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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"


l-f 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL. VI. 
DEMPSTER-EVERETT, 



257 




Vs 



THE 



AMEKICAN CYCLOPAEDIA: 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME VI. 
DEMPSTER-EVERETT. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 651 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIN. 

1879. 



f 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 




Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Sixth Volume of tJie Revised 
Edition are the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 

DEW. 

EARTHQUAKE. 
ECHO. 
ELASTICITY. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

DEMPSTEB, JOHN. 
DICKINS, JOHN. 
DUBBIN, JOHN PRICE, D. D. 
EMERY, JOHN and EGBERT. 

FKANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

DUSSEK, JOHN Louis, 
ERNST, HEINRICH WILHELM, 
and other musical articles. 

W. T. BRIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 

EUCALYPTUS, 
EUPHORBIA, 

and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D. 
DOUGLAS, FAMILY OF, 
DRESDEN, 
EPAMINONDAS, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

ROBERT CARTER. 

DlPPEL, JOHANN KONRAD, 

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN and ISAAC, 
DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD, 
EASTER ISLAND, 
EGYPT, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 
DIANA, 

DONATI, 

DREAM, 

DRUSUS, 

ENGRAVING, 

EECKMANN-CHATRIAN, 

and articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

DIAPHORETICS, 

ELATERIUM, 

ETHER, 

and other articles of materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
DIVORCE, 
DOMAIN, 
DOMICILE, 
DOWER, 
EASEMENT, 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 
ELLIOT, GEORGE THOMSON. 

and medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 

EDUCATION, 
EMIGRATION, 

and various articles in American geography. 

Col. H. A. Du PONT, U. S. A. 

Du PONT, SAMUEL FRANCIS. 

Du PONT DE NEMOURS, PIERRE SAMUEL. 

EGBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FERRISS. . 

ELLET, CHARLES, Jr. 

A. K. FISKE. 

DERBY, Eng. 
DERBY, EARLS OF. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 

DENGUE. 

DIPHTHERIA. 

DROPSY. 

J. W. HAWES. 

DETROIT, 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 

DULUTH, 

EVANSVILLE, 

and other articles in American geography. 



CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

DEXTRINE. 

DIAL. 

DIASTASE. 

DIATHERMANCY. 

DOCK. 

ELECTRICITY. 

ETHER, COSMIC. 

Prof. T. STERRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

DILUVIUM. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

DE WITT, JAN, 
DICKENS, CHARLES, 

and other articles in biography. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

DIALYSIS, 

.DISSOCIATION, 

ERBIUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 
DENTALIUM, 
ECHINODERMS, 
ECHINUS, 
ELASMOSAURIANS, 
EozodN, 

and other articles in natural history. 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

DISSENTERS. 



EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 
DIOCESE. 
DONATISTS. 

DUPANLOUP, FELIX ANTOINE PHILIPPE. 
EUGENIUS. popes. 
EUSEBIUS. 

Count L. F. DE POURTALES, U. S. Coast Survey. 
DREDGING (Deep-Sea). 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 

DOG STAB. 
EARTH. 
ECLIPSE. 
ECLIPTIC. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO THE. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 
ERIES, 

ETECHEMINS, 

and other articles on American Indians. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 
Dix, MORGAN, D. D. 
DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM. 
DUPORT, JAMES. 
DYCE, ALEXANDER. 

EMERICH SZABAD. 
DENMARK. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

EDDA, 

EGYPT, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF, 

ETHIOPIA, 

ETHIOPIA, LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE OF, 

ETHNOLOGY, 

ETRURIA, 

and other philological, archaeological, and oriental 
articles. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

DURANGO, 

ECUADOR, 
ENTRE BIOS, 
ESPIRITO SANTO, 

and other Spanish-American articles. 

Gen. JAMES GRANT WILSON. 

DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN. 




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



DEMPSTER 



DEMPSTER, John, an American clergyman, 
born in Florida, Fulton co., N. Y., Jan. 
2, 1794, died at Evanston, 111., Nov. 28, 1863. 
His father, the Rev. James Dempster, though 
educated at the university of Edinburgh and 
bred a Presbyterian, was a colaborer with 
John Wesley, and was sent by him as a mis- 
sionary to America, and died while his son 
was a child. Becoming a peddler of tinware, 
young Dempster manifested no marked char- 
acteristics till his conversion in his 18th year, 
when he set about repairing the defects of his 
earlier education by most persistent study. 
In 1816 he was admitted into the Methodist 
general conference, and till 1825 was stationed 
at various places in Canada and New York. 
In 1835 he was sent as missionary to Buenos 
Ay res. Returning in 1842, for three years he 
had charge of churches in New York city. 
Meanwhile he had decided on Newbury, Vt., 
as a favorable site for a theological seminary, 
which soon after was removed to Concord, N. 
H. Here in 1847 was inaugurated the Biblical 
institute, which now constitutes the school of 
theology of Boston university. After seven 
years' labor in this institute, Dr. Dempster de- 
parted for the west, to seek a favorable loca- 
tion for the second in the chain of theological 
seminaries that he proposed to establish be- 
tween the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. A 
property for the adequate endowment of a 
Biblical institute in or near Chicago was ob- 
tained, and he was appointed senior professor 
in 1856. The steps he had taken for planting 
like institutions at Omaha, and next in Cali- 
fornia, failed, chiefly from the financial revul- 
sion which the entire country suffered in 1857. 
Preparatory to a contemplated journey to the 
Pacific coast to further his favorite plan, he 
submitted to a surgical operation that proved 
fatal. He left very extensive manuscripts, 
only one volume of which has been published, 
" Lectures and Addresses " (Cincinnati, 1864). 



DEMPSTER, Thomas, a Scottish professor and 
author, born at Muiresk, Aberdeenshire, Aug. 
23, 1579, died near Bologna, Sept. 6, 1625. 
He was the 24th in a family of 29 children by 
the same mother, and at the age of three mas- 
tered the alphabet in one hour. He went in 
his 10th year to the university of Cambridge, 
and studied for some time at Pembroke hall, 
whence he passed over to France. For sev- 
eral years he wandered from one university to 
another, and in 1596 he received the degree of 
D. C. L., and was appointed regent of the col- 
lege of Navarre in Paris. His violent and 
quarrelsome temper often involved him in 
serious broils with his fellow students and pro- 
'fessors. He was subsequently engaged as pro- 
fessor for brief periods at Toulouse and Nimes, 
and early in the 17th century went to Scot- 
land to recover a portion of the paternal prop- 
erty. Returning to Paris, he was for seven 
years connected with various colleges of the 
university, and while acting as temporary 
principal of the college de Beauvais he pre- 
served the most rigid discipline in that institu- 
tion. He afterward went to England, and was 
appointed by James I. historiographer royal. 
In 1615 he received from the king a handsome 
present in money, "but his hopes of preferment 
being defeated by the opposition of the clergy 
on account of his being a Roman Catholic, he 
betook himself in 1616 to Pisa, where for sev- 
eral years he lectured on the civil law. A 
personal difficulty induced him to go to Bolo- 
gna, where, after engaging in a number of dis- 
putes, he rose to eminence as professor of hu- 
manity, was knighted and pensioned by tho 
pope, and loaded with distinctions. In the 
midst of this prosperity his wife eloped with a 
student, and the mental and physical suffering 
which he experienced in an attempt to over- 
take the fugitives put an end to his life. 
Dempster's works are exceedingly numerous, 
and embrace a variety of subjects. He wrote 



DEMURRAGE 



DENBIGH 



and >poke Greek and Latin with great facility, 
and was thoroughly ver.-cd in philosophy, civil 
law, and history. His elaborate works, An- 
tiytiitntiait luniKtiKirnni Cvrjju* Absolutissi- 
inniit and lh Etna-ill Itcjuli, evince remark- 
ahle industry and erudition. His Historia 
utiea Gentu ^<'tntm is a biographi- 
cal dictionary of Scottish worthies, in which 
fable and fact are mingled. Many names of 
authors who never wore in Scotland are 
claimed as Scottish, and the history of many 
others who never existed is given with minute 
particularity. He was as remarkable for per- 
sonal courage and skill in the use of weapons 
as for scholarship.* 

DKMIRRAGE (Lat. demoror, to delay), in 
maritime law, the detention of a vessel beyond 
the time allowed by the charter party (or by 
custom if there is no special contract) for load- 
ing or unloading or sailing ; also the compen- 
sation paid or damages claimed for such de- 
tention. It is usually stipulated in the contract 
between the owner of the ship and the freight- 
er that the ship shall not be detained beyond 
a certain time for the loading or delivery of 
goods, or for sailing. If there is no such stipu- 
lation, the time is fixed by usage, and called 
lay days. The claim for demurrage is recip- 
rocal, by the owner against the freighter, and 
by the freighter against the owner; the latter 
case being, however, only for delay in sailing. 
Demurrage is allowed only for voluntary de- 
tention, and not for any accidental delay ; as, 
if a vessel is detained for a cargo over the 
stipulated time, and after sailing is driven back 
by a storm, which would have been avoided 
if she had started at the time appointed, no 
damages are allowed for the incidental delay. 
Yet it would perhaps be otherwise if by the 
detention a further delay is caused by any- 
thing which could be foreseen, as a periodical 
wind, or the freezing up of a harbor, or the 
like. In inland transportation, where the lat- 
ter cause of delay most frequently occurs, as 
upon risers or canals, the rule is that the car- 
rier i< not responsible for the delay when there 
has been no fault on his part, but is entitled to 
deliver the cargo after the breaking up of win- 
ter, and earn the entire freight; or if the 
freighter elect to take the jfoods at the place 
of detention, he must pay pro rata itimrix. 
But if there has been voluntary delay by either 
party, in consequence of which the vessel is 
frozen up by the coming on of winter, he is 
r->pon-ihh- lor damages; but the measure of 
such damages would not be according to the 
rule of demurrage in respect to sea vessels. 

HKMIRRER, in law, an exception by a party 
to a suit to the sufficiency of the pleading of 
the oppo-itc party. In the common law courts 
a demurrer may be general or special; the 
former specifying no particular ground of ob- 
jection, and therefore raising only the question 
of the sufficiency in substance of the pleading 
demurred to; the latter being a specification 
of certain objections to the form of the plead- 



ing. It may be interposed by either party to 
the last pleading of his opponent, but on the 
argument the sufficiency of any prior pleading- 
may be inquired into, and judgment will be 
given against the party committing the first 
substantial error. In equity the demurrer is 
only applicable to the complainant's bill. A 
demurrer always raises a question of law to be 
determined by the court; but if the pleading 
demurred to is held bad, liberty to amend is 
usually given, unless the case is such that 
amendment can be of no avail. 

DENAIN, a town of France, in the department 
of Le Nord, on the left bank of the Scheldt, 
which is here navigable, and on the Northern 
railway, 6 m. W. S. W. of Valenciennes, and 14 
m. E. S. E. of Douai. Owing to the successful 
working of the neighboring coal and iron mines, 
the population increased from 900 in 1826 to 
1 1,022 in 1866. The town has manufactories of 
iron and of beet sugar. Denain was the scene 
of a brilliant victory achieved in 1712 by the 
French under Yillars over an army of the allies 
commanded by the earl of Albemarle. 

DENARIUS, a Roman silver coin, containing 
at first 10, and afterward 16 ases, first coined 
in 269 B. C. The average weight of a large 
number of denarii shows them to have con- 




Roman Denarius (exact size). 

tained about as much silver as three half dimes 
of our currency. The denarius aureus was a 
gold coin, the average value and weight of 
which it is difficult to determine. The speci- 
mens in the British museum differ much in 
these respects. The gold denarius does not 
seem to have been in common use in Rome. 

DENBIGH, a municipal and parliamentary 
borough, market and county town of Denbigh- 
shire, North "Wales, built on an eminence near 
the centre of the vale of Clwyd, 22 m. W. of 
Chester, and 180 m. N. W. of London ; pop. 
of the borough in 1871, 6,322. The principal 
edifices are three Anglican churches, one Cath- 
olic and four dissenting chapels, a town hall, 
grammar school, lunatic asylum, and a spacious 
market hall. The shoe and leather trade is the 
main support of the town, but Denbigh is best 
known as a pleasant spot for retirement. Den- 
bigh castle, a magnificent edifice, parts of which 
are well preserved, is supposed to have been 
built by Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, who re- 
ceived the lordship of this place from Edward 
I. Edward IV. was besieged in it by the army 
of Henry VI., and Charles I. took refuge here 
after the battle of Rowton Heath in 1645. 
At the close of the civil war it was garrisoned 
by royalists, but after a siege of two months 



DENBIGHSHIRE 



DENDERMONDE 



surrendered to the parliamentarians by order 
of the king. A great part of its defences was 
blown up after the restoration. 

DENBIGHSHIRE, a maritime county of North 
Wales, bounded N. by the Irish sea, and bor- 
dering on England ; area, 603 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 104,266. Its surface is much diversified ; 
there are some level tracts in the north, but 
along the E. and W. borders extend mountain 
ridges. The principal rivers are the Conway, 
Dee, and Clwyd, none of which are navigable 
within its borders. The valleys and level tracts 
are remarkably fertile, producing grain, beans, 
and peas ; the uplands yield some crops of bar- 
ley, oats, and potatoes, but are mostly occupied 
by pastures ; cattle, sheep, and goats are reared 
in great numbers, and excellent cheese is made. 
Among the minerals are coal and iron, both 
very valuable, lead, slate, freestone, and mill- 
stone. Immense quantities of limestone, used 
for fluxing ironstone, are 
exported into Stafford- 
shire, and the yield of 
one quarry, near Llan- 
gollen, is said to be 
sometimes between 70,- 
000 and 100,000 tons 
in a single year. The. 
county has no seaport, 
and its chief channel 
of transportation is the 
Chester and Holyhead 
railway, which crosses 
it near the coast. The 
Chester and Shrewsbury 
railway runs S. about 
14 m., just within its E. 
boundary. A branch of 
the Ellesmere canal tra- 
verses the vale of Llan- 
gollen. The chief towns 
are Denbigh, Ruthin, 
and Wrexham. Before 
the Roman conquest 

Denbighshire was the territory of the Ordo- 
vices, and it was annexed to the empire only 
after long struggles. It contains several inter- 
esting Roman remains. It was the scene of 
many fierce contests under the Saxons and the 
Normans, in the wars of the Roses, and in the 
revolution of the 17th century. 

DENDERAH (anc. Tenfyra), a ruined town of 
Upper Egypt, near the left bank of the Nile, in 
lat. 26 10' N., Ion. 32 37' E., 40 in. E. S. E. 
of Girgeh. Its antiquities are among the most 
interesting and complete in Egypt. The prin- 
cipal building is a magnificent temple, enclosed 
with some other edifices, in a space 1,000 ft. 
square, by a wall of sun-dried brick, 15 ft. thick 
and 35 ft. high. It was dedicated to the god- 
dess Athor or Aphrodite, or, as some believe, 
to Isis. A richly sculptured gateway faces it 
in the enclosing wall, on which the emperors 
Domitian and Trajan, whose names occur in 
accompanying inscriptions, are represented in 
the act of worship. The portico of the temple 



is 135 ft. wide, and has 24 columns arranged 
four deep, each 32 ft. high and nearly 22 ft. in 
circumference. The capitals have a full face 
of the presiding divinity on each of their four 
sides ; the architrave is covered like the portal 
with sculptures representing a religious pro- 
cession, and the projecting fillet of the cornice 
bears an inscription in Greek setting forth that 
the portico was added to the temple in the 
reign of Tiberius Caesar, in honor of the god- 
dess Aphrodite. On the ceiling of the portico 
is the famous basso-rilievo, at first supposed to 
represent the signs of the zodiac and to be of 
very remote antiquity, discovered in 1799 by 
the French savants under Bonaparte ; and on 
the ceiling of one of the inner chambers was 
a small and somewhat similar planisphere, 
which was removed to Paris in 1821. But the 
supposed zodiac lacks the sign of Cancer, and 
all scholars are now agreed that it is not older 




Ruins at Denderah. 

than the Ptolemies, and that a zodiac was 
not used under the Pharaohs. In the portico 
or on the front of the temple may be distin- 
guished the names of Augustus, Caligula, 
Claudius, Nero, Ptolemy Cassation, and his 
mother Cleopatra. The last two are also rep- 
resented by rude portraits. The interior con- 
sists of three large halls, an isolated sanctuary, 
and several small chambers. Rows of columns 
stand in some of the rooms, displaying on their 
capitals the budding lotus, and all the apart- 
ments but two are profusely sculptured. The 
roof is flat and formed of oblong masses of 
stone. Small holes cut in the ceiling or sides 
admitted the light, and some of the rooms on 
the ground floor were lighted only by the few 
rays which found their way through apertures 
communicating with the rooms above. There 
are two smaller temples of Roman date near 
that of Athor, one dedicated to Isis. 

DENDERMONDE, or Termonde, a town of Bel- 
gium, in the province of East Flanders, at the 



8 



DKNDKOBIUM 



junction 'f tin- Scheldt and Dender rivers, 16 
in \ vv. of BnuMte; pop. in 1867, 8,300. It 
contain- niiu- places of worship, many chari- 
taMe ami educational institutions, an academy 
if design itiid architecture, and several fine 
private collections of art. In tin- church of 

Dame are two pictures by Vandyke and 

otlu-r works of art. Tin- >urrounding country 

!e, and produces the finest flux in Flan- 

An active trade is carried on in this 
article', in ;/rain, lin-ccd. hemp, and oil, and in 
\arioii< manufacture-, the nn>-t important of 
which an- woollen cloths, cotton yarn, and 

1 In- town i- supposed to date from the 

ntury. Many Roman antiquities have 
been found' in the iieighborhood. In 1667 it 
resisted a siege of Louis XIV. by opening the 
-luice-. In 1706 it was taken by Maryborough 
only after a lonir drought, and in 1745 by the 
French. The present fortifications date from 

nd the 1. ridge over the Scheldt from 1825. 
IM.MIKOKII M, a genus of epiphytes or para- 
-itical plants found chiefly in the damp tropi- 
cal parts of A-ia. and belonging to an order 
remarkal.le i->r the grotesqueness as well as 

of its flowers. The species number 

more'than 200, and vary from a very small 

plant to a very tall one. In some instances 

they affect dry and open places on the bark of 

trees in Australia, and even on bare rocks ex- 

to the sun. hr. Royle found D.alpestre 

on the Himalaya mountains, at an elevation of 

ft Tin- tlowi-rs of most species are of 

iiade of purple ; some are of a rich yel-' 

I a few are ;_ r rcen. They possess a high 

In culthation they thrive best 

"hen planted in pot- tilled with earth, but re- 

ii artificially elevated temperature to in- 

IM.X.I K. a term of uncertain derivation, used 

te an epidemic disease popularly known 

in this country as the breakbone fever. It 

prevailed extensively in the West India islands 

in Ixi7 and 1828, and at the same time in 

many parts of the sou) hern states of the Union. 

at that timedc<crihed by Prof. Dickson, 

r,-ident of Ohaikflton, s. C., and the 

same author subsequently published several pa- 

:.-itin- t.. it. It prevailed in I'hiladel- 

described by Ir 

1 to 1.,. identical with epidemics 

d which have occurred al 

different periods in other parts of the world. 

uiial lever which has a , 
th.- average duration hein.tr about 
'H'i hour-. Sometimes it commences ahruj)tlv, 

development oecilpi. 

.. mptoiiH !' f. 

present, namely, frequency of the pul-e. in- 
crease of temperature, ],,-> of appetite, ehillv 
MBMtions t!.ir-t, la--itude. Arc. The 
!iaracteri/ed l.\ excniciatii, . 
' '-.-'d and eyes, and in the imiM-le* of the 
neck. I. .in-, and e\tivmitie-; hence the name 
bn-iikl" An i-ruption frrqumtlv oc- 

curs, but its charact.-r differs in different cases 



DENHAM 

It resembles sometimes the eruption of scarla- 
tina; hence the name scarlatina rJieumatica 
has been applied to an epidemic supposed to be 
identical with this by Cocke and Copland. 
The eruption in some cases resembles that of 
measles, and in other cases it is like lichen or 
urticaria. Vesicles like those of sudamina and 
varicella have been observed. Erysipelas and 
purpura may occur, the latter being sometimes 
accompanied by hcemorrhage from the nose, 
mouth, bowels, or uterus. Convalescence is 
apt to be tedious, and relapses are not uncom- 
mon. Kheumatism, abscesses, boils, and car- 
buncles are occasional sequels. This epidemic 
rarely occurs except in warm climates, and it 
prevails especially in cities and large towns. 
The number of persons affected is sometimes 
remarkable. Dr. Wragg computed the num- 
ber of cases at one time in Charleston, S. C., 
at 10,000, and during the epidemic seven or 
eight tenths of the population were affected. 
It attacks persons of either sex and of all ages. 
The epidemics have a brief duration, rarely ex- 
tending beyond six or eight weeks. The causes 
are unknown. Prof. Dickson regarded the dis- 
ease as contagious, but this view is not gener- 
ally held, and it is opposed by facts which ren- 
der it untenable. Although the intensity of the 
fever is great, the disease is rarely if ever fatal. 
This is explained by its short duration, and the 
absence of any important complications. The 
treatment consists chiefly in the use of opium 
in some form to alleviate the pains, and in oth- 
er palliative measures. The convalescence is 
hastened by tonic remedies, together with a 
restorative diet. 

DENIIAM, Dixon, an English traveller, born in 
London, Jan. 1, 1786, died in Free Town, 
Sierra Leone, June 9, 1828. He entered the 
British army in 1811, and served with credit 
through the Peninsular war and in all the sub- 
sequent campaigns against Napoleon. In 1815 
he travelled through France and Italy, and on 
returning to England devoted himself to mili- 
tary studies. In 1821 he joined the govern- 
ment expedition to Africa, under Oudney and 
Clapperton, with the rank of major. Setting 
out from Tripoli, the expedition arrived at Moor- 
zook, in Fezzan, April 8, 1822. Here its pro- 
gress was stopped by the refusal of the sultan 
of Fezzan to furnish an escort across the desert. 
After considerable trouble Denham started for 
England Jo lay the matter before the govern- 
ment, but was recalled from Marseilles, where 
detained in quarantine, the expedition 
ha\in-- received an escort and permission to 
proceed, mainly in consequence of his activity 
and firmness. They crossed the desert to Lake 
Tchad, which they reached in February, 1823. 
Leaving his companions at Kuka to recruit 
their health. Denham explored the region 
jiround the lake, and afterward joined an expe- 
dition of the Arab escort against the natives to 
the southward. In a disastrous fight Denham 
was wounded and separated from the company, 
and found his way back to Kuka through great 






DENIIAM 

perils and suffering. He afterward continued 
his explorations of the interior, and returned to 
England with Clapperton in 1825. In 1826 he 
published in London his " Narrative of Travels 
and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa, 
in the years 1822, 1823, and 1824." In the 
same year he was promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel and appointed superintendent of 
the liberated African department of Sierra Le- 
one, and in 1828 governor of the colony. 

DENIIAM, Sir John, an English poet, born in 
Dublin in 1615, died in London, March 19, 
1668. In 1641 he published "The Sophy," a 
tragedy, which was praised by Waller, and had 
an immediate success; and in 1643 appeared 
his poem "Cooper's Hill," on which his fame 
rests. The following two famous lines occur 
in the apostrophe to the Thames in that poem : 

Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull ; 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full. 

During the imprisonment of Charles I. Den- 
ham performed many secret services for him, 
and being detected fled to France. On the 
restoration he was appointed surveyor general 
of the royal buildings. 

DENINA, Giacomo Maria arlo, an Italian his- 
torian, born at Revello, Piedmont, Feb. 28, 
1731, died in Paris, Dec. 5, 1813. He took 
holy orders, acted as professor at Pinerolo 
and Turin, and was subjected to persecutions 
on the part of the Jesuits. About 1782 he 
went to Berlin, in compliance with an invita- 
tion of Frederick the Great, and wrote there 
his Rivoluzioni della Germania (8 vols., Flor- 
ence, 1804), several works on North German 
literature (in French), and an effusion in praise 
of Peter the Great (La Russiade, Berlin, 1790). 
"While at Mentz in 1804 he was introduced to 
Napoleon, to whom he dedicated his Clef des 
langues (Berlin, 1804), and who shortly after- 
ward appointed him imperial librarian at Paris. 
Denina wrote many other literary, critical, and 
historical works; but his literary fame rests 
chiefly upon his Istoria delle riwluzioni d* Ita- 
lia (3 vols., Turin, 1769-'70 ; best edition, 
Milan, 1820 ; translated into several European 
languages), which contains a general history of 
that country from the time of the Etruscans. 
He left in manuscript three volumes of a his- 
tory of Piedmont, which have not been pub- 
lished in Italian, but have appeared in German. 

DENIS, or Denys (Lat. DIONYSIUS), Saint, apos- 
tle and first bishop of Paris in the 3d century. 
He was one of a company of missionaries 
who were sent from Eome, about 250, to re- 
vive the drooping church in Gaul ; and after 
preaching in various parts of that country and 
suffering much at the hands of the pagans, he 
arrived at Lutetia (Paris), where he made 
many converts. He built a church there, and 
made it the seat of his bishopric. During the 
persecution under Aurelian he was condemned 
to death by the Roman governor Pescennius, 
and with a priest named Rusticus, and a deacon 
Eleutherus, was beheaded in 272. The bodies 



DENIZLI 



9 



were thrown into the Seine, but were recovered 
by a Christian woman, Catulla, who caused 
them to be interred near the scene of the ex- 
ecution. A chapel was built over the spot, 
and after it had fallen to ruin was replaced by 
St. Genevieve with a church in 469, which was 
afterward united to the famous abbey of St. 
Denis, founded by Dagobert about 636. St. 
Denis became the patron of the kingdom, and 
his name served as a war cry to the French, who 
used to rally in battle at the words Montjoye 
Saint Denis. His festival is kept Oct. 9. The 
popular belief that after his decapitation he 
walked about with his head in his hands may 
have originated in the ancient paintings, which 
represented him so engaged, as an emblem of 
the manner of his death. 

DENIZEN, in English law, an alien born who 
has received by letters patent from the king 
certain privileges belonging to natural born 
subjects. Thus he may take lands by purchase 
or devise, but not by descent. In American 
law there is no middle class of this kind be- 
tween aliens and citizens, unless we may des- 
ignate as such those who have declared an 
intention to become citizens, but have not be- 
come fully naturalized. In some of the states, 
by statute, such persons are allowed to take 
and convey real estate, the difference between 
them and aliens being that, although the latter 
can take real estate and hold it until some 
proceeding is taken by public authority to 
divest the title, commonly called office-found 
(i. e., an inquest by official action), yet upon 
such proceeding being had, the land would 
escheat to the state although the alien should 
have conveyed to another. Another significa- 
tion is sometimes attached to the term, in a 
more popular sense, though it is also to be 
found in some law writers, viz., a resident. 
This meaning is not wholly inconsistent with 
the other, as it may at an early period, when 
the doctrine of citizenship was not well settled, 
have been understood of the children of aliens 
born in England. By the present law of that 
country such children are recognized as sub- 
jects, except in certain cases, as the children 
of persons representing or in the service of 
foreign governments who are temporarily in 
England. The same rule is recognized in the 
United States, and as a consequence it was 
thought necessary to provide by law that the 
children of Americans born abroad should be 
held to be American citizens. 

DENIZLI, a town of Asia Minor, on the main 
road between Smyrna and Isbarta, 110 m. S. 
E. of the former and 70 m. W. of the latter 
place; lat. 37 50' N., Ion. 29 15' E. ; pop. 
about 7,000. The town, which is situated not 
far from the base of the Baba Dagh (the an- 
cient Mount Cadmus, on the confines of Caria 
and Phrygia), in a well wooded country, has 
been called the Damascus of Anatolia on ac- 
count of the beauty of its surroundings. There 
are many villas in its environs, and the hills 
are covered with vineyards. Within the town 



10 



DENMAN 



uins, a bazaar, anl numerous tan- 
red and 

. made from sheep 
and gOAl -'MI;-, raisins, ami a ki;i<! of uTa|- 

Denizli 

a saiijak in the vilavet of 
In iTl.'j it \va~ !-y an earth- 

people periahed. About 
the twn <-f K.ski lli>.-ar, with the 

HI NMl.V Thomas lord .-hi. f Eng- 

i;i London, Feb. "l'.\, 177'.', died at 
Stoke \ort haiiipton.-hire, Sept. 22, 

1864. " "f Thomas Denman, M. I '., 

author of a \\ell knoun \\ork on midwifery, 
iduated in 1*"" at St. John's college, 
Cambr .-ailed to the bar in 1806, 

parliament lor Wareham at the 
:ion of 1818, and in 1820 for Not- 
\.\\\\^ that town from this time 
d airain in 1830-'31. In 1820 he 
took a di.stin^ui.shed part as solicitor in the 
< aroline. In 1822 he was ap- 
pointed common serjeant of the city of Lon- 
:rom 1830 to 1832 be was attorney gen- 
and from 1832 till 1850, he was chief 
of the king's bench. He was rai>cd t.> 
the peerage in 1834. Ills " Lite," by Sir Jo- 
seph Arnould, was published in 1873. 

I'l MURK (Dan. I)n,nnrk, Ger. Danemark, 
nnn<irk\ "the land or mark of the 
Dane; the Danslce Stat, "state of 

. a kingdom in the north of Eu- 
rope, situated between lat. 64 30' and 57 45' 
N., and Ion. 8 5' and 12 45' E. ; the small isl- 
and ..f Bornholm, in the Baltic, lies in Ion. 15 
is bounded N. E. by the Skager Hack, 
and E. by the Cattegat, the Sound, and 
s. by Femern strait, the Little 
:>d W. by the North sea. 
ritta of the peninsula o f Jutland and 
ands of Seeland, Funen, Laaland, Fal- 
Langelun.l, MOen, Samso, Laso, Arro, 
Bornholm. and many smaller ones; besides 
it possess the I'aroe islands, Iceland, 
nd the islands of Santa Cruz 
I'd St. John, in the We>t Indies'. 
R table >hous the area and popu- 
. >lonies in i 



MAIK DIVISIONS. 



KSL"**-> 

ffi*sss? 



Mi 



q. m. 

NO 
1,788 

510 
MM 



119 




1.7-1.711 
9.992 



197,401 



Hast Indies and 
Afrlcawen 't Britain in 1846 



DENMARK 

The duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauen- 
burg, which formed more than one third of 
the kingdom, were lost by the Danish crown 
in 1864. The seacoast of Denmark, along the 
North sea, the Skager Rack, the Cattegat, the 
Sound, the Baltic, and the Little Belt, is more 
than 900 m. long, and generally low, flat, and 
sandy. Next to Copenhagen the principal sea- 
ports are Elsinore, Odense, Aarhuus, Aalborg, 
and Frederikshavn. The fiords or arms of 
the sea which indent the coasts are among 
the most remarkable natural features of the 
kingdom. The Liim or Lym fiord entirely in- 
sulates the N. part of Jutland ; it was formerly 
separated from the North sea by a narrow strip 
of land, through which in 1825 the sea broke 
in two places. The Ringkiobing fiord in W. 
Jutland and the Ise fiords in Seeland are also 
notable for their size. The lakes are numerous, 
but small, and some contain excellent fish. 
Since the loss of the duchies, the only rivers 
deserving mention are the Varde, flowing into 
the North sea, and the Guden, 80 m. long, 
flowing into the Cattegat. The broad passage 
called the Great Belt lies between the islands 
of Seeland and Fiinen, and the Little Belt 
separates Ftinen from Jutland and Schleswig. 
The surface of the kingdom is an almost un- 
broken plain, in most places but a few feet 
above the ocean, and in others below the level 
of the sea. The N. W. part of the peninsula 
is a desolate region, over which tempests and 
drifting sands sweep with destructive fury. To 
consolidate the soil and break the force of the 
winds, various kinds of trees and shrubs, of 
which the improvidence of former generations 
had nearly stripped the country, are now 
planted here, and their destruction is forbid- 
den under severe penalties. From the promon- 
tory of Skagen, at the extreme north, a low 
barren ridge runs through Jutland, attaining 
an elevation of upward of 500 ft. The island 
of Funen contains a range culminating at the 
height of 400 ft, called the Fiinen Alps, and 
Seeland has eminences of about the same 
height. All the rocks belong to the tertiary 
and upper secondary formations, and, with 
hardly an exception, are disposed in regular 
strata. Several species of chalk are found, 
above which is an extensive bowlder formation 
traversed by seams of lignite, and above this 
again beds of clay and marl are spread over a 
large part of the country. The soil is al- 
most wholly alluvial, and in the E. part of 
Jutland is covered with rich vegetable mould. 
The N. and W. parts of Jutland, however, 
are sandy wastes, and for 200 m. along the 
coa-t there is an almost continuous line of 
sterile flats called Slitter. The larger islands 
are fertile and characterized by a rich marshy 
loam, interspersed with occasional tracts of 
moor. The climate, owing to the low and al- 
most entirely insulated position of the country, 
a temperate and humid, the cold being great- 
t in Jutland. The winters are seldom severe 
tor that high latitude, and rather milder than 



DENMARK 



11 



in the northern parts of Germany, though in Jan- 
uary and February the thermometer sometimes 
falls to 22 below zero. The extreme heat is 
about 85. The shortest day is 6 hours, and the 
longest I7i. The weather is very variable, but 
thunder storms seldom occur. Violent winds, 
rains, and fogs frequently occur, and drought is 
rare. The mineral products are of little value, 
and are confined principally to fullers' earth, 
potters' and porcelain clays, freestone, and 
salt. Coal mines were formerly worked in the 
island of Bornholm, but are now abandoned ; 
peat is abundant, and amber is collected on 
the shore of the North sea. The fine forests 
which once adorned Denmark have decayed 
or been cut down, and of the scant woods 
which remain, chiefly on the coast of Jutland 
and in the island of Fiinen, one fourth is the 
property of the crown. Pine, beech, oak, and 
birch are the principal varieties of timber. The 
crops are wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, 
peas and beans, potatoes, other common vege- 
tables, and fruits. A great portion of the land is 
devoted to pasturage, and the rearing of horses 
and cattle forms a considerable source of na- 
tional wealth. Cattle are valued chiefly in 
connection with the dairy, from which is drawn 
the principal revenue of the farm. The breeds 
of horses are excellent for cavalry or for 
draught ; sheep are kept more for their milk 
(of which butter is made) and their flesh than 
for their wool ; there are three species of swine, 
and poultry of all kinds abounds. In 1866 there 
were 352,603 horses, 1,193,861 horned cattle, 
1,875,052 sheep, and 381,512 swine. The rivers 
and fiords furnish valuable fish, among which 
are the herring, cod, mackerel, and salmon. 
More than half the population are engaged in 
agriculture, which is conducted with great in- 
dustry ; but from the subdivision of land into 
small farms it is seldom carried on with ap- 
pliances requiring much outlay. The art of 
husbandry, however, is steadily progressing. 
Manufactures are also making progress. They 
comprise silk, linen, woollen, and cotton goods, 
leather, lace, gloves, straw hats, sail cloth, 
thread, paper, soap, glass, earthenware, plated 
ware, iron ware, saltpetre, gunpowder, arms, 
refined sugar, tobacco, soda, potash, brandy, 
and malt liquors. The peasantry make most 
of their wearing apparel and domestic utensils 
with their own hands. Lying between two 
seas, in easy communication with all the mari- 
time nations of Europe, commanding the en- 
trance to the Baltic, abounding in good har- 
bors, and possessing a large body of hardy 
and excellent seamen, Denmark enjoys un- 
rivalled facilities for commerce, and besides its 
own import and export traffic conducts a large 
carrying trade for other countries. The prin- 
cipal articles of export are grain, butter, cheese, 
brandy, smoked and salted meats, horned cat- 
tle, horses, skins, hides, whale and train oils, 
fish, eider down, woollens, tallow, and bristles. 
Among the imports are wines, salt, drugs, silk, 
wool, cotton, cotton fabrics, timber, coal, iron, 



colonial produce, spirits, glass, flax, hemp, cof- 
fee, rice, tobacco, and whalebone. During the 
five years 1868-72 the average annual imports 
from Germany and England were respectively 
2,000,000 and 1,500,000, and the exports to 
those countries 3,500,000 and 2,300,000. 
The trade with Sweden and Russia is also ex- 
tensive. In 1871 the entrances were 41,41 1 ves- 
sels of all descriptions, of 1,064,582 tons, and 
the clearances 41,705 vessels, of 644,052 tons; 
for the foreign trade alone, entered 18,457 ves- 
sels, of 745,264 tons ; cleared 18,298 vessels, of 
347,478 tons. The merchant marine consisted 
of 2,727 sailing vessels over 4 tons each, of 
176,093 tons, 88 steamships of 12,007 tons, 11 
tugs of 642 tons, and 10,610 boats under 4 
tons. Until about the close of the 18th cen- 
tury the commerce of Denmark was oppressed 
by legislative enactments which tended more 
to the immediate emolument of the crown than 
to the general prosperity and wealth of the 
kingdom. Imported manufactures had to be 
sold at auction by the revenue officers, and the 
importer received the proceeds after the duties 
had heen deducted. These duties were exces- 
sively high ; monopolies were often granted to 
rich companies for trading even with the colo- 
nies ; and heavy taxes were also laid on the do- 
mestic traffic between different provinces. But 
at the close of the 18th century a more liberal 
policy began to prevail; the customs regula- 
tions assumed the form of a more permanent 
tariff"; many of the most burdensome restrictions 
were taken off", and commercial treaties have 
since been made on a basis of reciprocity with 
the United States and other nations. Connect- 
ed with the commercial regulations was the 
question of the Sound dues, which a few years 
ago acquired considerable prominence. The 
Sound is a strait leading from the Cattegat into 
the Baltic, between Seeland and Sweden, its 
width at the narrowest part being about 3 m. 
Both coasts were once owned by Denmark, 
which has consequently from a forgotten pe- 
riod claimed the right of imposing tolls on all 
vessels navigating this passage. This exaction 
was from time to time resisted by various na- 
tions, and several obtained exemption either by 
payment of an annual commutation or by trea- 
ty. In 1848 the United States government de- 
clared its purpose not to submit any longer to 
the old usage. The Danish government offered 
to renounce its claim for a sum the interest of 
which would equal the annual revenue derived 
from the tolls ; and the result of this offer was 
the assembling of a conference of the European 
powers at Copenhagen in the first months of 
1856, at which Denmark agreed to accept as 
compensation for the removal of the tolls the 
sum of 35,000,000 rix dollars ($19,145,000), 
payment of which was to be apportioned 
among the various states interested in the trade 
of the Baltic. The proposal was accepted by 
the United States as well as other powers, and 
a convention between the former and Den- 
mark was signed in Washington, April 11, 



DENMARK 



1857. .;ain paid 28'90 per cent, of 

JUT cent., Prussia 

12'60 p r .1 nt., and tin- I'niti-d States iJ-n.'J per 

shipping trade 
large, and as no inland 
u li more than 4<i in. from the sea, 
al oommunioation is carried 
r, Tin- I>ane>kiold canal is in the 
and that of Odense connects 
ital of Fiim-ii with the sea. The prin- 
r-ailroud lino runs from Copenhagen via 
T..FI tin- (ireat Belt ; another 
line goes through the island of Fiinen, and 
there are several lines in Jutland running from 
Aalborg to the frontier of Schles\vig with 
branches. The total length of railroads at the 
beginning of 1872 was 530 m. In 1870 there 
were 1,225 m. of telegraph, with 3,100 in. of 
wire and 150 stations. The high roads, which 
iradaini/ed, and well kept, are un- 
der the care of a corps of royal engineers. 
f Denmark are almost en- 
Scandinavians. The bu.-iness language 
v \vhrre J)aiii>h, even in the West India 
: .-.nd, and less purely in the 
Faroe island-, the old Norwegian or Icelandic 
is spoken. The Danes are an industrious, 
r, and contented people, and make good 
soldiers and seamen. They have regular fea- 
Mne, eyes, and light hair. The reli- 
gion of Denmark is Lutheran, but all creeds 
are tol-rated. The national church is gov- 
bishops nominated by the 
cro\s n. It embraces almost the whole pnpula- 
nd has at Copenhagen a missionary col- 
"inded in 1777, and a seminary for ap- 
: candidates in divinity. According to 
the census of 1870, the Lutherans numbered 
1,769,583 ; Jews, 4,290; Baptists, 3,223 ; Mor- 
mons, 2,128; Roman Catholics, 1,857; Re- 
e congregations, 1,211 ; other 
sects, 81 1 ; and 205 were without any creed. 
about doubled their number 
during thy last ten years. Some progress was 
also nm.h- by the Catholics, who are under 
the administration of a vicar apostolic. In 
tlice was filled by the Prussian 
it attention is paid 

V K ox to education, and there is in 

a department of public worship 

and instruction, under which are simerin- 

ral .li visions of the king- 

mfaritton appoint teachers and 

late the course of studie, in the public 

school*, of which M.nie are free. Every villas 

is at least one school, and there are more- 

12 gymnasia and 7 normal seminaries. 

There are asylum, for the d,,if and dumb, and 

institutions of various 

I'fd throughout the country 

"' the ages of 7 and 14 is 

-chool and it is 

Daniah peasant, however i> OO r 
e university 

"a-.-n. whi.-h dates fn-m 117* has 40 
esiore and upward of 1, loo students and 



there are colleges in all the large towns, be- 
sides 2,940 public schools. The number of pe- 
riodicals is large in proportion to the popula- 
tion. The government of Denmark is a hered- 
itary constitutional monarchy. By the con- 
stitution of June 5, 1849 (which was modified in 
some important respects in 1855 and 1863, but 
was restored, with various alterations, by a 
statute which received the royal sanction July 
28, 1866), the king must confess the Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran religion, and give his oath to the 
privy council of state that he will maintain the 
fundamental laws. He attains his majority at 
the age of 18. All his ordinances must be 
countersigned by the minister of state, who is 
appointed by him, and is responsible to the 
king or diet before the supreme court of the 
state. The king appoints officers, declares 
war, and concludes treaties of peace, alliance, 
and trade; but he cannot alienate the terri- 
tory or essentially modify the political rela- 
tions of the state without the consent of the 
diet. By the organic law of 1866 the Danish 
diet or Rigsdag consists of two chambers, the 
FolTcething or lower house, and the Lands- 
thing or upper house, which assemble every 
year on the first Monday in October. The pro- 
portion of representation in the lower house is 
one deputy for 16,000 inhabitants, the deputies 
being elected for three years. The upper house 
numbers 66 members, of whom 12 are nomi- 
nated for life by the king, the rest holding 
their office only for eight years. The diet pro- 
poses laws, which are not valid till sanctioned 
by the king; and taxes cannot be imposed 
without its consent. The supreme court of the 
kingdom consists of 15 members, 5 of whom 
are chosen from the diet, and 10 from the high 
courts of the country. Personal freedom, free- 
dom of the press, religious freedom, the in- 
violability of private residences, and the right 
of public assembly are secured. The highest 
court of the kingdom is the privy council of 
state, presided over by the king. The admin- 
istration of the government is carried en by 
eight responsible ministries : of foreign affairs, 
of interior affairs, of justice, of public worship 
and instruction, of war, of naval affairs, of 
public works, and of the finances. The budget 
of 1873-'4 estimates the net receipts at 23,736,- 
161 rix dollars, and the expenditures at 22,989,- 
633. (The rix dollar is about 60 cents.) The 
chief source of revenue is from indirect taxes, 
which bring nearly 10,000,000, while the great- 
est expenditure is for the payment of the interest 
on the debt, which with the sinking fund de- 
mands upward of 7,000,000. The national debt, 
March 31, 1872, was 114,660,781 rix dollars. 
Lvery able-bodied male inhabitant of the age of 
22 is bound to enter the army, the term of service 
being four years in the line and four years in the 
reserve ; and every person who has served his 
' "lie is also liable to be enrolled under the second 
all. The infantry numbers 20 battalions of the 
line and 10 of the reserve, besides a battalion 
of royal guards; the cavalry consists of 5 regi- 



DENMARK 



13 



ments ; the artillery of 2, forming 12 batteries, 
and 2 battalions of sappers and engineers. 
The numerical strength of the army on a peace 
footing is 36,782 rank and file, with 1,058 offi- 
cers; on a war footing, 47,925 rank and file. 
The navy in September, 1872, comprised 25 
screw steamers (6 ironclads, 12 unarmored 
vessels, and 7 gunboats) and paddle steamers. 
The commercial navy in 1871 numbered 2,735 
vessels (exclusive of those of less than 4 tons) 
with an aggregate tonnage of 181,494. The 
principal arsenal for both army and navy is at 
Copenhagen, the capital and principal town. 
There is no authentic account of the early set- 
tlement of Denmark, but the Cimbri seem to 
have occupied the continental part of it toward 
the end of the 2d century B. 0. Some three 
centuries later the country was occupied by 
the Goths, whose chief Skiold, according to the 
legends the son of Odin, is mentioned as the 
first monarch of Denmark. During the 8th 
and 9th centuries the Danes, then the foremost 
among the Northmen (see NOKTHMEN), began to 
acquire renown by their maritime expeditions, 
in which they invaded England and Scotland 
and conquered Normandy. In the 9th century 
the different states'of Denmark became united 
under one monarch, and in 1000 and 1014 
Norway and the greater part of England were 
added to the kingdom. In 1017 Canute, under 
whom Denmark became Christian, completed 
the conquest of England, where his race con- 
tinued to rule till 1042. The feudal system 
was introduced into Denmark in the 12tli cen- 
tury, and contests took place here between the 
sovereign and the barons similar to those which 
convulsed England during the same period. 
In 1387 Margaret, styled the northern Semir- 
amis, widow and successor of Haco, king of 
Norway, and daughter of Waldemar III., a 
descendant of Canute, mounted the thrones 
of Denmark and Norway, and, claiming the 
Swedish crown also in right of her husband, 
vanquished a competitor in that country, and 
united the three powers by the compact of 
Calmar in 1397. But the Swedes always re- 
sisted this union, and after a series of contests, 
which they were finally led by Gustavus 
r asa, seceded from it in 1523. During this pe- 
iod the population dwindled, the seas swarmed 
nth pirates, commerce fell away, and inces- 
mt quarrels between the king and his nobles 
the latter and the clergy added to the dis- 
jrs of the kingdom. On the deposition of 
Iric, Margaret's successor, in 1439, the states 
lected Christopher of Bavaria, and in 1448 
"iristian, count of Oldenburg, king, from whose 
randson, Christian II. (since whose time all the 
igs have been alternately named Frederick 
id Christian), the crown passed in 1523 to 
lerick I., duke of Schleswig and Holstein. 
rederick's son, Christian III., united these 
two duchies to the crown 11 years later, and 
livided the greater part of them between his 
)thers, a measure which caused a long series 
of disturbances. In his reign a code of laws 



called the " Recess of Kolding " was promul- 
gated. In the 17th century Christian IV. sided 
with the Protestants in the great religious war, 
but was worsted by Wallenstein in 1626-'7, 
and compelled to sue for peace. Toward the 
end of his reign he waged several wars with 
Sweden, which lasted till 1645, and cost Den- 
mark some of its provinces. A few years 
later the Swedes under Charles Gustavus over- 
ran Holstein, crossed the frozen Belt into Fii- 
nen, took Odense, and invested Copenhagen, 
but were successfully opposed by Frederick 
III. In 1658 they^ again besieged Copenhagen, 
and continued their operations until the death 
of Charles Gustavus in 1660, when Denmark 
secured a peace by the sacrifice of territory. 
The same year was marked by the restriction 
of the power of the nobility and the extension 
of the royal prerogative. The succession, too, 
which had formerly been to some extent elec- 
tive, was by the commons, who sided with the 
king in his struggle with the nobles, acknowl- 
edged hereditary in the family of Frederick. 
A new war with Sweden terminated in 1679, 
and another was occasioned in 1699 by an at- 
tempt of Frederick IV. to invade the dominions 
of the duke of Holstein, an ally of Sweden. 
Copenhagen again became the seat of war, 
when the Danes, terrified by the energy of the 
young Charles XII. of Sweden, bought peace 
by the payment of a sum of money, and re- 
mained neutral until the disasters of the Swedes 
in the Ukraine tempted them to renew hostili- 
ties. The war lasted until the death of Charles 
XII. in 1718, after which Sweden began to 
decline and Denmark to pursue the wise policy 
of peace. The latter half of the 18th century, 
embracing most of the reigns of Frederick V. 
and Christian VII., was the period of great 
reforms, under the lead of the two Bernstorffs 
and the unfortunate Struensee. But by a 
defensive alliance with Russia, Prussia, and 
Sweden in 1801, Denmark involved herself in 
a quarrel with England, suffered severely in 
the naval battle off Copenhagen, and lost her 
colonies in the East and West Indies, which 
were restored to her, however, by the treaty 
of peace which followed. In 1807, when 
England suspected Denmark of entering into 
an alliance with Napoleon, an English fleet 
was sent to the Baltic to compel the surren- 
der of the entire Danish navy. The Brit- 
ish landed near the capital, and soon forced 
the government to give up its fleet. A war 
of exasperation naturally followed. Hostili- 
ties were carried on by sea, partly at the en- 
trance to the Baltic, partly off the Norwegian 
coast, the Danes fighting with spirit, and some- 
times with success, and both parties suffering 
severely in their commerce. After the reor- 
ganization of Europe by the treaties of 1814 
and 1815, Denmark was obliged to cede Nor- 
way to Sweden, as an equivalent for Pomera- 
nia, which province Denmark had received 
from Sweden, and which in 1815 she made 
over to Prussia, in exchange for the duchy of 



M 



If ARK 



Lauenbur- and a lar^c sum of money. Serious 

11 part by tin- fact that 

.,-k |,v t!.. Q "'' Hol>tein and 

..- tin- (.ei-man 

, :1 , now arose between the crown 
nn ,l th< Tli.- population of Holstein 

especially sympathi/.ed more with Germany 
.. it'll Denmark, ami an antipathy of races 
wliii-li varimis political measures 
:i alarming disaffection. A 
rabject .f complaint was the royal 
ueeewion. 'i'li. extinction of the 

;:ne in the reigning family afforded a 
rni.l-riiiL' the duchies, in which 
iic law of succession prevailed, inde- 
nt of th<- hanish crown, and the project 
g Schleswig to the (ierman con- 
-\as openly advocated in the pro- 
vincial asseml.lv. In this state of affairs 
.m VIII. in 1846 issued letters patent, 
proclaiming that with the exception of certain 
t llolstein the laws of succession should 
in all parts of his dominions, the 
..f which was to add greatly to the 
popular discontent ; and when Frederick VII. 
mounted the throne in 1848, the duchies, em- 
hold, ned by the revolutionary outbreaks of the 
time, resorted to arms, and appealed to their 
n brethren for assistance. Frederick 
William IV. of 1'russia, then forced to yield to 
the current of revolution, sent a large force into 
.'. i<r under (Jen. Wrangel, which drove 
out the Iane<. who had found little difficulty 
in putting down the insurgents there, and fol- 
lowed up it- ,iu invasion of Jutland. 
Meanwhile England and Hus-ia interfered; an 
armistice was signed at Malmo, Aug. 26, on 
liL'hly displeasing to the duchies; and 
although Prussia undertook a second campaign 
in the spring and Bummer of 1849, Schles- 
;-l HoMcin thenceforth relied mainly 
iirces. They placed their 
army under (Jen. Willi-, -n. and maintained a 
^ance. until siirnallv defeated at 
inly _>:,. is.-.n. Proaia had now defi- 
vithdrawn fmm the contest, and with 
her intlueiice on the side of Den- 
mark. The IloNtein army was disbanded, the 
d to submit, and the ques- 
I to a convention 
iriesi.f thr principal powers 
of N. and W. Kurope. I*y a treaty si-rued by 
<- at London, May 8, 1852, 
I upon Prince Christian 
Icsburg line and his male 

'lent whieli irave irreat dis- 
ataafaotion both to Denmark an. I to Schleswig 
M the ,-vent of the extinction 
i the ancient ritrht 
eedingtoa portion of the duchi-s. The 



'a-* Hiinounc.-d to tin- diet in Dete- 
ct It met 
mblj in l-Vb- 

l"'t th.- kin- iruided by his new 
rated, feeling himaelf pledged 
-n powers, ren.hed upon. 



DENMARK (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 

dissolution, and the measure was finally adopt- 
ed by a third parliament, June 24. The set- 
tlement of the succession, however, failed to 
pi-,,din-e a real state of peace. Holstein con- 
tinued to protest against the acts of the Danish 
government, and the agitation was communi- 
cated to Schleswig, where the German popula- 
tion were a small minority, and which never 
formed part of the German empire. Holstein 
carried its complaints before the German diet, 
which willingly exercised its right of inter- 
ference and decreed a "procedure of execu- 
tion," that is, compelled the Danish govern- 
ment to make concessions. In the midst of 
these troubles King Frederick VII. died (Nov. 
15, 1863), and was succeeded, according to the 
treaty of 1852, by Prince Christian of Glticks- 
burg, who was crowned as Christian IX. ; but 
Holstein refused to acknowledge the new sov- 
ereign, one party supporting the pretensions 
of the Augustenburg family, another asking 
the independent union of Holstein and Schles- 
wig, and a third desiring a union with Prussia. 
An Austro-Prussian army, under the com- 
mand of the Prussian general Wrangel, enter- 
ed Holstein early in 1864, crossed the Eider, 
took Eckernforde, compelled the evacuation 
of the Dannevirke (Feb. 5), marched through 
Schleswig and Jutland as far as the Lym fiord, 
and captured Diippel, a strong position opposite 
the island of Alsen, fortified with four different 
lines of trenches, after a two months' siege 
(April 18). Soon afterward the fortress of 
Fridericia surrendered to the Austrians. After 
protracted negotiations, peace was concluded 
at Vienna, Oct. 30, 1864, by the terms of which 
Denmark ceded her rights over Schleswig, Hol- 
stein, and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia. 
By the convention of Gastein (August, 1865J, 
between Austria and Prussia, the temporary 
management of affairs in Holstein was assumed 
by Austria and in Schleswig by Prussia, while 
Lauenburg was sold by Austria to Prussia for 
2,500,000 rix dollars ; Prussia besides receiving 
the right to occupy the port of Kiel and Eends- 
burg, the use of two roads through Holstein, and 
the right to make a canal through that country. 
In the treaty of Prague between Austria and 
Prussia, in 1866, was inserted an article pro- 
viding for the retrocession of northern Schles- 
wig, if the people by a vote should declare their 
wish to return to Denmark; but no vote has 
yet been taken. Denmark was dreadfully ex- 
hausted by the war, but has since been grad- 
ually recovering from its prostrate condition. 
The marriage of the Danish crown prince to 
the only daughter and heir of the king of 
Sweden in 1869 revived the idea, long cher- 
ished by many on both sides of the Sound, of a 
reunion of the three Scandinavian kingdoms. 

UK'S MARK, Language and Literature of. The 
I'anish language (dantlce Sprog) belongs to the 
(othic family of languages, which early sepa- 
rated into two branches : the Norsk, or Scan- 
dinavian, and the Germanic. The former, 
which was called by the ancient Danes the 



DENMARK (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 



15 



norrcena mdl, northern tongue, or donsTc tunga, 
Danish tongue, was spoken with little dialectic 
variation over the whole of Scandinavia, and 
was carried to Iceland by Norwegians in the 
latter part of the 9th century. The norrcena 
mdl developed into three distinct languages, 
Icelandic, Swedish, and Danish. While Ice- 
landic retains the mother tongue almost un- 
altered, Danish has lost nearly all its distinctive 
features. Foreign elements were introduced 
into it principally in two ways : Anglo-Saxon, 
by the Danish invasions of England in the 
llth century; German, in consequence of the 
warlike expeditions of the Waldemars (first, 
1157-'82; second, 1202-'41 ; third, 1340-75, 
&c.) and other Danish kings, of the wars and 
commerce with the Hansa, and in consequence 
of the rule of German dynasties (Eric VII. of 
Pomerania, Christopher of Bavaria, Christian 
I. of Oldenburg, 1448, and his successors). Its 
development was retarded by the use of Ger- 
man as the court language and of Latin as the 
language of literature, and in the 17th century 
by the inroads of French taste and phrases. 
In the 18th century it was again affected by 
the predominance of German culture, but the 
subsequent revival of ancient Norse studies and 
of a national literature developed the Danish 
into one of the richest and most refined Euro- 
pean tongues. It is now not only the language 
of Denmark proper, but also of Norway, and 
of the northern part of Schleswig. It is also 
used in the churches among the Esquimaux in 
Greenland, and as a business language in the 
islands of Santa Cruz, St. Thomas, and St. 
John, in the former Danish factories in Guinea, 
and by well educated Icelanders. The Nor- 
wegians pronounce it a little harder than the 
Danes, dropping principally the soft d, but 
their literary language is entirely the same. 
The main difference between Danish and 
Swedish is that the latter has retained more of 
the ancient Scandinavian elements and em- 
bodied more French. Danish is also related to 
English and Dutch. Considering the smallness 
of the land in which it is spoken, it has given 
birth to a large number of dialects. The prin- 
cipal ones are : 1, the dialect of Seeland (sjcel- 
landske), which comprises the dialects of 
North Seeland (nordsjcellandske), Copenhagen 
(kjabenhmnske), which is the normal dialect 
and basis of the literary language, and the dia- 
lect of South Seeland, which includes again 
those of Laaland and Falster ; 2, that of Fiinen 
;), which is spoken in Funen, Lange- 
.d, and several small islands ; 3, that of Jut- 
land (jydske), which is verbally and grammat- 
ically the most peculiar of all, and comprises 
the dialects of West Jutland (v ester jydsTce) and 
of East Jutland (#sterjydslce) ; 4, that of South 
Jutland (s0nderjyds~ke), also called the dialect 
of Schleswig (slesmgsTce), which makes use of 
many Anglo-Saxon and Low German words; 
5, that of Bornholm (bornholmske), which has 
many affinities with Swedish ; and 6, that of 
Schonen (sTcaanslce), which is a mixture of 
258 VOL. vi. 2 



Ian 



Swedish and the dialect of Seeland. The 
alphabet numbers 28 letters, which are repre- 
sented either in German or Latin characters. 
There are 9 vowels : a, aa, e, i, o, u, y, OB, and 
&. A, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in German 
and Italian ; y is sounded like the French u, 
and ^ like the French en in pen; aa, which is 
also a simple vowel, though written with two 
letters, has the sound of ou in brought ; and <R 
corresponds to the German a. They are gen- 
erally long at the end of syllables and before 
liquids and labials, and otherwise short ; e is, 
however, nearly always short at the end of a 
word, and becomes mute at the end of a syl- 
lable when preceded by a vowel; ee has the 
sound of a in late. De, the pronoun used in 
addressing a person, and corresponding to our 
you, is pronounced as if it were written di, in 
order to distinguish it from de, they. The 
consonants are the same as in English, with the 
exception of w, and are as a rule pronounced 
with a peculiar softness which a foreigner finds 
it difficult to imitate. When d is preceded by 
a vowel and stands in the middle of a word, it 
receives a pronunciation somewhat similar to 
ih in bathe ; it becomes mute when preceded 
in the same syllable by I or n, or by r after a 
long vowel, or when followed by sic, st, t, or s 
(if it is not the sign of the genitive) ; and it as- 
similates with the consonant that precedes it 
when it is placed between I and e or n and e, 
and frequently also when preceded by ds. 
When g stands between two vowels it is gen- 
erally almost mute, and at the end of words it 
is sometimes as soft as an aspirate, and some- 
times as hard as a Tc; eg is sometimes pro- 
nounced like the English i in lie, and &g like 
oy in toy. In the middle of a word, before j 
and v, and after t, the letter 7i is not sounded ; 
it serves to lengthen the vowel that precedes. 
In the combinations gj, Icj, and sly, when fol- 
lowed by e, ce, or 0, the j is frequently silent. 
JVis nasal before g and Ic; in ps the p is mute 
in words derived from Greek, and the sound 
of v is lost at the end of a word when preceded 
by I or r. Diphthongs are : ai, ei, oi, ui, &i, 
au, eu, and ou. The first two are pronounced 
like * in lie ; oi like the English oy ; ui like the 
English e; &i very nearly like oy ; au like ou 
in house ; eu like the French eu, with a final 
sound of a v ; ou as in brought. The accent 
rests mostly on the root syllable, except when 
the word begins with gjen, mis, sam, u, und, 
or ran, or ends in eri, inde, agtig, or ere. Two 
genders are distinguished : fcelleslcj&n, com- 
mon, and inteikj&n, neuter ; only the personal 
pronoun of the third person and a few suffixes 
have separate forms for the masculine and 
feminine genders ; four fifths of the nouns in 
the language are common, and only the names 
of countries, cities, metals, letters, languages, 
clothing material, and a few others, are intet- 
Tcjen. The definite article of a noun preceded 
by an adjective is den in fcdleskjan, del in in- 
teikjtrn, and de in the plural of both genders ; 
thus : det skjanne Land, the fine country ; den 



16 



gamlt -M chair; plural, d? 

no adjective- it is suffixed 
dropping the </; thus: <Mui- 
;he country, the chair; but it is /,, 
in tin- plural, us /. 1 be indefinite 

i ,! from *, <?, a, one, is et, it, en ; 
^'l. a chair. The 
dative. .-iii.l accusative cases cause 
M the noun ; there is only the suffix 
i;ive of bc^h numbers. The 
plural is fornu-il in thr.-t- ways, viz.: by suffix- 
..r by /. as S,nj, thing, Sag-er, 
y leaving it unchanged with the ex- 
:i of the radical <t and ", wliich assume the 
"fa and in many nouns of the three de- 
ch-n.-ions, as Ji'ir/i, child. />"///, children; 2?0<7, 
r. books. Adjectives not preceded by 
the article or preceded by the indefinite article 
;i unchanged in fallesij&n, and receive t 
'i-j''n, singular, and e in the plural of 
ruler.- ; hut when they are preceded by 
-iuite article they receive e in both gen- 
d numbers; thus: god Dreng, good boy, 
en god Dreng, a good boy, gode Drenge, good 
boys, den gode Dreng, the good boy, de gode 
good boys ; stor, large, start Bord, 
table, store Borde, large tables. The 
comparative degree is formed by adding re or 
t r, ; the superlative by ste or este ; e. g. : et Icerd- 
ntimmer, a more learned woman; den 
htidette Farce, the whitest color. Some of 
the irregulars are: tiny, yngre, yngst, young, 
younger, youngest ; lille, mindre, mindst, lit- 
tle, lesser, least; megen, mere, meest, much, 
most; mange, Jlere, fleest, many, more, 
bedre, bedst, good, &c. ; ond or 
if rt. evil or bad, worse, worst; 
Ire, aldtt, old, &c.; noer, noBrmere, 
normal, near, nearer, next ; ydre, yderst, 
itmoHt, &c. The numerals are: eet, 



IiKNMAKK (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 



; (Ira, 4; fan, 5; MB, f>; syv, 

,8; ni, 9; */, 10; ellete, tolv, tretten, 

fjorttn, <fec. ; tyre, 20 ; en og tyte, 21 ; to 00 

''ijrgetyte, 40 ; but the 

buo wing four decadea are peculiar: /mhtreds 

or fi'ilrtrxitiixltti/,-,- (halt' tiO and 20) for 50- 

' times 20), 60; /,/,-- 

(half 80 and -MI 

ooljeqoa] to W), us,.,i f,, r 7n : //;/-.vor ^ftrnW 

worAaie/wuin^- 

JS !tu I f'<lr,.l.. LOO; /'^nJ#, 1,000. 

Tf9d, fnr*. :m,l / , ;l ] xi . n f or 6Q g Q 

'. Bupposing th.-m t.. I,,, doul.led, the An/p- 
w are taken for 
8 half waj toward 

100 nwordinalaaw:^^ forste, 

'. the other, or 

, the third; den /)V;v/,/ t he 

." urtl V rth? thV real are 

''>' SIItiixil - nde wiu-n the 

; ' *ben it t .ii.ls inn. 

-'m //. /;.i;, V , the 
..nd tin,,.. T , 

I; miff, me; 

/-,/sh,. ; CJ 
(of) bar; A./w, him; kende her- 



c, we ; tores, ours ; os, us ; 7, you ; 
yours; eder (jer), you; Dem, yourself ;" sig, 
himself, herself, themselves. The demon- 
stratives de, deres, dem, are u^ed for they, 
their, them. Seh, self, selves ; but hanself, 
himself, means also master of the house, hun- 
selt, herself, the house-lady, &c. The possess- 
ives are : in it, ruin, plural mine, my, mine ; dit, 
din, dine, thy, thine ; sit, sin, sine,^ its, his, her, 
their; tort, tor, tore, our, ours; jert,je)\j>n, 
your, yours. The demonstratives are : det, den, 
genit. dets, dens ; plural de, dem, genit. deres 
(also used in conversation with one or more 
persons, like the German Sie, Ihnen, Ihr, you, 
your) ; dette, denne, disse, this, these ; // lint, li iin, 
hine, that, those; saadant, saadan, saadanne, 
and sligt, slig, slige, such. The relatives are : 
der, who ; som, who, whom, that ; and the 
interrogatives : hvo, who? htad, what? htil- 
ket, &c., which ? Indefinite pronouns : der, it, 
there, also with passive verbs ; man (also Ger- 
man, the French on), one, some one ; noget, 
nogen, plural nogle, some, any; somme, some 
people; intet, ingen, nobody; alt, al, plural 
alle, all ; htert, hter, enhter, ethtert, every ; 
h inanden, each other ; hterandre, one another. 
The theme of the verb is the imperative ; the 
conjugation comprehends two orders subdi- 
vided into three classes each, according to the 
form of the past tense. 

I. SIMPLE OEDEE (present and past indicative, and par- 
ticiple past). 

( 1. Klager, complain, klagede. Jclaget. 
1st conj.K 2. Brand 'er. burn, brcendte. brandt. 
(8. Ffflger, follow, /H/0fc, />//?. 

II. COMPLEX ORDEX 
( 1. Seder, bep. pray, bad. bedct or bedt. 
2d conj. < 2. Faar, receive, 'jifc.fttaet. 
( 3. Lader, load, lod, ladet. 

{1. AY ipper, escape, slip, slap (plur. sluppe\ slup- 
->. /.Vm\ tear, rip, rev (plur. rere). revet or reren. 
8. JSi/der, offer, bed (plur. bude), budct or bvdt. 

Person and number are distinguished by pro- 
nouns or other words; the numbers of verbs 
are often alike, and are confounded in com- 
mon speech, though distinguished in writing. 
The passive voice admits of no distinction of 
numbers or persons in the form of the verb, 
but merely of tenses and modes. The present 
and past tenses are formed by means of the 
suffix s or es ; thus : Jeg elslces, I am loved ; 
jeg elskedes, I was loved (from jeg elsker, 
I love ; je,7 clslede, I loved or have loved). 
The infinitive is sometimes denoted by at, 
t> ; thus : at elske, to love ; the participle 
present by nde final. There are also depo- 
nent verbs, analogous to those of the Latin. 
The auxiliary or periphrastic verbs are: slcal, 
plural skulle, shall ; skulde, should, &c. ; til, 
plural rillc, will ; rilde, participle tillet, would ; 
/>/ i from hover), have; passive hates, be pos- 
leaseo by; er, am; tar, was; tcer, be; faaer, 
get; mar/, may, must; lean, can, may; tor, dare, 
need ; !<tder, let, cause to, &c. Bliter, become, 
forms the passive sense ; e. g. : Uiterfundet, is 
found. liar and faaer with an infinitive also 






DENMARK (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 



17 



express duty : Jeg karat sige Dem, I have to say 
(to) you. The Danish has more varieties of 
circumlocution than the English, and its aux- 
iliaries are less irregular. The syntax resem- 
bles that of the English. The definite ar- 
ticle may be omitted, but it is sometimes 
used where the English omits it ; thus : Na- 
tur-en, nature ; Liv-et, life, &c. The noun which 
governs a genitive precedes the nominative, 
and usually without the article ; e. g. : Verdens 
Alder, the age of the world ; et Legemes (body) 
Tyngde, the gravity of a body ; mange Vandes 
Lyd, of the sound of many waters. The prepo- 
sition af is omitted with quantities, as en 
Mczngde Mennesker. a crowd of people ; unless 
the thing measured be definite, as en Skieppe af 
den ny Hvede, a bushel of the new wheat. Ad- 
jectives follow only surnames, as Knud den 
Store, Canute the Great. De, they, when used 
to address a single person, takes the singular 
of the verb, as Qaaer De pact Komedie ? Do 
you go to the theatre? The active partici- 
ple in nde final is never used as a gerund, but 
mostly as an adjective, and the English parti- 
ciple in ing must often be rendered by the in- 
finitive ; thus : det er neppe vcerd at see, it is 
scarcely worth (to see) seeing. Prepositions 
sometimes must be translated by other words ; 
thus : i, in ; i Gaar Aftes (in y ester eve's), last 
evening ; i Morges, this morning ; i Aar, this 
year ; i Morgen, to-morrow, &c. They are also 
written as adverbs: igaar, yesterday, igaar- 
aftes, last night, &c. Paa, on, upon : paa 
S&ndag, next Sunday. Ad, to, up, of : ad 
Aare, next year. Om, for, about : 5 Rigsbank- 
daler om Maaneden, $5 a month, &c. We sub- 
join a specimen of Danish construction : 

En Ulv, den dummeste af sin Slsegt, traf 

A wolf, the silliest of his kind, met 

engang en Hund udenfor Skoven. TJlven 

one time a dog outside wood. Wolf 

yilde til at slcebe denne bort, da Ilunden 
would about to carry this one away, when dog 

forestillede ham at den var altfor mager. 
presented to him to he be too lean. 

For a thorough study of the Danish language 
the following works maty be consulted : Peder 
Syv, Simbriske Sprog (1663), the Cimbric be- 
ing the basis of the Danish orthography ; E. 
Pontoppidan, Orammatiea Danica (1668) ; Otho 
Sperling, De Danicce Linguae, Antigua Gloria 
(1694) ; J. Baden, Roma Danica, sive Harmonia 
Linguae, Danicce, cum Latina (1699) ; J. II. 
Schlegel on the advantages and defects of the 
Danish language (in Danish, 1763) ; Rask's 
grammar for Englishmen (1830 and 1846) ; 
FradersdorfF s " Practical Introduction to 
Danish" (London, 1860). Dictionaries: H. 
van Alphelen, " Royal Dictionary " (in Danish, 
1764-'72), and Dictionnaire francais-danois 
et danois-francais (3 vols., 1772-' 6) ; Dansk 
Ordbog (" Danish Wordbook "), under the direc- 
tion of the society of sciences, by Moller, Vi- 
borg, Thorlachus, Mfdler, &c. (5 vols., 1793- 
1825) ; Bjorn Halderson's lexicon, Icelandic, 



Latin, and Danish, edited by Rask in 1814, 
and Danish -English, by Ferral, in 1845-'54 ; 
Hornbeck's "Danish-English and English-Da- 
nish Dictionary" (2 vols., Copenhagen, 1863). 
The literature of Denmark is for the most part 
of recent growth. Medieval Danish writings 
belong to the general literature of Scandina- 
via. The most important of them are the 
codes of the ancient kings, which belong to 
the 12th century, and the songs and ballads, 
partly derived from the Scandinavian sagas, 
which have been preserved by being sung by the 
people. The Faroe islanders still sing them, 
and dance to their accompaniment. The histo- 
rian Saxo Grammaticus (died about 1204) wrote 
in Latin. He was one of the first scholars of 
his time, and his Historia Danica has been 
thought worthy of a modern translation into 
Danish and of much scholarly comment. Du- 
ring the union of Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- 
way under one government, from 1397 to 1523, 
there was not much literary progress. Learn- 
ing was confined to the clergy, who wrote mostly 
in Latin and on scholastic themes. Even the 
poems and dramas of the time were scholastic 
or mystical allegories. The general revival 
of letters, however, at the time of the reforma- 
tion was felt in Denmark. Pedersen's trans- 
lation of the New Testament and the Psalms 
was incorporated into the official translation 
of the whole Bible made in 1550, and its in- 
fluence upon the national language and litera- 
ture can hardly be overestimated. Pedersen 
also wrote some popular histories which were 
widely read. Unhappily the majority of wri- 
ters in the 16th and 17th centuries were con- 
fined to dogmatic and ecclesiastical discussions, 
and the government, having adopted the Lu- 
theran faith, persecuted any deviation from it ; 
yet the eminent names of Tycho Brahe, the 
great astronomer, and Thomas Bartholin, the 
first anatomist of his day, with a number of 
others, including Christian Longomontanus and 
Ole Romer, placed Denmark in the first rank 
of scientific progress. In this period there were 
also several students of earlier Scandinavian his- 
tory, Arent Berndtsen (died in 1 680) being the 
most eminent of them, whose writings are of 
great value to the modern student ; while the 
collection of the early popular songs, especially 
the work of A. S. Vedel (1591), gave a strong 
impulse to national poetry. It is said that 
Sophia, queen of Frederick II., when on a visit 
to Tycho Brahe, was detained several days by 
stormy weather ; the astronomer beguiled the 
time by reading to her from Yedel's collection, 
and the queen was so delighted with the work 
that she provided for its publication. Vedel 
was followed a century later, and his collec- 
tion enlarged, by Peder Syv. The 17th cen- 
tury also produced some original poets, three 
of whom should be named : Anders Arreboe 
(1587-1637), whose Hexameron describes the 
six days of creation ; Anders Bording (1619- 
1677), who by royal privilege edited the " Da- 
nish Mercury," a political sheet published 



18 



1 1 KN MARK (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 



monthly, and writ ton throughout in verse; 
and Thomai Kingo (1634-1 7'2->). tin- author of 
many excellent livmns. Arivboe is called 

fcher "f DanMi I'-u-try. The, poets and 

he ir.th and 17th centuries 

nmerated l.y Tliura in his ltlt ///*- 

toria I. '" (!7:;--'). The classic 

logj never pervaded the literature of 
Denmark," as it did that of other European 
count rie<; and hence tin- modern development 
of Danish poetry has a strongly Scandinavian 

vr, tin- poets drawing their inspirations 

lees from Greece and Rome than from the 

n sagas, brought out by the labors 

lei and his successors. The chief Danish 
writer of tin- l*th ct-ntury is Ludvig Holberg 
(1684-1754), dramatic poet, writer of fiction, 
and popular philosopher, whose fertile imagi- 
nation and genial humor manifest themselves 
with a strong bracing realism. He was most 
at homo in comedy. He founded the theatre 
at Copenhagen, and wrote for it within three 
years 20 plays, several of which still continue 
to be favorites. The most popular are : " The 
Pewter Statesman," a political satire; "The 
Arabian Powder," a satire upon the alche- 
mists; "Ulysses," a parody of the heroic Ger- 
man drama; and "The Brothers Antipodes," 
utinu' two brothers, one superstitious 
and the other skeptical, both undergoing a 
spiritual cure. Ilolberg has been called the 
Molii-re of the North. His most heroic epic, 

p 1'aars," in which the hero is a country 
grocer, shipwrecked while crossing to Jutland 
to in. it his lady love, is full of humor and 
gniial philosophy. Re wrote a prose satirical 
romance entitled "Niels Klim's Subterranean 
.Join-Dry." ,f supposed skeptical tendencies, 
which from fear of the orthodoxy of King 
('hri-tian VI. was first published in Latin 
(1741). but was subsequently translated into 
almost every European tongue. His "His- 
tory of Denmark to the year 1670," also 
written in Latin, is a itandard work. Chris- 
tian FaNter was a contemporary of Holberg, 
and wrote some satirical poems ".f reputation, 
unequal merit. The next poet of the 

let U -Miamie-; Evald (died 1781). His 

tragedi.-s of Haldur's Death" and "Rolf 

lonir been favorites. a< well as his 

"The Ilarle.juiii Patriot." while he is 

' ; ior of the Danish national song "King 
Christian at tin- hi-h ma-t stands." Evald 
1 Hnlberg soim-what the same re- 
lation as Schiller to (;,,,-the. and both their 
the earlv, enthu- 

tabnah ana- 

i corruption. 
Mowed by Christian Pram, a poet 

Me merit, whose romantic epic 
red in 1785; and Ole Johan 

! 17!"'.). and !.e\in Christian San- 

- of excellent tr:: 

who coop.rated in the development of a pun-lv 
national literature: while the Danish histories 
of Peder F. Suhm and Krik Pontoppidan ,t-md 



! prominent toward the close of the century. 
Jens Baggesen (1764-1826) was the favorite 
lyrist of the nation. His tales, lyrics, and 
comic epics are full of grace and humor. lie 
was an admirer of the German poets, and 
wrote and published a number of pieces in 
German. He may perhaps be considered as 
marking that inclination toward German asso- 
ciations which comes out more conspicuously 
in Adam Oehlenschlager (1779-1850), the great- 
est Danish poet of the present century. Oeh- 
lenschlager found his favorite subjects in the 
mythology of Scandinavia, and his " Baldur 
the Good " and " Gods of the Forth " bring 
the gods of the Edda and the old Norse heroes 
upon the modern stage. His " Correggio " is 
an exquisite picture of the representatives of 
different schools of painting, and became a 
favorite of the European stage. The "Death 
of Socrates" and "Queen Margaret" show 
rich fancy, tender pathos, and noble diction. 
His " Hamlet " gives not the Shakespearian but 
the historic character as handed down by Saxo 
Gramiuaticus ; its first representation in Co- 
penhagen (1846) excited the greatest enthusi- 
asm. Oehlenschlager translated his own works 
into German, and is as well known in Germany 
as in Denmark. Peder Andreas Heiberg (1758- 
1841) was a dramatic writer of great original- 
ity. His son Johan Ludvig Heiberg (1791- 
1860) confined himself to comedy and vaude- 
ville, but ranks among the first of recent drama- 
tists. He was also a philosophical and archaeo- 
logical writer of great merit, and his novels, 
published anonymously, are little if at all in- 
ferior to those of Hans Christian Andersen. 
Bernhard Severin Ingemann (1789-1862) was a 
poet and dramatist known outside of Denmark. 
His epics Waldemar de Store and Holger Danslce 
deserve great praise. He is the author also of 
the national song Danebrog. Hendrik Hertz 
(1798-1 870) is also known outside of his native 
land, and some of his lyrics and dramatic 
poems have been translated into English. Fr. 
Paludan-Miiller (born 1809) is also eminent; 
his Adam Homo, which may be classed with 
epic, didactic, or satiric poetry, is perhaps the 
most remarkable production of modern Danish 
literature. Nicolai Frederik Severin Grundt- 
vig (1783-1872) is in many respects one of the 
first Danish authors of recent times. As a pop- 
ular writer of hymns he is unequalled ; in lyri- 
cal and historical poetry he equals Oehlen- 
schlager, his Kong Harald og Ansgar and Op- 
trin af Kampelivets Undergang i Nord being 
beautiful delineations of the old Danish life and 
character; while his archaeological writings 
and his translations of the works of Snorro and 
Saxo are of great value. His son Svend Grundt- 
vii: (l)orn 1824) has published investigations 
of the literary monuments of Iceland. Chris- 
tian Molbech (1783-1 857) gained great distinc- 
tion in Danish literary history. In 1826 he 
edited Harpestreng's "Book of Medicine," 
supposed to have been written in the 13th cen- 
tury. His son Chr. Karl Frederik Molbech 



DENNER 



DENNIS 



19 



(born 1821), besides being well known as a stu- 
dent of Norse and Danish literary history, is 
a distinguished lyric poet. Rasmus Christian 
Rask (1787-1832) is one of the greatest philol- 
ogists of the present century. He also wrote 
on the antiquities of Iceland and on the age 
and antiquity of theZendavesta, besides publish- 
ing an edition of the Edda. Among scientific 
writers who have contributed to the world's 
progress, mention should be made of Heinrich 
Christian Schumacher, the astronomer (1780- 
1850), and J. F. Schouw, the physicist and ge- 
ographer (died 1852). Hans Christian Oersted 
(1777-1851) has a world-wide reputation as 
the discoverer of electro-magnetism. His best 
known work, Aanden i Naturen (" The Soul 
in Nature "), has been translated into all Eu- 
ropean languages. His brother, Anders San- 
doe Oersted (1778-1830), is known as a wri- 
ter on jurisprudence and diplomacy. In Den- 
mark, as in other lands, the novel takes a 
foremost place in the literature of the present 
day. The most celebrated Danish novelist of 
our time is Hans Christian Andersen (born 
1805). His best works, however, are his short 
fairy tales. His imagination and humor place 
these among the most charming of writings, 
and they are translated into all European 
tongues. His novels are less successful, though 
not without merit. He has also written lyri- 
cal pieces and dramas. Other modern novel- 
ists are Steen Steensen Blicher (died 1848), who 
describes the customs and characteristics of 
the Jutland people with much beauty ; Walde- 
mar Adolf Thisted, better known under the 
pseudonyme of Emanuel St. Hermidad (born 
1815); and Wilhelm Bergsoe (bora 1835), 
whose Fra Piazza del Popolo, published in 
1866, has given him a high reputation, and 
whose works are promptly reproduced in other 
languages. The principal works not already 
mentioned on the history of Danish literature 
are Kraft and Nyerup's Altnindeligt Literatur- 
Lexicon (3 vols., 1774-'84) ; Erslew's Almin- 
deligt Forfatter Lexicon (5 vols., 1841-'60) ; 
Overskou's Den danslce Slcueplads i dens His- 
torie (4 vols., 1859-'62) ; and Bibliotheca Dani- 
ca, a systematic catalogue of Danish literature 
from 1482, the date of the first printed book, 
to 1830, including Icelandic and Norwegian 
books (Copenhagen, 1870). 

DENNER, Balthasar, a German portrait paint- 
er, born in Hamburg in 1685, died there, 
April 14, 1747. He was employed by Fred- 
erick the Great and other German princes, and 
was invited by George I. to England, where 
he met with little encouragement. His chief 
merit consists in the mechanical finish of his 
pictures, some of which require to be examined 
with a magnifying glass in order that the labors 
of the artist may be appreciated. In his head 
of an old woman in the gallery of Vienna the 
down on the cheeks and the pores of the skin 
are represented with scrupulous exactness. 
This picture was purchased by the emperor 
Charles VI. for 4,700 imperial florins, and the 



artist was commissioned to furnish a com- 
panion piece of an old man, which is not less 
carefully finished. His pictures were in great 
request in his day and brought very high prices. 

DENNIE, Joseph, an American author and 
journalist, born in Boston, Aug. 30, 1768, died 
in Philadelphia, Jan. 7, 1812. He graduated 
at Harvard college in 1790, and studied law at 
Charlestown, N. H., where he was admitted 
to the bar. He read the Episcopal service to 
members of that communion at Claremont, and 
was urged to enter holy orders, with the promise 
of a settlement. In 1 795, having acquired some 
reputation by literary contributions to various 
newspapers, under the title of " The Farra- 
go," he became connected with a weekly jour- 
nal published in Boston, called the "Tablet." 
This publication survived but three months, 
and in the summer of 1795 Dennie removed 
to Walpole, N. H., and became editor of the 
" Farmer's "Weekly Museum," which attained 
extensive popularity under his management. 
His most notable contributions were a series 
of essays entitled "The Lay Preacher." The 
articles were discursive and lively, were widely 
copied by the newspapers of the Union, and 
gave their author a high reputation as a grace- 
ful and humorous essayist. The publisher be- 
came bankrupt in 1798, and Dennie was in- 
duced to become a candidate for congress, but 
was defeated. In 1799 he went to Phila- 
delphia to fill the position of confidential secre- 
tary to Timothy Pickering, then secretary of 
state. He remained in this office but a few 
months, and after editing for a short time the 
" United States Gazette," on Jan. 1, 1801, he 
commenced, in conjunction with Asbury Dick- 
ins, the publication in Philadelphia of the 
"Port Folio," originally a weekly, but subse- 
quently a monthly journal, in which he adopt- 
ed the editorial cognomen of " Oliver Old- 
school." The " Port Folio " was the vehicle 
of frequent communications from John; Quincy 
Adams (whose letters from Silesia w/ere 01 igi- 
nally published in it), Horace Bin^ey, Jijjge 
Hopkinson, Robert Walsh, Charles Broc' Ben 
Brown, and other literary men, and maint: lied 
for many years a high reputation. Hellon- 
tinued to be connected with th$ " Port Foio " 
until his- death, and was higb/iy esteemed for 
his social qualities as well q& for' his literary 
abilities. He was the orig>n ator of the " Tues- 
day Club." 

DENNIS, a town of Bar.stable co., Mass., on 
Cape Cod, about 65 m. IB. E. of Boston; pop. 
in 1870, 3,269. Ife'ex^ds entirely across the 
peninsula, here p nj. Vide, and is separated 
from Yarmouth \y Bass) river. It contains a 
number of chur ^ and schools. Most of the 
inhabitants -are ..ngaged in commerce, ship 
building, and f fning. About 50 vessels are 
annually emploj 'd in cod and mackerel fishing, 
and 80 or 90 in 'the coasting trade. The Cape 
Cod railroad passves through the town. 

DENNIS, John, an ^English writer, born in 
London in 1657, died J&n. 6, 1734. He was the 



DKN'ON 



DENTALIUM 



son of a saddler, but was sent to Harrow sohoo 
and Cambridge university, wln.-rc be rrinaine< 
y.-nrs. taking his degree of A. M. in 1 '!*:{ 
::-:i\vlliiiir some tinn- on tin- continent b< 
returned. n wbL' in politics, and mingled witl 
M<1 literary men of London 
AIIIOIIL' bis friends were Dryden, Halifax 
and Congreve. By bis expensive 
hf soon dissipated a small fortune which 
bad bi'i-n b-ft him, and the duke of Marlborough 
obtained tor bini an appointment in the cus 
toms worth 120 a year; but he was com 
prlli-d to sell this to satisfy pressing demands 
only resn-vinu' a small annuity for a term <>t 
Having outlived this term, he was re- 
duced to great poverty, became blind, and was 
compelli'd in tbe latter part of his life to de- 
pend upon tbe charity of literary friends, many 
of whom be had grossly calumniated. He 
some verses of little merit, and severa 
plays which obtained a transient popularity 
especially tbe one entitled " Liberty Asserted,' 
in wbicb tbo French, with whom the English 
were then at war, were roughly handled. Of 
his essays tbe best are "The Grounds of Criti- 
cism " and those on Addison's "Cato" and 
Pope's "Rape of the Lock," though the two 
latter are characterized by the bitterness with 
which he usually spoke of bis contemporaries. 
He attacked Swift, Pope, Addison, Steele, and 
nearly all the prominent writers of the day, 
thereby making enemies of those best able to 
a-titrate him. This was done most effectually 
by Swift and Pope, the latter devoting to him 
some of the sharpest hits in the "Dunciad." 
He bad a most exaggerated idea of his own 
importance, and desired to have a clause in tbe 
treaty of Utrecht protecting him from the wrath 
of the French king, which he imagined had 
been aroused by his play, "Liberty Asserted." 
He had invented a new way of imitating thun- 
Qer for his play of "Appius and Virginia," 
\vas brought out and failed in 1708. 
afterward, during the performance of 
" ," bearing tbe thunder produced by 
A is, he rose in the pit and denounced 
te for stealing his thunder. His 
i\j(iinly to tbe abuse which he re- 
i he had assailed. 
e Vlvant, baron, a French 
at Chalon-sur-Sa6ne, Jan. 
S, April 27, 1825. lie was 
dy law, but devoted his 

a*d literatore. He gained 




. 

"f the 

U 




minister 
itly to Na- 
i-'/Jor, he spent 



engaged 





having a dispute with him, be brought out 
the work independently. The portion rela- 
ting to continental Italy appeared in the notes 
to a French translation of the journey of Swin- 
burne, and that relating to Sicily and Malta in 
a separate volume. Having returned to Paris 
during the revolution (after a second stay in 
Italy), he met Bonaparte at tbe house of Mme. 
de Beauharnais, and was chosen by him to 
accompany the expedition to Egypt in tbe ca- 
pacity both of a savant and artist. In 1802 ap- 
peared his Voyage dans la basse et la luniii 
gypte, profusely illustrated by bis own band. 
It was first published in two large folio vol- 
umes, but there are several editions of small- 
er size. He also took tbe chief part in tbe 
preparation of the Description de Vfigypte, 
under the auspices of the Egyptian institute, 
of which be was a member. Bonaparte made 
him inspector general of the museums of 
France, and he accompanied the army in tbe 
various campaigns of the emperor, selecting the 
works of art which were gathered to enrich 
the galleries of the Louvre. On the second 
restoration he retired to private life, and spent 
some years in collecting and arranging tbe 
material for a history of art, which was finished 
by Amaury Duval (Monuments des arts du des- 
sin chez les peuples tant anciens que modemes, 
4 vols. fol., 1829). Denon's own etchings ' 
number more than 300. 

DENT, a S. E. county of Missouri ; area, 
about 750 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,357, of 
whom 31 were colored. The soil is fertile and 
the surface much diversified. Current river 
and several smaller streams have their sources 
here. The chief productions in 1870 were 55,024 
bushels of wheat, 215,693 of Indian corn, 53,- 
042 of oats, 16,539 of potatoes, 988 tons of 
hay, 58,588 Ibs. of butter, and 26,770 of to- 
bacco. There were 1,241 horses, 1,547 milch 
cows, 3,426 other cattle, 6,861 sheep, and 
11, 230 swine. Capital, Salem. 

DENT1LRM, or Tooth Shell, a gasteropod mol- 
usk, usually placed near the limpets. The 
shell is tubular, symmetrical, curved like a 
ong slender tooth, open at each end, atten- 
uated posteriorly ; the surface is either smooth 
or longitudinally striated; aperture circular. 
The animal is attached to the shell near the 
posterior anal surface ; bead rudimentary, 
vithout eyes, with teeth in mouth at the base 
of a long, conical foot; there are two sym- 
metrical branch! ; sexes believed to be united, 
n the early stages they have wing-like ex- 
>ansions at the anterior part of the body, and 
many tentacles around the bead. They are 
inimal feeders, devouring minute bivalves and 
oraminifera ; they are all marine, living in 
ilmost all seas, on sandy and muddy bottoms, 
n which they often bury themselves; they 
re found in from 10 to 100 fathoms. There 
re about 50 living and 125 fossil species. 
miring from the Devonian forward. They 
were classed by the early zoologists with tbe 
worms, and even Cuvier placed them near 



DENTATUS 



DENTISTRY 



serpula among the annelids, noticing, how- 
ever, certain characters recalling the mollus- 
can structure. This shell has recently been 
brought into notice by Prof. E. S. Morse, who 




1. Shell of Dentalium entalis. 2. Shell magnified and frac- 
tured, showing animal contracted. 3. Animal at the mo- 
ment of advancing from the shell. 4. Animal magnified, 
abdominal aspect. 5. Animal magnified and cut open, 
showing internal formation. 6. Animal magnified, dorsal 
aspect. 

has found in it many different characters in- 
teresting from a Darwinian point of view, and 
suggesting the development of the branch of 
mollusks from dentalium or some animal re- 
sembling it, which had been derived from 
some annelid form. Dentalium, according to 
him, points to the acephala in the absence of a 
head, to the gasteropods by the lingual teeth, to 
the pteropods by the wing-like expansions, and 
to the cephalopods by the many tentacles of 
the embryo. Whether these indicate deriva- 
tion or not, the union of annelid peculiarities 
with those of all the classes of mollusks is cer- 
tainly unusual and interesting. The common 
species of the Atlantic, the I), entalis (Linn.), 
is about \\ inch long and \ inch in diameter at 
the anterior end, tapering to a dull point. 

DENTATUS, Manins (or Marcus) Cnrins, a Roman 
consul, flourished in the first half of the 3d cen- 
tury B. 0. In 290 he became consul and de- 
feated the Samnites ; in 275, during his second 
consulship, he vanquished Pyrrh us in two great 
battles ; in 274 he was elected consul a third 
time, and was victorious over the Samnites, 

-.ucanians, and Bruttians. On the conclusion 
his third consulship he retired to a small 

inn in the Sabine territory, and cultivated 
with his own hands. While he was thus 

igaged, the Samnites sent an embassy to him 

ith costly presents. They found him sitting 
the hearth cooking vegetables for his dinner. 

[e rejected their gifts, telling them he would 
ther rule over those who possessed wealth 

lan possess it himself. In 272 he was made 
censor, in which capacity he constructed an 
aqueduct from the Anio (Teverone) into the 
city, and by a canal he carried off the water of 
the lake Velinus (Velino) to the Nar (Nera), 
and thus gave to the Reateans a large tract of 
excellent land. He is said to have been born 
with teeth ; hence his surname of Dentatus. 

DENTISTRY (Lat. dem, tooth), the surgical 
treatment of the teeth, and the manufacture 
and fitting of artificial teeth. Although it is 



only within less than a century that dentistry 
has taken the rank of a distinct profession, at- 
tention was directed from the earliest periods 
to the means of preserving and improving the 
beauty of the teeth. In the time of Herodo- 
tus dentistry appears to have been practised 
in Egypt as a distinct branch of surgery, as 
was also the treatment of the diseases of 
the eye and of the ear. Little, however, is 
known of the attainments of these early prac- 
titioners. In the ancient tombs of this people 
artificial teeth of ivory or wood were found 
by Belzoni and others, some of which were 
fastened upon gold plates. It is also stated 
that teeth of the mummies have been found 
filled with gold. Thus it would seem that the 
ancient Egyptians understood processes of the 
art which are commonly regarded only as in- 
ventions of modern times. Artificial teeth are 
alluded to by several of the Greek and Latin 
poets, as Ovid, Martial, and Horace. The 
works of Galen, written in the 2d century, 
contain the earliest treatises upon this subject, 
and they continued to be the best until the 
works of Fallopius, Eustachius, and Ambroise 
Par6 appeared in the 16th century. During 
the 18th century the attention of many medical 
men in France and England was directed to 
the subject, and a number of elaborate works 
were published devoted exclusively to the art 
of dentistry. These, and prominently among 
them the treatise of John Hunter (1771-'8), 
laid the foundation of the English school of 
dentistry. The subject, however, was treated 
anatomically and philosophically rather than 
practically ; and the same may be said of the 
writings of the eminent French surgeon of this 
period, Bichat. Neither of these was a prac- 
tical dentist, and the subsequent publications 
of Dr. Blake in 1798, and of Fox in 1803 
and 1806, as of others at later dates, served 
rather to elucidate the physiology of the teeth 
and the nature of the diseases to which they 
are subject than the method of treating them. 
From advertisements in the newspapers of 
1803 the practice of making teeth and clean- 
ing them appears to have been in the hands of 
silversmiths or jewellers. In 1826 the " Princi- 
ples of Dental Surgery," by Leonard Koecker, 
M. D., who had practised dentistry from 1807 
to 1822 in Baltimore and Philadelphia, ap- 
peared in London, and fully established the 
claims of the art to take rank as a distinct 
branch of science. From that time new trea- 
tises have continued frequently to appear. The 
progress of the French school was very rapid 
in the early part of the present century. Prof. 
Baumes's treatise on first dentition and the 
diseases that accompany it appeared in 1805, 
and about the same time a work on the theory 
and practice of the art by Laforgue. A num- 
ber of works were published by Delabarre be- 
tween 1815 and 1826 on different subjects re- 
lating to the teeth and their treatment. Among 
them is a treatise on "Mechanical Dentistry," 
published in 1820, and illustrated with 42 plates. 



DENTISTRY 



during tliis period, when publications 
upon dentfetr? were frequently appearing in 

, tliat the manufacture of artificial teeth 

if porcelain was introduced; and in 1821 a 

work upon this suhjcet was published by Audi- 

l.ran. entitled Iwii hi*tori'i ue (t /tnitiqite aur 

. /,.< incnri'iiiitibl,*. l>y this 

thai Fain-hard in 17'J* proposed 

i .nufa.-turc ; and that in 177t'. Duehateau, 

..;' St. (.ei-main-en-Layo, attempted 

ilu-in, and finally succeeded with 

. of Dul.ois, a dentist of note in Paris. 
Tin- latter imitated the colors of the natural 

ml gums by thy use of mineral oxides, 

:aiii'-l royal letters patent for the in- 
vention. Denti-try was introduced into the 
1'nited Stat^> l.y he Mair, of the French forces 
which joined our army during the revolution- 
\n Englishman named Whitlock 
also commenced the practice soon after the 
arrival of !. Mair. About 1788 John Green- 

. -tablished himself in New York, the 

\Mierican of this profession. In 1790, 

and again in 17'.t5, he carved in ivory an entire 

:. -etli for (ion. Washington. They were 

1 by spiral springs, and the neatness 
and ingenuity of the work was considered 
equal to any executed at that period abroad. 
Other dentists soon appeared in New York, 
1'hiladelphia, and Baltimore. Their work in- 
cluded the extracting of teeth, filing and 
(leaning them, and replacing the natural teeth 
when ht with artificial ones, commonly made 
of ivory. Dr. Hudson, formerly of Dublin, 
who had settled in Philadelphia, first directed 
his attention particularly to the cure of the 
diseases of the teeth, and to arresting the pro- 

; dental caries. In 1820 the number of 
practitioners in the United States was probably 
little more than 100. Ten years afterward 
\\ ere about 300, of whom probably not 
more than one sixth were well instructed. 
Hut the increase in their numbers was after- 
ward very rapid. In 1842 they were believed 
to number about l,4i>i, and in 1872 about 
An important event in the history of 
dental sur-ery in this country was the estab- 
lishment of the "American Journal and Li- 

"t Dental Science " in Baltimore, in 
The society of dental surgeons was 
soon after formed, and at its second annual 
nieetinL' the ".Journal" was made the property 
and or^an of the association. Maryland found- 
ed l.y it> le-:Mat:uv. a f.-w months previous to 
the ..r-Miii/utii.n of the x.ciety above named, a 
college of dental Misery, with four professor- 
ship-. de-L'ned f..r in-tnictioii in the principles 
and mechanical practice of the art. Two years 

.rd another s..r'u-ty of dentists, like that 
'f Hultim..: abed at Richmond, Va., 

and in August, 1844, a third \s as formed at 
Cincinnati. Ohio, styh-,1 the ' Mississippi Valley 
.ition of Dental Sur-eon-." ,\ college 
-ablished in Phila- 
delphia and ari-.th.-r in < incinnati, and state 
.il dental societies in various parts of 



lelp 

and 



the country. In August, 1855, the national 
convention of dentists was organized through 
the active exertions of Dr. Elisha Townsend 
of Philadelphia, and its first annual meeting 
was held in that city. Dr. John B. Rich of 
New York was its first president. Besides 
the reports of these societies, which have 
disseminated a knowledge of the discoveries 
and improvements made in the science, many 
very valuable works of a practical nature 
have been published by American authors. 
The means of preventing the diseases to which 
the teeth are subject, is a branch of dental 
science quite as important as that relating to 
the arrest and cure of these diseases. These 
means consist, first, in giving what assistance 
nature requires to bring the teeth of second 
dentition into a regular arrangement ; and sec- 
ondly, in the care of the -individual himself 
in preserving the teeth uniformly clean. As 
the temporary or first set of teeth drop out, 
which as a general rule they should be allowed 
to do, by their roots being absorbed, the sec- 
ond set already formed succeed and take their 
places. Of the temporary teeth there are but 
20, and these are of small size. The teeth 
of the second dentition are 32 in number, with 
one or two exceptions are of larger size than 
their predecessors, and consequently occupy a 
greater space. Yet these, appearing one by 
one, take their places, and should occupy in 
the harmonious process of the growth of all 
the parts the same room apparently that was 
filled by the 20 deciduous teeth. This is accom- 
plished by the elongation forward of the jaw, 
the arch gradually assuming the form of a 
semi-ellipse in place of that of a semi-circle. 
Teeth irregularly arranged, interfering with 
each other, or as in some cases with the lips, or 
pointing inward so as to be removed from the 
healthy action of mastication, or twisted in 
their sockets, are not only disfiguring, but are 
particularly liable to disease and decay. From 
their first appearance to the age of 16 of the 
individual, they may be treated by various me- 
chanical applications attached to the other 
teeth and bearing suitably upon those to be 
brought into place, so that without violence 
the work of nature is gently assisted, and a per- 
fect set is gradually formed. It is the opinion 
of dentists that when the teeth are kept per- 
fectly clean they will not be affected by caries. 
As the secretions of the mouth are, however, 
liable to be vitiated by constitutional disorders, 
the keeping them clean requires great vigilance. 
When caries occurs it should be immediately 
removed by the use of the file. The surface of 
the bone from which the enamel is removed 
should be left smooth and polished, and if proper 
care be afterward taken in keeping it clean, the 
disease may not return. If the decay has ex- 
tended into the bony substance of the tooth, 
the filing is then only preparatory to the com- 
plete removal of the diseased portion by exca- 
vating with suitable instruments, and filling 
the cavity with some proper material. Much 



DENTISTRY 



23 



attention was formerly given to shaping the 
cavity, in order that by its contracted aper- 
ture the filling should be held in as by dovetail- 
ing; but by the use of gold foil and sponge 
gold specially prepared for this purpose, it is 
now found practicable to apply the metal in 
successive portions, and build up a solid block 
of any shape by incorporating each portion 
with' that which preceded it. This is done 
by carefully packing it with suitable instru- 
ments, and the gold may be thus rendered so 
compact, it is affirmed, that its specific gravity 
shall equal that of the cast metal. In wide- 
mouthed cavities the filling is secured by being 
built upon plugging carefully introduced into 
the cavities of the roots, and also by lateral 
pins of the gold filling made to enter from this 
into little holes or grooves drilled for the pur- 
pose into the walls of the tooth. It has been 
generally considered impracticable to preserve 
a tooth when the decay has reached into the 
internal or pulp cavity. In this condition in- 
flammation often takes place at the root, and 
matter collects, forming an ulcer between the 
periosteum of the tooth and the bone. If the 
discharge of this be stopped by filling the cavity, 
the matter will find its way through the gum, 
causing a gum boil near the root ; or it pro- 
duces inflammation of the face, often attended 
with great suffering, which is relieved only by 
the removal of the tooth. The modern treat- 
ment is to perforate the sac at the root by a 
fine drill passed through the cavity ; and if the 
pulp be sensitive, it is cut out and removed 
by a delicate steel wire furnished with a hook 
at the end, so small that it can pass freely into 
the nerve cavity. A solution of creosote or 
carbolic acid is then injected into the cavity, 
and as soon as a healthy action has taken place 
tooth may be safely filled, with the liability 
1 further trouble from the same cause greatly 
luced. The only unobjectionable material 
>r filling teeth is gold foil or the sponge gold 
ecially prepared for this purpose. The latter 
iterial is produced by dissolving gold free 
3m copper in nitro-hydrochloric acid, placing 
le solution in a flat-bottomed vessel, and heat- 
and precipitating by strong solution of ox- 
lie acid. In a few hours the gold is wholly 
>sited, and the supernatant liquid may be 
ited off, taking care not to disturb the 
)ld at the bottom. The vessel is then several 
les filled with boiling water and decanted, 
itil the last washings contain no more oxalic 
iid. The gold is now carefully slipped upon 
piece of filtering paper, and by means of a 
~>atula gently pressed into the form of the de- 
red cake, but a little thicker. It is then re- 
loved to a porcelain crucible, and heated for 
short time, somewhat below a red heat, 
rhen it shrinks and becomes coherent. Tin 
)il may be used, and its malleability and cheap- 
38 well adapt it for large and badly shaped 
ivities and for temporary fillings in sensi- 
ive teeth ; but it is liable to oxidize and pro- 
ice discoloration. Temporary fillings, for the 



purpose of protecting the cavity while it is be- 
ing prepared for gold filling, are often made of 
gutta percha. A preparation of it known as 
Hill's stopping, made by incorporating with it 
a powder made of quicklime, quartz, and feld- 
spar, is highly recommended. When this com- 
position is used a condensing instrument large 
enough to cover the filling should be held upon 
it until the nerve becomes cool. A mixture 
of chloride and oxide of zinc, called oxychlo- 
ride of zinc, or os artificiel, has lately been 
much used as a temporary filling, and also for 
pulp cavities. Exposed nerves have also been 
covered with it, and gold used to complete the 
filling. The operations for filling teeth are 
varied and complicated. Many ingenious ma- 
chines have been lately introduced for prepar- 
ing cavities and condensing the filling. Drills 
worked by treadles, and also by galvanism as 
a motor force, and automatic mallets have 
been successfully applied. The extraction of 
the teeth is an important branch of dental 
practice ; safe and easy with good instruments 
in skilful hands, but, as practised by the un- 
professional operator, not a little hazardous. 
The improved instruments of modern times, 
however, have greatly lessened this risk, and 
pain is avoided by the use of anaasthetic agents. 
The last department of dentistry to be no- 
ticed is the construction and application of 
artificial teeth. These were formerly carved 
from ivory of the tusk of the elephant or the 
tooth of the hippopotamus. They were obtained 
also by altering the shape of the teeth of some 
of the inferior animals ; and the crowns of hu- 
man teeth were often conveniently engrafted 
upon the roots of the original front teeth. All 
these materials are objectionable from their 
susceptibility to the action of the fluids of 
the mouth ; ivory soon becomes offensive 
from being saturated with these fluids; and 
all of them are liable to decay, inducing at 
the same time disease in the sound teeth re- 
maining. Porcelain teeth perfectly resist the 
corrosive action of the fluids of the mouth, 
and imitate so perfectly in color and ani- 
mated appearance the natural teeth, that they 
are often not easily distinguished from them. 
Various methods of securing artificial teeth in 
their places have been in use. So long ago as 
400 years B. C. they were fastened by ligatures 
of flax or silk, and with wire of gold or silver, 
to the natural teeth that remained. In modern 
times metallic clasps, spiral springs, and fasten- 
ings of gutta percha and of caoutchouc have 
been used for this purpose ; but the most perfect 
method is to secure the teeth, either in whole 
or partial sets, to a plate of gold or other 
metal, which is so accurately fitted to the gums 
that it is firmly retained by atmospheric pres- 
sure. In making an artificial set of teeth, the 
first object is to obtain in some hard metal an 
exact model of the mouth in which the plate 
is to . be fitted. For this purpose, yellow or 
white wax, free from mixture of grease, and 
softened by warm water, is placed in a shal- 



.jl 1>KNTISTRY 

low vessel, wliich may he introduced into tlic 

mouth. i'la-ter of I'aris made into paste may 

: the wax. The contents of 

lp are firmly pressed around the gums, 
an. I, if for tin- upper jaw. are made to cover 

f of the month ai well. An experienced 

-r thus nhtains in a few minutes an exact 

mould of the parts to which the material is ap- 

The teeth, if any are pre-eiit. leave 

faithfully impressed in their true 

:d the cavitie- U-twe.-n are repre- 

;>ondiii!r projections in the 

: hardened pla-t.-r. The impression re- 
tVom t!ie mouth serves to furnish a 

..f the jaw, which may he taken in plas- 
ter of I'ari- also. This i- used as a pattern in 
moulding -and, and a cast is then obtained in 
any metal, as for in-tance zinc ; and by pour- 

ited lead upon the /inc, which is turned 

I.MII its face and surrounded with a brass 
or iron collar for retaining the lead, a mould 
in thi- metal is obtained precisely like the ori- 
ginal one in wax. By means of the zinc cast 
and leud mould, the exact shape of the parts is 
transferred to the sheet of gold or other metal, 
this being placed between the two, and made, 
by hammering and swaging, to assume all their 
irregularities of surface. The fit is the more 
readily made if the teeth have been cutoff 
from the plaster model before making the me- 
tallic casts. A duplicate plaster cast serves to 
give the position of those teeth to which the 
plate is to be finally fitted. A variety of ma- 
terials have been experimented upon, in which 
to securely imbed the bases of the teeth. 
Gutta percha has been used to contain them ; 
but its texture and strength were in a short 
time destroyed by the action of the fluids of 
the mouth. It was then applied vulcanized or 
mixed with sulphur; and caoutchouc is em- 
ployed in the same way. These prove to be 
important auxiliaries in mechanical dentistry, 

My for temporary sets of teeth. They 
do not, however, readily take the colors which 
may be applied to more suitable substances. 

i the process Catted continuous gum was 
! by IM-. .liihn Allen, professor in the 

'liege of dental surgery. In this a sili- 

mp"und, similar in composition to that 

of which the teeth are made, but more fusible, 

is applied in the form of a paste over the 

' the hack of the teeth, and also 

Vi.nt. so as entirely to bury the ends of 
the natural ones are buried in the 
;MIIII<. To withstand the hiirh degree of heat 
hakit.-/ this upon the plate, plati- 
num is substituted for pold. Platinum has 
the advantage of forming at a high 
onion with the silieious compound 
Which is -;,rvad ov, r the lin-ual side of the 

- \\.-ll as over the l,a-es of the teeth. 
When thoroughly dry. the work is baked at a 
white heat in the muthV of an assayiii" furnace 
A new application of the paste is then made 
11 "I* 1 " Mtted by shrinking and 

upon tin- coating are made numerous ridges 



DENTITION 

' and depressions with the spatula, which, when 
afterward covered with the coloring enamel, 
cause this to assume different shades of the 
color, and present the appearance of the nat- 
ural gums. The baking is repeated, and after 
this the coating of coloring matter, called the 
irum enamel, is applied, when a third baking 
completes the process, by which a proper degree 
of hardness and a natural color are produced. 
The compositions used are empirical mixtures 
of pure silica and feldspar, with a suitable 
flux to produce a fusible compound, possess- 
ing sufficient strength, hardness, and perma- 
nency of character. The work can easily be 
repaired when broken, or alterations made when 
required by changes in the mouth, by building 
upon it more of the paste and again baking; 
in this way even the length of the artificial 
teeth can be increased and new ones introduced. 
In the same way the artificial processes called 
cheek restorers were applied by Dr. Allen, 
which are projecting portions built upon the 
artificial gums far back in the mouth, and 
serve to distend the cheeks when these are 
fallen in. The mechanical operations con- 
nected with the work have led to increased 
knowledge in the use of plastic compounds, 
and introduced improved methods of treating 
the metals employed. 

DENTITION. In all the higher animals the 
teeth are developed directly from the mucous 
membrane, and are therefore, like hair, nails, 
feathers, &c., appendages of the skin, and form 
no part of the true osseous system. As early 
as the fifth week of foetal life, according to the 
observations of Prof. Goodsir, a deep, narrow 
groove between the lip and the rudimentary 
palate in the upper jaw indicates the future 
situation of the teeth. Within the next three 
weeks papillas developed at the bottom of the 
groove become the germs of the future milk or 
temporary teeth. In the progress of develop- 
ment the papillae are enveloped in open folli- 
cles, and these again are converted into shut 
sacs; contemporaneously with these changes, 
the edges of the dental groove are themselves 
growing, so that by the 14th week they meet, 
enclosing the tooth sacs. Within the sacs the 
papillary pulp is gradually converted into den- 
tine, of which the body of the tooth is com- 
posed, while the enamel is probably formed by 
calcification of the epithelium abundantly pro- 
duced from the inner surface of the sacs. As 
teeth are required before the jaws have at- 
tained their growth, and yet from their struc- 
ture are incapable of enlarging pari passu with 
the bones in which they are placed, provision 
is made for a temporary set, which when they 
have served their purpose are replaced by the 
permanent teeth. As early as the 14th week 
minute crescentic depressions of mucous mem- 
brane may be discovered above and at the in- 
ner part of the opercula of the milk teeth ; 
these depressions soon become converted into 
minute compressed sacs, which gradually sink 
behind and below the sacs of the milk teeth, and 



DENTITION 



DENVER 



25 



in these sacs are developed the first ten perma- 
nent teeth of each jaw ; the other six are devel- 
oped in sacs placed posterior to those of the last 
milk teeth, which are formed in a manner pre- 
cisely similar to those of the milk teeth them- 
selves. The ossification of the permanent teeth 
commences a little before birth with that of the 
first molar, and proceeds during the first three 
years of infancy successively in the incisors, the 
canines, and the bicuspids. The approach of 
the time for the eruption of the temporary teeth 
is announced by an increased secretion of saliva. 
In the earlier months of infancy the mouth is 
comparatively dry, but as the teeth shoot into 
the gums the mouth becomes moist and the 
child begins to drivel. The progress of dentition 
is not apparently continuous, but after the erup- 
tion of each successive pair a pause of one or 
two months generally follows. The central in- 
cisors commonly pierce the gum in the course 
of the 7th month after birth, those of the low- 
er jaw preceding the upper ones by a short in- 
terval ; between the 7th and 10th months the 
lateral incisors make their appearance; from 
the 12th to the 14th month the anterior mo- 
lars, and between the 14th and 20th the ca- 
nines are cut; and the first dentition is com- 
pleted between the 18th and 36th months by 
the protrusion of the posterior molars. Both 
the time and the order of appearance of the 
first set of teeth admit of a good deal of varia- 
tion, their progress being hastened or delayed 
sometimes six or seven months by a lateral in- 
cisor, or even a molar or canine tooth, cutting 
the gum before the appearance of the central 
incisors. The period of primary dentition is at- 
tended with increased risk to the life of the 
infant. During its continuance the proportion- 
ate mortality becomes much increased, and in 
the bills of mortality numerous deaths are as- 
cribed to teething alone. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that at this time all the func- 
tions of the young being are in a state of great 
activity, and that teething is but one in a series 
of changes by which the infant is prepared to 
substitute for the milk provided by its mother, 
food suitable to the conditions of its future ex- 
istence. In a healthy infant dentition in itself 
is attended with little inconvenience and no 
danger ; when the teeth come to distend and 
stretch the mucous membrane lining the gums, 
there is probably a little tenderness and pain, 
some fretfulness, and perhaps slight febrile ex- 
citement ; but in the absence of other causes 
of disease, this soon passes over. If, however, 
the nervous system is unduly excitable, denti- 
tion may seriously complicate other maladies. 
When the process of dentition is advancing 
normally, it should never be interfered with ; 
when the gum is red, swollen, and painful, 
scarification may be resorted to with advan- 
tage, and may be repeated if necessary, the 
trifling loss of blood affording relief to the in- 
flamed gum. When the tooth is evidently 
about to pierce the gum, if the child appears to 
suffer, it may be freed by cutting down to it 



with the gum lancet. In cases where convul- 
sions supervene suddenly without an evident 
cause, if dentition is proceeding actively and 
the gums are tense and swollen, the gum lan- 
cet may be resorted to. Occasionally dentition 
is attended with much fever and derangement 
of the digestive organs, while a sloughy un- 
healthy ulceration makes its appearance on 
the gum over the teeth just about to protrude, 
or at the edge of the gum of those which have 
recently been cut. In these cases the gum 
lancet does positive harm, while they readily 
yield to a properly regulated diet, and to the 
use of the chlorate of potash in solution, in 
doses of one or two grains repeated every four 
hours. During the earlier period of childhood 
a bony plate or partition separates the perma- 
nent from the fangs of the temporary teeth ; 
as the period approaches in which the former 
are to replace the latter, this partition disap- 
pears, and the crown of the enlarged perma- 
nent tooth makes its way into the cavity of the 
temporary fang. As the permanent tooth ad- 
vances, the fang of the milk tooth is absorbed, 
not however from any pressure exercised by 
the one upon the other, the two never coming 
in contact ; and as the crown of the milk tooth 
falls off, the permanent tooth is ready to re- 
place it. The first anterior or true molar 
usually appears at about 6 years ; about the 
same time or a few months later the central 
permanent incisors appear ; the lateral ones are 
developed at 8, the anterior and posterior bi- 
cuspids at 9 and 10, the canines from 11 to 12, 
the second true molars from 12 to 13, and the 
wisdom teeth from 17 to 19. From the inves- 
tigations of Mr. Edwin Saunders (" The Teeth 
a Test of Age, considered with reference to the 
Factory Children "), it would appear that the 
second dentition furnishes the best physical 
evidence of the age of children within our 
reach ; in the majority of instances he found 
its indications coincided closely with the real 
age of the children, and when they failed the 
extreme deviation was but a year. 

DEBTT01V, a N. E. county of Texas, drained 
by two forks of Trinity river, and occupied 
partly by prairies and partly by vast forests 
called the Cross Timbers ; area 900 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 7,251, of whom 500 were col- 
ored. The chief productions in 1870 were 
18,216 bushels of wheat, 173,510 of Indian 
corn, 41,060 of oats, 11,826 of sweet potatoes, 
and 674 bales of cotton. There were 6,195 
horses, 2,863 milch cows, 85,220 other cattle, 
5,331 sheep, and 10,200 swine. Capital, 
Denton. 

DENVER, a city of Arapahoe county, Colo- 
rado, the capital of the county and of the 
territory, situated on the right bank of the 
South Platte, at the junction of Cherry creek, 
15 m. from the E. base of the Rocky moun- 
tains, and about 500 in. W. of the Missouri 
river, 5,267 ft. above the sea; pop. in 1870, 
4,759; at the beginning of 1873 estimated 
by the secretary of the board of trade at 






DENVER 



15,000. It occupies :i series of plateaus rising 
. !V..in the river, and fact's 
the mountains, commandini: a P" ? nd 
I: is built principally of brick, 
,| in the vicinity. Five railroads 
|| thi> point, vi/. : the Kan>as Pacific, 
1'aciiie, the Colorado Central, the 
and the iMiv.-r and Kio 
is the commercial centre of 
!o an.l the adjacent country, and its 
riant. The receipts of freight for 
II months ending Nov. 80, 1871, over the 
: 1'acitie and Kansas Pacific railroads, 
ated ^ r,i,.vl,r.90 Ibs. For the same 
of 1^7-J they were 88,539,710 Ibs., of 
which 27,390,560 were agricultural, 5,091,640 
animal, :..l:;s,.V)0 forest, and 1,759,710 mi- 
: ro.lucts, 8,456,060 manufactures, and 
mi-cellaneous. The amount of 
>hipped over these lines for the same 
in 1*71 was 7,031,842 Ibs.; in 1872, 
,620 His., of which the principal items 
grain, 1,220,560 Ibs.; flour 
and meal, 284,720 ; cattle, 8,532,200 ; beef and 
pork, 232,790; hides and wool, 1,669,120; 
coal, 605,600 ; ore, 3,111,270 Ibs. The arrivals 
of passengers in 1872 were 11,250; depar- 
tures, 6,794. The shipments of coin and bul- 
lion by express during the year amounted to 
$1,295,411, viz.: gold bullion, $1,212,934; 
silver bullion, $19,760; gold coin, $62,717. 
The sales of merchandise in 1872 were in the 
aggregate $13,039,000. The value of manu- 
factures was $1,394,000. The most important 
establishments are 6 breweries, 1 woollen mill, 
!'. Hour mills, 1 iron foundery, 2 planing mills, 
1 terra cotta foundery, several carriage facto- 
ries, and a turning shop. The Denver smelting 
and refining works, in process of construction, 
rupy a brick building 55 ft. wide by 
200 ft. long, with capacity for 40 tons of ore 
a day. There are three national banks with 
an aggregate capital of $400,000, and deposits, 
Dec. 27, 1872, amounting to $1,215,570 65, 
and a savings bank. The branch of the United 
States mint is employed in the melting and 
i^'of bullion, which is returned to de- 
- in the form of bars with the weight 
and fineness stamped upon them. The aggre- 
gate deposits of domestic gold to June 30, 
1873, were $6,357,275 49 of which $5,761,- 
487 29 were from Colorado ; the product was 
$6,451,213 08 in gold bars, and $19,879 43 in 
brer bar-. The number of deposits of gold 
and silver in 1872 was 1,741, valued at 
.529 45. The city is divided into four 
and governed by a mayor and eight 
MMtB ipplied with water through 

pipe, and i> lighted with gas. The value 
.Me property in 1871 was $6,772,908- 

(it the close of IS7-J it excreded $8,500 OOo' 

an- :',! hotels mid a theatre. The fol- 
tli" public schools 

! " r ll " "^ s q<t. 30, 1871: number 

iMl age (5 to 21), 1,1 r.s- 

number of nhooi^S; teachers. 14 ; pupils eii- 



DE PEYSTEE 

rolled, 982 ; average attendance, 413. There 
were 6 private schools, with an average at- 
tendance of 250. A public school building 
has recently been erected, at a cost of about 
$70,000, which will accommodate 500 pupils. 
The territorial library contains more than 
2,500 volumes. The newspapers and periodi- 
cals published here are 4 daily, 1 semi-weekly, 
4 weekly, and 2 monthly. There are 8 churches, 
viz. : 1 Baptist, 1 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 
2 Methodist (1 colored), 2 Presbyterian, and 
1 Roman Catholic. The first cabin was erect- 
ed on the site of Denver in 1858. 

DEOD15D (Lat. Deo dandum, a thing to be 
given to God). A superstitious practice pre- 
vailed in England from the earliest time until 
very recently, whereby a chattel which had 
been the immediate instrument or cause of 
death to a human being was forfeited to the 
king, to be applied by him to pious uses. Om- 
nia qua moment ad mortem sunt Deo danda (all 
things which are the moving cause of death are 
to be offered to God), is the rule stated by 
Bracton. It is supposed by Blackstone that the 
origin of this practice was the religious doctrine 
of making expiation for the souls of such as 
were carried off by sudden death. A singular 
distinction was made between an infant and 
an adult, viz. : that an infant falling from a cart 
or horse not in motion, there was no forfeiture ; 
whereas in the case of an adult the horse or 
cart was a deodand. Yet if a horse or other 
animal should of his own motion kill either 
an infant or. adult, or if a cart should run over 
him, in either case the animal or cart was for- 
feited as a deodand. Another rule equally 
inexplicable was, that when a thing not in 
motion was the occasion of a man's death, 
only that part which was the immediate cause 
was forfeited ; but if the thing was in motion, 
then the whole was forfeited ; as, if a man was 
run over by a cart wheel, the whole cart was 
a deodand. It made no difference although the 
owner of the chattel was not in fault. The law 
of deodand was not applied in cases of felo- 
nious homicides, and it is now abolished by 
statute 9 and 10 Victoria, c. 62. 

D'EON, Chevalier. See EON. 

DE PEYSTER. I. Johannes, one of the early 
settlers of New Amsterdam (now New York), 
born in Haarlem, Holland, in the beginning of 
the 17th century, died in New York about 
1685. He was of a French Huguenot family, 
filled several offices under the Dutch govern- 
ment in New Amsterdam, and was one of the 
last to take the oath of allegiance to the 
British crown. He was subsequently at dif- 
ferent times alderman, deputy mayor, and 
mayor. At his death he was one of the 
richest citizens in the colony. II. Abraham, 
eldest son of the preceding, born in New York 
(then New Amsterdam), July 8, 1658, died 
there, Aug. 10, 1728. He was a merchant, 
and amassed considerable wealth. Between 
1G91 and 1695 he was mayor of New York, 
and subsequently became chief justice of the 



DEPOSITION 



DEPTFORD 



27 



province, and president of the king's council, 
in which latter capacity in 1701 he acted as 
colonial governor. He was also colonel of the 
forces of the city and county of New York, 
and treasurer of the provinces of New York 
and New Jersey. He was the intimate friend 
of William Penn, and of the colonial governor, 
the earl of Bellamont. The mansion erected 
by him in Pearl street in 1695, which was at 
one time the headquarters of General Wash- 
ington, remained standing till 1856. HI. Arent 
Schnyler, a loyalist officer, grandson of the pre- 
ceding, born in New York, June 27, 1736, died 
at Dumfries, Scotland, in November, 1832. 
He entered the 8th or king's regiment of^ foot 
in 1755, served in various parts of North 
America under his uncle, Col. Peter Schuyler, 
and commanded at Detroit, Michilimackinac, 
and various places in Upper Canada, during the 
American revolutionary war. It was through 
his eiforts that the Indians were allied with the 
British during the war. Having risen to the 
rank of colonel, and commanded his regiment 
for many years, he retired to Dumfries. He 
was on terms of friendship with Burns, who 
addressed to him one of his fugitive pieces, and 
with whom he once carried on a poetical con- 
troversy in the columns of the " Dumfries Jour- 
nal." At his death he had held the king's com- 
mission upward of 77 years, and was probably 
at the time the oldest officer in the service. IV. 
John Watts, an American military and histor- 
ical writer, born in New York, March 9, 1821. 
He was commissioned as brevet major general 
by the New York legislature, and has published 
" Life of Gen. Torstensen" (1855), "The Dutch 
at the North Pole and the Dutch in Maine" 
(1857), "Early Settlement of Acadia by the 
Dutch" (1858), " The Dutch Battle of the Bal- 
tic" (1858), "History of Carausius" (1858), 
"The Ancient, Mediseval, and Modern Nether- 
landers" (1859), "Winter Campaigns the Test 
of Generalship" (1862), "Practical Strategy" 
(1863), " Secession in Switzerland and the 
United States compared" (1864), and "Deci- 
sive Conflicts of the late Civil War " (1868). 

DEPOSITION, in law, the testimony of a wit- 
ness reduced to writing in due form of law, 
taken by virtue of a commission or other au- 
thority of a competent tribunal. When taken 
by commission, depositions are usually in an- 
swer to questions upon the examination in 
chief, and upon cross-examination, prepared 
and submitted to the court from which the 
commission issues. In other cases they are 
taken by consent of counsel or in due course 
of law, the privilege of cross-examination being 
always preserved, except in some cases where 
depositions of matters within the knowledge 
of persons of great age are allowed to be taken 
for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony, 
and in cases where immediate death by vio- 
lence is expected. This must, when possible, 
be sworn to and signed by the witness. In the 
United States, compulsory process is usually 
allowed to procure this evidence. In ecclesias- 



tical law, deposition is the act of depriving a 
clergyman by a competent tribunal of his cleri- 
cal orders, in punishment of some offence, and 
to prevent his acting in his clerical character. 

DEPPING, Georges Bernard, a miscellaneous 
writer, born at Munster in Westphalia, May 11, 
1784, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 1853. He went to 
Paris in 1803, and during the rest of his life was 
engaged in writing books on a variety of subjects 
and preparing articles for various periodicals 
and cyclopaedias. Among his works were two 
juvenile books which obtained great popularity, 
and were translated into several languages: 
Les soirees deliver, ou entretiens (Tun pere avec 
ses enfants sur le genie, les moeurs et Vindustrie 
des divers peuples de la terre (2 vols., 3d ed., 
1832), and Merveilles et fieautes de la nature 
en France (2 vols., 1835). He assisted Malte- 
Brun in his geographical works, and wrote 
descriptive sketches of Switzerland, Greece, 
England, and other countries. His most im- 
portant historical works are : Histoire generale 
de VEspagne (2 vols., 1811); Histoire des ex- 
peditions maritimes des Normands et de leur 
etablissement en France au dixieme siecle 
(1826) ; Histoire du commerce entre le Levant 
et VEurope, depuis les croisades jusqu 1 a lafon- 
dation des colonies d'Amerique (2 vols., 1832); 
Les Juifs 'dans le moyen age (1834) ; and His- 
toire de la Normandie sous le regne de Guil- 
laume le Conquer ant et de ses successeurs (2 
vols., 1835). Several of these have been trans- 
lated into other languages. He also wrote 
several books of travel, made various transla- 
tions, edited the Romancero castellano and 
other works, contributed to the Biographie 
universelle and the Encyclopedic portative, 
and published an autobiography in German 
entitled Erinnerungen aus dem Leben eines 
Deutschen in Paris. An account of his life 
and works, by Alfred Maury, was published 
in Paris in 1854. 

DEPTFORD, a town and naval arsenal in 
Kent and Surrey, England, on the right bank 
of the Thames, at the mouth of the Ravens- 
bourne, on the Croydon and Greenwich rail- 
ways, and at the junction of the Croydon and 
Surrey canals, 3 m. 8. E. of London bridge, 
and contiguous to Greenwich; pop. about 40,- 
000. It contains a royal naval school incor- 
porated in 1840, and two ancient hospitals for 
decayed pilots and shipmasters or their wid- 
ows. Its principal feature was formerly the 
dockyard, established by Henry VIIL, enclo- 
sing an area of 31 acres, with three slips for 
ships of the line on the river front, two for 
smaller vessels opening into a basin 260 by 220 
ft., and two dry docks, one communicating 
with the basin, and the other, a double dock, 
with the Thames. This famous yard, in which 
Peter the Great worked as a shipwright, and 
near which Queen Elizabeth visited Sir Francis 
Drake on board the Pelican, was closed in 
1869. The victualling yard for the royal navy, 
which adjoins it, is still open, and contains 
sheep and cattle pens, slaughter houses, salting 



DE QUINCEY 



.;., Qta, an < \tciiMvc mill, bakeries, an 

. :i ,i(l cooper shops. There 

..nil private dockyards in tin- town, and 

at, including large 

: ,n.l boiler works. '1'he retail trade is 

. and tin- market gardens are fa- 

Thc workhouse stands on the site of 

Saves court, tin- mansion of John Evelyn, in 

, tin- (ircut resided, and the once 

beautiful grounds are covered in part by the 

victualling yard. 

I)K Qll.VCEY, Thomas, an English author, 
known as the "English Opium Eater," born 
at (ircciihav, a suburb of Manchester, Aug. 15, 
ied in Edinburgh, Dec. 8, 1859. He was 
the fifth child of a merchant who at his death 
k-ft to his family a fortune of 1,600 
. His childhood was chiefly passed in 
rural seclusion, with three sisters for play- 
lie was sent to various schools, and 
early distinguished himself by proficiency in 
(ireek. After vainly entreating his guardian to 
s nd him to the university, he ran away from 
school in 1802, and wandered about the coun- 
try until he reached London, where he suffer- 
ed" terribly from exposure and hunger. Long 
afterward he wrote sketches of his life at this 
pi-rind ; how much of these is true, how much 
fiction, it is impossible to say. According to 
his own. account, he had in vain resorted to a 
Jew for an advance of money on the strength 
of his expectations, when at length an opening 
;ade for reconciliation with his friends; 
and he attended school and visited in different 
parts of England and Ireland till he went to 
Oxford in December, 1803, where he remained 
till 1808. He first resorted to opium on a visit 
don in the autumn of 1804, to dull the 
f rheumatism, and afterward took it ha- 
bitually. He says that for ten years he "lived 
on the earth the life of a demiurgus, and kept 
the keys of par:idi>-." It \\ a> his custom at this 

drink laudanum either on a Tuesday or 
Saturday night once in three weeks. On Tues- 
day night he went to the opera, where in the 
elaborate harmony and scenic display he saw 
unfolded the whole of his past life,' with its 
passions exalted, spiritualized, and sublimed; 
not as if recalled by an act of memory, but as 

nd incarnated in the music. On 

Jit he used to wander tlirouirh the 

l.ond.m, and listen to the consulta- 

: family parties on their ways and mean-, 

- himself familiar with their wi>ln->, dif- 
-, and ..pinions. I,, jsim J K . took the 

!;ich Wordsworth had 
mi, and lived there con-tant- 

ing his associates were Words- 

;it Cra-mere, Southey 

Charles I.h.yd at Brathay, and 

He afterward passed much 

n London, Hath, and Kdinlmr-h 

tiraate fri.-nd in l...nl,n being for 

many v., i; - n,,. celebrated peripatetic known 

wart." He was occupied es- 

th the study of German literature 



and philosophy, made translations from Lessing 
and Richter, and was among the first in Eng- 
land to interpret Kant, Fichte, and Schelling. 
In 1813 an irritation of the stomach, the con- 
sequence of his early sufferings, returned with 
a violence which yielded to no remedies but 
opium. From this time he became a regular 
and confirmed opium eater, taking sometimes 
as much as 320 grains a day. It had been the 
aim of his whole life to construct one single 
work, to which he proposed giving the title 
of an unfinished work of Spinoza, De Emen- 
datione Ilumani Intellectus. The studies of 
many years had laid the foundation, but he 
could not command the efforts to rear the su- 
perstructure. In what he terms his state of 
imbecility he turned his attention for amuse- 
ment to political economy.. He welcomed 
the treatise of Ricardo as the first profound 
work on the subject, and it roused him to an 
activity which enabled him to draw up his 
" Prolegomena to all Future Systems of Polit- 
ical Economy." Yet opium paralyzed his ef- 
forts to complete even that short work. He 
failed to accomplish the preface ; the arrange- 
ments for its publication were countermanded, 
and it first appeared in the "London Maga- 
zine," in 1824, under the title of "Templars' 
Dialogues." It is one of the most thorough 
as well as briefest exhibitions of the Ricardian 
theory of value. After two unsuccessful trials, 
he overcame his besetting habit, though it cost 
him a long and terrible struggle. In 1821 he went 
to London, and, as collaborator in the "London 
Magazine," became at once associated with 
Charles Lamb, Hazlitt, Allan Cunningham, 
Hood, Gary, and other writers. His u Confes- 
sions of an English Opium Eater" appeared in 
that periodical in 1821, and in a volume in 
1822, and immediately obtained for him a 
high reputation. He contributed frequently 
to British periodicals, chiefly to " Blackwood's 
Magazine," " Tait's Edinburgh Magazine," and 
the "North British Review," furnishing auto- 
biographical sketches, literary reminiscences, 
miscellaneous essays, and historical, philosoph- 
ical, and critical discussions. He also furnished 
several articles to the "Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica," including the memoirs of Shakespeare 
and Pope. All his works show a wide range 
of learning and speculation, a delicate and sub- 
tle critical faculty, and a felicitous selection of 
words. He divides them into three classes : 
1, papers whose chief purpose is to interest and 
amuse; 2, speculative, critical, and philosophi- 
cal essays ; 3, prose-poetry. His highest and 
most peculiar merit is in this third class, the 
best examples of which are his "Confessions " 
and "Suspiria de Profundis." In 1843 he re- 
moved to Lasswade, a village about 12 miles 
from Edinburgh. Here he returned to some 
of his earlier studies, and produced a volume 
entitled "The Logic of Political Economy." 
The first collective edition of his works was 
issued in Boston (21 vols., 1851-'9) ; it proba- 
bly included a few things not written by him. 



DERA GHAZEE KHAN 



DERBY 



29 



A selection from this American edition, with 
notes by the author, was commenced in Great 
Britain, of which nine volumes had appeared 
at the time of his death. 

DERA GHAZEE KHAN, a large town of the 
Punjaub, British India, 4 m. from the right 
bank of the Indus, and 40 m. W. by S. of Mool- 
tan; pop. about 25,000, half Hindoos and half 
Mohammedans. It has 125 Hindoo temples 
and 160 mosques, and a bazaar with 1,600 
shops; also manufactories of silk, cotton, and 
mixed fabrics, and coarse cutlery. Being at 
the intersection of two great routes of travel, 
it has considerable trade. 

DERAYEH, or Derbicyeh, a town of Arabia, in 
Nedjed, lat. 24 30' N., Ion. 46 38' E., 385 m. 
E. of Medina. It lies in a fertile and well 
watered valley at the foot of Mount Khur, and 
in the earlier part of this century was famous 
as the capital and stronghold of the Wahabees. 
It was then strongly fortified in the oriental 
style, and contained 40,000 inhabitants, 30 
mosques, and 30 schools. In 1818 it was taken 
and destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha in the war 
for the suppression of the Wahabees. Although 
that sect is again dominant in Nedjed, Dera- 
yeh remains a mass of ruins and its environs 
are uncultivated, as it is considered unlucky to 
rebuild or reinstate a city so completely over- 
thrown; and their seat of government is now 
Riad, about 10 m. S. E. 

DERBEND, or Derbent, a fortified town of Rus- 
sia in Daghestan, on the W. shore of the Caspian 



15' E. ; pop. in 1867, 
Mohammedans, Arme- 




Dcrbcnd. 



sea, lat. 42 3' N., Ion. 48 
15,739, consisting of 

nians, and Jews. The city rises from the 
harbor on the side of a wooded mountain, in 
the form of a quadrangle, and the summit is 
crowned by a citadel. The inhabitants manu- 
facture silk, woollen, and cotton stuffs, and 
cultivate the vine and saffron. It is partly 
covered by walls, now dilapidated, but which 
were formerly of great strength, and also en- 
closed the defile known to the ancients as 
Albanian gates. From the iron gates of 
these walls it has its name, signifying " closed 
gates." Near Derbend commences the famous 
wall which extends westward for nearly 120 
m. through Tabasseran, and formerly served as 
a defence to Persia against the northern barba- 
rians. Its builder is unknown, some having 
attributed it to Alexander, others to Chos- 
roes I. In 728 Derbend was taken from the 
Khazars by the Arabs, and in 1220 by the 
Mongols. In 1589 the Turks captured part 
of the town, but were again expelled. It was 
captured by Russia in 1722, restored to Persia 
in 1735, and taken again in 1795 by the Rus- 
sians, who have kept it since. 

DERBY, a town of New Haven co., Conn., on 
the Housatonic river, at its junction with the 
Naugatuck, 9 m. "W. of New Haven ; pop. in 
1870, 8,020. The Naugatuck and the New 
Haven and Derby railroads intersect here. The 
town has a fine landing on the E. side of the 
Housatonic, just below the junction of the 
Naugatuck, admitting vessels drawing 10 ft. of 
water, and was formerly extensively engaged 
in the West India trade and in ship building. 
It contains the villages of Ansonia and Bir- 
mingham. (8ee ANSONIA, and BIEMINGHAM.) 

DERBY, a parliamentary borough and the 
county town of Derbyshire, England, on the 
Derwent, and on the Midland railway, at its 
junction with several branch lines, 127 m. t>y 
rail N. N. W. of London ; pop. in 1871, 49,793. 
It is the principal depot of the Midland railway 
company, with a station 1,050 ft. long. The 
town hall is a fine building with carvings in re- 
lief and a high clock tower. The church of All 
Saints is a splendid edifice, built in the reign 
of Henry VII. in rich Gothic style. St. Alk- 
muncVs church has a Gothic spire 205 ft. high. 
St. Peter's is the oldest and St. Andrew's the 
newest of the churches. There are 44 places of 
worship, of which 17 belong to the established 
church. There is a philosophical society found- 
ed by Dr. Erasmus Darwin, with a well stocked 
museum, a mechanics' institute, an athenasum, 
an infirmary, a county asylum, and a county 
prison. The free grammar school is one of the 
oldest in England. A fine arboretum of 16 
acres, laid out in 1840 by Loudon, and present- 
ed to the city by Joseph Strutt, is a popular 
resort. There is also a new park of six acres, 
the gift of another citizen. Manufactures are 
carried on to a considerable extent, including 
silk, hosiery, lace, iron and brass work, car- 
riages, harness, shot, and porcelain. The first 






DERBY 



ulk mill in Knglnnd was built here in 1718, 
:ui<l t '- ut ' ttu ' 

toinid in the 

wr.'ii-ht into ornaments. Derby 
gives the title of earl t.. th.- Stanley family. 

IT, I. Cdward Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 

^1 Han 'ii Stanley, a British 

Park. Lancashire, 

March died there, Got, i':{. INI;;). IK- 

was educated at Kti.n aii'l at ( 'hristcliurcli, 
'. ami was di.-tinL'iii-hed at the uni- 
!ii- classical attainuu-iits. iraining 
tlu- pri/e f..r Latin verse in 1819. In Is-Jl he 
1 parliament as member tor Stoekbridge, 
anil MOO took rank ani-iiL- the ablest debaters 
ami most prominent leaders of'the whig oppo- 
to tin- ministry of the earl of Liverpool. 
member for Preston, Lan- 
. in 1 *_><;, ami on March 11, 1827, took 
office a- under s.-.-rrtary for the colonies in 
Canning's administration, whicli office he con- 
tinued to hold in the Goderich cabinet until 
.hit ion in .January, 1828. During the 
three years of the Wellington government he 
! among the prominent orators and 
statesmen in the house of commons. On the 
formation of the reform cabinet of Lord Grey 
'. he was appointed chief secretary for 
In-hind, with a seat in the cabinet. He failed 
lection from Preston, and represented 
the borough of Windsor from 1830 to 1832, 
when he was returned by one of the divisions 
of Lancashire. In tin- great struggle of 1832- 
'3, which resulted in the pa-sage of the reform 
bill, the church temporalities bill, and the bill 
to establish national education in Ireland, Mr. 
took a brilliant and effective part, and 
antagonist ,,f ( )'('<.miell in 
his agitation for a repeal of tin- union. In 1833 
1 the office of chief secretary for 
: for that of secretary of state for the 
-. bring nominated tu this post with the 
i-arrying the abolition of 
st Indies, which was effected 
;-pi<-es. In the following year, 
"f his father to the 'earl- 
dom, he became known by the courtesy title 
"ley, and in the same year retired 
iiiet in ronsnjiience of his non- 
with the ministerial proposition 
ropriate the surplus funds of t 1 

for secular education. 

In t! :nni<tration of Sir Robert 

1*34, to April, 1835), Lord 

' take office, and loi 

1 Melbourne's adminis- 

wers were found voting 

<!ll - v Wltl ' *' ' ; ve opposition as 

52 W6d ' " t- tll!lt r art . v - ' > s -n the 

y ni &* ! Sir Robert IVel 

inet in whirl, Lord Stanley occu- 

etarY. In 1844 

her was still living, he was sum- 
it to the ho,,.,, of lords as Baron 
nd assumed the leader- 
lhl P ot ' rnWTe party in that body 



! When Sir Robert Peel resolved in 1845 to 
adopt a free-trade policy, and remove prohibi- 
tive duties on foreign grain and breadstuff's, 
Lord Stanley left the cabinet and became the 
leader of the protectionist opposition. When, 
in December, 1845, Sir Eobert tendered his 
resignation to the queen, Lord Stanley was in- 
vited by her majesty, at the instance of Lord 
John Russell, to form a protectionist cabinet, 
but he declined. During the six years of Lord 
John Russell's tenure of the premiership, Lord 
Stanley added to his already high fame as an 
orator and a statesman by his course as leader 
of the opposition in the house of lords. His 
speech on the Irish poor laws in 1849, that on 
the affairs of Greece in 1850, and his expla- 
nation of the reasons why he declined the 
premiership in February, 1851, when Lord 
John Russell's ministry were defeated in the 
house of commons on Mr. Locke King's moth 
for an extension of the franchise, are among th< 
most remarkable of his forensic efforts. On 
the death of his father, June 30, 1851, he suc- 
ceeded to the earldom and the vast ancestral 
estates of his family in England and Ireland. 
On Feb. 20, 1852, Lord John Russell having 
sustained another defeat on the militia bill, 
Lord Derby was again called to construct a 
cabinet, and succeeded in performing the task ; 
but failing to obtain the support of parliament 
for his financial measures, he resigned in De- 
cember of the same year. On the fall of the 
coalition ministry of Lord Aberdeen in 1855, 
he refused an invitation to form a new cabi- 
net; hut on the resignation of Lord Palmer- 
ston in 1858, he took the seals once more as 
first lord of the treasury. Being defeated on a 
measure of parliamentary reform, he dissolved 
parliament; but the new house of commons 
passed a vote of want of confidence in June, 
1859, and he was consequently forced to re- 
sign. For seven years he remained out of of- 
fice, and during that period devoted much 
time to the study of the classics. His transla- 
tion of Homer's Iliad in blank verse, published 
in ^1864, is one of the best versions of the great 
epic. He became prime minister a third time 
on the fall of the liberal ministry of Lord Rus- 
sell in June, 1800, and under his administra- 
tion the reform bill of 1867, establishing house- 
hold suffrage, was passed. The new parlia- 
ment, chosen on the issue of the disestablish- 
ment of the church in Ireland, was found to bo 
strongly opposed to the government, and in 
February, 1868, Lord Derby resigned. A statue 
in his honor was erected at Preston in 1878. 
II. Edward Henry Smith-Stanley, 15th earl, son 
of the preceding, born at Knowsley Park, July 
21, 1826. He was educated at Rugby, and at 
Trinity college, Cambridge, where he took a 
first class in classics in 1848. Having been 
unsuccessful as a candidate for parliament from 
Lancashire in March, 1848, he set out on a tour 
of the United States, Canada, and the West In- 
dies, and during his absence was returned from 
Lynn Regis, which he continued to represent 



DERBYSHIRE 

until he succeeded to the peerage. After his 
return in 1850 he made an able speech in the 
house of commons on the condition and admin- 
istration of the sugar colonies. He next made 
a visit to the East, and while in India, in March, 
1852, was appointed under secretary for for- 
eign affairs in his father's first administration. 
In 1853 he submitted a plan for the reform of 
the administration of India, more thorough 
than that contemplated by the existing minis- 
try, and foreshadowing that adopted in 1858. 
Though he was a conspicuous member of the 
conservative party, Lord Palmerston offered 
him a place in the cabinet in 1855, which he 
declined. He became secretary for the colo- 
nies in the second Derby cabinet in 1858, and 
on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough in 
May became president of the board of control, 
with the title of her majesty's commissioner 
for the affairs of India. The transfer of the 
management of Indian affairs from the East 
India company to the officers of the crown was 
effected under his direction, and he became the 
first secretary of state for India. In the third 
administration of Lord Derby, in 1866, he be- 
came secretary of state for foreign affairs, and 
conducted with marked success the negotiations 
for the settlement of the Luxemburg difficulty. 
He went out of office on the accession of Mr. 
Gladstone in December, 1868, and on April 1, 
1869, was installed lord rector of the university 
of Glasgow. On the death of his father in 
October, 1869, he took his seat in the house of 
lords, of which he became one of the most in- 
fluential members. In 1870 he married the 
dowager marchioness of Salisbury, and on Feb. 
20, 1874, resumed the direction of foreign af- 
fairs as a member of Mr. Disraeli's cabinet. 

DERBYSHIRE, a central county of England, 
bordering on Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Lei- 
cestershire, Staffordshire, and Cheshire ; length 
56 m., greatest breadth 34 m. ; area, 1,030 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871, 380,558. Capital, Derby. 
The county is level or moderately hilly, 
abounding in fine scenery, fertile, well culti- 
vated, and rich in minerals. It is watered by 
the Derwent, Trent, Dove, Wye, Erewash, and 
Rother. The S. and E. parts produce wheat, 
barley, and other kinds of grain ; the N. part, 
where the surface is more hilly and the cli- 
mate colder, is occupied chiefly by oat fields 
and pastures. The elevated region called the 
High peak or Derbyshire highlands, consisting 
of a succession of bleak hills, some of which 
rise nearly 2,000 ft. above the sea, interspersed 
with narrow valleys, is famous for its romantic 
scenery. The climate is rather cold and moist, 
thick fogs and even hoar frost not being un- 
common in summer. Dairy husbandry is car- 
ried on in nearly all parts of the county, and 
among the hills small sheep and a breed of 
light, slender horses are reared. Among the 
minerals are coal, iron, lead, zinc, copper, 
gypsum, black and variegated marble, fluor 
spar, small crystals called Derbyshire diamonds, 
chalcedony, jasper, and a few onyxes. The 
259 VOL. vi. 3 



DERG 



31 



coal field covers a large area, and belongs to 
the same great field which extends over part 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire and part of 
Nottinghamshire. Mining is an important in- 
terest, and there are extensive founderies and 
forges in the large towns. The lead mines 
have been worked on lease from time immemo- 
rial, and are the subjects of several very an- 
cient and peculiar laws. The county is trav- 
ersed by a large number of canals and rail- 
ways. The manufactures are important, and 
comprise cotton, silk, calico, cambric, fustian, 
muslin, tape, candle wicks, machinery, agri- 
cultural implements, leather, hats, paper, and 
porcelain. The first cotton mill was built by 
Richard Arkwright at Cromford in 1771, and 
the county was also the cradle of the silk 
and woollen manufactures of the kingdom. 
In the mountain district are numerous tepid 
mineral springs, which are resorted to by in- 
valids, especially those of Buxton and Matlock. 
There are in the county numerous remains of 
the circles and cromlechs of the druids, various 
relics of the Roman domination, such as roads 
and baths, and ruins of many medieval cas- 
tles, abbeys, and monasteries. 

DERBYSHIRE SPAR, a variety of fluor spar 
found in Derbyshire, England, which is dis- 
tinguished by its fine shades of purple, blue, 
red, and yellow. These, together with the 
soundness of the stone, render it well adapted 
for ornamental purposes. The manufacture of 
cups, tables, vases, inkstands, and other ob- 
jects, is extensively carried on in several towns 
of the county, as at Derby, Buxton, Castleton, 
and Bakewell. The stone takes a high polish 
for one so soft ; but the property which ren- 
ders it easy to be worked makes it liable to 
be soon defaced by scratches. It is found near 
Castleton in fissures in the limestone rocks. 

DERFFLINGER, Geoi von (originally DORP- 
LING), a German soldier, born in Bohemia in 
March, 1606, died Feb. 4, 1695. At the age 
of 14 he fought in the Protestant army at the 
battle of Prague, and some ten years later en- 
tered the Swedish army as an officer under Gus- 
tavus Adolphus. His conduct in the Swedish 
victory at Leipsic, 1642, gained him the rank 
of major general. Afterward he entered the 
service of the elector of Brandenburg as 
lieutenant general, and distinguished .himself 
against the Poles, Swedes, and French. In 
1670 he became field marshal, and in 1674 
baron of the German empire ; routed the 
Swedes near Rathenau, June 15, 1675, and at 
Fehrbellin three days afterward, and secured 
the greater portion of Pomerania for the elec- 
tor. In 1678 he was made military governor 
of lower Pomerania ; and in the winter cam- 
paign of 1678-'9 he caused 9,000 soldiers and 
30 guns to cross the ice on sleds as far as Tilsit, 
and routed the Swedes near the latter city. 

DERG, Longh (red lake), a lake in the county 
Donegal, Ireland, about 7 m. E. S. E. of Done- 
gal, 3 m. long, and 2 m. wide at the broadest 
part. It is enclosed on all sides except the 






:IAM 



south "Ten hills from 700 to 1,200 

;-;7 it. above the level of the 

sea, and is 75 ft deep. A multitude of islands 

:' \\ hieh, called Station 

island, aboi.: D extent, contains a cave 

atrick'l I'm-gatory, to which 
10,000 to 16,000 pilgrim! from all parts 
'and resort annually between Juno 1 and 
i lu-y remain on the island, which 
a house for the prints, 
m three to nine days, 
; iriug that time being bivad 
jind water. Saint's isle, which was the ori- 
SL I'atrick's Purgatory, contains 
naiiis of a priory founded in the 7th 
*viitury. There is another Lough Derg, form- 
ing an expansion of the river Shannon be- 
Tippecary and Gal way, about 24 m. 
long and from 2 to 6 m. wide. 

HKKH13I, William, an English divine and 
natural philosopher, born at Stoughton, near 
in November, 1C57, died at Up- 
minster, near London, April 5, 1735. He be- 
r of Upminster in 1689, and canon 
of Windsor in 1716. He contributed largely 
to periodical literature, and edited some of the 
>f Kay the botanist and Hook the natu- 
ral philosopher. As a member of the royal 
he contributed valuable scientific pa- 
pers to its " Transactions." The most impor- 
: his published works are: "The Arti- 
ficial Clockmaker" (4th ed., 1734); "Physico- 
Theology " (16 discourses preached at Boyle's 
. 1718), and "Astro-Theology " (1714), 
designed to prove the existence and attributes 
from an examination of the works of cre- 
and " Christo-Theology " (1730), a ser- 
mon to prove the divine origin of Christianity. 
DKKMESTES, the scientific name of the larder 
It. l.inl.iriut, Fabr.), one of the largest 
and mo*t destructive of museum pests. It is 
about half an inch long, oblong-oval, with short 
.'1 bla.-k. the base of the wing covers 
_rra\M, buff broad band. Slow in its 
movements, it seeks some crevice or feigns 
death when disturbed. The larvae are hairy, 




Z-m "irSSE? '"M? 8 ' *-Anthr*nu 8 . 8. Larva 
of Anthrenua. 4. Pupa of Anthrenus. 

' in Pencil of hairs. The 
= u- family ,,f skin 

eflea, not more i _-hth of an inch 

i with transverse 

- ot invirular spots; the larva is 

ick, with long brW BofoSei! 

beetle, oomiuit their depredations in the larva 



DERVISH 

condition during the summer or latter part of 
spring ; they attack and often completely de- 
stroy natural history specimens of every kind, 
where any animal matter remains. The con- 
stant evaporation of benzine, camphor, creo- 
sote, and turpentine in the museum cases will 
usually keep them out ; specimens thoroughly 
impregnated with carbolic acid, arsenic, or 
corrosive sublimate are safe from their attacks. 
Their presence may be detected by the dust 
which they make falling beneath the specimens. 
The last is the A. muscBorum (Fabr.). 

DEKMODY, Thomas, an Irish poet, born at 
Ennis in 1775, died at Sydenham, near London, 
in 1802. His father was a schoolmaster, and is 
said to have employed him while only in his 
ninth year as his assistant in teaching Latin 
and Greek. He afterward ran away to Dublin, 
enlisted in the army, and served in the expe- 
dition to Holland under the earl of Moira, who 
promoted him to a second lieutenantcy ; but 
by his intemperate habits he lost the favor of 
his patron, and afterward lived some time in 
London, and died in extreme poverty. A 
small volume of poems written by him in his 
13th year appeared in 1792. In 1793 he pub- 
lished a pamphlet on the French revolution, 
to which was appended a poem entitled " The 
Reform." During his residence in London he 
published two volumes of poems, in 1800 and 
1802, and a separate poem, "The Battle of 
the Bards." His life, by J. G. Raymond, was 
published in 1805, and his works, under the 
title of "The Harp of Erin," in 1807, each in 
2 vols. 

DERRICK. See CRANE. 

DKRRY. See LONDONDERRY. 

DERVISH, or Denrise, a Persian word equiva- 
lent to the Arabic fakir, signifying poor, used 
in Mohammedan countries to designate a re- 
ligious class corresponding in some respects to 
the monks of Christendom. There are many 
orders of dervishes, distinguished by peculiari- 
ties of faith, ceremony, and costume. They 
are gathered usually into communities, each 
in charge of a sheikh, and live together in 
monasteries, but many dwell in villages with 
their families. Their discipline professes to be 
very strict, its chief requirements being poverty, 
chastity, and humility. Mendicity is forbidden, 
except in the order of the Bektashis, and their 
monastic rules require them to support them- 
selves by the labor of their hands, though they 
are usually supplied by donations. With the 
exception of the order of the Mevlevis, all are 
allowed to marry and have dwellings outside 
of the convents, but must pass at least two 
nights of each week with their associates. 
Their religious rites consist of mortifications 
of the flesh, prayers, and dancing. Besides 
the fast of the Ramadan, they observe one 
weekly fast from morning till night, and they 
hold religious meetings on Tuesdays and Fri- 
days. They are frequently to be seen in the 
streets haranguing the multitude .and making 
a display of their wisdom and piety, but their 



DERVISH 



DERWENTWATER 



33 



actual practices are often far from consistent 
with their professed standard. Some of them 
lead a vagrant life, and traverse all the coun- 
tries of the East from the Mediterranean to 
the Ganges, being lodged and fed in the con- 
vents of their order ; and they are occasionally 
met in European cities, playing the part of 
jugglers, sorcerers, and mountebanks. They 
wear coarse robes and go bare-legged and with 
the breast uncovered, and the use of intoxi- 
cating liquors and of opium is said to be com- 
mon among them. The most numerous sect 
are the Mevlevis, or whirling dervishes, whose 
principal monastery is at Konieh in Anatolia. 
Their ceremonies consist chiefly of fantastic 
dances, in which they whirl around with great 
rapidity to the sound of a flute, stopping sud- 
denly when the music ceases, or continuing 
until they drop from exhaustion. They do this 
in memory of their founder, Mevlevi Jelal 




Turkish Dervishes. 

ed-Din el-Rumi, the Persian poet, who died 
about 1262. He is said to have turned mirac- 
ulously around for four days without food 
or nourishment, while his companion Hamza 
played the flute. The Rufais, or howling der- 
vishes, sway their bodies backward and for- 
ward until they foam at the mouth and fall to 
the ground, vociferously ejaculating meanwhile 
the name of Allah and incoherent phrases. 
They are distinguished also for self-mortifica- 
tion. Their founder was Sheikh Ahmed Rufai, 
and they date from 1182. The Calenders are 
noticeable for their peculiar dress, which is 
sometimes parti-colored, and sometimes con- 
sists of only a sheepskin about the loins, while 
the upper part of the body is painted fantas- 
tically. There are older orders, but none of 
equal importance, and some that have various 
peculiarities of doctrine. The Munasihis be- 
lieve in the transmigration of souls ; the Esh- 



rakis are given to a kind of poetical mys- 
ticism, seeing divinity in forms, colors, and 
sounds ; and the Hairetis hold opinions almost 
equivalent to those of the ancient Epicureans. 
Religious orders similar to the dervishes are 
traced in the East beyond the Christian era, 
and tradition assigns many of the existing 
brotherhoods to the earliest days of Islam, the 
foundation of some being attributed to the 
caliphs Abubekr and Ali ; but it is doubtful if 
any of them are older than the 9th century. 
The Marabouts among the Mohammedans of 
the Barbary states are similar to the dervishes. 

DERWENT, the name of several rivers of 
England. I. A river of Cumberland, 32 m. 
long, rising in the district of Borrowdale, and 
flowing N. and then S. W. into the Irish sea, 
which it enters near Workington. It forms 
the cataract of Lodore near its head waters, 
and the lake of Der went water near Keswick, 
where it is joined by the Greta; expands into 
Bassenthwaite water at the town of that name, 
and receives the river Cocker at Cockermouth. 
Its banks abound in rich and varied scenery. 
II. A river of Derbyshire, rising in a place 
called "the trough," in the mountains which 
extend along the 1ST. boundary of the county, 
and uniting with the Trent on the borders of 
Leicestershire, after a course of about 50 m. 
Its general course is S. E. It passes Chats- 
worth house and the towns of Matlock, Belper, 
and Derby. Its scenery, particularly in the 
upper part, is beautifully diversified. III. A 
river of Yorkshire, East Riding, rising near 
Harwood dale, flowing nearly S. with many 
windings, and falling into the Ouse at Barmby, 
after a course of about 60 m. It is navigable 
to Malton, 27 m. above its mouth. 

DERWMT, a river of Tasmania, rising near 
the centre of the island in Lake St. Claire, 
flowing S. E. into the district of Norfolk, and 
entering the S. Pacific ocean through an estu- 
ary which separates the districts of Hobart 
Town and Richmond. The estuary is about 4 
m. broad at its entrance, and retains this width 
for a distance of 6 or 8 m. inland. On Iron 
Pot island at its mouth is a lighthouse with a 
fixed light 70 ft. above the sea. 

DERWENTWATER, James Radcliffe, third earl 
of, a leader in the English rebellion of 1715, 
born in 1689, beheaded Feb. 24, 1716. He be- 
longed to an ancient Catholic family in North- 
umberland, was educated at St. Germain, and 
succeeded to the earldom in 1705. He joined 
with other noblemen of the north and west of 
England, toward the end of 1714, in a plot for 
the restoration of the Stuarts. The matter 
coming to the knowledge of the government of 
George L, the habeas corpus act was suspended 
and warrants were issued against the suspected. 
The standard of rebellion having been raised 
in Scotland, Lord Derwentwater commenced 
the movement in England, Oct. 6, 1715. Mr. 
Forster, a Protestant member of parliament 
for Cumberland, was chosen leader, but recruits 
came in slowly, and the plans of the leaders 



34 IKi:ZiIAVIN 

were ill formed and in. Aft-rmarch- 

U) Scotland, and returning without ac- 
"hititf nnvthiiiL'. and skirmishing about 
;U Hand "and Lancashire, they encoun- 
tered the British troops under Gen. Wills at 
Prest' 'r an action in which Der- 

wentwater displayed great bravery, surren- 
dered on a promise that tluir lives should be 
spared. I.ord I>erwentwater was impeached 
and brought to trial in -January, 1716. He 
pleaded guilty, and threw himself on the mercy 
of the crown, alleging hi* youth and inexpe- 
rience as an excuse ; but he was condemned to 
death as a traitor, and notwithstanding great 
tain his pardon was beheaded on 
Tower hill. He died protesting his loyalty to 
James III., and asserting that "dishonorable 
terms had Keen proposed to him as the price 
life, which he had refused to accept." 
was written by Sydney Gibson. 
DKU/tmiV Uvrill Komanoritrh, a Russian 
lyrical poet, born in Kazan in July, 1743, died 
in July, 1816. He was admitted to the gym- 
nasium of Kazan in 1758, and attracted the at- 
tention of the principal, who took him to St. 
Petersburg. He entered the cavalry, where 
he distinguished himself, and subsequently the 
civil service, and was successively governor 
of Olonetz and Tambov. In 1791 Catharine 
II. appointed him secretary of state, and a 
few years later president of the college of 
commerce. On Paul's accession to the throne 
he was placed at the head of the council of 
In 1800 he was imperial treasurer, 
and in 1802 minister of justice. His princi- 
pal poems are the odes on the birth of the em- 
peror Alexander, against irreligion, on the 
new year 1781, to God, and on God's majesty. 
Many of them abound with beautiful moral sen- 
* and expressions, especially his ode to 
God, which was not only translated into seve- 
ral European languages, but also into Chinese 
and Japanese. It is said to have been hung up 
palace of the emperor of China, printed 
in gold letters on white satin ; and, according 
to Golovnin's account, it was placed in the 
same manner in the temple of Yedo. His com- 
plete works are in 5 vols. 8vo (St. Petersburg, 
1810 '16). 

DESiGlADEBO (Span., drain). I. A naviga- 
ble river of Bolivia, the outlet of Lake Titicaca 
1 180 m. S. S. E. through the plain named 
from it, with a descent of about 490 ft., into 
Lake Aullagas, which has no outlet. Its 
dth vanes f r . yards, and it is quite 

The current is very slow. Near Lake 
J a bridge built by the 
Ifth mca of Peru for the passage of his army. 
i immense inter-alpine plain comprised 
- Cordilleras Oriental and Occi- 
i-liv.an Audi-, about one third 
Miainder in Bolivia 400m 
J on ai >m.wHe, Bare in. the 

was, the population is nminly made up of the 
JOT Ws and the Ay lli; ,ras. From 
U elevation, which averages 13,340 ft. above 



DESAIX DE VEYGOUX 

the level of the sea, its extent, and the num- 
ber and height of the snow-capped peaks by 
which it is surrounded, it has been called the 
Thibet of South America. The main element 
in the formation of the more elevated portions 
is trachytic conglomerates in various stages of 
decomposition, especially in the northern parts, 
which are intersected by isolated hills and low 
mountain ranges. Corocoro to the north was 
long celebrated for its rich silver mines ; and 
both silver and gold have been found in va- 
rious localities, more particularly in the region 
contiguous to the Nevada de Illimam, from 
the base of which a large block of native gold 
was detached by lightning. The mass was 
afterward sold at an enormous price, and de- 
posited in the museum of natural history at 
Madrid. The tin mines of Oruro are among 
the richest in the world ; copper is said to be 
as plentiful in the mountain country as silver 
has been in the Cerro de Potosi ; and many 
other minerals are likewise abundant; but, 
owing to the difficulty of transportation, these 
sources of wealth still lie unexplored. Of sev- 
eral thermal springs, those named Urimiri and 
Mochacamarca are the best known. Notwith- 
standing the intertropical situation of the yal- 
ley, its elevation gives it a mild and salubrious 
climate. The year is divided into two sea- 
sons : summer, from November to April ; and 
winter, from May to October. During the for- 
mer, which is the wet season, almost every day 
brings rain, and the nights are often chilly, 
with occasional frost; but during the winter 
snow and rain are never seen, except at the 
commencement and end. Not a tree is to be 
seen. The lower districts are clothed with a 
beautiful green turf, and in the valleys grows 
a coarse grass affording excellent pasture. 
Although the plain is well watered by the 
great Lake Titicaca, Lake Aullagas, the river 
Desaguadero connecting these lakes, another 
smaller lake, and many minor streams, the 
cereals do not attain maturity. Potatoes are 
plenty and grow wild ; and the quinoa (chenopo- 
dium quinoa), often used as a substitute for 
the potato, is sedulously cultivated. The banks 
of Lake Titicaca have a luxuriant growth of 
rushes useful to the Indians for making huts, 
mats, boats, and other commodities. Remarka- 
ble among the fauna of the plain are the guanaco 
and the allied genera of alpacas, llamas, and 
vicunas, all of which roam in numbers in every 
direction, yielding abundant fleeces of precious 
wool. Numerous herds of cattle graze along 
the banks of the rivers ; horses, asses, and mules 
are very plentiful ; and there are two rodents, 
a species of hare, and the viscacha, whose 
burrowings render travel on horseback dan- 
gerous in many localities. Some delicious fish 
are taken in the lakes and rivers. Of the 
towns, which are few and small, Oruro is the 
most important. 

WESAIX DE VEYGOFX, Louis Charles Antoine, a 
French general, born at St. Hilaire d'Ayat in 
Auvergne, Aug. 17, 17G8, killed at Marengo, 



DESAIX 

June 14, 1800. He was educated at the mili- 
tary school of Effiat, where he remained seven 
years, leaving at the age of 15 to enter the 
regiment of Brittany under the name of the 
chevalier de Veygoux. He continued to be a 
diligent student in the garrisons of Briancon 
and Huningue. At the breaking out of the 
revolution he became the aide-de-camp of 
Prince Victor de Broglie in the army of the 
Rhine. He favored the principles of the revo- 
lutionists, but deprecated their violent acts, and 
having signed a protest against the decree of 
Aug. 10, 1792, by which the legislative assem- 
bly suspended the authority of the king, he was 
cashiered and imprisoned for two months, but 
was reinstated by Carnot. All through the 
reign of terror his head was in peril on account 
of his aristocratic connections. His mother 
and sister were sent to prison by the commit- 
tee of public safety, but he escaped with a 
second brief suspension from the service. He 
was restored at the intercession of Pichegru, 
under whom he served with distinction, and 
of Saint- Just, and was employed in 1796 in de- 
fending the Alsatian frontier against the Aus- 
trians. When Moreau took command of the 
army of the Rhine, Desaix became his lieu- 
tenant as commander of a division, and took an 
important part in the campaign in Bavaria and 
the famous retreat with which it closed. On 
the return of the army to the Rhine, Desaix 
defended the fort of Kehl ; and notwithstand- 
ing its dilapidated condition, he held it two 
months against the repeated efforts of the 
archduke Charles, and finally concluded a 
highly honorable capitulation. The next year 
he again led the army across the Rhine, an 
operation in which he showed consummate 
skill. After passing some months at Strasburg, 
recovering from a severe wound, he was sent 
at his own request on a mission to Bonaparte 
in Italy. On the formation of the army for the 
invasion of England he was made chief of staff 
to Bonaparte, who was to be its commander. 
In the expedition to Egypt he received the 
command of a division, and after the storming 
of Alexandria marched to Cairo with the van- 
guard. He took part in the battle of the pyra- 
mids, and being ordered to pursue Murad Bey, 
defeated him in several encounters, drove him 
into Nubia, and conquered the whole of Upper 
Egypt in eight months. Here he established a 
regular government, and inspired the Egyptians 
with such esteem that they called him "the 
just sultan." When Bonaparte embarked from 
Egypt, he sent Desaix a sword with the inscrip- 
tion, Conquete de la haute figypte, and ordered 
him to return home in the following November. 
He arrived at Toulon May 3, 1800, and hastened 
to join Bonaparte in Italy, where he arrived 
June 11, and was put in command of a division, 
with orders to prevent the army which had 
just taken Genoa from joining that under Me- 
las at Alessandria. He was at some distance 
from the main army on the morning of June 14, 
but on hearing the artillery hastily returned, 



DESAULT 



35 



and arrived in time to change the nearly lost 
battle of Marengo to a complete victory. He 
was shot through the heart as he was entering 
the action. Bonaparte had a medal struck in 
his honor, and decreed that a statue should be 
erected to his memory in the place des mctoires 
at Paris, and that his grave should be placed 
on the summit of the Alps, under the care of 
the monks of St. Bernard. 

DESAUGIERS, Marc Antoine Madeleine, a French 
songwriter and dramatist, born at Frejus, Nov. 
17, 1772, died in Paris, Aug. 9, 1827. At the 
age of 17 he produced a successful one-act 
comedy in verse. During the revolution he 
went to Santo Domingo, where his sister had 
married a planter ; and when the insurrection 
of the blacks broke out, he barely escaped with 
his life to the United States, where he earned 
a living by teaching music. He returned to 
France in 1797, and wrote songs and light 
comedies. Some of his plays, such as Les pe- 
tites Dana'ides, La chatte merveilleuse, and M. 
Vautour, had an unprecedented success ; while 
his songs were more popular than those of any 
other writer except Beranger. 

DESAULT, Pierre Joseph, a French surgeon, 
born at Magny-Vernais, a village of Franche- 
Comte, in 1744, died in Paris, June 1, 1795. 
He commenced his education for the church in 
a Jesuit school, but exhibiting a strong inclina- 
tion for surgery, he was permitted to acquire 
the rudiments of the art from the barber-sur- 
geon of his native village. He was then sent 
to. the military hospital at Belfort, where he re- 
mained three years, giving special attention to 
gunshot and sword wounds. While here he 
translated Borelli's treatise De Motu Anima- 
lium, adding notes and illustrations. In 1764 
he went to Paris, and availed himself of the fa- 
cilities for dissection with such success that he 
soon opened a very popular school of anatomy. 
In 1776 he became a member of the college of 
surgery. Thereafter he made rapid progress, 
becoming successively chief surgeon to the hos- 
pital of the college, consulting surgeon to that 
of St. Sulpice, chief surgeon to La Charite, 
and finally to the Hotel-Dieu, with the repu- 
tation of being the most skilful operator in 
France. In connection with the H6tel-Dieu 
he instituted a clinical class which attracted 
many students. The most important cases that 
came before the class were reported in a serial, 
entitled Journal de CMrurgie, edited by the 
pupils. In the revolution he was arrested 
while lecturing, May 28, 1793, and carried to 
the Luxembourg, from which he was liberated 
at the end of three days. On the establish- 1 
ment of the school of health he was appointed 
clinical professor for external diseases. While 
attending the dauphin, then a prisoner in the 
Temple, he was seized with illness, which al- 
most immediately terminated in delirium and 
death. The rumor of the time asserted that he 
was poisoned because he refused to lend him- 
self to the murder of his patient. An autopsy 
showing no trace of poison, his death was set 






B ABBES 



The republic pensioned 

trodnced iiunu-rniis improvr- 

in-trunients and their use, 

Iv for the treatment of fractures and 

[n conjunction with his 

.-t. IK- wrote the Traitt des mala- 

1 vols. 8vo, 1780), which has 

ted into English by Truml.ull. Hia 

\J* were published by Bichat 

(8 vols. 8vo, 179* 

in s IS \KKKS, Joseph Frederick Walkt, an Eng- 
lish soldier and hydrographer, born in 1722, 
( )ct. 24, 1824. He was 
!,-.! from a Kn rich family which emi- 
to England after the revocation of the 
luating from the royal 
military college at Woolwich, ho embarked 
h, 1 7.V., as lieutenant in the 60th regi- 
ment of foot, for America. Having raised more 
"> recruits in Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, lie formed them into a corps of field ar- 
tillery, which ho commanded until the arrival 
of one of the battalions of the royal train from 
!. In 1757 he commanded a detach- 
f volunteers against the Indians, who 
had committed depredations in the neighbor- 
hood of Schenectady and other frontier towns, 
and not only defeated them, but won them 
tin- assistance of the English. In 1758 
he was engaged in the expedition against Louis- 
burfr, where he did good service; and after the 
capitulation he drewnp a chart of the St. Law- 
which was useful in the campaign of the 
next year. At the siege of Quebec he was 
-camp to Gen. Wolfe, and was making 
his report when that hero received his mortal 
wound, and fell dying in his arms. In 1760 
and subsequently he conducted the operations 
for the defence of Quebec and the other places 
admired by the British, as well as those for 
the reduction of Fort Jacques Cartier and 
that still held out, thus completing the 
st of Canada. He was afterward or- 
<lere.| to Nova Scotia to assist Gen. Bastide in 
tracing designs and making estimates of the ex- 
pense for fortifying the harbor of Halifax, and 
_' its dockyard. In 1762 he served as 
r and quartermaster general 
in the expedition for retaking Newfoundland, 
and revived public thanks for his service in 
the recovery of that island. After making sur- 
veys of some of its principal harbors, he was 
Vnrk, to proceed on recon- 
noitring excursion- and report observations on 
i; .-!,in- a chain of mili- 
roiiL'hout the British colonies. In 
;\vd instructions to em- 
' in on tli.- survey of the coast of Nova 
in which he was <-nt:a<rcd till 1773. 
' charts of the coast of North 
'1 in carrying on 
n revolutionary war hein^ severely 
frlf - ] - ''' t<> adapt the surveys of 

Hollar; ':rn. and others to nautical 

he t.uhlUhrd in 1777 under 
the title of "The Atlantic fopfeme," in two 



DESCARTES 

large folio volumes. In 1784 he was appointed 
governor of the island of Cape Breton, and 
military commander of that and of Prince Ed- 
ward island ; and soon afterward he commenced 
building the town of Sydney, and opened and 
worked the valuable coal fields at the entrance 
of the river. In 1804 he was appointed lieu- 
tenant governor and commander-in-chief of 
Prince Edward island, being then in his 82d 
year. In person he was short, and at the age 
of 95 lithe and active. He was Capt. Cook's 
teacher in navigation. 

DESCARTES, Rene (Lat. RENATFB CABTESIUS), 
a French philosopher, bora at La Haye, Tou- 
raine, March 31, 1596, died in Stockholm, Feb. 
11, 1650. He was the youngest son of a coun- 
cillor of the parliament of Rennes, of an an- 
cient and noble family, and early in life evinced 
such a disposition to inquire into the nature 
and causes of things, that he was called the 
young philosopher. His education was con- 
ducted in the Jesuit college of La Fleche, 
where he made rapid progress in the Greek 
and Latin classics, and the other ordinary studies 
of such an institution. He contracted also while 
there a friendship with Mersenne, which lasted 
until the end of his life ; and though Mersenne 
became a monk, it was chiefly through him 
that Descartes communicated, from his pro- 
found scholastic retirement, with the outside 
learned world. After leaving college, in his 
16th year, he occupied himself in preparing 
for the military life to which he was destined 
by the wishes of his family and the spirit of 
the times. But his health being delicate, he 
was sent to Paris with a tutor, to pass two 
years in the further prosecution of his studies. 
In 1616 he joined the army of Maurice of 
Nassau, and while in garrison at Breda com- 
posed his Compendium Musicce, which seemed 
a prelude to the research for harmony which 
he was soon about to carry into all the realms 
of knowledge. He was driven to it, doubtless, 
by the painful uncertainty and chaotic con- 
fusion which reigned in nearly all the depart- 
ments of human inquiry. He was troubled by 
the doubts of his epoch, but he shared also in 
its grand hopes. In 1619 he left the Dutch 
army, and entered as a volunteer the service of 
Maximilian of Bavaria, the head of the Catholic 
league ; he was present at the battle of Prague 
in 1620, and made with the imperialists the 
campaign of Hungary in 1621. The atrocities 
which he witnessed in this war are said to 
have been the occasion of his resigning his 
commission. After visiting the greater part 
of the north of Europe, he returned to France, 
sold his estates, and speedily resumed his jour- 
neys. He spent some time in Switzerland and 
Italy, being present at Rome during the jubilee 
of 1625, and wherever he went observing the 
phenomena of nature, and perfecting himself 
in the acquisition of knowledge. At Neuburg, 
on the Danube, where he passed the winter, 
the plan of devoting the remainder of his days 
to the reconstruction of the principles of hu- 






DESCARTES 



37 



man knowledge, which had long been maturing 
in his mind, took a definite shape. While he 
wandered from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, 
he was digesting the outlines of the great dis- 
coveries in geometry and method, destined soon 
to change the intellectual currents of the world. 
Going first to Paris, where he moved about from 
one obscure house to another to escape the in- 
trusion of friends, he next settled in the neigh- 
boring country, and finally fixed his retreat in 
Holland. Emancipated from all social ties and 
relations, his life became that of an ascetic. In 
1633 he made a brief visit to England, and the 
following year to Amsterdam; and he con- 
stantly, through the mediation of Mersenne, 
maintained an active correspondence with the 
learned men who sought his instruction or 
his friendship. In 1637 he began a more open 
career by the publication of a volume entitled 
Discours de la methode, which contained trea- 
tises on method, on dioptrics, on meteors, 
and on geometry. The first of these, besides 
an admirable picture of his life and of the 
progress of his studies, furnished a clear out- 
line of a new science of metaphysics, only 
expanded in his later and larger works. In 
1641 he published in Latin Meditationes de 
Prima Philosophies, which carried his specu- 
lations into abstruse questions as to the exist- 
ence of God and the immortality of the soul. 
He invited criticisms of these, which in later 
editions are arranged and replied to under sev- 
en heads, wherein he considers all the objec- 
tions raised to his original system. These 
works filled Europe with his name, and at the 
close of 1641 he was invited to France by Louis 
XIII., but he refused to quit his retirement. 
In 1644 appeared Principia Philosophic, which 
three years later was translated into French by 
Claude Picot. He then went to France, where 
a pension of 3,000 livres a year was conferred 
upon him ; but as Queen Christina of Sweden 
invited him to Stockholm, at the same time ap- 
)inting him director of an academy which 
le proposed to establish, at a salary of 3,000 
'owns a year, he was induced once more to 
ibandon his native country. The rigors of the 
limate, combined with the early hours exacted 
the queen, in an eccentric wish to take les- 
)ns from him, led to his death in less than 
ro years. He was buried at Stockholm ; but 
16 years afterward Louis XIV. caused his re- 
lains to be disinterred and carried to France, 
rhere he was entombed in the church of Ste. 
renevieve du Mont. Descartes created an 
epoch in the history of the human mind, and 
should be classed with men like Plato, Aris- 
totle, Bacon, Newton, and Kant. With Bacon, 
he was one of the founders of modern philoso- 
phy, but he pushed his inquiries further than 
Bacon in many respects, and in a somewhat dif- 
ferent sphere. What the latter accomplished 
for natural science, Descartes accomplished for 
moral and metaphysical. As a metaphysician, 
he was the fountain head of the speculation of 
a whole subsequent century, while he added to 



his glory in that sphere the scarcely inferior 
distinction of a great discoverer in mathema- 
tics, and of an earnest laborer in nearly all the 
domains of physical science then known. Not 
wholly exempt from the errors of his day, he 
was yet immeasurably in advance of his day ; 
while he enjoys this singular eminence among 
philosophers, that his expression is as clear and 
beautiful as his thought is great. French style 
appears nowhere more simple and direct than 
in the varied dissertations of Descartes, even 
when he treats of subjects the most recondite 
and difficult. It was owing to this admirable 
clearness, perhaps, as much as to the more 
essential merits of his system, that it was said 
at the time of Descartes's death that everybody 
in England and France, who thought at all, 
thought Cartesianism. The fundamental prin- 
ciples of the philosophy of Descartes relate to 
his method, which takes its point of departure 
in universal doubt, and places the criterion of 
all certitude in evidence, or in other words, in 
reason, as the sovereign judge of the true and 
the false ; to the erection of the individual con- 
sciousness into the fundamental ground and 
source of all correct philosophy (Cogito, ergo 
sum) ; to the radical distinction which is drawn 
between the soul and the body, the essential 
attribute of the former being thought, and that 
of the latter extension ; to the demonstration 
of the existence of God from the very idea of 
the infinite ; to the division of ideas into those 
which are innate, those which are factitious, 
or created by us, and those which are adven- 
titious, or come from without by means of the 
senses ; to the definition of substance, as that 
which so exists as to need nothing else for its 
existence, and which is applicable in the high- 
est sense only to God, who has his ground in 
himself, but only relatively to the thinking and 
corporeal substances, which need the coopera- 
tion of God to their existence; and to the 
affirmation that the universe depends upon the 
productive power, not only for its first exist- 
ence, but for its continued being and opera- 
tion, or in other words, that conservation is 
perpetual creation. Other points in this phi- 
losophy are important, and other aspects of it 
are to be regarded by the student ; but for the 
popular reader these chiefly deserve attention, 
because these were characteristic and creative, 
and furnished the themes for the greater part 
of the agitated discussions of later years. From 
his theory of doubt, except upon evidence, for 
instance, the philosophy of the 17th century, and 
the whole of modern philosophy in fact, derived 
that disdain for the authority which formerly 
fettered the free movements of the mind, and 
that reliance upon reason, which Arnauld, Male- 
branche, Pascal, Bossuet, F6nelon, and others 
appealed to so effectively. The vivid determi- 
nation of the consciousness, or the ME, as the 
proper object of metaphysical investigation, 
was the starting point of those great systems 
of thought, both Scotch and German, which 
are such remarkable phenomena in the history 



33 DKSCARTES 

of intellectual development. It is also easy to 
, his doctrine of substance the pauthe- 
..etilations .f Spino/a, Kirhte, and He- 
irel hi short, tlu- MhfllMf of Geulincx, Leib- 
folt, Kant, ami perhaps of Swcdenborg, 
an- all more >r K->s directly affiliated to the 
great leading idea- .f the French thinker. As 
u who!. B, it is not surprising that his 

produced an instant and vivid sensa- 
tion. The scholastics were astonished by an 
assault at once so radical and so vital; the 
a skepticism more searching than 
rising into the most solid religious faith ; 
while the 'independent men of science, who 
had Ion- been struggling against the methods 
of the old dialectics, received with joy a doc- 
trine which seemed to place their researches 
on an immovable foundation, and to promise 
to crown them with the richest fruits of prog- 
ress. For a while Descartes threatened to 
succeed to the place of absolute dictation 
and mastery which had been so long assigned 
to Ari>totle. His influence passed from the 
dorter and the study to popular literature ; all 
the great writers of the age of Louis XIV. 
were tinctured by it; but just as it appeared 
to have attained a universal acceptation, it 
began as rapidly to fade and shrink. The rea- 
sons of this decline are to be found partly in 
the growth of Locke's sensational philosophy; 
partly in the demonstrated impotence of Des- 
cartes's principles to resolve many of the high- 
er problems to which he aspired ; but chiefly 
in the discoveries of Newton and the progress 
of physics, which discredited his physical 
theories, and therefore brought his metaphys- 
ical conclusions into distrust. The theory of 
vortices, by which he endeavored to explain 
the movements of the heavenly bodies, gave 
place to the simpler theory of Newton as to a 
law of universal gravitation ; but science has 
not ceased to confess its obligations to Des- 
:r his important discoveries as to the 
application of algebra to geometry, his contri- 
butions to dioptrics, to mechanics, and to hy- 
drostatics, and for that fearless spirit of inves- 
tigation which, if it led him into mistakes, en- 
al'led him also to anticipate many truths as- 
cribed to a later period. After the death of 

n addition to the works already 
mentioned, were published Le monde de Des- 

1 ft it;- d,' l,i liimiere (12mo, Paris, 
1664) ; Le traite de Vhomme et de la formation 

", Paris, 1664) ; and Le* lettres de 

Dmart* CJ vols. 4to, 1657-'67). The 

principal complete editions of his writings are: 

Opera Omnia (8 vols., Amsterdam, 1670-'83); 

pletet de Descartes (9 vols., Paris, 
<E>irr> n cniufdctes de Descartes, by Vic- 
i-in (11 vols., 1824-'6), which is per- 
haps the III.I.M peri'.-i-t edition; and (Euvre* 
//A/y'"* ,/, I>,*r,irt,* (is:{5), by Gar- 
ni-r, who added a life and a thorough analysis 
of all his writing-. The dissertations on his 
philosophy are almost without number, but 

-t useful or curious are comprised 



DESCENT 

in the following list : Eecueil de pieces curi- 
euses concernant la philosophic de Descartes, 
published by Bayle (Amsterdam, 1684) ; Mi- 
moires pour servir d Vhistoire du Cartesia- 
nisme, by Huet (Paris, 1693); Memoires sur 
la persecution du Cartesianisme, by Cousin 
(Paris, 1838) ; Histoire et critique de la revo- 
lution cartesienne, by M. Francisque Bouillier 
(2 vols., Paris, 1842); and Le Cartesianisme, 
ou la veritable renovation des sciences, by Bor- 
dau-Demoulin (2 vols., Paris, 1843). Of late 
years the study of Descartes has revived among 
the French philosophers. See Damiron's Essai 
sur Vhistoire de la philosophic en France au 
XIX e siecle (1828) and Essai sur Vhistoire de 
la philosophie au XVI* siecle (1846) ; Bouil- 
lier's Histoire de la philosophie cartesienne 
(2 vols., 1854; 2d ed., 1867) ; and Millet's Des- 
cartes, sa vie, &c. (1867). 

DESCENT, in law, the transmission of an 
estate in lands by operation of law, upon the 
decease of a proprietor, without any disposi- 
tion thereof having been made by him. The 
term is derived from a principle existing until 
very recently in the English law, that an in- 
heritance could never lineally ascend, yet upon 
failure of lineal descendants it could ascend 
collaterally. Thus the father could not be the 
heir of his son, but the uncle could inherit 
from the nephew. There was therefore an 
inaptness in the expression even as used in the 
common law doctrine of inheritance, and still 
greater incongruity in American law, .which 
allows a lineal ascent from the son to the 
father. Succession is the more appropriate 
phrase in the Koman law, and from that 
adopted in the French and other modern 
systems. Gibbon has well remarked that the 
Roman law of hereditary succession " deviated 
less from the equality of nature than the Jew- 
ish, Athenian, or English institutions." The 
oldest son of a Hebrew inherited a double por- 
tion. By the Athenian law the sons inherited 
jointly, but the daughters were wholly de- 
pendent upon what provision their brothers 
might choose to give them by way of marriage 
portion. The English law of primogeniture 
gives, not a larger portion, but the whole, to 
the eldest son ; and in various other respects 
which will be presently referred to, the natural 
order of equity is singularly disregarded in the 
law of descent. On the other hand, by the 
Roman law, when a man died intestate, all his 
children, both sons and daughters, inherited 
alike ; and in case of the decease of either, the 
descendants of the decedent would take such 
share as would have belonged to him or her. 
The distinction of agnates and cognates was 
indeed introduced at an early period, whereby 
the descendants of females, who were called 
cognates, were excluded ; but by imperial con- 
stitutions they were restored to the right 
of succession, with a diminution of a third in 
favor of the agnates, that is, descendants of 
males, and even this discrimination was abro- 
gated by Justinian. On failure of lineal de- 



DESCENT 



39 



scendants, the father and mother or other lineal 
ascendants were admitted. Such was the rule 
as to lineal succession. In respect to col- 
lateral inheritance, by the law of the twelve 
tables, agnates, whether male or female, were 
admitted alike, but by the latter law all fe- 
males of collateral kindred were excluded ; 
the hardship of the rule was in some measure 
relieved by the praetor, who gave to females 
thus excluded a share of the personal estate. 
Justinian restored the right of succession as 
it had originally existed. Descendants of fe- 
males of the collateral kindred were still, how- 
ever, left unprovided for. Thus, though a sis- 
ter could inherit from her brother, yet her 
children could not ; but the reverse of the 
rule did not hold, for there was no correspond- 
ing disability in the brother to inherit from 
the children of his sister. The rule of col- 
lateral succession was that the nearest agnate 
(or all the agnates of the same degree) took the 
whole estate. The mode of estimating the 
degree of consanguinity by the Roman law 
was to take the entire number of intermediate 
persons in the ascending and descending scale 
between the parties whose relationship was 
in question ; thus, first cousins would be re- 
lated in the fourth degree, being each two 
removes from the common ancestor. But by 
the canon law, which has been taken as the 
basis of the English rule of descent, the con- 
sanguinity is measured by the number of de- 
grees between the more remote of the two 
persons and the common ancestor, which in 
the case of cousins would be two degrees ; and 
it would be the same between uncle and 
nephew. The rules of descent by the common 
law of England are exceedingly artificial, being 
derived chiefly from the old feudal system, and 
~)y usage become fixed, though the reasons that 
irst gave rise to them have long ceased to exist, 
^"he principal of these rules are as follows : 1. 
Che estate descends lineally to the oldest son, 
the exclusion of all others ; or if he is de- 
d, then to his descendants, male or female, 
lowing the same rule of preference in all 
>ects as prescribed in this and the following 
2. In case of the decease of the oldest 
m without issue, then to the next oldest and 
descendants, and so to the last of the males. 
In case of failure of male issue, then to the 
ughters, who, contrary to the order prescrib- 
in the preceding rules, do not take succes- 
ively, but become seized jointly of a peculiar 
state called coparceny, each coparcener having 
absolute undivided interest, which she may 
)nvey, or which on her decease will descend 
her heirs. 4. Failing all lineal descendants, 
e estate does not ascend lineally (that is to 
iv, to the father or grandfather, who by the 
common law are incapacitated to take directly 
from the son or grandson, though they may 
indirectly through collateral heirs), but to the 
nearest collateral kindred, still following the 
preference of males to females, and, of the males 
of the same degree, the oldest having the ex- 



clusive right. Thus the oldest brother and his 
descendants will take ; failing whom, the next 
brother and his descendants ; or in default of 
brothers, then all the sisters in coparceny 
but if there be no brothers or sisters, then the 
kindred of next degree will succeed, subject 
to the same rules of preference. 5. In respect 
to collateral succession, several other rules ap- 
ply, (a.) The heir must be not only the near- 
est of kin of the person last seized, but must be 
of the whole blood, that is to say, must be de- 
scended from the same two ancestors, male and 
female ; as, if A and B are brothers having the 
same father but not the same mother, if an 
estate descends to A from the father and he 
dies, B shall not inherit from him, although if 
A had died before the father B would have 
been the heir of the father. So far was this 
exclusion carried by the common law, that a 
sister of the whole blood would take in prefer- 
ence to a brother of the half blood, and the 
estate would even escheat rather than it should 
descend to the latter ; and the same rule pre- 
vailed in respect to more remote collateral rel- 
atives. (5.) It is also necessary, in order to 
inherit collaterally, to be of the blood of the 
first purchaser, that is to say, of the person who 
first acquired the estate ; as, if A purchase land 
and it descends through several generations to 
B, who dies without issue, no collateral relative 
of B can take the estate unless he is also of the 
blood of A, from whom it originally came, (c.) 
Kindred on the side of male ancestors, however 
remote, are preferred to kindred descended 
from females, however near, unless the estate 
descended from a female, in which case the 
kindred of such female can alone inherit. Thus 
the relatives on the father's side are preferred 
to the mother's, and on the grandfather's to the 
grandmother's, and so in all the degrees of ances- 
try, (d.) In computing degrees of consanguin- 
ity, the rule of the canon law is adopted as be- 
fore mentioned, whereby the relationship to the 
common ancestor is alone considered. Accord- 
ing to this rule, brothers are related in the first 
degree, cousins in the second ; but as this would 
often make a different degree of relationship be- 
tween the same parties, according as it was com- 
puted from one or the other to the common an- 
cestor, it was found necessary to adopt a further 
rule, that the consanguinity of each to the other 
was to be determined by that of the most re- 
mote from the common ancestor. Again, there 
might sometimes be different sets of kindred in 
the same degree of relationship by referring to 
different ancestors, as a nephew is in the same 
degree as an uncle, the common ancestor of the 
one being the father, of the other the grand- 
father ; in such a case, another rule intervenes, 
viz. : that the relative representing the nearest 
ancestor shall take priority, according to which 
the nephew would inherit before the uncle. 
Several important changes have been made in 
the law of descent by statute 3 and 4 William 
IV., c. 106 (1833), the principal of which are : 
1. That a lineal ancestor is permitted to inherit, 



DESCKM 



DESERTER 



and takes ]>r >f a collateral heir ; thus 

to the brother or sister. 
. >f t he half blood are relieved from 
disability t<> inherit, and succeed next after rel 
the same degree of the whole blood. 
8. Several provisions are made for the determi- 
D of the question who was the purchaser 
\ lioin I iy the rules of common law the 
to l.e traceil. The person last en- 
titled mod a purchaser, unless it be 
shown that he took by inheritance, and so of 
any preceding ancestor. In the case of a devise 
by a man to his heir, such heir shall be deemed 
< taken by the devise and not by descent, 
and is to be regarded as a purchaser. When 
land is purchased under a limitation to the heirs 
of a particular ancestor, such ancestor is deemed 
the purchaser. From this summary of the Eng- 
li>h la\v of descent, which gives only the gen- 
eral rules without noticing certain exceptions 
which are said to exist by ancient usage in some 
places, it is apparent that the basis of the system 
was a condition of society no longer existing. 
The theory of seeking for a single male heir 
to the e.\cln-ion of all others belongs to the 
turbulent period when a military head of a 
family was needed, and all the other members 
.f the family found shelter in a common man- 
sion, under the protection of an organized do- 
mestic force. The perpetuation of the rule, in 
a period of private immunity from violence, 
can serve no other purpose than to keep to- 
gether the estates of great land proprietors. 
This may !.,- essential for maintaining the re- 
spectability of the titles of nobility, but is in- 
applicable to all other proprietors ; and more- 
m-or. personal property, which was compara- 
thely unnoticed by the feudal law, but which 
oino a large portion of the wealth of 
th- kingdom, is distributed by another rule, 
conforming to the equitable principle of the 
civil law. The retention of this part of the 
old feudal law is therefore mainly attributable 
prejudice in favor of ancient usage 
which has always been characteristic of the 
.The law of descent in the United 
States is bused upon the English statute (22 
and 23 Charles II.) for the distribution of the 
personal estates of intestates, which statute is 
substantially in conformity with the civil law. 
In most of the states real and personal estate 
ascend by the same rule, with the exception 
>nly of the interest of the husband and wife 
ho former of whom may have an 
estate by curteay, and the latter in dower 
(See CI-KTKSY. ;u ,d DOWER.) The rule of de- 
m-nt in the state of New York, which may 
taken as the law of most of the other 
'" lin.-al descendants of the 
ate, an equal portion to all who are of 
Consanguinity, whether male 
ut mtlu. MM of the decease of 
I/one ul th,m. th,n his or her defendants 
:-tion that would have belon-ed to 

^dparty if living; thus, should the 
intestate U*T two children and three grand- 



children, descendants of a deceased child, the 
estate will be divided into three parts, the 
three grandchildren taking the one third which 
would have belonged to the parent whom they 
represent. 2. Upon the failure of lineal de- 
scendants, the father of the intestate will inherit, 
unless the estate came by descent on the part 
of the mother. 3. If the father is not living, 
or cannot for the reason above mentioned take 
the estate, the mother will be entitled to hold 
it for life, the reversion to belong to the broth- 
ers and sisters. 4. If no lineal descendants or 
father or mother, then the estate will descend 
to the nearest collateral relatives of equal de- 
gree ; and the same rule applies as in the case 
of lineal descendants, that the descendants of 
a deceased party take the same share that 
such ancestor would have been entitled to if 
living. The rules as to collateral succession 
are as follows : (a.) Brothers and sisters, or the 
children of deceased brothers and sisters, are 
first entitled ; but in case no brother or sister 
is living, but there are descendants of several, 
then such descendants take equally per capita, 
and not per stirpes or representation, as would 
be the case if one of the brothers or sisters were 
living. (5.) If no brothers or sisters of the intes- 
tate nor descendants of deceased brothers or sis- 
ters, the next heirs are uncles and aunts, who 
take equally unless the estate came by descent 
on the part of one parent, in which case the 
relatives of that parent have the preference. 
Lineal and collateral relatives of the half blood 
take equally with those of the whole blood. 
In some of the states the brothers and sisters 
take to the exclusion of the parents, while in 
others the rules are still more liberal toward 
the parents than as above stated. The rules 
of succession by the French civil code are 
nearly the same as those prevailing in this conn- 
try. The variations are principally these : 1. 
If there are father and mother (or either of 
them) and brothers and sisters, the estate is 
divided into two parts, one of which belongs 
to the father and mother in equal proportion, 
the other to the brothers and sisters or descen- 
dants of a deceased brother and sister, such de- 
scendants taking by representation the share 
that the child whom they represent would have 
taken ; if either father or mother is deceased, 
his or her share vests in the brothers and sis- 
ters. 2. If there is a father or mother, but no 
brothers or sisters, the collateral relatives take 
a half. 3. If there are children of diiferent fa- 
ther or mother, the estate is dvvided into two 
parts, the paternal line taking one part and 
the maternal the other ; children of the whole 
blood take a share in each moiety. 

DESERTER, in military affairs, an officer, sol- 
dier, or sailor who abandons the public service 
in the army or navy, without leave. In Eng- 
land the punishment for desertion is, with cer- 
tain limitations, left to the discretion of courts 
martial, death being the extreme penalty. By 
the articles for the government of the navy of 
the United States (art. 12), it is enacted that 



DESFONTAINES 



DESMAN 



"if any person in the navy shall desert to an 
enemy or rebel, he shall suffer death," and (art. 
13) "if any person in the navy shall desert in 
time of war, he shall suffer death, or such other 
punishment as a court martial shall adjudge." 
The rules and articles for the government of 
the land forces of the United States authorize 
the infliction of corporal punishment not ex- 
ceeding 50 lashes for desertion in time of peace, 
by sentence of a general court martial ; and the 
laws do not permit punishment by stripes and 
lashes for any other crime in the land service. 
In time of war a court martial may sentence a 
deserter to suffer death, or otherwise punish 
at its discretion. 

DESFONTAIflES, Rene Louiehe, a French bot- 
anist, born at Tremblay, Brittany, about 1752, 
died in Paris, Nov. 16, 1833. After studying 
at the college of Rennes, he went to Paris to 
prepare for the medical profession, but devoted 
himself chiefly to botany. In 1782 he received 
his degree as doctor, and in the next year wrote 
a paper on the organs of fructification in plants, 
which procured his admission into the academy 
of sciences. He then, at the expense of the 
academy, set out for the Barbary states, and 
during two years explored the natural history, 
especially the flora, of the north of Africa. He 
published the result in the Flora, Atlantic^ (2 
vols., Paris, 1798), which described 1,600 spe- 
cies of plants, 300 of which were new. After 
his return to Paris in 1785 he was appointed 
by Buffon to succeed Lemonnier as professor in 
ihejardin des plantes, and from this time was 
employed in the duties of that office. His lec- 
tures treated of the physiology and anatomical 
structure of plants, rather than of their no- 
menclature. He was the first to indicate the 
difference in growth and structure between 
the monocotyledonous and the dicotyledonous 
plants. He made a botanical catalogue of 
th&jardin des plantes (1804; 3d ed. in Latin, 
1829), continued the Collection des velins du 
museum d'Mstoire naturelle, which had been 
gun for Gaston of Orleans, published works 
arboriculture and the artificial fecundation 
plants, and wrote numerous memoirs. 
DESFUL, or Dizful, a city of Persia, in the 
vince of Khuzistan, on the E. bank of a river 
the same name, 25 m. W. N. W. of Shus- 
; pop. estimated at 15,000. It is the prin- 
al mart of the province, and has a fine bridge 
22 arches, said to have been built by com- 
nd of the celebrated Sapor. Indigo, or- 
anges, and lemons are raised in the neighbor- 
hood. About 10 m. S. W. of the city are 
mounds of ruins, the foundations of which are 
of stone, and the upper portions of brick, which 
cover the site of the ancient city of Susa, and 
beds of large canals, supposed to be of Sassa- 
nian origin. 

DESHA, a S. E. county of Arkansas, separated 
from Mississippi by the Mississippi river, and in- 
tersected by Arkansas and White rivers ; area, 
about 600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,125, of whom 
3,934 were colored. The area has recently been 




diminished by the taking of a portion for Lin- 
coln county. The surface is low, level, and 
subject to inundation. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 94,797 bushels of Indian corn, 
11,387 of sweet potatoes, 7,041 of Irish po- 
tatoes, and 8,166 bales of cotton. There were 
804 horses, 1,018 mules and asses, 1,397 milch 
cows, 2,811 other cattle, and 7,042 swine. 
Capital, Napoleon. 

DESHOULIERES, Antoinette (DU LIGIEE DE LA 
GARDE), a French authoress, born in Paris about 
1634, died there, Feb. 17, 1694. She was the 
daughter of a maUre d'Jiotel of Maria de' 
Medici and Anne of Austria, and was early no- 
ted for beauty and wit. She began to write 
verses when very young. In 1651 she was 
married to Guillaume de la Fon de Boisguerin, 
seigneur des Houlieres, who in the troubles of 
the Fronde embraced the party of the prince 
of Conde, and was exiled. She subsequently 
joined her husband at the court of Brussels, 
where she became an object of suspicion, and 
was imprisoned in 1657 in the castle of Vil- 
voorden, where she read the Scriptures and 
fathers of the church. She was rescued by 
her husband after eight months, and on her 
return to France after the amnesty became a 
favorite at the court of Anne of Austria. She 
wrote poems in almost all styles, from mad- 
rigal to tragedy ; but her idyls, especially those 
entitled Les moutons and Lesfleurs, were most 
admired, and gained her the appellation of the 
tenth muse and the French Calliope. The 
subsequent ill success of her tragedies caused 
this advice to be given her, Retournez d vos 
moutons. She became a member of the acad- 
emy of the Ricovrati of Padua in 1684, and 
of the academy of Aries in 1689. Like 
Mme. de S6 vigne, she belonged to the literary 
clique hostile to Racine. Voltaire said that 
of all French ladies who had cultivated poetry, 
Mme. Deshoulieres had succeeded best, since 
more of her verses than those of any other 
were known by heart. The principal editions 
of her works are those of 1747 and 1799, each 
in 2 vols. 

DESMAN, an insectivorous mammal of the 
shrew family, my gale (galemys} Muscomtica, 
(Desm.). It is 7 in. long, with a tail of 8 in. ; 
it is brown above and white below, the fur 
being very soft and long ; the feet are webbed, 
and the flattened tail is covered with scales, 
and is a powerful rudder ; the nose is length- 
ened into a flexible proboscis. It is found in 
the Volga and adjacent streams and lakes in 
S. E. Russia, making burrows in the banks > 
beginning under water, and ascending above 
the level of the highest floods. The food con- 
sists of small fishes, frogs, leeches, and larvao 
of aquatic insects. It is itself devoured by 
pikes and other voracious fishes, to whose 
flesh it communicates a strong musky odor, 
from the penetrating secretions of glands near 
the tail. It is rarely seen on dry land ; it is 
an excellent diver and swimmer, and, from its 
aquatic habits and the rodent look of the in- 



I.KSMARRES 

. was formerly classed near the 

; tin- teeth, however, are like those Of 

diirerini: i" having two very small 

the two great incisors of the 







Desman (Mygale Pyrenaica). 

lower j:i\v. and in the two upper triangular 
and Battened incisors. The M. (0.) Pyrenaica 
is n.t Hindi more than half the size of the 
Russian species ; it is found in southern France, 
in the di>trict of the Pyrenees. 

DESMARRES, Louis Angnste, a French oculist, 
born in Brreox in 1810. He studied at the 
Sorbonne, and devoted himself entirely to the 
treatment of diseases of the eye, and soon ac- 
quired a great reputation. He has contributed 
largely to a better understanding of the pathol- 
ogy and anatomy of the eye, and invented an 
ophthalmoscope which is now in general use 
among practitioners. His Memoire sur une 
'a method* d' employer le nitrate d 1 argent 
iet'/ne* ophthalmic* (1842) and Emploi 
de la belladonne dans let perforations de la 
cornee, excited special attention ; but his most 
important work is his Traite theorique et pra- 
-x iinil.nlics dts yeux (1847), which he 
considerably enlarged in subsequent editions, 
and which i- ron-idered a standard authority 
on the subject. 

DESMIDIILE, minute algrc, or protophytes, 
which grow in fresh water, and whose forms 
singularly beautiful appearances under 
the microscope. For a long time claimed both 
a-* animals and plants, they seem to stand on 
the limits of either kingdom. The controversy 
as to their true place has enlisted a great num- 
observers, who have submitted every 
fact to tht; nn st rigorous examination. Ehren- 
i them as animalcules; Dalrymple 
tended observations upon a single genus 
. which appeared to him to indicate 
animality ; and Prof. Bailey and C. Eckhard 
U the same conclusion. The latter de- 
-'innent for their being animals 
partly from their motion, partly from their 
i. Khreiiheri: has not only given 
itic descriptions of these questionable 
animals or plants, hut his own observations, 
1 with those of his predecessors, upon 
t'th.-sr bodies, will he found copi- 
ously detailed hy him. It is, however, apparent 



DESMIDIE^E 

that all the facts known upon the subject are 
interpreted as if these creations were undoubt- 
edly animals, while the same facts would bear 
a very different signification if we proceeded 
upon the supposition that they are plants. 
Meyen contended for the vegetable character 
of the desmidieoe, and was the first to detect 
starch in the cells; and the accuracy of his 
remarks was fully confirmed by Ralfs, Jenner, 
and other recent algologists. It is said that no 
starch is to be detected in the young cell, 
while upon the growth of the sporangium, or 
spore capsule, it appears and increases rapidly, 
as in the seeds of the higher plants, in which 
it generally abounds. Of all the circumstances 
which indicate the vegetable nature of the des- 
midieze, this is the most important, since it can 
be so easily submitted to experiment. In cer- 
tain cavities in closterium Dalrymple noticed 
a peculiar motion of molecules on which he 
laid some stress. This motion has been termed 
swarming, on account of the commotion which 
arises within the cell ; as the disturbance in- 
creases, the cell opens, when the molecules, or 
rather germinative cells, dart about in every 
direction, until at length they settle down into 
repose. The presence and functions of these 
cells in plants of entirely differing families and 
groups, render their occurrence in those under 
consideration no evidence of their being ani- 
mals. The desmidieaa resist decomposition, 
exhale oxygen on exposure to the sun, preserve 
the purity of the water containing them, and 
when burned do not emit the peculiar odor 
usually so characteristic of animal combustion. 
Berkeley, in his " Introduction to Cryptoga- 
mic Botany," remarks that if in some points 
there be anomalies, as in closterium, their 
whole history is so evidently vegetable, their 
mode of increase, growth, &c., that if we refuse 
them the title of vegetables, we may as well 
dispute that of the whole tribe of protophytes. 
The fact that under the influence of light they 
give out oxygen, added to the other character- 
istics, is quite convincing. Considering the 
desmidiese as vegetable productions, we find 
them peculiar for their beauty, variety of forms, 
and external markings and appendages. They 
are' mostly of an herbaceous green color, and 
contain a green internal matter. The frond 
divides into two valves or segments, by a sort 
of voluntary action ; a mode of growth in the 
bisection of cells that Meyen and others have 
proved to be frequent if not universal in the 
more simple algse. In the desmidieao the 
multiplication of the cells by repeated division 
is full of interest. The compressed and deeply 
constricted cells of euastrum offer most favora- 
ble opportunities for ascertaining the manner 
of this division; for although the frond is 
really a single cell, yet this cell in all its 
stages appears like two, the segments being 
always distinct. As the connecting portion is 
so small, and necessarily produces the new seg- 
ments, which cannot arise from a broader base 
than its opening, these are at first very minute, 



DESMIDIE^E 



DES MOINES 



though they rapidly increase in size. The 
segments are separated by the elongation of 
the connecting tube, which is converted into 
two roundish hyaline lobules. These lobules 
increase in size, acquire color, and gradually 
put on the appearance of the older portions. 
Of course, as they increase, the original segments 
are pushed further asunder, and at length are 
disconnected, each taking with it a new seg- 
ment to supply the place of that from which 
it has separated. All the desmidiese are gelat- 
inous. In some the mucus is condensed into 
a distinct and well defined hyaline sheath or 
covering ; in others it is more attenuated, and 
t-he fact that it forms a covering is discerned 
only from its preventing the contact of the 
colored cells. In general, its quantity is merely 
sufficient to hold the fronds together in a kind 




1. Didymoprium Borreri, with the cells uniting to form the 
green matter. 2. Micrasterias crenata. 3. Euastrium 
oblongum. 4. Xanthidium armatum. 5. The same 
with a frond acquiring a new segment by division. 6. 
Closterium lunula. 7. Pedastrium tetras. 8. Pedas- 
trium biradiatum. 9. Ankistrodesmus falcatus. 

of filmy cloud, which is dispersed by the slight- 
est touch. When they are left exposed by the 
evaporation of the water, this mucus becomes 
denser, and is apparently secreted in larger 
quantities to protect them from the effects of 
drought. Their normal mode of propagation 
seems to be by the production of single large 
spores or sporangia, which derive their existence 
from the union of the green coloring matter 
(endochromes) of two contiguous plants. This 
process is seen in the sketch of one of the species 
of didymoprium, in fig. 1 of the cut. These 
spores are mostly globular, although they ex- 
hibit a great variety of forms with reference 
to their external surfaces. Sometimes they bear 
no resemblance to the parent plant. But once 
formed, they are propagated by division, in the 
same manner as the ordinary cells, and in the 



third generation acquire their regular form, 
which they may continue to propagate for 

years, without ever producing a true spore. 

Very little is known respecting the uses of the 
desmidieaD. The food of bivalve mollusks be- 
longing to fresh waters seems to be made up 
of them. They are found principally where 
there is some admixture of peat, and in clear 
pools rather than in running streams. They 
abound in open places, and are rarely seen in 
shady woods or in deep ditches. So numerous 
are the species and so diversified their shapes 
and characters, that they have been divided 
into distinct genera as natural series present 
themselves in turn. In the first of these series 
we discover the plant an elongated, jointed 
filament, which may be cylindrical, sub-cylin- 
drical, triangular or quadrangular, plane with 
the margins even and smooth, or with the 
margins incised and sinuated. In hyalotheca 
we have the mucous envelope alluded to above, 
within which are numerous joints, which are 
usually broader than long ; and as each has a 
shallow groove passing round it, it resembles 
a small pulley wheel. The minuteness of the 
plant may be estimated from the length of 
these joints, which vary from -^fa to T ^Vr f 
an inch. E. dissiliens (Breb.) is found in North 
America as well as in Europe. In desmidium 
the joints are bidentate at the angles ; the fila- 
ment is fragile and of a pale green color; 
the length of the joint is from ^^ to ^Vrr of 
an inch. D. Swartzii (Ag.) is common through- 
out the United States. In micrasterias we 
have a simple, lenticular frond, deeply divided 
into two-lobed segments, each lobe inciso-den- 
tate and generally radiate. Many species of 
this beautiful plant are common in this coun- 
try. The compressed bipartite and bivalved 
frond of the xanthidium is represented in the 
fossils by one that is globose and entire. The 
constriction about the middle of the frond is 
lost in closterium, which also differs in shape, 
it being crescent-like or arcuate. The spe- 
cies of this are common and numerous. The 
fronds of anMstrodesmus are aggregated into 
faggot-like bundles. Pediastrum tetras, oc- 
curring from Maine to Virginia, has an ex- 
tremely minute frond composed of four cells, 
which make a star-like figure ; while P. 'bira- 
diatum, found in New Jersey as well as in Ger- 
many, has many more cells, yet still arranged 
in a stello-radiate manner. In collecting the 
desmidieee, the student must seek in proper 
situations the sediment observable in the form 
of a dirty cloud or greenish scum upon the 
stems and leaves of filiform aquatic plants. 
This is to be carefully transferred to a bottle 
of pure water, and thus he will secure many 
beautiful species for his microscope. If the 
bottle be exposed to the light, the little plants 
will continue in good condition, and thrive for 
several months. 

DES MOOES, a S. E. county of Iowa, bor- 
dering on Illinois, washed by the Mississippi 
on the E., bounded S. by Skunk river, and 



H 



KOINES 



1 by Flint creek ; area, 408 sq. m. ; 

1870, 87,256, Limestone and-anthra- 

:i,-ipul mineral productions. 

:!pu-d liv prairies and tracts 

T. The Mil i> fertile and well cul- 

ie HuHm-toa and Kisaouri River, 

< ,-,lar K.ipids, and Minnesota, 

andtl.. n "d Southwestern railroads 

hief productions in 1870 

: wheat, 887,138 of In- 

: "8,833 of oats, 98,269 of potatoes, 

Of hay, 478,878 Ibs. of butter, and 

69,869 of W.K.I. There were 8,350 horses, 

6,558 milch cows, 10,981 other cattle, and 15,- 

426 sheep; 2 flour mills, 4 planing mills, 3 

manufactories of agricultural im- 

:ita, 15 of carriages and wagons, 1 of 

care, 3 of machinery, 2 of marble and stone 

i ..f iin-eed oil, 1 of sashes, doors, and 

1 of tobacco and snuff, 4 of cigars, and 

woollen goods. Capital, Burlington. 

DES HOMES, a city and the capital of Iowa 

and county seat of Polk county, situated at the 

head of steam navigation on Des Moines river, 

inrtion with the Raccoon, about 300 m. 

Chicago; pop. in 1850, 502; in 1860, 

3,965 ; in 1870, 12,035 ; in 1873, 15,061. The 

laid out in quadrilateral form, extending 

', in. E. and W. and 2 m. N. and S. The Des 

Moines, flowing from the north, divides it a 

little E. of the centre, and the portion W. of 

this river, commonly called the " West Side," 

is again divided S. of its centre by the Raccoon. 

IV.. m the confluence of the rivers, on either 

i'le. the ground rises gradually toward the 

city limits to a height of about 160 ft. En- 

i-y the rivers on the south and east is a 

plateau about 1 m. long and m. wide, with 

rage elevation of 15 ft. above high 

win-re are situated the post office, court 

house, and city offices, the principal depots 

and hotels and the greater portion of the 

' >n the higher ground beyond 

are some of the finest private residences. E. 

of Des Moines river is another business locality. 

rtion of the West Side S. of Raccoon 

la known as "South Park." Capital 

square, E. of the river, contains 10 acres, on 

itcd site, commanding a fine view. The 

OH capitol was erected by the city in 1856, at 

a coat of $60,000. Provision was made by the 

;re in 1869 for the erection of a new 

Capitol, to cost $1,500,000, of which the foun- 

en laid. The post office, which 

'...late* also the United States courts, 

ice, and other federal offices, was 

1 S 7", at a cost of over $200,000. The 

;-ark association possesses grounds, 

100 acr.-s in extent, -ituau-d in a bend 

river, which !U -e provided with 

boDdiogi for holding the- state and 

vc. A pul.lic park in the X W 

'ntainin- 40 acres of native 

tiAf r.-.vntly U-en set apart. The riv.-rs 

are spam,,-: .. T!ll . Chicago, 

Ivock Island, and Pacific, and the Des 



DES MOINES RIVER 

Valley railroads intersect here. A branch of 
the former is in operation to Indianola and 
Winterset, and several other roads are in pro- 
gress. Wood is abundant in the vicinity. 
There are also extensive coal mines, and de- 
posits of fire clay, potters' clay, lime, &c. The 
city contains a woollen factory, several plough 
factories, scale works, an oil mill, founderies, 
flour mills, two national banks with a capital 
of $200,000, and one life and two fire insur- 
ance companies. Gas works were constructed 
in 1865. Water works have been erected by 
a private corporation, with city aid ; the water 
is obtained from Raccoon river, and is dis- 
tributed through 10m. of mains. Des Moines 
is divided into seven wards. There are five 
public school houses ; the number of separate 
schools in 1872 was 22 (including a high 
school), having 24 teachers, and an average 
attendance of 1,018 pupils. The Baptists have 
a college, occupying a four-story brick build- 
ing, 80 by 250 ft., situated on an eminence af- 
fording a fine view of the city and the valleys 
of the rivers. The state library contains about 
15,000 volumes, and there is a public library 
with about 3,000 volumes. Three daily news- 
papers, six weekly, and six monthly periodicals 
are published here. There are 13 churches, 
viz. : Baptist, Christian, Congregational, Epis- 
copal, Lutheran, Methodist (3), Presbyterian 
(8), Roman Catholic, and Universalist. The 
Spiritualists also have a society. Des Moines 
was laid out in 1846, and incorporated as the 
town of Fort Des Moines in 1851. A city 
charter, giving it its present name, was grant- 
ed in 1857, and the same year it became the 
capital of the state. 

DES MOINES RIVER, the largest river in 
Iowa, formed by the junction of two branches, 
known as the E. and W. forks, which rise in 
a chain of small lakes in S. W. Minnesota, and 
flowing S. E. unite in Humboldt co., Iowa. 
From the junction it flows S. E. through the 
middle of the state, and joins the Mississippi 
at the S. E. corner, about 4 m. below Keokuk, 
having for a short distance formed the bound- 
ary between Iowa on the N. E. and Missouri 
on the S. W. In its course of 300 m. the Des 
Moines drains 10,000 sq. m. in Iowa, passing 
through an undulating, fertile region, inter- 
spersed with tracts of prairie, rich in coal, and 
abounding in timber. There are many excel- 
lent mill sites along its banks. The fall from 
Fort Dodge, Webster co., toOttumwa, Wapello 
co., is 2 ft. 4 in. per mile, and from Ottumwa to 
its mouth, 1 ft. 11 in. per mile. Many towns 
have sprung up along its banks, among which 
is Des Moines, the state capital. The princi- 
pal tributaries from the west are the Raccoon, 
or Coon river, and North, Middle, and South 
rivers; the largest E. branch is the Boone, 
which rises in Kossuth and Hancock counties. 
Raccoon river rises in Buena Vista co., re- 
ceives several tributaries, and empties into the 
Des Moines at the city of the same name. An 
appropriation of lands to improve the naviga- 



DESMOND 



DESMOULINS 



45 



tion of the Des Homes was made by congress, 
but it was afterward diverted to the construc- 
tion of the Des Moines Valley railroad. Be- 
fore the diversion, however, a number of 
dams had been built in the lower part of the 
stream, which afford good water power. 

DESMOND, Earls of, an ancient family of great 
influence in S. W. Ireland, between 1329 and 
1583. The line numbered 15 earls. The title 
and family are now extinct. Before the Eng- 
lish gained a footing in Ireland, the kingdom 
of Cork was a separate sovereignty, embracing 
much of the present province of Munster. It 
was divided into Desmond or South Munster, 
Muskerry or West Munster, and Carbery in 
the southwest. In 1172 Dermod MacCarthy, 
king of Cork, swore fealty to Henry II., but 
soon afterward broke his plight and attacked 
his liege's forces. He was overpowered, and 
Henry in 1177 bestowed the kingdom on Rob- 
ert Fitz Stephen and Milo de Cogan. Cogan's 
share, falling ultimately to co-heiresses, was 
divided between Robert Carew, Patrick Cour- 
cey, and Maurice Fitz Thomas. The last was 
created by the English monarch earl of Des- 
mond in 1329. By aggressions on the lands 
of Courcey and Carew, and by other acquisi- 
tions, the estates of the Desmonds so increased 
that the 8th earl was possessor of almost the 
whole of the former kingdom of Cork. He ex- 
ercised rights of sovereignty with such a high 
hand that he was attainted of treason, and be- 
headed at Drogheda, Feb. 15, 1467. His es- 
tates, being suffered to remain in his family, 
continued to augment until Gerald, the last 
earl, owned a territory extending 150 miles 
through the counties of Waterford, Cork, Ker- 
ry, and Limerick, and comprising 500,000 
acres. These earls never yielded more than a 
nominal allegiance to the English crown. The 
country of the Desmonds was Irish in lan- 
guage, habits, and religion. Hence it was 
deemed a favorable locality by Philip II. of 
Spain, in his war with Queen Elizabeth, to at- 
tempt the conquest of Ireland. Accordingly, 
on July 1, 1578, a body of Italian troops, 
under the command of James Fitz Maurice, 
brother of the earl of Desmond, and accom- 
panied by Saunders, the pope's legate, landed 
in the Desmond country, where they were im- 
mediately joined by Sir John of Desmond and 
James Fitzgerald, other brothers of the earl. 
At first Earl Desmond made some show of re- 
sistance, but subsided at length into neutrality. 
On this, Lord Justice Pelham summoned him 
to surrender his castles to the queen. Des- 
mond refused, whereon he and all of his name 
were proclaimed traitors, Nov. 1, 1579. Des- 
mond now summoned his people to support the 
Catholic cause, and his dependants responded 
to the call. He seized on the town of You- 
ghal, and until November, 1583, maintained 
a determined warfare. Being by that time 
driven from his strongholds, one after another, 
he wandered over the country for months, and 
was at last killed in a cabin where he had 



taken shelter. His estates were divided among 
the captains of Elizabeth's army. Sir Walter 
Raleigh received 20,000 acres, which he sold 
cheaply to Richard Boyle, afterward earl of 
Cork. JEANNE FITZGERALD, wife of James, 
14th earl, is said to have lived to an age ex- 
ceeding 140 years. Her husband presented 
her at the court of Edward IV., where she 
danced with the duke of Gloucester, after- 
ward Richard III.; she was widowed during 
the reign of Edward IV., and died in the 
reign of James I., some time after 1603. At 
the age of 140 she travelled from her home 
at Inchiquin, Ireland, by the way of Bristol, 
to London, to urge some claim against the 
government. At that time she was quite viva- 
cious and in possession of all her faculties. 
Sir Walter Raleigh says, "I myself knew 
her." ("History of the World," book i., ch. 
5.) Bacon mentions that the old countess of 
Desmond had thrice renewed her teeth. Re- 
cent investigators, however, have thrown much 
doubt on her alleged great age. 

DESMOULINS, Benoit CamiHe, a French revolu- 
tionist, born at Guise in Picardy in 1760, guillo- 
tined in Paris, April 5, 1794. He studied law 
in Paris, but never practised. On the eve of 
the revolution he published two republican 
pamphlets, La philosophic au peuple francais 
(1788), and La France litre (1*783) ; and when 
the revolution broke out he ardently adopted 
its principles, and became one of the favorite 
orators of the crowd which gathered at the 
Palais Royal to hear the news of the day. On 
July 12, 1789, the day after the dismissal of 
Necker, he mounted a table in the garden 
of the palais and called the people to the 
defence of their threatened liberty ; he de- 
clared that he would not be deterred from 
speaking by fear of the police, and with a 
loaded pistol in each hand swore that he 
would not be taken alive. He advised the pa- 
triots to wear a green badge, and as there was 
not a sufficient quantity of ribbon, he gave 
them the green leaves of the trees in the gar- 
den. The cry "To arms! " was raised; the 
crowd seized upon all the arms they could 
find at the gunsmiths', and forming in pro- 
cession carried through the streets the bust 
of the dismissed minister with that of the then 
popular duke of Orleans. The next day the 
muskets and cannon at the Invalides fell into the 
hands of the people, and on the 14th the Bastile 
was taken. Camille, who had given impulse 
to this insurrection, figured among the combat- 
ants, and at once gained popularity. This was 
enhanced by a pamphlet, La lanterne aux 
Parisiens, in which he styled himself the "at- 
torney general of the lamp post." Its success 
encouraged him to commence, under the title 
of Les revolutions de France et de Brabant, a 
newspaper which exercised great influence by 
its vigor of thought, sparkling wit, and lively 
style. Such was its importance that Mirabeau 
sought to conciliate its editor. Camille had 
been a schoolmate of Robespierre, and lived on 



40 DESNA 

intimate terms with the future dictator of the 
ition. He \vns also acquainted with Ma- 
rat. But his hoM>m friend was Danton, who 

-nlled the voiin^r and brilliant wri- 
ter. Their de-tmies were do-.-ly connected 
.-iblishment of the club of the Cpr- 

nille was instrumental in the in- 
tdon of Aug. 10, 1792, and was appointed 

the ministry of justice when Dan- 

! that office from the legislative 
assembly. In the massacre of September he 
used his influence to preserve the lives of sev- 
eral intended victims. With Danton ho was 
elected to the national convention. In the 
contest between the Girondists and the Mon- 
tagnards, he contributed to bring the former 
into contempt by his ll'mti'ire des Brissotins, a 
pamphlet in which ridicule was skilfully blend- 
ed with serious charges. He was satisfied 
with the fall of the party, and would have 
saved the individuals of whom it was com- 
posed, but this was beyond his power. Both 
he and Danton now tried to bring the conven- 
tion to a milder policy, and toward the end of 
January, 1794, Camille established a journal, 
Le tieux Cordelier, in which he advocated 
conciliatory measures. Denouncing the sys- 
tem of proscription, he demanded the estab- 
lishment of a committee of clemency as a pre- 
liminary step to clearing the prisons of the 
suspected. This was answered by accusations 
brought against him in the club of the Jaco- 
bins. Robespierre defended his old friend on 
two occasions; he represented Camille as a 
wayward child, whose person it was not ne- 
cessary to injure, but demanded that his wri- 
tings should be burned. " To burn is not to 
answer," exclaimed the headlong journalist; and 
from that day his fate was sealed. He was 
arrested on the same night with Danton (March 
80), arraigned with him before the revolution- 
ary tribunal, and, without a hearing, was sen- 
trixvd to death. When asked his age, he re- 
plied, Tr, nti -fro}* ans, Vdge du sans-culotte 
Jesus, Vdge funeste aux rewlutionnaires. On 
their way to the scaffold, while Danton 'stood 
composed and immovable, Camille became al- 
most frantic, struggling with his bonds, and 
appealing to the people. His friend vainly 
motioned him to keep quiet ; he continued to 
address the crowd, and recalled to their mem- 
ory all that he had done in their service. " Be- 
hold," he cried in despair, " behold the recom- 
pense reserved to the first apostle of the revo- 
lution: 1 ' His young and beautiful wife, who 
had vainly implored his pardon from the old 
friendship : : !V , tried to raise a riot 

to save him, but she was arrested, and suffered 
- later. Camillo Desmoulins 
btaa* high rank as a pamphleteer. His Vieux 
Cordelier was reprinted in 1833. 

DKSM. :i river of Russia, which rises in the 

rnolensk, flows through those 

1 and TcliernL'ov, and falls into the 

Dnieper a few miles al.ove Kiev. It is a 

fine stream, abounding in fish, and navi-rabk 



DE SOTO 

for the greater part of its course of about 
500 miles. 
DESNOYERS, Anguste Gaspard Louis Boucher, 

baron, a French engraver, born in Paris, Dec. 
20, 1779, died there, Feb. 15, 1857. At the 
age of 20 he received a prize of 2,000 francs for 
an engraving of Venus disarming Cupid, and in 
1801 established his reputation by the repro- 
duction of Raphael's "Beautiful Gardener," in 
the gallery of the Luxembourg. His most 
admired productions are copies of Raphael's 
works, and prominent among them is an en- 
graving of the "Transfiguration." He was 
elected a member of the institute in 1816, ap- 
pointed chief engraver to the king in 1825, 
created baron in 1828, and officer of the legion 
of honor in 1835. 

DESOR, Edward, a Swiss geologist and natu- 
ralist, born at Friedrichsdorf, Hesse-Homburg, 
Feb. 11, 1811. He studied law at Giessen and 
Heidelberg, was compromised in the republi- 
can movements of 1832-'3, and escaped to 
Paris. Here his attention was drawn to geol- 
ogy ; he made excursions with Elie de Beau- 
mont, and in 1837 met Agassiz at a meeting 
of naturalists in Neufchatel, and with Gressli 
and Vogt became his active collaborator, con- 
tributing the essays for vol. iii. of his Mo- 
nographie d'echinodermes mvants et fossiles 
(Neufchatel, 1842). He also published Excur- 
sions et sejours dans les glaciers et les hautes 
regions des Alpes de M. Agassiz et de ses com- 
pagnons de voyage (Neufchatel, 1844). After 
spending a few years in the north of Europe, 
especially in Scandinavia, investigating the er- 
ratic phenomena peculiar to that region, he 
accompanied Agassiz in 1847 to the United 
States, found employment in the coast survey, 
and made with Whitney, Foster, and Rogers a 
geological survey of the mineral district of 
Lake Superior. Returning to Neufchatel in 
1852, he investigated with Gressli the orog- 
raphy of the Jura for industrial purposes, and 
was appointed professor of geology. He pub- 
lished subsequently Geologische BescJireibung 
der neufcJiateler Jura (with Gressli) ; Synop- 
sis des ecMnides fossiles (Paris, 1857-'9) ; and 
De Vorographie des Alpes dans ses rapports 
avec la geologie (Neufchatel, 1862). Having 
been made a citizen of the community of 
Ponts, he was elected a member of the cantonal 
grand council, of which he became president. 
In the winter of 1863 he visited Algeria and 
the Sahara, and published Aus Sahara und 
Atlas (Leipsic, 1865). The discovery of the 
lake dwellings induced him to pursue the study 
of archa3ology, and the results of his researches 
are given in Les palajittes, ou constructions 
lacustres du lac de Neufchatel (Paris, 1865 ; 
German, Leipsic, 1866). The most important 
of his recent publications is chinologie hehe- 
tique (Paris, 1869-'7l), prepared in conjunc- 
tion with Loriol. 

DE SOTO. I. A N. W. county of Mississippi, 
bordering on Tennessee, and bounded N. W. 
by the Mississippi river; area, 960 sq. in. ; pop. 



DE SOTO 



in 1870, 32,021, of whom 17,745 were colored. 
The surface is generally level, and occupied 
chiefly by cotton plantations. There are ex- 
tensive swamps in the "W. part. The Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee railroad crosses it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 25,048 bushels 
of wheat, 741,363 of Indian corn, 72,977 of 
sweet potatoes, 191,543 Ibs. of butter, and 
24,118 bales of cotton. There were 4,359 
horses, 4,468 mules and asses, 6,648 milch 
cows, 10,334 other cattle, 4,760 sheep, and 
36,315 swine. Capital, Hernando. II. A N. 
W. parish of Louisiana, bordering on Texas, 
drained by Red and Sabine rivers; area, 910 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,962, of whom 9,851 
were colored. By means of the Red river it has 
steamboat communication with New Orleans. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 321,365 
bushels of Indian corn, and 15,809 bales of 
cotton. There were 1,334 horses, 1,618 mules 
and asses, 3,110 milch cows, 8,221 other cattle, 
4,906 sheep, and 8,620 swine; 7 saw mills and 
4 manufactories of carriages and wagons. Cap- 
ital, Mansfield. 

DE SOTO, Fernando, a Spanish explorer, born 
at Xeres de los Caballeros, in Estremadura, 
about 1496, died on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi in 1542. Of a noble but reduced fam- 
ily, he was enabled by the favor of Pedrarias 
Davila to spend several years at one of the 
universities, and distinguished himself in lite- 
rary studies, and especially in athletic accom- 
plishments. In 1519 he accompanied his pat- 
ron on his second expedition to America as 
governor of Darien, and was the most intrepid 
opponent of the oppressive administration of 
that officer. He supported Hernandez in Nica- 
ragua in 1527, who perished by the hand of 
Davila in consequence of not heeding his ad- 
vice. Withdrawing from the service of Davila, 
he explored in 1528 the coast of Guatemala 
and Yucatan for 700 m., in search of the strait 
which was supposed to connect the two oceans. 
In 1532 De Soto joined Pizarro in. his enter- 
prise for conquering Peru. Being sent in 1533, 
with 50 horsemen and a few targeteers, to ex- 
plore the highlands of Peru, he penetrated 
through a pass in the mountains, and discovered 
the great national road Avhich led to the Peru- 
vian capital, and was soon after selected by 
Pizarro to visit the inca Atahuallpa as ambas- 
sador. After the capture of the inca, and 
when the latter had paid an immense sum for 
ransom, De Soto in vain expostulated with 
Pizarro for treacherously refusing to release 
the Peruvian monarch. He was prominent in 
the engagements which completed the conquest 
of Peru, and was the hero of the battle which 
resulted in the capture of Cuzco, the metropo- 
lis. He soon after returned to Spain with a 
fortune of $500,000, met a flattering reception 
from the emperor Charles V., made a splendid 
display at court, and married the daughter of 
Davila, to whom he had been long attached. 
In 1536 the belief was entertained that in the 
vast region then called Florida was a new El 
260 VOL. vi. 4 



Dorado, richer than any that had been discov- 
ered. De Soto proposed to the emperor to 
undertake the conquest of Florida at his own 
expense ; and the privilege being conceded to 
him, many Spanish and Portuguese cavaliers 
enrolled themselves among his followers. With 
600 men, 24 ecclesiastics, and 20 officers, he 
sailed from San Lucar early in April, 1538. 
After stopping at Santiago de Cuba, and then 
at Havana, where it was decided that the ladies 
attached to the expedition should remain till 
after the conquest of Florida, he crossed the 
gulf of Mexico, and anchored in the bay of 
Espiritu Santo (Tampa bay), May 25, 1539. 
His route was through a country already made 
hostile by the violence of the Spanish invader 
Narvaez, and he was constantly deluded by 
the Indians, whose policy it was to send their 
unwelcome visitors as far away as possible by 
telling them of gold regions at remote points. 
A Spaniard, Juan Ortiz, who had been in 
slavery here from the time of Narvaez, served 
as his interpreter. In July, 1539, he sent back 
all his ships to Havana. He passed the first 
winter in the country of the Appalachians, E. 
of the Flint river. Directed then to the north- 
east, he reached in April, 1540, the Ogeechee ; 
thence proceeding S., he reached the Coosa, 
and on Oct. 18 the village of Mavilla or Mobile, 
on the Alabama. In an engagement with the 
natives here the loss of the Spaniards was 80 
men and 42 horses ; that of the Indians was 
reported at 2,500 men. He passed the second 
winter in the country of the Chickasaws, who 
in the spring burned his camp and their own 
village, when he attempted to force them to 
carry his baggage; 40 Spaniards perished in 
the flames and in the night attack. Soon after 
beginning his march to the northwest a pesti- 
lential fever carried off nearly a score of his 
men. He reached the Mississippi after jour- 
neying seven days through forests and marshes, 
was nearly a month in constructing eight barges 
to transport his army, and having crossed the 
river went N. to Pacaha, where he remained 
from June 19 to July 29. Thence he marched 
successively S. W. and N. W. till he reached the 
highlands of the White river. This was the 
western limit of his expedition. He then pro- 
ceeded S. by the hot springs of Arkansas, and 
made his third winter station at Autiamque on 
the Washita river. In March and April, 1542, 
he continued S. along the Washita to the Mis- 
sissippi, and while attempting to descend the 
banks "of the latter river he was attacked with 
fever and died, after appointing Luis de Mos- 
coso his successor. The day of his death is 
variously given as May 21 and June 5 and 25. 
To conceal his death, his body was wrapped in 
a mantle and sunk at midnight in the middle 
of the stream. His followers, reduced more 
than one half in number, venturing east, were 
driven backward to the river, where they 
passed the next winter. In the spring of 1543 
they embarked in seven boats, and after nearly 
three months the survivors reached the Mexi- 



46 



DKSl'ARD 



can town of Panuco, where they dispersed. 
pired at Havana on the third 
day alter learning his fate. 

KKM'tKh. l..lard Marcos, an Irish soldier, 

born ftboal L766, beheaded in London, Feb. 

lie was a native of Queen's county, 

I, served in the army with credit, and 
reached the rank of lieutenant colonel, lie 
was superintendent of the English colony in 

i-.-is. and in consequence of complaints 
against him ITSJ recalled in 1790, but could 
never procure an examination into his admin- 

n. This made him disaffected, and he 
was arrested for seditious conduct; but after 
i he was only the more inflamed. 
In .on junction with some privates of the guards 
and a number of workmen he formed a plan 
to seize the tower and the bank, and to assas- 

:u- king on his way to open parliament. 
1 1 -] .i rutors were tried by special commis- 
sion at South wark, Feb. 5, 1803, and Despard 
and nine of his associates suffered death. 

ll> PLUMS, or lax Plaines (Indian appella- 
tion, Sh> -xh'ik-HHth-o), a river of Illinois, rising 
in tlu- S. K. part of Wisconsin, flowing S. and 
S. \V.. and uniting with the Kankakee at Dres- 
den, Grundy co., to form the Illinois. It is 
about 150 m. long, and derives its name from 
a species of maple called by the French plaine. 
DESSAIX, Joseph Marie, a French general, 
horn in Thonon, Savoy, Sept. 24, 1764, died 
Oct. 26, 1834. He studied medicine at Turin 
and < ommenced practice in Paris, but returned 
to Savoy in 1791, organized an association to 
propagate democratic principles, and was made 
captain of a corps of volunteers formed by this 
association. He served at the siege of Toulon, 
Mid in Italy under Bonaparte; was elected in 
1798 to the council of 500, where he opposed 

>p d'etat of the 18th Brumaire ; made a 
liriiradier general by Bonaparte in 1803, and, 
in th. campaign of 1809 against Austria, a gen- 
eral cf division, receiving from the emperorthe 
surname of Vlntrepide and the title of count 
of tin- empire. Being wounded during the ex- 
pedition to Russia, he was put in command of 

. of Berlin, and in 1813 was intrusted 
with the defence of France on the line of the 
Alp*. In 1M4 he was kindly treated by the 
Bourbons, notwithstanding which he joined 
the standard !' Napol.-on after his landing at 
Cannes, and was imprisoned six months in 1816. 

:iie revolution of 1830 he was elected 

f tin- national guard at Lyons. 
lMl.m:s. J,-an .laniu^. emperor of || :i yti, 
. aUut ITf.n, killed Oct. 17, 
1806. II- \\a> brought to Hayti as a -hive, and 

1 the naini- of his master. The repeal, 

24, 17-.M. ofthe rights of citizenship con- 

: color by the Kreii.-li national 

aasenil :.)\ved by a contest between 

ilattoi-s and the planters. During this 

conflict Denalinea -!% d und< r -lean Francois 

Mhe mulattoes The commission- 

!n- French conyention ha\in'_ r in August. 

.:mcd universal freedom. Toussaint 



DESSAU 

rOuverture went over to their side. Des- 
salines followed his fortunes, was made suc- 
cessively colonel and brigadier general, and 
played an important part in the expulsion of 
the English from the island. Gen. Leclerc hav- 
ing been sent by Napoleon to Hayti to reestab- 
lish slavery, the negroes on his arrival in 1802 
took up arms, and Dessalines was made gen- 
eral of division and placedf in command of the 
department of the west. One of his most 
remarkable feats during the campaign which 
followed was the defence of the town of St. 
Marc against Gen. Boudet. When unable to 
hold out any longer he burned the town, set- 
ting fire with his own hand to a palace which 
he had just constructed for himself. Though 
obliged to retreat, he kept up the fight for a 
considerable time, but \vas finally forced to 
surrender. A truce was concluded, May 1, 
1802, and while it was still in force Toussaint 
TOuverture was seized and carried to France. 
The negroes thereupon renewed the conflict, 
and Dessalines was made coinmander-in-chief. 
The French army was attacked by the yellow 
fever ; Leclerc died ; and the French were 
compelled to evacuate the island. Hayti pro- 
claimed its independence, Jan. 1, 1804, and 
Dessalines was appointed governor general for 
life. He issued a proclamation in which he 
rehearsed the grievances Hayti had suffered 
from the French, and undertook to exterminate 
the whites who still remained upon the island. 
On Oct. 8, 1804, he had himself crowned as 
emperor of Hayti, assuming the title of Jean 
Jacques I. A constitution was adopted, and 
he seemed for a time anxious to promote the 
welfare of his people, and put forth several 
schemes for the encouragement of immigration 
of negroes from the United States and Jamaica. 
But he soon relapsed into cruelty ; a conspiracy 
was formed against him, and he fell into an 
ambuscade and was killed. He had great cour- 
age and considerable military ability, but in 
other respects was little more than an ignorant 
savage, and proved himself one of the most 
brutal and bloodthirsty monsters that ever 
wielded power over their fellows. 

DESSAU, a city of Germany, capital of the 
duchy of Anhalt, on the river Mulde, 2 m. 
from its junction with the Elbe, and 67 m. 
S. W. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 17,464. It is 
the ducal residence, and has a fine park and a 
picture gallery. The theatre, the palace of the 
hereditary prince, the council house, the castle 
church, the government building, the gymna- 
sium, St. Mary's church with some pictures by 
Lucas Cranach the younger, and the fine ceme- 
tery, are the most attractive features of the 
town. There are many scientific, artistic, reli- 
gious, and industrial institutions and societies, 
a commercial school, a high school for girls, a 
ducal library containing about 25,000 volumes, 
an orthopedic institution, and a bank with a 
capital of about $2,000,000. The manufactures 
embrace woollen, linen, and cotton fabrics, mu- 
sical instruments, hats, leather, and tobacco. 



DESSOLLES 



DESTUTT DE TRACY 



49 



An important wool market is held here, and a 
flourishing trade in grain and other produce 
is carried on. Its environs are adorned with 
beautiful gardens, which have been reclaimed 
from sandy wastes. Dessau was noted as early 
as 1213, and in 1313 had a school independent 
of the church. It was destroyed by fire in 
1 467. In the German revolution of 1848 it was 
one of the most democratic cities of Germany. 

DESSOLLES, or Dcssolle, Jean Joseph Panl 
Angnstin, marquis, a French soldier and states- 
man, born at Auch, Oct. 3, 1767, died near 
Paris, Nov. 4, 1828. He early entered the 
army, was captain in the mountain legion in 
1792, provisional adjutant on the staff of the 
army of the western Pyrenees in June, 1793, 
and 'chief of staff in October, and served in the 
Italian campaign under Bonaparte. He was 
appointed brigadier general May 31, 1797, com- 
manded successfully against the Austrians in 
the Valtellina in 1799, and was promoted April 
13 to the rank of division general. He took 
part in the battles of Novi, Moskirch, Biberach, 
Neuburg, and Hohenlinden. After the peace 
of Lun6ville in 1801 he was made councillor 
of state and became provisional commander of 
the army of Hanover. In 1805 he was made 
governor of the chateau of Versailles. He be- 
came commander of a division of the army in 
Spain in 1808, occupied Cordova in January, 
1810, and was made military governor of the 
city. On April 2, 1814, he received from the 
provisional government the command of the 
national guard of Paris, and contributed largely 
to the decision of the allies in favor of the Bour- 
bons. On the arrival of the count d'Artois 
at Paris Dessolles was made a member of the 
provisional council of state, and upon the 
organization of the government he was ap- 
pointed minister of state and major general 
of the national guards, and a peer of France. 
Upon the return of Napoleon he took the most 
energetic measures against him. During the 
hundred days he remained in retirement, and 
upon the return of the Bourbons resumed 
command of the national guards, but soon re- 
signed. He was afterward minister of foreign 
affairs, and was elected president of the coun- 
cil of ministers Dec. 28, 1818. At the same 
time he was made a marquis. He opposed in 
the council the proposed change in the law of 
elections in 1819, and in November resigned, 
with the two ministers who shared his views. 

DESTERRO, Nossa Senhora do Desterro, or Santa 
Catharina, a city of Brazil, capital of the prov- 
ince of Santa Catharina, on the W. coast of the 
island of that name, in lat. 27 30' S., Ion. 48 
30' W., 465 m. S. S. W. of Rio de Janeiro ; pop. 
about 8,000. The city is on a tongue of land 
projecting into the bay, and is defended by two 
forts. It has many well built residences, but 
the streets are very irregular and badly paved. 
The public buildings are nearly all ill con- 
structed and unsightly. Next to that of Rio de 
Janeiro, the harbor is the best on the coast ; but 
its situation on an island is a serious disadvan- 



tage. A thunder storm and water spout in 1838 
destroyed a considerable portion of the town. 

DESTOUCHES, Philippe Nericault, a French dra- 
matist, born in Tours in 1680, died July 4, 1754. 
After leading an adventurous life with a com- 
pany of strolling players, he was entertained 
at Lausanne by M. de Puisieux, the French en- 
voy to Switzerland. His first comedy, Le cu- 
rieux impertinent, was performed there with 
great applause in 1710, and was scarcely less 
successful when it appeared at Paris. Some 
other plays of his, among them L 'Irresolu, 
attracted the attention of the regent duke 
of Orleans, who employed him in several for- 
eign missions. After his return from London 
in 1723, on the death of the regent, he retired 
to his country seat near Melun, where he wrote 
a number of comedies, the best of which are 
LephilosopJie marie and Le glorieux, performed 
with great success in 1727 and 1732. In his 
later years he devoted himself to theology, and 
published several essays against infidelity. His 
collected works were published in 1750, in 4 
vols. 4to. 

DESTCTT DE TRACY. I. Antoine Louis Claude, 
count de Tracy, a French philosopher, born at 
Paray-le-Fr6sil, near Moulins, Bourbonnais, 
July 20, 1754, died at Auteuil, March 9, 1836. 
At the desire of his father, who was a general, 
he entered the army, and was a colonel at the 
outbreak of the revolution. He was a member 
of the provincial assembly of Bourbonnais, and 
was elected as delegate of the nobility to the 
states general, Jan. 24, 1789. Here he was a 
leader in reform measures, attacking the mon- 
archy and the privileges of the nobility. Upon 
the dissolution of the assembly he retired to 
his estate at Auteuil ; but in 1792 he was ap- 
pointed marechal de camp and joined the army 
under Lafayette, with whose moderate views 
he fully sympathized. After the events of 
Aug. 10 he followed him beyond the frontier, 
but soon returned privately to France, where 
he was arrested Nov. 2, 1793, and imprisoned 
till some time after the death of Robespierre. 
During this time he developed a taste for 
metaphysics, and became known as a philos- 
opher. He was a member of the national in- 
stitute from its formation, and as secretary 
of the committee of public instruction helped 
reorganize the public schools. After the 18th 
Brumaire he was made one of the first sena- 
tors. In 1814 he voted for the fall of the em- 
pire, and entered the royalist chamber of peers ; 
he protested against the reactionary measures 
of 1815. The departure of the national policy 
from his views, together with bereavement and 
personal sickness, brought upon him in old age 
a profound melancholy, and he became almost 
blind. He was a disciple of Condillac, and 
with clear and earnest convictions carried his 
materialism to its last extreme. His Gram- 
maire generale (Paris, 1803) applies his phi- 
losophy to the analysis of language ; his Lo- 
gique (1805) applies it to the rules of reason- 
ing, and has been considered a masterpiece; 



50 



DKTMOLD 



and IT <?e la volonte (1815) applies 

.mil iv.-ults of our actii-ns. 
diM'ereiit parts of his ^system he at'ter- 
.<iited under tin- title Eli intntx <rii1il<>- 

;si7-'18). His Commentairt 

nr rH*i>rit ili-it //.< ho sent (before its publi- 

;,, President Jefferson, who 

translated it f..r a college text book (pub- 

in Philadelphia, 1811). Among his 
other wi.rks an- (j>u-U sont le* moyens de 
l,i morale chez un. peuple f (Paris, 
1798), and Observation sur le systeme actuel 
de ^instruction publique (1801). II. Alexandre 
(-*ar Vlrtor Charles, marquis de Tracy, son of 
the preceding, born in Paris, Sept. 9, 1781, died 
at Paray-le-Fresil, Allier, March 13, 1864. He 
served in Napoleon's campaigns, became col- 
onel in 1814, and retired in 1820. He was 
afterward for many years member of the cham- 
ber of deputies, distinguishing himself as an 
earnest liberal, and was minister of marine 
under Louis Napoleon from December, 1848, 
to October, 1849, when he joined the opposi- 
tion. He protested against the coup d'etat of 
Dec. 2, 1851, and retired to his estate at Paray. 
He was the author of Lettres sur la vie rurale 
(1861 ; previously published as Lettres sur 

'iffnre, 1857). III. Sarah Newton, mar- 
chioness de Tracy, wife of the preceding, born 
at Stockport, England, Nov. 30, 1789, died at 
Paray-le-Fresil, Oct. 26, 1850. She was great- 
grand-niece of Sir Isaac Newton, and was 
brought to France in 1790. At the time of 
her marriage with the marquis de Tracy (1816) 
she was the widow of Gen. Letort. Wishing to 
settle her religious convictions, she acquired a 
knowledge of patristic Latin, and left writings 
which were published after her death, under 
the title of Essais divers, lettres et pensees 
de Mme. de Tracy (3 vols., 1852-'6), only 150 
copies being printed. 

in. I MLI, a city of Germany, capital of the 
principality of Lippe-Detmold, on the right bank 
of the river Werre, 46 m. S. W. of Hanover ; 
Pp. in 1871, 6,469. The old portion of the 
town is very poorly built ; the new is regularly 
laid out and well built. It is surrounded by a 
wall pierced by three gates, and contains a fine 
palace of ancient date. It has a gymnasium, 
a normal school, a female high school, a large 

.ihrary, and OIK- of the best poorhouses 

in Germany. The manufactures are chiefly of 

r, woollens, liiu-n. and beer ; and there are 

marble and gypsum quarries. Near the town 

was fought tin- buttle in which Arminius de- 

i the Ilonian army under Varus. A. D. 9 ; 

-<>a battle between Charlemagne and the 
Saxon ~ rrncr is commemorated 

4r, ft. hi-h on a pedestal of 
solid sandstone 9() ft. hiirh. erected by the Ger- 
man princea in 1838. 

I>III:<IM ! "arrows), a port 

ot entry and the chief ,-ity ,,f Midu^n, capital 

i.'ited on the N. W. side of 

r, about 7 m. from Lake St. Clair 

and 18 m. from Lake Erie, 80 m. E S E of 



DETROIT 

Lansing 225 m. W. by S. of Buffalo, and 250 
m. E. by N. of Chicago ; lat. 42 20' N., Ion. 
82 68' W. The city extends along the bank of 
the river about 7 m., and is built up for about 2 
m. from the water. For at least 6 m. the river 
front is lined with mills, dry docks, ship yards, 
founderies, grain elevators, railway depots, and 
warehouses. The ground on which the prin- 
cipal part of the city is built rises gradually 
from the river to the height of from 20 to 30 
ft., at a distance of 15 to 30 rods from the 
shore; it then sinks slightly, and again rises 
gradually to the height of 40 to 50 ft. above 
the river. The river here is about m. wide, 
and has an average depth of about 32 ft., and 
a velocity of about 2 m. an hour. It gives to 
the city the best harbor on the great lakes. 
Fort Wayne, about a mile below, commands the 
channel. Belle Isle, at the head of the river, is 
a favorite resort for picnics. Grosse Pointe, 
projecting into Lake St. Clair a few miles above 
the city, is noted for its cherry orchards, and 
is the terminus of a beautiful drive. Grosse 
Isle, near Lake Erie, contains many fine resi- 
dences. Put-in-Bay island, in the lake, near 
the mouth of the river, famous as the scene of 
Perry's victory, Sept. 10, 1813, has become a 
summer resort. The population of Detroit has 
been as follows: in 1810, 770; 1820, 1,442; 
1830, 2,222; 1840, 9,102; 1850, 21,019; 1860, 
45,619; 1870, 79,577, of whom 35,381 were 
foreign born and 2,235 colored. Of the for- 
eigners, 12,647 were natives of Germany, 7,724 
of British America, 6,970 of Ireland, 3,284 of 
England, 1,637 of Scotland, and 670 of France. 
There were 4,969 persons, 10 years old and 
over, who could not write, of whom 4,117 
were foreigners. There were 15,636 families 
and 14,688 dwellings. Detroit is laid out upon 
two plans: the one, that of a circle with 
avenues radiating from the Grand Circus as a 
centre ; the other, that of streets crossing each 
other at right angles ; the result of which is a 
slight intricacy in certain quarters, and a num- 
ber of small triangular parks. The avenues 
are generally 100, 120, or 200 ft. wide. The 
streets vary in width from 50 to 100 ft., and 
are for the most part abundantly shaded with 
trees. The principal streets are Jefferson 
avenue, parallel with the river; Woodward 
avenue, which crosses the former at right 
angles, and divides the city into two nearly 
equal parts ; and Fort street, Michigan avenue, 
Grand River avenue, and Gratiot street, at 
various angles with Woodward avenue. West 
Fort street and Lafayette avenue are handsome 
streets. The Grand Circus, the principal park, 
is semicircular, and is divided by Woodward 
avenue into two quadrants, each containing a 
fountain. The Campus Martins, about m. from 
the Grand Circus, is an open space 600 ft. long and 
250 ft. wide, which is crossed by Woodward and 
Michigan avenues, and from which radiate 
Monroe avenue and Fort street. Facing the 
Campus Martius on the west is the new city 
hall, a handsome structure 200 ft. long, 90 ft. 



DETROIT 



51 



wide, 66 ft. high to the cornice, and 180 ft. to 
the top of the tower, completed in 1871 at a 
cost of $600,000. It is built of sandstone, in 
the Italian style, and consists of three stories 
above the basement, with a Mansard roof. In 
the square fronting the city hall stands a 
monument in memory of the Michigan soldiers 
who fell in the civil war. Facing the Campus 
Martius on the north is the opera' house, one 
of the largest and finest edifices of the kind 
in the country. The custom house, which also 
contains the post office, is a large stone build- 
ing in Griswold street. The board of trade 
has a handsome building near the river. The 
Eoman Catholic cathedral is the largest church 
edifice in the city. St. Paul's church (Epis- 
copal) is noted for its self-sustaining roof, and 
the central Methodist and Fort street Presby- 
terian churches are fine specimens of architec- 



ture. The convent of the ladies of the Sacred 
Heart, in Jefferson avenue, is a large and beau- 
tiful building. One of the most noteworthy 
structures is the Michigan Central freight depot, 
1,250 ft. long and 102 ft. wide, consisting of a 
single room, covered by a self-sustaining roof 
of corrugated iron. Near it is the great wheat 
elevator of the company, the cupola of which 
commands a fine view. The principal cemete- 
ries are Woodmere, on high ground 4 m. W. of 
the city ; Elmwood, 2 m. E. of the centre of 
the city ; and Mt. Elliot (Catholic), adjoining 
Elmwood ; besides which there are a Lutheran 
and four Jewish cemeteries. Eight lines of 
railroad radiate from Detroit, viz. : the Michi- 
gan Central, extending to Chicago ; the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern, to Buffalo and 
Chicago ; the Detroit and Milwaukee, to Grand 
Haven ; the Great Western of Canada, to 




Detroit. 



Niagara Falls ; the Grand Trunk to Portland, 
Me. ; the Detroit, Lansing, and Lake Michigan, 
to Howard City; the Detroit and Bay City, 
between those places ; and the Canada South- 
ern. Eight lines of street railroad, with more 
than 40 m. of track, intersect the city, and 
three lines of ferry boats ply across the river 
to Windsor on the Canadian side. There are 
seven steamboat lines, with 70 boats running 
to various points on the lakes. The foreign 
commerce of Detroit, as shown by the report 
of the bureau of statistics, is exclusively with 
Canada, though a few vessels have loaded di- 
rect for Liverpool. For the year ending June 
30, 1873, the imports amounted to $1,900,228, 
the exports to $2,818,408. There were entered 
and cleared 1,949 American vessels of 307,760 
tons, and 1,522 foreign vessels of 489,596 tons. 
In the coastwise trade the entries were 1,184 
steam vessels of 581,243 tons, and 2,022 sailing 



vessels of 203,666 tons ; clearances, 1,174 steam 
vessels of 568,131 tons, and 2,056 sailing ves- 
sels of 204,995 tons. There were 365 vessels 
of 78,546 tons belonging to the port ; of which 
188, of 27,828 tons, were sailing vessels ; 120, 
of 35,849 tons, steamers ; and 57, of 14,869 
tons, barges;- 17 vessels, of 4,180 tons, were 
built during the year. The imports from Can- 
ada included 33,672 bushels of barley, 40,478 
of peas and beans, 629,101 Ibs. of fresh fish, 
53,456 dozen of eggs, and $171,584 worth of 
wood. The exports consist chiefly of Indian 
corn, oats, wheat, lumber, railroad cars, cot- 
ton, hogs, bacon, ham, and lard. The domestic 
trade is important, large quantities of pro- 
duce, chiefly from Michigan, passing eastward 
through the city. The following table exhibits 
the receipts, almost wholly by rail, for four 
years, of the principal articles of commerce, ex- 
clusive of those in transit not reshipped : 



DETROIT 



unouB, 



Ffcmr, bbls 

. 
Corn, bushels... 

K-in.-v. l.i;'i- N 
U* 

H 

Dreaaed hops Ibs 
Pork and lard, Ibs 

Urdjbs 

Cur.-.l DBMta, B. 

ei;ibB 

Pork,bbla 

WooJ,lbfl 

Orttle, number... 
Hogs, number... 
Sh,-.-|,. laiin:.. r... 



1870. 



411,088 

878,080 
1,888,141 

r,.r,ir,.-.M 
B00;486 
88M88 

1,807,881 



7,507 



Mftfl 



1871. 



188,781 
B^M.080 



884|888 

-!."V!h"r 

'JJ^.'.Tti 



10,916,008 
.16\610 
100,086 



149,91 165,185 



1-T-J. 



1878. 



495,809 
8^81,274 

1.862,881 
898,728 



-!l4.:{.V.i 



4i4.7.V.i 
s.-l-J 



72,572 
7. r >.V.7'J 
166,592 



8,092/28 



4,969.018 

86,178 

' 777,106 

176,584 



The amount of flour and grain in store Jan. 1, 
1874, was: 4,850 bbls. of flour, 106,618 bush- 
els of wheat, 89,718 of corn, 29,046 of oats, 
and 16,520 of barley. The receipts of apples 
in 1871 were 328,763 bbls.; in 1872, 91,334; 
in 1873, 84,880. The receipts of lumber in 
1871 were 103,000,000 ft., of which 65,200,000 
came by rail, 33,500,000 by lake, and 4,300,000 
Iron i Canada; in 1872 the receipts were 76,- 
947,000 ft., of which 4,900,000 came from Can- 
ada. About 60,000 cattle were sold in the 
Detroit market during the year, valued at 
$2,422,000; hogs sold, 160,000, value $1,760,- 
000; sheep sold, 120,000, value $435,000; 
total value of live stock sold, $4,617,000. The 
city contained 642 stores in 1871, and there 
were 27 incorporated companies, chiefly man- 
ufacturing, having an aggregate capital of 

..">00. The manufactures are important, 
and have been rapidly extended within a few 
years. The vicinity to the Lake Superior iron 
-iveii especial prominence to the 
working of imn, which employs 31 establish- 
ments, having an aggregate capital of $4,000,- 
000, and an annual product of $10,000,000. 
These include 3 blast furnaces, 2 steam forges, 
ii car wheel foundery, a manufactory of iron 

- 1 1 machine shops, 5 boiler shops, 2 

stove founderieo, a manufactory of plumbers' 

and gas fittings, and a safe factory ; to which 

add.-d tin- railroad repair shops, the 

rnaoea ami extensive mllim: mills 

'n.n'mg to Detroit capitalists, 

anl uiieimm. -rated establishments in the city. 

xtensive Pullman car works, 

there an- t\v.. railroad car factories, producing 

vorth of cars annually; 12 saw 

t'ich in IN?:; manufactured 44,188,000 

l. of lumber; '< -hip yards; numerous manu- 

- "' "' Iwork. inclinlini: several of 

:lll(1 frnin:: -ans, 2 of wooden 
i of matches, several of boxes, of sash, 
and blinds, Ac., producing annually 
ahout *4.""".""o. i n an d 
2'2 l.ri.-k yards manufactur- 
ing about : J.i MM i. brii-ks annually. There 

:iur mills, which in 1*73 produced 
bbls. of Hour; about 60 breweries 



malt houses, and distilleries, yielding 90,000 
bbls. of beer annually ; 16 tobacco factories, 
having an annual product of about $4,500,000; 
a large number of cigar factories, 17 tanneries, 
4 steam cracker bakeries, 4 large manufacto- 
ries of boots and shoes, 1 of white lead, 2 of 
chemicals, 1 of hats, caps, and fur goods, and 
several of confectionery. The Detroit copper- 
smelting works annually produce over $2,000,- 
000 worth of ingot copper from Lake Superior 
ore. There are 3 national banks, with an ag- 
gregate capital of $1,900,000; 3 state banks, 
capital $350,000; and 4 savings banks, with 
$390,000 capital, of which all but one do a 
general banking business also. The aggregate 
deposits, Oct. 1, 1872, were $9,416,000. The 
Detroit fire and marine insurance company 
has a capital of $150,000, the Michigan mutual 
life insurance company of $100,000, and the 
Michigan health insurance and relief society 
of $10,000. The government is administered 
by a mayor and a board of aldermen of 22 
members (two from each ward) elected by the 
people for a term of two years. There are a 
court held by the recorder, a police court, and 
a superior court of civil jurisdiction ; and the 
circuit and probate courts for Wayne county, 
and the United States circuit and district courts 
for the eastern district of Michigan, are held 
here. Detroit has a police force consisting of 
about 100 men, under the control of a board 
of four commissioners appointed by the gover- 
nor of the state. The fire department, man- 
aged by four commissioners, has seven steam 
fire engines, two hook and ladder companies, 
and a fire alarm telegraph. The water works, 
valued at $1,221,752, are under the charge of 
five commissioners. The water is pumped from 
the river by three steam engines, having an 
aggregate capacity of 32,000,000 gallons daily, 
into the mains and a reservoir 1 m. back, 
holding 10,000,000 gallons, and is distributed 
to every quarter of the city through 160 m. 
of pipe. The average daily consumption is 
9,000,000 gallons. The city is furnished with 
gas by two companies, and has 1,137 street 
lamps. There are 40 m. of paved street and 
79f m. of sewers. Many of the streets are 
paved with wood. The assessed value of prop- 
erty in 1872 was $23,615,674; cash value, $78,- 
718,913; taxation for all purposes, $785,248. 
The house of correction, with capacity for 450 
prisoners, is used for the confinement of petty 
criminals. Directly opposite is a home for dis- 
charged female prisoners. The United States 
marine hospital, on the bank of the river, just 
above the city, commands a fine view of the 
Canada shore. The other principal charitable 
institutions are the Harper hospital, adapted 
for 500 patients, St. Mary's hospital (Catholic), 
St. Luke's hospital and church home (Episco- 
pal), the German orphan asylum, the women's 
hospital and foundlings' home, the Protestant 
orphan asylum, St. Anthony's boys' orphan 
asylum (Catholic), St. Vincent de Paul's or- 
phan asylum (Catholic), the free dispensary, the 



DETKOIT 



DEUCALION 



53 



home for the friendless, the retreat for the in- 
sane, and the Hebrew widows' and orphans' 
society. In the ladies' industrial school va- 
grant children are taught the elements of 
learning and industry. The public schools are 
under the control of a board of 22 inspectors 
(two from each ward), elected by the people 
for two years, who appoint the superintendent 
of schools. A school census is taken between 
Sept. 1 and Oct. 10 of each year. In 1871 
there were 28,779 children between the ages 
of 5 and 20 years, of whom 13,699 did not at- 
tend school during the year, and 12,092 be- 
tween 8 and 14 years of age. The schools are 
divided into five grades : the high school and 
senior grades, in each of which the course 
is three years, and the junior, secondary, and 
primary grades, in each of which the course is 
two years. The statistics for the year ending 
Dec. 31, 1871, are as follows: number of 
schools, 131, viz. : 1 high, 18 senior, 30 junior, 
37 secondary, 43 primary, and 2 mixed ; num- 
ber of teachers, 170, of whom 8 were males; 
pupils enrolled, 11,866; average daily atten- 
dance, 7,749 ; value of school property, $505,- 
810. The receipts for the year ending April 1, 
1872, were $162,615 from the city appropria- 
tion for schools and school houses, $13,054 
from the primary school fund, and $2,629 from 
other sources ; total, $178,298. The expendi- 
tures for the same period were $192,024, of 
which $76,413 were for teachers' wages, and 
$61,703 for building and furnishing school 
nouses. At the close of 1871 there were 22 
school buildings, with accommodations for 
8,517 pupils, and two nearly completed, which 
would raise the number of sittings to about 
9,500. There are a German-American semi- 
nary, a German Lutheran school, and several 
Catholic schools. The Detroit medical col- 
lege was organized in 1868, and the Detroit 
homoeopathic college in 1871. The public li- 
brary contains more than 20,000 volumes ; that 
of the young men's society, about 12,000; the 
library of the mechanics' society, 4,000 ; and 
the bar library, 3,100. The newspapers and 
periodicals are: 8 daily (3 German), 3 tri- 
weekly, 14 weekly (3 German), 7 monthly, 
and 2 quarterly. Besides the opera house, 
there are the German Stadt theatre and 23 
public halls. There are 64 churches, including 
5 Baptist (1 French, 1 German, and 1 colored), 
2 Christian, 2 Congregational, 7 Episcopal, 2 
Jewish, 7 Lutheran (German), 10 Methodist 
(2 German and 2 colored), 1 New Jerusalem, 6 
Presbyterian, 9 Eoman Catholic (1 French and 
2 German), and 1 Unitarian ; also 1 Spiritualist 
and 2 Christadelphian societies. There are 12 
mission Sunday schools (1 French and 1 Ger- 
man), having an average attendance of about 
1,800, and 3 convents (1 German). The site of 
Detroit was visited by the French as early as 
1610 ; the first permanent settlement was made 
by a party under Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac 
in 1701, when Fort Pontchartrain was built. 
In 1763 it passed into the hands of the Eng- 



lish, and immediately afterward was besieged 
for 11 months by Pontiac in his attempt to ex- 
pel the whites from that region. In 1778 it 
contained about 60 log houses, 300 inhabitants, 
and one Eoman Catholic church. The same 
year the British erected a fort, at first called 
Fort Le Noult, but after the war of 1812 
known as Fort Shelby, which remained till 
1827. By the treaty of peace in 1783 Detroit 
was ceded to the United States, but the 
Americans did not take possession of it till 
1796. It was destroyed by fire in 1805, one 
house only escaping. In 1807 the present city 
was laid out. During the war of 1812 it fell 
into the hands of the British by the surrender 
of Gen. Hull, but came again into the posses- 
sion of the Americans in 1813, after the battle 
of Lake Erie. It was incorporated as a village 
in 1815, the government being vested in five 
trustees, and in 1824 a city charter was 
granted. Destructive fires occurred in 1836, 
1840, 1848, and 1865. Upon the organization 
of the territory of Michigan in 1805, Detroit 
became the seat of government, and was the 
capital of the state from its admission into the 
Union (1837) till 1847. 

DETROIT RIVER, a strait connecting Lakes 
St. Clair and Erie, and separating Canada from 
Michigan, about 22 m. long, and varying in 
breadth from 3 m. to less than m. Its course 
from Lake St. Clair to just below Detroit is S. 
W., from which point it flows nearly due S. 
The total descent is about 2 ft. The river rises 
and Sails with the level of the lakes it con- 
nects; the average annual variation is only 
about 1 ft., and the extreme variation, from 
February, 1819, when it was the lowest, to 
July, 1838, when it was the highest ever 
known, was only about 8 ft. The principal 
island is Grosse Isle, near Lake Erie ; there are 
several smaller ones, which are used as fishing 
stations, from which large quantities of white 
fish are caught. Riviere aux Canards, near 
Maiden on the Canadian side, and the river 
Eouge near Detroit, small streams, are the 
principal affluents. As it has great depth of 
water and a strong and uniform current, the 
navigation of the Detroit is not affected by ob- 
structions. The Canadian shore rises abruptly 
from the water to a height of from 20 to 25 
ft., while the American shore is low, and in 
some places marshy. 

DEUCALION, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, son 
of Prometheus and Clymene. According to 
tradition, being forewarned by his father of an 
approaching deluge, he built a ship in which 
he and his wife Pyrrha were saved from an 
inundation which destroyed all the rest of 
mankind. When the waters subsided, their 
vessel rested upon Mount Parnassus, and their 
first care was to consult the oracle of Themis 
as to how the world should be repeopled. 
Being advised to throw behind their backs the 
bones of their mother, and interpreting mother 
to mean the earth, they cast stones behind 
them, from which sprang men and women. 






DEUEL 



MKl KL, .m E. enmity of Dakota, bordering 

,,n Minn . about <'~>0 sq. m. ; pop. in 

It- surface is broken by the Coteau 

des 1'rairies, MIK! it is watered by several lakes 

tluents <>t' tlu- Big Sioux and Minne- 

IMTKKO\OMY ((Jr. tevrepovdfuov, the repe- 
tition of tho law, from fobrepof, second, and 
vrfuof, law), the nth book of the Pentateuch, 
i.-iininir tho history of what passed in the 
wilderness during about five weeks (from the 
inning of the llth month to the 7th day 
he I'-'th month), in the 40th year after 
the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. 
It recites to the people the events which had 
taken place in their history, and explains again 
t h e 1 a \v w h i h had been received at Sinai . Ac- 
cording to the old traditional view, this book, 
like the four preceding books of the Penta- 
h, was written by Moses, with the excep- 
tion of ch. xxxiv. (the last), which gives an ac- 
count of the death of Moses, and is supposed to 
have been written by the author of the book of 

^hua, to serve as a point of transition to the 
latter book. Among the recent defenders of 
the authorship of Moses are Hengstenberg, 
Havernick, Delitzsch, Keil, and Moses Stuart. 
According to Ewald and Kiehm, the book was 
written under Manasseh ; according to Bunsen, 
under Hezekiah ; according to De Wette and 
Lengerkc, under Josiah. Ewald is of opinion 
that it was written by a Jew living in Egypt ; 
according to Gesenius and Bohlen, it was the 
work of the prophet Jeremiah. 

DKITZ (Lat. Tuitium), an old town and 
fortress of Prussia, in the province of the 
Rhine, on the right bank of the Rhine, oppo- 
Cologne, with which it is connected by an 
iron bridge; pop. in 1871, 11,881. Among its 
finest buildings are the ancient church of St. 
Hcrihert, the new Protestant church, an4 the 
cavalry barracks. It has manufactories of vel- 
vet, ribbons, glass and china ware, chemicals 
and machines, and an iron foundery. It has a 
good harbor, and a new impulse has been given 
to t lie trade of the town by the Cologne and 
Minden railway, which begins here. The for- 
titicati<>nH were razed after the peace of Nime- 
guen in 1678, but were rebuilt in 1816, and 
have recently been enlarged. The town dates 
ri^'iii from a oastlo built here in the 4th 
ury hy Constantine the (ireat. 

lKl\ I'OM>. B, /WKIHl'.iVKKX. 

I ' I \ . t DEMONOLOO Y. 

MVnnB, a fortified rity of Holland, in tho 

I in-e of < veryssel, on the ri-rht bank of the 

(suel, 8 m. N. of Zutphen; pop. in 1868, 18,- 

narrow streets, spacious market 

.md-i.iiH- public, promenades, a large 

:i iirt house, a prison, a wei-h- 

ral churehes a synairoirue, and 

national, and benevolent 

in-titiition-. h has an excellent harbor, a 

[.rosp.-rou- trade, and extensive manufactories 

of TurUy carpets. tfodkingB, iron ware, &c. 

:mally about ;<M i.OOO Ibs. of butter 



DEVIL 

and 350,000 De venter cakes, for which it is 
celebrated. It was one of the Hanse towns, 
and in the 16th century ranked next after 
Amsterdam among the cities of the northern 
Netherlands. 

DE VERB, Maximilian Sehele, an American 
author, born near Wexio, in Sweden, Nov. 1, 
1820. He entered the military and afterward 
the diplomatic service of Prussia, but emigrated 
to the United States, and in 1844 was appointed 
professor of modern languages in the univer- 
sity of Virginia. Besides frequent contribu- 
tions to periodicals, he has published "Outlines 
of Comparative Philology " (1853), " Stray 
Leaves from the Book of Nature" (1856), 
" Studies of our English " (1867), "First French 
Reader" (1867), "Grammar of the French 
Language" (1867), "The Great Empress," a 
novel (1869), "Wonders of the Deep" (1869), 
" Introduction to the Study of French " (1870), 
"Americanisms" (1871), and "The English of 
the New World" (1873). He has translated 
into English Spielhagen's "Problematic Char- 
acters" (1869), "Through Night to Light" 
(1869), and "The Hohensteins" (1870). 

DEYEKEl'X. See ESSEX, EARL OF. 

DEVIL, The (Gr. dm/Mof, the calumniator), 
in Christian theology, the sovereign spirit of 
evil. In the very earliest ages there appears 
to have been no distinct conception of any 
single spirit who was the embodiment of the 
evil principle. None of the divinities of the an- 
cient Hindoos were supposed to exert a whol- 
ly bad influence. Their power was sometimes 
manifested for good, and sometimes for evil. 
In the post-Vcdic period, though Siva the 
destroyer was one of the three great powers 
of nature, the exertion of his power was not 
necessarily evil. Kali, Siva's wife, and the 
Rakshasas, who were hostile to everything 
good, were gods whose nature partook of evil ; 
but no single divinity represented in himself 
the evil principle. There was, however, such 
a divinity in the religion of ancient Persia. 
He was called Ahrirnan, and his power was 
represented as nearly equal to that of Ormuzd, 
the god of good, who reigned in heaven. Ah- 
riman created devs and archdevs to resist the 
spirits that ministered to Ormuzd. The prin- 
ciples of this religion extended in some measure 
to the neighboring nation of the Chaldeans. 
The religion of the Semitic races was in its 
origin monotheistic. In it good and evil were 
alike caused by the supreme ruler. The reli- 
gion of the Hebrews originally formed no ex- 
ception. Even the Satan of the books of Job 
and Zechariah (the latter at least of late au- 
thorship) is a dependent spirit, in the service 
of God. But during or after the captivity the 
Jews borrowed from the Chaldeans or from 
the Persians the notion of a spirit who was 
the antagonist of all that is good and the per- 
sonification of evil. In the gospels, written by 
lews, ii u . devil is represented as tempting 
MtOI 1.. worship him. In the Christian theol- 
ogy, and the literature inspired by it, the devil 



DEVIL FISH 



55 



oe 





was conceived as a spirit who had once been 
good and had fallen. During the middle ages 
he was represented as having a black com- 
plexion, flaming eyes, sulphurous odor, horns, 
tail, hooked nails, and cloven hoofs. Such 
names as Devil's Dam, Devil's Bridge, &c., at- 
test the belief in his actual interposition in 
human affairs. The devil, as the ideal of 
evil, vice, craft, cunning, and knavery, has 
played a prominent part in literature. The 
following are examples : Fabricius, Der heilige, 
Uuge und gelehrte Teufel (Esslingen, 1567); 
Musaus, Der melancholische Teufel (Tham, 
1572) ; Velez de Guevara, El diabolo coxuelo 
(Barcelona, 1646); Damerval, Le livre de la 
diablerie (Paris, 1508) ; Le diable bossu, Le 
diable femme, Le diable pendu et dependu, Le 
diable d*argent, Le diable babillard (all early 
in the 18th century) ; Le diable confondu (the 
Hague, 1740) ; Le diable hermite (Amsterdam, 
1741) ; Le Sage, Le diable boiteux (Paris, 
1755); Fre"d6ric Soulie", Memoires du diable 
(Paris, 1842) ; " The Parlyament of Deuylles," 
printed by Wynkin de Worde (1509) ; " The 
Devill of Mascon" (Oxford, 1658); Defoe, 
"The Political History of the Devil, as well 
Ancient as Modern" (London, 1726) ; and 
Beard's " Autobiography of the Devil " (Lon- 
don, 1872). (See DEMONOLOGY.) 

DEVIL FISH, a cartilaginous fish of the ray 
family, and the genus ceplialoptera (Dume>il). 
In this genus the head is truncated in front, 
and provided on each side with a pointed, 
wing-like process, separate from the pectoral 
fins, and capable of independent motion ; these 
processes, however, seem sometimes to be pro- 
longations of the pectorals, and give the name 
to the genus, which signifies wings upon the 
head. The pectorals are of great breadth, 
triangular, resembling wings, and making the 
averse diameter of the fish greater than the 
itudinal, with the tail included ; the jaws 
at the end of the head, the lower the more 
advanced ; the eyes are prominent and lateral ; 
the tail is armed with one or two serrated 
spines, and is long and slender ; in front of the 
spine is a small dorsal fin with 36 rays; the 
th are small, numerous, flat, and arranged 
many rows ; the small nostrils are placed 
the angles of the mouth, and openings 
robably the auditory) are situated on the 
orsal aspect of the appendages to the head, 
behind the eyes ; the branchial openings are 
"ve on each side, large, linear, near each other, 
fifth being the smallest ; the ventral fins 
,re small, rounded, near the base of the tail ; 
the skin is rough to the touch, like that of some 
sharks ; the skeleton is cartilaginous. The old 
genus cephaloptera has been divided by Mtiller 
and Henle, and the genus ceratoptera added. 
In the first the mouth is on the ventral aspect, 
and the pectorals are prolonged forward to 
a point beyond the head, resembling horns; 
four species are described. In the second the 
mouth is at the end of the snout, the upper 
jaw is crescentic, and the under convex ; there 




are no teeth in the upper jaw, and they are 
small and scale-like on the under ; the pecto- 
rals are separated from the precephalic fins by 
a rayless space; this includes three species, 
and among them, probably, the one mentioned 
below as caught at Kingston, Jamaica. The 
devil fish mentioned by Catesby, in his " Natu- 
ral History of Carolina," is probably the same 
as the gigantic ray described by Mitchill in 
vol. i. of the " Annals of the Lyceum of Nat- 
ural History of New York," under the name 
of the "vampire of the ocean" (0. vampyrus, 
Mitch.). This specimen was taken in the At- 
lantic, near the entrance of Delaware bay, in 
1823, and was so heavy as to require three pair 
of oxen, a horse, and several men to drag it 
on shore; it weighed about five tons, and 
was 17 ft. long and 18 ft. wide; the skin on 
the back was blackish brown, and on the belly 
black and white, and very slimy; the mouth 
was 2f ft. wide, the greatest breadth of the 
skull 5 ft., and the distance between the eyes 
4| ft. ; the cranial appendages were 2 ft. long 
and a foot wide, tapering, supported internally 




Devil Fish (Cephaloptera vampyms). 



by 27 parallel cartilaginous articulated rays, 
allowing free motion in almost all directions, 
and probably used as prehensile organs ; the 
immense pectorals were attached to the scapular 
arch, and contained 77 articulated parallel car- 
tilaginous rays, and were used like wings to fly 
through the water. The specific name of this 
ray was given by Mitchill from its size, repre- 
senting in its family what the vampire does in 
the bat family. This specimen was again de- 
scribed by Lesueur in the " Journal of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences " (vol. iv., 1824), as 
C. giorna (Lac6p.). Cuvier and De Kay con- 
sider the latter a distinct species, rarely exceed- 
ing the weight of 50 Ibs. The devil fish is oc- 
casionally seen on the coast of the southern 
states in summer and autumn, and wonderful 
stories are told of its strength and ferocity, its 
extraordinary shape and size having trans- 
formed a powerful but inoffensive animal into 
a terrible monster. Other species are met with 
in the tropical parts of the Atlantic and Pa- 
cine, both in mid ocean and on sandy coasts, 
which they approach to bring forth their young. 
They are not uncommon in the West Indies, 
and Dr. Bancroft, in vol. iv. of the "Zoologi- 



66 



DEVILLE 



DEVIL'S BRIDGE 



cal Journal," describes one which was cap- 
tured in 1828 in the harbor of Kingston, 
Jamaica, after ;i resistance of several hours, 
which dragged three or four boats fastened 
together at the rate of tour miles an hour. In 

ciiiu-n, which was smaller than the one 
di-M-ribed l.y Mitchill, the mouth was 27 in. 
wiK', opening into a cavity 4 ft. wide and 3 
ft. deep, and so vaulted that it could easily con- 
tain a man. He named it C. manta, which is 
doubtless a synonyme of C.vampyrus (Mitch.). 
Anson and other writers have described a fish 
like a quilt, which wraps itself around a diver 
ami M|nee/es him to death. The ray called 
devil ti>h undoubtedly gave rise to these stories, 
but it is anatomically impossible that it can 
so seize its prey, and it does not appear that 
any one has ever witnessed such an event. The 
pectoral fins of the devil fish are too thick at 
their base and anterior margin, and their car- 
tilages are too rigid, to allow of their being 
so bent downward as to enfold a man or any 
other prey in the manner alluded to; they 
are composed of a great number of joints, more 
than 600, and must be capable of a consider- 
able variety of motions calculated to impel the 
animal through the water with great strength 
and speed. The appendages to the head can 
hardly be used in locomotion. Lieut. St. 
John, who has watched attentively the move- 
ments of this fish, says these flaps are used 
in driving a large quantity of water toward 
the mouth when the animal is at rest, feeding ; 
they can be bent in front of and even into the 
mouth, and are probably prehensile organs 
for various purposes; when swimming, the 
flexible ends are coiled up. The nature of the 
teeth and the narrowness of the gullet also 
render it improbable that this fish feeds upon 
anything but small fry, which it sweeps toward 
the month with its cranial flaps. The truth 
appears to be that the devil fish, though 
powerful and hideous, is a timid and harm- 
less creature, avoiding rather than attack- 
ing man; but when attacked and defending 
itself, the serrated spine of the tail would 
prove a dangerous weapon, inflicting a deep, 
la rated, and possibly fatal wound to man or 
fish within its range. They are gregarious, 
and are pursued by fishermen for the oil of 
tin- liver. The pieuvre of Victor Hugo's Tra- 

n it,- la mer, rendered " devil fish " in 
the English translation of that work, is a fic- 

Mi.ni>tT. the description of which ap- 
plies to no species of the devil fish. Another 

ml hideous fMi, which is sometimes 

called tea -levil or devil fUh, is the lopkillS pis- 

i (Linn.); this i.s described under GOOSE 

Klsii. (See al-, OrTMl'UB.) 

WMI.IK. I. Charles Salute-Claire, a French 

geologist, born mi tl,e island of St. Thomas in 

s| j- II'- studied at the school ,,f mines in 

and w mi i- Vni/,1,1, <i,',,! ufil^ne aux An- 

am /A* <L '/;,//////; f f ,/,- p oqo pu h_ 

Ptrta, L866-'W). The great 
-n,pti..n ..i \ i-suvius in 1855, which he wit- 



nessed, called forth an interesting correspon- 
dence with Elie de Beaumont. lie has long 
filled the chair formerly held by Beaumont at 
the college de France. Among his latest pub- 
lications is Sur Us variations periodiques de la 
temperature (1866). II. Henri Etienne Sainte- 
Claire, a chemist, brother of the preceding, born 
on the island of St. Thomas, March 11, 1818. 
He studied in France, and devoted himself to 
chemical researches. After occupying for sev- 
eral years a chair of chemistry in the normal 
school, he succeeded Dumas in 1859 at the fac- 
ulty of sciences in Paris. He discovered in 
1849 the properties #nd preparation of anhy- 
drous nitric acid, and published in 1852 an im- 
portant paper on the metallic carbonates and 
their combinations. In 1853 he discovered a 
new method of mineral analysis, by means of 
gases and volatile reagents. About the same 
time he began his experiments with aluminum, 
and discovered a cheap method of producing it. 
He published his researches on the subject in 
his De V aluminium, ses proprietes, sa fabrica- 
tion et ses applications (Paris, 1859). He has 
since prepared several papers on a simplified 
general method for the production of simple 
metals, and on the variation of chemical affini- 
ties at different temperatures. (See DISSOCIA- 
TION.) He published in 1862 Eapport a Vem- 
pereur sur la fusion de racier aufour a rever- 
bdre sans emploi du creuset, and in the follow- 
ing year Metallurgie du platine et des metaux 
qui V accompagnent (3 vols. 8vo, with 3 charts). 

DEVIL'S ADVOCATE. See ADVOCATUS DIABOLI. 

DEVIL'S BRIDGE, a remarkable stone bridge 
in the canton of Uri, Switzerland, nearAnder- 




s Bridge. 



DEVIL'S WALL 



DEVONIAN 



57 



matt, by which the road from Switzerland to 
Italy by the pass of St. Gothard crosses the 
I Reuss. The original bridge was built by Abbot 
Gerold of Einsiedeln in 1118, and was partly 
destroyed by the French, Aug. 14, 1799. It 
was afterward restored, but is no longer in ac- 
tual use. It spans the river at a height of about 
80 ft., without a parapet. The bridge now in 
use, completed in 1830, is about 20 ft. higher 
than the old one, or 100 ft. above the river, 
with high parapets ; its arch has a span of 25 
ft. Near the bridge is a tunnel 180 ft. long, 
through which the road passes, called the 
Urnerloch, or hole of Uri. 

DEVIL'S WALL, a name given during the 
middle ages to the remains of some Roman 
fortifications designed to protect the settle- 
ments on the Rhine and the Danube against 
the inroads of the German tribes. These de- 
fences originally consisted of a row of pali- 
sades, in front of which extended a deep 
ditch. The emperor Probus strengthened 
them by the erection of a wall about 300 m. 
long, passing over rivers and mountains, and 
through valleys, and protected by towers 
placed at intervals. Portions of this wall are 
still distinguishable between Abensberg in Ba- 
varia and Cologne on the Rhine. In some 
places the ruins are overgrown with oaks, in 
others they form elevated roads or pathways 
through dense forests. 

DEVISE, the disposition of lands to take 
effect after the death of the devisor. It is a 
term of Norman origin, and signified at first 
any division of lands, marque cle division ou 
partage de terres, from the Latin dimdo. The 
instrument by which lands are devised is 
called a will. The disposition of personal 
estate to take effect after the death of the 
person making it is in legal language a tes- 
tament; but the common appellation, where 
both real and personal estate are included, is 
last will and testament. The Roman testa- 
Amentum applied equally to the disposition of 
real or personal estate, and the same rules 
were observed in either case. But the mode 
of executing a will has been always more 
formal in England than was required for the 
validity of a testament. (See WILL.) 

DEVIZES, a parliamentary borough and 
market town of Wiltshire, England, on the 
Great Western railway and on the Kennet 
canal, 82 m. S. W. of London ; pop. in 1871, 
6,840. It contains two handsome parish 
churches, besides other places of worship, and 
a fine town hall. Its manufactures are chiefly 
silk, crape, snuff, and malt. The grain market 
held here every Thursday has been famous 
ever since the time of Henry VIII., and is still 
the largest in the west of England. The town 
is supposed to owe its origin to a strong castle 
built here in the reign of Henry I. by Roger, 
bishop of Salisbury, and dismantled toward 
the close of the reign of Edward III. 

DEVONIAN, the name of one of the geologic 
ages, the age of fishes, and the second of the 



three ancient or palaeozoic divisions of time. 
It followed the Silurian, or age of mollusks, 
which till recently was thought to contain the 
earliest vestiges of organic life, and preceded 
the carboniferous. These three ages, constitu- 
ting the paleozoic era, were followed by the age 
of reptiles, which constitutes the mesozoic era. 
The Devonian age, or Devonian formation, as 
the rocks are called, was named from Devon- 
shire in England by Sir R. Murchison and Prof. 
Sedgwick, who about the year 1837 distinguish- 
ed its strata from those of the Silurian below 
and the carboniferous above. The transition 
of the Silurian to the Devonian formation is 
gradual and easy, and sometimes rather diffi- 
cult to determine ; so much so that differences 
of opinion exist in regard to some of the strata 
in certain localities ; but a broad distinction 
in the two ages is marked by the forms of the 
development of life. The periods and epochs 
into which the Devonian age is divided, ac- 
cording to the system of the New York state 
geologists, are as follows : 



DEVONIAN AGE. 



5. Catskill period 
4. Chemung period 

8. Hamilton period 

2. Corniferous period.. 
1. Oriskany period 



Catskill red sandstone. 

2. Chemung epoch. 

1. Portage epoch. 

3. Genesee epoch. 

2. Hamilton epoch. 

1. Marcellus epoch. 

3. Upper Helderberg epoch. 

2. Schoharie epoch. 
1. Cauda galli epoch. 
Oriskany red sandstone. 



The first and second periods are often called 
the lower Devonian, and those above, the upper 
Devonian. The corniferous was the great lime- 
stone period of America. Above it shales and 
sandstones predominate, the limestone beds 
being subordinate. The Oriskany formation, 
named from Oriskany, Oneida co., N. Y., is 
about 30 ft. thick at that place, composed 
mainly of rough sandstones. Along the Alle- 
ghanies it extends through Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Virginia, and in these states often 
reaches a thickness of several hundred feet. 
No land plants have been found among its fos- 
sils, and the mass of evidence points to the 
non-existence of land vegetation during the 
Oriskany period. The most common species 
of animals are the spirifer arenosus and Bens- 
selaeria ovoides, their large fossil shells being 
often crowded together, and composing a good 
share of the rock. The cauda galli epoch of the 
corniferous period is named from the feathery 
forms of a fossil, supposed to be the impres- 
sions of a seaweed. The rock is principally 
argillaceous sandstone, and in the Helderberg 
mountains, near Albany, N. Y., is from 50 to 60 
ft. thick. The rocks of the Schoharie epoch 
are principally fine-grained, calcareous sand- 
stones, full of fossils. In New York the beds 
are all in the eastern part of the state. The 
rocks of the upper Helderberg epoch are lime- 
stones, and are widely distributed over the 
interior continental basin from New York to 
beyond the Mississippi. In New York they 



58 



DEVONIAN 



DEVONPOET 



are divided into Onondaga and corniferous 
limestone. Tins latter, from which the period 
take- it- name, is called corniferous because it 
contains macs of hornstone or imperfect flint. 
Tin- plants of this period are seaweeds and 
protophytcs, the cauda galli being among the 
former. The upper Helderberg epoch is the 
coral reef period of the palaeozoic ages, abound- 
ing in corals, some of which are found standing 
in tin- position in which they grew, but they are 
j_ r eiu rally more or less comminuted. This forma- 
tion attains in some places a thickness of 350 ft. 
Thecornifcrous period is especially remarkable 
for containing the earliest discovered remains 
of fishes, the first development of vertebrate 
animals. The oldest development of them has 
been found in the United States, in the Scho- 
harie grit. The Devonian formation contains 
two of the great divisions of fishes, the sala- 
chians or sharks, and the ganoids, of which 
the gar-pike and sturgeon are representatives. 
The Marcellus shale of the Hamilton period is 
a soft argillaceous rock, containing sufficient 
traces of coal to afford a flame when placed 
in a fire. The Hamilton beds contain shale and 
flagging stone, and are overlaid by the black 
Genesee shale. The Hamilton beds are re- 
markable for containing numerous ripple marks, 
and for having the strata intersected by regu- 
lar joints; fine examples of which are found 
near Cayuga lake, N. Y. These beds contain 
fine fossils of gasteropods, cephalopods, and 
trilobites. The Hamilton formation extends 
across New York from Lake Erie east, having 
its greatest thickness, about 1,200ft., east of the 
centre. It extends into Michigan, Illinois, and 
Iowa, in thinner strata. The rocks of the 
Portage epoch of the Chemung period have a 
thickness of 1,000 ft. on the Genesee river, 
and of 1,400 ft. near Lake Erie, but are not 
found in eastern New York. The Chemung 
group extends over the southern tier of coun- 
ties in New York, attaining in places a thick- 
ness of 1,500 ft. It abounds in organic re- 

:>oth vegetable and animal, containing, 
besides the cauda galli seaweed, numerous land 

:md many species of crinoids, brachio- 

pods, conchifers, bellerophons, and goniatites. 

The last period of the Devonian formation, the 

Cat-kill, i- composed mainly of shales and 

sand-ton,--, the latter predominating, passing 

into conglomerates particularly in the upper 

formation-. There are ripple marks and other 

\\ave action. The vestiges of animal 

r than in the earlier periods, and 

widely differ from them in character. No 

< rinoid-. l.raehiopods, or trilobites have 

ind. There are a feu concliifers and 

f ti-hea, some of which were of 

'.'-, the tins hein^a foot in length. The 
J.eds. however, have not U-eii fully explored. 
The land plant- are of much the same charac- 
ter with thus.- of the Chemung period. A 
frond of ,, n ,. ,,f the charaeteri-tic ferns, found 
at M..ntroM-, 1'a., Was IM ,, n . t ], an ft f Qot - n 
breadth. The Catskill formation is thin in the 



western part of New York, but along the 
Hudson river, in the Catskill mountains, it at- 
tains a thickness of 2,000 or 3,000 ft. It passes 
beneath the coal formation in Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, attaining in the Appalachian re- 
gion a thickness of 5,000 or 6,000 ft. The 
Devonian rocks appear at the surface in most 
parts of all the continents ; in Great Britain 
they appear in Wales, Herefordshire, Devon- 
shire, and Cornwall, and are also found in Ire- 
land and the Isle of Man ; but they are most 
developed in the United States. 

DEVONPORT, a parliamentary and municipal 
borough and naval arsenal in Devonshire, 
England, on the South of Devon railway, and 
on the Tamar, where that river makes a bold 
sweep toward the east and widens into the fine 
estuary called the Hamoaze, just before its 
entrance into Plymouth sound, 190 m. S. W. 
of London, and 1^ in. W. of Plymouth; pop. 
of parliamentary borough in 1871, 64,684. Its 







Guildhall, Public Library, and Column to commemorate 
the Renaming of the Town. 

harbor, one of several remarkable natural 
havens opening into the sound, is 4 m. long, 
% m. wide, from 15 to 20 fathoms deep, per- 
fectly safe, and capable of sheltering the whole 
British navy at once ; but it is difficult of en- 
trance. The town is bounded S. and W. by 
the river, and E. by a creek which separates 
it from Stonehouse, contiguous to Plymouth. 
With these two places it is so closely con- 
nected that the three may almost be said to 
form a single city, and it was not till 1824 
that Devonport acquired separate municipal 
privileges, and changed its old name of Ply- 
mouth Dock for its present one. Among its 
schools are a naval and military free school, 
and an institution in which 100 girls are edu- 
cated and clothed. The town has a public 
library, orphan asylums, and a theatre. Water 
is brought from Dartmoor, in a winding con- 



DEVONSHIRE 



DEVRIENT 



59 



duit nearly 30 m. long. With the exception 
of some breweries and soap-boiling houses, 
Devonport contains no factories of importance. 
The density of the population is greater than 
that of any other place in England, viz., 130,- 
000 to the square mile. Devonport is fortified 
on three sides by a wall, a breastwork, and a 
ditch 12 to 20 ft. deep cut in the solid rock ; 
while the entrance from the sea is commanded 
by several heavy batteries. These works were 
begun by George II. The chief feature of the 
town is the dock yard, which employs 2,500 
men. It was commenced by William III., 
who built the basin and two docks. It has a 
river front of 3,500 ft., and a maximum breadth 
of 1,600 ft., the area enclosed being about 96 
acres. There are two dry docks, one double 
and one single dock for ships of the line, one 
graving dock, five building slips, and vast 
docks or basins at Point Keyhain for fitting 
and repairing war steamers, commenced in 
1844, and embracing an area of 72 acres. The 
immense roofs over the docks, consisting of 
single arches, without buttresses or pillars, are 
wonders of architectural skill. A canal TO 
ft. wide runs nearly through the yard, com- 
municating with the boat pond. 

DEVONSHIRE, a maritime county of England, 
bounded N. and N. W. by the Bristol channel, 
W. by the river Tamar and Marsland Water, 
which separate it from Cornwall, S. and S. E. 
by the English channel, and E. and N. E. by 
Dorsetshire and Somersetshire; area, 2,589 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 600,814. The principal 
rivers of Devon are the Taw, Torridge, Tamar, 
Dart, Teign, Exe, and Tavy. Trout are found 
in great plenty in most of these ; the Tamar, 
Tavy, and Exe furnish valuable salmon fish- 
eries, those of the last being thought the best in 
England. The county has three canals : the 
Great Western, 35 m. long, connecting the S. E. 
coast with the Bristol channel, the Tamar canal, 
and the Tavistock canal. The Bristol and Exe- 
ter and the South of Devon railways also trav- 
erse it. Devonshire is a rich mineral coun- 
try, furnishing copper and lead in considerable 
abundance, with smaller quantities of tin, iron, 
bismuth, and many other minerals, besides coal 
and marble. The tin mines were anciently nu- 
merous and valuable, but are now nearly aban- 
doned, those of Cornwall being so much richer. 
There are several varieties of lead ore, one of 
which is very rich in silver. Cobalt, antimony, 
and native silver have been found in consider- 
able quantities. The marbles quarried from 
the limestone rocks on the E. and S. coasts 
much resemble Italian marble in texture and 
appearance. Fine pipe clay, potters' clay, 
and slate of excellent quality are abundant. 
The agriculture of Devonshire is in a flour- 
ishing condition, about three fourths of the 
land being under cultivation. The S. and 
S. E. parts contain extensive wastes, inclu- 
ding Dartmoor, covered with immense rocks 
and detached masses of granite. In the N. 
and N. W. are found large tracts of swampy 



ground and many peat bogs of great depth. 
The vale of Exeter, containing about 200 sq. m., 
is one of the richest valleys in the kingdom. 
The district called South Hams, extending from 
Torbay round to Plymouth, is known as the 
garden of Devonshire, and is finely diversified 
and very productive. The pasture lands are 
chiefly devoted to dairy uses, though some at- 
tention is paid to raising sheep and cattle. 
Devonshire is celebrated for its cider and its 
cattle. The purest breeds are distinguished by 
a high red color, without white spots ; they are 
fine in the bone and clean in the neck, thin- 
skinned, and silky in handling ; have horns of 
medium length bent upward, a small tail set 
on very high, a light dun ring around the eye, 
and are noted for feeding at an early age. The 
cows weigh from 420 to 460 Ibs., the oxen from 
700 to 820 Ibs. The North Devon cattle, an- 
other variety, are in great demand for the firm 
grain of their meat, and the superior qualities 
of the oxen for work. The native horses are 
small, but hardy, and much accustomed to the 
packsaddle. Landed property in Devonshire 
is more evenly divided than in most other 
counties, there being few very large freeholds. 
Farms average from 100 to 200 acres. The 
spinning of linen yarn, and manufacture of lin- 
en goods, have superseded the former woollen 
manufacture. In and about Tiverton great 
quantities of lace and lace net are made, which 
find a market on the continent of Europe. Ship 
building gives employment to numbers of men. 
The chief ship yard is the royal dock yard at 
Devonport. The county town is Exeter, where 
the assizes are held. Among the other prin- 
cipal towns are Plymouth, Dartmouth, Tavis- 
tock, Okehampton, Totness, Honiton, Axmin- 
ster, Tiverton, and Barnstaple. The county 
gives the title of duke to the Cavendish, and 
of earl to the Courtenay family. There are 
ruins, British and Roman, in various parts of 
the county, among which are several abbeys 
and castles. 

DEVRIENT, the name of a family of German 
actors, of whom the most eminent are : I. Ludwig, 
born in Berlin, Dec. 15, 1784, died Dec. 30, 1832. 
His father, a silk mercer, intended him for a 
mercantile life, but at the age of 18 he joined 
a company of actors, and made his debut at 
Gera in Schiller's u Bride of Messina." He 
afterward travelled with the same company 
through Saxony, and in 1805 accepted an 
engagement at the court theatre of Dessau, 
and attained brilliant success. Pecuniary em- 
barrassments drove him some years later 
from this place. He went to Breslau, and 
subsequently, at the suggestion of the actor 
Mand, to Berlin, where in 1815 he appear- 
ed as Franz Moor in Schiller's "Robbers." 
From that time until his death he stood at 
the head of his profession in Germany. He 
was equally great in comedy and tragedy. II. 
Karl August, nephew of the preceding, born in 
Berlin, Aug. 5, 1798. He served in a regiment 
of hussars in the campaign of 1815 against 



60 



DEW 



, ami was present at the battle of Water- 

H afterward en-aged in mercantile pur- 

:.l in lsi;i made his debut on tlie stage 
at Itrnn-wiek. In l*Jo he married the cele- 

-inircr Wilhelmine Schroder, from whom 

he was divorced in 1828. (See SCHRODER.) 

He acted in all parts of Germany, but was for 

established at Hanover. He was 

lebratcd for his spirited personation of 
leading parts in genteel comedy. HI. Philipp 
Kdnard, brother of the preceding, born in Ber- 
lin. An-. 1 1, 1801. He commenced his artistic 

as a baritone singer, but afterward ap- 

almost exclusively in the spoken drama. 
Ho was a careful and cultivated actor, a success- 
ful writer (f dramas, and an authority on all 
that pertains to the profession. His chief works 
hav- been eolK-eted under the title of Drama- 
tuche und dramaturgische Schriften (8 vols., 
l.eip-ic, 1846-'61), including several plays, mis- 
cellaneous publications relating to the stage, 
and a history of the drama in Germany. l\ 
Gista? Emil, brother of the preceding, born in 
IJerlin, Sept. 4, 1803, died in Dresden, Aug. 7, 
1872. Like his two brothers and his uncle, he 
was intended for the mercantile profession, but 
in 1821 went upon the stage, where he soon 
gaiiu-d distinction, assuming with success many 
of the parts, both in tragedy and comedy, with 
which his uncle Ludwig's name is identified. 
His wife, Dorothea Bohler, from whom he was 
divorced in 1842, was an excellent comic ac- 
tress, and ably seconded her husband for many 
years. On Nov. 10, 1857, the 98th anniver- 
sary of Schiller's birthday, three members of 
the I 'evrient family, Gustav Emil, Karl August, 
and Karl's son, appeared together at Hanover, 
in the play of " Don Carlos." Gustav retired 
from the stage in 1867, having accumulated a 
large fortune ; after which he wrote a history 
of the German stage, nnd an autobiography 
which was to be published after his death. 

DEW, the humidity of the air, deposited on 
cool surfaces with which it comes in contact. 
It is commonly formed at night upon the leaves 
of grass and fives and other objects, especially 
when the sky is clear so as to permit sufficient 
radiation of heat from them to cool their sur- 

Mid c.nse<|iiently the layer of air next 

thi in. below the point of saturation, or dew 

point. The inoi-ture which collects upon the 

i cold body, as a pitcher of ice 

-tandinir in a warm room, and that 
which collects on a window pane when it is 
breathed upon, are strictly examples of the 

; "ii of dew, and also the frosted figures 

which form on windows and stone flagging of 

courtyards ; ,nd walks. J n the latter case the 

solid surface- have a temperature below the 

1 of water, and therefore the par- 

of moisture assume a crystalline form 

in-' from 'their invisible 

condition. The figures thus formed owe 

their variety to the varying degrees of tem- 

pentture and moisture, and rapidity of deposi- 

i.'l also to the nature of the surface of 



the body and its thermal inequalities, which 
necessarily exist in curves. The different causes 
of the formation of dew were never clearly 
understood until the early part of the present 
century. The ancients connected its appear- 
ance with the intervention of supernatural 
powers. As it mysteriously appeared when 
the air was clear and apparently dry, and 
gathered upon the herbage in sparkling beads, 
while it avoided the barren and rocky surfaces, 
they might well look upon it as a special bless- 
ing, possessed of wonderful virtues. Hence it 
came to be prescribed for restoring the charms 
of youth, and to be used by the alchemists as 
a solvent of subtle and mysterious powers. 
The ancients generally entertained the idea 
that the moon and stars not only poured down 
cold upon the earth, but also, in some myste- 
rious way, distilled dew. Aristotle was the 
first to approach a rational explanation, al- ' 
though, from a want of knowledge only ob- 
tained by the use of modern philosophical in- 
struments, his explanations contained errors. 
He believed aqueous vapor to be a mixture of 
water and heat ; and as it rarely appeared on 
mountain heights, he supposed it was abandoned 
by the heat, and left to precipitate itself upon 
the earth. He rejected the idea of lunar or 
astral influence, and maintained that the sun 
was the prime cause, " since his heat raises the 
vapor from which the dew is formed as soon 
as that heat is no longer present to sustain the 
vapor." In the middle ages philosophers re- 
vived the notion that the moon and stars were 
the cause of dew. Battista Porta showed the 
erroneousness of these views by instancing sev- 
eral facts, but he discarded the correct part 
of Aristotle's theory, that dew was condensed 
vapor separated from the atmosphere, and ad- 
vanced the idea that it was condensed air it- 
self. Musschenbroek observed that it was de- 
posited more readily on some substances than 
on others, and therefore correctly inferred that 
the object itself had an important influence in 
its formation. This led to a reconsideration 
of Aristotle's theory, and its adoption, with 
the modification that instead of its being dis- 
charged from the mass of the air it was only 
removed from the stratum in contact with the 
object upon which it was deposited. The ex- 
periment of placing a cold body in a warm 
moist atmosphere proved the correctness of 
this theory. But it was not till a series of ex- 
periments were made by Dr. William Charles 
Wells (a London physician, though a native of 
Charleston, S. C.), and published in August, 
1814, that a comprehensive theory of the for- 
mation of dew was publicly promulgated. His 
experiments were made in a garden in Surrey, 
near Blackfriars bridge, and will for ever re- 
main as admirable examples of ingenious philo- 
sophical investigation. He exposed little pieces 
of dry wool of equal weights and sizes during 
the night, their increased weight in the morn- 
ing showing the amount of dew which had 
been deposited. The quantity thus collected 



DEW 



61 



was found to be greater on clear than on 
cloudy nights, but there was much difference 
in the amount deposited on different clear 
nights. He discovered that the quantity was 
less, not only when the air was drier, but also 
when the wool was covered by any kind of a 
screen, whether this was a board, a piece of 
cloth, a tree, or a cloud. Supporting a board 
a few inches above the ground and placing one 
piece of wool under and another upon it, each 
weighing 10 grains, he found that the upper 
piece gained 14 grains, while the under one 
gained only 4. He discovered, moreover, that 
when he used thermometers, the greatest 
deposition of dew always accompanied the 
lowest temperature ; thus, he often found the 
temperature 9 or 10 lower above the board 
than under it, and on one occasion the ther- 
mometer fell 14 lower when freely exposed 
upon the grass than when suspended four feet 
above it. A piece of cotton in the vicinity of 
the latter place gained only 11 grains, while a 
piece of equal weight and size gained 20 grains 
lying upon the grass. The passing of clouds 
Avould cause the thermometer to rise and fall 
as they screened the locality or left it exposed 
to the clear sky. In consequence of the differ- 
ent capacities which bodies have of radiating 
heat, they attain different temperatures, and 
upon those which radiate and therefore cool 
the most rapidly, the greatest quantity of dew 
is deposited. Dr. Wells found that grass and 
wood were covered with it, while plates of 
metal, stones, and gravel walks were free from 
it. A glass thermometer placed upon a metal 
plate and exposed to the clear sky was, after a 
time, moist with dew, while the plate was dry. 
To ascertain whether this was caused by dif- 
ference in position or external circumstances, 
he placed another thermometer having a gilt 
bulb beside the glass one, when the latter showed 
a temperature 9 lower than the other. This 
was because glass is a better radiator than metal, 
and therefore cools more rapidly. The follow- 
ing synopsis of the attendant phenomena of dew 
is compiled from all the recorded observations. 
1. The dew falls most abundantly during calm 
nights. 2. The drops deposited by fogs resem- 
ble dew, but differ in that fog wets all bodies 
indifferently, while dew attaches itself to some 
in preference to others. 3. Fogs may exist 
during winds ; dew generally disappears if the 
wind rises. 4. Dew is deposited in preference 
on surfaces not protected by shelter from 
exposure to the clear sky. 5. Other things 
being equal, the quantity of dew deposited in 
a given time diminishes in proportion as the 
exposure to the sky is cut off by screens, whe- 
ther they be above or on one side of the be- 
dewed body. 6. The nature of a body, and 
especially the smoothness or roughness of its 
surface, affects the quantity of dew deposited 
on it. Thus, leaves of plants receive more 
than the earth, sand more than compact soil, 
glass more than metals; and in general sub- 
stances that are poor conductors of heat, and 



yet cool rapidly by radiation, such as glass, 
cotton, flax, hair, down, &c., are most heavily 
bedewed. 7. Dew is deposited during the 
entire night, beginning by or before sunset, and 
continuing until after sunrise ; it forms most 
rapidly about sunrise. 8. A slight movement 
of the air is very favorable to the production 
of dew ; but moderate or strong winds are not 
so, though they do not cause it to disappear 
entirely. 9. Fogs, haze, clouds, smoke, &c., 
act as do solid screens to diminish the deposi- 
tion of dew ; very low clouds accompanied by 
strong winds altogether prevent the dew. 10. 
The most abundant dews are observed on the 
shores of the oceans, lakes, rivers, &c. ; the 
least abundant in the interior of dry continen- 
tal plains, and on islands and ships in mid 
ocean. Ships approaching a coast soon begin 
to receive a deposit of dew. The clear cool 
nights of the western coasts of America and 
Palestine are peculiarly favorable to the for- 
mation of dew. 11. The accurate measure- 
ments of Wells show that as much as 20 grains 
of dew may be deposited in a single night on 
a surface two inches in diameter. Dr. Dalton 
estimates the entire amount of annual precipi- 
tation in England to equal five inches of rain. 
12. The dew is heaviest in the first clear still 
night after long continued rain, and in general 
increases with the dampness of the air. 13. A 
very great difference of temperature between 
the air next to the ground and that a few feet 
above accompanies the formation of dew, es- 
pecially when heavy. 14. The electrical con- 
dition of a body has no influence on its capa- 
city for receiving dew. 15. Objects a few 
inches above the surface of the soil collect 
more dew than those lying on the ground it- 
self. From all the preceding observations, 
Wells arrived at an understanding of the origin 
and the laws regulating the formation of dew ; 
his conclusions are now, with slight modifica- 
tions, very generally accepted. According to 
this view, the radiation of heat from the earth's 
surface into space, which is counterbalanced 
during the day by the reception of heat from 
the sun, takes place with most freedom through 
a clear, dry air, and is counteracted by screens, 
clouds, and fogs. The surface of a body ex- 
posed to unobstructed radiation into space loses 
its heat entirely, except in so far as this is sup- 
plied by conduction from the interior of its mass, 
or by convection through the action of suffi- 
ciently rapid currents of air. Thus it happens 
that the air in contact with the exposed surface 
of a bad conductor, but a good radiator, is cooled 
to the temperature of its dew point, and begin!? 
to deposit its moisture on the cold surface. If 
the air be absolutely motionless, only a slight 
deposit will be formed, and that very slowly ; 
but by reason of the increasing density of the 
increasingly colder air the latter sinks, and is 
replaced by warmer air having the same hu- 
midity. Thus a continual supply of moist air 
is maintained, and this is favored by a very 
slight general movement of the air ; while, on 



DEW 



DEWEES 



tin- other hand, a strong wind conveys too 
inm-h ln-at to all>\v of the moling of the be- 

: !..idy. 'I lu- hy^rometric tables of Glai- 
iilt, and others, alh>\v of an accu- 

vdiction as t< the quantity of dew that 
i. and even enable one to de- 
termine uhcther frost or dew will prevail. 
It will thus be seen that the true origin and 
..f d.-w was quite misunderstood until 

.1 the I'.ith century. The DEW POINT is 
the tempi- nit 11 re at which the vapor contained 
in the atmosphere condenses into water. It 
depends upon the amount contained within a 

-pa<-c ; the greater this is, the higher 
will he the degree of heat necessary to retain 
it in a vaporous condition. When the air is 
saturated with vapor it is of course at its dew 
point, and any reduction of its temperature 
will cause the separation of a portion of mois- 
ture. As this process continues the dew point 
becomes gradually lowered, and although the 
proportion of moisture held in solution by the 
uir diminishes, the degree of humidity remains 
the same ; for this term is used not to denote 
the actual proportion of vapor, but the power 
of sensibly manifesting itself upon any given 
reduction of temperature. It is often called 
relative humidity, and is expressed in parts of 
100, or the amount which would saturate the 
air at the particular temperature when the 
observation is taken. Thus, at Philadelphia 
the average humidity of the air is 73, meaning 
73 per cent, of the quantity necessary for sat- 
uration ; at St. Helena it is 88 ; at Madrid, 
62 ; in parts of India it is sometimes as low as 
10; and on the Andes it is often still lower. 
Air which is heated much above its dew point 
is regarded as dry, although it may contain a 
greater proportion of vapor than that which is 
called humid. In California the dew point is 
.sometimes 78 below the temperature of the 
air. and among the Andes the difference is 
often great. T. It has been found as much as 
46 at Philadelphia, but the usual range is 
from 10 to 25. The following table shows 

.n ivlative humidity of the atmosphere 
in New York from several observations made 
e.ich day at the Cooper institute, for the Smith- 
sonian institution, by Prof. Morris: 



Jan. 



INI 

8? 

OM 

BT-fl 
IfrM 

U 

i7.: 

H 



IT-M 

41-88 
Ml 

M 

M ' 

::..],-. 



M 

M 



Data, 



Relative Temperature, 
Humidity. Fahrenheit. 



June 



4840 
B0-M 

54 

.M"_>i> 

1848 

61-48 



59-1 fi 
46-86 
49-1 



76 
72-66 
61-88 
66-9 



88-16 

7OC 

:.;: 
i<;-<;<; 



The litr.-r.-nn. 1,,-tween the dew point and the 

temiH-ratiire of the air is called thecomplement 

lew point. From numerous ohserva- 



tions which have been made with Daniell's 
and Bache's hygrometers, and with the wet- 
hulb thermometer, a method has been deduced 
for determining the dew point with sufficient 
accuracy, by observations made with the lat- 
ter instrument. The ratio of the complement 
varies with the temperature of the air : thus, 
when it is 53 the difference between the dry 
and wet bulb is one half the complement ; at 
32 it is one third, and at 26 only one sixth. 
Tables have been constructed for readily de- 
termining the dew point, which may be found 
in the various works on meteorology. Thus, 
in the above table it is stated that the relative 
humidity of the air at New York, June 1, 
1873, was 53'13, while the temperature was 
76 F. By referring to the table of relative 
humidity in the article HYGEOMETET, it will be 
seen that the complement of the dew point 
was about 18 ; that is, the dew point was 
about 18 lower than the temperature of the 
air, or about 58. (See EVAPORATION, HEAT, 
and HYGEOMETEY.) 

DEW, Thomas Roderick, an American publicist, 
born in Virginia, Dec. 5, 1802, died in Paris, 
Aug. 6, 1846. He graduated at William and 
Mary college, and afterward travelled for two 
years in Europe. In 1827 he was chosen pro- 
fessor of moral science in William and Mary 
college, of which he became president in 1836. 
In 1829 he published " Lectures on the Re- 
strictive System," and in 1833 an elaborate 
essay on " Slavery," which is said to have 
prevented emancipation in Virginia at that 
time. He died suddenly while on a visit to 
Europe with his bride. His most elaborate 
work is U A Digest of the Laws, Customs, 
Manners, and Institutions of Modern Nations," 
which appeared in 1853. 

DEWBERRY. See BKAMBLE. 

DEWEES, William Potts, an American physi- 
cian, born at Pottsgrove, Pa., May 5, 1768, 
died in Philadelphia, May 18, 1841. He at- 
tended several courses of lectures at the .uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and, without having 
taken any degree, in 1789 commenced the 
practice of medicine at Abington, Pa. The de- 
gree of M. D. was subsequently conferred on 
him by the university. The yellow fever hav- 
ing in the summer and autumn of 1793 thinned 
the ranks of the physicians in Philadelphia, in 
December of that year Dr. Dewees removed 
thither, selecting obstetrics for his specialty, 
and achieved a high reputation in that depart' 
ment. In 1812, being threatened with 'a pul- 
monary affection, he relinquished practice, and 
for five years devoted himself to agriculture. 
In 1817 he returned to Philadelphia. In 1826 
he was elected adjunct professor, and in 1834 
professor of obstetrics and diseases of women 
and children in the university of Pennsylvania. 
In the latter year he was attacked by'paraly- 
sis, and at the commencement of the follow- 
ing year he was obliged to resign his profes- 
sorship. He settled in Mobile, but resumed 
his residence in Philadelphia about a year 



D'EWES 



DEWEY 



63 



before his death. He published " Inaugural 
Essays/' "Medical Essays," "System of Mid- 
wifery," " A Treatise on the Physical and 
Medical Treatment of Children," and " A Trea- 
tise on Diseases of Females." His last syste- 
matic work was his "Practice of Medicine," 
published in 1830. 

D'EWES, Sir Symonds, an English antiquary, 
born in Coxden, Dorsetshire, Dec. 18, 1602, 
died April 18, 1650. He graduated at Cam- 
bridge, and was admitted to the bar, but never 
practised, and lived on his property at Stow 
Hall in Suffolk. He was high sheriff of Suf- 
folk in 1639, was elected to parliament for 
Sudbury in 1640, and was one of the Puritan 
members expelled from the house of commons 
by "Pride's purge." He c6mmenced collect- 
ing materials for a history of England at the 
age of 18, and though the fruits of his research 
were not published by him, they were of great 
use to Selden and other writers. After his 
death his "Journals of all the Parliaments 
during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth " (folio, 
London, 1682) was published by his nephew. 
His " Autobiography and Correspondence," 
edited by J. 0. Halliwell (4 vols. 8vo, London, 
1845), contains some interesting pictures of 
his times and contemporaries, intermixed with 
much that is useless and with a comical dis- 
play of vanity. 

DE WETTE, Wilhclm Martin Leberecht, a Ger- 
man theologian, born at Ulla, near Weimar, 
Jan. 14, 1780, died in Basel, June 16, 1849. 
Having studied at Weimar and Jena, he was 
appointed professor of philosophy, and subse- 
quently of theology, at Heidelberg, and re- 
ceived in 1810 a professorship at the universi- 
ty of Berlin, where he rapidly acquired great 
reputation both as a teacher and as a writer. 
This situation he lost in 1819, in consequence 
of a letter of consolation written to the mother 
of Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue, which 
was regarded by the government as e*xtenua- 
ting that political murder. He was afterward 
elected professor of theology in the university 
of Basel. His works are among the most re- 
markable productions of German theological 
science and criticism. The most important 
of them are : Beitrdge zur Einleitung in das 
Alte Testament (2 vols., 1806-'7) ; Commentar 
uber die Psalmen (1811); Lehrbuch der he- 
brdisch-judischen Archaologie (1814) ; Ueber 
Religion un'l Theologie (1815); Lelirbuch der 
christlichen Dogmatik (2 vols., 1813-' 16) ; 
"Critical and Historical Introduction to the 
Old and New Testaments " (2 vols., 18l7-'26 ; 
the Introduction to the Old Testament was 
translated and enlarged by Theodore Parker, 
Boston, 1843, and that to the New by Frederick 
Frothingham, Boston, 1858); Christliche Sit- 
tenlehre (3 vols., 1819-'21); "Theodore, or the 
Skeptic's Conversion" (1822; translated by 
James F. Clarke, Boston, 1841) ; "Lectures on 
Practical Ethics" (1823 ; translated by Samuel 
Osgood, Boston, 1842); Opuscula Theologica 
(1830) ; Das Wesen des christlichen Glau- 
261 VOL. vi. 5 



"bens (1846) ; a new translation of the Bible, 
executed together with Augusti, in 6 vols. 
(1809-'14) ; and an edition of Luther's works. 

DEWEY, Chester, D. D., an American clergy- 
man, born at Sheffield, Mass., Oct. 25, 1784, 
died in Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1867. He 
graduated at Williams college in 1806, was 
licensed to preach in 1808, and during the 
latter half of that year officiated in Tyring- 
ham, Mass. The same year he accepted a 
tutorship in Williams college, and in 1810 was 
appointed to the chair of mathematics and 
natural philosophy, and occupied it 17 years. 
From 1827 to 1836 he was principal of the 
gymnasium at Pittsfield, Mass., and was also 
professor of chemistry in the medical colleges 
there and at Woodstock, Vt. In 1836 he be- 
came principal of the collegiate institute at 
Rochester, N. Y., and in 1850, on the establish- 
ment of the university of Rochester, he was 
elected professor of chemistry and natural 
history, from which position he retired in 
1860. He was active in efforts for the ad- 
vancement of public schools, and was for a 
time president of the teachers' institute. He 
made the study of grasses a specialty, and 
discovered and described several new species. 
In the class of carices he was a recognized 
authority, and his writings on this subject 
make an elaborate monograph, patiently pros- 
ecuted for more than 40 years. He was an 
extensive contributor to the "American Jour- 
nal of Science and Arts," and wrote numerous 
papers on botany, and a " History of the Her- 
baceous Plants of Massachusetts," which was 
published by the state. His latest publications 
were two review articles, " The true Place of 
Man in Zoology," and "An Examination of 
some Reasonings against the Unity of Man- 
kind." For nearly 50 years of his active life 
Prof. Dewey delivered an average of 70 ser- 
mons a year, though he was never a pastor. 

DEWEY, Orville, D.D.,an American clergyman, 
born at Sheffield, Mass., March 28, 1794. He 
graduated at Williams college in 1814, studied 
divinity at Andover from 1816 to 1819, was for 
eight months agent for the American education 
society, and declined an immediate and per- 
manent settlement on account of unfixed opin- 
ions in theology, but accepted a temporary call 
at Gloucester, Cape Ann, with a candid ex- 
planation of his unsettled views, and here be- 
came a Unitarian. He was soon after appoint- 
ed assistant of Dr. Channing, preached two 
years in his pulpit, and formed with him an 
intimacy that lasted during Channing's life. In 
1823 he accepted the pastorate of the Unitari- 
an church in New Bedford, where he remained 
ten years, until, broken in health, he sought 
restoration in a voyage to Europe, June, 1833. 
" The Old World and the New " (2 vols., 1836) 
contains the history of his two years' absence. 
In 1835 he was called to the second Unitarian 
church in New York, which during his minis- 
try built the " church of the Messiah," and be- 
came a very large and prosperous society. In 



ft 4 IK WITT 

1842, his health again failing, he went abroad 
for two jreftTt, r turned in 1*44, and was com- 
pelled by continued ill health to dissolve his 
connection with his church in 1848, and retire 
; in,, in ShetHeld, where he prepared a 
coarse of lectures for the Lowell institute at 
Boston, on the " Prohk-m <>f Human Life and 
Destiny." which was repeated twice in New 
York, and delivered in many other places. 
This course was followed in 1855 by another 
Lowell course on the "Education of the Hu- 
man Race," which was almost as widely re- 
peated. Meanwhile he filled a Unitarian pulpit 
in Albany one winter, and in Washington two. 
In 1858 he was settled as pastor over the Uni- 
tarian society in Church Green, Boston, known 
as the "New South," from which after four 
years' service he returned to his home in Shef- 
field. The first book he published was a little 
work, which attracted much attention, entitled 
rs on Revivals." During his ministry 
at New Bedford he contributed to the " Chris- 
tian Examiner" and the "North American 
Review." On leaving New Bedford he pub- 
lished a volume of sermons. His subsequent 
works have been collected and published in 
three volumes (New York, 1847); they con- 
sist of "Discourses on Human Nature," "Dis- 
courses on Human Life, " " Discourses on the 
Nature of Religion," " Discourses on Commerce 
and Business," "Miscellaneous and Occasional 
Discourses," "The Unitarian Belief," and 
" Discourses and Reviews." 

DEWITT. I. A S. county of Texas, drained 
by the Guadalupe river ; area, 898 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 6,443, of whom 1,757 were colored. It 
abounds in fine scenery, and has a hilly or roll- 
ing surface. The soil, particularly in the val- 
ley of the Guadalupe, is fertile. There are 
several medicinal springs, mostly sulphurous. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 107,896 
bushels of Indian corn, 13,683 of sweet pota- 
toes, 55,523 Ibs. of butter, 21,275 of wool, and 
641 bales of cotton. There were 5,520 horses, 
6,547 milch cows, 53,832 other cattle, 17,232 
sheep, and 7,226 swine. Capital, Clinton. II. 
A central county of Illinois, intersected by Salt 
creek; area, 675 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,768. 
It is mostly level, and comprises forests of val- 
uable timber and fertile prairies, remarkably 
easy of cultivation. Bituminous coal is the 
chief mineral product. The N. division of the 
Illinois Central railroad crosses it, and the 
Indianapolis, Bloomington, and Western rail- 
road inter rts the S. E. corner. The chief 
productions in IHT<I were 118,185 bushels of 
1,811,686 f Indian corn, 216,756 of 
oats, 88,120 of potatoes, 20,289 tons of hay, 
::41.4:i Ibs. of butter, and 90,910 of wool. 
-.351 milch cows 
cattle, 21,799 sheep, and 29,322 
: 12 carriage factories, 1 flour mill, and 2 
manufactories of saddlery and harness. Capi- 
tal, Clinton. 

lK WITT, Jtn, a Dutch statesman, born in 
Dort in 162.1, murdered at the Hague, Aug. 



DE WITT 

20, 1672. From his father, who had been 
a member of the states and a conspicuous op- 
ponent of the house of Orange, he inherited 
strong republican tendencies. The imprison- 
ment of his father in 1650 intensified his hatred 
of the stadtholders ; and the death of William 
II. in October of that year gave a favorable 
turn to the fortunes of De Witt. In 1052 he 
was one of the deputation sent to Zealand to 
dissuade that province from adopting the 
Orange policy, and the eloquence he then dis- 
played gave him considerable popularity. In 
the following year he became grand pensionary 
of Holland ; and his new power was at once 
exerted to the utmost to put an end to the plu- 
rality of offices which had rendered the stadt- 
holders almost despotic. He so far succeeded 
that the office of stadtholder was abolished ; 
and in negotiating the treaty of Westminster 
with Cromwell (1654), he procured the inser- 
tion of a secret article by which the house of 
Orange was to be for ever excluded from the 
highest offices. When Charles II. was re- 
stored, De Witt sought to form an alliance 
with France ; and England thereupon declared 
war against Holland. After hostilities had 
continued two years, the advantage was with 
Holland ; De Ruyter's fleet was in the Thames 
and had burned the British shipping in the 
Medway, and the peace of Breda was con- 
cluded, July, 1667. Though De Witt managed 
the affairs of his office with great skill and wis- 
dom during this war, his popularity sensibly 
declined, and the Orange party continually 
gained strength. When France assumed a 
hostile attitude toward Holland, he made such 
haste to form an alliance with Sweden and 
England that he had the treaty ratified at once 
by the states general, when it should have 
been referred to the council of each province. 
However this action may have been justified 
by the emergency, it was easy to make it a 
cause of popular clamor and distrust. Yet the 
grand pensionary did not abate his hostility to 
the house of Orange, or cease his efforts for 
regulating the finances and otherwise strength- 
ening the internal condition of the government. 
Louis XIV. having succeeded in detaching 
England from the Dutch interest and forming a 
counter alliance, and his armies having invaded 
Holland in 1672, De Witt lost all hold on the 
confidence of the people, and was obliged to 
resign his office. William III. of Orange was 
made commander-in-chief of the Dutch forces, 
and was nominated stadtholder. De Witt's 
brother Cornelius, two years older than him- 
self, had served with distinction in the navy 
for several years during his youth, was after- 
ward appointed inspector of war vessels, and 
was again conspicuous under De Ruyter when 
the fleet entered the Thames. He was more 
celebrated, however, as a magistrate, and had 
risen to the office of deputy in the states gen- 
eral. The popular clamor excited against his 
brother was turned upon him also, and he was 
accused of plotting against the life of the prince 



DEWSBURY 

of Orange, and thrown into prison and tor- 
tured. On his release, Jan was waiting for 
him at the gate, when both were seized by 
a mob and murdered. The states general 
demanded an investigation of the affair ; but 
the stadtholder neglected to do anything 
about it, and was therefore believed to have 
countenanced the assassination. The brothers, 
by their ability, courage, and integrity, had 
commanded the respect and admiration even 
of their political opponents. Jan was the au- 
thor of several works of political interest. 

DEWSBURY, a manufacturing town and par- 
ish of England, in the West Riding of York- 
shire, situated on the left bank of the Calder, 
and on the London and Northwestern railway, 
28 m. S. W. of York; pop. in 1871, 24,773 (in 
1851, 5,031). It is at the head of what is 
called the shoddy trade of England, vast quan- 
tities of refuse woollen rags, called " devil's 
dust," being collected from all parts of the 
kingdom and made into cloth, blankets, and 
carpets. About 3,000 persons are employed 
in these manufactures. There are collieries and 
iron works in the immediate neighborhood. 

DEXTER, Samnel, an American statesman and 
jurist, born in Boston, May 14, 1761, died at 
Athens, N. Y., May 4, 1816. He graduated at 
1 Harvard college in 1781, and was admitted to 
i the bar in 1784. After practising at various 
] places in Massachusetts, he took up his resi- 
i dence in Boston. He was elected to the legis- 
lature of Massachusetts several times, and be- 
came a member of congress in 1793. In 1798 
he was elected senator of the United States. 
He was appointed secretary of war by John 
Adams in 1800, and in 1801 secretary of the 
treasury, but returned to practice in 1802. He 
was a member of the federal party, but did 
not sympathize with it in regard to the war of 
1812. In 1814 he was nominated by the re- 
publican party for the office of governor, on 
account of his opposition to the Hartford con- 
vention, but was defeated. He was the first 
president of the first temperance society in 
Massachusetts. 

DEXTRINE (Lat. dexter, right; called also 
British gum, Alsace gum, starch gum, and tor- 
refied starch), an isomeric condition of starch, 
having the composition C 8 Hio0 5 or Ci 2 Hi Oio. 
It is also isomeric with gum arabic, which it 
much resembles in appearance and in many 
properties, but differs in the remarkable one, 
from which it derives its name, of turning the 
plane of polarization to the right when polarized 
light is passed through a solution of it, instead 
of to the left, which is the case when a solu- 
tion of gum arabic is used. Starch will also 
turn the plane of polarization to the right, but 
in a much less marked degree than dextrine ; 
the latter having an optical rotary power of 
138'68. Dextrine is an intermediate stage 
between starch and grape sugar, passing into 
the latter by combining with H 2 O, but differ- 
ing from starch in physical qualities only. 
Another intermediate modification between 



DEXTRINE 



65 



starch and dextrine exists, according to 
Maschke and others, called soluble starch, 
which possesses a higher degree of right-hand 
polarizing power than dextrine and is turned 
blue by iodine. (See STABCH.) Dextrine may 
be produced by several processes. 1. By care- 
fully roasting starch in shallow pans or revolv- 
ing cylinders, heated between 300 and 310 
F. "When the starch presents a light brown 
color, and emits the odor of strongly baked 
bread, the transformation is effected. 2. By 
subjecting starch to the action of nitric acid. 
Pay en's method was to mix 1,000 parts of dry 
starch with 2 parts of nitric acid of 36 Baume\ 
diluted with 300 parts of water, and place the 
mixture in layers about an inch thick on brass 
drawers in an oven heated to about 240 F. 
The transformation is effected in an hour and 
a half or two hours. 3. By boiling starch 
with dilute sulphuric acid, about 11 parts of 
water, 4 of starch, and 1 of sulphuric acid 
being used. The starch is stirred in part of 
the water, and the acid diluted with the re- 
mainder. Both portions are then raised to 
about 194 F. and gradually mingled ; the tem- 
perature being maintained until as great a 
quantity as possible of dextrine is obtained, 
when the liquid is boiled to arrest the pro- 
duction of grape sugar, which is always formed 
in the process. The dextrine can only be ob- 
tained pure by repeatedly dissolving it in 
water and precipitating with alcohol. 4. By 
the action of diastase on starch. If 8 or 10 
parts of malt are stirred in about 400 parts 
of water at 80 F., and the mixture is raised 
to about 140, and then 100 parts of starch are 
stirred in, the temperature being again raised 
to 158-167, and there maintained for about 
half an hour, the starch will be converted 
into dextrine; but unless the temperature is 
changed the latter will pass into grape sugar. 
By raising the mixture to the boiling point, 
however, the transformation is arrested. 
Dextrine, when pure, is solid, translucent, and 
uncrystallizable. It is ordinarily a brownish- 
colored powder, nearly tasteless, soluble in 
hot or cold water and in dilute alcohol, but 
insoluble in absolute alcohol. It is not colored 
blue, but red, by the action of iodine. When 
boiled with dilute acids and caustic alkalies, it 
is converted into glucose or grape sugar. If a 
small quantity of caustic potash is mixed with 
a solution of dextrine, and a dilute solution of 
sulphate of copper added drop by drop, the 
liquid will acquire a deep blue color, and will 
not yield a deposit while cold ; but if heated to 
185 F., it will be decomposed, with precipi- 
tation of oxide of copper. This test (Trom- 
mer's) distinguishes it from gum arabic. It has 
been found that the presence of dextrine pre- 
vents the blueing of starch by iodine, and will 
even discolor iodide of starch. Dextrine is 
used for stiffening cotton goods to prepare 
them for printing, and for sizing paper. It is 
a superior substitute for gum arabic, to give 
an adhesive layer to postage stamps and the 



66 



DEY 



edges of envelopes; also to labels, particularly 
those for glass bottles, causing them to adhere 
more permanently than any other suitable sub- 
stance. Confectioners employ it in the manu- 
facture of lozenges. It is often employed with 
.id vantage in the preparation of ban- 
dages to keep broken bones in perfect relative 
position. Fur this purpose it is generally used 
as crudely prepared by the action of sulphuric 
Potato starch is generally used in the 
manufacture of dextrine, on account of its 
cheapness and greater purity. 

IIKY, throughout the 17th century the title 
of the commander of the armies of Algiers, 
subject to a pasha appointed by the Porte. 
At* the beginning of the 18th century the 
diirnity of pasha was united with that of dey, 
and the dey was the highest officer of Algiers 
from that time till the conquest of the country 
by the French in 1830. The (leys were ap- 
pointed and deposed by a council or divan, and 
the deposition of a dey was generally followed 
by his death. His nomination was announced 
to the Porte at Constantinople, which always 
confirmed it by a firman. The dey, who was 
also the commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy, exercised with his ministers all the ex- 
ecutive authority; and the later deys took 
away the power of the divan. 

DEYRA DOON, or Dehra Uoon, a valley of Brit- 
ish India, between the S. W. base of the lowest 
and outermost ridge of the Himalaya and the 
N. E. slope of the Sivalik mountains, the for- 
mer having an elevation of 7,000 or 8,000 ft., 
And the latter of about 3,000 ; between lat. 30 
and 30 32' N., and Ion. 77 43' and 78 24' E. 
It is bounded 8. E. by the Ganges and N. 
by the Jumna, is drained by their tributa- 
ries, and with the hilly region called Jounsar 
Bawur forms a district under the lieutenant- 
governorship of the Northwest Provinces. 
The productions are rice, maize, grain, cotton, 
sugar, opium, indigo, plantain, and hemp. 
Every English plant is said to thrive luxu- 
riantly, and considerable success has attend- 
ed the cultivation of tea. The valley is wa- 
tered by numerous streams, and abounds in 
game. The climate during part of the year is 
very unhealthy. The district was formerly in- 
cluded in the dominions of the rajah of Gurh- 
wal. was overrun by the Gorkhas in 1803, 
and in 1815, during the Nepaul war, was in- 
vaded by the British, who suffered jjreat loss 
and who, after the expulsion of the 
<MH-kha*. kept possession of the territory. 
. the principal town of the district, is 
pit nated in dense mango groves, at the inter- 
section of two routes of trade, 2,369 ft. above 
i. and l'J."i in. N. N. E. of Delhi 

UK/ML. Bee DISK. i. 

HlllKUllt. --eDARWAB. 

DimVAUURI. See HIMALAYA 

DHOLE. See DOG. 

DIABETES, Clufosaria, Diabetes Mellitas, or Gln- 
rohvmia (C,r. dioftmimt^ to pass through), a dis- 
ease characterized by an excessive secretion of 



DIABETES 

saccharine urine. Though disease marked by 
diuresis and attended with wasting of the body 
was frequently spoken of by earlier authors, 
Willis (1659) was the first who noted the dis- ' 
tinctive character of the complaint, the pres- 
ence of sugar in that fluid. Since his time 
diabetes, which is not very rare, has been fre- 
quently made a subject of study, yet still much 
obscurity envelops its causes, its essential char- 
acter, and its treatment. The invasion of dia- 
betes is commonly insidious. The attention 
of the patient is perhaps first attracted by the 
quantity of urine he passes and by the frequent 
calls to void it, or he notices that while his ap- 
petite is greatly increased he is growing weak- 
er and thinner. The urine is not only greatly 
increased in quantity, but somewhat changed 
in appearance; it is paler, transparent when 
first passed, and assumes on standing an opal- 
escent tint like the whey of milk or a solution 
of honey in water. It has no odor, or a some- 
what aromatic one, compared by some to that 
of new-made hay, by Dr. Watson to that of a 
room in which apples have been kept. If kept 
for a few days at a moderately elevated tem- 
perature, instead of acquiring an ammoniacal 
odor, like ordinary urine, it has a sharp, vinous 
smell, and will be found to be acid rather than 
alkaline. The urine has commonly a decidedly 
sweet taste ; drops of it upon the patient's linen 
or clothes stiffen them like starch, and some- 
times leave on evaporation a powdery efflores- 
cence. The specific gravity of the urine is 
greatly augmented ; instead of being on the 
average about 1 P 024, as is commonly the case, 
it ranges from 1*025 to 1*050; M. Bouchardat 
reports it even as high as 1-074. Two or three 
simple tests are sufficient to render the presence 
of sugar certain. In Trommer's test, a drop 
or two of solution of sulphate of copper is add- 
ed to a little of the urine in a test tube ; a so- 
lution of caustic potash is now added in ex- 
cess, and the mixture gently boiled over a spirit 
lamp for a few minutes ; if sugar is present, a 
precipitate of a reddish or yellowish brown 
color (suboxide of copper) will be thrown 
down, otherwise the precipitate will be black 
(common oxide). In Moore's test, a little of the 
urine is mixed in a test tube with about half 
its volume of liquor potassae, and the mixture 
boiled five minutes; if sugar be present, the 
fluid will acquire a brown hue, otherwise it re- 
mains unchanged. A third test is founded on 
the fact that diabetic urine rapidly undergoes 
fermentation when mixed with a little yeast 
and kept in a warm place. The sugar to which 
diabetic urine owes its peculiar properties ex- 
ists in the form of glucose or grape sugar. This 
is present in all proportions, from a mere trace 
to 30, 50, and even 134 parts in 1,000. The 
quantity of solid matter thus drained from the 
system is very great ; Watson estimates it on 
the average at 1 lb. a day, but it sometimes 
amounts to many times this quantity; and it is 
this drain of solid matter, together with the 
large amount of urine passed, which gives rise 






DIABETES 

to the constant thirst and enormous appetite. 
Early in the disease the symptoms are not well 
marked; when the complaint is established, 
and the large excretion of urine begins to at- 
tract attention, the patient complains that de- 
spite his excessive appetite he grows thinner 
and weaker; the mouth is pasty, the skin 
dry and hard, the bowels constipated. The 
digestive functions, at first normal, become 
deranged ; the patient is troubled with heart- 
burn, with a feeling of weight and pain in the 
epigastrium, and sometimes with vomiting. The 
strength declines, he becomes emaciated, the 
generative functions are impaired or lost ; vision 
often becomes dim, the gums are spongy, there 
is tenderness and swelling about the orifice 
of the urethra, the memory and intellect fail, 
and the temper becomes irritable. In the 
course of the disease pulmonary consumption is 
very apt to supervene and carry off the patient. 
Toward the last diarrhoea, fetid breath, effusion 
into the great cavities, and oedema of the ex- 
tremities precede death. Diabetes is essentially 
a chronic disease, lasting often many years ; 
it is also obstinate and intractable, although 
most of the cases seem benefited by treatment, 
and sometimes it appears to be completely 
cured. In the beginning of the present century 
Dr. Rollo found that the amount of urine in 
diabetic patients as well as its sweetness was* 
very much diminished by confining them to an 
animal diet. "When the ready conversion of 
starch into grape sugar became known, this 
was assumed to be the origin of the sugar, and 
the benefit derived from an exclusively animal 
diet was thus explained. But few patients 
have the resolution to restrict themselves for 
any length of time to such a diet, and even 
when persevered in it is found to be merely 
palliative. C. Bernard has ascertained that 
sugar is a normal production of the liver in all 
classes of animals, carnivorous as well as her- 
bivorous ; that it takes place in the liver of the 
foetus as well as in that of the adult ; that ir- 
ritating the origin of the pneumogastric nerves 
in the fourth ventricle increases the secretion 
of sugar, producing an artificial diabetes. In a 
state of health the normal secretion ,of sugar 
poured into the circulation by the hepatic 
1 veins is rapidly decomposed and excreted by 
the lungs ; when the amount is increased by 
disease, the excess passes off by the kidneys. 
Under the influence of diastase, sugar is like- 
wise formed from the starch of the food in the 
process of digestion, as a necessary preliminary 
to its absorption. When diabetic patients are 
placed upon an animal diet, this source of sup- 
ply is cut off, and the amount of sugar in the 
urine is diminished, but it is still present, since 
the^liver keeps up a supply. M. Mialhe, be- 
lieving that sugar in the course of the circula- 
tion is decomposed under the influence of the 
alkalinity of the blood, and that in diabetes 
the blood is deficient in alkalinity either posi- 
tively or relatively to the amount of sugar con- 
tained in it, recommends the use of bicarbon- 



DIAGORAS OF MELOS 



67 



ate of soda in large doses.. He recommends 
half a drachm to be taken three times a day, 
morning, noon, and night ; this is gradually in- 
creased until from 180 to 270 grains are taken 
in the course of the day. In addition, the pa- 
tient is directed to take Vichy water with his 
meals, and is recommended to drink two or 
three pints of lime water daily. He is allowed 
the ordinary variety in his diet, but the quan- 
tity of farinaceous food is reduced one half, or 
at least one third. Flannel is ordered to be 
worn next the skin; the vapor bath is ad- 
ministered two or three times a week. By 
these means Mialhe reports a number of cases 
to have been cured. Dr. A. Clark (New York 
"Medical and Surgical Journal," January,1859) 
reports several cases of diabetes either cured 
or greatly benefited by the use of bicarbonate 
of soda and of blisters to the nape of the neck. 
He administered the soda in doses of 11 grains, 
to be taken as frequently as could be borne 
until the urine was rendered alkaline or the 
stomach was nauseated. Besides the alkaline 
treatment, the means principally relied on have 
been, restricting the quantity of farinaceous 
matter in the patient's diet as far as possible, 
indulging him in watery vegetables (spinach, 
turnips, cabbage, &c.) rather than in bread or 
potatoes, and the use of opium. This last 
remedy allays the nervous irritability of the 
patient, and diminishes the thirst and the 
urinary secretion. Diabetes insipidus is a 
disease characterized like the above by the 
daily discharge of an unnatural quantity of 
urine ; but in this case it is of less specific 
gravity than natural, and contains no sugar. 
It consists in fact of the discharge of an ex- 
cessive quantity of water by the kidneys, the 
natural ingredients of the urine being simply 
diluted by the increased volume of the fluid. 
The daily quantity of urine discharged in this 
disease may amount to several gallons, while 
its specific gravity is as low as 1-005. It is 
accompanied by a corresponding thirst, the pa- 
tient drinking water enough to supply that dis- 
charged by the kidneys. Diabetes insipidus 
often lasts a long time without serious injury 
to the health. 

DIAGORAS OF MELOS, surnamed the Atheist, 
a Greek philosopher, lived in the time of Soc- 
rates and Aristophanes, but neither the date 
of his birth nor that of his death is known. 
He must have removed from his native island 
to Athens before the performance of the 
" Clouds " of Aristophanes (423 B. C.), for he 
is alluded to in that piece as one well known 
to the Athenians. He was a disciple of Demo- 
critus of Abdera. He ridiculed the popular 
religion, and attacked especially the Eleusinian 
mysteries. He was accused of impiety (411), 
but the real grievance was his politics. Fear- 
ing the result of a trial, he made his escape 
from the city. He was condemned to death 
by the court, and a price set upon his head ; yet 
he lived for a time at Pallene, and finally died 
at peace in Corinth. His works are all lost. 



68 



DIAL 



DIAL, an instrument for ascertaining the hour 
of the (lav by means of rays of light comingfrom 
the heavenly bodies. Then- are therefore so ar, 
lunar, and astral dials. The sun dial only will be 

red in this article. It is one ot the old- 
est of human inventions, but its origin cannot 
be traced. The earliest historical mention ot 
it i- in the Old Testament, where we are told 
,,f the miracle wrought with the dial of Ahaz, 
king of Judah, at the instance of the prophet 
Isaiah, for a sign to Hezekiah, the son of Ahaz. 
The instrument used by the Chaldean histo- 
rian and astronomer Berosus, early in the 3d 
century B.C., is the most ancient of whose form 
we have any precise account. It was a hollow 
hemisphere* with its convexity turned toward 
the earth, and a button or small globule held 
in the spherical centre, which, by casting a 
shadow in the concavity, marked the suc- 
ceeding hours from one rim to the opposite. 
It gave place to dials which required more 
mathematical knowledge for their construc- 
tion ; but a hemisphere properly adjusted will 
answer the purpose of a dial very well, and 
was used by several nations long after the 
commencement of our era. Four have been 
discovered in modern times in Italy. One 
found at Tivoli in 1746 is supposed to have be- 
longed to Cicero. Another was found in 1762 
at Pompeii, and as it was adapted to the lati- 
tude of Memphis, it has been ascribed to the 
Egyptians, although no sun dial has ever 
been discovered among the ruins of Egypt, nor 
have any representations of it been found 
among their sculptures. It is believed, how- 
ever, that they used some form of sun dial, 
notwithstanding the care they bestowed upon 
clepsydras, and their probable use of the pen- 
dulum. Perhaps the obelisks erected in honor 
of the sun were used as gnomons, and it has 
been suggested that the famous circle of Osy- 
mandyas might have been used to determine 
the azimuths of the heavenly bodies, and 
therefore the hours of the day. The tower of 
the winds at Athens, which from its architec- 
ture is judged to be of a somewhat later date 
than the time of Pericles, is an octagonal struc- 
ture, and bears eight sun dials for the cardinal 
anil intermediate points of the compass. They 
are described in Stuart's " Antiquities of 
Athen-." Four others, known as the dials of 
Phivdrus, also found at Athens, are now in the 
British museum, and are described in Delam- 
bre's ffutoire de Vcutronomie ancienne. Their 

iction shows that the Greeks used geo- 
il mi-thuds for vertical and also for de- 
clining dial-. The first sun dial said to have 
been erected in Homo was by L. Papirius Cur- 

' ho had taken it from the Samnites. 
About U<> years after anoth.-r was placed near 

M. Valerius Mei-ala. who brought it from 
Sicily in the second year of the first Punic war. 

- made for the latitude of Catania, 4^ 
houth of Home. The first dial constructed at 

. and adapted to its latitude, is said to 
have been by the order of Q. Marcius Philip- 



pius, in 164 B. C. The sun dial may have many 
forms, depending upon its position in regard 
to the sun, and upon the latitude in which it 
is used. The most common form at the pres- 
ent day is the horizontal dial. It consists of 
a horizontal plate upon which the hours are 
marked, and which supports a style or gnomon 
for casting the sun's shadow, having its edge 
parallel with the axis of the earth. Another 
form is that called the equinoctial dial, con- 
sisting of a staff or gnomon placed parallel 
with the axis of the earth, and passing per- 
pendicularly through the centre of a circle 
divided into equal parts for marking the hours. 
The slight deviation of the sun's apparent from 
the true time is not taken into account in the 
construction of dials, the correction being made 
after the observation is taken. Let fig. 1 rep- 




FlG. 1. 

resent the earth, K the north pole, A B the 
equator, and a, ft, e, d, e, meridian lines; a, e, 
and e marking the quadrants. As the earth 
revolves on its axis with uniform motion once 
in 24 hours, each point moves through 15 
every hour ; therefore, if it is noon on the 
meridian a, in three hours after it will be noon 
on the meridian b, 45 from a, and in six hours 
the meridian e, marked 90, will be brought 
vertically beneath the sun. All the rays of the 
sun which strike the earth are apparently par- 
allel, because of his immense distance, which 
is about 12,000 times the earth's diameter. It 
will therefore be 6 o'clock in the morning on 
the meridian c when it is noon on the merid- 
ian a. Suppose a circle to be placed at the 
pole, in the plane of the horizon, and divided 
into degrees corresponding with those on the 
equator, and a staff which shall represent an 
extension of the earth's axis to pass through its 
centre ; it follows that when the sun's path is 



DIAL 



69 



north of the equator the staff will cast a shad- 
ow upon the circle, which will traverse it 
with uniform motion, passing through its 360 
in 24 hours. Such a circle and style would 
form an equinoctial dial, which, if placed on 
the meridian a at the equator, with its gnomon 
or style parallel with the earth's axis, would, 
while the sun's rays fall upon it, measure the 
time in the same way as at the pole; that 
is, the gnomon would traverse corresponding 
degrees at the same time. Instead of the 
shadow traversing the whole circumference 
of the dial, as it would at the pole, it can only 
traverse the lower half, between 6 in the 
morning and 6 in the evening. Place a similar 
dial D on the meridian a, between the equator 
and the north pole, also with its gnomon parallel 
to the earth's axis, and therefore inclined to 
the horizon with an angle equal to the latitude 
of the place, and the shadow of the gnomon 
will travel the face of the dial precisely as in 
the case of the circle C, with the difference 
that when the sun's path is north of the equa- 
tor the shadow will be cast before C in the 



II 




FIG. 2. 



morning and after 6 in the evening, falling 
upon the northern face; and when the sun's 
path is south of the equator it will fall upon 
the south face, but not till after 6 in the morn- 
ing nor until 6 in the evening. In the hori- 
zontal dial the shadow does not traverse the 
hour circle with a uniform motion (except at 
the poles), but travels faster the further it 
recedes from the vertical position ; so that the 
lines which mark the hours require to be fur- 
ther apart near the morning and evening than 
near noon. The hour lines may be deter- 
mined by the following elementary method 
of plane trigonometry. Let A B C D, fig. 
2, be a horizontal plane upon which the hour 
lines of a dial are to be described. Draw 
the meridian line E F, and from E erect 
E H parallel to the earth's axis, to represent 
the gnomon. Then, with a centre G- on E H 
as an axis, describe the equinoctial circle I 
F, its plane being parallel with the plane of 
the equator. Draw the meridian line I F, and 
also G M, G N, and G C, dividing the arc O 



F into equal segments. Draw E M, E N", and 
E C on the horizontal plane, meeting G M, G N, 
and G C in M, N, and 0, and with a radius E 
F and a centre at E describe the arc F P, meet- 
ing E C in P ; also with the same radius and 
centre describe the arc F K, meeting the line 
E H in K. The angle F G C is at the centre 
of the equinoctial arc, and has F C for its tan- 
gent, and the angle F E C is at the centre of 
the hour arc and also has F C for its tangent. 
The corresponding equinoctial and hour arcs 
have therefore a common tangent. As G F is 
always perpendicular to E H, it follows that 
the radius of the equinoctial arc will always 
be the sine of the latitude arc F K. It will 
moreover be observed that the radii of the lati- 
tude and hour arcs will always be equal, and 
proportional to the radius of the equinoctial 
arc, as the hypothenuse of a right-angled tri- 
angle to one of its sides ; and therefore that 
the common tangent F will always measure 
a larger equinoctial than hour arc. All these 
relations being constant, we derive the follow- 
ing equations : 

rad. equinoc. arc = sin. lat. arc. 
tan. equinoc. arc = tan. hour arc. 

Multiplying equals by equal ratios, we have 

tan. hour arc x rad. equinoc. arc=sin. lat. arc x tan.equinoc. arc; 

and 

tan. hour arc = 



a. lat. arc x tan. equinoc. arc. 



rad. equinoc. arc. 

It will be observed that if the line E H were a 
rod, the circle I O F a material plane, and the 
angles at G each equal to 15, the apparent 
motion of the sun would cause the rod's 
shadow to fall upon the lines G M, G N, and G- 
C at the hours 1, 2, and 3 respectively, and 
also upon the lines E M, E N", and E of the 
horizontal plane or hour arc. Let it be re- 
quired to find the first hour angle on either 
side of the meridional line for a horizontal sun 
dial in the latitude of New York, which is 40 
42' 43". By logarithms : 

sin. lat. arc 40* 42' 43" = 9-814419 

tan. equinoc. arc for 1 hour = 15* = 9-428052 

19-242461 
rad. equinoc. arc = 10-000000 

tan. hour arc, 9" 54' 45" = 9-242461 



The hour angles for 10 and 2 o'clock will be 
found by substituting 30 for 15 of the equi- 
noctial circle, and for 9 and 3 o'clock by substi- 
tuting 45, and so on till 6 o'clock, when the 
angles will decrease in the same ratios in which 
they increased. A dial with its hour plane in 
a vertical position is called a vertical dial, and 
may be regarded as the complement of the 
horizontal, because the angle of inclination of 
the gnomon to the plane of the dial is the com- 
plement of that angle in the horizontal dial if 
taken to a latitude which is the complement 
of that for which it is intended as a vertical 
dial. Vertical dials have north and south 



70 



DIAL 



faces, for the reason that the shadow of the 
sun can never fall upon the south face before 
C. in the inuniin- or nftor in the evening; 
I. ut whon In- I-IM-.S K-foiv r> in the- morning liis 
beams will fall upon the north face. This, 
being the counterpart of the south face, will 
<lio\\ the hour. A horizontal dial and the 
couth faro of a vt-rtiral one are represented 
;}. The first of these cannot be used 
with much accuracy in less than 20 of lati- 
tude because as we approach the equator the 
gnomon becomes more and more parallel with 
the horizon, so that if its length remains the 
same the upper end will cast but a very small 
shadow during the hours near midday. For 
instance, during the first hour before or after 
noon the sun in passing through 15 will cast 
a shadow on the horizontal plane but little 
more than one fourth the height of the gno- 
mon. If this be 6 in., the edge of the shadow 
will he only H in. from the perpendicular. 
As the height of the upper end of the gnomon 
above the dial is to its length as the sine of an 
angle is to the radius, it follows that in lat. 30 
the edge of the gnomon would require to be 
12 in. in order to give it an elevation of 6 in. 
To retain this elevation in lat. 10, the gnomon 
would have to be about 3J ft. long, and in lat. 
5 about 7 ft. ; which, for various reasons (one 
of which is that the oblique shadows would be 
too dim to be plainly discernible), makes its 
use impracticable. The nearer we approach 
the pole the more does the gnomon approach 
a perpendicular position, until at the pole it 
becomes an extension of the earth's axis ; the 
hour angles, as marked upon the horizontal 
plane, becoming equal, as shown at E in fig. 1. 




Fio. 8. 



A glass cylinder havintr a rod for an axis and 
M<'- marked \\ith -21 equidistant lines, 

parallel with th- axis, was u^.-il by Ferguson 
in the construction of dials, and is itself a form 



DIALYSIS 

of equinoctial dial which may be used in any 
latitude by placing its axis parallel with the 
axis of the earth. It would thus be a modifi- 
cation of the dial of Berosus, if the hour lines 




FIG. 4. 

were marked upon the latter as meridians, the 
shadow of the axis falling upon the parallel 
lines of the cylinder precisely as they would 
upon the meridians of the hemispheres. Fig. 
4 represents the hemisphere of Berosus sus- 
pended in a graduated arc, by means of which 
its gnomon may be adjusted to the latitude of 
the place. It may also be turned upon its axis 
and held at any degree of inclination to the 
east or west, so that when the days are more 
than 12 hours long it will indicate the time be- 
fore 6 in the morning and after 6 in the even- 
ing. The lines 5, 6, 7, 8, &c., are intended to 
represent meridians, and should meet at the 
poles A B. A magnetic needle and a pair of 
spirit levels facilitate its adjustment. Burt's 
solar compass (see COMPASS, SOLAK) contains a 
sun dial which is an elaboration of this plan. 
An hour arc is held in a plane having an in- 
clination corresponding to the latitude of the 
place. Over this arc an arm, attached to what 
is called the declination arc, is made to move 
until the sun's rays coincide with the axis of 
the arm, when the number of degrees trav- 
ersed by the hour arc will indicate the sun's 
apparent time. This is the most correct sun 
dial that can be constructed. 

DIALYSIS (Gr. didhvaig, a separating), or 
Analysis by Diffusion, names given by Prof. "Tho- 
mas Graham to a method proposed by him 
for effecting certain separations, usually of 
compound substances one from another, by 
means of the different rates at which substan- 
ces diffuse through moist gelatine-like films or 
other septa, or upward through water or viscid 



DIALYSIS 



masses. (See ENDOSMOSE, and GAS, vol. vii., 
p. 634.) An example will illustrate the nature 
of the processes and results. A sheet of thin 
paper being thoroughly moistened, and de- 
' pressed at the middle to form a sort of cup, a 
solution containing 5 per cent, each of cane 
sugar and gum arabic is poured into it ; and 
the paper cup is then placed upon the surface 
of water in a deep basin narrow enough to 
keep its edges elevated, and left for 24 hours. 
The cup being removed at the end of the time, 
the quantity of liquid it contains is found in- 
creased by endosmose ; but while a little of the 
liquid in the vessel below, tested with acetate 
of lead, shows a mere trace of gum, upon 
evaporation of the remainder the sugar crys- 
tallizes from it, in quantity equal to three 
fourths of that placed within the paper cup. 
The sugar, therefore, has rapidly made its way 
through the septum used, while the passage 
of the gum has been almost perfectly resisted. 
The paper can be replaced by moist animal 
membrane, or by a thin layer or film of any 
substance having the character of a jelly, as 
hydrated gelatine, albumen, mucus, or gelati- 
nous starch ; but the most useful septum is 
parchment paper in thin sheets and without 
sensible flaw or porosity. It is found that, 
through moist films or partitions such as those 
here named, through masses of different sub- 
stances in the gelatinous state, or through 
liquids, very many and perhaps all substances 
capable of crystallization in definite forms 
make their way by diffusion at rates which, 
though differing for the different substances, 
are rapid in comparison with those at which 
any substance having itself the gelatinous or 
jelly-like condition can traverse or diffuse in 
the same media. These facts led Prof. Gra- 
ham to divide the great body of chemical sub- 
stances (especially compounds) into two class- 
es, which are readily characterized by the ten- 
dency of the former to crystallize definitely, 
either alone or in combination with water, and 
to dissolve rapidly and generally in solutions 
free from viscosity ; while the latter when dry 
incline to the vitreous structure, having little 
tendency to crystallize, dissolve slowly or only 
soften, and as a rule assume the viscid or ge- 
latinous state. To these classes, respectively, 
he gives the names of " crystalloids " and " col- 
loids 1 ' (the latter from the Gr. K^T?, glue). 
In experiments such as those already referred 
to, the paper sized with starch, or other film 
or membrane containing a jelly or viscid ma- 
terial of any sort, is a colloidal partition or 
body; and the colloid gum has very slight 
power to penetrate it. This is found true also 
of such substances as hydrated silicic acid, a 
number of hydrated metallic peroxides, starch, 
vegetable gums, dextrine, caramel, tannin, 
albumen, and vegetable and animal extrac- 
tive matters, all of which are colloids. The 
crystalloids, however, as cane sugar, and a 
large number of chlorides, sulphates, &c., of 
metallic bases, readily penetrate the colloidal 



partitions or media ; and the explanation given 
is, not that either class of substance is afforded 
or denied passage through any effect of capil- 
lary attraction as ordinarily understood, but 
that, the affinity of any colloid for water being 
of the feeblest character, one colloid cannot 
with any rapidity abstract molecule for mole- 
cule the water from another, by which process 
it could be conveyed through it; while the 
crystalloids brought in contact with a moist 
colloid, having a high affinity for water, can 
displace the colloid from solution particle by 
particle, and thus make their way through its 
mass. These results are beautifully shown by 
placing at the bottom of two glass jars respec- 
tively, in a little starch jelly and then sur- 
mounted with several inches depth of the same 
jelly, a colored crystalloid, as bichromate of 
potash, and a colored colloid, as caramel ; the 
gradual elevation of the former through the 
mass can be daily observed, while at the end 
of eight days the caramel has scarcely begun 
to discolor the jelly above its first position. 
The different rates of diffusion through such 
septa allow of the employment of the method 
thus discovered for separating, in degree or 
partially, one from among two or more crystal- 
loids existing in mixture, but more readily and 
satisfactorily a crystalloid from a colloid. To 
this peculiar mode of separation Graham gives 
the name dialysis. It is conveniently effected 
with a " hoop dialyser," a sheet of parchment 
paper stretched beneath a hoop, and secured 
about it in the manner of a sieve. The sheet 
being moistened, and receiving in it a very thin 
layer of the solution from which some sub- 
stance is to be separated (the separation being 
more rapid as the layer is thinner), is floated 
on a sufficient body of water in a larger vessel. 
To separate in degree two or more crystalloids, 
the simpler method of "jar diffusion" often 
suffices. The mixed solution of crystalloids is 
conveyed by use of a pipette, so quietly as to 
leave the superincumbent liquid quite undis- 
turbed, to the bottom of a jar of water or al- 
cohol, and left at rest ; the most diffusible sub- 
stance rises most rapidly, and is more entirely 
separated from the others as the time is great- 
er, and the height to which it ascends through 
the column increases. By carefully drawing 
off with a siphon, at the end of the experiment, 
successive strata of the liquid into separate 
vessels, and quantitatively analyzing their con- 
tents, the quantities of the "diffusates" in the 
strata from below upward, and so the diffusi- 
bilities of the substances, are determined. Thus, 
with 10 per cent, solutions in pure water, in- 
troduced to the bottom of separate vessels, 
beneath 4'38 in. of pure water, 1 per cent, of 
common salt in solution had at the end of 14 
days reached the uppermost of 16 strata of 
equal depth in the column ; while in the same 
time sugar had barely appeared (-005 gramme) 
in the uppermost stratum, gum had diffused 
itself to the tenth stratum, and tannin to the 
ninth, from the bottom. By such means, with 



n 



DIALYSIS 



proper care ami noting of conditions, the abso- 
: comparative diffusibilitics of substan- 
be determined. Hydrochloric acid and 
tin- allied hvdracids arc found to be the most 
diffusive rabeUnOM known; the solid chlorides 
are high in tin- M-ale, and of these apparently 
chloride of -odium highest. As an illustration 
results of scries of experiment*, the 
approximate times of equal diffusion of the fol- 
lowing sultanres were found as here given: 
nloric arid, 1 ; chloride of sodium, 2'33; 
sugar, and sulphate of magnesia, 7 ; albumen, 
irarael, 98. When two or more diffusi- 
ble substances are mixed, the difference in 
; ates of diffusion is increased, and effec- 
tive analysis by diffusion is thus favored. The 
rate of diffusion is much accelerated by eleva- 
tion of temperature of the liquid or mass, so 
that separations may be effected in less time 
at high temperatures; but the degree of sepa- 
ration is less, since at the same time the less 
ditfu.-ible substances gain in the higher ratio. 
The rate of diffusion of all substances is less 
in alcohol, and probably in most other liquids, 
than in water, or in semi-fluid masses rendered 
snch by water. The name "diffusate" has 
been given to any substance as diffused, or 
separated by dialysis. The relations and ap- 
plications of the new facts, and the principle 
which is their basis, are numerous, and some 
of them of high importance. The dialyser 
affords an advantageous method for completely 
purifying soluble colloids without risk of de- 
composition, by the readiness with which all 
crystalloid substances pass from them into 
water ; and Prof. Graham in his paper (" Phi- 
losophical Transactions," 1861, part i., p. 183) 
give- directions for the preparation and purifi- 
cation of many substances of this class. Be- 
;he distinctions already referred to, it 
will be observed that crystalloid bodies tend 
: egato in plane films and with angular 
outlines, and are hard and solid; while the 
more usual condition of the colloid is that 
showing rounded outlines, a homogeneous 
mass, with more or less softness and tough- 
ness of texture. The water of crystallization 
in tlie former is represented by water of gelat- 
i nation in the latter. The colloids are usually 
in>i|.id; the crystalloids more commonly have 
a marked taste. Chemically, the former are 
the inert bodies; the latter, usually active, or 
But as observed in their most 
"iiditions, the rigid crystalloids are al- 
l holly unsusceptible to external impres- 
u liil. tin- soft colloids have a wide sen- 
sibility to external auMicies, and thus great 
mutability of condition. Even the simply min- 
eral rolloids cannot l,,ng be kept without 
change- pure hydnted silicic acid, or soluble 
silica, sealed uj, tightly, undergoing change 
Hthtt ^or weeks; and the existence 

-f many of them is only in and during a con- 
tinued metamor|,ho,is. This is especially true 
of albumen, gelatine, mucus, and related sub- 
ttancea, as existing in the fluids and living 



tissues of the animal body. These colloids 
are plastic or nutritive, and apparently in good 
part because they are mutable or capable of 
those successive metamorphoses during which 
the conditions of vitality can be secured, and 
in turn vital force and action evolved and 
manifested. Thus, these elements stand phys- 
iologically in relations the reverse of those 
they show chemically ; and Prof. Graham ac- 
cordingly terms the crystalloid a statical, and 
the colloid a dynamical condition of matter. 
He suggests that the colloidal condition of 
matter may be looked upon as " the probable 
primary source of the force appearing in the 
phenomena of vitality;" while "to the gradual 
manner in which colloidal changes take place 
(for they always demand time as an element) 
may the characteristic protraction of chemico- 
organic changes also be referred;" in these 
intending to include, of course, the time re- 
quired for application of the power of the 
will, for exertion of muscular force, and the 
physical changes that underlie the phenomena 
of sensation and thought. The facts observed 
in connection with diffusion appear to lead to 
a new understanding of endosmose, as effect- 
ed, in part at least, by the circumstances that 
a colloid cannot abstract water from (or dehy- 
drate) another colloid or a crystalloid, while a 
crystalloid can readily dehydrate a colloid, and 
in so doing effect its own movement through 
the latter. The method of dialysis can be 
employed for the extraction of arsenic, tartar 
emetic, corrosive sublimate, strychnine, mor- 
phine, and other crystalline poisons in the 
stomach, blood, milk, or any organic mixture. 
The crystalloid poisons will pass through the 
septum into the outer vessel, where their pres- 
ence can be shown by the usual tests. By it 
soluble albumen may be obtained in a state of 
purity, by addition of acetic acid, and use of a 
colloidal septum. Nitrate of silver, from pho- 
tographer's waste, when put into the dialyser 
readily separates from the albumen and other 
organic impurities, and can thus be saved. As 
early as 1864 Mr. Whitelaw took out a patent. 
in England for the removal of chloride of so- 
dium and nitre from the brine of corned and 
salted meats by means of dialysis. Liebig has 
shown that the brine contains a large propor- 
tion of the nutritious constituents of the meat ; 
and if we could remove the salts and evaporate 
the residue, we should have all of the proper- 
ties of a good soup. This process is success- 
fully accomplished by Mr. Whitelaw's appara- 
tus, as the savory and valuable constituents of 
the meat are colloids, and will not therefore 
pass through a membrane. A further techni- 
cal application of the doctrine of dialysis is in 
the extraction of sugar from the beet ; and it 
has been proposed to apply the same method 
to the extraction of sugar from the cane. The 
contrivances employed by sugar refiners are 
called osmogenes, and they are now much used 
in Germany and France. Graham applied the 
principle of dialysis to the concentration of tho 



DIAMAGNETISM 

oxygen of the air. "When air is passed through 
shavings of India rubber, the rubber retains a 
portion of the nitrogen, and the proportion of 
oxygen can be increased to 41 per cent. The 
proposition has also been made to separate 
substances which fuse at different temperatures 
by passing them through porous walls made 
of refractory material. This is called dialysis 
in the dry way. 

DIAMAGNETISM (Gr. Sia, through, and fiayvfj- 
TTJS, magnetic). In the native magnet (an ore 
of iron) resides a peculiar force, which, if a 
mass of this body be suspended freely, turns 
or directs it into a line nearly parallel with a 
meridian on the earth's surface, the same end 
of the magnet being always directed toward 
the north. Certain bodies, especially iron, 
brought near to a magnet, have the magnetic 
condition induced in them, the extremity near- 
er either magnetic pole becoming a pole of the 
opposite name, that more remote a pole of the 
same name. Small magnetizable particles, as 
iron filings, dusted upon a surface on which 
a magnet rests, or agitated near it, become 
arranged in lines which, between unlike poles 
that are presented to each other, run across in 
straight lines, while about those on either side 
they form curves, making larger and larger 
sweeps into space. The lines thus indicated 
have been named magnetic curves, or lines of 
force. Until recently the number of magnetic 
bodies was supposed to be very small. Bec- 
querel in 1827 found that a needle of wood 
playing freely on a pivot took a direction across, 
not in, the magnetic curves; and in 1829 Le 
Bailli also observed that bismuth repelled the 
magnetic needle. But the significance of these 
facts was not understood until Faraday in 1845, 
in the course of his experiments on magnetic 
rotary polarization, observed that a bar of so- 
called " heavy glass," suspended between the 
poles of an electro-magnet, moved, as soon as 
by the passage of the electrical current mag- 
netism was induced in the latter, into a posi- 
tion crossing the lines of force, or at right 
angles to the line joining the poles. Terming 
the position assumed by a soft iron bar, which 
is lengthwise between the two poles, or from 
one to the other, axial, Faraday gave to the 
new direction assumed by the glass the name 
of equatorial. The glass was not merely thus 
directed, it was repelled by either pole ; and 
if, reduced to the form of a small mass or 
cube, it was thrown out of the lines joining 
the poles to one side or the other, it moved 
into the position of weakest magnetic action. 
He also sealed up various liquids in long tubes 
of thin glass, and suspended them between the 
poles ; some arranged themselves axially, others 
equatorially. This new-found property of cer- 
tain bodies Faraday termed diamagnetism ; 
and in contrast with this he denominated the 
familiar form of magnetic action paramagnet- 
ism. His experiments warrant the conclusion 
that, with a sufficiently powerful electro-mag- 
net, all substances whatever can be shown to 



DIAMOND 



73 



exhibit one or other of these properties. (See 
MAGNETISM.) 

DIAMANTINA, a city of Brazil, in the province 
of Minas Geraes, capital of the ancient district 
of Tijuco, which was also formerly the name 
of the city, 270 m. N. of Rio de Janeiro ; lat. 
18 28' S., Ion. 43 50' W. ; pop. about 7,000. 
The city is built in amphitheatre on a steep 
acclivity, 5,648 feet above sea level. The 
streets are irregular, and the pavement indif- 
ferent ; a few of the houses are fine, and the 
whitewashed walls of the others contrast pret- 
tily with the brilliant green foliage and golden 
fruit of the rows of orange and banana trees 
which surround almost every dwelling. Of 
the numerous churches some are handsome, 
especially the negro church dedicated to Nossa 
Senhora do Rozario, remarkable for a statue 
of a black Virgin surmounting the altar. Save 
in the public edifices, which are of stone, the 
building materials are mostly either mud or 
wood. There are three hospitals, barracks, a 
primary school, and a good market. Flowers, 
vegetables, and European fruits are cultivated 
in the gardens, of which one is attached to 
each house; and excellent water is supplied 
from crystalline springs. The inhabitants are 
mainly occupied in washing for gold and dia- 
monds, both of which abound in the surround- 
ing country. (See DIAMOND DISTRICT.) 

DIAMOND (a contraction of adamant, from 
Gr. a privative, da/uav, to subdue), a gem so 
named on account of its extreme hardness, for 
which, and its brilliancy and beautiful play of 
prismatic colors, it excels all others. The dia- 
mond is pure crystallized carbon, and has a spe- 
cific gravity slightly varying, according to the 
different qualities, as follows : Brazilian, color- 
less, 3-444; Brazilian, yellow, 3'519; oriental, 
colorless, 3'521 ; oriental, green, 3'524; oriental, 
blue, 3 '525. Its hardness, according to an artifi- 
cial standard scale, is 10, greater than that of 
any other known substance, that of corundum 
being 9, and that of quartz 7. The primitive 
form of the crystal, and that into which the sec- 
ondary forms may be converted by cleavage, is 
the regular octahedron. The faces of the crys- 
tals are often convex, and the edges curved. 
The cleavage planes greatly facilitate its cutting, 
and also present the most brilliant natural sur- 
faces. The gem is not acted upon by acids or 
alkalies, and when air is excluded may be heat- 
ed to whiteness without injury. When exposed 
to the heat of a powerful galvanic battery, it 
fuses and is converted into a mass resembling 
coke, its specific gravity being sometimes re- 
duced to 2-68. Its combustion may be effected 
in the open air or in oxygen gas, but it requires 
a very intense heat, which is scarcely estimable 
from the difficulty of using apparatus. Its 
combustibility was first proved by the Floren- 
tine academicians in 1694, by subjecting it to 
the solar rays concentrated in the focus of the 
large parabolic reflector made for Cosmo de' 
Medici, when it burned with a blue, lambent 
flame. The diamond is found in alluvial de- 



DIAMOND 



posits which are worked for gold, sometimes 

,1 to loose pieces of brown hematite, 

and sometime* in H glomerate of quartz 

, n y. rrm.-nted ly ferruginous clay ; 
but it is not certain in what geological forma- 
tion it orL'iriated. (Jeiierally in regions where 

.MI,. ml is found there also occurs a lam- 
inated granular quartz rock, called itacolu- 
nnntion, and which in thin 
plates is more or less flexible. According to 

: ,is. it is found in Minas Geraes, Bra- 
7.\], in two different deposits: one, called 

\ho, which is composed of pieces of 

i quartz, covered by a thin bed of 
and the other, called cascalho, com- 

..f quartz pebbles, united by ferruginous 
clay, and usually resting on talcose clays, the 

l.t-injr debris from talcose rocks. The 
first is said to yield the finest diamonds, and 
both contain gold, platinum, and magnetic 
iron. The diamond mines of India have the 
same character as those of Brazil, the alluvial 
earth being a conglomerate of more or less 
ty. which requires to be broken up. The 
diamond was long known in Asia, in Hin- 
dostan, Borneo, Sumatra, and in the Ural 
mountains before it was discovered elsewhere ; 
the district from Cape Comorin to the bay of 
Bengal, including the famous mines of Gol- 
conda, furnishing the world until 1728, when 
the Bra/.ilian mines were discovered. (See 
DIAMOM, DISTRICT.) The South African dia- 
mond tit-Ms were discovered through some 
children finding a diamond of 21 carats on 
the banks of the Orange river, in 1868. In 
1869 the " Star of South Africa," of 83 carats, 

md by a (iriqua shepherd; and on the 
borders of the Vaal river several small stones 

found early in 1870. Since then the 
M'.-irdi has increased, until now there are said 
to be more than 4,000 persons, over an extent of 

1,500 sq. m., chiefly in the valleys of the 
( r:iriirc and Vaal rivers and at their junction, 

n lat. 26 and 28 S., and Ion. 24 and 
26 E. The diamonds are found, from the sur- 
face to a depth of To ft., in nn alluvial cal- 

- earth, with rolled pebbles of quartz, 
rhal.-.-dony, jasper, and garnets, and decom- 

Id-pathic and micaceous rocks, resting 
-iialo. The peculiarity of the 

n diamond i< the givat number of stones 

of 80 carat* and upward, with a preponderance 

nt. of yellow-tinted. The comm. r- 

"f such a quantity of yellow dia- 

mon.U comirii.' at ,.in-.> on the'market has been 

to depredate th,-ir value in an extraordinary 

"W stones being now but one 

fourth il,,- pri.v tli.-y \\, tv 1i\,- years since; 

nan iite .. n .- half their pre- 

ralue. 'Iln- who],, of the South African 

''bout 17. "00 sq. m., wasan- 

'lony of (in-nt liritain 

title of Griqualand. Reoenfly the 

! to i, t . profitable. 

Of tin- mm,-* arc abandon. -d. few 

foil number of workmen; and even 



the South African fields are said to be declining. 
In the United States, diamonds have been dis- 
covered in Rutherford co., N. C., and in Hall 
co., Ga. ; also at Paris mine, Franklin co., N. 
C. ; and at the village of Manchester, opposite 
Richmond, Va. ; in California, at Cherokee 
ravine, in Butte co. ; at Forest hill, El Dorado 
co., one of 1 carat, and at French Corral one 
of 1 carat, have been found. In Australia, 
they have been met with in the valley of the 
Turon, in the bed of the Macquarie river, at 
Victoria, and at Fremantle in Western Austra- 
lia. Diamonds are found of various colors, as 
well as colorless and perfectly transparent. 
The latter are most esteemed, and are distin- 
guished as diamonds of the first water from 
their semblance to a drop of clear spring water. 
When of a rose tint and of clear water, they 
are also highly valued. A yellow shade is ob- 
jectionable, as is a cinnamon color, a stone 
having these rarely being clear and sound. 
Next to the rose, a green color is the least ob- 
jectionable ; many very fine diamonds have 
this tint ; and some are found of a bluish color, 
and some black. For the valuation of diamonds 
an arbitrary rule has been given, which is, 
however, little regarded in actual sales of the 
most costly of these gems. Purchasers for 
such being few, the only real rule adopted, as 
in the sale of many other commodities, is to 
demand the highest price there is the least 
probability that one may be induced to pay. 
The mere statement of the rule is sufficient to 
show its indefiniteness. It is to multiply the 
square of the weight in carats by a sum vary- 
ing according to the state and quality of the 
stone. If clear and of good shape, this sum 
was 2 ; if perfect and well cut, 6 or 8 for 
the brilliant or rose, but a lower figure for the 
table. The rate is now $50 in place of the 2 
above, and a specimen brilliant is worth $200. 
For diamonds of moderate size the rates vary 
as little as those of exchange between coun- 
tries. They follow from the natural propor- 
tions in which diamonds are found. Diamonds 
weighing over 10 carats have a higher propor- 
tional theoretical value than the smaller sizes; 
yet the latter can commonly be sold at higher 
proportional rates, on account of the few pur- 
chasers for those of large size. In the great 
sale of jewels in London in 1837, on the dis- 
tribution of the Deccan booty obtained by the 
army of the marquis of Hastings, the splendid 
Nassuck diamond, weighing 357 grains, and 
of the purest water, brought only 7,200. In 
December, 1858, 33,000 was paid for a stone 
weighing 61 carats, and 15,000 for a pair of 
drop-shaped diamonds for earrings. The finest 
gems of commerce are now in great part sup- 
plied by the old jewels of Portuguese, Spanish, 
French, and English families, the proportions 
from each nation being in the order named; 
and the best market for them is now the Uni- 
ted States. The origin of the art of cutting 
j diamonds in a scientific manner is ascribed 
to Louis Berquen in 1456, who established a 



DIAMOND 



75 



j guild of diamond cutters at Bruges about the 
; year 1470. Three large rough stones were 
I intrusted to him by Charles the Bold, duke of 
Burgundy, for the cutting of which he received 
3,000 ducats. Diamond cutting was for a long 
time a monopoly in Holland, and the business is 
at the present day mostly confined to Amster- 
dam. The process, which consists of grinding 
down the surfaces as well as cutting, is slow 
and tedious, and being done by hand, occupies 
for a single stone the continual labor of months. 
The Pitt diamond required two years for the 
completion of the process. Two diamonds 
are employed, each cemented into the end of 
a stick or handle. The stones are then rubbed 
together with a strong pressure, being held 
over a metal box having a double bottom, the 
upper one perforated with small holes, through 
which diamond dust falls. This is afterward 
carefully collected, mixed with vegetable oil, 
and used for polishing the gem upon a revolv- 
ing cast-iron disk. When a large piece is to 
be removed from the stone, it is sometimes cut 
off by means of a steel wire covered with dia- 
mond powder, and sometimes by the use of a 
chisel and hammer, though in this way there 
is danger of destroying the stone. The work- 
men should understand perfectly the position 
of the cleavage planes, as it is only upon them 
that pieces can be removed by the chisel. The 
forms usually adopted in cutting the diamond 
are the brilliant, the rose, and the table. The 
first shows the gem to the best advantage. It 
is composed of a principal face called the table, 
surrounded by a number of facets which are cut 
upon that part of the stone which shows above 
the setting, and which is called the bezil. The 
greatest circumference forms the girdle, and 
below this is the pavilion, which should have 
a depth equal to one half the diameter of the 
gem at the girdle. The pavilion is termi- 
nated by a small facet, called the culet, which 
may be either square or octagonal. As the 
brilliant is the most economical of material, 
and shows the stone most advantageously, it is 
usually preferred to any other. The rose, which 
is very brilliant, is flat below and cut into facets 
entirely over the upper surface. The table is 
least beautiful, and is used mostly in India 
fpr thin stones with a large surface, which are 
ornamented by being cut into facets at the 
edges. Among the most celebrated diamonds 
known, that obtained by Mr. Pitt, governor of 
Madras, is perhaps one of the finest and most 
perfect. It is known as the regent. Its weight 
before cutting was 410 carats, and by this pro- 
cess, which occupied two years, it was reduced 
to 136 carats, and was purchased by the re- 
gent duke of Orleans in 1718 for $675,000. 
Its present value is estimated at $1,000,000. 
It was placed by Napoleon in the hilt of the 
sword of state, and was captured by the Prus- 
sians at Waterloo. A splendid diamond found 
in Brazil some years ago, and carried to France, 
is called the " Star of the South." It weighs in 
its rough state 254|- carats. Its general form 



is a rhomboidal dodecahedron, and upon its 
faces are impressions which appear to have 
been made by other diamonds, so that the 
whole was probably a group of diamond crys- 
tals. The famous diamond in possession of the 
king of Portugal is also from Brazil. If genu- 
ine, of which there is some doubt, its value, 
according to the rule of computation, should be 
$28,000,000, weighing as it does in the rough 
1,680 grains. The famous Koh-i-noor or 
" Mountain of Light " is now in possession of 
the queen of England. This stone, interesting 
alike for its historical associations and for its 
intrinsic beauty, was, according to Indian tra- 
dition, obtained before the Christian era from 
one of the mines of Golconda. From the rajah 
of Oojein, who seems to have possessed it at 
the beginning of the Christian era, it passed to 
successive sovereigns of central India, and in 
the early part of the 14th century was added 
to the treasures of Delhi by the Patan monarch 
Aladdin. It remained in possession of the ru- 
ling families of the empire until the irruption of 
the Persian conqueror Nadir Shah, who saw it 
glittering in the turban of the vanquished Mo- 
hammed Shah, and proposing an exchange of 
head dress as a mark of friendship, bore it away 
with him, and gave it the name by which it is 
still known. After the assassination of Nadir 
it passed through the hands of Ahmed Shah of 
Cabool to Shah Shujah, who paid it as the price 
of his liberty to his conqueror Runjeet Singh, 
the "lion of the Punjaub," in 1813. On the 
annexation of the Punjaub to the East India 
company's territory in 1849, it was stipulated 
that the Koh-i-noor should be surrendered to 
the queen of England, to whom it was accord- 
ingly delivered by the company, July 3, 1850. 
At this period its weight was 186 carats. It 
was exhibited at the crystal palace in London 
in 1851, where it attracted universal attention; 
but its display of colors was inferior to that of 
its glass model, and it was necessary to sur- 
round it with a number of vivid lights to de- 
velop its colored refractions. An examination 
was made by scientific gentlemen, among them 
Sir David Brewster, Avith reference to the pro- 
priety of recutting the gem. After obtaining 
the opinions of skilful cutters at Amsterdam, 
it was decided that the attempt should be made, 
and it was given in charge of Mr. Coster of that 
city, who afterward cut the Star of the South. 
The diamond so long in possession of the sultan 
of Matan, of the island of Borneo, is remarkable 
for its size and purity. It weighs 367 carats, 
and should be worth at least $3,500,000. It is 
shaped like an egg with an indented hollow in 
the smaller end. It was discovered at Landak. 
The Orloff diamond, purchased for the empress 
Catharine IL of Russia, is about the size of a 
pigeon's egg, and weighs 195 carats. It is said 
to have formed the eye of a famous idol in a 
temple of Brahma at Pondicherry. A French 
deserter robbed the pagoda of this valuable 
stone. After passing through the hands of 
various purchasers, it came into the possession 



76 



DIAMOND 



of a Greek merchant, who received for it from 
the empress $450,000, an annuity of $20,000, 
and :i title of nobility. The- Austrian diamond 
is of a beautiful lemon color, and cut in rose; 

!,f ia i:;:i c.-.rats. Its value is less than 

M IK- t'ut t<>r its color and the form in 

which it i> cut, ranking as worth $500,000 in- 

(X The most valuable diamond 

f.iunil in 'the I'nited States was picked up by a 
workman at Manchester, on the banks of the 
James river, opposite Richmond, in 1856. The 
locality i- in the tertiary formation, and the 
diamond originally belonged, no doubt, to the 
gold region up the river. It is of curvilinear 
octahedral form, specific gravity 3'503, and 
weighs 23-7 carats. It is lightly chatoyant, 
and would probably cut white ; but an original 
flaw was increased by the rough treatment it 

1 from those into whose hands it fell, so 
that its value was greatly deteriorated. The 
process of collecting diamonds is similar to that 
of collecting gold in the alluvial deposits. The 
coarse gravel and rolled pebbles derived from 
the primary and metamorphic rocks form the 
lowest stratum among the sands and clays of 
the alluvium. This stratum, resting upon the 
surface of the rock, is the repository alike of 
gold and of diamonds. It is laid bare in the 
beds of the streams, when these cease to flow 
in the dry season, or are drawn off by sluices 
made for the purpose. From these beds, as 
well as from excavations in the bottom, the 
gravelly conglomerate or cascalho is removed, 
to l.e washed when convenient. This in Bra- 
zil is usually in the rainy season, and the work 
is done in a long shed, through which a stream 
of water is conveyed, and admitted into boxes 
in which the ccucalho is washed. A negro 
works at each box, and inspectors are placed 
ti watch the work, and to prevent the laborers 
from secreting the diamonds. It is the custom 
to liberate the negro who finds a diamond 
weighing 17$ carats. Dr. Beke, in a paper 
read at a meeting of the British association, 
relates that a slave in Brazil seeking for dia- 
monds in the bed of a river broke with his iron 
l.ar through a crust of silicious materials, ce- 
mented together by oxide of iron, in which he 
discovercil a bed of diamonds, which were 
afterward sold for $1,500,000. This immense 
quantity, being carried to England, so over- 
stocked the market that few of the English 
houses were able to stand up against it. Be- 
Mdrs their use as ornaments, diamonds are ap- 
plied to -e\eral practical purposes. An impure 
diamond, but very hard, and colored black, 
known under the name of bort, is used for 
nniiiii;r the bit-* of the diamond drill (see 
1 i- al-i crushed to fine powder in 

mortar, and n-.-d for routing the metal- 
lic di-ks employed by lapidaries for producing 
flat surfaces on pn-cions -tones of great hard- 
ness. ^ The tine splinters are made into drills, 
tor piercing small holes through rubies and 
other hard t,, n .-<. The property possessed by 
the diamond ,,f cutting glass is due not merely 



to its extreme hardness, but to the peculiarity 
of its crystallization in rounded faces and curvi- 
linear edges. The natural crystal only is suit- 
able for this purpose. The diamond exhibiting 
the physical properties of matter in their high- 
est state of perfection, and proving after all to 
be of the simplest chemical composition, it has 
been a matter of no little scientific interest to 
study the peculiarities of its construction, and 
to determine if possible the secret processes by 
which nature has elaborated the most perfect 
gem from so homely a substance as charcoal. 
Its high value has stimulated these researches, 
in the hope of individual profit by its artificial 
production. 'But though more complicated 
forms of matter have been successfully repro- 
duced, carbon has not yet been made to attain 
the simple perfection of the diamond, unless it 
be in crystals invisible to the naked eye ; nor 
have we yet learned from what department of 
nature's works the material has been taken, 
that has been so beautifully perfected. The 
vegetable kingdom may have furnished it, after 
itself receiving it from the atmosphere, or it 
may have been unlocked from those reposi- 
tories of carbon shut up from remote geological 
periods in the carbonic acid of the calcareous 
rocks, or from such collections of fossilized 
plants as are now seen in various stages of 
change to mineral substance. But if the direct 
object of these researches has not been attain- 
ed, the forces which have acted upon it to give 
to it some of its peculiarities have been par- 
tially determined, as also a previous condition 
in which it must have existed. Sir David 
Brewster, from the exhibition of polarized light 
around the minute and irregular cavities in 
diamonds, has concluded that the substance 
has once been in a soft state, and compressed 
in these parts by the expansive action of a gas 
or fluid contained in the cavities ; and as vari- 
ous circumstances indicate that this softness 
was not the effect of either solvents or heat, 
he is of opinion that, like amber, the diamond 
is a vegetable substance, slowly consolidated 
into a crystalline form. The nearest approach 
to its reproduction has been in the experiments 
of M. Despretz. By long continued voltaic 
action, carbon free from every trace of mineral 
substance, prepared from crystallized sugar 
candy, was made to deposit microscopic crys- 
tals in black octahedrons, in colorless trans- 
lucent plates, the whole of which had the 
hardness of the powder of the diamond, and 
which disappeared in combustion without 
leaving any perceptible residue. Being, how- 
ever, only in powder, it was impossible to iso- 
late and weigh these crystals, or to determine 
their index of refraction and angles of polari- 
zation. It is said that a similar result has been 
obtained by decomposing a mixture of chloride 
of carbon and alcohol by galvanic currents 
continued for six months. The principal Eng- 
lish works on the subject are D. Jeffrey's 
"Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls" (8vo, 
London, 1750); J. Mawe's "Treatise on Dia- 



DIAMOND DISTRICT 



DIANA OF POITIERS 



77 



i monda and Precious Stones " (8vo, London, 
1826); and " Diamonds and Precious Stones" 
by Harry Emanuel (12rao, London, 1867; New 
York, 1873). 

DIAMOND DISTRICT (Port. Districto Diaman- 
tino), a district in Brazil, so called from the 
I diamond grounds for which it has long been 
celebrated, situated in the iSerra do Frio, in 
I the province of Minas Geraes. It extends 
from E. to W. between lat. 17 and 19 S., and 
is watered by the Jequitinhonha and several 
tributary streams of the Rio Sao Francisco. 
In 1725 Sebastiao Leme do Prado discovered 
the Manso, a small affluent of the Jequiti- 
nhonha, and found some white -stones which 
were sent as specimens to the court of Portu- 
\ gal, where, however, they at first attracted 
] little attention. After an interval of three or 
four years, Bernardo da Fonseca Lobo pene- 
trated into the hitherto unexplored serras, 
and discovered similar stones, one among 
which was of extraordinary size; but as no 
one knew the value of the gems, they were 
frequently used as counters at play. A cer- 
tain ouvidor of the province, who had been 
in India, perceiving that they were diamonds, 
purchased a large number at a merely nominal 
I price, and returned to Portugal, about the 
! same time when Almeida, first governor of 
j Minas Geraes, informed the court of the real 
I nature of the stones. Adventurers hastened 
to profit by the discovery ; but discord soon 
sprang up among them, and quarrels ensued 
which often ended in bloodshed. By letters 
patent, issued in February, 1730, the diamonds 
were declared crown property ; but the^liberty 
to continue the search for gems was pur- 
chasable at the rate of 20 milreis ($10) for 
each negro engaged for the purpose. This 
impost was soon after increased to 40, and 
finally to 50 milreis. The crown profited little 
by these contracts ; and in 1771 the govern- 
ment placed the management of the mining 
under the surveillance of officers specially ap- 
pointed for the charge, employing at the same 
time 5,000 negroes at the works. A decree 
was issued prohibiting the search for gold 
within the limits of the diamond region, all 
the approaches to which were guarded by sol- 
diers; while stringent laws were passed to 
provide for the registering of the inhabitants, 
the admission of settlers, the erection of inns 
and shops, and the punishment of infringe- 
ments of the government monopoly. In pur- 
suance of a law passed in 1873, the diamond 
mines now belong exclusively to private in- 
dividuals. A singular uniformity has been ob- 
served respecting the diamond grounds of this 
district. The same cubic mass will yield in 
washing pretty nearly the same number of 
carats, whether of large or small diamonds. 
Though very large gems do not abound in 
Brazil, some of considerable dimensions have 
at times been found. For the product of these 
diamond mines, see BRAZIL, vol. iii., p. 221 ; and 
for the mode of working them, see DIAMOND. 



DIANA, an ancient Italian divinity, corre- 
sponding in most of her attributes with the 
Greek Artemis. Artemis was the daughter 
of Zeus and Leto or Latona, and the twin sis- 
ter of Apollo, and the island of Delos is gen- 
erally assigned as her birthplace. She repre- 
sented as a female divinity the same idea that 
Apollo did as a male divinity, and like her 
brother sent plague and death among men 
and animals; but as Apollo was also the alle- 
viator as well as the author of suffering, so she 
too was a preserving goddess, watching over 
the sick and aiding the unfortunate. As sister 
of the sun god, she was goddess of the moon ; 
hence her identification in later times with 
Selene or Luna, and her Latin names Lucina 
and Phoebe. Unlike Apollo, she had nothing 
to do with music or poetry. She was the 
guardian of young girls and of women in 
childbirth, but was herself a virgin, and the 
ministers of her worship were vowed to chas- 
tity. As the goddess of the moon she wore a 
long robe and veil, with the crescent moon 
above her forehead. In Arcadia she was the 
patron of hunting and of sylvan sports, and as 
such she was represented with a bow, quiver, 
and arrows. She loved to dwell in groves and 
in the vicinity of wells, and to dance with her 
nymphs in the forest ; and nearly all her sur- 
names and epithets are derived from moun- 
tains, rivers, or lakes, indicating that she was 
the representative of some power of nature. 
In Tauris she was worshipped with human 
sacrifices, and in Sparta boys were scourged 
at her altar till it was sprinkled with their 
blood, a ceremony said to have been intro- 
duced by Lycurgus as a substitute for immola- 
tion. The Ephesian Artemis was the per- 
sonification of the fructifying powers of na- 
ture, and was represented in her magnificent 
temple at Ephesus as a goddess with many 
breasts. The worship of the Roman Diana is 
said to have been introduced by the Sabines 
and Latins. A temple was erected to her on 
the Aventine by Servius Tullius, and the day 
of its dedication was celebrated every year by 
slaves of both sexes, and was called the day 
of the slaves. From this it is inferred that 
Diana was an inferior deity in Rome in the 
early days, and that her worship was not rec- 
ognized by the ruling patricians ; but whatever 
was her original character, she afterward be- 
came identified with the Greek divinity. 

DIANA OF POITIERS, duchess of Valentinois, 
mistress of Henry II. of France, born Sept. 3, 
1499, died at Anet, in Orl6anais, April 22, 
1566. At the age of 13 she became the wife 
of Louis de Breze, count de Maulevrier, and 
grand seneschal of Normandy, by whom she 
had two daughters. She was attached to the 
court of Queen Claude, and when her father, 
the seigneur de St. Vallier, had been con- 
demned to death for favoring the escape of 
the constable de Bourbon, she so touched the 
heart of Francis I. by her tears and beauty, 
that the punishment was commuted. In 1531 



78 



DIAPHORETICS 



DIAPHRAGM 



her husband died, and Diana, putting on 
widow's weeds, expressed a resolve to wear 
them till her death; but this did not prevent 
her when nearly 40 years old from becoming 
the mistress of the dauphin (her junior by 
nearly 20 years), afterward Henry II. The 
duchess d'tampes then possessed the affec- 
tions of Francis I., and the two favorites 
divided the court until the accession of the 
dauphin in 1547, when Diana became almost 
mistress of the kingdom, and her rival was 
sent into exile. The beauty and accomplish- 
ments of the young queen, Catharine de' 
Medici, could not prevail against her influence. 
The king delighted in giving public tokens of 
his infatuation, admitted her to his councils, 
and in 1548 created her duchess of Valenti- 
nois. She retained her ascendancy until Hen- 
ry's death in 1559, when she retired to the 
palace built for her by her royal lover at Anet; 
but in 1561 she was recalled by Catharine de' 
Medici to exert her influence in detaching the 
constable de Montmorency from the Chatillons. 
From that time until her death she remained 
in retirement. Her power over the king, even 
when she had reached the age of 60, was due 
no less to her beauty than to her intellect. 
She spent large sums in charity. 

DIAPHORETICS (Gr. diafopsiv, to carry 
through), medicines or agents which promote 
perspiration. (See PERSPIRATION.) The skin 
is one of the channels for the discharge of sa- 
line substances, and therefore these, particu- 
larly the salts of the alkalies, are promoters 
of the sudoriferous action of the skin. To fa- 
cilitate their action, the skin should be kept 
warm and the body in a recumbent position. 
Bathing with tepid water, as tending to pro- 
duce exosmose through the glandular mem- 
brane, is also favorable. Among the most im- 
portant diaphoretic saline medicines are tartar 
emetic, or the double tartrate of antimony and 
potash, the carbonates of soda, potash, and 
ammonia, and sulphate of potash, which is one 
of the constituents of Dover's powder. The 
tartar emetic is one of the most powerful, and 
may be used to assist the action of other dia- 
phoretics by producing relaxation, and narcot- 
ics may be used for the same purpose. Among 
vegetable diaphoretics may be mentioned 
ipecacuanha, another constituent of Dover's 
powder, guaiacum, and camphor. It must not 
be forgotten that water, forming as it does 
nearly the whole of the perspiration, is per- 
haps the most powerful as well as safest of all 
diaphoretics, aided as it may be by warmth, 
exercise, and friction, and that it should nearly 
always form an important adjunct to the ad- 
ministration of medicinal diaphoretics. 

DIAPHRAGM, the transverse muscle which 
separates the thoracic from the abdominal 
cavity in mammalian vertebrates. It is flat- 
tened, nearly circular, fleshy at the edges ten- 
dinous in the centre, elongated, and ends in a 
point behind. In front it is attached to the 
ensiform cartilage of the breast bone on the 



sides to the internal surface of the last six ribs, 
behind to the transverse process of the first 
lumbar vertebra and to the bodies of the first 
three vertebras of the loins by tendinous slips; 
the fleshy fibres of the last form the pillars of 
the diaphragm, and their fasciculi cross each 
other in such a way as to leave two openings, 
one superior and anterior, giving passage to 
the oesophagus and par vagum nerve, the other 
interior, for the passage of the aorta, thoracic 
duct, and vena azygos ; the tendinous centre 
has been compared in shape to a leaf of clover. 
Between the middle and right portion of the 
tendinous centre is the opening for the passage 
of the inferior vena cava. The diaphragm is 
in relation, above, with the pericardium in the 
middle, and with the pleurae, base of the lungs, 
and walls of the chest on the sides ; below, 
with the aorta in the middle, the kidneys, 
renal capsules, pancreas, and duodenum ; on 
the right side with the liver, and on the left 
with the stomach and spleen. The direction 
of the posterior fibres is nearly vertical ; all 
the others converge toward the tendinous cen- 
tre. The diaphragm is the great muscle of 
respiration ; when it contracts, its central ten- 




The Diaphragm viewed from the Lower or Abdominal Side. 

V. C. /., the vena cava inferior ; <Z"., the oesophagus ; Ao., 
the aorta; Th. D., the thoracic duct, cut where they pass 
through the diaphragm, the broad white tendinous middle 
of which is easily distinguished from the radiating muscu- 
lar fibres which pass down to the ribs and into the pillars 
in front of the vertebrae. 

dinous portion is drawn downward, the cav- 
ity of the chest is enlarged, and air rushes in 
to expand the lungs during the act of inspira- 
tion ; when forcibly contracted, it may act as 
an assistant to the abdominal expiratory mus- 
cles by diminishing the size of the base of the 
chest ; by its action on the abdominal viscera 
it aids in the expulsion of fasces and urine ; in 
ordinarily tranquil breathing the diaphragm is 
sufficient for the performance of the function. 
In animals the extent and position of the dia- 
phragm vary according to the number of the 
ribs ; in those whose ribs extend nearly to the 
pelvis, as in the horse, the thoracic convexity 
of the diaphragm is much greater than in man. 



DIARBEKIR 



DIARRHOEA 



79 



This important muscle is liable to malforma- 
tions, wounds, and morbid conditions ; its total 
absence is incompatible with any other than 
intra-uterine life, as aerial respiration would be 
impossible; its partial absence, like dilatation 
of its natural openings, or laceration of its 
fibres, is accompanied by the passage of more 
or less of the abdominal viscera into the chest, 
impeding the action of the heart, lungs, and 
digestive organs; in such cases, the liver, 
stomach, omentum, ileum, caecum, and part 
of the colon, have been found above the dia- 
phragm. This partition is also liable to pene- 
trating wounds, and to rupture from external 
violence, the latter being the most dangerous ; 
in either case, nature alone can remedy the 
evil. It is sometimes inflamed, and in the 
rheumatic diathesis is the seat of the most 
acute pain, increased by every respiratory act, 
and forcing the patient to breathe almost 
entirely by means of the abdominal muscles. 
Spasmodic contractions are familiarly known 
by the phenomenon of hiccough ; this is some- 
times merely a nervous aifection, and at others 
is a symptom of peritonitis, strangulated her- 
nia, and other abdominal diseases. 

DIARBEKIR, or Diarbekr, also called Diarbek- 
Amid, and Kara- Amid (anc. Amida), a town 
of Turkey in Asia, capital of a vilayet of the 
same name (Turkish Kurdistan), on a rocky 
eminence a short distance from the right bank 
of the Tigris, in lat. 37 55' 30" N., Ion. 39 
52' E., 155 m. S. 8. W. of Erzerum. A fer- 
tile and well cultivated plain surrounds the 
city, which is encompassed by walls pierced 
by four gates, and surmounted by many towers. 
In the K E. portion are the ruins of the cita- 
del, formerly the residence of the pasha. It 
was once a very flourishing place, and con- 
tained, it is said, 400,000 inhabitants in 1750; 
but owing to the predatory disposition of the 
Kurds, who have rendered unsafe the inter- 
course with Bagdad and Aleppo, its prosperity 
has declined, and it now contains only about 
35,000, chiefly Mohammedans and Armenians. 
It is the seat of an Armenian archbishop and 
three Catholic bishops (united Armenian, Chal- 
dean, and united Syrian). Some trade is car- 
ried on with Aleppo, and the manufacture 
of cotton and silk goods, though much dimin- 
ished, is still continued. The streets are nar- 
row and dirty, and most of the houses are 
of rough stone covered with a plaster of mud 
and straw. It contains many mosques, an Ar- 
menian cathedral and other Christian church- 
es, numerous baths, caravansaries, and bazaars, 
and is well supplied with water, which is in- 
troduced by a fine aqueduct, and distributed 
through the city in numerous stone fountains. 
The walls are built of a dark-colored basalt, 
quarried in the neighborhood, and many of 
the principal buildings are of the same ma- 
terial. Diarbekir, then called Amida, was en- 
larged and fortified by Constantine. On the 
invasion of Mesopotamia by the Saracens it 
fell into their hands. At the end of the 14th 
262 VOL. vi. 6 



century it was pillaged by the Mongols under 
Tamerlane, and in 1515 it was captured by 
Sultan Selim I. 

DIARRHCEA (Gr. dta'pptiv, to flow through), a 
disease characterized by frequent loose alvine 
discharges. In a proper system of nosology diar- 
rhoea would scarce find a place ; it is a symptom 
rather than a disease, and is produced by a num- 
ber of different pathological conditions. It is 
present in the course of typhoid fever, is a fre- 
quent accompaniment of phthisis, and is some- 
times an attendant upon albuminuria and other 
forms of blood poisoning ; it is caused by inflam- 
mation and ulceration of the bowels. Those 
slighter forms of the complaint only will be 
noticed here which are independent of consti- 
tutional causes, and which are produced by a 
temporary irritation or sub-inflammation of 
the intestinal mucous membrane. Diarrhoea 
is often caused by the use of crude and indi- 
gestible food, or even by food ordinarily whole- 
some taken in too great quantity or variety. 
Fruit, particularly when acid and unripe, un- 
cooked vegetables, as cucumbers and salads, 
food in a state of incipient decomposition, the 
flesh of immature animals, as young veal, &c., 
are all liable to act upon the bowels. Certain 
articles, as mushrooms, shellfish, the richer va- 
rieties of ordinary fish, as salmon, from pecu- 
liarity of habit disagree with particular indi- 
viduals and produce diarrhoea. The same is 
true of a total change of diet ; food perfectly 
wholesome to those accustomed to it, and the 
water used habitually in certain districts of 
country, often cause bowel complaints in the 
stranger. Emotions of the mind, particularly 
grief and anger, in some persons promptly occa- 
sion an attack of diarrhoea ; others are affected 
in the same way by sudden changes of temper- 
ature, wet feet, or exposure to cold. Where 
diarrhoea is caused by the ingestion of food 
rendered irritating by its quantity or quality, 
the purging itself soon removes the cause of 
irritation and the diarrhoea ceases ; if this 
should not be the case, a moderate opiate or 
an anodyne combined with an astringent are 
all that is necessary. When diarrhoea is de- 
pendent on exposure to cold, a bland, unirri- 
tating diet, the warm bath, and the use of 
opium or of opium and ipecacuanha in small 
doses, may be had recourse to ; in such cases 
the patient is generally benefited by wearing a 
flannel bandage around the abdomen. Infants 
at the breast sometimes suffer from bowel 
complaint ; here it is commonly caused by over- 
feeding. Ordinarily nature provides against 
this by the facility with which the infant vomits; 
the stomach frees itself from the excess of food, 
and no mischief is done ; but when the infant 
does not vomit, diarrhoea is caused, and undi- 
gested curd is present in large quantity in the 
evacuations. The obvious remedy is the pro- 
longation of the intervals at which the child 
is suckled. During dentition in infants, from 
the large quantity of blood sent to the digestive 
organs, and the rapid evolution which they are 



80 



DIAS 



undergoing, the bowels are irritable, and diar- 
rhoea often supervenes; this is best guarded 
against by care in the diet and a proper ob- 
servance of hygienic regulations. A popular 
remedy for diarrhoea, especially in cases which 
precede an attack of cholera, is a mixture of 
equal parts of laudanum, tincture of rhubarb, 
spirits of camphor, tincture of capsicum, and 
essence of peppermint, taken in doses of 20 to 
80 drops in a little water at frequent intervals 
until relief is afforded. (See CHOLERA.) 

DIAS, A. Gonfalm, a Brazilian poet, born in 
Caxias, Aug. 10, 1823, died at sea in 1864. 
He was educated in Portugal, and returning 
to his native country published a volume of 
poems entitled Primeiros cantos (Rio de Ja- 
neiro, 1846), which was followed by his drama 
of Leonor de Mendonca, Segundos cantos, and 
Ultimo* cantos. In 1848 he was chosen pro- 
fessor of national history in the college of 
Dora Pedro II. In 1855 he was sent by the 
government to study the scientific institutions 
of France and Germany. Returning to Brazil 
in 1858, he was appointed historian and eth- 
nographer to the expedition sent by the govern- 
ment to explore the provinces bordering on 
the Amazon. In consequence of his arduous 
labors in this expedition he visited Europe in 
1862 to restore his health. In September, 
1864, he embarked for Brazil, and died near 
the coast. Dias published the first four can- 
tos of an American epic, Os Tytribiras (Leipsic, 
1857), and a Diccionario da lingua Tupy, cJia- 
mada lingua 'brasiliana (Leipsic, 1858). A 
collection of his poems, under the title Cantos, 
was published at Leipsic (4th ed., 1865). His 
poetry is popular in Brazil. 

DIAS, Bartholomeu, a Portuguese navigator, 
born about the middle of the 15th century, lost 
at sea, May 29, 1500, while on his way from 
Brazil to India. In 1486 he sailed on an ex- 
pedition to explore the W. coast of Africa, and 
without knowing it was carried around the 
southern point of the continent and landed at 
the mouth of Great Fish river, where he dis- 
covered that he was on the E. coast. The 
stormy cape, which he doubled on his return in 
1487, he called Cdbo Tormentoso, a name which 
the king of Portugal changed into Cabo de 
Boa Espernnca or Cape of Good Hope. He 
subsequently sailed on another African expedi- 
tion under Vasco da Gama ; and he command- 
ed one of the vessels in the fleet with which 
Cabral discovered Brazil. It was on this ex- 
pedition that he perished. 

IM \STASE (Gr. dilarrip, to separate), a pecu- 
liar principle which is formed during the ger- 
mination of seeds. It is most abundantly pro- 
duced in the cereals, particularly in barley. It 
is formed at the base of the sprout, by a change 
which takes place in the albumen within and 
about the germ by the action of the vitalizing 
principle which has been awakened within it 
by heat and moisture. For the mode of pre- 
facing diastase, see BREWING. It may be ex- 
tracted from malt by steeping in water at 



DIATHERMANCY 

about 80 F., when it will be dissolved together 
with an albuminous body. A pasty mixture is 
produced, which is pressed, and the liquor fil- 
tered and heated to about 170, to coagulate 
the albuminous body, and again filtered. This 
filtrate contains the diastase, and may be used 
for obtaining the peculiar effects of that body ; 
but to obtain it in a pure state it is precipitated 
from the solution by the action of absolute al- 
cohol. It is a white, amorphous, flocculent 
substance, soluble in water and dilute alcohol, 
but insoluble in absolute alcohol, tasteless, and 
easily decomposed. Moistened starch, when 
subjected to the action of only a minute quan- 
tity of it (one part in 2,000, according to Pay en 
and Persoz), at 150 F., soon becomes disorgan- 
ized and converted into soluble starch, dex- 
trine, and grape sugar. Diastase in solution 
changes so readily that it soon becomes acid 
and loses its power of transforming starch. It 
is destroyed by boiling its solution; an im- 
portant fact, which is taken advantage of in 
the manufacture of dextrine, to arrest the 
transformation when the production of that 
substance has reached the greatest practicable 
amount, and also in the brewing of beer, for 
the purpose of preventing fermentation during 
the cooling of the wort. It has never 
obtained in such a condition as to afford i 
isfactory analysis. According to the above 
authorities, the amount of nitrogen varies 
being less when the substance has been care 
fully prepared. From this fact, and from th( 
convertibility of starch into glucose by 
eral other substances, it has been sugge 
that instead of being a principle of defini 
composition, it is probably an albuminous com- 
pound, passing through a change or series of 
changes. This view is strengthened by the 
discovery, by Dubrunfaut, of another substance 
in malt, similar in its effects, which he has 
called maltine, and finds to be even more ac- 
tive than diastase; an equal quantity being 
capable of effecting ten times as much trans- 
formation. He also obtained a third but less 
active substance than diastase, and believes 
the latter and the other two substances to be 
the same body undergoing decomposition. The 
action of alcohol when used to precipitate the 
diastase destroys the so-called modifications. 

DIATHERMANCY (Gr. 6t&, through, and etp/ia, 
heat), permeability to the rays of heat. Dia- 
thermanous bodies have the same relation to 
calorific rays that transparent ones have to 
rays of light ; and those bodies which are im- 
permeable to rays of heat, or bear the same 
relation to it that opaque ones do to light, are 
called athermanous. It was long known that 
rays of heat from an intense source were ca- 
pable of passing through certain transparent 
substances, like glass, in lines subject to the 
same laws of refraction as those of light ; but 
it was not supposed that such transmission was 
possible through bodies which are opaque to 
light. Pictet of Geneva was the first to show 
that radiant heat, from obscure as well as from 



DIATHERMANCY 



81 




Melloni's Apparatus. 

quently radiated by the transmitting body, until 
Prevost of Geneva proved the fallacy of this idea 
by passing rays of heat through ice, of sufficient 
power to ignite combustible substances. The 
investigations of Melloni, however, placed the 
subject in a clearer light, and to him we owe 
most of the facts that other distinguished inves- 
tigators (among whom are Bunsen, Kirchhoff, 
Tyndall, and Balfour Stewart) have elucidated 
by numerous brilliant experiments, which have 
given the subjects of radiant heat and light 
so much interest at the present time. The ap- 
paratus used by Melloni in his experiments on 
the diathermancy of various bodies is repre- 
sented in the engraving. Nobili's thermo-elec- 
tric pile, made of alternate layers of bismuth 
and antimony, represented at a, connected by 
copper wires with a delicate galvanometer 5, 
constituted the thermometer employed by Mel- 
loni to measure the radiant heat transmitted 
through the substances experimented upon, 
and which he termed his therrao-multiplier. 
The transmitted rays were received upon one 
of the faces of the pile, and generated gal- 
vanic electricity in proportion to their quan- 
tity, which was indicated by the galvanometer. 
The body whose diathermancy was the subject 
of experiment was placed upon an adjustable 
stand at c, while two screens, d and e, one 
for excluding the rays of heat until the test 
should commence, and the other for limiting 
the pencil of rays, were placed between c and 
the source of heat, f, which might be a Lo- 
catelli lamp, a coil of incandescent platinum 
wire, a heated metallic ball, a can of boiling 
water, or any other body heated to the desired 
degree. During his investigations he made an 
important discovery, which has since been used 
to great practical advantage by Tyndall in 
many brilliant experiments upon the transmis- 
sion of heat through gases and vapors, viz. : 
that rock salt is almost perfectly diatherma- 
nous to radiant heat from all sources, whether 
luminous or obscure. Indeed, he supposed it 
to be perfectly diathermanous, attributing the 
nearly constant loss of 7'7 per cent, of the heat 
falling upon it to reflection from the surface. 
In testing the diathermancy of liquids, Melloni 



placed them in narrow troughs of thin glass, 
and measured their transmitting capacity by 
the difference in the amount of heat which 
passed through them when empty and when 
filled with the liquid. The following table 
shows the percentage of heat transmitted by 
several of the substances with which Melloni 
experimented, using four different sources of 
heat. The experiments were made by ascer- 
taining the deflection of the needle of the ther- 
mo-multiplier when the rays from each source 
were passed through air, and, calling this 
amount 100, passing the rays from each source 
through the various substances, and noticing 
the deflection produced. 

DIATHERMANCY OF SOLIDS. 



SUBSTANCES, 
& of an inch thick. 


Locatelli 
lamp. 


Incan- 
descent 
platinum. 


Copper 
at 752 F. 


at^TF. 


Eock salt 
Sicilian sulphur 


92-3 
74 


92-8 

77 


92-3 
60 


92-8 
54 


Fluor spar 


72 


69 


42 


88 


Beryl 


54 


23 


13 





Iceland spar . . . 


39 


28 


6 





Glass 


39 


24 


6 





Rock crystal, clear 
Smoky quartz 
Chromate of potash 
Carbonate of lead . . . 


83 
37 
84 
82 


28 
23 
28 
28 


6 
6 
15 
4 


3 
3 




Sulphate of baryta 
Feldspar 


24 
23 


18 
19 


8 

6 









18 


12 


8 


o 


Selenite 


14 


5 





o 


Tartrate of potash 


11 

9 


8 
2 




o 




o 




8 


1 


o 


o 


Ice 


6 


0-5 





o 













These results show that transparency to rays 
of light and permeability to those of heat, or 
diathermancy, although they accompany each 
other to a certain extent, do not do so propor- 
tionately. Eock salt, it is seen, is equally dia- 
thermanous to all the sources named in the 
table. It is found, however, to be not perfect- 
ly diathermanous to rays of extremely low re- 
frangibility, as will be noticed further on. The 
difference exhibited by glass in transmitting 
heat from the different sources is very marked. 
Thus, while transmitting 39 per cent, of the 
rays from a Locatelli lamp, and 28 from incan- 
descent platinum, it permits the passage of 
only 6 per cent, of those which are emitted 
from copper heated to 752 F., and is com- 
pletely opaque to those issuing from copper at 
212. Again, clear rock crystal transmitted 
only 1 per cent, more heat from the Locatelli 
lamp than did smoky quartz, and no more from 
the other sources ; a fact which shows how 
little heat is contained in the highly luminous 
rays of the spectrum. The lo w diathermancy of 
ice is here also shown ; a property which adapts 
it, as well as the other forms of water, which 
share it in a like degree, to the various rela- 
tions it sustains with organized life. The fol- 
lowing table, also from Melloni, shows the 
amount of transmission by various liquids, the 
source of heat being an argand lamp with a 
glass chimney, and the liquids -^ of an inch in 
thickness, held in glass cells : 



82 



DIATHERMANCY 



DIATHERMANCY OP LIQUIDS. 




LIQUIDS, ft of n Inch thick. 


Percentage of 
tranuniuion. 




68 




68 




62 




81 




80 




28 




26 




21 


A Imhol 


15 




12 




12 


Distilled water 


11 



A remarkable fact in relation to the diather- 
mancy of bodies is that rays of heat which 
have once been transmitted by a substance 
will readily pass through a second plate of the 
same material with little or no loss; that is, 
glass is nearly diathermanous to heat which 
has already passed through glass, and ice is 
nearly diathermanous to heat which has passed 
through water or ice, or a considerable depth 
of watery vapor. Another very important 
fact, intimately connected with the subject of 
molecular physics, is that all bodies, solids, 
liquids, and gases, are nearly athermanous to 
heat which is radiated by the same body. 
Thus, rock salt, which is nearly diatherma- 
nous to all sources of heat, absorbs most of the 
rays that are radiated by beated rock salt. 
Balfour Stewart found that a moderately thick 
plate of cold rock salt would stop three fourths 
of the heat radiated from a plate of rock salt. 
This fact is accounted for bn the wave theory, 
by supposing that the rays of very low re- 
frangibility, which are the ones radiated by 
this substance, have the power of exciting 
vibrations of the same wave length in the same 
material, and are therefore accepted or ab- 
sorbed ; whereas the rays of higher refrangi- 
bility, and consequently of shorter wave length, 
which most other bodies emit, are allowed to 
pass through rock salt because they have not 
the power, by reason of non-accordance, to 
set its particles into vibration. From the 
fact that this substance only radiates heat of 
low refrangibility, it would be concluded that 
when heated it would require a long time to 
cool, and also that it would accept radiant 
heat slowly, although it is readily warmed by 
conduction ; and this conclusion is borne out 
by experiment. The absorbing and radiating 
powers of bodies are reciprocal and equal, as 
has been shown by the experiments of Sir 
John Leslie, Ritchie, and others. The diather- 
mancy of a body may therefore be stated as 
inversely proportional to its power of radia- 
tion. Athermanous bodies, or those which 
are only slightly diathermanous, are more per- 
meable to rays of high than to those of low 
refrangibility ; consequently, if the luminous- 
ness of a flame is increased, although it may 
contain no more heat, it will radiate more 
through partially diathermanous media, as for 
instance moist air, glass, and alum. Again, 



if its luminousness is decreased, these media 
will be more opaque to its rays ; and if heat 
of still lower refrangibility is substituted for 
the flame, their opacity will be the more in- 
creased. The investigations of Tyndall on the 
heat-absorbing powers of various liquids and 
gases, or in other words their relative diather- 
mancy, have also thrown much light on the sub- 
ject of the molecular constitution of matter. He 
has shown that elementary bodies are general- 
ly much more diathermanous than compounds. 
This has been used as a remarkable evidence in 
favor of the wave theory of light, because by 
adopting it the phenomena of transmission and 
absorption are perfectly accounted for, and in 
no other way. Placing a solution of iodine in 
bisulphide of carbon in a rock salt prism, he 
found that it transmitted 99 per cent, of all the 
rays emitted by a body heated below luminous- 
ness. Converging the rays which were trans- 
mitted through the solution, he found them as 
effectual in producing combustion as if the 
transmission had not been made. Iodine is 
therefore diathermanous to rays of obscure 
heat. The elementary gases and their me- 
chanical mixtures he found to be almost per- 
fectly diathermanous, while compound gases 
and vapors are partially so, many of them 
transmitting only rays of high refrangibility, 
or those belonging to the luminous spectrum. 
The diathermancy of dry atmospheric air 
was found to be more than 250 times that of 
nitrous oxide gas, a chemical compound of the 
constituents of the air in the same propor- 
tion ; and this he regards as one of the strong- 
est proofs that the atmosphere is a mechanical 
mixture, and not a chemical compound. In 
experimenting upon the conductivity of dif- 
ferent substances, Tyndall found that this 
property in a body was generally commensu- 
rate with its diathermancy, with one exception, 
which was that slightly diathermanous rock 
crystal was a better conductor than almost 
perfectly diathermanous rock salt. The latter 
substance has, however, a high conducting 
power ; and it was found that rock salt, glass, 
calcareous spar, selenite, and alum maintained 
the same order of conductivity that they did 
of diathermancy in the experiments of Mel- 
loni. Some of the experiments made by Tyn- 
dall will be more particularly described in the 
article on HEAT. The object he had in view 
made it necessary to employ apparatus which 
would allow of the transmission of the rays 
of lowest refrangibility, because it is these 
that are especially interfered with by vapors 
and compound gases. His sources of heat 
were often metal surfaces, heated with boiliog 
water, or to a temperature far below redness, 
and the rays were passed through a tube 
whose ends were closed with plates of trans- 
parent rock salt. This tube could be exhausted 
before the gas or vapor was admitted, and the 
latter could be introduced through apparatus 
which excluded all moisture ; so that many 
errors which have often affected the value of 



DIATHERMANCY 



DIATOMACE^E 



83 



previous experiments were avoided. The fol- 
lowing table shows the relative absorption of 
radiant heat of several different elementary 
and compound gases, and the vast difference in 
the degree of diathermancy which they pos- 
sess ; the transmission was made through each 
of the gases at the common pressure of the 
atmosphere : 

DIATHERMANCY OF GASES. 



Air 

Oxygen 

Nitrogen 

Hydrogen 

Chlorine 

Hydrochloric acid 

Carbonic oxide 

Carbonic acid 

Nitrous oxide 

Sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Marsh gas 

Sulphurous acid 

defiant gas 

Ammonia 



Relative 
absorption. 



1 
1 

1 
1 

89 

62 

90 

90 

855 

390 

403 

710 

970 

1195 



Although these gases are perfectly permeable 
to all the rays of the luminous spectrum, to 
those of the obscure heat which was employed 
in these experiments they exhibit a great dif- 
ference of absorbing power, nitrous oxide gas 
absorbing 355 times and ammonia 1,195 times 
as much as dry air. If the tube had been closed 
with partially athermanous glass instead of dia- 
thermanous rock salt, no such results could have 
been obtained, as the glass would have sifted 
out nearly all the rays of low refrangibility 
before they fell upon the gases whose powers of 
absorption were the subject of experiment. 
The investigations which have been made upon 
the subject of diathermancy have been of 
great advantage in arriving at theoretical con- 
clusions in regard to the molecular consti- 
tution of matter. In undertaking to explain 
why radiant heat of low refrangibility passes 
so much more readily through elementary than 
through compound gases, the mind is obliged 
to form conceptions of the different conditions 
in which the atoms are arranged in these two 
classes of matter. In the elementary gas they 
must be so disposed as to allow the waves of 
heat to vibrate freely without accepting their 
vibrations, while in the compound gas they 
must be so arranged as to receive or unite with 
them, or, in common language, to absorb them. 
In one case, therefore, the mind conceives of 
the atoms as swinging in the ether singly, re- 
ceiving but little motion from its vibrations ; 
while in the other they are grouped together 
in compound masses or molecules, which offer 
more obstruction to the ethereal waves, and 
therefore transfer to themselves a correspond- 
ing degree of energy. Tyndall found the body 
ozone to be highly athermanous, a quality 
which greatly distinguishes it from common 
oxygen. It has been held that ozone is a com- 
pound of oxygen and hydrogen. Now, heat 
destroys ozone, leaving oxygen ; but if it also 



contains hydrogen, some aqueous vapor must 
also result from the disorganization of the 
ozone. This vapor remaining in the oxygen 
would impair its diathermancy. But the gas 
obtained by heating ozone is as diathermanous 
as oxygen obtained in the ordinary way ; there- 
fore it contains no aqueous vapor, and the 
ozone from which it was derived must be 
simply oxygen, with its atoms grouped toge- 
ther somewhat after the manner of a com- 
pound gas. The diathermancy of iodine to the 
obscure, and its opacity to the luminous rays, 
allows the visible to be divided from the in- 
visible spectrum which lies beyond the red 
rays, by passing the light of an incandescent 
body through a hollow prism of rock salt con- 
taining a solution of iodine in bisulphide of 
carbon. The conclusion to be arrived at from 
a consideration of this fact is, in the opinion 
of Tyndall, that the luminous waves which 
are intercepted by the iodine are in accord 
with its dissolved atoms, and therefore can 
transfer their motion or energy to them. 
Transparency and diathermancy he therefore 
considers as synonymous with discord, and 
opacity and athermancy as synonymous with 
accord, between the waves of ether and those 
of the molecules of the body on which they 
fall, or through which they pass. The black- 
ness of lampblack he ascribes to the accord 
between the vibrations of its atoms and the 
waves embraced within the luminous portion 
of the spectrum ; and the luminous rays which 
it absorbs are the ones which it radiates when 
raised to a sufficient temperature. But lamp- 
black is also diathermanous to the very ex- 
treme obscure rays of the spectrum; a fact 
which was shown by Melloni. Aqueous vapor, 
although perfectly transparent to the luminous 
rays of the spectrum, was found by Tyndall to 
be quite opaque to those of the dark spectrum. 
This is one of the most interesting facts con- 
nected with the whole subject of heat, and of 
the greatest importance, not only in a strictly 
scientific sense, but in its practical bearing upon 
questions of meteorology, and therefore upon the 
business of every-day life. The formation of 
clouds by the radiation and consequent loss of 
heat from vapor through the drier atmosphere 
above, as well as by the condensation produced 
by currents of cool air, and the formation of 
dew from the same cause, the equableness of 
moist climates and the cold of high mountains, 
could never have been well understood unless 
the subject of the comparative diathermancy 
of dry and moist gases, particularly of the at- 
mosphere in its various hygrometric condi- 
tions, had been carefully investigated. 

DIATOMAEJ3, minute plants growing in moist 
situations, in collections of fresh water or in 
the sea, consisting of frustules of various forms, 
the walls of which contain a large quantity 
of silex, and are often beautifully diversified and 
marbled by striae or by dots. Notwithstand- 
ing the general resemblance of these curious 
vegetations to the species of desmidiera, they 



DIATOMACE^E 



are clearly made distinct by the flinty fronds 
singular striation, and absence of green color 
ing matter. Agardh asserts that many of these 
organisms have as much affinity with the min 
eral kingdom as with the vegetable, being in 
fact vegetable crystals, bounded by right lines 
and collected into a crystalliform body, and 
having no other difference from minerals than 
that the individuals have the power of agair 
separating from each other. As in the case of 
the desmidieae, there are solitary species, anc 
others grouped so as to form lines and mem- 
branes. In some, the production of new plants 
from spores presents the same dissimilarity be- 
tween the young and the adult forms. There 
are also numerous genera which can be accu- 
rately distinguished not only by the difference 
of form or outline, but by their own peculiar 
striations, markings, and dots. In both the 
single and the associated species there is a dis- 
tinct pellucid peduncle or footstalk. This is 
sometimes considerably dilated above, or else 
forked, sometimes repeatedly. In this case 
each frustule remains attached, the base dila 
ting as may be required. This arrangement 
gives a fan-like appearance of great beauty. 




Echinella flabellata, a fan-like marine diatom. 

But in the thread-like species it is only the 
corners that remain attached; as no stem or 
footstalk is visible here, it has been conjectured 
that it exists only in those plants which have 
grown from spores or in the seedling forms. 
Certain channels or apertures are so arranged 
as to convey the water to the inner cellular 
membranes, and thus to afford nutriment. The 
same curious conjugation to be seen in other 
ajgao has been detected in the diatom acese by 
Thwaites, and has been confirmed by Berkeley 
and Broome. It is computed that vast areas 
of solid earthy matter are due to the growth 
presence, and decay of these minute organisms 
Many of the most beautiful are found in the 
guano of commerce, doubtless swallowed in 

s food of birds, and still remaining in perfect 
preservation. In the United States, masses of 
several inches in thickness are found on the 
ns of ponds, composed of myriads of these 
rgamsms, which on being exposed to desicca- 
tion become as white and friable as chalk. Even 

it bogs and meadows abound with them The 

polishing powders sold under the name of tripoli 

composed of these natural silicious frag- 



ments. The soundings on the shores of Victoria 
Barrier, Australia, in water whose average 
depth is 1,800 ft., were found by Dr. Hooker 
to be invariably charged with diatomaceous re- 
mains. These fossil species are often so identi- 
cal with recent ones, that it would be scarcely 
too extravagant to admit the assertion of Ehren- 
berg, that species are to be found in a living 
state in situations where they have been propa- 
gated from times far anterior to the existence 
of man. The United States are rich in the 
diatomaceffl, both fossil and living. In the 
tertiary infusorial stratum of Eichmond, Va., 
Ehrenberg detected 20 genera and 46 species, 
of which all were also European excepting two. 
This group of American forms is of peculiar 
interest, because the strata at Richmond are de- 
cidedly of marine origin, and consequently give 
at once a general view of these marine micro- 
scopic forms along the North American coast. 
Of the perfectly free diatoms we have many 
species of namculacece remarkable for beauty, 
symmetry, or delicacy, or else for their stria- 
tions. The largest, most common, and most easi- 
ly distinguished is namcula viridis, of an oblong 
outline, found in every ditch and pond. It can 
be detected in great abundance in the ashes of 
peat, and in the deposits of infusorial earths. 
Its length is about -fa of a line. Several of a 
sigmoid outline are very remarkable for the 
delicacy of their stria3, of which may be men- 
tioned pleurosigma Baltica, P. hippocampus, 
but more particularly P. angulata. The lines 
of striation upon NitzscJiia sigmoidea are about 
TooVinr of an inch apart. In fragilaria we 
have long threads of frustules adhering with 
considerable firmness at their commissures; 
but in diatoma they adhere only at a single 
point, so as to form curious chains of divided 
or separated joints. Prof. Bailey describes 
'bacillaria paradoxa as a very interesting spe- 
cies, presenting by its curious motions and its 
paradoxical appearance an object well calcu- 
lated to astonish all who behold it. At one 
moment the needle-shaped frustules lie side 
by side, forming a rectangular plate ; sudden- 
ly one of the frustules slides forward a little 
way, the next slides a little also, and so on 
hrough the whole number, each, however, 
retaining a contact through part of its length 
with the adjoining ones. By this united mo- 
':ion the parallelogram is changed into a long 
ine ; then some of the frustules slide togeth- 
er again, so that the form is then much like 
a banner. Similar motions are constantly go- 
ng on, and with such rapidity that the eye can 
scarcely follow them. The cause of this motion 
s wholly unknown, but it is probably mechani- 
;al and not vital. Mr. Smith, in his work on 
he diatomacea), estimates this motion as be- 
n S ^iff m ch per second. In meridion vernaU 
we have one of the most beautiful of the fresh- 
water diatoms. It consists of spiral or helicoi- 
lal chains, to perceive which the specimens must 
be tilted on edge. It occurs in immense quan- 
ities in mountain brooks, covering every sub- 




DIATOMACE^E 



merged stone, or twig, or spear of grass, in the 
early days of spring. Among the groups with 
vittate or ribbon-like fronds, we may notice stri- 
atella arcuata, occurring in vast quantities on 



DIBDIN 



85 





1. Bacillaria paradoxa. 2. 3. Meridion vernale. 

the filiform marine algaa, and covering them so 
much oftentimes as to make them glitter in the 
sunbeams as if invested with crystals. In still 
another natural group, where the striae are no 
longer visible in the frustules or fronds, we find 
a multitude of microscopic objects, furnishing 
sources for fresh admiration whenever they are 
examined. In some of these the fronds, which 
are disciform, are marked with radiating lines, 
of which coscinodiscus, very common in a fossil 
state in the Richmond earth and elsewhere, is 
most beautiful. In G. lineatus the cellules of 
the frond form parallel lines in whatever direc- 
tion they may be viewed, and G. oculus iridis 
gives curious colored rings. When perfect, the 
disk of coscinodiscus is covered with circular 
spots in rows corresponding with the radii. In 
consequence of this arrangement they also form 
beautiful spiral rows in other directions, so that 
the curves present no inconsiderable resem- 
blance to patterns produced by engine-turn- 
at other times the spots are found to form 
ree sets of lines, making angles of 60 and 
with each other ; and on others the spots 
are disposed without much apparent regularity, 
frequently having a star-like figure in the cen- 
tre. The spots are so small on some of the 
disks as to be almost invisible even by the 
highest magnifying powers ; on others they are 
quite large and hexagonal. In podiscus Rogerii 
(Bailey), the whole surface is so beautifully 
punctate that no engraving could do it justice. 
The most complicated markings on the coscino- 
discus scarcely rival the elaborate ornaments 
of this truly elegant organism. It has proved 
very common in Virginia and Maryland in a 
fossil condition. The beauty of isthmia obli- 
quata, detected in the mud of Boston harbor, 
can only be appreciated by ocular examination. 
The diatomacese enter largely into the food of 
the mollusca. Dr. Hooker found dictyocha 
aculeata in the stomachs of salpse taken ofl 7 
Victoria Land, and remains of diatomacese oc- 
curred in the same ascidiums examined between 
the latitudes of the N. tropic and 80 S. The 
medusaa are also in particular often filled with 
these forms. See Bailey in " American Jour- 
nal of Science and Arts," vols. xli., xlvi. ; 



"Proceedings of the Essex Institute," vol. i., 
pp. 33^8, and vol. ii., pp. 70, 71 ; Kutzing's 
Species Algarum (Leipsic,. 1849) ; Smith's 
"British Diatomacese " (2 vols. 8vo, London, 
1853-' 6) ; and Berkeley's " Introduction to 
Cryptogamic Botany " (London, 1857). 

DIAZ, Miguel, an Aragonese explorer, born 
after the middle of the 15th century, died 
about 1514. He took part in the second expe- 
dition of Columbus, and having arrived in 
Hayti in 1495, he became involved in a duel 
which forced him to flee to the southern part 
of the island, where he married the female 
ruler of an Indian tribe. From information 
given by her, and with the cooperation of Bar- 
tholomew Columbus, who was governor of the 
colony, he discovered the gold mines of St. 
Christopher, and afterward took a conspicuous 
part in the foundation of Nueva Isabella (after- 
ward Santo Domingo) in the vicinity of the 
gold districts. He faithfully adhered to Co- 
lumbus until his death. 

DIAZ DEL CASTILLO, Bernal, a Spanish ad- 
venturer and chronicler, born in Medina del 
Campo, Old Castile, near the close of the 15th 
century. He went to seek his fortune in the 
new world in 1514, and joined the expeditions 
which sailed from Cuba to Yucatan under Fer- 
nandez de Cordova in 1517, and under Grijalva 
in 1518. He afterward attached himself to 
the fortunes of Cortes. In 1568 he was regi- 
dor of the city of Guatemala. When Goma- 
ra's "Chronicle of New Spain" appeared, 
Diaz began his Historia verdadera de la con- 
quista de la Nueva Espafta, the object of 
which was to correct the many misstatements 
of his rival, and to claim for himself and his 
comrades a share of the glory which Goinara 
gave almost wholly to Cortes. The work was 
finished in 1558, and was first published at Ma- 
drid in 1632. An English translation by Lock- 
hart appeared in 1844. 

DIAZ DE SOLIS, Juan. See Sous. 

DIBDIN. I. Charles, an English song writer 
and composer, horn in Southampton in 1745, 
died July 25, 1814. He was the 18th child of 
his parents, who intended him for the church ; 
but he studied music, and at the age of 16 went 
to London, where he at first supported himself 
by composing ballads for the music sellers and 
by tuning pianos. In l763-'4 the opera of 
"The Shepherd's Artifice," written and com- 
posed by him, was produced at Covent Garden 
theatre, after which he appeared for several 
years as actor and composer. Among his most 
popular works were "The Padlock," "The 
Deserter," "The Waterman," and "The Qua^ 
ker," produced at Drury Lane under the man- 
agement of Garrick. Having quarrelled with 
the latter, he was for several years engaged 
in various theatrical speculations, and in 1789 
instituted a species of musical entertainment, 
in which he was the sole author, composer, 
and performer. He called it " The Whim of 
the Moment." So successful did the enterprise 
prove, that in 1796 he erected a small theatre 



DIBDIN 

in Leicester fields, called Sans-Souci, in which 
he performed till 1805, when he retired from 
professional life. A pension of 200 was pro- 
cured for him, of which in 1806 he was de- 
prived by the whig ministry of Lord Grenville. 
The tory administration, which came into 
power the succeeding year, restored his name 
to the pension list, but his improvidence kept 
him in poverty until his death. His theatrical 
compositions, 47 of which are enumerated in 
the "Biographia Dramatica," amount to about 
100. But his reputation rests mainly upon 
his songs, of which he wrote 900, or as some 
say 1,200. His nautical songs and ballads are 
among the finest in the language; and some 
of them, like " Poor Tom Bowling," written 
on the death of his brother Thomas, a sea cap- 
tain, and " Poor Jack," are established favor- 
ites. They were set to simple and expressive 
melodies, and were exceedingly popular at the 
beginning of the present century. He pub- 
lished "A Complete History of the Stage " (5 
vols. 8vo, 1795), an autobiography prefixed to 
a collection of his songs (4 vols. 8vo, 1803), 
and some miscellaneous works of no great value. 
A new edition of his songs, with a memoir by 
his son Thomas, illustrated by George Cruik- 
shank, was published in London in 1850. II* 
Thomas, son of the preceding, born in London 
in 1771, died there, Sept. 16, 1841. He adopt- 
ed the profession of his father, and for many 
years appeared before the public as actor, au- 
thor, and composer. His songs and dramatic 
pieces are probably as numerous as those of his 
father, but are now comparatively forgotten. 
He published a " Metrical History of England " 
(2 vols. 8vo, 1813), and " Reminiscences " (2 
vols., 1828). He died in poverty, while em- 
ployed in compiling an edition of his father's 
sea songs, for which he received an allowance 
from the lords of the admiralty. III. Thomas 
Frosrnall, an English bibliographer, nephew of 
Charles Dibdin, born in Calcutta in 1776, died 
Nov. 18, 1847. He was educated at Oxford 
and studied law, but afterward took orders, 
and received the degree of doctor of divinity. 
In 1807 he became editor of a weekly journal 
called " The Director," and in 1809 published 
in the form of a dialogue his "Bibliomania," 
reprinted with great enlargements in 1811 
(new ed., enlarged, 2 vols. royal 8vo, 1842). 
In 1818 he travelled abroad, and in 1824 was 
appointed rector of St. Mary's, Bryanstone 
square, which post he held until his death. 
In 1814-'15 he published, under the title of 
" Bibliotheca Spenceriana," an account of the 
rare books in Earl Spencer's library, to which 
he afterward added a description of the earl's 
seat at Althorp, and an account of the Cassano 
library purchased by him, the whole in 7 vols. 
8vo. ^ His principal works besides those above 
mentioned are : u Introduction to a Knowledge 
of rare and valuable Editions of the Greek and 
Roman Classics" (1802 ; 4th ed., entirely re- 
written, 2 vols. 8vo, 1827) ; " Typographical 
Antiquities of Great Britain " (4 vols., 1810- 



DICENTRA 

'19); "Bibliographical Decameron" (3 vols., 
1817) ; " Bibliographical, Antiquarian, and 
Picturesque Tour in France and Germany " (3 
vols., 1821); " Reminiscences of a Literary 
Life " (2 vols., 1836) ; " Bibliographical, Anti- 
quarian, and Picturesque Tour in the Northern 
Counties of England and Scotland " (3 vols., 
1838). 

DIBRANCHIATES, a division of cephalopod 
mollusks, having two gills or branchiae, an ink 
gland, and, with few exceptions, a rudimentary 
internal shell. The division includes the ar- 
gonaut, cuttle fish, octopus, squid, and spirula, 
of living forms, and the extinct belemnites. 
All are naked-skinned except the argonaut or 
paper nautilus, the female of which has a 
single-chambered shell for the protection of 
her eggs, not connected with the body. 

DICE (plural of die), small cubes of ivory, 
bone, stone, or wood, used in gaming. Each 
of their six faces is marked with a different 
number of points, from 1 to 6, in such a way 
that the numbers upon any two opposite sides 
together count 7. They are shaken and 
thrown from a box upon a table, and the game 
depends upon the number of points presented 
by the upper faces. This is one of the most 
ancient of games. Plutarch makes it an early 
invention of the Egyptians. Dice have been 
discovered in Thebes, made of bone or ivory, 
and similar to those in use at present. Hero- 
dotus ascribes the invention of this, as of all 
other games of chance, to the Lydians. It is al- 
luded to by JEschylus and Sophocles. The chief 
distinction between the ancient and the mod- 
ern game is, that in the former three dice were 
employed, and in the latter ordinarily but two 
are used. The Greeks gave to the various 
throws that were possible the names of their 
divinities and heroes, the best throw being 
called Aphrodite. This game was adopted 
by the Romans, and the example of some of 
the emperors, especially of Nero, gave it a 
dangerous popularity. Wealthy Romans du- 
ring the declining period of the empire fre- 
quently staked their entire fortunes upon a 
single chance. It was introduced into France 
in the reign of Philip Augustus, and has con- 
tinued a favorite game. 

DICE (Gr. A**?), in Greek mythology, the 
goddess of justice, daughter of Zeus and The- 
mis and sister of Eunomia (good rule) and 
Irene (peace). She appears as one of the 
HorsB, and as an attendant of the father of the 
gods, and in the tragedians also as an avenging 
and rewarding divinity. Her office was not 
only to punish injustice, but to reward virtue. 

DICENTRA (Borkh.), the generic name of 
some showy herbaceous perennials, of which 
several species are found wild in the United 
States. Of these latter, a very delicate and 
singularly flowered one is D. cucullaria (De 
Candolle), called Dutchman's breeches, the 
form of the corolla, with its spurs, resembling 
that article of apparel suspended in an inverted 
position. These blossoms are cream-colored 



DICENTKA 



DICK 



87 



tipped with white, and hang in a simple ra- 
ceme upon a slender drooping scape, rising 
from the bosom of a set of tender, deeply cut, 
long-stalked leaves. Both flowers and leaves 
soon fade away on the approach of summer, 
and leave, often on the surface of the ground, 
clusters of little grain-shaped tubers, arranged 
in the form of scaly bulbs. A second species, 
called squirrel corn (D. Canadensis, De 0.), 
has scattered, round, flattened tubers, as large 
as grains of Indian corn, to the resemblance 
to which it owes its name. Its flowers are 
greenish white, tinged with red, and pos- 
sess the fragrance of hyacinths. It is found 
in rich woodlands. D. eximia (De C.), 
found in western New York and among the 
Alleghanies of Virginia, is larger than the 
others, with reddish-purple flowers on a com- 
pound, clustered raceme, and with the lobes 
of the leaves broadly oblong. D. chrysantha 
(Hooker and Arnott), a native of California, 
has large, showy, golden-yellow flowers, leaves 




Dicentra cucullaria. 

2 and 3 pinnately divided, glaucous, with linear, 
acute segments, and a stem 2 or 3 ft. high, 
leafy branching. But the most beautiful of 
all was introduced from Japan in 1846. From 
thick, brittle, fleshy roots rise early in the 
spring numerous stout hollow stems about 3 
ft. high, bearing large, spreading, deeply divi- 
ded, compoundly ternate leaves of a glaucous 
hue, like the tree pceonias, from the axils of 
which issue strong flower stalks, branching 
into axillary and smaller racemes, loaded with 
large, rosy blossoms, each flower being about 
an inch long. In the early stage of the inflo- 
rescence the buds have a deeper tint. Several 
weeks elapse from the commencement of the 
expansion of the first blossoms until the period 
of blossoming is over ; but sometimes a few 
smaller racemes will appear again toward the 
end of the summer. This is D. spectabilis, pop- 
ularly called "bleeding heart." Side shoots 
or cuttings taken off early in spring, and plant- 



ed out, will flower in August and September ; 
but for early forcing it is better to put them 
into pots, and suffer them to ripen away the 
foliage that has been produced in this condi- 




Dicentra spectabilis. 

tion, in preparation for another season, taking 
due care lest they strike their freely growing 
root fibres through the bottom of the pots. 
On the approach of severe frost, the pots 
should be placed under shelter, or put into the 
cellar, whence they are to be removed into a 
warmer atmosphere as they are needed for 
flowering. For early blossoming parlor plants 
there are few so easily prepared, or so sure of 
successful management, or which will so well re- 
ward any attention. The D. spectabilis thrives 
in any good soil, but that which is light, rich, 
and deep suits it best. By a curious error many 
writers call the plant dielytra. 

DICK, Thomas, a Scottish author, born near 
Dundee, Nov. 24, 1774, died at Broughty Ferry, 
July 29, 1857. He was educated for the min- 
istry, and was settled at Stirling; but he re- 
linquished his profession, and for ten years was 
engaged as a teacher at Perth. "While there 
he wrote "The Christian Philosopher" (1823), 
which brought him considerable reputation. 
From this time he devoted himself to the wri- 
ting of popular scientific works, which were 
not a source of much pecuniary profit to their 
author. He also delivered many popular lec- 
tures on scientific subjects. His works having 
had a large sale in the United States, a sub- 
scription was taken up for his benefit in this 
country some years before his death, and by 
this means, and the aid of a small pension from 
the British government, he was enabled to pass 
his latter years in comfort. Among his works 
are: "Philosophy of Religion" (1825), "Im- 
provement of Society by the Diffusion of 
Knowledge," " Philosophy of a Future State" 
(1828), "Mental Illumination of Mankind" 
(1835), "Celestial Scenery" (1838), "Sidereal 
Heavens" (1840), and "Telescope and Micro- 
scope " (1851). 



88 



DICKENS 



DICKERS, Charles, an English novelist, born at 
Land port, a suburb of Portsmouth, Feb. 7, 1812, 
died at (iadshill, near Rochester, June 9, 1870. 
He was bapti/ed as Charles John Huff ham, 
and occasionally subscribed that name. His 
father, John Dickens, was a clerk in the navy 
pay office, stationed at Portsmouth dockyard, 
and Charles was the second of eight children. 
When he was four years old his parents re- 
moved to Chatham, where his education began, 
and where at the age of nine he produced a 
tragedy called "Misnar, the Sultan of India," 
founded on one of the " Tales of the Genii," 
which, with "Don Quixote," "Gil Bias," 
"Kobinson Crusoe," and the novels of Fielding 
and' Smollett, he had found in the house and 
eagerly devoured. The next year his father 
became bankrupt and was imprisoned, and the 
family moved to Bayham street, one of the 
poorest quarters of London, whence Charles 
was sent to work in a blacking manufactory. 
But the father, having received a small legacy, 
retrieved himself somewhat, became a reporter 
for the "Morning Chronicle," and placed his 
son, after two years of schooling, in an attor- 
ney's office. The drudgery of this place was 
not agreeable to the boy, who continued to 
give all his spare time to the reading of novels, 
and visited the theatre whenever he could 
command the means. In the course of a year 
or two he determined to become a parliamen- 
tary reporter, and set himself diligently to the 
study of shorthand. In this capacity, at the 
age of 19, he was employed by the " True Sun," 
and at 23 by the " Morning Chronicle." In 
the "Old Monthly Magazine" for January, 
1834, appeared his first published sketch, "Mrs. 
Joseph Porter over the Way." Similar sketches 
appeared in the succeeding numbers of the 
year, under the signature "Boz;" and they 
were then discontinued because their author 
demanded pay, which the publisher was indis- 
posed to give. The signature " Boz " was a 
kind of mispronunciation of the name Moses, 
which was in the family given to a younger 
brother of Dickens, from a fancied resemblance 
to the Moses in Goldsmith's " Vicar of Wake- 
field." These sketches were continued for a 
year in the evening edition of the " Chronicle," 
and attracted considerable attention. Dickens 
received for them two guineas a week in addi- 
tion to his regular salary of five guineas. In 
1836 they were collected and published in two 
volumes, illustrated by Cruikshank. In April 
of this year he married Catharine, eldest daugh- 
ter of George Hogarth, a writer for the " Chron- 
icle ;" and about the same time the first num- 
l>cr i,f "The Posthumous Papers of the Pick- 
wick Club " was announced. The firm of Chap- 
man and Hall had proposed to Dickens a work 
tattoo in monthly numbers, of which he 
should furnish the letterpress, and Mr. Sey- 
mour, a comic artist of some celebrity, the il- 
lustrations. Seymour died by his own hand 
just before the second number appeared, and 
Ilablot K. Browne (under the pseudonyme of 



" Phiz ") took his place. The first two or three 
numbers were not remarkably successful ; but 
after that, especially when Sam Weller ap- 
peared in the fifth number, the work gained 
rapidly, until at its completion Dickens was the 
most popular writer in the language. "The Pick- 
wick Papers" were published collectively in 
1837. Meanwhile he had begun " Oliver Twist " 
in " Bentley's Miscellany," the first numbers of 
which were appearing simultaneously with the 
last of "Pickwick;" it was published in book 
form in 1838. In January of that year he as- 
sumed the editorship of "Bentley's Miscellany," 
but soon relinquished it. The " Memoirs of 
Joseph Grimaldi " appeared in 1838, with the 
name of Dickens as editor; but he really con- 
tributed nothing to the book but the preface. 
" Nicholas Nickleby "was published in monthly 
numbers from April, 1838, to October, 1839. 
In 1838 he published anonymously a small vol- 
ume of sketches entitled "Young Gentlemen," 
and soon afterward another entitled "Young 
Couples." Under the general title of "Master 
Humphrey's Clock," " The Old Curiosity Shop " 
and "Barnaby Eudge" appeared in monthly 
numbers during 1840 and 1841, but subsequent- 
ly were published as distinct stories. In the 
latter year he travelled in the highlands of 
Scotland, taking his work with him and wri- 
ting at it regularly. On his return he wrote 
many political squibs, some of them in verse, 
directed against the tories. In January, 184$ 
Dickens and his wife sailed for America, land- 
ing at Boston on the 22d. Of that visit nei 
ther Mr. Dickens nor the American people hi 
reason to be proud. On their part he was re- 
ceived and f^ted with an admiration which 
degenerated into snobbishness ; and on his part 
the liberal but often ridiculous hospitality was 
repaid in the "American Notes" and "Martin 
Chuzzlewit " with sneers and caricature. He 
returned to England in June, and published 
"American Notes for General Circulation" to- 
ward the close of the year. In 1843 he wrote 
"The Christmas Carol," the first of a series of 
short stories for the holidays, in which benevo- 
lence, generosity, and kindly sympathy are in- 
culcated. These stories have met with a pop- 
ular appreciation not surpassed by his novels, 
and several of them have been dramatized. 
The titles and dates of the others are as follows : 
"The Chimes " (1844) ; "The Cricket on the 
Hearth " (1845) ; " The Battle of Life " (1846) ; 
"The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain " 
(1848); "Dr. Marigold's Prescriptions " (1865), 
of w T hich 250,000 copies were sold in England 
in one week; "Mugby Junction" (1866); and 
"No Thoroughfare" (1867). The last two 
were written in collaboration with others. 
"Martin Chuzzlewit" was published in 1844, 
and in July of that year Dickens went to 
Italy, where he resided about a year. On 
Jan. 1, 1846, he became editor of the "Daily 
News," a newly established morning journal 
of liberal politics, and in this his "Pictures 
from Italy " were first published. As a politi- 



DICKENS 



89 



cal editor he was not successful, and at the 
end of four months his connection with the 
" News " was terminated. " Dealings with 
the Firm of Dombey and Son " was published 
serially in 1847- 1 8, and "David Copperfield" 
in 1849-'50. In 1850 Dickens started " House- 
hold Words," a weekly periodical, in which 
appeared his "Child's History of England" 
(1852) and "Hard Times" (1854). It is said 
to have attained a circulation of 90,000 in 
Great Britain. " Bleak House " appeared seri- 
ally in 1852-'3, and " Little Dorrit " in 1856-7. 
In 1858 Dickens and his wife arranged an ami- 
cable separation for reasons which have never 
been fully given to the public. In 1859, in- 
cidental to this separation, he had a disa- 
greement with the publishers of " Household 
"Words," which ended in his buying out their 
interest and suspending the publication. He 
then started "All the Year Bound," a similar 
periodical, and in this appeared " A Tale of 
Two Cities" (1860), "Great Expectations" 
(1861), and "The Uncommercial Traveller." 
" Our Mutual Friend " was published in month- 
ly numbers in 1864-'5. In this form also he 
commenced publishing in April, 1870, "The 
Mystery of Edwin Drood," which was uncom- 
pleted at the time of his death. Besides the 
works already enumerated, he produced a num- 
ber of short stories, no complete collection of 
which has yet been made. Among them are 
" Chops the Dwarf," " The Holly Tree Inn," 
"Mrs. Lirriper's Lodgings," "Mrs. Lirriper's 
Legacy," and " A Child's Dream of a Star." 
Dickens's works began a new era in fictitious 
literature. No predecessor had made so many 
studies from actual and ordinary life, from the 
scenes and characters nearest at hand, or had 
been so imaginative in their delineation ; and 
no novels had appealed so powerfully to the 
universal sympathies and best impulses of man- 
kind. They are full of faults in plot, in style, 
and in character, and there is scarcely one of 
them that could not be improved by cutting 
out extraneous matter ; but their great excel- 
lences override everything, and captivate every 
reader who has the slightest interest in the 
common virtues and foibles, or sympathy with 
the common joys and sorrows of humanity. 
Most of tli em are written with a purpose, more 
or less obvious, beyond the mere production of 
a story. Thus "Oliver Twist" exposes the 
abuses of the poorhouse system and the train- 
ing of boys to crime ; " Nicholas Nickleby " was 
aimed at the horrors of cheap boarding schools ; 
" Hard Times " delineates the sufferings of the 
manufacturing population, "Bleak House" the 
delays of the court of chancery ; while " Our 
Mutual Friend" has for its theme the idea 
that prosperity only expands natural goodness 
and intensifies natural meanness. Almost all 
of them attack some notable form of vice, or 
social wrong, or abuse of power. None of 
them deal with the past, except "Barnaby 
Rudge" and "A Tale of Two Cities." They 
have all gone through numberless editions in 



England and America; but they have not 
borne very well the test of translation, and are 
not so popular in foreign languages as in Eng- 
lish, for the obvious reason that much of their 
charm depends on a kind of humor peculiar to 
the Anglo-Saxon race, and is often conveyed in 
idioms that are not translatable. Dickens al- 
ways had a love for the drama, and was a fre- 
quent performer in private theatricals. He 
wrote an opera and a few farces and light 
comedies, one of which was afterward trans- 
formed into his burlesque story of "The 
Lamplighter." In 1851 he organized, with 
other authors and artists, a company of ama- 
teur actors, under the name of "Guild of 
Literature and Art," intended for the special 
benefit of authors, artists, and actors ; and con- 
siderable charitable funds were raised by their 
performances, notably that for the relief of the 
family of Douglas Jerrold. Having often given 
readings of his shorter stories for benevolent 
objects, in April", 1858, Dickens first appeared 
in London as a public reader for his own bene- 
fit; and from that time he read frequently in 
the chief cities of Great Britain and Ireland, 
giving a course also in Paris. In November, 
1867, he visited the United States for the same 
purpose, and gave his first reading in Boston, 
Dec. 2, his last in New York, April 20, 1868. 
His tour comprised the chief cities of the east- 
ern and middle states, but extended no further 
west than Buffalo. The success of these per- 
formances on both sides of the Atlantic was 
probably beyond his own expectations. Ar- 
tistically they were almost perfect, for Dickens 
was an excellent actor, and gave long and hard 
study to the minutest details. Financially they 
were more profitable than all his publications 
had been. He gave his last reading in Eng- 
land on March 15, 1870. Few literary men 
have ever maintained so large an interest as 
Dickens in whatever was going on around 
them ; and scarcely one has so well exhibited 
his ability for taking care of his own business 
affairs. His share in the profits of his first two 
or three books was comparatively small ; but 
thereafter he always dictated the terms to his 
publishers, and looked sharply after his own 
interests. It had been his dream when a boy 
to own Gadshill house, which he frequently 
passed by and admired ; and in 1857 he pur- 
chased it and made it his home. His first 
visitor there was Hans Christian Andersen, and 
for 13 years it was the scene of a generous hos- 
pitality. Dickens had few of the hobbies and 
superstitions that are generally supposed to be 
inseparable from genius ; one, however, is no- 
ticeable : having been out of London when the 
first number of " Pickwick " appeared, he in- 
variably left town just before the publication 
of the initial numbers of his subsequent stories. 
On June 8, 1870, as he sat down to dinner, it 
was observed that he appeared unwell, but he 
declared that he was only suffering from a 
toothache, and declined to have a physician 
called. At the same time he requested that 



90 



DICKINS 



the window should be closed, and immediately 
sank into a stupor, from which he never ral- 
lied. With no returning gleam of conscious- 
ness, he died the next evening. The cause of 
his death was apoplexy, brought on by over- 
work. He left five sons and two daughters, 
and bequeathed to them the greater portion of 
his estate. He had refused a baronetcy offered 
him by the queen, and in his will he wrote : " I 
emphatically direct that I be buried in an in- 
expensive, unostentatious, and strictly private 
manner ; that no public announcement be made 
of the time or place of my burial. ... I direct 
that my name be inscribed in plain English let- 
ters on my tomb, without the addition of ' Mr.' 
or 4 Esquire.' I conjure my friends on no ac- 
count to make me the subject of any monu- 
ment, memorial, or testimonial whatever. I 
rest my claims to the remembrance of my 
country upon my published works, and to the 
remembrance of my friends upon their expe- 
rience of me. In addition thereto I commit 
my soul to the mercy of God, through our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and I exhort 
my dear children humbly to try to guide them- 
selves by the teachings of the New Testament 
in its broad spirit, and to put no faith in any 
man's narrow construction of its letter here or 
there." Dickens was buried privately in the 
poets' corner of Westminster abbey. He never 
furnished any materials for a biography ; but it 
is supposed that "David Copperfield," which 
is very generally considered his best novel, is 
largely autobiographical in fact, as it is in form. 
John Forster, his intimate friend and one of his 
executors, has written his biography in three 
volumes (London, 1872-'4; reprinted in Phila- 



delphia). See also " Life of Charles Dickens," 




of Dickens," by F. G. de Fontaine (New York, 
1873). 

DICKINS, John, an American clergyman, born 
in London, Aug. 24, 1747, died in Philadelphia, 
Sept. 27, 1798. He studied at Eton, emigrated 
to America before the revolution, and was one 
of the prominent founders of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in America, suggesting the 
name which was adopted. From 1776 to 1782 
he preached in Virginia and North Carolina. 
As early as 1780 he suggested to Bishop Asbury 
the plan of Cokesbury college, at N. Abing- 
don, Md., the first Methodist academic institu- 
tion in America. In 1783 he took charge of 
the John street church, New York, and was 
the first American preacher to receive Thomas 
Coke and approve his scheme for organizing 
tlu- < It-nomination. In 1789 he was stationed 
in Philadelphia, and there established the 
"Methodist Book Concern" (afterward re- 
moved to New York), commencing it with 
$600 I.-nt by himself to the church, and con- 
totring in charge of it till his death. His son, 
ASBURY DK KINS, born July 29, 1780, was in 
1801 associated with Joseph Dennie in found- 



DICKINSON 

ing the "Port Folio" at Philadelphia. He 
was first clerk in the United States treasury 
department from 1816 to 1833, and in the state 
department from 1833 to 1836, when he was 
elected secretary of the United States senate 
which office he held till July 16, 1861. While 
in the treasury and state departments he was 
often acting secretary, and wrote many im- 
portant state papers. He died in Washington, 
Oct. 23, 1861. 

DICKINSON. I. A N. W. county of Iowa, 
bordering on Minnesota ; area, 430 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 1,389. It contains a number of 
small lakes, the principal of which is Spirit 
lake. The largest river is the Okoboji, an af- 
fluent of the Little Sioux. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 21,871 bushels of wheat, 
20,541 of oats, 5,267 of Indian corn, and 3,267 
tons of hay. The total value of live stock was 
$81,470. Capital, Spirit Lake. II. A N. W. 
central county of Kansas, intersected by the 
Kansas river, and watered by its affluents; 
area, 846 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 3,043. The 
surface is mostly prairie, but somewhat diver- 
sified. The soil is fertile. The Kansas Pacific 
railroad traverses it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 55,312 bushels of wheat, 97,615 
of Indian corn, 21,628 of oats, 10,349 of pota- 
toes, 11,115 tons of hay, and 41,161 Ibs. of 
butter. There were 1,153 horses, 1,494 milch 
cows, and 5,157 other cattle. Capital, Abilene. 

DICKINSON, Anna Elizabeth, an American lec- 
turer and author, born in Philadelphia, Oct. 28, 
1842. She was the youngest of five children, 
whose father died when she was two years old, 
leaving his family in poverty. She received 
her early education in the free schools of the 
society of Friends, to which her parents be- 
longed. At the age of 14 she made her first 
appearance in print, with an article on slavery 
in the "Liberator." At 17 she left school, 
and during the next two years taught at New 
Brighton and in Bucks co., Pa. Her first 
speech was made in a meeting of the associa- 
tion of Progressive Friends in Philadelphia, 
in January, 1860, the subject being "Woman's 
Eights and Wrongs ;" and from this time she 
began to speak frequently in such assemblies, 
chiefly on temperance and slavery. Mean- 
while she obtained employment in the Uni- 
ted States mint at Philadelphia. But in No- 
vember, 1861, in a speech alluding to the ac- 
tion at Ball's Bluff, she said, " This battle was 
lost, not through ignorance and incompetence, 
but through the treason of the commanding 
general ;" for which she was dismissed from 
the mint. Thereupon she made lecturing her 
profession, speaking chiefly on political topics. 
Early in 1863 she accepted an invitation from 
the republican state committee of New Hamp- 
shire to enter the canvass for the March elec- 
tion. Afterward she accepted an invitation tc 
make a similar tour in Connecticut; and in 
the autumn of the same year she was engaged 
by the republican committee of Pennsylvania 
to speak in the mining and agricultural dis- 



DICKINSON 



DICKSON 



91 



tricts of that state. She opposed the reelec- 
tion of President Lincoln in 1864, and advo- 
cated the election of Horace Greeley to the 
presidency in 1872. For several years she has 
held a place among the regular lyceum lectur- 
ers, and has spoken in almost every part of the 
country. She has published a novel entitled 
"What Answer?" (Boston, 1868). 

DICKINSON, John, an American statesman, 
born in Maryland, Nov. 13, 1732, died in Wil- 
mington, Delaware, Feb. 14, 1808. He studied 
law in Philadelphia, and subsequently at the 
Temple, London, and on returning to America 
practised with considerable success. Being 
elected to the Pennsylvania house of assembly 
in 1764, he evinced unusual capacities, and was 
a ready and energetic debater. At the same 
time he became known by his publications 
upon the attempts of the mother country to 
infringe the liberties of the colonies. In 1765 
he was elected a deputy from Pennsylvania to 
the first colonial congress, and drafted the reso- 
lutions passed by that body. In 1768 he pub- 
lished his " Farmer's Letters to the Inhabitants 
of the British Colonies," which were repub- 
lished in London with a preface by Benjamin 
Franklin, and subsequently in French in Paris. 
He was a member of the first continental con- 
gress in 1774, and of the state papers put forth 
by that body some of the most important, in- 
cluding the "Declaration to the Armies," the 
two petitions to the king, and the "Address 
to the States," were the production of his pen. 
He, however, opposed the adoption of the 
declaration of independence, believing that the 
movement was premature, and that compro- 
mise was still practicable, and was one of the 
few members of congress who did not sign it. 
So unpopular did he become with his constitu- 
ents for his course on this occasion, that for 
several years he was absent from the public 
councils, although in the interim he signified 
his devotion to the American cause by serving 
as a private soldier in Delaware. In 1779 he 
returned to congress as a member from Dela- 
ware, and wrote the "Address to the States" 
of May 26. He was subsequently president of 
the states of Delaware and Pennsylvania suc- 
cessively, and a member of the federal conven- 
tion for framing a constitution. In 1788 ap- 
peared his "Fabius" letters, advocating the 
adoption of the new constitution. Another 
series over the same signature, on the relations 
of the United States with France, published 
in 1797, was his last work. His political wri- 
tings were published in 2 vols. in 1801. 

DICKINSON COLLEGE, the name of a college 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, situated at 
Carlisle, Pa. It was founded in 1783 as a 
Presbyterian institution, and named after John 
Dickinson, president of Pennsylvania, in con- 
sideration of his valuable gifts for its establish- 
ment, and his great personal interest in it. It 
remained Presbyterian till 1883, when, in con- 
sequence of the embarrassments caused by the 
division of that church, it was transferred to 



the Methodist Episcopal church. The Pres- 
byterian presidents of the institution were 
Charles Nisbet (elected in 1784), Robert Da- 
vidson (1804), Jeremiah Atwater (1809), John 
M. Mason (1821), William Neill (1824), and 
Samuel M. How (1830) ; the Methodist presi- 
dents, John P. Durbin (1833), Robert Emory 
(1845), Jesse T. Peck (1848), Charles Collins 
(1852), Herman M. Johnson (1860), Robert L. 
Dashiell (1868), and James A. McCauley (1872). 
The list of graduates contains the names of 
President Buchanan, Chief Justice Taney, and 
Postmaster General Creswell. During the year 
of the centenary of American Methodism (1866) 
its endowment fund was increased to $100,000. 
A scientific and a law department have recent- 
ly been established ; also a Biblical course for 
students preparing for the ministry. In 1873 
there were 7 professors, 2 tutors, and 87 students. 
The college consists of three buildings ; it has 
a valuable scientific apparatus and libraries 
containing about 30,000 volumes. In the junior 
and senior years divergences from the classical 
course are allowed, either in favor of the He- 
brew language for those studying for the min- 
istry, or in favor of the natural sciences. A 
complete catalogue, containing names of the 
presidents, professors, trustees, and graduates 
from the foundation, was issued in 1864. 

DICKSON, a N. county of Tennessee, bound- 
ed N. E. by Cumberland river, and drained 
by several of its affluents ; area, about 650 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,340, of whom 1,677 
were colored. It has a rolling surface and 
a tolerably fertile soil. The Cumberland riv- 
er, along its border, is navigable by steam- 
boats, and it is intersected by the Nashville 
and Northwestern railroad. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 36,130 bushels of wheat, 
319,085 of Indian corn, 58,810 of oats, 98,798 
Ibs. of butter, and 462,130 of tobacco. There 
were 1,622 horses, 1,917 milch cows, 3,698 
other cattle, 6,925 sheep, and 11,557 swine ; 4 
flour mills, 4 saw mills, and 2 manufactories 
of pig iron. Capital, Charlotte. 

DICKSON, Samuel Henry, an American physi- 
cian, born in Charleston, S. 0., in September, 
1798, died in Philadelphia, March 31, 1872. 
He graduated at Yale college in 1814, and after- 
ward studied medicine in Charleston and at 
the university of Pennsylvania. He was in- 
strumental in the establishment of a medical 
college in Charleston, and on its organization 
in 1824 became professor of the institutes and 
practice of medicine. In 1832 he retired, but 
in the following year, on the reorganization of 
the institution as the medical college of the 
state of South Carolina, he was reflected. In 
1847 he was called to the professorship of the 
practice of medicine in the university of New 
York, which he filled till 1850, when he re- 
sumed his professorship in the medical college 
of South Carolina. In 1858 he became pro- 
fessor of the practice of medicine in the Jefier- 
son medical college at Philadelphia. He con- 
tributed many papers to various medical jour- 



92 



DICQUEMARE 



nals, and published a work on "Dengue 
(Philadelphia, 1826) ; " Manual of Pathology 
and Practice of Medicine ;" " Essays on Pathol- 
ogy and Therapeutics" (2 vols. 8vo, New- 
York, 1845) ; " Essays on Life, Sleep, Pain, &c. 
(12rao, Philadelphia, 1852); and "Elements 
of Medicine " (8vo, Philadelphia, 1855). He 
was also the author of a pamphlet on slavery, 
in which he asserted the essential inferiority 
of the negro race. 

DICQIE3IARE, Jacqnes Francois, a French nat- 
uralist and astronomer, born in Havre, March 
7, 1733, died March 29, 1789. He was a priest, 
and became professor of experimental physics 
at Havre, and member of the academy of Rouen 
and of the royal marine academy. He invent- 
ed several useful instruments in connection 
with astronomy and navigation, but is better 
known by his researches into the natural his- 
tory of zoophytes, infusoria, and mollusks, and 
particularly by his discoveries relative to sea 
anemones, on which he published an essay in 
French and English (4to, London, 1774). He 
designed an instrument called the cosmoplane, 
by means of which he solved problems in nau- 
tical astronomy. Besides numerous papers in 
the Journal de Physique, he published an In- 
dex geographique (1769), Idee generate de Gas- 
tronomic (1769), and Connaissance de I'as- 
tronomie (1771). 

DICTATOR, the chief magistrate in the cities 
of the ancient Latin confederacy, in Alba, Tus- 
culum, &c. The Romans adopted the word 
from their Latin neighbors, and applied it in 
the earliest period of the republic to exception- 
al magistrates appointed in times of danger, 
with nearly absolute power over life and prop- 
erty, from which there was no appeal to law 
or people. The dictator was usually nominated 
by the senate, and appointed by one of the 
consuls for six months, during which time the 
consuls and other regular magistrates continued 
in their office, though subject to his dictates, 
and deprived temporarily of their badges of 
dignity. The power of the dictator was most- 
ly limited to one object, and particularly to 
foreign affairs. Being elected, he appointed 
his lieutenant or master of the horse (magister 
equitum) and surrounded himself with his 24 
lictors (twice as many as attended the consuls), 
armed with fasces and axes. He was limited 
only in regard to the use of the public money, 
and responsible only after the expiration of 
his term ; he was not allowed to leave Italy, or 
to appear on horseback within the precincts 
of the city. Officers bearing the same title 
were also sometimes appointed for certain civil 
or religious purposes. This office was quite 
harmless, but in later periods dictators were 
appointed reipublicce constituenda causa (to 
form a new constitution), such as Sulla and 
Caesar, whose arbitrary power destroyed the 
republic. The first Roman dictator, Lartius, was 
appointed within ten years after the establish- 
ment of the republic (about 500 B. C.), to save 
the state from the threatening allies of Tarquin 



DICTIONARY 

the expelled king, and the more dangerous dis- 
turbances within the walls. The public lands 
were in t the grasp of the patricians, and the 
plebeians were poor and degraded. The danger 
from the supporters of Tarquin was imminent. 
The senate commanded new levies, but the peo- 
ple refused to obey, declaring that they had 
nothing to defend, and that no foreign yoke 
could bring upon them greater hardships than 
those they endured. In their disobedience 
they were protected by the law recently passed 
through the efforts of Valerius Poplicola, which 
permitted every citizen condemned to any se- 
vere punishment to appeal to the people. To 
evade the force of this popular law, the senate 
agreed upon the extraordinary measure of 
electing a single magistrate with more than 
regal power. The people confirmed the decree, 
and the success and honesty of Lartius proved 
worthy of the new dignity. About two years 
later another dictator, Aulus Posthumius, de- 
stroyed the last hopes of the banished king, in 
a battle fought near Lake Regillus. Not less 
remarkable were the services of the dictator 
L. Quintius Cincinnatus, who, having accom- 
plished the object of his appointment by rout- 
ing the ^Equi and saving the surrounded con- 
sular army, resigned his dignity within 17 
days. C. M. Rutilus (356) was the first plebeian 
appointed to the dictatorship, and M. J. Pera 
(216) was the last dictator in the original sense 
of the word ; for the same dignity, as bestowed 
on Sulla (82), and three times on Ceesar (47, 
45, and 44), meant only unlimited, despotic 
sway. Mark Antony abolished it altogether. 

DICTIONARY (Lat. dictio, a word), in its 
ordinary acceptation, a book containing the 
words of a language, in alphabetical order, 
with a definition annexed to each. The title 
of dictionary is also sometimes given to alpha- 
betically arranged cyclopaedias ; as dictionaries 
of law, of medicine, of the arts, of sciences, 
of commerce, &c. (See CYCLOPEDIA.) A 
complete dictionary would fulfil the same 
office with respect to language that a uni- 
versal cyclopaedia fulfils with respect to arts, 
sciences, and literature, giving an account 
of the origin and applications of the verbal 
symbols of ideas and facts, as the latter gives 
an account of the ideas and facts themselves. 
It would, therefore, state the etymology of 
words, and note their variations in meaning 
through the successive periods of a literature. 
A glossary is a dictionary of obsolete, provin- 
cial, or technical words; and the term lexi- 
con, though hardly distinguished by usage 
from dictionary, is more frequently applied to 
vocabularies of the ancient and learned lan- 
guages, with the definitions and explanations 
in some modern language. The earliest dic- 
tionary known is probably the series of clay 
tablets covered with cuneiform inscriptions 
which were found in the ruins of a palace of 
Nineveh, and which are ascribed to the time of 
the Assyrian king Asshur-bani-pal, whose seal 
is impressed on them. They are divided into 



DICTIONARY 



93 



ro, and occasionally into three and even four 
vertical columns, in which complicated ideo- 
graphic or monographic signs are explained 
in the more simple and phonetic syllabary of 
the time. Dictionaries, though not approach- 
ing the modern arrangement so closely as do 
these Assyrian tablets, were also in use in very 
ancient times among the Chinese and Japanese. 
The Greeks and Romans appear not to have 
employed dictionaries in learning foreign lan- 
guages, but uniformly to have availed them- 
selves of conversation with foreigners. Nor 
have any early attempts at Greek lexicogra- 
phy been preserved. The oldest extant Greek 
dictionary is by Apollonius of Alexandria, a 
contemporary of Augustus, whose " Homeric 
Lexicon" (Af? 'QfuipiKat), though much in- 
terpolated, has been of value in modern times 
in interpreting the idioms of the Iliad and 
Odyssey. Erotianus, a Greek writer in the 
reign of Nero, made a glossary of all the learn- 
ed words found in Hippocrates. Subsequent 
Greek dictionaries were the Onomasticon of 
Julius Pollux (about A. D. 177), containing 
explanations of the most important words 
relating to various prominent subjects, the ar- 
rangement being topical instead of alphabeti- 
cal; the dictionary ('E/cAoy^) of Attic words 
and phrases, by Phrynichus, an Arabian or 
Bithynian, who lived under Marcus Aurelius ; 
the dictionary of the words that occur in Plato, 
by Timaeus the sophist, probably of the 3d cen- 
tury, which, though brief, contains the best 
explanations of terms that have come down 
from the ancient grammarians ; a lost universal 
lexicon by Diogenianus of Heraclea, which is 
often quoted by Hesychius and Suidas, and 
which was abridged from an elaborate work 
by Pamphilus, also lost ; the dictionary to the 
works of ten Attic orators, by Valerius Harpo- 
cration, of unknown date, compiled from works 
now lost, and of the highest importance for its 
explanations of legal and political terms, and its 
accounts of persons and things mentioned in the 
Attic orations ; the comprehensive Greek dic- 
tionary of Hesychius, an Alexandrian gramma- 
rian of the 4th century, which, though much 
disfigured and interpolated in its present form, 
is a vast accumulation of most heterogeneous 
materials, and has been a principal source of 
our knowledge of the Greek language and of 
many ancient customs; the lexicon (Aefewv 
Zwaycj}^) attributed to Photius, patriarch of 
Constantinople (died about 890) ; and the 
Greek lexicon ascribed to Suidas, of unknown 
date, first quoted in the 12th century, contain- 
ing both common and proper names alphabeti- 
cally arranged, and valuable for the literary 
history of antiquity, and for its citations from 
ancient authors, as well as for its explanation 
of words. The first Roman lexicographer 
was M. Terentius Varro, the friend of Cicero; 
but his work, entitled De Lingua Latina, is 
rather a voluminous treatise on the etymol- 
ogy and peculiar uses of words than a dic- 
tionary ; only fragments have been preserved. 



The elaborate work of Verrius Flaccus, in the 
earlier part of the 1st century, entitled De 
Significatu Verborum, is lost; but it was the 
basis of a valuable compilation by Pompeius 
Festus, in the 3d or 4th century, entitled De 
Significatione Verborum, which was abridged 
by Paulus Diaconus in the 8th century. Only 
one imperfect copy of the work of Festus is 
preserved. The words are classified alphabeti- 
cally according to the initial letter of each, but 
the order of the subsequent letters is not ob- 
served. The information which it contains has 
been of great importance on many obscure 
points connected with antiquities, mythology, 
and grammar. Near the middle of the llth 
century Papias of Lombardy compiled a Latin 
dictionary from the glossaries of the 6th and 
7th centuries. An indication of progressive 
learning in Italy in the 13th century was the 
Catholicon of Giovanni Balbi, a Genoese monk, 
consisting of a Latin grammar followed by 
a copious dictionary. The work is in Latin, 
forms a volume of great bulk, was written about 
1286, and is now celebrated as a rare typo- 
graphical curiosity, its first edition having been 
printed by Gutenberg in 1460. The Cornucopia, 
of Perotti, bishop of Siponto, printed in 1489, 
was a copious commentary on Martial, followed 
by an alphabetical index of words, and was of 
much service to subsequent compilers. The 
first edition of Calepino's Latin dictionary ap- 
peared at Reggio in 1502. At first only a Latin 
lexicon, additions of the corresponding Italian, 
Greek, German, &c., words were successively 
made, till it was extended (Basel, 1590-1627) 
to eleven languages. The French give the 
name calepin to any voluminous compilation. 
An epoch in Latin lexicography was made by 
the publication of Robert Stephens's Thesaurus 
Lingua Latin (1532 ; 3d enlarged ed., 1543), 
which attempted to exhibit the proper use of 
words, not only in all the anomalies of idiom, 
but in every minute variation of sense. The 
most noted of subsequent Latin dictionaries is 
the Lexicon totius Latinitatis of Facciolati and 
Forcellini (Padua, 1771 ; 3d ed., 1831), in which 
every word is accompanied by its Italian and its 
Greek correlative, and which illustrates every 
meaning by examples from the classical authors. 
An English edition, edited by James Bailey, 
was published in London in 1828. Sir Thomas 
Elyot was the author of the first Latin-English 
dictionary (London, 1538), beyond the mere 
vocabularies of school boys. He was a dis- 
tinguished scholar, and a friend of Sir Thomas 
More ; his work reached the third edition in 
1545. The largest similar work that had pre- 
ceded it was the Orbis Vocabulorum, printed 
by Wynkin de Worde in 1500 (5th ed., 1518), 
which by successive improvements became the 
popular Latin-English dictionary of Ainsworth 
(1736, and many subsequent editions, of which 
the latest is the London quarto edition edited 
by John Carey, LL. D. ; abridgment by Thomas 
Morell, D. D., Philadelphia, 1863). The most 
eminent Latin lexicographers since Forcellini 



DICTIONARY 



are the German scholars Scheller, Freund, and 
Georges. The work of Forcellini was the ba- 
sis of the Latin-English dictionary of F. P. Lev- 
erett (Boston, 1836) ; and that of Freund, of 
the Latin-English lexicon of E. A. Andrews 
(New York, 1856). Many smaller lexicons 
have also been prepared for educational pur- 
poses, but nearly all are entirely formed from 
the material of the larger works. The first 
modern Greek-Latin dictionary was that of 
Giovanni Crastoni of Piacenza (Milan, 1480; 
printed also by Aldus, 1497), which was for 
many years the only lexicographic aid for the 
student of Greek. Robert Constantine pub- 
lished at Basel, in 1562, a thesaurus of the 
Greek language, in which he had the assistance 
of Gesner, Turnebus, Camerarius, and other 
learned contemporaries. It was superseded by 
the Thesaurus Graces Linguae of Henry Ste- 
phens (Paris, 1572), the result of 12 years' la- 
bor, which has hardly been surpassed in the 
comprehensive and copious interpretation of 
words. Its arrangement is not in the alpha- 
betical order of words but of roots, the deriva- 
tives and compounds being collected after each 
root. It was the basis of the works of Scapula 
and Schrevelius. The most thorough subse- 
quent Greek lexicons are the German works 
of Schneider, Passow, Seiler, Rost, and Pape. 
The work of Passow was the basis of the Greek- 
English lexicon of Liddell and Scott (Oxford, 
1845; New York, edited by Henry Drisler, 
1848; large 4to ed., London, 1870). The 
Greek language was long studied through the 
medium of the Latin, and no Greek-English 
lexicon was projected until the present century. 
The first of these that was announced was that 
of John Pickering (Boston, 1826, much en- 
larged in 1829, and subsequently in 1846), 
which was partially executed in 1814. It was 
preceded in publication only by the similar 
English work of John Jones (1823) ; that of 
Donnegan, an abridged translation from the 
German of Schneider, appeared in 1827. The 
first standard dictionaries of modern languages 
were produced under the patronage of learned 
academies. The oldest was the Italian Voca- 
bulario della Crusca, first published in 1612, 
which was avowedly founded on Tuscan prin- 
ciples, made the 14th century the Augustan 
period of the language, and slighted the great 
writers of the 16th ; an enlarged edition of this 
work (Florence, 1729-'38) still forms the high- 
est authority for the Italian language. In Spain 
the lexicon of Lebrixa (1492) and the Tesoro of 
Oovarrubias (1611) were the only dictionaries 
of note till the new academy produced its great 
work (6 vols., Madrid, 1726-'39), an abridg- 
ment of which was immediately prepared (5th 
revised ed., 1817). Though German lexicog- 
raphy begins with Ilrabanus Maurus, a contem- 
porary ,,f Charlemagne, the first noteworthy 
German lexicon was Die Teutsch Spracli of 
Maaler (Zurich, 1561), and the first learned and 
critical work of the kind was Frisch's Deutsch- 
iitiinisclcs Wurterluch (Berlin, 1741). All 



others have been superseded successively by 
the work of Adelung (Leipsic, 1774-'81), and 
that of the brothers Grimm (Leipsic, begun 
in 1852.) The dictionary of the French acad- 
emy was published in 1694, and adopted the 
alphabetical order in its 2d edition in 1718. 
The 6th edition was issued in 1835. A 7th 
edition, much improved, to be completed in 
2 vols. 4to, is now (1874) in progress, and 
will probably be finished in 1876. M. Patin 
is the chief editor ; MM. de Sacy, Sandeau, C. 
Doucet, and Mignet are associated with him. 
L. N. Bescherelle's excellent dictionary of 
the French language, in 2 vols. 4to, appeared 
in 1843-' 6. The large and important dic- 
tionary of M. E. Littre" (4 vols. 4to, 1863- 
'73) is remarkably full, and has taken its place 
among the highest authorities. The object of 
the first lexicographical labors in England was 
to facilitate the study of the Latin language, 
and bilingual dictionaries had become common 
while those designed for merely English read- 
ers were rare and meagre productions. Proba- 
bly the earliest of the latter was that of Dr. 
John Bullokar, entitled "The English Ex- 
positour " (London, 1616), explaining, as was 
announced on the title page, 5,080 of what 
were esteemed the "hardest words;" it passed 
through many editions. Subsequent works 
were the " Glossographia, or Dictionary of 
Hard Words," by Thomas Blount (London, 
1656) ; the "New World of English Words," 
by Edward Phillips, the nephew and pupil of 
Milton (1658); and the "Universal Etymo- 
logical English Dictionary," by Nathan Bailej 
(London, 1726), in which the first attempt was 
made to give a complete collection of the words 
of the language, and which was long in the ' 
highest repute. An interleaved copy of a folio 
edition of Bailey's dictionary was the repository 
of the articles collected by Dr. Johnson in pre- 
paring his dictionary. The work of Johnson, 
after eight years of arduous labor, appeared in 
1755, and has exerted an influence superior to 
any other in fixing the external form of the 
language and settling the meaning of words. 
He first introduced into English lexicogra- 
phy the plan of illustrating the various signi- 
fications of words by examples extracted from 
the best authors. It was much enlarged by 
Todd in the editions of 1814 and 1827, and has 
been the basis of many smaller works. The 
most important subsequent dictionaries are 
those of Smart, Richardson, Webster, and 
Worcester. Smart's dictionary, which Dr. 
Webster calls " most excellent," was pub- 
lished in 1836, at London. Richardson's 
" New Dictionary of the English Language" 
(2 vols. 4to, London, 1835-'7) is an elaborate 
work, especially valuable to the student of the 
history of the language. Its arrangement is 
in the alphabetical order of the primitives, 
beneath each of which its derivatives are 
grouped. Noah Webster was engaged 36 
years on his " American Dictionary of the Eng- 
lish Language," the first edition of which was 




DIGITS OF CEETE 



issued in 1828, in New York (2 vols. 4to), 
when the author was in his 70th year. A re- 
vised edition appeared in 1840 (2 vols. 8vo), 
with the addition of several thousand words 
which in the intervening 12 years had passed 
from technological science into common lan- 
guage ; and a revised appendix was added in 
1843. A new edition, revised and enlarged by 
Prof. 0. A. Goodrich, was published in Spring- 
field, Mass., in 1848 (1 vol. 4to, 1400 pages). 
In 1864 a still larger edition was published, 
with illustrations, after a revision of the work 
by Prof. Noah Porter of Yale college, who was 
aided by many able collaborators. For this 
edition much valuable matter has been added, 
such as a dictionary of noted names of fiction, 
names distinguished in modern biography, &c. 
Prof. James Hadley contributed to it a brief 
history of the English language, and an entire 
revision of the etymologies was made under 
the direction of Dr. C. A. F. Mahn of Ber- 
lin, Prussia. It forms a 4to volume of 1840 
pages, containing about 114,000 words. Dr. 
J. E. Worcester's illustrated quarto dictionary, 
which had been preceded by two minor and 
preparatory works, was published in 1860, in 
Boston. This work, which contests with that 
of Webster the place of highest authority 
among American scholars, is the result of more 
than 30 years of labor, and contains about 
104,000 words. The chief differences between 
it and Webster's dictionary are found in the 
spelling adopted for certain classes of words. 
Words like centre, theatre, &c., the last syl- 
lable of which is spelled by Worcester tre, and 
by Webster ter, are specimens of one of the 
most prominent of these classes. The parti- 
ciples and nouns formed from verbs ending in 
el, &c., form a still larger class; in these Wor- 
cester doubles the I (traveller, travelling, &c.), 
while Webster does not (traveler, traveling, 
&c.). Other differences exist, both in methods 
of spelling and in definition, and to some extent 
in pronunciation ; but for the understanding of 
these a thorough study of the two works is ne- 
cessary. (For other dictionaries, see the arti- 
cles upon the different languages.) 

DICTYS OF CRETE, the reputed author of 
a history of the Trojan war. The MS., writ- 
ten in Phoenician characters, but in the Greek 
language, is said to have been found in the au- 
thor's tomb at Onossus in the reign of Nero. A 
Latin version in six books has come down to 
us, but the work is commonly regarded as a 
forgery. Dictys is said to have followed Ido- 
meneus, king of Crete, to the siege of Troy, 
and some ancient grammarians have imagined 
that Homer drew materials for the Iliad and 
Odyssey from his history. It was the chief 
basis of the mediseval literature relating to the 
siege of Troy, and was among the first books 
printed in the 15th century. 

DIDEROT, Denis, a French writer and phi- 
losopher, born inLangres, Oct. 5, 1713, died in 
Paris, July 30, 1784. He was the son of a 
cutler, and was first educated for the church, 
263 VOL. vi. 7 



DIDEROT 



95 



but soon gave up theology to enter an attor- 
ney's office in Paris. Law, however, did not 
occupy his time so much as literature and 
science. Failing to select a profession, he was 
deprived of his allowance by his father, and 
for a time obtained a livelihood by teaching. 
He married unfortunately, translated a history 
of Greece, wrote sermons, and furnished arti- 
cles for a dictionary of medicine. In 1745 he 
wrote his Essai sur le merite et la vertu, and 
in 1746 his Pensees pliilosopTiiques, the boldness 
of which was punished by a sentence of the 
parliament, and Bijoux indiscrets, a collection 
of obscene tales, of which he himself was 
ashamed. His Lettres sur les aveugles a 
Vusage de ceux qui voient (1749) procured him 
at once an acquaintance with Voltaire and 
three months' imprisonment at Yincennes, 
where he was often visited by Rousseau. On 
his liberation, in conjunction with D'Alembert, 
he framed the plan of the work upon which 
his reputation is mostly founded, the Encyclo- 
pedic. Its professed aim was to present in a 
single work the truths of science, the princi- 
ples of taste, and the processes of all the arts ; 
but it was in fact a vehicle for the diffusion of 
new ideas. He wrote nearly all the articles on 
ancient philosophy, and all those on the trades 
and industrial pursuits ; and after the with- 
drawal of D'Alembert he had the supervision 
of the whole. Two volumes of the Encyclo- 
pedic appeared in 1751; but they were sup- 
pressed, and the printing of others was forbid- 
den during 18 months, owing to its alleged 
hostility to Christianity. This suspension was 
revoked, and five new volumes had appeared 
in 1757, when it was again assailed with a 
tempest of denunciations, the result of which 
was a second suspension of the work. D'Alem- 
bert deserted his partner, and Voltaire subse- 
quently advised Diderot to leave the country, 
and complete his work enjoying the hospitality 
of Catharine of Russia. He, however, strug- 
gled against all obstacles, and was finally per- 
mitted to continue the publication at Paris, 
without subjecting it to censorship ; but on the 
title page Neufchatel was to be printed instead 
of Paris, and the name of the editor was left 
blank. The ten additional volumes were thua 
produced with no further difficulty. While 
engaged on the Encyclopedic, Diderot wrote 
books of various kinds in his own name, and 
greatly contributed to those by his friends. 
Thus a large portion of Raynal's history of 
the Indies belongs to him, while the most 
eloquent pages of De Vesprit, by Helv6tius, 
and of the Systeme de la nature, by D'Hol- 
bach, are attributed to his pen. The artistic 
part of Grimm's correspondence, known as Les 
salons, was written by him, and several letters 
on different subjects bear unmistakable marks 
of his hand. Diderot was always ready to help 
the needy, and his personal influence could 
scarcely be overrated. In 1757 and 1758 he 
produced two domestic dramas, Lefils naturel 
and Le pere de famille, which paved the way 



96 DIDIUS SALVIUS JULIANUS 

to the change afterward accomplished in the 
dramatic style in France. Ilis industry brought 
him money, but his careless manner of spend- 
ing it and his dissipated habits frequently in- 
volved him in pecuniary difficulties. In 1765 
he was forced to offer his library for sale. 
Catharine II. of Russia purchased it for 15,000 
francs, but on condition that he would be the 
keeper of it at a salary of 1,000 francs a year; 
she moreover ordered 50 years' income to be 
paid at once. When the Encyclopedic was 
completed, Diderot paid a visit to his protec- 
tress, and spent several months at her court, 
where he was treated with great respect. On 
his return to Paris he published two novels, 
Jacques le fataliste and La religiewe, and in 
1779 his Essai sur les regnes de Claude et de 
Neron, which is merely an encomium of Seneca. 
His later years were passed in comparative 
quiet and comfort. He had been all his life 
considered an atheist, but during his last year 
he was frequently visited by the curate of St. 
Sulpice, with whom he was pleased to talk on 
religious subjects ; and if he did not consent to 
any recantation of his philosophical opinions, 
he showed no particular enmity to Christianity. 
He left an only daughter, Mme. de Vandeul, 
who wrote Memoires of his life. His friend 
Naigeon published an edition of his works in 
15 vols. 8vo, 1798 ; but a more complete one, 
in 22 vols., appeared in 1822. To this must be 
added his Memoires et csuvres inedites, 4 vols. 
8vo, printed in 1830. See Diderot's Leben und 
Werlce, by Rosenkranz (Leipsic, 1866). 

DIDIUS SALVIUS JULIANUS, Marcus, Roman 
emperor for a short time under the name of 
Marcus Didius Commodus Severus Julianus, 
born about A. D. 133, killed June 1, 193. 
Having filled successively the offices of quaestor, 
aadile, and prsetor, he was appointed to the 
command of a legion in Germany, and afterward 
to the government of Belgic Gaul. Here he 
showed much energy in repressing an insurrec- 
tion of the Chauci, and for this service he was 
made consul. He also distinguished himself 
against the Catti, was governor of Dalmatia and 
afterward of Lower Germany, and then took 
charge of the commissariat in Italy. After this 
he was governor of Bithynia in Asia Minor, 
was again consul in 179, and having filled the 
office of proconsul of Africa, returned to Rome, 
where he was made commander of the city 
guards. After the assassination of Pertinax, 
the praetorian guards offered the imperial throne 
to him who would pay the highest price ; and 
after a brisk bidding against Sulpicianus, pre- 
fect of the city, Didius obtained it. The sen- 
ate was obedient to the will of the unruly 
soldiery, and Didius was acknowledged em- 
peror. But whenever he appeared in public 
he was received with cries of " Robber and 
parricide." Moreover, he was not recognized 
as emperor by Septimius Severus, who held 
command of three legions in Illyria, by Clodius 
Albinus, nor by Pescennius Niger, who held 
like commands in Britain and Syria respective- 



DIDOT 

ly. Severus, having been proclaimed emperor 
by his troops, marched upon Rome, and was 
recognized by the senate. Deserted by his 
adherents, Didius was murdered in his palace 
by a common soldier, having reigned a little 
more than two months, and Septimius Severus 
established himself in his place. 

DIDO, or Elissa, a legendary Phoenician prin- 
cess and founder of Carthage, daughter of 
Mutgo, Belus, or Agenor, king of Tyre. Ac- 
cording to Justin, she was the wife of her un- 
cle Acerbas (the Sichseus of Virgil), priest of 
Hercules, who was murdered for his wealth by 
Pygmalion, the son and successor of Mutgo. 
Dido dissembled her sorrow, and with a num- 
ber of disaffected Tyrian nobles escaped from 
her native country, bearing the treasures of 
her murdered husband. The party first landed 
at the island of Cyprus, whence they carried 
off by force 80 maidens, and then pursuing 
their journey debarked on the coast of Africa, 
purchased as much land as might be covered 
with the hide of a bull, and by cutting the hide 
into thin strips enclosed a large tract of coun- 
try, on which the city of Carthage soon began 
to rise. (See CARTHAGE.) Their prosperity 
excited the jealousy of a neighboring chief, 
Hiarbas, who demanded the hand of Dido in 
marriage, and threatened war in case of refu- 
sal. The queen asked three months for con- 
sideration, at the end of which time she mount- 
ed upon a funeral pile and plunged a sword int 
her breast. Virgil represents her as killing 
herself on being abandoned by JEneas. 

DIDOT, the name of a French family of 
printers. The firm, now existing under tl 
name of Firmin Didot freres, was established 
in 1713 by FRANQOIS DIDOT, who made himself 
known by several important publications, and 
gained such popularity as to be appointed syn- 
dic of the booksellers' corporation. His two 
sons, FEANgois AMBROISE (1730-1804) and 
PIERRE FRANQOIS (1732-'95), increased the 
business, and paid especial attention to the 
printing department. While the latter estab- 
lished paper mills at Essonne, near Paris, the 
former materially improved the casting of 
types, the best specimens of which ever seen in 
France were from his foundery ; and his stand- 
ard editions were admired for their correctness 
and beauty. The Collection d'Artois (64 vols. 
18mo), and the Collection des classiquesfrancais, 
printed at once in 4to, 8vo, and 18mo, by or- 
der of Louis XVI., are still highly valued. 
Among the sons of Pierre, HENRI, a type foun- 
der, is known for the microscopical types with 
which he printed some little volumes which 
are esteemed as gems of their kind ; and SAINT- 
LEGER engaged in the manufacture of paper. 
The sons of Francois Ambroise, PIERRE (1760- 
1853) and FIRMIN (1764-1836), who succeeded 
their father at the beginning of the revolution, 
added to the good name of the firm by publish- 
ing magnificent folio editions of classic French 
and Latin writers, known as editions du Louvre. 
Firmin also aimed to furnish the general reader 



DIDRON 



DIEDENHOFEN 



97 



with cheap and correct editions. He invented, 
or more correctly revived the stereotype pro- 
cess, which he brought at once to comparative 
perfection. He translated Virgil's " Bucolics " 
and Theocritus's "Idyls." He was elected in 
1827 to the chamber of deputies. His sons, 
AMBROISE FIRMIX, born in 1790, and HYA- 
OINTHE, born in 1794, succeeded him in the 
management of the firm. Among their notable 
publications are : Monuments de VEgypte. et de 
la Nubie, by Champollion the younger ; Voy- 
age de Jacquemont dans Vlnde ; Expedition sci- 
entifique des Franpais en Moree ; the Thesaurus 
Lingua Grcecce of Henry Stephens, with anno- 
tations and additions by the best French and 
German scholars ; a complete Bibliotheque des 
auteurs grecs, a very cheap and correct edition 
of the Greek writers, with copious notes and 
Latin translations. Their editions of the French 
classics are numerous and valuable ; while their 
extensive popular publications, such as L" 1 Uni- 
vers pittoresque, U Encyclopedie moderne, and 
La nouvelle biographic generate (completed in 
1866), are remarkable for cheapness and gen- 
eral accuracy. The two heads of the firm are 
now aided by their sons ALFRED (born in 
1828) and PAUL (born in 1826). 

DIDRON, Adolphe Napoleon, a French archae- 
ologist, born in Hautevillers, department of 
Marne, March 13, 1806, died in Paris, Nov. 13, 
1867. He travelled on foot through Norman- 
dy, examining all the remarkable mediaeval 
monuments. In 1835 he was appointed by 
Guizot secretary of the historical committee of 
arts and monuments, and wrote the four vol- 
umes of elaborate reports issued by that com- 
mittee. In 1838 he delivered in the royal 
library a course of lectures on Christian ico- 
nography, after which he made a journey to 
Greece to compare the art of the Greek church 
with that of the West, and to obtain access to 
mediaeval manuscripts. On his return to Paris 
in 1840 he delivered another course of lectures, 
and in 1845 founded there an archaeological 
publishing house, and a manufactory of painted 
glass. He established in 1844, and edited until 
1866, the Annales archeologiques, devoted par- 
ticularly to the archaeology of the middle ages, 
in preparing which he was assisted by the prin- 
cipal archaeologists, architects, designers, and 
engravers of Europe. His most important pub- 
lication is the Manuel d'iconographie chretienne 
grecque et latine (1845), of which an English 
translation was published in 1851. 

DIDYMIUM (Gr. diSv^o^ twin), a metal dis- 
covered in 1841 by Mosander in the mineral 
cerite, and named for its resemblance to the 
metal lanthanum, which occurs in the same 
mineral, and for the persistence with which its 
salts remain combined with those of this metal. 
The rose color of the salts of lanthanum is prob- 
ably due to the presence of didymium. But 
neither of the two metals, nor the cerium with 
which they occur, possesses any special interest, 
and the complete quantitative separation of the 
metals is even yet attended with great difficulty. 



DIDYMUS, an Alexandrian grammarian and 
critic, born about 64 B. C. He was noted for 
his industry and the copiousness of his writings, 
in consequence of which he received the nick- 
names of XaA/cevrepof, or brazen-bo welled, and 
Bip'Aiohadas, or forgetter of books. The num- 
ber of his works is stated by Athenaaus at 3,500, 
and by Seneca at 4,000. 

DIEBITSCH, Hans Karl Friedrich Anton, a Rus- 
sian general, born in Silesia, May 13, 1785, 
died near Pultusk, Poland, June 10, 1831. His 
father, a Prussian and afterward a Russian 
officer, sent him in 1797 to the house of cadets 
in Berlin, but made him enter the ranks of the 
Russian imperial guard in 1801. He fought in 
the battles of Austerlitz, Eylau, and Friedland, 
was made captain, and devoted himself to the 
study of military science during the five years 
of peace which followed the treaty of Tilsit. 
He served under Wittgenstein during the in- 
vasion of the French in 1812, and persuaded 
the Prussian general York to capitulate. As 
chief of Wittgenstein's staff in 1813 he distin- 
guished himself at Ltitzen, and was then at- 
tached as quartermaster general to the corps 
of Barclay de Tolly in Silesia. At Leipsic he 
was made by the emperor Alexander lieu- 
tenant general on the battle field. In the 
campaign of 1814, when Schwarzenberg ad- 
vised the retreat of the allied armies, Diebitsch 
decided for the march on Paris, which termi- 
nated the war. In 1815 he married a niece of 
Barclay de Tolly. Being made chief of the 
staff of the army, he accompanied Alexander 
through the south of Russia, and was present 
at his death at Taganrog in 1825. At St. Pe- 
tersburg he distinguished himself during the 
outbreak of Dec. 25 by intrepidity, prudence, 
and humanity. The new emperor, Nicholas, 
rewarded his services with the title of baron, 
and afterward with that of count. In the 
war of 1828-'9 against Turkey he took Varna, 
and by marching across the Balkan forced the 
Porte to make the peace of Adrianople, and 
received the name of Zabalkanskoi (Trans- 
balkanian, that is, crosser of the Balkan). On 
the outbreak of the revolution in Warsaw, 
Nov. 29, 1830, he was appointed commander- 
in-chief of the army and governor of the prov- 
inces adjoining Poland. He crossed the Polish 
frontier Jan. 25, 1831, but the engagements at 
Wisniew and Stoczek, Feb. 11, at Dobre on 
the 18th, at Grochow and Wawer on the 19th, 
and still more the battles fought about the end 
of March in the vicinity of Praga, proved that 
fortune had left his banners. Without profit- 
ing by the favorable issue of the battles of 
Nur, Lomza, and Ostrolenka (May 15-26), he 
removed his camp to Kleczewo, where he sud- 
denly died of cholera. 

DIEDENHOFEN (Fr. Thionville\ a fortified 
town of Germany, in Lorraine, situated on the 
Moselle, and on the railway from Metz to 
Luxemburg, about 15 m. N. of Metz ; pop. in 
1871, 7,155. It has a gymnasium, a botanic 
garden, and manufactories of hosiery, woollen 



98 



DIEFENBACH 



cloths, candles, leather, liqueurs, and spirits. 
The Carlovingian kings of France frequently 
resided here; subsequently the town belonged 
in succession to the counts of Luxemburg, to 
Burgundy, Austria, and Spain. In 1643, when 
it surrendered to the prince of Conde", it was 
annexed to France. In 1870 it suffered con- 
siderably from bombardment by the German 
troops, to whom the French garrison, consisting 
of 120 officers and 4,000 men, surrendered on 
Nov. 24. By the peace of May 10, 1871, it 
was ceded to Germany. The town is well 
built, and the fortifications constitute a fortress 
of the third class. 

DIEFENBACH, Lorenz, a German philologist 
and author, born at Ostheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
July 29, 1806. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of Giessen, and became a clergyman, 
and in 1845 one of the founders of the German 
Catholic church in Offenbach, which city he 
represented in 1848 in the parliament at Frank- 
fort, and where in 1865 he was appointed 
second director of the library. He was a volu- 
minous author, and published poems, novels, 
and various productions in light literature, as 
well as learned treatises. His principal works 
are : Celtica (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1839-'42) ; Ver- 
gleichendes Worterbuch der gothischen Sprache 
(2 vols., Frankfort, 1846-'51); Pragmatische 
deutsche Sprachlehre (Stuttgart, 1847; 2d ed., 
1854); Qlossarium Latino- Germanicum Me- 
dics et Infima jfltatis (Frankfort, 1857; 2d 
ed., 1867); and Origines Europaxx (1861). 
The Glossarium is a supplement to Du Cange's. 

DIEFFENBACH, Johann FTiedrieh, a German 
surgeon, born in Konigsberg, Feb. 1, 1792, 
died in Berlin, Nov. 11, 1847. He was the 
son of a professor of theology, and at first de- 
voted himself to that study, but joined in the 
war against Napoleon, serving as a volunteer 



DIEPPE 

in a company of Mecklenburg troops from 1813 
to 1815. He afterward resumed his theolo- 
gical studies, which he exchanged for the pur- 
suit of medicine. Having taken his medical 
degree at Wiirzburg in 1822, he established 
himself at Berlin, where in 1830 he was ap- 
pointed head surgeon of one of the hospitals, 
two years after professor in the university, and 
in 1840 director of clinical surgery. He was 
distinguished for his dexterity in the use of the 
scalpel, for the success of his operations in the 
formation of artificial noses, cheeks, lips, &c., 
and for the cures which he effected in cases of 
squinting and stammering. He also made 
great improvements in surgical instruments. 
Among his works are : " Operative Surgery," 
which has been translated into several differ- 
ent languages; " Surgical Experiences, espe- 
cially with regard to the Restoration of Por- 
tions of the Human Body which have been de- 
stroyed ;" " The Cure of Stammering by a nefr 
Surgical Operation;" and " On the Cutting of 
the Sinews and Muscles." 

DIEPPE, a seaport town of France, depart- 
ment of Seine-Inferieure (Normandy), on the 
English channel, at the mouth of the Arques, 
52 m. E. N. E. of Havre, and 93 m. N. N. W. 
of Paris; pop. in 1866, 19,946. It extends a 
mile along the coast, has wide and regular 
streets, and its houses, mostly of one style, are 
of brick, two stories high, with balconies 
toward the street. The finest hotels and resi- 
dences are near the harbor, on the main street, 
which runs parallel with the sea the whole 
length of the town. The most remarkable 
public edifices are the churches of St. Eemi 
and St. Jacques. The latter, a large Gothic 
structure, commenced in the 13th century, and 
not completed till the 15th, is built entirely 
of stone brought from England. The former 




, 



Castle of Dieppe. 



DIESKAU 



DIET 



99 



is in the mixed Gothic-Saracenic style. There 
is a commercial court, a chamber of commerce, 
and a school of navigation. Dieppe is well 
supplied with water by an aqueduct 3 m. long, 
cut in the solid rock, and has 08 public and nu- 
merous private fountains. The port, enclosed 
by two jetties, is spacious and secure, with a 
basin of sufficient depth for vessels of 1,200 
tons, but the entrance is difficult. It has two 
suburbs, La Barre and Le Pollet, and is pro- 
tected by an old castle and by some batteries. 
Its manufactories of ivory are famous; and 
there are also sugar refineries, rope walks, 
paper mills, and ship yards. The manufacture 
of tobacco employs 1,200 hands. Fishing, 
however, occupies the attention of the greater 
portion of the inhabitants ; from two oyster 
beds near the town about 12,000,000 oysters 
are annually sent to Paris. Dieppe is con- 
nected with Rouen, Paris, and Havre by rail, 
and by steamer with Newhaven, near Brigh- 
ton, England. Its sea baths, with its pure air 
and picturesque situation, have made it the 
chief watering place of France. The princi- 
pal bathing establishment combines reception 
rooms, ball, concert, and billiard rooms, and 
literary, social, and convivial saloons. In the 
early part of this century it became, under the 
patronage of the duchess de Berry, the ren- 
dezvous during the summer of the noblest 
families of France. Dieppe was founded in 
the 10th century, and in less than four centu- 
ries it had become the rival of Rouen. It was 
bombarded by the English and Dutch in 1694. 
It was the first maritime town of France occu- 
pied by the Germans in the war of 1870. 

DIESKAU, Ludwig August, a German soldier in 
the French service, born in Saxony in 1701, died 
near Paris, Sept. 8, 1767. He was adjutant of 
Marshal Saxe, in whose interest he visited St. 
Petersburg in J. 741. He accompanied him in 
the campaigns against the Netherlands, and 
became in 1748 brigadier general of infantry, 
and commander of Brest. In 1755 he was 
sent to Canada, at the head of French troops, 
to assist in the campaign against the English. 
With 600 Indians, as many Canadians, and 200 
regular troops, he ascended Lake Champlain 
with the design of attacking Fort Edward. 
On Sept. 8 he defeated a detachment under 
Col. Williams, which had been sent against 
him, and pursued them to the British camp. 
The savages, however, halted just without the 
intrenchments, the Canadians became alarmed, 
and the regulars perished before the fire of 
New England marksmen. Dieskau, thrice 
wounded, refused to retire from the field, and 
seated himself on the stump of a tree, exposed 
to the shower of bullets. He was severely 
wounded by a random shot, and was kept a 
prisoner till 1763, when he returned to France, 
receiving a pension. 

DIESTERWEG, Friedrich Adolf Wilhelm, a Ger- 
man teacher and writer on education, born at 
Siegen, Oct. 29, 1790, died in Berlin, July 7, 
1866. He studied at the academy of Herborn 



and the university of Tubingen, and subse- 
quently taught in various normal and Latin 
schools till 1832, when he was appointed di- 
rector of the seminary for teachers of city 
schools in Berlin. He retired in 1850. He is 
the author of numerous text books on mathe- 
matics and geography, and of several manuals 
for teachers, which have passed through many 
editions. He advocated the theories of Rous- 
seau, Pestalozzi, and modern liberalism in gen- 
eral, and was constantly engaged in .polemics on 
school reform, which he published in his Pada- 
gogiscJies Jahrbuch (Berlin, 1851-'65), and other 
periodicals. His biography has been written 
by Langenberg (3 vols., Berlin, 1867-'8). 

DIEST, a town and fortress of Belgium, in 
the province of South Brabant, situated on 
the Demer, and on the railway from Antwerp 
to Li6ge, 32 m. N. E. of Brussels ; pop. in 
1866, 7,561. It has a college, several brew- 
eries, and flourishing manufactories of hosiery 
and woollens. Its only remarkable building is 
the church of St. Sulpicius. Its beer is cele- 
brated, and large quantities are exported. 
Marlborough captured the town in 1705, but 
in the same year the French retook it and dis- 
mantled the fortifications. 

DIET (Fr. diete), a term applied to several 
political bodies of mediaeval and modern Eu- 
rope, corresponding to the parliament in Great 
Britain, the cortes in Spain and Portugal, the 
states general, national assembly, and chambers 
in the history of France, and the congress in 
the United States. The derivation of the term 
from the Latin dies, day, as meaning a day 
fixed for the national deliberations on public 
affairs, is proved by the corresponding words 
in German (Reichstag), Dutch (Rijlcsdag), 
Swedish (Riksdag), and Danish (Rigsdag), all 
of which mean day of the empire ; and by the 
similar Swiss term for the Helvetian diet (Tag- 
satzung). It is used by English and French 
historians of the state assemblies of the Ger- 
man empire and confederation, Poland, Hun- 
gary, Sweden, Switzerland, and some other 
countries, to which the Germans apply the 
distinctive appellations of Reichstag, Landtag, 
Landstdnde, Bundestag, Tagsatzung, &c. The 
diet of the German empire, which must not be 
confounded with the popular assemblies of the 
Germanic nations in the Carlovingian times, or 
with the assembly (Bundestag) of the German 
confederation as established by the congress of 
Vienna, had its rise after the dissolution of the 
Frankish empire, and was slowly developed 
under the successive German houses, undergo- 
ing material changes, particularly in the reigns 
of the emperor Charles IV. in the 14th cen- 
tury, Frederick III. in the 15th, and Charles V. 
in the 16th, until it received its ultimate modi- 
fications by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, 
and the session of Ratisbon in 1663. From 
this date down to the dissolution of the em- 
pire in 1806, Ratisbon became its permanent 
seat, while in previous times the emperor had 
the privilege of choosing the place of its ses- 



100 



DIET 



sions. The emperor, who formerly appeared 
iu person, was now represented by a principal 
commissary, and all members of the empire by 
plenipotentiaries or agents. The diet consisted 
of three divisions, the so-called colleges of 
electors, princes, and imperial cities. The 
elector of Mentz, the archchancellor of the 
empire, presided in the electoral college, the 
archbishop of Salzburg and the archduke of 
Austria alternately in the college of princes, 
and the city where the session was held in 
that of the cities. The electors and cities had 
individual votes, as well as the chief members 
of the college of princes, while the imperial 
counts and imperial prelates, who belonged to 
the latter, had only collective votes by benches, 
of which there were four of counts and two 
of prelates. Resolutions were passed by ma- 
jority, except in religious matters and those 
concerning individual members of the empire 
alone. But the concurrence of all the three 
colleges and the ratification of the emperor 
were required to establish a decree of the em- 
pire (Reichsschluss). Concurrence in case of 
difference of opinion was obtained by recon- 
sideration and conference. The emperor had 
the right of rejection of the whole or a part 
of the bill, but not of modification. The col- 
lection of resolutions passed and sanctioned 
by a diet was termed imperial recess (Reichs- 
abschied). The diet framed the laws of the 
empire, abolished and explained them, de- 
clared war and made peace, received and sent 
envoys, and concluded treaties. Imperial wars 
were proposed by the emperor, decided upon 
by majority, and carried on by the contingents 
of both the majority and the minority. The 
administration of the German confederation 
(Bund), which lasted, with some modifications, 
from 1815 to 1866, was vested in a diet (Bun- 
destag or Bundesversammlung), the members 
of which were appointed by the various gov- 
ernments, Austria being the leading power, 
tb.ough the leadership came to be disputed 
by Prussia. (See GERMANY.) The Polish diet 
(sejm) dates principally from the reign of 
Ladislas the Short, who in 1331 assembled all 
the nobles of his kingdom. Its form was es- 
tablished by law under Casimir IV. In the 
last period of independent Poland it was con- 
vened regularly every two years, for a session 
of no more than six weeks, twice successively 
in Warsaw and the third time at Grodno, in 
Lithuania. It consisted of a senate and a 
chamber of deputies (poset, plur. posfowie). 
The latter were elected in previous municipal 
or district assemblies (sejmiTc, little diet). Af- 
ter the verification of their powers, the diet 
ejected their president or marshal (marszatelc). 
The initiation of measures was a royal prerog- 
htiv,-. tin- sov.-ivif.rn furnishing a list of subjects 
t<. ]..-<n<ru^i<l during the session. In case of ur- 
gency the king could convoke an extraordinary 
remain in session only two weeks. The 
most remarkable feature of the Polish diet was 
the so-called lilerum veto, or the right of each 



DIETERICI 

member to prevent the enactment of a law or 
measure by individual opposition (nie pozwa- 
lam, I do not allow, or veto). This extreme 
of liberty, unknown in the history of any 
other nation, was remedied in part by confed- 
erations formed by the majority for the execu- 
tion of its designs, and by timely application 
of violence, which silenced treacherous or 
bribed opponents ; but it also led to fatal dis- 
tractions, scenes of bloodshed, the permanence 
of factions, and ultimately, with other causes, 
to the fall of Poland. The diet of election was 
preceded by a diet of convocation, the arch- 
bishop of Gnesen, the primate of the state, hav- 
ing announced the vacancy of the throne. 
Hereupon all nobles appeared personally, as- 
sembling on the plain of Wola, near Warsaw, 
the senate in a shed (szopa), the common nobles 
in the Icolo (circle). A diet of coronation, and, 
if that of election had been stormy, another of 
pacification, followed. The diet of Hungary 
(dieta, or orszdggyules), formerly convened at 
various places, was from the time of the Turk- 
ish invasion held at Presburg. It consisted 
of two houses, the upper, or table of magnates, 
and the lower, or table of deputies. In the 
latter, previous to the law of 1848, only the 
representatives of the nobles in the counties 
had a decisive personal vote. During the re- 
volutionary period of 1848-' 9 the diet was 
held successively at Pesth, Debreczin, and 
Szegedin. Since 1861 it has its seat in Pesth. 
(See HUNGARY.) 

DIETERICI. I. Karl Friedrich Wilhelm, a Ge^ 
man statistician, born in Berlin, Aug. 23, 1790> 
died there, July 29, 1859. He began his uni- 
versity studies in Konigsberg, devoting partic- 
ular attention to mathematics, and continued 
them in Berlin, where in 1812 he became tutor 
in the family of Klewitz, afterward minister 
of state. As engineer in the army of Blucher, 
he made the campaigns of 1813, 1814, and 
1815; and in 1820 he was employed in the 
ministry of public instruction under Altenstein. 
In 1834 he was appointed professor of political 
science in the university of Berlin, and in 
1844 succeeded Hoffmann in the direction of 
the statistical bureau. His writings relate 
mainly to subjects of political economy. The 
most important are, Uebersicht der wichtigsten 
Gegenstande des Verlcehrs und Ver~brauchs im 
premsischen Staate und im deutschen Zollver- 
bande (1838-'53), and Der Volkswohlstand im 
preussischen Staate. He left unfinished an im- 
portant work, Handbuch der Stati&tik des 
preussischen Staats, which was completed by 
his son Karl in 1861. II. Friedrich, a German 
orientalist, son of the preceding, born in Ber- 
lin, July 6, 1821. He studied theology at 
Halle and Berlin, and oriental languages at 
Leipsic, and afterward in the East. In 1850 
he became professor of Arabic literature in 
the university of Berlin, having been for some 
time dragoman of the Prussian embassy at 
Constantinople. He has published Reiselilder 
am dem Morgcnlande (1853), a translation of 






DIETETICS 



101 



the Arabic grammar entitled Alfiyah (1854), 
Diepropadeutischen Studien der Araber (1851), 
Chrestomathie ottomane (1865), and other 
works. 

DIETETICS. For his complete nutrition man 
must have in his food the albuminoid materials 
of which his tissues are mainly composed, the 
iron and the salts contained in those tissues 
and in the blood, and fatty matter, or some 
substance which can readily be converted into 
fat, which enters into the composition of his 
body, and which serves to maintain the animal 
heat. (See ABSTINENCE, ALIMENT, ANIMAL 
HEAT, and DIGESTION.) But food must not 
only contain all the principles necessary to 
nutrition, it must likewise be digestible and 
assimilable ; it must be capable of being disin- 
tegrated and dissolved in the alimentary canal, 
so that it may be absorbed, and finally con- 
verted into blood from which the waste of the 
tissues may be supplied. An article may be 
highly nutritious, yet exceedingly indigestible ; 
or it may be -easily digestible, and afford little 
nutriment. While certain articles and classes 
of articles are in general more digestible, there 
is no rule of invariable application. There are 
differences in kind as well as in degree in the 
digestive powers of different individuals ; and 
what will offend the stomach of one man, an- 
other will digest with ease. But aside from 
individual peculiarities, there are more general 
causes of difference. 1. Habit has great in- 
fluence. What men have been accustomed to, 
they digest with greater facility. An Ameri- 
can or Englishman visiting the continent of 
Europe is frequently attacked with diarrhoaa, 
from an unaccustomed diet, which is in it- 
self equally wholesome with his own. During 
the revolutionary war numbers of the troops 
from the southern states while on duty at 
the north became ill, and their health was 
only restored by an allowance of fat ba- 
con. The ill-fed Irishman, on enlisting into 
the British army, frequently is affected 
with what is termed a " meat fever ; " 
his new diet is so much superior to what 
he was accustomed to, that his organs do not 
readily adapt themselves to the change. 2. 
Circumstances have a great influence on the 
digestibility of food. A diet suited to Labra- 
dor would be oppressive and injurious in the 
West Indies. The season, amount of clothing, 
exposure, and exercise have an influence on the 
digestive capacity as well as on the require- 
ments of the system. 3. The digestibility of 
food is much influenced by our liking for it ; 
within certain limits, what we are fond of agrees 
with us, and what we dislike is not apt to di- 
gest well. The high flavor which excites the 
appetite of the epicure provokes nausea in a 
less cultivated stomach. Still, despite the va- 
rious sources of diversity, some articles are for 
the majority of men of comparatively easy di- 
gestion, while others are assimilated with 
greater difficulty. Food is commonly classed 
as animal or vegetable. Animal food may be 



subdivided into the flesh of mammals, birds, 
fishes, reptiles, crustaceans, and mollusks. 
The flesh of the mammals, and indeed of the 
birds and fishes used for food, differs very little 
in chemical composition. The fibrine, albu- 
men, and gelatine of which chiefly they are 
made up, may be considered as chemically 
identical, from whatever animal they may be 
derived. The fats differ in the relative propor- 
tions, and sometimes in the character, of the 
fatty acids which enter into their composition ; 
the saline matters, varying in their propor- 
tions, are mainly of the same character; while 
the immense variety of flavors by which they 
are distinguished depend upon principles ex- 
isting in exceedingly minute proportions, and 
for the most part soluble in water. The differ- 
ence in meats arises from the varying propor- 
tions of fibrine, gelatine, and fat, and from 
variations in mechanical texture ; and to these 
circumstances is due their difference in diges- 
tibility. Whatever renders the animal fibre 
harder, makes the. meat less digestible ; what- 
ever renders it more delicate and tender, more 
easily separated and disintegrated, makes it 
more easily soluble in the juices of the stom- 
ach. Provided an animal has reached ma- 
turity, the tenderness of its meat is increased 
by youth, by its not having been worked, by its 
being in good condition, the muscular fibres 
interpenetrated and separated by minute pro- 
portions of fatty tissue. Keeping tends very 
much to improve the tenderness of meat. Few 
animals are fit to be eaten the day they are 
killed ; but when kept, long before the slight- 
est taint can be detected, a change takes place 
that renders the fibres more easily separated 
and disintegrated, more readily broken down 
and comminuted during mastication, and more 
quickly reduced and assimilated by the stom- 
ach. Of the different meats, venison that has 
been well kept is, in its season, perhaps the 
most tender and digestible. Dr. Beaumont 
found that in St. Martin a meal of broiled veni- 
son steak was completely digested and removed 
from the stomach in an hour and a half, a 
shorter time than was required by any other 
meat. Wether mutton of a proper age, that 
has hung for a sufficient length of time, is 
scarcely inferior in digestibility to venison. 
Beef ranks next to mutton. Lamb and veal 
are less digestible than mutton or beef, and 
veal is less readily digested than lamb. Of all 
the meats in ordinary use, pork is most refrac- 
tory to the gastric juices ; and, contrary to 
what holds with regard to beef and mutton, 
the sucking pig is more digestible than pork. 
The fat of meats generally, and all varieties of 
fatty matters, are difficult of assimilation ; they 
are particularly offensive to weak stomachs, 
sometimes appearing to form an oily pellicle^ 
which, floating on the partially chymified mass; 
becomes rancid and occasions distressing heart- 
burn and nausea, or causes eructations of acrid 
matter which leave a peculiarly disagreeable 
taste upon the palate. The mode of dressing 



102 



DIETETICS 



meat has a great influence upon its digesti- 
bility ; that which agrees best with the major- 
ity of stomachs is broiling. The fire should be 
brisk, so that the albumen on the surface of 
the meat may be rapidly coagulated; this pre- 
serves the juices, and it is rendered at once 
more savory and more tender. The same rule 
applies to boiling and roasting. When the 
meat is to be cooked, if boiled, it should be at 
once plunged into boiling water ; while if soup 
is to be made, the meat should be put into cold 
water and the temperature slowly raised, thus 
extracting its nutritious fluids to the greatest 
possible extent. Of all methods of cooking, 
frying is the most objectionable ; not only is 
the meat rendered harder than when boiled, 
and thus more indigestible, but it becomes im- 
bued with boiling fat, and is thus rendered 
still more refractory to the gastric juice. Eich 
stews are objectionable on the same account. 
By the action of salt on muscular flesh, the 
juices of the meat are abstracted ; in this man- 
ner not only is its nutritive value impaired, but 
it is rendered harder and drier and conse- 
quently more indigestible ; the longer the flesh 
is exposed to the action of salt, the harder and 
drier it becomes. Perhaps all fats form an ex- 
ception to the fact that meat is rendered more 
indigestible by salting ; they have little water 
to lose, and their texture consequently cannot 
become consolidated; fat pork is even ren- 
dered more digestible by salting. St. Martin, 
according to Dr. Beaumont's observations, 
digested recently salted pork when raw or 
broiled in from 3 to 3i hours ; the same ar- 
ticle fried occupied him 4J hours for its reduc- 
tion ; while fresh pork, fat and lean, roasted, 
required 5 hours. On the other hand, boiled 
fresh beef with a little salt was digested in 2f 
hours, while old salted beef required 4% hours 
when dressed in the same manner. All em- 
pyreumatic substances impair digestion by in- 
terfering with the action of the pepsin, which 
is the principal solvent agent of the gastric 
juice. In this manner smoking impairs the 
digestibility of meat; few things are more 
difficult of management by a feeble stomach 
than old and well smoked beef. St. Martin 
found fowls, roasted or boiled, of slower diges- 
tion than beef; ducks and geese, as might be 
supposed from the amount of fat they contain, 
are assimilated with difficulty. There is, how- 
ever, so much variation in this respect in dif- 
ferent individuals, that the absolute digestibil- 
ity of an article of food can hardly be deduced 
from experiments on a single person. Fish 
furnishes % an abundant and digestible variety 
of food. The dry, white sorts, cod, haddock, 
bass, &c., are the most digestible ; while the 
richer kinds, salmon, shad, mackerel, eels, &c., 
I apt to agree with the stomach. St. 
Martin digested boiled or fried salmon trout 
in 1| hour, boiled dried cod in 2 hours, fried 
catfi>li in 3 hours 20 minutes, and boiled 
pickled salmon in 4 hours. Milk, the only 
food during the earlier months of infancy, con- 



tains from 12 to 13 per cent, of solid matter, 
about one half of what is contained in flesh ; it 
is poorer in nitrogenous and richer in carbon- 
aceous food ; its ash furnishes but O47 per 
cent, of iron, while those of flesh and wheat 
flour yield 1 per cent. It is not digested so 
quickly as would be supposed, and in this re- 
spect boiled has the advantage of unboiled 
milk; the one took St. Martin 2 hours, the 
other 2J, to convert into chyme. Milk dis- 
agrees with many persons ; this is often con- 
nected with the readiness with which it under- 
goes change when exposed to the atmosphere, 
and this change commences long before it can 
be recognized by the taste. Milk just drawn 
from the cow agrees perfectly with some per- 
sons who are unable to take it a few hours 
later. When cows are kept in an impure and 
confined atmosphere and badly fed, it .has 
been conclusively shown that their milk pro- 
duces disturbance of the digestive organs and 
diarrhoea in infants who are fed upon it. The 
caseine of milk, coagulated, generally mixed 
with more or less butter, and pressed so as to 
free it from the whey, constitutes cheese. Its 
richness varies with the quantity of butter it 
contains; some varieties, Stilton for instance, 
are made from milk to which an additional 
quantity of cream has been added. Salt is u 
to preserve it, and some kinds, as Dutch che< 
are very highly salted. When cheese is k 
for a length of time, it undergoes a number 
changes, partly dependent on the liberation 
the volatile fatty acids existing in the butter, 
partly, in the richer varieties, on the com 
mencement of putrefactive fermentation. Th 
firm, close texture of cheese renders it al- 
ways hard of digestion, and the rich and strong- 
smelling varieties are particularly to be avoided 
by delicate stomachs. Fresh sweet butter is, 
perhaps, the most wholesome and digestible 
of fatty matters; by heating or rancidity its 
digestibility is greatly impaired. Of farina- 
ceous articles, light well made wheaten bread, 
from 12 to 24 hours old, is the most gene- 
rally digestible ; warm bread is indigestible, 
because it forms a tough mass not readily 
penetrated by the saliva and rebellious to the 
gastric juices. Unleavened bread, maccaroni, 
and vermicelli are wholesome, and agree well 
with the stomach ; on the other hand, flour 
combined with fatty matter, whether in the 
form of pastry, cake, or pudding, is more or 
less indigestible, according to its texture and 
richness. Next to wheat flour, rye affords the 
best and most wholesome bread. In various 
countries oatmeal, barley, and maize are used 
as substitutes for wheat; they form kinds of 
bread wholesome enough for those habituated 
to their use, but apt to disagree with strangers. 
In tropical countries rice to a great extent 
takes the place of the other cereals, and per- 
haps a larger population mainly subsist on it 
than on any other single article of food. It 
affords very little of plastic or blood-making 
material, and hence when taken alone is con* 




DIETZ 



DIGBY 



103 



sumed in enormous quantity ; as an adjunct it 
forms an unstimulating and digestible article 
of food. The leguminous seeds, peas and beans, 
afford a nutriment rich in plastic matter, but 
hard of digestion and predisposing to flatu- 
lence. The popular prejudice that sugar pro- 
duces caries of the teeth has no good foun- 
dation. Closely allied to sugar are the vari- 
ous forms of fecula, arrowroot, tapioca, sago, 
potato starch, &c. They consist of minute 
granules composed of concentric layers, and 
termed the starch grains. These grains must 
be softened and hydrated by boiling, roasting, 
or panification before the starch is tit for use. 
It then forms an unstimulating and readily 
digestible ingredient of the food. Vegetables 
constitute an important part of our diet. With 
few exceptions their nutritive value . is low ; 
they consist largely of water holding organic 
salts in solution, of starch granules, of small 
quantities of albuminous matter, and of cel- 
lulose and epidermis. The cellulose, though 
possessing a chemical constitution identical 
with that of starch, when at all firm, resists 
the action of the gastric juice, and passes 
unchanged through the intestinal canal. They 
are valuable on account of their large quan- 
tities of organic salts, of the bulk which 
they give to the food, and of their stimulating 
effect upon the peristaltic action of the intes- 
tines. These latter qualities make them dis- 
agree where the digestive organs are feeble and 
irritable. They are digestible in proportion to 
their tenderness and the readiness with which 
they can be broken up into a pulp. The potato 
is one of the most valuable of the nutritious 
vegetables. St. Martin found potatoes roasted 
and baked disposed of more readily than when 
boiled, the one taking 2 hours to be convert- 
ed into chyme, the other an hour longer. The 
same rule applies to fruits as to vegetables; 
they are digestible just in proportion to the 
readiness with which they can be completely 
reduced to a pulp. Kipe strawberries, peach- 
es, oranges, and grapes rarely disagree, while 
cherries, apples, pears, &c., are more indigesti- 
ble ; roasting improves the digestibility of ap- 
ples and of most of the more solid fruits. 

DIETZ, Fedor, a German painter, born at 
Neuenstetten, Baden, in 1813, died near Dijon, 
in France, Dec. 18, 1870. He was president 
of the art academy at Carlsruhe, and was fa- 
mous for his battle pieces. His most celebrated 
pictures are the "Death of Gustavus Adolphus 
and Pappenheim at Llitzen," the "Storming of 
Belgrade by Max Emanuel," and " Queen Eleo- 
nore of Sweden at the Grave of Gustavus Adol- 
phus." The two last named are in the Munich 
athenseum. He died while presiding over the 
German sanitary organization in France. 

DIEZ, Friedrich Christian, a German philolo- 
gist^ born in Giessen, March 15, 1794. He 
studied philology at Giessen and Gottingen, 
and in 1823 became professor at Bonn. He is 
the author of Altspanische Bomanzen (Berlin, 
1821) ; Beitrage zur Kenntniss der romani- 



schen Poesie (Berlin, 1825), republished in 
French under the title of Essai sur Us cours 
d! amour (Paris, 1842) ; Die Poesie der Trou- 
badours (1826); and Leben und Wirlcen der 
Troubadours (1829). Though these works 
were rapidly translated into French and Eng- 
lish, he owes his reputation mainly to his 
Grammatik der romanischen Sprachen (3 vols., 
Bonn, 1836-'42), and Etymologisches Worter- 
buch der romanischen Sprachen (Bonn, 1853), 
translated into English by T. C. Donkin (Lon- 
don, 1864). 

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS. See CALCULUS. 

DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT. See LIGHT. 

DIGA9IMA (double gamma ; so called from its 
form, F, resembling two gammas, T), the sixth 
letter in the ancient alphabet of the Greeks, 
corresponding to the Hebrew i and the Latin 
/, and probably equivalent in sound to the 
English w. It continued latest in the ^olic 
dialect, but early became obsolete in the Attic 
alphabet, and subsequently in the Greek lan- 
guage; though its original existence is indi- 
cated by the fact that the fifth letter (e) is the 
numerical symbol for 5, but the next letter () 
for 7. It does not appear in the Homeric po- 
ems as usually published, though they were 
composed when it was in use ; but its force 
remained in the metre after its form had dis- 
appeared, and its latent existence at the begin- 
ning of many words and syllables apparently 
commencing with a vowel made preceding 
short syllables, if ending with a consonant, 
long by position, or, if ending with a vowel, 
prevented a hiatus. In words of the Latin 
language etymologically connected with Greek 
words which were originally written with the 
digamma, it is represented by , thus : 
(FE2IIEPOS), vesperus; u6v, (S2FON), ovum. 

DIGBY, a W. S. W. county of Nova Scotia, 
bordering on the Atlantic; area, about 1,300 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 17,037. Long island 
and Digby neck, a long headland, enclose St. 
Mary's bay on the N. W. The surface is 
diversified with numerous mountains, valleys, 
and lakes, the last named giving rise to several 
rivers. Copper and silver ores are found. 
Capital, Digby. 

DIGBY. I. Sir Kenelm, an English philoso- 
pher, born at Gothurst, Buckinghamshire, in 
1603, died in London, June 11, 1665. He was 
the son of Sir Everard Digby, who was executed 
in 1606 for complicity in the gunpowder plot. 
He was educated in the Protestant faith, and 
showed early tokens of talent. In 1621, hav- 
ing finished his education at Oxford, he visited 
the continent, where he travelled for about 
two years. After his return he was made gen- 
tleman of the bedchamber by Charles I., and 
held several offices. In 1628 he sailed with a 
squadron fitted out at his own expense, to fight 
the Algerines and the Venetians, with whom 
the English had quarrelled, and gained much 
credit by his courage and success. In 1636, 
while in France, he became a convert to Cath- 
olicism. He returned to England in 1638, sided 



104 



DIGESTION 



with the king in the dissensions of the time, and 
was imprisoned by order of parliament. Da- 
rin" his confinement he wrote several treatises. 
He was released in 1643 at the intercession of 
the queen of France, and retired to that coun- 
trv, \\-herehe was received with great honor. 
From this time till 1661 he lived mostly on the 
continent, and especially in France, employing 
himself with literary and scientific labors. 
Having returned to England, he enjoyed the 
favor of Charles II., and continued his philo- 
sophical studies until his death. He married a 
daughter of Sir Edward Stanley, and his cu- 
rious experiments to preserve her extraordinary 
beauty gave him quite as much celebrity as his 
books. His principal works are : u A Confer- 
ence with a Lady about the choice of a Reli- 
gion" (Paris, 1638); "Observations on Reli- 
gio Medici" (London, 1643); a "Treatise on 
the Nature of Bodies " and " Treatise on the 
Soul, proving its Immortality" (Paris, 1644); 
a "Treatise of adhering to God" (London, 
1654); "Of the Cure of Wounds by the 
Powder of Sympathy" (London, 1658); and 
"Private Memoirs of Sir Kenelm Digby, &c., 
written by Himself," first published in 1827. 
Hi Kenelm Henry, an English author, descended 
from an uncle of the preceding, born in 1800. 
His father, the Rev. William Digby, was dean 
of Clonfert, Ireland. He graduated at Trinity 
college, Cambridge, in 1823, embraced soon 
after the Roman Catholic faith, studied scho- 
lastic theology and the literature and antiquities 
of the middle -ages, and devoted himself exclu- 
sively to the illustration of mediaeval times 
and manners. In 1826-'7 he published "The 
Broad Stone of Honor : on the Origin, Spirit, 
and Institutions of Christian Chivalry." Pur- 
suing with unflagging industry his archaeolo- 
gical studies in the various countries of con- 
tinental Europe, the fruits of his research ap- 
peared anonymously from 1844 to 1847, under 
the title of "Mores Catholici, or Ages of 
Faith " (3 vols. royal 8vo, London). In 1851 
appeared " Compitum, or the Meeting of the 
Ways at the Catholic Church;" in 1856, 
"Lover's Seat: Katheraerina" (2 vols. 12mo); 
in 1858, "Children's Bower, or What You 
Like " (2 vols. 12mo) ; in 1860, "Evenings on 
the Thames" (2 vols. 12mo; 2d ed., 1864); 
and in 1861, "The Chapel of St. John, or a 
Life of Faith," being a memorial to his de- 
ceased wife. 

DIGESTION (Lat. digerere, to dissolve or con- 
coct), the liquefaction and preparation of the 
food in the alimentary canal. The organs by 
which this function is performed in the higher 
animals are the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, 
tomach, and intestines, with their accessory 
salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and mucous 
follicles. The first act to which food is sub- 
jected i> tin- mechanical division by the teeth. 
This process is important in order to reduce 
the food from a crude mass to a finely divided 
p:i-ty condition, in which it is more readily 
and thoroughly affected by the digestive se- 



cretions of the alimentary canal. While some 
of the nutritive matters are dissolved in and 
absorbed directly from the stomach, others re- 
quire further preparation, and are taken up by 
the vessels and absorbents of the intestines; 
by the time that the residue arrives in the cae- 
cum, almost all the alimentary matter has been 
extracted, and the insoluble portions with the 
excess of biliary and mucous secretions are 
voided at the anal termination of the canal. 
The digestive process can hardly be separated 
from absorption, which takes up the nutritive 
materials, and assimilation, which converts 
them into a fluid resembling blood, poured 
into the circulation near the heart. Though 
inorganic substances are necessary for the sup- 
port of the body, the organic alone are gene- 
rally considered as food and as subjects for 
the digestive process. Organic substances used 
as food may be conveniently arranged under 
three heads: 1, the saccharine group, em- 
bracing substances composed of oxygen, hy- 
drogen, and carbon, resembling sugar in com- 
position, and readily convertible into it ; such 
are starch, gum, woody fibre, and the cellulose 
of plants ; 2, the oleaginous group, with a 
great preponderance of hydrogen and carbon, 
small proportion of oxygen, and absence of 
nitrogen, including vegetable oils and anim * 
fats; 3, the albuminous group, containing 
large proportion of nitrogen, comprising 
mat and vegetable substances allied in ch 
cal composition to albumen and animal tissu 
The saccharine substances taken as food do not 
directly form part of any animal tissue, but 
are decomposed in their passage through the 
circulation, and are thus employed in some 
unknown way in the nourishment of the body. 
Starch is converted into sugar during diges- 
tion, and the sugar thus formed, as well as that 
taken under its own form with the food, is de- 
composed and appropriated as above. These 
substances, however, are not sufficient by them- 
selves for the support or growth of the body, 
as is proved by the death from inanition of 
animals fed exclusively upon them. The arti- 
cles of the albuminous group serve not only 
for nutrition, but for the maintenance of heat 
by their decomposition; the proportion of 
their four elements is the same in all, and they 
are all capable of reduction to a like condition 
by the digestive process, so that, as far as nu- 
trition goes, the fibrine of animals, the albu- 
men of eggs, the caseine of milk, and the gluten 
of wheat are equally acceptable to the organ- 
ism. No one of these, however, is alone suffi- 
cient to support life. It is very remarkable, 
as Dr. Prout has observed, that milk, the only 
single article of food naturally provided for the 
continued growth of animals, contains albumi- 
nous caseine in its curd, a good deal of oily 
matter, and considerable sugar. Supposing 
mastication to have been thoroughly performed, 
the food is first acted upon by the salivary 
fluid, which is secreted by the parotid, sufr 
lingual, and submaxillary glands, and the fol- 





DIGESTION 



105 



licles of the raucous membrane of the mouth. 
Saliva is but little heavier than water, contains 
minute corpuscles and epithelial scales, and in 
health has an alkaline reaction greatest during 
and after meals. It consists of about 995 parts 
of water in 1,000, and 5 parts of solid matters. 
Of the latter the most remarkable is ptyaline, 
to which the peculiar properties of the fluid 
are due ; it closely resembles, but is not identi- 
cal with, albumen and caseine ; it acts the part 
of a ferment, and, according to Mialhe, 1 part 
is sufficient to convert 2,000 parts of starch 
into sugar; it also contains a compound of 
sulpho-cyanogen, not known to occur in any 
other animal product, and interesting in a 
medico-legal point of view. Its salts are near- 
ly those of the blood, and its alkaline reaction 
seems to be due to the basic phosphate of 
soda. The "tartar" of the teeth and sali- 
vary concretions consist principally of earthy 
phosphates and animal matter. The limpid 
secretion of the parotid and sublingual glands 
saturates the food during proper mastication, 
while the viscid submaxillary fluid facilitates 
swallowing. The amount of saliva secreted 
daily by man will average, according to Bid- 
der and Schmidt, 3 Ibs., though it varies with 
the character and frequency of the meals. 
Besides its mechanical action, the saliva, by 
its peculiar ferment, has the power of acting 
chemically upon the farinaceous elements of 
the food, leading to the conversion of the starch 
into sugar ; but there is reason to believe that 
this action does not go on in presence of the 
acid of the stomach. There is no satisfactory 
evidence that saliva exerts any other than a 
physical action upon nitrogenized substances. 
When the food reaches the stomach the diges- 
tion is continued by the gastric juice, secreted 
by the numerous follicles of the mucous mem- 
brane, lined with glandular epithelium. The 
nature of the digestive process has been the 
subject of much speculation. It was at first 
supposed that the aliments underwent a coc- 
tion similar to that which they would experi- 
ence in a vessel with hot water; to this suc- 
ceeded the theory of acid fermentation, then 
of putrefaction, of trituration, and of macera- 
tion, till the present belief in the solvent action 
of the gastric juice was established. The gas- 
tric juice is transparent, nearly colorless, and 
without viscidity. Its most characteristic fea- 
ture is acidity, which is even perceptible to 
the taste. Many eminent chemists maintain 
that the real agent in the solvent process is 
free lactic acid, while others are in favor of 
free hydrochloric acid; the former opinion 
seems to be more fully borne out by the re- 
sults of experiment. The peculiar organic fer- 
ment of the gastric juice is pepsin, which dis- 
poses albuminous matters to undergo solution 
by the contained acid, which they would oth- 
erwise only partially do unless exposed to a 
high temperature. The secretion of the empty 
stomach is neutral or alkaline, but it becomes 
acid on the introduction and during the diges- 



tion of food, resuming its neutral character 
when this process is finished. From the ex- 
periments of Dr. Dalton, it appears that an 
ounce of gastric juice of the dog will dissolve 
a little over 30 grains of fresh lean meat ; at 
this rate the full digestion of a pound of raw 
meat would require two gallons of gastric 
juice ; and this apparently enormous quantity 
will not be considered incredible, if it be recol- 
lected that this fluid after it has done its work 
of solution is at once reabsorbed into the 
circulation, so that even this quantity might 
be secreted during the three or four hours of 
the digestive process, at an expense to the 
blood of not more than 2 or 3 oz. of fluid at 
any one time ; the fluid does not accumulate in 
the stomach, but its watery portions are in 
continual process of secretion and reabsorption 
as long as any food remains undigested, with- 
in reasonable limits as to quantity ingested. 
Many of the most important phenomena of 
gastric digestion were first demonstrated about 
1830 by the experiments of Dr. Beaumont 
on Alexis St. Martin, through an opening in 
whose stomach the effect of food, stimulants, 
and sedatives could be. seen. The color of 
the membrane was pale pink, its appearance 
velvet-like, and its surface lined with a transpa- 
rent viscid mucus ; the stimulus of food caused 
the gastric follicles to enter into activity, and 
to pour out the acid gastric juice ; small quan- 
tities of very cold water, or ice, after the pri- 
mary sedative effect, caused turgidity of the 
membrane and copious secretion, while ice in 
large amount and long continued retarded the 
process. The amount of gastric juice secreted 
depends on the requirements of the system, 
and not on the quantity of food taken into the 
stomach ; this is most important to be remem- 
bered, since, after the fluid secreted has dis- 
solved all it can, any excess of food must re- 
main undigested, pass into the intestines in a 
crude state, and become a source of pain and 
irritation until it is expelled. When the sys- 
tem is diseased, there is no craving for food, 
which if taken would not cause the secretion 
of the gastric juice, but would remain undi- 
gested for an indefinite time, adding its irrita- 
tion to the general diseased state. The secre- 
tion of gastric juice is influenced by, though 
not dependent on, nervous agency ; it is well 
known that strong mental disturbance will put 
a stop to the digestive process, and section of 
the pneumogastric nerves arrests for a time 
the elaboration of the gastric fluid. There can 
be no doubt that gastric digestion is essentially 
a process of chemical solution, the solvent fluid 
being prepared by the follicles of the stomach, 
and its action assisted by the peristaltic mus- 
cular movements of the organ; the experi- 
ments on St. Martin, and those subsequently 
performed on the lower animals, fully prove 
these facts, both in natural and artificial diges- 
tion. Rapidity of digestion depends so much 
on the quantity and quality of the food, the 
state of health, the condition of the mind, and 



106 



DIGGES 



DIGITALIS 



the habits of exercise, that it is difficult to de- 
termine the relative digestibility of different 
articles of diet. It appears from Dr. Beau- 
mont's researches that, other things being 
equal, the flesh of wild animals is more easily 
digested than that of the allied domesticated 
races ; in this respect venison stands first, then 
turkey, then mutton, beef, and veal, in the 
order mentioned. A certain bulk of food is 
necessary for healthy digestion, as has long 
been practically known by uncivilized nations ; 
soups and fluid aliment are not more readily 
chymified than solid substances, and cannot 
alone support the system in vigor. Moderate 
exercise before a meal facilitates digestion. A 
temperature of 98 to 100 F. is requisite for 
the perfect action of the gastric juice; hence 
the ingestion of cold and iced substances, if 
carried to such an extent as to depress the 
temperature of the stomach, must be very 
prejudicial to digestion. The most recent ex- 
periments go to show that the action of the 
gastric juice is confined to nitrogenized sub- 
stances, and that it exerts no influence on 
starchy, saccharine, or oily matters. Its ac- 
tion on albuminous matters is to reduce them 
to a complete solution, alter their chemical 
properties, and convert them into albuminose 
(a kind of modified albumen), in which form 
they are readily assimilated. In this condition 
they form definite combinations with the sol- 
vent liquid, which have been called peptones. 
These are not mere solutions of the respective 
substances in acidulated fluids ; for a convert- 
ing power is exerted by the pepsin, the solvent 
power being due to the acid of the gastric 
juice. The process of digestion is far from 
being completed in the stomach, but goes on 
in the intestine by the continued action of the 
gastric juice, as well as by that of the pancrea- 
tic and intestinal juices. Of these, the intes- 
tinal juice seems to have the power of rapidly 
transforming starchy matters into a form of 
sugar, while the pancreatic juice, on coming in 
contact with the fatty elements of the food, 
converts them into a finely divided milky -look- 
ing emulsion, known as chyle. All these sub- 
stances, the fluid products of digestion, are then 
gradually taken up by the blood vessels and lac- 
teals of the alimentary canal, and mingled with 
the general mass of the circulating fluid ; until 
in the lower part of the intestine there are left 
only the indigestible and refuse parts of the 
food, mingled with the excrementitious sub- 
stances of the large intestine. (See ALIMENT, 
ALIMENTARY CANAL, and DIETETICS.) 

DIGGES. I. Leonard, an English mathemati- 
cian, born in the parish of Barham, Kent, died 
about 1574. He was educated at Oxford, pos- 
sessed an ample' fortune, and devoted himself 
to mathematical studies. He wrote " Tectoni- 
cum, briefly showing the exact Measuring and 
speedy Reckoning of all manner of Lands, 
Squares, Timber, Stones, Steeples, &c." (1556); 
Pantometria, a practical geometrical treatise 
(1591); and "Prognostication Everlasting of 



right good effect, or Choice Rules to judge the 
Weather by the Sun, Moon, and Stars " (1555). 
II. Thomas, son of the preceding, died in 1595^ 
He graduated at Oxford, adopted the profes- 
sion of a soldier, and was appointed muster- 
master general of the forces sent out by Eliza- 
beth to assist the Netherlands. He wrote sev- 
eral mathematical treatises and other works, 
among which are : Alee, sen Scales Mathema- 
ta'c!(1573); "A Letter on Parallax" (1573)- 
and " A Perfect Description of the Celestial 
Orbs according to the most ancient Doctrine 
of the Pythagoreans " (1592). 

DIGITALIS, a genus of exogenous plants be- 
longing to the natural order scroptiulariace. 
Digitalis purpurea (Linn.), purple foxglove, 
is a small herb found wild in Europe about 
hedges on banks of streams, in a gravelly or 
sandy soil. Calyx 5-parted, unequal ; corolla 
campanulate, the limbs obliquely 4-lobed ; sta- 
mens 4 ; stigma simple ; capsule ovate-acumi- 




Digitalis purpurea. 

nate; root of numerous long slender fibres, 
biennial ; stem erect, 3 or 4 ft. high, com- 
monly simple roundish with slight angles, 
downy; leaves dull green, alternate, ovate- 
lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, crenate, downy, 
rugged, and veiny, tapering at the base into 
winged footstalks, lower ones largest ; raceme 
terminal, long, simple, of numerous large, pen- 
dulous, odorless flowers. Fuchs is regarded as 
the earliest botanist who mentions this plant, 
which he named digitalis (Germ. Fingerliut, 
thimble), on account of the blossoms resem- 
bling the finger of a glove. The term foxe-glove 
occurs in a MS. Olossarium JElfrica;,, written 
before the Norman conquest, and in a MS. 
Saxon translation of Apuleius, both of which 
are among the Cotton MSS. in the British mu- 
seum ; but no Latin or Greek name was given 
to this plant previous to Fuchs in 1542. Thia 
beautiful plant derives its chief interest from 
its medicinal properties, which reside in the 
leaves and seeds, the latter being small, round- 



DIGITIGRADES 



DIJON 



107 



__j, and grayish brown. Its active principle 
is digitaline, a white, inodorous bitter sub- 
stance, which crystallizes with difficulty in 
microscopic plates. It is sparingly soluble in 
water, moderately soluble in ether, freely so 
in alcohol. Its composition has not been de- 
termined with certainty. The most charac- 
teristic test is the beautiful pure green color 
which it assumes when added to a small 
quantity of phosphoric acid, concentrated as 
much as possible on a watch glass, the acid 
at the same time turning yellow. The effect 
of digitalis has been tried on dogs, horses, 
rabbits, turkeys, domestic fowl, and frogs, and 
on all it has been found to act as a poison. 
The cerebro-spinal symptoms observed in ani- 
mals are diminished muscular power, convul- 
sive movements, tremors, and insensibility. 
When given in small doses to man, it is found 
to exercise a remarkable influence over the 
circulation, frequently reducing the pulse from 
70 or 80 to 40 or 50 beats in the minute. Ac- 
cording to recent views, the beats of the heart, 
although retarded by digitalis, are rendered 
more vigorous by it, and at the same time the 
smaller arteries are contracted, so that their 
tension is maintained, and in some diseases 
increased, in spite of the slow pulse. The 
therapeutic effects of digitalis, including its 
diuretic action, depend almost wholly upon 
the improved tone of the heart and blood ves- 
sels which it brings about. Small doses of it 
in health generally, but not always, increase 
the water of the urine to a slight degree, 
the solids undergoing but little change. When 
poisonous doses are approximated, the force of 
the heart and tension of the arteries fall, and 
the pulse becomes first irregular, and afterward 
rapid. Nausea and vomiting are early toxic 
symptoms. It should be borne in mind that 
a toxic condition may be suddenly developed 
during the use of digitalis as a medicine, in 
consequence of its accumulation in the sys- 
tem. Its undoubted beneficial effects in organ- 
ic diseases of the heart can in most cases be 
best attained and preserved by keeping the 
dose strictly within the limits of what has just 
been described as the first stage of its action ; 
that is, the stage in which the tension of the 
blood vessels is maintained. Digitalis is used 
chiefly in organic diseases of the heart, to ful- 
fil indications suggested above. Its effect in 
dropsies, and possibly in some nervous affec- 
tions, is secondary. The infusion, tincture, 
leaves in powder, and granules of digitaline 
are all used in medicine. Its effects may also 
be obtained by the application to the abdomi- 
nal surface of cloths steeped in an infusion of 
it. The dose of the infusion is about a table- 
spoonful ; of the powdered leaves, a grain ; of 
the tincture, 10 to 15 drops ; of digitaline, -^ 
of a grain. Large quantities of digitalis are 
quite inert, either from too long keeping or 
from having been taken from immature plants. 
m DIGITIGRADES, the tribe of the typical car- 
nivora, so called because they walk on the 



ends of the toes, as distinguished from the 
plantigrades, which, like the bear, place the 
whole foot upon the ground. This tribe in- 
cludes the mustelidce or weasels, the canidce 
or dogs, and the felidce or cats. All have the 
cheek teeth with cutting edges, the lower 
shutting within the upper, dividing the flesh 
of their prey like the blades of scissors. As 
their food would indicate, they have a simple 
stomach and a short intestine. Their carniv- 
orous propensity may be measured by the 
tubercle or heel on the lower carnivorous 
tooth, and the number of false molars in front 
and of tuberculous teeth behind it ; those hav- 
ing the simplest carnivorous teeth, and the 
fewest molars in front and behind, like the 
cats and the weasels, are the most sanguinary. 
The characteristic marks in the skeleton are 
the long metacarpus and metatarsus, the ele- 
vation of the os calcis, and the shortness of 
the phalanges which alone rest upon the 
ground ; and in the cats, the retractile claws. 
The extremities are formed for leaping and 
springing ; from the pelvis as the fixed point, 
the three portions of the limbs are movable in 
alternately opposite directions ; by the simul- 
taneous flexion of these joints, and their sud- 
den extension by powerful muscles, the great- 
est force is given to the spring, the elevated 
and elongated heel affording the principal me- 
chanical advantage in the digitigrade foot. 

DIGNE (an'c. Dinia\ a town of Provence, 
France, capital of the department of Basses- 
Alpes, situated near the Bleone, 69 m. N. N. E. 
of Marseilles ; pop. in 1866, 7,002. It is the 
seat of- a Catholic bishop, a court of the first 
resort, a communal college, a theological semi- 
nary, and a normal school. It has a public 
library of about 3,000 volumes, and manufac- 
tories of leather, cloth, and hats. Its situation 
is picturesque, but the streets are crooked, and 
the houses very poor. In 1629 the plague re- 
duced the population from 10,000 to 1,500. 

DIJON (anc. Divio), a town of France, for- 
merly capital of the duchy of Burgundy, now 
of the department of Cote-d'Or, situated at 
the confluence of the rivers Ouche and Suzon, 
on the railway from Paris to Lyons, 160 m. S. 
E. of Paris ; pop. in 1866, 39,193. It is of an 
oval form, with several suburbs, and lies at the 
foot of a chain of mountains in a fertile vale. 
It is generally well built, has numerous hand- 
some public places and elegant houses, is en- 
closed by ramparts, and its environs furnish 
delightful promenades. It contains many re- 
markable buildings, the principal of which are 
the cathedral, formerly the Cistercian abbey 
of St. Benigne, a massive edifice founded in 
535 and rebuilt in the 12th century, and again 
in the 13th, which contains the magnificent 
mausoleums of Philip the Bold and of John 
the Fearless; the church of Notre Dame, 
built in the 13th and 14th centuries; the 
church of St. Michael, which dates from the 
16th century, remarkable for its front and its 
castle-like solidity ; an ancient castle, the work 



108 



DIJON 



of Louis XL, which served for a time in the 
18th century as the prison of the duchess de 
Maine, Mirabeau, and the chevalier d'Eon; 
and the ancient palace of the dukes of Bur- 
gundy, subsequently the palais des etats, now 
occupied partly as a town hall and partly as a 
museum of painting and sculpture, containing 
numerous relics of the middle ages, and a li- 
brary of 70,000 printed volumes and 800 to 
900 MSS. The tower is now used as an ob- 
servatory. The hall of justice, an ancient 
edifice, was the parliament house of Burgun- 
dy. The theatre is one of the finest in France. 
Dijon is the seat of a bishop and of courts of 
appellate and original jurisdiction. It is well 
provided with benevolent and educational in- 




Cathedral of Dijon. 

stitutions, including two hospitals, an orphan 
asylum, two prisons, a cabinet of natural his- 
tory, a botanic garden, a university with 16 
professors and faculties of law, science, and 
literature, eight colleges, a normal school, and 
schools of fine arts and medicine. It has man- 
ufactories of linens, hosiery, vinegar, and can- 
dles, distilleries, bleacheries, sugar and wax 
refineries, tanneries, breweries, and establish- 
ments for the manufacture of liqueur de cassis 
or black-currant wine. It is the principal 
market for the sale of Burgundy wines, and 
there is also a large trade in grain, flour, and 
wool. The origin of Dijon is traced back to 
times preceding the Roman dominion. Under 
Marcus Aurelius it was surrounded by walls 
flanked with towers, and it was embellished 



DIKE 

and enlarged by Aurelian. It was burned by 
the Saracens in the 8th century, sacked by the 
Normans in the 9th, and again ravaged by fire 
in 1127. It was for three centuries the resi- 
dence of the dukes of Burgundy, by whom its 
present fortifications were constructed. In 
1513 it was besieged by the Swiss, and saved 
itself only by a humiliating treaty. On Oct. 
30, 1870, there was a sharp encounter between 
a division of the German corps of Gen. Von 
Werder and the advance troops of the French 
army of Lyons, which led on the next day to 
the capitulation of the town and its occupation 
by the Germans. On the approach of the 
army of Bourbaki the town was evacuated by 
the Germans, Dec. 27. On Jan. 21 and 23, 
1871, severe fighting again took place near 
Dijon between the Garibaldians and portions 
of the second German army corps; the latter 
were finally compelled to retreat, leaving be- 
hind them a flag, the only one lost in the war. 
Dijon is the birthplace of some of the most 
eminent men of France, including Bossuet, 
Crebillon the elder, Piron, Cazotte, Guyton de 
Morveau, and Maret, duke of Bassano. 

DIKE (Dutch, dijk, from the root of dig). 
I. Primarily a ditch, but now more commonly 
a wall or embankment intended to restrain the 
flow of water. Such earthworks were in for- 
mer times a common means of defence, and 
were built around castles and fortresses. In 
Holland are the most remarkable dikes in the 
world, constructed to prevent the overflow of 
the lands reclaimed from the sea. Their im- 
portance may be appreciated from the fact that 
a single inundation from the sea in the year 
1277 caused the destruction of 44 villages ; and 
in 1287 80,000 persons were destroyed by an- 
other, and its present extent and shape were 
given to the Zuyder Zee. In the 15th century 
about 100,000 persons were destroyed through 
the imperfection of the dikes, when their con- 
struction was undertaken in the most thorough 
manner, and a law was enacted enforcing their 
being kept in order. At present this work is 
conducted on a systematic plan and at great 
cost. Embankments are made toward the sea 
with heavy timbers filled in with stone, and the 
surface is covered with bundles of flags and 
reeds fastened down by stakes. Piles also are 
driven into the sand, and protected by planking 
as well as by earth, turf, and stones. These 
artificial dikes are often 40 ft. above ordinary 
high water, and wide enough at top for a com- 
mon roadway. Frequently the slopes are cov- 
ered with wickerwork made of willow twigs, 
and the willow tree is extensively cultivated to 
furnish supplies of these, which require frequent 
renewal, as also to bind together by its roots 
the loose sands. Walls of masonry are built in 
some of the most exposed situations, and rows 
of piles outside protect the dikes from the ac- 
tion of the waves. The expenditure in Hol- 
land for maintaining dikes and regulating the 
water levels is annually from $2,000,000 to 
$2,500,000. Engineers are constantly employed, 



DIKE 



DILKE 



109 



and every provision is made of materials that 
may be required for immediate repairs. Du- 
ring the winter months watchmen patrol the 
dikes by day and night, and give alarm when- 
ever the tide threatens to overflow. The peo- 
ple then hasten to the point, and with mats of 
straw and rushes and large sheets of sail cloth 
buried in the sand they raise a temporary bul- 
wark, to be more securely built before the ap- 
proach of the next tide. Dikes constructed as 
barriers for reservoirs are built on several well 
established plans. The loose materials exca- 
vated for the channel or basin are piled up in 
a firm bank and consolidated by rolling with 
heavy rollers. Sometimes they are rendered 
more secure by building within them along 
their central line a puddle bank of selected 
clayey earth, mixed with sufficient sand to 
give it tenacity, so as not to crack in drying. 
This should be carried down to a solid founda- 
tion, and may be advantageously bedded upon 
a layer of concrete. It is built up a little later 
than the bank on each side of it, and both are 
rolled on the addition of every layer of six 
inches with a heavily ribbed roller of cast iron. 
The use of any material of the nature of quick- 
sand is to be carefully avoided in any part of 
the embankment. Next the water it is well 
to face the work with a layer of broken stone 
that will pass through a two-inch ring, and 
over this should be laid a sloping wall of flat 
stone at an inclination of 1 base to 1 vertical, 
or from that to one of 3 base to 1 vertical. 
The broken stone within is a guard against the 
embankment being penetrated by any small 
water animals. The dike around the great 
reservoir of 106 acres in the Central park, New 
York, is made on the plan given above, which 
is approved by the engineers of France and 
England. It is 16 ft. 8 in. wide at top, with 
an inner and outer slope of 1 base to 1 verti- 
cal. The puddle bank of clay in the middle, 
which reaches to within a few feet of the top, 
is 16 ft. thick. The depth of water around the 
margin is 34 ft. At the surface of the water 
the thickness of the embankment is 24 ft. 9 in., 
and at 30 ft. below it is 114 ft. 9 in. The 
French engineers give the preference to this 
mode of construction over that of a wall of 
masonry alone or of an embankment within a 
wall. Stonework by settling is liable to injury 
that can be repaired only at great cost, espe- 
cially if the structure be concealed within an 
embankment. Where room is an object, as in 
the streets of a city, the outer sides of the dike 
are conveniently held up by steep walls of 
stone, which add neither to the strength nor to 
the impermeability of the work. II. In geolo- 
gy, a wall of trap or other igneous rock, which 
traverses other rocks, and appears to have been 
produced by the flowing of melted matter into 
a deep rent or fissure. Dikes are distinguished 
from veins by the greater uniformity of their 
contents, by the parallelism of their sides, by 
their not ramifying into smaller veins, and by 
their usually larger dimensions. The name 



was given them from their frequently project- 
ing above the surface like a wall, owing to the 
degradation of the softer rock around them, 
dike being in the north of England and in Scot- 
land a provincial name for wall. They are 
from a few inches to more than a mile in thick- 
ness. In volcanic eruptions they are seen in 
process of formation, as deep rents open and 
are filled with liquid lava. In the English 
coal mines trap dikes are occasionally met with, 
forming walls across the line of the coal beds, 
cutting them off, and causing them at times to 
be thrown out of place. In the United States 
they occur likewise in the gold mines of North 
Carolina. In the Connecticut valley, in fissures 
of sandstone, as well as in New Jersey, the 
trap dike contains copper ore, indicating that 
the copper veins in these rocks have a com- 
mon origin with the dikes, and also with the 
barytes which forms the gangue or matrix of 
the vein. Prof. Dana remarks that the trias- 
sic formations along the Atlantic appear to be 
a repetition of the processes which occurred 
in the Huronian and Potsdam periods in the 
Lake Superior region. The trap rocks of 
Lake Superior are often remarkable for the 
grandeur of their basaltic walls and columns. 

DILKE. I. Charles Wentworth, an English 
journalist, born Dec. 8, 1789, died Aug. 10, 
1864. He graduated at Cambridge, and early 
found employment in the navy pay office, 
where he remained 20 years. In 1830 he be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Athe- 
nsoum," which speedily rose to a high rank in 
English periodical literature. In 1846, having 
intrusted the editorship of the "Athenaeum" 
to Mr. Thomas Kibble Hervey, Mr. Dilke under- 
took that of the "Daily News," from which 
he retired in 1849. A valuable collection of 
" Old English Plays," in 6 vols., was edited by 
him in 1814. II. Sir Charles Wentworth, son 
of the preceding, born in London, Feb. 18, 
1810, died in St. Petersburg, May 10, 1869. 
He was educated at Westminster school and 
Cambridge, and from his interest in art was 
one of the earliest and most active promoters 
of the crystal palace exhibition of 1851. He 
declined the knighthood offered him for his 
services on this occasion, and also refused any 
pecuniary reward. He was a commissioner 
to the New York crystal palace exhibition in 
1853, and one of the five royal commissioners 
of the second London exhibition in 1862, in 
which year he was created a baronet. He 
was active in the society of antiquaries and the 
royal geographical society. He sat in parlia- 
ment for Wallingford from July, 1865, to No- 
vember, 1868. HI. Sir Charles Wentworth, an 
English author and politician, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Chelsea, Sept. 4, 1843. He 
was educated at Cambridge, where he grad- 
uated in 1866, and was called to the bar. He 
travelled in Canada and the United States, 
crossing to the Pacific coast, and sailing thence 
for Australia and the other British colonies in 
the South sea. The result of these travels he 



110 



DILL 



published in " Greater Britain : a Record of 
Travel in English-speaking Countries during 
1866-7" (2 vols., 1868). In 1868 he was 
elected to parliament from Chelsea, by a ma- 
jority of two to one over Dr. W. H. Russell. 
On the death of his father he became editor of 
the " AthenaBum." In politics he is a repub- 
lican, and has attracted much attention by 
his attacks on the monarchical system. 

DILL, the common name of the anethum 
graveolens (Linn.), an annual plant of the nat- 
ural order umbellifera, a native of Spain, but 
naturalized in the south of France and Ger- 
many, and cultivated in gardens in the United 
States. It has an upright smooth stem, much 
dissected leaves, yellow flowers, and small ob- 
long seeds, with sharp, filiform dorsal ridges. 
The seeds and oil distilled from them are aro- 
matic, but have no properties to distinguish 




Dill (Anethum graveolens). 

them from many other members of the same 
class of substances. The seeds are imported 
in large quantities from the south of France 
into England, where they are employed in the 
manufacture of British gin. In Germany they 
are used in pickling cucumbers and in the 
flavoring of sour crout. 

DILLEXIUS, Johann Jakob, a German botanist, 
born in Darmstadt in 1687, died in Oxford, 
April 2, 1747. His grandfather was called 
Dill and his father Dillen, which the son Latin- 
ized into Dillenius. He studied at the univer- 
sity of Giessen, and was received into the so- 
ciety of " Inquirers into Nature," under whose 
auspices he published a " Dissertation upon the 
Plants of America naturalized in Europe ;" a 
"Treatise upon Coffee," with an account of 
the substances which might displace it, giving 
tin- ]) reference to burnt rice; and a volume of 
" Observations upon the Mode of Development 
of Ferns and Mosses," in which he confirmed 
the theory of different sexes in plants. He first 
obtained a reputation among naturalists by his 
Catalogue Plantarum circa Gissam nascentium, 



DILLON 

published in 1719. William Sherard, a scien- 
tific English traveller, persuaded Dillenius to 
leave Germany for England. He arrived in 
London in 1721, and had a fine garden at El- 
tham placed at his disposition by James She- 
rard, a brother of William. He edited an 
enlarged edition of Ray's " Synopsis of British 
Plants," with engravings of his own. In 1728 
William Sherard died, and founded by his will 
a chair of botany at Oxford, to which Dillenius 
was appointed, who in 1732 published his 
Hortus Elthamensis, containing not only de- 
scriptions of plants arranged in alphabetical 
order, but also 324 plates engraved by himself. 
This work was enthusiastically received by his 
contemporaries, among others by Linnseus, then 
commencing his labors. In 1741 he published 
his Historia Muscorum, which places him in 
the first rank of the botanists of the last cen- 
tury. He was more than 20 years in collecting 
the materials of this work. The plates (num- 
bering 85) and the descriptions were all by his 
own hand. He published no subsequent work, 
but many of his drawings and collections are 
preserved in the Sherardian museum at Oxford. 
Linnaus dedicated to him a magnificent genus 
of plants of tropical India, which is the type 
of the family of the Dilleniacece. 

DILLINGEN, a town of Bavaria, in the circl 
of Swabia, on the Danube, 22 m. N. W. 
Augsburg ; pop. about 5,500. The universit 
founded in 1549, and from 1564 to 1773 un< 
the management of the Jesuits, was abolish* 
in 1804. There is now a lyceuin with a librs 
of 75,000 volumes. Other conspicuous builc 
ings are the Jesuit college, the palace of tl 
bishops of Augsburg, and a royal castle. It 
has an asylum for the deaf and dumb. A new 
bridge has recently been thrown over the 
Danube, and a canal to Lauingen has been 
constructed to avoid the windings of the river 
between the two places. The town belonged 
to the bishop of Augsburg till 1803, when he 
was deprived of his secular estates. 

DILLMANN, Christian Friedrich Angnst, a Ger- 
man orientalist, born at Illingen, Wurtemberg, 
April 25, 1823. He studied at Tubingen, and 
after a visit to the oriental museums of Paris 
and London resided for several years at the 
university as a private teacher. In 1854 he 
became professor of oriental languages at Kiel, 
and in 1864 professor of Old Testament ex- 
egesis at Giessen. In 1869 he succeeded 
Hengstenberg at the university of Berlin. 
His fame rests mainly on his great labors in 
behalf of the Ethiopic language. His princi- 
pal works are : Grammatik der athiopiscJien 
Sprache (Leipsic, 1857) ; Lexicon Lingua j*Eihi~ 
0/ncee(1862-'6); and Chrestomathia sEthiopica, 
edita et Glossario explanata (1866). 

DILLON, Peter, a British navigator, born 
about 1755, died in 1847. He early entered 
the merchant service, and barely escaped be- 
ing murdered by the Feejee islanders while 
lieutenant of an East Indian ship. In 1826 he 
met three of his former companions on an 



OILMAN 



DILUVIUM 



111 



land in the South sea, where they had been 
left 13 years before. One of these men had 
learned that two vessels had been lost on one 
of the Vanikoro islands, and had discovered 
some of the articles found on the wrecks. 
Dillon recognized these as having belonged to 
the expedition of La Perouse, and returning to 
Pondicherry was put in command of a vessel, 
which in July, 1827, reached Whannon, an isl- 
and of the Vanikoro group, where were found 
additional traces of the expedition of La Pe- 
rouse. Dillon reached France on his return in 
February, 1829, and received from Charles X. a 
gift of 10,000 francs and a pension of 4,000. 
He wrote a narrative of his expedition, under 
the title of Voyage aux iles de la mer du Sud, 
1827 et 1828, et relation de la decouverte du sort 
de La Perouse. 

OILMAN, a town of Persia, in the province 
of Azerbijan, 75 m. W. by N. of Tabriz, on a 
stream flowing E. into the N. end of Lake 
Urumiah, 10 m. distant; pop. about 15,000. 
It is a modern town, situated in an extensive and 
fertile valley, and surrounded by gardens, with 
more cleanly streets than those of older Per- 
sian towns. About 4 m. W. is a decayed an- 
cient town of the same name. 

DILUVIUM, or Drift, the superficial deposits 
of clay, sand, gravel, and bowlders which in 
both hemispheres are spread more or less uni- 
formly over the land of the polar regions and 
the adjacent portions of the temperate zones. 
Geologically this deposit is very recent, and 
is found overlying strata of later tertiary or 
pliocene age. Inasmuch as great portions of 
the material of which it is composed seem to 
have been transported or at least accumulated 
in their present position by some violent action, 
the name of diluvium was given to it by the 
earlier geologists. In the northern hemisphere 
the drift is found alike in Europe, Asia, and 
America, extending from the polar regions to- 
ward the equator, and disappearing on the con- 
tinent of North America about lat. 38 ; while 
in Europe all traces of it are said to be lost in 
the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 
In South America it is recognized from Cape 
Horn northward into southern Chili, and ac- 
cording to some observers much further. The 
assertion that great deposits of such material 
occur even in tropical Brazil is denied by the 
more recent observers. This drifted or diluvial 
material is divided into diluvium proper, or 
unstratified drift, and stratified or modified 
drift, which is the result of a rearrangement 
of the former by water. Unstratified drift is 
met with at considerable elevations over the 
present sea level 3,000 ft. above the Baltic, 
and at a height of 4,000 ft. in the Grampians 
of Scotland. It is everywhere characterized 
by loose masses of rock, more or less rounded, 
which in many cases have evidently been trans- 
ported for considerable distances from their 
parent beds. As already described in the article 
BOWLDERS, they are often of great dimensions, 
and increase in size as the deposit is traced 
264 VOL. vi. 8 



toward its source to the northward. In Kus- 
sia they have thus been identified with ledges 
more than 800 m. distant toward the north. 
Bowlders of the same kind of granite, easily 
recognized, traced from Moscow to St. Peters- 
burg, vary from two or three feet in diameter 
at the former to as many yards at the latter 
point. Instances of these phenomena are every- 
where to be seen in the northern United States. 
In southern Wisconsin pieces of native copper 
were often found in the superficial deposits 
long before the mines of this metal were dis- 
covered on the S. shore of Lake Superior, 300 
m. to the north. The N. shores of Long Isl- 
and are strewn with bowlders of red sand- 
stone, and of granite and other primary rocks, 
arranged in groups which correspond with the 
position of the ledges of the same rocks in 
Connecticut. So on the European continent, 
the stratified rocks of which the whole region 
on the S. side of the gulf of Finland is com- 
posed are covered with granitic bowlders from 
the primary region of Scandinavia on the other 
side of the gulf. These bowlders, or erratic 
blocks, are in some places the only evidences 
of diluvial action, and are found resting di- 
rectly upon the solid rocks ; but in such cases 
they have been left in this position by the sub- 
sequent washing away of the finer portion of the 
original diluvium or unstratified drift, in which 
they were included. This may be described 
as a heterogeneous mass of clay with sand 
and gravel in varying proportions, enclosing 
the transported fragments of rock, of all dimen- 
sions, partially rounded or worn into wedge- 
shaped forms, and generally with surfaces fur- 
rowed or scratched, the whole material looking 
as if it had been scraped together. Such is 
the unstratified diluvium, or bowlder clay, as 
it is sometimes called ; while in allusion to its 
supposed accumulation by the agency of ice, 
it is often designated glacial drift. The rocks 
beneath this deposit are worn smooth or pol- 
ished, and more or less deeply grooved or stria- 
ted in a manner which shows unmistakably that 
the drift has been made to move over the sur- 
face with great force, grinding, planing, and 
scoring the rocks beneath. Eesting on this 
deposit are generally found accumulations of 
stratified clays and sands, evidently arranged 
by deposition from water, which are known as 
stratified drift, or modified drift. The charac- 
ters, relations, and distribution of these various 
products of diluvial action in North America 
have been studied with great care by Newberry 
and by Dawson. The latter has recently pub- 
lished a valuable summary under the title of 
" The Post-pliocene Geology of Canada." No- 
where are the phenomena of this geological pe- 
riod better seen than in the valley of the St. 
Lawrence and its tributaries. Dawson divides 
the deposits of this drift formation into three 
parts : the first, or lowest, the so-called bowl- 
der clay; the second, or leda clay, a fine de- 
posit in deep waters ; and the third, or saxicava 
sand, an accumulation of shallow-water sand 



112 



DILUVIUM 



and gravels. These three deposits in the valley 
of the St. Lawrence can often be seen in actual 
superposition, and the order is invariable. In 
some places all contain marine shells; in others 
these are limited to the upper part of the leda 
clay or the lower part of the saxicava sand. 
In many parts of its distribution the bowlder 
clay holds the remains of marine animals, 
stones with adhering barnacles and bryozoa be- 
ing imbedded therein ; and elsewhere, accord- 
ing to Dawson, it exhibits other but not less 
unequivocal evidences of a submarine origin. 
The true bowlder clay is spread out over the 
region under consideration as a somewhat 
widely extended and uniform sheet; yet it 
may be said to fill up all small valleys and de- 
pressions, and to be thin or absent on ridges 
or rising grounds. The bowlders which it con- 
tains are by no means uniformly dispersed. 
When cut through by rivers or denuded by the 
action of the sea, ridges of bowlders are often 
seen to be enclosed within it. It is to be ob- 
served, according to the same writer, that al- 
though bowlders with layers of stones occa- 
sionally occur in the leda clay, and the upper 
sands and gravels sometimes contain large 
bowlders, such depositsare readily distinguished 
from the true 'bo wider clay. Although gene- 
rally resting directly on striated rock surfaces, 
it is sometimes underlaid by rolled gravel or 
by peat. It is usually destitute of stratifica- 
tion, but horizontal lines, indicating differences 
in texture and in color, can sometimes be seen, 
and it occasionally exhibits surfaces on which 
lie large bowlders, striated and polished on 
their upper sides, forming a sort of pavement. 
The rocks underneath this bowlder clay are 
very generally polished and striated in a man- 
ner similar to those seen beneath Alpine gla- 
ciers. The grooves in the region under con- 
sideration belong to two series, one evidently 
produced by a force moving to the southeast, 
and the other to the southwest. The south- 
west set prevails in the valley of the St. Law- 
rence, in western New York, and around 
Lakes Huron, Superior, and Michigan. Near- 
ly at right angles is another set, directed to 
the southeast, found to the north of Lake 
Ontario, in the valleys of the Ottawa and 
Lake Champlain, and in the highlands of east- 
ern Canada and New England. These, accord- 
ing to Hitchcock, are seen in Vermont at a 
height of 4,800 ft. above the sea. In some 
localities the two sets of strias are found in 
the same region, and even intersecting one an- 
other. Resting upon the bowlder clay, and 
apparently made up from the rearrangement 
of its finer portions, we find the leda clay of 
Dawson, so called from the abundance of the 
shells of Icda truncata which it contains. It 
is the Champlain clay of Dana. In many 
parts it also abounds in other shells, mforami- 
nifera, and in some localities in the remains of 
fishes; its fauna being, alike in Canada and 
New England, of a somewhat arctic type, and 
identical with that of the gulf of St. Lawrence 



at the present time. Resting upon this clay is 
found in many localities a stratified sand in 
which abound the shells of saxicava rugosa. 
In some cases the passage from the one into 
the other is gradual, while in others there 
seerns to have been an interval marked by the 
denudation of the underlying clay. In some 
localities, however, this sand rests on the 
bowlder clay, and where this is wanting, 
directly on the rock, which in this case is often 
striated, and was probably once covered by 
the bowlder clay, which was afterward swept 
away. These stratified fossiliferous clays are 
found at heights of 500 and even 800 ft. above 
the present level of the sea in eastern North 
America. Ridges, terraces, and inland sea 
cliffs are also noticed over the region charac- 
terized by the deposits already mentioned, and 
are evidently closely connected with the rear- 
rangement of the drift materials, and with the 
slow movement of elevation from the sea in 
which these stratified materials were deposited. 
The origin of the unstratified drift is, however, 
a question which has been much controverted ; 
the point in dispute being whether this depos- 
it has been accumulated by the action of ice- 
bergs under the sea, in the waters of which 
the stratified deposits were subsequently ar- 
ranged, or whether it was the result of the ac- 
tion of land glaciers at a time prior to the de- 
pression of the region beneath the sea level. 
The iceberg theory was perhaps first formu- 
lated by Peter Dobson of Vernon, Conn., in a 
note in the " American Journal of Science and 
Arts" (vol. x., 1826), where he describes the 
scratched appearance of the bowlders scattered 
over New England as if due to " their having 
been dragged over rocks and gravelly earth hi 
one steady position," and adds : " I think we 
cannot account for these appearances unless 
we call in the aid of ice as well as water, and 
that they have been worn by being suspended 
and carried in ice over rocks and earth under 
water." The transportation of masses of rock 
by icebergs as they drift along the currents 
which set from the polar regions, and the dis- 
tribution of their loads over the bottom of the 
ocean as the bergs melt away, present, in the 
view of many, a repetition of the process by 
which in remote times the surfaces of the 
present continents were covered with the drift 
materials. Lyell supposes that the lands, with 
their present irregularities of surface already 
defined, were slowly submerged, while islands 
of floating ice passed along in the polar cur- 
rents, grounding on the coast and on shoals, 
and pushing forward the loose sand and gravel 
spread over the bottom. Thus abraded down 
to the solid rock, and the surface of this 
grooved and striated, the shoals, by continued 
subsidence, passed down to great depths, 
where the loose materials gathering upon 
them were no longer disturbed. Finally he 
supposes the direction of the movement to 
have been reversed, and the bottom of the 
ocean to have been again raised to form dry 



DILUVIUM 



113 



._ ; and that during its reemergence the ar- 
rangement of the materials which cover it was 
modified by exposure to the distributing and 
stratifying action of the waves, tides, and cur- 
rents. The extent and immense number of mod- 
ern icebergs seem to prove their capacity to re- 
produce upon the shoals and over the bottom 
of the Atlantic nearly all the phenomena of the 
drift formation. Measured as they are by 
miles in length, and rising at times more than 
300 ft. in height, with only one fifth of their 
bulk then visible, they may well float oif and 
distribute along their track the largest bowlders 
which they have abstracted from the rocky 
cliffs down which they moved as glaciers into 
the sea. Of late years, however, the theory 
of Agassiz, that the phenomena of the drift 
are due not to the submarine action of floating 
ice, but to terrestrial glaciers, has found much 
favor. The vast accumulations of ice which 
have been so well studied in the Alps are seen 
in their slow and irresistible motion down the 
valleys to score and groove the surfaces of the 
rocks over which they pass, rending masses of 
rock from the cliffs, moving the fragments for- 
ward, and finally leaving them rolled in the 
shape of bowlders, and grooved and scratched 
by the rubbing to which they were subjected 
when fixed in the ice. In the Alpine regions 
of Europe the effects thus produced are so re- 
markable, and spread over such extensive dis- 
tricts, that many geologists who have studied 
them are disposed to refer all the phenomena 
of the unstratified drift to the action of gla- 
ciers ; and in this view they are confirmed by 
finding unmistakable evidence that the action 
of the glaciers formerly extended far beyond 
their present limits. But the unstratified drift 
is found to extend over vast regions where 
it is difficult to conceive that mountain glaciers 
could ever have found their way ; and Agas- 
siz, to account for this universal glaciation of 
circumpolar regions, has been led to maintain 
the existence of a great continental glacier, or 
ice cap, extending over the arctic and a great 
part of the temperate zone, moving downward 
from the polar region, and of such immense 
thickness as to surround and overflow the sum- 
mits of our highest hills, which he supposes 
may have required in eastern North America 
a vertical thickness of two or three miles of 
solid ice. A similar continental glacier, ac- 
cording to this view, must have existed in 
the southern hemisphere. Prof. Dana, while 
adopting this notion of the origin of the gla- 
cial drift, regards the hypothesis of a central 
and common glacier source for each hemi- 
sphere as untenable, but supposes the existence 
of distinct glaciers of great magnitude. Such 
a one, according to him, had its origin along 
the watershed between the St. Lawrence and 
Hudson bay ; but recognizing the necessity of 
an elevated source to give motion to the gla- 
cier, he supposes that this region, which is now 
not more than 1,500 ft. above the sea, was then 
raised many thousand feet above its present 



level. In these theories of land glaciation a 
great depression of the surface is supposed to 
have succeeded the glacial period, affecting in 
the one case the great mountain plateau to the 
northward, and submerging the glaciated re- 
gion so as to permit the deposition above its 
surface of the stratified clays and sands which 
overlie the bowlder clay. But, as we have 
seen, this in many parts of its distribution is 
clearly of marine origin ; and a careful study 
of the whole of the phenomena of the drift 
period in eastern North America has led Daw- 
son to regard the operation of land glaciers in 
this region as of very limited extent and im- 
portance, and to maintain that the widespread 
glacial drift is essentially submarine in its ori- 
gin. This earlier view, which as set forth by 
Lyell has been partially explained above, en- 
deavors to account for the phenomena in 
question by causes now in operation, rather 
than by supposing a condition of things which 
it is at once difficult to conceive and to ex- 
plain. As expounded by Dawson, it maintains 
that at the beginning of the glacial time east- 
ern North America was already under water, 
and was slowly rising, though with minor os- 
cillations of level, from the ocean, the more 
western portion first. Along the eastern bor- 
der of the rising land, over its still submerged 
plains, and through its valleys, then flowed the 
arctic current, as it now does along the coast 
of Labrador and the shores of Newfoundland, 
bearing great quantities of floating ice, by the 
action of which', combined with the current, 
the rocky strata were eroded, and the valleys 
and lake basins excavated. At an early period 
in this order of things, the great arctic stream, 
pursuing, in obedience to the force impressed 
upon it by the earth's rotation, a southwestern 
course, passed over the region of the great lakes 
and excavated their basins; while at a later 
time, diverted further eastward by the emer- 
gence of the Laurentides, it would pass along 
the present St. Lawrence valley, and thence 
southwestward to the Mississippi. To quote 
the language of Dawson: "The prominent 
southwestern striation, and the cutting of the 
upper lakes, demanded an outlet to the west 
for the arctic current. But both during the 
depression and the elevation of the land there 
must have been a time when this outlet was 
obstructed, and when the lower levels of New 
York, New England, and Canada were still 
under water. Then the valley of the Ottawa, 
that of the Mohawk, and the low countries 
between Lakes Ontario and Huron, and the 
valleys of Lake Champlain and the Connecti- 
cut, would be straits or arms of the sea ; and 
the current, with its icebergs, obstructed in its 
direct flow, would set principally among these, 
and act on the rocks in north and south and 
northwest and southeast directions. To this 
portion of the process I would attribute the 
northwest and southeast striation." As the 
process of elevation proceeded, and the north- 
ern current found its passage across the east- 



1H 



DIME 



ern region to the sea, by channels further and 
further east, the conditions became such as to 
permit the deposition, from seas comparatively 
undi>turl>cd, of the stratified clays and sands, 
which are seen in so many cases to rest upon 
the bowlder clay, and are found with their char- 
acteristic fossils at elevations of 600 and even 
800 ft. above the sea ; while others, though so 
far as known without organic remains, are met 
with at still higher levels. But portions of 
floating ice still dropped from time to time the 
rock masses with which they were freighted, 
in the midst of these stratified clays. Nor 
are evidences wanting in the lower St. Law- 
rence that a second invasion of icebergs may 
have given rise to new accumulations of bowl- 
der drift after the deposition of the stratified 
clays. The valleys among the hills, and the 
shores of the islands, which then rose above 
an icy sea, would be filled with the local gla- 
ciers, of which the traces still remain, which 
gave their tribute to the northern current, al- 
ready charged as now with immense icebergs 
from the polar regions. These in great part 
submerged and half stranded masses, urged by 
current, wind, and tide, would plough and 
furrow the bottom, there piling up the unstrat- 
ified heaps of bowlder clay, to which the 
earth and rocks borne by the melting ice 
would contribute. The formation of the dilu- 
vium or bowlder drift is thus, according to 
either view, the result of the action of ice. 
But the glacial action, in the opinion of the 
land-glacialists, was limited to a definite period, 
and operated simultaneously over a vast area, 
which, according to one hypothesis, was not 
less than an entire hemisphere. Those, on the 
other hand, who restrict the action of land ice 
to local glaciers, and call in the aid of floating 
ice and the arctic current, maintain that the 
process of glaciation is limited rather by place 
than by time. Ever since the conditions of 
the earth have been such as to give rise to the 
formation of polar ice, the shores and the shal- 
low seas to which the arctic current has borne 
it must have been subject to glacial action 
such as we have endeavored to describe. From 
the days in which the glaciation of our valleys 
and the deposition in them of the glacial drift 
took place, this process has not ceased, but 
has been transferred to other regions; and we 
may suppose that the banks of Newfoundland, 
it iiuw raised above the ocean's level, would 
present striations and glacial drift, which, but 
for the presence of remains showing its forma- 
tion to have been in the historic period, would 
be indistinguishable from the ancient bowlder 
clays of New England and Canada. 

DIME (Fr. dime, contraction of dixieme, a 
tenth), a silver coin of the United States, of the 
value of 10 cents, or T V of adollar. It was first 
coin.-.l in 1 TIM:, in pursuance of the act of April 
"2. IT'.tL'. in which year pattern pieces were 
struck. Its legal standards have been as fol- 
\)y act of April 2, 1792, fineness 892*4 
thousandths, weight 41'6 grains; by act of 



DINAN 

Jan. 18, 1837, fineness 900 thousandths, weight 
41i grains; by act of Feb. 21, 1853, fineness 
900 thousandths, weight 38'4 grains. The half 
dime, of proportional weight and like fineness, 
was authorized by the same acts. These coins, 
which previous to Feb. 21, 1853, had been a 
legal tender for any amount, were by the act 
of that date made a legal tender only for sums 
not exceeding $5. By the act of Feb. 12, 
1873, the half dime was discontinued, and the 
weight of the dime was fixed at 38'58 grains, 
or one fifth that of the half dollar. The num- 
ber of pieces coined to June 30, 1873, was : 
dimes 89,854,925, half dimes 97,547,938; total, 
187,402,863; value, $13,862,889 40. 

DIMSDALE, Thomas, an English physician, 
born at Thoydon-Garnon, Essex, in 1712, died 
in Hertford, Dec. 30, 1800. He was noted for 
his zeal in promoting inoculation for the small- 
pox, and was invited to Russia by Catharine 
II. in 1768, for the purpose of inoculating her- 
self and her son. He afterward visited Frede- 
rick II. of Prussia at Sans-Souci, and then 
returned to England, where in 1776 he pub- 
lished a treatise on inoculation, which was 
translated into all the European languages. 
In 1780 he was elected to the house of com- 
mons, and in 1781 made a second professional 
visit to Russia. He also published several 
pamphlets on inoculation. 

DINAGEPOOR, a town of Bengal, India, capi 
tal of a district of the same name, in lat. 25 
84' N., Ion. 88 45' E., 210 m. N. of Calcutta ; 
pop. about 30,000. The town has a large 
square in the centre surrounded with shops, 
but there are no public buildings of any con- 
sequence, although it is the seat of the British 
judicial and revenue courts. There are no 
temples and but one mosque, which is small 
and without architectural pretensions. The 
dwellings of the Europeans are large and com- 
modious, but exhibit no taste, while those of 
the natives are mere huts. The trade of the 
place is inconsiderable. 

DINAN, a town of Brittany, France, in the de- 
partment of C6tes-du-Nord, on the Ranee, 30m. 
N. W. of Rennes; pop. in 1866, 8,510. It oc- 
cupies a commanding and romantic site on the 
crown and slopes of a steep hill overlooking 
the narrow valley of the Ranee, which flows 
250 ft. below its summit. It is surrounded 
by a high wall, pierced by four gates, which 
anciently had 54 round towersj but has now 
but 16. The old and picturesque castle, built 
about 1300, is now a prison. On the outside 
of the walls, now overgrown with ivy, are 
beautiful terraces and gardens in the former 
moat. There are some fine specimens both of 
ancient and modern architecture. In one of 
the four open places is a statue of Du Guesclin, 
who successfully defended the town against 
the English in 1359. Its port can admit ves- 
sels of 90 tons burthen, and it has a consider- 
j able coasting trade. Its manufactures consist 
I chiefly of linen, cotton, and woollen goods, 
l leather, beet-root sugar, and salt. In the en- 



; 



DINANT 



DINORNIS 



115 




Dinan. 

virons are chalybeate springs, much resorted 
to. It was often besieged in the middle ages. 
DINANT, a town of Belgium, on the Meuse, 
14 m. S. of Namur; pop. about 7,000. It is 

i situated at the base of limestone cliffs, on the 
summit of which are a citadel and a chapel. 
The cliffs are accessible by winding stairs cut 

: in the rock from terrace to terrace nearly up 

i to the walls of the fortress. The town has 
only one narrow street, with a small market 

I place. In the vicinity are quarries of black 
marble ; and there are some manufactures. 

I Dinant cakes, made of honey and rye flour, 
are famous. Brass and copper ware are called 
from this place dinanderies. Dinant was sacked 

1 in 1466 by Philip the Good of Burgundy, in 
his warfare against Louis XI., and again in 
1554 by the duke of Nevers, who served 
under Henry II. against Charles V. ; and it 
was captured by the French in 1675. 

DINAPORE, a town of Bengal, India, on the 
S. bank of the Ganges, 10 m. N. W. of Patna and 
300 N. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 16,000. It 

I is an important military station, noted for its 
handsome and extensive cantonments, capable 
of containing 5,000 troops. Around the station 

| are a great number of fine bungalows with 
small parks and gardens. The town, a con- 
fused assemblage of thatched huts and brick 
buildings seldom more than one story high, 

I extends about a mile along the banks of the 
river. The native troops at Dinapore muti- 
nied and gave much trouble in 1857. 

DINDORF, Wilhelm, a German philologist, 
born in Leipsic, Jan. 21, 1802. His father was 
professor of oriental languages at the university 
in his native city, which he entered in 1817, 
and where he continued, when not more than 
17 years old, the commentary and scholia on 
Aristophanes begun by Beck. He published 
subsequently a new edition of the Greek au- 
thor (Leipsic, 1820-'28), and received in 1828 



a professorship of the 
history of literature 
at Leipsic. He began 
his lectures in 1830, 
but resigned the chair 
in 1833 in order to 
devote himself entire- 
ly to classical labors. 
He went to Paris, and 
edited there, in con- 
junction with his 
brother and Hase, 
Stephens's Thesau- 
rus Graces Lingum 
(1829-'63). He is one 
of the principal edi- 
tors of Didot's Bi- 
bliotheque des clas- 
siques grecs, and of 
the Oxford and Teub- 
ner's (Leipsic) edi- 
tions of Greek clas- 
sics. His brother 
LUDWIG, born Jan. 3, 

1805, is specially known as the editor of the 
writings of Xenophon, Diodorus Siculus, Pau- 
sanias, and of the chronography of Joannes 
Malalas. 

D1NGELSTEDT, Franz, a German poet and 
novelist, born at Halsdorf, in Hesse, June 30, 
1814. Having studied theology and philology, 
and served as a professor at Cassel and Fulda, 
he became in 1850 intendant of the royal the- 
atre at Munich, and in 1867 director of the 
royal opera house in Vienna. He has pub- 
lished collections of poems entitled Lieder 
eines Tcosmopolitisclien Nachtwdchters (1840), 
GedicMe (1845), and Nacht und Morgen (1851), 
and a number of romances, dramas, and books 
of travel. In 1840 he married Jenny Lutzer, 
a celebrated singer. 
DINGO. See DOG. 

D1NKELSBUHL, a town of Bavaria, on the 
right bank of the Wernitz, 44 m. S. W. of 
Nuremberg; pop. in 1871, 5,213. It has sev- 
eral fine churches, an orphan asylum, and two 
hospitals. It suffered heavily during the thirty 
years' war, and is still declining; but it has 
considerable manufactures of woollen hosiery, 
linen, paper, hats, and stone slabs for tables, 
besides dyeworks, a brewery, and several mills. 
It was formerly a free city, but came into the 
possession of Bavaria in 1802. It is on three 
hills, and its ancient walls are still standing. 

DINORNIS (Gr. 6eiv6?, terrible, and 6pvi$, 
bird), a gigantic extinct bird, whose bones have 
been found in New Zealand. The history of 
this genus, established by Owen, is one of 
the most remarkable examples of the correct- 
ness of the great laws of the correlation of 
parts so beautifully elaborated by Cuvier. In 
vol. iii. of the " Transactions of the Zoological 
Society of London " is the first paper by Owen 
on this subject. He had received from New 
Zealand a fragment of a femur, six inches long, 
with both the extremities broken ; from its tex- 



116 



DINORNIS 



ture and size he concluded that it belonged to a 
bird of the struthious order, but heavier and 
more sluggish than the ostrich ; the bone was 
not mineralized, and retained much of its ani- 
mal matter, though it had evidently remained 
in the ground for some time ; this was in 1839. 
In a second memoir, communicated in 1843, 
he gives descriptions of portions of the skele- 
tons of six species of a struthious bird, named 
by him dinornis, which appeared to have be- 
come extinct within the historical period in the 
North island of New Zealand, as the dodo had 
in Mauritius. These specimens, 4V in number, 
had been sent to Dr. Buckland by the Rev. 
Mr. Williams, a missionary, who wrote that 
they were taken from the banks and bed of 
fresh-water rivers, buried only slightly in the 
mud, and probably quite recently; that the 
birds formerly existed in considerable numbers, 
and must have attained during a very long life 
a height of 14 or 16 ft. The bird to which 




Dinornis giganteus. 

these bones belonged was called moa by the 
natives. The names given by Owen were 
dinornis giganteus, height at least 10 ft. ; D. 
ingens, 9 ft. ; D. strutMoides, V ft. ; D. dromi- 
oides, 5 ft. ; D. didiformis, 4 ft. ; and D. otidi- 
formis, of the size of the great bustard. From 
these specimens he inferred that the wings 
were quite rudimentary ; that the large cervical 
vertebrae supported a powerful beak ; and that 
its strong legs were used in scratching up the 
soil to obtain the nutritious roots of the ferns 
which are so characteristic of those islands. 
He draws a portrait of this gigantic bird, the 
highest living form in that part of the globe, 
with no terrestrial mammal to contest its pos- 
session of the soil before the arrival of the first 
Polynesian colony. In a third memoir, read in 
1846, an examination of a larger number of 
ipecimena confirmed the deduction as to the 
rudimentary condition of the wings by the dis- 
covery of a keelless sternum ; showed that the 
species of this essentially terrestrial genus were 



heavier and more bulky in proportion to their 
height, more powerful scratchers, and less swift 
of foot than the ostrich, but in different degrees 
according to the species ; and indicated an af- 
finity to the dodo in the shape of the skull, with 
a lower cerebral development, and consequent- 
ly greater stupidity. He formed a new genus, 
palapteryx, of the species ingens and dromioi- 
des, characterized by a posterior or fourth toe, 
the three of the dinornis all being anterior toes ; 
he added the three new species, D. crassw, D. 
casuarinus, and D. curtus, all of small size. In 
a fourth paper, read in 1848, he establishes 
a new genus, aptornis, in which he places what 
he formerly called D. olidiformis ; this has a 
large surface for the hind toe, a strong perfo- 
rated calcaneal process, and a more posterior 
position of the condyle for the inner toe ; it re- 
sembles the apteryx in the comparative short- 
ness of the metatarsus. In this he describes 
perfect skulls and beaks of these birds, from 
which he concludes that the dinornis, though 
resembling the strutMonidw in the extraordina- 
ry development of the legs and the rudimentary 
condition of the wings, does not come very close 
to any existing struthious birds in its adze-like 
beak, crocodilian cranium, form of the pelvis 
and proportions of the metatarsus. The gem 
palapteryx belongs to the struthionida, being ii 
some respects intermediate between apter 
and dromaius. The law of the localization 
animals, so remarkably illustrated in the 
progress of geology, receives an additiom 
confirmation by this occurrence in the rii 
banks of New Zealand of remains of gigant 
birds allied to the small species (the apteryx) 
still existing only in the same islands. In vol. 
iv. of the "Transactions," in 1850, the feet 
and sternum are described, and two new spe- 
cies are alluded to, D. rheides and P. robm- 
tus ; further descriptions of the skull, beak, 
and legs are given in the same volume. Some 
years before the discovery of these bones in 
New Zealand, attention had been drawn to re- 
markable impressions in the new red sandstone 
of the Connecticut river valley, in Massachu- 
setts, which were believed to be footprints of 
birds, the largest of which must have exceeded 
the ostrich in size. Geologists were unwilling 
to admit the existence of birds at this remote 
epoch, or of such large ones at any time ; but 
the subsequent discovery of D. giganteus de- 
monstrated the existence of birds, at a com- 
paratively recent period, whose tracks would 
have been 22 in. long and 6 wide, considerably 
larger than those of the Connecticut valley. 
The occurrence of these gigantic birds in New 
Zealand adds much to the evidence that simi- 
lar upterous and low-organized reptilian birds 
existed in America during the red sandstone 
epoch, "the age of reptiles," when the cold- 
blooded and slow-breathing ompara exhibited 
such various forms and so great a number of 
species. Though many of these bones are 
apparently recent, and though it is not impos- 
sible, in the opinion of some, that the dinornis, 



DINOSAURIANS 



DINWIDDIE 



11T 



like the apteryx, may still exist in the interior 
of these islands, they belong to a certain extent 
to the class of extinct genera. In a more re- 
cent paper in the "Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society," 'for April 8, 1856, Prof. Owen 
describes the D. elephantopus, the most ex- 
traordinary of all for the massive strength of 
the limbs and the general proportions of the 
breadth and bulk to the height ; and it is the 
opinion of Mantell that this species existed in 
the Middle island with the first Maori natives. 
From a consideration of these species, it ap- 
pears that those of the North island were dis- 
tinct from those of the South. 

DINOSAUR1ANS, a tribe of fossil saurians, 
of immense size, having many mammalian 
characters, such as a medullary cavity in the 
long bones, short, pachyderm-like feet, a sa- 
crum of five united vertebrae, and a lateral 
motion of the lower jaw. They include the 
iguanodon, megalosaurus, &c., herbivorous and 
carnivorous; they are of the mesozoic age, 
from the middle of the Jurassic to the middle 
of the cretaceous epochs. 

DINOTHERICM (Gr. 6eiv6^ terrible, and %<ov, 
beast), an extinct pachyderm of immense size, 
some of whose bones have been found in the 
middle tertiary or miocene deposits of Europe, 
Asia, and Australia. A few teeth were found 
in France during the last century and the early 
part of the present. In 1829 Kaup discovered 
at Eppelsheim, S. of Mentz, a sufficient num- 
ber of bones to lead him to form a new ge- 
nus for it. In 1836 the discovery of a cranium 
by Klipstein seemed to settle the position of 
the dinotherium among the pachyderms. This 
head (of which casts are very generally found 
cabinets) is nearly 4 ft. long, 2 ft. broad, 

id 1$ ft. high, its summit divided into two 

irts by a well marked ridge, and its occipital 
face wide and oblique, with a globular occip- 
condyle ; the nasal aperture is very large, 

in the elephant and mastodon, with the large 
suborbital foramina indicating the possession 
of a proboscis. The lower jaw is remarkable 
for its curve downward, and its two tusks point- 
ing in the same direction, forming a hook 3 
ft. in length and describing a quarter of a 
circle. The primary teeth appear to have been 
12, 3 on each side of each jaw, and the per- 
manent teeth 20, 5 on each side of each jaw ; 
the front 2 on each side, making 8, are pre- 
molars, and resemble those of the tapir ; the 
upper 12 teeth, the true molars, resemble those 
of the mastodon in their transverse ridges, 
but differ from them in their square form ; 
they are developed vertically, as in man and 
most mammals, while those of the elephant 
family are developed horizontally. If the 
bones of the trunk and extremities attributed 
to this animal really belong to it, it would have 
a length of 18 ft. and a height of 14, 2 ft. 
longer and higher than the largest mastodon 
discovered. The shoulder blade is like that of 
the mole, indicating that the fore feet were 
adapted for digging. It is not very easy to de- 



cide whether this animal was more terrestrial 
or aquatic in its habits. Pictet expresses the 
opinion that it was a herbivorous cetacean. On 
the contrary, Owen, Kaup, and De Blainville 




Dinotherium giganteum. 

consider it a terrestrial proboscidian, interme- 
diate between the mastodon and tapir. These 
two opinions are really not very different, 
since it is now generally agreed that the manati 
and dugong, or the herbivorous cetacea, must 
be removed from the order of cetaceans and 
placed among the pachyderms, of which last 
they are the embryonic type. Considering 
then the dinotherium to be a true pachyderm, 
or perhaps a connecting link between this or- 
der and the herbivorous cetaceans, its favorite 
element, air or water, may be a matter of 
question. It has no incisor teeth ; its inferior 
tusks seem admirably adapted to drawing its 
heavy body out of water upon the banks of 
rivers, and would also serve for rooting up 
aquatic plants, assisted by the mole-shaped 
fore feet. Buckland suggests that the tusks 
served to anchor the animal to the shore, 
while it slept in the water. It cannot be far 
from the truth to call it an aquatic pachy- 
derm, similar in habits to the hippopotamus. 
The best known species (D. giganteum, Kaup) 
was found at Eppelsheim, in clayey marl about 
18 ft. below the surface, in connection with 
bones of other pachyderms ; their remains have 
been found only in the miocene strata. Other 
smaller species are described, as the D. Cumeri 
(Kaup), D. minutum (H. de Meyer), and D. 
proavum (Eichwald), in Europe ; D. Indicum 
(Cautley and Falconer), from the Sivalik hills ; 
and the D. australe (Owen), of Australia. 

DINWIDDIE, a S. E. county of Virginia, 
bounded N". by the Appomattox river, and S. 
W. by the Nottoway ; area, 540 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 30,702, of whom 17,664 were colored. 
It has a rolling surface and a soil well adapted 
to grain and tobacco. The Atlantic, Missis- 
sippi, and Ohio, and the Petersburg and Wei- 
don railroads traverse it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 39,869 bushels of wheat, 
170,712 of Indian corn, 57,079 of oats, 1,232 
tons of hay, and 844,504 Ibs. of tobacco. There 



118 



DINWIDDIE 



were 993 horses, 1,626 milch cows, 1,861 other 
cattle, and 5,127 swine ; 6 flour mills, 3 saw 
mills, 1 distillery, 17 manufactories of tobacco, 
2 of agricultural implements, 8 of carriages 
and wagons, 4 of cotton goods, 1 of fertilizers, 
2 of iron castings, 3 of machinery, and 1 of 
paper. The largest town is Petersburg. Capi- 
tal, Dinwiddie Court House. 

DINWIDDIE, Robert, lieutenant governor of 
Virginia, born in Scotland about 1690, died at 
Clifton, England, Aug. 1, 1770. While acting 
as clerk to a collector of the customs in the 
British West Indies, he was instrumental in de- 
tecting frauds practised by his principal, and 
as a reward was soon after appointed lieuten- 
ant governor of Virginia. He arrived in the 
colony in 1752, and remained until January, 
1758, when he returned to England. Although 
totally ignorant of military affairs, he discern- 
ed the capacity of Washington, whom in 1753 
he appointed adjutant general of one of the 
four military districts of Virginia, and sent as 
a commissioner to expostulate with the French 
commander on the Ohio for his aggressions 
upon British territory. At the outbreak of 
hostilities with the French and Indians, he 
called upon the governors of the other prov- 
inces to make common cause against them, 
and convened the house of burgesses of Vir- 
ginia. Entertaining peculiar notions of the 
royal prerogative and of his own importance, 
he was highly incensed at the tardiness of the 
latter body in voting money for the public de- 
fence, and at their refusal to put it under his 
absolute disposal. In 1754 he suggested to the 
British board of trade the propriety of taxing 
the colonies for the purpose of raising funds to 
carry on the war, and in the succeeding year 
he was one of the five colonial governors who 
memorialized the ministry to the same effect. 
After the defeat of Braddock he continued to 
busy himself with the military operations on 
the frontiers, displaying great incapacity, and 
wearying Washington, then in command of the 
colonial troops, by frequent exhibitions of ill 
temper, folly, or caprice. He enjoyed little 
popularity, and his arrogance brought him 
into collision with the legislature, while his 
avarice led him to exact illegal or obsolete 
fees. At the time of his departure he was 
charged with having appropriated to his own 
use 20,000 of public money, which he never 
satisfactorily accounted for. 

DIOCESE (Gr. dtot/c^f, administration), in 
ancient times, an administrative division of the 
Eoman empire, forming a subdivision of one 
of the four prefectures, and comprising several 
provinces; in modern language, the territory 
governed by a bishop. As early as the time 
of Cicero we find mention of the dioceses, or 
districts, of Asia Minor. Subsequent to the 
reorganizations of the empire under Diocletian 
and Constantino the Great, the dioceses were 
the East, Egypt, Asia, Pontus, Thrace, Mace- 
donia. Dacia, Ulyria, Italy, Africa, Gaul, Spain, 
and Britain. The East was governed by a count, 



DIOCLETIAN 

Egypt by a prefect, some by proconsuls, and 
others by vicars. Each province was subdivided 
into cities (civitates), subject to a supreme ma- 
gistrate residing in the chief city or metropolis. 
When the gospel began to be preached, each 
city among the Greeks and Latins was governed 
by magistrates chosen from among the citizens, 
and sometimes designated as povty, senate, 
sometimes as ordo or curia. Over this govern- 
ing body presided a superior magistrate called 
dictator or defensor of the city. His authori- 
ty, and that of his brother magistrates, ex- 
tended over the adjacent territory, made up 
generally of a number of towns and villages. 
The first administration of the church was 
moulded on this civil division. In each civitas, 
or city, with its suburban territory, there was 
established a corresponding ecclesiastical ma- 
gistracy, namely, a presiding officer (episcopus, 
bishop), with a senate of priests (presbyterium) 
and his spiritual jurisdiction extended as far as 
the civil jurisdiction of the city, its circle be- 
ing called at first Trapoi/cta, parish, but from the 
beginning of the 4th century diocese. As each 
city of the empire had in the towns (oppida) 
of its jurisdiction magistrates subordinate to 
those of the city itself; so the church in each 
city came to have ministers subordinate to tl 
bishop in these towns; hence the origin 
parishes and parish priests. In like mannt 
the capital city of each province came to hav< 
its ecclesiastical metropolitan, who had juris 
diction and superintendence in things spirit 
over the bishops of the province. And 
some respects corresponding with the office 
vicar or prcefectus pratorio in each civil die 
cese of the empire, there arose the dignity of 
patriarch or exarch in the church, whose pre- 
eminence extended over a number of ecclesi- 
astical provinces. At present, in the Eoman 
Catholic and Greek churches, the word dio- 
cese means "the territory attached to each 
see," whether patriarchal, primatial, metro- 
politan, or episcopal. Thus, the pope is bishop 
of the diocese of Rome ; the patriarch of Lis- 
bon, of the city of that name and its ecclesi- 
astical territory, forming the diocese of Lisbon ; 
the archbishop of New York, of the city of 
New York and that portion of the state form- 
ing together the archdiocese. In the Protes- 
tant Episcopal churches, a diocese is the dis- 
trict ruled by a bishop. In the Evangelical 
church of Germany, a diocese is a combination 
of parishes under the care of a superintendent. 
DIOCLETIAN (DiocLETiANUs VALERIUS), & 
Eoman emperor, born near Salona in Dalma- 
tia, A. D. 245, died in that town in 313. From 
his mother, who was called Doclea or Dioclea, 
from the village in which she lived, he derived 
the name Docles or Diocles, which he changed 
on assuming imperial authority to Diocletia- 
nus, taking at the same time the patrician 
name of Valerius. His parents were of the 
humblest class; but his abilities secured his 
rapid promotion in the army, which he en- 
tered at an early age, and his personal pop- 




DIOCLETIAN 

ularity with the troops gave him the great- 
est influence. He held important positions 
under Probus and Aurelian, and served 
under Cams in the expedition against Per- 
sia, which was suddenly terminated by that 
emperor's death in his camp on the banks of 
the Tigris, in 284. When, during the retreat 
that followed, Numerian, the son of Carus, 
was assassinated, the soldiers unanimously 
chose Diocletian as his successor. But he was 
obliged to contest his position with Carinus, 
brother of Numerian, who was recognized as 
emperor in Europe. The armies of the hostile 
sovereigns met near Margum, not far from the 
Danube in Moesia, where the battle itself was 
decided against Diocletian ; but Carinus, eager- 
ly following the flying enemy, was killed by 
one of his own officers, and his army readily 
acknowledged Diocletian as his successor. He 
was installed as emperor with great ceremony 
at Nicomedia. But affairs were still in the 
greatest confusion, and he determined to asso- 
ciate with himself a colleague in the supreme 
dominion, and fixed his choice on Maximian, 
his old companion in arms, a rough barbarian, 
whom he invested with the imperial dignity in 
286, and in whom he found a useful assistant 
and a constant friend. The Roman empire was 
beset with enemies and torn by factions. The 
peasants of Gaul rose in arms ; Mauritania was 
in rebellion ; Egypt was disturbed by external 
enemies and internal convulsions; while all 
along the frontier, from the Euphrates to the 
Rhine, the barbarians were threatening to de- 
stroy the empire by their invasions. Maximian 
subdued the BagaudaB or Gallic peasants, but 
Diocletian determined to strengthen the em- 
pire by raising two more Roman soldiers to 
the purple, Galerius, son of a Dacian shepherd, 
and Constantius, surnamed Chlorus, son of a 
noble Moesian, and father of Constantine the 
Great. These two princes in 292 received the 
title of Caesar, and having repudiate.d their 
wives, Galerius married the daughter of Diocle- 
tian, and Constantius the stepdaughter of Max- 
imian. Britain, Gaul, and Spain were assigned 
to Constantius ; Galerius received the Illyrian 
and Danubian provinces; Italy and Africa, 
with Sicily and the islands of the Tyrrhenian 
sea, were held by Maximian ; while Diocletian, 
the head of all, retained under his own domin- 
ion Thrace, Egypt, and the provinces of Asia, 
and established his capital at Nicomedia. By 
this arrangement, on the death of either of the 
Augusti, as Maximian and Diocletian were 
styled, the Csesar who had been associated 
with him was to be his successor, and another 
Csesar was to be appointed. These four princes, 
it was thought, would hold one another in 
check, so that no one of them would be able 
to attain to uncontrolled power. The plan 
was for a time successful. Maximian subdued 
the rebellious provinces of western Africa; 
Diocletian reduced and secured Egypt ; Gale- 
rius not only, under the superintendence of his 
father-in-law, compelled the Persians to make 



DIODATI 



119 



a treaty which secured the frontiers of that 
part of the empire for 40 years, but also vigi- 
lantly guarded the Danubian frontier ; while 
Constantius invaded Britain, which for several 
years had been detached from the rest of the 
empire under the rule of Carausius, and restored 
that island to the control of the Roman em- 
perors. After a prosperous reign of about 21 
years, Diocletian, moved by his infirm health, 
or, as some writers have said, by the persua- 
sions or menaces of his son-in-law Galerius, 
voluntarily resigned the throne in 305, and re- 
tired to Salona in his native country, where he 
passed the remaining eight years of his life in 
retirement. Maximian, according to a pre- 
vious agreement, abdicated at the same time, 
but was not contented in a private station, and 
a few years later wrote to his former colleague, 
proposing to him to resume the reins of gov- 
ernment. The reply of Diocletian has become 
celebrated. "Would you could see," he said, 
"the cabbages planted by my hand at Salona; 
you would then never think of urging such an 
attempt." Diocletian struck a severe blow at 
the waning influence of the senate by the re- 
moval of his court from Rome to Nicomedia, 
reduced the numbers and the importance of the 
praatorian guards, divided the provinces so as 
to lessen the power of the provincial governors, 
and increased the dignity and ceremony with 
which the emperor was surrounded. He is 
censured for permitting the persecution of the 
Christians; but it must be remembered that 
the greater part of these persecutions took 
place after Diocletian had resigned his author- 
ity. The history of the reign of Diocletian is 
exceedingly confused, and only the principal 
events given above can be assumed to be ac- 
curate. Authorities differ widely in their ac- 
count of many of the details. The year 284, 
the period of Diocletian's accession, was made 
by the ecclesiastical writers the beginning of 
an era called " the era of Diocletian ;" a chro- 
nological form often employed in early theo- 
logical works. 

DIODATI, Domenieo, an Italian archaeologist 
and theologian, born in Naples in 1736, died 
there in 1801. He wrote several works on 
ecclesiastical history, and one on the coins of 
the Italian states ; but that by which he be- 
came widely known is entitled De Christo 
Greece loquente Exercitatio (Naples, 1767). 
The theory that Greek was the native language 
of the Jewish people in the time of Christ is 
advocated in this work with remarkable sub- 
tlety, nice comparison of passages, and a great 
variety of proofs, both external and internal. 
The academy della Crusca made him at once 
one of its associate members, and the empress 
of Russia sent him a gold medal for his service 
to the language of the sacred records. 

DIODATI, Giovanni, a Swiss theologian, born 
in Geneva in 1576, died there in 1649. His 
parents, natives of Lucca, had taken refuge 
in Switzerland from the persecution directed 
against them on account of their Protestant- 



120 



DIODON 



ism. At 21 years he became, on the nomina- 
tion of Beza, a professor of Hebrew. In 1608 
he was made parish minister in the Reformed 
church, and in 1609 became professor of the- 
ology. In 1618-'19 Diodati, already noted as 
a preacher both in France and Switzerland, 
atu-ndrd the synod of Dort, where with Theo- 
dore Tronchin he represented the church of 
Geneva, arid was one of the six ministers ap- 
pointed to draw up the articles of faith. In 
this synod he showed himself a zealous Cal- 
vinist, and oifended many by his bitterness 
against the Remonstrant party. lie relin- 
quished his office as professor in 1645, and 
passed the remaining years of his life in re- 
tirement. He built the villa Diodati, near 
Geneva, where he was visited by Milton, and 
in which Byron resided in 1816. He was con- 
sidered by many to be the most learned Bibli- 
cal scholar of his day. Among his works are 
an Italian version of the Bible (1603 ; new 
eds., with notes, 1607 and 1641) ; a free Italian 
translation of the New Testament (1608); 
Mortis Meditatio Theologica (1619) ; De Fic- 
titio Pontificiorum Purgatorio (1619) ; French 
translations of Job, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles 
(1638), of the Psalms (1640), and of the whole 
Hebrew Bible (1644) ; also of Fra Paolo's " His- 
tory of the Council of Trent " (1621) ; and a 
great number of other theological and con- 
troversial writings. 

DIODON. See SEA POBCUPINE. 

DIODORUS, commonly called, from the island 
of his birth, DIODORUS SICULUS, a historian 
of the time of Caesar and Augustus, born at 
Agyrium in Sicily; the precise dates of his 
birth and death are unknown. He spent 30 
years in composing a universal history, and in 
the preparation of this work he traversed a 
large portion of Europe and Asia. The first 6 
books treated of the times anterior to the 
Trojan war ; the 11 following extended to the 
death of Alexander the Great ; while in the 
remaining 23 the history was brought down to 
the time of Julius Crosar. Of this extensive 
work, which was styled Bi/3/lw^/c^, or Bf/3Aio- 
ftfjKTi laToptKJj (library, or historical library), we 
have now only 15 books entire, and a few 
fragments of the rest. The first 5 books, con- 
taining the ancient history of the eastern na- 
tions, the Ethiopians, Egyptians, and Greeks, 
and the 10 from the llth to the 20th inclu- 
sive, comprising events from the second Per- 
sian war, 480 B. C., down to 302, remain 
entire. Many fragments of the other books 
are preserved in the works of Photius, and in 
the Eclogce, or selections, made by order of. 
the emperor Constantino Porphyrogenitus. 
Tli- BibBotheca is the only authentic work 
of Diodorus of which we have any knowledge. 
It i> \\ ritu-n in the style of annals, in a con- 
t'u-rd and discordant manner; but the work is 
vahiul.lt! as giving us, if not always informa- 
tion of facts, at least of the opinions of men at 
a |.rriod concerning which our knowledge is 
so exceedingly meagre that the slightest addi- 



DIOGENES 

tion is of great value. The first 5 books are 
especially prized on this account. Most of the 
events treated in the other 10 are better told 
by Thucydides and Xenophon, who are silent, 
however, upon the Carthaginian wars in Sicily 
related by Diodorus. The best modern edi- 
tions of his works are those of Dindorf (6 vols., 
Leipsic, 1828; 5 vols., 1867-'8), Muller (Paris, 
1842-'4), and Bekker (4 vols., Leipsic, 1853-'4). 
That portion which relates to the successors 
of Alexander was translated into English by 
Thomas Stocker (4to, London, 1569). The 
whole work was translated by Thomas Cogan 
(fol., London, 1653), and by G. Booth (fol., 
London, 1700 or 1721; republished, 2 vols. 
royal 8vo, London, 1814). 

DIOGENES, a Cynic philosopher, born at Si- 
nope, in Paphlagonia, Asia Minor, about 412 
B. 0., died near Corinth in 323. His father 
was a banker, and was condemned for having 
adulterated the coinage ; and whether his son 
was involved in the same condemnation or not, 
it is certain that he left his native country and 
took refuge in Athens. Here he became a dis- 
ciple of Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic 
school of philosophy. The latter was at first 
unwilling to receive him, driving him rudely 
from his door, and threatening him with his 
staff. "Strike," said Diogenes; "you cannot 
find a stick so hard as to compel me to go 
away while you speak that which I wish to 
hear." Diogenes soon gained a reputation 
superior to that of his master for rough and 
caustic wit. It is said that one day at Athens 
the citizens saw him with a lantern in his hand, 
although it was broad day, apparently search- 
ing for something. On being asked what he 
was seeking, he replied, "A man." He had 
found children, he said, in Sparta, and women 
in Athens, but men he had never seen. He 
used to carry a small cup, but broke it on seeing 
a boy drink from the hollow of his hand. He 
slept either under the portico of some building, 
or in a tub, which, according to some authors, 
was his ordinary dwelling, and which he car- 
ried about with him. The truth of this, how- 
ever, has been much disputed by both ancient 
and modern critics. He taught in the streets 
and public places, speaking with the utmost 
plainness, often with rudeness, and was alto- 
gether insensible to reproaches and insults. 
His wit was ready and severe. Plato defined 
man as a two-legged animal without feathers ; 
whereupon Diogenes, having stripped a fowl 
of its plumage, threw it among the pupils of 
the great academician, bidding them behold 
one of Plato's men. Being asked which is the 
most dangerous animal, he answered : " Of 
wild animals, the slanderer ; of tame, the flat- 
terer." On a voyage to the island of ^Egina 
he was captured by pirates, and afterward sold 
as a slave. While in the market place, waiting 
for a purchaser, being asked what he could do, 
he answered that he knew how to govern men, 
and bade the crier ask, " Who wants to buy a 
master?" He was purchased by Xeniades, a 



DIOGENES OF APOLLONIA 



DIOMEDES 



121 



Corinthian, who carried him home, and after- 
ward set him at liberty, intrusting to him the 
education of his children. The rest of his days 
Diogenes divided between Athens and Corinth, 
and it was at the latter place that his celebra- 
ted but apocryphal interview with Alexander 
the Great is said to have taken place. The 
king of Macedon, surprised at the indifference 
with which he was regarded by the ragged 
philosopher, who was comfortably basking in 
the sun before his tub, said to him, "I am 
Alexander." "And I," was the reply, "am 
Diogenes." Alexander desired him to ask 
a favor ; but all that the Cynic wished was, 
that Alexander would not stand between him 
and the sun. Struck with this extraordinary 
insensibility to the usual weaknesses of human- 
ity, the Macedonian remarked, " "Were I not 
Alexander, I would be Diogenes." Diogenes 
loved to display his contempt of the common 
courtesies of life. Plato was giving a magnifi- 
cent dinner to some friends, and Diogenes en- 
tered unbidden, and stamping with his dirty 
feet on the carpets, exclaimed, "Thus I 
trample on the pride of Plato." " But with 
greater pride, O Diogenes," replied Plato. 
Surly, independent, a voluntary outcast, he 
lived on till his 90th year. According to some 
authors he wrote several works, but nothing 
has come down to us except some sayings pre- 
served by Diogenes Laertius, and it is general- 
ly believed that he wrote nothing whatever. 
He did not teach by lectures, but uttered his 
philosophy in short, pithy sentences, as occa- 
sion offered. 

DIOGENES OF APOLLONIA, a Greek philoso- 
pher, born at Apollonia in Crete, flourished in 
the 5th century B. C. Very little is known 
of his life. He was at Athens probably about 
460, and became involved in some trouble 
there. His philosophical speculations were 
developed in his work Hepl Qvceus, " On Na- 
ture," which was extant in the 6th century. 
His great object was to find the first principle 
of the world, and he came to the conclusion 
that air of various degrees of condensation 
formed the atmosphere, fire, water, and earth, 
and out of these everything else was evolved ; 
and he endowed this first principle with a cer- 
tain intelligence, presiding over the arrange- 
ment of the universe, the marks of which are 
visible in the order and beauty of creation. 
The brutes, he says, are inferior to man be- 
cause they inhale an air less pure, holding 
their heads near the ground. The world, too, 
he supposed to be animated, and he imagined 
the stars to be its organs of respiration. The 
few fragments of Diogenes which have come 
down to us (in the works of Aristotle, Dioge- 
nes Laertius, and Simplicius) were published 
by Panzerbeiter (Leipsic, 1830). 

DIOGENES LAERTIUS, an ancient historian of 
philosophy, who probably lived about the begin- 
ning of the 3d century, though the dates of his 
birth and death are unknown, and his life has 
been placed as early as the time of Augustus, 



and as late as that of Constantine the Great. 
He wrote a history of philosophy in Greek, 
divided into 10 books, and giving an account 
of the philosophers, anecdotes of their lives, 
and illustrations of their teachings. He con- 
siders Grecian philosophy to have been in- 
digenous, and divides it into two schools: the 
Ionic, commencing with Anaximander and 
ending with Clitomachus, Chrysippus, and 
Theophrastus, and of which the Socratic 
school forms a part; and the Italian, whose 
founder is Pythagoras, and whose last master 
is Epicurus, and which includes Heraclitus, the 
Eleatics, and the Skeptics. The account of 
these two schools comprises the whole of the 
work, with the exception of the first book, 
which contains the history of the seven wise 
men of Greece. The work of Diogenes is valu- 
able for information which we could obtain 
from no other source; but it is ill digested, 
without critical judgment, and often inaccu- 
rate. Diogenes is supposed to have written 
some other works, among which was a volume 
of epigrams, but these have been entirely lost. 
A good edition of his history is that of H. G. 
Hiibner (2 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1828-'31). A 
translation into English was published in 1868 
(2 vols. 8vo, London), and there is one by C. 
D. Yonge in Bohn's " Classical Library." 

DIOMEDES. I. One of the most famous of 
the Grecian heroes at the siege of Troy, and 
after Achilles considered the bravest of all the 
Greeks. According to Homer, his father Ty- 
deus was one of the leaders in the expedition 
of the seven against Thebes, and was killed be- 
fore the walls of that city, while Diomedes 
was still a boy. Having arrived at the age 
of manhood, he joined the second expedition 
against Thebes, and avenged his father's 
death. With 80 ships he sailed in the great 
Grecian armament to the siege of Troy, where, 
besides many victories over heroes of less 
note, he put Hector and ^Eneas to flight, and 
wounded both Venus and Mars. He was also 
famed for his wisdom in council, and when 
Agamemnon proposed to abandon the siege, 
Diomedes declared that he with his friend 
Sthenelus would remain until Troy should fall. 
According to later legends, he carried off with 
Ulysses the palladium from Troy. Of his his- 
tory after the fall of the city Homer gives no 
account, but later writers tell us that having re- 
turned to Argos and found his wife unfaithful, 
he abandoned his native country. Traditions 
differ with regard to his after life. According 
to some accounts, he went to ^Etolia, and 
afterward returned and gained possession of 
Argos. Another relates that, in attempting to 
return to Argos, he was driven by a storm 
upon the coast of Italy, where he was kindly 
received by King Daunus, whom he assisted in 
a war against a neighboring tribe, and whose 
daughter Euippe he received in marriage. II. 
A king of the Bistones in Thrace, son of Mars 
and Cyrene, celebrated for his mares, which he 
fed upon human flesh. To obtain possession 



122 DION CASSIUS COCCEIANUS 

of these mares was one of the twelve labors 
of I If routes. The hero slew Diomedes, whose 
body he gave to the mares, which became 
tame after eating their master's flesh. 

DION CASSIl'S OCCEIANUS, a historian of 
Rome, born in Nicrea, Bithynia, about A. D. 
155, went to Rome about 180, where he was 
made senator. He was afterward appointed 
to many offices of trust by different emperors, 
and was twice consul. Having become odious 
to the praetorian guards, because, it is said, of his 
severe discipline, he obtained permission from 
the emperor Alexander Severus, in 229, to retire 
to his native city, where he spent the remainder 
of his days. His great work was a history of 
Rome written in Greek, divided into 80 books, 
and containing an account of the rise and prog- 
ress of the state from the landing of ^neas 
in Italy until A. D. 229, giving only a slight 
sketch of events down to the time of Julius 
Caesar, but dwelling with minuteness on the 
history of later times, and especially on that 
of the author's own age. Of this work, which 
is written with clearness, diligence, and gene- 
ral accuracy, but in a faulty style, 19 books 
(from the 36th to the 54th) remain entire. 
Fragments of the first 35 have been collected, 
and there are abridgments of the last 26, as 
well as of the entire work. One of the best 
editions is that of Sturz (9 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 
1824-'43). An English translation of Xiphilin's 
abridgment was published in London in 1704. 

DION CHRYSOSTOMCS (the golden-mouthed), 
a Greek rhetorician, born in Prusa, Bithynia, 
about the middle of the 1st century, died in 
Rome about 117. In the practice of his art at 
Rome he incurred the hostility of the emperor 
Domitian, and in consequence of a decree of the 
senate he was obliged to flee from Italy. In the 
habit of a beggar, with Plato's " Phsedon " and 
Demosthenes's " Oration on the Embassy " in 
his pocket, he wandered through Thrace and the 
countries bordering on the lower Danube, and 
on receiving intelligence of the death of Domi- 
tian (96) used his influence and his oratorical 
powers with the army stationed on that fron- 
tier in favor of Nerva. It is probable that he 
returned to Rome on the accession of this em- 
peror, from whom as well as from his successor 
Trajan he received tokens of marked kindness. 
He was an essayist rather than an orator, and 
his writings are distinguished for elegance of 
style. Of his orations 80 are extant. There 
is a very good critical edition of them by 
Reiske (2 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1784). 

DION OF SYRACUSE, a disciple of Plato, cele- 
brated for having overthrown the power of 
Dionysius the Younger, tyrant of Syracuse, 
born in that city toward the close of the 5th 
century B. C., killed in 354 or 353. Under 
Dionysius the Elder, to whom he was doubly 
related by marriage, he enjoyed the favor of the 
court, and amassed great wealth; but when 
the younger Dionysius succeeded to the throne 
(367), Dion, whose austere manners were a con- 
stant rebuke of the royal debaucheries, fell into 



disfavor, and at last was banished from Sicily. 
He found refuge and a friendly reception in 
Greece, where he lived for a while in afflu- 
ence, his income being allowed to reach him. 
Soon, however, this was cut off, and to com- 
plete his disgrace his wife Arete was << im- 
pelled to marry another man. Dion now re- 
solved to avenge himself and his country at 
the same time. Having assembled about 800 
troops, he sailed from Zacynthus (357), landed 
in Sicily, and easily obtained possession of Syra- 
cuse in the absence of Dionysius. The troops 
of the tyrant still held the citadel on the 
neighboring island of Ortygia, whence they 
made a sally soon after the arrival of Dion, 
and were repulsed only after a fierce combat, 
during which Dion himself displayed great 
courage. iHe was at first received by the 
citizens with enthusiasm, and on his entry 
into the city he proclaimed liberty to Syra- 
cuse. But, irritated by his harsh manners, 
suspecting his designs, and incited by the 
demagogue Heraclides, the people afterward 
expelled him and his troops. The Syracusans 
soon had reasoa to repent of their conduct, 
for the soldiers of Dionysius, aware of their 
dissensions, made a sally, regained part of the 
city, set fire to the houses, and began a fearful 
massacre. The banished philosopher was en- 
treated to return, and, marching immediately, 
after a hard contest he obtained full control of 
Syracuse. He caused Heraclides to be put tc 
death. This act greatly injured his popularity, 
already damaged by his repellent and auste 
manners; a conspiracy was formed agaii 
him, and he was assassinated. 

DIONJEA (D. muscipula, Ellis), Venus's fly- 
trap, an insectivorous plant inhabiting the sa- 
vannas around Wilmington, N. C., and only 
found in that district. Audubon's affirmation 
that he had seen it in Florida of enormous size 
is not confirmed. It belongs to the same 
natural order as the droseras, or sundews, the 
common species of which capture flies as ef- 
fectually as dionsea, but by a different contri- 
vance. It was discovered by the elder Bartram, 
sent to Collinson, and well described by Ellis 
in a short treatise addressed to Limueus. The 
brief account given by the latter, which was 
generally copied till recently, was wrong in 
stating that the trap opens after an insect it 
has caught becomes quiet; it does not open 
until all the soft parts of the insect are ex- 
tracted. To aid in this, a glairy liquid is se- 
creted from innumerable glands which stud 
the face of the trap, which after maceration 
of the captive is reabsorbed. The plan and 
action of the trap may be gathered from the 
cut and a few words of description, partly con- 
densed from the account of Dr. M. A. Curtis 
("Journal of the Boston Society of Natural 
History," 1834). The trap, at the apex of the 
leaf, is fringed with stout bristles on each 
margin ; it is aptly compared to two upper 
eyelids joined at their bases. On each side are 
three more delicate bristles, so directed that 



DIONYSIUS 



123 



an insect can hardly traverse it without touch- 
ing one of them, when the two sides suddenly 
close upon the prey, the fringe of the opposite 
sides interlacing, like the fingers of the two 
hands clasped together. The sensitiveness re- 
sides only in these hair-like processes on the 
inside, as the leaf may be touched or pressed 
in any other part without effect. Soon the 
sides of the trap press down firmly upon the 
captive (when the fringe separates) ; the liquid 
is poured out, and finally absorbed, when the 
trap opens, and sometimes recovers its activity 
so as to capture a second insect. Ellis (and 
probably Bartram) noticed the glands and the 
fluid, but thought it was a lure for flies. Cur- 
tis showed that it appeared only after the cap- 
ture. Canby lately proved that it was secreted 
by the leaf, and taken in again ; also that bits 
of meat were similarly digested. Darwin had 




Dionsea muscipula. 

ascertained the same, also that this "gastric 
juice " had an acid reaction. He has also made 
the (still unpublished) discovery that either 
side of the trap may be paralyzed at will by a 
dexterous incision, indicating the existence in 
a plant of something corresponding to nerves. 
Burdon Sanderson has shown that in the clos- 
ing movement the same electrical currents are 
developed as in muscular contraction. 

DIONYSIUS, tyrants of Syracuse. I. The 
Elder, born in 431 or 430 B. 0., died in* 367. 
After completing his education he became a 
clerk in a public office, which he appears to 
have left at an early age to enter the army. 
In the political quarrels of the citizens he took 
the side of Hermocrates, and was severely 
wounded in aiding that party leader in his at- 
tempt to gain his restoration from exile. He 
afterward served with merit in the war against 
the Carthaginians. He availed himself of the 
general discontent with the conduct of the 
war to come forward in the popular assembly 
as the accuser of the unsuccessful Syracusan 
commanders, who had suffered Agrigentum 



and other important cities of Sicily to be taken. 
He displayed so much vigor, and the condition 
of Syracuse was so critical, that he obtained a 
decree for deposing the obnoxious generals, 
and for appointing others in their stead, and 
was himself elected among the new officers. 
He then brought false accusations against his 
associates, and the people in 405 appointed 
him sole general, with full powers, and allowed 
him a body guard. He now began those mea- 
sures which made him proverbial in antiquity 
as a tyrant. Concerning himself no longer for 
the deliverance of Sicily from the Carthagin- 
ians, he aimed only to subdue his native city. 
He induced the Syracusans to double the pay 
of the soldiers, appointed officers who were in 
his own interest, and by marrying the daughter 
of Hermocrates secured the support of the par- 
tisans of that leader. As commander-in-chief 
of the Sicilians, who had concentrated their 
forces at Gela, he offered battle to the Cartha- 
ginians in a manner so unskilful as to make it 
probable that he did not regret the defeat in 
which it resulted. He withdrew the inhabi- 
tants of Gela and Camarina to Leontini, and 
left the whole S. W. coast to the Cartha- 
ginians. This reverse enabled his enemies to 
raise a revolt in Syracuse, where he was now 
looked upon as a manifest traitor. They gained 
possession of the city, but their plans being 
disconcerted by the sudden return of Diony- 
sius, they were driven out, though not until 
his wife had fallen a victim to their cruelty. 
The Carthaginian generals now besieged Syra- 
cuse, but the plague having broken out in their 
camp, they were satisfied with the immense 
advantages offered them by Dionysius without 
storming the place. He was recognized as 
ruler of Syracuse, and of a district around the 
city, but was to resign all claim to dominion 
over the island. He availed himself of the 
peace to establish his tyranny more firmly; 
and having fortified the isle of Ortygia, and ex- 
cluded from it all but his immediate depen- 
dants, he built upon it a citadel which might 
serve as an impregnable asylum. The Cartha- 
ginians lost the advantages of the peace through 
negligence. Syracuse had in six years recov- 
ered her strength, and Dionysius undertook 
the, recapture of the cities he had surrendered. 
The immense preparations which he made 
form an epoch in ancient military history. His 
machinists invented engines for throwing mis- 
siles, and especially devised the catapult. He 
also constructed ships having four or five banks 
of rowers, instead of the old triremes. He 
gained at first great success, and conquered 
Motya, the ancient seat of the Carthaginian 
dominion (396). His flee*t, however, was de- 
feated by that of the Carthaginians, which rav- 
aged the northern coast of the island, over- 
powered Messana and Catana, and laid siege 
to Syracuse (395). But the plague, or some 
similar malady, again breaking out in the camp 
of the enemy, proved the safety of the city. 
Nearly the whole Carthaginian army was lost 



124 



DIONYSIUS 



by the pestilence, and the remainder pur- 
chased from Dionysius the privilege of a free 
departure. In the treaty which followed, the 
restrictions which had been imposed by the 
last treaty upon the government of Syracuse 
were removed. Dionysius carried on also a 
third and fourth war with Carthage, the re- 
sults of which seem to have been only to rees- 
tablish the terms of the former peace. The 
intervals between these wars were harassed 
by the revolts of his subjects, which he avenged 
with cruelties. The frequent attempts upon 
his life made him suspicious. He durst not 
trust even his relatives, and his body guard 
was formed of foreigners. His palace was sur- 
rounded by a ditch, crossed by a drawbridge, 
and when he harangued the people it was from 
the top of a lofty tower. He built the terrible 
prison of the lautumice, cut deep into the solid 
rock ; another of his prisons was so arranged 
that every word spoken within it was reechoed 
into his chamber, and he is said to have passed 
entire days listening to the complaints of his 
victims. But tradition, in making of Dionysius 
the type of cruelty, has doubtless transmitted 
many unauthenticated stories concerning him. 
Dionysius was long engaged in ambitious pro- 
jects against the Greek cities of southern 
Italy. He formed an alliance with the Lo- 
crians, and after suffering some reverses be- 
sieged and conquered Rhegium (387). Italy 
was now open to him, and he sought by estab- 
lishing colonies upon the Adriatic to secure 
for himself a way into Greece. Already his 
name was known in the Peloponnesus, where 
he had contracted an alliance with the Lace- 
daemonians. He was now the recognized mas- 
ter of southern Italy, interfered in the affairs 
of the Illyrians, sent an army into Epirus, and 
received an offer of friendship from the Gauls, 
who had burned Rome. His settlements upon 
the Adriatic increased his wealth and strength- 
ened his power, but they were his last great 
undertakings, and henceforth he disappears 
from history. His reign, which lasted 38 years, 
became milder toward its close. He left an 
immense military force and a powerful empire ; 
and though he had governed as a tyrant, the 
old republican forms remained. Dionysius had 
a passion for literature, and wrote lyrics and 
tragedies, none of which have been preserved. 
II. The Younger, son and successor of the pre- 
ceding, born early in the 4th century B. 0. 
On his accession to power in 367 he was en- 
tirely unused to public affairs, and devoted to 
pleasure. He hastened to conclude a peace 
wilh the Carthaginians, abandoned his father's 
projects of foreign settlements and power, and 
gave himself up to luxury and sensuality. His 
brother-in-law Dion undertook to excite him 
to a noble career. He conversed with him 
upon the doctrines of Plato, and through his 
influence that philosopher was invited to re- 
visit the court of Syracuse, at which under the 
elder Dionysius he had met with very unfavor- 
able treatment. Plato proposed an amendment 



to the constitution, changing the government 
from nominal democracy and real despotism to 
a limited popular authority, in which all the 
members of the ruling family should form a col- 
lege of princes; but the monarch rejected this 
proposal. Soon afterward he took up his resi- 
dence in Locri, and gained some advantages 
against the Lucanians; but the wild orgies to 
which he surrendered himself drew upon him 
the contempt both of his subjects and of for- 
eigners. With a small band of exiles, and with 
two vessels laden with arms, Dion landed in 
Sicily in 357, and was joined by thousands as 
he marched toward Syracuse. Dionysius, hear- 
ing of his coming, instantly returned from Lo- 
cri, but his troops were defeated, and he was 
obliged to retreat to the citadel ; and finding it 
impossible to retain his power, he collected his 
most valuable property and fled to Italy, leav- 
ing the citadel in possession of his son and 
friends. He returned to Locri, where he was 
kindly received ; but he took advantage of the 
good will of the people to make himself tyrant 
of their city, and treat them with the greatest 
cruelty. He held Locri thus for several years ; 
but in 846 he availed himself of internal dis- 
sensions in Syracuse to recover his power in his 
old capital, and continued to reign there durh 
the next three years. The former Syracuse 
empire was now, however, in fragments ; am 
even the garrison which defended the tyrant 
in the citadel was rebellious. Timoleon, th< 
Corinthian, landed in Sicily, and march* 
against Syracuse, and Dionysius consented 
an arrangement, by which he was allowed 
depart in safety to Corinth (343). He passe< 
the remainder of his life with low associates, 
supporting himself, according to various tradi- 
tions, as schoolmaster, actor, and mendicant 
priest of Cybele. 

DIOMSIUS, or Denis (Port. DINIZ), king of 
Portugal, born in Lisbon, Oct. 9, 1261, died at 
Santarem, Jan. 7, 1325. He was the son of 
Alfonso III., whom he succeeded Feb. 16, 1279. 
He associated with himself in the government 
his mother Beatrix de Guzman, but soon quar- 
relled with her because slie favored the cause 
of his younger brother Alfonso, who aspired 
to the throne. Beatrix retired to the court of 
her father, Alfonso X. of Castile and Leon, 
and Dionysius strengthened his power by mar- 
rying in 1283 Elizabeth of Aragon, afterward 
canonized as St. Elizabeth. He at once set 
about making reforms in his kingdom. lie re- 
stricted the power of the clergy, reformed the 
administration of civil and criminal justice, 
restrained the arrogance of the nobles, pro- 
moted industry and commerce, and augment- 
ed the public revenues by a wise administra- 
tion. He visited all the provinces that had 
been laid waste by the wars of his predeces- 
sors, built and fortified over 40 cities and 
towns, planted the forest of Leiria, which two 
centuries after furnished the timber for the 
ships which gave Portugal her maritime as- 
cendancy, opened and worked the mines in his 






DIONYSIUS OF ALEXANDRIA 

kingdom, and founded the university of Lisbon 
(now of Coimbra, the only one in Portugal). He 
forbade the use of the Latin language in pub- 
lic documents, caused many works to be trans- 
lated into Portuguese, and cultivated poesy 
himself with some success. So many and so 
patriotic were his labors that he acquired the 
title of father of his country. He was also 
known as the protector of letters, the just, 
the liberal, and the laborer. His latter years 
were embittered by the unfilial conduct of his 
illegitimate but much favored son Affonso, who 
conspired against him, and by troubles with 
the church. The military order of Christ was 
founded by Dionysius in 1319. 

DIONYSIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, a saint and bishop 
of the church, born in Alexandria, Egypt, late 
in the 2d century, died there A. D. 265. He 
was of a noble and wealthy pagan family, but 
in the course of his early philosophical studies 
his attention was turned to the Christian sa- 
cred writings, especially the epistles of Paul, 
and he became a convert. He left the heathen 
schools, became a pupil of Origen, was or- 
dained priest, and about 232 was chosen to suc- 
ceed Heraclas as chief of the Alexandrian 
school of theology. About 247 he was raised to 
the office of bishop, made vacant by the death 
of Heraclas. Shortly after this violent perse- 
cutions broke out against the Christians. The 
populace of Alexandria had been stirred up 
against them by a heathen prophet, and the 
edict of Decius, which reached that city in 
250, put arms in the hands of their enraged 
enemies. Dionysius, who had taken an active 
part in preparing the Christians for the com- 
ing trial, was arrested, sent to be put to death, 
rescued by a band of peasants, and remained 
concealed more than a year in the Libyan desert, 
sending continual messages meanwhile to his 
brethren in the city. In the persecution under 
Valerian in 257, Dionysius was again exiled 
from his see. After his restoration (260), 
brought about by an edict of Gallienus favor- 
able to the Christians, he was more than once 
called to mediate on occasions of public strife. 
The writings of Dionysius were numerous, 
but most of them have been lost. They were 
mainly controversial. He wrote two books 
refuting the theory of Nepos, of the millennial 
earthly reign of the Saviour. In opposition to 
Sabellius, who denied the distinct personality 
of the members of the Trinity, he wrote seve- 
ral books and epistles, caused the heresy to be 
condemned by a council, and insisted upon the 
distinction between the Son and the Father so 
strongly that it brought upon him the charge 
of denying the divinity of Christ, against 
which he defended himself. He also defended 
the doctrine of the divinity of the Holy Spirit. 
In opposition to Paul of Samosata, Dionysius 
maintained the consubstantial nature of the Son 
and the Father. The fragments of his writings 
were collected by Simon de Magistris (folio, 
Rome, 1796), and are also contained in the 
Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. iii. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 125 

DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE, an Athenian, 
who was one of the council of the Areopagus 
when St. Paul preached to the Athenians. He 
is said to have studied first at Athens, and after- 
ward at Heliopolis in Egypt. There is a le- 
gend that when he observed in Egypt the 
darkening of the sun during the crucifixion of 
Jesus Christ, he exclaimed, " Either God him- 
self is suffering, or he is sympathizing with 
some one who is suffering." He was converted 
by the preaching of Paul, about A. D. 50, is 
mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (xvii. 
34), and was probably the first bishop of 
Athens, having been appointed to that office, 
it is said, by St. Paul himself. It is also be- 
lieved that he suffered martyrdom, but in what 
year is not known. It is not certain that he 
ever wrote anything, but his name has been 
given to four theological treatises, imbued 
with the mystical doctrines of the Alexandrian 
Platonism. These works, which are first men- 
tioned in the 6th century, contain allusions to 
facts and quotations from authors subsequent 
to the apostolic age, and were probably writ- 
ten by some Neo- Platonic Christian of the 4th 
or 5th century. 

DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS (the Little, so named 
from his small stature), a Roman monk of the 
6th century. He was a native of Scythia, but 
became abbot of a monastery in Rome, where 
he died about 550, during the reign of Justinian. 
He gave to the western church the first regular 
collection of ecclesiastical laws, comprising the 
canons of the apostles and of several councils, 
and the decrees of some of the popes. But his 
chronological labors have given him greater 
celebrity. He is reputed the founder of the era 
which for more than ten centuries has been 
observed by Christian nations. Before him 
the Christian era had been calculated from 
the death of Christ ; he first fixed the year 
of the incarnation in the 754th year of Rome, 
and this, at least after the 8th century, was 
universally adopted as the commencement of 
the era. (See CHEONOLOGY.) 

DIONYSUS OF HALICARNASSUS, a Greek his- 
torian and rhetorician, born in Halicarnassus, 
Caria, about 70, died in Rome about 7 B. C., 
having removed there about 29. Of his life 
we know almost nothing, excepting that it was 
for the most part spent in literary labor. He 
wrote many rhetorical and critical essays, and 
shortly before his death published the greatest 
of his works, entitled Tw^at/c^ 'Apxatohoyia, 
or " Roman Antiquities." It was in 20 books, 
and contained the history of Rome from the 
earliest mythical times to the era of the Pu- 
nic wars, where the history of Polybius be- 
gins. Only the first 11 books remain, which 
end with the year 441. Several fragments and 
extracts from the last nine books have been 
preserved in the collections made by command 
of the emperor Constantino Porphyrogenitus 
in the 10th century. The best editions of his 
works are those of Hudson (Oxford, 1704) and 
Reiske (Leipsic, l774-'6). Such of his rhetor- 



126 



DIONYSUS 



ical compositions as have been preserved have 
been published separately by Gross and by 
Westernmnn. There is an English translation 
of the "'Roman Antiquities, "by Ed ward Spel- 
raan (4 vols. 4to, London, 1758). 

DIONYSUS. See BACCHUS. 

DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA, the only Greek 
writer on algebra, first mentioned by John, 
patriarch of Jerusalem, in the 8th century, un- 
less he bo identical with the astronomer Dio- 
phantus, on whose work Hypatia is said by 
Suidas to have written a commentary. There 
are no more definite indications of his era. 
When his MSS. came to light in the 16th cen- 
tury, thirteen books of his 'Apfffft^rutd were an- 
nounced, only six of which have been produced. 
Another treatise by him, Hepi ruv 'Apidfiuv 
Holv-yuvuv (" On Polygonal Numbers "), is ex- 
tant. These books contain a system of reason- 
ing on numbers with the use of general sym- 
bols, and are therefore algebraical treatises, 
though the demonstrations are written out at 
length in common language. The term Dio- 
phantine was applied by some modern mathe- 
maticians to the peculiar analysis employed in 
investigating the theory of numbers. The sim- 
ilarity of the Diophantine and Hindoo algebra 
renders it probable that they had a common 
origin, or that one was derived from the other. 
The best edition of his works is that of Fermat, 
in Greek and Latin (Toulouse, 1670). They 
were translated into German by Schulz (Ber- 
lin, 1821). The six books of the " Arithmetic " 
were translated into French by St6vin and 
Girard (Paris, 1625). 

DIOPTRICS. See OPTICS. 

DIOSCORIDES, Pedadns or Pedanios, a medical 
and botanical writer of the 1st or 2d century 
A. D., probably a native of Anazarbus in Cili- 
cia. lie made collections of plants in Asia 
Minor, Greece, Italy, and Gaul, and wrote a 
treatise in five books on materia medica (TLepi 
*Y/b7f 'larpiKJjc), a work which enjoyed the 
highest reputation until the 17th century. It 
is now chiefly valuable as illustrating the opin- 
ions of ancient physicians and giving some idea 
of tlu-ir attainments in natural history. It has 
been translated into Arabic, Italian* Spanish, 
French, and German, and many editions of it 
have been published in Latin and Greek. 

DIOSCURI. See CASTOR AND POLLUX. 

DIPHTHERIA (Gr. diQOtpa, membrane), the 
name of a disease which has heretofore re- 
ceived a variety of appellations, such as ulcus 
^Egyptiacum vel Syriacum, cynanche maligna, 
ninjinii maligna, angina gangrcenosa, morfais 
mffocam nel strangulatorivs, garrotillo, an- 
gina supocativa, malignant sore throat, epi- 
demic croup, &c. The term diphtherite was 
applied to it by Bretonneau in 1821, whence 
originated the name diphtheria which is now 
i;i common use, relating to the formation of a 
false membrane in the throat and in other sit- 
uations, analogous to that which characterizes 
tin- disease called, among other names, diph- 
theritic laryngitis, or true croup. (See CEOUP.) 



DIPHTHERIA 

Recent microscopical observations, however, 
appear to show points of difference between the 
pseudo-membranous morbid product in the two 
diseases. In diphtheria the false membrane, 
accompanying inflammation, appears almost 
invariably in the fauces or throat, and in many 
cases it is limited to this situation. It may- 
extend more or less over the mucous surface 
within the mouth and nostrils. It is not in- 
frequently produced within the windpipe, giv- 
ing rise to all the symptoms of true croup, and 
generally proving fatal. Mucous surfaces else- 
where are in some cases the seat of this pecu- 
liar form of inflammation ; namely, in the eyes, 
the ears, the organs of generation, &c. A sim- 
ilar false membrane is produced in some cases 
on the skin, in situations where there may 
be either wounds, abrasions, or sores. The 
local affections thus characterized cannot be 
said to constitute the disease, but they are to 
be considered as the manifestations of a morbid 
condition of the system, probably involving 
special blood changes, the essential nature of 
which is at present unknown. In other words, 
diphtheria belongs among the diseases which 
are distinguished nosologically as general or 
constitutional. The disease rarely occurs ex- 
cept as an epidemic. Epidemic diphtheria has 
occurred in all countries, but in the United 
States only occasional sporadic cases were ob- 
served during the first half of the present cen- 
tury. Since about 1856, however, there have 
been repeated epidemics in different parts of 
the country. "Whether it be one of the com- 
municable diseases, that is, diffused by con- 
tagion or infection, is an open question. Per- 
sons between 3 and 12 years of age are most 
apt to be affected with it, but no period of 
life is exempt from a liability to it. The false 
membranes are found frequently to contain a 
parasitic fungus, the spores and sporules of a 
cryptogamic plant ; and the idea has been en- 
tertained that the disease is due to the pres- 
ence of these. It seems, however, more rea- 
sonable to suppose that they are merely inci- 
dental to the local affection, the morbid pro- 
ducts furnishing only a proper nidus or soil for 
their growth and reproduction. Different epi- 
demics differ much in the rate of mortality. 
The disease is sometimes mild, the local mani- 
festation being confined to the throat, and the 
constitutional symptoms slight. In other cases 
it has a degree of violence and a fatal tendency 
which entitles it to be classed among the ma- 
lignant diseases. Death sometimes takes place 
within 48 hours after the attack. The degree 
and extent of local manifestations are in gen- 
eral commensurate with the severity and dan- 
ger. If the larynx becomes affected, the chances 
of recovery are very few. Frequent vomiting, 
diarrhoea, hremorrhage from the nostrils or 
elsewhere, frequency and feebleness of the 
pulse, convulsions, delirium, and coma are 
symptoms which denote great danger. If the 
larynx is affected, death may take place from 
suffocation. In the fatal cases in which the 



DIPHTHERIA 



DIPPEL 



127 



larynx escapes, the immediate cause of death 
is exhaustion. Paralysis frequently occurs as 
a sequel. The muscles of the throat are those 
most likely to become more or less paralyzed, 
rendering deglutition difficult and sometimes 
impossible. With or without paralysis in this 
situation, the muscles of the lower limbs may 
be paralyzed, or the muscles of an upper and 
a lower limb on one side. Occasionally the 
muscles of both the upper and lower limbs 
are aifected. Vision may be impaired by pa- 
ralysis of the external rectus muscle, causing 
strabismus or squinting ; and not infrequently 
far-sightedness, or more rarely near-sighted- 
ness, takes place; and amaurosis occurs in 
some cases. The other special senses, hearing, 
taste, and smell, are sometimes affected. These 
varied paralytic affections generally occur with- 
in a few weeks after convalescence from the 
diphtheria. They are as likely to follow in cases 
where the disease was mild as where it was 
severe. As a rule complete recovery takes 
place, showing that the paralysis does not pro- 
ceed from structural changes. The disease, 
when paralysis does not follow, generally leaves 
the patient feeble and anaemic for a consider- 
able period. Sudden death from syncope has 
repeatedly occurred after convalescence had 
been declared, as a consequence of some mus- 
cular effort ; hence the importance of enjoining 
quietude until the strength is in some measure 
restored. The treatment has been supposed 
to embrace, as a highly important measure, 
cauterizing applications to the throat and to 
the local affection in other situations ; the ob- 
jects being to destroy or modify the special 
character of the inflammation, to limit its ex- 
tension, and prevent the absorption of septic 
matter. Those who consider the efficient cause 
of the peculiar inflammation to be the presence 
of cryptogamic formations, are of course led 
to attach importance to applications which 
destroy vegetable life. For the most part, 
however, in this country, physicians have 
abandoned severe topical measures, limiting 
themselves to antiseptic and soothing applica- 
tions. Clinical experiences seem to establish 
the propriety of this plan. The chief objects 
in the treatment are to palliate symptoms, and 
support the powers of life by the judicious 
employment of tonic remedies, conjoined with 
alimentation and alcoholic stimulants. The 
latter are in some cases given in large quantity 
without inducing their excitant effects; and 
there is reason to believe that they are some- 
times the means of saving life. In the cases in 
which the larynx becomes affected, the mea- 
sures are indicated which belong to the treat- 
ment of true croup, and tracheotomy is to be 
resorted to if necessary to avert death from 
suffocation. The prospect of success from this 
operation is extremely small; yet, as it un- 
doubtedly sometimes rescues a patient from 
impending death, it is the duty of the phy- 
sician not to withhold the chances of life, how- 
ever small, which tracheotomy affords. 
265 VOL. vi. 9 



DIPLOMATICS (Gr. dtVAo/za, a doubling ; hence 
anything folded double, as a written docu- 
ment), the science of the knowledge of ancient 
documents, and especially of their age and au- 
thenticity. The charters of grants from sov- 
ereigns to individuals and corporations were 
formerly called diplomas, and the word is ap- 
plied to all letters, documents, and pieces of 
writing of a public nature that have come 
down to us from the middle ages and the sub- 
sequent centuries. The ancient public docu- 
ments of the Greeks and Romans have per- 
ished, except such as were inscribed on stone 
or metal. But a vast mass of manuscripts of 
the middle ages exists in Europe, whose dates 
and authenticity can only be settled by careful 
and skilful investigation. The quality of the 
parchment or paper and of the ink, and the 
style of the handwriting, are the means chief- 
ly relied upon to determine the age of the 
document. Formerly ink was made of soot, 
and red ink made of vermilion was sometimes 
used. Those who apply themselves to the 
study of diplomatics can easily distinguish the 
ink and the parchment and paper of one epoch 
from those of another. The variations in 
handwriting are also so great that by the 
character alone it is possible to pronounce 
within 40 or 50 years when any diploma was 
written. In Europe the study of diplomatics 
has been much cultivated. The standard book 
of reference on the subject is the Nouveau 
traite de diplomatique, par deux Benedictins 
(6 vols. 4to, Paris, 1750). 

DIPPEL, Jolianu Konrad, a German mystic and 
rationalist, born at the castle of Frankenstein, 
Hesse, Aug. 10, 1673, died at Berleburg, April 
25, 1734. He was the son of a clergyman, 
and at an early age showed a strong interest 
in religious matters. He studied theology at 
Giessen and philosophy at Wittenberg, and 
went subsequently to Strasburg, where he led 
a disorderly life, and had to leave the city, it is 
said, on account of being implicated in a bloody 
affray. He frequently appeared as a preacher, 
and also as a lecturer on astrology and chiro- 
mancy, and published in 1697 a pamphlet en- 
titled Orthodoxia Orthodoxorum, and in 1698 
another, called Papismus Protestantium vapu- 
lans, in which he attacked the orthodox party, 
rejecting the doctrines of the atonement and 
of the efficacy of the sacraments. He was con- 
sequently obliged to lead a wandering life to 
avoid prosecution. Having squandered his 
property in experiments in alchemy, he went to 
Ley den, obtained the degree of doctor of medi- 
cine, and began to practise as a physician. He 
published subsequently some other pamphlets, 
one of which, entitled Alea Belli Mmelman- 
nici (Amsterdam, 1711), caused his exile from 
Holland. He went to Denmark, where he 
continued to declaim against the clergy and. 
the churches, for which he was arrested and 
imprisoned. After his release he went to 
Sweden, where he practised as a physician 
with considerable success; but having pub- 



128 



DIPTERA 



lished a pamphlet regarded as heretical, he 
was expelled from the country and soon 
afterward died. He acquired much scientific 
knowledge and made some valuable discover- 
ies. The main point of his doctrine was that 
Christianity consists solely in the practice of 
virtue, of self-denial, and love for mankind. 
He published his writings under the name of 
Christianas Democritus (collected under the 
title of Eroffneter Weg zum Frieden mit Gott 
vnd alien Creaturen, Amsterdam, 1709; en- 
larged ed., Berleburg, 1743). He attracted 
much notice in his day in Sweden and Ger- 
many, and is frequently mentioned by Sweden- 
borg in his " Spiritual Diary." His biography 
was written by Ackermann (Leipsic, 1781), 
and Buchner has given a memoir of him in 
the HistorUches TaschenbucU for 1858. 

DIPTERA (Gr. 61$, twice, and KTep6v, wing), 
an order of insects, containing the fly, mos- 
quito, &c., characterized by two wings, two 
knobbed threads (halteres, balancers or pois- 
ers) behind the wings, and a horny or fleshy 
proboscis. They undergo a complete trans- 
formation ; the larvae, usually called maggots, 




Larva and Imago of the Bot Fly of the Ox (Hypodermia 
bovis). 

have no feet, and have the breathing holes 
generally in the posterior part of the body ; 
the pupae or nymphs are either incased in the 
dry skin of the larvae, or naked, showing the 
wings and legs free and unconfined. The head 
is large, globular, connected with the body by 
a very slender neck, and is capable of a con- 
siderable pivot-like motion ; the greater part, 
especially in the males, is occupied by the 
brilliant compound eyes, the single ocelli, 
when they exist, being on the top of the head. 
Under the head is the proboscis or sucker, 
which in some kinds can be drawn up and 
concealed in the mouth ; it consists of a long 
channel, ending in two fleshy lips, and enclo- 
sing on its upper side from two to six fine bris- 
tles, sharp as needles, and making the punc- 
tures so familiarly known in the case of mos- 
quito bites; as this apparatus takes the place 
Of the jaws of other insects, these wounds may 
properly be called bites. The saliva which flows 
into the wounds causes the well known swell- 
ing and itching. The sheath serves to main- 



tain the lancets in position, and the latter hav- 
ing made their punctures form a groove along 
which the vegetable or animal fluids rise by 
the suctorial power of the insect and by capil- 
lary attraction. In the flies which only lap 
their food the proboscis is large and fleshy. 
The antennae in the gnats are long and many- 
jointed, in the flies short and thick, at the 
base of the proboscis. The wings are generally 
horizontal and delicate, with many simple veins ; 
the posterior wings are metamorphosed into 
the balancers or poisers. Some entomologists, 
as Latreille, think the poisers do not corre- 
spond to posterior wings, but are vesicular ap- 
pendages connected with the posterior respi- 
ratory tracheae of the chest. Just behind the 
wing joints, and in front of the poisers, are two 
small convex scales, opening and shutting with 
the wings, and called winglets. The thorax is 
often the hardest part of the insect, composed 
principally of the mesothorax. The abdomen 
is not always united to the thorax by the 
whole of its posterior diameter, and in many 
females ends in a retractile jointed ovipositor. 
The legs, six in number, are usually long and 
slender, with five articulate tarsi and two 
claws at the end, besides two or three little 
cushion-like expansions, by means of which they 
are able to ascend the smoothest surfaces and 
to walk with the back downward with perfect 
security. According to Marcel de Serres, the 
dorsal vessel (the heart) in diptera is narrow 
and its pulsations are frequent. Respiration in 
the adult is carried on by vesicular and tubular 
tracheae. The nervous system consists of an 
aggregate of cerebral ganglia, and in some of 
nine other ganglia, three in the thorax and 
six in the abdomen, connected by longitudinal 
simple commissures or cords ; the larvae have 
usually one more pair of ganglia than the 
adults, and have the commissures often double. 
The proboscis being the transformed under lip, 
often geniculate, the perforating bristles may 
be regarded as maxillae, mandibles, and tongue. 
In those larvae which have a distinct head, as 
in the mosquito, the jaws are arranged for 
mastication, though some of the pieces are 
wanting; but in the acephalous maggots the 
mouth is suctorial. Communicating with the 
gullet is a thin-walled vesicle, the sucking 
stomach, in which the fluids swallowed are 
temporarily deposited ; the stomach proper is 
long and narrow, and makes many convolu- 
tions in the abdomen. The end of the intes- 
tine is short, muscular, and pyriform. The 
uriniferous vessels are long, and generally four 
in number, opening into the lower extremity 
of the stomach ; the ovaries consist usually of 
many short three- or four-chambered tubes, 
terminating in a short or a convoluted oviduct ; 
the testicles are two, simple, and generally oval 
or pyriform, with long vasa deferentia ending 
in the ejaculatory duct in common with two 
simple accessory mucous glands, and with 
horny valves enveloping the projecting copu- 
latory organ. The larvae or maggots are 



DIPTEBA 



129 



fithout legs, generally whitish, and vary ex- 
eedingly in form and habits. The larvae of 
the mosquito are aquatic, breathing with the 
head downward through the tubular tail sur- 
rounded with feather-like appendages, and the 
pupae tumble about in water by means of two 
oval fins. These larvae, and those of most 
Hies which have four or six bristles in the pro- 
boscis, have a distinct horny head, and cast 
their skins to become pupa?, which are gener- 
ally brownish ; many have thorns and prickles 
on the body by which they work their way 
out of their coverings ; a few cover themselves 
with silken webs and spin cocoons. The larvse 
of other flies, with a soft retractile head, living 
by suction, increase rapidly in size, and change 
their form without casting off their skins, 
which shorten and harden, forming a case 
within which the larva changes into a pupa, 
which comes forth a fly by forcing off one 
end of the case. Though this order contains 
the bloodthirsty mosquito, the disgusting flesh 
fly, and many insects depositing their eggs in 
the bodies of living animals, it is most use- 
ful, supplying food to insectivorous birds, and 
consuming decomposing animal and vegetable 
substances. Their life in the perfect state is 
short, very few surviving the rigor of win- 
ter. Among the genera with rnany-jointed 
antenna3 the following are the most interesting 
and best known : Culex (Linn.) contains the 
well known gnats and mosquitoes, whose 
larvae and pupae are so common in stagnant 
water, called wigglers and tumblers, and 
whose adult females pierce with their lancets 
and annoy by their nocturnal hum the human 
race from Lapland to the tropics; the best 
known species are the 0. pipiens of Europe, 
and the 0. Americanus of this country, which 
is probably distinct. The genus cecidomyia 
(Latr.) includes many species interesting to 
the agriculturist, as the Hessian fly (G. de- 
structor, Say), the wheat fly ( 0. tritici, Kirby), 
and the willow-gall fly (C. salicis, Fitch), in- 
jurious in the larva state. The genus tipula 
(Linn.), especially T. oleracea (Linn.), com- 
monly known in England by the name of Har- 
ry Long-legs, is noted for its depredations in 
the larva condition on the tender roots of 
meadow plants. In the gGmissimulium (Latr.) 
are the black fly and the midges of the 
northern parts of America. The black fly (S. 
molestum, Harris) fills the air during the 
month of June in Canada and the northern 
states ; it flies in the daytime, and is so sav- 
,age that every bite draws blood, sometimes 
accompanied by considerable irritation; it is 
black, with transparent wings, and about T V 
of an inch long. After continuing through 
June, it is followed by another species (S. no- 
civum, Harris), called "no-see-'em" by the In- 
dians of Maine from their minuteness; they 
come forth toward evening, creep under any 
kind of garment, and produce a sharp, fiery 
pain without drawing blood; they are very 
troublesome in July and August. Among those 



with few joints in the antennae is the genus 
tdbanus (Linn.), which contains the large horse 
flies, as T. bovinus (Linn.), dark brown, an inch 
long, common in Europe, where there are more 
than 40 other species. The most common 
American species is T. atratus (Fabr.), black 
with a whitish bloom on the back ; the eyes 
are very large, shining black, with two jet- 
black bands across them ; it is about an inch 
long, with an expanse of wings of two inches. 
The orange-belted horse fly (T. cinctus, Fabr.) 
is smaller and less common, black, with the 
first three rings of the body orange. A smaller 
species is T. lineola (Fabr.), with a whitish 
line along the top of the hind body. In sum- 
mer these flies are very troublesome to cattle 
and horses, being able to pierce through the 
thickest hide with their six-armed proboscis ; 
a strong decoction of walnut leaves, applied as 
a wash, is said to keep them off. The golden- 
eyed forest flies (chrysops, Meig.) are known 
by their brilliant spotted eyes and their banded 
wings ; smaller than horse flies, they resemble 
them in their habits, frequenting woods and 
thickets in July and August ; some are wholly 
black, others striped with black and yellow. 
The bee fly (bonibylius cequalis, Fabr.) flies with 
great swiftness through sunny paths in the 
woods, hovering over flowers and sucking their 
honey, like humming birds ; it is about three 
eighths of an inch long, shaped like a humble- 
bee, and covered with yellowish hairs ; the ex- 
panse of the wings is about an inch ; they are 
divided longitudinally into two equal parts by 
the colors, the outer half being dark brown 
and the inner colorless. Among the flies which 
prey on other insects, seizing them on the wing 
or on plants, is the genus midas (Latr.), of 
which the orange-banded species (M. filatus, 
Fabr.) is sometimes 1 in. long and 2 in. in 
expanse of wings; the general color is black; 
it frequents the woods in July and August, 
where it may be often seen flying or basking 
in the sun ; the larva is a cylindrical maggot, 
growing to the length of 2 in. ; the pupa mea- 
sures 1 in. in length, is brown, with forked 
tail, eight thorns on the fore part of the body, 
and numerous sharp teeth on the edges of the 
abdominal rings; it pushes itself half out of its 
hole when the fly is about to come forth. The 
genera laphria (Fabr.) and asilus (Linn.) are 
also predaceous in the winged state ; in the 
former the antennae are blunt -at the end, in the 
latter slender-pointed; the former resemble 
large humblebees in their thick and heavy 
bodies and legs. In the larva state these asil- 
ians live in the ground, where they do much 
mischief to the roots of plants. The soldier 
flies (stratiomydce) have two spines on the 
hinder part of the thorax ; the proboscis con- 
tains only four bristles, and ends with fleshy 
lips adapted for sucking vegetable juices ; they 
are fond of wet places, and their larvae live in 
stagnant pools, some thrusting their breathing 
tube out of the water ; they undergo transfor- 
mation within the hardened larval skin. The 






130 



DIPTERA 



DIPTYCHS 



genus stratiomys (Geoff.) has a broad oval body, 
of a dark color, with yellow markings on each 
Bide, and the antennae somewhat spindle-shaped. 
The genus sargus (Fabr.) is* said to have no 
spines on the thorax, a slender body, of a bril- 
liant grass-green, about half an inch long, with 
a bristle on the end of the antennae. These in- 
sects delight in sunny weather, being dull and 
inactive in cloudy days ; the larvae are found in 
dung and rich mould. The syrphidce have also 
a fleshy proboscis, and live on the honey of 
flowers ; they resemble bees, wasps, and hor- 
nets in shape and color, and sometimes lay 
their eggs in the nests of these insects ; others 
drop their ova among plant lice, which the 
young eagerly feed upon. The larvae of the 
genus helophilus (Meig.) were named by R6au- 
mur rat-tailed maggots, from the great length 
of their tubular tails, which serve as respi- 
ratory organs; the experiments of Reaumur 
show that while the insect lies concealed in 
mud, its respiratory tube may reach five 
inches to the surface of the water ; it seems 
to be composed of two portions, which slide 
one into the other like the joints of a telescope. 
Some of the larvae of this family live in rotten 
wood. The family conopidce resemble slender- 
bodied wasps ; the antennae are long and three- 
jointed ; the proboscis is long, slender,' and ge- 
niculate. The genus conops (Linn.) is generally 
black, and about half an inch long; more than 
20 species are described, usually found on flow- 
ers in June and July, but not in large num- 
bers; they deposit their eggs in the larvae and 
the perfect insects of the bumblebee, in whose 
bodies their young undergo metamorphosis. 
The common stable fly belongs to the genus 
stomoxys (Fabr.); the flesh fly to sarcophaga 
(Meig.) ; the house fly and the meat fly to 
mmca (Linn.) ; the flower flies to anihomyia 
(Mi-ig.); the cheese fly to piopJiila (Fallen.) ; 
the dung fly to scatophaga (Meig.) ; the fruit 
and gall flies to ortalis (Fallen.) and tepJiritis 
(Latr.). (See FLY.) The gadflies or hot flies, 
comprising the genera oestrus (Linn.) and gas- 
terophilus (Leach), affect respectively the ox 
and the horse. (See GADFLY.) Various winged 
and wingless ticks infest the horse, sheep, and 
birds, belonging to the order of diptera, but 
forming with the spider flies the order homa- 
lopttra of Leach and the English entomologists; 
they include the genera hippolosca (Linn.), 
melophftgus (Latr.), and ornithomyia (Latr.). 
(See TICK.) The pttlicida, or fleas, are wing- 
less diptera, with hard, compressed bodies, a 
rooker-like mouth, and hind legs formed for 
leaping; they live principally upon the bodies 
of other animals. (See EPIZOA.) At the end of 
this order may be mentioned the genus nyete- 
r'll'm (Latr.), the spider fly, a wingless insect 
"mi: a spider; the small head seems a 
IIM-IV tub. -rcle on the anterior and dorsal por- 
tion of tin- thorax; the eyes are like minute 
grains; the thorax is semicircular ; the anten- 
nas are extreim-1 y >hort, inserted close together, 
and immediately in front of the eyes. These 



flies nestle in the hair of bats, among which 
they move with great rapidity ; according to 
Col. Montagu, when they suck the blood of 
bats they are obliged to place themselves on 
their backs on account of the dorsal position 
of the head. This last division of the diptera 
is not produced from eggs deposited in the 
usual manner, but the larva is hatched and de- 
veloped within the body of the mother, and is 
not born till it arrives at the state of pupa; 
hence these genera have been called piipipara 
by Latreille. The pupa when born is nearly 
as large as the parent, enclosed in a cocoon, 
the altered skin of the larva at first soft and 
white, but soon growing hard and brown ; it is 
notched at one end, where the mature insect 
escapes. The genera of diptera make up for 
their small size by their countless swarms. 

DIFTTCHS (Gr. dfarvxa, from d/f, twice, and 
TTTvcceiv, to fold), tablets anciently used for 
civil and ecclesiastical purposes. Among the 
Romans and Greeks, the term at the com- 
mencement of the Christian era designated two 
tablets united by a hinge, and used as a note 
book. Even when several tablets or leaves 
were included between the ornamented covers, 
they were still called diptychs. The tablets 
were made of ivory, wood, or metal, and some- 
times of slate or papyrus, or of gold and silver. 
The external faces were more or less orna- 
mented ; the interiors were smooth, so as to re- 
ceive a coating of wax, or to admit leaves of 
parchment or papyrus. They were carried 
suspended to the belt or wrist ; served for epis- 
tolary correspondence (in which case they were 
sealed by the writer before being sent to their 
destination) ; were presented as gifts by con- 
suls and other high dignitaries to the emperors 
and senators, and to their friends and relatives ; 
and were even distributed by them among the 
people on the occasion of the public games, 
&c. The oldest consular diptychs known bear 
the date of A. D. 405, and are attributed to 
Stilicho. In liturgical usage the diptychs were 
public lists or tables, which in the early church 
were read by the deacon from the ambon du- 
ring the celebration of the liturgy. They con- 
tained, in so many separate columns or leaves, 
the names of the persons who made " the offer- 
ing" that day ; those of the chief personages, 
lay and ecclesiastical, in communion with that 
particular church ; the names of the saints, 
martyrs, and confessors of the faith ; and those 
of the faithful who had departed this life in 
the orthodox communion. Hence, to have the 
name of any person, living or dead, erased, 
from the diptychs, was equivalent to an act 
of excommunication. In art the name diptych 
is given to two panels united by a hinge, whose 
interior surface is painted. It is common to 
meet with such diptychs containing on one side 
the angel Gabriel, and on the other the Virgin 
Mary- receiving his salutation. When there is 
a large central compartment, with two side 
panels folding over it, it is called a triptych. 
Such is the celebrated Domlild or altarpiece 



DIRGE 



DIRSCHAU 



131 




of the cathedral of Cologne, having in the cen- 
tre the adoration of the Magi, and on the sides 
the legend of St. Ursula and her companions. 

DIRCE, in Greek mythology, daughter of 
Helios and wife of Lycus, king of Thebes, who 
had repudiated Antiope, his first wife. Dirce, 
jealous of the latter, had her put in chains, but 
Zeus aided her to escape to Mount Cithasron, 
where she gave birth to two sons by him, 
Amphion and Zethus. To revenge the injury 
to their mother, these two went to Thebes, 
slew Lycus, and tied Dirce to the horns of a 
bull, by which she was dragged about until 
dead. The punishment of Dirce is the subject 
of the celebrated marble group known as the 
Farnese bull, in the national museum at Naples. 
According to Pliny, it was the joint work of the 
Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus, 
who cut it from a single block of marble, and 
was sent from Rhodes to Rome. It was dis- 
covered in 1546 in the baths of Caracalla, much 
injured, and was restored by Bianchi under 
the superintendence of Michel Angelo. It was 
at first placed in the Farnese palace in Rome, 
but in 1786 was removed to Naples. It rep- 
resents Amphion and Zethus restraining the 
struggling bull, and preparing to bind Dirce to 
his horns, with Antiope standing near. Sev- 
eral animals are represented about the base. 

DIRECTORY, Executive (Fr. directoire execu- 
tif), the name given to the executive govern- 
ment of the first French republic, established 
by the constitution of Fructidor, year III. 
(August, 1795). This constitution was framed 
by the moderate republican party, whose influ- 
ence prevailed after the fall of Robespierre. 
The legislative power was vested by it in two 
mblies, the council of 500 and the council 

the ancients, the former having the exclu- 
ve right of proposing laws for the considera- 
tion of the latter. The judicial authority was 
committed to elective judges. The executive 
directory consisted of five members, and was 
chosen one each year by the council of the an- 
cients from a list of candidates presented by 
that of 500. The directory promulgated the 
laws, appointed the ministers, and had the 
management of military and naval affairs, and 
the right of repelling hostilities, though not 
of declaring war. The directors decided ques- 
tions by a majority vote, and presided by turns 
three months each, the presiding member hav- 
ing the signature and the seal. During their 
term of office none of them could have a per- 
sonal command, or absent himself for more 
than five days from the place where the coun- 
cils held their sessions, without their permis- 
sion ; and after they had left office they could 
hold no command for two years, nor be re- 
elected for five. The balance of power estab- 
lished by this constitution excited antagonism 
between the different branches of the govern- 
ment. The convention decreed that in the 
first election two thirds of the members of the 
two councils should be chosen from its own 
body. This arbitrary act led to violent agita- 



tions in Paris, and finally to an insurrection of 
the royalist sections on the 13th Vend6miaire 
(Oct. 5, 1795), which was suppressed by Bar- 
ras and Bonaparte. The convention having 
held its closing session on Oct. 26, the two 
councils held their first on the 28th, and on 
Nov. 1 elected Barras and Lar6veilliere-Le- 
peaux, Rewbell, Letourneur, and Carnot as 
directors. Their first proclamation promised 
a firm rule and inspired confidence. Carnot 
organized the armies, and directed their move- 
ments ; Moreau received the command of the 
army of the Rhine, Jourdan that of the Sambre 
and Meuse ; Hoche suppressed the insurrection 
in the Vendee, and Bonaparte conquered Italy. 
But the elections of the year V. (May, 1797) 
gave the royalists a preponderance in the coun- 
cils, which was supported by the minority of 
the directory, while Barras, Lareveilliere, and 
Rewbell sided with the minority in the legis- 
lative bodies. The movements of the royalists 
became more and more threatening, when the 
majority of the directors agreed to save the 
republic by an act of violence. This was exe- 
cuted by the aid of the army on the 18th Fruc- 
tidor (Sept. 4, 1797). More than 50 members 
of the two councils, with Carnot, Barthelemy, 
who had replaced Letourneur, and a number 
of other influential persons, were condemned 
to transportation, and a persecution of both 
royalists and anarchists was commenced. Mer- 
lin of Douai andFrangois of Neufchateau were 
substituted for the two proscribed directors, 
of whom Carnot escaped to Germany. Saved 
by the army of the interior, the republican rule 
was maintained by the victories and extortions 
of the armies abroad. The treaty of Campo 
Formio was concluded; Switzerland and the 
Papal States were overrun and revolution- 
ized ; and Bonaparte was sent to Egypt to at- 
tack England indirectly. But the extreme rev- 
olutionary party carried the elections for the 
year VI. (May, 1798), a part of which were 
annulled by another violation of the constitu- 
tion. A new coalition against France was 
formed. Switzerland and Italy were lost as 
rapidly as won. The republicans became im- 
patient of the rule of the directory, in which 
Treilhard had replaced Francois, and Sieyes 
was elected instead of Rewbell. Finally the 
councils compelled Treilhard, Merlin, and'Lare"- 
veilliere to resign on the 30th Prairial (June 
18, 1799). Barras saved his office by the de- 
sertion of his associates, and maintained him- 
self with Sieyes and the three new directors, 
Gohier, Moulins, and Roger Ducos, till the 18th 
Brumaire (Nov.. 9, 1799), when Bonaparte 
overthrew the directory and the constitution, 
and became master of France under the title 
of consul. The directory ruled France four 
years and a few days, and had altogether 13 
members, of whom only Barras officiated du- 
ring the whole period. 

DIRSCHAU, a town of Prussia, in the province 
of West Prussia, situated on the Vistula, 19 m. 
S. S. E. of Dantzic, on the railway from Berlin 



132 



DISCIPLES 



to Dantzic ; pop. in 1871, 7,761. The Vistula 
is crossed here by a magnificent railway bridge 
about 2,700 ft. long. The town is walled, and 
contains a Catholic and a Protestant church. 
The manufactures are principally of leather. 
Five annual fairs are held here. 

DISCIPLES, Clmreh of the, a religious body, 
designated as "Disciples of Christ," "Chris- 
tians," the " Church of Christ," &c., resulting 
from an effort to effect union among the Prot- 
estant denominations in western Pennsylvania. 
In the beginning of the present century several 
independent religious movements for this pur- 
pose occurred in different parts of the United 
States. The one which gave immediate origin 
and distinctive character to the body now 
known as " Disciples " was initiated in 1809 by 
Thomas Campbell, aided by his son Alexander, 
to whose ability and energy its successful pro- 
gress is mainly attributed, and by whom it was 
chiefly directed. The original purpose was to 
heal the divisions of religious society, and to 
establish a common basis of Christian union. 
It was thought that these objects could be at- 
tained by taking the Bible alone as a guide, and 
its express teachings as the only authoritative 
standard of faith and practice, allowing mean- 
while entire liberty of opinion in relation to all 
matters not fully revealed. Upon these prin- 
ples a considerable society was formed, con- 
sisting chiefly of members from Presbyterian 
churches. After some time the questions of 
infant baptism and the use of sprinkling as 
baptism became matters of investigation, and 
it was finally decided by a large majority that 
there was no Scripture warrant for either prac- 
tice. Becoming then a society of immersed 
believers, they were soon after united with the 
Redstone Baptist association, stipulating, how- 
ever, in writing, that " no standard of doctrine 
or bond of church union, other than the Holy 
Scriptures, should be required." By means of 
this union with the Baptists, the principles and 
views of the Disciples, developed and defended 
by Alexander Campbell in his writings and 
public discussions, were widely disseminated. 
Meanwhile the study of the Scriptures led by 
degrees to the discovery and introduction of 
several characteristics of primitive Christianity 
which, as the Disciples held, had been long 
overlooked and neglected. Among these, a 
prominent one was "baptism for the remis- 
sion of sins." As the apostle Peter, in reply 
to believing penitents who asked what they 
should do, said, "Repent and be baptized 
every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, 
for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive 
the gift of the Holy Spirit," it was believed 
that the same answer should still be given 
to such inquirers, and that it was the divine 
plan thus to impart through the institution 
of baptism an assurance of pardon. This be- 
came therefore a distinguishing feature of the 
reformation unr.-d by the Disciples. Another 
characteristic was the practice of weekly com- 
munion, after the example of the primitive 



church. In pressing these matters upon the 
acceptance of the Baptists, a spirit of opposi- 
tion was at length aroused in various quarters, 
especially in Virginia and Kentucky, and a 
separation to some extent ensued, many of the 
Baptists remaining connected with the Disci- 
ples. At the close of 1831 their numbers were 
still further augmented by a union between 
them and a numerous body which had origi- 
nated in Kentucky and some other western 
states, under the labors of B. W. Stone and 
others, who, some years prior to the movement 
led by Thomas and Alexander Campbell, had 
separated from the Presbyterian communion, 
and in like manner attempted to effect a union 
of Christians upon the Bible alone. These per- 
sons, adopting baptism for remission of sins, 
and the ancient order of things as practised by 
the Disciples, became entirely assimilated with 
the latter. Although the Disciples reject 
creeds as bonds of fellowship, and disapprove 
of the technical language of popular theology, 
they do not materially differ from the evangel- 
ical denominations in their views of the great 
matters of Christianity. The following synop- 
sis by Alexander Campbell is a fair expression 
of their sentiments on the points involved : 
"1. I believe that all Scripture given by in- 
spiration of God is profitable for teaching, for 
conviction, for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness, that the man of God may be per- 
fect and thoroughly accomplished for ever] 
good work. 2. I believe in one God, as mani" 
fested in the person of the Father, of the Sor 
and of the Holy Spirit, who are, therefore, on 
in nature, power, and volition. 3. I believe that 
every human being participates in all the con- 
sequences of the fall of Adam, and is born into 
the world frail and depraved in all his moral 
powers and capacities, so that without faith in 
Christ it is impossible for him, while in that 
state, to please God. 4. I believe that the 
Word, which from the beginning was with God, 
and which was God, became flesh and dwelt 
among us as Immanuel or ' God manifest in 
the flesh,' and did make an expiation of sin, ' by 
the sacrifice of himself,' which no being could 
have done that was not possessed of a super- 
human, superangelic, and divine nature. 5. I 
believe in the justification of a sinner by faith 
without the deeds of law, and of a Christian, 
not by faith alone, but by the obedience of 
faith. 6. I believe in the operation of the Holy 
Spirit through the word, but not without it, in 
the conversion and sanctifi cation of the sinner. 
7. I believe in the right and duty of exercising 
our own judgment in the interpretation of the 
Holy Scriptures. 8. I believe in the divine in- 
stitution of the evangelical ministry ; the au- 
thority and perpetuity of the institution of 
baptism and the Lord's supper." With the 
Disciples the Christian faith does not consist in 
the belief of these or any other tenets as intel- 
lectual conceptions of religious truth, but in a 
simple trust or personal reliance on Christ as 
the Son of God and the Saviour of sinners. 



DISCOPHOR.E 



DISINFECTANTS 



133 



They hence require of candidates for baptism 
no other confession of faith than this. As to 
government, each church is independent, but 
the churches cooperate with each other in sus- 
taining Bible societies and missionaries at home 
and abroad. Two classes of officers are rec- 
ognized, elders or bishops and deacons, who 
are chosen by the members of each church, and 
to whom the interests of the congregation are 
confided. According to a denominational al- 
manac for the year 1867, the number of mem- 
bers in the United States was estimated at 
424,500, chiefly in the southern and western 
states, the largest numbers being in Virginia 
(15,000), Missouri (22,200), Kentucky (75,000), 
Ohio (52,000), Indiana (70,000), Illinois, (33,- 
000), and Iowa (15,500). In 1872 their num- 
ber was estimated at 500,000. The denomina- 
tion had in that year one university, the Ken- 
tucky universitv, at Lexington, Ky. ; colleges 
at Bethany, West Va. ; Indianapolis, Ind. ; 
Eureka and Abingdon, 111. ; Oskaloosa, Iowa ; 
"Wilmington, Ohio ; Franklin, Tenn. ; Woodland, 
Oal. ; and Jelfersontown and Eminence, Ky. ; 
female colleges at Columbia, Mo. ; Versailles and 
Harrodsburg, Ky. ; and Bloomington, 111. ; and 
12 academies and seminaries. The periodicals 
of the denomination were 6 weekly, 2 semi- 
monthly, 16 monthly, 1 quarterly, and 1 an- 
nual. The number of Sunday schools was 
2,450 with 253,290 scholars. Churches have 
been established in Canada, the British islands, 
the West Indies, and Australia ; and the estab- 
lishment of a mission in Germany was resolved 
upon in 1871. 

DISCOPHORJ1. See JELLY FISH. 

DISCOUNT, a sum of money deducted from 
a debt due at some future period, in considera- 
ion of immediate payment. In commercial 

msactions it is customary, when a bill is to 
discounted, to pay to the holder or presenter 

e amount minus the simple interest calcu- 
lated for the time the bill has to run. Thus a 
person holding a bill for $100 payable in one 
year at 7 per cent, would receive $93, which 
would be considered its present value. The 
true discount, however, of any sum for any 
given time, is such a sum as will in that time 
amount to the interest of the sum to be dis- 
counted. Thus, in the above instance, the sum 
to be deducted from the bill would be, not $7, 
but $6 54 and a fraction, which would amount 
at the end of a year to $7. The true rule for 
computing discount would therefore be : As 
the amount of $100 for the given rate and time 
is to the given sum or debt, so is $100 to the 
present worth ; or, so is the interest of $100 for 
the given time to the discount of the given 
sum. Elaborate tables have been calculated 
on this principle, but as abatement of the sim- 
ple interest is generally resorted to, they are of 
little practical value. Discount on merchan- 
dise, somotimes called rebate, is a deduction 
from the price of goods sold on credit, when 
the buyer finds means to make his payment 
before the stipulated time. 



DISfflFECTANTS, substances used to counter- 
act or destroy noxious odors and exhalations, 
or whatever may produce infection. The term 
is also made to embrace substances used to pre- 
vent decay of organic bodies. (See ANTISEP- 
TICS, and EMBALMING.) In the present article 
disinfectants will be considered as agents for 
deodorizing and fumigating. As the causes 
of infection exist in the atmosphere, and are 
spread over wide districts, disinfectants prop- 
erly include whatever is used to purify the air, 
and the term may even be applied to the 
means employed to prevent the formation of 
noxious miasmata, as to a proper system of 
drainage, the destruction by fire of vegetable 
matter exposed to decay, the thorough ventila- 
tion of buildings, the provisions for abundant 
supplies of pure air and light, and the free use 
of clear water for washing away unclean mat- 
ters. No more powerful disinfectant exists 
than the fresh wind, which stirs up the infec- 
tious vapors, dilutes them with pure air, and 
sweeps them away. Violent winds, as hurri- 
canes, are observed to arrest the progress of 
disease ; efficient ventilation has in many hos- 
pitals mitigated it to a wonderful extent. The 
light and warmth of the sun have also an ex- 
traordinary influence in promoting health and 
vigor, and destroying some of the causes of 
injurious exhalations. Other agents are abun- 
dantly provided by nature which man may 
employ to remove infectious matters. They 
may be swept away by running water, or 
their gaseous emanations be absorbed by the 
earth in which they are buried. Exposure to 
heat may change their properties, or cause 
their elements to enter into new and harmless 
combinations; or by a freezing temperature 
decomposition may be arrested, and the for- 
mation of noisome gases prevented. Peat 
bogs present their antiseptic qualities as means 
of accomplishing the same end, and the astrin- 
gent extracts of the bark of trees, such as 
are employed in tanning, possess the qualities 
of disinfectants. In the selection and prepara- 
tion of these agents, none is found more effi- 
cient than that which imitates the great natu- 
ral disinfectant, a strong current of heated air. 
The method of artificially applying it to the 
removal of noxious effluvia from clothes and 
articles of merchandise has been patented in 
Great Britain ; the articles are exposed in large 
chambers to rapid currents of air, heated from 
200 to 250 F., the infectious matters being 
decomposed by the heat, or swept off in the 
hot blasts. Earth and porous bodies generally 
are employed to absorb injurious vapors ; none 
possess this property in so remarkable a degree 
as charcoal. De Saussure found that a single 
volume of this substance, prepared from box- 
wood, absorbed 90 volumes of ammonia; of 
sulphuretted hydrogen it took up 55 times its 
own bulk ; of carbonic acid, 35 times ; of car- 
bonic oxide, 9*42; of oxygen, 9'25; of nitro-- 
gen, 7'50; and of hydrogen, 1-75. Bodies of 
animals have been buried in charcoal powder, 



134 



DISINFECTANTS 



which, while it did not prevent decay, still 
arrested all escape of disagreeable odors. The 
gases it retained indicated that it exerts an in- 
fluence in causing the decomposition of the 
exhalations, and the combination of their ele- 
ments to form new compounds with the oxy- 
gen of the air. Chlorine, which has for many 
years been in use in hospitals and other places 
exposed to noxious exhalations, acts as a 
powerful disinfectant by producing a chemical 
change in the injurious compounds, and also 
by arresting decay. It is generated by the 
decomposition of hydrochloric acid, which is 
effected by adding to it some black oxide of 
manganese. The chloride of lime, as it is com- 
monly known, is the usual medium for dis- 
tributing it, the gas being freely evolved on 
the exposure of the salt to the air. It is set 
free by the presence of any acid fames, and as 
carbonic acid is evolved in the decomposition 
of organic matters, the noxious effluvia them- 
selves provide one of the agents for their own 
disinfection. Vinegar or dilute sulphuric acid, 
however, added to the chlorinated lime, causes 
a more rapid evolution of the disinfecting gas. 
In consequence of the acrid nature of the va- 
por, it should bo used for fumigating rooms 
only when these are not occupied by invalids ; 
and the same may be said of the disinfecting 
solutions, as the hypochlorite of soda, of which 
chlorine is the active agent. The more pow- 
erful fumes of nitrous acid, which possess the 
highest disinfectant qualities, are liable to the 
same objection ; yet so important is their ap- 
plication regarded that Dr. Carmichael Smyth, 
who first proposed their use, received therefor 
from the British government the sum of 
5,000. The unwholesome sulphuretted hy- 
drogen is decomposed by these fumes, as it is 
by chlorine, the sulphur being set free and the 
hydrogen uniting with the disinfectants. In 
combination with some of the metals, chlorine 
has been much used as a disinfectant, especially 
with zinc, in the aqueous solution of the chlo- 
ride of the metal, which is known as the dis- 
infecting fluid of Sir William Burnett. Its use 
is somewhat objectionable, from its poisonous 
qualities. The same compound is advantage- 
ously applied to arresting dry rot in timber. 
Chloride of manganese is an efficient salt of 
similar properties, and, being the refuse of 
chloric manufacture, may be cheaply pro- 
cured. Chloride of aluminum, under the pop- 
ular name of chloralum, has recently come into 
use. The action of iodine is similar to that of 
chlorine, and more powerful. Its application 
is simple. The solid substance, exposed to the 
air in a plate, will disengage at ordinary tem- 
peratures sufficient vapor to exert a chemical 
action on deleterious organic compounds. Ni- 
trate of lead has been recommended for its dis- 
infectant properties, particularly in the solution 
known as Ledoyen's disinfecting fluid. It cor- 
rects the fetid odors of sulphuretted hydrogen 
and sulphurvt of ammonium by decomposing 
those compounds, but it has no antiseptic prop- 



erties, and is objectionable on account of its 
cost and poisonous nature. Sulphate of iron, 
which is used for the cleansing of sewers, 
drains, and soil pipes, depends for its efficacy 
upon a similar action, and upon its deoxidizing 
power. The permanganate of potassa is, under 
certain circumstances, an excellent disinfectant 
and deodorizer, readily parting with its abun- 
dant oxygen; but it is not volatile, and cannot 
be brought into efficient contact with larjre 
quantities of air, so that its action in purifying 
the atmosphere is insignificant. For washing 
dirty and decomposing surfaces, and for the 
disinfection of fluids, as bilge water, it has been 
found very effective. Sulphurous acid, in- 
cluding the sulphites and hyposulphites, which 
easily disengage it, is an exceedingly active 
substance in several ways; it is a deoxidizer, 
and has besides the power of destroying life in 
the lower organisms. Sulphurous acid may be 
generated by burning sulphur in the apartment 
to be disinfected, care being taken to remove 
anything which might be bleached by its ac- 
tion. It has been found, however, that al- 
though of 1 per cent, of sulphurous acid in 
the atmosphere is sufficient to prevent the 
action of yeast as a ferment, yet to of 1 
per cent, is not enough to destroy colors. It 
cannot be conveniently used in inhabited 
rooms, on account of its irritant properties ; 
although some physicians who have used it 
consider that its power of producing bronchial 
irritation has been exaggerated, and that pa- 
tients may become well accustomed to it. The 
sulphites and hyposulphites may be used for th 
deodorization of stables and manure .heaps ; for 
this purpose they have the advantage of add- 
ing to the fertilizing value of the substances 
acted upon, by retaining the phosphoric acid 
and ammonia. These salts have been used as 
medicines for the purpose of destroying a hy- 
pothetical ferment in the blood. Carbolic acid 
and creosote are disinfectants which have been 
much used of late. They prevent putrefaction 
by killing the microscopic organisms that ac- 
company this process. They have, however, 
but little power in preventing the action of 
emulsine on amygdaline, or diastase on saliva 
or starch ; from which it may be inferred that 
the estimate of their action upon other fermen- 
tations has been somewhat exaggerated. Car- 
bolic acid may be employed by vaporizing it 
from a hot plate or brick, by scattering a spray 
of its solution through the air and upon the 
walls, by placing open dishes filled with the 
acid or with carbolate of lime in localities to 
be disinfected, or by using dilute solutions to 
wash floors, &c. Its use in the surgical wards 
of hospitals has been said to diminish the mor- 
tality from infectious diseases, such as erysipelas 
and pyemia. Dr. Sansom has shown that in 
order to purify the atmosphere properly, and 
prevent the development of fungi, bacteria, 
and vibriones, and hypothetically of disease 
germs, it is necessary that the disinfectants 
should be volatile, as in the case of iodine and 






DISLOCATION 



DISMAL SWAMP 



135 



sulphurous and carbolic acids. The others, 
however, may be used to prevent or arrest the 
development of injurious gases from decom- 
posing solids and fluids, or to neutralize them 
when formed. 

DISLOCATION (Lat. dis, apart, and locus, 
place), in surgery, that displacement in the 
osseous system which results from the direct 
application of force or other long continued 
cause. All the joints are liable to dislocation, 
but it most commonly occurs to those which 
possess the greatest mobility ; hence the shoul- 
der joint, is the most frequent seat of this acci- 
dent. The head of the humerus or bone of the 
upper arm, forming a ball-and-socket joint in 
connection with the scapula or shoulder blade, 
is regulated in its motions by very strong 
muscles, and is but slightly impeded in its free 
motions by the very shallow socket in which it 
rests. While this arrangement bestows great 
freedom of action upon this joint, it renders it 
liable to dislocation in almost every direction. 
The most common is that which occurs when 
the arm is elevated above the head, by means 
of which the head of the humerus is thrown 
into the armpit. Next in frequency is the dis- 
location of the hip joint, which is generally 
produced by a sudden blow upon the knee 
when the thigh is flexed toward the abdomen, 
whereby the head of the thigh bone is drawn 
backward by the action of the gluteal muscles 
upon the dorsuin of the ileum or pelvis. The 
jaw bone is often thrown out of place in laugh- 
ing, and much more frequently in yawning. 
This accident sometimes occurs while speak- 
ing under undue excitement. It may be easily 
remedied by placing the thumbs on the back 
teeth so as to press them downward while 
the chin is raised by the fingers slowly up- 
ward. Care should be taken, however, to re- 
move the thumbs quickly on the restoration of 
the joint, or they may be painfully compressed 
between the teeth. The chief difficulty in re- 
storing a dislocation consists in the opposition 
offered by the muscles, rendered acutely irri- 
table by the unnatural position of the head of 
the luxated bone. In some instances this is 
overcome by reducing the heart's action by 
general bleeding. The warm bath and emetics 
are likewise used to relax the muscles, and 
with the same view tobacco moistened with 
water is sometimes laid upon the abdomen until 
it induces sickness and a disposition to syn- 
cope. But the safest and most efficient means 
of securing complete relaxation of the muscles 
is probably the etherization of the patient; 
and in this way a dislocation may sometimes be 
reduced with the exertion of a comparatively 
slight degree of force. The surgeon in re- 
ducing a luxated joint endeavors, by a steady 
application of force exerted in the direction of 
the joint, either to fatigue the muscles, or seize 
some moment when they are relaxed to slip 
the bone into its socket. Various degrees of 
force and different appliances are used to effect 
this object. In the case of the shoulder joint 



the surgeon frequently forms a lever of the 
arm, with the heel of his boot placed in the 
armpit for a fulcrum, and by pressing the arm 
inward over this toward the body, overcomes 
the resistance of the muscles, and restores the 
joint. In the case of the hip joint, the force 
required is necessarily more considerable, and 
pulleys are often resorted to, by which means 
not only a greater but a steadier traction is ex- 
erted. A recent dislocation is much more 
easily reduced than one of long standing ; in- 
deed, no time should be permitted to elapse 
between the accident and an attempt at its re- 
duction, for every hour adds to the uncertainty 
of success. In geology, the term dislocation is 
applied to the change in the position of rocks 
caused by their being torn from their original 
place, either by upheaval or subsidence. 

DISMAL SWAMP, Great, a large morass in Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, extending 40 m. S. 
from near Norfolk in the former state, and 25 
m. E. and W. The soil consists of black vege- 
table matter to the depth of 15 ft., saturated 
with water, yielding to the tread of man, and 
during a large part of the year covered in many 
places with stagnant pools. Several small 
streams flow through it, and in the centre is 
Lake Drummond, 6 m. long and 3 m. wide, the 
surface of which is 21 ft. above tide water. 
The swamp is for the most part covered with 
a dense growth of cypress, juniper, gum, and 
cedar, and upon the drier ridges that intersect 
it are found the beech and oak. Much of the 
most valuable timber, however, has been cut 
down, and large quantities have been obtained 
from beneath the surface, where the fallen 
trunks have been preserved by the wetness of 
the soil. The Seaboard and Roanoke and the 
Norfolk and Petersburg railroads pass through 
the N. border. The great channel of trans- 
portation is the Dismal Swamp canal, made by 
the assistance of the national government and 
the state of Virginia, which connects the W. 
branch of Elizabeth river with the Pasquotank. 
It is 6 ft. deep, supplied chiefly by Lake Drum- 
mond, with which it is connected by a feeder, 
and passes for 20 m. through the swamp, af- 
fording an outlet not only for timber but for 
much of the agricultural produce of the E. part 
of North Carolina. Steam power is used upon 
it, and the tolls amount to about $20,000 a 
year. The Chesapeake and Albemarle canal 
also passes through the swamp, connecting the 
E. branch of Elizabeth river with Currituck 
sound, and admits vessels of considerable size. 
In 1870, 4,382 vessels of all classes passed 
through it, and the revenue from tolls and 
towage was $58,734. This canal contains a 
single lock, 40 by 220 ft., and is fed by tidal 
action. Several minor canals connect the main- 
land with Lake Drummond. A stage road 
runs parallel to the Dismal Swamp canal from 
the N. border to Elizabeth City, N. C. Roads 
are made in the swamp by laying logs 8 or 10 
ft. long side by side on the surface of the soil 
or " sponge." They are passable by mules and 



136 



DISPENSATION 



oxen, but carrying is done mostly by hand to 
the creeks and ditches communicating with the 
canals. The productions of the Dismal Swamp 
consist chiefly of ship timber, boards, shingles, 
staves, railroad ties, and fire wood. It is espe- 
cially noted for its shingles. A large force of 
colored men is employed during the drier 
months of the year in preparing the lumber for 
market. Its dimensions were first accurately 
estimated by Col. William Byrd in 1728, while 
engaged in surveying the boundary of Virginia 
and North Carolina. An account of his pas- 
sage through the swamp has been preserved in 
the Westover MSS. Along the coast of North 
Carolina are the Little Dismal and several 
smaller swamps, covering in the aggregate 
about 2,000,000 acres. They were once noted 
retreats of runaway slaves. (See BOG.) 

DISPENSATION, the act by which an excep- 
tion is made to the rigor of the law in favor 
of some person. To make a dispensation is an 
attribute of sovereign power. In the United 
States no power exists, except in the legisla- 
ture, to dispense with law, and then it is rather 
a change of the law than a dispensation. In 
the Roman Catholic church a dispensation is 
an exemption from ecclesiastical law, granted 
by the proper authority for "just and reason- 
able causes." The pope alone, and the persons 
by him empowered, can dispense with the laws 
which bind the universal church. In local 
laws, whether national, provincial, or diocesan, 
the dispensing power resides in the bishops and 
in those deputed by them. The divine law and 
the law of nature, according to the church, 
cannot be dispensed with. 

DISRAELI, liriuamin, an English author and 
statesman, eldest son of Isaac Disraeli, born 
in London, Dec. 21, 1805. His mother's maid- 
en name was Basevi. He received his educa- 
tion at home from his father and from private 
tutors. An intimate friend of his father, an 
eminent solicitor, who had a great practice 
and no son of his own, wished to make Benja- 
min the heir of his business, and took him into 
his office for a time. But the young Disraeli 
did not like the life of a lawyer, and was not 
ambitious of success in that direction. He 
therefore abandoned the solicitor's office, with 
its brilliant prospect of wealth and reputation, 
and devoted himself to literature. His per- 
sonal beauty, refined manners, and remarkable 
powers of conversation soon made him a fa- 
vorite in society. At the age of 19 he visited 
Germany, and on his return to England pub- 
lished in 182f>-'7 his famous novel "Vivian 
Grey," the chief characters in which were 
faithful pictures of himself and of persons well 
known in English society. The originality, 
vivacity, and wit of this book gave it great 
celebrity, and it was translated into the princi- 
pal languages of Europe. It is said by several 
of his biographer* that at this period he was 
made editor of a daily paper, called "The 
Representative;" but this is not true. In 
1828 he published in one volume "TheVoy- 



DISRAELI 

age of Captain Popanilla," a gay and good- 
humored but flimsy satire, which met with 
little success. The next year he commenced 
an extended tour in Italy, Greece, Albania, 
Syria, Egypt, and Nubia, and returned in 1831. 
Shortly afterward he published his second 
fashionable novel, "The Young Duke;" and 
in the following year another novel, " Con- 
tarini Fleming, a Psychological Autobiogra- 
phy," which Heinrich Heine pronounced to be 
"one of the most original works ever writ- 
ten," and which received high praise from 
Goethe and from Beckford, the author of 
" Vathek." Its subject is the development 
of the poetical nature, and it contains brilliant 
sketches of Italy, Spain, Greece, Asia Minor, 
Syria, and Egypt. The author himself has 
said of it recently, "It would have been better 
if a subject so essentially psychological had 
been treated at a more mature period of life." 
At this time Disraeli made his first attempt to 
enter parliament. He presented himself to the 
electors of High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, 
near his father's residence, as a tory-radical, 
and was defeated by the whig candidate. In 
December, 1834, he was again defeated in 
"Wycombe. He next appeared in May, 1835, 
at Taunton, as a thorough-going conservative. 
It was on this occasion that, when charged bj 
somebody in the crowd with " O'Connellism,' 
he called the great Irish agitator a " blc 
traitor;" to which Mr. O'Connell made th< 
retort, " For aught I know, the present Dis 
raeli is the true heir at law of the impenil 
thief who died on the cross." Disraeli chj 
lenged O'Connell's son, Morgan O'Connell 
who had taken up his father's quarrel ; but the 
challenge was not accepted. In the mean 
while Disraeli wrote and published several 
books. "The Wondrous Tale of Alroy," an 
oriental romance of extraordinary eloquence 
and power, depicting the adventures of a 
prince of the house of David, who in the 12th 
century proclaimed himself the Messiah, and 
called the Jews of Persia to arms, appeared in 
1833, accompanied by " The Rise of Iskander," 
a tale founded on the revolt of the famous 
Scanderbeg against the Turks in the 15th cen- 
tury ; a political pamphlet entitled " What is 
He ? " in 1834, in which he tried to explain 
his political views ; " The Revolutionary Epic " 
and " The Crisis Examined " in the same year, 
and " A Vindication of the English Constitu- 
tion" in 1835. In 1836 he published a series 
of letters in the London "Times" under the 
signature of " Runnymede," which were read 
with great interest on account of their re- 
markable wit and sarcasm. Toward the close 
of the same year he published a love story, 
" Henrietta Temple ;" and in the spring of 
1837 appeared " Venetia," a novel, in which 
he portrayed the characters and appearance 
of Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley. At 
last he achieved the great object of his ambi- 
tion. In the first parliament of the reign of 
Victoria, being then 32 years of age, he 



DISRAELI 



13T 



obtained a seat as representative of the con- leader of the ministerial party in the house of 
servative borough of Maidstone. His maiden 
speech was a failure. The house refused to 
listen, and clamored him down in the rude 
English fashion. He closed in the following 
words: "I am not surprised at the reception 
I have experienced. I have begun several times 
many things, and I have often succeeded at 
last. I shall sit down now ; but the time will 
come when you will hear me." In July, 1839, 
this prediction began to be fulfilled ; he made 
a speech which was listened to with attention, 
and praised for its ability. In that year he 
published his five-act tragedy, "Count Alar- 
cos," founded on an old Spanish ballad, and 
in the same year contracted a most fortunate 
marriage with the wealthy widow of Wynd- 
hain Lewis, his friend and colleague in the 
representation of Maidstone. The happy in- 
fluence of this union upon his career he has 
himself acknowledged in the graceful dedication 
of one of his novels to a "perfect wife." In 
1841 he was elected from the borough of 
Shrewsbury, and in 1844 published "Oonings- 
by, or the New Generation," which achieved 
great success and had a wide circulation. The 
cause of its extraordinary popularity, apart 
from its great literary merit, was the fact of 
its principal characters being drawn from well 
known persons then living. It was regarded 
also as an exposition of the views and designs 
of the famous half literary, half political party 
then attracting public attention under the 
name of "Young England," of which Disraeli 
was one of the most conspicuous leaders. In 
1845 he published " Sibyl, or the Two Na- 
tions," which depicts with much care the con- 
dition of the English people at that period, 
and especially the Chartist agitation. In 1847 
he was returned as one of the members for 
Buckinghamshire, and in the same year he 
published " Ixion in Heaven," with other tales, 



and also " Tancred, or the New Crusade," in 
some respects the best of his novels. He him- 
self says in the preface to his collected works 
(1870), that "Coningsby," "Sibyl," and "Tan- 
cred " form a trilogy, the object of which was 
to delineate the origin and character of English 
political parties. He now began to take a 
leading part in the house of commons. His 
severe attacks on Sir Robert Peel, for alleged 
treachery to his party in the adoption of his 
free-trade policy, are among the most remark- 
able speeches in the annals of the British le- 
gislature. They established Disraeli's reputa- 
tion as one of the most powerful debaters and 
keen and polished satirists in that body. In 
1849 he became the recognized leader of the 
conservative party in parliament. A biography 
of his father, Isaac Disraeli (1849), and a me- 
moir of his personal and political friend Lord 
George Bentinck (1852), were his next literary 
productions. In March, 1852, in the first Der- 
by administration, he received the appointment 
of chancellor of the exchequer, was made a 
member of the privy council, and became 



commons. He went out of office with the rest 
of the Derby ministry in December of the 
same year. In February, 1858, when Lord 
Derby again accepted the task of forming a 
new cabinet after the downfall of Lord Pal- 
merston, Disraeli again became chancellor of 
the exchequer. In February, 1859, he brought 
forward an elaborate plan of electoral reform, 
a principal feature of which was the extension 
of the suffrage to the whole body of the edu- 
cated class without regard to property. The 
bill was defeated in the house of commons, 
March 31, and parliament was dissolved April 
23. The Derby administration retained its 
place till June 11, when the new parliament 
passed a vote of want of confidence, and the 
ministry resigned. It was succeeded by the 
Palmerston-Russell cabinet, and on the death 
of Lord Palmerston, Oct. 18, 1865, by the 
Russell-Gladstone ministry, which remained in 
power till June, 1866, when, owing to the un- 
satisfactory nature of the reform bill proposed 
by them, a vote of want of confidence was passed, 
and they resigned. Disraeli during this period 
was the leader of the opposition in the house of 
commons. A new ministry was formed, July 
6, the earl of Derby being prime minister and 
Disraeli chancellor of the exchequer. He was 
the chief supporter of the reform bill, signed 
by the queen Aug. 15, 1867, which extended 
the right of suffrage to all householders in a 
borough, and to every person in a county who 
had a freehold of 40 shillings. The earl of 
Derby resigning in February, 1868, Disraeli 
became prime minister; but a majority in par- 
liament was opposed to the position which 
the ministry took on the question of disestab- 
lishing the church of Ireland. Parliament was 
dissolved, but the new elections showed a 
strong majority for the opposition, and without 
waiting for its meeting Disraeli with his col- 
leagues resigned, Dec. 2, 1868, and was suc- 
ceeded as prime minister by Mr. Gladstone. 
In 1870i Disraeli published " Lothair," a poli- 
tico-religious novel, aimed at the Fenians, the 
Communists, and the Jesuits. It had a great 
success, its circulation in the United States 
alone exceeding 80,000 copies. In 1868 he 
was offered a peerage by the queen, which he 
declined for himself, but accepted for his wife, 
who was made Viscountess Beaconsfield on 
Nov. 28 of that year. She died Dec. 23, 1872. 
In February, 1874, the parliamentary elections 
having resulted in a conservative majority, Mr. 
Gladstone resigned, and Mr. Disraeli again be- 
came prime minister. The career of Mr. Dis- 
raeli is one of the most extraordinary in Eng- 
lish history. By genius and energy unaided 
by wealth or family connections, he has made 
himself leader of the house of commons, min- 
ister of finance in the most commercial of 
countries, and twice prime minister of one of 
the mightiest of modern empires. 

DISRAELI, Isaac, an English author, born 
near Enfield in May, 1766, died Jan. 19, 1848, 



138 



DISRAELI 



His father removed to England in 1748 from 
Venice, whither his Hebrew ancestors had 
fled in the loth century from the inquisition in 
Spain. In Venice they assumed the name of 
Disraeli (originally written D'Israeli), " a name 
never home before or since by any other fam- 
ily, that their race might be for ever recog- 
ni7A'd." Isaac was an only son, and was in- 
tended for the pursuits of commerce, by which 
his father had attained to fortune. The latter 
\\ a> >criously alarmed when his son during his 
school days produced a poem ; "the loss of 
one of his argosies uninsured could not have 
filled him with more blank dismay." He was 
sent to a college at Amsterdam, where he 
studied the philosophical works in fashion at 
the time, and when 18 years of age returned to 
England a disciple of Rousseau. When in- 
formed that a place in the establishment of a 
givut merchant was prepared for him, he re- 
plied that he had written and intended to pub- 
lish a poem of considerable length against com- 
merce, which was the corrupter of man. Pen- 
sive and sensitive, fond of solitude and the 
society of books, he found no literary friend 
and counsellor, and was sent by his parents to 
travel in France, with the hope that adventures 
and change of scene might divert him from the 
eccentricity of his course. He lived in Paris, 
associating with learned men and frequenting 
libraries, till 1788. On his return he published 
anonymously in 1789 a satire " On the Abuse 
of Satire," in polished verses, which was di- 
rected against Peter Pindar, then in the height 
of his popularity. This venture obtained for 
him the friendship of Mr. Pye, afterward poet 
l.-iuivate, through whose influence the elder 
Disraeli was persuaded to renounce the effort 
to convert a poet into a merchant, and was 
finally induced to furnish means sufficient to 
enable his son to gratify his passion for book- 
collecting and for tranquil study. The son 
now wrote some metrical pieces for the maga- 
zines, and in 1790 " A Defence of Poetry," of 
which he afterward burned all the copies he 
could obtain. In 1791 he published the first, 
and in 1793 the second volume of his " Curi- 
osities of Literature," a product of curious 
erudition, abounding in discursive and anec- 
dotical criticisms. A new edition of both 
volumes appeared in 1794. This was followed 
by " Miscellanies, or Literary Recreations " 
(1796) ; " Vaurien, or Sketches of the Times, a 
Philosophical Novel" (2 vols., 1797); "Ro- 
mances," a volume of prose tales (1799) ; " Nar- 
rative Poems" (1803); "Flim-Flams, or the 
Life and Errors of my Uncle, and the Amours 
of my Aunt " (:{ rob., 1805) ; and "Despotism, 
or the Fall of the Jesuits," a novel ( 2 vols., 
1811). In 1812 appeared his " Calamities of 
Authors, including some Inquiries respecting 
thi-ir Mural and Literary Character;" in 1814, 
"Quarrels of Authors, or some Memoirs for 
our Literary History, including Specimens of 
Controversy to the Reign of Elizabeth ;" and 
in 1816, the most finished of his compositions, 



DISSEISIN 

" Illustrations of the Literary Character, or 
the History of Men of Genius, drawn from 
their own Feelings and Confessions." All of 
these works are amusing arid anecdotical, and 
reveal the author not only as a literary anti- 
quary, but as a man of humor, thoughtiiilness, 
and elegant tastes. His " Curiosities of Liter- 
ature " had reached the fifth edition, when 
in 1817 he added a new volume, containing 
more elaborate essays than the preceding ; and 
the success of the publication was such that 
he rapidly produced three additional volumes. 
He was five years in the composition of his 
work on the "Life and Reign of Charles L," 
which appeared in 1828-'31, and gained for him 
the degree of D. C. L. from Oxford. He had 
long meditated a history of English literature, 
for which all his previous writings had been 
preparatory ; but in 1839 a paralysis of the optic 
nerve prevented him from pursuing his re- 
searches, and a selection from his numerous 
manuscripts was given to the public in 1841 
under the title of " Amenities of Literature." 
During the latter part of his life he resided on 
his manor of Bradenham, Buckinghamshire. 
" He was," says his son, " a complete literary 
character, a man who really passed his life in his 
library. Even marriage produced no change 
in these habits ; he rose to enter the chamber 
where he lived alone with his books, and at 
night his lamp was ever lit within the samo 
walls. In London his only amusement was 
ramble among booksellers ; in the country h< 
scarcely ever left his room but to saunter ii 
abstraction upon a terrace, muse over a chaj 
ter, or coin a sentence." A new edition of 
his works, edited and annotated with a memoir 
by his son, Benjamin Disraeli, was published 
in London in 1850, and republished in New 
York in 9 vols. 

DISSEISIN, a term used in the English law 
to express the turning a man out of possession 
of a freehold estate in lands, that is to say, an 
estate in fee or for life. It is not applied to 
dispossession of a term of years, nor is it strict- 
ly applicable to an incorporal estate, inasmuch 
as that species of estate does not admit of 
actual possession in a literal sense ; yet con- 
structively there may be disseisin of incorporal 
rights, as an office, rent, and the like. Ac- 
cording to the old common law, disseisin al- 
ways imported a wrongful putting of another 
out of possession. An entry by a stranger 
after the death of the owner of a freehold, and 
before the heir or devisee had taken possession, 
was called an abatement; an entry after the 
determination of a particular estate, before the 
person entitled to the reversion or remainder, 
was an intrusion ; an alienation by a tenant 
for life for a longer term than he was entitled 
to convey was a discontinuance ; and diflx-rent 
remedies were necessary for the recovery of 
the possession while the old forms of real 
actions were in use. As disseisin commenced 
by a wrongful act of the disseizor, the person 
disseized could repossess himself by an entry 



DISSENTERS 



DISSOCIATION" 



139 



upon the lands; but if the disseizor died in 
possession, there could be no entry against his 
heir, but the rightful owner was then put to 

I an action for the recovery of the possession. 
This rule, however, was subject to certain ex- 

! ceptions, as disability of the person entitled to 
make the entry; and finally by statute five 
years' possession by the disseizor before his 
death was necessary in order to take away the 

I right of entry. It was required that the entry 
should be peaceable, for if force was used a 
summary process was given by statute to re- 

I store the possession to the person thus put out, 
although, as before supposed, his possession 
was wrongful, provided he or those from whom 

| he claimed had held the premises three years. 
Possession, although not conclusive evidence 

I of the right of property, was yet deemed of 

! such importance that it could be the subject 

1 of an action without involving the question of 
the real ownership of the fee. The old forms 
of proceeding by writ of entry, assize of novel 
disseisin, and the like, were possessory actions. 
The title to the fee could be determined only 
by a writ of right or other analogous proceed- 
ing. A limitation of time was prescribed for 
the bringing of possessory actions, which has 
varied at different periods ; but now, by statutes 
8 and 4 William IV., c. 27 (1833), no entry can 
be made nor action brought but within 20 years 
after the right of entry or action accrued ; de- 
scent cast (as it was called when the disseizor 
died in possession) is not allowed to defeat such 
entry or action, and all the real actions former- 
ly used are abolished, except actions for dower, _ 
quare impedit (which relates to certain incor- ' 
poral rights), and ejectment, which last is the 
mode by which all titles to corporal estates are 
now tried. In this country, these provisions 
have been long since generally adopted, and 
even greater changes made ; and the term dis- 
seisin has been little used in American law, and 
merely as synonymous with dispossession. 

DISSENTERS, the general name in England 
for those Protestants who differ from the es- 
tablished church in doctrine or ceremonies. 
The origin of dissent was in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. John Hooper was appointed bishop 
of Gloucester, but refused to swear obedience 
to the metropolitan or wear the episcopal 
robes. His views were opposed by Cramner 
and Ridley, and he was imprisoned for preaching 
them, but had many followers, who were called 
nonconformists. During the reign of Eliza- 
beth several acts were passed against dissent, 
especially the "Act of Uniformity" (1558), 
which enforced severe penalties against any one 
conducting public service in any other manner 
than that prescribed by the " Book of Common 
Prayer." These acts were not altered under 
James I., and under Charles I. dissent was pun- 
ished with increased severity. Upon the fall 
of the latter episcopacy was proscribed, and 
at first the Presbyterians, and afterward the 
Independents, had the ascendancy. Episco- 
pacy was restored with Charles II., and a new 



act of uniformity was passed in 1662. The 
"declarations of indulgence " of Charles II. and 
James II. gave temporary relief, but it was not 
until the revolution of 1688 that dissenters 
enjoyed any real toleration. After this the 
penal laws were gradually ameliorated. The 
test and corporation acts were repealed in 1828, 
admitting them to active citizenship; in 1836 
the marriage law was modified so as to allow 
marriages to be solemnized in the presence of 
the district registrar ; in 1 860 an act was passed 
for the admission of children of parents not 
connected with the church of England to the 
endowed schools, where such connection is not 
expressly required by the endowment; in 1867 
the former religious restrictions as to the lord 
chancellor of Ireland were removed, and it 
was made lawful for judicial or corporate offi- 
cers to attend their places of worship in their 
official robes, and a new oath was provided in 
place of the former oaths of allegiance, supre- 
macy, and abjuration; religious tests in the 
universities were abolished as to all lay students 
in 1871. The disabilities of dissenters at pres- 
ent are little more than such as are necessarily 
involved in the existence of the established 
church. In the 17th century the great classes 
of dissenters were the Presbyterians, Indepen- 
dents, Baptists, and Quakers. The most numer- 
ous now are the Methodists, who did not begin 
as avowed dissenters, and some of whom do 
not now avow dissent. There are several sub- 
divisions of Methodists, and many minor bodies 
which may be considered as subdivisions of 
the leading denominations previously men- 
tioned. In Scotland the Presbyterian church 
is established by law, and before the separation 
of the Free church the largest class of dissent- 
ers was that generally called Seceders, origina- 
ting in a separation from the established church 
in 1736. They were divided into Burghers, 
Anti-Burghers, Original Burghers, and Origi- 
nal Seceders. The most of the Burghers and 
Anti-Burghers united in 1820 under the name 
of the " United Associate Synod of the Seces- 
sion Church; "and in 1847 this body united 
with the Relief church, which had seceded 
from the establishment in 1752, the aggregate 
body taking the name of the " United Pres- 
byterian Church." In 1843 a very large seces- 
sion, led by Dr. Chalmers, formed the Free 
church of Scotland, now much the largest 
body of dissenters there. These bodies differ 
from the church of Scotland only in regard to 
the relation of the church to the civil govern- 
ment. There are also many Congregationalists 
or Independents and Baptists in Scotland. The 
disestablishment of the Episcopal church in 
Ireland in 1868 has made the term dissenter? 
no longer applicable there. 

DISSOCIATION, in chemistry, a term applied 
to the influence of heat and pressure on chem- 
ical action. The word was first employed 
by Henri Sainte-Claire Deville, who in Novem- 
ber, 1857, read before the French academy of 
sciences a paper " On the Dissociation or Spon- 



DISSOCIATION 



DISTILLATION 



taneous Decomposition of Bodies under the 
Influence of Heat." He snys : " By selecting 
a proper compound and heating it sufficiently, 
the distance between the molecules can be in- 
creased to such an extent that they will sepa- 
rate into their elementary condition. This is a 
spontaneous decomposition, not determined by 
any chemical action. I propose to call it the 
dissociation of compound bodies." In 1846 
Grove showed that fused platinum could deter- 
mine the decomposition of water into its ele- 
ments. Deville repeated this experiment on a 
large scale by pouring fused platinum into 
water. He obtained an explosive mixture of 
hydrogen and oxygen, and believes that at the 
temperature of the fusion of platinum water 
is dissociated into its constituents. Analo- 
gous experiments can be performed on solids. 
Debray showed that when Iceland spar is 
heated in a tube from which the air has been 
exhausted, no decomposition takes place in 
mercury vapor at 350 C., and a scarcely per- 
ceptible decomposition in sulphur vapor at 
440 C. ; but at 860 C. in vapor of cadmium 
it becomes very perceptible, and goes on till 
the tension of the liberated carbon dioxide 
becomes equivalent to 85 millimetres of mer- 
cury ; on raising the temperature to 1042 C. in 
vapor of zinc, more carbon dioxide is evolved. 
If, on the other hand, the apparatus be allow- 
ed to cool, the carbon dioxide is gradually 
reabsorbed by the quicklime, and a vacuum 
is reestablished in the apparatus. Lamy has 
applied these results to the construction of a 
pyrometer for the measurement of high tem- 
peratures. The apparatus consists of a porce- 
lain tube glazed on both sides, filled with pure 
carbonate of lime; one end of the tube is 
closed, the other connected with a manometer. 
By reading the volume of gas in the pressure 
gauge, and consulting the tables of tension, 
the temperature is determined. According to 
Deville, there is a tension of dissociation anal- 
ogous to the tension of vapors, and the evapo- 
ration of a liquid or the decomposition of a 
carbonate is subject to the same laws. In 
Fownes's "Chemistry," the exceptions to the 
law of molecular vapor occupying twice the 
volume of hydrogen are explained on the prin- 
ciple of the dissociation of the vapors at the 
high temperature required for the determina- 
tion of their vapor density. Several writers 
<>n geology, among them Fournet and T. Sterry 
Hunt, have had recourse to Deville's theory of 
dissociation to explain the origin of rocks and 
the action of forces in primeval chemistry. 
The force of chemical affinity appears to be 
suspended by great heat, so that at a high tem- 
perature, like that of the sun, we may imagine 
that chemical elements, such as oxygen, hydro- 
gi-n. chlorine, and sodium, can exist in the 
gaseous state, intimately mixed, but chemically 
uiieoiul.iiie.l. Many of the phenomena attrib- 
uted by Beraeihu to catalytic action are now 
explained on the principle of dissociation 
Since attention was called to the subject by 



Deville, a large number of bodies have been 
investigated with reference to the tension of 
dissociation, and the doctrine has been pushed 
to the determination of the temperature of 
combustion, also to the better understanding 
of efflorescence and the phenomena of va- 
porization. The dissociation of carbonic acid 
was accomplished by Deville by heat ; it has 
since been performed by Thenard by the elec- 
tric current. Carbonic oxide, sulphurous acid, 
hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and hydriodic acid 
have been dissociated by various chemists. 
It is the opinion of Dumas that Deville's theory 
of the tension of dissociation is as important 
to chemistry as Dalton's law of the tension of 
vapors was to physics. 

DISTILLATION (Lat. destillare, to drop), the 
conversion of a liquid or a solid into a vapor and 
condensing it ; usually applied to liquids. If 
sea water is boiled, the vapor which passes off 
leaves behind the salts and other substances 
held in solution, and by condensation in the 
atmosphere, or against cool surfaces, is con- 
verted into drops of pure distilled water. By 
artificial processes of a similar nature a volatile 
liquid may be separated from one less so, as 
alcohol, acetic acid, or ether from water with 
which they may be mingled. The volatile 
principles of plants may be extracted by water 
or other liquids, and by distillation separa- 
ted in a pure state, or dissolved in the liquic" 
used for extraction. Solid vegetable and ani- 
mal substances, by exposure to heat in vess 
more or less closed, undergo a process in whicl 
the organic compounds are destroyed, and their 
constituents recombined, partly in the form of 
volatile products, which may be collected as 
distillates, and partly as non- volatile residuum. 
By subjecting wood to such a process, char- 
coal, tar, pyroligneous acid, and naphtha are 
produced ; and by heating bituminous coal 
in close crucibles, illuminating gas, coke, coal, 
naphtha, and other products are separated. 
When solid substances, such as sulphur or cam- 
phor, are volatilized and condensed, the pro- 
cess, strictly speaking, is not distillation, because 
there is no collecting in drops ; but it is called 
sublimation. In the chemical laboratory dis- 
tillation is commonly conducted in glass retorts 
and receivers, the boiling taking place in the 




FIG. 1. Simple Distilling Apparatus. 

retort and the condensation in the receiver, 
which is usually cooled by the application of 
water or ice to the exterior. The simplest 
apparatus of this kind is shown in fig. 1. 



DISTILLATION 



When large products are required, more effi- 
cient forms of apparatus must be employed. 
Such are stills, in which the retort as well 
as the condensing portion is made of met- 
al, generally copper or iron. Usually, instead 
of a receiver of the ordinary form, the neck 
of the retort, or a tube from the boiler, 
is converted into a long coil, called a worm, 
which, being immersed in a tub of water, 
causes condensation of the vapors within. A 
simple form of still, often used when consider- 
able quantities of distilled water are required, 
and also for other pharmaceutical purposes, 
is represented in fig. 2. The retort is all that 
portion of the apparatus which sets in and 
upon the furnace, including the neck c, ter- 
minating at d, in the worm 5, d, which passes 
through a cooler e, which is supplied with cold 
water by the funnel &, the water entering at 
the bottom and flowing out at the top. It will 
be seen that the form of this apparatus will 
prevent some of the less volatile portions of 




FIG. 2. Still. 

the liquid subjected to distillation from passing 
over, as they may with the application of 
much heat in the common retort in fig. 1, a 
considerable condensation taking place in the 
dome 5. Liebig's laboratory distilling appara- 
tus is constructed by passing the neck of a re- 
tort into a Liebig's condenser, which consists 
of a glass tube surrounded by a metallic one, 
of tin or copper, in the lower part of which 
water enters, flowing out at the top. The ar- 
rangement is on the same plan as the still in 
fig. 2, only instead of a worm there is a straight 
tube. The preparation of an alcoholic liquor 
by separating the more volatile portions of the 
fermented juices of fruits and infusions of grains 
does not appear to have been understood by 
the ancients. Ure says : "It seems to have 
been invented by the barbarians of the north 
of Europe as a solace to their cold and humid 
clime, and was first made known to the south- 



ern nations in the writings of Arnoldus de 
Villa Nova, and his pupil, Raymond Lully of 
Majorca." But there are now few nations 
above the condition of savages who do not 
prepare some kind of alcoholic liquors by dis- 
tillation. The fermented juices of the grape 
and other fruits, and the fermented infusion 
of grape sugar derived from malted liquors, 
contain the same intoxicating principle, alco- 
hol, which it is the object of distillation to ob- 
tain in a more condensed form, and which 
when so obtained from liquids of different 
qualities retains the peculiar aroma and flavor 
of the plant, until by repeated distillations and 
rectifications the pure alcohol is at last ob- 
tained from peculiar volatile oils or flavors. 
All the juices of plants which can undergo 
vinous fermentation, and all vegetable matters 
which contain starch, may thus be made to 
produce alcoholic liquors. Some animal fluids 
also, which contain saccharine matters, as 
milk, may be made to furnish alcohol by fer- 
mentation and distillation. An intoxicating 
liquor from this source, called Jcumiss, is made 
in Tartary, both simply fermented and dis- 
tilled. The fruits of each country furnish 
spirits of their peculiar flavors when these are 
obtained directly from the fermented juice ; 
but if this is first allowed to crystallize, the 
sugar so obtained, on being redissolved and 
fermented, is found to have lost the aroma of 
the plant. Thus, the high flavor of the rum 
which is distilled from fermented fresh cane 
juice is not found in the distillate from fer- 
mented sugar and molasses. Sugar-growing 
countries produce rum, vine-growing countries 
brandy, and grain-growing countries whiskey 
and gin. The Chinese manufacture a distilled 
liquor from rice, and the inhabitants of Kam- 
tchatka another from mushrooms. The pro- 
cesses of obtaining these liquors are essentially 
the same, except that the cereals require some 
preparatory operations before they are ready, 
like the saccharine juices, for fermentation, 
and these operations are almost identical with 
those employed in brewing ale ; the only dif- 
ference being that in preparing the wort 
which after fermentation is to be distilled, the 
action of the diastase in the malt is continued 
until the dextrine is transformed into grape 
sugar. The grain is subjected to the process 
of mashing, and the resulting wort to that of 
cooling and fermentation, after which follows 
the distillation. A brief account of the man- 
ufacture of whiskey, as performed in the great 
distilleries of Scotland, will sufficiently explain 
the various operations. Barley is commonly 
used as the starchy material, and is more 01' 
less mixed with oats, rye, or other grains. It 
may be malted wholly or in part, or may be 
used with sugar. Barley malt is the best ma- 
terial, but the heavy duty imposed upon it 
restricts its use. According to Dr. Thomson, 
40 bushels of ground barley are mixed with 20 
bushels of bruised malt, in a mash tun of cast 
iron, together with about 750 gallons of water, 



DISTILLATION 



at a temperature of about 150 F. The mash- 
ing is continued one hour and a half, during 
which time 500 gallons more of water at 190 
to 205 are introduced at intervals, to keep up 
the heat. The whole is then allowed to infuse 
two hours, during which time the grain sub- 
sides, and the liquid above it is a sacclrarine 
turbid fluid, called wort, which also still con- 
tains some starch and dextrine ; but these by 
the action of the diastase are gradually con- 
verted into grape sugar. At the end of the 
two hours' infusion the greater part (usually 
about two thirds) of the wort is drawn off, and 
600 gallons of water at 190 is added, and the 
infusion is renewed and continued another 
hour and a half. After the wort is again 
drawn off, a third infusion succeeds, with 800 
gallons of boiling water. This being well 
stirred for 20 minutes, and then left about 
half an hour, the saccharine matters are found 
to be extracted. The weak wort is then drawn 
off and boiled down to the required strength, 
or it is added to the first and second worts, or 
is kept to be used instead of pure water for 
the first infusion of the next mashing. Strong 
worts are not desirable, the fermentation being 
more complete and the yield of spirits greater 
when they are of moderate specific gravity. 
By the old excise laws of Great Britain they 
were required to be of a certain high degree 
of strength, but in Scotland and Ireland they 
are now allowed to range from 1030 to 1080 
sp. gr., water being 1000. The next process 
is that of cooling the worts, and in consequence 
of the tendency of those produced from raw 
grain to become acid, this must be rapidly ac- 
complished. In some distilleries the wort is 
run into large shallow coolers in airy situations 
in the upper part of the building. In others 
the cooling is done by a more compact form 
of refrigerator, a description of which is given 
in the article BREWING. The temperature is 
usually reduced to between 70 and 75, 
when the worts are transferred to the fer- 
menting tuns, and yeast is added in the 
proportion of about one gallon to 100 gallons 
of wort. The object of fermentation is to 
convert all the saccharine matter, if possi- 
ble, into alcohol and carbonic acid ; but the 
presence of the alcohol as it is formed impedes 
the progress of this change, and a quantity 
often amounting to one fifth of the whole sac- 
(harine matter escapes decomposition. By the 
invention of Mr. Sheridan in fermenting the 
wash in close tuns, and causing the alcohol to 
evaporate by using a powerful air pump, the 
whole saccharine matter was converted into 
alcohol; but the excise restrictions prevented 
the adoption of the improvement. As the fer- 
mentation proceeds the liquor attains a less 
specific gravity, and when successfully con- 
ducted its density gets to be the same as that 
of water. If it is pushed too far, or goes on 
sluL'trishly or at too high a temperature, loss 
will result by a portion of the alcohol passing 
to acetic acid, the presence of which is indi- 



cated by increased specific gravity, as well as 
by its peculiar odor and taste. The process of 
distillation, which, by distinguishing the prep- 
aration of ardent spirits from that of fer- 
mented liquors, gives its name to the whole 
operation, now succeeds the fermentation. It 
is conducted in stills of various sizes and 
forms, some of which have a capacity equal to 
distilling from 2,000 to 3,000 gallons of wash 
per hour. The origin of the first still which 
abolished to a great extent the use of the 
worm and substituted condensing vessels, 
which principle has been retained with modi- 
fications in nearly all subsequent inventions of 
the kind, is due to a Frenchman named Edou- 
ard Adam, who is said to have been a distil- 
ler, unacquainted with anything more than the 
routine of his trade. In 1801 he witnessed 
some experiments with a Woulfe apparatus at 
a chemical lecture in Montpellier, and was so 
impressed with its advantages that he soon 
after constructed a still upon the same prin- 




FIG. 8. fidouard Adam's Still. 

ciple. This succeeded so well that the whole 
process of distillation was soon completely 
changed. The uses of Woulfe's apparatus are 
described in the article on GAS, and by re- 
ferring to that it will be seen that Adam's still 
was one of the happiest adaptations of a labo- 
ratory appliance to a manufacturing purpose. 
The modification of it as made by M. Adam is 
represented in fig. 3. A number of egg-shaped 
copper vessels, corresponding to the Woulfe 
bottles, are placed in convenient situations 
near each other, the terminal ones being con- 
nected on the one hand with the retort or boil- 
er containing the fermented liquor or wine, and 
on the other with a worm which is immersed 
in a cooler. The neck of the retort passes into 
the first egg-shaped vessel, dipping below the 
surface of the liquor. It is perforated at its 
termination with minute holes through which 
vapor passes. A pipe from the first egg leads 
to the second, also dipping beneath the sur- 
face of the liquor, and so on, from one to the 
next, whatever the number may be. From 
the last egg a tube enters the globe B before 



DISTILLATION 



143 



sing into the worm, whose use will present- 
be explained. From next to the last egg, or 
from any one of the series, an extra tube, C, 
also passes into the globe B, by which arrange- 
ment one or more of the eggs may be dispensed 
with when the distillation does not need to be 
carried very high. Another pipe, D, connects 
each egg and also the boiler with a small 
worm, V, which is used for testing the 
strength of the distillate in any one of the eggs, 
or from the boiler. Another pipe, E, leads 
from the cooler F into the boiler, and an- 
other, H, into the cooler from the storehouse 
where the wines are kept. The worm in the 
cooler F, moreover, leads into another worm 
in the cooler G. This still is worked in the 
following manner: The cocks connecting the 
upper tubes are closed, and those in the lower 
pipe, E, are opened. The wine is pumped 
from the storehouse through the tube H into 
the cooler F, whence it flows into the boiler. 
When this is about two thirds full the cock 
next it is closed, and the wine is forced up into 
the first egg; when this is about half filled 
the cock next it is closed, when the second egg 
is treated in the same manner ; and so on 
through the series, except the last one, which 
serves as a condenser and is surrounded with 
cold water. The lower cocks are now closed, 
and the upper ones communicating between 
the eggs, and with the worm, are opened. 
Heat is applied to the boiler, and the mixture 
of alcoholic and watery vapor is carried into 
the first egg, and there condensed by the wine, 
quite rapidly in the beginning of the process, 
so that for a time no vapor passes over into 
the second egg. The wine in the first egg, 
however, gradually comes to its boiling point, 
which, by reason of its containing more alco- 
hol than that in the boiler, is at a lower tem- 
perature. In consequence, the vapor which 
passes into the second egg has a greater per- 
centage of alcohol than that which it received. 
This vapor, being condensed, will cause the 
liquor in the second egg to be stronger than in 
the first, and therefore to boil at a still lower 
temperature. The successive eggs, as they re- 
cede from the boiler, will thus contain strong- 
er and stronger spirits, so that the last one 
may be made to receive alcoholic vapor of any 
desired strength. This is passed into the worm 
in F and condensed either in that or in the 
succeeding worm in the tub below, which is 
filled with water, kept cool by a constant flow. 
The upper cooler, containing the wine, is kept 
closed, except that a pipe leads into the globe 
B. This arrangement is for the purpose of 
preventing loss of spirit by evaporation, which 
would be considerable at the temperature it 
attains by contact with the worm. The excise 
laws of Great Britain prevented the introduc- 
tion of this still into that country until after their 
modification in 1815. Adam's apparatus was 
in the mean time much improved in France by 
Isaac B6 rard, Cellier-Blumenthal, and Derosne. 
The modification of Cellier-Blumenthal, im- 
266 VOL. vi. 10 



proved by Derosne, and now called Derosne's 
still, is represented in fig. 4. It consists of 
two boilers, A, A' ; a first rectificator, B ; a 
second rectificator, C ; a wine heater, D, con- 
taining a dephlegmator ; a condenser, F; a 
supply regulator, E, for controlling the flow 
of wine from the reservoir G, which is accom- 
plished by means of a floating ball. The still is 
worked in the following manner: The boil- 
ers are about two thirds filled with wine, 
or the liquor to be subjected to distillation, 




FIG. 4. Derosne's Still. 

through the cocks c, c'. The proper quantity 
is indicated by the glass gauges d, d'. Wine 
from the reservoir G is then let into the funnel 
J, by which the condenser F and the wine 
heater D are filled. On the application of 
heat the low-wine vapors pass from the lower 
into the upper boiler through the pipe Z, the 
extremity of which is enlarged and perforated 
with small holes. Here the vapors are con- 
densed, increasing the strength of the wine in 



144 



DISTILLATION 



the upper boiler, and consequently lowering 
its boiling point. The vapors ascend into the 
rectificators B and C. The lower rectificator, 
B, contains a number of shallow pans perforated 
with holes, and a number of spherical disks, 
also perforated with holes, placed above them, 
in pairs, the convexity of each disk being 
upward, and receiving the drip of the shallow 
pan next above it. This drip is produced by 
warmed wine which flows from the wine 
heater through the pipe L. By these means 
the vapors ascending from the upper boiler 
have their more watery portions condensed, 
while the alcoholic vapor continues to ascend. 
The dripping wine also has a portion of its 
alcohol expelled in the form of vapor, which 
ascends with the vapor coming from below 
into the upper rectificator through the orifice 
O in its bottom. This upper rectificator com- 
municates through the tube M with a worm 
(which is the dephlegmator) in the wine 
warmer D, the worm ending in the tube w, 
which again terminates in the worm contained 
in the condenser F through a cylindrical con- 
nection in its upper part. The worm in F ter- 
minates in a small vessel, N", which is furnished 
with an alcoholometer. The alcohol in N flows 
from its upper part into the cistern H. The 
upper rectificator C is divided into a number 
of compartments by as many horizontal parti- 
tions, each disk having an orifice in its centre, 
like the orifice at 0. To each of these orifices 
on the upper side of the partition is adjusted a 
short open vertical tube. A short distance above 
each tube is placed an inverted pan, having 
its edges descending about three fourths of 
an inch below the level of the upper orifice 
of the tube. As the vapors ascend from the 
lower rectificator into the upper one, a por- 
tion of them condense and collect upon the 
bottom of the compartments until they rise 
slightly above the edges of the inverted pans 
and nearly to the upper orifices of the tubes. 
When this takes place the vapor can only pass 
upward "by forcing its way under the edges of 
the pans, by which means the more watery 
portion is still further condensed, the more 
alcoholic vapor, having a higher tension, retain- 
ing its gaseous form, and passing on through 
the tube M into the dephlegmatory worm in 
the wine heater, there to be partially condensed ; 
which process heats the wine surrounding the 
worm. A phlegma collects in the lower con- 
volutions, which may be drawn off by means 
of the pipes p, p, p, and transferred at plea- 
sure either into the tube ra or into the upper 
rectificator. The purer alcoholic vapors which 
arise pass through the dephlegmator into the 
condensing worm in the condenser F, whence 
they flow in liquid form into the vessel N, and 
thence into the cistern II. The strength of the 
alcohol produced by this still depends upon 
the number of windings of the dephlegmator, 
and the number of partitions in the upper rec- 
tificator. Derosne's still requires but little 
fuel, distils rapidly, and yields a good spirit, 



which may be varied in strength at pleasure ; 
but it is rather complicated, and may with ad- 
vantage, especially when spirits of only one 
strength are required, be replaced by a simpli- 
fication of it, devised by Laugier. The products 
of the distilleries of different localities are dis- 
tinguished by peculiar flavors which give them 
a reputation ; but they are not always, espe- 
cially when the liquor is made from cereals, 
derived from the original qualities of the ma- 
terials, but often from the fuel used in drying 
the malt. Much of the Scotch and Irish whis- 
key possesses the peculiar flavor of peat smoke. 
Brandies manufactured from wines are made to 
retain their peculiar flavors by conducting the 
distillation at a temperature sufficient to carry 
over the volatile oils and ethers, and also 
enough water to reduce the strength consider- 
ably below that of ardent spirits produced in 
Great Britain ; but they may be given strength 
by the addition of pure spirit. Common alcohol 
is the hydrated oxide of ethyle, or ethy lie alcohol, 
CJIioO + HsO^CJIeO. In the process of vi- 
nous fermentation there are formed, under con- 
ditions which are not yet clearly understood, 
other homologous alcohols, such as propylic, 
butylic, and amylic alcohols, in greater or lesser 
quantities. They have a higher boiling point 
than ethylic alcohol, and therefore do not 
usually appear in the first products of distilla- 
tion ; but in the latter stages of the operation, 
when the heat is raised, they pass over into the 
worms or condensers. These alcohols, mixed 
with some ethylic and small quantities of va- 
rious ethers and volatile fatty acids, such as 
capric, caprylic, and formic, constitute an oily 
substance which passes under the general name 
of fusel oil. That of potato spirit consists al- 
most wholly of amylic, combined with a small 
quantity of ethylic alcohol. This fusel oil im- 
parts a very disagreeable taste to spirits, and to 
get rid of it is often a matter of importance. 
The process is called rectification, and may be 
conducted with or without redistillation. Its 
complete removal by distillation, even with the 
use of alkalies and other substances, is some- 
what difficult and expensive, notwithstanding 
that the boiling point of absolute ethylic alco- 
hol, 173, is much lower than that of the others, 
amylic alcohol boiling at 270. It is found, 
however, that an elimination can be satisfac- 
torily effected by filtration through granulated 
charcoal which has been recently heated. 
About three fifths of the products of distillation 
in the United States are what are termed high- 
wines or whiskey, containing about 75 per cent, 
of alcohol. This, as it comes from the still, 
contains a good deal of fusel oil. Some of it 
is made into cheap whiskey, and the remainder 
is rectified and redistilled into French spirit. 
When the percentage of alcohol is high it 
forms Cologne spirit. About one fifth of the 
products of distillation is alcohol, which is all 
used for manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
poses, about 6,000 barrels being exported from 
the United States monthly. The remaining 



DISTILLATION 



DISTRESS 



145 



one fifth of the distilled liquors consists of 
whiskey and rum, distilled to about proof, 
and so left to ripen with age. Considerable 
whiskey is made from rectified spirits of about 
75 per cent, alcohol, which is reduced and 
flavored by the addition of raw whiskey not 
rectified. All distilled liquors are sold by 
the gallon, according to the proof. Proof 
spirit is reckoned by the government as 
100, which is 50 per cent, absolute alcohol. 
DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION. When organic 
bodies are excluded from the air and subjected 
to heat, they undergo decomposition, and the 
constituent atoms or molecules rearrange them- 
selves into new compounds. The causes of 
this are various, and depend much upon the 
conditions which are present. The elective 
affinities of atoms and molecules, when a va- 
riety of substances are mingled together, vary 
with the heat and with the nature of the sub- 
stances with which they are surrounded. Two 
or more elements united in a compound, re- 
quiring a certain degree of heat to separate 
them, will require less when another compound 
is present, the amount depending upon the 
affinity which a constituent of one compound 
may have for a constituent in the other. Or- 
ganic bodies, which are usually composed of 
several compound constituents (as woody fibre, 
starch, resin, oils, and water), very readily 
suffer a complete change in their chemical as 
well as their organic structure by the simple 
application of heat, and without the presence 
of a supporter of combustion. When wood is 
enclosed in an iron tube and subjected to heat, 
various new bodies are formed of an inorganic 
character, and of a composition and number 
depending upon the duration and degree of 
heat. Decomposition commences at about 
284 F. ; and between this and red heat various 
gases, vapors, liquids, and solids are produced. 
The products of the lowest temperature con- 
tain the most oxygen, as water and carbonic 
and acetic acids. As the temperature rises 
bodies containing less oxygen are formed, 
such as wood spirit, acetone, and creosote. At 
a still higher temperature, hydrocarbons, such 
as toluene, xylene, eupione, and paraffine, ap- 
pear ; and as the temperature approaches red- 
ness, hydrogen is abundantly formed. By con- 
necting the retort with condensing vessels, by 
means of good-sized exit tubes, the various 
volatile products may be collected, and subse- 
quently separated by fractional distillation and 
otherwise. The manufacture of illuminating 
gas illustrates the destructive distillation of 
bituminous coal on a large scale. The pro- 
ducts may be divided into three classes, viz. : 
1, coke, consisting of carbon, sulphuret of iron, 
and ash ; 2, ammoniacal liquor, containing car- 
bonate, sulphide, chloride, cyanide, and sulpho- 
cyanide of ammonium ; 3, tar, embracing a 
great variety of solid and fluid hydrocarbons 
and acids, among which are benzole, toluole, 
xylole, naphthaline, anthracene, and carbolic or 
l)henic, oxyphenic, and cresylic acids, together 



with creosote, a compound of homologous oxy- 
phenic and methylic acids ; also several bases, as 
aniline, iridoline, and rubidine ; 4, illuminating 
gas, containing light-yielding compounds, such 
as acetylene, C 2 H 2 ; ethylene, or olefiant gas, 
CaH 4 ; benzole, C 6 H 6 ; naphthaline, CioH 8 ; pro- 
pyle, CsH? ; butyle, C4H 7 ; mingled with hydro- 
gen, carbonic oxide, and impurities, such as car- 
bonic acid, ammonia, cyanogen, sulpho- cyano- 
gen, and sulphuretted hydrogen. These pro- 
cesses involve highly complex reactions, the 
many stages of which are yet imperfectly un- 
derstood. The destructive distillation of acids 
and the simpler bases are more easily under- 
stood, the products being often readily traced 
to their origin. The decomposition of the 
acids takes place differently according as they 
are separate or in the presence of bases. When 
distilled alone many undergo a simple elimina- 
tion of carbonic acid, with the formation of a 
pyro-acid. Thus, gallic acid, when heated in 
a close vessel to 419 F., is decomposed into 
pyrogallic and carbonic acids, as follows: 

C 7 H a 6 = C 6 H 6 3 + CO 2 
Gallic acid. Pyrogallic acid. Carbonic acid. 

Other reactions are not quite as simple. Thus, 
oxalic acid yields water, carbonic acid, carbonic 
oxide, and formic acid, as follows : 

2C 2 H 2 4 = H 2 + CO + 2C0 2 + CH 2 O 2 
Oxalic acid. Water. Carb. ox. Carb. acid. Formic acid. 

As an example of the destructive distillation 
of a salt, may be taken that of acetate of lime, 
which is converted into acetone and carbonate 
of lime, thus: 

2C 2 H 3 CaO 2 = Ca a C0 3 + C 3 H 6 O 
Acetate of lime. Carb. lime. Acetone. 

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION is the separating 
of different constituents which naturally exist 
or have been artificially produced in a mass. 
This is accomplished quite readily on account 
of the different temperatures at which the va- 
rious constituents pass into vapors. The re- 
fining of petroleum is an example of fractional 
distillation. (See PETROLEUM.) 

DISTRESS (Lat. distringere, to press, straight- 
en, wring out), a term applied to the taking of 
property of a tenant for non-payment of rent ; 
to the seizing of cattle for damage done by 
them ; to a levy upon property to enforce the 
payment of taxes ; and lastly to a proceeding 
to compel the appearance of a party who can- 
not be found. In the two cases first men- 
tioned, the landlord or person who had been 
injured could make the seizure himself or by 
his deputy ; an anomalous authority, entirely 
at variance with a fundamental principle of 
law that parties should not be permitted to 
redress their own injuries without judicial 
process. The recaption of property which has 
been wrongfully taken away, or wrongfully 
detained, or the reentry upon lands of which 
a man has been dispossessed, though analogous 
in one respect to distress for rent or damage 






146 



DISTRESS 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



feasant, yet differs in another, viz. : that such 
recaption or reentry cannot be made with 
force, whereas a distress may be executed in 
like manner as process upon a judgment ; that 
is to say, force may be used in case of resist- 
ance. The third case above mentioned, viz., 
distress to enforce the payment of taxes, is 
statutory, and while generally limited to the 
seizure and sale of the goods of the person 
taxed, it is sometimes, in the case of tax upon 
lands, permitted to extend to any personal 
property found thereon. The case of distress 
to compel an appearance was by a judicial 
writ called a distringas. In a popular sense, 
a distress is understood only of the taking 
property of a tenant or wrong doer in satis- 
faction of rent or damages. The term is with 
some incongruity applied as well to the prop- 
ery taken as to the act of taking. Formerly, 
the property distrained was deemed a mere 
pledge, and the distrainor had no power over 
it except that of detaining it till he received 
satisfaction of the rent or damages for which 
the distress was made ; but for the security 
of the owner it was required that the property 
should be kept in a pound (parcus, which sig- 
nifies any enclosure ) ; and if the distress con- 
sisted of live animals, it was required that they 
should be impounded within three miles of the 
place where they were taken. If put into a 
public pound, the risk and expense of keeping 
the same devolved upon the owner without 
notice from the distrainor. By statute 11 
George II., c. 19, the distrainor was authorized 
to make a special pound upon the premises 
where the distress was taken, in which case 
notice to the owner was required ; but the 
liability to provide necessaries for animals be- 
longed to the owner as in the other case. A 
distress of chattels which might be injured by 
exposure to the weather the distrainor was 
bound to keep in a pound covert. A distress 
was allowed only by daylight, except in the 
case of beasts damage feasant, which might be 
taken at night, lest they should escape. For- 
merly the landlord could distrain only such 
goods as were found upon the premises for 
which rent was due, but by statute goods 
which have been clandestinely removed may 
be followed within 30 days after the rent ac- 
crues. In making the distress the landlord is 
not permitted to break open the outer door of 
the house, but being once in, he can break an 
inner door; being the same rule as in levy 
upon execution. As to the property subject 
to distress, it may be said in general that any- 
thing found upon the premises may be taken, 
whether the property of the tenant or not ; 
but from this are excepted things affixed to 
the freehold and constituting a part of it in 
law; perishable articles; goods of third persons 
npon the premises from necessity, or for the 
purposes of commerce or trade, as the carriage 
of a traveller at an inn, or the plough at "a 
smith's for repair ; goods already in the cus- 
tody of the law ; and goods specially exempt 



by statute. The tools or implements of a 
man's employment are also at common law 
conditionally exempt ; that is to say, they 
should not be taken if other sufficient distress 
can be found. If distress is made when no 
rent is due, the tenant has his remedy by 
replevin ; but for an excessive distress, the 
only protection of the tenant is by an ancient 
statute (52 Henry III., c. 4), under which an 
action may be brought for the taking of an un- 
reasonable or excessive amount. After the 
impounding of the property, by the ancient 
law the remedy of the distrainor ceased ; but 
by various modern statutes, when the distress 
is for rent, it may be sold after the expiration 
of five days for payment of the rent. In the 
United States a strong inclination has of late 
been manifested to abolish distress entirely, 
not only as a harsh remedy as regards the 
debtor, but because establishing an unjust dis- 
crimination in favor of the landlord as against 
other creditors. In several of the states this 
has already been done. 

DISTRICT OF COLOIBIA, a territory of the 
United States, containing the national capital. 
It is about 200 m. from the ocean by the Po- 
tomac river and Chesapeake bay, and lies be- 
tween lat. 38 51' and 39 K, and Ion. 76 58' 
and 77 6' W. It was named in honor of 
Christopher Columbus, and also with some 
reference to the poetical use of the term Co- 
lumbia as a designation for the United States. 
It is bounded on the S. W. by the Potomac, 
and on all other sides by Maryland, and is 10 
m. long from N. W. to S. E., with an area of 
64 sq. m. It formerly constituted the county 
of Washington, that term, however, being 
popularly confined to the portion outside of 
the cities of Washington and Georgetown, 
forming much the larger part of the District. 
The following table shows the population at 
the several decennial enumerations : 



CENSUS. 


White. 


Free colored. 


Slave. 


Total. 


1800. 


5672 


400 


2 072 


8144 


1810. 


10345 


1 527 


s'554 


15471 


1820... 


16058 


2 758 


4 520 


23336 


1830 
1840 


21,152 
23926 


4.604 
6 499 


4.505 
8 3 l) 


30.261 
33 745 


1850 


37941 


10 059 


3 687 


5l'687 


I860.. 


60763 


11 131 


3 185 


75080 


1870 


88278 


43404 




131 700 













Included in the total for 1870 are 3 Chinese 
and 15 Indians. There were 31,622 male citi- 
zens of the United States 21 years old and up- 
ward; 115,446 were native and 16,254 foreign 
born; 62,192 were males and 69,508 females. 
Of the natives, 52,340 were born in the Dis- 
trict, 23,596 in Virginia and West Virginia, 
21,751 in Maryland, 4,597 in New York, 4,121 
in Pennsylvania, 1,254 in Massachusetts, and 
1,042 in Ohio. Of -the foreigners, 8,218 were 
born in Ireland, 4,020 in Germany, and 1,422 
in England. There were 15,207 persons born 
in the District living in other parts of the 
Union. Of the colored, 35,372 were blacks 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



147 



and 8,032 mulattoes. There were 28,719 per- 
sons 10 years old and over unable to write, of 
whom 26,501 were native and 2,218 foreign; 
4,876 were white and 23,843 colored; 11,418 
were male and 17,301 female; 22,112 were 
over 21 years of age, and 6,607 between 10 
and 21 ; of those over 21, 1,214 were white 
males, 2,542 white females, 7,599 colored males, 
and 10,757 colored females. There were 78 
blind, 134 deaf and dumb, 479 insane, and 50 
idiotic; 303 paupers received support during 
the year ; and 145 persons were convicted of 
crimes. There were 25,276 families, averaging 
5-21 persons, and 23,308 dwellings, averaging 
5-65 persons to each. There were 1,365 per- 
sons over 10 years of age engaged in agricul- 
ture, 29,845 in professional and personal ser- 
vices, 6,126 in trade and transportation, and 
11,705 in manufactures and mining. The sur- 
face is undulating, with hills which command 
extensive views and afford fine sites for public 
edifices. Two considerable streams empty into 
the Potomac within the District, Rock creek 
and the Anacostia or Eastern branch. There 
are also several small brooks, to one of which 
the name of the Tiber was given in the 17th 
century, because a planter named Pope lived 
near it. The climate is moist and warm, and 
there is much local miasma. In the summer 
and autumn fevers prevail in some parts, es- 
pecially in the low grounds near -the Potomac. 
The mean temperature of Washington in spring 
is 54*2, in summer 73'1, in autumn 53'9, in 
winter 33'9 ; year, 53-8. The average rainfall 
in spring is 10'45, in summer 10*52, in autumn 
10-16, in winter 11'07; year, 41*20 inches. 
The whole number of deaths in 1870 was 
2,015, of which 826 were from general dis- 
eases, 280 from diseases of the nervous system, 
80 of the circulatory, 237 of the respiratory, 
356 of the digestive system, 77 from accident 
and injuries, and the rest from various causes. 
Consumption proved fatal in 442 cases, pneu- 
monia in 123, and cholera infantum in 150. 
The soil is light and moderately fertile. In 
1870 there were 8,266 acres of improved land. 
The productions were 3,782 bushels of wheat, 
3,724 of rye, 28,020 of Indian corn, 8,500 of 
oats, 27,367 of Irish and 5,790 of sweet pota- 
toes, 40 of peas and beans, 2,019 tons of hay, 
126,077 gallons of milk sold, 900 of wine, and 
4,495 Ibs. of butter. There were 533 horses, 
124 mules and asses, 657 milch cows, 144 other 
cattle, 604 sheep, and 577 swine ; there were 
besides 5,496 horses and 1,000 cattle not on 
farms. The cash value of farms was $3,800,- 
230 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$39,450 ; wages paid during the year, including 
value of board, $124,338 ; estimated value of 
farm productions, including betterments and 
additions to stock, $319,517; of orchard pro- 
ducts, $6,781 ; of produce of market gardens, 
$112,034; of live stock, $114,916. There 
were 952 manufacturing establishments, with 
54 steam engines of 789 horse power, and 
15 water wheels of 1,100 horse power, em- 



ploying 4,685 hands, of whom 4,333 were 
males above 16, 216 females above 16, and 136 
youth; capital invested, $5,021,925; wages 
paid during the year, $2,007,600; value of ma- 
terials, $4,754,883; of products, $9,292,173. 
The commerce, almost entirely domestic, is 
carried on chiefly through Georgetown. For 
the year ending June 30, 1872, there were en- 
tered in the coastwise trade 231 steam vessels 
of 109,681 tons, and 96 sailing vessels of 22,245 
tons ; cleared, 108 steamers of 69,308 tons, and 
65 sailing vessels of 13,402 tons; registered, 
enrolled, and licensed, 419 vessels, with an ag- 
gregate tonnage of 26,623, of which 25, of 5,084 
tons, were steam vessels; 103, of 2,987 tons, 
sailing vessels ; 275, of 17,778 tons, canal 
boats; and 16, of 774 tons, barges. There 
were 31 vessels, of 1,352 tons, built during the 
year. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal passes 
through a portion of the District, and crossing 
the Potomac at Georgetown terminates at 
Alexandria. Branches of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad from Relay, and from Point of 
Rocks, Md., terminate in Washington, and a 
railroad connects Washington with Alexandria. 
The Baltimore and Potomac railroad connects 
Baltimore and Washington. There are 5 na- 
tional banks with $1,531,000 capital, 3 savings 
banks, 1 safe deposit company, 6 fire insurance 
companies with a capital of $1,725,000, and 2 
life insurance companies. By the act of con- 
gress of Feb. 21, 1871, all the territory included 
within the limits of the District was erected 
into a government, by the name of the District 
of Columbia, which is constituted a body cor- 
porate, with the usual powers, for municipal 
purposes. The executive power is vested in 
a governor and secretary, appointed by the 
president, with the advice and consent of the 
senate, for four years; and in a comptroller, 
collector, auditor, treasurer, attorney, register, 
superintendent of assessments and taxes, water 
registrar, and surveyor, appointed by local au- 
thority. The board of health consists of five 
members, and the board of public works of 
four, besides the governor ex officio. There is 
a metropolitan police force for the District, 
under the charge of five commissioners, to- 
gether with the governor ex officio. The com- 
missioners and members of the boards are ap- 
pointed in the same manner as the governor. 
A fire department has been organized by the 
territorial government. The legislative power 
is vested in an assembly, consisting of a coun- 
cil of 11 members, appointed by the president 
with the advice and consent of the senate, for 
a term of two years, and a house of delegates 
of 22 members, elected annually by the people. 
Two of the councilmen must be residents of 
and appointed from Georgetown, and two from 
that portion of the District outside of George- 
town and Washington. The territory is divi- 
ded into districts for the appointment and elec- 
tion of councilmen and delegates. All male 
citizens 21 years of age, except convicts and 
those of unsound mind, who have resided one 



148 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



year in the District and 30 days in the precinct 
where they offer to vote, have the right of 
suffrage. The assembly has power to divide 
the territory not included in Georgetown and 
Washington into not more than three town- 
ships, and is required to maintain a system 
of free puhlic schools. The governor has a 
veto upon all legislative acts, which may be 
overcome by a two-thirds vote of each house. 
The supreme court of the District consists of a 
chief justice and four associate justices ap- 
pointed by the president with the advice and 
consent of the senate, who hold office during 
good behavior, and has general original juris- 
diction in law and equity, and appellate juris- 
diction of judgments of justices of the peace. 
It is divided into a circuit court (having also 
the powers and jurisdiction of a circuit court 
of the United States) for the trial of civil 
causes by jury; a criminal court; a district 
court, with the powers and jurisdiction of a 
district court of the United States ; and a spe- 
cial term for equity and probate matters ; each 
of which is held by a single justice. The gen- 
eral term, held by all the justices or a majority 
of them, hears appeals and writs of error from 
determinations of a single justice. From final 
judgments and decrees of the supreme court a 
writ of error or appeal lies to the supreme 
court of the United States. Justices of the 
peace are appointed by the assembly, and have 
jurisdiction of minor cases. The salaries of 
all officers appointed by the president are paid 
by the United States ; th.e other officers are 
paid from the local treasury. The property 
of a married woman, not received by gift or 
conveyance from her husband, is not subject to 
his control nor liable for his debts, and she 
may dispose of it in every respect as if single. 
The valuation of property, according to the 
federal censuses, has been as follows : 





At 


I8ES8ED VALt) 


R. 


TBTTE VALUE. 


YEARS. 


Total. 


Real estate. 


Personal estate. 


Real and per- 

sonal estate. 


1860... 








$14018 R74. 


1860... 
1870... 


$41,084,945 
74,271,693 


$38,097,542 
71,437,468 


$7,987,403 
2,834,225 


41,084,945 
126,873,618 



At the last named date the total taxation was 
$1,581,569, of which $49,975 was county and 
$1,531,594 city tax; there was a city debt 
of $2,596,545, for which bonds to the amount 
of $1,640,584 had been issued. The assessed 

T %n f /JJ 1 69tate for the fiscal year ending 
?w 3 ?'. 1873 > wa8 $87,869,924; the valuation 
)t Washington city was $72,880,380; of George- 
town $6,306,488; of the county of Washing- 
ton, $8,623056. The assessed valuation for 
the year ending June 30, 1874, was $96,433,- 
72. lersonal property is not now assessed, 
but the comptroller, in his report of April 28 
1873, estimates the actual value of all property 
including that of the federal government at 
$200,000,000. The receipts and expeSres 



for the 31 months from June 1, 1871, the date 
of the organization of the territorial govern- 
ment, to Dec. 31, 1873, were as follows : 

RECEIPTS. 

Loans and bonds $0,427,850 00 

Licenses, markets, and miscellaneous 1,083,949 06 

Special and personal accounts 446,642 84 

Trust funds 81)7.975 49 

General taxes 1,006,206 21 

School taxes 688,837 26 

Police taxes 255,241 45 

Gas taxes 244,500 98 

Personal taxes 87,316 52 



Total on account of District of Columbia. . . $11,088,519 71 
Total on account of the late corporations of 
Washington, Georgetown, and the levy 
court $3,063,906 07 

Total from all sources $14,157,425 78 



EXPENDITURES. 

Account of loans and bonds 

Salaries of general officers, and general contin- 
gencies 

Special and personal accounts 

Trust funds 

Salaries of local officers, and local contingencies 

Salaries of officers, teachers, and contingent ex 
penses of public schools 

Salaries of officers and members, and contingent 
expenses of metropolitan police 

Gas for street lamps 

Miscellaneous 



800,959 09 
407,359 79 
576,835 78 
405,887 46 

657,195 65 

244,558 99 

187,646 49 

1,002,760 85 



Total on account of District of Columbia. . . $10,681,120 TO 
Total on account of the late corporations. . 2,682,074 41 

Total on all accounts $13,363,195 11 

Included in the expenditures on account of the 
late corporations is the sum of $215,948 20 for 
the completion of public school buildings and 
the proportion due to colored schools, making 
the whole amount expended for school pur- 
poses $873,143 85. The expenditures to Dec. 
31, 1872, included $4,833,009 30 on account 
of the board of public works, $53,199 25 for 
the board of health, $450,000 for an additional 
supply of Potomac water, $186,330 57 for in- 
terest, and $109,051 58 for the fire department. 
The tax levy for the year ending June 30, 1874, 
was $2 in Washington city and Georgetown, 
and $1 58 in the county of Washington, on 
each $100 of taxable property, amounting to 
$1,888,152 22 in all. The debt on Dec. 31, 
1873, was $9,878,039 91, of which $5,527,850 
belonged to the present District government, 
$4,096,801 01 to the late corporation of Wash- 
ington, $251,689 'to Georgetown, and $1,699 
90 to the levy court. The outstanding bonds 
issued by the present government amounted 
to $8,213,850, viz. : permanent improvement 
bonds, $4,790,000; funding bonds, $2,686,000; 
water stock bonds, $485,000; market stock 
bonds, $140,900; Chicago relief bonds, &c., 
$111,900. From 1797 to 1870 congress ap- 
propriated $42,228,963 80 for various objects 
connected with the District of Columbia. 
There are 22 important charitable and reform- 
atory institutions. The following are those 
more or less directly connected with the 
territorial or national government, with the 
number of inmates, Dec. 1, 1872. The Wash- 






DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



149 



ington city asylum is supported by the District 
government and by the products of the farm 
attached, which is worked by the prisoners. It 
receives sick and destitute persons, and va- 
grants and petty criminals committed by the 
courts ; it has from 50 to 200 inmates. The 
reform school for boys had 79 inmates, consist- 
ing of juvenile delinquents committed by the 
courts, and of destitute boys admitted on the 
order of the governor of the District or the 
trustees of the schools. Congress has recently 
appropriated $100,000 for the purchase of a 
farm and the erection of bnfldings for this in- 
stitution, and in August, 1872, it was removed 
from the vicinity of Georgetown to Mount Lin- 
coln, 3 m. N. E. of the capitol, where 150 
acres of ground have been purchased, upon 
which a building capable of accommodating 
300 inmates has been erected. The national 
soldiers' and sailors' orphans' asylum, estab- 
lished in 1866, had 37 male and 31 female in- 
mates; it receives only the orphans of Union 
soldiers and sailors, and is supported by annual 
appropriations by congress, and by voluntary 
contributions. The freedman's hospital, estab- 
lished in 1865, is supported by congress, which 
in 1872 appropriated $74,000 for its mainte- 
nance; its inmates, who are admitted on the 
recommendation of the governor of the Dis- 
trict, numbered 115 males and 110 females, all 
but 10 colored. The national soldiers' home, 
about 2 m. N". of Washington, was estab- 
lished in 1851 with the unexpended balance 
of the contributions levied by Gen. Scott du- 
ring the Mexican war. It is supported mainly 
by a levy of 12 cents on the monthly pay of 
soldiers of the regular army. Its inmates, 
superannuated and disabled soldiers, numbered 
250. Congress also makes an annual appre- 
ciation in aid of the Columbia hospital for 
romen and lying-in asylum, and of Provi- 
snce hospital (Roman Catholic). The gov- 
iment hospital for the insane, situated S. 

the Anacostia river, near Uniontown, was 
established in 1853 for the " curative treat- 
ment of the insane of the army and navy 
and of the District of Columbia." It con- 
tained 422 male and 139 female patients. The 
Columbia institution for the deaf and dumb 
founded by Amos Kendall, and chartered 

congress in 1857. It is supported by con- 
gressional appropriations, by the tuition fees 
of a few paying pupils, and by voluntary con- 
tributions. The amount appropriated by con- 
gress in 1872 was $48,000 for the support of 
the institution, and $70,000 for the purchase 
of additional grounds. It is designed especial- 
ly for residents of the District and the children 
of soldiers and sailors. A collegiate depart- 
ment, known as the national deaf-mute college 
(the only such college in the world), was organ- 
ized in 1864, and is designed to receive stu- 
ents from the deaf and dumb institutions of the 
various states. In 1873 it had 8 professors and 
59 students, of whom 19 were semi-mutes. 
Including the above, the whole number of in- 



structors in the institution was 11, and the 
whole number of pupils 108, of whom 16 were 
females. Columbian college (Baptist) was or- 
ganized in 1822, and in 1872 had 27 professors 
and instructors, and 261 students. Howard 
university (Congregational), organized in 1866, 
is an outgrowth of the freedmen's bureau, de- 
signed especially for colored students, but is 
not restricted by its charter in respect of race 
or sex. (See HOWARD UNIVERSITY.) Gonzaga 
college (Roman Catholic), organized in 1858, 
had in 1872 9 professors and 107 students in 
the preparatory department. Wayland semi- 
nary (colored Baptist), organized in 1865, had 
8 instructors and 85 students. The law school 
of the national university, organized in 1870 
as a branch of a projected university, had 6 
professors and 98 students. The national col- 
lege of pharmacy has been recently organized 
with 3 professors and 17 students. The insti- 
tutions mentioned above are in "Washington. 
In Georgetown is Georgetown college (Roman 
Catholic), organized in 1789, a notice of which 
will be found in the article GEORGETOWN. Be- 
sides Georgetown and Washington, there are 
four post offices in the District, viz. : Anacostia, 
Brightwood, Mount Pleasant, and Tenallytown. 
The public schools are under the charge of four 
boards of trustees. One board, of 20 mem- 
bers, has control of the white schools of 
Washington city; the second, of five members, 
has control of the white schools of George- 
town ; the third, of seven members, has charge 
of the schools both white and colored of the 
county of Washington. There is a superin- 
tendent for these schools, who, as well as the 
trustees, is appointed by the governor for two 
years. A board of three trustees, appointed 
by the secretary of the interior for three years, 
was constituted by act of congress in 1862. 
This board appointed a superintendent, and 
continued to have the management of the col- 
ored schools of Georgetown and Washington 
city until April 1, 1873, when the act of con- 
gress of March 3, 1873, went into effect, which 
created a board of nine trustees, appointed by 
the governor for three years (three of them 
retiring annually), for those schools, and pro- 
vided for the appointment of a superintendent, 
a secretary, and a treasurer by the same au- 
thority. The public schools are entitled to 
"all moneys accruing from fines, penalties, 
and forfeitures for violation of the laws of the 
United States within the District of Columbia." 
The colored schools of Washington and George- 
town receive a proportion of all moneys de- 
voted to school purposes in those cities, deter- 
mined by the ratio which the colored children 
bear to the whole number of children of school 
age. The act of congress of June 25, 1864, 
requires parents and guardians, under penalty 
of a fine of $20, to send their children between 
the ages of 6 and 14 years to some public 
school at least 12 weeks in each year, unless 
elsewhere educated. By the census of 1870 
there were 31,671 children of school age (6 to 



150 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



17 years inclusive), of whom 10,494 were col- 
ored, 14,971 were males, and 16,700 females. 
The following statements embody the statistics 
of the colored schools of Washington city and 
Georgetown for the year ending June 30, 1872, 
and of the other schools for the year ending 
Aug. 31, 1872 : the number of school houses 
owned by the District was 42 ; value of school 
property, $816,005; number of schools, 233, 
including 1 preparatory high school (colored), 
16 grammar, 36 intermediate, 51 secondary, 
111 primary, and 18 ungraded schools (county 
of Washington) ; number of teachers, 264, of 
whom 27 were males ; pupils enrolled, 15,555, 
of whom 5,435 were colored ; average atten- 
dance, 10,688, of whom 3,639 were colored. 
The school tax in Washington city was 60 
cents on $100, in Georgetown 25 cents, and 
in the county of Washington 40 cents. The 
receipts were $3,398 64 from fines, &c., and 
$352,241 43 from taxation; total, $355,640 07. 
The total expenditures were $479,995 94, in- 
cluding $129,654 51 for teachers' wages, $79,- 
409 76 for incidental expenses, and $140,577 
51 for sites, buildings, &c. The separate ex- 
penditures (included in the total) of the colored 
schools of Washington and Georgetown were 
$49,855 59 for teachers' wages, $18,747 04 for 
incidental expenses, and $60,403 68 for sites, 
buildings, &c. ; total, $129,006 31. The school 
tax for the year ending June 30, 1873, was 33 
cents on $100 in Washington city, 53 cents in 
Georgetown, and 50 cents in the county of 
Washington. According to the census of 
1870, there were 87 schools not public, viz. : 1 
classical academy, 2 commercial, 61 day and 
boarding, and 23 parochial and charity schools. 
The number of teachers was 256 ; pupils, 
7,010; annual income, $199,313. The number 
of private schools in 1872, as appears by the 
report of the United States commissioner of 
education, was 123 (including 31 institutions 
for secondary instruction), having 6,217 pupils. 
The census returns of 1870 include 696 libra- 
ries, containing 793,702 volumes, of which 569, 
with 383,766 volumes, were private. The 
others were classified as follows: 1 congres- 
sional, 190,000 volumes ; 14 departmental 
(United States government), 115,185; 4 court 
and law, 32,348 ; 95 Sabbath school, 39,853 ; 
6 church, 2,850; 7 circulating, 29,700; total 
libraries not private, 127, with 409,936 volumes. 
The number of newspapers and periodicals 
was 22, viz. : 3 daily, 1 tri-weekly, 12 weekly, 
and 6 monthly. There were 111 church or- 
ganizations and 112 houses of worship; num- 
ber of sittings, 63,655 ; value of property, 
$3,393,100. The church edifices were: Bap- 
tist, 16 ; Christian, 1 ; Congregational, 1 ; 
Episcopal, 16 ; Evangelical Association, 1 ; 
Friends', 1 ; Jewish, 1 ; Lutheran, 10 ; Meth- 
odist, 36 ; New Jerusalem, 1 ; Presbyterian, 
15; Reformed, 1; Roman Catholic, 11; Uni- 
tarian, 1. After the adoption of the articles 
of confederation by the United States, the 
question of fixing upon a seat of government 



for the Union called forth much sectional 
rivalry. During the period between the con- 
clusion of the revolutionary war and the adop- 
tion of the present constitution, congress met 
at Princeton, Annapolis, Trenton, and New 
York. After the organization of the govern- 
ment under the constitution, March 4, 1789, 
warm discussions took place in congress on 
the location of the capital, which were finally 
settled by the passage, June 28, 1790, of an 
act containing the following clause: "That a 
district of territory on the river Potomac, at 
some place between the mouths of the Eastern 
branch and the Connogacheague, be and the 
same is hereby accepted for the permanent 
seat of the government of the United States. 1 ' 
The same act provided that congress should 
hold its sessions at Philadelphia until the first 
Monday in November, 1800, when the govern- 
ment should remove to the district selected on 
the Potomac. The area fixed upon for the 
district was a square of 10 miles, or 100 square 
miles. It embraced 64 square miles of Mary- 
land, constituting the county of Washington, 
which was ceded by that state to the United 
States in 1788, and 36 square miles of Virginia, 
constituting the county of Alexandria, ceded 
in 1789. The portion on the Virginia side of the 
Potomac was retroceded to that state in 1846. 
In 1814 Washington was taken by the British, 
who burned the capitol, presidential mansion, 
and congressional library. In the early part 
of the civil war strong fortifications were erect- 
ed for the protection of the capital, which was 
several times threatened ; but no fighting oc- 
curred within the District until July 12, 1864, 
when Gen. Early with a considerable force at- 
tacked Fort Stevens, an isolated work about 
6 m. N. of Washington. At this time the gar- 
rison had been much weakened by the with- 
drawal of troops to strengthen the army be- 
fore Richmond, but reinforcements arrived the 
same day, and the confederates were repulsed. 
Slavery was abolished by the act of congress 
of April 16, 1862, and the right of suffrage 
was extended to colored citizens by the act of 
Jan. 8, 1867. The constitution of the United 
States confers upon congress the exclusive 
legislative control over the District, but does 
not allow the inhabitants any vote for presi- 
dential electors. Previous to the act of 1871 
the legislative power had been exercised di- 
rectly by congress, in which, however, the 
people had no representation; but upon the 
establishment of a territorial form of govern- 
ment by that act the right of electing a del- 
egate to congress, with the same privileges 
as delegates of other territories, was granted. 
The act repealed the charters of the cities of 
Washington (pop. in 1870, 109,199) and George- 
town (pop. 11, 384), which had been incorporated 
May 3, 1802, and Dec. 25, 1789, respectively, on 
and after June 1, 1871 ; but provided that the 
portions of the District included within the 
then limits of those cities should continue to 
be known as the city of Washington and the 



DITHYRAMBUS 



DIURETICS 



151 



city of Georgetown respectively. At the same 
time the levy court of the District of Colum- 
bia ceased to exist, and the District of Colum- 
bia became the successor of the corporations 
of the cities and of the county of Washington. 
(See GEOKGETOWN, and WASHINGTON.) 

DITHYRAMBUS, in Grecian antiquity, a song 
sung in the vintage season in honor of Bacchus. 
The origin of these songs is traced to the ear- 
liest ages of Greek civilization, and the most 
famed of the early composers of them was 
Arion of Methymna. But few fragments of 
ancient dithyrambic poetry remain, and it is 
only by tradition that we know the successes 
of Melanippides, Pindar, and Philoxenus in 
this style of composition. The dithyrambus 
was primitively religious ; it was lively, rapid, 
brilliant, and disordered, like the joy and in- 
toxication of a Bacchanalian festival. In the 
heat of improvisation, the poets often united 
several words into one, from which resulted 
expressions so voluminous and sonorous that 
they wearied alike the ear and the imagination. 
In the age of Pericles this kind of poetry wa8 
the object of raillery. 

DITMARSH (Germ. Ditkmarschen, or Dit- 
marsen, i. e., the German marshes), the west- 
ernmost portion of Holstein, Prussia, com- 
prising the coast land on .the North sea, be- 
tween the Eider and the Elbe; area, 500 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 75,000. The surface is a low 
flat, protected against inundation by strong 
embankments. Excepting in the marshy dis- 
tricts, it has a rich alluvial soil, bearing heavy 
crops of wheat, beans, and hay. The inhabi- 
tants are a sturdy people of the primitive 
Teutonic type, and during the middle ages 
maintained a considerable degree of autonomy 
and equality, bravely defending their rights 
against the encroachments of their various 
rulers, German and Danish. After severe 
struggles Ditmarsh became part of Holstein, 
under Danish rule, in 1559, but continued to 
be governed by its own code. In 1866 it was 
with the rest of Holstein annexed to Prussia. 

DITTOS, Humphrey, an English mathemati- 
cian, born in Salisbury, May 29, 1675, died Oct. 
15, 1715. He studied theology, and was for 
some years a dissenting clergyman, but subse- 
quently devoted himself to mathematics. Pie 
was encouraged by Sir Isaac Newton, through 
whose influence he was elected professor in 
the newly created mathematical school of 
Christ's hospital, a position which he retained 
till _ his death. In 1714 he published with 
Whiston an advertisement of a new method 
of finding the longitude at sea. The plan was 
approved by Newton, but rejected by the board 
of longitude; and it is said that the chagrin 
caused by this disappointment, and by some 
obscene verses of Swift, occasioned his death. 
He was the author of numerous mathematical 
treatises, among which are the following : 
" Of the Tangents of Curves ;" " General 
Laws of Nature and of Motion ;" " An Institu- 
tion of Fluxions;" and "The New Law of 



Fluids, or a Discourse concerning the Ascent 
of Liquids in exact Geometrical Figures, be- 
tween two nearly contiguous Surfaces." 

DIU, a Portuguese island and town of India, 
separated by a narrow channel from the S. ex- 
tremity of Guzerat, in lat. 20 43' N., Ion. 70 
45' E., 160 m. N. W. of Bombay ; area, 12 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 10,000. The soil is unfit for 
cultivation and the water is brackish, but pro- 
visions are plentifully supplied from the main- 
land, with which the inhabitants carry on a 
lively trade. The town is situated on the E. 
end of the island, is well fortified, and has an 
excellent harbor. It was renowned in ancient 
times for a magnificent temple of Mahadeva, 
which was destroyed by Shah Mahmoud of 
Ghuzni about 1025. The island was taken in 
1515 by the Portuguese, and was pillaged in 
1670 by the Arabs of Muscat. It is at present 
one of the most flourishing of the Portuguese 
settlements. 

DIURETICS, drugs used to increase the 
amount of the urinary excretion or of some of 
its constituents. They may be divided into 
several groups: 1, those which increase the 
water of the urine with but little effect on its 
solid constituents ; 2, those which increase 
both the water and the solids; 3, those which 
increase the solid rather than the watery con- 
stituents ; 4, those which alter the quality 
without augmenting the quantity. To the first 
class belong squills, juniper, taraxicum, horse- 
radish, parsley, broom, carrot seed, spirits of 
nitrous ether, pure water, cantharides, and tur- 
pentine. Cantharides and turpentine may be 
given in such doses as to produce congestion 
of the kidneys and bloody urine. If their ac- 
tion is carried far enough, a suppression in- 
stead of an increase of the urine may result. 
Many salines, such as acetates, citrates, tartrates, 
and carbonates of soda and potassa, nitrate 
of potassa, and sulphate and citrate of mag- 
nesia, belong to the second class. Some of 
these salts may be given so as to pass off by 
the bowels, and exert but little effect upon 
the kidneys. In general, it is necessary to give 
this class of drugs in small doses, frequently 
repeated, when it is desired that they should 
pass through the kidneys and act as diuretics, 
and in one or two large doses when they are 
intended to act upon the bowels. Colchicum 
is the principal agent of the third class. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Hammond's experiments, it has 
a powerful effect in augmenting the amount 
of solid urinary constituents, while the water 
is comparatively little affected. The salts 
formed by the alkalies with carbonic and ve- 
getable acids render the urine alkaline when 
given in sufficient doses, and are consequently 
examples of the fourth group of diuretics. 
Uva ursi and chimapkila umbellata or winter- 
green act as diuretics in virtue of the volatile 
oils and tannic acid which they contain, and 
which pass into the urine, imparting to it a dark 
color and peculiar odor. Buchu, copaiba, cu- 
bebs, and similar substances act by virtue of 



152 



DIVEK 



their resins and volatile oil. Their therapeu- 
tic effect is due rather to the alterative action 
of the urine bearing these constituents on the 
mucous membranes by which it is excreted and 
over which it passes, than to any increase in 
its amount. Benzoic acid passes into the urine 
in the form of hippuric acid, and may be used 
when it is desirable to increase the acidity of 
that fluid. Digitalis, although frequently used 
as a diuretic, is probably only secondarily so. 
It increases the flow of urine by virtue of its 
action upon the arterial tension of the kidneys, 
promoting thereby a more rapid flow and even 
distribution of the blood through them. Digi- 
talis is frequently combined with squill. Diu- 
retics are used in various stages of kidney dis- 
eases (where they should be very cautiously 
managed), in gout, rheumatism, dropsy, and 
affections of the urinary passages. Although 
very useful and efficient in many cases, they 
cannot always be relied upon, and consequently 
are not regarded as among the most certain of 
medicines. It is well known that many wines, 
especially hocks and acid wines, are apt to run 
off by the kidneys. Ardent spirits, especially 
gin and whiskey, will also increase the urine, 
but neither wines nor ardent spirits are often 
prescribed as diuretics. 

DIVER (colymbus, Linn.), a bird of the order 
natatores and family colymbida, the latter con- 
taining the divers and the grebes. The bill in 
this genus is long, strong, straight, curved 
slightly at the tip, which is sharp, with com- 
pressed sides ; the nostrils are in a membra- 
nous groove; the wings are moderate and 
pointed, the first and second quills the longest ; 
the tail is very short and rounded ; the tarsi 
rather short, compressed, and covered with 
reticulated scales ; the toes long, the three ante- 
rior united by an entire web, and the inner side 
of the internal toe margined with membrane ; 
the hind toe short, with a small membranous 
margin; the claws moderate, depressed, and 
broad. Only three species are well ascertained, 
the C. glacialis, C. arcticus, and C. septentri- 
onalis (Linn.), which belong to the arctic 
circle, migrating to the northern temperate 
regions of America and Europe. The great 
northern diver, generally called loon in the 
United States (C. glacialis), is a large, pow- 
erful, and handsome bird; the largest males 
measure about 3 ft. to the end of the tail, with 
an extent of wings of nearly 5 ft., and a 
\\viirht of from 8 to 10 Ibs. The head is mod- 
erate, narrowed in front ; the neck thick and 
long ; the body elongated and depressed ; the 
t'.-i-t very far back; the plumage short and 
dense. The bill is black, iris deep bright red, 
t'rrt grayish blue, with the webs brownish 
Mark ; tin- ht-ad and neck are dark greenish 
Mm-, with purple reflections; on the throat 
then- is a transverse white patch, with longi- 
tudinal dusky streaks; in the middle of the 
ncrk an- t \vo white patches, continuous behind, 
but separated an inch in front ; the sides of 
the neck at the lower part are streaked longi- 



tudinally black and white, there being on each 
feather two oblong spots of the latter hue ; 
the upper parts are glossy black, with spots of 
white in regular transverse curved lines with 




1. The Great Northern Diver (Colymbus placialis). 2. The 
Red-throated Diver (C. septentrionalis). 

the convexity backward, the spots being round- 
ed and small toward the neck, sides, and tail 
coverts, larger and quadrangular on the middle 
of the back, largest on the scapulars; the 
lower parts are white, except on the sides 
under the wings, which are black with ellipti- 
cal white spots, a faint dusky band across the 
vent, and the lower tail coverts, which are 
blackish, tipped with white ; the tail is brown- 
ish black, with a paler tip. The female re- 
sembles the male in colors, but is smaller. 
The young in winter are dark grayish brown 
above, white underneath, with the sides 
dusky ; toward spring the white spots begin 
to appear, and the plumage is that of the adult 
at the end of summer ; the go further south 
than the adults. The flight is rapid, long sus- 
tained, and at a considerable elevation. The 
gait of the bird on land is generally slow 
and awkward ; on the water, when at ease, it 
swims lightly, but when alarmed it sinks the 
body so deeply that not more than inch of its 
back can be seen. As a diver it is unsurpass- 
ed except by the darter and the auk, disappear- 
ing quickly, flying rapidly beneath the surface, 
remaining under water a long time, and coming 
up again at a great distance from the spot of 
its disappearance. Loons are occasionally found 
drowned in fishermen's nets, and are sometimes 
caught on hooks. The curiosity of the loon is 
often taken advantage of to draw them within 
shot, as the bird will almost always approach 
any bright-colored object waved by a con- 
cealed gunner; hence the phrase "stupid as a 
loon." Its notes are so loud and plaintive that 
to be " as noisy as a loon " has become a prov- 
erb. Its food consists of fish, lizards, frogs, 
aquatic insects, and the roots of fresh-water 
plants ; it fishes in both salt and fresh water, and 
usually swallows its food beneath the surface. 
The flesh is tough and rank. The loon breeds 






DIVI 



in various parts of the United States from 
Maine to Maryland, according to Audubon ; and 
Dr. Kichardsou says it is found breeding as 
far N". as 70. The nest is built near the water, 
in marshes, on the ground, and of rushes and 
grasses growing in the vicinity. The eggs are 
generally three, about 3 in. long by 2^ broad, 
elongated, with a narrow point ; their color is 
dull greenish ochry, with indistinct spots of 
dark umber, most numerous toward the larger 
end. The loon is found also in Europe and 
northern Asia. The black-throated diver (0. 
arcticus), next in size to the loon, is 29 in. 
long to the end of tail, with an extent of wings 
of about 40 in. The upper parts are glossy 
black, with a greenish tinge anteriorly and 
brownish behind, the head and hind neck be- 
ing hoary ; on the fore part of the back are 
two longitudinal bands of white bars, the 
feathers tipped with white ; the scapulars and 
wing coverts with white spots ; the quills are 
blackish brown, with a gray tinge externally ; 
on the front of the neck for about six inches 
is a purplish black patch, ending angularly be- 
low, with a band of white spots above; the 
sides of the neck are blackish brown, with 
longitudinal white streaks ; the lower parts are 
pure white, except a dusky band under the 
wings. The female is smaller than the male, 
but similarly colored. This species breeds in 
the far north, where the old birds principally 
remain, and whence the young wander over 
North America and northern and eastern Eu- 
rope. Birds in full plumage are rarely obtained 
in the United States, and, according to Audu- 
bon, never further south than Delaware ; along 
the eastern shores they are seen from autumn 

til spring. Their flight is rapid and well sus- 
ed, and performed with the neck and feet 
tched out at full length. The red-throated 
diver (0. septentrionalis) is about 26 in. long, 
with an extent of wing of 43 in., and a weight 
of 4 Ibs. It resembles the preceding species 
except in the rich brownish red color of the 
anterior neck, and the lines of black and white 
on the hind head and neck ; in the young males 
the fore neck is merely dotted with red. They 
begin to fly north to breed from early spring 
to the middle of May ; they are found on the 
coast from Maryland to Maine, from autumn 
to spring ; the younger the birds, the further 
south they go, and it is rare to find an old one 
south of Boston; they abound in the bay of 
Fundy. They are very shy, and always ap- 
proach their nests from the water. Both sexes 
incubate. The full beauty of the plumage is 
mot attained until the fourth year. They are 
rarely seen inland, and hardly ever out of the 
breeding season. Along the New England 
coast and in the bay of Fundy they are com- 
monly called "cape racer" and "scapegrace." 

DIVI, or Divi-Divi, the pod of a leguminous 
shrub, Ccesalpinia coriaria, a native of the 
northern parts of South America and the West 
India islands, used for tanning, for which pur- 
pose it is exported to Europe and other coun- 



DIVINATION 



153 




tries. The plant grows to the height of 20 or 
30 ft., and the pods, which are dark brown, 
and curl up in drying, attain a length of 3 in. 
The rind has a strongly astringent and bitter 
taste from the tannin contained between the 
outer layer and the husk that encloses the seed. 
The leather prepared with it is very porous 
and acquires a deep brownish red color. Al- 
most the only ports of shipment are Maracaibo, 
Rio Hacha, and Savanilla. 

DIVIDING ENGINE. See GEADUATION. 

DIVINATION (Lat. divinatio, from dwinw, 
divinely or prophetically inspired), a general 
term for the various pretended arts of discov- 
ering secret or future things by preternatural 
means. These arts appear in the remotest 
antiquity, intimately connected with religion, 
furnished with rules, founded on mysterious 
principles, and fortified by the pretences of a 
science. Both as a learned doctrine and a 
popular faith, divination has always existed in 
the East, and was common in Europe through- 
out classical antiquity and during the middle 
ages. It was distinguished by the Greeks as 
natural or artificial; the former being a pres- 
age of future events by a sort of inspiration 
which was possible only to persons specially 
favored by the deity ; the latter being founded 
on careful observation of certain natural phe- 
nomena which were believed to have mysterious 
relations with future events. Astrologers, au- 
gurs, sorcerers, fortune tellers, and second- 
sighted persons are eminent examples of divi- 
ners. The following are among the principal 
of the numerous forms of artificial divination 
practised in antiquity : Alectryomancy was 
practised by drawing a circle and dividing it 
into 24 equal parts, into each of which were 
put a letter of the alphabet and a grain of 
wheat ; a cock was then placed in the centre, 
and the letters, being put together in the order 
that the grains were eaten by it, made a word 
which solved the question of the diviner. 
Arithmomancy depended upon the secret ope- 
ration of numbers and magical squares, and 
the numerical value of letters ; it was practised 
by the Chaldeans, and formed a part of the 
doctrine of the Pythagoreans, Neo-Platonists, 
and cabalists. Axinomancy consisted in sus- 
pending an axe from an upright stick, and the 
names of suspected persons being pronounced 
it was supposed to indicate the guilty by its 
motion. Belomancy consisted in the choice 
of arrows by chance from a bag containing 
many of them inscribed with various respon- 
ses ; it was in use especially among the Ara- 
bians. Capnomancy consisted either in ob- 
serving the direction taken by smoke, or in 
inhaling the smoke of victims, which was 
believed to produce prophetic inspiration. 
Dactylomancy was practised by enchanted 
rings, or rings that were made in harmony with 
the position of the celestial bodies. Its ori- 
gin is attributed to Helen, the wife of Mene- 
laus. It is by one of these rings that Gygea 
is said to have rendered himself invisible". A 



154 



DIVING 



favorite method was to suspend the ring by a 
hair within a goblet, when it began to swing, 
the motion gradually increasing till it struck 
the vessel once or twice for yes or no, as pre- 
viously determined. Gyromancy consisted in 
walking round in a circle, the circumference 
of which was marked with letters, the pres- 
age being drawn from the letters on which 
the inquirers stumbled when they became too 
dizzy to stand. Hydromancy, or divination by 
water, consisted in observing the colors and 
images presented by water in a vase, either 
when motionless or when disturbed by drop- 
ping little stones into it. The motions of the 
agitated waves of the sea were also studied 
for purposes of divination, especially by the 
ancient Sicilians and Eubceans. Lampado- 
mancy furnished presages for the future from 
the form, color, and fluctuations of the flame 
of a lamp. Lithomancy was a method of 
divination by means of precious stones. The 
sounds of stones striking each other gave pres- 
ages, and the amethyst was believed to have 
the virtue of sending prophetic dreams to who- 
ever possessed it. The ~bwtylia, or animated 
atones, of which the Greeks learned from the 
Persians, and which were believed to bear 
oracles, are celebrated instances. Ornitho- 
mancy, or divination from the flight and song 
of birds, was a principal function of the Ro- 
man augurs. (See ATJGUE.) The flame of fire 
(pyromancy), the accidental opening of a book 
(rhapsodomancy), the combination of cards 
(chartomancy), the drawing of lots, the drop- 
ping of staffs or observation of cups (especially 
in use among the old Egyptians), the interpre- 
tation of dreams, the reflections of mirrors, 
and the contortions of serpents, are other 
means. Several of these methods of divina- 
tion are yet in use among the superstitious. 
Some of the more remarkable forms of divina- 
tion are treated in special articles, as ASTROLO- 
GY, CHIBOMANCY, DIVINING ROD, and MAGIC. 

DIVING. Though the natural constitution 
of man entirely unfits him for remaining under 
water with safety for more than a few mo- 
ments, the desire of obtaining valuable articles 
lying at the bottom of the sea, as well as the 
necessity for the execution of certain manual 
operations in civil engineering, has led him to 
devise numerous expedients by which he is 
enabled to lengthen his continuance at mode- 
rate depths. It has been said that the pearl 
divers of Ceylon can remain under water six 
minutes, but this is hardly credible ; and Admi- 
ral Hood, who took pains to time their diving, 
found that they were under water in no in- 
stance more than a minute. The instance nar- 
rated by Dr. Halley of a Florida Indian diver 
at Bermuda, who could remain two minutes 
under water, is regarded as an extreme case. 
In Franohfere'fl " Narrative of a Voyage to the 
N. W. Coast of America," mention is made 
of the feats of diving of the Hawaiian island- 
era. Two of them were induced to go down 
in 14 fathoms of water in search of two sheaves 



lost overboard. They went down several times, 
each time bringing up shells as a proof that 
they had been to the bottom. " We had the 
curiosity to hold our watches while they dove, 
and were astonished to find that they remained 
four minutes under the water. That exertion 
appeared to me, however, to fatigue them a 
great deal, to such a degree that the blood 
streamed from their nostrils and ears. At last 
one of them brought up the sheaves, and re- 
ceived the promised recompense, which con- 
sisted of four yards of cotton." Statements 
are made by others which render it probable 
that the time may be somewhat extended be- 
yond that observed by Admiral Hood, or even 
by Dr. Halley. The lungs retain at each ordina- 
ry expiration considerable carbonic acid. By 
breathing deeply for a short time the quantity 
is lessened, and the blood becomes more than 
usually aerated and capable of performing its 
functions for a longer time than usual without 
renovation. It is told of Brunei that, wishing 
to examine a break in the Thames tunnel, he 
was lowered with another person in a diving 
bell to the depth of 30 ft., and the brake not 
permitting the bell to descend further, he dived 
into the water, holding a rope in his hand. 
He found no great difficulty in continuing under 
water fully two minutes, which is explained 
by the circumstance that the air in his lungs 
had been condensed in the bell to but little 
more than half its ordinary bulk, and therefore 
was capable of supplying much more oxygen. 
The pressure exerted by the water is not only 
felt in the lungs but upon all parts of the body 
to a sensible degree. At a depth of 17 ft. it 
amounts to about 7 Ibs. to every square inch 
of surface, and increases about 0*44 of a pound 
with every additional 
foot of depth. To en- 
able the diver to stay 
a considerable time 
under water, a dress 
called a diving armor 
is now generally em- 
ployed for the laying 
of foundations and at- 
taching apparatus for 
raising sunken vessels, 
and also by pearl and 
coral divers. Such a 
one is now (1874) in 
use in the construction 
of the foundations of 
the piers at the Bat- 
tery in New York har- 
bor. The diving dress 
or armor consists of a 
copper helmet, shown 
in fig. 1, tinned inside, 
and supplied Avith thick 
glass windows, and a 
copper breastplate which has a collar, to 
which the helmet is readily adjusted. The 
helmet is large enough for considerable rota- 
tion and lateral motion of the head, and allows 




FIG. 1. The Diver. 



DIVING 



DIVING BELL 



155 



the air which is forced into it to be so diffused 
as to be breathed without inconvenience. The 
breastplate permits a free expansion of the 
lungs and sufficient motion to avoid constraint 
of the muscles. To the lower part of it is at- 
tached an India-rubber dress, having a body, 
legs, and arms ; shoes are fitted on, and the 
whole is impervious to water. The central 
window of the helmet can be readily removed 
without removing the helmet. Leaden weights 
are attached to the waist and soles of the shoes 
to enable the diver easily to maintain an erect 
position when standing or walking upon the 
bottom. A pump, shown in fig. 2, which is 
usually supplied with three cylinders, forces 
air through a flexible but strong India-rubber 
tube into an opening in the back of the helmet, 
which leads through a flat channel to the fron- 
tal portion, where it is delivered against the 



glass windows, thus serving not only to supply 
the lungs of the diver, but to clear the moisture 
from the inner surface of the windows. The 
air finds its exit also at the back of the helmet. 
The air from the pump is free to pass down the 
waist and into the legs, between the person 
and the dress, and is delivered with sufficient 
force to overcome slightly the hydrostatic 
pressure. Fig. 2 represents the diver in the 
act of spreading a large bucket of hydraulic 
concrete upon the bed of a harbor, preparatory 
to laying blocks for the foundations of a pier. 
A signal rope communicates with an attendant 
on a boat which contains the air pump. The 
signals of the diver are communicated verbally 
by the attendant to a director stationed upon 
the derrick by which the buckets of concrete 
or blocks of be"ton are moved into position, and 
by him bells are rung which enable the atten- 




FIG. 2. The Diver spreading Concrete. 



dant at the engine to execute the necessary 
movements. In 1856 Mr. E. P. Harrington of 
Westfield, N. Y., recovered the iron safe of the 
steamer Atlantic, sunk four years previously in 
Lake Erie in about 170 ft. of water. The safe 
itself was at the depth of 157 ft. He used a 
common flexible India-rubber armor, unpro- 
tected with metal, and supplied with air sent 
down from a pump through a tube of f -inch 
bore, composed of nine alternate layers of 
canvas and rubber, with a copper wire coiled 
inside to prevent collapse. He also wore shoes 
of lead, and carried weights of lead amounting 
in all to 248 Ibs. His first descent was on June 
19, and the 18th and last was on the 22d, when 
he succeeded in attaching a line to the safe, 
which was in a state room on the upper deck, 
and it was hauled up. The time of his remain- 
ing below increased from one minute at the 
first descent to 11 minutes at the last. At the 



depth of 50 to 70 ft. all light disappeared. He 
suffered from extreme chilliness ; his strength 
too, he thought, was diminished nine tenths. 
The pressure sometimes caused a violent rush 
of blood to the head, and the appearance of 
bright flashes like electrical sparks. 

DIVING BELL, a hollow inverted vessel, in 
which persons may descend to considerable 
depths, fresh air being forced down from above 
to supply the amount required for breathing, 
and under which upon the bottom they may 
work to prepare foundations, or to secure ar- 
ticles of value. The principle of the diving 
bell is seen in pressing any vessel like a tum- 
bler mouth downward into water. The air 
within the vessel prevents the water from rising 
and filling it, but it is made to occupy less 
space as the pressure is increased with the in- 
creasing depth of the water. If the vessel 
were forced down to the depth of 33 ft., the 






156 



DIVING BELL 



water would half fill it. Such is the simplest 
form of the diving bell, as it was known prob- 
ably in the time of Aristotle, mention being 
made that divers at that period took down 
with them a kind of kettle to enable them to 
remain longer under water. During the reign 
of Charles V. a satisfactory experiment was 
tried by two Greeks at Toledo, in Spain, in the 
presence of the monarch and his court, of de- 
scending in a large inverted kettle into the 
water with a burning light, and coming up dry. 
But in this experiment, made by order of Charles 
to prove the possibility of the thing, and in 
others also undertaken for practical purposes 
(as recovering sunken treasure) in the course 
of the succeeding 200 years, there was no pro- 
vision for renewing the supply of air as it be- 
came exhausted, nor for keeping the vessel free 
from the water forced by the pressure to rise 
within it. About the year 1715 Dr. Halley 
contrived a method of furnishing air to the 
bell while it was at the bottom. He had two 
tight barrels prepared, each with an open 
bung below, and a hose attached to the top 
long enough to reach outside below the bot- 
tom, in which position the air could not escape 
through it. These, loaded with weights, were 
sunk alternately, like two buckets in a well, or, 
by guys attached to the bell, were made to drop 
alongside of it. A person within, reaching out 
into the water under the mouth of the bell, 
could draw in the hose and raise the end of it 
above the level of the top of the cask, when 
the air would be forced upward and furnish a 
new supply to the bell. All the water would 
thus be displaced, and one could step about 
upon the bottom over the area covered by the 
bell. The air contaminated by breathing was 
let off by a stopcock in the roof, and pieces of 
glass set in here admitted the light. In the 
apparatus thus prepared Dr. Halley descended 
with four others, and remained an hour and 
a half in water more than nine fathoms deep. 
He soon afterward devised an apparatus with 
which one could leave the bell and walk on 
the bottom for a considerable distance. The 
diver was furnished with a heavy metallic cap, 
which was connected with a long flexible tube 
for conveying air within the bell. Heavy 
weights were attached to his belt and also to 
the feet to counteract the buoyancy of the body 
at great depths. Numerous modifications in 
the construction of the bell continued to be 
made by others, none of which proved to be 
of much importance until the engineer Smea- 
ton applied the air pump about the year 1779 
to forcing down the air, and made the first 
application of the apparatus to engineering 
purposes. In 1788 he constructed a bell of 
cast iron, in the form of a chest, 4 ft. long, 
4i ft. high, 3 ft. wide, and weighing 2 tons, 
so as to sink by its own gravity. The most 
practical form of diving bell is called the 
nautilus, which is a sort of submarine boat 
whose lateral as well as vertical movements 
are controlled by the occupants. It is con- 



DIVINING ROD 

structed with double sides, sufficiently far apart 
to form either air or water chambers, as it may 
be required to ascend or descend. In descend- 
ing, they are supplied with water enough to 
cause the machine to sink. In ascending, the 
water is forced out by an air pump, worked 
on shore according to signals. It may be given 
considerable buoyancy, depending upon its 
size, and heavy weights may be raised with it. 
A plate is adjusted to the bottom, which may 
be removed at pleasure, air being pumped in 
to balance the hydrostatic pressure. Cables, 
worked by windlasses inside, pass out through 
holes surrounded by water-tight stuffing boxes, 
and are made fast at convenient distances. 
These enable the occupants to move the nauti- 
lus in any desired lateral direction. A man- 
hole at the top, conveniently closed by a cap, 
permits entrance or exit of the operators. The 
tube which connects with the air pump above 
water is used for forcing air either into the 




The Nautilus. 

water chambers or into the central chamber. 
Pipes with stopcocks readily enable the change 
to be effected. The increase of pressure expe- 
rienced in descending in a bell affects individ- 
uals differently. Usually a pain is felt upon 
the tympanum of the ear,. caused by the pres- 
sure upon the outside not being at once coun- 
terbalanced by the air within the tympanic 
cavity having acquired the same density. The 
construction of the Eustachian tube, leading 
from the mouth to the internal part of the ear, 
is such that a little time is necessary for the 
compressed air to make its way within. This 
usually takes place by a sudden impulse, which 
may be hastened by an effort of the individual 
like that of swallowing, the mouth and nos- 
trils being closed at the time. 

DIVINING ROD, an implement used by pre- 
tenders who undertake to discover water or 
minerals hidden in the ground. Its use has 
been traced as far back as the llth century; 
and there are still many who believe in its ef- 
ficacy. As commonly used, the divining rod 



DIVISIBILITY 



DIVORCE 



157 



is a forked slender stick of witch hazel ; elastic 
twigs, however, of any sort, or even two sticks 
of whalebone fastened together at one end, are 
sometimes employed. One branch of the twig 
is taken in each hand between the thumb and 
fore finger, the two ends pointing down. Hold- 
ing the stick in this position, the palms toward 
the face, the operator passes over the surface 
of the ground ; and wherever the upper point 
of the stick bends over and points downward, 
there he affirms the spring or metallic vein 
will be found. Some even pretend to desig- 
nate the distance below the surface according 
to the force of the movement, or according to 
the diameter of the circle over which the ac- 
tion is perceived, one rule being that the depth 
is half the diameter of this circle ; whence the 
deeper the object is below the surface the 
further is its influence exerted. The experi- 
ment being tested by digging, if water is found 
it proves the genuineness of the operation ; if 
it is not found, something else is, to which the 
effect is attributed ; or it is declared that the 
water which attracted the rod is sure to be met 
with if the digging is continued deep enough. 

DIVISIBILITY, one of the general properties 
of matter, usually classed with impenetrability, 
extension, &c. The proposition that there is 
no limit to the mathematical subdivision of 
matter is universally admitted ; but the ques- 
tion in its relation to physical science is a dif- 
ferent one, and its treatment depends upon the 
adoption of one of two theories. Formerly it 
was not infrequently supposed that matter is 
continuous; at least, the idea that it consisted 
of ultimate atoms of a definite magnitude, and 
therefore that each body was composed of a 
certain limited number of them, was not en- 
tertained. According to the old doctrine of 
the homogeneity of matter, therefore, its divisi- 
bility physically could only be limited by the 
means employed, and in a theoretical point of 
view was logically considered as infinite. But 
the doctrine of Dalton in regard to definite and 
multiple proportions has been so well estab- 
lished by the investigations of chemistry, and 
researches into the molecular constitution of 
matter, particularly gaseous bodies, that physi- 
cists now generally hold that the subdivision 
of matter is limited physically, that at last the 
atoms become separated from one another, and 
these being the primordial particles, no con- 
ception can be formed of any subdivision of 
them. As examples of the great extent to 
which subdivision may be carried without ar- 
riving at the ultimate atoms, or even at the 
molecules of which they are composed, may be 
taken the spinning of the spider's web, which 
contains 4,000,000 fibres, which of course are 
composed of organic molecules of a compound 
structure, spun together within the diameter 
of a human hair ; the odor of musk, which may 
pervade a room for years by the exposure of 
only a single grain ; and the extent to which 
sulphuret of lead may be diffused by adding 
together solutions of almost infinitesimal quan- 



tities of a salt of lead and sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. Dr. Thomson in this way obtained sul- 
phuret of lead in quantities sensibly appre- 
ciable, but which must, according to his com- 
putations, have been divided into at least 500,- 
000,000,000 parts; and yet it is uncertain 
whether this division extended to the binary 
molecules of the substance. The most striking 
examples, however, of the extent to which 
matter may be divided, and at the same time 
manifest its presence by the exhibition of a 
degree of energy, are furnished by the ex- 
periments of Tyndall with minute quantities of 
gases, vapors, and perfumes, in which he exhib- 
its their influence upon the diathermancy of at- 
mospheric air and the elementary gases. He 
found that a quantity of watery vapor so small 
as to be inappreciable by any other test would 
increase the absorptive power of dry air to the 
obscure rays of heat to such an extent as to 
cause a marked difference in the deflection of 
the needle of a galvanometer. The equality 
which he has also established as existing be- 
tween the diathermancy of the elementary 
gases and their mechanical mixtures, indicating 
that their elementary particles assume uniform 
and therefore definite wave vibrations, when 
in a free state they are subjected to the action 
of uniform heat waves, has thrown so much 
light upon the subject of molecular physics 
that the conclusion that elementary atoms or 
primordial particles limit the divisibility of 
matter cannot be resisted. 

DIVORCE, a dissolution of the bond of mat- 
rimony for cause occurring after marriage. 
In popular language, however, and often in 
judicial discussions and statutes, another class 
of cases is included, namely, those in which a 
marriage is annulled for antecedent causes ren- 
dering it void or voidable. The common law 
allowed divorces causa impotentice sen frigidi- 
tatis, if such impotence or frigidity existed 
before marriage, this being deemed a fraud ; 
but it was no ground of divorce if it supervened 
after marriage ; and it is the only kind of fraud 
of which we find mention in the English cases 
as a ground of annulling a marriage. Fraudu- 
lent representations by either party in respect 
to his or her condition in life, pecuniary cir- 
cumstances, family connections, bodily health, 
and the like, however material these may have 
been in inducing a consent to the contract, 
still are unavailable as an impeachment of the 
marriage. A false personation of another, or 
any fraud by which one of the parties is de- 
ceived in respect to the person with whom the 
marriage is solemnized, is a sufficient cause for 
annulling the marriage ; but this is put upon 
the ground of want of consent, it being equally 
essential to this as to other contracts that there 
should be the animus contrahendi, and the 
contract cannot take effect contrary to the 
real intention of the party who is to be bound. 
In the English courts the proceeding causa jac- 
titationis matrimonii was intended for relief 
in such cases ; in form, being an action by the 



158 



DIVORCE 



one party for an alleged assertion by the other 
that a marriage has taken place, whereupon 
the matter is tried, and unless the defendant 
proves that there was a marriage he is pro- 
hibited from averring the same, which is equiv- 
alent to a decree that there was no such mar- 
riage. A marriage accomplished by force 
may be annulled at the option of the party 
wronged, and so might a marriage one party to 
which was under the age of consent, or where 
the parties are within the prohibited degrees of 
consanguinity or affinity, or where one already 
has a wife or husband living from whom he or 
she is not divorced. In these cases judicial 
proceedings are not necessary, but they are 
permitted on grounds of prudence and pro- 
priety, and in order that any question which 
might be the subject of dispute may be con- 
clusively determined. The nature of the fraud 
that shall invalidate a marriage it is not easy 
to define ; but it may safely be assumed that 
it must be something entering into the very 
essentials of the relation, such as deception in 
respect to the person with whom the ceremony 
is performed. It has been held in some cases 
that if the woman, without the man's knowl- 
edge, is pregnant at the time of the ceremony, 
this is such a fraud as justifies a decree of nul- 
lity; but ante-nuptial unchastity is not suffi- 
cient, nor fraudulent representations in respect 
to other matters which may have constituted the 
inducement to the consent. Voluntary cohab- 
itation as husband and wife is a bar to dissolu- 
tion of the marriage, either for force or fraud, 
and it validates a marriage entered into before 
the age of consent, if continued after both 
parties have reached that age. In the English 
ecclesiastical courts there was formerly another 
ground upon which marriage could be annulled, 
viz., a prior engagement with another party. 
But this was abrogated by statute 26 George 
II., c. 33, which prohibited all suits to enforce 
performance of a marriage contract, the parties 
being thus left to an action for damages upon 
refusal to perform it. We have next to con- 
sider divorce for causes occurring after mar- 
riage. Under the Hebrew law, it seems that the 
husband might put away his wife at will, giving 
her a bill of divorcement, and the divorced 
wife was then at liberty to marry again. 
An exception to the liberty of divorce was 
made of husbands who had deflowered their 
wives while unbetrothed virgins, and husbands 
who slandered the ante-nuptial chastity of 
their wives. Among the Greeks at an early 
day wives appear to have been bought and 
sold, and in later times divorce was substan- 
tially at the pleasure of either party, though 
ft judicial form was gone through with. In 
Borne, for a long time, divorces appear to 
tare been opposed to public sentiment, and 
to have required the sanction of a council 
or court of the relatives of the parties. La- 
ter, when dissoluteness of life had become 
general, divorce was common, and was per- 
mitted to both parties, and resorted to for 



any cause or upon any caprice. Julius Caesar 
and Pompey each divorced two wives, and 
Cicero put away his first wife that he might 
marry another who was rich, a union which was 
more speedily dissolved. These were repre- 
sentative cases, and by no means exceptional. 
Things were no better under the emperors, 
though efforts were made to impose some re- 
straints, which, however, referred mainly to 
forms. Long after the empire became nomi- 
nally Christian, divorce was unrestricted if by 
mutual consent, and might be obtained without 
mutual consent, though if the cause assigned 
was deemed insufficient to justify it, the party 
obtaining it was visited with a pecuniary pen- 
alty in the adjustment of their property rights. 
By the law of Theodosius II., adopted substan- 
tially by Justinian, the justifiable causes of 
divorce to the wife were certain high crimes, 
including murder, treason, poisoning, assaults 
or attempts upon the life of the wife, intimacy 
with prostitutes, and adultery. The justifiable 
causes on the part of the husband were sub- 
stantially the same, with the addition of pass- 
ing the night out of his house, and visiting 
places of amusement without his consent. The 
theory of the sacramental nature of marriage 
gradually took possession of the Christian 
world ; and when the reformation of the 16th 
century began, it was the accepted doctrine of 
the church that no offence of either party justi- 
fied a dissolution of the marriage covenant, leav- 
ing the parties, or either of them, at liberty to 
marry again. This doctrine was supposed to 
be derived from the New Testament, and was 
confirmed by the council of Trent ; but the re- 
formers, who also planted themselves in this 
regard upon the gospel, though differing among 
themselves, generally agreed in permitting 
divorce for adultery and malicious desertion. 
Both Luther and Calvin thought that, though 
adultery ought to be punished with death, yet 
as the civil laws did not so provide, it was not 
wise to prohibit the divorced adulterer from 
marrying again. It may be said generally 
that from the beginning of the reformation to 
the present time the liberty of divorce in Prot- 
estant countries has been steadily enlarged. 
In Prussia it is permitted for adultery, sodomy 
and other unnatural vices, malicious desertion, 
persistent refusal of marital intercourse, plots 
or practices endangering life or health, ungov- 
ernable temper, drunkenness, extravagance, 
&c., unless corrected after admonition of the 
judge ; failure of the husband to support the 
wife, hopeless insanity continuing for more 
than a year, and, where there are no children, 
deliberate mutual consent. This is the ex- 
treme of liberality, and goes somewhat further 
than is permitted in any of the other German, 
states. Holland and Scotland allow divorce 
for adultery and desertion. The civil code of 
France allowed divorce 1, for adultery of the 
wife, but not for adultery of the husband ex- 
cept when he brought a paramour or concu- 
bine into his own house ; 2, to either party for 



DIVORCE 



159 



any outrage, cruelty, or grievous wrong in- 
flicted upon him or her by the other party ; 3, 
to either upon the condemnation of the other 
to an infamous punishment, which is elsewhere 
defined to be either imprisonment, banishment, 
loss of civil rights, or being placed in the pub- 
lic stocks; 4, by mutual consent, with other 
satisfactory proof that the continuance of the 
marriage would be insupportable. These pro- 
visions were rescinded in the religious reaction 
of 1816. A law was passed (May, 1816) effa- 
cing divorce, from the civil code, and reestab- 
lishing the old law, which allowed only separa- 
tion. Ineffectual attempts were made in 1831 
and 1832 to repeal this law, and there is there- 
fore at present no divorce a mnculo matrimo- 
nii in France. In England, from a very early 
period, divorce a mnculo matrimonii was not 
allowed for causes subsequent, but only a sep- 
aration a mensa et thoro, which did not au- 
thorize either party to marry again. This prac- 
tice was derived from the canon law, which 
held marriage to be a sacrament, and that it 
could not be dissolved for any cause whatever. 
But by statute 20 and 21 Victoria, c. 85 (1857), 
divorce a mnculo is now allowed on the peti- 
tion of the husband for the adultery of the 
wife, and on the petition of the wife when the 
husband has been guilty of incestuous adulte- 
ry, rape, bestiality, or adultery accompanied by 
cruelty. Divorce a mensa et ihoTO is by the 
same act denominated a decree of judicial 
separation, and under that designation is al- 
lowed for the same causes as heretofore. A 
new tribunal, called the court for divorce and 
matrimonal causes, has been established, and 
the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts has 
been entirely superseded in such matters, ex- 
cept the granting of marriage licenses. Before 
this statute, however, private acts of divorce 
were sometimes obtained from parliament for 
the wife's adultery. In America, it was as- 
sumed in the colonial period that the granting 
of divorce was or might be legislative in its 
nature, and after the revolution the state legisla- 
tures assumed the right to pass special acts for 
the purpose. This, however, led to very seri- 
ous abuses, and is now generally prohibited by 
the state constitutions, and jurisdiction for the 
purpose conferred upon the courts, with the 
causes specifically enumerated. The subject 
is so important that we have deemed it proper 
to give the causes recognized by the statutes 
of the several states as sufficient to warrant a 
divorce a mnculo, omitting in the specification, 
for the sake of brevity, those which under any 
system would render the marriage void or 
voidable, viz. : a previous marriage still in force, 
and a marriage under the age of consent, or 
within the prohibited degrees of relationship. 
Alabama : physical incapacity, adultery, deser- 
tion for two years, two years' imprisonment on 
a sentence of seven years or more, sodomy, 
pregnancy at marriage without the husband's 
knowledge, violence of the husband to the wife 
endangering her life, or reasonable fear there- 
267 VOL. vi. 11 



of. Arkansas : impotence, desertion for a year, 
conviction of felony or other infamous crime, 
habitual drunkenness for a year, such cruel 
and barbarous treatment as endangers life, or 
such indignities to the person as render the 
condition intolerable, adultery. California: 
adultery, extreme cruelty, consent obtained by 
force or fraud, wilful desertion, wilful neglect 
of the husband to provide for the wife for two 
years, habitual intemperance, conviction of 
felony, marriage of the female under 14 with- 
out consent of parents or guardian. Connecti- 
cut : adultery, fraudulent contract, impotence, 
wilful desertion for three years with total neg- 
lect of duty, seven years' absence not heard 
from, habitual intemperance, intolerable cruel- 
ty, sentence to imprisonment for life, bestial- 
ity, or any other infamous crime involving a 
violation of conjugal duty, and punishable by 
imprisonment in state prison, or any such mis- 
conduct as permanently destroys happiness 
and defeats the purposes of marriage. Dela- 
ware : adultery of the wife or impotence of 
either party, adultery of the husband being 
only cause for divorce from bed and board, 
with cruelty and desertion. Florida: impo- 
tence, adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual in- 
dulgence in violent and ungovernable temper, 
habitual intemperance, desertion for a year. 
Georgia: mental incapacity, impotence, force, 
duress, or fraud in obtaining the marriage, 
pregnancy at the time of marriage without the 
husband's knowledge, adultery, desertion for 
three years, sentence to the penitentiary for 
two years or more for an offence involving 
moral turpitude, habitual intoxication, cruelty. 
Illinois : impotence, adultery, desertion for two 
years, extreme and repeated cruelty, habitual 
drunkenness for two years, conviction of felo- 
ny, or other infamous crime ; and in addition 
to these causes the court may decree a divorce 
on other grounds if satisfied of the expediency 
of so doing. Indiana : adultery, impotence, 
abandonment for a year, cruel and inhuman 
treatment, habitual drunkenness, failure of the 
husband to provide, conviction of an infamous 
crime after marriage, and for such other causes 
as the court in its discretion may deem suffi- 
cient. Iowa : impotence, adultery, wilful de- 
sertion for two years, conviction of felony, ha- 
bitual drunkenness, treatment that endangers 
life. Kansas : desertion for a year, adultery, 
impotence, pregnancy at the time of marriage 
by another than the husband, extreme cruel- 
ty, fraudulent contract, habitual drunkenness, 
gross neglect of duty, conviction of felony. 
Kentucky: impotence, living apart without 
cohabitation for five years, abandonment and 
living in adultery for six months, desertion for 
a year, conviction of felony, force, duress, or 
fraud in obtaining marriage, contracting a 
loathsome disease, uniting with any religious 
society which requires renunciation of tbe 
marriage contract or forbids cohabitation, co"n- 
firmed drunkenness of the husband with im- 
providence continued for a year, habitual mis- 



160 



DIVORCE 



behavior of the husband continued in a cruel 
and inhuman manner not less than six months, 
cruel beating or injury of the wife or at- 
tempts at the same, pregnancy at the time of 
marriage without the husband's knowledge, 
adultery of the wife or such lewd and las- 
civious behavior on her part as proves her to 
be unchaste, confirmed mental unsoundness 
of not less than three years' continuance re- 
sulting from intemperance or hereditary taint 
and concealed at the time of marriage. Louis- 
iana : adultery, habitual intemperance, cruelty, 
sentence to an ignominious punishment, deser- 
tion for five years, fleeing from justice when 
charged with an infamous offence. Maine : 
insanity or idiocy, sentence to imprisonment 
for life ; and a divorce may be decreed when 
the judge deems it reasonable and proper, con- 
ducive to domestic harmony, and consistent 
with the peace and morality of society. Mary- 
land : impotence, adultery, three years' deser- 
tion, unchastity of the woman before mar- 
riage unknown to the husband. Massachu- 
setts: adultery, impotence, insanity or idiocy 
at marriage, uniting with a religious sect that 
professes to believe the relation of husband 
and wife void or unlawful and refusing cohabi- 
tation for three years, sentence to confinement 
for five years or more, desertion for five con- 
secutive years. Michigan: adultery, impo- 
tence, sentence to imprisonment for three 
years or more, desertion for two years, habit- 
ual drunkenness, extreme cruelty, gross, wan- 
ton, and cruel neglect or refusal by the hus- 
band to provide for the wife. Minnesota: 
adultery, impotence, cruel and inhuman treat- 
ment, sentence to imprisonment in the state 
prison, wilful desertion for three years, habit- 
ual drunkenness for a year, cruelty. Mis- 
sissippi: impotence, adultery, sentence to the 
penitentiary, desertion for two years, habitual 
drunkenness, habitual cruel and inhuman treat- 
ment, pregnancy unknown to the husband at 
the time of marriage, insanity or idiocy of one 
party at the time of marriage unknown to the 
other. Missouri : impotence, desertion for a 
year, adultery, conviction of felony or infa- 
mous crime, habitual drunkenness for a year, 
cruelty or indignities that render life intoler- 
able, the husband becoming a vagrant, preg- 
nancy by another than the husband without 
his knowledge at the time of the marriage. 
Nebraska: adultery, impotence, sentence to 
imprisonment for three years or more, deser- 
tion for two years, habitual drunkenness, ex- 
treme cruelty, consent obtained by force or 
fraud. Nevada: impotence, adultery, deser- 
tion for two years, conviction of felony or in- 
famous crime, habitual gross drunkenness in- 
capacitating the party from contributing to 
support of family, extreme cruelty, neglect of 
husband for two years to provide necessaries. 
New Hampshire: impotence, adultery, ex- 
treme cruelty, actual imprisonment on con- 
viction of crime for more than a year, treat- 
ment that seriously injures health or endan- 



gers reason, three years' absence not heard 
from, habitual drunkenness for three years, 
joining a religious society which professes to 
believe the relation of marriage unlawful and 
refusing cohabitation for six months, abandon- 
ment for three years with refusal of cohabita- 
tion, refusal of the husband to provide for the 
wife for three years. New Jersey : adultery, 
desertion for three years. New York : adul- 
tery of either party (the sole cause occurring 
after marriage), impotence, idiocy, or lunacy at 
the time of marriage, consent obtained by force 
or fraud. North Carolina : impotence, aban- 
donment, and living in adultery, "or any other 
just cause for a divorce." Ohio : three years' 
desertion, adultery, impotence, extreme cruel- 
ty, fraudulent contract, gross neglect of duty, 
habitual drunkenness for three years, imprison- 
ment under criminal sentence. Oregon : im- 
potence, adultery, fraudulent contract, sen- 
tence for felony, habitual drunkenness for two 
years, desertion for three years, cruel and in- 
human treatment or indignities rendering life 
burdensome. Pennsylvania: impotence, adul- 
tery, desertion for two years, cruel treatment 
or indignities that render the condition intol- 
erable and life burdensome, fraud, force, or 
coercion in procuring the marriage, sentence 
to two years' imprisonment for felony, becom- 
ing a lunatic or non compos mentis. Ehode 
Island : impotence, adultery, extreme cruelty, 
desertion for five years, or less in the disci 
tion of the court, continued drunkenness, ne 
lect or refusal of the husband to provide 
cessaries, gross misbehavior and wickedness 
either party repugnant to or in violation of the 
marriage contract. South Carolina : adultery, 
desertion for two years ; and the deserting 
party may have divorce if the desertion is jus- 
tified by cruel treatment, or by neglect of the 
husband to provide maintenance. Tennessee : 
impotence, adultery, desertion for two years, 
conviction of an infamous crime or of felony, 
malicious attempt upon the life of the spouse, 
pregnancy by another person at the time of 
the marriage without the husband's knowl- 
edge, cruelty, indignities by the husband to the 
wife forcing her to withdraw from him, aban- 
donment of the wife or turning her out of doors 
and refusal to provide for her. Texas : impo- 
tence, adultery of the wife, desertion, adultery 
of the husband and abandonment of the wife 
for three years, cruelty. Vermont: idiocy 
or lunacy at marriage, adultery, sentence ^to 
imprisonment for three years or more with 
actual confinement, intolerable severity, de- 
sertion for three years, absence for seven years 
without being heard from, neglect of the hus- 
band to provide maintenance. Virginia : adul- 
tery, impotence, sentence to the penitentiary, 
fleeing from justice for a felony and remaining 
absent for two years, desertion for five years, 
pregnancy at the time of the marriage by some 
person other than the husband without his 
knowledge, prostitution by the wife before mar- 
riage without the husband's knowledge, convic- 



DIX 



161 



tion of an infamous offence before marriage 
without the other's knowledge. West Virginia : 
adultery, impotence, sentence to confinement 
in the penitentiary, desertion for three years, 
pregnancy at the time of the marriage by some 
person other than the husband without his 
knowledge, prostitution by the woman before 
marriage without the husband's knowledge, 
notorious licentiousness on the part of the 
husband before marriage without the wife's 
knowledge, conviction of an infamous offence 
before marriage without the other party's 
knowledge. Wisconsin : adultery, impotence, 
sentence to imprisonment for three years or 
more, desertion for a year, cruel treatment, 
habitual drunkenness for a year, voluntary 
separation for five years, neglect of the hus- 
band to provide a maintenance, or such con- 
duct toward the wife as renders it unsafe and 
improper for her to live with him. The sub- 
ject of divorce has been extremely trouble- 
some in the United States, owing to the di- 
versity of laws, and the facility with which 
parties might pass from one state to another 
and obtain divorces without the knowledge 
of other parties concerned. Some very nice 
questions have arisen and' been passed upon ; 
and though the decisions are not wholly har- 
monious, the following may be stated as the 
general conclusions: 1. A lonafide residence 
of either party in any state will authorize 
such party to institute a proceeding for di- 
vorce in its courts for any cause permitted 
by its laws, whether arising there or else- 
where. 2. An attempt by one not a resident 
to institute such proceedings is a fraud upon 
the law and upon the other party, if such 
other party is ignorant of it ; and the courts 
get no jurisdiction of such proceedings, and 
their decree, if one is made, is inoperative, and 
may be treated elsewhere as void. 3. If a 
~bona, fide resident institutes proceedings, but 
service cannot be made upon the other party 
by reason of absence from the state, it is com- 
petent to provide by law for service by publi- 
cation, and such publication will be sufficient 
for the purposes of a dissolution of the mar- 
riage, but not sufficient for other purposes ; as, 
for instance, the passing of a decree for ali- 
mony, or of an order for the custody of chil- 
dren. Before a party can be bound in such 
matters, he must have personal notice. 4. A 
divorce once granted with competent jurisdic- 
tion in one state is valid in any other state or 
country, and it leaves both parties at liberty 
to marry again, unless the statute where the 
divorce is granted otherwise provides ; and 
even then it is presumed such statute could 
have no force beyond the limits of the state. 
It was formerly held in England that a mar- 
riage contracted in that country could not be 
dissolved elsewhere, and this led to serious 
contentions; but the contrary is now settled 
by the house of lords (9 Bligh's Reports, 79). 

DIX, Dorothea Lynde, an American philan- 
thropist and author, born in Worcester, Mass. 



Left an orphan at an early age, she estab- 
lished in Boston a school for girls. She soon 
became interested in the condition of the un- 
fortunate and criminal classes, and for many 
years was in the habit of visiting public insti- 
tutions and ministering to the necessities of 
their inmates. In 1834 she went to Europe 
to investigate the methods of treatment for 
prisoners, paupers, and the insane. Return- 
ing in 1837, she visited all the states, and her 
exertions contributed greatly to the establish- 
ment of state asylums for lunatics in several of 
them. In 1848, and again in 1850, she peti- 
tioned congress for an appropriation of public 
lands to endow hospitals for the indigent in- 
sane. In 1854 a bill was passed granting 
10,000,000 acres for this purpose ; but it was 
vetoed by President Pierce. During the civil 
war she was superintendent of hospital nurses, 
having the entire control of their appointment 
and assignment to duty. After its close she 
resumed her labors for the insane. She has 
published several books, chiefly before enter- 
ing upon her special Avork, including "Gar- 
land of Flora," "Private Hours," "Alice 
and Ruth," " Conversations about Common 
Things," and "Prisons and Prison Discipline." 
She has also written tracts for prisoners, and 
reports on philanthropic subjects. 

DIX, John Adams, an American soldier and 
politician, born in Boscawen, N. H., July 24, 
1798. During the war of 1812-'15 he served 
on the frontier with the rank of ensign and as 
adjutant of a battalion. He established him- 
self about the year 1828 as a lawyer at Coo- 
perstown, N. Y., and became identified with 
the democratic party. In 1830 he was ap- 
pointed adjutant general, and in 1833 secre- 
tary of state and superintendent of common 
schools. In 1842 he was elected to the assem- 
bly ; and in 1845 he was chosen to fill a vacan- 
cy in the United States senate, caused by the 
election of Silas Wright as governor. On the 
question of slavery he was the exponent of the 
views of the free-soil section of the demo- 
cratic party in New York, whose candidate 
for governor he was in 1848, but was defeated. 
In 1853 he was made assistant treasurer of 
the United States in the city of New York, 
but soon resigned. On Dec. 10, 1860, Howell 
Cobb resigned his post as secretary of the 
treasury, and Mr. Dix was appointed in his 
place. New Orleans was at the time in virtual 
possession of the secessionists ; two revenue 
cutters were there, and the new secretary 
ordered them to New York. The captain of 
one of them, after consulting with the collec- 
tor at New Orleans, refused to obey. Secre- 
tary Dix thereupon telegraphed to the lieuten- 
ant to arrest the captain, and to treat him as 
a mutineer in case he offered any resistance, 
closing his despatch with the words, " If any 
one attempts to haul down the American flag, 
shoot him on the spot." When the civil war 
broke out, Mr. Dix was appointed major gen- 
eral of the New York militia, and on May 16, 



1C2 



DIX 



1861, major general of United States volun- 
teers. He was placed in command of the de- 
partment of Maryland, and in 1862 was trans- 
ferred to Fortress Monroe, having the com- 
mand of the seventh army corps. In 1863 he 
was stationed at New York, where he was 
military commander during the riots which 
ensued upon the president's order for the draft. 
During 1864-'5 he commanded the department 
of the east. In September, 1866, he was ap- 
pointed minister to France, which place he 
resigned in 1868, and returned to New York. 
In 1872 he was nominated by the republican 
party as governor of New York, and was 
elected. He is the author of " Resources of 
the City of New York " (1827) ; " Decisions 
of the Superintendent of Common Schools of 
New York, and Laws relating to Common 
Schools" (1837); "A Winter in Madeira" 
(1851) ; "A Summer in Spain and Florence " 
(1855) ; and two volumes of " Speeches." 

DIX, Morgan, an American clergyman, son 
of the preceding, born in New York, Nov. 1, 
1827. His early education and training were 
received in Albany, where he resided till 
1842. He graduated at Columbia college in 
1848, and from 1849 to 1852 studied theology 
in the general theological seminary of the 
Episcopal church. He was ordained deacon 
in 1852, and priest the next year. In Sep- 
tember, 1855, he became an assistant min- 
ister of Trinity church, New York; he was 
chosen assistant rector of that parish in 1859, 
and on Dr. Berrian's death became rector, 
Nov. 10, 1862. He is a trustee of Columbia 
college, and holds a prominent place in the 
management of affairs in the Episcopal church 
in New York. He has published " A Com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Romans," "An 
Exposition of the Epistles to the Galatians and 
Colossians," " Lectures on the Pantheistic Idea 
of an Impersonal-Substance Deity," " Essay on 
Christian Art," " Lectures on the two Estates, 
that of the Wedded in the Lord and that of the 
Single for the Kingdom of Heaven's Sake," 
several manuals of devotion, and occasional 
sermons. 

DIXON, a N. E. county of Nebraska, sepa- 
rated from Dakota on the N. E. by the Mis- 
souri river, and watered by several streams ; 
area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,345. The 
surface is level. The soil rests upon limestone 
rock, and is fertile. The chief productions in 
1870 were 27,923 bushels of wheat, 19,725 of 
Indian corn, 11,135 of potatoes, and 4,574 tons 
of hay. The total value of live stock was 
$96,511. Capital, Ponca. 

DIXON, George, an English navigator, born in 
1755, died about 1800. He sailed in Cook's 
third expedition. On his return he was made 
captain in the navy, and in 1785 in concert 
with Capt. Portlock sailed on a new expedi- 
tion, with two vessels, under the auspices of 
the Nootka sound company. In the course of 
their joint explorations they discovered a num- 
ber of harbors, ports, bays, and small islands 



DIXON 

on the coast of North America, and arrived at 
Hawaii, Sept. 28, 1786, whence Dixon proceed- 
ed to China, and in 1788 returned to England. 
He is the author of a description of his own 
expedition, under the title of " A Voyage 
round the World, but more particularly to the 
N. W. Coast of America " (1789) ; " Voyage 
of Meares" (1790-'91); and'" The Navigator's 
Assistant " (1790). 

DIXON, James, an English clergyman, born 
in Leicestershire in 1788, died at Bradford, 
Yorkshire, Dec. 28, 1871. In 1812 he entered 
the Wesleyan conference, and continued in the 
itinerant ministry till 1824, when he was sent 
as a missionary to Gibraltar. In 1825 he la- 
bored at Wakefield ; in 1828 he preached in 
London, where he remained till 1833. After 
a term of pastoral service in Liverpool, he was 
appointed successively superintendent of the 
Sheffield and Manchester circuits. In 1841 lie 
was chosen president of the British confer- 
ence, and in 1848 he was elected by the Wes- 
leyan conference a delegate to the general con- 
ference of the United States. He published 
" Methodism in its Origin, Economy, and Pres- 
ent Position ;" " Memoir of the Rev. William 
E. Miller ;" " Notes on America ;" " The Pres- 
ent Position and Aspects of Popery, and the 
Duty of Exposing the Errors of Papal Rome ;" 
and "Letters on the Duties of Protestants with 
regard to Popery." 

DIXON, William Hepworth, an English author, 
born in Yorkshire, June 30, 1821. He entered 
a mercantile house in Manchester when 14 
years of age, but early contributed some fu- 
gitive poems to several periodicals, wrote a 
tragedy which was printed privately, and be- 
came at length literary editor of a paper at 
Cheltenham. In 1846 he removed to London, 
and entered as a law student at the Inner Tem- 

g'e. In 1849 he published a memoir of John 
oward, and followed this by various publica- 
tions, becoming well known as an author. He 
was a deputy commissioner of the world's fair 
of 1851. The next year he made a tour of the 
continent, and in 1853 became chief editor of 
the " Athenasum," which post he held till 1869. 
In 1864 he travelled in the East, and on his 
return assisted in founding the Palestine ex- 
ploration fund. In 1866 he travelled in the 
United States, and visited the Mormons in Salt 
Lake City. Subsequently he made a journey 
through Russia. In 1869 he was appointed a 
magistrate for Middlesex, and in 1870 was elect- 
ed a member of the London school board. His 
more important works are: "John Howard," 
which reached three editions in the first year, 
and many later editions in England and the Uni- 
ted States; "London Prisons" (1850), which 
first appeared in the " Daily News ;" " William 
Penn, an Historical Biography" (1851; 2d 
ed., 1856, including a reply to Macaulay); 
" Robert Blake " (1852) ; " Personal History of 
Lord Bacon" (1861), which first appeared in 
the " Athenreum ;" "Lives of the Archbishops 
of York" (1863); "The Holy Land" (1865); 



DIXWELL 



DOAB 



163 



"New America" (1867), of which eight edi- 
tions appeared in England, three in America, 
and several in France, Germany, Holland, and 
Kussia; "Spiritual Wives" (1868), from his 
observations among the Mormons ; " Free 
Russia" (1870); "Her Majesty's Tower" (4 
vols., 1869-71); "The Switzers" (1872); and 
" History of Two Queens : I. Catharine of 
Aragon; II. Anne Boleyn" (2 vols., 1873). 
The Revue positive of Paris published from him 
in 1869 a contribution entitled Les sectes reli- 



f/ieuses en 

DIXWELL, John, one of the regicide judges of 
Charles I., born in 1608, died at New Haven, 
Conn., March 18, 1689. After the reaction in 
England which placed Charles II. upon the 
throne, and caused himself and his associates 
to be condemned to death, he escaped to Ame- 
rica, took the name of John Davids, and lived 
undiscovered in New Haven, where he was 
married and left children. In 1664 he visited 
two of his fellow regicides, Whalley and Goffe, 
who had found a refuge at Hadley, Mass. His 
favorite study in exile was the " History of the 
World," which Kaleigh had written in prison, 
and he cherished a constant faith that the 
spirit of liberty in England would produce a 
new revolution. 

DMITROV, a town of Russia, in the govern- 
ment and 40 m. N. of the city of Moscow ; pop. 
in 1867, 8,042. It has a college, a convent, 
and several churches, and manufactories of 
cotton, woollen, linen, and silk goods, and lea- 
ther. An annual fair, lasting a week, is held 
here. The town covers considerable ground, 
much of it occupied by gardens, but the houses 
generally are poor. 

DNIEPER (Russ. and Pol. Dniepr ; anc. Bo- 
rysthenes, also Danapris}, next to the Volga 
the largest river of Russia in Europe. It rises 
on the S. slope of the Volkonsky plateau, near 
Dnieprovo in the government of Smolensk, 
flows S. between woody marshes as far as 
Dorogobush, thence mainly W. between more 
elevated banks past Smolensk to Orsha, there 
turns S., passes through the valleys and plains 
of the government of Mohilev down to Kiev, 
then turns S. E. through the steppes of the 
Ukraine, passes by Krementchug and Yekate- 
rinoslav, flows S. as far as Alexandrovsk, then 
S. W. to its mouth below Kherson, emptying 
into the Black sea between the fortresses of 
Kinburn and Otchakov. Its whole course is 
about 1,200 m. Its chief tributaries are, on 
the west, the Beresina, the Pripet, which dis- 
charges into it the waters of the Lithuanian 
marshes, and the Inguletz ; on the east, the 
Desna, Sozh, and Vorskla. The Dnieper was 
formerly hardly navigable, owing to natural ob- 
structions in its lower course and at the mouth. 
Some of these have been removed by the Rus- 
sian government, but its commercial impor- 
tance is still lessened by its frequent shallow - 
ness. About lat. 48 20' it commences a course 
of more than 40 m. over a rugged bed of gran- 
ite, forming below Yekaterinoslav a number 



of cataracts and rapids, and separates into 
a great number of courses, embracing many 
woody islands. Reuniting, it becomes navi- 
gable in its lower course for flat-bottomed 
vessels, among which steamboats have been 
employed since 1838 in carrying the pro- 
duce of the interior, timber, corn, linen, iron, 
and coal, to the Black sea. The Beresina, 
Oginski, and Royal canals, connecting tribu- 
taries of the Dnieper with the Dilna, Nie- 
men, and Bug, form communications through 
these rivers between the Baltic and Black seas. 
The estuary or frith (Russ. limari) formed by 
the mouths of the Dnieper and by that of 
the Bog is very shallow, and emits noxious 
exhalations in summer. The Dnieper abounds 
in sturgeon, carp, pike, and shad. In its course 
it passes through the most fertile provinces 
of Russia, and through different climates. At 
Smolensk it is ice-bound from November to 
April, and at Kiev from January to March. 
The most remarkable bridges are in these two 
cities. At the latter is a magnificent suspen- 
sion bridge half a mile long, completed in 1852. 
On the Kiev side is a drawbridge, with an 
opening 50 ft. wide. The ancients regarded 
the Borysthenes as the largest river of the 
world next to the Nile, and entertained an ex- 
aggerated opinion of the fertility of the sur- 
rounding country. They knew only its lower 
course. Near its mouth was Olbia, or Olbi- 
opolis, a colony of Miletus, which carried on 
trade with the nomadic tribes of the interior. 

DNIESTER (Pol. and Russ. Dniestr; anc. 
Tyras and Danaster), a river of eastern Eu- 
rope, which has its source in a small lake on 
the N. E. slope of the Carpathian mountains, 
S. W. of Lemberg in Galicia, and flows most- 
ly S. E. about 600 m. As far as Old Sam- 
bor it passes through a broad valley, which 
afterward expands into an extensive plain on 
the east, while spurs of the Carpathians here 
and there skirt the W. banks. At Khotin, 
where it enters Russian territory, it flows 
through an open flat country separating the 
province of Bessarabia from Podolia and Kher- 
son on the east, and then discharges into 
the Black sea by a shallow liman 19 m. long 
and 5 broad, between Akerman and Ovidiopol. 
It receives a number of tributaries in Galicia, 
the principal of which are the Stry, Strypa, 
and Sered, and only a few insignificant ones 
during its course through Russia. Its current 
is rapid, and navigation is interrupted between 
Yampol and Bender by two falls and several 
whirlpools, and its mouth is encumbered with 
flats and sand banks. Wood, grain, and other 
products are carried down it toward Odessa. 

DOAB (Sanskrit, two waters), a name given 
in Hindostan to any tract included between 
two rivers. It is especially applied to that 
lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, and 
when applied to other similar districts is joined 
with some distinctive appellation, as the Jul- 
lunder Doab, between the Beas and the Sut- 
lej, and the Rukna Doab, between the Ravee 






164 



DOANE 



and the Chenanb. The Doab is a large tract 
reaching from Allahabad in the south to Saha- 
runpoor in the north, and forming the finest 
and most fertile part of the province of Agra. 
It contains many thriving towns, and the whole 
territory has been brought into a highly pro- 
ductive state by a system of irrigation. It has 
a British military station and a strong fort. 

DOANE, George Washington, an American bish- 
op, born at Trenton, N. J., May 27, 1799, died 
at Burlington, N. J., April 27, 1859. He 
graduated at Union college in 1818, was ad- 
mitted to holy orders in 1821, officiated for 
three years in Trinity church, New York, and 
in 1824 was appointed the first professor in 
Washington (now Trinity) college, Hartford. 
In 1828 he became assistant minister, and 
afterward rector of Trinity church, Boston, 
where he remained till 1832, when he was 
elected bishop of New Jersey, whereupon he 
removed to Burlington, and became rector of 
St. Mary's church in that city. Here he de- 
voted his energies to the establishment of a 
comprehensive system of Christian education 
for females, and opened in 1837 St. Mary's 
hall, a boarding school for girls, beautifully 
situated on the shore of the Delaware. In 
consequence of the great success of this enter- 
prise, he founded Burlington college in 1846. 
Under his episcopate the church in New Jersey 
experienced an unexampled increase in the 
number of its communicants, from 801 in 1832 
to 4,500 in 1858, while the clergy increased 
from 14 to 90 in the same period, and the num- 
ber of parishes from 31 to 79. In 1824 he pub- 
lished a volume of poems entitled u Songs by 
the "Way." A volume of his sermons was is- 
sued in London in 1842. His life has been 
written by his son, W. C. Doane, who has also 
edited his "Poetical Works, Sermons, and 
Miscellaneous Writings" (4 vols., 1860). 

DOBBERAN, or Doberan, a watering place of 
Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, on the Baltic, 9 m. W. N". W. of 
Rostock; pop. about 4,000. It contains two 
palaces, with fine pleasure grounds, a theatre 
and other places of recreation, and one of the 
most remarkable Gothic churches of northern 
Germany. The bathing establishment is three 
miles from the town, at the Heilige Dam, a 
huge embankment said to have been thrown 
up by the sea in a single night. 

DOBELL, Sydney, an English poet, born at 
Peckham Rye, near London, April 5, 1824. 
In 1835 his father, a wine merchant in London, 
removed his business to Cheltenham. At the 
age of 12 he entered the counting room of his 
father, with whom he remained as a clerk for 
12 years, devoting his leisure hours to literary 
pursuits. In 1848 he removed to Leckhamp- 
ton, Gloucestershire, where he wrote his dra- 
matic poem, " The Roman," published in 1850 
under the nom de plume of " Sydney Yendys " 
In 1854 he published " Balder." These poems 
found many admirers, who hailed the author as 
the originator of a new era in English poetry. 



DOBRIZHOFFER 

They were, however, severely criticised, and 
were travestied by Aytoun in his " Fermilian." 
In 1855 Mr. Dobell united with Alexander 
Smith in a volume of " Sonnets on the War," 
and in 1856 in a series of poems under the 
title of "England in Time of War." In 1865 
he wrote a pamphlet on " Parliamentary Re- 
form," advocating a graduated suffrage and the 
system of a plurality of votes. In 1871 he 
produced "England's Day," a volume of lyrics 
against what he regarded as the hostile attitude 
of Germany, Russia, and the United States. 

DOBELN, a town of Saxony, on the Mulde 
and on the railway from Chemnitz to Riesa, 36 
m. S. E. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 10,078. It 
has a high school, two churches, a hospital, and 
manufactories of cloth, leather, brassware, and 
hats. It is also the centre of a considerable 
trade in cattle and grain, and has three annual 
fairs. The town is well built, on an island 
formed by the Mulde and Muhlgraben. 

DOBEREINER, Joliann Wolfgang, a German 
chemist, born near Hof, Dec. 15, 1780, died in 
Jena, March 24, 1849. He was professor of 
pharmacy and chemistry in the university of 
Jena from 1810 till his death, and had intimate 
relations with Goethe and the grand duke 
Charles Augustus of Weimar ; their correspon- 
dence with him was published in 1856. H 
made several chemical discoveries, among th 
the combustibility of platinum, the appara 
for suddenly producing light by directing a 
of hydrogen upon a piece of platinum spo: 
being known as Dobereiner's lamp. His pri 
cipal works are : Zur pneumatischen Chemie 
(5 vols., Jena, 1821-'5), Zur Gahrungschemie 
(1822), and Zur Chemie des Platins (Stuttgart, 
1836). With his son FRANZ, the author of 
Kameralchemie (Dessau, 1851), he published 
Deutsches ApotTiekerbuck (3 vols., Stuttgart, 
1840-'44). 

DOBRMTEI, GSbor, a Hungarian author, 
born at Nagy-Szollos in 1786, died in 1851. 
He studied at Wittenberg and Leipsic, and in 
1810 established the " Transylvanian Museum," 
a periodical which exercised considerable in- 
fluence upon the Hungarian literature of the 
period. In 1820 he removed to Pesth, and in 
1827 was one of 22 savants invited to assemble 
at Buda to devise a plan and constitution for 
the Hungarian academy. Of the great work 
of his life, the "Ancient Monuments of the 
Hungarian Language," four volumes were pub- 
lished by him and a fifth was left nearly com- 
pleted. His poems, which consist of odes, epi- 
grams, and elegies, have been translated into 
several languages. He translated some of 
Shakespeare's plays, Moliere's Avare, and sev- 
eral tragedies of Schiller into Hungarian. 

DOBRIZHOFFER, Martin, a Jesuit missionary, 
born at Gratz, Styria, in 1717, died in Vienna, 
July 17, 1791. He was sent to South America 
in 1749, and passed 18 years among the Indians 
inhabiting the W. bank of the Paraguay rivei 1 
and the interior of Paraguay. When the Jesuits 
were expelled from the Spanish colonies he went 



ion- 

1 
I 

rin- 

mie I 



DOBRODJA 



DOCET^E 



165 



to Vienna, where he enjoyed the favor of 
Maria Theresa. His principal work is a his- 
tory in Latin of the Abipones (Vienna, 1784), 
of which a German translation appeared in 
Pesth in the same year, and an English transla- 
tion by Miss Sara Coleridge in London in 1822. 

DOBRODJA. See DOBEUDJA. 

DOBROVSKT, Jozef, a Slavic scholar, born 
near Raab, Hungary, Aug. 17, 1753, died in 
Brunn, Moravia, Jan. 6, 1829. He early applied 
himself to the study of the German language, 
and acquired afterward still greater knowledge 
of the Bohemian. He studied at the univer- 
sity of Prague, became a Jesuit at Brunn in 
October, 1772, and after the dissolution of that 
order in July, 1773, devoted himself to literature. 
From 1780 to 1787 he conducted a journal de- 
voted to the literature of Bohemia and Moravia. 
His subsequent works on the Slavic languages 
and history gained him the reputation of hav- 
ing laid the foundation of Slavic philology. 
The most celebrated of them are the Geschichte 
der bohmischen Sprache (1792), Entwurf zu 
einem allgemeinen EtymologiTcon der slawiscJien 
SpracTien (1813), and Institutions Lingua 
Slavic Dialecti veteris (Vienna, 1822). In 
1792 and 1794 he visited Sweden, Russia, and 
western Europe, to collect documents bearing 
upon Slavic history. On his return he was for 
several years afflicted with insanity, brought 
about by the intensity of his labors, but recov- 
ered his health in 1803. An account of his 
life and writings was published by Palacky at 
Prague in 1833. 

DOBRUDJA, the N. E. portion of Bulgaria, 
Turkey, on the right side of the Danube, ex- 
tending from Silistria and Varna to the mouth 
of that river, offering the most accessible mili- 
tary route from the north to Constantinople. 
The Russians commenced here their operations 
against Turkey in 1828; and again in 1854, 
having crossed the Danube at Braila and Ga- 
latz, they gained an important advantage by 
securing Matchin, one of the principal towns 
of the district. It was restored to Turkey by 
the treaty of peace of 1856. The population 
consists of 16,000 to 20,000 families of Bulga- 
rians, Tartars, Cossacks, Turkomans, Armeni- 
ans, Greeks, and Jews, who support themselves 
chiefly by the raising of cattle and bees, by the 
manufacture of salt, and by fisheries. The 
country is flat, containing several large swamps, 
and lakes on the coast. Some parts are very 
fertile, and produce good crops of grain ; others 
are covered with grasses. The herbage dries 
up early in summer, and the flocks of sheep 
and herds of buffaloes go to the borders of the 
Danube for pasture. The wall of Trajan crosses 
the Dobrudja at about lat. 44 10' N. The most 
important towns in this district are Tultcha, 
Kustendji, Baba Dagh, and Hirsova. A rail- 
way connects Tchernavoda on the Danube 
with Kustendji on the Black sea. 

DOBSON, Thomas, a bookseller and author of 
Philadelphia, died March 8, 1823. He repub- 
Hshed the " Encyclopedia Britannica" (21 



vols. 4to, including the supplement, 1798- 
1803), and wrote "Letters on the Character 
of the Deity and the Moral State of Man " (2 
vols. 12mo, 1807). 

DOBSON, William, an English painter, born in 
London in 1610, died in 1646. He served an 
apprenticeship with a portrait painter and 
picture dealer, and availed himself of the op- 
portunity thus offered him to copy some of the 
works of Titian and Vandyke. One of his 
pictures fell by chance under the eye of Van- 
dyke, who was so much struck by its merit 
that he presented the painter to Charles I., 
who sat to Dobson for his picture, and upon 
the death of Vandyke conferred upon him the 
title of his chief painter. Several of his portraits 
are in the cabinet of the duke of Northumber- 
land. One of his best historical pictures is the 
"Decollation of St. John," at Wilton. 

DOCE, Rio, a river of Brazil, rising at the 
base of Mt. Itacolumi, S. E. of the city of Ouro 
Preto, province of Minas Geraes. It flows N". 
180 m., then bends first E., afterward S. E., 
then N". E., flowing through the province of Es- 
pirito Santo, finally curves abruptly to the S. 
E., and falls into the Atlantic near the town of 
Regencia. The mouth is wide and shallow, 
and traversed by a bar on which the waves 
break with great violence, so that the entrance 
to the river is always difficult, and often for 
weeks together impossible. As far up as Porto 
de Souza the river is navigable all the year round 
by small steamers ; but at that point begin the 
rapids which render navigation impossible save 
for canoes, and even these must in some parts 
be unloaded before hauling them over the 
rapids. The banks of the Doce are for the most 
part high and steep, bordered by mountains 
with a rich clothing of forest, in which abound 
trees furnishing many species of valuable wood. 
During the rainy season the Doce sometimes 
rises 20 feet above its ordinary level. 

DOCETJE, in the primitive church, the par- 
tisans of those doctrines which admitted the 
appearance but denied the reality of the human 
form and nature of Jesus Christ. Those who 
looked upon matter as essentially evil were 
offended at the idea of a revelation of Deity 
through sensible objects, and declared that 
everything corporeal in Christ was only in ap- 
pearance, and for the manifestation of the 
spirit, and that his life was merely a continued 
theophany. It was probably against Docetic 
doctrines, which had appeared even in the 
time of the apostles, that some passages in the 
gospels and epistles of St. John were directed. 
Docetism, of which there were various forms, 
was itself one of the earlier forms of Gnosticism, 
and its teachers, as Valentinus, Cassianus, and 
Bardesanes, who flourished in the latter half of 
the 2d century, are reckoned among the Gnos- 
tics. Its purpose was to reconcile the narra- 
tive of the gospels with the respect due to the 
Deity, in maintaining that the sufferings and 
death of Christ were only apparent, in opposi j 
tion to the realistic doctrine of the Ebionites. 



166 



DOCK 



DOCK (Gr. doxt, Dutch dole, Ger. Dock, a re- 
ceptacle), an artificial enclosure in connection 
with a harbor or river, used for the reception 
of vessels, and provided with gates for keeping 
in or shutting out the tide. There are two 
kinds of docks in general, wet and dry docks, 
the former so called because they retain their 
water for the purpose of keeping vessels afloat. 
In the United States wharves are popularly 
but erroneously called docks. Enclosed basins 
not closed by gates, in consequence of there 
being no necessity for it because of small tides, 
are called docks with better reason, as the At- 
lantic dock at Brooklyn, which will be de- 
scribed in this article, although according to 
the accepted definitions it should strictly be 
classed as a basin. The late English engineer 
Rankine calls a reservoir surrounded by quay 
walls, and having a single gate without a lock, 
a basin, restricting the term wet dock to a 
reservoir which is entered through a lock. 
Either kind of structure, however, is usually 
called a wet dock. A dry dock is one from 
which the water may be shut or pumped out 
so as to become dry, leaving a vessel in a posi- 
tion to be inspected or repaired. Floating 
docks and screw docks are varieties of dry 
docks by means of which vessels are raised 
out of the water by the buoyancy of pontoons 
or the application of screw power. Vessels 
are also drawn out upon inclined railways 
which are called slips ; but these cannot prop- 
erly be called docks, as they are not recepta- 
cles in the sense in which the word is under- 
stood. WET DOCKS are important structures 
in harbors where there is considerable rise 
and fall of tide, serving not only to keep ships 
afloat, but to maintain a convenient level. 
They are of comparatively recent date. The 
Mediterranean, upon which most of the com- 
merce of the world till within a few centuries 
was conducted, has so little rise and fall of 
tide, and the vessels used by the ancients were 
of so small a size, that the necessity of main- 
taining a level equal to that of high tide did not 
exist. Liverpool was the first city to embark 
to any extent in their construction, and for a 
long time her docks were unrivalled in size and 
magnificence. In the harbor of New York, at 
Philadelphia, and at Baltimore and other ports 
in Chesapeake bay, the rise and fall of the 
tides are so inconsiderable as to render such 
docks as those upon the Mersey and the 
Thames not only unnecessary but inconvenient. 
The Atlantic dock, therefore, has no gates. The 
maintaining of a level of 4 or 5 ft. above low 
water would doubtless often be an advantage, 
but the expense necessary to secure it would 
be greatly disproportionate. At Liverpool, 
however, where the difference between high 
;md low tide is about 15 ft., and at London, 
where it is 18 ft, the case is different. Liver- 
I ] owes all her great commercial prosperity 
to the number and extent of her docks, which 
cover an area of over 200 acres. Without them 
the Mersey would never have afforded much 



more than an indifferent harbor for fishing and 
other small vessels. In the Clyde, where the 
tides are small, they have not been used, al- 
though the idea of providing them has been 
entertained. Wet docks are constructed 
with a wall of masonry, or of piling with 
concrete and tamped clay filling, and with a 
clay or concrete bottom. The enclosed area 
may vary from four or five acres, as at Leith, 
to 70 or more, as the Victoria dock at London. 
The higher the level of the water in the dock 
is kept above the low or mean tide of the 
harbor, the stronger and more impervious the 
walls require to be made. When the area is 
not too great the water is sometimes maintain- 
ed at the highest tide level by pumps, mainly 
to avoid the necessity of admitting too much 
sedimentary matter with the entrance of the 
tide when the water in the harbor is very tur- 
bid. In planning a dock, among other things 
to be considered is the proportion of the sur- 
face of water to the length of the quay walls, 
which should be as small as is consistent with 
convenience in manoeuvring the vessels. The 
docks of Great Britain are usually entered 
through locks having two gates similar to those 
on canals. The entrance locks to the docks of 
London vary in width from 40 to 80 ft., and 
in length from 100 to over 326, depending upon 
the class of vessels which it is intended to ac- 
commodate. The Victoria docks comprise a 
tidal basin of 16 acres at the entrance from 
the Thames, and a main dock of 74 acres. The 
earthy strata which occupied the site of the 
dock consisted of a top soil one foot deep, a Inyer 
of clay about 5| ft. thick, then one of peat from 
5 to 12 ft., and beneath this a bed of gravel, 
lying upon the London clay. The dock and 
basin were excavated to a depth of 26 ft. be- 
low high-water mark, and its bottom puddled 
with clay to a depth of 2 ft., leaving the fin- 
ished surface 24 ft. below Trinity high-water 
.mark. The entrance from the river into the 
basin is by a lock having two pairs of wrought- 
iron gates, revolving in hollow quoins, the walls 
of the lock being constructed of cast-iron pi- 
ling, T-shaped in section, backed with hydraulic 
concrete. The gates are what are called cylin- 
drical in form ; that is, they are portions of a 
cylinder, with the convexity turned toward 
the basin. The lock chamber is 80 ft. wide at 
the bottom and 326^ ft. long, including the 
upper and lower gate platforms upon which 
the gates are supported while turning upon a 
circular roller path. On the site of the lock 
the surface of the London clay was 37 ft. be- 
low high-water mark, and to this depth the 
excavation was carried at this point, and the 
foundations of the gate platforms were laid. 
Between the platforms the bottom of the lock 
was filled with clay puddle to a level of 28 ft. 
below high-water mark. The upper gate plat- 
form is 25 ft. below that mark, while the 
lower one is 28 ft., or at the same depth as the 
bottom of the lock ; so that, the mean fall of 
tide being 18 ft., there will be 10 ft. depth of 



DOCK 



167 



water in the dock below the upper platform at 
low tide. The entrance from the tidal basin 
into the dock is by means of a single pair of 
gates, similar to those of the lock, placed be- 
tween two dumb jetties or walls which sepa- 
rate the basin from the dock. (See fig. 1.) 
The basin and dock are 4,050 ft. in length and 
1,050 ft. in width. There are six jetties the 
two just mentioned, which are each 485 ft. 
long, and four others extending from the 
north wall into the dock a distance of 581 ft., 
including the pointed terminations. These 
with the sides of the dock and basin afford 
nearly three miles of quay room. The four in- 
terior jetties are each 140 ft. wide for 497 ft., 
and the surface of the quay varies from 6 to 9 
ft. above high-water mark. The side walls 
are vertical and constructed of cast-iron piles 
7 ft. apart from centre to centre, filled in be- 
tween with brick set in Roman cement, the 



brickwork being arched toward the back to 
give strength. Behind the piles and brickwork 
there is a wall of concrete which was carried 
up from below the clay bottom, and behind 
this a filling of clay. The piles are T-shaped 
in section, and are 35 ft. long and 1 ft. wide 
on the face, averaging 1 m - in thickness, and 
weighing about If ton each. They are driven 
to a depth of 28 ft. below high-water mark, 
and therefore 4 ft. below the bottom of the 
dock. The brickwork commences one foot 
above the bottom, and rests upon concrete 3 
ft. thick. The wall is covered with a cast- 
iron plate bolted to the heads of the piles, and 
upon these lies a timber sill. The piles in the op- 
posite jetty walls are connected by cross bars, 
5 and 17 ft. below their heads. Upon each 
jetty there is a warehouse 500 ft. long and 80 
wide, leaving wharf room 30 ft. wide ; and it 
is also supplied with nine hydraulic cranes, one 




FIG. 1. Plan of the Victoria Docks at London. 



of five tons power at the pointed end, and 
eight others of two tons power each along the 
sides. Connected with the north side is a 
basin which opens into eight graving or dry 
docks. (For a more detailed description of 
this work, and also of the docks upon the 
Tyne, see Spon's " Dictionary of Engineer- 
ing," London, 1871.) The West India "docks, 
constructed in 1802 in a gorge in the Isle 
of Dogs, comprise an import dock of 80 acres, 
an export dock of 25 acres, communicating 
with the Thames at Blackwall, and a bond- 
ed timber dock of 19 acres. The gates are 
45 ft. wide, admitting vessels of 1,200 tons. 
The whole space occupied by docks and ware- 
houses is 295 acres. The East India docks, 
also at Blackwall, completed in 1806, belong 
to the same company as the former. They in- 
clude an import basin of 18, an export basin 
of 9, and an entrance basin of 2f acres. The 
gates are 48 ft. wide, and the depth of water 
23 ft. The Commercial docks, situated on the 



opposite side of the river, existed in 1660 under 
the name of the Howland great wet dock, and 
subsequently of the Greenland docks, having 
been prepared for the accommodation of the 
Greenland whaling vessels. In 1807 they were 
greatly enlarged and received their present 
name, and are now used chiefly to receive ves- 
sels laden with corn, iron, lumber, guano, and 
other bulky articles. They cover an area of 
120 acres, 70 of which are water. The gran- 
aries will contain 140,000 quarters of corn. 
The other principal docks here are the London 
and the St. Katherine docks, the latter situated 
between the former and the tower. The 
warehouses in the St. Katherine docks are 
built upon the water's edge, without a quay ; 
but this plan has since been disapproved on_ ac- 
count of interference with the ships' rigging. 
The docks at Liverpool were authorized by an 
act of parliament in 1708. There are numerous 
other mercantile wet docks in Great Britain, a 
list of which, including entrance basins pro-- 



168 



DOCK 



vidod with locks, at the principal ports, is ap- 
pended : 


PORTS. 


No. 


In acres. 


London 


28 
88 
4 
4 
7 
2 
1 
8 
2 
4 
8 
4 


850 
206 
142 
79 
46* 
51 
20 
32 
41 
107 
1* 
84 
85 


Liverpool 
Birkenhead 








Hull, exclusive of 






Hartlepool 




West llartlepool^ exclusive of timber pounds. . 






Leith 




Dundee 




Aberdeen 









The docks at Cherbourg were commenced 
by Napoleon I., and the first basin was opened 
in August, 1813. (See CHEEBOUEG; also for 
notices of other docks, see the articles on the 
places where they are situated.) The Atlantic 
dock at Brooklyn, technically a tidal basin, 
was constructed by the Atlantic dock com- 
pany, chartered by the state legislature in 
1840. The work was commenced in 1841, and 




FIG. 2. Plan of Atlantic Dock. 

occupied several years. Over 200 acres of 
land were purchased at a point on the Long 
Island shore opposite Governor's island, and 60 
acres of the low land and marsh were converted 
into a basin having 40 acres of water surface. 



The enclosure on the water side was made with 
cribwork piers consisting of timber filled with 
stone, sunk in trenches 30 ft. below high-water 
mark. The cribs were 25 ft. thick at the base, 
and were placed with their external sides 150 
ft. apart, that being the width of the pier, the 
top of which is 10 ft. above low-water mark. 
The space between them was filled with sand 
and gravel from the excavations in the basin. 
Piles were driven into the filling to a sufficient 
depth and sawn off" 5 ft. below the surface ; and 
upon the heads of the piles the stone founda- 
tions of the warehouses were placed. The en- 
trance is between the north and south piers, 
and is 200 ft. wide. The excavation over the 
whole 40 acres was made principally with 
dredging machines working by means of an 
endless chain, and was carried to an average 
depth of 20 ft. below low-water mark, or 25 
ft. below high-water mark. In the basin, 
reaching from either end, are wooden piers 
of sufficient width for the unloading of ships, 
built of piles covered with timber and plank- 
ing. Upon the cribwork piers, one of 1,070 
and the other of 1,000 feet in length, there 
are commodious stone warehouses, 100 ft. in 
depth and extending the length of the piers. 
Upon the opposite or inland side of the basin 
is the commercial wharf, 2,000 ft. in length, 
and upon this there are three blocks of ware- 
houses, each 460 ft. long and 180 ft. deep, be- 
sides an iron yard of the same dimensions. 
There are several grain elevators situated upon 
different parts of the wharves. A plan of the 
dock is given in fig. 2 ; for a further descrip- 
tion and a perspective view, see BROOKLYN. 
DEY DOCKS, often called graving docks, because 
used for graving or cleaning the bottoms of . 
ships, consist, as before stated, of those which 
are pumped dry and those which discharge 
the water by being 'raised. The former are 
usually built of masonry, but are sometimes 
constructed of piling, concrete, and clay pud- 
dling. Two of the latter kind were construct- 
ed at the Erie basin, near the Atlantic dock, 
which are 500 ft. in length by 90 in width at 
top and 480 by 50 ft. at bottom, and 30 ft. deep. 
The dry dock at the Brooklyn navy yard is 
the finest structure of the kind in the United 
States. It was commenced in August, 1841, and 
completed in August, 1851. The construction of 
the coffer dam and the excavation which initia- 
ted the work are described in the article DAM. 
The main chamber of the dock, fig. 3, a, is 286 ft. 
long and 30 ft. wide at the bottom, and 307 ft. 
long and 98 ft. wide at the top, this being the 
distance between the folding gates g g and the 
head of the dock e. Behind the folding gates is 
what is called the lock chamber, c, 52 ft. long, 
which length may be added to the dock when 
it is required, a caisson, d, forming the external 
gate being sufficient to exclude the water. The 
bottom is 26 ft. below mean high tide, and 
30 ft. 8 in. below the coping. The foundation 
had to be constructed in quicksand, and con- 
sisted of piling driven to great depth, covered 



DOCK 



169 



FIG 8. Plan of Brooklyn 
Dry Dock. 




with 18 in. of hydraulic concrete, this covered 
with cross timbers of yellow pine 12 in. square, 
and this again with 3 ft. granite blocks laid 
in hydraulic cement. A cross section is rep- 
resented in fig. 4. The walls, composed of 
heavy granite blocks laid in hydraulic cement, 
are carrried up vertically from this foundation, 
and are 108 ft. from outside to outside, being 
5 ft. thick at the coping and 39 ft. at the bot- 
tom or lower step, and varying in thickness 




FIG. 4 Transverse Section of Brooklyn Dry Dock. 

between these two points in accordance with 
the curve, which is irregular and made to cor- 
respond with the general curve of the side of a 
ship. The distance between the quoins in which 
the folding gates revolve is 66 ft., and this is 
about the average width of the lock chamber, 
and also of the length of the deck of the caisson 
or outer gate, which has also a beam of 16 and 
a depth of 30 ft. Two culverts, e, c, one on 
either side of the entrance and below the sur- 
face at low tide, admit water and carry it in a 
descending course to the bottom of the dock 
a few feet in front of the inner gates. These 
culverts have a calibre of 4 ft. 9 in. vertical 
by 2 ft. 5 in. horizontal. At the points where 
they enter the dock commence the discharge 
culverts, which are carried on either side to a 
point beyond the head, where they unite and 
empty into a well under the engine house. 
From this well the water is pumped into a 
culvert which descends to the river and dis- 
charges at a point near the entrance of the dock. 
The pumping engine can empty the dock in 2h. 
10m., its capacity when filled by the tide being 
about 600,000 cubic feet. "When a ship is docked, 
the filling culverts are closed, as well as the 
passages from the dock chamber to the drain- 
ing culverts leading to the pump well, and the 
water is pumped from the latter ; the ship is 
then admitted and placed over the keel block 
in the centre of the dock ; the caisson is next 
floated to its place, over the recess or groove, 
and filled with water until it sinks down to the 
bottom of the masonry fitted to receive its keel ; 
after which the turning gates are closed by men 
standing on the bridge, arid working the four 
hand wheels that move the machinery. The 
culvert gates in the dock chamber are next 
drawn and the water is allowed to flow into 
the draining culvert and well, by which means 



170 



DOCK 



the water is lowered several inches in the 
dock in a few minutes, thus hastening the 
shoring and producing an immediate pressure 
on the gates, so as to effectually prevent the 
admission of water and fix them steadily. A 
complete command of the level at the moment 
the gates are closed, or when a ship, especially 
a large one, is about to touch the blocks and 
requires the placing of shores, is important ; 
and the above method gives a more perfect 
control of the operation for the first foot than 
could be obtained by the best regulated pumps 
and machinery for driving them. There are 
also naval dry docks at the navy yards of Bos- 
ton, Portsmouth, Norfolk, Pensacola, and San 
Francisco. The Boston dry dock, situated at 
Charlestown, is of granite, 256 ft. long and 86 
ft. wide, with a depth at mean high tide of 25 
ft. The length of the dock may be increased 
53 ft., like the one at Brooklyn, by leaving 
open the turning gates and using the caisson 
alone. It was commenced in 1827 and finished 
in 1834. The dry dock at Norfolk, Va., built 
at the same time, is also of granite. Before 
its completion the ship of the line Delaware 
was docked in it in 1833, on the anniversary 
of the battle of Bunker Hill (June 17), being 
the first national ship ever docked in a United 
States dry dock. Its dimensions and construc- 
tion are like those of the Boston dock. There 
are 11 dry docks at the Portsmouth navy yard, 
England ; among them two (double locks), 
each 644 ft. long, with gates 80 and 88 ft. in 
width and a depth of water at highest tides of 
25 and 27 ft. ; and another 426 ft. long, with 
gates 70 ft. wide, and a depth of 25 ft. 9 in. at 
high tide. At Devonport there are five dry 
docks, one 437 ft. long, with an entrance 73 
ft. wide, and a depth of water at high tide of 
31 ft. There are 18 dry docks at Liverpool, 
some of them over 500 ft. long, the Canada 
graving dock having an entrance width of 100 
ft. and a maximum depth of water of 26 ft. 
At Birkenhead there are six dry docks, two of 
them 750 ft. long at the bottom, with gates 85 
and 50 ft. wide, and a depth of 29 ft. 9 in. at 
high water. There are numerous other magni- 
ficent structures in other parts of the kingdom. 
The number of floating basins in the English 
government dockyards is 11, comprising a 
total area of 35 acres, and having a lineal 
quay space of 13,500 ft. The dry docks at Se- 
bastopol, which were mainly destroyed after 
the capture of the city, Sept. 8, 1855, were 
situated considerably above the level of the 
Black sea, and the expense of pumping was 
entirely avoided ; ships were raised into a gen- 
eral dock basin by a series of three locks, each 
of which had a rise of 10 ft. The water for 
supplying the basin, for filling the docks, and 
for working the locks, was brought by a canal 
\ 2 m. long, which taps a mountain stream. Ves- 
sels, after being elevated into the general basin, 
were floated into one of these dry docks, and, the 
gates being closed, the water was let off into the 
sea through a subterranean culvert A floating 



dry dock, called a balance dock, and which 
was patented by John S. Gilbert of New York, 
consists of a pontoon divided into compart- 
ments, which may be so filled with either air or 
water as to preserve a balance of position, and 
by its buoyancy to be capable of raising ves- 
sels. It may be built of timber and planking, 
or of wrought iron and planking. Those which 
are used in New York have the framework en- 
tirely of wood, and one of them has been in 
use for nearly 30 years. The pontoons may be 
from 8 to 12 ft. in depth, and 100 or more in 
breadth by 350 or more in length. They are 
strongly girded and trussed, and have a strong 
bulkhead running through the middle for the 
whole length, upon which the keel of the ves- 
sel is supported by keel blocks. At either side 
the dock rises into walled chambers, which 
may be also filled with water or air, and upon 
the deck of which are placed steam engines for 
the purpose of pumping the water from the in- 
terior. The ends of the dock are left open, so 
that when the vessel is raised the water readi- 
ly flows from the dock. Fig. 5 represents the 
larger of two docks owned by the New York 
balance dock company. It is 325 ft. long, 100 
ft. wide, and 30 ft. from deck of pontoons to 




FIG. 5. Balance Dock. 

deck of side walls, or 40 ft. in all, the pontoons 
being 10 ft. deep. It has 8 gates on either side 
for admitting, and 8 others for discharging 
water, which is pumped out by steam engines, 
one upon either wall, of 40 horse power each. 
The pumps are 14 in number, 7 on either side, 
of 36 in. diameter and 35 in. stroke, capable of 
exhausting with sufficient rapidity to raise a 
vessel of 3,000 tons in an hour and a half. 
Its total lifting power is estimated at 8,000 
tons. In docking a vessel on the balance dock, 
the pumps are first set in motion by the steam 
engines on the deck above, and the discharge 
opening being closed by a gate for that purpose, 
the water rises in the chamber above the 
pumps until it is full to the deck of the dock. 
It is next allowed to flow into the upper cham- 
ber of the dock until its weight, acting as bal- 
last, sinks the dock to the required depth. 
When the ship is floated into the dock, this bal- 
last is drawn off by means of valves, causing 
the dock to rise by its own specific gravity 
until it touches the bottom of the ship, after 



DOCK 



171 



which the vessel is lifted by pumping the water 
out of the side chambers and bottom tank ; 
and as the dock rises, the water around the 
ship in the middle chamber ebbs out, so that 




FIG. 6. Transverse Section of Eennie's Floating Dock. 

the quantity of water to be exhausted in rais- 
ing a vessel is in proportion to her weight and 
not to her bulk. Fig. 6 represents a cross sec- 
tion of an iron floating dock, built mainly upon 
the same principle as the New York floating 
dock, differing however in having air chambers 
in the upper part of the walls, by means of 
which the depth of sinking is controlled. It 
was constructed by Mr. G. B. Rennie for the 
port of Ferrol on the N". W. coast of Spain. It 
is 350 ft. long, 105 ft. wide, and 50 ft. high in 
extreme dimensions. The depth of the pon- 
toon is 12i ft., leaving a height of 37| ft. from 
the deck of the pontoon to the deck of the side 
walls, so that if the keel blocks occupy 5 ft. 
and the deck remains 4 ft. above water, there 
will be a clear depth of 28 ft. of water for the 
admission of ships. The total weight of the 
dock is about 5,000 tons, and the displacement 
by the pontoon is equal to 13,000 tons, leav- 
ing a lifting power of 8,000 tons. It is con- 
structed of plate, angle, and T iron, riveted to- 
gether in one structure. The pontoon is di- 
vided by a water-tight bulkhead running the 
whole length, each half being subdivided by 
10 transverse bulkheads. The upper part of 
the side walls is composed of air-tight cham- 
bers having a capacity sufficient to prevent 
the dock from sinking below any desired level. 
The pontoon is strengthened by open lattice 
girders equal to it in depth, 34 of these being 
transverse, on either side. It is covered with 
three-inch teak plank, laid longitudinally, and 
upon this over every third transverse girder are 
transverse beams of teak 2 ft. square, for the 
support of the keel and bilge blocks. Keel 
blocks are also placed on the intermediate 
girders. Four large sluices, two on either side, 
communicate by pipes 18 in. in diameter with 
the several compartments, the pipes having 
cocks to regulate the quantity of water in each 
compartment. There are four pumps on either 
side, of 2 ft. 9 in. stroke and 26 in. diameter, 
worked by steam. Four capstans are placed 
at each end for moving and mooring. The 
New York sectional floating dock was patented 



by Phineas Burgess in 1838, and the first dock 
was begun by Burgess and Dodge in 1839. It 
consists of a number of floating pontoons, which 
form the dock by being placed side by side. 
At the end of each pontoon there is a frame- 
work of timber which supports machinery for 
pumping, being sufficiently high to remain out 
of water when the dock is submerged. This 
framework projects beyond the end of the 
pontoon, and its lower part contains what is 
called a balance tank, an air-tight chamber, 
which may be raised and lowered by means of 
a rack and pinion connected with the pumping 
machinery. These tanks have much the same 
use as the air chambers in the iron floating 
dock just described ; by raising them the depth 
of the deck of the pontoons will be increased, 
and by lowering them the pontoons will be 
raised, independently of the amount of air or 
water the latter may contain. Fig. V represents 
the largest of these docks owned by the com- 
pany. It consists of 10 sections, which when 
placed close together form a dock 350 ft. long 
and 110 ft. broad. These sections may be 
placed at some distance apart so as to increase 
the length of the dock when required, or if not 




FIG. 7. New York Sectional Dock. 

of sufficient buoyancy other sections may be 
added. The advantage claimed for this dock 
is, that the buoyancy of each section may be so 
regulated as to bear with equal pressure against 
all parts of the ship's bottom, so that if she has 
been warped there will be no strain. On the 
other hand, it is stated that irregularities of 
pressure caused by swells from steamboats or 
otherwise more or less reduce this advantage. 
Advantage it certainly has in the facility with 
which it may be repaired, by taking up any sec- 
tion and placing it upon the dock formed by the 
remainder. The arrangements for docking at 
the navy yard of Philadelphia consist of a float- 
ing sectional dry dock, and a permanent stone 
basin with two marine railways. The sectional 
dock consists of nine sections, which may be 
increased in number, each section being 105 ft. 
long and 32 ft. wide, and the pontoons 11 ft. 
deep. There are three pumps at each end of 
each section, moved by two engines of 20 and 
two of 12 horse power. The bottom of the 
basin is 350 ft. long and 226 ft. wide, and will 
hold 10 ft. 9 in. of water at mean high tide. 
The dry dock at San Francisco is a sectional 
dock similar to the one at Philadelphia, but is 



172 



DOCTOR 



a little larger. The dock at Portsmouth is a 
balance dry dock, 350 ft. long, 105 ft. wide, 
and 38 ft. deep. There is also a basin 350 ft. 
long and 120 ft. wide, with two marine rail- 
ways. At I Vnsaeola the docking arrangements 
are precisely the same as at Portsmouth. 
There is in use at New York a so-called hy- 
drostatic screw dock, in which vessels are 
raised by hydrostatic power applied to screws 
to which chains are attached, supporting strong 
platforms consisting of trusses of timber. The 
first dock of the kind was worked by screws 
alone, and was patented by Elisha Turner in 
1825. The improvements by which hydrostatic 
power was applied were patented by Zebedee 
Eing in 1836. The screws which suspend the 
chains are fixed in a drawing frame which 
rests upon pins at either side. The drawing 
frames are propelled by horizontal hydrostatic 
cylinders. The platform upon which the ves- 
sel rests may be adjusted to the bottom by 
raising or lowering each section or truss as 
may be required. 

DOCTOR (Lat, a teacher), a person who has 
taken all the degrees of a faculty, and is em- 
powered to teach and practise it. It is bestowed 
by universities and colleges as an honorary dis- 
tinction. The doctorate and the degrees which 
conduct to it were instituted early in the 12th 
century. The first ceremonious installation of 
a doctor was at the university of Bologna, 
when Bulgarus was promoted to the doctor- 
ate of the civil and canon law. The learned 
Irnerius, one of the revivers of the Roman law 
at that tune, composed the formulary which 
has been followed since, and which gives 
great solemnity to the reception of the degree. 
The usage was immediately adopted by the 
university of Paris, which in 1145 conferred 
the degree of doctor upon Peter Lombard 
and Gilbert de la Porree. The title and degree 
of doctor were in use in England under King 
John, about 1207. In Germany during the 
middle ages a doctor of law enjoyed the same 

Srivileges as knights and prelates. The first 
octors were only of law and theology; medi- 
cine was afterward added; and in 1340 in the 
university of Paris the four faculties of law, 
theology, medicine, and the arts or letters 
were organized as they are now. At Oxford 
and Cambridge, and recently also in some of 
the German and American universities, diplo- 
mas of doctor of music have been given. The 
title of doctor has occasionally been bestowed 
upon women. In 1787 the university of Got- 
tingen decreed the title of doctor of philosophy 
to Dorothea Schlozer ; in 1817 the university 
of Giessen gave the title of doctor of medicine 
to Mariane Charlotte von Siebold ; in 1827 the 
university of Marburg pronounced Johanna 
Wyttenbach doctor of philosophy. Still more 
recently women have received the title of doc- 
tor of medicine from foreign and from Ameri- 
can schools. In the universities of Oxford and 
( -jiinb ridge, and in most of the continental 
universities, a student who is to receive the 



DOCTORS' COMMONS 

degree of doctor has to prepare one or more 
theses, which in Germany are called the inau- 
gural theses. In the United States the title is 
conferred upon those of eminent learning or 
ability in their profession, without demanding 
from them any learned exercise in return, ex- 
cepting in the medical profession, where it is be- 
stowed at the end of a course of study. The 
title had an existence outside of the universi- 
ties during the middle ages, and was bestowed 
upon every one of singular learning. Thus 
Alexander of Hales was called the irrefragable 
doctor ; Thomas Aquinas, the angelic doctor; 
Bonaventura, the seraphic doctor ; Duns Sco- 
tus, the subtle doctor ; Roger Bacon, the ad- 
mirable doctor ; "William Occam, the singular 
doctor ; Denys le Chartreux, the ecstatic doc- 
tor ; and Alain de Lille, the universal doctor. 
The title of doctor has been given to some of 
the fathers of the church whose teachings have 
the highest authority. At an early period 
there were accounted four doctors of the Greek 
church, St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Gregory 
Nazianzen, and St. John Chrysostom; and 
also of the Latin church, St. Augustine, St. Je- 
rome, St. Gregory the Great, and St. Am- 
brose. Pope Pius V. assigned the fifth place 
among the Latin doctors to St. Thomas Aqui- 
nas, and Sixtus V. gave the sixth place to St. 
Bonaventura. St. Bernard was added to the 
series by Pius VIII. The title of doctor of the 
law existed among the ancient Jews. Those 
who figure in the Talmud are called doctors 
of the Talmud, or distinctively doctors of the 
Mishnah (tanairri) and of the Gemara (amo- 
raim), according to the divisions of that book 
in which they appear. They were also called 
rabbis. In England, Germany, and, the United 
States the title doctor of divinity (D. D.) or 
doctor of sacred theology (S. T. D.) is con- 
ferred, generally as an honorary degree, upon 
distinguished teachers of Christianity. The 
degrees of doctor of philosophy (Ph. D.) and 
doctor of civil and canon law (J. U. D., juris 
utriusque doctor) are conferred by German 
universities for proficiency in studies. In Eng- 
land and the United States, the title of doctor 
of laws (LL. D.) is conferred as an honorary de- 
gree upon those who have acquired distinction 
in any department of learning or public af- 
fairs. In place of this the university of Oxford 
confers the corresponding degree of doctor of 
civil law (D. 0. L.). 

DOCTORS' COMMONS, the college of civilians 
in London, near St. Paul's churchyard, found- 
ed by Dr. Henry Harvey, dean of the arches, 
for the doctors of the civil law, burned down 
in the great fire of 1666, rebuilt in 1672 at the 
cost of the profession, and taken down in 1867. 
In the common hall were held until 1858 the 
sessions of the court of arches, the chief ec- 
clesiastical court of the province, the arch- 
deacon's court, the prerogative court for the 
hearing of testamentary causes, the faculty 
court, the court of delegates, and the court 
of admiralty. The most interesting part of 



DOCTRINAIRES 



DODD 



173 



doctors' commons was the prerogative will 
office, in which were kept all wills admitted 
to probate in the prerogative court of the 
archbishop of Canterbury, which had jurisdic- 
tion over nearly all such business in the king- 
dom. The original testaments preserved here 
dated from 1483, the copies from 1383. Great 
care was taken to prevent mutilation. No 
stranger was allowed to make a memorandum 
from either the wills or the index; extracts or 
transcripts, when wanted, were written out 
by the attending copyists, but any person was 
allowed to examine a will on payment of the 
regular fee. Attached to the college were 34 
proctors, who gave licenses for marriages, and 
performed the duties of solicitors. Only doc- 
tors of the civil law were allowed to practise 
in the courts held in doctors' commons. By 
acts of parliament passed Aug. 25 and 28, 
1857, and Aug. 2, 1858, the importance of 
doctors' commons was in great measure de- 
stroyed. Jurisdiction in all testamentary, di- 
vorce, and matrimonial cases was transferred 
from the ecclesiastical tribunals to a court of 
probate, and a court for divorce and matri- 
monial causes. A central office for the regis- 
try of wills was opened, with branches in the 
chief towns of the kingdom, and judges of ec- 
clesiastical courts were ordered to transmit to 
it all wills in their possession. Serjeants and 
barristers at law were admitted to practise in 
the probate court, but compensation was made 
to the displaced proctors to the amount of one 
third of the average profits of their business, 
payable during their natural lives, and officers 
of the ecclesiastical courts were transferred 
to corresponding positions in the new probate 
court. Marriage licenses were to be granted 
as before. The same restrictions relative to 
the examining of wills continued in force in the 
new registry office, and drew forth a remon- 
strance from literary men early in 1859. The 
jurisdiction of the court of delegates is now 
transferred to the judicial committee of the 
privy council, but the court of arches, the 
archdeacon's court, and the faculty court still 
exist for the hearing of ecclesiastical causes. 

DOCTRINAIRES, a French constitutionalist 
party, which originated after the restoration 
of the Bourbons, and represented the interests 
of liberalism and progress, as opposed to the 
ultra royalists, in the executive government 
and legislature. Royer-Collard, the duke de 
Broglie, and Guizot were its foremost leaders. 
They were called doctrinaires because they in- 
sisted that the state should be administered in 
accordance with rational doctrines and de- 
monstrable political utility, rather than with 
party formulas or the passion of the hour. 
After the revolution of July, 1830, when they 
came into power, they assumed a conservative 
position in antagonism with the republicans 
and radicals. After February, 1848, the doc- 
trinaires were no more heard of. 

DOD. L Daniel, an American machinist, born 
in Virginia, Sept. 28, 1788, died in New York, 



May 9, 1823. His father was distinguished 
for his versatile mechanical genius. Daniel 
received a thorough scientific education, and 
declined an appointment as professor of mathe- 
matics in Rutgers college to devote himself to 
the manufacture of engines for steamboats, 
then a new invention. He settled at Eliza- 
bethtown, N. J., and built for the steamboat 
Seahorse an engine of different construction 
from any former one; it proved superior to 
them all, and was generally adopted. In 1818 
he built an engine for the steamship Savannah, 
which the next year made the first voyage 
across the Atlantic ever performed by a steam- 
ship, and returned in safety after visiting Eng- 
land and Russia. The experiment was pecu- 
niarily unprofitable, and was not immediately 
repeated. He removed in 1821 to New York 
city, where he was reputed the most success- 
ful engine builder in the United States. In 
1823, having altered the machinery of a steam- 
boat, he went on board of her to witness in a 
trial trip on the East river the effect of his 
changes. The boiler exploded, and so severely 
injured Mr. Dod that he survived but a few days. 
II. Albert Baldwin, D. D., an American scholar, 
son of the preceding, born in Mendham, N. J., 
March 24, 1805, died in Princeton, Nov. 20, 
1845. He graduated at Princeton college in 
1822, and after spending more than three 
years in private teaching in Fredericksburg, 
Va., returned to Princeton in 1826 as a student 
in the theological seminary. From 1827 to 
1829 he was a tutor in the college, and in 1830 
was elected professor of mathematics, continu- 
ing in this post till his death. He lectured 
upon architecture and political economy, and 
wrote occasional review articles, especially for 
the u Biblical Repertory." An article by him 
in answer to objections urged against capital 
punishment was adopted by a committee of 
the New York legislature as their report. 

DODD, William, an English clergyman, born 
at Bourne, Lincolnshire, in May, 1729, exe- 
cuted in London, June 27, 1777. He studied 
at the university of Cambridge, where he dis- 
tinguished himself as a writer both of prose 
and poetry. He left Cambridge for London in 
1750, and the next year married a woman 
who possessed neither virtue nor fortune, and 
whose tastes were even more extravagant than 
his own. He was ordained deacon the same 
year, and priest in 1753, and was appointed 
to the vicarage of West Ham, near London, 
where he obtained great success by his im- 
pressive eloquence. His reputation so in- 
creased that he was quickly called to London 
as a preacher, retaining his former benefice. 
He now abandoned himself to extravagance 
and excesses. In the hope of being able to 
meet his increasing expenses, he multiplied his 
labors as editor and author, and in the course 
of several years published various original 
pieces, translations, and new editions of es- 
teemed works. He was intrusted in 1763 
with the care of the education of Philip Stan- 



174 



DODDRIDGE 



hope, afterward earl of Chesterfield, and ob- 
tained an appointment as one of the chaplains 
of the king. In 1766 lie took the degree of 
1. 1.. 1 >. at ( 'anil. ridge. Pursued by his credit- 
ors, and ambitious of a still higher position 
than he had yet obtained, he wrote to the wife 
of the lord chancellor Apsley an anonymous 
K-tu-r, offering her 3,000 if by her influence 
he might be promoted to the rectory of St. 
George's, Hanover square. This letter, being 
communicated to the chancellor, laid before 
the king, and traced to the author, caused his 
name to be stricken from the list of the 
royal chaplains. He fled to Geneva, where 
the young Lord Chesterfield was then residing, 
who gave him money to satisfy his creditors, 
and presented to him a living in Buckingham- 
shire. But Dodd went directly with his money 
to France, where he spent it recklessly. On 
his return to England in 1776 he resumed his 
pastoral functions, and preached with fluency 
and unction. His last sermon was at the Mag- 
dalen chapel, Feb. 2, 1777. Two days after 
this he forged a bond upon Lord Chesterfield 
for 4,200, for which he was tried at the Old 
Bailey and condemned to death. Though he 
refunded the money, and was recommended 
by the jury to the royal clemency, and though 
numerous noble protectors, many clergymen, 
and a petition from the city of London bearing 
23,000 signatures, prayed for the interference 
of the crown, he was executed at Tyburn. Of 
his many writings, the " Reflections on Death " 
(1763) and the "Thoughts in Prison," a poem 
in blank verse, written during the progress of 
his trial, are alone not forgotten. 

DODDRIDGE, a 1ST. W. county of West Vir- 
ginia, drained by Hughes river; area, about 
300 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,076, of whom 35 
were colored. The land is mostly hilly and 
adapted to pasturage. The Parkersburg divi- 
sion of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad crosses 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,- 
879 bushels of wheat, 113,064 of Indian corn, 
18,723 of oats, 14,167 of potatoes, 4,649 tons 
of hay, and 1 1 3, 649 Ibs. of butter. There were 
1,815 horses, 1,987 milch cows, 2,782 other 
cattle, 7,183 sheep, and 3,904 swine. Capital, 
West Union. 

DODDRIDGE, Philip, an English clergyman, 
born in London, June 26, 1702, died in Lisbon, 
Oct. 26, 1751. Left an orphan at the age of 
13, he was sent to a private school at St. Al- 
bans, where he made the acquaintance of Dr. 
Samuel Clarke, who became interested in him 
for his love of learning. The duchess of Bed- 
ford offered to defray the expenses of his edu- 
cation at either university, a proposal which 
he declined on account of the implied con- 
dition that he should become a clergyman in 
the Church of England. In 1719 he entered 
a dissenting academy at Kibworth to study 
theology. From 1722 to 1729 he fulfilled pas- 
toral duties at Kibworth and the neighboring 
town of Market Harborough, and in that retired 
district pursued his studies. In 1729 he took 



DODGE 

charge of the academy where he had been him- 
self educated, and removed it first to Market 
Harborough, and then to Northampton, whith- 
er he had been invited as pastor. At this acad- 
emy the most distinguished dissenting minis- 
ters near the middle of the last century were 
educated. Dr. Doddridge presided over it for 
20 years, and acquired a high reputation as a 
preacher and author. In 1750 his constitution, 
always feeble, began to show signs of decline, 
and he sailed to Lisbon, where he died 13 days 
after his arrival. His most popular and useful 
works are " The Rise and Progress of Religion 
in the Soul," and the "Family Expositor," 
containing a version and paraphrase of the New 
Testament, with notes. He also published sev- 
eral volumes of sermons, " The Principles of 
the Christian Religion," a " Treatise on Regen- 
eration," and several minor works. He is the 
author of numerous hymns included in the stan- 
dard collections. His " Course of Lectures on 
the Principal Subjects in Pneumatology, Ethics, 
and Divinity" was published posthumously 
(London, 1763), and gives the outlines of a 
system of metaphysics and divinity. His works 
were collected in 10 vols. (Leeds, 1802), and 
his "Private Life and Correspondence," by 
one of his descendants, appeared in 5 vols. 
(London, 1831). Accounts of his life were also 
published by his contemporary Job Orton, and 
his pupil Dr. Kippis. 

DODGE. I. A S. central county of Georgia, 
formed since the census of 1870, bounded S. 
W. by the Ocmulgee river, and intersected by 
the Little Ocmulgee; area, about 500 sq. m. 
The surface is generally level and sandy. Pine 
forests abound. The Macon and Brunswick 
railroad traverses it. Capital, Eastman. II. 
A S. E. county of Wisconsin, drained by Rock 
river and several smaller streams; area, 936 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 47,035. There are prairies 
in various parts, interspersed with oak open- 
ings, and covered here and there with small 
clusters of burr and pin oaks. The valleys of 
the streams are occupied by extensive forests 
of oak, ash, elm, and maple. The soil is cal- 
careous and highly fertile. Horicon lake is in 
the N. part. The Wisconsin division of the 
Chicago and Northwestern railroad and the 
Northern and La Crosse divisions of the Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul railroad cross it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 2,294,538 
bushels of wheat, 25,009 of rye, 629,020 of 
Indian corn, 909,648 of oats, 96,233 of barley, 
354,744 of potatoes, 70,258 tons of hay, 1,153,- 
272 Ibs. of butter, and 229,984 of wool. There 
were 13,550 horses, 16,311 milch cows, 14,549 
other cattle, 59,138 sheep, and 21, 017 swine; 
6 manufactories of agricultural implements, 23 
of carriages, 10 of barrels and casks, 11 of fur- 
niture, 2 of pig iron, 4 of woollen goods, 14 
of saddlery and harness, 5 of pumps, 4 saw 
mills, 12 flour mills, and 6 breweries. Capital, 
Juneau. III. A S. E. county of Minnesota, 
drained by affluents of the Zumbro river ; area, 
432 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,598. The surface 







DODINGTON 

is undulating or nearly level prairie, and the 
soil fertile. The Winona and St. Peter railroad 
crosses it, and the Milwaukee and St. Paul rail- 
road touches the S. W. corner. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 634,741 bushels of wheat, 
81,277 of Indian corn, 384,528 of oats, 47,150 
of barley, 36,569 of potatoes, 19,863 tons of 
hay, 27,667 Ibs. of butter, and 20,808 of wool. 
There were 2,877 horses, 3,208 milch cows, 
4,659 other cattle, 5,889 sheep, and 2,824 
swine; 7 flour mills, 1 saw mill, 1 manufactory 
of furniture, 4 of carriages, 1 of agricultural 
implements, and 1 brewery. Capital, Mantor- 
ville. IV. An E. central county of Nebraska, 
bounded S. by the Platte river, and intersected 
by the Elkhorn ; area, about 600 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 4,212. The surface is level and the 
soil fertile. The Union Pacific railroad passes 
through the S. part. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 86,181 bushels of wheat, 123,466 
of Indian corn, 116,252 of oats, and 13,927 of 
potatoes. There were 1,382 horses, 1,264 
milch cows, 2,025 other cattle, and 2,386 swine. 
Capital, Tremont. 

DODINGTON, Georgfe Bnbb, Baron Melcombe, an 
English politician, born in Dorsetshire in 1691, 
died July 28, 1762. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, and in 1715 was chosen to parliament for 
Winchelsea. His talents soon attracted atten- 
tion, and after accompanying Sir Paul Methuen 
to Madrid, he was made envoy extraordinary 
to Spain, returning in 1717. On the death of 
his uncle George Dodington in 1720, he came 
into possession of a large estate in Dorsetshire, 
took the name of Dodington, and erected at the 
cost of 140,000 a magnificent residence, where 
he entertained the leading literary men of the 
time. In politics he was a whig, and joined 
himself to Walpole; but when that minister 
refused him a peerage, he joined the opposi- 
tion. Resuming his relations with Walpole, 
he received several valuable appointments; 
but again joining the opposition, he was con- 
spicuous in the assaults on Walpole's ministry 
which resulted in its overthrow, and was after 
some time made treasurer of the navy. Again 
changing his views, he joined the faction of 
Frederick, prince of Wales, in 1749, and received 
from him the promise of a peerage and a cabi- 
net office, to be conferred when the prince 
should become king. The prince and Doding- 
ton settled the former's first ministry ; but in 
the midst of their scheming the prince sud- 
denly died. In 1755 he was once more ap- 
pointed treasurer of the navy, but soon lost 
the office. In 1761 he obtained the object of 
his life, being made Baron Melcombe of Mel- 
combe Regis, through the favor of Lord Bute. 
This^success he did not live long to enjoy, and 
on his death the title became extinct. His es- 
tates fell to Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, 
and his personal property was bequeathed to 
Thomas Wyndham, whose relative, Henry P. 
Wyndham, published Dodington's "Diary" in 
1784. This diary was kept, with some breaks, 
from March 8, 1749, to Feb. 6, 1761, and af- 
268 VOL. vi. 12 



DODO 



175 



fords a lively picture of the parties, politics, 
and public men of the last years of George II.'s 
reign, of the political corruption of the time, 
and of that of the author himself. Several of 
the author's political papers are attached to it. 
The volume has been frequently reprinted. 

DODO (didus ineptus, Linn.), a large bird of 
the island of Mauritius, at present placed in a 
subfamily of the order columbce, or pigeons. It 
has become extinct within two centuries. It 
was discovered by Vasco da Gama in 1497, 
and was mentioned by various voyagers, from 
Jacob van Neck and Wybrand van Warwijk 
in 1598, to Captain Talbot in 1697. In the 
work of Strickland and Melville on " The Do- 
dp and its Kindred " (4to, London, 1848) are 
given many quaint descriptions and figures of 
the bird, which it appears was not uncommon 
in the 17th century, and was frequently used 
as food by the crews of vessels. In 1638 Fran- 
cois Cauche says that he saw in Mauritius 
birds "larger than a swan, covered with a 
black down, with curled feathers on the rump, 




The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

and similar ones in place of wings; that the 
beak was large and curved, the legs scaly, the 
nest made of herbs heaped together ; that they 
lay but one egg of the size of a halfpenny 
roll or that of a pelican, and that the young 
ones had a stone in the gizzard." In the same 
year a living specimen was exhibited in Lon- 
don, and described by Sir Hamon Lestrange as 
a "great fowle, somewhat bigger than the 
largest turkey cock, and so legged and footed, 
but stouter and thicker and of a more erect 
shape, colored before like the breast of a young 
fesan, and the back of dun or deare color." In 
1644 the Dutch began to colonize the island, 
and these birds were soon exterminated by the 
colonists, and by the dogs, cats, and rats, 
which devoured the eggs and the young in 
the nests ; after the French took possession in 
1715 the dodo is no longer mentioned as a 
living bird. This is a most remarkable and 
clearly proved instance of the extinction of 
an animal by human agency ; and as yet the 
data for determining the species are less than 



176 



DODO 



those left by many animals which perished, 
ages ago from geological causes. Besides 
the rude drawings of the early voyagers 
given in Strickland's work, there are at least 
six oil paintings which are no doubt faith- 
ful copies of the living originals. The first of 
these paintings, the one copied in all books on 
natural history, and now in the British mu- 
seum, is anonymous, but probably by one of 
the artists who painted the following ones; 
there are three pictures by Roland Savery, one 
at the Hague, another in Berlin dated 1626, 
and the third in Vienna dated 1628; a fifth 
painting is in the Ashmolean museum, by John 
Savery, dated 1651 ; and a sixth in the gallery of 
the duke of Northumberland, at Sion House, 
painted by Goeimare, and dated 1627. < The 

Brincipal remains of the dodo are a foot in the 
ritish museum, and a head and foot in the 
Ashmolean museum at Oxford, England, ren- 
dered familiar by numerous casts; the latter 
are all that is left of the specimen in Trades- 
cant's museum, and all that was saved from 
the flames which consumed the decayed speci- 
mens by order of the trustees in 1755 ; the 
head preserves the beak and nostrils, the bare 
skin of the face, and the partially feathered 
occiput ; the eyes are dried within the sockets, 
but the horny end of the beak is gone. A 
cranium exists in the museum at Copenhagen ; 
a collection of bones at Paris, much incrusted 
with stalagmite, carried there in 1830 ; and 
others sent by Mr. Telfair to the Andersonian 
museum at Glasgow and to the London zoologi- 
cal society in 1833. The latter included a tibia 
and the head of a humerus of large size, with a 
broad articulating surface and a sudden reduc- 
tion of the size of the shaft. The generic char- 
acters are a strong bill, much longer than the 
head, with the culmen straight at first and 
then arched to the tip, which is acute and 
overlaps the lower mandible; the latter has 
the gonys short and suddenly curved upward ; 
the nostrils are in the membranous portion 
(which occupies two thirds of the bill), oblique 
and exposed ; the wings imperfect ; the tail 
apparently a tuft of five feathers, broad and 
curved upward ; the tarsi robust, moderately 
long, and scaled ; the outer toe is shorter than 
the inner, and the anterior toes are all free at 
the base ; the hind toe is long, on the same 
plane with the others, and scaled ; the claws 
are short, strong and blunt. Cuvier ranked 
the dodo with gallinaceous birds ; others have 
traced out its analogies with the ostrich and 
with the penguin. Most writers, before the 
work of Strickland, considered it a modified 
form of raptorial bird. Reinhardt of Copen- 
hagen first referred the dodo to the pigeon 
family, and Strickland and Melville followed 
out this idea. They consider it a frugivorous 
terrestrial pigeon, colossal and brevipennate, 
coming near in the bill to the genus treron 
(Vieill. ; vinago, Cuv.). The chief external 
characters of resemblance are the soft, depress- 
ed, and vascular nature of the long basal 



DODONA 

portion of the bill ; the extent of the bare 
skin around the eyes and forehead ; the hook- 
ed and compressed corneous portion of the 
upper mandible, overhanging the lower; the 
position of the nostril in the middle of the 
beak, and near its lower margin ; the sudden 
sinking from the forehead to the beak, and the 
rapid narrowing in front of the orbits; the 
short, robust tarsi, and expansion of the lower 
surface of the toes ; the low plane of the hind 
toe ; the relative lengths of the toes as com- 
pared with the ground pigeons, the absence of 
interdigital webs, and the short blunt claws. 
Among internal characters, gathered from the 
narratives of voyagers and the paintings of the 
bird from nature, are the presence of a large 
crop, a very muscular gizzard, the palatableness 
of the flesh, and the laying of a single egg. Be- 
sides these characters are the absence of the vo- 
mer; the form and direction of the bones, pro- 
cesses, and foramina of the skull ; the form of 
the metatarsal and tarso-metatarsal bones, pro- 
cesses, and canals ; and especially the passage of 
these canals on the outside of the posterior tar- 
sal ridge. Mr. Allis detected only 11 sclerotic 
plates, as in the pigeons, no other birds having so 
small a number. Its food was probably dates 
cocoanuts, mangoes, and such other fruits 
would fall from the tropical trees. Stricklai 
calls it " a young duck or gosling enlarged 
the dimensions of a swan ; .... a permanei 
nestling, clothed with down instead of feat 
ers, and with the wings and tail so short 
feeble as to be utterly unsubservient to flight.' 
While Strickland was preparing his work 
England, Dr. S. Cabot, jr., of Boston, publish- 
ed a paper in the "Journal of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History " (vol. v., p. 490), en- 
titled " The Dodo a Rasorial and not a Rapa- 
cious Bird ;" in this he conies to the same con- 
clusions as the first mentioned author, and 
without any knowledge of his views. He says 
"that the dodo was a gigantic pigeon, and 
that, as its general shape, feathering, &c., re- 
semble more strongly the young than the adult 
pigeon, we may perhaps be allowed to sur- 
mise that it properly belongs to an earlier 
epoch than the present, and has become ex- 
tinct because its time was run." Prof. Brandt 
of St. Petersburg, in 1848, maintained the 
affinity of the dodo to the charadriadca or 
plovers, which he styles pigeoned-formed or 
dove-like waders. The testimony seems over- 
whelming in favor of the columbine affinities 
of the dodo. In the island of Rodriguez lived 
another large brevipennate bird, the solitaire, 
allied to the pigeons. 

DODONA, an ancient city of Epirus, in N". 
Greece, celebrated as the seat of the most an- 
cient oracle of Greece, which ranked with 
those of Delphi and Ammonium. It is the 
only place of great celebrity in Greece of which 
the situation is not exactly known ; no vestige 
of it can be discovered. Leake conjectures 
that its site was at the S. end of Lake Janina 
(anc. Pambotis) ; others place it near the source 



DODSLEY 



DOG 



177 



of the Oropus. Before the erection of the 
temple, which was dedicated to Jupiter, the 
mysterious sayings of the deity were uttered 
from the whispering branches of a large oak 
tree ; and the old poets ascribed to the oak 
grove at Dodona the power of speech. The 
temple was destroyed by the ^Etolians under 
Dorimachus, 219 B. C., but it was rebuilt, and 
is mentioned by Pausanias as standing in the 
2d century of our era. A town of this name 
existed as late as the 6th century. Accord- 
ing to Lucretius, the fountain near the temple 
at Dodona was inflammable. 

DODSLEY, Robert, an English publisher and 
author, horn at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, in 
1703, died in Durham, Sept. 25, 1764. He 
was originally a servant, but produced in 1732 
a volume of poems, under the title of " The 
Muse in Livery,' 1 and subsequently a dramatic 
piece called " The Toy Shop," which met with 
the approbation of Pope, and was acted with 
great success at Oovent Garden theatre in 
1735. He then became a bookseller. Patron- 
ized by Pope, his shop became in time one of 
the leading establishments in the British me- 
tropolis. In 1737 he brought out a farce 
styled "The King and the Miller of Mansfield," 
which was received with applause at Drury 
Lane ; and a few years subsequently a ballad 
farce entitled " The Blind Beggar of Betlmal 
Green. v In 1746 he projected " The Museum, 
or the Literary and Historical Register," which 
numbered among its contributors some of the 
most eminent literati of the day. In 1748 he 
started another periodical called "The Pre- 
ceptor," the preface of which was written by 
Dr. Johnson, and in 1749 he paid the latter 15 
guineas for his " Vanity of Human Wishes." 
In 1750 he published " The Economy of Hu- 
man Life," which was ascribed by some to 
Lord Chesterfield. In 1758 his tragedy of 
" Oleone " was represented at Covent Garden 
theatre, on which occasion Dr. Johnson de- 
clared that " if Otway had written it, none of 
his other pieces would have been remembered." 
It went though four editions in a year. In the 
same year, in connection with Edmund Burke, 
he started the "Annual Register," which is 
still published. He was the first to collect and 
republish the " Old English Plays " (1st ed. 
edited by T. Coxeter, 1744; 2d ed. by Isaac 
Reed, 12 vols. 8vo, 1780), .by his selection of 
which his name is now most frequently re- 
called. He retired from business in 1763 with 
a handsome fortune. His collected writings 
were published under the title of " Miscellanies, 
or Trifles in Prose and Verse " (2 vols., 1745 
and 1777). 

DODWELL, Edward, an English author, born 
about 1767, died in Rome, May 14, 1832. He 
published " A Classical and Topographical Tour 
through Greece during the years 1801, 1805, 
and 1806 " (2 vols. 4to, 1819), and made nu- 
merous drawings of ruins and scenery in 
Greece and Italy, some of which were pub- 
lished after his death under the title of " Views 



and Descriptions of Cyclopean or Pelasgic Re- 
mains in Greece and Italy, with Constructions 
of a later Period." 

DODWELL, Henry, an Irish writer, born in 
Dublin about 1641, died at Shottesbrook, Berk- 
shire, June 7, 1711. He graduated at Trinity 
college, Dublin, and settled in London in 1674. 
He was for about three years Camden profes- 
sor of history at Oxford, but lost the office in 
1691 by refusing to take the oath of allegiance 
to William and Mary. He is known especially 
as a writer on classical and religious subjects. 
Among his works are : Annales Thucydidei et 
Xenophontei ; Annales Velleiani, Quintiliani, 
Statiani ; De Veteribus GrcBCorum, Eomano- 
rumque Cyclis, obiterque de Cyclo Judceorum 
ac jfitate Christi, Dissertationes ; and "An 
Epistolary Discourse, proving from the Scrip- 
tures and the first Fathers that the Soul is a 
principle naturally mortal, but immortalized 
actually by the pleasure of God, to punish- 
ment or to reward, by its union with the divine 
baptismal Spirit; wherein it is proved that 
none have the power of giving this divine im- 
mortalizing Spirit since the Apostles, but only 
the Bishops." See "Life of Dr. Henry Dod- 
well," by Francis Brokesby (London 1715). 

DOES, Jacobus van der, the elder, a Dutch paint- 
er, born in Amsterdam, March 4, 1623, died 
there, Nov. 17, 1673. After visiting Paris, he 
spent several years in Rome, where he was 
assisted by fellow artists. He was celebrated 
for his pictures of animals, especially sheep 
and goats, in connection with landscapes. His 
son SIMON (1653-1717) excelled in the same 
branch of art; and another son, JACOBUS the 
younger, born in 1654, showed great talent as 
a historical painter, and died in Paris at the 
age of about 38. 

DOG, a digitigrade carnivorous mammal, be- 
longing to the genus canis, and to the family 
canidce, which also include the wolf, fox, 
and jackal. The species of this family are 
so nearly alike in structure that the genera 
canis, lupus, vulpes, &c., have been estab- 
lished on characters which are considered of 
inferior importance in other families; even 
the intellectual and instinctive faculties have 
been employed by F. Cuvier and others in 
distinguishing the species, the domestic dogs 
being regarded as derived from several dis- 
tinct though nearly allied wild canines. Ex- 
cept in the size of the bones, there is nothing 
in the osteology of this family which can be 
made characteristic of the wild species or of 
the domestic races when compared with each 
other, though as a family group they are quite 
distinct from other digitigrades. In the skulls, 
the several species of wolf differ more from 
each other than do many domestic dogs from 
the wolves; as a general rule, the- cranial cav- 
ity bears a greater proportion to the face as 
the intelligence of the animal is more mark- 
ed. The teeth of dogs, which are largest in 
the wild species, consist, in the upper jaw, of 
six incisors in the^ intermaxillary bones ; two 



178 



DOG 



canines, strong, curved, and separated by an 
interval from the incisors; and six molars on 
each side, the first three, in interrupted series, 
being small, but with cutting edges, and called 
also false molars; the fourth or carnivorous 
tooth is bicuspid, with a small tubercle anteri- 
orly on the inner side ; the fifth is less cutting, 
bicuspid, with a large internal tubercle; the 
sixth and last is small and tubercular. In the 
lower jaw there are six incisors ; two canines, 
continuous in the series, and seven molars on 
each side, of which four are false, the fourth 
being bicuspid ; the fifth or carnivorous tooth 
has its tubercular third lobe entirely posterior ; 
behind this are two tubercular teeth, the last 
being very small and frequently absent in the 
adult animal. The incisors are regular, the 
outer being the largest, and nearly perpendic- 
ular in the upper jaw ; the lower canines shut 
in front of the upper ; the tubercular charac- 
ter of the other teeth indicates a less carnivo- 
rous propensity than in the cat family, and that 
their natural diet is not exclusively animal, 
being better suited for carrion and broken bones 
than for the flesh of a living prey. In some 
species, as the buansuah and the dbole, the 
second tubercular tooth is constantly wanting, 
according to Hamilton Smith. The brain cav- 
ity is comparatively small; the crests of the 
skull and the large temporal fossaa indicate 
powerful muscles of mastication ; the eyes are 
directed forward ; the nostrils are largely open- 
ed in a movable glandular muzzle ; the tongue 
is soft, thin at the edges, and capable of consid- 
derable extension beyond the teeth, as is seen 
during rapid breathing in warm weather ; the 
pupil is round, as in other diurnal canidw. The 
fore feet have five toes, the hind feet four or 
five ; the two middle toes are the longest and 
equal; the fifth toe, when present, does not 
reach the ground ; the claws are blunt, strong, 
not retractile, and formed for digging ; the 
soles are furnished with tubercles, and in some 
arctic dogs with hair. The hair is soft and 
woolly near the skin, longer and coarser ex- 
ternally ; some of the dogs of India have the 
skin entirely naked, this condition originating 
probably from some mangy disease. The tail 
is generally long, and is curled upward. The 
number of mammaa varies from six to ten ; 
the size, form, and color are different accord- 
ing to the variety. The young open their eyes 
on the 10th or 12th day ; the first teeth begin 
to be shed at the fourth month, and the growth 
ceases at about two years of age ; gestation is 
about nine weeks, and the duration of life is 
about 10 years, though sometimes prolonged to 
20. Though strong, they are not courageous in 
proportion to their strength ; hearing is acute, 
and smell and vision are proverbially delicate, 
the former in the bloodhound, the latter in the 
greyhound ; taste is so dull or perverted that 
even luxuriously fed pets will not disdain a 
meal of decaying flesh. Dogs are not so 
cleanly in their habits as cats ; they drink by 
lapping, require water often, and turn round 



frequently before lying down; their bark is 
very different from the howl of wild canines, 
and expresses by its intonation fear, sorrow, 
anger, joy, and other feelings. All canines 
seem to have a natural antipathy to the cat 
family ; and all, both wild and domesticated, 
and the nearly allied hyaana, are subject to hy- 
drophobia. There are several species of wild 
dogs in different parts of the earth, all of which 
may have been pressed into the service of man ; 
the crossings of these with each other, with 
the wolf in the north, the jackal in the east, 
the aguara canines in the south, the fennec in 
Africa, and the fox everywhere, with the care 
of man to develop special breeds according to 
his wants, are sufficient to account for all 
the varieties of our domestic dogs. Dogs dif- 
fer in stature, in the shape of their ears and 
tails, and in the number of their caudal verte- 
brae; some have an additional claw on the 
hind foot, or an extra false molar tooth on one 
side ; the hair differs in color, texture, and 
length ; and all these differences may remain 
as permanent varieties, like some human races, 
as long as the circumstances which gave rise 
to them continue essentially the same. When 
restored to the wild state, they approximate 
more or less closely to their original type, 
whether it be wolf, fox, jackal, or other wild 
canine. Hamilton Smith classes dogs accord- 
ing to their apparent affinities with wild ca- 
nines in corresponding latitudes: the arctic 
dogs with wolves ; the dogs of the south with 
the jackal in the old world, and with the 
aguara canines in South America. The Indian 
dogs may be traced to the prairie wolf and the 
Mexican coyote, and in Asia to the jungle 
koola. "Whatever may have been their origi- 
nals, it is altogether probable that the primi- 
tive dogs, like the other domestic animals, 
were very different from any of the present 
races, and perhaps from any now existing ca- 
nines. The first genus of wild dogs is lyciscus 
(Smith), embracing the prairie wolf and coyote 
of North America, and the koola of India; 
the head is broad, the muzzle pointed, ears 
erect, fur short, tail bushy ; stature about 26 
in. ; the disposition is more peaceable than that 
of the wolf; the voice barking; they are gre- 
garious and live in burrows. It is probable 
that the aboriginal Indian dog is derived from 
the first two; the color is ashy gray, with 
some white on the tail and breast ; when hunt- 
ing in packs, these animals are hardly to be 
distinguished from domestic dogs. They are 
named L. latrans, L. cagottis, and L. tigris. 
The red wild dogs, forming the genus chrysem 
(Smith), are found in the warmer parts of 
Asia, Africa, and the Australian islands; the 
muzzle is less pointed than in lyciscus^ and the 
tail less bushy ; they are shy and fierce, sel- 
dom burrow, hunt in troops, and bark, and arc 
about 24 in. high ; they want the second tu- 
bercular tooth in the lower jaw, and are said 
to have hairy soles ; they destroy many of tho 
young of the larger cats; they differ from 



DOG 



179 



wolves and jackals in their habits and instincts, 
and approximate the domestic dog in the small 
size of the anal glands. The buansuah of Nepaul 
(C. primavus, Hodg.) is of a deep rust color 
above and yellowish below ; it is intermediate 
in size between a wolf and a jackal, hunting 
by day or night by the scent chiefly, in small 
troops ; there are several varieties in the wood- 
ed mountains of British India. (See BUAN- 
SUAH.) The dhole of India (C. scylax, Smith) 
is more slender than the buansuah, higher on 
the legs, with a sharper muzzle, long close- 
haired tail, and large dark ears ; the color is a 
light bay. The dhole of Ceylon (C. Ceyloni- 
cus, Shaw) is an allied, if not the same species. 
The pariah cur dogs of India are not merely de- 
graded mongrels, but are the offspring of an 
indigenous wild species living in the jungles 
and in the lower Himalaya range ; this resem- 
bles the jackal more than the wolf, but is more 
bulky in body and lower on the legs ; the voice 
is yelping and howling. Other red wild dogs 
are found in Sumatra and Java. The Austra- 




Dingo. 

lian dingo (C. Australasia of authors) is a wild 
dog which has been partially domesticated by 
the natives, and is no doubt an indigenous in- 
habitant, not introduced by man; in its native 
wilds it howls in a melancholy manner, and it 
is more than a match for a domestic dog of the 
same size ; it hunts in small packs, sometimes 
in pairs, and is very active and fierce. It 
stands about 2 ft. high ; the color above is ful- 
vous spotted with white, paler on the sides 
and throat, and whitish below ; it carries the 
tail horizontally, and runs with the head high 
and the ears turned forward. The genus thous, 
of which the typical species is the wild dog 
of Egypt (C. anthus, F. Cuv.), resembles the 
wolf on a small scale, being not more than 18 
in. high, of a light structure, with rather short 
tail, close, ochry fur, barred or pencilled with 
black and white ; the species do not burrow, 
and are not gregarious, seldom hoAvl, and have 
no offensive smell ; they all have the tip of the 
tail black, and prefer rocky, sandy districts, 



where there are bushes and water. Hamilton 
Smith is of the opinion that the greyhound of 
the desert was originally derived from one of 
the species of this section. It is found from 
Egypt and Arabia to the Cape of Good Hope. 
South America when first discovered by the 
Spaniards had its indigenous canines, all with 
a tendency to elliptical pupils, though less so 
than in true foxes ; among these are the aguara 
dogs, genus dusicyon (Smith). These are be- 
tween the wolf and the fox in form, with bulky 
body and short legs ; they burrow and are 
more social and gentle than the aguara wolf 
(C. jubatus, Desm.). This group seems to 
represent the tkous of the old world, though 
the forehead is more rounded, and the tail 
consists of an imperfect brush ; the prevailing 
color is fulvous brown, often with a hoary 
tinge ; the face looks like that of the fox ; they 
are not very shy, and are capable of being do- 
mesticated; they are great thieves, with a 
propensity to conceal objects of no use as food ; 
besides the usual articles of diet, they will eat 
fish, crabs, reptiles, insects, small birds, and 
even mollusks and berries ; they are generally 
silent and hunt by day or by moonlight ; they 
are good swimmers. Several species are de- 
scribed, ranging from Surinam to the Falkland 
islands ; the domesticated specimens differ but 
little from the wild originals, except in the tail 
being less bushy ; the average height is 15 in. ; 
there are five toes to each foot, and the gape 
of the mouth is large and wolf-like ; they hunt 
pacas, agoutis, and wild gallinaceous birds. 
All these wild dogs cross with the domesti- 
cated ones of the country, forming the most 
complicated intermixtures. Certain varieties 
have relapsed into a wild state. In Asia Minor 
there is a race of these feral dogs (as Hamilton 
Smith calls them), of nearly the size of the 
local wolf, and resembling the shepherd's dog 
except that they have a more bushy tail, 
sharper nose, and the fur reddish gray, and 
that they hunt in packs in open day. A smaller 
breed is found in Russia. In Santo Domingo 
there is a large feral dog of the race of hounds 
formerly used -by the Spaniards in their west- 
ern conquests ; it is about 28 in. high, with a 
head like a terrier, and the general color pale 
bluish ash ; its scent is very fine, and it follows 
its prey with great speed, attacking it with 
ferocity ; flocks sometimes suffer from its dep- 
redations; it is believed that it was intro- 
duced into Spain from the north, such is its 
resemblance to the Danish dog. In the pampas 
of South America are troops of feral dogs, a 
mixture of all the breeds of the country; their 
ears are erect as in true wild canines; they 
are bold and cunning, destroying many of the 
young of the wild herds of cattle and horses ; 
when redomesticated, they are remarkable for 
their courage, sagacity, and acute sense of smell. 
Of the true domesticated races, the arctic 
dogs of both hemispheres are large, of wolfish 
aspect, with pointed nose, erect ears, and long 
hair of mixed black and white ; they are fierce. 



180 



DOG 



bold, and strong; they swim excellently, bur- 
row in the snow, and will drag the native 
sledges for hours at a time several miles an 
hour. The arctic voyages have made read- 




Esquimaux Dog. 

ers familiar with the habits, appearance, and 
valuable properties of the Esquimaux dog; 
this species (C. borealis, Desm.) is probably 
the same as the Siberian dog. The Hare In- 
dian dog (C. lagopus, Rich.), according to Sir 
John Richardson, is peculiar to the region of 
Mackenzie river and Great Bear lake ; it is in- 
termediate in size between the wolf and fox, 
has erect ears, bushy tail, and a general gray 
color, with white and black markings ; the hair 
is long, and at its base, as in all arctic dogs, is 
a thick wool ; it is about 14 in. high, and is 
used for hunting and not for draught; it is 




Newfoundland Dog. 

playful and affectionate, though not very docile. 
In the Hudson Bay territory, in Canada, and 
m the Lake Superior mineral district, there is 
a mongrel race of dogs which take the place 



of horses during winter ; they are hardy, easily 
managed, strong, bearing abuse, scanty food, 
and fatigue without murmur; they are invalu- 
able to the hunter, Indian, half-breed, and 
traveller in these snow-clad regions; no par- 
ticular breed is sought for, the only qualities 
valued being strength and endurance. The 
Newfoundland dog (C. Terror Novce, Smith) 
seems to be indigenous to America ; it is long- 
er than the Esquimaux dog, less compact, 
with a wider muzzle, drooping ears, and long 
hair disposed to curl; it is a handsome and 
powerful dog, very intelligent, trusty, and kind; 
the pure breed is almost semi-palmated, making 
them the best water dogs ; crossed with the 
hound, they attain an enormous size ; the gen- 
eral color is black, with some fulvous about 
the eyes, nose, throat, and joints, and white 
about the feet and end of the tail. Anecdotes 
of the sagacity of this well known breed are 
innumerable. The Nootka dog (C. laniger, 
Smith) is noted for its thick and matted fur, 
which the natives mix with wool and make 
into garments; the describer of this specie? 




Shepherd's Dog. 

thinks it indicates that the Esquimaux and 
Newfoundland races were derived from Asiatic 
originals, perhaps from the dog of Siberia. At 
the head of the list of the domestic canines of 
temperate Europe stands the shepherd's dog 
(C. domesticus, Linn.), still with the wolf-like 
stature, head, and hair ; its appearance is rather 
unpromising ; its shaggy hair is generally va- 
ried black and gray, the ears are short and 
erect, and the tail is bushy and curved ; having 
been trained from time immemorial to the care 
of flocks, its peculiar faculties seem to be in- 
stinctive, and its sagacity, fidelity, and courage 
are not excelled by any species of dog; the 
height is not quite 2 ft., but the form is very 
muscular. This breed is confined to temperate 
and southern Europe. The true shepherd's 
dog attends the flocks, keeps them together, 
and protects them from violence. A variety 
called the drover's dog, somewhat larger and 
more rugged, is of great assistance in driving 
sheep and cattle to market. The great wolf 



DOG 



181 



dog (C. Pomeranm? Linn.) lias all the sagaci- 
ty of the shepherd's dog, with a strength which 
enables him to resist successfully the attack of 
a wolf; it is large, whitish clouded with brown, 
with pointed nose, erect ears, and long silky 
hair ; it is most common in southern Europe. 
The Alpine or St. Bernard dog is universally 
known; the old race resembled the New- 
foundland dog, but the present dogs are short- 
haired, with very broad feet, and generally 
of a fawn color; their bark is uncommonly 
loud and deep. They are trained to carry 
food, wine, and warm coverings, attached to 
their bodies and necks ; they depart in the 
morning, after violent snow storms, in search 
of lost travellers, and are followed by the 
monks. Many lives have been saved through 
their instrumentality; but now that the roads 
are better and more easily followed, and the 
inhabitants in the upper valleys more numer- 
ous, their services are less frequently called for. 
In the subdivision of the watch dogs of F. 
Cuvier are found some of the largest canines, 
and especially the fierce races mentioned by 




St. Bernard Dog. 

ancient authors ; they have short hair and a 
wide muzzle, but in their skulls they resemble 
the wolf; the typical color is rufous, which is 
more or less mixed with black and white ; oc- 
cupying the northern temperate zone, they are 
probably descended from the lyciscan dogs, 
mixed toward the south with the mastiff race. 
They are less docile and sagacious than the 
former groups, but more watchful and noisy, 
and have considerable courage, and are there- 
fore generally kept by the humbler classes to 
protect their farms ; from this cause they are 
greatly crossed, and are doubtless the progeni- 
tors of the mongrel races of western Europe ; 
from their moderate powers of smelling they 
are of little use in hunting. The Suliote dog 
(C. Suillus, Gmel.), sometimes called boar 
hound in Germany, is one of the largest and 
fiercest breeds; it is sometimes nearly 4 ft. 
high at the shoulder. Kesembling this is the 
Danish dog (C. glaucm, Smith), but smoother, 
with shorter ears, and of a slaty blue color. 
The matin dog (C. laniarius, Linn.) has the 



head elongated and the forehead flat, the ears 
pendulous at the tips, the hair rugged, of a 
yellowish fawn color with blackish rays ; the 
height is about 2 ft. ; being bold, strong, and 
active, it is valuable for a house and sheep dog. 
The Poe dog ( C. Pacificus, Smith) seems to be 
indigenous to the South sea islands, and once 
was very abundant in the Hawaiian group; 
the muzzle is pointed, the ears erect, the back 
long, the limbs crooked, and the hair smooth 
and tan-colored ; its food is vegetable, with a 
little fish, and it is much esteemed by the na- 
tives as an article of diet-; the aboriginal race 
is now lost, from mixture with the imported 
dogs of Europe. The dogs of Patagonia are 
as large as fox hounds, and wolf-like in appear- 
ance ; those of Tierra del Fuego are smaller, 
resembling a cross between the fox, shepherd's 
dog, and terrier. Their dogs are of great value 
to the natives of these regions. In France 
and several other countries, especially Holland, 
dogs are frequently employed as draught ani- 
mals, and in Kamtchatka and Greenland almost 
exclusively for the same purpose. Cuvier has 
asserted that the dog was perhaps necessary for 
the establishment of human society; though 
this may not be apparent in the most highly 
civilized communities, a moment's reflection 
will convince us that barbarous nations owe 
much of their elevation above the brute to the 
possession of the dog. That man has been able 
to make such extensive use of this animal must 
depend on innate qualities in the races, as, for 
instance, keenness of scent and the desire to 
chase, in the hound ; the impulse to seek ob- 
jects, in the spaniel and pointer ; the tendency 
to watch and guard in the shepherd's dog and 
mastiff. The activity of their brain is shown 
by their proneness to dream. It is said that the 
ancients were fond of the flesh of dogs ; it is 
well known that the Polynesians, Chinese, and 
American Indians consider it a great delicacy ; 
when fed principally on vegetable food, it is 
palatable and nutritious. The monuments of 
Egypt show that dogs, like men, were as dis- 
tinct in their races thousands of years ago as 
now ; and it becomes interesting to inquire if 
there are fossil dogs. Fossil canines have cer- 
tainly been found, but these have been referred 
without examination as a matter of course to 
wolves, foxes, and jackals, and not to dogs; 
they are chiefly met with in the pliocene caves, 
in the drift, and in the alluvium. The fact 
has been already mentioned that it is very 
difficult to distinguish the different species of 
canidce by their skeletons, except by the size 
of the bones. The domestic dogs have the last 
tubercular tooth wider than that of the wolf, 
and the teeth of many of the cave dogs differ 
from those of the domestic races only in being 
larger. Dr. Lund discovered fossil dogs larger 
than any now living in the caves of Brazil, as- 
sociated with an extinct monkey ; a similar 
association has been found in a stratum of 
marl, under compact limestone, in the Pyre- 
nees. Dr. Schmerling has described several 



182 



DOG DAYS 



fossils of the true dog, evidently belonging to 
two distinct varieties, differing in size from 
those of the wolf and fox found in the same 
locality. Cuvier says of the bones of a fossil 
canis from the cave of Gailenreuth, that they 
resemble those of the dog more than the wolf, 
yet he does not positively declare them to 
belong to the former. Marcel de Serres has 
described two species of dogs found in a ma- 
rine tertiary limestone, one resembling the 
pointer, the other much smaller. The frontal 
elevation in the skull of the dog is greater than 
that of the wolf, and the skull of a small canine 
with this character strongly marked, from a 
bone cave in England, was pronounced by Mr. 
Clift that of a small bulldog or a large pug. 
Distinct traces of at least four types of dogs 
have been found in a fossil state, the Canary 
dog, the pointer, the hound, and the bulldog, 
with a smaller one classed by Schmerling with 
the turnspit ; and as many of these are known 
to be hybrids, the list must probably be further 
enlarged. The certain antiquity of these bones, 
whether they have been referred to the proper 
race of dogs or not, is sufficient to destroy the 
claims of the wolf, jackal, or fox to the exclu- 
sive paternity of the domestic dogs. As there 
are undoubted wild canines which are true 
dogs, there is no improbability that some of 
these fossil remains may have belonged to such 
prior to their subjugation and domestication 
by man ; and there is no more necessity of re- 
ferring the fossil canines to a single species 
than the domesticated ones. The size of the 
fossil dogs is no greater than that of some liv- 
ing races mentioned in the text. Those de- 
sirous of pursuing the subject of dogs more 
fully are referred to the writings of Buffon, 
Frederic Cuvier, and Col. Hamilton Smith. See 
also BEAGLE, BLOODHOUND, BULLDOG, GREY- 
HOUND, HOUND, MASTIFF, POINTER, SPANIEL, 
and TERRIER. 

DOG DAYS (Lat. dies caniculares), among the 
ancients, the period of greatest heat in sum- 
mer, so named because in the latitudes of the 
Mediterranean this period nearly corresponded 
with that in which the dog star rose at the 
same time with the sun. To this conjunction 
all antiquity, and all the later followers of ju- 
dicial astrology, ascribed a malignant influence. 
The heliacal rising of the dog star is a very 
indefinite phenomenon ; its precise dates can- 
not be determined, and owing to the precession 
of the equinoxes it does not now occur till 
about Aug. 10, when the greatest heat of the 
season is often over. So uncertain is the time 
that the ancients indiscriminately ascribe the 
evil influence to Sirius and Procyon (the lar- 
gest stars respectively of Canis Major and 
Minor), though there is several days' differ- 
ence in their heliacal risings. The modern 
almanac makers sometimes reckon the dog 
days from July 24 to Aug. 24, and sometimes 
from July 3 to Aug. 11. 

DOGE (Lat. dux, a leader), the title of the 
elective chief magistrate in the republics of 



DOGE 

Venice and Genoa. The dignity or office was 
called dogato. The doges of Venice were elect- 
ed for life. The first of them was called to 
the dignity in the year 697, when Venice had 
scarcely risen to the importance of a city, and 
he and his successors ruled it as sovereigns, with 
nearly absolute power. But when the state 
grew mightier both on land and sea, through 
commerce and conquests, its nobles continually 
strove to check the power and influence of 
their elective head, and the government became 
more and more oligarchical, its form more and 
more republican, the dogate a magistracy, and 
finally a mere title. A change in the constitu- 
tion toward the end of the 12th century put 
the whole legislative power into the hands of 
the council of 470 ; this elected the executive 
council of 6 and the 60 pregadi, and the doge 
was elected by 12 electors, chosen by 24 mem- 
bers of the great council. The first chief ma- 
gistrate thus elected was Sebastiano Ziani 
(1173), who, in order to make his dignity, now 
stripped of every power, at least popular, dis- 
tributed money among the people at his instal- 
lation ; an act adopted by his successors as one 
of the ceremonies of inauguration. Another 
ceremony introduced by the same doge was 
that of marrying the sea by a ring thrown into 
the waves of the Adriatic, which emblem of 
power over the mighty element was bestowed 
upon him with many other marks of dignity by 
Pope Alexander III., whom he supported in 
his long and bloody struggle against the em- 
peror of Germany, Frederick Barbarossa. A 
new council of 40, established in 1179, and 
vested with supreme judicial power, also served 
to circumscribe the prerogatives of the doge. 
It was in vain that many a chief magistrate 
covered his office and the state with glory ; in 
vain that Enrico Dandolo, the nearly blind 
nonogenarian, led the victorious fleet of the 
fourth crusade to Constantinople (1202-'4), 
that he was, at both attacks, among the first to 
storm it, that he refused the conquered impe- 
rial crown ; the nobility were incessantly bent 
on the humiliation of the so-called chief of the 
state, which was completed in the second half 
of the 13th century, and at the beginning of the 
next, by the new and last election law, the 
most complicated instrument of indirect exer- 
cise of sovereignty that has ever been framed, 
by the introduction under Gradenigo of the 
hereditary nobility and its golden book, and the 
establishment of the terrible council of ten, 
supreme in power, irresponsible, and judges of 
the doge himself. Stripped of nearly all his 
prerogatives, the power of the doge was con- 
fined to the command of the army and the op- 
portunity of profiting by the frequent strifes 
and contentions of the different councils and 
classes ; and the office became so burdensome 
that a law had to be enacted (1339) prohibiting 
any one from laying it down, and that in 1367 
Contarini had to be forced to accept it. The 
doge received ambassadors, but could give them 
no answer of his own, and their letters he 



DOG FISH 



DOG STAR 



183 



opened in the presence of the senate ; money 
was struck in his name, but without his stamp 
or arms. He was not allowed to leave the 
city, to announce his acccession to any but 
princes of Italy, to accept presents, to possess 
estates in foreign countries, or to marry his 
daughters to foreigners. His children and 
relatives were excluded from every important 
office. He was surrounded by spies, fined for 
every transgression, and his conduct scruti- 
nized after his death by a tribunal of three in- 
quisitors and five correctors. The ofiice was 
destroyed with the state in 1797, by the 
French, under Bonaparte. In Genoa, the first 
doge was elected for life in 1339, after the vic- 
tory of the popular party over that of the no- 
bility, and voluntarily shared his power with a 
council of state consisting of twelve members, 
six from the nobility and six from the people. 
But during the long internal and external con- 
tentions of this republic, the dogate was often 
modified, and sometimes even abolished. An- 
drea Doria, the great admiral, and the deliverer 
of the republic from the yoke of the French in 
1528, reorganized it, and his constitution re- 
mained, but slightly altered, till the French 
conquest (1797). According to it, the doge, 
who must be a noble, and 50 years of age, was 
elected for two years ; he presided in the two 
legislative councils, of 300 and of 100 ; had the 
right of proposing and vetoing laws ; exercised 
the executive power with 12 secret councillors; 
and resided in the palace of the republic. The 
ceremonies and restrictions connected with his 
election and dignity were similar to those in 
Venice. Napoleon, having founded the re- 
public of Liguria, restored this ancient dignity 
(1802), and abolished both when elected em- 
peror of the French (1804). 
DOG FISH, a cartilaginous plagiostome, of 

le family squalid or sharks, and the genus 
inthias (Risso), of the class selachians of 

Lgassiz. This genus is characterized by two 
lorsal fins with a strong spine before each; 
the first dorsal is behind the line of pectorals, 
the second between the ventral and caudal 
spaces; no anal fin; temporal orifices large; 
skin rough in one direction, the scales heart- 
shaped with a central spine directed backward ; 
teeth in several rows, sharp and cutting, with 
the points directed backward and outward. 
The common dog fish (A. Americanus, Storer) 
has the upper part of the body of a slate color, 
deepest on the head and lightest on the sides, 
and white below ; just under the anterior por- 
tion of the lateral line is a row of circular 
white spots, and a few similar ones are irregu- 
larly distributed on the back ; the young are 
still more spotted ; the length does not exceed 
5 ft. The species is found from Davis strait 
to New Jersey. Dog fish in spring and autumn 
appear in large numbers in Massachusetts bay, 
and the residents of some towns on Cape Cod 
give up all other business at these times to fish 
for them ; they are valuable for the oil from 
the livers, for the food of swine, and for the 



polishing property of their skin. The weight 
varies from 8 to 25 Ibs. They remain in shal- 
low water three or four days, at which time 
they are easily caught with the hook; they 




Dog Fish (Acanthias Americanus.) 

feed on garbage, and may be called the scav- 
engers of the sea. The young are brought 
forth alive, and are often seen swimming about 
with the yolk bag attached. In the British 
provinces they are dried, and in the winter 
given to pigs, which thrive well upon them; 
the refuse parts are used for manure. The 
dog fish (acantJiias) of Europe is a different 
species ; its flesh is eaten in Scotland. Along 
the east coast of England it is called the bone 
dog ; it troubles the fishermen by cutting off 
their hooks ; according to Mr. Couch, it bends 
itself into a bow for the purpose of using its 
spines, and then by a sudden motion causes 
them to spring asunder in opposite directions. 
Three species of scyllium (Cuv.), of a reddish 
brown color with numerous spots, are called 
dog fish in Europe. There is another shark 
(mustelus canis, Mitch.), also viviparous, called 
dog fish. In this genus the teeth are blunt, 
forming a close pavement in each jaw ; the 
first dorsal is in advance of the ventrals ; there 
are no spines; the body is cylindrical and 
elongated, of a uniform slate color on the back 
and sides, and dusky white below ; the head is 
flat between the eyes. This shark grows to a 
length of 5 ft., and is very common in Long 
Island sound, where it is taken in nets spread 
for other fish ; from the form of the teeth it is 
probable that the food consists principally of 
Crustacea and mollusks ; it is not common on 
the coast of Massachusetts, but is abundant 
on the shores of New Jersey, where it is very 
troublesome to the fishermen by stealing their 
baits and driving away other more edible 
species ; its flesh, though occasionally eaten, is 
coarse, rank, and unpalatable. In Europe the 
species of this genus are often called hound 
fish ; the M. Icevis (Cuv.) is called the smooth 
hound from the softness of the skin, and ray- 
mouthed dog fish from the peculiar conforma- 
tion of the teeth. The dog fish of the great 
lakes of North America is a soft-rayed bony 
fish, generally placed in the herring family, and 
the genus amia (Linn.). 

DOG GRASS. See COUCH GRASS. 

DOG STAR, or Sirins, the brightest star in the 
heavens, belonging to the constellation Canis 
Major. Sir J. Herschel estimates its light as 



184 



DOGWOOD 



exceeding more than twofold that of Canopus, 
the second star in brilliancy, and more than 
fourfold that of Alpha Centauri, the third, 
whose light the same astronomer takes as the 
standard for first magnitude stars. But the 
variable Eta Argus, shining now as a sixth 
magnitude star, nearly equalled Sirius in lustre 
30 years ago. Sirius was known to the an- 
cients as a red star, Ptolemy describing it as 
vTroKipfa, reddish yellow, and Seneca speaking 
of it as ruddier even than Mars. Its light at 
present is perfectly white. Examined with 
the spectroscope by Kutherfurd and Huggins, 
it shows a spectrum crossed by a multitude of 
fine lines, and by four very strong lines. The 
four lines are identified with the hydrogen 
lines. Their strength and breadth seem to 
imply that the star is surrounded by an ex- 
tensive atmosphere of hydrogen, existing close 
to the photosphere, at a very great pressure. 
From a measurement of the position of the F 
line of hydrogen, which appears slightly dis- 
placed toward the red end of the spectrum, 
Huggins has inferred that the star is receding 
from