or not in 
consequence of this remonstrance, the Ameri- 
can Episcopal convention which met at Wil- 
mington, Del., in October, 1786, restored to 
the prayer book the Nicene creed, allowing it 
to be used as an alternative instead of the 
apostles' creed both in the communion and 
daily offices. The clause " He descended into 
Hell" was also restored to the apostles' creed, 
with the rubrical provision that "any churches 
may omit the words, ' He descended into Hell,' 
or may instead of them use the words, ' He 
went into the place of departed spirits,' which 
are considered as words of the same meaning 
in the creed." No change, however, was made 
in the resolution of the convention to discon- 
tinue the use of the Athanasian creed in divine 
service. These concessions having removed 
the scruples of the English prelates, Drs. White 
and Provoost were consecrated bishops of Penn- 
sylvania and New York in February, 1787. 
The general convention which met at Phila- 
delphia in September, 1789, undertook the 
final revision of the liturgy. A house of 
bishops was now for the first time organized 
as a distinct branch of the convention ; and 
although but two of the three members com- 
posing it, Bishops Seabury and White, were 
present, the influence which they exerted pre- 
vented any such radical alteration of the prayer 
book as was desired by a strong party in the 
house of clerical and lay deputies. The bishops 
were determined to hold the English prayer 
book as the basis of their work, and to avoid as 
far as they could all unnecessary changes ; and 
to their tenacity of purpose and ready coopera- 
tion is due the fact that in all their main fea- 
tures the liturgies of the Anglican church in 
the United States and the mother country are 
identical. Apart from the changes above no- 
ticed, the chief differences between the English 
and the American Book of Common Prayer, 
as the latter was settled by this and subsequent 
conventions, are the following : Many changes 
of words and phrases have been made with a 
view to the removal of what was obsolete, or 






in order to attain greater correctness of ex- 
pression. In morning prayer and evening 
prayer the Lord's prayer is directed to be said 
but once ; in both offices the versicles and re- 
sponses have been abridged ; and from evening 
prayer the Magnificat or song of the Virgin and 
the Nunc dimittis have been excluded. The 
lectionary, or lessons from the Bible, has been 
in part remodelled, the portions from the Apoc- 
rypha being omitted. A " Selection from the 
Psalms," instead of the portion of the Psalms 
appointed for the day, is allowed to be used at 
the discretion of the minister. The Gloria in 
excelsis, found only in the communion service 
in the English book, is allowed in morning 
and evening prayer as an alternative with the 
Gloria Patri; and the form of absolution pe- 
culiar to the communion service is similarly 
introduced into morning and evening prayer. 
The communion service, owing to the influem 
of Bishop Seabury, was borrowed from the 
Scottish office, although the order of the 
lish office is generally retained; the distin- 
guishing feature consisting in the incorporation 
into the prayer of consecration in the America 
book of the oblation and invocation according 
to the new Scottish office as revised in 1765. 
In the baptismal office the minister is permitted 
to dispense with the sign of the cross after 
sprinkling the candidate. In the office for the 
visitation of the sick the rubric directing the 
minister to advise sick persons to confess thei 
sins, and also the form of absolution, are strick- 
en out. The marriage service is considerably 
abridged, and the commination service for 
Wednesday is omitted. From the calendar 
all names of saints not commemorative of 
persons and facts of Scripture history hav( 
been excluded ; and services for the visil 
tion of prisoners, for the consecration of 
church or chapel, and for the institution of 
ministers have been added. Finally, to show 
their desire to adhere substantially to the 
English liturgy, the American revisers stat 
in the preface to their Book of Comm( 
Prayer that " this (American) church is far 
from intending to depart from the church 
of England in any essential point of doctrine 
discipline, or worship ; or further than 1( 
circumstances require." It is customary to in- 
clude in the English and the American Bool 
of Common Prayer the u Articles of Religion 
adopted by the churches of the Anglican com- 
munion; also metrical versions of the Psah 
and a collection of hymns to be used in divine 
service. These, however, are not properly 
portion of the book, the standard edition 
which ends with " The Psalter or Psalms 
David." The American prayer book came 
into general use on Oct. 1, 1790, and in il 
essential features has remained unchanged 
the present day. 

COMMON SCHOOLS. Under the general he* 
of EDUCATION will be found a condensed hi 
tory of instruction, public and private, so fa 
as there are data for such a history. Under 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



157 



the present title will be given only an outline 
of the development of the great principle of 
the free elementary education of every child 
in the community. It would naturally be sup- 
posed that in every well regulated state the 
advantage of the universal education of the 
community would be so obvious that measures 
would be taken to effect it almost from the ori- 
gin of the state. This, however, has been only 
partially the case. In Sparta under the system 
of Lycurgus the state undertook the education 
of the children, but the instruction imparted 
was mainly physical, and did not reach the 
peasant classes. In Attica there were public 
schools for all classes, and this had its influ- 
ence in making Athens the university city of 
the ancient world. The education of the chil- 
dren was a religious duty among the Jews, 
and after the captivity they developed an ex- 
cellent system of parochial schools in connec- 
tion with the synagogues. In Eome, while 
private schools were numerous, their advan- 
tages only accrued to the patricians and such 
plebeians as possessed property ; yet after the 
conquest of Gaul important schools were es- 
tablished in the imperial cities. After the 
introduction of Christianity and its accession 
to power, the duty of the authorities to edu- 
cate the young was speedily recognized by the 
bishops and clergy. The object of this edu- 
cation was of course their training in the 
doctrines of Christianity, but it was the 
recognition of the duty of giving instruction 
to the masses. In 800 a synod at Mentz or- 
dered that the parochial priests should have 
schools in the towns and villages, that "the 
little children of all the faithful should learn 
letters from them. Let them receive and 
teach these with the utmost charity, that they 
themselves may shine as the stars for ever. 
Let them receive no remuneration from their 
| scholars, unless what the parents through 
charity may voluntarily offer." A council at 
Rome in 836 ordained that there should be 
three kinds of schools throughout Christen- 
dom : episcopal, parochial in towns and vil- 
lages, and others wherever there could be 
found place and opportunity. The third Lat- 
eran council in 1179 ordained the establish- 
ment of a grammar school in every cathedral 
for the gratuitous instruction of the poor. 
The ordinance was enlarged and enforced by 
the council of Lyons in 1245. This idea of 
popular education has been carried out by 
the zealous efforts of the Jesuits and other 
religious orders. While in the large towns 
and cities considerable numbers of the poor 
thus received the rudiments of knowledge, in 
the more scattered population of the rural 
districts very few could read or write. At 
the era of the reformation the cause of pop- 
ular schools received a further impulse. In 
1524 Luther wrote an ' c address to the com- 
mon councils of all the cities of Germany, in 
behalf of Christian schools ;" and in 1526 he 
wrote to the elector of Saxony strongly urging 



the application of the monastic funds to the 
support of schools for the poor. In 1528, with 
the aid of Melanchthon, he drew up the Saxon 
school system, as it was called, and through 
life the education of the young of all classes 
in free schools was one of the objects nearest 
his heart. The labors of Luther in this field 
were continued by his followers, and the Ger- 
mans seemed destined to become the best ed- 
ucated people in Europe; but the breaking 
out of the thirty years' war in 1618 arrested 
the progress of all educational improvements. 
About the middle of the 17th century several 
of the German states passed laws making it 
compulsory on parents to send their children 
to school during a certain age. In the latter 
part of that century two men appeared whose 
labors introduced a new era into the history 
of education in Germany. They were Philip 
Spener and August Francke. The latter gave 
an impulse to the cause of popular education 
which, through the influence of his disciples 
and followers, such as Zinzendorf, Steinmetz, 
Hecker, Basedow, Campe, Salzmann, and Pes- 
talozzi, has been continued to our own times. 
In Prussia the movement in behalf of a thor- 
oughly popular system of education, though 
more fully sustained than in any other coun- 
try on the continent, did not commence till 
the early part of the present century. Enact- 
ments rendering the attendance of the chil- 
dren at the schools compulsory had been upon 
the statute book since 1717, but it was not till 
1809 that the habits and good will of the peo- 
ple were enlisted on the side of education. 
The Prussian schools are by law as accessible 
to the poorest as to the richest, and every pro- 
vision is made for adapting them fully to the 
wants of the people and the government. Scot- 
land is the only other country of Europe which 
had at an early period a system of common or 
popular schools. These, like those of the early 
church on the continent, originated with the 
clergy. In 1560 John Knox urged the neces- 
sity of schools for the children of the poor, to 
be sustained at the charge of the kirk. The act 
of 1696 established common schools in every 
parish, to be supported in part by the parish, 
and in part by rate bills. These schools, which 
have diffused a more general elementary edu- 
cation among the people of Scotland than 
exists in any other nation in Europe except 
perhaps Prussia, have always been under the 
charge of the kirk ; and since the secession of 
the Free church in 1843, schools have been 
organized in connection with each of its con- 
gregations. The fullest and most complete de- 
velopment of the common school system, how- 
ever, has taken place in America. The Puri- 
tan settlers of New England were fully con- 
vinced of the necessity of universal education ; 
and as soon as they had provided temporary 
shelter for themselves, they reared the church 
and the school house. But the first schools 
established in the country were not common 
or public schools. Free grammar schools, as 



158 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



they were called (that is, schools in which 
Latin was taught, and which were supported 
in part by the proceeds of land, houses, or 
money granted either by the town or by indi- 
viduals, and in part by tuition money, and 
which were free only to the donors, and to 
them only in part), were established in Charles 
City, Va., in 1621, in Boston in 1636, in New 
Haven in 1638, in Salem in 1641, in Koxbury 
prior to 1645, and in most of the towns of New 
England within four or five years after their 
settlement; but these, though comprising at 
first perhaps the major part of the children of 
the settlement, were not common schools in 
the present sense of that term. The free pub- 
lic school (the common school of our time) was 
of New England origin, but whether it was first 
established in Massachusetts or Connecticut is 
a mooted point. Acts in regard to popular edu- 
cation were passed by the general court of Mas- 
sachusetts in 1642 and 1643. The law of the 
latter year provided as follows : " It is there- 
fore ordered that every township in this juris- 
diction, after the Lord hath increased them to 
the number of 50 householders, shall then forth- 
with appoint one within the towne to teach 
all such children as shall resort to him to write 
and reade, whose wages shall be paid either by 
the parents or masters of such children ; or by 
the inhabitants in generall by way of supply, 
as the maior part of those that order the pru- 
dentials of the towne shall appoint, provided 
those that send their children be not oppressed 
by paying much more than they can have them 
taught for in other townes." But if the gen- 
eral assembly of Massachusetts were foremost 
in legislative action for popular education, the 
town authorities of Hartford, although a 
younger colony, had at an earlier date taken 
broader and more liberal ground for the educa- 
tion of all classes; and as Hartford was the 
central and controlling settlement of the Con- 
necticut colony, its action was but the precur- 
sor of the legislative action which followed a 
very few years later. A town school was 
established prior to 1642, and the funds for its 
support were voted from the town treasury ; 
and in 1643 a vote was passed, which in its 
spirit still governs the educational system of 
the state, " that the town shall pay for the 
schooling of the poor, and for all deficiencies." 
The colonies of New Hampshire and Vermont 
followed the example of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, and established schools in every 
hamlet where the number of inhabitants and 
of children was sufficient to furnish employ- 
ment and support to a teacher. The records 
of the general courts and of the towns show 
that the prosperity of these " fountains of in- 
telligence," as they appropriately called the 
common schools, was an object of common soli- 
citude ; and though very heavily taxed for other 
objects, they never forgot to support and sustain 
the common school. We have seen that in 
Germany the thirty years' war broke up the 
system of public schools which Luther and his 



successors had reared with so much care ; but 
in New England, amid almost incessant con- 
flicts with the Indians and French, when the 
male population was greatly reduced in the 
successive campaigns, the abandonment of the 
schools was not even thought of. In 1670 the 
commissioners of foreign plantations addressed 
to the governors of the colonies several ques- 
tions relative to their condition. To one re- 
specting the means of education, the governor 
of Connecticut replied: "One fourth of the 
annual revenue of the colony is laid out in 
maintaining free (common) schools for the edu- 
cation of our children." To the same question 
Gov. Berkeley of Virginia replied: "I thank 
God there are no free schools nor printing, and 
I hope we shall not have these hundred years." 
Soon after the close of the revolutionary war, 
the lands in Ohio known as the Western 
Reserve, belonging to Connecticut, came into 
market. The proceeds of that vast tract, 
amounting at the time of sale in 1795 to 
$1,200,000, were consecrated to the support 
of the common schools of the state. To the 
same cause Massachusetts set apart a por- 
tion of her wild lands in the then province 
of Maine. The New England school system 
at the commencement of the present cen- 
tury was based upon the following ideas: 1, 
the instruction of all the children of the state 
in the rudiments of an English education, viz., 
reading, writing, elementary arithmetic, ele- 
mentary geography, and grammar this to be 
accomplished by schools in every precinct or 
district containing 50 householders, or even a 
smaller number ; 2, each district to be indepen- 
dent of every other in its financial matters, 
hiring of a teacher, &c. ; 3, a superintendent 
or board of visitors in each town or school 
society, generally consisting of professional 
men, and almost invariably including the clergy, 
to examine the teachers, inspect the schools, 
prescribe text books, &c. ; 4, the support of 
these schools by taxation and rate bills, the 
poor being exempted from the latter ; 5, power 
of compelling attendance on the part of the 
town authorities. Under this system, which 
was extended to New York, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the other northern and northwest- 
ern states, a moderate amount of education 
was diffused through the entire community. 
In time, as the result of a routine system, it 
became apparent that the standard of education 
had been lowered rather than raised. The at- 
tention of philanthropic men in all parts of th( 
country was directed to the subject, and in 
1817 and the following years commenced a re- 
vival of education, the influence of which 
still felt. The movement resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the public school society in New 
York, and of improved school organizations in 
many other cities ; the revision of the school 
systems of most of the New England and of 
several of the middle and southern states be- 
tween 1821 and 1828; the efforts of Thomas 
H. Gallaudet, James G. Carter, and Walter 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



159 



Johnson, through the press, to elevate the 
standard of instruction and to create institu- 
tions for the professional training of teachers ; 
the establishment of the "American Journal 
of Education" in January, 1826, afterward 
called the "American Annals of Education;" 
the improvement of text books ; conventions, 
town, county, and state, held throughout New 
England from 1826 to 1830 in behalf of com- 
mon schools; the subsequent organization of 
teachers' institutes and associations ; the found- 
ing of normal schools; the zealous and un- 
wearied efforts of Horace Mann, Henry Bar- 
nard, and others ; the plan of lecturing in every 
precinct in the states on the subject of educa- 
tion ; and the establishment of local school pe- 
riodicals, as well as of those of a more general 
character. In the United States the organiza- 
tion and control of the common schools are 
left to the respective states; hence there is 
no uniform common school system, but a wide 
diversity of plans is presented. The variances, 
however, relate chiefly to details, while the 
following leading features may be regarded as 
common: 1. A system of graded schools for 
each town, embracing (a) primary schools for 
the younger pupils ; (&) grammar schools for the 
older, in which are taught, in addition to the or- 
dinary branches, natural philosophy, chemistry, 
history, and frequently drawing, vocal music, 
algebra, geometry, French, and German ; (c) 
high schools for the more advanced, in which 
are taught the studies necessary for a business 
education, and in most cases the languages and 
higher mathematics. 2. The placing these un- 
der the constant supervision of one or more 
efficient visitors, who ascertain by thorough 
examination the qualifications of the teachers. 

3. The enforcement of uniformity of text books, 
and regularity and punctuality of attendance. 

4. Regular and frequent public examinations. 

5. The establishment of school libraries in con- 
nection with all the schools. 6. The introduc- 
tion of blackboards, globes, orreries, maps, 
charts, outline maps, and other apparatus for 
instruction. 7. The proper construction of 
school houses, for ventilation, warming, con- 
venience of instruction, and promotion of order. 
8. The establishment of normal schools for the 
instruction of teachers, and the holding of 
teachers' institutes for exercise and drill of 
those already engaged in instruction. 9. The 
organization of state teachers' associations for 
comparison of methods of teaching, and the 
establishment of state periodicals devoted to 
schools. 10. The extension of the privileges 
of these schools to all the children of school 
age in each state, either by supporting the 
schools entirely by taxation and the income 
of funds where they exist, or by taxation and 
small rate bills, which are abated where there 
is inability to pay, and the furnishing the ne- 
cessary text books to the children of the poor. 
The study of drawing, music, and German as 
regular branches in the common school has re- 
cently been widely extended. The introduc- 

216 VOL. v. 11 



tion of evening schools into the common school 
system is of recent origin ; but there has been 
a marked development hi this department of 
public instruction. These schools are intended 
for those whose employment prevents them 
from attending the day schools, and are found 
chiefly in cities and the larger manufacturing 
towns. Some of the states have the advantage 
of considerable funds to aid in the support of 
their schools. The western states generally 
will be largely endowed, as the 16th section of 
every township is granted for school purposes 
by the national government, and other lands 
also are granted by the states. The land grant- 
ed by the United States for school purposes 
amounts to about 68,000,000 acres, which has 
been estimated to be worth more than $60,- 
000,000. In most of the states the schools are 
under the supervision of a board of education 
or a state superintendent, generally elected by 
the people, but in a few instances receiving 
their appointments from the governor or legis- 
lature. In some of the states the system also 
comprises county superintendents. In several 
of the states laws have been passed making at- 
tendance at public or private schools compul- 
sory for a specified period, varying from 16 
months between the ages of 5 and 18 years, to 
4 months each year ; while in other states those 
districts in which schools are not open for a 
specified period are not entitled to any portion 
of the school fund. Provision for compulsory 
attendance at school has been made in the con- 
stitutions of Arkansas, Missouri, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Texas, and Virginia, and 
in other states laws are in force compelling 
parents to send their children to school. In 
Kansas, Nevada, Arkansas, Nebraska, Ohio, 
and South Carolina sectarian instruction and 
control are forbidden by the constitution. Prior 
to the civil war the southern states had no 
well organized school system ; but in the adop- 
tion of new state constitutions after the war 
provision was generally made for the establish- 
ment of free common schools. Much progress 
has been made toward carrying into effect these 
provisions and perfecting the free school sys- 
tem. The common school funds in the various 
states generally consist of such grants of land 
as have been made by the general government 
for school purposes, and the investment of 
funds arising from sales of the same, together 
with those accruing from state and individual 
endowments, and the proceeds from taxation, 
including poll and property taxes. In 1867 a 
law was passed by congress establishing a 
bureau of education for the purpose of col- 
lecting such statistics and facts as shall show 
the condition and progress of education in the 
several states and territories, and of diffusing 
such information respecting the organization 
and management of school systems and meth- 
ods of teaching as shall aid the people of the 
United States in the establishment and main- 
tenance of efficient school systems, and other- 
wise promote the cause of education through- 



160 



COMMONS 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



out the country. This bureau is in suc- 
cessful operation, and publishes annually a re- 
port showing the condition of the common 
schools and other educational institutions in 
each state. According to the census of 1870, 
the number of public schools in the United 
States was 125,059, employing 183,198 teach- 
ers, of whom 74,174 were male and 109,024 
female. The number of pupils in attendance 
was 6,228,060, including 3,120,052 males and 






3,108,008 females. The total income during 
the year ending June 1, 1870, was $64,030,673, 
including $144,533 from endowments, $58,855,- 
507 from taxation and public funds, and $5,- 
030,633 from other sources, including tuition. 
These statistics do not include private schools, 
or classical, professional, and technical insti- 
tutions. The following statistics of common 
schools in the United States are from the re- 
port of the bureau of education for 1872 : 



STATES. 
AND 
TERRITORIES. 


Between the ages 
of 


Number enrolled. 


Average attendance. 


No. of schools or 
school districts. 


Average duration of 
school in months 
and days. 


No. of teachers. 


Average salary 
of teachers per 
month. 


Income. 


Expenditures. 


Amount of perma- 
nent school fund. 


i 


Female. 


1 


| 


fa 




5-21 
5-21 
5-15 
4-16 
5-21 
4-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-20 
6-21 
4-21 
5-20 
5-15 
5-20 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-18 
4-21 
5-18 
5-21 
6-21 
5-21 
4-flO 


141,812 
107,908 
80,988 
113,588 
19,018 
14,000 
39,766 
662,049 
459,451 
349,633 
106,663 

Vl',566 
126,811 
115,683 
276,602 
296,356 
120,352 
111,686 
330,070 
28,786 
8,372 
72,762 
169,430 
1,028,110 
105,680 
708,800 


107,666 

' 69,645' 
79,511 


3,321 
2,534 
1,378 
1,630 
402 
331 
1,291 
11,231 
9,100 
8,563 
3,419 
5,381 
640 
4,171 
1,509 
5,193 
5,365 
2,933 
3,450 
29,398 
1,410 
76 
2,452 
1,390 
11,350 


3 m. 8*d. 


2,318 
1,901 
820 
699 


1,152 
401 
1,232 
2,194 


3,470 
2,302 
2,052 

2,893 


$42 50 


$4250 


$640,627 
625,053 
1,675,757 
1,503,617 
118,727 
129,430 
292,000 
7,500,122 
1.590,818 
4,242,978 
1,049,592 
968,176 
554,973 
868,588 
1.231,622 
5,663,930 
8,648,259 
954,182 
1,218,248 
1,687,573 
537,680 
110,962 
468,527 
2,875,641 
10,671,566 
217,409 
7,420,338 
-189,924 
7,622.420 
496,906 
425,000 


$560,000 
405,748 
1,727,883 
1,496,980 
105,407 

'7,480,390' 
8,559,898 
4,045,408 
714,198 
941,304 
531,834 
849,278 
1,214,729 
5,663,930 
3,019,925 
990.936 
869,766 
1,749,049 
534,095 
98,4(58 
468,527 
2,375,641 
9,607,903 

'6,817,358' 


$2,495,210 
35,192 
1,250,000 
2,048,875 


Arkansas 


California 
Connecticut 


6 m. lOd. 
8 m. 12d. 
5 m. 22d. 
4jjm. 
2 m. 15d. 
6 m. 27d. 
5 m. 16d. 
6 m. 14d. 
5-4m. 


74 58 
66 56 


60 69 
82 69 


Florida 








881 

888 
20,924 
12,246 
15,193 
3,795 


80 00 
55 54 
50 00 

'36'64 
40 20 

"65" 66 
38 17 
45 83 
85 09 
49 25 
87 39 
58 90 
85 00 
38 50 
116 53 
37 56 
5734 

'25'66 
42 00 
50 00 
41 71 
39 72 
35 00 


80 00 
38 87 
89 00 

'29'32 
81 50 


811,740 
850,000 
6,382,248 
8,395,135 
3,191,483 
745,212 
1,350,491 
1,198,500 
812,975 
815,370 
1,361,173 
3,540,998 
2,780,559 
1,950,000 
4,689,428 

104,666' 
None. 
550,788 
2,978,576 
1.959,880 
3,912,497 
500,000 




261773 
329,799 
286,801 
218,131 
61,538 
120,866 
70,000 
97,596 
56,435 
205,252 
180,000 
62,046 
79,937 
187,024 

2,372" 
49,293 

86,812 
493,648 


620 
8,761 
7,430 
5,888 
1,747 


268 
11,880 
4,816 
9,305 
2,048 


Illinois 


Indiana 
Iowa 


Kansas .... 


Kentucky 
Louisiana 


6 m. lOd. 
106d. 
9 2-llm. 
8 m. 28d. 
7im. 
6 m. 18d. 
5 m. lOd. 
4Jm. 
74d. 
8 m. lOd. 
4 m. 4Jd. 
8 m. 13d. 
35w. Id. 
4 m. 
152d. 
18w. 
6 m. 
34 w. 2d. 
6 m. 


865 
1,800 
1,020 
1,024 
3,032 
1,656 
2,256 


555 
4,200 
1,249 
7,419 
8,610 
8,056 
399 


1,420 
6,000 
2,269 
8,443 
11,642 
4,712 
2,655 
8,816 
1,512 
76 
8,826 
2,931 
28,254 
4,132 
22,061 


65 00 
14 40 
45 88 
32 39 
26 75 
24 57 
58 90 
35 00 
83 48 
88 78 
24 33 
3243 


Maine 
Maryland 
Massachusetts.. 
Michigan 


Minnesota 
Mississippi 
Missouri 


Nebraska 


773 
29 
585 
952 
6,481 
3,078 
9,718 


739 
47 
3,241 
1,979 
21,773 
1,054 
12,343 


Nevada 


NewHampshire 
New Jersey 
New York"..... 
North Carolina. 
Ohio 


20 00 
29 00 
40 00 
84 60 
89 72 
8500 


408,538 
15,000 
536,221 
22,176 


14,201 
659 
15,999 
727 
1,919 


Oregon .... 


Pennsylvania . . 
Rhode Island.. 
South Carolina. 
Tennessee 


6-21 
5-15 
6-16 
6-18 


834,813 
27,720 
76,322 


7,753 
177 
1,363 


10,615 
579 
822 


18,368 
756 
2,185 


8,383,082 
465,623 
282,451 


260,509 

'3.269,696' 
5,388,198 

'i,'546,669" 
229,800 

2.389.488 




Texas 
Vermont 
Virginia 


6-18 
5-20 
5-21 
6-21 
4-20 


127,672 
70,904 
168,000 
76,599 
266,014 


81,653 

' 96,666" 
51,836 


2,000 
2,503 
3,552 
2,323 
5,031 








2238 






1,217,101 
582,111 

775,428 
632,069 


1,222,221 
575,274 
923,256 
577,718 
1.082.539 


6 m. 
5 m. 15d. 
8 m. 25d. 
7m. 


671 

2,545 
1,955 

2.885 


3,544 

1,281 
513 
6.283 


4.215 
8,826 
2,468 
9,168 


'30'32 
34 95 


'28'21 
32 15 


West Virginia. 
"Wisconsin... 



I 



COMMONS, House of. See PARLIAMENT. 

COMMUNE DE PARIS. I. The name of a revo- 
lutionary committee which played a most im- 
portant part in France from July 14, 1789, to 
July 27, 1794. On the first insurrection the 
Parisian electors convened, and under the 
above name appointed a standing committee, 
which, on the eve of the taking of the Bastile 
(July 13, 1789), established the Parisian militia 
or national guard. A decree of the constituent 
assembly, May 21, 1791, divided the common- 
alty of Paris into 48 sections, electing a mayor 
and 16 administrators, to which a municipal 
council of 32 members and another board of 
96 notables were added. On Nov. 10, 1791, 
Petion was elected mayor; Robespierre, Bil- 
laud-Varennes, and Tallien entered the general 
council, while Manuel held the office of attor- 
ney, and had Danton as his first assistant. 
Henceforth the commune acted in concert with 
the Jacobins, and on the night of Aug. 10, 



1792, established themselves as the insurrec- 
tionary commune, declared all other authorities 
suspended, and soon became the ruling power, 
and spread terror among the royalists by the 
slaughters of September. Next they joined 
the Montagnards, and organized the insurrec- 
tionary movements which resulted in the fall 
of the Girondists, May 31 and June 2, 1793. 
During the reign of terror they remained faith- 
ful adherents of Eobespierre until his over- 
throw. Their very name was suppressed by the 
constitution of the year III., under which the 
city of Paris was divided into 12 distinct muni- 
cipalities, and the commune entirely lost its 
political importance. II. A revolutionary at- 
tempt to establish absolute municipal self-gov- 
ernment in Paris in 1871. First openly begun 
by the resistance of the national guard to the 
regular forces on March 18, in some degree 
organized by the municipal elections of the 
2Gth, and assuming definite shape through the 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



161 



formal proclamation of the commune on the 
29th, it was finally suppressed by the troops of 
the national government two months later, 
after having in the interval become complicated 
with attempts to carry out various notions of 
socialism, and with other schemes of revolution 
apparently not comprehended in the original 
design, and certainly not stated as a part of it. 
The red republicans and the more violent re- 
formers of Paris had, since the dethronement 
of Napoleon III. and the proclamation of the 
republic in September, 1870, never ceased to 
attack what they considered the conservative 
character of the government of national defence 
then established, and to demand more radical 
measures, especially such as should tend toward 
decentralization, municipal independence, and 
the introduction of something approaching a fed- 
erative system made up of self-governing com- 
munes. Diligently and sincerely advocated by 
many of the leading radical politicians, and in- 
dustriously propagated for their own purposes 
by political agitators, revolutionists, and ad- 
venturers in the city, these opinions gained 
ground very rapidly among the people. They 
already formed one of the many articles in the 
political programme of the working men's 
societies, especially in that of the wide- 
spread Internationale. By many they were 
undoubtedly accepted understandingly and 
with due knowledge of the end to be gained ; 
but they were largely used as a political device 
by demagogues and the lowest order of revolu- 
tionary popular leaders, who represented to the 
laboring classes the establishment of municipal 
self-government as the beginning and the means 
of various more or less vaguely stated reforms 
in their condition. Thus the cry of " Vive la 
commune ! " used intelligently by the few, be- 
came besides, like so many similar cries before 
it, the expression of the discontent and the 
somewhat aimless though violent agitation of 
the revolutionary proletarians. This agitation, 
though its expressions were generally confined 
to the radical clubs like that of the Salle 
Favie at Belleville, that of the Alcazar, and 
many others had already broken out sev- 
eral times during the German siege of Paris in 
riotous demonstrations originating in one of the 
suburbs Montmartre, Belleville, or La Villette, 
and having for their object the possession of the 
hotel de ville. The most important of these 
was that of the 31st of October, 1870, when the 
mob, infuriated by the news of the surrender 
of Metz and the defeat atBourget, fairly gained 
possession of the place, and even of the mem- 
bers of the government in session there at the 
time, but were compelled to withdraw by the 
national guard, though only on condition that 
a vote determining the confidence or want of 
confidence of the people of Paris in the gov- 
ernment of national defence should immedi- 
ately be taken. This vote was ordered for 
Nov. 3, when the government was sustained by 
overwhelming majorities ; but the radical lead- 
ers had shown tlmr growing power, and this 



riot was the most unmistakable herald of the 
coming insurrection. Finally, when the long 
series of French defeats and unsuccessful sor- 
ties terminated in the surrender of the capital 
to the Germans, and the idea, "The gov- 
ernment has betrayed us," gradually gained 
ground among the people, the national guard 
began to waver, then to join openly in the 
clamor, until finally, by making the first really 
formidable insurrectionary movement, they 
themselves became as it were the leaders in 
the revolutionary attempt from which they 
had before comparatively stood aloof. On the 
triumphal entry of the German army into 
Paris, March 1, 1871, detachments of the na- 
tionals, who had by express stipulation been 
suffered to remain under arms " for the pres- 
ervation of order," made hostile demonstra- 
tions in violation of the agreement of the gov- 
ernment, erecting barricades in several por- 
tions of the city, and remaining in an attitude 
of resistance ; and they placed themselves in 
still more decided opposition to the authori- 
ties by their refusal, in spite of the formal order 
of Gen. Aurelle de Paladines, the commandant, 
to give up the artillery which had been re- 
moved on Feb. 26 from the pare Wagram and 
other places, ostensibly to preserve it from fall- 
ing into the hands of the Germans. Thus ta- 
ken into their possession under cover of a pur- 
pose which, though in direct violation of the 
armistice agreement, passed for a patriotic one, 
this artillery proved one of the chief sources 
of their strength in the beginning of the insur- 
rection. The government did not at first at- 
tribute to this direct resistance to its author- 
ity the importance which it possessed ; and in 
the interval of temporizing policy which fol- 
lowed, the insurrection grew stronger with 
great rapidity. The first step taken, the com- 
mune leaders won adherents by thousands. 
The negotiations of the authorities with the 
Germans aided them ; for not only was there 
a great number of the people to whom the 
thought of peace on the apparently inevitable 
terms was, from purely national pride and 
patriotic feeling, almost unbearable, but there 
was also a perhaps still larger class, com- 
posing the worse portion of the national guard 
especially, which saw in the end of the war 
the end also of their living at government ex- 
pense, and looked forward to the return of hard 
labor, the enforcement of creditors' claims, the 
collection of rents, and a thousand evils they 
had evaded during the war. Both these class- 
es, and many more, flocked eagerly to the 
standard of the commune, whose leaders raised 
the cry, " The republic is in danger ! " and in 
a few days the insurrection became too formi- 
dable to be checked. An organized body now 
appeared as its head. This was the central 
committee of the national guard, a council of 
leading insurgents, at first under the controlling 
influence of Blanqui, which had long acted as 
a half-concealed conspiracy, but now came for- 
ward openly. Its power was for a time threat- 



162 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



ened by another committee claiming to be the 
regularly elected representatives of a federation 
of battalions ; but a fusion was effected between 
the two, and the central committee, thus recon- 
structed, found itself with even greater in- 
fluence than before. Acting under its orders, 
the insurgents had taken the cannon on Feb. 
26 ; directed by it, they now possessed them- 
selves of great quantities of arms and ammuni- 
tion from the fortifications, and took up their 
principal position in an intrenched camp on 
Montmartre. They took magazines, compelled 
the release of public prisoners, and even came 
into open conflict with small bodies of regular 
troops, some of whom were induced to join 
them. They began to call themselves the " fed- 
erated guards," in distinction from those na- 
tionals who had remained loyal. From its 
stronghold at Montmartre the central commit- 
tee issued inflammatory proclamations, demand- 
ing that the national guard should have the 
right to elect all its own officers; that the daily 
pay (war standard) of one franc and a half 
should be secured to each of its members until 
he could obtain work, or the government could 
obtain it for him ; that Gen. Aurelle de Pala- 
dines should be displaced to make room for a 
commandant of their own choosing. In what 
concerned general politics they demanded uni- 
versal suffrage, and the formal subjection of all 
military power to the civil authority of the Paris 
municipality. The greater part of these de- 
mands were sent to the minister of the interior, 
with much of the formality attending the pres- 
entation of an ultimatum from a hostile power. 
Such was the position of affairs when the 
new national government, headed by M. Thiers, 
at last perceiving with what they had to deal, 
determined upon the employment of force. They 
rapidly collected the troops that could be spared 
from other employment, and brought the de- 
tachments stationed in Paris up to the strength 
of 30,000 men, including that minority of the 
national guard that remained loyal. On March 
11 Gen. Vinoy, to whom the task of dealing with 
the matter was largely intrusted, had, just after 
the receipt of the demands of the reds, sup- 
pressed six of the most violent radical journals, 
Le Vengeur (the organ of Felix Pyat), Pere 
Duchene, Le Cri du Peuple, La BoucTie de Fer 
(the organ of Paschal Grousset), La Caricature, 
and Rochefort's paper, Le Mot d< Or Are. With 
the exception of this, however, no decisive act 
had revealed the intentions of the government; 
the quieter classes of Parisians, with singular 
blindness, seemed to have no idea of an ap- 
proaching conflict ; the difficulty, if referred to 
at all, was spoken of lightly as " the cannon 
question;" the insurgents on Montmartre re- 
mained quiet for several days ; and a lull pre- 
ceded the final crisis which promoted a gen- 
eral sense of security, and gave the outbreak 
when it came additional violence. On the 
night of March 17-18, 10,000 of the govern- 
ment troops finally took up positions of -attack 
about the base of Montmartre. These occu- 






pied, they pressed on to the summit of the 
hill, easily overcame the few guards stationed 
about the camp of the insurgents, took 400 
prisoners and several cannon, and before day- 
light made themselves masters of the place 
without encountering formidable resistance. 
So quietly was this done, that no general 
knowledge of the movement spread through 
the other quarters of Paris at the time; the 
morning papers appeared without mentioning 
the events of the night, and the victors flat- 
tered themselves that the whole trouble was 
at an end. But some apparently trifling errors 
in their plan caused them to be very quickl 
undeceived. Nothing now remained to com 
plete the success but the removal of the can 
non ; but the arrangements for carrying the 
away having been incompletely made, a lot 
delay ensued, and meanwhile the news of th 
affair spread rapidly through the insurge: 
districts near at hand, and among the feder 
guards, the fellows of those who had been c 
tured. The general alarm was beaten in t 
quarters of Belleville and Montmartre; th 
populace poured into the streets ; and about 
o'clock several battalions of federates, hastil 
mustered, attacked the government tro 
with whom a violent and irregular confl 
followed. Suddenly the 88th regiment of 
line, among those engaged, threw up the but 
of their muskets and went over to the federa 
side, and their example was followed later b, 
other regular soldiers, while new reenfo: 
ments from the hostile quarters reached th 
insurgents constantly. Gen. Vinoy had dra 
a cordon of troops around the hill, orderin 
them to permit no one to pass, and planti 
mitrailleuses covering the various roads of 
cent. But these precautions were rende 
useless by the fraternization of the soldi 
with the people ; the insurgents carried off th 
mitrailleuses, and the few troops remainin 
loyal saw themselves compelled to withdraw 
In the place Pigalle a small body of sue 
troops (200 to 300 men), commanded by Gen. 
Faron, was cut off from the rest in their re- 
treat, and only succeeded late in the day in cu 
ting a way out after a fierce conflict. Ge 
Lecomte and the former commander of the n 
tional guards of Paris, Gen. Clement Tho: 
deserted by their soldiers, were taken prisone: 
by the federates and the people, and after bein 
insulted and maltreated by the mob they w 
led before the central committee, which co: 
manded that they be held as prisoners of war, 
In spite of this decree, they were taken la 
in the day by a few federate guards into a li 
tie garden near by, and shot, Gen. Thorn 
it was said, falling at the fifteenth disch 
By noon of the 18th the insurgents were one 
more in full possession of Montmartre and its 
surroundings, where they set about erecting 
street barricades and other defences; and 
toward evening, the government troops hav- 
ing been driven from the field, they pene- 
trated into other quarters of the city, and first 






COMMUNE DE PARIS 



163 



took possession of the place Vend6me and the 
army headquarters there. Soon after dark 
they occupied the h6tel de ville without 
meeting any resistance ; by midnight they 
were fairly established in it, and the national 
troops had been withdrawn to Versailles. 
The morning of the 19th found every attempt 
at control on the part of the government 
abandoned, every point in the power of the 
federate guards, and the central committee the 
rulers of Paris. Making their headquarters 
at the h6tel de ville, they immediately issued 
three proclamations, which appeared early in 
the day ; and so short had been the conflict for 
the possession of the city, that a great part of 
the people in the distant quarters learned for 
the first time through the placarding of these 
manifestoes that a revolution had been effected, 
and that a new power was fairly established 
over them. The first proclamation announced 
the "triumph of the people" over those who 
had wished to destroy the republic, and exhort- 
ed the people of Paris to assemble for com- 
munal elections ; the second addressed the na- 
tional guard, and declared that the central com- 
mittee, having " fulfilled the mission " intrusted 
to them by their fellows of defending "Paris 
and their rights," were now ready to surren- 
der their trust to those whom the people 
should elect in their communal districts ; and 
the third finally fixed the communal elec- 
tions for the 22d, owing to the urgent ne- 
cessity for a communal administration. The 
red flag was hoisted on the hotel de ville, the 
prefecture of police and the department of 
finance were taken possession of by prominent 
insurgents, and the earlier half of the day was 
spent by the committee in deliberation as to 
their next action. Strange to say, the general 
population of the city remained indifferent and 
passive, though a number of citizens, who rec- 
ognized Vice Admiral Saisset on the boule- 
vard, begged him to organize some resistance 
to the reds; he declared, however, that he 
would not act without orders from Versailles. 
But a few representatives of the national au- 
thority still remained in the city, in the persons 
of the maires of the various arrondissements. 
These met at 3 o'clock at one of the mairies, and, 
consulting with delegates from the committee, 
agreed during the evening upon a compromise 
by which the matter was to be submitted to the 
national assembly, and the hotel de ville was to 
be given up to the maires. A peaceful solution 
of the whole conflict seemed for a moment pos- 
sible ; but when on the morning of the 20th the 
proper authorities went to take possession of 
the h6tel, they were told that the committee 
had retracted its decision, and affairs resumed 
their old aspect. On that day another proc- 
lamation was issued, again stating the rights 
claimed by the national guard, declaring that 
the committee would faithfully carry out the 
preliminary agreements made with the Ger- 
mans, as the revolution was not concerned 
with any but home politics, and appealing to 



the provinces to join in the movement for self- 
governing communes. This appeal was almost 
entirely without effect, although Blanqui had 
already left Paris, undoubtedly with the pur- 
pose of securing aid from the rest of France. 
Attempts at insurrection were indeed made in 
Marseilles, Lyons, Rouen, Toulouse, and one 
or two other cities, but all were soon sup- 
pressed. Blanqui, so long the head and front 
of the uprising, was arrested in southern 
France, and immediately imprisoned. The 
communal elections were postponed to the 
26th. Vice Admiral Saisset, now acting un- 
der official appointment from Versailles, made 
one more attempt at negotiation by the issue 
of a proclamation in which the greatest pos- 
sible concessions were promised ; but the time 
had passed, and, beyond conveying the im- 
pression that the government was frightened, 
the offer produced no effect. Yet, still de- 
ceived by the hope of peace, Saisset on the 
25th disbanded the defenders of the national 
government who had organized and rallied 
around him, and by this step destroyed the 
last hope of resistance ; the only other attempt 
to excite it having been made by a few citi- 
zens who were cut to pieces in the rue de la 
Paix, March 22. From the 25th no further 
opposition occurred within the city walls, and 
Paris was given over to the new regime. In 
the mean time the committee had taken the 
most energetic military measures for sustain- 
ing their power. The federate guards raised 
complete lines of barricades connecting all the 
important strategic points of the city ; a strict 
organization was introduced among the 250 
battalions that now formed the committee's 
army; the great stores of ammunition accu- 
mulated in Paris during the siege were seized ; 
the number of cannon in the possession of the 
insurgents was increased by further seizures to 
2,000 ; the defences of the walls were diligent- 
ly strengthened ; the forts, with the very im- 
portant exception of Mont Valerien, which was 
in the government's hands, and such of the 
eastern and northeastern fortresses as the 
Germans still held, were taken and occupied 
by the federate troops; and complete prepara- 
tions were made for the defence of the city 
against a siege. On March 26 the elections 
for 94 members of a communal government 
occurred in Paris; only 85 were actually 
chosen, however, owing to the fact that in 
some cases two sections united upon the same 
candidate. It was afterward proved that few- 
er than 200,000 of the people had voted, and 
thus that the government party would prob- 
ably have been in the majority if it had been 
organized and had dared to cast its ballots; 
but however this may be, the elections were 
of course overwhelmingly in favor of the lead- 
ing candidates of the insurgents. Of these, II 
were members of the central committee, 17 
were members of the Internationale, and 20 
belonged to what was distinctively known as 
the Blanqui party. There were also 17 mode- 



164 



COMMUNE DE PAEIS 



rate and conservative politicians elected from 
the wealthier districts of Paris, but they al- 
most immediately resigned. Among all the 
delegates there were comparatively few whose 
names were well known. Assi, Varlin, and 
Duval, prominent members of the Internatio- 
nale ; Felix Pyat, the journalist and littera- 
teur, author of the Chiffonnier de Paris; Eaoul 
Rigault, a cynical and bitter revolutionist, re- 
calling the men of terror of nearly a century 
before ; Paschal Grousset, a journalist admired 
less for his revolutionary qualities than for ele- 
gance and polish of manner ; Gustave Flourens, 
the son of the great physiologist, and himself a 
man of much scientific and literary cultivation ; 
Vermorel, a journalist of the quartier Latin ; 
Vesinier, the former secretary of Eugene Sue, 
and himself the author of a few novels ; Gam- 
bon, a hero of the insurrection at Bordeaux ; 
Tridon, a revolutionist of Rigault's school : these 
were among those elected to the new governing 
body. There was also the stern old republi- 
can and Jacobin Delescluze, and M. Bislay, an 
uncompromising republican, to whom the ex- 
cesses of the commune were entirely foreign. 
Victor Hugo and Rochefort were also elected, 
but withdrew without having taken any part in 
the principal events. Blanqui's name, in spite 
of his absence, appeared on the lists ; he was 
elected, and a substitute appointed to represent 
him. Gustave Paul Oluseret, who had already 
taken part in many insurrections, and was one 
of the few whose practical knowledge of military 
affairs could be of advantage to the insurgents, 
was a candidate, but was not returned until a 
second election held April 16 to fill vacancies. 
He may almost be considered a member from 
the beginning, however, as he held office under 
the commune from April 3, as will presently 
be shown. On the 29th the first regular sit- 
ting of the newly chosen delegates was held at 
the h6tel de ville. The commune (by which 
name the new assembly now first officially styled 
itself) was declared to be the only true and legit- 
imate government of the city ; and a Journal 
officiel de la Commune de Paris was founded, 
in which a series of decrees was immediately 
published. The old revolutionary calendar was 
restored, March 29 being announced as the 
8th Germinal, year 79; laws were issued re~ 
quiring every healthy citizen from 19 to 40 to 
serve in the national guard ; a provision grant- 
ing partial remission of rents due since Oct. 1, 
1870, was to go into force immediately, and no 
one could be arrested for the non-payment of 
such rents ; the payment of all due bonds and 
notes might be postponed for three years from 
July 1, 1871, quarterly payments being made 
meanwhile; the daily pay of the national 
guards was raised to 2 francs; all articles 
that had been pawned for a sum not exceeding 
20 francs were to be returned to their owners ; 
pensions were to be paid to the widows and 
orphans of those falling in the insurrection ; 
all factories the possessors of which had left 
Paris were to become the property of the 



workmen employed in them ; and a variety of 
minor provisions were to go into effect for 
similar purposes of relieving and satisfying 
the adherents to the new power. The com- 
mune now proceeded to organization; and the 
newly elected body found its early sittings the 
scenes of numberless quarrels. The military 
class of delegates had nothing in common 
either in aim or method with the working 
men; the journalists and politicians had a 
thousand theories and creeds; the men whose 
devotion to the cause was so strong and un 
selfish as to lift them above personal motiv 
were in the minority ; and among the othe 
personal jealousies were constantly displayed. 
Many members began to neglect attendance 
the meetings, and confusion reigned during th 
sittings at the hotel de ville. After much di 
cussion, however, an executive committee w 
formed, consisting of Bergeret, Duval, Eude 
Lefrancais, Pyat, Tridon, andVaillant; commi 
sions were formed for the administration of ji 
tice, the finances, military affairs, labor, publi 
works, foreign affairs, and instruction, wi 
committees on public safety, on subsisten 
&c. ; and the conduct of the commune's gov 
ernment assumed some definite shape. A 
this time the central committee of the fed 
rates, which had announced itself as so ea 
to give up its power into the hands of the com 
mune, and had even, proclaimed its resignatio: 
continued sitting, refusing to keep its wo 
and insisting upon ratifying every measure o 
the commune before it took effect. Both 
delegates and their adherents were impatien 
to move upon Versailles, to gain possession 
the national government there, to overpow 
the officials " ecraser V assemblee," as th 
Pere Duchene expressed it. The attempt w 
fixed for April 2. In the forenoon of that da 
(Sunday) the troops of the commune, to th 
number of 5,000 to 6,000, were pushed forwa 
in the direction of Mont Valgrien. The n 
tional government, perhaps in the hope of sti 
bringing about a settlement of the difficulty, 
but more probably following the character] 
tically cautious advice of M. Thiers, to rend 
it manifest that the first direct hostilities cam 
from the other side, sent a flag of truce 
meet them. Its bearer was seized and shot, 
through whose fault does not clearly appear 
A battle, or rather a skirmish, ensued, in whic" 
the irregular federate guards, not finding amo 
the soldiers that readiness to join them whic 
they expected, but being met with determina- 
tion, soon gave way before the regular troops, 
and fled into Paris. Aroused by this defea 
and instructed by experience as to the stren 
the government now possessed (for the na- 
tional authorities at Versailles had during th 
occurrence of the events just related diligent- 
ly made preparations on their side, and we 
bringing together an army of 150,000 me: 
soon placed under the command of MacMa- 
hon), the commune leaders instantly prepar 
to renew the fight. Nearly the whole force in 






COMMUNE DE PARIS 



165 



the city was brought together during the even- 
ing and night following, and at dawn of the 
next day (April 3) nearly 90,000 men, divided 
into three columns, took the field. The cen- 
tre column, under Bergeret, was to advance in 
the direction of Meudon, under cover of the 
southern forts in the possession of the com- 
mune ; while the left, under Eudes, was to ap- 
proach Versailles by way of Vaugirard, Mont- 
rouge, and Chatillon ; and the right, under 
Duval, pressing forward from the Rond-Point 
de Courbevoie, was to pass directly under the 
guns of Mont Valerien (which the communist 
leaders were led by rumors and appearances to 
believe evacuated), and advance upon Nanterre 
and Rueil. The advance of the three divisions 
was interrupted almost simultaneously in their 
three directions of march by the national 
troops. Bergeret's column was met by a di- 
vision of the regulars at Meudon, and driven 
back ; the left, under Eudes, encountered a 
corps of marines and sailors temporarily con- 
stituting a portion of the national army, and 
was compelled to retreat after a fierce con- 
flict. The column under Duval met with the 
most disastrous fate of all. As it passed 
directly before Mont Valerien, the comman- 
der of the fort, to keep up the delusion with 
regard to its evacuation, reserved his fire al- 
together until the column had continued its 
march so far as to bring the main body of the 
troops within the closest range. Then he be- 
gan a merciless cannonade, which nearly an- 
nihilated the whole centre of the division. 
That part which had passed on saw itself cut 
off, and the troops in the rear fled in a panic. 
Duval was taken prisoner and shot. Gustave 
Flourens, who was among the troops cut off, 
succeeded, amid the flight of his soldiers, in 
gaining a hiding place in a little house not far 
from Rueil. He was discovered, however, by 
gendarmes, and after a desperate resistance 
was struck down and killed by the blow of a 
sabre, the commune losing in him probably the 
most brilliant of its leaders. Immediately af- 
ter the defeat Gens. Eudes and Bergeret were 
superseded, and Oluseret was intrusted with 
the whole management of military affairs, un- 
der the title of "delegate for war." On the 
morning of the 4th he himself took command 
of the communist troops, and some attempts 
were made to retrieve the disasters of the day 
before, especially to regain the heights of Cha- 
tillon, which the insurgents had abandoned 
after their defeat; but they were unsuccess- 
ful. These reverses caused violent dissensions 
among the members of the commune. Assi, 
accused of having contributed to them, was ar- 
rested ; and later, Bergeret's place in the army 
was taken by a Pole, now first becoming prom- 
inent in the insurrection, Ladislas Dombrow- 
ski, who was also made commandant of Paris. 
Other changes were brought about among the 
insurgent leaders, and with them came some 
decrees and acts of the commune which seemed 
like the beginning of another reign of terror. 



Gen. Cluseret issued orders directing that every 
man from 17 to 40 must enter the service, and 
that those disobeying this command would be 
summarily dealt with. Requisitions were made 
upon churches and theological and public in- 
stitutions having property in the city. Several 
rich men were accused of disloyalty to the 
commune, and their possessions confiscated. 
The archbishop of Paris, Mgr. Darboy, and a 
number of other ecclesiastics and prominent 
persons, were arrested and held as hostages 
for communist prisoners in the hands of the 
national troops. A decree was issued where- 
in it was stated that the authorities at Ver- 
sailles had transgressed the rules of civilized 
warfare, having shot prisoners in their hands ; 
and that the commune would thereafter re- 
taliate for all such cases. A commission (jury 
d* accusation) to decide upon these matters, 
upon the fate of all prisoners of war, and 
upon the punishment of any persons convict- 
ed of treasonable connection with the Ver- 
saillists, was immediately instituted; and the 
decree established the further rule that three 
hostages, chosen by lot, should be put to 
death in retaliation for each prisoner executed 
by the enemy. Searches for concealed arms 
not given up to the communist troops were 
conducted all over the city ; men suspected of 
being refractaires (those disobeying the order 
compelling them to serve) were arrested wher- 
ever found ; and houses were everywhere en- 
tered, ostensibly in quest of them. Meanwhile 
the national authorities, who had up to the begin- 
ning of the month adopted an altogether defen- 
sive policy, while strengthening and organizing 
their own army, had at last begun the most 
determined offensive operations against the city 
on the morning of April 7. Marshal Mac- 
Mahon was in chief command of their forces ; 
Gen. Ladmirault commanded under him on the 
side toward Mont Val6rien, and Gen. Cissey at 
Chatillon. Early in the day the guns of Mont 
Valerien opened on the village of Neuilly and 
its bridges, which were regarded as a key to 
the defence of Paris on that side, and were 
held by the insurgents. Under cover of the 
cannonade the government divisions advanced 
and attacked the communist troops. A fierce 
conflict followed, in which the position was 
taken by the Versailles soldiers after a despe- 
rate defence ; but later in the day it was again 
lost, and the night of the 7th found it still held 
by the insurgents. The next day the fight was 
renewed, ending at last in the victory of the 
national army. Formidable batteries were 
erected on the ground thus gained, and the 
guns of these, with those of Mont ValSrien, 
were turned at once against the Maillot gate 
and the neighborhood of the Arc de Triomphe. 
The conflict continued until the short period 
of quiet on the 9th and 10th, without great 
successes for either party. On the llth the 
insurgents won a decided victory by repulsing 
a night attack of the national troops on the 
forts at the south of the city, and especially on 



166 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



Fort Issy. For many days after this the artil- 
lery fire on both sides was constant, being par- 
ticularly severe in the neighborhood of the 
Maillot gate; but the infantry battles were 
infrequent and indecisive. Several further at- 
tempts made to storm or surprise the insur- 
gents' forts entirely failed, and though the na- 
tional army on the whole made a steady but 
very slow advance, the communists lost no im- 
portant points until the 17th. On that day 
Col. Davoust of the national army captured 
the chateau de Becon, commanding the posi- 
tions of Courbevoie and Asnieres ; and on the 
18th the commune's troops were driven from 
the village of Bois-Coloinbes, and again from 
Gennevilliers. On the 19th they were forced 
back across the Seine. During all this time 
events of various importance had occurred in 
the city, where the principal power was now in 
the hands of Cluseret, the delegate for war, 
who became an actual member of the govern- 
ing body through the supplementary elections, 
held to fill vacancies, on April 16. A soldier 
of restless energy and quick decision, he put 
aside the sentimentalities of the commune 
leaders, which had led them to intrust the 
conduct of important affairs to men whose 
sole merit consisted in their zeal for the cause, 
and, ruling with the greatest severity over all 
within his department, he introduced a new 
military system. He formed a general staff 
consisting of Rossel, a brilliant young engineer 
who now begins to appear prominently in 
the history of the commune, Col. Henry, Col. 
Razoua, and others having really serviceable 
military knowledge; he organized the troops, 
and to his good training and that of Dom- 
browski must be attributed much of the spirit 
and skill shown in the defence of the southern 
forts. The commune's conduct of affairs with- 
in the city retained its former features. On 
April 5 a decree had suppressed, among the 
papers hostile to the new regime, the Journal 
des Debate, Constitutional, Paris-Journal, 
and Liberte ; later decrees suspended the pub- 
lication of the Siecle, Temps, Soir, Cloche, 
Opinion Nationale, and Bien Public. On 
the 12th a proclamation announced the de- 
termination of the commune to demolish the 
column Vendome. Requisitions were constant- 
ly made ; arrests were frequent ; and among 
the executions was that of Girot, the com- 
mander of a battalion, for refusal to march 
against the enemy. Dissensions among the 
members of the commune were continuous; 
and what with the distress among the people, 
the lack of aid from the rest of France, and 
the gradual loss of ground to the national 
troops, the situation daily became more se- 
rious. In the midst of this unfavorable state 
of affairs the commune published on April 
19 its official "programme," long before pro- 
posed. It was a document of considerable 
length, but announced nothing new, and re- 
peated in general terms what had already 
been made known in previous proclamations 






concerning the desired self-government of 
Paris, the decentralization of France, &c. 
On April 25 attention was again concentrated 
on the military operations, by the proclama- 
tion of M. Thiers declaring that a great and 
final attack on Paris would now be begun, the 
government being satisfied of the uselessness 
of further attempts at reconciliation, and hav- 
ing determined to devote its energies to obtain- 
ing possession of the city. Immediately there be- 
gan a vigorous cannonade of the southern forts, 
and a simultaneous advance of the national 
troops on the western side of the defences. The 
fire directed against Forts Issy and Vanves 
principally proceeded from the second parallel 
erected by the Germans during their siege, and 
now taken possession of and refitted by Mac- 
Mahon. Pressing forward from this, he took 
the village of Les Molineanx, and thus estab- 
lished a position only a short distance from the 
walls of Fort Issy. On the night of April 29 
he further succeeded in capturing the castle of 
Issy ; and from all these advantageous points 
he was "enabled to concentrate upon the fort 
an almost insupportable fire, which reduced it 
nearly to a ruin within the next three days. 
About 1 o'clock on the morning of the 30th a 
panic seized its garrison, and, refusing longer 
to defend it or obey orders in the midst of 
such an overwhelming attack, all but a few 
soldiers fled from their posts, leaving the bat- 
teries entirely silent. This defeat was attend- 
ed in Paris with the same consequences that 
had followed the reverses a month before. The 
popular excitement and the clamor of soldiers 
and officers demanded a victim, and this time 
Cluseret was selected. By a brief decree is- 
sued on May 1 he was removed from office 
and placed under arrest, and Col. Rossel was 
appointed delegate for war in his place. But 
Issy was not yet so irreclaimably lost as it 
seemed. It had been deeply mined ; the Ver- 
sailles troops, knowing this, feared to enter it, 
and it was again taken possession of by a corps 
of insurgent volunteers. Taking advantage 
of the speedy arrival of reinforcements, these 
made a sortie, and succeeded in driving the 
nationals from the castle of Issy and the vil- 
lage. The tide of success seemed about to 
turn when, following the plans of Gen. Cissey, 
the Versailles troops executed a series of well 
conceived manoeuvres, took first the village, 
then the castle, and finally occupied the fort 
on May 9, without a serious conflict. Issy 
lost, the communists found the key to the 
whole position on the S. W. side of the city in 
the hands of the enemy. Point after point 
fell into their possession ; a new parallel was 
established in the southern part of the Bois de 
Boulogne, within less than 800 yards of the 
Paris enceinte ; and a violent attack began on 
the inmost circle of defences. On the extreme 
west the national army had also met with suc- 
cesses. The constant fire from Mont Valerien 
and the many batteries established on that side 
had gradually beaten down the insurgent de- 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



167 



fences ; and the bombardment of Neuilly and 
the neighborhood of the Maillot gate had 
been so incessant as to literally demolish the 
suburb, and to have rendered necessary long 
before, for humanity's sake, an armistice of one 
day (given on April 25) to allow the unarmed 
inhabitants to go into the city. The substitu- 
tion of Rossel for Oluseret availed nothing ; 
the new delegate for war, when he had held 
office less than ten days, handed in his resig- 
nation, escaped from the arrest in which he 
was at once placed, and disappeared. Un- 
doubtedly an able and earnest man, he was 
still unable to control the confusion of conflict- 
ing elements over which he was expected to 
rule. The military situation was now a des- 
perate one, nothing but the inner circle of 
Paris itself remaining to the defenders of the 
commune. The governing body at the h6tel de 
ville were compelled to have recourse to the 
most extreme measures. Their finances, man- 
aged successively by Yarlin and the much 
abler Jourde, were in a precarious condition, 
their forces were disorganized, and they had 
abandoned all hope of aid from without. They 
forced from the bank of France repeated ad- 
vances of money, and compelled the leading 
railway companies to pay them 2,000,000 
francs; but the constant payments to their 
troops, &c., made their expenditures far ex- 
ceed their receipts. Few skilful officers re- 
mained among the commanders of the army, 
and whole battalions were without chiefs to 
lead them. Dombrowski, it is true, showed 
the greatest bravery and energy ; but, with 
discouraged and ill-disciplined troops (he him- 
self called them incapables), he could not suc- 
ceed in the repeated efforts he made to re- 
store the fortunes of the commune. The whole 
state of internal as well as military aifairs had 
changed. While no delegate for war had been 
appointed to succeed Rossel, and the conduct 
of the defence was left to a committee headed 
by Delescluze, to Dombrowski as commander- 
in-chief, and to the Italian officer La Cecilia as 
commandant of the principal fortifications, the 
management of matters within the city had 
been given over to a committee of public safety, 
created by the commune about May 1, and en- 
dowed with almost dictatorial powers. Its 
first members were Antoine Arnaud, L6o Meillet, 
Ranvier, Felix Pyat, and Charles Gerardin. Un- 
der the rule of this body those acts began which 
were the preludes to the last days of the insur- 
gent rule. On May 10 the committee decreed 
the demolition of the house of M. Thiers, an 
order which was carried into effect without 
delay. On May 16, late in the afternoon, the 
column Vendome, the destruction of which 
had been commanded long before, was over- 
thrown under the direction of the painter 
Courbet, in the presence of a great multitude 
of people. The insurgents seemed to be seized 
with a fury hardly less than madness. The 
desperate straits in which they found them- 
selves called forth the most bitter hatred against 



the Versailles government. Popular orators 
harangued the crowds in the streets and in the 
great republican clubs, inciting them to renewed 
efforts and to a brave resistance. Bands of 
women, as in the days of the old French revo- 
lution, marched through the streets, armed, 
and exciting the people to vengeance upon 
" the assassins of Versailles." There was even 
a large and violent political club composed of 
women. The hatred against the government 
was carried to great extremes. The explosion 
of a large cartridge factory in the avenue Rapp 
was attributed to government agents, and ex- 
travagant rumors were circulated as to the 
barbarities of the Versailles troops. The end 
of the defence now rapidly approached. The 
treaty with the Germans had been signed, and, 
its foreign relations thus settled for the time, the 
national government concentrated every energy 
upon the prosecution of the siege. On May 14 
Fort Vanves was captured ; Fort Montrouge 
was almost at the same time abandoned ; and 
the earthwork constructed behind them by 
Dombrowski proved entirely useless after the 
forts themselves were in the enemy's hands. 
The general's attempted sorties were ren- 
dered unsuccessful by the refusal of the ma- 
jority of his now disheartened troops to go 
far beyond the walls; and the sappers of the 
national army were thus suffered to carry their 
works close up under the enceinte. At the 
gates of Auteuil, Passy, and Point-du-Jour 
the fortifications were nearly demolished by 
the constant fire against them. Dombrowski's 
headquarters near the gate de la Muette be- 
came entirely untenable. In this state of 
affairs, when the moment of giving up the de- 
fence of the southwestern enceinte could not 
be far off, the general determined to retire to 
a second series of works which should be con- 
structed a short distance in his rear, and by 
which he hoped to hold in check the national 
army, even after the capture of the outer for- 
tifications. His plan was skilfully laid, and, 
had it been carried out as he intended, might 
have greatly prolonged the struggle. The 
movement of the troops to the new line of 
defence was fixed for Sunday, May 21. As 
projected, it should have been made gradually, 
so that neither the old line nor the new should 
be left entirely unprotected until the actual 
moment for the retreat of the last company 
from the outer works. But through unskilful 
management the battalions all retired at once, 
and for a time, at the middle of the afternoon, 
the enceinte was absolutely without a guard. 
Outside, the Versailles troops continued their 
attack ; when suddenly, in a moment of quiet, 
they were surprised by the appearance of a man 
upon the wall, waving a white handkerchief, 
and apparently signalling for an interview. 
This was Jules Ducatel, a citizen opposed to 
the commune, who thus sought to give the 
national officers information as to the true 
position of the defence. The condition of the 
enceinte was ascertained, the Versailles troops 



168 



COMMUNE DE PAEIS 



pushed forward, and by the end of the after- 
noon the national army began to enter the 
city by the St. Cloud gate. A large body of 
men took possession of the interior of the for- 
tifications, extended along the walls, opened 
the other southwestern gates to their fellows, 
occupied without resistance the interior line 
of works erected by Dombrowski, and drove 
the few communist soldiers already in their 
new positions there back to a second series of 
defences prepared still further from the outer 
circle. By midnight more than 75,000 nation- 
al soldiers were within the enceinte. A col- 
umn of infantry under Col. Piquemal took the 
barricade protecting the bridge of Grenelle, and 
surprised and captured troops on the Troca- 
d6ro. So rapid were the movements of the 
national forces that the insurgents at work on 
a battery at the Arc de Trioraphe were simi- 
larly surprised and driven from their works, 
which were at once occupied and used against 
the batteries at the foot of the Champs Ely- 
sees, which were still in the power of the 
communists. Gen. Cissey took possession of 
the greater part of the district of Vaugirard 
and the Champ de Mars, and at once secured 
himself in the position. With the dawn of 
Monday morning the more distant quarters 
of Paris learned with surprise that the 
Versailles troops were in possession of a 
large portion of the city. But the victory 
was by no means won. In the quarters of the 
capital where the commune was strongest the 
insurgents thronged to the barricades, pre- 
pared for a last desperate resistance. Though 
it is true that many who would willingly have 
yielded were forced to this last defence, there 
was still a great body of men who rallied loy- 
ally for the cause to which they had shown 
such hearty devotion, and the fights of the last 
five days of the commune's existence saw in- 
stances of fidelity to it such as only the most 
sincere conviction could have called forth from 
its followers, whether deluded or intelligent. 
Hurriedly organizing their troops and planning 
their defence, the leaders turned all their avail- 
able force to the erection of barricades in every 
part of the city still in their possession. Pro- 
clamations were posted on the walls, inciting 
the citizens to fight to the last, and -officers 
rode through the streets calling upon the peo- 
ple to make a supreme effort for the sake of 
their liberties. These appeals met with little re- 

rnse in the wealthier quarters of Paris, where 
Versailles troops were greeted with every 
sign of welcome, but produced the greatest 
effect in the regions which were the insur- 
gent strongholds, where even women and chil- 
dren fought at the barricades with an energy 
and fury equal to that of the men. The opera- 
tions of the national army went steadily on 
during Monday and Tuesday. Following a 
systematic plan by which it was designed to 
advance simultaneously on both sides of the 
Seine, to take possession of the important 
strategic points along the outskirts of the 



city, and thus to form an almost unbroken cor- 
don which could be gradually narrowed until 
the whole body of the insurgents should be ex- 
terminated or taken, the troops were divided 
into five columns. One of these, forming the 
right wing and commanded by Cissey, was to 
operate on the left bank of the Seine, pressing 
on from the western part of the city toward 
the quartier Latin ; two others, under Vinoy 
and Douay, were to pursue a course through 
the centre of the city ; and the remaining two, 
under Clinchant and Ladmirault, were to pass 
over the hardest ground of all, making their 
way directly through Montmartre and the 
portion of the city lying beyond it. To be- 
gin the advance of this last named division, 
it was first of all necessary to take posses- 
sion of the plateau of Montmartre itself. On 
Tuesday morning, the 23d, the attack was 
begun. Many of the leading points around it 
were gained without difficulty ; but for hours 
a strong and well defended barricade in the 
rue Lepic kept up a formidable resistance, and 
it was noon when it was finally carried by a 
storming party after a desperate conflict, the 
further defence was slight, and by 2 o'clock 
the height was in the possession of the na- 
tional troops. There remained only the place 
Pigalle, the very cradle of the insurrection, 
which still refused to yield. Dombrowski 
commanded its barricade, and under his direc- 
tion it maintained for two hours a most despe- 
rate defence, only ending when the communist 
leader fell, mortally wounded. By night the 
w T hole of this chief communist stronghold was 
won. On the same day (Tuesday) the division 
on the left bank of the Seine had overcome 
one barricade after another, the insurgents de- 
fending themselves with scarcely less desperate 
valor than at Montmartre, and, after a day of 
the most violent conflict, had possessed them- 
selves of the greater part of the 14th arrondisse- 
ment, and taken the positions most important 
for further movements, by which it was in- 
tended to partially surround and press in upon 
the quartier St. Germain. The centre column, 
advancing on the points held by the insurgents 
near the middle of Paris the barricades in 
the place de la Concorde, near the Tuileries, 
in the place Vendome, and elsewhere in the 
best known portion of the city encountered 
everywhere the same furious resistance as 
in the other quarters. The place Vendome 
was only taken by an overwhelming assault 
made at the same time on both sides, from 
the rue de la Paix and the rue de Castiglione. 
One by one the barricades in the boulevard 
Malesherbes and the boulevard Haussmann 
were taken ; the neighborhood of the Grand 
Opera, which was strongly defended, followed 
after a desperate conflict at the northern end 
of the rue Halevy. The great barracks of 
Bonne Nouvelle were also captured by Gen. 
Ladmirault. On Wednesday morning the 
Bourse was taken ; and the centre column was 
in possession of the whole surrounding quarter, 






COMMUNE DE PARIS 



169 



and prepared to press on with the divisions of 
the right and left, advancing and gradually 
concentrating their forces in the direction of 
the east of Paris, toward the last important 
strongholds of the commune, at the h6tel de 
ville and the chateau d'Eau. Meanwhile the 
insurgents, gradually falling back, had recourse 
to that method of combined defence and re- 
venge which gave the last days of this insur- 
rection a terrible feature unknown to any pre- 
vious revolution or civil war, however des- 
perate. Organized incendiarism began, and 
fires broke out in every quarter of Paris. On 
the bodies of dead insurgents were found orders 
directing the burning of whole districts, and 
others directing the destruction of public build- 
ings. All through Tuesday smaller fires had 
been set; and now, on Wednesday morning, 
just as the preparations we have noticed were 
complete, the Tuileries was discovered to be 
in flames ; and hardly was this known before 
the Palais Royal, a whole side of the rue Roy- 
ale, and then the distant hotel de ville itself, 
were found to be burning also. A panic spread 
through the city, among the national troops as 
well as the people ; extravagant rumors as to 
the intended destruction of all Paris by fires 
kindled with petroleum spread abroad ; and 
now began a day perhaps the most terrible ever 
seen in the French capital since the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew. The national troops, 
already greatly embittered by the obstinate 
resistance of the commune, and now excited 
beyond control by the attempt of the insur- 
gents to render their victory useless, and, as 
it seemed, to destroy the city, began a series 
of arrests and executions which soon passed 
all bounds of even apparent justice, and be- 
came a slaughter of all who chanced to fall 
under the slightest suspicion. It was only 
necessary that a man or woman should be 
pointed at as petroleur or petroleuse ; they 
were shot down without inquiry or mercy. 
Houses were searched and those hidden in 
them were brought into the streets and killed. 
Many entirely innocent shared the fate of the 
leaders like Vermorel and Rigault, both of 
whom fell by these summary executions. A 
court martial was established in the centre of 
the city, but even for those who were brought 
before it there was in most cases only a hur- 
ried form of trial. New fires were continually 
lighted, either by concealed incendiaries, of 
whom many were taken with the implements 
for the work in their hands, or by petroleum 
bombs from the barricades and the districts 
still in possession of the communists. During 
this week of conflagrations there were con- 
sumed or partially burned, besides a great 
number of private houses, the palais de justice, 
the prefecture of police, the palace of the 
legion of honor, the theatre of the Porte 
St. Martin, the grenier <V abondance, several 
churches, many large mercantile establishments 
and minor public buildings; all this besides 
the more important conflagrations at the hotel 



de ville, the Tuileries, and the Louvre. As 
though the events we have related were not 
enough to make this day (the 24th) sufficiently 
terrible, there occurred before its end a mas- 
sacre which has left the darkest stain on the 
career of the commune. It has already been 
stated that the archbishop of Paris and nume- 
rous other prominent men had been arrested 
and confined as hostages for communists in the 
hands of the national troops. They were now 
in the prison of La Roquette. In accordance 
with an order of the commune, they were 
taken from their cells at 8 o'clock on Wednes- 
day evening, and shot by a file of soldiers in 
the courtyard of the prison. During the whole 
of Wednesday, in spite of the distraction caused 
by the fires, the troops had steadily continued 
the manoeuvres by which they were gradu- 
ally closing around the last insurgent strong- 
holds. Around the burning hotel de ville 
the communists contested every step of ad- 
vance with desperate bravery. It was late on 
Wednesday night before the building, then in 
flames in four places, was at last abandoned. 
On the left bank of the Seine the resistance 
was still more obstinate, and it was only on 
Thursday afternoon that the Versailles soldiers 
succeeded in driving the insurgents from their 
last strong position on the Buttes-aux-Cailles, 
after the bloodiest contest since the entry into 
the city. Still fighting, the communists fell 
back to the manufactory of the Gobelins, 
which they set on fire. Here was their last 
desperate defence on this side of the river. 
Prisoners in their hands were forced to man 
the barricades, and afterward were shot 
down after freedom had been scoflingly prom- 
ised them. After a violent struggle the Ver- 
sailles troops gained possession of the whole 
district, and with it of the last contested spot 
on the left bank. Forts Bicetre and Ivry, the 
only fortresses still held by the commune, were 
also taken on Thursday. On the right bank 
the troops were pressing upon the faubourg St. 
Antoine, and after a hard struggle the place 
de la Bastille was taken on Friday, and the in- 
surgents of the district forced back to the 
cemetery of Pere la Chaise. On the right 
bank, too, the chateau d'Eau, the chief de- 
fence of the quarter of Belleville, remained. 
Throughout Thursday and till Friday morning 
it was still untaken, and it was defended with 
a valor befitting its importance as one of the 
final strongholds. At last the insurgents 
gradually gave way, and, still fighting, re- 
treated eastward through the streets toward 
the Buttes de Chaumont, where they had a 
formidable battery. The quarter of Belleville 
showed itself the firmest in resistance and the 
last to yield of all. Every point was fiercely 
contested as the fight went on, and the Ver- 
sailles troops forced their way only step by 
step. Friday night came, and the quarter was 
still in the communists' power, though the na- 
tional army, forming now almost a half circle, 
pressed in upon it, and the guns of their bat- 



170 



COMMUNE DE PARIS 



COMO 



teries poured a constant and heavy fire into it, 
to which the battery at the Buttes de Chau- 
mont could not make an adequate reply. An 
interval of quiet about midnight formed a lull 
before the final struggle. On Saturday, May 
27, the fight was begun early in the morning, 
before the last two places in which the com- 
munists still maintained a strong position, the 
Buttes de Chaumont and the cemetery of Pere 
la Chaise. There were untaken barricades, 
too, in the faubourg du Temple and the rue 
d'Angouleme. The conflict continued fiercely 
all day, point after point being taken, and it 
was after 7 at night when Gen. Vinoy's column 
took the cemetery by storm ; and the battery 
on the summit of the Buttes held out until the 
early morning of Sunday, but was captured at 
last. In the faubourg du Temple one barri- 
cade still fired upon the national troops after 
the insurrection had been crushed at every 
other point. In spite of constant attacks, it 
still held out on Sunday noon. At last the in- 
surgents were driven from it, and the Ver- 
sailles soldiers, charging over its rampart, found 
among the dead the body of Delescluze, who 
had thus fought out the struggle to its end. 
At 5 o'clock on Sunday afternoon the firing 
had ceased throughout the city, and a notice 
from Marshal MacMahon was posted on the 
walls, announcing that the civil war was over. 
Nearly 20,000 prisoners were in the hands of 
the government; the dead were scattered 
through half the streets of Paris, and the hos- 
pitals were crowded with those of both sides 
wounded at the barricades. Such of the lead- 
ers as were still living and had not escaped 
(and among them, to speak only of those yet 
unmentioned in this sketch, were the half-crazy 
Lullier, the sanguinary Ferre, and Urbain) were 
imprisoned to await the sentence of the court 
martial held later at Versailles. The great 
majority of the common prisoners were set 
free soon after the fall of the commune ; a large 
number were executed at Satory or transport- 
ed to the penal colonies. The restoration of 
the injured buildings of Paris was begun at 
once. The adherents of the insurrection dis- 
appeared as if by magic, and the future mea- 
sures of the national government were carried 
out in perfect quiet. See Beaumont- Vassy's 
Histoire auihentique de la commune de Paris 
(Paris, 1871); Moriac's Paris sous la commune 
(1871) ; Frederic Lock, La commune, deuxieme 
siege de Paris (1871); Clere, Les Jiommes de 
la commune (1871); Fetridge, "The Rise and 
Fall of the Paris Commune in 1871 " (New 
York, 1871); L 1 Insurrection du 18 Mars (ex- 
traits des depositions recueillies par la commis- 
sion d'enquete), by Edmond Villetard (Paris, 
1872); Jules Claretie's Histoire de la revolu- 
tion de 1870-'71 (published in numbers, 1871- 
'2) ; Harrison's " Apology for the Commune " 
(essays published in the " Fortnightly Review " 
for August, 1871). The official accounts of 
the trials of the communist leaders, begun on 
Aug. 7, 1871, were published from time to 



time during the sitting of the court martial, 
and form a complete record of its proceedings. 

COMMUNISM. See SOCIALISM. 

COMNENUS, a Byzantine family, of Italian 
origin, the members of which played a promi- 
nent part in the history of the Eastern empire 
from the middle of the llth to the middle of 
the 15th century. To this family belonged six 
emperors of the East (from 1057 to 1185), viz. : 
Isaac I., Alexis I., John II. , Manuel I., Alexis 
II., and Andronicus I. In 1204 one of its 
members conquered Trebizond and a portion 
of Asia Minor, and founded the empire of 
Trebizond, which continued in the hands of his 
descendants till 1461, when it was conquered 
by the Turks, David Comnenus, the last of the 
race, being put to death in the following year 
with all his family by command of Mohammed 
II. Other members of this family were noted 
as statesmen, generals, and authors. Attempts 
have been made to trace the descent of the 
Bonapartes from a Comnenus who settled in 
Corsica, but the pedigree has not been satis- 
factorily made out. 

COMO. I. A province of Italy; in Lombardy, 
bounded N. by Switzerland and S. by Milan ; 
area, 1,048 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 477,642. It is 
traversed by branches of the Lepontine and 
Rhaetian Alps and other mountain ridges. It 
is dotted with lakes, and watered by several 
rivers, of which the Adda and Ticino are most 
important. It produces corn, wine, fruit, and 
silk, and rears horses, mules, and cattle ; con- 
tains mines of lead, iron, and copper, and quar- 
ries of white marble ; and possesses manufac- 
tories of cloth and woollen and silk goods, fire- 
arms, paper, soap, candles, &c. The people are 
industrious, and there is at least one elementary 
school in each commune. Famous in ancient 
times as lapidaries and masons, many of the 
inhabitants still follow the same pursuits, and 
others travel about supporting themselves by 
the sale of barometers, looking-glasses, and 
kindred articles manufactured in the town 
of Como. The province, with the rest of 
Lombardy, was ceded by Austria to Italy 
in 1859. II. A city (anc. Comum), capital 
of the province, situated at the S. end of 
the lake of Como, 24 m. N. N. W. of Milan ; 
pop. in 1872, 24,350. It is connected by steam- 
boat with Camerlata, about a mile distant, 
and thence by railway with Milan. It has 
many suburbs along the lake, of which the 
most extensive are Vico on the west, abound- 
ing with villas, of which the villa Raimondi or 
Odescalchi is the most splendid, and St. Agos- 
tino, the manufacturing suburb. It is the see 
of a bishop, and has a splendid marble cathe- 
dral, begun in 1396; a remarkable church of 
still greater antiquity dedicated to St. Fedele ; 
a town hall, completed in 1213 ; and a magnifi- 
cent theatre built in 1813. There are several 
institutions of charity and learning, including 
three gymnasia, and a lyceum with a library of 
15,000 volumes and a reading room. On a hill 
south of the city is the lofty tower of the Bara- 






COMONFORT 



171 



dello. Here ISTapoleone della Torre, having 
been taken prisoner by his rival Ottone Vis- 
conti, Jan. 21, 1277, was shut up in an iron 
cage, in which he died by his own hands after 
19 months of painful confinement. Pliny the 
Younger (and perhaps also the Elder), Volta (a 
square, adorned with his statue by March esi, 
bears his name), and Innocent XL were natives 
of this town. It has manufactures of silks, 
woollens, cotton, yarn, and soap. In former 
times the silk trade of Como vied with that of 
Lyons. After the revolution of February, 1848, 
the people of Como were among the first to 
shake off the yoke of the Austrians, and drove 
their troops from the city. Ill* Lake of (Ital. 
Lago di Como; anc. Lacus Larius), a pictur- 
esque and tortuous sheet of water, full of 
promontories, gulfs, and little bays. At its 
northern extremity a narrow channel unites 



it with a kind of distinct lake, called Laghetto, 
which receives the river Maira. Thence it 
extends S. W. and S. for about 15 m., and 
at Bellagio divides into two branches. The W. 
branch retains the name of Como, and is 18 m. 
long. The other is named Lago di Lecco, from 
the town of that name; its length is about 12 
m. The river Adda, which enters the lake at 
its junction with the Laghetto, leaves it at 
Lecco. The width of the main lake in most 
places is not more than 1 or 2 m., but just 
above the separation of the two branches it is 
3 m. across. The banks are formed of precipi- 
tous mountains from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high. A 
mild and genial climate, a fertile soil, profusion 
of fruits and vegetables, and prosperous villages 
scattered over the country, combine to render 
its banks one of the most delightful regions of 
Italy. Among the handsome mansions which 




Como. 



line the shores are the villa Melzi, the villa 
Ciani, formerly d'Este, long the residence of 
Queen Caroline of England, the villa Carlotta, 
formerly Sommariva, which contains a fine 
museum, and the villa called Pliniana, on ac- 
count of the intermittent spring described both 
by the elder and younger Pliny, and still ex- 
hibiting the same phenomena. 

COMONFORT, Ygnacio, a Mexican statesman, 
born in Puebla, March 12, 1812, killed near 
San Luis Potosi, Nov. 13, 1863. He entered 
the Jesuit college at Puebla in 1826, became a 
captain of cavalry in 1832, and took part in the 
revolution of that year. In 1834 he was made 
prefect and military governor of the district of 
Tlapa; .in 1842 he was elected member of the 
national congress, but this was soon dissolved 
by Santa Anna, and Comonfort resumed his 
functions in Tlapa. In 1846 he was reflected 
to congress, but this congress was dissolved by 
Pared es, and the liberals instigated the revolu- 



tion of August, 1846, in which Comonfort took 
a conspicuous part. Appointed third alcalde 
of the capital, and afterward prefect of western 
Mexico, he relinquished these posts to engage 
in the war with the United States; and on 
Santa Anna's dissolving the army and leaving 
the capital open for the Americans, Comonfort 
commenced organizing guerillas in the west, 
when he was summoned to the congress of 
Queretaro, where a treaty of peace was con- 
cluded with the United States. He was now 
chosen senator by his native state, and served 
in this capacity till 1851. In 1852-'3 he was 
the representative in congress of the state of 
Guerrero, and acted as custom-house director 
of Acapulco and other places until Santa Anna's 
return to power, when he was dismissed. He 
now joined Alvarez, and proclaimed the plan 
of Ayutla, March 11, 1854. Repairing to New 
York, he raised funds to carry on the war, and 
on his return took a prominent part in the 



172 



COMOKIN 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



campaign, at the end of which, in 1855, Santa 
Anna was compelled to abdicate. Alvarez 
assumed the supreme government, but soon 
delegated his authority to Oomonfort, who be- 
came provisional president, Dec. 11, 1855. He 
met with strenuous opposition on the part of 
the clergy, the army, and the large body of the 
conservative party. The junta of Zacapoastla 
declared itself on Dec. 19 against the president, 
and a little later the seat of revolution was trans- 
ferred to the city of Puebla. Over 5,000 men 
assembled there in February, 1856. Com on - 
fort marched against the insurgents, and having 
forced them to surrender, he promulgated on 
March 31 a decree ordering the confiscation of 
the property of the church, which was followed 
on June 28 by another decree forbidding the 
clergy to hold landed estate. The clergy la- 
bored to undermine the government, and re- 
volts broke out in Puebla in October, 1856, 
and afterward in San Luis and other places ; 
and although they were quelled, the country 
remained in a distracted condition. The con- 
gress which assembled Feb. 5, 185T, drew up 
a new constitution, which was promulgated 
March 11. This vested the legislative power 
and the control over religious and military 
affairs exclusively in congress. Comonfort was 
eventually constrained, in October, 1857, to 
apply for extraordinary powers. These were 
granted by congress Nov. 4, and he was pro- 
claimed constitutional president Dec. 1. Op- 
posed by the clergy and the army, he could 
only depend upon the brigade of Gen. Zuloaga, 
which was attached to him personally. By a 
pronunciamiento at Tacubaya, Dec. 17, this 
brigade declared itself against the new consti- 
tution, and appointed Comonfort chief of a 
new government; but by a new pronuncia- 
miento of Jan. 11, 1858, they discarded him 
altogether, and the insurrection which broke 
out on that day in the capital led to a bloody 
struggle of several days. Appointing Juarez, 
president of the supreme court, provisional 
president, Comonfort vainly attempted to re- 
gain his authority by force of arms. On the 
morning of Jan. 21 the capital was in the hands 
of the insurgents. The house of representa- 
tives, convoked on the same day by Zuloaga, 
appointed that general provisional president, 
while Juarez convened a congress at Guana- 
juato to guard the rights of Comonfort. The 
latter in the mean time, deserted by his sol- 
diers, took his departure from Mexico in Feb- 
ruary, 1858, and repaired to the United States, 
and afterward went to France. Juarez, having 
triumphed over Miramon and the church party, 
was chosen president in 1861. Shortly after 
the close of 1861 Comonfort returned to Mexi- 
co, and offered his services to Juarez, by whom 
he was appointed commander of the army. He 
was on his way from Mexico to San Luis Potosi 
when he was murdered by banditti. 

COMORIN, Cape. See CAPE COMORIN. 

COMORN, or Komorn (Hun., Komdrom). I. A 
county of Hungary, on both sides of the 



Danube, and watered by its affluents the Waag 
and the Neutra; area, 1,145 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 143,090, almost all Magyars. It is level 
and exceedingly fertile in its northern portions ; 
the southern are hilly or mountainous. The 
district around Neszmely, near the S. bank of 
the Danube, produces the excellent wine of that 
name. Among the principal towns is Dotis 
(Hun. Tata). II. A fortified town, capital of the 
county, situated on the eastern extremity of the 
island of Schtitt, at the junction of the Danube 
and the Waag, 85 m. S. E. of Vienna; pop. in 
1870, 12,256. Among the principal buildings 
are four Eoman Catholic and two Protestant 
churches, a Greek church, and a synagogue. 
The town contains several learned and charita- 
ble institutions, a cannon foundery, and a manu- 
factory of firearms. The fortress, defended by 
extensive works on both sides of the Danube, 
was founded by Matthias Corvinus in the second 
half of the 15th century, and has been rendered 
one of the strongest places in the world by the 
additional fortifications erected since 1805. Its 
impregnability was tested in the revolution of 
1848-'9, when it withstood a long siege and 
bombardment under Mack, Guy on, and Klapka, 
and finally came into the possession of the 
Austrians by a voluntary capitulation (Sept. 
27, 1849). The treasury of the national bank 
was deposited here when the Prussians threat- 
ened Vienna in 1866. 

COMORO ISLES, or Comoros, a group of high 
volcanic islands in the Mozambique channel, 
between Africa and the N. W. coast of Mada- 
gascar, consisting of the islands of Angaziya or 
Great Comoro, Anzooan or Johanna, Mayotta, 
and Mohilla, lying between lat. 11 and 13 S., 
and Ion. 43 and 45 30' E. ; area, 1,050 sq. m. ; 
pop. estimated at from 50,000 to 80,000. They 
are fertile in most of the productions of the 
tropics. The rivers abound in fish, and vast 
herds of cattle range the meadows. Cocoa- 
nuts, cocoanut oil, and tortoise shell are the 
chief exports. Sugar has recently been culti- 
vated with success, and now forms an article 
of export. The inhabitants are Arabs and ne- 
groes, who generally profess Mohammedanism, 
but fetishism is practised to some extent. 
Coarse cloths, jewelry, and firearms are manu- 
factured. The Comoros are governed by sul- 
tans, one of whom resides in nearly every 
town. The island of Mayotta was ceded to 
France in 1841, and the cession was confirmed 
in 1845. Comoro, the largest island, is 30 m, 
long and 12 m. broad. It has a large town on 
the E. side, but is seldom visited by Europeans, 
and contains no spring water. The drink of 
the inhabitants is the milk of the cocoanut. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, the science which 
treats of the structure and relations of organs 
in the various branches of the animal kingdom, 
without a knowledge of which it is impossible 
to understand the beautifully progressive de- 
velopment of organization ; necessary even for 
the full comprehension of the uses of many 
parts of the human body, which, apparently 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



173 



rudimentary and useless in man, are highly 
developed in other animals. This science is 
also the basis of physiology and the natural 
classification of animals. On a subject so vast 
as this, comprehending the whole range of 
animal life, it will be impossible here to give 
anything but a sketch ; selecting a few only of 
the more important functions, instead of at- 
tempting an exhaustive treatment of the sci- 
ence. In order to simplify the subject, and to 
make this article especially referable to human 
anatomy, the whole division of the invertebrata 
will be left out, for consideration under its sepa- 
rate branches and classes. Skeleton. In the 
vertebrata, the most striking character is the 
great .preponderance of the nervous system, 
which impresses peculiar forms on the skele- 
ton, and corresponding arrangements on the 
vital organs; everything in their structure 
seems destined for the protection and suitable 
exercise of the nervous system; this is less 
observable in the lower forms, but in all the 
nervous centres are largely increased and col- 
lected together, compared with the inverte- 
brata, and the principal portions enclosed in 
the bony canal of the spine and skull, to which 
the limbs with their muscles are attached; 
their bony fabric, therefore, is properly called 
neuroskeleton, to distinguish it from the ex- 
ternal or dermoskeleton of invertebrates, the 
former having a basis of phosphate of lime, the 
latter chiefly of carbonate of lime. In the 
lowest vertebrates, as in eels among fishes, and 
serpents among reptiles, the spinal column and 
its cranial continuation constitute the principal 
and essential parts of the skeleton, the devel- 
opment of limbs being secondary ; the skull is 
composed of the same elements as the spine, 
enclosing the cephalic ganglia and protecting 
the organs of special sense. The vertebral 
column is the first rudiment of the skeleton in 
the human embryo. The bones of fishes are 
comparatively soft, flexible, and elastic, in the 
lowest species without division into vertebrse, 
and in the sharks and rays cartilaginous, re- 
sembling the embryonic conditions of higher 
animals. Having no weight to support from 
the density of the medium in which they live, 
and being forced only to propel themselves 
through the water, which is effected by the. 
lateral movements of the spine, the vertebrse 
are very numerous, and united by biconcave 
surfaces enclosing a gelatinous substance which 
admits of easy motion of one bone on another 
when the vertically flattened tail strikes the 
water ; in aquatic mammals, as the whales, the 
tail is flattened horizontally to enable them to 
rise to the surface to breathe air, which dis- 
tinguishes them from fishes. The number 
of vertebra varies from 25 in uranoscopus to 
more than 200 in sharks, and some are said to 
have only 13. The lateral surface of the fish 
is extended by large spinous processes and fin 
rays on the back, or what may be called the 
dorsal or abdominal vertebrse, and to these 
are attached also the ribs when any are pres- 



ent ; those which have spines below are called 
caudal vertebra, the last being triangular and 
flattened to support the fin rays of the tail ; 
the dorsal and abdominal fins move only with 
the spine. Though requiring no chest for re- 
spiratory organs, many fishes have ribs, and a 
few a rudimentary sternum. The cranium in 
the cartilaginous fishes is very simple, but in 
the osseous tribes is composed of a great num- 
ber of pieces whoge homologies are not always 
well determined ; the brain cavity forms but a 
small part of the head, and its component bones 
are easily recognized as direct continuations of 
the vertebrae ; the bones are thin and united 
by squamous sutures, which favors extension 
during growth ; the lower jaw and operculum 
are supported on each side by a series of bones 
resembling the os quadratum of birds; the 
hyoid bone is greatly developed, supporting the 
branchial arches and organs of respiration. The 
pectoral fins represent the anterior extremities 
and the ventrals the posterior ; the latter are 
frequently absent ; the former are attached to 
an osseous scapular arch, articulated to the 
skull; to this are attached an arm, forearm, 
and numerous carpal or wrist bones, from 
which the fin rays or fingers spring ; the arm 
remains within the body, only the hand being 
external, consisting of a large number of fingers 
with many joints ; no animal above fishes has 
more than five fingers, and some have only one 
(the middle finger), as the horse. The pectorals 
of the skates are wing-like, surrounding and 
even projecting in advance of the head ; in the 
flying fishes they are so long that they serve 
for a species of flight ; they vary in position, 
being sometimes under the throat and some- 
times behind the ventrals; in a few species 
they are wanting. The posterior limbs, or ven- 
tral fins, are not articulated to the spine and 
do not form a bony arch as in the shoulder, 
but are suspended to the rib-like iliac bones at 
a distance between the head and anus vary- 
ing in different families; in the jugular and 
thoracic fishes the bones supporting the ven- 
tral fins are attached to the arch which 
sustains the pectorals; there are small bones 
between the pelvic and the fin rays, which, if 
any, must represent the femur, tibia, fibula, 
and tarsus of the higher animals. A singular 
peculiarity in the skeleton of fishes is its want 
of symmetry in some genera; in the soles 
(pleuronectes) and flounders (platessa), one side 
is turned upward instead of the back, both 
eyes are placed on the same side, and the cra- 
nial bones are distorted to allow this arrange- 
ment of the organs. In most osseous fishes 
there are many small forked bones interspersed 
among the muscles, having no connection with 
the skeleton, serving as points of support to 
the muscles. In the amphibia, which consti- 
tute a class of animals intermediate between 
fishes and true reptiles, there is an extraordi- 
nary difference of external form and internal 
structure during the metamorphosis which 
most of them undergo. In all, the spine con- 



174 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



sists of dorsal, sacral, and caudal portions ; in 
the frog there are only 8 or 9 vertebrae, in 
some of the salamanders more than 40, and in 
the siren 80 or 90; in the higher forms the 
vertebra have no ribs, but long transverse 
processes, and are united by a ball-and-socket 
joint, with anterior concavity and posterior 
convexity ; in the tadpole and perennibran- 
chiate genera the spine is like that of fishes ; in 
the frog, destitute of a tail, there is no coccyx, 
but in the salamander the coccygeal vertebrae 
are as numerous as those of the trunk, forming 
a powerful swimming organ. The bones of 
the skull are less numerous and more united 
than those of fishes ; the brain cavity is very 
small, and the facial bones much developed 
transversely; the os hyoides undergoes re- 
markable changes according to the persistence 
~of the branchiae, as detailed in the article 
AMPHIBIA ; the tailed genera have cartilagi- 
nous appendages to the transverse processes, 
like rudimentary ribs. The scapular arch is 
well developed, consisting of the usual three 
bones, which unite to form the glenoid cav- 
ity, and in most genera has a distinct breast 
bone extending beyond the chest both anterior- 
ly and posteriorly ; the bones of the arm, fore- 
arm, and hand are easily recognized. The pos- 
terior extremities in the leaping batrachians 
consist of a long and cylindrical femur, a tibia 
and fibula consolidated into one bone, a tar- 
sus and long metatarsus, and five toes ; in the 
aquatic species the limbs are small and feeble, in 
some rudimentary, or even wanting, the power- 
ful tail serving for rapid locomotion. In ser- 
pents the skeleton is little more than a vertebral 
column and its ribs; there are no limbs (only 
the merest rudiments in some), and the motions 
of creeping, climbing, swimming, and springing 
are performed entirely by means of the flexible 
spine and the very numerous ribs ; the number 
of the vertebrae is greater than in any other ani- 
mals, being sometimes over 300, and their ar- 
rangement by . ball-and-socket joints allows of 
very free lateral motion ; the ribs, upon which 
they creep as upon so many feet, like an articu- 
late, extend from the head to the anus, and are 
attached to no sternum ; the bones of the head 
are very numerous, and movable upon each 
other ; the brain cavity is small. Snakes may 
be distinguished from lizards without feet by 
the separate movements of the two halves of 
the jaws, which allow the remarkable expan- 
sion of the mouth necessary to swallow their 
large prey. In lizards the skeleton is more per- 
fect; in them are seen for the first time cervi- 
cal vertebrae ; they have also distinct dorsals, 
bearing ribs, lumbar, sacral, and caudal verte- 
brae, articulated by ball-and-socket joints; also 
a sternum, scapular and pelvic arch, with very 
distinct and normally divided limbs in most 
genera; they have what have been called cer- 
vical and abdominal ribs before and behind 
the true ribs, and the sternum is prolonged 
nearly to the pubis, giving origin to cartilagi- 
nous arches supporting the abdominal viscera, 



of which the homologues in man are the lineae 
transversae of the rectus abdominis muscles. In 
the flying dragon, a small lizard, the ribs are 
elongated and covered with a thin membrane, 
by means of which the animal sails, like the 
flying squirrel, from one point to another below, 
using this membranous expansion as a para- 
chute. In the fossil pterodactyl, a flying liz- 
ard, there is a remarkable elongation of one of 
the anterior fingers, which supports a flying 
membrane similar to that of the bat. In the 
rhizodonts, including the crocodiles and the 
large extinct fossil genera, the skeleton is still 
further developed, approaching more nearly to 
the mammalian type, especially in the ex- 
tremities. The bones of the cranium are firm- 
ly united to each other, and there is no lat- 
eral movement of the jaws, as in snakes ; the 
brain cavity is small ; the whole number of 
vertebrae is decidedly less, and locomotion is 
proportionally performed by the feet, though 
the tail in the aquatic genera is still largely 
developed and very muscular. In tortoises, 
the highest reptiles, it would be difficult at 
first sight to recognize the usual structure of 
the class, but a closer examination betrays no 
essential difference. The spine consists of 7 
or 8 cervical vertebras, 8 to 14 dorsal, 3 sa- 
cral, and 20 to 30 caudal; the broad flat bones 
under the scales are a series of ribs, as may 
be seen by examining their connection with the 
spine from the inside, and the lower cuirass or 
plastron is a series of sternal bones, in which 
the ends of the ribs unite ; the aquatic species 
have these ribs united only in the portions 
nearest to the spine; this immovable box of 
ribs and sternum, overlaid with the scales of 
the dermoskeleton, is admirably adapted to re- 
sist pressure. The bones of the skull are firmly 
united, and form large cavities and fossae for the 
protection of the muscles of the jaws ; the brain 
cavity is still small. The anterior limbs are 
attached to the inside of the chest ; the scapula 
below the viscera, and close to the plastron, is 
united to the collar bone by suture ; the hume- 
rus is arched and twisted, the forearm short, 
broad, and permanently pronated ; three rows 
of carpal bones, metacarpus, and phalanges. In 
the pelvic arch the ilium and the pubis seem to 
change places, the latter being broad and flat, 
and uniting below with the ischium, while the 
former is long and narrow, and projects back- 
ward, the whole pelvis being movable on the 
spine ; the femur presents a trochanter, and 
has quite a mammalian aspect ; the bones of the 
leg are separate, and nearly equal ; the aquatic 
species have longer and more slender limbs. 
In birds the number of vertebrae is quite vari- 
able in the different regions of the spine ; in 
the neck, according to Cuvier, from 23 in the 
swan to 9 in the sparrow ; in the back, from 
11 in the cassowary and swan to 6 in the bull- 
finch ; in the sacrum, from 20 in the ostrich to 
7 in the coot ; in the tail, from 9 to 5 ; these 
proportions being connected with the habits of 
the species. Though so very different from the 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



175 



lower classes, birds differ from each other only 
slightly in their skeletons ; the bones of the 
neck, back, chest, and extremities are remark- 
ably similar in all ; they vary chiefly in the 
shape and size of their bills, the form of the 
feet, and the proportions of their bodies. Their 
bones are white, compact, fragile, and hollow 
for the introduction of air. The cervical ver- 
tebrse are the most numerous ; their bodies 
lock into each other so as to allow a forward 
motion in the upper and lower ones, and a 
backward motion in the middle ones ; the 
transverse processes are long, and have rudi- 
mentary ribs, especially developed in birds of 
prey. The bodies of the dorsal vertebrae are 
short and compressed laterally, and have large 
transverse processes; they are generally im- 
movable in birds of powerful flight. The sacral 
vertebrae are firmly united together, and with 
the pelvis, in order to give support to the 
superior parts of the body in flight, and a suffi- 
cient base for the lower extremities. The bones 
of the tail are broad and short, penetrated by 
the spinal cord except the last, which is com- 
pressed, supporting the tail feathers and an oil 
gland. The skull is united into a single box at 
an early period ; the brain cavity is very much 
larger than in the reptiles and fishes, and is 
occupied fully by the nervous centre ; the brain 
of a sparrow is 100 times greater than that of 
a large marine turtle, in proportion to the size 
of the animals. The most striking characteris- 
tic of the class of birds is that the anterior 
and posterior extremities are entirely dissimilar 
in appearance and function, though the ana- 
tomical structure of the wings and legs is the 
same. The perfect condition of the chest in- 
dicates the energy of the respiratory system, 
and the consequent muscular activity. The. 
ribs are strong, attached to the sternum in 
front by bony continuations instead of elastic 
cartilages, movable only at each end, articu- 
lated to the sides of the vertebrae in the fly- 
ers, but to the intervertebral cartilages in the 
runners ; in those which require great solidity 
of the chest for powerful flight, each rib is 
strengthened by bony splints running obliquely 
upward and backward to the succeeding bone, 
to which it is attached by strong ligaments. 
The sternum is provided with a keel or crest 
in front for the attachment of the muscles of 
the wings, large in proportion to the flying 
power ; in the ostrich, which does not use its 
wings to rise in the air, this bone is flat as in 
man ; in some aquatic birds the breast bone 
contains several convolutions of the windpipe 
within its cavity. The shoulder blade is paral- 
lel to the spine, long and narrow, at the glenoid 
cavity articulating with the clavicles and cora- 
coid bones. The coracoid bones, or posterior 
clavicles, are strong, extending from the glenoid 
cavity to a transverse groove in the anterior 
portion of the sternum ; these are called the 
collar bones by some of the older authors. 
The true clavicles, the "merrythought" or 
" wishbone," vary considerably in size, being 
217 VOL. v. 12 



sometimes quite rudimentary, and in other spe- 
cies strong arches reaching the sternum. The 
wing consists of a humerus, radius, and ulna, 
carpus and metacarpus of two bones each, a 
small single-jointed ulnar finger, a two-jointed 
radial finger, and a rudimentary thumb. Prof. 
J. Wyman has shown in the anas acuta, or pin- 
tailed duck, an arrangement of the bones and 
ligaments by which all the segments of the ex- 
tended wing are retained in a fixed position in- 
dependently of muscular action, and the flexion 
or extension of the hand on the forearm wben 
the latter is flexed or extended on the arm ; 
during flexion and extension the radius advan- 
ces and recedes upon the ulna, carrying with 
it the upper bone of the carpus, and with this 
last the hand ; when the upper carpal bone, to 
which the lower is attached firmly, is drawn 
over the end of the ulna as the radius recedes, 
the lower is drawn up between the hand and 
the end of the ulna, maintaining the hand ex- 
tended, like a wedge, until it is displaced by 
the reversed action of the radius. ( u Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History," 
vol. v., p. 169.) In the lower extremity the 
iliac bones correspond to the shoulder, the 
thigh bone to the arm, the leg to the forearm, 
and the foot to the hand. Though one be 
covered with feathers and the other bare, the 
wings and legs present the same analogies that 
may be traced between the fore and hind legs in 
all the vertebrata. Form. In the mammalia, or 
animals bringing forth living young and nour- 
ishing them with milk, there is a great variety 
of form. Man, the horse, the whale, the seal, 
and the bat, notwithstanding their dissimilar 
external appearance, exhibit in their skeletons 
and internal structure homologies which show 
that they belong to the same class ; the whale 
is nearer to man than to the fish, and the bat 
is more human than bird-like. The form of the 
skull varies much in mammals, according to 
the development of the brain cavity, and the 
proportions of the face. A direct relation is 
found to exist between the size of the cranium 
and face and the intelligence of an animal. In 
man the cranium, or brain cavity, is directly 
over the face ; and in proportion as the former 
retreats behind the latter, and as the face is pro- 
longed forward, the animal propensities pre- 
ponderate over the intelligence. The differ- 
ences between human crania in this respect 
early attracted the attention of anatomists, and 
Camper measured them by what is called the 
facial angle; this is formed between a line 
drawn horizontally from the opening of the ear 
to the upper teeth, and a line drawn vertically 
from the forehead to the same incisors. In the 
white races this angle is from 85 to 80, thence 
decreasing in the other races as low as 65. In 
some of the antique statues this angle is made 
90 and in one case 100, which last never ex- 
isted unless in disease. In children, the fore- 
head is more prominent than in adults, and 
their facial angle is usually 90 ; this explains 
their generally pleasing countenances as well 



176 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



as the diminution of their innocent beauty as 
age advances. Those animals which have the 
lowest heads and the longest snouts are always 
considered the most stupid and gluttonous, as 
the hog among quadrupeds ; as we descend to 
reptiles and fishes, it has been seen that the 
jaws constitute almost all the head, and these 
are known to be the most voracious of crea- 
tures, apparently living only to eat; on the 
contrary, a great degree of intelligence is at- 
tributed to the elephant from his well marked 
forehead, and the perpendicular-visaged owl 
is made the companion of the goddess of wis- 
dom; though in the last instance these sem- 
blances do not depend on any greater devel- 
opment of brain, but are mere bony expan- 
sions. Even among men, we instinctively re- 
gard him as stupid and sensual whose face 
is very prominent and whose forehead is re- 
ceding; the advancement of the forehead to- 
ward the line of 'the face is always understood 
by artists as representing a noble and elevated 
character. As we recede from man the brain 
cavity diminishes, the jaws and nasal fossaa are 
lengthened, the orbits are directed more exter- 
nally and are less distinct from the temporal 
fossaa ; the occipital foramen and its two con- 
dyles gradually fall behind the middle of the 
base of the skull, and finally occupy its poste- 
rior face, so that the jaws, instead of being at 
right angles to the spine, become parallel to the 
axis of the body. The eight cranial bones of 
man may be recognized in the mammal skull, 
though they are variously subdivided in the 
different families, and in some are united to- 
gether ; the two parietals are united in the car- 
nivora, while the frontals remain separate, and 
the temporal tympanum is divided from the 
rest of the bone by a suture ; in the elephant 
the frontals and parietals are early united with 
the other bones into a solid box. Though the 
skull of the highest apes resembles that of man 
in shape, the bones are differently connected ; 
the wing of the sphenoid does not reach the 
parietal and barely touches the frontal, and the 
temporal suture is serrated rather than squa- 
mous. From the position of the occipital fora- 
men it is evident that the head of mammals is 
not balanced on the spine, but is suspended 
from the neck and back by the ligamentum 
nnche. The bones of the face differ from the 
human in the greater number of pieces and in 
their horizontal extent. In man the upper jaw 
bones contain all the upper teeth ; but in the 
lower animals the incisors are contained in an 
intermediate bone, the intermaxillary, a per- 
sistence of a separation which may be detected 
in the human foetus. The palate bones are 
small in the carnivora, and large in the rodents; 
the upper jaw is elongated in all. The pecu- 
liarities of the bones forming the orbits will be 
given under the heads of the different families. 
No animal but man has a chin ; in all below 
him the anterior arch of the lower jaw is con- 
vex vertically and retreating at its lower mar- 
gin; in the whale it resembles two immense 



ribs, united at the points, without any ascend- 
ing branches, the articular surface being di- 
rected backward ; in the hare and rabbit the 
coronoid process, to which the elevating mus- 
cles are attached, is small, but in the squirrel 
and rat it is large, and the condyle or articular 
process is compressed laterally and largest in 
front ; in carnivora the condyle is transverse, 
and admits only of a hinge-like movement ; in 
the ruminants the flat articular surface allows 
considerable lateral motion; in cetacea and 
edentata there is neither ascending ramus nor 
coronoid process, and the angle formed by the 
body and ramus is gradually reduced until it 
becomes on a line with the axis of the jaw ; in 
carnivora, rodents, and ruminants, the two 
sides of the lower jaw are never firmly united 
at the symphysis. Many mammals have the 
head surmounted with horns ; that of the rhi- 
noceros belongs to the skin, and is only an as- 
semblage of closely united hairs, but the horns 
of ruminants have a bony axis springing from 
the frontal bone. The bony prominence in the 
giraffe is covered by the skin permanently ; in 
the stags the bony core is at first under the 
skin, but soon becomes exposed, and after a 
certain time falls off, to give place to another 
similar growth; in the ox, sheep, goat, and 
antelope, the osseous axis grows during life, 
and never falls, being covered by a sheet of 
horn, growing by layers; these bony cores 
generally communicate with the frontal sinuses, 
and thus receive air into their interior. The 
species with falling horns have generally only 
the males thus armed ; the reindeer, however, 
is an exception. The comparative anatomy of 
the brain has been sufficiently given under the 
title BEAIN. Nervous System. The vertebrate 
nervous system is not homologous with the 
invertebrate ; the spinal cord of the former is 
enclosed in a vertebral canal, and its vesicular 
substance is continuous throughout, while the 
ganglionic chain of the latter is always in the 
general cavity with the viscera, forms a ring 
through which the oesophagus passes, and its 
vesicular substance is frequently interrupted. 
Though the vertebrate spinal cord cannot be 
considered as a chain of ganglia, it may be re- 
garded as a series of segments arranged in a 
linear direction, having a distinct enlargement 
in many animals at the origin of the spinal 
nerves, and particularly of those sent to the 
extremities. The spinal cord of fishes termi- 
nates near the end of the spine. Owen says 
that in typical fishes it gradually tapers to a 
point in the heterocercal or unequal-tailed spe- 
cies, but swells again into a terminal ganglion 
in most equal-tailed species ; in describing that 
of the angler (lophius), he has evidently fallen 
into an error in regard to its length, as shown 
by the researches of Prof. J. Wyman (see 
u Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natu- 
ral History," vol. iv., pp. 150, 151); the latter 
found the cord extending as usual quite near to 
the tail, where it ended in a ganglion, present- 
ing the striking peculiarity of being sheathed 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



177 



in a great part of its extent by an immense 
number of bundles of nervous fibres, of a vastly 
greater bulk than the cord they surrounded. 
Where the pectoral fins are much developed, 
as in the rays and flying fishes, the cord is 
enlarged at the origins of the nerves; in the 
torpedo and electrical eel, nerves are freely 
distributed upon the thin membranous lami- 
nae which constitute the electric apparatus, 
and act as conductors, if not as generators, of 
this force. The cord is composed of an ex- 
ternal white or tubular portion, and an internal 
gray or vesicular matter, the reverse being the 
arrangement in the brain. In the amphioxus, 
the simplest vertebrate, the cord, with its nerves 
on each side, forms the whole nervous system ; 
but in fishes generally the cerebral ganglia, 
with the nerves of special sense, constitute a 
distinct brain. The olfactory lobes, by some 
considered the representatives of the cerebral 
hemispheres in man, from which the nerves 
of smell arise, are well developed, and in the 
sharks are four instead of two, the usual num- 
ber. The optic lobes, behind these, homolo- 
gous with the tubercula quadrigernina, are 
larger than the other parts of the brain, and 
are in proportion to the development of the 
optic nerves which arise from them and the 
perfection of the sense of sight. In the blind 
fish of the Mammoth cave of Kentucky (am- 
blyopsis spelaus), in which the eyes are rudi- 
mentary, there appears to be an exception to 
this law; though he could detect no optic 
nerves, Prof. Wyman found the optic lobes of 
good size, though less than in the allied fishes. 
Between the olfactory and optic lobes are the 
true cerebral hemispheres, largest in the sharks ; 
behind the optic lobes is the cerebellum, which 
comparative anatomy shows to preside over the 
coordination of the movements, largest in the 
active sharks. In the peretmibranchiate am- 
phibia the brain and nervous system are very 
much like those of fishes ; in the genera which 
undergo metamorphosis the changes from the 
fish-like to the reptilian brain are rapid and 
remarkable, the hemispheres becoming enlarged 
and the spinal cord shorter as the tail disap- 
pears. In frogs, there are found attached to 
each spinal nerve, before the division into sen- 
sory and motor roots, vesicles containing a 
white, chalky, crystalline substance; from their 
constant presence, they are considered essen- 
tial parts of the nervous system ; nervous fila- 
ments have been traced into the interior of 
these vesicles; the chalky matter resembles 
that found in the vestibule of the ear. In true 
reptiles the brain is more developed and nearly 
fills the cranial cavity ; the hemispheres are in- 
creased in size, and the cerebellum is large in 
proportion to the activity and complexity of the 
movements ; the nerves are large compared with 
the centres, and the sympathetic system is more 
closely connected with the blood vessels. In 
birds the parts of the brain are no longer on the 
same plane, are larger, more complicated, in- 
dicating more intelligence and more activity. 



In the spinal cord there is an enlargement where 
the nerves are given off to the wings, and an- 
other where those of the legs take their origin ; 
that these are not proportional to muscular 
force, but rather to sensibility, is shown by the 
fact that the latter is the larger ; though the 
wings are more muscular, they are, from their 
feather covering, less sensitive to external im- 
pressions than the legs ; this is more clearly 
shown in the mammalian bat, where the en- 
largement corresponding to the exceedingly 
sensitive wings is by far the greatest. In mam- 
mals the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres 
reach their highest development, the for- 
mer gradually covering over the latter, and 
the convolutions becoming more numerous 
and complicated up to man ; the commissures 
more intimately connect their different por- 
tions; the spinal cord is larger in propor- 
tion to the size of the body, but smaller 
when compared with the brain ; and the sym- 
pathetic system is more extensively distribu- 
ted. Organs of Special Sense. By means of 
the organs of special sense, placed at the ex- 
tremities of the cerebro-spinal nerves, and 
generally near the entrance of the alimentary 
canal, animals are brought into relation with 
external objects ; an impression communicated 
to the outer surface is transmitted to the sen- 
sorium along the sensory fibres of nerves, and 
there causes the phenomena of smell, vision, 
taste, hearing, or general sensation, with their 
resultant motor acts from the transmission of 
the nervous influence along the motor fibres ; 
in all the vertebrates there are organs set apart 
for this purpose, the nose, the eyes, the ears, 
the tongue, and the skin. The sense of touch, 
residing in the skin, is the most universally 
diffused, and is capable of answering most 
practical purposes of the other special organs; 
and indeed the senses of taste and hearing 
seem to be little else than modifications of the 
sense of touch ; the senses of smell and vision 
depend upon the influence of such delicate 
changes in the surrounding air that we can 
hardly comprehend them except through their 
effects. The skin consists essentially of two 
layers, the cuticle and the true skin ; the sur- 
face of the latter is the seat of sensibility, and 
is provided with numerous papillaa into which 
the nervous loops enter ; the cuticle is made 
up of nucleated cells, becoming dry externally 
and falling off in the form of thin flakes. In 
fishes the body is generally covered with 
scales, not fit for receiving tactile impressions ; 
some of the siluroids, as the horn-pout, have 
fleshy barbels attached to the lips, into which 
nervous filaments may be traced ; their skin is 
lubricated with a viscid mucus poured out 
through numerous tubes. In the amphibia the 
skin is soft and yielding, and quite sensitive ; 
it is well known to be in this class an impor- 
tant accessory organ of respiration. In ser- 
pents and lizards the tongue and the tail are 
the principal organs of touch. In birds the 
tactile organs are the bill, the cere, and vari- 



178 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



ous appendages in the shape of combs, wattles, 
bristly hairs, and caruncles ; in the swimmers 
and waders the bills are very sensitive ; in the 
snipe and woodcock, for example, the fifth pair 
of nerves is freely distributed to the long bill, 
making it an exceedingly delicate organ for 
the explorations necessary in their search for 
food. In mammals, most of which are cov- 
ered with hair or thick hides, the sense of 
touch is most acute in the neighborhood of the 
mouth ; the lips of the horse are very sensi- 
tive ; those of the carnivora and rodents are 
provided with long whiskers, into which nerves 
enter, forming exquisite organs of touch ; the 
complicated appendages to the nose of bats, 
and also their delicate wings, are very sensitive 
tactile or'gans. With the exception of the 
tongue, which is sensitive in all, there is no 
approach to the perfect development of touch 
in the human subject until we reach the quad- 
rumana, in which the hand is the chief tactile 
organ. The fore foot of the ruminant, ending 
in a hoof, serves only for support and locomo- 
tion ; in the feline tribes it is in addition pre- 
hensile, and to a certain extent tactile ; in the 
monkey the palmar cuticle is thin and sensitive, 
though the hand is still used in locomotion ; in 
man the sense of touch is very acute in the 
tips of the fingers, though all parts of the skin 
are more or less sensitive. The sense of touch 
may be educated to a degree almost substitu- 
tive for the sense of sight; what the bat's 
wing is naturally, the blind man's fingers may 
become by education. The sense of taste, 
even in man, must be considered as principally 
a modification of the sense of touch ; as it is 
impossible to draw the line between the mu- 
cous membrane and the skin, which are also 
composed of the same elements, and as the 
sensory branches of the same fifth nerve are 
distributed to the face, lips, mouth, and tongue, 
it is naturally inferred that a great part of 
what is called taste is really touch, applied to 
a special locality for special purposes, as in the 
wing of the bat and the tips of the fingers ; 
and some are of opinion that the sense of smell 
supplies all of taste which is not derived from 
touch. The papilla) of the tongue are more 
highly developed than those of the skin, and 
are scattered over its surface in all parts 
likely to come in contact with matters in a 
state of solution. The tongue of fishes can 
rarely be an organ of taste, being of a hard 
consistence, and frequently armed with teeth ; 
their voracity and the element in which they 
live are also against their possessing in the 
tongue anything more than an organ of touch. 
In all the vertebrates the tongue answers for 
other purposes than that of taste ; in the toad it 
is darted with great quickness and usually un- 
erring aim against the insects upon which it 
feeds ; in the chameleon it is capable of con- 
siderable protrusion, enlarged at the end, and 
covered with a glutinous secretion which en- 
traps its insect prey when projected against 
them. In birds it is chiefly an organ of pre- 






hension, rarely possessing papillae, and gener- 
ally sheathed in front with horn ; the tongue of 
the woodpecker is a kind of barbed spear, pro- 
truded by a muscle and long bony tendon from 
the top of the head, for the transfixion of 
grubs and insects. In mammals generally the 
tongue is only an organ of taste ; but in the 
giraffe it forms a long flexible process, which 
can take up small bodies almost like a hand, 
and by which the leaves of high trees are 
stripped off into the mouth ; the tongue of the 
ant-eater is covered with a viscid secretion, to 
which the ants adhere in great numbers ; in 
the cats it is beset with strong spines for pur- 
poses of prehension and of tearing the small 
fibres of the flesh on which they feed ; in man 
it is also of the first importance in the articula- 
tion of words. The sense of smell doubtless 
exists in many invertebrates, at the entrance 
of the respiratory passages. In fishes the 
organ of smell consists of a sac containing a 
folded membrane largely supplied with nerves, 
and not communicating with the mouth or 
pharynx ; that this sense is acute in the cod 
and other deep swimmers is probable from the 
fact, well known to fishermen, that these may 
be attracted from great distances by peculiar 
kinds of bait, while the top-water and mid- 
water species select their food by the sight, also 
often showing what seems to be a decided sense 
of taste ; the sharks, from their large olfactory 
nervous centres, are believed to have an acute 
sense of smell. In the higher amphibia the 
nostrils become reptilian, being partly osseous 
and opening into the anterior part of the 
mouth ; in saurians and chelonians the nostrils 
open posteriorly into the pharynx. In birds 
the external nostrils vary much in size, shape, 
and situation, but are generally freely open; 
their sense of smell is not so acute as had been 
supposed from some of the habits of the vul- 
tures, as Audubon has satisfactorily shown 
that these birds detect their carrion prey from 
great heights by the sense of sight and not by 
that of smell. In mammals the olfactory lobes 
are much more fully developed than in man, 
as also are the nasal cavities in which the 
sensitive membrane is spread out, and the ex- 
ternal nose; the nostrils are valvular in the 
cetaceans, beavers, seals, &c. ; in the hog the 
nose is enlarged into a gristly ring, in the tapir 
into a short proboscis, and in the elephant into 
a long prehensile trunk. The sense of smell 
is most acute in the carnivora and rumi- 
nants, as would be expected from the extent 
and convolutions of the turbinated bones. 
From the communication of the nose with the 
pharynx, mammals are able to breathe with 
the mouth shut. An organ of hearing may be 
detected in many invertebrates, as in the lob- 
ster, insects, and cephalopods. Its simplest 
form in the vertebrates is in fishes, where it is 
a sac filled with fluid, in which are distributed 
the nervous filaments on small particles of cal- 
careous matter; in connection with this sac 
are two or three semicircular canals opening 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



179 



into its cavity ; the auditory nerve arises from 
the side of the spinal bulb, without any distinct 
ganglion ; in such an ear as this the vibrations 
of the water are communicated to the skin, 
then to the fluid, and finally to the nerves. So- 
norous impressions are conveyed with greater 
intensity in liquids than in air, so that the sense 
of hearing in fishes may be tolerably acute. In 
the sharks the semicircular canals are quite 
large, and the vestibule of the carcharias ol- 
scurus would contain the whole internal hu- 
man ear ; of course in such an organ there is 
no tympanic cavity, and no external ear. In 
the aquatic amphibia the organ of hearing is 
like that of fishes ; but in the frog and sala- 
mander there is a membrane of the tympanum. 
In the reptiles there is added a cochlea with its 
own nervous filaments, the tympanic cavity is 
larger, and a bone, the columella, makes a com- 
munication between the vibrating membrane 
find the fluid of the auditory sac ; a Eustachi- 
an tube communicates also with the throat, and 
the tympanum is either bare on the level of the 
skin or just underneath it. In birds there is no 
external cartilaginous auricle, as in mammals, 
and only a portion of the external auditory ca- 
nal ; but in many, especially in the rapacious 
families, the feathers are erectile around the 
meatus, and arranged to catch distant sounds ; 
the bone-surrounded tympanum has also its 
columella, and its cavity communicates with 
the fauces by a Eustachian tube, and with the 
air cells of the skull ; the cochlea is more de- 
veloped than in reptiles, but, like the rest of 
the internal ear, does not reach the perfection 
of the mammalian type. In the owl there is a 
crescentic valvular fold of integument around 
the external ear. In mammals there is a per- 
fect cochlea, a chain of three tympanic bones, 
an external canal, and an external movable ear ; 
in cetaceans and other aquatic families, the ex- 
ternal ear is either wanting, very small, or pro- 
vided with a valve ; in ruminants and the tim- 
id rodents it is large and directed backward ; 
in the carnivora it is small and inclined for- 
ward. The use of the external ear in man is 
not exactly determined ; its small size and di- 
rection would make it of but little use in col- 
lecting sounds and transmitting them to the 
tympanum. The experiments of Savart go to 
show that it acts not only in reflecting sounds, 
but as a conductor, by virtue of the elasticity 
of its cartilage. In general the ear of mam- 
mals resembles that of man. In all animals 
living in air the vibrations of sonorous bodies 
are transmitted to a tense membrane, the tym- 
panum or drum ; the tympanic vibrations are 
transmitted to the fluid of the internal ear, in 
which the nerve floats, by the chain of bones ; 
and in order that the membrane may vibrate 
freely, the cavity of the tympanum communi- 
cates with the throat, the tension being equal 
on both sides. The most complicated of the 
organs of special sense is the eye. In all ver- 
tebrates the eyes are two in number, and with 
few exceptions symmetrically arranged on the 



sides of the head ; they are essentially on the 
same general plan, the differences being chiefly 
in relation to the density of the medium in 
which the animals reside. Aquatic animals, 
whether fishes, reptiles, birds, or mammals, 
have the lens nearly spherical to compjensate 
for the similarity of the densities of the hu- 
mors of the eye and the surrounding water. 
In fishes the eyes are generally large and on 
the sides of the head, though they are small in 
the eel, directed upward in urano&copus, and 
both on one side in the flounder ; the cornea 
flattened, the sclerotic thick and sometimes 
partly ossified, the pupil large and round, the 
lids rudimentary, and the lachrymal gland 
wanting. The blind fish (amblyopsu) has been 
found to possess a sclerotic and choroid coat, a 
layer of cells beneath the latter resembling a 
retina, a rudimentary leng, and a nerve ; still 
there is no trace of eye dots on the skin, though 
such were found in the mass of areolar tissue 
occupying the usual situation of the orbit ; such 
an eye cannot be regarded as an organ of vision, 
as the skin and tissues beneath prevent the pas- 
sage of light except in a very faint degree ; but 
such as it is, it corresponds to the vertebrate, 
and not to the invertebrate eye, with the last 
of which it has been sometimes compared ; the 
deficiency of vision in this species is made up 
by the largely developed organ of hearing, and 
by the remarkably sensitive papill on the head 
supplied by the fifth pair of nerves. In the aqua- 
tic amphibia the eyes are like those of fishes ; 
in the higher genera, and in reptiles, except 
ophidians, there are lids moving vertically, a 
lachrymal apparatus, and a movable iris ; in the 
snakes there are no lids, but the skin passes di- 
rectly over the cornea, as in the eel. In birds 
the eyes are always well developed ; from the 
anterior convexity and lateral location, their 
sphere of vision is very extensive ; the retina 
is quite thick, and apparently gives origin to a 
fan-shaped dark membrane, the pecten plica- 
tum, which extends from the entrance of the 
optic nerve toward the lens; from its being 
composed chiefly of vessels, some think it a 
process of the choroid, and accordingly its use 
may be either to absorb superabundant rays of 
light to extend the visual surface, or perhaps, 
as Owen has suggested, to push forward the 
lens by its erectile property. The pupil is 
round, the iris very contractile, the cornea large 
and transparent, and the sclerotic strengthened 
in front by a series of bony plates ; there are 
two horizontal lids, the lower largest and most 
movable, and a third vertical nictitating mem- 
brane, semi-transparent, which may be drawn 
over the cornea from the internal angle; lach- 
rymal glands are also present. There is some 
apparatus in the eyes of birds, either the pecten 
or the muscles, by which these organs can 
adapt themselves to the very different distances 
at which it is necessary for them to have dis- 
tinct sight, by which the curvature of the lens 
and the focus of vision may be changed. In 
mammals which seek their food by night, the 



180 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



eyes, like the ears, are proportionally larger 
than in the day feeders, and their pupil, when 
contra'cted, assumes the form of a vertical slit 
instead of a circular aperture ; in the moles and 
subterranean species the eyes are extremely 
small, and sometimes quite rudimentary ; in the 
aquatic genera the lens is more spherical, as in 
fishes, and in cetacea the lids are imperfectly 
developed and the whole organ comparatively 
small ; in carnivora especially there is at the 
bottom of the eye a brilliant tapetum, which 
shines at night with metallic reflections ; the 
lids are generally formed as in man, the upper 
being the largest and the most movable ; ex- 
cept in man and monkeys, there is usually a 
third nictitating membrane. The direction of 
the eye in man and monkeys is forward ; but 
as we descend in the scale it becomes lateral, 
so that the animal cannot see directly before 
him, and the sphere of vision becomes different 
for each eye. Organs of Alimentation and 
Digestion. There is no organ so characteristic 
of the animal, as distinguished from the vege- 
table, as an internal digestive cavity for the 
conversion of organic substances into nutritive 
material. In the sac-like polyps the food is 
introduced into the simple stomach, and dis- 
solved without any mechanical division ; in the 
echinoderms there is a complicated apparatus 
of teeth, and the digestive cavity is arranged in 
a radiating manner ; in the higher invertebrates 
and all the vertebrates there is a distinct mouth, 
an apparatus for mastication, a stomach for di- 
Jgestion, and an intestine from which the nutri- 
ent matters are absorbed and the useless mate- 
rials are expelled. Accessory salivary, biliary, 
and pancreatic organs are found from the 
higher radiates up to man ; in vertebrates the 
teeth are confined to the cavity of the mouth, 
and generally to the jaws, none being found in 
the stomach. Fish are very voracious, and 
most of them live upon animal food, swallow- 
ing whatever small prey they can obtain; a 
few have no teeth, but they are usually well 
provided with them, the sharks having several 
rows; the teeth are found not only in the 
jaws, but on the palate and vomer, the tongue, 
the branchial arches, and pharyngeal bones; 
they are numerous, without roots, united to 
the bone which supports them, deciduous and 
replaced by others growing under or by the 
side of the old ones, and thinly covered with 
enamel ; the form is generally conical, as they 
serve only to retain or tear their food, rarely 
to crush and grind it; they are numerous and 
sharp in the pike and salmon, serrated in some 
sharks, flat and pavement-like in the rays, 
strong fangs in the wolf-fish, in others soft and 
velvety, tuberculated, or sharp-edged, and ab- 
sent in the sturgeon and the sucking genera : to 
fit them better for their prehensile office, they 
are placed alternately, and not opposed to each 
other as in masticating animals. The salivary 
glands are absent, or very rudimentary; the 
gullet is short and wide, with its membrane 
folded longitudinally; the stomach varies in 



shape from globular to long and tapering, with 
both orifices near together and guarded by con- 
strictor muscles ; the intestine is short as in all 
carnivorous feeders, and not divided distinctly 
into large and small ; to compensate for its 
shortness, the intestine in the sharks is provided 
with folds arranged in a spiral or longitudinal 
direction, which delay the passage of the food 
and greatly increase the absorbing surface ; the 
anus varies in position from under the throat 
to the base of the tail. The liver is soft, light- 
colored, of large size, and many-lobed, discharg- 
ing its bile into the commencement of the intes- 
tine, while the pancreas pours in its secretion 
on the other side ; the latter organ is a large 
gland in the shark, but it is more commonly a 
series of tubes or crecal appendages, the simplest 
form of a gland, placed around the pylorus; 
digestion is rapidly performed, and the chyle 
is taken up by numerous lacteals which end in 
the venous system near the heart. The spleen 
is small, of various forms, attached to the 
stomach, generally simple, but lobulated in the 
sharks. The amphibia resemble fishes in their 
digestive apparatus, in their prehensile teeth 
in the palate and jaws, in the absence or rudi- 
mentary condition of the salivary glands, in 
the short and wide gullet, narrow stomach, 
and short and simple intestine ; in some of the 
higher forms they approach the reptiles, in 
the less numerous teeth, elongated tongue, and 
distinct small and large intestine. In snakes 
and saurians, mostly carnivorous, the intestirial 
canal is shorter than in the herbivorous testu- 
dinata. In serpents, which feed on living 
prey, the sharp conical teeth are directed back- 
ward, and the bones to which they are attached 
are freely movable, enabling them to swallow 
animals considerably larger than themselves; 
the venomous genera have in front of the teeth 
of the upper jaw two long curved fangs, com- 
municating by a canal or a groove with the 
poison gland behind and below the orbit ; the 
muscles which close the jaws press the venom 
into the wound made by the teeth ; in the rat- 
tlesnake these fangs are movable, and may be 
bent backward in a fold of the gum when not 
in use; behind the ones actually employed, 
there are the rudiments of others which soon 
complete the terrible armature if one fang hap- 
pens to get broken. The tongue is long, sheath- 
ed, and bifurcated ; salivary glands are present ; 
the gullet is long and very extensible; the 
stomach capacious, simple, and capable of great 
distention, separated from the intestine by a 
distinct valve ; the duodenum receives the bil- 
iary and pancreatic secretions, and begins to 
present a villous surface ; the large intestine is 
distinguishable from the small by its size, and 
ends in the cloaca with the ureters and genital 
openings ; the liver, spleen, and pancreas are 
elongated to conform to the shape of the body. 
In the carnivorous saurians the arrangement is 
equally simple, though the teeth are fewer, 
chiefly in the jaws, the stomach short and 
rounder; in the iguana and other vegetable 






COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 



181 



feeders, the intestine is the longest. In testu- 
dinata, instead of teeth the jaws are armed with 
sharp edges of horn ; the tongue and gullet are 
provided with long papillae, sharp in the marine 
species ; the salivary glands are tolerably de- 
veloped ; the gullet is long, wide, and muscular, 
and the stomach wide and fleshy ; the intestine 
is about six times the length of the body, and 
the colon has a short, wide caecum ; the canal 
opens into a general cloaca. The food of birds 
is so various that their digestive apparatus 
would be expected to present considerable dif- 
ferences, and in no part is there greater variety 
than in the bill, which in most species is the 
principal organ of prehension, whether the food 
be seeds, insects, fish, or the flesh of animals. 
The bill furnishes to the zoologist as good char- 
acters for the classification of birds as do the 
teeth for that of mammals ; its exterior and the 
sharp edges are covered with solid horn, but it 
never has any true teeth, so that there is no 
proper mastication in this class ; the birds of 
prey have the upper mandible short, strong, 
curved, and terminating in a sharp point, and 
hi the falcons with a tooth -like process on each 
side, indicating by these characters the more or 
less carnivorous propensities of the genus ; the 
tooth-billed hawks are the boldest, while the 
vultures, with their more elongated beaks, 
rarely attack living animals ; in the parrots and 
granivorous birds it is broad and powerful to 
break hard shells and seeds ; in aquatic genera 
it is broad for obtaining worms and insects from 
water and mud ; in insect-eaters it is long and 
slender, or short and broad,