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549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 


ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Seventh Volume of the Revised 

Edition are the following ; 

Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 



Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 




and other articles in biography, geography, and 








and articles in biography and history. 




and articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. E. H. CLAEKE, M. D., Harvard University. 


and other articles in materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. OOOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 




and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. 0. D ALTON, M. D. 

FLINT, A., Jr., 

and medical and physiological articles. 



and various articles in- American geography. 

Capt. C. E. DUTTON, U. S. A. 


ROBEET T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 











and articles in American geography. 








Prof. T. STEEEY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 




and other biographical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 




and other articles in natural history. 





Count L. F. DE POUETALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 






Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

GERMANY (geographical part). 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 


FRONTENAO, Louis DE BUADE, Count de, 
and articles on American Indians. 





and other botanical articles. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 






and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 



and other South American articles. 



Prof. JUNIUS B. WHEELEE, U. S. M. A., West 



Prof. J. H. WOEMAN. 

Prof. E. L. YOUMANS. 





T71YESHAM, a parliamentary borough and mar- 
Pj ket town of Worcestershire, England, 
nearly encircled by the Avon, 13 m. S. E. of 
Worcester ; pop. about 5,000. It is well built, 
and contains three churches, a mechanics' in- 
stitute, reading rooms, and a library. The re- 
maining tower of the once famous abbey of 
Evesham is one of the finest architectural spe- 
cimens of the time of Henry VIII. The chief 
occupation is gardening, but gloves, hosiery, 
and parchment are manufactured, and there 
is an active trade in malt and hops. 

EVIDENCE. Judicial evidence differs from 
the proofs by which human judgment is or- 
dinarily determined in non-judicial matters, 
chiefly in certain rules established for the sake 
of facility in disposing of complicated questions 
of fact, or on grounds of public policy. These 
rules may be reduced under the following 
heads : 1, cases in which a rule is prescribed 
for the purpose of getting at a certain conclu- 
sion, though arbitrary, when the subject is in- 
trinsically liable to doubt from the remoteness, 
discrepancy, or actual defect of proofs ; 2, cases 
in which evidence is excluded on the ground 
of being untrustworthy and tending to un- 
necessary prolixity, or from its very nature 
likely to be untrue ; 3, cases in which a legal 
presumption is substituted for actual proof, or 
in place of what could be proved, being sup- 
posed to be more consistent with the real rights 
of the parties than any result which could be 
expected from positive testimony ; 4, the grad- 
uation of the weight of evidence, which will 
be found in some instances to be arbitrary in 
its origin, and perhaps not altogether in ac- 
cordance with the ordinary process of judg- 
ment. Under the first class will be included 
various rules which have been adopted, not 
from exact uniformity per se, but for the sake 
of having some rule of general application, 
among which may be specified the following : 
a. That after seven years' absence without 


having been heard from, a man shall be pre- 
sumed to be dead. It is obvious in this case 
that the period fixed upon is no more certain 
than any other, but it was necessary, for the 
protection of the rights of parties who were 
compelled to act upon some presumption, that 
a legal rule should be established. If a man 
therefore has been absent seven years with- 
out anything being heard of him, his wife may 
marry again without incurring a penalty for 
bigamy, though it has not been provided that 
the second marriage shall be absolutely valid 
in case the husband should afterward return ; 
and his heir, or the person entitled to his es- 
tate by succession, becomes vested with pre- 
sumptive ownership, the same as if his decease 
was actually proved. 5. That after the ex- 
clusive possession of land or of an incorporeal 
hereditament for a certain period of time, a 
grant shall be presumed, and the title of the 
occupant will be sustained against all claimants. 
In England this period was formerly express- 
ed with some vagueness, as being beyond the 
memory of man, and the rule applied there 
only to incorporeal estates ; but by a statute 
(2 and 3 William IV.) the period has been 
limited to 20 years in cases of aquatic rights, 
ways, and other easements, and to 30 years 
in respect to right of common and other uses 
arising out of lands, except tithes and rents. 
In the United States the presumption is gen- 
erally the same both in respect to corporeal 
and incorporeal estates. In a large number of 
the states 20 years' exclusive, undisturbed, and 
uninterrupted possession, under claim of right, 
is sufficient to establish title to lands or ease- 
ments. In some states a shorter period is pre- 
scribed, either generally or for particular classes 
of cases, as for example those in which the 
claim of right is under purchase at a tax or ju- 
dicial sale. c. That deeds more than 30 years 
old may be used as evidence without proof of 
their execution; in other words, that they 


prove themselves. The presumption in such 
cases is that the subscribing witnesses or others 
by whom proof of execution is ordinarily made 
may be dead, but the rule is the same even if 
such witnesses are actually living. In offering 
such a deed in evidence, however, it is neces- 
sary to give some account of the custody of it, 
and to show that possession has been consis- 
tent with its provisions, so as to rebut any sus- 
picion in respect to its genuineness, d. An 
infant under the age of seven years is conclu- 
sively presumed to be without discretion. Be- 
yond that age it will be a subject of proof 
whether he is doli capax, but prior to that time 
no inquiry is permitted. So an infant under 
the age of 14 is presumed incapable of com- 
mitting a rape, though in fact there are in- 
stances of sexual capacity before that age. So 
*\vhen husband and wife are living together 
and impotency is not proved, the issue will be 
presumed legitimate, although it should be 
proved that the wife has during that time com- 
mited adultery, e. By the common law, if a 
wife do any act in the presence of her husband 
amounting to felony, other than treason or 
murder, she is presumed to have been under 
coercion, and therefore not criminally liable. 
This presumption, however, is allowed but 
limited force in the United States. The second 
class of cases includes two rules which were 
formerly of very frequent application, a. What 
is called hearsay evidence is inadmissible. By 
this is meant that a witness should not be per- 
mitted to testify what he has heard another 
person say, but only what he knows himself. 
To this rule there are some qualifications ra- 
ther than exceptions. Thus it is sometimes 
proper to prove what was said by a person at 
the time of performing a certain act, as having 
some tendency to explain the intent, and there- 
fore admissible as a part of the res gestcB, ac- 
cording to legal phraseology. In such a case, 
however, what was said does not strictly come 
under the designation of hearsay, but is itself 
a principal fact. So also it is admissible to 
prove what has been said by a party to an 
action. This again is a principal fact, or at all 
events comes under the designation of declara- 
tions or admissions, and as such is admissible. 
So it is permitted in cases of homicide to prove 
dying declarations, that is, what is said by the 
murdered person shortly before and in expec- 
tation of death. This is not unusual in trials 
for murder, and is competent evidence, both 
to show the manner of the death and who was 
the murderer; but it must be strictly con- 
fined to the homicide, and to facts which it 
would have been competent for the party to 
have testified to had he survived. The tes- 
timony of a witness on a former trial may also 
be proved on a second trial, in case of his de- 
cease prior thereto. Again, witnesses are al- 
lowed to testify to matters of tradition in 
respect to old boundaries of estates. The rule 
in England is limited to cases in which some 
public right is involved, as when a right of 

common is in question ; but in the United 
States it has been allowed in many cases where 
the lines of large tracts of land became mate- 
rial in determining the limits of smaller estates. 
The traditional evidence, as it is called in such 
cases, consists of proof of what has been said 
long since by persons who may be supposed to 
have had some personal knowledge, or to have 
heard from others who had such knowledge. 
Pedigree, including the facts relating to birth, 
marriage, and death, may also be shown by 
proof of what has been said by members of the 
family or relatives of the person whose paren- 
tage or relationship is in question. Many other 
illustrations could be cited, but these will suffice. 
It should be remarked that upon the same 
principle by which the kind of evidence last 
referred to is admissible, other modes of proof, 
which are ordinarily classed under hearsay, 
though they in fact belong to that species of 
evidence in no other sense than as above ex- 
plained in respect to oral testimony, are admit- 
ted, such as a family register, inscriptions on 
monuments, and the like. But with the ex- 
ceptions, if they may be so called, which we 
have specified, hearsay evidence is wholly and 
absolutely excluded by the English law. The 
reasons usually given for this exclusion are its 
uncertain and untrustworthy character, the 
endless prolixity to which it would lead in the 
attempt to sift facts in judicial proceedings, the 
ease with which it might be manufactured for 
the occasion, and the probability that better 
evidence is attainable. 5. Another rule relates 
to the competency of witnesses, and it has 
been more prolific of subtle distinctions and 
perplexing questions than any other rule in 
the law of evidence. A chief ground of ex- 
clusion was formerly interest in the subject 
of the action. The theory was that there is 
an inevitable tendency to suppress or pervert 
the facts under the influence of a supposed 
interest in the result. This of course con- 
stituted a proper exception so far as respects 
credibility ; but instead of receiving the testi- 
mony subject to a proper discrimination as to 
its effects, courts relieved themselves of all em- 
barrassment in determining its relative weight, 
by wholly excluding the testimony of an inter- 
ested witness. Under this rule not only the 
parties to the action, but all persons having an 
interest in the result, were, as a general rule, 
adjudged incompetent to testify. In determin- 
ing, however, the nature of the interest which 
should constitute a disqualification, it was found 
exceedingly difficult to fix precise rules of gen- 
eral application, and much confliction was in- 
volved in the decisions. Finally it was settled 
that the interest must be a direct gain or loss 
by the operation of the judgment in the action, 
or that the record would be evidence for or 
against the witness in some other action. But 
no interest other than pecuniary was sufficient 
to exclude, and therefore near relatives might 
testify for each other even in the most serious 
cases, and where the temptations to shield them 


by untruthful statements might be the strong- 
est possible. But husband and wife were not 
admitted to testify for or against each other, 
for which two reasons were principally as- 
signed: 1, that it would tend to destroy the 
domestic harmony ; and 2, that the wife was 
under such coercion of the husband as would 
be likely to lead her to distort or suppress the 
truth. An exception, from the necessity of 
the case, was made of prosecutions for injuries 
done or threatened by one against the other. 
The conviction at length became general that 
the exclusion of witnesses on account of inter- 
est worked injuriously, and accordingly, both 
in England and the United States, the system 
has been virtually abrogated. By statute 3 and 
4 William IV., c. 42, it was provided that no 
person offered as a witness should be excluded 
on the ground that the verdict or judgment in 
the action could be used for or against him. 
.The act 6 and 7 Victoria, c. 85 (1843), provided 
that no one, except a party, or the husband or 
wife of a party, should be excluded from testi- 
fying on the ground of interest in the subject 
of the action or event of the trial. The act 14 
and 15 Victoria, c. 99 (1851), enacted that par- 
ties and persons on whose behalf a suit is 
brought or defended shall be competent and 
compellable to testify as witnesses for either 
party, except that in criminal proceedings for 
an indictable offence neither the party charged 
nor the husband or wife of such party could be 
a witness ; and except also that the provision 
should not apply to actions founded upon adul- 
tery, or for a breach of promise of marriage. 
By a subsequent act, 16 and IV Victoria, c. 83 
(1853), the husband or wife of a party in a 
civil action was made competent as a witness 
except in cases of adultery, but with the quali- 
fication that such witness should not be bound 
to disclose any confidential communication 
made by either to the other during marriage. 
In the United States similar provisions have 
very generally been adopted ; and as a rule all 
persons having knowledge of material facts are 
competent and compellable to testify, except 
husband and wife against each other, and the 
defendants in criminal proceedings. The for- 
mer, however, are allowed to be witnesses for 
each other, and by consent may be called by 
the opposite party. In a number of the states 
the defendants in criminal cases are allowed 
either to testify in their own behalf under 
oath, or to make a statement without oath 
which the jury may receive as evidence ; but 
constitutional provisions forbid their being com- 
pelled to testify against themselves. The third 
of the classes into which we have divided the 
rules of evidence consists of presumptions of 
law in lieu of actual proof, or of what could 
be proved, under which may be specified the 
following : a. The statutes of limitation, by 
which a period of time is fixed when a debt 
shall be presumed to have been paid, or satis- 
faction to have been received. This sort of 
presumption is made not for want of actual 

proof, as the period is usually short, but to 
put an end to controversy within a reasonable 
period. The current business of life has enough 
to employ our attention without our being bur- 
dened with the memory of all former transac- 
toppels. A man is said to be estopped when it 
would be inconsistent with good faith or with 
the policy of the law to allow him to deny a 
certain fact or legal conclusion. Thus, if he 
claims under a deed or will, he is bound by all 
that is contained in it, and is estopped either 
from denying any recital therein, or from set- 
ting up any claim of title adverse to or incon- 
sistent with such deed or will. An estoppel in 
pais, as it is called in the old cases, is when a 
man is precluded by his own act or admission 
from proving anything contrary thereto. An 
instance of this is when a man has by some* 
statement or admission induced another with 
whom he was dealing to enter into a contract ; 
he will not afterward be permitted to deny the 
truth of such statement or admission if the ef- 
fect would be to work an injury to such third 
party. So a tacit admission, as when the 
owner of a chattel stands by while another 
sells it as his own, and neglects to give notice 
of his right ; this will operate as an estoppel to 
his setting up his claim against the innocent 
purchaser. To this head also belongs what is 
called resjudicata, that is to say, the rule that 
when a fact necessarily involved in an action is 
once determined it shall not afterward be called 
in question as between the same parties or per- 
sons claiming under them. A judgment or de- 
cree of a competent court is final not only as to 
what was actually determined, but as to every 
matter which was involved in the issue, and 
which could have been decided. The record 
of the judgment is the only proper evidence 
of what was in issue, and it cannot be proved 
aliunde that some matter was in fact involved 
and taken into consideration which does not 
appear by the record to have been involved in 
the issue. This is the rule as to decisions of 
tribunals in our own country. In respect to 
foreign judgments and decrees, the effect is the 
same when the court had jurisdiction of the 
case, and no fraud has been practised. The 
record itself, which must be produced, is not 
conclusive as to facts necessary to give juris- 
diction, and a defendant will be permitted to 
prove that he was not personally served with 
process ; so any fraud on the part of the court 
or its officers may be shown. But the regu- 
larity of the judgment having been established, 
it is conclusive upon all matters embraced in the 
issue. The fourth class in the arrangement we 
have made of our subject, viz., the comparative 
weight of evidence, is of a twofold character. 
Judicial discrimination may lead to the rejec- 
tion of testimony as being entitled to no weight 
at all, or it may determine the relative influ- 
ence which it should have if admissible in the 
decision of a question of fact. The former 
we have already considered, so far as respects 



the incompetency of witnesses and the exclu- 
sion of hearsay testimony. But evidence is 
sometimes excluded for reasons of more limited 
application. Thus, inferior testimony is not 
admitted when a party has it in his power to 
produce what is of a higher order ; as if the 
question be as to the title to real estate derived 
from a deed, the best proof will of course be 
the production of the deed itself, and no other 
proof will be admitted as a substitute, unless a 
satisfactory reason is given for its non-produc- 
tion, as where it has been lost or destroyed. 
But in this case, the substituted evidence must 
be exclusively as to the contents of the deed. 
But where under statutes providing therefor 
conveyances of real estate are recorded, the 
record or a certified copy is allowed to be read 
in evidence with the same effect as the original. 
So when a contract is in writing, it is necessary 
to produce the writing itself, and no other evi- 
dence can be given of the terms of such con- 
tract, without showing first the loss of the 
writing, or that for some other satisfactory 
reason it is impracticable to produce it ; upon 
making which proof, parol evidence may be 
given as to the contents. And whenever, in 
the course of a trial, a fact comes in question, 
the evidence of which is in writing, the same 
rule is applied, viz., that no other evidence can 
be admitted than the writing itself if in ex- 
istence, and if not, then only the substituted 
proof of its contents. It may however happen 
that nothing more than the purport can be 
shown, and not the exact phraseology; and 
some latitude will be allowed in such case, as 
by admitting proof of the acts of parties, and 
other circumstances, but still having in view to 
get at what was expressed by the writing. It 
does not follow, however, that when the best 
or what is called primary evidence cannot be 
produced, inferior or what is called secondary 
evidence will in all cases be admitted. Thus, 
hearsay evidence is in general excluded, even 
if none better can be procured. Upon the 
same principle, when a writing is put in evi- 
dence, it must have effect according to its 
terms, and parol evidence is not admissible to 
give it a different construction, or to defeat its 
operation according to the import thereof; or 
even if the writing is ambiguous, it cannot be 
explained by other evidence, if the ambiguity 
is intrinsic, that is, if the phraseology is per se 
doubtful. But if the ambiguity arises from 
something referred to but not fully expressed 
in the writing, explanation by other evidence 
is admissible. The latter is designated in law 
as a latent ambiguity, by which is meant that 
it does not appear upon the face of the instru- 
ment, but arises from something extrinsic. So 
also, when parties to a contract have under- 
taken to express it in writing, it will be as- 
sumed that they have expressed the whole, and 
nothing can be added by parol evidence, so far 
as relates to what the parties had in view at 
the time the contract was made. This is in 
effect saying that the written contract must 

speak for itself, and will be presumed to con- 
tain all that was intended at the time, though 
this contract may be varied by a subsequent 
parol agreement for good consideration. To 
the general rule as above stated there are, 
however, some qualifications. 1. It is admis- 
sible to explain the subject of the contract and 
all the circumstances which may properly be 
supposed to have been had in view by both 
parties, for the purpose of understanding the 
phraseology which they may have used. 2. 
Terms peculiar to a science, profession, art, or 
trade may be explained by witnesses conver- 
sant therewith. 3. Parol evidence is admissible 
to impeach a written instrument, by showing 
fraud, illegality of the subject matter, or what- 
ever would operate in law to avoid it. The 
admissibility of evidence is in judicial proceed- 
ings a matter of law, and in jury trials is deter- 
mined by the court. But it is not alone for 
this purpose that discrimination is required. 
A question of fact usually involves testimony 
on both sides, which must be collated, and the 
relative weight of which must be determined 
in order to reach a correct conclusion. Usually 
the court arranges and sifts the evidence in the 
instructions given to the jury, and it is obvious 
that without this aid the jury would be incom- 
petent to analyze the evidence in a complicated 
case. Since the disqualification to testify by 
reason of interest has been abolished, the rea- 
sons which formerly were insisted upon as 
grounds of such disqualification are still proper 
to be considered with reference to the credit 
of the witness. It would be out of place to 
discuss these reasons at large in the brief sum- 
mary of principles to which this article is neces- 
sarily limited. A single case may however be 
appropriately referred to, viz., the impeach- 
ment of a witness by direct testimony of other 
witnesses, showing that he is unworthy of 
credit. This kind of testimony is peculiar. 
The inquiry is limited to the general reputation 
of the witness whose veracity is in question, 
and the impeaching witness is not allowed to 
testify to particular facts. The usual course 
of examination is to inquire what is the gen- 
eral reputation of the witness as to veracity, 
and formerly it was permitted then to ask the 
impeaching witness whether he would believe 
the other under oath, but the authorities are 
in this country not altogether uniform as to the 
latter practice. It may not be improper here to 
say that the rule as to impeachment of a wit- 
ness is seldom of use, except where he is no- 
toriously destitute of principle. A witness is 
also allowed to be impeached by showing that 
he has made out of court statements contra- 
dictory to his evidence in court ; but before 
these are permitted to be shown his attention 
is called to them, that he may have opportunity 
for explanation. We have thus briefly analyzed 
the general principles of the law of evidence. 
Our subject would however be imperfectly 
treated if we should not refer to some of the 
rules which have more particular relation to 



the practice of the courts. One is that the 
best evidence must always be produced ; or in 
other words, that inferior evidence will not be 
received when a party has it in his power to 
produce better. But it does not follow, as be- 
fore remarked, that when a party has not the 
power to produce the best, any other without 
restriction is admissible. The secondary proof 
must still be such as is held competent under 
other rules, or it will be rejected. The mean- 
ing of the rule is that inferior evidence, al- 
though otherwise competent, shall not be ad- 
mitted when better can be had. We have 
before adverted to the distinction between 
writings or documentary proof, and oral or, as 
it is usually called, parol evidence. The dis- 
tinction is founded upon the uncertainty of 
memory. Whatever has been put in writing 
can never be proved by mere recollection with 
perfect exactness ; the writing itself is of course 
the most trustworthy, and according to the 
rule above mentioned it must be produced or 
its loss proved before its contents can be shown 
by other evidence; and this is true whether 
the writing relates to the principal fact or 
subject of the action, or is merely incidental. 
Again, when the question is as to a fact re- 
specting which there is evidence in writing, 
but an offer is made to prove the fact by evi- 
dence aliunde without producing the writing 
or proving its contents, the rule is that if the 
writing was the concurrent act of both parties, 
as if it was signed by them or was prepared 
with the privity of both as an expression of 
their mutual understanding, it is thereby con- 
stituted the primary evidence of the fact to 
which it relates, and must be produced. This 
includes not merely a written contract which 
is the subject of the action or defence, but any 
other writing which the parties have agreed 
upon as the expression of any fact incidentally 
involved in the action. There is this difference, 
however, between the two cases : that in the 
former no other proof can be received but the 
instrument itself, or if lost, proof of its con- 
tents ; whereas in the latter there may be 
other evidence bearing upon the same point 
which is admissible, together with the writing, 
and in some instances without it, where it is 
not intentionally withheld. Thus a written 
correspondence between the parties may be 
material to show their understanding in re- 
spect to some transaction, but this would not 
preclude proof of conversations or other acts. 
If, however, the correspondence contains a 
contract, then, according to another rule, no 
other evidence can be received except what is 
necessary for the proper explanation of the 
meaning of the parties in the language used by 
them. It is not material which party has pos- 
session of the writing ; the rule is the same in 
either case. If wanted by one party, and the 
other has possession of it, upon notice by him 
to the other to produce it, and its non-produc- 
tion, he may give parol evidence of its con- 
tents. It is to be understood that the rule 

above mentioned applies only to a writing in 
which both parties have concurred. When it 
is a memorandum by one without the privity 
of the other, it cannot be evidence at all, ex- 
cept under the recent modification of the law 
of evidence allowing parties to be witnesses, 
and is subject to the same rule that applies to 
any other witness. The rule as to a memoran- 
dum made by a witness at the time of the trans- 
action referred to in it is, that he may refer to 
it for the purpose of refreshing his memory; 
but having done so, he is to testify what with 
this aid he is able to recollect. But if he has 
no recollection independent of the memoran- 
dum, the later doctrine is that on proving that 
it was made at the time of the transaction re- 
ferred to, and that he then had knowledge of 
the subject, the memorandum itself may be put 
in evidence. The mode of proving a writing 
which is attested by a subscribing witness is 
peculiar. In such a case the subscribing wit- 
ness must be called if living and within the ju- 
risdiction of the court ; but if dead or absent 
from the country, proof of his handwriting or 
that of the party will be sufficient to make the 
instrument evidence. The exclusion of proof 
of execution by any other person than the sub- 
scribing witness has often been the occasion of 
inconvenience ; and the reason usually assigned 
for it, viz., that the subscribing witness is sup- 
posed to have some knowledge of the subject 
which another would not have, is certainly 
very singular, as if he had such knowledge he 
would not be allowed to testify to it, if it would 
at all vary the effect of the instrument. In 
England, by acts 17 and 18 Victoria, c. 125 
(1854), a subscribing witness to an instrument 
which is not required by law to be attested 
need not be called, but the instrument may be 
proved in the same manner as if there was no 
such witness. The rule that parol evidence is 
not admissible to contradict, vary, or explain a 
written instrument has been before referred to, 
and certain exceptions or qualifications were 
mentioned ; but it should be added that in a 
proper proceeding instituted to reform the in- 
strument, it may always be shown that, through 
accident, mistake, or fraud, it was not made 
to express the real intent and contract of the 
party. Such a proceeding must be in chancery, 
except where the common-law courts are vest' 
ed with equity jurisdiction. In the examina- 
tion of witnesses, a very different mode is pre- 
scribed to the party calling a witness from what 
is 'allowed to the opposite party. The counsel 
of the former must not put leading questions, 
and if the witness should make adverse or un- 
satisfactory answers, still he was deemed the 
witness of the party and could be examined 
only in accordance with that theory ; that is to 
say, he could not be cross-examined by such 
party. This at least was formerly the rule, but 
it has recently been relaxed so far as to allow 
him to be treated to some extent as an adverse 
witness, when it is apparent that he is so. On 
the other hand, cross-examination by the other 



party is allowed to an almost unlimited extent, 
and the privilege is often used to pervert ra- 
ther than elicit the truth. It would be difficult 
to fix a precise limit of restriction, as it neces- 
sarily rests very much in the discretion of the 
court ; but the prevailing practice seems to 
be suited rather to a remote period, when 
from the disorders of society and consequent 
laxity of moral principle there was little reli- 
ance to be placed on the oath of witnesses, than 
to the present advanced state of social order. 

EVOLUTION, the term now generally applied 
to the doctrine that the existing universe has 
been gradually unfolded by the action of natu- 
ral causes in the immeasurable course of past 
time. The question how the present order of 
things originated seems natural to the human 
mind, and has been put by all the races of 
men. The answer given in their cosmogonies, 
that it was created as we now see it by super- 
natural power, has been generally accepted as 
a matter of religious faith. The early Greek 
philosophers first brought the question into the 
field of speculation, and taught that all natural 
things have sprung from certain primal ele- 
ments, such as air, water, or fire. As regards 
the origin of life, Anaximander is said to have 
held that animals were begotten from earth by 
means of moisture and heat, and that man did 
not originate in a perfectly developed state, 
but was engendered from beings of a different 
form. Empedocles taught that the various 
parts of animals, arms, feet, eyes, &c., existed 
separately at first ; that they combined grad- 
ually, and that these combinations, capable 
of subsisting, survived and propagated them- 
selves. Anaxagoras believed that plants and 
animals owe their origin to the fecundation of 
the earth whence they sprung by germs con- 
tained in the air. Aristotle, the father of natu- 
ral history, entertained much more rational 
views upon the subject, and it is maintained 
that he held opinions as to the causes of di- 
versity in living beings similar to those that are 
entertained by the latest zoologists. It has 
been asserted that some of the early theolo- 
gians, including St. Augustine and St. Thomas 
Aquinas, announced doctrines that harmonize 
apparently with the modern views of evolu- 
tion. We however find no development of the 
ideas thus shadowed forth. Linnaeus and Buf- 
fon seem to have been the first among modern 
naturalists who formed definite conceptions of 
a progressive organic development, but they 
did little to elucidate the idea. Immanuel 
Kant announced in 1755 his theory of the me- 
chanical origin of the universe, and supposed 
that the different classes of organisms are re- 
lated to each other through generation from a 
common original germ. Dr. Erasmus Darwin, 
grandfather of Charles Darwin, in his Zoono- 
mia (1794), maintained the natural genesis of 
organic beings. But the first to frame a dis- 
tinct hypothesis of development was Lamarck, 
who published his Philosophic zoologique in 
1809, and developed his views still further in 

1815 in his Histoire naturale des animaux sans 
vertebres. He held that all organic forms, from 
the lowest to the highest, have been developed 
progressively from living microscopic particles. 
Similar conclusions were arrived at by Goethe 
in Germany, and by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 
France in his work Sur le principe de Vunite 
de composition organique, published in 1828. 
The views thus far were of a general and high- 
ly speculative nature, and without firm scien- 
tific ground-work. It was only when the ques- 
tion was narrowed down to that of the muta- 
bility or immutability of species, and to the 
causes and extent of variation as determined 
by observation and experiment, that the real 
difficulties of the case were grappled with, and 
the inquiry assumed a strictly scientific char- 
acter. In 1813 Dr. W. 0. Wells read a paper 
before the London royal society, in which he 
recognized distinctly the principle of natural se- 
lection as applied to certain races of mankind, 
In 1822 the Rev. William Herbert, afterward 
dean of Manchester, declared his conviction 
that " botanical species are only a higher and 
more permanent class of varieties;" and he 
extended this opinion to animals. Leopold 
von Buch, in his Physilcalische Beschreibung del 
Canarischen Inseln (1825), expresses the opin- 
ion that varieties change gradually into perma- 
nent species, which are no longer capable of 
intercrossing. In 1826 Prof. Grant of Edin- 
burgh published a paper on the spongilla in 
the "Philosophical Journal," in which he held 
that species are descended from other species, 
and that they become improved in the course 
of modification. Karl Ernst von Baer, in his 
Ueber Entwiclcelungsgeschichte der Thien 
(1828), maintains similar views as to animals, 
Oken, in his Naturphilosophie (1843), published 
his belief in the development of species ; anc 
in 1846 J. d'Omalius d'Halloy of Brussels ex- 
pressed his opinion that probability favors this 
theory rather than that of separate creations 
Isidore GeoiFroy Saint-Hilaire, in his lectures 
published in 1850, gives reasons for his belief ir 
the modification of species by circumstances, 
and in the transmission of differences thus 
produced. In 1852 Herbert Spencer arguec 
that species have undergone modificatior 
through change of circumstances. M. Nau 
din in the same year published a paper or 
the origin of species in the Revue horticole, ir 
which he averred his belief that botanica 
species are formed in a manner analogous tc 
varieties under cultivation ; and Franz linger 
also in 1852, expressed similar opinions in hi; 
Versuch einer Geschichte der Pflanzenwelt 
In 1853 Dr. Schaffhausen, in a paper publishec 
in the Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischej 
Vereins des preussischen Rheinlands, &c., main 
tained the doctrine of progressive developmenl 
of organic forms. On July 1, 1858, two essay* 
were read before the Linnaaan society, one bj 
Charles Robert Darwin, entitled U 0n the 
Tendency of Species to form Varieties, and or 
the Perpetuation of Species and Varieties bj 



means of Natural Selection;" the other by 
Alfred Russel Wallace, entitled " On the Ten- 
dency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from 
the Original Type." These papers showed 
that these two naturalists had arrived at almost 
exactly the same general conclusions ; but the 
priority may safely be assigned to Darwin, 
who, although he had not previously made 
public his views, had submitted a sketch of 
them as early as 1844 to Sir Charles Lyell, Dr. 
Hooker, and others. In 1859 he published the 
treatise entitled " On the Origin of Species by 
means of Natural Selection," which was the 
means of diffusing so widely the theory, elab- 
orated by him through years of patient and 
careful investigation, that it is commonly des- 
ignated by his name. In this work he did 
not apply the doctrine of evolution to the hu- 
man race, although he had long held the opin- 
ion that man must be included with other or- 
ganic beings ; and it was not until after Hux- 
ley, Spencer, Lyell, Lubbock, Gegenbaur, 
Vogt, Rolle, Haeckel, Canestrini, Francesco, 
and others, had accepted the extreme conclu- 
sion, that he published " The Descent of Man, 
and Selection in Relation to Sex" (1871). In 
1872 Haeckel, who previously had discussed 
the genealogy of man in Naturliche Schop- 
fungsgeschichte (1868), published his Mono- 
graphic der Kalkschwamme, in which he claims 
to give an analytical demonstration of the prob- 
lem of the development of species. The the- 
ory as now generally held is thus stated by 
Prof. Huxley: "Those who hold the the- 
ory of evolution (and I am one of them) 
conceive that there are grounds for believing 
that the world, with all that is in it, did not 
come into existence in the condition in which 
we now see it, nor in anything approaching 
that condition. On the contrary, they hold that 
the present conformation and composition of 
the earth's crust, the distribution of land and 
water, and the infinitely diversified forms of 
animals and plants which constitute its present 
population, are merely the final terms in an 
immense series of changes which have been 
brought about, in the course of immeasurable 
time, by the operation of causes more or less 
similar to those which are at work at the pres- 
ent day." The idea expressed by the term 
development involves the same principle, but 
it is usually restricted to the evolution of or- 
ganic beings. We will first consider the doc- 
trine as applied to the development of the 
various forms of life, and then in its broader 
aspects as a theory of universal evolution. 
It has been proved by geology that the earth 
and its life, instead of being called suddenly 
into existence a few thousand years ago, have 
existed for millions of years ; and as the moun- 
tains and continents are known to have at- 
tained their present form by the action of 
natural agencies, it is thought probable that 
other objects of nature have been produced in 
a similar way. The earth has teemed with liv- 
ing beings through incalculable periods of time, 

and fossil remains of them are found distributed 
through the rocky layers that have been suc- 
cessively formed, until they are several miles in 
thickness. But not all kinds of animals and 
plants existed from the beginning, leaving their 
mingled remains in the lowest strata ; the low- 
est types of life, vegetable and animal, appeared 
first. The successive phases of life are so 
definite that they have been held as mark- 
ing off the earth's history into a series of 
ages. The invertebrates (radiates, mollusks, 
and articulates) are found in the Silurian or 
oldest stratified rocks ; and from the predomi- 
nance of the mollusks the period has been 
called the age of mollusks. Fishes, which are 
higher in the scale, begin to appear in the 
Silurian, but become so abundant in the later 
Devonian period that it is called the age of 
fishes. Amphibious animals, as an advance on 
the fishes, appear in the carboniferous age, 
which again is followed by the age of reptiles. 
To this succeeds the age of mammals, and last- 
ly conies the age of man, the series, which be- 
gan with the lowest forms of life, terminating 
with the highest. That the order has been 
progressive, and that its lower terms have 
been more general in character, while the 
later terms have been more specialized and 
perfect, is admitted by all naturalists. Prof. 
Owen says: "In regard to animal life and its 
assigned work on this planet, there has plainly 
been an ascent and a progress in the main ;" 
and he has " never omitted a proper opportu- 
nity for impressing the results of observation 
showing the more generalized structure of ex- 
tinct as compared with the more specialized 
forms of recent animals." Prof. Agassiz holds 
that " the more ancient animals resemble the 
embryonic forms of existing species ;" that is, 
are lower in the scale of development than the 
later forms. Mr. Wallace remarks : " As we 
go back into past time and meet with the fossil 
remains of more and more ancient races of ex- 
tinct animals, we find that many of them are 
actually intermediate between distinct groups 
of existing animals;" the ancient fishes, for 
example, present unmistakable reptilian traits, 
while the early reptilians combined also the 
characters of birds which had not yet appeared. 
As regards the continuity of the course of life, 
Prof. Dana remarks: "Geological history is 
like human history in this respect ; time is one 
in its course, and ah 1 progress one in plan. . . . 
The germ of the period was long working on- 
ward in preceding time, before it finally came 
to its full development and stood forth as ? 
characteristic of a new era of progress. . . . 
The beginning of an age will be in the midst 
of a preceding age ; and the marks of the fu- 
ture, coming out to view, are to be regarded as 
prophetic of that future. The age of mammals 
was foreshadowed by the appearance of mam- 
mals long before in the course of the reptilian 
age, and the age of reptiles was prophesied 
in the types that lived in the earlier carbonif- 
erous age." The animal kingdom displays a 



unity of plan or a correlation of parts by 
which common principles are traced through 
the most disguising diversities of form, so that 
in aspect, structure, and functions the various 
tribes of animals pass into each other by slight 
and gradual transitions. The arm of a man, the 
fore limb of a quadruped, the wing of a bird, and 
the fin of a fish are homologous ; that is, they 
contain the same essential parts modified in cor- 
respondence with the different circumstances 
of the animal ; and so with the other organs. 
Prof. Cope says : " Every individual of every 
species of a given branch of the animal king- 
dom is composed of elements common to all, 
and the differences which are so radical in the 
higher grades are but the modifications of the 
same elemental parts." There are many cases 
of rudimentary and useless organs in animals 
and plants. During the development of em- 
bryos organs often develop to certain points, 
and are then reabsorbed without performing 
any function, although generally the partially 
developed organs are retained through life. 
Certain snakes have rudimentary hind legs 
hidden beneath the skin ; the paddle of the 
seal has toes that still bear external nails; 
some of the smooth-skinned amphibia have 
scales buried under the dermal surface ; rudi- 
mental teeth have been traced even in birds ; 
and there are rudimentary eyes in cave fishes 
and rudimentary mammae in men. Classifica- 
tion is an arrangement of living beings by re- 
lated characters. In the earliest attempts the 
organic tribes were arranged in a serial order 
or a chain from the bottom to the top of the 
scale ; but this has been abandoned, as also 
have those symmetrical systems which as- 
sumed that the characters of different groups 
are equivalents of each other. The endeavor 
to thrust animals and plants into these arti- 
ficial partitions is of the same nature as the 
endeavor to arrange them in a linear series ; 
and it assumes a regularity which does not 
exist in nature. Classification now represents 
the animal kingdom as consisting of certain 
great sub-kingdoms very widely divergent, each 
made up of classes much less widely divergent, 
severally containing orders still less divergent, 
and so on with genera and species, like the 
branches of a growing tree ; and the old meth- 
od of classification, as Mr. Spencer remarks, 
involves exactly the difficulty " which would 
meet the endeavor to classify the branches of 
a tree as branches of the first, second, third, 
fourth, and fifth orders ; the difficulty, namely, 
that branches of intermediate degrees of com- 
position exist." There is a remarkable analogy 
between the present distribution of animals in 
space over the earth and their past distribution 
in time as we trace their fossils in the succes- 
sive geological formations. The larger groups, 
such as classes and orders, are generally spread 
over the whole earth, while smaller groups, 
such as families and genera, are commonly con- 
fined to limited districts ; but when a group 
is restricted to one region, and is rich in the 

minor groups called species, it is almost in- 
variably the case that the most closely allied 
species are found in the same locality or in 
closely adjoining localities. The same fact is 
seen in geological distribution. Mr. "Wallace 
observes : " Most of the larger and some 
smaller groups extend through several geologi- 
cal periods. In each period, however, there 
are peculiar groups, found nowhere else, and 
extending through one or several formations. 
As generally in geography no species or genus 
occurs in two very distant localities without 
being also found in intermediate places, so in 
geology the life of a species or genus has not 
been interrupted. In other words, no group or 
species has come into existence twice." From 
these facts Mr. Wallace deduces the following 
important law : "Every species has come into 
existence coincident both in space and time 
with a preexisting closely allied species." The 
adherents of development maintain that these 
facts, and many others of kindred significance, 
are only to be explained by the continuous 
operation of a great natural law of descent and 
divergence by which the present life of the 
earth has been derived from its preexisting 
life. That the numberless forms of life should 
have been held as independently created, so 
long as the earth was regarded as having been 
recently and suddenly called into existence, 
was inevitable; but now, when it is known 
that the order of nature is extended backward 
into immeasurable time, the supposition that 
species were called into existence by hundreds 
of thousands of separate and special creations, 
running through the geological ages, and as 
we approach our own epoch suddenly and un- 
accountably ceasing, is held to be an unwar- 
ranted assumption which science can no longer 
accept. As remarked by the Rev. Baden 
Powell : " The introduction of a new species 
is part of a series. But a series indicates a 
principle of regularity and law, as much in 
organic as in inorganic changes. The event is 
part of a regularly ordained mechanism of the 
evolution of the existing world out of former 
conditions, and as much subject to regular laws 
as any changes now taking place. If the series 
be regular, its subordinate links must each be 
so ; the part cannot be less subject to law than 
the whole. That species should be subject to 
exactly the same general laws of structure, 
growth, nutrition, and all other functions of 
organic life, and yet in the single instance of 
their mode of birth or origin should constitute 
exceptions to all physical law, is an incon- 
gruity so preposterous that no inductive mind 
can for a moment entertain it." This is the 
ground taken by the great majority of contem- 
porary naturalists. They believe in evolution 
in some form as a great fact of nature ; but 
many think that we know nothing as to how 
it has been brought about, while others hold 
that the problem of the modes and causes of 
evolution, although obscure, is no more barred 
from successful investigation than are the other 



phenomena of nature. The following facts 
have been oifered as throwing light upon the 
way in which the diversities of life have ori- 
ginated. Organic beings differ from inorganic 
in their modlfiability. They are capable in 
various degrees of adaptation to new condi- 
tions. Plants taken from their native situa- 
tions and cultivated in gardens undergo changes 
so great as often to render them no longer rec- 
ognizable as the same plants. The muscles are 
strengthened by exercise and the skin thick- 
ened and hardened by pressure, while the 
bones of men who put forth great physical 
exertion are more massive than the bones of 
those who do not labor. In the words of 
Mr. Spencer : " There is in living organisms a 
margin of functional oscillations on all sides 
of a mean state, and a consequent margin 
of structural variation." These variations 
may become fixed through the law of he- 
reditary descent. It is the law of trans- 
mission of characters which preserves species 
and varieties from generation to generation, 
oaks being always derived from oaks and dogs 
from ancestral dogs. It is not only the normal 
qualities that are perpetuated, but malforma- 
tions, diseases, and individual peculiarities are 
also transmitted. While offspring tend to grow 
in the likeness of parents, they also tend to 
grow in unlikeness ; while moulded upon the 
parental type, the resemblance is usually im- 
perfect. Nor are variations confined to any 
particular organs or characters, but they may 
be manifested by every part, quality, or in- 
stinct of the creature. These divergences may 
be selected and fixed by breeding so as to give 
rise to new kinds or varieties. Nature begins 
the variation, art secures its perpetuation and 
increase. How profound are the modifications 
that may be thus produced is shown in the 
numerous breeds of dogs, all of which belong 
to the same species. Not only have they 
reached extreme diversities in size (the largest 
being, according to Cuvier, 100 times larger 
than the smallest), but in muscular, bony, and 
nervous development, in form, strength, fleet- 
ness, and variety of instinct and intelligence, 
their divergences are almost equally remark- 
able. Domestic pigeons afford another ex- 
ample of the great plasticity of the living or- 
ganism, by which it can be moulded into the 
extremest diversities. Naturalists believe that 
from a single species, the wild rock pigeon, 
there have arisen no fewer than 150 kinds that 
breed true or hold to the variety ; and how 
deep have become the differences among them 
is thus stated by Prof. Huxley: "In the 
first place, the back of the skull may differ a 
good deal, and the development of the bones 
of the face may vary a good deal ; the beak 
varies a good deal ; the shape of the lower jaw 
varies; the tongue varies very greatly, not 
only in correlation to the. length and size of 
the beak, but it seems also to have a kind of 
independent variation of its own. Then the 
amount of naked skin round the eyes and at 

the base of the beak may vary enormously ; so 
may the length of the eyelids, the shape of the 
nostrils, and the length of the neck. I have 
already noticed the habit of blowing out the 
gullet, so remarkable in the pouter, and com- 
paratively so in the others. There are great 
differences, too, in the size of the female and 
the male, the shape of the body, the number 
and width of the processes of the ribs, the 
development of the ribs, and the size, shape, 
and development of the breast bone. We may 
notice, too (and I mention the fact because it 
has been disputed by what is assumed to be 
high authority), the variation in number of 
the sacral vertebrae. The number of these 
varies from 11 to 14, and that without any 
diminution in the number of the vertebrae of 
the back or of the tail. Then the number and 
position of the tail feathers may vary enor- 
mously, and so may the number of the primary 
and secondary feathers of the wings. Again, 
the length of the feet and of the beak, although 
they have no relation to each other, yet ap- 
pear to go together ; that is, you have a long 
beak wherever you have long feet. There are 
differences, also, in the periods of the acquire- 
ment of the perfect plumage, the size and shape 
of the eggs, the nature of flight, and the powers 
of flight, so-called 'homing' birds having enor- 
mous flying powers ; while on the other hand, 
the little tumbler is so called because of its 
extraordinary faculty of turning head-over- 
heels in the air, instead of pursuing a distinct 
course. And lastly, the dispositions and voices 
of the birds may vary. Thus the case of the 
pigeons shows you that there is hardly a single 
particular, whether of instinct or habit, or bony 
structure, or of plumage, of either the internal 
economy or the external shape, in which some 
variation or change may not take place, which 
by selective breeding may become perpetuated 
and form the foundation of and give rise to a 
new race." Nor is this variation confined to 
domestic animals. Wild species both of plants 
and animals vary, become diversified, and give 
rise to new varieties. As many as 28 varieties 
of oak have been made out within the limits 
of a single species. The wolf species exhibits 
some 15 varieties, and lions, tigers, bears, hyae- 
nas, foxes, birds, reptiles, and fishes all exhibit 
marked varieties, which show that wild species 
undergo modification in a state of nature. 
What was needed to make out the analogy of 
variation between wild and domesticated ani- 
mals was to discover some process in nature 
which is the equivalent of human agency hi 
breeding. Mr. Darwin believes that he has 
discovered this process, and calls it the princi- 
ple of " natural selection." He says that living 
beings in a state of nature are subject to cer- 
tain external conditions, such as climate, situa- 
tion, character of soil, and exposure to enemies, 
by which they are surrounded and limited. 
They are endowed with enormous powers of 
increase, so that any one of the hundreds of 
thousands of species of plants or animals, if all 


its progeny were preserved, would go on multi- 
plying until it covered the earth or filled the 
sea. Space is fixed and food limited, and the 
consequence is a universal conflict, the war 
of races ; and in the " struggle for existence " 
multitudes perish and comparatively few sur- 
vive. This survival is not a matter of chance. 
Mr. Darwin maintains that it is regulated by 
law, and that those only survive which are in 
some way best adapted to the conditions of 
life. The strongest, the fleetest, the most 
cunning, and the best adapted to the condi- 
tions will live and multiply, while the less fit 
will disappear. The introduction of European 
plants and animals into New Zealand affords 
an instructive example of how races encroach 
on each other's areas, the weaker being extir- 
pated by the stronger in the competition for 
existence. Dr. Hooker says: " The cow grass 
has taken possession of the roadsides; dock 
and water cress choke the rivers; the sow 
thistle is spread over all the country, growing 
luxuriantly up to 6,000 feet ; white clover in 
the mountain districts displaces the native 
grasses ; and the native (Maori) saying is : 
' As the white man's rat has driven away the 
native rat, as the European fly drives away our 
own, and the clover kills our fern, so will the 
Maoris disappear before the white man him- 
self.' " Mr. Darwin in his works gives a great 
number of facts showing how apparently trifling 
variations give advantages to their possessors, 
which determine their survival and become 
perpetuated in the race. The principle of 
natural selection, or, as it is termed by Her- 
bert Spencer, the " survival of the fittest," is 
now generally recognized as a genuine agency 
or vera causa, and the opponents of develop- 
ment admit that it may give rise to varieties, 
although they deny that it is competent to 
produce the deeper diversities of species. The 
extent of its operation remains yet to be de- 
termined, but many naturalists agree with 
Prof. Helmholtz that Mr. Darwin has contrib- 
uted to science an " essentially new creative 
idea." Mr. Darwin, however, does not as- 
sume to be the discoverer of the principle 
of natural selection, and he points out that 
others before him have recognized the action 
of the. process, though without seeing its full 
significance. What he claims is to have first 
shown the efficacy of the principle in producing 
divergency of types under the laws of variation 
and heredity. But having discovered a new 
factor in organic development, and published 
his work on the " Origin of Species " at the 
fortunate moment when naturalists had be- 
come widely dissatisfied with the old views, he 
became prominently identified with the devel- 
opment doctrine, and this has led many into 
the error of regarding Darwinism as the equiva- 
lent of evolution, of which, as we are now to 
see, it is but a minor part. The advance of 
civilization in the historical period gave rise 
to the modern idea of progress, which was 
strengthened by the discoveries made early in 

the present century concerning the past course 
of terrestrial life. The process was crudely 
conceived, in the one case as the successive 
development of all living creatures in a graded 
and linear series, and in the other case as the 
continuous movement of humanity toward a 
state of final perfection. About the year 1850 
Mr. Herbert Spencer entered upon the system- 
atic study of the subject. The problem was 
strictly a scientific one, and he had a wide and 
accurate preparation for it by a mastery of 
scientific knowledge which Mr. Mill has pro- 
nounced "encyclopaedic." Mr. Spencer was 
also remarkable for his power of analysis, his 
grasp of wide-reaching principles, and his in- 
dependence of opinion. The essence of pro- 
gress is change. Mr. Spencer asked what, 
then, are the laws of change by which it is 
effected? Complying with the Newtonian 
canon that the fewest causes possible are to be 
assumed in the explanation of phenomena, he 
took up the question as resolvable in terms of 
matter, motion, and force. Progress being a 
theory of the successive changes by which things 
are produced, his task was to ascertain the 
dynamical conditions or laws under which the 
forms of nature rise, continue, and disappear. 
The objects of nature coexist and are maintained 
in a certain order in space. Newton discov- 
ered that this is effected by the operation of a 
simple and universal law. The objects of na- 
ture undergo changes in time, emerging and 
vanishing, some quickly and others slowly : is 
there a universal law by which these changes 
also are governed ? This was the aim of the re- 
search. Mr. Spencer early found that the con- 
ception of progress which implies movement in 
one direction only is erroneous. There is no 
unbroken march of events ; breaks and regres- 
sions alternate with advancement, and de- 
scending as well as ascending changes have to 
be accounted for. He therefore rejected the 
term progress as having erroneous implica- 
tions, and adopted the term evolution, as more 
fully indicating the scope of the inquiry and 
better expressing the strictly scientific nature 
of his theory. The naturalist Von Baer had 
already attempted to define and generalize the 
changes of organic growth, and had formulated 
them as from the homogeneous germ state to 
the heterogeneous adult state by a process of 
differentiation. Mr. Spencer soon found that 
this formula gave but a very partial account 
of what takes place in organic development. 
The change was shown to be not only from 
uniformity to unlikeness, or a differencing of 
parts, but from the indefinite to the definite, 
from the incoherent to the coherent, producing 
the integration of parts, or increasing unity 
with increasing complexity. The conditions 
and course of changes in which organic evolu- 
tion consists being ascertained, the question 
arose as to their extent, and Mr. Spencer be- 
came convinced that the law of organic move- 
ment is not an isolated fact in nature, but 
u ,that the process of change gone through by 



each evolving organism is a process gone 
through by all things." Science had shown 
that the universe, past and present, is subject 
to orderly changes ; he discovered that funda- 
mentally'this order is one. The nebular hy- 
pothesis proposed by Kant, confirmed by Her- 
schel and Laplace, and accepted by astrono- 
mers explained the origin and motions of suns 
and planets by slow condensation from a nebu- 
lous mist diffused through space. The geolo- 
gical history of our earth shows that it has un- 
dergone a vast series of progressive changes, 
and, as Prof. Dana says, " was first a feature- 
less globe of fire, then had its oceans and dry 
land, in course of time received mountains and 
rivers, and finally all those diversities of sur- 
face which now characterize it." The course 
of organic life, as we have seen, was a pro- 
gressive unfolding into greater diversity and 
specialty. Mind is developed with the body, 
and therefore mental phenomena obey a law 
of unfolding. As human society is made up 
of units that are capable of these changes, it 
presents in the past a gradual development of 
intelligence, arts, and institutions, as now em- 
bodied in our diverse and complex civilization. 
By a careful analysis of the phenomena in these 
widely separated cases, Mr. Spencer showed 
that they all conform to a great general law, 
of which individual life is but a special case. 
Equally in the inorganic, the organic, and the 
super-organic spheres, the progressive changes 
are from the homogeneous to the heteroge- 
neous by differentiation. But with increasing 
divergences there is also increasing definite- 
ness, coherence, complexity, and integration. 
Evolution is thus a universal law, while the 
development of the individual and the career 
of the race, so far from being exceptional phe- 
nomena, are but parts of the great system of 
change to which the whole cosmos conforms. 
Evolution being thus disclosed as a universal 
dynamical law, the question next arises, how 
is it to be interpreted ? Is it an ultimate law 
like gravitation, or is it a derivative principle 
deducible as a necessity from the established 
laws of matter, motion, and force? Mr. Spen- 
cer proves that evolution is a resultant of dy- 
namical agencies, and that, given matter as a 
vehicle of change, motion as the result of 
change, and force as the cause of change, such 
are their established laws of interaction that 
evolution follows as an inevitable consequence. 
We can here only touch upon the leading ele- 
ments of the elucidation, and must refer the 
reader to Mr. Spencer's "System of Philoso- 
phy" for the full elaboration of the subject. 
Modern science has established the great prin- 
ciples of the indestructibility of matter and the 

rvation of force. (See COEEELATION OF 
FORCES.) Mr. Spencer maintains that these 
resolve themselves into the single law of the 
persistence of force, and that this is the funda- 
mental postulate of evolution. Whatever in- 
terpretation is given to the principle, it cer- 
tainly becomes a fundamental condition of the 

309 VOL. vii. 2 

changes taking place in nature. If matter and 
force throughout the universe are neither cre- 
ated nor destroyed, all changes must be changes 
of transformation. The stock of material and 
energy being limited, each new effect must be 
at the expense of something preexisting; and 
hence in the ongoings of nature one thing is 
necessarily derived from another, while the 
problem of advance becomes one of trans- 
mutation. Mr. Spencer traces out the several 
causes of transformation or factors of evolu- 
tion, and shows that they are all corollaries 
from the supreme law of the persistence of 
force. Briefly indicated, these are as follows : 
1. The principle of the rhythm of motion. 
Under the law of the persistence of forces 
and the diversity of their forms, there arise 
constant conflicts of effect, so that motions 
are not uniform but varying. Action is met 
by counteraction, and the result is that move- 
ments take a rhythmical form. Boughs, for 
example, sway in the wind, water is thrown 
into waves, sound arises in vibrations, earth- 
quakes are propagated in shocks, planets swing 
through eccentric orbits, breathing is recur- 
rent, the heart beats, scarcity alternates with 
abundance, and prices rise and fall. From 
the minutest organism throughout the whole 
frame of things to the most distant systems, 
from momentary pulses to geological cycles, 
the agitations of things take the form of thrills 
and surges, which produce incessant and uni- 
versal redistributions of matter and force. 
How are these redistributions directed? 2. 
They are controlled first by the law of the in- 
stability of the homogeneous. The relatively 
homogeneous is the commencing stage of all 
evolution, and Mr. Spencer has shown that 
this is an unstable condition, and under rhyth- 
mic disturbance tends constantly to rearrange- 
ment and greater complexity. No object can 
exist without being acted upon and altered by 
forces, and no mass can be thus acted upon in 
all parts alike ; unequal action therefore tends 
to destroy homogeneity and produce ever in- 
creasing diversity. For this cause the nebu- 
lous condition could not continue ; the homo- 
geneous germ divides into unlike parts ; a class 
of animals or plants distributed over a geo- 
graphical area, being unequally acted upon by 
environing conditions, would fall into diversity; 
and for the same reason a uniform social con- 
dition would be resolved into heterogeneous 
societies. 3. The transformations of evolu- 
tion are further explained by the dynamical 
principle of the multiplication of effects. 
Throughout all nature simple agencies produce 
diverse consequences, every impulse of force 
yielding a multiplicity of results. A simple 
mechanical collision of two bodies may pro- 
duce effects of sound, heat, light, electricity, 
and various chemical and structural changes ; 
an accident to the foot may entail a train of 
consequences affecting the whole constitution ; 
the upheaval of a continent may produce the 
most extensive alterations in the life of races ; 



while an invention like that of the steam en- 
gine works its multiform effects throughout 
civilization. By this law the principle of the 
instability of the homogeneous is powerfully 
reenforced, and the cause of universal move- 
ment toward greater diversity is rationally ex- 
plained. But these modes of action alone 
could only result in a vague chaotic hetero- 
geneity, and could not account for that orderly 
heterogeneity in which evolution essentially 
consists. 4. This finds explanation in the 
principle of segregation. When a mass is 
acted upon by forces which promote the re- 
distribution of its parts, its units are not only 
differentiated and regrouped, but there is a se- 
gregation of like units which become separated 
from the neighboring groups. A familiar ex- 
ample of this is seen in the winnowing pro- 
cess, by which a force applied to a mixed mass 
brings all the grain together in one place 
and the chaff in another. The same thing is 
seen when several salts are dissolved in a 
liquid, and each crystallizes out by the combi- 
nation of like chemical molecules. The or- 
ganism conforms to this principle from its ear- 
liest stage of growth, the special elements of 
the bony, muscular, and nervous systems being 
withdrawn from the nourishing fluids and se- 
gregated in the distinctive parts. We have 
already seen that natural selection is a win- 
nowing process, by which the unfit are ex- 
cluded, and the better adapted are separated 
and preserved. In social development the 
same thing is seen. Not only are there con- 
tinual differentiations of groups and classes 
by which society becomes heterogeneous, but 
these groups are unified by similarity of oc- 
cupation, character, taste, and race. Stock 
brokers cluster in Wall street,, and the Mor- 
mons segregate in Utah. Thus in all the 
spheres of change redistribution leads to 
unification. 5. This end is farther promoted 
by the important dynamical law that mo- 
tion takes' place along lines of least resis- 
tance. The operation of this principle in in- 
organic nature is self-evident. Water forms 
its channels in the direction of least obstacles. 
Mr. James Hinton has shown that organic 
growth takes place in obedience to this law, 
and Mr. Spencer proves that it governs both 
mental and social changes. This law, in con- 
nection with the principle that movement set 
up in any direction is a cause of further move- 
ment in that direction, by which lines of con- 
nection become established, goes far to account 
for that integration of structures and functions 
which is disclosed in all phases of evolution. 
But can evolution go on for ever, or is it lim- 
ited ? This brings us to the process by which 
it is constantly antagonized and always finally 
terminated, the counter-agency of dissolution. 
All redistributions of matter and motion are 
either evolution or dissolution, but neither of 
these processes ever goes on absolutely unquali- 
fied by the other, and the change in either di- 
rection is but a differential result of the con- 

flict. Mr. Spencer's formula, to be complete, 
must embrace both sets of correlative changes, 
and its determination led him to the following 
universal law : 6. Every change wrought in an 
object must be either a transposition of its 
mass, or a variation of its internal or molecu- 
lar motion. As it loses this contained or in- 
sensible motion, there follows a concentration 
of the parts and increasing integration ; if it 
acquires insensible motion, there is dispersion 
of the particles, or disintegration ; that is, with 
concentration of matter there is dispersion of 
motion, and with absorption of motion there 
is diffusion of matter. These are the two as- 
pects of the universal metamorphosis, and when 
approximately balanced there is equilibration., 
Evolution is integration ; dissolution is disin- 
tegration. We have here confined ourselves 
to the most abstract statement of Mr. Spen- 
cer's theory ; its concrete applications will be 
found extensively worked out in his "First 
Principles" and in the biological, psycholo- 
gical, and sociological divisions of his ''Philo- 
sophical System." As a method of philoso- 
phy it aims only to explain phenomena; all 
phenomena being regarded as manifestations 
of the unknown power which transcends the 
reach of thought. Philosophy is regarded 
as the highest explanation of things, and as 
each science is unified by its largest induc- 
tions, the family of sciences is brought into a 
completer unity by a law that comprehends 
them all. Whatever ultimate form the the- 
ory of evolution may take, its influence must 
be powerfully felt in the direction of future 
inquiries; for many who withhold their assent 
from it as an established truth of nature never- 
theless recognize it as an invaluable working 
hypothesis. As remarked by Prof. Grove: 
" The first question is, does the newly proposed 
view remove more difficulties, require fewer 
assumptions, and present more consistency 
with observed facts than that which it seeks 
to supersede ? If so, the philosopher will adopt 
it, and the world will follow the philosopher, 
after many days." Mr. Spencer's theory has 
been clearly summed up by himself in the fol- 
lowing propositions: "1. Throughout the uni- 
verse, in general and in detail, there is an un- 
ceasing redistribution of matter and motion. 
2. This redistribution constitutes evolution 
where there is a predominant integration of 
matter and dissipation of motion, and consti- 
stutes dissolution where there is a predominant 
absorption of motion and disintegration of mat- 
ter. 3. Evolution is simple when the process 
of integration, or the formation of a coherent 
aggregate, proceeds uncomplicated by other 
processes. 4. Evolution is compound when, 
along with this primary change from an inco- 
herent to a coherent state, there go on secon- 
dary changes due to differences in the circum- 
stances of the different parts of the aggregate. 
5. These secondary changes constitute a trans- 
formation of the homogeneous into the hetero- 
geneous a transformation which, like the first, 



is exhibited in the universe as a whole and in 
all (or nearly all) its details: in the aggregate 
of stars and nebulae ; in the planetary system ; 
in the earth as an inorganic mass ; in each or- 
ganism, vegetal or animal (Von Baer's law); 
in the aggregate of organisms throughout geo- 
logic time; in the mind; in society; in all 
products of social activity. 6. The process of 
integration, acting locally as well as generally, 
combines with that of differentiation to render 
this change not simply from homogeneity to 
heterogeneity, but from an indefinite homoge- 
neity to a definite heterogeneity ; and this trait 
of increasing definiteness, which accompanies 
the trait of increasing heterogeneity, is like it 
exhibited in the totality of things, and in all 
its divisions and subdivisions down to the mi- 
nutest. 7. Along with this redistribution of 
the matter composing any evolving aggregate, 
there goes on a redistribution of the retained 
motion of its components in relation to one 
another ; this also becomes step by step more 
definitely heterogeneous. 8. In the absence 
of a homogeneity that is infinite and absolute, 
this redistribution of which evolution is one 
phase is inevitable. The causes which neces- 
sitate it are : 9. The instability of the homo- 
geneous ; which is consequent upon the differ- 
ent exposures of the different parts of any lim- 
ited aggregate to incident forces. 10. The trans- 
formations hence resulting are complicated by 
the multiplication of effects : every mass and 
part of a mass on which a force falls subdi- 
vides and differentiates that force, which there- 
upon proceeds to work a variety of changes, 
and each of these becomes the parent of simi- 
larly multiplying changes; the multiplication 
of these becoming greater in proportion as the 
aggregate becomes more heterogeneous. 11. 
These two causes of increasing differentia- 
tions are furthered by segregation, which is a 
process tending ever to separate unlike units 
and to bring together like units ; so serving 
continually to sharpen, or make definite, dif- 
ferentiations otherwise caused. 12. Equilibra- 
tion is the final result of these transformations 
which an evolving aggregate undergoes. The 
changes go on until there is reached an equili- 
brium between the forces which all parts of the 
aggregate are exposed to, and the forces these 
parts oppose to them. Equilibration may pass 
through a transition stage of balanced motions 
(as in a planetary system) or of balanced func- 
tions (as in a living body) on to the ultimate 
equilibrium ; but the state of rest in inorganic 
bodies, or death in organic bodies, is the neces- 
sary limit of the changes constituting evolution. 
13. Dissolution is the counter change which 
sooner or later every evolved aggregate under- 
goes. Remaining exposed to surrounding forces 
that are unequilibrated, each aggregate is ever 
liable to be dissipated by the increase, gradual 
or sudden, of its contained motions; and its 
dissipation, quickly undergone by bodies lately 
animate and slowly undergone by inanimate 
masses, remains to be undergone at an indefi- 

nitely remote period by each planetary and stel- 
lar mass, which since an indefinitely remote 
period in the past has been slowly evolving ; 
the cycle of its transformations being thus 
completed. 14. This rhythm of evolution and 
dissolution, completing itself during short pe- 
riods in small aggregates, and in the vast ag- 
gregates distributed throughout space, comple- 
ting itself in periods which are immeasurable 
by human thought, is as far as we can see uni- 
versal and eternal ; each alternating phase of 
the process predominating now in this region 
of space and now in that, as local conditions 
determine. 15. All these phenomena, from their 
great features down to their minutest details, 
are necessary results of the persistence offeree, 
under its forms of matter and motion. Given 
these in their known distributions through 
space, and their quantities being unchangeable 
either by increase or decrease, there inevitably 
result the continuous redistributions distinguish- 
able as evolution and dissolution, as well as all 
those special traits above enumerated. 16. That 
which persists unchanging in quantity but ever- 
changing in form, under these sensible appear- 
ances which the universe presents to us, trans- 
cends human knowledge and conception is 
an unknown and unknowable power, which we 
are obliged to recognize as without limit in 
space and without beginning or end in time." 
Besides the works already mentioned, the 
following are important : Spencer's "First 
Principles," " Principles of Biology," "Princi- 
ples of Psychology," " Principles of Sociology," 
and "Descriptive Sociology "(1860-"73); Dar- 
win's "Variation of Animals and Plants under 
Domestication" (1868); St. George Mivart's 
"The Genesis of Species" (1871); Huxley's 
"Man's Place in Nature" (1864), "Lay Ser- 
mons" (1870), and "Critiques and Addresses" 
(1873). The relation of the doctrine of evo- 
lution ' to Christianity is discussed in " The 
Bible and the Doctrine of Evolution," by W. 
W. Smyth (1873) ; "The Theory of Evolution," 
by the Rev. E. Henslow (1873) ; " What is 
Darwinism? " by Charles Hodge, D. D. (1874) ; 
and " The Doctrine of Evolution," by Alexan- 
der Winchell, LL. D. (1874). 

EVORA, a city of Portugal, capital of the prov- 
ince of Alemtejo, 75 m. E. S..E. of Lisbon; 
pop. about 12,000. It is surrounded by a wall, 
and has remains of two ancient forts. It is 
the seat of an archbishop, and has a splendid 
Gothic cathedral, a number of convents, hos- 
pitals, a house of charity, a diocesan school, 
barracks, a museum, and some manufactures 
of hardware and leather. A university, estab- 
lished in 1550, and placed under the direction 
of the Jesuits, was suppressed at the time of 
the exile of that order (1767). Among the nu- 
merous monuments of antiquity are a ruined 
temple of Diana, and an aqueduct by which 
the city is still supplied. 

EVREUX (anc. Mediolanum, or Civitas J^ou- 
rovicum), a city of Normandy, France, capita] 
of the department of Eure, 55 m. W. by N. ot 




Paris, in a pleasant valley on the Iton, which 
flows through the city in three branches; pop. 
in 1866, 12,320. It is surrounded by gardens, 
vineyards, and highly cultivated fields. It is 
the seat of a bishop and of several courts and 
schools, has a botanical garden, a public li- 
brary, a museum of antiquities, a large hospi- 
tal, an insane asylum, and cotton and woollen 
mills, and is the centre of a large trade in gro- 
ceries and grain. Among the notable buildings 
are the abbey church of St. Taurin, dating 
from the 7th, and the cathedral, from the llth 
century. At a little distance from the town 
was the fine old chateau of Navarre, founded 
in the 14th century, which was the residence 
of Charles Edward Stuart from 1746 to 1748, 
and of the empress Josephine for some time af- 

ter her divorce, and was destroyed in 1836. 
The town was taken from the Romans by Clo- 
vis, and in 892 the Normans captured and 
sacked it. In 989 it became the capital of a 
county of its name erected in favor of a son of 
Richard I., duke of Normandy. It passed into 
the possession of England with the rest of Nor- 
mandy, and the name of the Devereux, earls 
of Essex, was probably derived from it. King 
John ceded it to Philip Augustus in 1200. In 
1298 the county was given to Louis, son of 
Philip the Bold of France ; and in 1328 his son 
Count Philip became by marriage king of Na- 
varre. The county was confiscated from the 
son of the latter, Charles the Bold of Navarre, 
in 1378. In the vicinity, at Vieil vreux, ex-, 
cavations have led to the discovery of the re- 


mains of a theatre, baths, &c., which are sup- 
posed to mark the site of Mediolanum ; and 
many medals and household utensils found here 
have been deposited in the museum of ICvreux. 
EWALD, Georg Heinrieh August von, a German 
orientalist, theologian, and historian, born in 
Gottingen, Nov. 16, 1803. In 1831 he was ap- 
pointed to the chair of philosophy, and after- 
ward to those of oriental languages and theol- 
ogy, at Gottingen. He was one of the seven 
professors who were dismissed in 1837 on ac- 
count of their remonstrance against the un- 
constitutional proceedings of King Ernest Au- 
gustus of Hanover. He spent some time in 
England, and was professor of theology at 
Tubingen from 1838 to 1848, when he was 
reinstated in his chair at Gottingen. Among 
his linguistic works are : Grammatica Cri- 
tica Lingua Arabics (2 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 
1831-'3) ; Ueber das dthiopische Such Henoch 
(1854) ; Ausfuhrliches Lehrbuch der hebrdisch- 
en Sprache des alien Bundes (6th and enlarged 
ed., 1855 ; also abridged, Eebraische Sprach- 
lehre fur Anf anger, 3d ed., 1862). His critical 
writings are very numerous, embracing works 
on Canticles, " The Poetical Books of the Old 
Testament," " The Prophets of the Old Testa- 
ment," "The Three First Gospels," St. Paul, 

John, &c. His great historical work is his Ge- 
scftichte des Volkes Israel Ms Christus (3d ed., 
7 vols., Gottingen, 1864 et seq. ; translated 
by J. Estlin Carpenter, "History of Israel," 
vols. i.-v., London, 1868-'73). He was the 
projector of the Zeitschrift fur die Kunde 
des Morgenlands, and edited the Jahrbucher 
der liblischen Wissenschaft, in which he pro- 
pounded his theological views. His leaning to- 
ward Baur and other adherents of the Tubin- 
gen school, with whom he became acquainted 
during his residence in that city, involved him 
in many controversies. In 1841 he was enno- 
bled by the king of Wiirtemberg. When Prus- 
sia took possession of Hanover in October, 1866, 
Ewald's fidelity to the extinguished dynasty 
subjected him to a trial for treason ; but he was 
acquitted, and in May, 1869, he was elected a 
member of the North German parliament. His 
latest published works are Das Sendschreiben 
an die Hebrder und Jacobos* Rundschreiben 
(1 871), and Sieben Sendschreiben des neuen Bun- 
des (1871). 

EWALD, Johannes. See EVALD. 

EWBANK, Thomas, an American writer on 

practical mechanics, born at Barnard Cjistle, 

j Durham, England, March 11, 1792, died in New 

I York, Sept. 16, 1870. At the age of 13 he 


was apprenticed to a tin and copper smith, and 
about 1819 emigrated to New York. In 1820 
he commenced the manufacture of metallic 
tubing in that city, and retired in 1836 to de- 
vote himself to literary and scientific pursuits. 
In 1842 appeared his "Descriptive and Histor- 
ical xiccount of Hydraulic and other Machines, 
Ancient and Modern ; including the Progres- 
sive Development of the Steam Engine," of 
which the 15th edition was published in 1870. 
In 1845-'6 he made a visit to Brazil, recording 
his observations in a work entitled "Life in 
Brazil," with an appendix descriptive of a col- 
lection of American antiquities, New York 
(1856). From 1849 to 1852 he was United 
States commissioner of patents. He also wrote 
" The World a Workshop, or the Physical 
Relation of Man to the Earth " (1855) ; 
"Thoughts on Matter and Force" (1858); 
"Reminiscences in the Patent Office" (1859); 
and a variety of miscellaneous essays on the 
philosophy and history of inventions, which 
appeared chiefly in the " Transactions of the 
Franklin Institute." His "Experiments on 
Marine Propulsion, or the Virtue of Form in 
Propelling Blades," was reprinted in Europe. 
As a member of the commission to examine 
and report upon the strength of the marbles 
offered for the extension of the national capi- 
tol, he made some suggestions which led to the 
discovery of a means of greatly increasing the 
power of resistance to pressure in building 
stones. He was one of the founders of the 
American ethnological society. 

EWELL, Richard Stoddard, a general of the 
Confederate States of America, born in the 
District of Columbia in 1820, died at Spring 
Hill, Term., Jan. 25, 1872. He graduated at 
West Point in 1840, and became lieutenant of 
dragoons. He served in the Mexican war from 
1846 to 1848, and was breveted as captain 
for gallant and meritorious conduct in the bat- 
tles of Contreras and Churubusco. In 1859 he 
was wounded in a skirmish with the Apaches. 
In May, 1861, he entered the confederate ser- 
vice, and commanded a brigade at the battle 
of Bull Run. Early in 1862 he was promoted 
to major general, and commanded a division in 
Jackson's campaign in the Shenandoah valley. 
He was conspicuous in the battles of Gaines's 
Mill, Malvern Hill, and Cedar Mountain, was 
worsted by Hooker at Bristoe Station, and lost 
a leg at the second battle of Bull Run. He 
was made a lieutenant general in May, 1863, 
and succeeded to the command of Jackson's 
corps, with which he was present at Gettys- 
burg, the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania Court 
House. During the siege of Petersburg, be- 
ing disabled from active service in the field, 
he had command of the garrison of Rich- 
mond. At Sailor's creek, during the con- 
federate retreat, he was cut off by Sheridan, 
and surrendered, with 6,000 or 7,000 men, 
three days before the surrender of Lee at 
Appomattox. Toward the close of the war he. 
had married a daughter of Judge Campbell 



of Tennessee, and subsequently took up his 
residence in that state, and engaged in stock 
raising, in which he was very successful. 

EWING, John, an American clergyman, born 
in Nottingham, Md., June 22, 1732, died in 
Philadelphia, Sept. 8, 1802. He was educated 
in the college of New Jersey, was tutor in that 
college and instructor of the philosophical 
classes in the college of Philadelphia, and in 
1759 became pastor of the first Presbyterian 
church in Philadelphia. In 1773 he visited 
England, and had interviews with Dr. Robert- 
son, Lord North, and Dr. Johnson ; the last of 
whom, affirming that the Americans were as 
ignorant as rebellious, said to Dr. Ewing, " You 
never read. You have no books there." "Par- 
don me," was the reply, " we have read the 
'Rambler.'" When the college of Philadel- 
phia was changed in 1779 to the university of 
Pennsylvania, Dr. Ewing was placed at its 
head as provost, and remained in this station 
together with his pastorate till his death. He 
was vice president of the American philosoph- 
ical society, and made several contributions to 
its "Transactions." His collegiate lectures on 
natural philosophy (2 vols., 1809) and a volume 
of sermons were published after his death. 

EWING, Thomas, an American statesman, 
born in Ohio co., Va., Dec. 28, 1789, died at 
Lancaster, Ohio, Oct. 26, 1871. In his 20th 
year he left home and worked in the Kanawha 
salt establishments, until he had laid up money 
enough to pay for the farm which his father 
had purchased in 1792, in what is now Athens 
co., Ohio, and enabled himself to enter the 
Ohio university at Athens, where he graduated 
in 1815. He studied law in Lancaster, Ohio, 
was admitted to the bar in 1816, and practised 
with great success in the state courts and the 
supreme court of the United States. In March, 
1831, he took his seat in the United States 
senate. He spoke against confirming the nom- 
ination of Van Buren as minister to Great 
Britain, supported the protective tariff sys- 
tem of Clay, and advocated a reduction of the 
rates of postage, a recharter of the United 
States bank, and the revenue collection bill 
known as the " force bill." In 1834, and again 
in 1835, as a member of the committee on post 
offices and post roads, he presented a majority 
report on abuses in the post office which re- 
sulted in the reorganization of that depart- 
ment. He opposed the removal of the depos- 
its from the United States bank, and on Dec. 
21, 1835, introduced a bill for the settlement 
of the Ohio boundary question, which was 
passed March 11 and June 15, 1836. During 
the same session he brought forward a bill, 
which became a law, for the reorganization of 
the general land office ; and on several occa- 
sions he opposed the policy of granting pre- 
emption rights to settlers on the public lands. 
He spoke against the admission of Michigan, 
and presented a memorial for the abolition of 
slavery and the slave trade in the District of 
Columbia, which he insisted ought to be re- 




ferred, though he was opposed to granting the 
prayer of the memorialists. In July, 1836, 
the secretary of the treasury issued what was 
known as the " specie circular," directing re- 
ceivers in land offices to accept payments only 
in gold, silver, or treasury certificates, except 
from certain classes of persons for a limited 
time. In December Mr. Ewing brought in a 
bill to annul this circular, and another declar- 
ing it unlawful for the secretary to make such 
discrimination, but the bills were not carried. 
His term expired in March, 1837, and he re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. In 1841 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury by 
President Harrison, and retained that office 
under President Tyler. His first official report 
proposed the imposition of 20 per cent, ad va- 
lorem duties on certain articles for the relief 
of the national debt, disapproved the indepen- 
dent treasury act passed the preceding year, 
and urged the establishment of a national bank. 
He was requested to prepare a bill for the 
last purpose, which was passed with some al- 
teration, but was vetoed by the president. Mr. 
Tyler thereupon indicated a plan for a bank 
of moderate capital for the regulation of ex- 
changes, and at his request Mr. Ewing helped 
to frame a charter, which was immediately 
passed and in turn vetoed. Mr. Ewing, with 
all the other members of the cabinet except 
Mr. Webster, consequently resigned (Septem- 
ber, 1841). On the accession of Gen. Taylor 
to the presidency in 1849, he took office as 
secretary of the newly created department 
of the interior, which he organized. Among 
the measures recommended in his first report, 
Dec. 3, 1849, were the extension of the public 
land laws to California, New Mexico, and Ore- 
gon, the establishment of a mint near the Cal- 
ifornia gold mines, and the construction of a 
road to the Pacific. On the death of Taylor 
and the accession of Fillmore, in 1850, Mr. 
Corwin became secretary of the treasury, and 
Mr. Ewing was appointed by the governor of 
Ohio to serve during Corwin's unexpired term 
in the senate. In this body he refused to 
vote for the fugitive slave law, opposed Clay's 
compromise bill, reported from the commit- 
tee on finance a bill for the establishment 
of a branch mint in California, and advo- 
cated a reduction of postage, river and harbor 
appropriations, and the abolition of slavery in 
the District of Columbia. In 1851 he retired 
from public life. Among the most elaborate 
of his written professional arguments are those 
in the cases of Oliver v. Piatt et al., involving 
the title to a large part of Toledo, Ohio ; the 
Methodist church division ; the Mclntire poor 
school i). Zanesville ; and the McMicken will, 
involving large bequests for education. In 
February, 1861, he was a delegate from Ohio 
to the peace conference in Washington. 
THOMAS, his son, born at Lancaster, Ohio, 
Aug. 7, 1829, was chief justice of Kansas in 
1861, served in the civil war, and received the 
brevet of major general of volunteers in 1864. 

EXARCH (Gr. efap^of, leader), in the eastern 
Roman empire, an ecclesiastical or civil dig- 
nitary invested with extraordinary authority. 
At first exarchs were officers delegated by the 
patriarch or synod to visit a diocese for the 
purpose of restoring discipline. The exarch 
was also the superior of several monasteries, 
in distinction from the archimandrite, who 
was the superior of one, and was of a rank 
inferior to that of patriarch and superior to 
that of metropolitan. In the modern Greek 
church the exarch is a legate a latere of the 
patriarch. He visits the provinces to investi- 
gate ecclesiastical cases, the differences be- 
tween prelates and people, the monastic dis- 
cipline, the administration of the sacraments, 
and the observance of the canons ; and he usu- 
ally succeeds to the patriarchate. As a civil 
officer, the exarch was a viceroy intrusted with 
the administration of one or more provinces. 
This title was given to the prefects who from 
the middle of the 6th century to the middle 
of the 8th governed that part of Italy which 
was subject to the Byzantine empire. They 
were instituted after the reconquest of Italy 
from the Ostrogoths by Narses, to oppose the 
progress of the Lombards, then threatening to 
occupy that country. They held their court at 
Ravenna, and combined civil, military, judicial, 
and often ecclesiastical authority. They ap- 
pointed dukes as vice governors for several 
parts of Italy. The exarchate was destroyed 
by the Lombards in 752. When Pepin of 
France conquered Ravenna, it was ceded to 
the pope. The title of exarch for high civil 
and military officers remained in the West till 
the 12th century. 

EXCELLENCY, a title borne originally by the 
Lombard kings, and then by the emperors of 
the West from Charlemagne to Henry VII. It 
was adopted in the 15th century by the Italian 
princes, who exchanged it for that of highness 
(altezzd) after the French and other ambas- 
sadors had been permitted to assume it. In 
France it became about the middle of the 17th 
century a common title for the highest civil 
and military officers ; and in Germany it was 
given also to doctors and professors in univer- 
sities. It is the title of every nobleman in 
Italy; in France, a duke is addressed as ex- 
cellence, and a prince as altesse. It is the usual 
address of foreign ministers and of the govern- 
ors of British colonies. The president of the 
United States is sometimes called his excel- 
lency the president, but the?e is no legal sanc- 
tion for this, the founders of the government 
having decided after discussion to bestow no 
title upon the president. A committee of the 
senate reported in favor of the style " his high- 
ness," but the house opposed any title besides 
those expressed in the constitution. Massa- 
chusetts is the only state whose constitution 
grants the title of excellency to its governor. 


EXCHANGE, a gathering place for the transac- 
tion of business. In Venice, Genoa, and other 


Italian cities, regular commercial gathering 
places existed at an early day. The modern 
institution of exchanges, however, dates more 
particularly from the 16th century. In conti- 
nental Europe the name Borse in German, bourse 
in French, and birzha in Russian, originated 
from the belief that the first gathering of the 
kind took place in the early part of the 16th cen- 
tury at Bruges, in Flanders, in the house of a 
family of the name of Van der Beurse. Accord- 
ing to another tradition, the first exchange was 
held at Amsterdam in a house which had three 
purses hewn in stone over the gates, thus ac- 
counting for the use of the word bourse. Pre- 
vious to the latter part of the 16th century the 
London merchants used to meet without shelter 
in Lombard street. Sir Richard Gresham, hav- 
ing seen the covered walks used for exchanges 
abroad, contemplated erecting a similar build- 
ing in London. The scheme was carried into 
effect by his son Sir Thomas Gresham, who 
offered to erect a building if the citizens would 
provide a plot of ground. The site north of 
Oornhill, in the city of London, was accordingly 
purchased in 1566 for about 3,600. On Jan. 
23, 1570, Queen Elizabeth caused it to be pro- 
claimed the "Royal Exchange." This structure 
was destroyed in the great fire of 1666. The 
new exchange was commenced at the end of 
1667, and publicly opened for business Sept. 
28, 1669. This building, which was 210 ft. by 
175, cost nearly 60,000, and was destroyed 
by fire Jan. 10, 1838. The corner stone of the 
present royal exchange was laid in 1842, and 
the building was opened Oct. 28, 1844, by 
Queen Victoria. It is an imposing edifice, em- 
bellished with many statues, and cost 180,000. 
The area appropriated to the meetings of the 
merchants is 170 ft. by 112, of which 111 ft. 
by 53 is uncovered. Here the English, Ger- 
man, Greek, Mediterranean, and 'other foreign 
merchants, all have their appropriate places 
and corners, and meet daily for the transaction 
of business. The busiest hour is from 3 to 4 
P. M. The two great days on 'change are Tues- 
day and Friday, when an extra meeting for 
transactions in foreign bills of exchange takes 
place previous to the regular meeting, which 
is attended by the principal bankers and mer- 
chants of London, and which derives great im- 
portance from the immense business transacted 
within about half an hour. The whole foreign 
commerce which centres in London is here 
concentrated in a handful of bills of exchange. 
There is much less excitement than at the gen- 
eral exchange. A few brokers pass between 
the bankers and merchants, and the bills are 
bought and sold almost in a whisper. The most 
celebrated continental exchange is the bourse 
of Paris, which was inaugurated in 1824. The 
building has the shape of an ancient peripteral 
temple, and is calculated to hold more than 
2,000 persons. The Paris exchange is a com- 
bination of a stock and bill exchange, and con- 
fines itself chiefly to these branches of business. 
The St. Petersburg exchange, built between 



1804 and 1810, approaches the Paris bourse in 
splendor. The Hamburg exchange resembles 
it both in shape and grandeur. The exchange 
of Amsterdam was finished in 1613, and is an 
edifice of great magnitude. The bourse of 
Antwerp, one of the oldest and most remark- 
able of Europe, which was chosen by Sir 
Thomas Gresham as a model for the first royal 
exchange in London, was totally destroyed by 
fire, Aug. 2, 1858, and has since been rebuilt 
in the rue de la Bourse. A large portion of the 
commerce of the world was transacted in it 
for a considerable time. At Amsterdam, Ham- 
burg, Vienna, Constantinople, St. Petersburg, 
Berlin, Frankfort, &c., the exchanges are nu- 
merously attended, but the exchange of London 
stands unrivalled in Europe for the magnitude 
of its transactions. The merchants' exchange 
in New York was founded in 1817. Its first 
building, in Wall street, between William and 
Pearl streets, was built of Westchester marble, 
three stories in height, with the city post office 
in the basement, and insurance and other offices 
on the- third floor. It was opened in 1827, and 
was destroyed by the great fire of Dec. 16, 
1835. The second exchange, on the same site, 
was built of Quincy granite, at a cost, including 
the value of the ground, of $1,800,000. It was 
subsequently sold to the general government 
to be used as a custom house. The present 
exchange has an imposing marble front in 
Broad street, near Wall street, with entrances 
also in Wall and New streets. Buildings for 
similar purposes, and generally of large size 
and great cost, exist in all the principal cities 
of the United States. 

EXCHANGE, Bill of, in commercial transactions, 
a written instrument designed to secure the 
payment of a distant debt without the trans- 
mission of money, being in effect a setting off 
or exchange of one debt against another. This 
important instrument is of modern origin. It 
was not because its use was not perceived that 
it was unemployed in ancient commerce, but 
because its basis is mercantile integrity, which 
never existed till a recent period in trading 
communities to a sufficient extent to warrant 
putting money or other valuable commodities 
at risk upon so frail a security. Thus we 
have evidence in the case of the Athenian 
banker, which is the subject of one of 'the dis- 
courses of Isocrates, that the convenience of 
such an exchange as is now usual among mer- 
chants was well enough understood then, but 
it was deemed necessary to take security for 
the payment of the bill. Transactions of the 
same kind have doubtless occurred at all pe- 
riods where parties have had sufficient con- 
fidence in each other ; but that they were un- 
frequent is manifest from the silence of the 
Roman law in respect thereto. It is said that 
the Jews of the middle ages first introduced 
bills of exchange into ordinary use, and this is 
entitled to credit, inasmuch as^the frequent 
migrations and spoliations to which they were 
subjected in those times of persecution made 



an easy transmission of wealth and its safe 
keeping in foreign countries almost a necessity. 
Of course the bills drawn by them were upon 
persons of their own race. The negotiation of 
bills of exchange by law can be traced back 
about 4|- centuries, the earliest being an or- 
dinance of the city of Barcelona in 1394 re- 
specting the acceptance of bills of exchange. 
An edict of Louis XL in 1462 is the first notice 
of the subject in the laws of France. (See 
Kent's " Commentaries," vol. iii., p. 72, note.) 
In form, a bill of exchange is an order or re- 
quest addressed by one person to another di- 
recting the payment of money to a third person. 
The first is called the drawer ; the second is 
the drawee until the bill has been presented 
and accepted, and then he is called the ac- 
ceptor; the third is the payee. But some- 
fimes the bill passes through several hands, 
which may be either by successive indorse- 
ments specifying to whom payment is to be 
made, or by what is called an indorsement in 
blank, by which is meant that the payee, or the 
subsequent holder to whom the bill has been 
indorsed, merely writes his own name on the 
bill, which is equivalent to making it payable 
to Dearer. The most important incident of a 
bill of exchange is its negotiability, that is to 
say, facility of transfer from one person to 
another. For this purpose it is essential that 
the engagement of the several parties, whether 
drawer, acceptor, or indorser, should be dis- 
entangled from all matters not appearing upon 
the face of the bill. This, therefore, is the 
general rule, subject to some exceptions which 
will be presently mentioned. Equally neces- 
sary is it that the bill itself should by its terms 
involve no uncertain contingency, as to depend 
upon an event that may not happen, or upon 
some condition which may be the subject of 
controversy. Hence it has been uniformly 
held that it must be payable at a fixed time, 
that is to say, at some period which is certain ; 
but it may be so far contingent as to depend 
upon an event which must inevitably happen, 
though the precise time cannot be specified. 
Thus a bill may be payable a certain time after 
the death of a particular person ; but it would 
not be a good bill if made payable after the 
arrival of a certain vessel. The one event is 
certain to happen at some period, though it 
may be remote ; the other may not happen at 
all. Again, a bill of exchange must be ex- 
pressed to be for the payment of money only, 
and would not be good if payable in cattle or 
other species of property, nor even if made 
payable in bank bills, though it is held in some 
cases that if payable in currency it is a good 
bill, as this implies specie or its equivalent. 
"When it is said that a bill is not good if sub- 
ject to any contingency or payable otherwise 
than in money, it is intended merely that it is 
not negotiable with the legal effect which ap- 
pertains to a bill drawn in the prescribed form. 
It may nevertheless constitute a valid contract 
between the original parties, and may even be 

transferred so as to vest in the assignee the 
same right which the payee would have had 
against the drawer or acceptor. The transfer 
in such case will, however, be subject to the 
same rules that apply to other personal con- 
tracts usually denominated choses in action. 
In other words, the transfer is itself a contract ; 
and although it is not necessary that it should 
be in writing, yet it derives no aid from mer- 
cantile usage respecting the indorsement of 
bills. The delivery of a note not negotiable 
may give an ownership if so designed, and this 
is so in respect to a bond or other contract. 
But by the common law there was this limita- 
tion, that the right of the holder could be en- 
forced only in the name of the original obligee,, 
it being a rule that a chose in action was not 
assignable. In equity, however, the right of 
the assignee was recognized, and so to a certain 
extent it came to be in the common law courts, 
the formality of using the name of the assignor 
in a suit brought upon such chose in action be- 
ing all that is retained of the old strictness. 
In most of the states even this has been abro- 
gated, and the real party in interest, by which is 
meant whoever has the actual ownership, may 
be the party to the action. Again, such trans- 
fer confers no greater right than the original 
payee or obligee had, and is subject to any de- 
fence, legal or equitable, which the other par- 
ties had against such payee or obligee prior to 
actual notice of the assignment, or what in 
law would be tantamount thereto. The bill, 
or rather contract, as it should be termed in 
the case supposed, is itself also subject to one 
important rule distinguishing it from a proper 
bill of exchange, viz., that it does not import a 
consideration unless expressed. If, therefore, no 
consideration is specified, parol evidence there- 
of will be necessary, as the rule of the common 
law is that a consideration is an essential requi- 
site of a contract ; but parol evidence will be 
inadmissible in all those cases in which by 
statute it is required that the contract should 
be in writing, as when the contract is not to 
be performed within one year, or when it is to 
answer for the debt of another person, &c. 
It will now be understood what is the negotia- 
bility above referred to as being the peculiar 
incident of a bill of exchange. The bill, in 
the first place, imports per se to have been 
given for value, even if it does not contain the 
usual clause "for value received," which, 
though generally inserted, is mere surplusage ; 
and every successive holder who has received 
it before it was due, in the regular course of 
business, for a valuable consideration, is enti- 
tled to enforce it according to the terms of the 
obligation expressed therein, without regard to 
any transactions between the original parties. 
To this rule there are some exceptions, as 
when the bill was given for a gaming debt or 
when usury is involved, in which cases the 
bill is declared to be absolutely void by stat- 
utes in England, which have been generally 
reenacted in the United States. When there 



has been fraud in tlie transaction to which the 
bill relates, which would have been a defence 
as between the original parties, the rule is that 
a lona jidc holder for value, is not affected 
thereby ; with however this limitation, that the 
bill has been received not only without knowl- 
edge of the fraud, but without such notice of 
the circumstances as should have induced sus- 
picion and inquiry. If the bill at the time of 
transfer has become due, this is in law deemed 
sufficient to call for inquiry, and the indorsee 
in such case takes the bill subject to whatever 
defence there would have been against the 
party from whom he received it. When a bill 
has been stolen or lost, and has been put into 
circulation again, a bonafide purchaser is en- 
titled to enforce it against all previous parties, 
provided there were no circumstances that 
should have led him in the exercise of ordinary 
prudence to inquire into the title of the party 
from whom he received it. It will in such a 
case be a question of fact whether due dili- 
gence has been used by the holder, and the 
burden of proof is imposed upon him, upon its 
being shown that the bill had been stolen or 
lost. The question in such case would be be- 
tween the person who had lost the bill or from 
whom it had been stolen, and the person who 
had received it after the theft or loss. The 
liability of the original parties is not affected. 
Bills of exchange are of two sorts, foreign 
and inland ; the former being drawn by a mer- 
chant in this country upon another residing 
abroad, or by a foreign merchant upon one re- 
siding here ; the latter when both drawer and 
drawee reside in the same country. The prin- 
cipal rules relating to bills of exchange grow 
out of mercantile usage respecting foreign 
bills; but by statute in England and the 
United States both are now put upon the same 
footing, with the exception only that damages 
are allowed upon foreign bills which come 
back protested for non-acceptance or non-pay- 
ment. By statute in England and the United 
States, promissory notes are made negotiable 
in like manner as inland bills of exchange. 
The same principles therefore, in respect to 
negotiability and the legal incidents thereof, 
apply to both. 

EXCISE, a term employed to designate a par- 
ticular form of taxation. Excise taxes or du- 
ties are distinguished from customs in being 
such as are imposed upon domestic commodi- 
ties, chiefly manufactures, such as glass, paper, 
spirits, &c., while customs are duties levied 
upon merchandise imported or exported. Both 
kinds are included under the common term 
imposts. Excise duties were first imposed in 
Great Britain by the long parliament in 1643, 
but a number of articles of foreign production 
were included in the act, as tobacco, wine, 
sugar, &c., which were charged with a duty in 
the hands of the retailer in addition to what 
had been paid on importation. Since that 
time they have been regularly continued, but 
with modifications from time to time as to the 

articles subject to the duty and the rate of 
charge. The articles of foreign growth and 
manufacture are now transferred to the de- 
partment of customs. At the present time 
excise duties are nearly all collected on fer- 
mented and distilled liquors and chiccory, 
though license duties are also classed with the 
excise taxes. For the year ending March 31, 
1872, the excise duties collected in the United 
Kingdom amounted to 23,386,064, of which 
6,670,955 were collected on malt, 12,274,- 
596 _on spirits, and 3,781,979 for licenses. 
Excise duties have not been generally levied in 
the United States, but the national government 
has relied upon customs as its principal source 
of revenue. An excise duty on the manufac- 
ture of spirits during Washington's administra- 
tion led to what was called the whiskey insur- 
rection in Pennsylvania, which was soon sup- 
pressed, but the tax was not continued. Oth- 
ers were imposed in 1813, but repealed in 
1817. After the breaking out of the civil war 
in 1861 it became necessary to resort to every 
available source of income, and an elaborate 
system of excise duties was established, de- 
signed in some form to reach nearly every spe- 
cies of manufacture. The most of these du- 
ties have successively been abolished, but those 
on spirits and tobacco are retained. For the 
purposes of comparison with the excise duties 
collected in Great Britain in 1872, the follow- 
ing figures are given. The duties collected 
on the manufacture and sale of distilled spir- 
its for the year ending June 30, 1872, were 
$49,475,516 36 ; on fermented liquors, $8,009,- 
969 72 ; on tobacco, $18,674,569 26. The rela- 
tive advantage of excise duties and customs has 
been much debated. The latter are evaded to 
a large extent by smugglers, but the excise du- 
ties are also evaded, particularly in respect to 
spirits. This was strikingly illustrated in the 
United States, where it was found that a tax 
of $2 a gallon on the manufacture of whiskey 
produced less revenue than one of 50 cents. 
Excise duties are also objected to on the same 
ground with an income tax, namely, that they 
expose the manufacturer's private operations. 
Another objection that has tended to make 
them more obnoxious than any other is the ar- 
bitrary manner of enforcing them, which is felt 
to be an interference with private liberty and 
independence, which the common law has sed- 
ulously protected. It is supposed that in this 
matter of collecting its revenue the government 
considers itself entitled to dispense with all the 
ordinary protections to individual right and 
liberty, and to provide the most unjust and 
arbitrary proceedings at discretion. This was 
illustrated in a very remarkable manner in the 
recent case of Henderson, in which it was held 
by the majority of the United States supreme 
court that a lona fide purchaser of liquors 
stored in a government warehouse, who had 
paid in full all dues, might afterward have the 
liquors seized in his hands and forfeited to the 
government because a former owner had at 


one time had a design to evade payment of 
the duties upon them ; a purpose of which the 
purchaser was wholly ignorant. (14 Wallace's 
Eeports, 44, 64.) 

EXCOMMUNICATION (Lat. ex, out of, and com- 
municatio, intercourse), the cutting off a mem- 
ber of a religious society from intercourse 
with the other members in things spiritual. 
This penalty was familiar to the pagan nations 
of antiquity, as well as to the Jews ; and from 
them it passed into use among Christians. In 
Greece, persons guilty of enormous crimes were 
given over to the Furies with certain terrible 
forms of imprecation. There were three kinds 
of excommunication among the Greeks. By 
the first, the criminal was excluded from all 
intercourse with his own family ; by the sec- 
ond, he was forbidden to approach any temple, 
or to assist at any sacrifice or public rite ; by 
the third, it was forbidden to give him shelter, 
food, or drink. The Romans borrowed the 
rite from the Greeks, and the formulas sacris 
interdicere, to forbid the use of sacred things, 
diris devovere, to devote one to the Furies, 
execrari, to curse, &c., have much the above 
meaning. According to Csesar, the highest 
punishment inflicted by the druids, among Cel- 
tic nations, was to exclude an offender from 
all their religious rites. Such a man was con- 
sidered by all as wicked and an enemy of the 
gods ; he was shunned even by his own kindred, 
denied all justice and hospitality, and lived and 
died in infamy. The Semitic races, in ancient 
and modern times, have practised excommuni- 
cation, and it is now in use wherever Moham- 
medanism extends. We have the testimony 
of Josephus that excommunication was prac- 
tised among the Jews, and he notes the ex- 
treme rigor with which the Essenes applied it. 
Among them, the criminal who was thus put 
out of the society of his brethren not only 
could hold no communication with them even 
for the necessaries of life, but was bound by 
vow not to ask food or shelter from strangers. 
Thus driven to subsist on herbs and hide in 
caves, they eked out a miserable life, which 
often ended in a tragic death. There were 
three kinds of excommunication among the 
Jews. The mildest form consisted in a tempo- 
rary exclusion from religious and social inter- 
course for 30 days. If during this interval 
the culprit did not repent, another term of 30 
days was added, which was lengthened to 90 
days if he still remained obdurate. If he per- 
sisted at the end of that time, he was visited 
with the more severe and solemn form of ex- 
communication, that is, publicly cast out of the 
synagogue, with awful execrations taken from 
the law of Moses. When this penalty and all 
other human means had been tried in vain, he 
was given over to the divine judgment as an 
irreclaimable sinner. In the early Christian 
church we find excommunication practised by 
St. Paul, and enjoined both by him and by St. 
John. In the post-apostolic ages it was the 
universal custom both in the East and West, 

modified only from the Jewish practice in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of Christian 
belief and worship. The lowest degree con- 
sisted in the refusal of eucharistic communion ; 
the next in exclusion from the church and the 
liturgical service ; the third in total exclusion, 
by solemn denunciation, from membership with 
the church, and from all intercourse, social or 
religious, with Christians. This highest degree 
of excommunication was accompanied in some 
instances by an awful form which explains the 
anathema maranatha of St. Paul. When the 
person excommunicated was not only guilty of 
apostasy or heresy, but one who sought to draw 
the multitude after him, a prayer was made 
by some churches that God should come down 
in judgment and cut the seducer off, as in the 
cases of Julian the Apostate and Arius. In 
the Latin church, since the publication of Gra- 
tian's Decretum, and the regular adoption of 
canon law, two kinds of excommunications 
have been described by canonists, the minor 
and the major. The former excluded the 
offender from the use of the sacrament and 
the benefit of certain ecclesiastical privileges 
and immunities. It was incurred for sins that 
were not public, or for communicating with 
persons under the solemn ban. The major ex- 
communication cut the offender off not only 
from church membership, but from social inter- 
course with Christians. He was solemnly and 
by name called vitandus, "to b shunned by all." 
As heresy, public apostasy, and great crimes 
by which excommunication was incurred, came 
early to be recognized as state offences and 
misdemeanors punishable by the laws of the 
empire, so it was soon decreed by statute that 
the excommunicated should incur privation of 
office and rank, loss of civil rights, and forfeit- 
ure of property. These dispositions became 
more or less a part of the common law of 
western as well as of eastern Christendom. 
When the Roman empire was restored in 
Charlemagne, and the German emperors were 
wont to receive the imperial crown from the 
pope, public excommunication pronounced 
against them was held to involve a forfeiture 
of their cro.wn. This was also held to be the 
case with sovereigns whose kingdoms were 
fiefs of the see of Rome. It was against such 
high offenders that the major excommunication 
was fulminated, with the awful ceremonies 
mentioned in history. In the present discipline 
of the Roman Catholic church the excommuni- 
cation of sovereigns is reserved to the pope, 
and has been very rarely practised since the 
16th century. In 1570 Pope Pius V. excom- 
municated Queen Elizabeth of England, and 
formally absolved her subjects from their al- 
legiance. In the modern Greek church ex- 
communication cuts off the offender not only 
from the "communion of saints," but from all 
intercourse, religious or social, and consigns 
him, living and dead, to the evil one. The 
power of excommunication was maintained by 
the reformers, who claimed it as a prerogative 




of the Christian community, while the Eoman 
Catholic and eastern churches vested it in the 
episcopal order. In the church of England 
the vigorous provisions of the old canon law 
were for the most part kept in force after the 
reformation, and were a part of the law of the 
land until the reign of George III., when (52 
George III., c. 127) excommunications and the 
consequent civil effects were done away with, 
except for certain specified cases. When the 
person excommunicated for the offences men- 
tioned in the act allows six months to pass 
without submitting to correction, the bishop 
certifies this contumacy to the court of chan- 
cery, which issues its writ to the sheriff. The 
severest penalty enforced is six months' im- 
prisonment. In Scotland, when the lesser 
excommunication has failed, the delinquent is 
subjected to the greater, and the faithful are 
warned to avoid all unnecessary intercourse 
with him. In the Protestant Episcopal church 
certain offences entail the privation of holy 
communion, while "great h'einousness of of- 
fence " is followed by loss " of all privileges 
of church membership." The Methodist Epis- 
copal church vests the power of excommuni- 
cation in the minister, after a trial before a 
jury of peers of the accused. Excommunica- 
tion is inflicted among the Presbyterians, Con- 
gregationalists, and Baptists by the church, ac- 
cording to the view of the early reformers. 

EXCRETION (Lat. excernere, excretum, to 
purge), the elimination of waste or effete 
matters from the living body. There is evi- 
dence that during the vital processes every 
exertion of activity by a living tissue or or- 
gan is necessarily accompanied by a molecular 
change in its chemical constitution. So inti- 
mate is this connection between the alteration 
of substance in a living organ and its physiolo- 
gical action, that it is impossible to say with 
certainty which of these two is the cause and 
which the effect. The fact is however that, 
as we have said above, every manifestation of 
vital activity involves a change in the immedi- 
ate constitution of the active organ. The con- 
sequence of this is that, in the living body, 
new substances, the result of its internal dis- 
integration, are constantly making their ap- 
pearance. These substances, termed excre- 
mentitious matters, must not be allowed to re- 
main and accumulate; for in that case the 
constitution of the organs would become so 
changed from their original condition that 
they would be no longer capable of performing 
their proper functions. These matters must 
therefore be gotten rid of, or eliminated from 
the body, as fast as they are produced; and 
the process by which this is accomplished is 
called excretion. The mechanism of this pro- 
cess is as follows : The excrementitious mat- 
ters produced in the solid tissues are absorbed 
from them by the blood, carried by the circu- 
lation to some organ adapted to the purpose, 
exhaled or exuded in the gaseous, fluid, or 
semi-fluid form, and thus discharged from the 

body. The two principal excretory organs are 
the lungs and the kidneys. The venous blood 
in passing through the lungs discharges the 
carbonic acid which it has absorbed from all 
the vascular parts of the body, and returns to 
the left side of the heart purified and renovated. 
The blood which passes through the circulation 
of the kidneys exhales, together with its watery 
parts, urea, creatine, creatinine, and the com- 
pounds of uric acid ; nitrogenous crystallizable 
matters produced in various parts of the sys- 
tem, and which form the important ingredients 
of the urine. Thus the blood constantly re- 
lieves the solid tissues of the excrementitious 
matters produced in their substance, and is it- 
self relieved of them by passing through the 
excretory organs. Should this process from 
any cause be suspended or retarded, the ac- 
cumulation of excrementitious matters in the 
body would soon make itself felt by a derange- 
ment of the health, and especially by its inju- 
rious effects upon the nervous system. Pain, 
loss of appetite, confusion of mind, disturbance 
of the special senses, and in extreme cases con- 
vulsions, coma, and death, result from the ar- 
rest of excretion, which is therefore no less 
important to life than nutrition. 

EXECUTION, in law, the final process to en- 
force the judgment of a court, according to the 
old maxim, executio est fructus et finis legis. 
In its larger application it includes the process 
of sequestration formerly used by the court of 
chancery to carry into effect its decrees, at- 
tachments for contempt of court, and process 
in summary proceedings, as upon mandamus 
and the like; but in its ordinary acceptation 
it is a writ issued to enforce a judgment in a 
suit or action in a court of common law. It 
is unnecessary to speak of the execution in 
the various real actions which have become 
obsolete. In England the actions for recovery 
of real estate, whether corporeal or incor- 
poreal, are, by statute 3 and 4 William IV., c. 
27, now limited to ejectment, quare impedit, 
and actions for dower. The first is the ordi- 
nary mode of trying a title to lands, and the 
execution upon a judgment of recovery is a 
writ of possession, which in form is directed 
to the sheriff, commanding him to deliver to 
the plaintiff the possession of the lands so re- 
covered. Quare impedit is an action by which 
the right to a benefice is determined, and takes 
its name from a clause in the old Latin form 
of the writ by which the defendant was com- 
manded to appear in court and show the reason 
why he hindered the plaintiff from presenting 
a proper person to a vacant office in a church. 
Upon judgment in favor of the claim, the exe- 
cution is a writ directed to the bishop com- 
manding him to admit the person nominated 
by the prevailing party. The action also lies 
for an office in eleemosynary institutions, as 
hospitals and colleges, which are endowed for 
the support of their inmates ; and the execu- 
tion in such cases is the same, except that it 
will be directed to the corporate officers or 



persons who have the control of the institu- 
tion. In respect to lay officers, as they are 
called in distinction from ecclesiastical and 
eleemosynary, the mode of proceeding is by 
quo warranto or mandamus. The former was 
strictly a proceeding in behalf of the crown 
against any one who had intruded into an 
office, but is now allowed by statute in Eng- 
land (9 Anne, c. 20) to determine disputes be- 
tween private parties claiming an office ad- 
versely to each other. The proceeding in that 
case, although in form in behalf of the crown, 
yet is stated to be on the relation of the per- 
son prosecuting, and upon judgment in his fa- 
vor execution issues to remove the intruder. 
Mandamus is a remedy where there is a re- 
fusal to admit the claimant to an office, or 
where he has been wrongfully removed. If 
the claim be established, a peremptory man- 
damus issues, directed to the defendant, com- 
manding him to admit or restore the claimant, 
who is in this case, as well as in the proceeding 
by quo warranto, called the relator. This is, 
however, not strictly an execution, as if not 
obeyed it must be enforced by another process 
called an attachment. In other actions, where 
the subject is an injury to real estate, usually 
the remedy is a recovery of damages ; but 
in some instances specific relief is given, as in 
an action for a nuisance there may be a judg- 
ment that it be abated, and the execution in 
such case follows the judgment. So in some 
personal actions, formerly, there might be 
judgment for the delivery of the specific thing, 
as in detinue, which was brought to recover 
possession of chattels, and the judgment was 
enforced by an execution called a distringas, 
which commanded the sheriff to make distress 
of any goods of the defendant until he com- 
plied with the judgment ; but if he still re- 
fused, there could only be an assessment of the 
value of the thing recovered, and a sale of de- 
fendant's property to pay the same. In the 
action of replevin, which was originally limited 
to the recovery of property which had been 
wrongfully distrained for rent, the writ by 
which the action was commenced directed the 
sheriff to replevy, that is, take the property 
in question, and deliver it to the plaintiff upon 
pledges to prosecute. If the defendant suc- 
ceed in the action, the judgment is that he 
have return of the property, or if he elects, he 
may have an assessment of the value, and re- 
cover that amount as damages. In the former 
case the execution is for redelivery of the 
property, in the latter merely for the damages. 
Before proceeding to the consideration of 
other actions, it will be proper to state the 
modifications which have been made in the 
United States in respect to those already no- 
ticed. All the common-law real actions are 
generally abolished except ejectment, which, 
in a simplified form, is used for the trial of 
title to land in all cases. Quare impedit is not 
retained, nor is there any action for the re- 
covery of an office except the proceedings by 

quo warranto or mandamus. The action of 
detinue has been generally abolished, and the 
action of replevin has been extended to all 
cases of the wrongful taking or wrongful de- 
tention of personal property. In the latter ac- 
tion the plaintiff, instead of an actual replevy 
of the goods, may arrest the defendant and 
compel him to give bail, and the final judgment 
in such case will be for damages ; and so the 
defendant, if he succeeds in a case where the 
goods have been replevied, may take judgment 
for the value, the execution being in either 
of these cases merely for damages. We now 
come to the ordinary actions in which there is 
judgment for a money demand. At common 
law there are three forms of execution upon 
such a judgment : 1, a fieri facias, so called 
from the terms of the writ by which the 
sheriff is commanded that of the goods and 
chattels of defendant he cause to be made the 
amount of the debt or damages recovered ; 2, 
elegit, which is a writ given by an ancient 
statute (13 Edward I., c. 18), whereby, if the 
plaintiff elected, possession of the goods and 
chattels of defendant was delivered to plaintiff 
under an appraisement of the value thereof, 
which to that extent was to be a satisfaction 
of the judgment; but if not sufficient, then 
possession of one half of the freehold lands of 
defendant was also to be delivered until from 
the rents and profits thereof the judgment 
should be paid ; 3, a capias ad satisfaciendum, 
which is a writ directed to the sheriff com- 
manding him to take the body of the de- 
fendant, and keep the same until satisfaction 
of the debt. The course of proceeding upon 
this writ was to imprison the defendant in the 
debtors' jail, of which the sheriff had in law 
the charge. (See DEBTOR AND CREDITOR.) 
Having traced the origin of the terms applied 
to executions, we shall limit ourselves to a 
brief explanation of the legal incidents as now 
prescribed by statute in the United States. 
The two forms of execution are the fieri facias 
and the capias ad satisfaciendum, which have 
been already explained, and which are desig- 
nated by the abbreviated terms^. fa. and ca. 
sa. TliQfi.fa. is a writ directed to the sheriff 
by which he is commanded to maKe the 
amount of the judgment by sale of the defen- 
dant's goods and chattels, or if these should 
not be sufficient, then of the lands of which he 
was seized on the day when the judgment was 
docketed. An exemption is made of certain 
property from levy under execution, viz. ; 
household furniture, necessary provisions and 
fuel for the use of the family for a specified 
time, stock in trade, necessary wearing ap- 
parel, bedding, &c., tools and implements to 
an amount named, a family Bible, family pic- 
tures, school books, the family library, &c., 
and in addition, a lot and building occupied as 
a residence by the debtor, being a householder 
and having a family, to a value named, which 
in most states is $1,500 or upward. (See 
FIERI FACIAS.) The ca. sa. is the old form of 



execution against the person of the defendant, 
and since the abolition of imprisonment for 
debt can be issued in a few cases only. (See 

EXECUTOR, the person appointed to carry 
into effect the directions contained in a last 
will and testament. By the common law of 
England, or rather by the law as administered 
in the ecclesiastical courts, an infant of the age 
of 17 was qualified to act as executor. Prior 
to that age, letters of administration, were 
granted to some other person durante minore 
cBtate; but by statute 38 George III., c. 87, 
such administration must now continue until 
the person named as executor has reached the 
age of 21. A married woman cannot act as 
an executrix without the assent of her hus- 
band, inasmuch as he is responsible for her acts. 
When executors are not named in a will, or 
are incompetent, or refuse to act, letters of 
administration with the will annexed may be 
issued, under which the same powers may be 
exercised that could have been by competent 
executors duly appointed. An executor de son 
tort, as he was formerly called, i. e., one who 
intermeddled with the estate without having 
lawful authority, was liable to the extent of 
any assets which he might have appropriated 
to be sued as an executor of his own wrong, 
but was not entitled to institute a suit as exe- 
cutor. The doctrine of executor de son tort 
can scarcely be said to be recognized in Amer- 
ica, but summary remedies are given against 
intermeddlers. (See WILL.) 

EXELMANS, or Excelmans, Remy Joseph Isidore, 
count, a French general, born in Bar-le-Duc, 
Nov. 13, 1775, killed by a fall from his horse in 
July, 1852. He served first in Italy, became an 
aide-de-camp of Murat, went with him to Ger- 
many, and was made colonel after the battle 
of Austerlitz, and brigadier general in 1807, 
after that of Eylau. He accompanied Murat 
in 1808 to Spain, where he was made prisoner 
and carried to England. He made his escape 
in 1811 and rejoined Murat, then king of 
Naples. When disagreement arose between 
Murat and Napoleon, Exelmans returned to 
France, and served in the Russian campaign 
with the rank of general of division. He re- 
tained his position in the military service after 
the first restoration, but resumed his duties in 
the army of Napoleon upon his return from 
Elba, and was raised to the peerage. He did 
not take part in the battle of Waterloo, being 
under the command of Grouchy. Under the 
second restoration he was in exile till 1819. 
He was restored by Louis Philippe to the 
chamber of peers, and denounced in that body 
the execution of Ney as an " abominable assas- 
sination." Under the presidency of Louis Na- 
poleon he was made grand chancellor of the 
legion of honor, marshal of France, and senator. 

EXETER, a town and one of the county seats 
of Rockingham co., New Hampshire, situated 
on Exeter river, a branch of the Piscataqua, 
and on the Boston and Maine railroad, 12 m. 

S. W. of Portsmouth; pop. in 1870, 3,437. 
The falls at this point, which furnish good wa- 
ter power, are the head of tide water and the 
limit of navigation for small vessels. The prin- 
cipal village, built around the falls on both 
banks of the river, occupies a plain, and is laid 
out with wide streets shaded with elms. Be- 
sides the state courts for the county, sessions 
of the United States circuit and district courts 
are held here. The Exeter manufacturing com- 
pany, incorporated in 1829, has more than 10, 000 
spindles in operation, and produces about 2,000, - 
000 yards of sheetings annually. It has just 
erected another mill of equal capacity. The 
wool business is one of the principal branches 
of industry and trade in the place, being carried 
on by several large establishments. There are 
also several manufactories of carriages, 1 of 
drain pipe, 3 of harnesses, 3 grist mills, 1 iron 
foundery, 1 planing mill, 1 saw mill, 1 machine 
shop, a national bank, and 2 saving institutions. 
The town is chiefly noted as the seat of Phil- 
lips academy, founded in 1781 by John Phillips, 
LL. D., who bequeathed to it a large portion 
of his estate. It is one of the most celebrated 
schools for preparing boys for college in the 
country, and in 1872 had 4 instructors and 102 
students. The original building, in which some 
of the most famous men of the country were 
educated, was burned in 1870 ; a new one was 
completed in 1872. The Robinson female sem- 
inary, organized in 1869 with an endowment 
of $300,000, has a collegiate department, and 
in 1872 had 9 instructors and 252 students. 
Exeter contains several public schools, a town 
library of 3,428 volumes, a weekly newspaper, 
and 7 churches. It was settled in 1638, and 
suffered severely during the Indian wars from 
1690 to about 1710. During the revolutionary 
period it was the capital of the state and the 
headquarters of its military operations. 

EXETER, a city, port, and parliamentary 
borough of England, capital of Devonshire, and 
a county in itself, on the Exe, 10 m. from its 
mouth in the English channel, and 159 m. W. 
S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 34,646. It 
is 194 m: from London by the Great Western 
railway, and is the point at which railways 
centre from South Devon, North Devon, Salis- 
bury, and Exmouth. The Exe is here crossed 
by a handsome stone bridge leading to the sub- 
urb of St. Thomas. The city, standing on a steep 
acclivity, has two wide principal streets, which 
cross each other at right angles near its centre. 
It is generally well built, has many fine squares 
and terraces and ancient houses, and in its sub- 
urbs and environs are numerous elegant villas. 
It was formerly strongly fortified, but its exte- 
rior wall is now in a ruinous state, and a part 
of the rampart has been converted into a prom- 
enade. On an eminence N. E. of the town is 
Rougemont castle, anciently the residence of 
the West Saxon kings, repaired by William the 
Conqueror. Exeter is the seat of a bishopric 
founded about 1050. Its cathedral, a magnifi- 
cent building of cruciform shape, was begun 




about the year 1100. Its entire length is 408 ft. ; 
it has two Norman towers 130 ft. in height, ten 
chapels or oratories, and a chapter house. One 
of the towers contains an immense bell weigh- 
ing 12,500 Ibs., and the other has a chime of 
11 bells. Among the numerous schools is a 
free grammar school founded by the citizens 
in the reign of Charles L, in which the sons 
of freemen are instructed gratuitously, and 
which has 18 exhibitions to either of the uni- 
versities. Exeter has a theatre and various 
literary and charitable institutions. Its com- 
merce is much less now than formerly, but it 
has some internal trade, and is an important 
corn and provision market. The river Exe is 
navigable for vessels of large burden to Top- 
sham, 4 m. below Exeter ; and by means of a 

canal built in 1563, subsequently much en- 
larged, and one of the oldest in England, ves- 
sels of 400 tons burden can come up to the 
quay near the walls of the town. Serges and 
other woollen goods were formerly manufac- 
tured in this city and the neighboring towns 
to a large extent, and shipped to the continent 
and the East Indies ; but the introduction of 
machinery 'and the lower price of fuel in the 
north of England have very much diminished 
this trade. This city is of unknown antiquity, 
and is supposed to be the Caer-Isc of the Brit- 
ons, and the Isca Damnoniorum of the Romans. 
It was the capital of the West Saxons, and in 
the reign of Alfred in 876 it was surprised by 
the Danes. It was besieged and taken by Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. In the civil war it es- 

Exeter Cathedral. 

poused the royal cause, was taken by the par- 
liamentarians, was retaken by Prince Maurice, 
became the headquarters of the royalists in 
the west and the residence of Charles's queen, 
and in 1646 surrendered after a blockade to 

EXHAUSTION (Lat. exhaurire, to draw out), 
a method of the ancient geometry, applied with 
success by Archimedes and Euclid, by which 
the value of an incommensurable quantity was 
sought by obtaining approximations alternately 
greater and less than the truth, until two ap- 
proximations differed so little from each other 
that either might be taken as the exact state- 
ment. Thus the length of a circumference was 
sought by calculating the length of inscribed 
and circumscribed polygons, and increasing the 
number of sides until the lengths of the outer 
and inner polygon were sensibly the same, when 
that of the circumference could not differ sen- 
sibly from either. By this method the space 
between the polygons and the curve was ex- 

hausted, as it were, and hence the term. Ex- 
haustion is now interesting chiefly because it 
was one of the methods which led, in the 17th 
century, to the invention of the differential 

EXMOFTH, a town of Devonshire, England, 
10 m. S. E. of Exeter; pop. about 6,000. It is 
a celebrated sea-bathing place, and is beauti- 
fully situated on the E. side of the entrance to 
the estuary of the Exe, in an opening of the cliffs 
which surround the shore. The modern part 
of the town consists of detached villas and. ter- 
races surmounted by neat houses, and there 
are many pleasant promenades. A gradually 
sloping sandy beach below the town is the 
principal resort of bathers. There is a hand- 
some parish church with a tower more than 
100 ft. high. Fisheries constitute the princi- 
pal occupation ; and many of the women are 
engaged in lace making. 

EXMOUTH, Edward Pellew, viscount, an Eng- 
lish admiral, born at Dover, April 19, 1757, 



died at Teignmouth, Jan. 23, 1833. He en- 
tered the navy at the age of 13, and first dis- 
tinguished himself in the battle of Lake Cham- 
plain, Oct. 11, 1776. In 1782 he became a post 
captain, and from 1786 to 1789 he was stationed 
off Newfoundland. In 1793, commanding the 
frigate Nymphe, of 36 guns, he captured the 
French frigate La Cleopatre, of equal metal, 
after a desperate battle. This was the first 
prize taken in the war, and Pellew was 
knighted. He was then employed in block- 
ading the French coast. At Plymouth in 1796, 
by great bravery and presence of mind, he 
saved the lives of all on board a wrecked 
transport, leaving the ship himself just before 
it went to pieces. For this he was made a 
baronet, and received other honors. Mean- 
while, in command of the Arethusa, 44 guns, 
he had fought a number of engagements with 
French vessels, being always victorious. He 
also commanded successively the Indefatigable, 
49 guns, and the Impetueux, 78 guns. In 1802 
he was elected to parliament, but in 1804 was 
again called to the naval service, promoted to 
rear admiral, and made command er-in-chief in 
the East Indies. In 1808 he was made vice 
admiral, and in 1810 was sent to command in 
the Mediterranean. In 1814 he was created 
Baron Exmouth of Canonteign, with a pension 
of 2,000, and in the same year was made a 
full admiral. During his command in the Med- 
iterranean he concluded treaties with Algiers, 
Tunis, and Tripoli, for the abolition of Chris- 
tian slavery. The dey of Algiers having vio- 
lated his treaty, Exmouth sailed into the har- 
bor of Algiers, Aug. 26, 1816, with 19 vessels, 
accompanied by 'a Dutch fleet of 6, and en- 
gaged the Algerine fleet and batteries at close 
quarters. After an action of seven hours, 
every Algerine ship and the arsenal and sev- 
eral other buildings were on fire. The dey 
conceded everything that was demanded, and 
signed a new treaty. In this affair Lord Ex- 
mouth received two slight wounds and had his 
clothes torn to shreds by the shot. About 
1,200 Christian slaves were liberated, and on 
his return the admiral was made a viscount. 
He retired from public service in 1821. 

EXODUS (Gr. e^odof, departure), a book of 
the Bible, the second of the Pentateuch. It 
derives its name from the principal event re- 
corded in it, the departure of the Hebrews 
from Egypt, and contains the history of that 
people from the death of Joseph until the 
building of the tabernacle. The researches 
of modern Egyptologists have thrown much 
light on the Biblical narrative. The land 
of Goshen, where the Hebrews had been per- 
mitted to settle, was east of the delta of the 
Nile, on the borders of Syria, and the places 
mentioned in connection with the exodus have 
been identified as follows : Rameses as the 
town Nashuta, in the E. part of the wady 
Tumilat ; Succoth, the Thaubasium of the Ro- 
mans, N. E. of Lake Timsah ; Etham, the forti- 
fied wall on the Syrian frontier ; Pi-hahiroth, 

the modern Kalat Agrud, N. W. of Suez; 
Migdol, the place formerly called Kambysu, 
where the Persian monument stands ; and Baal- 
zephon as the Atakah mountains. The hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions render it probable that the 
oppressors of the Hebrews were Seti I. and his 
son Rameses II., and that Merneptah was the 
Pharaoh of the exodus. (See EGYPT, vol. vi., 
pp. 461-'2.) They show also that the He- 
brews had been employed to build temples, 
fortresses, and granaries; and several monu- 
ments depict them at work making bricks, 
with overseers standing by and sometimes 
beating them with rods. This does not ne- 
cessarily lead to the conclusion that the Pha- 
raohs of the period were reckless tyrants. 
They were severe military rulers, who fore- 
saw that the Hebrews would make common 
cause with their kindred in Syria in case of 
an invasion. They strengthened accordingly 
the fortified wall on the borders, which the 
Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had erected, 
and built new fortresses in Goshen, partly 
for protection against invasion and partly for 
keeping watch over the Hebrews. According 
to the monuments, the troops stationed here 
were chiefly Libyans, who were not likely 
to sympathize with the Hebrews. A treaty 
made by Rameses II. with the chief of the 
Khitas in Syria, found on a stele in the temple 
district of Karnak, provides for the extradition 
of fugitives escaping over the border. Mer- 
neptah's policy was to prevent the Hebrews 
from gathering into bodies too large to be con- 
trolled, which he effected by compelling them 
to labor in small detachments on the public 
works. His refusal to allow them to assemble 
for the purpose of worshipping their God in 
the wilderness was prompted by fear of some 
hostile movement on their part, and nothing 
but the dread of greater disasters than those 
which would naturally follow their departure 
induced him to permit Moses to lead them 
away. Nor are monumental indications want- 
ing for establishing the historical character 
of Moses. His interview with Merneptah is 
supposed to have taken place at Tanis, the 
temporary residence of the last three Pharaohs. 
He and his people marched first to Takusa, a 
city south of Tanis, and thence to Shekh Musa, 
in the neighborhood of Pithom. The route 
touched the most important Hebrew towns 
and enabled their inhabitants to join the emi- 
grants. Moses marched them in an easterly 
direction through the wady Tumilat, which 
Hebrew labor had supplied with a canal. The 
Hebrew population was especially dense in 
this fertile oasis. The Hebrews rendezvoused 
at Rameses, a central point in Goshen. A 
journey northeastward of about 150 m. would 
have taken them to the borders of Canaan, but 
would have brought them into conflict with the 
warlike Philistines. Moses led them in almost 
the contrary direction ; " For God said, Lest 
peradventure the people repent when they see 
war, and they return to Egypt." The general 




route of the exodus is now fairly established. 
The Hebrews marched S. E. for three days, 
then turned S. W., and finally E., their fourth 
encampment being at Pi-hahiroth, a few miles 
S. of the present Suez, near a point where the 
gulf of Suez suddenly narrows to a quarter of 
its former width. They were on a narrow tri- 
angular plain bounded N. by a range of cliffs 
and S. E. by the expansion of the sea. The 
Egyptian king had meanwhile gathered a con- 
siderable force, especially of chariots, the cav- 
alry of the time, and was following hard upon 
the fugitives, who, hemmed in between the 
cliffs and the water, had no apparent way of 
escape. At the point here assumed as that of 
the passage there is still a shallow, stretching 
from shore to shore, almost fordable at low 
tide. " The Lord caused the sea to go by a 
strong east wind all that night, and made the 
sea dry land, and the waters were divided." 
That is, the east (or more strictly easterly) 
wind piled up the waters toward the head of 
the gulf, leaving the shallow dry. The idea 
which painters have popularized, that the 
waters stood up as a solid wall on each side, is 
wholly without warrant in the sacred text ; all 
that is implied is that there was deep water on 
each side of the passage. The crossing was 
apparently made during the day. At night- 
fall the Egyptians came up, and seeing the pas- 
sage still dry attempted to follow. It is ap- 
parently implied in the text, though not directly 
stated, that the wind now shifted; for an east- 
erly wind would have carried the bodies of 
the Egyptians to the west side, whereas the 
Hebrews beheld them thrown on the eastern 
shore, upon which they were. All the impli- 
cations of the narrative are that the reflux of 
the waters was gradual ; for we are told that 
"the Lord took off [or rather clogged up] their 
chariot wheels, and made them go heavily;" 
that is, probably, the returning waters slowly 
filtered into the sand, making it difficult for 
the chariots to move. The Egyptians, seeing 
the waters rising, endeavored to retreat; but 
in the darkness, their returning van encounter- 
ing their advancing rear, they could go neither 
way, and were swallowed up by the rising tide. 
That this passage was really miraculous is 
everywhere asserted or implied by all the 
sacred writers who speak of it. Their route 
at first lay parallel with the eastern shore of 
the gulf of Suez, which they apparently 
touched at one point, the halting places being 
specified, and several of them are identified 
with reasonable certainty. At one of these, 
Rephidim, they were attacked by a body of 
Amalekites, who were defeated by the Israel- 
ites under the command of Joshua. After 
three months they reached the region of Sinai, 
in the heart of the Arabian peninsula, where 
they remained until 14 months after their de- 
parture from Egypt, and then set off upon their 
long wanderings toward the promised land. 
During this interval the law was given, and 
those religious and civil institutions were 

framed which in the course of a generation 
transformed the Hebrews into a military peo- 
ple, able to cope with the enemies whom they 
were about to encounter. The history, as re- 
lated in the book of Exodus, properly closes 
with the encampment around Sinai, and is con- 
tinued in the book of Numbers. (See SINAI.) 
The best works on the historical narrative are 
Ebers's Aegypten und die BiicJier Hose's (Leip- 
sic, 1868 et seq.} and DurcJi Oosen zum Sinai 
(Leipsic, 1872), and Palmer's " The Desert of 
the Exodus " (London, 1872). 

EXOGENS (Gr. efw, outward, and -yevvav, to 
generate), a class of plants so called because 
their woody matter is increased by additions to 
the outside of that which first surrounds the . 
central pith. As there are no specific limits 
to the age of exogenous trees, their diameter 
indefinitely increases by this annual process, a 
distinct external layer being added by each 
year's growth. The stem of an exogen con- 
sists of a central column of pith or medulla, 
woody zones, and bark. Processes from the 
central medulla called medullary rays cross the 
zones transversely. The bark of an exogen 
parts readily from the underlying wood at a 
particular season of the year, when a viscid 
secretion called cambium is produced between 
the wood and the inner surface of the bark. 
It is at this period that the leaves expand and 
the trunk lengthens. The woody fibres in the 
leaves are prolonged into the stem or trunk, 
passing down among the cambium, and adher- 
ing partly to the wood and partly to the bark 
of the previous year. By this means new 
living matter is continually deposited upon the 
outer portion of the woody stem and the inner 
portions of the bark. It is in this part of the 
stem that the intensest vitality exists, the outer 
and older layers of the bark and the inner and 
older concentric rings of the wood becoming 
inert and falling off or decaying without in- 
jury to the vegetative parts. The office of the 
medullary processes is very important as means 
of communication between the centre of the 
stem and the outside layers or rings ; and they 
are conduits, so to speak, by which the fluid 
matter passing down the bark can reach the 
wood next the medulla or pith. These pro- 
cesses, which resemble thin plates, are of a 
spongy nature similar to that of the pith from 
which they originated. They sometimes as- 
sume sinuosities and undergo partial oblitera- 
tion; and sometimes the wood itself assumes 
an excessive irregularity. As these circum- 
stances are to be found mostly in tropical ex- 
ogenous trees, vines, and climbers, difficulty 
is sometimes experienced in perceiving from 
transverse sections their claims to be consid- 
ered as exogens. This natural character of 
an outward growth in the exogens is asso- 
ciated with other peculiarities of development 
of other organs. Thus, the leaves have veins 
ramifying from the midrib outwardly to the 
circumference; or if there are several ribs, 
the veins are still of the same quality, so as to 




form an irregular network. These veins never 
run parallel to each other without ramifica- 
tions, and even some which appear to do so 
will be found to possess secondary veins. The 
leaves also fall away from the branches, being 
disarticulated from their places of insertion, 
leaving a clear scar behind. Certain foliolate 
organs, called stipules, are also frequently at- 
tached to the leaves, which is very unusual in 
endogens. The flowers are mostly quinary, 
that is, they have five sepals, five petals, and 
five stamens, or some multiple of that number. 
The tall and feathery outline of the palms is 
never seen in the exogens, as none of them de- 
pend on a single terminal bud for their develop- 
ing growth, From the very germination of the 
seed the difference is apparent in the form of 
the embryo and in the dicotyledonous char- 
acteristics of the young plant. 

EXORCISM (Gr. tt-opK.iojj.6s, adjuration), a rite 
having for its object to cast out evil spirits, or 
to withdraw irrational things from their influ- 
ence. As the natural attendants of a belief 
in demoniacal possession, exorcisms have been 
practised in every age and country. The pa- 
gans of old, like those of to-day, were firm 
believers in the malignant influence of spirits, 
genii, or demons. Mysterious diseases and 
other incomprehensible calamities were at- 
tributed to such influences. The "medicine 
dances " in use among the American Indians 
are found to spring from the same belief which 
gave rise to the fumigations of the Greeks, 
Romans, Arabs, and Persians. Among the 
Greeks exorcising was a profession. ^Eschines 
and Epicurus were the sons of women who 
lived by exorcism, and when young practised 
the art with their mothers. Besides incanta- 
tions, the burning of certain herbs and drugs, 
the use of magic ointments, the wearing of 
amulets, &c., human sacrifices were exception- 
ally also resorted to ; and they are still in use 
among the tribes of south Africa. The Semitic 
nations, who kept alive the belief in the one 
God, form no exception. Among the Hebrews 
we read of David playing on a harp to procure 
the departure of the evil spirit which troubled 
Saul, and that Tobit, by command of an an- 
gel, burned the liver of a fish to expel the evil 
spirit which followed his betrothed wife ; and 
Solomon, according to Josephus, was a mighty 
exorcist, and left several formulas to be em- 
ployed in the rite. Christ, who drove out 
devils himself, bears testimony to the fact that 
the Jews did so in his day. This power he 
also committed to his 70 disciples when he 
sent them on their first mission, and promised 
that it should be exercised in the church after 
him. All early Christian writers bear testi- 
mony to the fact that exorcisms were practised 
universally in the churches. This was done 
more particularly for catechumens, who were 
adults converted from paganism, and defiled 
by the unclean initiations and practices of 
demon worship. The great number of those 
considered really possessed in these ages, and 
310 VOL. vii. 3 

the frequent exorcisms performed on catechu- 
mens during their long probation, caused the 
creation of the order of exorcists, which still 
exists both in the Greek and Roman Catholic 
churches. In both also the rituals prescribe 
exorcisms not only for adult, but even for in- 
fant baptism, on the ground that by the fall 
the entire human race has come under the 
power of Satan. And as the power of the 
evil one extends to the whole inferior creation, 
both churches exorcise water, salt, oil, &c., 
before blessing them and using them as sym- 
bols and instruments of Christ's redeeming 
grace. As the earth was cursed after the fall, 
so now the church extends Christ's blessing to 
it and all it contains. Hence the prayers and 
exorcisms prescribed in the ritual for allaying 
storms, checking the ravages of hurtful insects, 
and putting an end to droughts. From the 
same principle proceeds the custom of blessing 
habitations, fields, cattle, food, &c. Extraor- 
dinary exorcisms, in the present discipline of 
the Roman Catholic Church, are such as are 
used in cases of attested demoniacal possession. 
These are only performed with the permission 
of the bishop, in rare instances, and with un- 
usual solemnity. The only forms of exorcism 
recognized by that church are those contained 
in the Roman ritual and missal. Luther, in his 
Taufbuchlein, preserved partly the form of 
renunciation of the devil ; he considered it as 
useful to remind the people of the power of 
sin. These views were adopted in the Lu- 
theran parts of Germany. In the Swedish 
church, when the Augsburg Confession was 
again proclaimed at the council of Upsal in 
1593, exorcism was retained as a free cere- 
mony in baptism, and on account of its utility. 
Calvin andZwingli rejected it, and it became a 
sort of test between Calvinists and Lutherans. 
It had become gradually obsolete among the 
German Lutherans when an attempt was made 
in 1822 to revive its use. In the first liturgy 
of Edward VI. a form of exorcism at baptism 
was retained, which was omitted in the sub-; 
sequent revision of the prayer book. Canon V2 
of the church of England reserves to the bish- 
op the power of granting a license to exorcise. 
The only remnant of the old baptismal exor- 
cisms to be found in the rituals of the churcli 
of England, and the Protestant Episcopal and 
Methodist Episcopal churches, is the question : 
"Dost thou renounce the devil and all his 
works ? " See Bingham, Origines Ecclesiasti- 
cce; Stolle, De Origine Exorcismi inBaptismo; 
Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotheca, ; and Thesau- 
rus Exorcismorum et Conjurationum (Cologne, 


EXOSTOSIS (Gr. If, out of, and bareov, bone), 
an osseous tumor developed on the surface of 
a bone, originally or eventually continuous with 
its substance, circumscribed, without interior 
cavity, having the same structure and life as 
the bone on which it is found. There are two 
varieties of this growth: in one the bone, like 



all other tissues of the system, takes on a mor- 
bid development, an eccentric hypertrophy of 
its substance, forming a well denned tumor on 
its surface by the mere excess of interstitial 
osseous deposit ; in the other the new ossific 
matter is deposited originally on the surface, 
under or between the laminae of the periosteum, 
separated from the bone at first by cartilage, 
but afterward becoming consolidated to it in 
the usual manner of bony processes. The first 
variety may affect the greater part of a bone, 
and deserves rather the name of hyperostosis ; 
and the second, by the process of ossification, 
may be converted into the first ; this distinc- 
tion is of considerable importance in the prog- 
nosis and treatment of the affection. The 
muscles and soft parts over an exostosis are 
generally not changed, unless the tumor be of 
considerable size and in the neighborhood of 
large nerves and vessels ; but the periosteum 
is almost always thickened, and less adherent 
to the bone than usual. In the first variety the 
form is regular, and the bony fibres diverge 
from the natural direction to enter the tumor, 
as in other forms of eccentric hypertrophy ; in 
the second variety the form is irregular, of- 
ten fantastic and rough, and there is an evi- 
dent base by which it is as it were immovably 
articulated to the supporting bone, except in 
very old growths; this base in recent cases is 
cartilaginous and readily separated, and shows 
that this kind of exostosis originates from and 
is nourished by the investing periosteum; it 
indicates also a method of treatment which 
has been found successful, by denuding them 
of their periosteum and causing their necrosis 
and separation from want of nutrition. If 
the cartilaginous base rests upon the bone, un- 
der the periosteum, the removal of this mem- 
brane will cause an exfoliation of the subjacent 
bone ; but if between the laminae of this enve- 
lope, a similar operation will effect the fall of 
the tumor without injury to the surface of the 
bone ; the cartilage soon becomes ossified, and 
the exostosis forms one body with the bone, 
resembling the first variety in having no basal 
line of separation. In course of time the ex- 
cessive deposit of phosphate of lime in these 
growths may convert them into a substance 
having the appearance, consistence, weight, 
and polish of ivory. Among the constitutional 
causes of exostosis are syphilitic poisoning, the 
scrofulous diathesis, and the gouty and rheu- 
matic conditions; the immediate cause is in- 
flammation, produced by mechanical or other 
means, leading to a deposit first of plastic and 
then of osseous matter, the development being 
similar to that of normal bone. In some con- 
stitutions there is such a disposition to the de- 
posit of ossific matter, that the slightest con- 
tusion is sufficient to cause the development 
of these bony growths, not only on bones but 
in the substance of tendons and ligaments ; 
and the affection is often hereditary. When 
the growth takes place in the cavity of a bone, 
as in the cranial cavity, it has been called en- 

ostosis, but with doubtful propriety, because in 
this case the growth is upon the bone and out- 
side of its structure. The prognosis varies, 
principally in proportion to the rapidity of the 
growth, which when very slow may not be 
much regarded, except when interfering with 
the functions of some important organ, as a 
joint, or into the cranial cavity. The treat- 
ment also varies with the prognosis. Often 
the removal is not a matter of moment, as ex- 
ostoses may be carried through life without 
much inconvenience ; and the removal may be 
a hazardous undertaking, as when the tumor 
encroaches upon a joint whose cavity would 
become opened by the operation. If the cir- 
culation in an important artery is impeded, re : 
moval becomes desirable, and should be under- 
taken when there is reasonable hope of a suc- 
cessful result. Topical applications are often 
beneficial, and in the earlier stages, in the form 
of blisters and strong counter-irritants, often 
effect the removal by absorption. A strong 
tincture of iodine, or a solution of iodine in 
iodide of potassium, is often very serviceable. 
The constitutional treatment, particularly when 
syphilis has preceded the affection, should not 
be neglected. Preparations of mercury may 
be cautiously administered, particularly the 
iodide, and iodine may be given in combination 
with potash or soda salts. When much pain is 
experienced, anodynes may be administered, 
either by the mouth or topically. 

EXPANSION, the property displayed by mat- 
ter of enlarging in bulk by diminution of pres- 
sure, increase of heat, or in a few instances by 
increase of cold, and also of moisture. It is 
seen in solids in the common operation of set- 
ting the tire of a wheel ; the iron ring, being 
heated in the circle of burning chips and coals, 
enlarges in bulk so as easily to slip over the fel- 
ly, which it compresses tightly as it grows cool 
on the application of cold water. It is seen in 
liquids in the rise of mercury in the thermome- 
ter ; and in aeriform bodies in the ascending cur- 
rents of heated air, or more plainly in the burst- 
ing of a tight bladder as the air it encloses 
swells by exposure to heat. The amount of 
expansion exhibited by different bodies by any 
given increase of heat is very various. Those 
only which exist in the aeriform state, or as 
vapors, can be classed together in this respect. 
They all expand very nearly if not exactly alike 
by the same increase of temperature. Like air 
they increase in bulk from the freezing to the 
boiling point, so that, according to Gay-Lus- 
sac, 100 measures at the lower degree fill 137i 
at the higher. For each degree of Fahrenheit 
the expansion of air, according to the accurate 
determinations of Eegnault, is, under a con- 
stant volume, ^-^ of its volume ; for the less 
condensable gases it is perceptibly larger. 
Each solid body has its own rate of expansion, 
which however is not uniform for equal incre- 
ments of temperature, but increases at high 
degrees in a faster ratio. This, unless special 
allowance is made for it in the graduation, in- 



troduces error in thermometers, those marked 
off in equal divisions for the high degrees evi- 
dently not being correct. Another source of 
error in these instruments is the unequal ex- 
pansion of the different materials. The mer- 
cury from the freezing to the boiling point of 
water expands, according to Regnault, in vol- 
ume 1 part in 55 '08; between the latter and 
392 1 in 54'61 ; and between this and 
572| 1 in 54'01. Glass expands in the same 
range of temperature, in the first division, 
^. ; in the second, yyW 5 and in tlie . tm ' rd ? 
yyVy. In. a mercuruu thermometer it is the 
difference ' of expansion between the mercury 
and the glass that is indicated, and the tem- 
perature indicated by 586 would correspond 
to 667 determined by the expansion of glass 
alone, or to 572 by the air thermometer. 
Various instruments called pyrometers have 
been devised to determine high degrees of tem- 
perature by the amount of expansion of bars 
of different metals. They are all approximate 
only in their results, unless the rate of expan- 
sion of the metal bars has been accurately in- 
vestigated by the help of the air thermometer ; 
and the labor attending such a study has rarely 
been bestowed upon these instruments, which 
in every form are now generally superseded 
by the air thermometer itself or by the electric 
pyrometer of Siemens. (See PYEOMETEK, and 
THERMOMETER.) The expansions of various 
solids from 32 to 212 are presented in the 
following table : 

The expansion in bulk is found by measurement 
to be about three times the linear expansion, 
as it should be on geometrical principles of the 
relations between the side and the volume of 
a cube. When metals become liquid by fusion, 
a change takes place in their density; their 
specific gravity increases in the cases of iron, 
bismuth, and antimony, as is shown by solid 
pieces floating upon the surface of a melted 
mass of the same metal. Thus it is that in 
Mgs the mould is entirely filled in its mi- 
st parts. On the other hand, phosphorus, 
mercury, gold, silver, copper, and many other 
substances contract as they become solid ; 
and this is the reason why coins of the last 







+ 3 



in length. 

In bulk. 


Zinc, cast... 
" sheet.. . 

1 la 336 
1 840 
1 851 

1 616 
1 524 
1 536 
1 582 
1 682 
1 712 
1 846 
1 923 

1 926 
1 1,000 
1 1,131 

1 1,148 
1 1,248 

1 in 
1 || 


1 " 







Lavoisier and La- 

Dulong and Petit. 

Lavoisier and Laplace. 

( Dulong and Petit. 
Lavoisier and Laplace. 



Antimony . . . 

Glass without 

Flint glass 

three metals cannot be cast, but require to be 
stamped. A great difference is shown in the 
amount of expansion of different liquids ; thus 
water gains $ in bulk when its temperature is 
raised from 32 to 312, oil of turpentine T V, 
and mercury in a glass tube -fa. A remarka- 
ble exception to the general law of expansion 
of liquids in proportion as they are heated is 
shown in the case of pure water. When this 
is cooled from the temperature of 60 it con- 
tinues to contract until it reaches 39*2. From 
this point it expands until it freezes at 32, its 
rate of expansion being about the same from 
39 whether it is heated or cooled; but if 
kept perfectly quiescent, Despretz found that 
below 32 water retains its liquidity and con- 
tinues to expand. He gives the following de- 
terminations : 

An important beneficial effect of this peculiar- 
ity in the expansion of water is seen in the pro- 
tection it affords to the natural bodies of this 
fluid, as lakes and ponds, against being frozen 
throughout. For, as the surface of the water 
is cooled below 39 by the cold air above, this 
portion by its expansion becomes specifically 
lighter than the water below, and consequently 
remains at the top. At 32 a covering of ice 
forms over the water, which being a poor con- 
ductor of heat preserves the great body of 
water from falling to a lower temperature than 
39, the point of its greatest density. The pas- 
sage from the liquid to the solid state on the 
abstraction of heat is determined to a very con- 
siderable extent by the superficial tension of 
the liquid ; thus Despretz finds that in fine ca- 
pillary tubes water may be cooled to 20 0. 
( 4 F.) without solidification. So great a 
power is exerted by the contraction of metals 
on cooling after being expanded by heating, 
that this has been applied as a mechanical 
force, as in the bringing together of heavy 
walls of buildings which had separated by un- 
equal settling. Strong iron bars are passed 
horizontally through the opposite walls, and 
being heated throughout their length are close- 
ly keyed up and then allowed to cool ; and the 
process is repeated until the desired effect is 
obtained. This suggests the danger of insert- 
ing bars of metal closely in walls of masonry, 
as the force exerted by their expansion tends 
to thrust portions of the wall out of place. 
The expansion of water has been practically 
applied to the rending of rocks, the fluid being 
poured into the fissures and allowed to freeze. 
This is one of the most efficient agents employed 
by nature for the disintegration of rocky cliffs. 
The expansion by access of moisture is exhib- 
ited in the swelling of the fibre of wood or of 


ropes. This, too, is sometimes employed as a 
powerful mechanical force, as by inserting 
wedges of wood into cracks, or into holes 
drilled for the purpose in rocks, and then cov- 
ering the wood with water. As this is absorbed, 
the wood slowly expands, exerting a steady 
pressure of surprising force. The presence of 
moisture in the atmosphere is ascertained by 
instruments based on this principle. (See HY- 
GEOMETEY.) For the effect of expansion of 
steam, see STEAM. 

EXPLOSIVES. An explosion may be occasioned 
by the sudden removal of resistance to an ex- 
panding force, as in the case of steam boilers ; 
but it is more frequently the result of a sudden 
generation of energy by chemical reactions. 
Most explosions of this kind are instances of 
rapid combustion ; and an explosive compound, 
as distinguished from a merely inflammable 
one, may be defined as one which contains with- 
in itself the elements of combustion or other 
chemical change, liberating mechanical energy. 
Thus the fire damp of coal mines, when pure, 
is inflammable ; but mixed with a certain pro- 
portion of atmospheric oxygen, it becomes ex- 
plosive. The ingredients of an explosive com- 
pound remain inert unless the condition of 
chemical reaction is supplied. This is usually 
heat, produced by the direct contact of a heated 
body, or by pressure or percussion. In some 
instances, however, the introduction of a new 
substance, or the change of aggregate condi- 
tion in one or more of the ingredients, may 
occasion explosion. The number of explosives 
known to chemists is considerable. Chiefly 
those which are employed in the arts will be 
considered in this article. Gunpowder. Of 
these, gunpowder is the most widely employed, 
partly because the longest known, but mainly 
because it is not liable to spontaneous change, 
or explosion from other causes than a very 
high temperature (that of a spark or flame, for 
example), and because the manufacture can be 
cheaply carried on to any required extent, and 
can be so varied as to control the qualities of 
the product according to the proposed use. 
Gunpowder presents to the eye a mass of 
grains, usually angular and of uniform size, 
dark color, and polished surface. The different 
varieties range from 0-5 to 4*5 mm. in diameter 
of grain. Its specific gravity is 1-8 to 2*0. It 
explodes when rapidly heated above 300 C. 
It is composed of charcoal, sulphur, and nitre, 
the two former being the combustible ingre- 
dients, and the latter, by the surrender of its 
oxygen, supporting their combustion. Ac- 
cording to the theory formerly held, the nitre 
is reduced during the combustion of rifle 
powder to nitrogen and potassium, the latter 
forming with sulphur potassium sulphide, while 
all the oxygen combines with the carbon of 
the charcoal to form carbon dioxide (carbonic 
acid). The formula expressing this reaction 
would be 2KNOt+8+80=80O+K8+SN; 
and the proportions of ingredients in 100 parts 
would be: nitre, 74-84; sulphur, 11-84; char- 

coal, 18'32. From blasting powder, on the 
other hand, carbonic oxide as well as carbonic 
acid is formed, and the theoretical reaction is 
shown in the equation KN"0 8 + S + 2C=KS + 
N + C0 2 + CO, requiring the proportions : nitre, 
64'4; sulphur, 20'4; carbon, 15'2. How near- 
ly these formulas are adhered to will appear 
from the following tables of analyses : 







Theoretical proportions 

14 (or 
















ro Pov 


76 (or 







Ordnance Man- 



Bevue de l'Ar- 




" ordnance 
" small arms . . 




United States . . 


American . 

English . . 

? 4 



11 (1 T> 11 



Eussian . 

III. 1 

Theoretical proportions 

French " round " 
French " ordinary " . . . 
Freiberg "double" 
Hartz, coarse, strong... 
" medium 

" weak, fine 




These variations are due partly to the variable 
quality of the ingredients, particularly the 
charcoal, which always contains water and 
ash. The best coal (from light non-resinous 
wood, like poplar, black alder, or willow) 
rarely contains over 83 per cent, of carbon. 
The composition of powder has been also 
varied from the theoretical formulas to ob- 
tain a variety in its effects, and the researches 
of Bunsen, Shishkoff, Karolyi, Craig, and Fe- 
dorow have shown that the simple reactions 
upon which the formulas were based do not 
take place ; that the products of combustion, 
which vary somewhat with the pressure under 
which ignition takes place, comprise, among 
the gases, small quantities of carbonic oxide, 
hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen, and free ox- 
ygen, and, in the smoke and residue, chiefly 
the sulphate and carbonate, not the sulphide, 
of potassium. Bunsen found the gases from 
rifle powder to be but 31 '4 per cent, of the 
weight. The pressure generated by the com- 



bustion of gunpowder has been variously esti- 
mated. Gatzschmann gives the following ta- 
ble, compiled from different authorities : 


Estimate in atmospheres. 



Mver ....................... 8,800 to 

Scon... ........................... 4,000 

Prechtl .............................. 4,400 

Kann.rsoh^Heere................. *g ^ ^ 

Robert ............................... 7,500 

Bernoulli .............................. 10,000 

Kumford .............................. 29,178 to 54,740 

The usual estimate at present is for rifle pow- 
der 4,000, and for blasting powder 2,000 at- 
mospheres. It is believed that in practice 
half these figures are realized. The latest re- 
searches upon the heat set free by the com- 
bustion of powder, those of Roux and Sarran 
(Comptes Rendus, July, 1873), give the fol- 
lowing results : 



per kilo- 


Weight of 
gases per 





Fine sporting 






B musket 



The time within which this pressure is devel- 
oped is an important element in the practical 
effect. The particles of the powder are suc- 
cessively ignited and combustion becomes gen- 
eral. The rate of ignition is more rapid, and 
that of combustion is slower, the larger the 
grain of the powder. The finest-grained pow- 
der, when pressed closely together, behaves 
like a single mass, burning with comparative 
slowness, and hence showing less explosive 
power. It is employed in rockets and fire- 
works. For rifled guns, a coarse grain is now 
preferred, since its quick ignition gives the 
force required to press the projectile into the 
grooves, while its prolonged combustion aug- 
ments the pressure until the projectile leaves the 
gun with maximum velocity. Blasting pow- 
der, which is required to lift and split, rather 
than to throw, is usually coarse-grained, though 
modern practice is tending to the employment 
of "quicker" powders; a change due to the 
observed effectiveness of the nitro-glycerine 
compounds. The composition of ordinary 
blasting powder, as above shown, effects a 
slow combustion. A blasting powder now 
used to a considerable extent in this country 
contains Chili saltpetre (nitrate of soda) in- 
stead of nitre. It is unsuitable for sporting 
or military purposes. Another variation from 
the usual formula is Oliver's powder, made in 
Pennsylvania, in which peat is substituted for 
charcoal, with increased safety of manufacture 
and cheapness of product. The West Virginia 
mineral grahamite, a hydrocarbon, has also 
been experimented upon as a substitute for 

charcoal, with favorable results. Common 
powder soaked at the moment of using in 
nitro-glycerine has been used in Swedish quar- 
ries, with trebled effectiveness. Dynamite is 
safer and better. Pyronene is a cheap, infe- 
rior blasting powder, made of 52*5 parts nitrate 
of soda, 20 parts sulphur, and 27'5 parts spent 
tan. In Davey's powder a part of the char- 
coal is replaced by flour, starch, &c., for safety 
in preparation. Slow-burning powders used 
in Germany (Neumeyer's, Kiip's, &c.) contain 
less sulphur and more coal than the ordinary 
kind. They are recommended for safety and 
small amount of smoke. An intimate mixture 
of 3 parts nitre, 2 parts dry carbonate of 
potassa, and 1 part sulphur will when slow- 
ly heated (e.g., in an iron spoon) first melt, and 
soon after explode with deafening noise. The 
sulphur acts upon the carbonate of potassa, 
producing " liver of sulphur," a mixture of the 
sulphide with the sulphate of potassa; this is 
suddenly oxidized by the decomposition of 
the nitric acid, and nitrogen gas is liberated. 
The experiment should be tried with a small 
quantity only, say as much as will cover 
the tip of a knife blade. (See GUNPOWDER.) 
Pyroxyline. In the explosives classed above 
under gunpowder, the sulphur plays the part 
of a stimulant of chemical action, by its supe- 
rior readiness to ignite. It is the nitric acid 
and the carbon which, forming voluminous 
gases, generate the explosive force; and these 
substances can be brought together in such 
ways as to form explosive compounds which 
have the advantage of leaving no solid residues 
or smoke. Pyroxyline is the name given to 
the class of detonating substances produced by 
the action of concentrated nitric acid upon the 
cellulose of cotton, hemp, paper, sawdust, &c. 
Gun cotton was discovered in 1846 by Schon- 
bein, and also by Bottger. The conversion of 
cotton into gun cotton by the action of nitric 
acid scarcely changes its outward appearance. 
Chemically, it contains much hyponitric acid. 
It will ignite at 50 to 150 0., and leaves no 
residue after explosion. Its effectiveness is 
variously estimated at from two to six (prob- 
ably four) times that of gunpowder. Accord- 
ing to the best modern formula, gun cotton is 
trinitro-cellulose, C 6 H7(NO 2 ) 3 O 6 . The pro- 
ducts of combination are entirely gaseous. 
Karolyi gives the following, in 100 parts: 


By volume. 

By weight. 



Carbonic acid 

Marsh gas 
Binoxide of nitrogen 

Carbon . . 

Aqueous vapor 



When burned under pressure, the nitric oxide 
reacts more completely with the carburetted 
hydrogen, and the result of this and other 


causes is a greater volume of evolved gases. 
The actual product of heat units as compared 
with the combustion of gunpowder is propor- 
tional, according to Dr. Craig, to the respective 
amounts of oxygen concerned in the two cases ; 
but the greater volume of the gases from gun 
cotton renders their temperature lower and 
their mechanical effect greater. This material 
burns without explosion when ignited in the 
open air. Ordinary percussion sometimes ig- 
nites it a source of peril in packing bore holes. 
The acid and aqueous gases which it evolves 
have prevented its use in ordnance ; moreover, 
it is very hygroscopic and liable to spontaneous 
decomposition, sometimes leading to explosion, 
rendering its storage perilous. Many of these 
objections, together with that of bulk, have 
been removed by Abel's process of manufac- 
turing gun cotton in compressed solid cylinders, 
which burn harmlessly, can be stored and trans- 
ported with safety, and explode with great 
power when ignited under confinement by 
means of a detonating powder. The experi- 
ments of Gen. Lenk, in Austria, led to this im- 
provement. The compressed gun-cotton is 
adopted in that country for artillery. Gun 
cotton is used as a filter for strong acids, and 
also (dissolved in ether) as a yarnish. (See 
COLLODION, and GUN COTTON.) Xyloidine is 
the white, pulverulent, and very explosive sub- 
stance obtained by Braconnet in 1833, by 
treating starch with concentrated nitric acid. 
Lithofracteur is the name originally given to a 
white blasting powder, consisting of coarsely 
ground saltpetre and sulphur, with a third 
substance, supposed to be sawdust or bran, 
treated with nitric acid. The improved litho- 
fracteur described below is a different sub- 
stance. Schultze's chemical powder, some- 
times called wood gunpowder (introduced in 
1864), contains no sulphur ; and the charcoal 
is replaced with wood which has been tritu- 
rated, deprived of its acids, soluble salts, pro- 
teine, and albumen, and treated with concen- 
trated sulphuric and nitric acid. These grains 
of wood are subsequently saturated with nitrate 
of potash or baryta, or both, and dried. The 
powder can be wet and dried again without 
weakening it ; hence it may be kept or trans- 
ported in a damp state with perfect safety. It 
is about one third as dense as gunpowder, is 
more powerful, and leaves but a trifling residue. 
But it seems to have been superseded by nitro- 
glycerine compounds. Some inexplicable ex- 
plosions have occurred with it. The gases 
produced from it in mining have been com- 
plained of, possibly without good reason. 
Haloxyline is a powder tried in Austria, which 
contains no sulphur, and in which the char- 
coal is apparently represented by woody fibre. 
Like the slow-burning Neumeyer powder, it 
gives comparatively little noxious gas, is hygro- 
scopic, and works better in solid than in fis- 
sured rocks. It is asserted to burn harmlessly 
in the air; but like many other "harmless" 
powders, it has given rise to some strange and 

disastrous explosions. The above account of 
its composition follows the OesterreicMsche 
Zeitschrift (1866 and 1867); Wagner's " Tech- 
nology " (1870) says it contains charcoal, nitre, 
and yellow prussiate of potassa. Nitro-glyce- 
rine. This substance, known also as fulmina- 
ting oil, nitroleum, trinitrine, glyceryl nitrate, 
and glonoine, and undoubtedly the most impor- 
tant explosive since gunpowder, was discovered 
in 1847 by Sombrero, then a student with Pe- 
louze in Paris. It is formed by treating gly- 
cerine with concentrated sulphuric and nitric 
acid. (See GLYCERINE.) Until 1864 it found 
no practical application, except as a homoeo- 
pathic remedy for headaches similar to those 
which it causes. In that year Alfred Nobel, 
a Swede of Hamburg, began its manufacture 
on a large scale, and, though he sacrificed 
a brother to the terrible agent he had created, 
has persevered until in its later and safer forms 
nitro-glycerine has come into wide use and 
popularity. It is a clear, oily, colorless, odor- 
less, and slightly sweet liquid, heavier than 
water and insoluble in it, but soluble in ether 
and methyl alcohol ; crystallizes in long needles 
at 4 to 11 0. At 15 C. it becomes after 
a while thick ; prolonged exposure to 2 0. 
solidifies it. It detonates in the open air, under 
a strong blow or shock ; ignites with difficulty 
when poured out in a thin sheet, and even then 
burns incompletely without explosion. It can 
be evaporated at 100 C., if boiling is avoided ; 
but boiling, or the temperature of 180 C., 
causes an explosion. Confined or frozen, so as 
to permit the instantaneous transmission of an 
impulse through the mass, it will explode, 
sometimes under a very slight shock. It is usu- 
ally exploded with a detonating fuse. When 
badly prepared or preserved, it is liable to de- 
composition, yielding gases which exert a pres- 
sure within the containing vessel and create a 
condition of perilous sensitiveness to external 
shocks. The modern formula is CsHsNaOg, or 

3 ; hence i<J is 


in which 3 atoms of H have been replaced by 
3 atoms of NO 2 . Its specific gravity is 1'6; 
and 100 parts yield on combustion : 


By weight. 

By volume. 





Oxygen . . 








According to L'Hote, the oxygen is united 
with part of the nitrogen as protoxide. The 
heat liberated by the combustion is estimated 
to be twice as much as that of gunpowder; 
hence, while one volume of the latter yields 
in practice 200 volumes of cold gases, expanded 
by heat to 800 volumes, an equal weight of 
nitro-glycerine yields 1,298 volumes of gas, ex- 
panded to 10,384 volumes, giving 13 times the 
force of gunpowder. But the explosion takes 



place much more suddenly than that of gunpow- 
der ; hence the practical gain in effect is greater 
than the above figures show. The suddenness 
with which the force is developed renders 
nitro-glycerine unsuitable for ordnance. The 
very dangerous character of this material has 
led to various restrictions upon its transporta- 
tion. It continues to be used in many places, 
and is prepared on the spot as it is required. 
In the Hoosac tunnel, Massachusetts, the Uni- 
ted States works at Hallett's Point, New York, 
and at San Francisco, it was employed. Its 
insolubility in water and its liquid form and 
high gravity render it very convenient for sub- 
marine operations and blasting in wet ground. 
But its form brings a danger that portions of 
it, unexploded even in bore holes, may be scat- 
tered in rock fissures, or portions may be split 
accidentally, or may remain in vessels once 
filled, and afterward be exploded by accident. 
The proper way to get rid of it is to pour it 
into a running stream. To remove the great 
dangers connected with the preparation and 
transportation of this material, many proposi- 
tions have been made, principally for mixing 
the oil with some substance (wood spirit, sul- 
phate of zinc, lime or magnesia, &c.) which 
would render it inexplosive, and which could 
afterward be removed by simple means (e. g., 
by water) when the oil was to be used. None 
of these have come into use. "When congealed 
it has been thought more dangerous than when 
fluid ; but this view is now contradicted by 
many practical authorities. Certainly careless 
handling and thawing of frozen mtro-glycerine 
has caused much loss of life and property. 
Through the pores or in the stomach, even in 
small quantities, this oil causes a terrible head- 
ache and colic. Headache likewise results from 
inhaling the gases of its combustion ; but all 
persons are not alike affected by these ; and it 
is probable that most persons suffer little in- 
convenience from this cause when they have 
become accustomed to it. Nobel introduced 
in Swedish quarries the practice of soaking 
common gunpowder with nitro-glycerine be- 
fore blasting. The effect produced was very 
great ; but this method was soon superseded 
by the invention of dynamite or giant powder, 
also introduced by Nobel. Dynamite is finely 
pulverized silex, or silicious ashes, or infusorial 
earth (most frequently the last), saturated with 
about three times its weight of nitro-glycerine, 
and constituting a mass resembling damp Gra- 
ham flour. The pulverulent form prevents the 
transmission of ordinary sudden shocks, except 
under pressure in a confined space. The pres- 
sure of the inert mineral constituents serves 
also to absorb heat, so that a high temperature 
cannot be so easily imparted to the whole ; but 
when imparted, this temperature effects a great 
expansion of the gases and increased effective- 
ness of explosion. Ignited in the open air, dyna- 
mite burns quietly with nitrous fumes. Exploded 
(usually by means of a fulminating fuse or cap), 
it gives carbonic acid, nitrogen, and hydrogen, 

and leaves a white ash, with little or no smoke. 
Under favorable circumstances, the effective- 
ness of dynamite is equal or superior to that 
of nitro-glycerine ; a fact not surprising, if it 
be remembered that the latter is liable to scat- 
ter unexploded drops, by reason of the maxi- 
mum rapidity of its ignition. Dynamite is now 
generally recognized as the safest of all explo- 
sives. It is not affected by a prolonged tem- 
perature of 100 0., nor is it as dangerous as 
nitro-glycerine when it solidifies (at 8 0.). 
Neither light nor electricity nor ordinary shocks 
cause it to decompose or explode. The prin- 
cipal dangers connected with its use are those 
of the strong fulminating powders used in the 
percussion fuses to explode it. It is also pos- 
sible that if dynamite is carelessly made, it may 
contain an excess of nitro-glycerine, which, 
overcoming the capillary force of the mineral 
particles, may collect in drops and settle from 
the mass, becoming a source of serious accidents. 
Moreover, it may be that freezing, or thawing 
after freezing, has a tendency to segregate the 
oil. Dualline, introduced in 1869 by Lieut. 
Dittmar, is another nitro-glycerine powder, 
consisting probably (the exact composition is 
a secret) of Schultze's wood gunpowder, sat- 
urated with this oil. Another formula is, in 
100 parts, 50 of mtro-glycerine, 30 of fine saw- 
dust, and 20 of nitre. It has been considera- 
bly used in Germany and the United States. 
As compared with dynamite (which it resem- 
bles in many respects), it has the advantage 
that it can be exploded under confinement with 
an ordinary blasting fuse; that it does not 
congeal so easily as dynamite ; and that it is 
cheaper. As a disadvantage, Serlo mentions, 
that under some conditions it partially ex- 
plodes, partially burns, and in this case pro- 
duces noxious gases. Improved lithofracteur, 
or lithofracteur-dynamite, manufactured by 
Krebs at Deutz near Cologne, is supposed to 
be the former lithofracteur saturated with ni- 
tro-glycerine. Another formula is, in 100 
parts, 52 of nitro-glycerine, 30 of silex, 12 of 
stone coal, 4 of nitrate of soda, and 2 of sul- 
phur. This would be a mixture of dynamite 
with a very bad gunpowder. The safety and 
effectiveness of dynamite are claimed for this 
powder, with an additional advantage that 
it can be exploded at much lower temperature 
as low, according to some experiments, as 
12 C. Nobel has recently patented new 
nitro-glycerine powders, of different degrees 
of strength. The strongest consists of 68 parts 
nitrate of baryta and 12 parts rich bituminous 
coal, saturated with 12 parts nitro-glycerine. 
Nearly as powerful is a mixture of 70 parts 
nitrate of baryta, 10 parts resin, and 12 parts 
nitro-glycerine. The effect of each may be in- 
creased by adding 5 to 6 parts sulphur. They 
are exploded with percussion fuses. Dr. Jus- 
tus Fuchs, formerly in Nobel's employ, has 
proposed as an improvement on dynamite a 
compound containing 85 instead of 75 per cent, 
of nitro-glycerine, and instead of infusorial 



earth a chemically prepared substance, possess- 
ing greater absorbing power, and capable of 
complete combustion with almost no solid resi- 
due. The Colonia powder, manufactured in 
Cologne, is said to be a black gunpowder, with 
30 to 35 per cent, of nitro-glycerine. It is ex- 
ploded by artificial means only. Chlorate of 
Potassa Powders. The property of acids con- 
taining large proportions of oxygen to part with 
it readily is strongly shown by chloric acid, 
HClOs, in which the oxygen is very loosely held. 
The anhydric acid cannot be isolated ; but the 
salts (particularly of potassa and baryta) have 
been extensively employed in the manufacture 
of explosives, by mixing with combustible ma- 
terials. Even the heat of percussion or friction 
causes them when so mixed to detonate. A 
few centigrammes of chlorate of potassa rubbed 
in a mortar with sulphur or sulphide of anti- 
mony, will explode loudly and perhaps shatter 
the mortar. A chlorate should never be mixed 
by rubbing with a combustible substance. A 
mixture of chlorate of potassa with sugar, sul- 
phur, sulphide of antimony, or similar substan- 
ces, may be ignited by sunlight alone, or by a 
drop of sulphuric acid. On this principle were 
based the matches (now out of fashion) which 
were tipped with a mixture of chlorate of po- 
tassa and sugar, and were ignited by pressing 
them upon asbestus, saturated with sulphuric 
acid. During the French revolution, it was 
attempted to replace nitre in gunpowder with 
chlorate of potassa ; but the mixture was too 
explosive for artillery purposes. Berthollet's 
experiments at Essonne, in 1792, were stopped 
by a terrible explosion ; he had a narrow es- 
cape, and several were killed. A cane, striking 
powder on the floor, was the cause. Percus- 
sion caps were formerly filled with gunpowder 
out of which the nitre had been leached, and 
to which this chlorate had then been added. 
Sir William Armstrong uses a mixture of amor- 
phous phosphorus and chlorate of potassa as a 
percussion powder for discharging ordnance. 
A mixture of equal weights of black sulphide 
of antimony and chlorate of potassa is general- 
ly employed for this purpose. White gunpow- 
der, introduced in 1849 by Augendre, for bronze 
ordnance and shells, is composed of 28 parts 
yellow prussiate of potassa, 23 parts loaf sugar, 
and 49 parts chlorate of potassa. According 
to Wagner, the gaseous products of complete 
combustion should be 47'4 per cent., and the 
solid residue (cyanide and chloride of potassium 
and carburet of iron) 52-6 per cent. The gases 
from 100 grammes would amount, at C. and 
769 mm. barometric pressure, to 40,680 cubic 
centimetres ; and at 2604*5 0., the estimated 
temperature of combustion, to 431,162 cubic 
centimetres. The cost and corrosiveness of 
this powder have prevented its adoption. 
Blake's "safety explosive," patented hi Eng- 
land, consists of one part sulphur and two of 
chlorate of potash. These substances are kept 
dry and separate, and mixed when required. 
The powder burns slowly when ignited, but its 

explosion is effected by means of a detonating 
tube, containing the compound itself, fulmina- 
ting mercury, and ordinary powder. The last 
is ignited. A blasting powder is made at 
Plymouth, England, consisting of tan bark 
soaked in chlorate of potash and covered with 
powdered sulphur. It is said to burn slowly 
in the open air, but to explode with great en- 
ergy when confined. Explosive paper is pre- 
pared by impregnating paper with a mixture 
of 9 parts chlorate of potassa, 4 of nitre, 3 
of ferrocyanide of potassium, 3| of powdered 
charcoal, -^ of starch, yf-g- of chromate of po- 
tassa, and 80 of water which has been boiled 
about an hour. The paper, when dry, cannot 
be exploded by jar or percussion, or by a tem- 
perature less than that of its combustion. Ex- 
periments with it in Austria have given good 
results. Chloride of nitrogen is perhaps the 
most terrible explosive known to chemists. 
Dulong, who discovered it in 1812, and lost an 
eye and several fingers on the occasion, kept 
the discovery a secret, lest other chemists 
should repeat his perilous experiments. The 
unfortunate result was that Davy, who subse- 
quently made the same discovery, was also in- 
jured. It is sometimes unintentionally pro- 
duced in the treatment of ammoniacal solutions 
with chlorine. In such cases the chemist, hav- 
ing discovered its presence, quietly retires, 
locks the laboratory, and leaves the dreadful 
intruder to spontaneous and harmless decom- 
position, which takes place in the course of 
a day or two. Hypochloric acid, in gas or 
liquid form, is scarcely less dangerous. Pier ate 
of Potash Powders. Picric acid, obtained by 
the action of nitric acid upon carbolic acid, 
is a compound of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, 
and oxygen, the formula, as given in Wag- 
ner's "Technology," being C6H 3 (NO 2 ) 3 0. Its 
salts are explosive per se, and have been used 
in torpedoes. Their preparation has given 
rise to some frightful explosions; one at the 
Sorbonne, in 1869, killed five persons, and 
wounded many more. Dessignolle's powder 
for blasting is a mixture of picrate and nitrate 
of potassa, to which for a gunpowder charcoal 
is added. Sulphur is unnecessary. The ad- 
vantages claimed for it are the harmless charac- 
ter of the products of combustion (nitrogen, 
aqueous vapor, and carbonate of potash), and 
the control of its power by variation of the per- 
centage of the picrate. Ten grades are manu- 
factured, containing from 8 to 20 per cent, of 
this substance, the lowest being equal in effec- 
tiveness to common powder. Ammoniakrut 
is a new powder invented by the Swedish 
chemist Norrbin, and believed to resemble the 
foregoing, but to contain picrate of ammonia 
instead of potassa. It is black, doughy, and 
damp ; is ignited with difficulty by flame ; ex- 
plodes under percussion ; does not congeal at 
ordinary temperatures ; has an explosive ener- 
gy exceeding even that of dynamite; but is 
said to be liable to decomposition, to attract 
moisture and lose power when stored, and to 



be useless if once frozen. It leaves no solid 
residue. Fulminates. The compounds of cy- 
anogen comprise many highly explosive sub- 
stances, among which the fulminates, or salts of 
fulminic acid, are the most important. Fulrninic 
acid (Lat. fulmen, a thunderbolt) is, according 
to the most modern formula (Kekule's), a nitro- 
compound of the group C 4 ETsN (acetonitril), 
and hence called nitro-acetonitril. One of the 
hydrogen atoms is replaced with an atom of 
NO 4 , giving for the acid C 4 (NO 4 )H 2 N. In the 
salts the hydrogen is replaced with a metal ; 
thus the fulminate of silver is C 4 (NO 4 )Ag 2 N. 
This hypothesis explains the fact that the ful- 
minates react very differently from the cya- 
nates (mono-,di-, and tribasic), all of which have 
the same proportions of 0, ' N", and metallic 
base, but doubtless different atomic arrange- 
ments. Mercury fulminate (empirical formula, 
C 4 N 2 4 Hg 2 ) is prepared by dissolving at a 
moderate heat, in 12 parts of nitric acid of the 
specific gravity of 1'35, 1 part of mercury, and 
adding 11 parts of 90 to 92 per cent, alcohol. 
Liebig recommends a glass flask, the capacity 
of which is 18 times the volume of the mixture. 
In this the mercury is dissolved in cold acid, 
the nitrous fumes being retained in the flask. 
The solution is poured into a second vessel, 
containing one half the alcohol ; and the mix- 
ture is then returned into the first flask, where 
it reabsorbs the nitrous fumes. In a few mo- 
ments bubbles rise from the bottom, where a 
heavy liquid begins to be segregated. By gentle 
shaking this is mixed with the supernatant 
liquid, and a tempestuous ebullition takes place, 
with evolution of white fumes, and some ni- 
trous acid, the mass becoming black from segre- 
gated metal. The remainder of the alcohol is 
gradually added; the black color disappears, 
and the fulminate is deposited in sparkling 
brownish gray crystals. The vapors are chiefly 
carbonic acid and nitrous ether. Mercury ful- 
minate is scarcely soluble in cold water, but 
dissolves in 180 parts of boiling water, which 
gives a means of refining it by recrystallization. 
It explodes at 186 C., or under friction or 
percussion between hard substances. When 
moistened with 5 per cent, of water, only the 
portion actually struck explodes. In contact 
with a tightly packed explosive mixture, its 
detonation explodes the mixture more rapidly 
and completely than any other method of 
firing. Hence its universal employment in the 
manufacture of percussion caps and detonating 
fusees. According to the French method, one 
kilo of mercury gives 1 kilo of fulminate, 
sufficient for 40,000 caps. It is ground with 
30 per cent, of water under a wooden muller 
on a marble bed, and 6 parts gunpowder are 
added for every 10 of fulminate. The mixture 
dried, granulated, and sized. A drop of gum 
is introduced into each cap, and the fulminate 
powder is dropped upon it. Some caps are 
varnished, to make them water-proof. English 
fulminating powder consists of 3 parts mercury 
fulminate, 5 parts chlorate of potassa, 1 part 

sulphur, and 1 part powdered glass. Gum is 
sometimes added in the mixture. Nitre is also 
recommended. Samuel Guthrie of Sackett's 
Harbor, N. Y., whose extensive and perilous 
experiments are described in the " American 
Journal of Science " for January, 1832, found 
that 1 part oxide of tin with 3 parts mercury 
fulminate, ground together with a stiff solution 
of starch, made a very effective compound. 
During these experiments Mr. Guthrie dis- 
covered chloroform, as did French and German 
investigators at about the same time. Silver 
fulminate is more explosive and dangerous than 
the mercury salt. It may be made like the 
latter, using fine silver instead of mercury ; or 
by introducing finely pulverized nitrate of 
silver into concentrated alcohol, shaking it 
well, and adding an equal amount of fuming 
nitric acid ; or by treating freshly precipitated 
oxide of silver with ammonia. It is employed 
in the manufacture of explosive toys. Gold 
and platinum fulminates are similar compounds 
to the foregoing, but they are not employed in 
the arts. Fulminating aniline, or chromate of 
diazobenzole, obtained by the action of ni- 
trous acid upon aniline, and the precipitation 
of the product by the aid of a hydrochloric 
acid solution of bichromate of potassa, is, 
according to Caro and Griess, an efficient sub- 
stitute for fulminating mercury. General The- 
ory of Explosives. Explosive substances are 
said to u possess potential energy by virtue of 
certain unsatisfied affinities between the ele- 
ments of which they are compounded." In 
the act of explosion these affinities are satis- 
fied, and the potential energy becomes kinetic, 
taking first the form of heat, which is par- 
tially expended in giving elastic force to the 
new gaseous compounds generated. Perhaps 
this statement does not exactly cover cases 
like the chloride of nitrogen, which explodes 
by dissociation, leaving free chlorine and ni- 
trogen. The elastic force at any instant of an 
explosion and the total energy developed are 
two different things. The intensity of the 
force depends upon: 1, the amount of actual 
heat developed; 2, the volume which a unit 
of the mass of the products occupies at the 
instant ; 3, the specific heat of these products ; 
or, in other words, upon : 1, the volume of the 
products; 2, their temperature. The total 
energy is dependent upon: 1, the ratio be- 
tween final volume of products and original 
volume of explosive ; 2, the total actual heat 
of the explosion. The maximum intensity de- 
pends chiefly upon the rapidity with which the 
conversion of the explosive into gas takes place, 
and this depends on varying conditions, no ex- 
plosion being absolutely instantaneous. The 
primary condition is the rapidity with which 
the chemical reaction among the constituents 
takes place. Some, as nitrate and chlorate 
of potassa, require heat for their decomposi- 
tion; others are probably dissociated by the' 
vibrations produced by percussion or the ex- 
ploding spark, as nitro-glycerine and chloride 



of nitrogen. Some have so little stability that 
sound alone is sufficient to precipitate the ex- 
plosion, as iodide of nitrogen, which may he 
exploded by sounding a tuning fork of the 
proper pitch in its vicinity. When heat is re- 
quired, the rapidity of decomposition will de- 
pend also upon the rate of ignition throughout 
the m'ass. Thus in a charge of granular gun- 
powder, the flame from the vent passes be- 
tween the grains, progressively enveloping their 
surfaces, and through the pores of each into 
the mass, its progress being much hastened by 
the enormous tension produced when the ex- 
plosion is confined. Hence the rate of igni- 
tion (and consequently the intensity of the 
force at a given instant) may be varied by 
varying the size of pores and interstices in the 
mass; a fruitful field of experiment and im- 
provement, particularly in gunpowder. It is 
evident also that the tension is dependent upon 
the resistance to the expansion of the gases, 
and will rapidly increase unless the restraint 
is withdrawn in proportion to their progressive 
development. The increase of tension brings 
with it increased rapidity of ignition and 
decomposition, and this in 'turn augments 
the tension, which is thus a self-multiplying 
quantity. Restraint may be offered by an en- 
closing solid material, or by' the inertia of 
the gases themselves, and the surrounding air. 
If a block of compressed gun cotton is ignited 
in the open air by a flame of moderate tem- 
perature, it will often consume away very 
gradually ; but if ignited by an electric spark, 
or the impact of a bullet, it will explode with 
great violence ; the probable explanation being 
that in the former case the first ignition at 
lower temperature permitted the gases to ex- 
pand without producing a very high tension, 
this relation continuing to the end, while in 
the latter case the first ignition was violent, 
and the relief too slow to prevent a self-mul- 
tiplying tension. 

EXPONENT (Lat. expon&re, to manifest), in 
arithmetic and algebra, a small figure or letter, 
written to the right of and above a quantity or 
algebraic term, to show how often the quantity 
or term must be taken as a factor. Thus, 3 4 
(which is read " the fourth power of 3," 
or " 3, fourth power ") signifies that 3 is to be 
taken as a factor four times, or multiplied into 
itself three times, as follows: 3x39; 3x9 
=27 ; 3 x 27=81. In like manner (a + ~b) c sig- 
nifies that the sum of the numbers represented 
by a and & must be multiplied consecutively 
into itself as many times less one as there are 
units in c. (See ALGEBEA.) Exponential equa- 
tions and functions are those in which the ex- 
ponents contain unknown or variable quanti- 
ties; such as ?/=# z , in which a is the only 
known quantity. Exponential equations are 
usually reduced to logarithmic, and thus solved. 

EXPRESS, a messenger or conveyance sent 
on any special errand, particularly a courier 
despatched with important communications. 
In the United States the word is applied to a 

system organized for the transportation of mer- 
chandise or parcels of any kind. This system 
was originated March 4, 1839, when, agreeably 
to announcement published for several days 
in the newspapers, Mr. William F. Harn- 
den of Boston made a trip from that city to 
New York as a public messenger. His route 
was by the Boston and Providence railroad and 
the Long Island sound steamboat, which con- 
nected with that line. He had in charge a few 
booksellers' bundles and orders, and some bro- 
kers' parcels of New York and southern and 
western bank notes to deliver or exchange a 
service for which he charged an adequate com- 
pensation. Mr. Harnden proposed also to take 
the charge of freight, and attend to its early - 
delivery, for which purpose he had made a 
contract with the above named railroad and 
steamboat companies, and was to make four 
trips per week. The project recommended it- 
self to business men, especially those whose 
communications between the two cities were 
frequent. It was particularly acceptable to 
the press, to which Mr. Harnden made himself 
very useful in the voluntary transmission of 
the latest intelligence, in advance of the mail. 
A year later (1840) a competing express was 
started by P. B. Burke and Alvan Adams, the 
ownership and sole operation of which soon 
devolved upon the latter. In 1841 Mr. Adams 
associated with himself William B. Dinsmore 
of Boston as his partner, and gave him the 
charge of their New York office. Adams and 
co.'s express was carried by the Norwich and 
Worcester route. In 1840 D. Brigham, jr., 
Harnden's New York agent, became his part- 
ner, and soon after went to England, where he 
laid the foundation of Harnden and co.'s foreign 
business. He returned in 1841, and in that 
year their line was extended as far south as 
Philadelphia, and west to Albany. A year or 
two later Adams and co. established E. S. 
Sandford as their agent in Philadelphia, and 
he became a partner in their business there. 
He also became associated with S. M. Shoema- 
ker of Baltimore in an express from Philadel- 
phia to Washington, D. 0. About the same 
time Harnden and co.'s Boston, Springfield, 
and Albany express was purchased by Thomp- 
son and co., who gave it their name, which it 
still bears. About the same period Gay and 
co., afterward Gay and Kinsley, commenced 
what is now known as Kinsley and co.'s ex- 
press, running between New York and Boston, 
ma Newport and Fall River. The express 
lines from Albany to Buffalo, and thence to the 
remoter west, were established by Henry Wells. 
The first express west of Buffalo was com- 
menced in April, 1845, by Messrs. Wells, Far- 
go, and Dunning, under the style of Wells and 
co. It was disposed of two years afterward to 
William G. Fargo and William A. Livingston, 
who continued it, under the style of Living- 
ston and Fargo, till March 18, 1850, when it 
was consolidated with the expresses of Wells 
and co., and Butterfield, Wasson, and co. The 




express line last named had been created about 
a year previous by John Butterfield. These 
three concerns, when united, were called the 
"American Express Company." William F. 
Harnden, the founder of the express business, 
died in 1848, leaving little or no property. In 
the mean time numerous short express routes 
and local expresses had come into successful 
operation throughout New England. Messrs. 
Pullen, Virgil, and Stone, who by their effi- 
cient services had contributed largely to the 
success of Harnden's business in its infancy, 
aow started an express between New York 
and Montreal, and laid the foundation of the 
"National Express Company." Wells, Fargo, 
and co.'s California express was created in the 
city of New York in 1852. Adams and co.'s 
California express, established in 1849, was 
succeeded in 1855 by that of Freeman and co. 
In 1854 Adams and co., the Harnden express 
(then owned by Thompson and Livingston), 
Kinsley and co., and Hoey and co. were con- 
solidated in a joint stock institution, now fa- 
mous as the " Adams Express Company." The 
" United States Express Company " was com- 
menced in 1853. It runs a through express 
twice a day to Buffalo, over the New York 
and Erie railway, and thence to numerous 
western cities, towns, and stations. Between 
New York and Dunkirk, and at all the stations 
upon its route, the New York and Erie rail- 
way company does an express business which 
was first established by the regular express 
company last mentioned. The " Hope Express 
Company," the "New Jersey Express Com- 
pany," and the "Howard Express Company," 
established as joint-stock concerns since 1854, 
were founded upon successful individual enter- 
prises of some years' standing prior to that 
date. They serve every part of New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania. The " Eastern Express Com- 
pany" also is a union of several individual en- 
terprises, consolidated Jan. 1, 1857. Its prin- 
cipal office is in Boston, whence its lines diverge 
by various railroad and steamboat routes into 
Maine and New Hampshire. Fiske and co., 
and Cheney, Fiske, and co., are proprietors of 
expresses which have been very useful in Massa- 
chusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Mas- 
sachusetts is remarkable for the number of its 
expresses, the most of which have short routes, 
and are operated by individual enterprise ; 
238 run from the city of Boston alone. The 
"American-European Express and Exchange 
Company," created in New York, July 1, 1855, 
was founded upon the business of Livingston 
and Wells, and Edwards, Sandford, and co. 
It sends and receives an express by every regu- 
lar line of foreign steamships, and transacts 
business in London, Paris, and all the European 
cities. The principal companies which are at 
present (1874) doing business in the United 
States are the Adams express company, the 
American, the United States, Wells, Fargo, 
and co., the southern express company, the 
national express company, the New Jersey, the 

eastern, the United States and Canada, and the 
Texas. The railroads covered by the expresses 
are about 60,000 miles in length, but as they 
are traversed in both directions and often sev- 
eral times each day, it is estimated that the 
express messengers travel more than 300,000 
miles daily. The whole number of men em- 
ployed in the United States by all the expresses 
is over 18,000, the number of horses is about 
3,500, and the number of offices about 8,000. 
The amount of capital employed in the business 
is estimated as being not less than $25,000,000. 
The whole of this amount is not needed for the 
purpose of supplying material or for carrying 
on the business, and the larger part is held by 
the companies as a provision against any losses 
that may be sustained. The public in its deal- 
ings with the companies has therefore the pro- 
tection of a large guarantee capital in addition 
to the individual liability of the shareholders. 
Confidence is reposed in express companies to 
such an extent that in times of financial panic, 
when merchants and others have for the time 
lost confidence in their banks and bankers, they 
trust the express companies in their fiduciary 
capacity and make use of them for the purpose 
of making their remittances and collections. 
A peculiar feature in trade has grown out of 
express facilities, called the " Collect on deliv- 
ery business." Merchants whose wares are ad- 
vertised or known now receive orders from 
strange firms in distant parts of the country to 
send goods to them by express, to be paid for 
on delivery. The merchant fills the order and 
sends the goods with his bill addressed to the 
consignee, marked 0. O. D., and the amount 
to be collected, on the outside of the package. 
This is sent to its destination by the express 
company and tendered to the consignee, with 
the bill. Upon payment of the latter the goods 
are delivered to the new owner, and the money 
received is carried back to the consignor, who 
pays for the collection, while the consignee 
pays the freight on the package. The amount 
of business transacted in this way is very large 
and rapidly increasing. 

EXTRADITION, the delivering up of fugitiyes 
from justice by the authorities of one country 
or state to those of another. This subject may 
be considered under two heads, as it relates to 
the surrender of offenders to each other by the 
several states of the American Union, or to 
the like mutual surrender between sovereign 
UNION. This is provided for by the constitu- 
tion, art. IV. 2 of which declares that a person 
charged in any state with treason, felony, or 
other crime, who shall flee from justice and be 
found in another state, shall, on demand of the 
executive authority of the state from which he 
fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state 
having jurisdiction of the same. An act was 
passed by congress in 1793 to carry this provi- 
sion into effect, and to establish the like regula- 
tion for the territories ; and the several states 
have also statutes on the same subject. The 


general course under these statutes is the fol- 
lowing : The accused is either indicted in the 
state where the crime is alleged to have been 
committed, or he is charged with the offence 
before a magistrate, who, after examining into 
the case, and being satisfied by evidence that 
the charge is well founded, issues his warrant 
for the arrest. A copy of the indictment or 
warrant is then presented to the executive of 
that state, who will give a formal requisition 
upon the executive of the state to which the 
accused has fled for his surrender. The execu- 
tive upon whom the requisition is made, if the 
papers appear to be regular and sufficient, is- 
sues his warrant in compliance, directed to 
an officer or to the agent of the state making 
the requisition, which will be authority for 
the apprehension and removal of the accused. 
Some statutes authorize the supposed fugitive 
to be first complained of, examined, and com- 
mitted where he is found, to await a requisition 
from the proper executive. It is settled under 
the constitutional provision cited above that 
persons are liable to extradition under it who 
having committed offences in one state are 
found afterward in another, whether their go- 
ing to such other state was for the purpose 
of avoiding punishment or not ; but at is also 
settled that one cannot be extradited to a state 
where he is not alleged to have been when the 
crime was committed. Thus, when Smith, the 
Mormon prophet, was charged with having in 
Illinois been accessory to the attempt upon the 
life of Gov. Bogy in Missouri, it was decided 
that he could not be regarded as a fugitive, and 
consequently could not be surrendered. The 
most important controversy under this provi- 
sion has been as to the offences covered by it. 
It has been sometimes insisted that only those 
acts were to be considered crimes within its 
intent which were such at the common law, 
or at least which were punishable as crimes in 
the state upon which the demand was made ; 
and cases occurred in which governors in the 
free states refused to surrender persons who 
were accused in the slave states of offences 
against the slave code. The last of these cases 
arose in 1859-'60, when a demand was made 
upon the governor of Ohio by the governor of 
Kentucky for the surrender of one Lago, who 
was accused of the crime of seducing a slave 
to escape from her master. The demand was 
refused, on the ground that the act was not an 
offence known to the laws of Ohio. Applica- 
tion was then made to the supreme court of 
the United States for a mandamus to compel a 
surrender ; but that court, while declaring its 
opinion that the words "treason, felony, or 
other crime," as employed in the constitution, 
include every offence forbidden and made 
punishable by the laws of the state where the 
offence was committed, at the same time de- 
cided that the court had no power to compel 
the performance of executive duties by the 
governor of a state. Since the abolition of 
slavery, no similar controversy is likely to arise. 

As a general rule, one nation does not under- 
take to punish offences not committed within its 
territories, though the offender may be found 
there. Many publicists, however, have ex- 
pressed the view that nations owe to each 
other the obligation to surrender offenders who 
might have fled to them for an asylum ; but 
this obligation, if it exists, must be regarded 
as imperfect, and as requiring stipulations to 
determine the occasions in which it may arise, 
and the manner of its exercise. Accordingly, 
though the extradition of offenders has been 
practised by some countries on grounds of 
comity only, it is now customary to make the 
obligation one of compact, in which the respec- 
tive parties stipulate to what offences it shall 
apply, and what exceptions, if any, shall be 
made. There are two methods of making such 
compacts : one by legislation, where a country 
provides by its own laws that persons accused 
of offences abroad shall be subject to extradi- 
tion on condition of reciprocity ; the other by 
convention or treaty. The latter is the method 
usually adopted. In making such treaties it is 
customary to provide that they shall not apply 
to offences previously committed, or to those 
of a political character ; though independent 
of any such express stipulation such cases, we 
think, must be considered impliedly excepted. 
It is sometimes provided, also, that the con- 
tracting nations shall not be bound to surrender 
their own subjects, though this exception would 
not be likely to be insisted upon unless un- 
der very peculiar circumstances. The United 
States has taken the lead in diplomatic negotia- 
tions on this subject, and we now have treaties 
for the mutual rendition of persons accused of 
offences as follows: With Great Britain (in- 
cluding all its possessions): murder; assault 
with intent to commit murder ; piracy ; arson ; 
robbery; forgery or the utterance of forged 
paper. (Treaty of Aug. 9, 1842. This was an 
enlargement of Jay's treaty of 1V94, which 
provided for the mutual rendition of persons 
accused of murder and forgery.) With the 
Hawaiian Islands : the same offences specified 
in the treaty of 1842 with Great Britain. 
(Treaty of Dec. 29, 1849.) With France: 
murder, comprehending the crimes designated 
in the French penal code by the terms assas- 
sination, parricide, infanticide, and poisoning; 
attempt to commit murder ; rape ; forgery ; 
arson ; embezzlement by public officers, when 
the same is punishable with infamous punish- 
ment ; but this not to apply to offences pre- 
viously committed, nor to those of a purely 
political character. (Treaty of Nov. 9, 1843.) 
To the above have been added robbery and 
burglary (treaty of Feb. 25, 1845) ; forging or 
knowingly passing or putting in circulation 
counterfeit coin or bank notes or other paper 
current as money with intent to defraud; 
embezzlement when subject to infamous pun 
ishment ; and the case of accessories and ac- 
complices, as well as principals, is included 


(treaty of Feb. 10, 1858). With Prussia and 
the other states of the late North German 
Confederation : murder ; assault with intent to 
murder ; piracy ; arson ; robbery ; forgery or 
the utterance of forged papers ; the fabrica- 
tion or circulation of counterfeit money, or the 
embezzlement of public moneys. (Treaty with 
Prussia of June 16, 1852, extended to all the 
states of the North German Confederation, 
Feb. 22, 1868. Similar treaties were made 
with Bavaria, Sept. 12, 1853 ; with Hanover, 
Jan. 18, 1855; and with Baden, Jan. 30, 1857.) 
With the Swiss Confederation: murder, in- 
cluding assassination, parricide, infanticide, 
and poisoning; attempt to commit murder; 
rape ; forgery or the emission of forged papers ; 
arson ; robbery with violence, intimidation, or 
forcible entry of an inhabited house ; piracy ; 
embezzlement by public officers, or by persons 
hired or salaried, to the detriment of their 
employers, where these crimes are subject to 
infamous punishment. This not to apply to 
offences previously committed, or to those of a 
political character. (Treaty of Nov. 25, 1850.) 
With Venezuela : the offences specified in the 
treaty with the Swiss Confederation, with the 
addition of the counterfeiting of money, and 
with the like exception. (Treaty of Sept. 25, 
1861.) With the Dominican Kepublic : the 
offences specified in the treaty with Venezuela. 
(Treaty of Feb. 8, 1867.) With Sweden and 
Norway : murder, including assassination, par- 
ricide, infanticide, and poisoning; attempt to 
commit murder ; rape ; piracy, including mu- 
tiny on board a ship whenever the crew or 
part thereof, by fraud or violence against the 
commander, have taken possession of the ves- 
sel; arson; robbery; burglary; forgery, and 
the fabrication or circulation of counterfeit 
money, whether coin or paper money; em- 
bezzlement by public officers, including ap- 
propriation of public funds. This not to apply 
to offences of a political character, or to any 
person who by its laws is a citizen or subject 
of the country on which the demand is made ; 
and where the person demanded is charged 
with a new offence in the country in which 
he has sought an asylum, he is not to be de- 
livered up until tried and acquitted or punished. 
(Treaty of March 21, 1860.) With Italy : mur- 
der, including parricide, assassination, poison- 
ing, and infanticide ; attempt to commit murder ; 
rape ; arson ; piracy, and mutiny on board a 
ship, whenever the crew or a part thereof, by 
fraud or violence against the commander, have 
taken possession of the vessel ; burglary ; rob- 
bery ; forgery and counterfeiting, and the ut- 
tering of forged or counterfeit papers, coin, or 
paper money ; embezzlement of public moneys 
by public officers or depositaries, and embezzle- 
ment by persons hired or salaried to the detri- 
ment of their employers when subject to in- 
famous punishment according to the laws of 
the United States, and to criminal punishment 
according to the laws of Italy. (Treaties of 
March 23, 1868, and Jan. 21, 1869.) With 

Nicaragua : the same offences specified in the 
treaties with Italy. (Treaty of June 25, 1870.) 
With Austria : murder, assault with intent to 
murder ; piracy ; arson ; robbery ; forgery ; 
fabrication or circulation of counterfeit money, 
whether coin or paper money ; embezzlement 
of the public moneys. This not to apply to 
offences previously committed, or to offences 
of a political character, and neither to be 
bound to surrender its own citizens or subjects ; 
and one accused of a new offence in the coun- 
try to which he has fled, not to be surrendered 
until tried therefor and acquitted or punished. 
(Treaty of July 3, 1856.) With Mexico : mur- 
der, including assassination, parricide, infanti- 
cide, and poisoning; assault with intent to 
murder ; mutilation ; piracy ; arson ; rape ; 
kidnapping, defining the same to be the taking 
and carrying away of a free person by force or 
deception ; forgery, including the forging or 
making or knowingly passing or putting in 
circulation of counterfeit coin, or bank notes 
or other paper current as money; embezzle- 
ment of public moneys ; robbery ; burglary and 
larceny of cattle or other goods or chattels 
of the value of $25 or more, when committed 
in the frontier states or territories of the re- 
spective countries. This not to apply to offen- 
ces of a political character, or to persons held 
as slaves when the offence is charged to have 
been committed, or to crimes previously com- 
mitted; and neither party to be obliged to 
deliver up its own citizens. (Treaty of Dec. 
11, 1861.) With Hayti: murder, including 
assassination, parricide, infanticide, and poison- 
ing ; attempt to commit murder ; piracy ; rape ; 
forging and the counterfeiting of money, and 
the utterance of forged paper; arson; rob- 
bery; embezzlement by public officers or by 
persons hired or salaried, to the detriment of 
their employers, when these crimes are subject 
to infamous punishment. This not to apply to 
previous offences, or to citizens of the country 
on which the demand is made. (Treaty of 
Nov. 3, 1864.) Besides these, there are con- 
ventions for the mutual return of deserters 
from ships, and treaties under which various 
Indian tribes bind themselves to surrender of- 
fenders to the United States ; and the Creeks 
and Seminoles and the United States agree to 
a mutual surrender of offenders against their 
respective laws. The several treaties with 
foreign countries require that, when requisi- 
tion is made for an offender, before the sur- 
render for extradition a judicial examination 
should be had, and that the surrender should 
only be made on such evidence of criminality 
as would justify the apprehension of the per- 
son and his commitment for trial where he 
is found if the offence had been there commit- 
ted. By acts of congress passed to give effect 
to the treaties, the hearing is to be had before 
a federal judge or commissioner, or before a 
judge of a state court, who, if he finds the 
proper case established, will certify the fact 
with the evidence to the secretary of state, 




that an executive, warrant may issue for the 
surrender to the authorized agent of the foreign 
government. The surrender cannot be made 
until the judicial determination shall be had. 
In the well known case of Jonathan Bobbins, 
arising under Jay's treaty, the president, while 
the case was pending before a judge, interfered 
with his advice and request that the accused 
should be delivered up, which was done ac- 
cordingly ; but this raised in the country such 
an outcry, and tended so strongly to the pre- 
judice of the administration, that the like 
interference with judicial action is not likely 
again to occur. Nevertheless, the action of 
the judge is not conclusive on the executive ; 
the one acting for the protection of individual 
right, while the other is to judge of the inter- 
national obligation. While the executive can- 
not order the extradition until it is judicially 
determined that a prima facie case of guilt is 
shown, he is not, on the other hand, compelled 
to issue the warrant of extradition in com- 
pliance with the finding of the judge-, if in his 
opinion the case is not within the treaty under 
which the proceeding is assumed to be taken. 
Thus, in the noted case of Karl Voght (1873), 
who was first demanded by Belgium for an 
offence committed in that kingdom, but whose 
extradition was refused on the ground that we 
had no treaty oc the subject with that country, 
and who was subsequently demanded for the 
same offence by Prussia on the ground of being 
amenable to its laws as a Prussian subject, the 
president, on the opinion of the attorney gen- 
eral that the case was not covered by treaty, 
refused to issue his warrant of extradition, not- 
withstanding that the district judge before whom 
he had been brought had determined that a 
case was made out, and had given the proper 
certificate. In this the president followed the 
judicial decisions in England. The several 
states, not being at liberty under the constitu- 
tion to form, treaties or conventions with for- 
eign powers, cannot surrender accused persons 
to those powers. Great Britain has treaties 
of extradition, besides that with the United 
States, with France, Denmark, Germany, Bel- 
gium, Italy, and Austria (1874). The first, dated 
Feb. 3, 1843, only 'embraces murder (including 
assassination, parricide, infanticide, and poison- 
ing), attempt to murder, forgery, and fraud- 
ulent bankruptcy. That first made with Den- 
mark included only the same four offences, but 
is now greatly enlarged, and, like those with 
Italy and Belgium, corresponds in comprehen- 
siveness to the treaty with Germany of 1872. 
The offences specified in that are : murder ; 
attempt to murder ; manslaughter ; counterfeit- 
ing or altering money, or uttering the same ; 
forgery or the uttering of forged papers, bank 
notes, or paper money; embezzlement; lar- 
ceny ; obtaining money or goods by false pre- 
tences; crimes against the bankrupt laws; 
fraud by a bailee, banker, agent, factor, trus- 
tee, director, member, or public officer of any 
company when made criminal ; rape ; abduc- 

tion ; child stealing ; burglary or housebreak- 
ing; arson; robbery; threats by letter or 
otherwise with intent to extort; sinking or 
destroying a vessel at sea, or attempting to do 
so ; assaults on board a ship on the high seas, 
with intent to destroy life or to do grievous 
bodily harm ; revolt or conspiracy to revolt 
on board a ship on the high seas against 
the authority of the master. Extradition 
may take place for participation in any of the 
crimes specified, provided such participation be 
punishable by the law of both countries. By 
statute 33 and 34 Victoria, c. 52, contempla- 
ting further treaties of the same nature, it is 
provided that effect may be given to any such 
treaty by mere order in council, and without 
special parliamentary sanction, which other- 
wise would have been necessary. Most of the 
European treaties of extradition are very re- 
cent, and they are likely soon to be adopted 
among all Christian nations. 

EXTREME OiCTION, a sacrament of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and of the Greek and 
other eastern churches, administered for the 
spiritual and bodily relief of the sick. The 
Greeks call it the " oil of prayer." The Scrip- 
tural authority on which this rite is founded is 
taken from St. James v. 14, 15. In the Latin 
church it is called extreme or "last " unction, 
because, unlike the unctions of baptism, con- 
firmation, and holy orders, this is reserved for 
the last hour. The effects of this sacrament 
are held to be the following : spiritual strength 
to overcome the enemies of salvation in the 
final struggle of the dying hour, and patience 
to support the pains and discomforts of illness ; 
the indirect forgiveness of all mortal sins of 
which the sufferer may be unconscious, and 
the direct remission of venial sins ; the removal 
of the weakness of the spiritual faculties caused 
by the habits of sin ; and restoration to health 
when it is for the welfare of the patient. The 
sacrament is administered by the priest, who 
anoints with consecrated oil the eyes, ears, 
nostrils, mouth, hands, and feet of the sick 
person, praying at each unction that the Lord 
by his mercy and through that unction will 
remit the sins committed through each sense. 
The various eastern churches, Greek, Ar- 
menian, Coptic, and Nestorian, agree with the 
Latins in regarding this as one of the seven 
sacraments instituted by Christ ; but' they differ 
in that they do not reserve its use for the sick 
in danger of death. Moreover, in the Greek 
church it is sometimes administered by as 
many as seven priests at the same time, but 
ordinarily by two. The Greek form of words 
does not substantially differ from that employed 
by the Latins. 


EYCK, Van, the name of three painters, two 
brothers and a sister, regarded as the founders 
of the Flemish school, probably the children 
of Josse van Eyck, a painter, and born at Eyck 
(now Alden Eyck), a village in the bishopric 
of Liege, near Maaseyck, on the Maas. L 



, born in 1366, died in Ghent, Sept. 
18, 1426. After having resided for some time 
in Bruges, he removed with his brother to 
Ghent, where he was employed with him upon 
an altarpiece for the church of St. Bavon. He 
died before its completion, and was buried in 
that church. II. Jan van (often called Jan van 
Brugge), born about 1390, died in Bruges in 
1440 or 1441. Much difference of opinion has 
prevailed in regard to the precise date of his 
birth, and as to which of the two brothers 
was the greater painter ; but it would seem to 
be sufficiently well established that Jan was 
much younger than Hubert, and was instructed 
by him. Their most celebrated work was the 
altarpiece in the church of St. Bavon. It was 
about 14 ft. wide and 12 ft. high, and con- 
tained 12 pictures, painted upon folding doors 
or screens, representing the adoration of the 
mystical lamb, other pictures being painted 
upon the reverse of some of the doors. When 
the French obtained possession of Belgium, 
Napoleon caused the doors to be carried to 
Paris, whence they were removed in 1815. 
The four central divisions were restored to 
Ghent, and are now in the church of St. Ba- 
von ; the six most important of the doors were 
taken to Berlin, and form one of the finest or- 
naments of the royal museum ; and two of the 
doors are in the museum at Brussels. A fine 
copy of the whole altarpiece was made by 
Michael Coxcie for Philip II. of Spain, part of 
which is in the Berlin museum, part in the 
Pinakothek at Munich, and part in the church 
of St. Bavon at Ghent. The brothers made 
such great improvements in the art of oil 
painting that its invention has been often, 
though erroneously, ascribed to them. The 
mixture of oils and gums which they used as 
the vehicle for their pigments was so excellent 
that the colors of their great work still retain 
a wonderful freshness. They discarded the 
artificial style of their predecessors, and en- 
deavored to reproduce the outlines and hues 
of nature. Although Jan adhered in his early 
efforts to the flat gold background which had 
before been customary, he afterward adopted 
a more natural grouping for his figures and 
natural scenes for a background. The exam- 
ple of the brothers exerted a great influence 
upon the painters of Germany, Italy, and 
Spain, and contributed to the emancipation of 
art from conventional traditions. Jan was the 
court painter of Philip the Good, duke of Bur- 
gundy, and in 1428, while the painting of the 
altarpiece was in progress, accompanied the 
embassy which was sent by him to Lisbon to 
sue for the hand of the daughter of King John 
I. of Portugal. After the completion of the 
altarpiece in 1432, he returned to Bruges, and 
little is known of his subsequent life. III. 
Margaret van, died about 1430. She remained 
unmarried in order that she might devote her- 
self to painting in connection with her broth- 
ers. There is in London a fine picture by 
her, in three parts, of the Madonna and child. 

See "Waagen, Ueber Hubert und Jan van EycTc 
(Breslau, 1822), and " Early Flemish Painters," 
by Crowe and Cavalcaselle (London, 1856). 

EYE, the organ of the special sense of vision, 
lodged in man in a cavity on each side of the 
upper portion of the face, called the orbit. 
The orbits have the form of a quadrangular 
pyramid of which the base is in front and the 
summit behind ; their direction is horizontal, 
and their axes, directed backward and inward, 
would cross at or near the sella tursica of the 
sphenoid bone in the cranial cavity. They 
have four triangular surfaces, the upper formed 
by the orbital plate of the frontal and the 
lesser wing of the sphenoid bone ; the lower 
by the palate behind, the upper maxillary in 
the middle, and the malar in front; the ex- 
ternal by the sphenoid behind and the malar 
in front ; the internal by the sphenoid behind, 
the ethmoid in the middle, and the lachrymal 
bone in front. The cavity has at its upper ex- 
ternal portion a depression for the gland which 
secretes the tears, at its inner portion the 
commencement of the bony passage to the 
nose ; at the summit is the round opening for 
the entrance of the optic nerve, the union of 
the sphenoidal, spheno-maxillary, and ptery go- 
maxillary fissures, and the commencement of 
the suborbital canal. Besides these bony en- 
closing cavities, the eyes are protected from 
dust and foreign bodies by the hairs of the eye- 
brows' above, and in front by the movable lids, 





FIG. 1. Horizontal Section of the Eyeball. 
Scl., sclerotic coat ; On., cornea; R., attachments of the ten- 
dons of the recti muscles ; Ch., choroid ; C.p., ciliary pro- 
cesses; (, ciliary muscle; Jr., iris; Aq., aqueous hu- 
mor; Cry., crystalline lens; Vt., vitreous humor; Rt., 
retina ; Op., optic nerve ; M.I., the yellow spot. The sec- 
tion has passed through a ciliary process on the left side, 
and between two ciliary processes on the right. 

fringed with the eyelashes. The globe of the 
eye is of a generally spherical shape, the ante- 
rior fifth being the segment of a circle smaller 
than that of the rest of the organ ; the antero- 
posterior diameter, greater than the transverse, 
is 10 or 11 lines ; differing from the axes of the 


orbits, the axes of the eyes are parallel. In 
front, the globe of the eye is in relation with the 
reflection of the mucous membrane of the lids ; 
behind and all around, with the muscles, vessels, 
nerves, and a cushion of soft fat. The eye is com- 
posed of membranes and humors. Of the mem- 
branes of the eye, the cornea has already been 
described under its own title ; the others are 
the sclerotic, choroid, ciliary processes, iris, 
and retina. The sclerotic is the external mem- 
brane, forming the posterior four fifths, the an- 
terior fifth being formed by the cornea ; it is 
white, firm, and resisting, opaque, thick, and 
composed of interlaced fibres. Beneath the 
sclerotic is the choroid, composed of small ar- 
teries and veins united by delicate areolar tis- 
- sue ; it extends from the entrance of the optic 
nerve forward to the ciliary circle; both its 
surfaces are covered with a dark pigment, which 
gives the deep color seen in the interior of the 
eye. The ciliary circle or ligament is a grayish 
ring, a line or two wide, united by its larger 
circumference to the choroid, and by its lesser 
to the iris ; the ciliary processes are membra- 
nous folds, 60 to 80 in number, extending from 
the choroid to the neighborhood of the opening 
of the pupil ; they form by their union a ring 
behind the iris and in front ofthe vitreous hu- 
mor, surrounding the crystalline lens like a 
crown. At a short distance behind the cornea 
is the circular, vertical, membranous curtain, 
the iris, pierced in the middle by the pupil ; 
this curtain hangs in the aqueous humor, sepa- 
rating it into the anterior and posterior cham- 
bers of the eye ; it presents anteriorly a great 
number of radiations converging toward the 
pupil, the muscular fibres for the dilatation of 
this opening, and is variously colored in differ- 
ent individuals; the posterior surface has a 
number of circular fibres for contracting the 
pupil, and is covered with a thick dark pig- 
ment layer called uvea ; both surfaces are lined 
with the delicate membrane of the aqueous hu- 
mor; the greater circumference is connected 
with the ciliary ligament and processes; its 
movements are doubtless partly owing to its 
erectile and vascular tissue. Beneath the cho- 
roid is the retina, a thin soft expansion of the 
optic nerve, surrounding the vitreous humor 
and extending forward as far as the ciliary pro- 
cesses and crystalline lens ; about two lines to 
the outside of the tubercle of the nerve it pre- 
sents a circular dark spot and a small perfora- 
tion discovered by Sommering. The retina is 
the immediate organ of vision, which receives 
the rays of light and transmits the visual im- 
pressions by the optic nerve to the sensorium. 
Of the humors of the eye, the crystalline lens 
has been described under that head ; the others 
are the aqueous and vitreous humors. The 
aqueous humor is a limpid transparent fluid, 
varying in quantity from four to six grains, oc- 
cupying the space in front of the lens which 
is divided into anterior and posterior chambers 
by the iris ; it contains in solution a little albu- 
men and the salts usually found in such secre- 

tions; when lost by accident or in the opera- 
tion for cataract by extraction, it is speedily 
formed again. The vitreous humor occupies 
the posterior three fourths of the globe of the 
eye, having the lens encased in its anterior 
portion ; it consists of a transparent, gelatinous 
fluid enclosed in a great number of cells formed 
by the partitions of the hyaloid membrane, 
communicating with each other; in the ope- 
ration for cataract by depression the lens is 
pushed backward and downward into this hu- 
mor. The optic nerves are the second pair of 
cerebral nerves. The globe of the eye is moved 
by six muscles arising from the contour of the 
optic foramen and its vicinity, and attached to 
the sclerotic coat ; of these muscles four are 
straight, called the external, internal, superior, 
and inferior recti muscles, moving the eye re- 
spectively outward, inward, upward, and down- 

FIG. 2. Muscles of the Eyeball viewed from above and from 
the inner side. 

S. JR., superior rectus; Inf. fi., inferior rectus; J. JR., exter- 
nal rectus ; In. R., internal rectus ; S. ob., superior oblique ; 
Inf. ob., inferior oblique ; Ch., cbiasma of the optic nerves 
(77.) ; 777., the third nerve, which supplies all the muscles 
except the superior oblique and the external rectus. 

ward. The first two muscles are often perma- 
nently contracted, producing divergent or con- 
vergent strabismus, a deformity curable by the 
division of the contracted muscles, a simple 
and comparatively painless and bloodless op- 
eration; the superior oblique muscle passes 
through a pulley in the inner portion of the 
orbital process of the frontal bone, from which 
it extends to the posterior and external part 
of the globe, rotating the organ inward and 
forward; the inferior oblique passes from the 
internal and anterior part of the floor of the 
orbit to the external and posterior surface of 
the globe, rotating the eye outward and up- 
ward. The conjunctiva, the mucous mem- 
brane of the eye, is reflected from the lids and 
covers the anterior portion of the globe ; it is 
in this membrane that the redness and swelling 
of ordinary ophthalmia have their seat. The eye 
is frequently destroyed by accident or disease ; 
in cases of removal of the organ artificial eyes 
are used to remedy the deformity ; these are 
made of glass and enamel, and when having 
the natural size, shape, coloration of iris, form 
of pupil, projection of cornea, tint of sclerotic, 
and vascularity, it is often very difficult to de 
tect the real from the artificial organ, especially 



when the accurate fitting of the latter allows 
it to be moved by the muscles acting in sym- 
pathy with the sound eye. Without here treat- 
ing of the laws of refraction, of the aberration 
of sphericity, and of other optical principles 
involved in vision, it will be sufficient to say 
that the raya from an object are first modified 
by the convex cornea, pass across the aqueous 
humor through the pupil-opening of the iris, 
thence through the dense crystalline lens and 
the vitreous humor, and are by these media of 
different densities and shapes converged at the 
proper focal distance on the retina. All rays 
beyond those necessary for perfect vision are 
absorbed by the pigment layer of the choroid, 
which answers the purpose of the black inte- 
rior of optical instruments; the iris, like the 
telescopic diaphragm, shuts off the rays from 
the circumference of the lens, thus correcting 
the aberration of sphericity, contracting or 
dilating the pupil according to the brilliancy or 
dimness of the illumination of the object, or its 
distance from the eye ; it is well known that 
the pupil of a cat in a bright light becomes 
diminished to a vertical slit. As the rays are 
crossed in the lens, an inverted image is formed 
on tho retina, though the mental perception is 
of an erect image. Not only spherical but 

FIG. 3. Illustration of the change in the form of the lens 
when adjusted a to distant, b to near objects. 

chromatic aberration is corrected sufficiently 
for all practical purposes in healthy eyes by the 
different refractive powers of the media and 
by the different curves of their surfaces, so that 
the image on the retina is well defined and free 
from false colors. The power by which the 
eye adapts itself instantly to variations in the 
distance of objects depends upon a change in 
the curvatures of the crystalline lens, this body 
becoming more convex, and consequently more 
highly refractive, in vision for near objects, less 
so in vision for remote objects. The physiolo- 
gy and defects of vision will be more properly 
treated in the article VISION ; for recent obser- 
vations by Kolliker on the structure of the dif- 
ferent layers of the retina, the reader is re- 
ferred to the works of Dr. Carpenter on the 
principles of human and comparative physiol- 
ogy. The pupil is diminished by the action 

>f muscles deriving their nervous influence 
from the third pair, but is dilated through the 
influence of the cervical portion of the sympa- 
thetic nerve. The movements of the eyeballs, 

whenever voluntary, are always harmonious, 
but not necessarily symmetrical ; though one 
cannot be elevated and the other depressed at 
the same time, one may be turned outward 
311 VOL. vii. 4 

and the other inward when the axes of the 
eyes are turned toward an object on either side 
of the head. The muscles of the eyeball are 
moved principally through the third pair of 
nerves, the motores oculorum, but the superior 
oblique has a special nerve, the fourth pair, 
and the external recti the sixth pair ; the sen- 
sibility of the eye is derived from the ophthal- 
mic branch of the fifth pair; by the ophthal- 
mic or ciliary ganglion the sensory branches 
of the fifth pair, the motor branches of the 
third pair, and the sympathetic filaments are 
united together. The vascular supply of the 
globe of the eye is derived from the ophthalmic 
branch of the internal carotid artery. The 
complicated eye of the mammal and bird be- 
comes more simple in reptiles and fishes, losing 
the eyelids, and in the articulates generally 
losing all that is anterior to the vertebrate 
crystalline lens, as well as mobility, the latter 
loss being supplied by the multiplication of the 
organs or facets. The mammalian eye is con- 
structed to suit the circumstances of the life 
of the animal ; of large size in ruminants and 
rodents, it is small in moles, bats, and ceta- 
ceans, and in the latter flattened anteriorly as 
in fishes. The eyes are generally placed later- 
ally, but in the nocturnal species they are di- 
rected forward as in man ; the lachrymal ca- 
runcle at the inner angle has in man only a 
rudiment of a nictitating membrane, which is 
more developed in some mammals, but re- 
markably in birds ; the sclerotic is thicker in 
animals whose eyes vary much from a sphere, 
especially posteriorly, this membrane in a 
whale with an eye of the size of an orange 
being an inch thick behind ; the choroid, dark 
in man, in the carnivora, ruminants, and other 
orders, reflects vivid metallic colors, remark- 
ably brilliant at night, from the depth of the 
organ. In animals and man destitute of the 
usual coloring matter of the surface, or in albi- 
nos, the iris is pink, from the color of the blood 
circulating in its vessels; during foetal life, 
until the end of the seventh month, the pupil 
is closed by a membrane. The foramen of 
Sommering is said not to exist in any mam- 
mals below the quadrumana; the tear gland 
is found in all except cetacea. In birds the 
sclerotic becomes more or less strengthened 
by cartilage, and in the neighborhood of the 
cornea is provided with a series of bony plates, 
arranged in a circle, and overlapping each 
other ; but the chief peculiarity consists in the 
pecten, folded like a comb or fan, and projected 
forward toward the lens ; it is vascular like 
the choroid, though not connected with it, and 
is dark with pigment ; its use is not satisfac- 
torily ascertained. Many species of reptiles 
have osseous pieces in the sclerotic ; snakes 
have no movable lids; the chameleon has a 
single circular lid. In fishes the eyes are gen- 
erally large, the sclerotic thick, and in some 
(as the tunny) osseous anteriorly; they have 
neither lids, except the most rudimentary, nor 
lachrymal glands ; the cornea is very flat, and 



the lens dense ; around the entrance of the 
optic nerve there is a very vascular, horse- 
shoe-shaped organ, between the layers of the 
choroid, called the choroid gland or muscle. 
The organs of vision in insects consist of sim- 
ple or of compound eyes, the former occurring 
chiefly in larvee, the latter in perfect insects ; 
they are wholly absent in some larvae, and 
both forms coexist in the perfect state of many. 
The simple eyes (ocelli or stemmata) consist 
of a convex cornea, behind which is a lens, 
lodged in an expansion of the optic nerve, and 
surrounded by a variously colored pigment 
layer ; they vary in number from two to more 
than 100, and are situated on the head. The 
compound eyes are made up of simple eyes so 
closely placed that their facets or cornesB are 
contiguous ; behind each cornea is a transpa- 
rent pyramid whose interior apex is received 
into a kind of vitreous body, surrounded by the 
nerve and the choroid; there are sometimes 
many thousand facets in these eyes, which 
may cover nearly the whole head, and hairs 
may project at their angles. In the arachnids 
the eyes are simple, and the orders have been 
characterized by their number, situation, and 
direction ; they are most numerous in the 
scorpions. The sense of sight is present in 
almost all Crustacea ; their simple eyes consist 
of a cornea with a lens and pigment layer ; a 
usual form is that of many simple eyes, placed 
close together, and covered by a common cor- 
nea; sometimes there is a faceted cornea un- 
der the simple one; the highest forms have 
compound faceted eyes, in many situated at 
or near the end of two peduncles movably ar- 
ticulated to the cephalo-thorax and concealed 
in special fossae ; these facets are very numer- 
ous, and behind each is the usual lens and pig- 
ment. The eyes of cephalopods are very large 
and highly developed, resembling in some re- 
spects the vertebrate organ ; there is generally 
an ocular bulb, and a capsule constituted by a 
cartilaginous orbit and a fibrous continuation 
of the cutaneous envelope, which takes the 
place of a cornea ; semi-lunar folds containing 
muscular fibres cover the eye like lids ; in 
front of the globe is a space analogous to an 
anterior chamber, containing a serous fluid, 
and in the octopods communicating external- 
ly ; internally this chamber is closed by a kind 
of pupil; its serous membrane has a silvery 
lustre; in. some species the lens is in direct 
contact with the water in which they swim ; 
there is an iris, sclerotic, vitreous liquid, a 
spherical brownish lens formed of concentric 
layers, a ciliary body, and pigment layer ; in 
the nautilus the eyes are placed on a project- 
ing stalk, but in others are generally deeply 
sunk in the head. In the cephalophora (in- 
cluding pteropoda, heteropoda, and gasteropo- 
dous mollusks) eyes are generally present, 
never more than two in number and compara- 
tively small ; they are almost always connected 
with the tentacles, either at their base, sides, 
or extremities. In acephalous mollusks eyes 

are very common and numerous, occupying 
the borders of the mantle or confined to the 
orifices of the tubes, and are either peduncu- 
lated or sessile. In the annelids the eyes are 
generally either wanting entirely, or are mere- 
ly able to distinguish light from darkness ; but 
the leeches have 1 from two to ten undoubted 
eyes. In the helminths there appear to be no 
eyes, only pigment spots containing no light- 
refracting body. Below these are found in 
the radiata various eye specks and pigment dots 
which doubtless in some cases are true eyes, 
but authors are not yet agreed as to the light- 
refracting powers of most of these organs. 
The eye of the blind fish of the Mammoth 
cave, Kentucky, though unable to form a dis- 
tinct image, can doubtless distinguish light 
from darkness through the areolar tissue and 
skin which cover it ; Prof. J. "Wyman has 
found in it a lens, sclerotic, choroid, retina, 
and optic nerve, and it is therefore constructed 
on the vertebrate plan, rather than the inverte- 
brate to which it has generally been compared ; 
the parts in connection with the nervous sys- 
tem are developed, while those which are 
formed by inversion of the integuments are 
mostly absent ; some authors are of opinion 
that the stimulus of light for several genera- 
tions would retransform this eye into an or- 
dinary organ of vision. 

EYE STONE, the operculum or calcareous 
mouthpiece of certain species of small univalve 
shells. The stony-like substance, one third of 
an inch or less in its largest dimensions, pre- 
sents a form like that of a turtle, a convex sur- 
face upon a plane base ; and being placed on a 
smooth plate in a weak acid, as lemon juice, 
the evolution of carbonic acid gas from the 
carbonate of lime of which it is composed 
lifts it up and causes the stone to move about 
as if alive. A similar effect resulting from 
chemical decomposition is sometimes observed 
in animal bodies ; and loaves of bread, Hum- 
boldt remarks, have been observed to move in 
like manner in the oven, whence the ovens 
have been called enchanted. He found the 
little opercula, called piedras de los ojos, or 
eye stones, regarded as great mysteries by the 
inhabitants of the coast of Venezuela near Cu- 
mand. They collected them in great quanti- 
ties on the beach at Cape Araya, and made 
use of them to extract dust or any foreign 
substance from the eye, a purpose for which 
they are still collected and exported, and are 
kept by druggists. Being introduced under 
the lid of the eye, the stone moves about by 
the motion of the organ, and any little parti- 
cles it comes in contact with adhere to it and 
are finally removed with it. 

EYLAU, or Eilau, a town of Prussia, province 
of East Prussia, in the district and 22 m. S. S. E. 
of the city of Konigsberg ; pop. in 1871, 3,V23. 
It is situated on the Pasmar, a small tributary 
of the Alle, contains an old castle, and has 
manufactories of cloth, hats, and leather. Here 
on Feb. 7 and 8, 1807, was fought a battle 



between the French under Napoleon, 85,000 
strong with 350 guns, and the Russians and 
Prussians, 75,000 strong with 460 guns. The 
total number of killed and wounded was near- 
ly 40,000, and both sides claimed the victory. 
In this battle Napoleon was nearly made pris- 
oner, but was saved by his own presence of 
mind and the heroism of his little body guard 
of 100 men. This town is called Preussisch 
Eylau, to distinguish it from Deutsch Eylau, a 
small town of West Prussia, in the district of 
Marienwerder, 70 m. S. S. W. of the former, at 
the S. extremity of Lake Geserich. 

EZEKIEL, the third of the great Hebrew 
prophets, and contemporary with Jeremiah 
and Daniel, lived in the 7th and 6th centuries 
B. 0. He was still young when he went into 
captivity, following King Jehoiachin to Baby- 
lon. There, on the banks of the Chebar, sup- 
posed to be the Ohaboras in Mesopotamia, in 
the fifth year of his exile, he began his pro- 
phetic career, declaring to his fellow exiles the 
misfortunes which were besetting and threat- 
ening Jerusalem and the country of Judah. 
In the 25th year of his exile he described the 
new temple which was to rise in Jerusalem 
after the redemption of his people. This is 
one of the last prophecies remaining from him, 
and there is no account of him beyond the 27th 
year of the captivity of Jehoiachin. Accord- 
ing to a doubtful tradition, he was assassinated 
by one of the exiled princes, and during the 
middle ages his tomb was pointed out between 
the Euphrates and the Chebar. His book, 
which abounds in visions, poetical images, and 
allegories, is divided into three parts : the first 
(ch. i. to xxiv.) was written before the de- 
struction of Jerusalem ; the second (ch. xxv. to 
xxxii.) contains prophecies against foreign na- 
tions ; the third (xxxii. to xfviii.) foretells the 
resurrection of Israel and the erection of the 
new temple. The genuineness of the book has 
never been doubted ; but our present Hebrew 
text is among the most corrupt of the books of 
the Old Testament. The best commentaries 
are those of Umbreit (1843), Havernick (1843), 
Hitzig (1847), and Ewald (2d ed., 1868). 

EZRA, a Jewish scribe and priest, accord- 
ing to Josephus, high priest of the Jews in 
Babylon. Under his guidance, the second ex- 
pedition of the Jews proceeded from Babylon 
to Palestine, under the reign of Artaxerxes 
I., about 458 B. 0. The important services 
rendered by Ezra to his countrymen on that 
occasion, and also in arranging and settling the 
canon of Scripture, are specially acknowledged 
by the Jews, so that he is even regarded as the 
second founder of the nation. Josephus says 
that Ezra died at Jerusalem, and was buried 
there with great magnificence ; according to 
others, he returned to Babylon and died there, 
at the age of 120. Ezra is said by some of the 

iM>is to have introduced the present square 

Hebrew characters, and, in conjunction with 

of the elders, to have made the Masora, 

the punctuation and accentuation of the Bible. 

Besides the book of Ezra, he was supposed to 
be the author of the two books of Chronicles, 
and some writers attribute to him also the 
books of Nehemiah and Esther, though they 
differ in style from his acknowledged writings. 
The book of Ezra contains an account of the 
favors bestowed upon the Jews by the Persian 
kings, the rebuilding of the temple, the mission 
of Ezra to Jerusalem, and the various regula- 
tions and reforms introduced by him. The the- 
ologians of the liberal school generally attribute 
the last revision of the book to a later hand 
than that of Ezra. Bertheau (in Schenkel's 
Bibellexicon, 1868) puts the date of the last re- 
vision about 300 B. C. ; others, after the exam- 
ple of Spinoza, in the time of the Maccabees. 
Parts of the book are written in Chaldee (iv. 
8 to vi. 18, and vii. 12 to 26). Eor a full dis- 
cussion of the questions relating to the book of 
Ezra, see the introductions of Berthold, De 
Wette, Keil, and Havernick, and the commen- 
tary of Bertheau (1862). In ancient manu- 
scripts there are four books of Ezra, viz., the 
one just spoken of, the book of Nehemiah, and 
the two books which in the English version 
are called 1st and 2d Esdras, and placed among 
the apocryphal books. (See ESDEAS.) 

EZZELINO (or Eccelino) DA ROMANO, a leader 
of the Ghibellines in Italy, born at Onaro, April 
26, 1194, died at Soncino, Sept. 26, 1259. He 
belonged to a German family which in the llth 
century had acquired large feudal possessions 
in Lombardy, and whose principal seat was 
the castle of Romano near Padua. He was the 
fourth of his name, and is known in history as 
Ezzelino the Tyrant. From his youth he en- 
tered into the quarrels of the time, and war 
having become general in Lombardy, he re- 
mained faithful to the emperor Frederick II. 
His lands being ravaged by the Guelphs, he in- 
vited the help of the emperor, who relieved 
him and gained noteworthy advantages. In 
1236 Ezzelino, with his brother Alberic, gained 
possession of Yerona and Vicenza, and he be- 
came podesta of Verona, and his brother of Vi- 
cenza. In February, 1237, after the return of 
the emperor to Germany, he took Padua. He 
subsequently captured Treviso, and imprisoned 
many eminent people on suspicion of disaffec- 
tion to him ; and from this time his oppression 
and cruelty became conspicuous. The em- 
peror returned with reinforcements, and they 
gained the victory of Cortenuova, Nov. 27, 
1237. The following spring he married a 
natural daughter of Frederick. In 1239 he 
was excommunicated by the pope. In 1240 
he was intrusted with the conduct of the war 
in Lombardy, and lost Ferrara ; but in 1246 he 
repulsed the marquis of Este, and subsequent- 
ly he took Verona, Feltre, Belluno, and even 
Este. By 1250, when the emperor died, he 
had extended his control from the Adriatic to 
the suburbs of Milan. A league was formed 
against him in 1252 by most of the Lombard 
cities, the marquis of Este, and others, inclu- 
ding his own brother Alberic, and in 1256 a 



crusade was proclaimed against him ; but he 
still successfully resisted all combinations, and 
in the latter year he besieged Mantua. A new 
league being formed against him, which was 
joined by Venice, the allies invested and cap- 
tured Padua, which was held by his nephew 
Ansedisio. But Ezzelino defeated the army of 
the league near Brescia, and captured that city 

Sept. 1, 1258. In 1259 he threatened Mfli 
but it was saved by Martin della Torre ; am 
Ezzelino's retreat being cut off, he was forced 
into a battle near Soncino, in which he waa 
severely wounded and captured (Sept. 16), and 
his army dispersed. He refused food, tore the 
bandages from his wounds, and died without 
reconciliation to the church. 


THE 6th letter of the English and Latin, 
the 20th of the Arabic, and the 23d of 
the 'Persian alphabet, indicates a labio-dental 
sound, produced by the passage of the expired 
air between the lower lip and the upper in- 
cisive teeth, while the glottis and larynx are 
almost at rest. Quintilian calls this sound 
"scarcely human," since it is a mere afflatus, 
and is wrongly placed among the semi- vocals. 
Its sonorous parallel is the softer sound of V 
(as in English), in producing which the glottis 
and larynx are engaged. F is represented in 
ancient Greek both by the (ph) and the di- 
gamma, in corresponding wo*ds ; but the sound 
of the former was less harsh and rather as- 
pirated than blowing (efflatus), and the latter 
sounded almost like our V. The figure of the 
Latin F arose from the doubling of the Greek 
F. The emperor Claudius is reported to have 
used it inverted (J) to represent V. As a 
numeral sign for 6, the stigma was employed 
by the Alexandrines, as one of the three 'fniar^ia, 
instead of this digamma, which is named (3av 
or van. The shape of the stigma (r) is an in- 
verted Oscic and Umbric F (H ). We find the 
prototype of our cursive f on ancient Hebrew 
coins; but in the present so-called Hebrew, as 
in the Syriac, Sabseic, Palmyrenic, and some 
other kindred writings, the van takes the place 
of F, and indicates the sounds of v and u. F 
occurs in the same place also on the Idalian 
tablet of Cyprus, in Lycian, also in Tuarik 
(Berber), and in some other writings. In the 
Cyrillic alphabet the phert and phie (<) corre- 
spond to it as the 27th letter, in Glagolitic as 
the 23d, and in Russian as the 27th. F is the 
first rune, and it is represented hieroglyph - 
ically by a horned snake. It is often vica- 
riously converted into other letters or sounds, 
especially into labials, as in the following exam- 
ples : Lat. f rater, frango, fagus, Eng. brother, 
break', beech ; Lat. pes, pugnare, porculus, Eng. 
foot, fight, Ger. Ferlcel; Lat. ferrum, fili- 
us, folium, fugere, formosus, fabulari, fames, 
furari, Span, (since the 14th century) hierro, 
hijo, hoja, huir, hermoso, hablar, hambre, hur- 
tar. The Greek $ the Italians, Spaniards, 
and Portuguese uniformly replace by f. F 
sometimes also interchanges with gutturals, as 
Germ. Schacht, Eng. shaft ; Dutch achter, Eng. 
after ; Germ, kriechen, Eng. creep and crafty. 
In English and French it alternates with v 

in grammatical forms, as wife, wives ; natif, 
native. The Greek 6 sometimes becomes /, 
as Theodoros, Russ, Fedor ; Bipa, Qipa, Lat. 
fores, fera. Very peculiar are the transforma- 
tions of the Latin ft (also pi) into Spanish II 
and Portuguese ch ; as fiamma, Span, llama, 
Port, chamma, &c. The Devanagari, and 
most graphic systems of eastern Asia derived 
from it, have no F. The sound exists in the 
Chinese and Japanese languages. Most Amer- 
ican languages are guttural, and lack among 
others the sound of /. As a numeral in the 
middle ages, F was equivalent to 40, and F to 
40,000. It signifies 80 in Arabic, and 10,000 
in Armenian. Its substitute ph stands for 500 
in Russian and Georgian ; while the Phoenician, 
Chaldaic, and Syriac vau designated 6. As an 
abbreviation, F stands for filius, fecit, Flavius, 
Fahrenheit; for forte in music, and ff for 
fortissimo. F is marked on the French coins 
of Angers, on the Prussian of Magdeburg, and 
on the Austrian of Hall in the Tyrol. In music, 
it denotes the fourth diatonic interval, or the 
sixth string on the piano in the chromatic 
scale, and is called fa in the solfeggio. 

FABER, Frederick William, an English clergy- 
man and author, born June 28, 1814, died Sept. 
26, 1863. He was educated at Oxford, and 
became rector of Elton in Northamptonshire, 
which office he filled until his conversion to 
the Roman Catholic faith, which was formally 
consummated Nov. 17, 1845. His published 
writings up to that time were as follows : 
" Tracts on the Church and the Prayer Book " 
(1839) ; " A Sermon on Education " (1840) ; 
" The Cherwell Water Lily and other Poems " 
(1840) ; " The Styrian Lake and other Poems " 
(1842); "Sights and Thoughts in Foreign 
Churches" (1842); " Sir Lancelot, a Poem" 
(1844) ; " The Rosary and other Poems " (1845) ; 
and several papers in the " Lives of the English 
Saints," edited by the Rev. Dr. Newman. Dr. 
Faber was ordained priest in 1847, joined Dr. 
Newman, who had just transplanted the Ora- 
tory of St. Philip Neri to England, in 1848 
received the habit of that congregation, and 
became distinguished as an earnest and eloquent 
preacher. His published writings after his 
conversion are as follows : " Catholic Hymns," 
and an " Essay on Beatification and Canoniza- 
tion " (1848) ; " The Spirit and Genius of St. 
Philip Neri " (1850) ; " Catholic Home Mis- 




sions" (1851); "All for Jesus" (1854); 
"Growth in Holiness" (1855) ; u The Blessed 
Sacrament" (1856); "The Creator and the 
Creature " (1857) ; " The Foot of the Cross, or 
the Sorrows of Mary," "Sir Lancelot" (being 
his former poem rewritten), and " Ethel's Story 
Book " (1858) ; and " Spiritual Conferences " 
(1859). Several years before his death he be- 
came superior of the Oratory at Brompton. 
SeeBowden's "Life of F. W. Faber " (1869). 

FABER, George Stanley, an English theological 
writer, uncle of the preceding, born Oct. 25, 
1773, died near Durham, Jan. 27, 1854. He 
studied at the university of Oxford, where he 
became a fellow and tutor of Lincoln college, 
was appointed Bampton lecturer in 1801, and 
in the same year published his discourses under 
the title of Horce Mosaic (2d ed. enlarged, 
1818). He took the degree of B.D. in 1803, 
married, gave up his fellowship, and for two 
years assisted his father, the rector of Calver- 
ley in York, as curate. He subsequently oc- 
cupied various vicarages, in 1831 was made 
prebendary of Salisbury, and in 1832 appoint- 
ed master of Sherburn hospital. He wrote a 
large number of works, most .of which, par- 
ticularly those on prophecy, in which he holds 
that the inspired predictions apply not to in- 
dividuals but to governments and nations, have 
had a wide popularity. Among the most im- 
portant are: "Dissertation on the Mysteries 
of the Cabiri, or the Great Gods of Phoenicia " 
(2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1803) ; " The Origin of 
Pagan Idolatry" (3 vols. 8vo, 1816); "Diffi- 
culties of Romanism" (8vo, 1826); "The 
Sacred Calendar of Prophecy " (3 vols.. 1828); 
"Papal Infallibility" (8vo, 1851); and "The 
Revival of the French Emperorship antici- 
pated from the Necessity of Prophecy " (12mo, 
1853 ; New York, 1859). 

FABIUS, the name of an ancient Roman gens, 
which claimed to be descended from Hercules 
and the daughter of the Arcadian Evander. 
Of the various families which belonged to the 
gens Fabia, the most ancient was that of the 
Vibulani, three brothers of which were consuls 
for seven years in succession (485-479 B. C.). 
These brothers rendered themselves odious 
to the common soldiers by refusing to divide 
among them the booty gained in war, and by 
their opposition to the agrarian law, but after- 
ward became popular by their courage in a 
battle fought with the Veientes in the consul- 
ship of Marcus Fabius, in 480. In this bat- 
tle Quintus Fabius was killed, and his brothers 
Marcus the consul and Cseso were foremost in 
the fight. The soldiers bravely supported them, 
and after the battle the Fabii espoused the 
cause of the plebeians and were regarded by 
the patricians as apostates. They gained high 
honor by offering to undertake alone the war 
against the Veientes. The whole family, with 
the exception of a single member, to the num- 
ber of more than 300, left Rome with their 
followers, fortified themselves upon the banks 
of the Cremera, and prosecuted the war with 

great energy. But in the consulship of Hora- 
tius (477) Pulvillus and T. Menenius Lanatus 
they were all, after heroic resistance, over- 
whelmed and destroyed. The only member of 
the family who survived was Quintus, son 
of Marcus, who had remained at Rome, and 
from him were descended the Fabii who after- 
ward became famous in Roman history. Among 
them, Quintus Fabius Rullianus is commonly 
considered the first who had the cognomen 
Maximus. In 325, as master of the horse, 
he gave battle to the Samnites, contrary to 
the express orders of the dictator L. Papirius 
Cursor, and obtained a signal victory. After 
other brilliant victories, in 295, being consul 
for the fifth time, he was in command at 
the great battle of Sentinum, and defeated 
the combined armies of the Samnites, Gauls, 
Etruscans, and Umbrians. He is reputed 
among the most eminent of the Roman gen- 
erals, but the principal authorities in regard 
to this period belonged to the Fabian house, 
and it is probable that his military achieve- 
ments have been much exaggerated. Accord- 
ing to Polybius, it was not Q. Fabius Rul- 
lianus upon whom the cognomen of Maximus 
was originally conferred, but his great-grand- 
son, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, who 
by his prudent generalship in the second Punic 
war saved- the Roman commonwealth from 
impending ruin. Having been appointed pro- 
dictator after the defeat of Lake Thrasyme- 
nus, in 217, he perceived that it was impos- 
sible with raw and disheartened troops to 
oppose successfully a veteran army flushed 
with victory. He therefore avoided- pitched 
battles and moved his camp from highland to 
highland, where Hannibal's Numidian horse 
and Spanish infantry could not follow him. He 
thus tired them out with marches and counter- 
marches. This policy gained for him the title 
of Cunctator, delayer. It was admirably suited 
to the position of affairs, but the Roman senate 
and people were impatient under it, and divided 
the command between Fabius and Minucius, his 
master of the horse. Minucius made a rash 
advance, was surrounded by the enemy, and 
would have been destroyed had he not been 
rescued by Fabius. Varro, one of the consuls 
who assumed the command after the expiration 
of Fabius's dictatorship, disregarded his coun- 
sels and suffered a severe defeat at Cannae (216). 
After this Fabius suggested the measures of 
defence which were adopted by the senate. 
He was made consul for the fifth time in 209, 
and became princeps senatus. During this year 
he inflicted a severe blow upon the Carthagin- 
ians by the recapture of Tarentum. Toward 
the end of the war the more energetic plan of 
action proposed by Scipio prevailed over the 
advice of Fabius. He died at an advanced age 
in 203, when Hannibal was about leaving Italy. 
Caius Fabius Pictor painted a battle piece 
for the temple of Salus which was dedicated in 
302 B. 0., the earliest Roman painting of which 
there is any record. It was preserved till the 



time of the emperor Claudius, when the temple 
was destroyed by fire. His son Numerius Fa- 
bius Pictor is mentioned by Cicero as an au- 
thor of Greek annals, but was possibly mista- 
ken for his nephew (a grandson of the painter), 
Quintus Fabius Pictor, the first prose writer of 
Rome, who served in the Gallic war, 225 B. 0., 
and in the second Punic war. He was the au- 
thor of a history of Rome from its foundation 
to his own time. Of this work, probably writ- 
ten in Greek, which was highly valued by later 
writers, no fragments remain. 

FIBRE, Francois Xavier Pascal, a French 
painter, born in Montpellier, April 1, 1766, 
died March 12, 183V. He was a pupil of Da- 
vid, and produced in 1787 a painting repre- 
senting the "Execution of the Children of 
Zedekiah by order of Nebuchadnezzar," for 
which he received the great prize of the acad- 
emy, and was sent as a pensionary to Rome. 
He was believed, though perhaps erroneously, 
to have been secretly married to the countess 
of Albany, who on her death in 1824 made 
him her sole heir, and bequeathed to him valu- 
able MSS. which had been left to her by Alfi- 
eri. Fabre gave them to the city of Florence. 

FIBRE, Jean, surnamed "the honest crimi- 
nal," a Protestant hero, born in Nimes in 1727, 
died in Cette, May 31, 1797. He was a manu- 
facturer and a member of the small Protestant 
community at Mmes. He and his coreligion- 
ists celebrated the new year of 1756 in a seclu- 
ded locality, where they were surprised by the 
soldiery, but he escaped. His father, however, 
having been arrested, Jean took his place as a 
prisoner in the galleys of Toulon, and was sub- 
jected to great hardships. His release in 1762, 
and his full pardon in 1768, were mainly due 
to a play by Fenouillot de Falbaire, VJionnete 
criminel, of which he is the hero. His auto- 
biography, completed by his son, was pub- 
lished with a biographical notice by Athanase 
Coquerel^Zs in the Bulletin de la societe de 
Vhistoire du protestantisme frangais (Paris, 
January to April, 1865). 

FABRE D'EGLANTINE, Philippe Francois Nazaire, 
a French revolutionist and author, born in 
Languedoc, Dec. 28, 1755, guillotined in Paris, 
April 5, 1794. In gratitude for a wild rose 
(eglantine) of gold awarded to him in early life 
at the floral games at Toulouse, he adopted 
that name. He wrote a variety of plays for 
the theatres of Paris, a few of which, as Le 
Philinte de Noliere, L? intrigue epistolaire, &c., 
were favorably received. On the outbreak of 
the revolution he associated himself with Dan- 
ton, whose secretary he became in 1792. He 
was a member of the convention, where he ad- 
vocated the most violent measures, but played 
only a secondary part. He was accused of ve- 
nality, and doomed to share the fate of Dan- 
ton. While ascending the guillotine he dis- 
tributed some of his writings among the popu- 
lace. One of his comedies, Les precepteurs, 
was produced for the first time five years after 
his death, and received with great applause. 


Two volumes of his writings were published in 
1801 as (Euvres posthumes et melees. 

FABRETTI, Raffaello, an Italian antiquary, 
born in Urbino in 1618, died in Rome in 1700. 
At the age of 18 he went to Rome, where he 
made himself profoundly acquainted with the 
literature and art of the ancients. After filling 
a diplomatic mission in Spain, he became 
treasurer of Pope Alexander VII., and under 
the three succeeding popes held various offices 
at Rome, Madrid, and Urbino. During his 
13 years' residence in Spain he explored nearly 
all the antiquities of that kingdom. His first 
archaeological works, De Aquceductibus Veteris 
Roma and De Columna Trajani, excited a gen- 
eral interest. His interpretation of certain pas- 
sages of Livy involved him in a violent dis-- 
cussion with Gronovius. In a learned work 
upon ancient inscriptions he made known the 
treasures discovered by him in the catacombs 
of Rome. His rich collection of antiquities is 
still in the ducal palace of Urbino. 

FABRIANO, a town of central Italy, in the 
province and 34 m. S. W. of the city of An- 
cona, at the foot of the Apennines; pop. about 
6,000. It is the seat of a bishop, has a cathe- 
dral and several convents, and is celebrated 
chiefly for its paper and parchment. It is be- 
lieved to be one of the first places at which 
paper from linen rags was manufactured. The 
town also contains tanneries and powder mills, 
and manufactures cloth and hats. 

FABRIANO, Gentile da, an Italian painter of 
the Roman school, born at Fabriano about 
1370, died in Rome in 1450. Michel Angelo 
said that his name Gentile, the noble or deli- 
cate, was in harmony with the character of his 
works. About 1418 he painted in the cathe- 
dral of Orvieto a Madonna, which still exists, 
and which was so much admired that the ar- 
tist received the title of magister magistrorum. 
He then went to Venice, where he obtained 
great success, and was invited to Rome, where 
his paintings in the church of St. John Late- 
ran, which his infirmities did not permit him 
to finish, made him esteemed the first painter 
of Italy. His manner resembles that of Fra 

FABRICIUS (Cains Fabrieins Lnseinns), a Roman 
statesman, celebrated for his virtue and integ- 
rity. While consul in 282 B. 0. he defeated 
the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites, and 
enriched the public treasury with more than 
400 talents from the spoils of the enemy, re- 
maining poor himself. In 280 he served as 
legate in the campaign against Pyrrhus, king 
of Epirus, to whom he was sent at its close 
with an embassy, to ask the ransom or ex- 
change of some Roman prisoners of war. The 
meeting of the envoy and the king at Taren- 
tum has perhaps been embellished by the Ro- 
man historians. Fabricius is represented to 
have withstood not only the most splendid 
offers of Pyrrhus, who knowing his poverty 
tried to bribe him into his service, but also the 
threatening aspect of an elephant seemingly 


let loose upon him. In reward of his integrity 
the king allowed the captives to go to Rome 
for the celebration of the Saturnalia, on prom- 
ise of returning after the festival. In 279 Fa- 
bricius fought in the battle of Asculum, which, 
though nominally a victory for Pyrrhus, was 
regarded by him almost as a defeat. In the 
next year he commanded again as consul, and 
exposed to his enemy the treachery of his 
physician, who offered to poison him; upon 
which Pyrrhus is said to have exclaimed, " It 
is easier to turn the sun from its career than 
Fabricius from his honesty," and to have freed 
all his captives without ransom. When Pyr- 
rhus evacuated Italy, Fabricius was engaged in 
subduing his allies. As censor in 275 he de- 
prived P. Cornelius Eufinus of his seat in the 
senate, for having in his household 10 pounds 
of silver plate. Like Curius Dentatus, he 
spurned the presents of the Samnite ambas- 
sadors, and died so poor that the senate had to 
provide marriage portions for his daughters. 
He was buried within the walls of Rome, the 
prohibitory law of the twelve tables having 
been suspended in his honor. 

FABRICIUS, Georg, a German scholar, born in 
Chemnitz, Saxony, April 24, 1516, died in 
Meissen, July 13, 1571. He was director of 
the college of Meissen. His edition of Horace 
(2 vols., Basel, 1555) is still esteemed. He 
wrote Latin poetry with great purity, and in 
his sacred poems he would employ no words 
which had the slightest flavor of paganism. 
Baumgarten-Crusius wrote a sketch of his life 
and writings (Meissen, 1839). 

FABRICIUS, or Fabrizio, Girolamo, surnamed 
from his birthplace AB AQTJAPENDENTE, an 
Italian anatomist and surgeon, born at Ac- 
quapendente, in the Papal States, in 1537, died 
in Padua, May 21, 1619. A pupil of Fallopius, 
he succeeded him as professor of anatomy and 
surgery at the university of Padua, which posi- 
tion he held for 50 years. Fabricius was the 
first to demonstrate in 1574 the presence of 
valvular folds in all the veins of the extremi- 
ties. William Harvey, who was his pupil, ac- 
knowledged himself indebted to his teachings 
for the discovery of the circulation of the 
blood. His writings comprise dissertations on 
the formation of the foetus, the structure of the 
oesophagus, stomach, and body, and the pecu- 
liarities of the eye, ear, and larynx ; treatises 
on the egg and on veins, &c. Great honors 
were bestowed on him by the Venetian gov- 
ernment, and a large anatomical theatre was 
constructed for his accommodation. The first 
edition of his surgical works appeared at Padua 
in 1617. An edition of his anatomical and 
physiological works was published by Bohn in 
Leipsic in 1687, followed in 1737 by the more 
complete one of Albinus of Leyden. 

FABRICIUS, Johann Albert, a German bibli- 
ographer, born in Leipsic, Nov. 11, 1668, died 
in Hamburg, April 30, 1736. He studied phi- 
losophy, medicine, and theology, and in 1699 
was appointed professor of rhetoric and moral 



philosophy in the gymnasium of Hamburg. 
The extent of his learning in almost every de- 
partment of knowledge, especially in philology, 
was remarkable. His most celebrated works 
are : BibliotJieca Latino, (Hamburg, 1697 ; 5th 
ed., 3 vols., 1721 ; new ed. by Ernesti, 3 vols., 
Leipsic, l773-'4) ; BibliotJieca Grceca (14 vols., 
Hamburg, 1705-'28 ; continuation and new edi- 
tion by Harless, 12 vols., Hamburg, 1790-1809, 
provided with an index in 1838) ; Biblio- 
grapUa Antiquaria (Hamburg, 171 3 ; new ed. 
by Schafshausen, 1760) ; BibliotJieca Ecclesi- 
astica (Hamburg, 1718) ; and BibliotJieca Me- 
dia et Infimm JEtatis (5 vols., Hamburg, 1734 ; 
supplementary vol. by Schottgen, 1746 ; new 
ed. by Mansi, Padua, 1754). 

FABRICIUS, Johann Christian, a Danish ento- 
mologist, born in* Tondern, Schleswig, Jan. 7, 
1743, died in Kiel in 1807 or 1808. His aca- 
demic studies were pursued at Copenhagen, 
Leyden, Edinburgh, and finally at Upsal, under 
Linnseus. He was much attached to the great 
Swede, and has preserved many interesting 
details of his private life. He adopted Lin- 
naBus's method, and introduced a system of 
classifying insects by the parts which consti- 
tute the mouth. He took the degree of doc- 
tor of medicine about 1767, and was afterward 
appointed professor of natural history in the 
university of Kiel, where he wrote his Sy sterna 
EntomologicB (1775), subsequently enlarged 
into Entomologia Systematica (4 vols. 8vo, 
Copenhagen, 1792-'4). He employed the re- 
mainder of his life in developing and perfect- 
ing it, and for this purpose made tours over 
different parts of Europe. His Genera In- 
sectorum (8vo, Kiel, 1777), PhilosopJiia Ento- 
mologica (Hamburg, 1778), Species Insectorum 
(2 vols., 1781), Mantissa Insectorum (2 vols., 
Copenhagen, 1787), and other works show 
how complete and extended were his investi- 
gations in this branch of science. He also 
published essays on botany and natural history, 
accounts of travels in Norway, Russia, and 
England, and a variety of treatises, historical, 
political, and economical, relating to Denmark, 
the latter being prepared by him in his capacity 
of councillor of state and professor of rural 
and political economy at Kiel. He died of 
grief, it is supposed, occasioned by the bom- 
bardment of Copenhagen, and the political 
misfortunes of Denmark. 

FABYAN, or Fabian, Robert, an ancient Eng- 
lish chronicler, born in London about 1450, 
died in 1512. He was a merchant, became an 
alderman and sheriff of London, and wrote a 
general chronicle of English history, which he 
called the "Concordance of Histories," from 
the fabulous exploits of Brutus in Great Britain 
to the reign of Henry VII. It was first pub- 
lished after the author's death (folio, 1516), and 
reappeared in numerous editions, the last of 
which is that by Sir Henry Ellis, accompanied 
by notes and a learned introduction (" Chron- 
icles of England and France," royal 4to, Lon- 
don, 1811). On account of its free animad- 


versions on the Catholic clergy, Cardinal Wol- 
sey is said to have caused the destruction of a 
portion of the first edition, perfect copies of 
which are now rare. 

FACCIOLATO, or Faedolati, Jacopo, an Italian 
philologist, born in Torreglia, near Padua, Jan. 
4, 1682, died Aug. 26, 1769. Cardinal Bar- 
barigo sent him to the ecclesiastical seminary 
of Padua, where he took orders and rose to be 
professor of philosophy, and finally head of 
the institution. He afterward filled the chair 
of logic in the university of the same city, and 
was charged with continuing the history of 
that establishment which Papadopoli had be- 
gun. Besides several good editions of the 
classics and various works on grammar, ethics, 
theology, and some poetry, he published re- 
visions of the Lexicon of Schrevelius, the The- 
saurus Ciceronianus of Nizolius, and an edition 
in seven languages of Calepino's dictionary (2 
vols. fol., 1731), in which he received much as- 
sistance from his pupil Forcellini and others. 
It was on the conclusion of the last named 
work that Facciolato and Forcellini began to 
compose the great Latin dictionary published 
after the death of both, under their joint names, 
but which was almost entirely the work of the 
latter. (See FOKOELLINI.) 

FACTOR (Lat., from facere, to do or make), 
one who conducts business for 'another. The 
word originally had almost the same meaning 
as agent (Lat. agere, to act). But while agent 
was used to represent every one who acted in 
any way in the stead of another, factor became 
limited to those who so act in mercantile trans- 
actions. Factor is then a mercantile agent, 
herein being like a broker ; but the difference 
between them is principally this : a broker acts 
for his principal in reference to mercantile 
property which the principal retains in his 
hands; while the factor has possession of the 
goods sent to him for sale, or takes possession 
of those which he buys for his principal. From 
this difference others have grown ; and the 
most important of these is, that the broker 
buys and sells as agent, while the factor may 
buy and sell in his own name, the person deal- 
ing with him not always knowing whether the 
factor or some one else owns the goods. In 
the United States, among merchants, the phrase 
commission merchant has taken the place of 
factor, and means much the same thing; but 
the word factor is retained as a law term, and 
the law of factors is the law of commission 
merchants. Besides regular commission mer- 
chants, any one intrusted with the possession 
of property belonging to another, and author- 
ized by the owner to dispose of it, may be a 
factor, as a supercargo. So a common carrier 
may be a factor ; and while he acts as such, he 
is responsible only as a factor, that is, only for 
injuries or losses caused by want of due care ; 
but when he has sold goods as factor, and has 
received the money which it is his duty to bring 
home as carrier, his obligations as carrier re- 
vive, and he is now liable for any loss not 


caused by the act of God or the public enemy. 
A factor is a general agent, and as such binds 
his principal. The most general duty of a fac- 
tor, as of every agent, is to obey the instruc- 
tions he receives. But he is considered by the 
law merchant as an agent having much discre- 
tion, and an equal responsibility ; while there- 
fore he is bound to obey definite and positive 
instructions, he is not bound to pay such regard 
to mere intimations or wishes, because he may 
well believe that, whatever his principal might 
desire or consider expedient, if he did not give 
positive directions it was because he preferred 
leaving the decision to the discretion of his 
factor. And even if he have positive and pre- 
cise instructions, his departure from them will 
be justified if it was caused by an unforeseen 
emergency, and if he acted in good faith, and 
certainly for the actual advantage of his prin- 
cipal. If, however, a factor buys goods for his 
principal and sends them to him in distinct 
violation of an order, his principal may reject 
the same, and may return them to his factor ; 
or, if the nature of the goods and the circum- 
stances of the case render it certainly expedient, 
he may sell the goods for his factor, and remit 
to him or credit him with the proceeds. A 
factor generally acquires no right to his com- 
missions until the service by which he is to 
earn them is wholly rendered, unless prevented 
without his fault from completing his service, 
in which case he may have a reasonable com- 
pensation. ISTor has he any claim for compen- 
sation unless he conducts his business with 
proper care and skill, and he is liable in dam- 
ages for any loss his principal sustains by his 
want of care and skill ; nor can he claim any 
compensation for any illegal or immoral service. 
A factor cannot delegate his power and right, 
except so far as he is authorized to do so, either 
expressly, or by the established usage, or by 
the peculiar circumstances of the case. In the 
absence of positive instructions, it is the duty 
of the factor to obey and conform to the com- 
mon usage of that business, and he can, in 
general, bind his principal only within that 
usage. He has a considerable discretion, but 
is bound to use it with reasonable care, and 
with perfect good faith. Thus, if he hastens a 
sale improperly, and without reasonable cause 
or excuse, as, for example, if he hurries a sale, 
clearly against the interest of the principal, for 
the purpose of realizing at once his own ad- 
vances, such a sale would be considered a 
fraudulent sacrifice of his principal's property, 
and would render him liable in damages. The 
factor is bound to insure the property of his 
principal when instructed to do so, and also if 
a general, well established, and well known 
usage requires it of him, and particularly if 
there have been antecedent acts or usages be- 
tween him and his principal, from which his 
principal might reasonably have expected that 
he would effect insurance, and therefore omit 
doing this himself. In general, the principal 
has the right of revoking the authority he has 



given to his factor at any time before the fac- 
tor has made any advances upon the goods; 
and may then demand them, paying of course 
whatever legal claims the factor may have, not 
for his commissions, but for expenses properly 
incurred about the goods, and for any special 
services he has been called upon to render. 
But it is a question whether, if a commission 
merchant has made advances upon goods, he 
has not now acquired an interest in them and 
an authority over them, which his principal 
cannot defeat by revocation. The prevailing 
doctrine in the United States is that a factor 
by advances upon goods acquires an interest in 
the goods themselves, and that his authority 
over them is therefore irrevocable. In Eng- 
land the courts hold otherwise, and a factor 
who has made advances upon goods is denied 
the power to sell them or any part of them if 
positively prohibited by his principal; while 
in the United States he may sell so much as 
will cover his advances and charges, the prin- 
cipal having power over only the surplus or 
residue after the factor's advances are repaid. 
The factor is not obliged to sell, but after de- 
mand and reasonable delay may have his action 
against his principal for his advances. The 
question what power a factor has to pledge the 
goods consigned to him has been much agi- 
tated. By placing the goods in his possession, 
the principal may be said to give to his factor 
the power of acting as an owner, to the injury 
of others. It is on this ground that in England 
and in many of the United States such a fac- 
tor, whether called commission merchant, con- 
signee, agent, or otherwise, is deemed to be the 
true owner, so far as to render valid a sale, 
pledge, or other disposition of the property, 
while the party with whom he deals acts in 
good faith. A factor may make a special con- 
tract with his principal, to guarantee all sales 
made for him. In continental Europe, some- 
times in England, more rarely here, such a 
factor is said to act under a del credere com- 
mission. With us he is commonly, and per- 
haps universally, said to act under a guaran- 
tee commission. The meaning of this is, that 
in addition to the usual commission (or that 
agreed upon) for the sale of the goods, he 
receives a further commission, in considera- 
tion of which he guarantees the payment by 
" e purchaser of the price of the goods, and 
es to pay if the purchaser does not. A 
,rantee commission merchant has the same 
,im on his principal for his advances as if 
e made no guarantee. If he takes a note 
om the purchaser of the goods, this note is 
e property of his principal, and he guaran- 
es the note ; and if he takes payment in de- 
preciated paper, he must make it good. If 
money be paid, and he remits it in some cus- 
tomary and proper way, or in such way as may 
be specially directed by the owner, he is not 
responsible for its safe arrival, unless he under- 
takes to guarantee the remittance ; in which 
case he may charge a commission for his guaran- 

tee. Without any guarantee commission a 
factor is liable to his principal, not only for his 
neglect or default, but for certain acts which 
seem to assume this liability ; as if he sells 
the goods of several principals to one pur- 
chaser, on credit, and takes a note payable or 
indorsed to himself, and gets it discounted. 
It has already been remarked that a factor 
may buy, sell, sue and be sued, demand, col- 
lect, receive, and receipt for money, all in his 
own name, and as a principal, while a broker 
can do all this only in his own name and as an 
agent. This diiference between them springs 
from the possession of the goods by the factor 
(for possession is one of the principal indicia 
of ownership) and the non-possession of them 
by the broker. There is a more important dif- 
ference between them, founded on the same 
circumstance; this is, that the factor has a 
lien on the goods for his advances, charges, 
and commissions, and a broker has not. But 
if a factor voluntarily transfers the goods to 
the owner, or to the owner's order, he cannot 
reclaim them as his security, but retains only 
his personal right to demand his advances and 
charges from the owner. If the owner is in- 
solvent, the factor takes then only his dividend ; 
whereas if he still holds the possession, the 
other creditors can have the goods only by dis- 
charging the factor's claims in full. Therefore 
the factor and his principal may have claims 
against a purchaser which may seem to conflict ; 
for the principal may demand his price, while 
the factor claims his advances and charges. In 
general, it may be said that if a purchaser pays 
in good faith to either, without notice of the 
other's claim, he will be protected against the 
other. But if the owner demands his price, 
the purchaser cannot set off against this, or 
claim to deduct, a general debt to the pur- 
chaser from the factor, unless the factor sold 
the goods as his own, under circumstances 
which gave him a right so to sell them, and the 
buyer believed they were his own ; in which 
case the buyer may charge against the price, 
or indeed pay the whole price, by the indebted- 
ness of the factor to him. On the other hand, 
if the factor has a lien on the goods, and has not 
lost his lien by parting with the possession of 
the goods, the buyer cannot set off against this 
lien any debt due to him from the principal, 
although the principal be named at the sale as 
the owner of the goods. An important dis- 
tinction is made between a foreign factor, or 
one who transacts business for his principal in 
a country in which the latter does not reside, 
and a domestic factor, or one who acts in the 
same country in which the principal resides. 
Although every factor may act in his own name, 
yet in the case of a foreign factor the law goes 
much further, and considers the factor as in 
almost all respects a principal. The reason of 
this is obvious. A person dealing at home 
with a factor whose principal resides abroad, 
has no means of knowing who the principal is, 
or what goods are his, or by what title they 



are his, or for what purpose they are in the 
factor's hands, excepting as the factor may 
choose to tell him. He can have no access, or 
certainly no easy access, to the foreign prin- 
cipal, for the purpose of remedy or enforce- 
ment ; and, on the other hand, cannot be pre- 
sumed to have bought or sold on the credit of 
a person thus unknown and inaccessible. It is 
but fair, therefore, that the factor should be, as 
to the purchaser, the principal; and it is 
equally fair that the factor should be in such 
case the only principal. These, however, are 
but presumptions of law. The factor and 
purchaser may make what agreement they 
please, and the law will carry it into effect. 
In the absence of special agreement, that is, 
in the case of an ordinary transaction with a 
foreign factor, the buyer may sue the factor, 
and cannot sue the principal, although the 
principal may recover from a buyer a price not 
yet paid to the factor. The rule that the party 
dealing with the factor looks to him only, 
seems to be well settled, if he knew that he 
was dealing with the factor of a foreign prin- 
cipal, and reserved no right or claim against 
that principal. Whether he could sue the 
principal, if he did not know him at the time 
of the transaction, but discovered him after- 
ward, is not so certain ; for th^re are authori- 
ties which limit the rule to the former cases, 
and in the latter give the party a concurrent 
remedy against the factor and the principal. 
It seems now settled that, for the purpose of 
this distinction, the states of the Union are 
foreign to each other. It is a general rule 
that a principal does not lose his property by 
any wrongful act of his factor, as long as he 
can trace and identify his goods, either in the 
factor's hands, or into the hands of any per- 
son who holds by representation of or deriva- 
tion from the factor, without being purchaser, 
pledgee, or otherwise a transferee in good faith 
and for value. And when a principal finds his 
property encumbered by an act of the factor, 
as a pledge, or the like, he may always recover 
his property by paying the amount of encum- 
brance. In some of the United States a fraud- 
ulent disposition by a factor of the property of 
his principal is an indictable offence, and is 
punished with severity. 

FAED, Thomas, a Scottish artist, born at Bur- 
ley Mill, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, in 
1826. In 1843 he went to Edinburgh, where 
his elder brother, John, was painting with suc- 
cess, and for some years was a pupil in the 
school of design of that city. After executing 
the well known group of "Scott and his 
Friends at Abbotsford " and other works, he 
went in 1852 to London, where he has since 
resided. In 1855 his " Mitherless Bairn " was 
exhibited at the royal academy, his "Home 
and the Homeless" in 1856, and the "First 
Break in the Family" in 1857. In 1864 he 
was made a member of the royal academy, 
and several of his paintings were exhibited at 
the Paris universal exposition of 1867. 


FAENZA (anc. Faventid), a fortified city of 
central Italy, in the province and 18 m. S. W. 
of the city of Ravenna, on the Lamone, at its 
junction with the canal of Zanelli ; pop. in 
1871, 36,299. It is the seat of a bishopric, and 
has a fine cathedral, theatre, several churches 
and convents which contain valuable paintings, 
a lunatic asylum, a city hall, several splendid 
private palaces, a royal lyceum with a picture 
gallery, a communal gymnasium, and a techni- 
cal school. The beauty of the city and its 
suburbs has gained for it the name of the Flor- 
ence of Romagna. Its formerly celebrated 
manufactures of a peculiar earthenware, called 
from this place faience, have declined in im- 
portance, and its chief industry at present con- 
sists in manufactures of paper, linen, and silk, 
and in an active commerce in the products of 
the territory, which are taken by canal from 
Faenza to the Po. A few miles from the town 
are ferruginous and saline springs and baths, 
which are much resorted to. This city was 
the scene of the defeat of Carbo and Nor- 
banus by Metellus, 82 B. 0. It was taken by 
the Goths in the 6th century, and by the em- 
peror Frederick II. in 1241. Sir John Hawk- 
wood, in the service of Gregory XL, captured 
it in 1376, and put to death, it is said, about 
4,000 persons. It was successively subject to 
Bologna and Venice, and in 1509 was taken 
by Pope Julius II. 


FAGNANI, Joseph, an American artist, born in 
Naples, Italy, Dec. 24, 1819, died in New York, 
May 22, 1873. He made crayon portraits be- 
fore completing his 13th year, left the royal 
academy at 18, and removed to Vienna, where 
he painted a portrait of the archduke Charles. 
In 1842 in Paris he met Maria Christina of 
Spain, who invited him to Madrid. There he 
secured the friendship of Sir Henry Bulwer, 
and accompanied him to Washington in 1849. 
In 1851 he removed to New York, and married 
an American lady. From 1858 till 1865 he was 
in Europe, and executed portraits of Garibaldi, 
Victor Emanuel, the empress Eugenie, Abdul 
Aziz, Ali Pasha, Cialdini, Rattazzi, and others. 
After his return to New York he painted a 
series of pictures called the "Nine Muses." 
Among his other works are portraits of Queens 
Christina and Isabella of Spain, the duchess of 
Alba, the duke d'Aumale, the countess Guic- 
cioli, Lord Byron from a miniature, Sir Robert 
Peel, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Bright, Rich- 
ard Cobden, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Gen. 
Taylor, and Gen. Sheridan. He received the 
only gold medal ever given for a portrait by the 
royal Bourbonic academy of Naples, and was 
decorated by a number of European sovereigns. 

FAHLCRANTZ, Karl Johan, a Swedish painter, 
born in Dalecarlia, Nov. 29, 1774, died Jan. 1, 
1861. He was the son of a clergyman, and, al- 
though self-taught, his delineations of Scandi- 
navian scenery won for him the reputation of 
the best Swedish landscape painter of his day. 
His most finished paintings belong to the Swe- 



dish royal family, and a number of them were 
purchased by Frederick VI. of Denmark. 

FAHLUN, or Falun (Sw. FaUu\ the capital of 
the Swedish Ian of the same name or Koppar- 
berg, on the W. shore of Lake Runn, 130 m. 1ST. 
K W. of Stockholm ; pop. in 1868, 5,891. The 
houses are low and almost entirely of wood. The 
copper mines W. of this town are among the 
oldest and most celebrated in Europe. They 
produced in former times upward of 3,000 tons, 
but now about 700 tons annually. The exter- 
nal opening, made by the falling in of ancient 
galleries, is about 300 ft. deep, and 1,200 ft. 
long by 600 wide. The descent to the bottom 
of this is by easy stairs, whence steep ladders 
lead to the pits, the lowest of which are about 
1,300 ft. from the surface. The excavations 
extend many miles under ground, forming 
several magnificent chambers, where banquets 
were given to Bernadotte and his queen, and 
Prince Oscar, on which occasions the mines 
were brilliantly illuminated. The mines are 
owned by a company of 1,200 shares, which 
has' the monopoly of iron and other works in 
the vicinity. Besides copper, small quantities 
of gold, silver, and lead are obtained from the 
ore. Connected with the mines are a school 
of practical mining, a model room, a large 
scientific library, and a geological museum. 
(For the Ian see KOPPAEBEEG.) 

FAHRENHEIT, Gabriel Daniel, a German phy- 
sicist and mechanician, born in Dantzic about 
1690, died in Amsterdam, Sept. 16, 1736. His 
predilection for the natural sciences led him to 
abandon mercantile life and travel in pursuit 
of knowledge. After visiting various parts of 
Germany, France, and England, he settled at 
Amsterdam as a maker of philosophical instru- 
ments. Here some of the most eminent natu- 
ral philosophers of the day became his friends 
and instructors. Fahrenheit improved the 
areometer, and made some progress with the 
design of a hydraulic machine for the draining 
of marshes, which he left unfinished ; but he is 
chiefly distinguished for the changes which he 
made in the thermometer, which were first car- 
ried out in 1720, and have added much to the 
accuracy and value of that instrument. (See 
THEEMOMETEE.) His thermometer since its 
first introduction has been in general use in 
Holland, Great Britain, and the United States. 
Its constructor was elected a member of the 
royal society of London in 1724, in whose 
44 Philosophical Transactions" for that year 
are papers by him. 

FAIDHERBE, Lonis Leon Cesar, a French sol- 
dier, born in Lille, June 3, 1818. He studied 
at Paris and Metz, served in Algeria and 
Guadeloupe, and became in 1854 governor of 
Senegal, where he distinguished himself and 
considerably extended the French possessions. 
After a brief command in Algeria he was 
sent again to Senegambia, and remained there 
as governor till 1865, when he became com- 
mander of the military division of Bona in 
Algeria. After the capture of the citadel 

of Amiens by the Germans, at the end of 
November, 1870, he was appointed by Gam- 
betta commander-in-chief of the northern 
army and of the third military division. With 
about 50,000 men he took the offensive near 
Amiens, and after various unfortunate engage- 
ments was thoroughly defeated at Bapaume, 
Jan. 3, 1871, Pe>onne capitulating Jan. 10, 
after three weeks' resistance; and he was 
overwhelmed at St. Quentin, Jan. 19. His 
forces were completely disorganized and re- 
treated toward Lille, and the northern army 
was disbanded in March. In June he was 
elected by Lille to the national assembly, and 
in 1872 he resigned his commission in the army. 
He has written CJiapitre de geographie sur 
le nord-ouest de VAfrique (1864) ; Collection 
complete des inscriptions numidiques (1870) ; 
and Campagne de Varmee du nord (1871, sev- 
eral times reprinted). 

FAILLON, Michel Etienne, a French theological 
and historical writer, born at Tarasconin 1799, 
died in Paris, Oct. 25, 1870. He was a Sul- 
pician of Paris, and came to Montreal in 1854 as 
visitor of the houses of that congregation in 
America. His contributions to the history of 
Canada are numerous and valuable, embracing 
a life of the Ven. Mr. Olier (1853) ; of Margaret 
Bourgeoys, foundress of the congregation sis- 
ters (1852) ; of Mile. Maure, foundress of the 
H6tel Dieu (1854); of Madame d'Youville, 
foundress of the gray sisters (1852) ; of Mile, 
le Ber, the recluse (1860) ; and a very extended 
history of the French colony in Canada, of 
which 3 vols. 4to (1865-'6) appeared before his 
death, embracing only a small portion of his 

FAILLY, Pierre Lonis Charles Achille de, a French 
soldier, born at Rozoy-sur-Serre, department 
of Aisne, about 1810. He went to Algeria as 
sub-lieutenant in 1828, was afterward orderly 
officer of King Louis Philippe and director 
of the military school at Toulouse, became 
brigadier general in 1852, and for his services 
in the Crimean war was made general of di- 
vision, Sept. 22, 1855. He was aide-de-camp 
of Napoleon III., commanded a division in 
the war of 1859, and especially distinguished 
himself at Solferino. In 1867 he was sent 
with an expeditionary corps to Rome. On 
the outbreak of the Franco-German war in 
1870 he was placed in command of the fifth 
corps, with his headquarters at Bitsch. After 
the disastrous battle of Worth he retired with 
the remnant of MacMahon's army to Chalons. 
Cooperating with the forces of the latter during 
their passage of the Ardennes for the relief 
of Bazaine at Metz, he was surprised and de- 
feated at Beaumont, Aug. 30. MacMahon was 
paralyzed, and the capitulation of Sedan ter- 
minated the career of Failly. While a prisoner 
of war he attempted in his Marches et opera- 
tions du 5 me corps (Brussels, 1871) to refute the 
charges brought against him. 

FAIR (Lat. fvria, a day of rest, a holiday), a 
gathering for the purchase and sale of goods, 



or the hiring of servants, occasionally associ- 
ated with religious festivals and popular enter- 
tainments. The ancient Greeks held fairs in 
conjunction with popular assemblies for politi- 
cal purposes. The Roman fora, though prop- 
erly permanent market places, attracted great 
multitudes at times of festivity and important 
judicial and political gatherings, and on such 
occasions the special facilities for selling goods, 
as well as the special provisions for popular 
entertainment, must have given them some- 
what of the character of fairs. In the 5th cen- 
tury fairs were established in several French 
and Italian cities. The fair of St. Denis was 
instituted by Dagobert in 629, and the fair of 
St. Lazare by Louis VI. Aix-la-Chapelle and 
Troyes trace their fairs to about the year 800. 
Alfred the Great introduced them into Eng- 
land in 886, and in 960 they were established 
in Flanders. Fairs for the sale of slaves were 
common throughout Germany and the north 
of Europe about the year 1000 ; and in 1071 
they were encouraged in England by "William 
the Conqueror. Slaves were sold also at St. 
Denis, and French children were taken in re- 
turn to be bartered away in foreign countries ; 
this trade was prohibited through the efforts 
of Bathilda, a wealthy freedwoman. These 
institutions were of great value* during the mid- 
dle ages, and especially serviceable in rude and 
inland countries. The number of shops and 
the objects offered for sale in them were very 
limited, and consequently little frequented by 
dealers. These fairs had numerous privileges 
annexed to them, and they afforded special 
facilities for the disposal of goods. While com- 
merce was burdened with every possible kind 
of taxes and tolls, and travel was not only diffi- 
cult but frequently unsafe, the fairs had gen- 
erally the advantage of being free from imposts, 
and the merchants who wished to be present 
at them enjoyed the protection of the govern- 
ment for their goods and persons. Many fairs 
were associated with religious festivals, perhaps 
to insure a large concourse of people. In many 
places they are still held on the same day with 
the vigil or feast of the saint to whom the prin- 
cipal church of the town is dedicated. It was 
even customary in England and Germany to 
hold the fairs in the churches and churchyards. 
Fairs for cattle, agricultural products, and sta- 
ple manufactures have been found entirely un- 
necessary in countries enjoying a free and flour- 
ishing trade, and they dwindle accordingly into 
insignificance. On the other hand, fairs offer 
special opportunities for comparing different 
qualities of home manufactures and produce, 
and thus are valuable as a means of instruction. 
Another advantage attached to them is that 
they bring communities which are but slowly 
reached by the progress of civilization into 
regular contact with it. The most celebrated 
fairs of large cities in former times accordingly 
manifest the greatest decrease of attendance, 
while the genuine country fairs still retain 
much of their importance. To the priory of 

St. Bartholomew in London, founded early in 
the 12th century, Henry I. granted in 1133 the 
privilege of holding a fair on St. Bartholomew's 
day. The original grant was for three days, 
but it was gradually extended to fifteen. An 
order of the common council in 1708 limited 
its duration again to three days. It was at 
first a great place of resort for traders and 
pleasure seekers, but it declined in importance 
until it was only attended by itinerant show- 
men and the owners of a few stalls. In 1850 
the lord mayor made proclamation of the fair 
for the last time, and it has not been held since 
1855. (See Morley's "Memoirs of Bartholo- 
mew's Fair," London, 1859.) Weyhill fair in 
Hampshire (Oct. 10) has probably the greatest 
display of sheep of any fair in Great Britain. 
St. Faith's, near Norwich (Oct. 17), is the prin- 
cipal English fair for Scotch cattle, but large 
numbers are also disposed of at Market Har- 
borough, Carlisle, and Ormskirk. Ipswich has 
two considerable fairs, one in August for lambs, 
of which about 100,000 are sold, and one in 
September for butter and cheese. The August 
fair of Horncastle, Lincolnshire, is the largest 
horse fair, and is resorted to by dealers not 
only from Great Britain, but also from the 
continent and the United States. Howden in 
Yorkshire has also a large horse fair, particu- 
larly for Yorkshire hunters. Suffolk horses 
are exhibited at the celebrated Woodbridge 
Lady-day fair. Bristol, Exeter, and many 
other English cities, towns, and hamlets, have 
their fairs. A great cheese fair is held in April 
at Gloucester. Fairs were held at Greenwich 
at Easter and Whitsuntide, which attracted 
large crowds of visitors from London to partake 
in the many amusements, as well as to enjoy 
the fresh air and the fine scenery from the park 
and its neighborhood ; but Greenwich fair was 
suppressed in 1857 by the police, the inhabi- 
tants having complained of it as a nuisance. 
Walworth, Camberwell, and Peckham fairs 
4 have also been suppressed. The most impor- 
tant mart in Scotland for cattle and sheep is 
Falkirk fair or tryst. The largest fair in Ire- 
land for the sale of cattle and sheep is held 
from Oct. 5 to 9 at Ballinasloe, in the counties 
of Gal way and Roscommon. About 25,000 
head of cattle and 75,000 sheep, most of which 
are raised in Connaught, are annually brought 
to this fair. Donnybrook fair, celebrated for 
its noisy mirth and pugnacity, is now abolished. 
In France the St. Denis fair, near Paris, both 
commercial and religious, was continued till 
1789. It was customary to exhibit there a 
piece of wood alleged to have belonged to the 
cross on which Jesus was crucified, and the 
whole of Paris went to see it. The St. Lazare, 
St. Laurent, St. Germain, and St. Ovid fairs 
in Paris were also suppressed in 1789. Per- 
manent markets have taken their place as far 
as the sale of goods is concerned, and the popu- 
lar shows and entertainments that used to at- 
tend them are now confined to the celebration 
of national holidays and church festivals. In 



the departments a few fairs are still in exist- 
ence and enjoy a good trade. The most im- 
portant is the fair of Beaucaire, which is held 
July 22-28, and rivals the great fairs of Ger- 
many and Russia. The counts of Toulouse 
granted this fair some privileges in the 13th 
century, and Charles VIII. decreed its time 
and duration. In the very heart of the town 
an extensive square is appropriated for it, and 
while it lasts thousands of stalls are erected on 
it, in which is offered for sale everything that 
forms an article of commerce. It is believed 
that often as many as 200,000 traders from 
all parts of the world assemble here. After 
dark the whole town is given up to gayety, and 
the numerous show and concert and dancing 
saloons turn it into a pandemonium. A tribunal 
of commerce, consisting of 12 members, exer- 
cises during this season absolute judicial power 
over all mercantile differences. It is estimated 
that the trade of the week of the fair amounts 
to $4,000,000 or $5,000,000. Equally large are 
the transactions made at the fair of Guibray, 
a small suburb of the town of Falaise, held 
from Aug. 10 to 15. It was instituted in the 
llth century by the dukes of Normandy, and 
is the principal market for wool and woollen 
goods, and for valuable horses. The annual 
fairs in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and other 
cities in Holland, are scenes of great popular 
rejoicings. Fdr several days and nights the 
streets are paraded by joyous crowds, and the 
usual sobriety of the Dutch yields to boisterous 
demonstrations. Theatres and shows of all 
kinds form the staple amusements, and among 
the refreshments are wafer cakes, a sort of 
thin cake baked in an iron mould, of which the 
consumption is enormous. The principal fair 
of Italy is that of St. Mary Magdalen in Siniga- 
glia, which is annually held in July and Au- 
gust, and attended by traders from all parts of 
central and northern Europe, north Africa, and 
the Levant. Among the various products of 
Italian industry which change hands here, silk 
is the most important. Fairs of less conse- 
quence are held in other parts of Italy, as well 
as in Spain and Portugal. The most famous 
fair of Madrid is annually held on May 15, at 
the hermitage of San Isidro del Oampo, when 
the grand pilgrimage and festival of San Isidro 
draws thither crowds of the population. The 
great Hungarian fairs are held chiefly at Pesth. 
Four times a year, in March, May, August, and 
November, the industrial products of Hungary 
are brought here for sale. Scarcely less im- 
portant for the commerce of eastern Europe, 
and more interesting for the traveller and ob- 
server of national customs, are the fairs of De- 
breezin. The fairs of the greatest European 
importance, however, are those of Germany. 
They originated there, as in many other coun- 
tries, through religious festivals. Hence fairs 
were called Kirchmessen, church fairs, the 
German word Messe (fair) being derived from 
mass. The most prominent fairs are those of 
Leipsic, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Frankfort-on- 

the-Oder, and Brunswick. The Leipsic fairs 
date from the 12th century, and are the most 
frequented. Of the aggregate value of goods 
sold at German fairs Leipsic has 46 per cent., 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder 36, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main 15, and Brunswick 5. Leipsic holds three 
fairs : the Easter fair, beginning on the second 
Sunday after Easter, the Michaelmas fair, begin- 
ning with the week of Michaelmas ; and the New 
Year's fair, beginning on Dec. 27. The Easter 
fair is the most important, and the New Year's 
fair the least. The imports of goods in 1870 
for New Year's amounted to 187,930 cwt. ; for 
Easter to 313,300 cwt. ; for Michaelmas to 
296,870 cwt. ; total, 798,100 cwt. The prin- 
cipal articles of trade carried to the fairs are 
furs, yarn, silk, cloth, cotton goods, ribbons, 
hardware, toys, china, glass, and earthenware, 
drugs, grain, hides, leather, dye stuffs, colors, 
oils, alcohol, coal, and paper. Easter is the 
customary season among booksellers for set- 
tling their accounts, and for the principal trade 
sale, but the exhibition of books formerly con- 
nected with this fair has gone into disuse. 
The most celebrated fairs of Russia are held in 
Nizhni-Novgorod. The January fair is special- 
ly for timber and articles in wood, and takes 
place on the frozen river ; the July fair is de- 
voted to the sale of horses ; but the Peter Paul 
fair, beginning Aug. 5 and lasting until the 
end of September, embraces every known pro- 
duct of Asia and Europe, and exceeds in mag- 
nitude all other fairs in the world. The tra- 
ders present during this season often number 
200,000, and comprise representatives of every 
race and nation. The principal articles of 
trade are tea, grain, cotton, wool, horse and 
camel hair, hides, iron, copper, jewels, and 
furs; but every kind of manufacturing and 
agricultural produce is brought to this market. 
The sales amount to nearly $100,000,000. The 
Russian government erected a bazaar for sto- 
ring furs, shawls, and tea, and drew from each 
fair a rent of $200,000. This enormous build- 
ing was destroyed by fire in 1864. The fair of 
Kiakhta on the Russian-Chinese frontier, held 
every December since 1727, and formerly of 
great magnitude, as it was the only legal tra- 
ding post between the two countries, has dwin- 
dled to comparative insignificance since the 
opening for traffic in 1860 of the whole fron- 
tier, and the decree of 1861 permitting the 
importation of tea from the countries W. of 
Russia, and the -ports on the Baltic sea. The 
chief fairs of Turkey are those of Yenidje Var- 
dar and Seres, the former commencing on 
Dec. 3 and continuing for about three weeks, 
and the latter on March 21, for three or four 
weeks; of Okhrida (May 3), Varna (May 23), 
Filibe (Aug. 27), and Eski Saghra (Nov. 10), 
each of which lasts a fortnight ; and those 
of Yatar Bazari (Sept. 15) and Tchaltadeh 
(Nov. 6), which last 10 days. Conspicuous 
among the various traders assembled there are 
the Greeks and Armenians. But the greatest 
fair in the East is held at Mecca during the 



time of the annual pilgrimages. Although it 
has declined from its ancient magnitude, the 
average concourse still amounts to 100,000. 
The largest fair in India is held at the vernal 
equinox at llurdvvar, on the upper Ganges. It 
is the season of the yearly pilgrimage, and from 
200,000 to 300,000 strangers are then assembled 
in the town ; every 12th year, which is ac- 
counted peculiarly holy, nearly 2,000,000 pil- 
grims and dealers visit the place. This fair is 
supplied with every article of home produce, 
and not only elephants but tigers and other 
wild beasts are offered for sale. Previous to 
the British occupation, the fairs usually ended 
in bloodshed; but owing to the precautions 
adopted, perfect order is now preserved. Ac- 
cording to Prescott's " History of the Conquest 
of Mexico," fairs were held in the principal 
cities of ancient Mexico every fifth day (there 
having been no shops), and were thronged. 
"A particular quarter was allotted to each 
kind of article. The transactions were con- 
ducted under the inspection of magistrates ap- 
pointed for the purpose. The traffic was car- 
ried on partly by barter, and partly by means 
of a regulated currency of different values. 
This consisted of transparent quills of gold 
dust ; of bits of tin, cut in the form of a T 5 
and of bags of cacao, containing a specific num- 
ber of grains." Fairs were regularly held at 
Azcapozalco, not far from the capital, for the 
sale of slaves. The gatherings in the market 
of Tlascala were a sort of fairs, where pottery 
which was considered equal to the best in Eu- 
rope formed one of the principal articles of 
trade, and every description of domestic pro- 
duce and manufacture was brought there for 
sale. But the greatest fair was held in the 
city of Mexico. The visitors there were esti- 
mated at from 40,000 to 50,000, but the most 
perfect order reigned throughout. A court of 
12 judges sat in one part of the tianguez, clothed 
with absolute power, which they exercised 
with great rigor. In Prescott's " History of the 
Conquest of Peru " it is said that the incas in- 
stituted fairs for the facilitation of agricultural 
exchanges. They took place three times a 
month in some of the most populous places, 
where, as money was unknown, a rude kind 
of commerce was carried on by barter. The 
only fairs in the United States, properly so 
called, are assemblages for the sale and pur- 
chase of goods, generally contributed gratui- 
tously, for the benefit of some particular ob- 
ject, as the building or furnishing of a church, 
or the promotion of some charitable enterprise. 
During the civil war very large sums were 
raised by the so-called sanitary fairs, for the 
benefit of the sick and wounded. The word 
fair is also applied to exhibitions of articles 
not specially intended for sale, and sometimes 
strictly prohibited from sale at the place of ex- 
hibition. The state and county fairs in the 
United States are for competitive exhibition 
rather than general traffic. (See INDUSTRIAL 


FAIRBAIRN, Sir William, a British civil en- 
gineer and machinist, born in Kelso on the 
Tweed, Feb. 19, 1789. He learned engineer- 
ing at the Percy main colliery, Newcastle, 
where he remained seven years. In 1817 he 
commenced business in Manchester as a ma- 
chine maker, and for upward of 20 years his 
firm was the most important of the kind in 
that town. Among the improvements he in- 
troduced may be mentioned simpler contri- 
vances for driving the machinery of factories, 
modifications in the valves of steam engines, 
the double-flued boiler, the use of ventilated 
buckets in water wheels, and the invention of 
the riveting machine. In 1830-'31, his atten- 
tion having been drawn to the advantage of 
iron as a material for building ships, he con- 
structed a small iron vessel, which was success- 
fully launched, and was one of the first of its 
class in England. He afterward constructed 
at Millwall many large vessels of the same ma- 
terial. He was also one of the first to attempt 
buildings of iron. His experience in the iron 
manufacture caused him to be consulted with 
regard to the construction of the tubular 
bridge over the Menai strait ; and in connection 
with Mr. Hodgkinson he engaged in a number 
of experiments, the result of which has been 
to introduce into general use wronght-iron 
plate girders in ordinary building operations, 
as well as in railway engineering. He de- 
livered lectures in 1858 on the " Resistance of 
Tubes to Collapse," on the "Floating Corn 
Mill for the Navy," on the "Progress of Me- 
chanical Science," &c. He has published 
" Cast and Wrought Iron for Building Pur- 
poses" (London, 1852; New York, 1854); 
"Useful Information for Engineers" (1856); 
"Iron, its History and Manufacture" (Edin- 
burgh, 1863) ; " Mills and Mill Work " (2 vols., 
London, 1864-'5) ; and " Iron Ship Building " 
(1865). He was made a baronet in 1869. See 
Smiles's "Lives of Engineers." 

FAIRFAX^ a N. E. county of Virginia, sepa- 
rated from Maryland and the District of Co- 
lumbia by the Potomac river ; area, 430 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 12,952, of whom 4,284 were 
colored. The Occoquan river touches it on 
the S. W. The Orange, Alexandria, and Ma- 
nassas, and the Washington and Ohio railroads 
pass through it. On the bank of the Potomac, 
in this county, and 15 m. below Washington 
city, stands Mount Yernon, the residence of 
George Washington. The surface is generally 
hilly. The soil in some places is sandy, and in 
others is nearly worn out ; but there are many 
fertile and well cultivated districts. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 69,982 bushels of 
wheat, 295,330 of Indian corn, 120,072 of 
oats, 71,227 of potatoes, 8,097 tons of hay, 
and 178,345 Ibs. of butter. There were 2,811 
horses, 3,907 milch cows, 3,325 other cattle, 
2,414 sheep, and 7,152 swine; 4 flour and 6 
saw mills, 12 manufactories of carriages and 
wagons, and 2 of bricks. Capital, Fairfax 
Court House. 



FAIRFAX, Edward, an English poet, born at 
Dcnton, Yorkshire, died in the parish of Fay- 
stone about 1633. The translation of Tasso's 
"Jerusalem Delivered," by which alone his 
name is remembered, was made in his youth, 
and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and was 
long enthusiastically admired. The first edi- 
tion was dated 1600. Its popularity has re- 
vived in the present century, and several edi- 
tions have appeared in England and the United 
States. The last American edition was in 
1855. He also wrote a few eclogues, a prose 
work on demonology, and a "History of Ed- 
ward the Black Prince," the manuscript of 
which was destroyed by fire at Whitehall. 

FAIRFAX, Thomas, third Baron Fairfax of 
Cameron, in the Scottish peerage, grand-nephew 
of the preceding, a parliamentary general in 
the civil wars of Charles I., born at Denton, 
Yorkshire, in January, 1611, died at Bilburgh, 
near York, Nov. 12, 1671. He studied at St. 
John's college, Cambridge, served as a volun- 
teer in Holland, under the command of Lord 
Yere, whose daughter he afterward married, 
returned to England in 1634 or 1635, and lived 
in retirement till the breaking out of the war 
in 1642. When the king set about raising a 
guard for his person at York, Fairfax presented 
himself at the head of a multitude of 100,000, 
praying that he would return and hearken to 
his parliament. The first hostilities occurring 
in Yorkshire, Fairfax's father, Ferdinando, 
second Lord Fairfax, was made general of the 
parliamentary forces in the north, with himself 
(then Sir Thomas Fairfax) as his general of the 
horse. They were denounced as traitors by 
the earl of Newcastle, the royal commander 
in those parts, who in turn was proclaimed a 
traitor by the parliament. The Fairfaxes were 
defeated in several encounters, and completely 
routed in an attack upon the royalist forces 
under the earl of Newcastle at Atherton Moor. 
The first parliamentary success of 1644 was 
that of Nantwich, in Cheshire, where Sir 
Thomas Fairfax defeated Byron with great loss, 
and Monk, the future restorer of the monarchy, 
was taken prisoner. Fairfax then joined the 
Scotch army, which to the number of 20,000, 
under the command of Lord Leven, had crossed 
the Tyne, and united with the earl of Manches- 
ter's army, in which Cromwell was major 
general. At Marston Moor, near York, on 
July 2, Fairfax gained a temporary success ; 
but the victory was decided only by the steady 
v;ilor of the republicans under Cromwell. 
York was immediately forced to surrender, 
and Sir Thomas quickly reduced the remaining 
royalist fortresses north of the Trent, and after 
the passage of the self-denying ordinance in 
1 645 received from parliament the appointment 

f commander-in-chief. On April 3 he de- 
parted for Windsor, where with the assistance 
of Cromwell, who was his lieutenant, he set 
about remodelling the army. On June 14 the 
hostile forces met at Naseby, where Fairfax 
and Cromwell pierced the royalist ranks in all 

directions. The personal valor of Fairfax was 
especially signalized in this battle. He was 
constantly in the thickest of the fight, and 
rode about bareheaded after his helmet was 
beaten to pieces. He now quickly recovered 
Leicester, Langport, Bridgewater, and Bath. 
Bristol soon surrendered, and the speedy re- 
duction of the kingdom followed, Fairfax and 
Cromwell having to this end divided their 
forces. In the politics of the dominant party 
Fairfax had now to play the difficult part of 
a sincere advocate of monarchical power. He 
seems to have been led on by Cromwell, and 
to have been the instrument of projects whose 
depth he could not fathom. In 1648 he anni- 
hilated the last remains of the royalist party 
at Colchester. His own influence declined as 
that of Cromwell and the Independents in- 
creased ; and though his loyal instincts re- 
coiled from the judicial trial of the king, he 
was unable to prevent it. He accepted the 
command of all the forces of England and Ire- 
land under the new government, put down the 
Levellers in Oxfordshire, and composed the 
troubles in Hampshire. When in 1650 the 
Scots declared for Charles II., he refused to 
march against them, and laid down his com- 
mission. When Monk entered England, Fair- 
fax took possession of York, Jan. 1, 1660. He 
gave his consent to the restoration of the mon- 
archy, and presented to King Charles the horse 
on which he rode to his coronation, after which 
he went into retirement. Lord Fairfax was a 
friend of learning, and in his youth devoted 
much attention to antiquarian studies. During 
the siege of York, when a tower containing 
many ancient documents was blown up, he re- 
warded the soldiers for bringing him as many 
as could be found, and employed Roger Dods- 
worth to copy them ; they now make a part 
of the Monasticon Anglicanum. When he 
took possession of Oxford, June 24, 1646, he 
set a guard over the Bodleian library, which 
otherwise might have been destroyed. He 
wrote a narrative of his career from the com- 
mencement of the war, not intended for the 
public eye, but which was published in 1699 
under the title of " Short Memorials of Thomas, 
Lord Fairfax." See " The Fairfax Correspon- 
dence," edited from the family manuscripts by 
Kobert Bell (4 vols., London, 1849) ; and "Life 
of the Great Lord Fairfax," by C. E. Mark- 
ham (1870). 

FAIRFAX, Thomas, sixth Baron Fairfax of 
Cameron, a British nobleman, born about 
1690, died at Greenway Court, near Winches- 
ter, Va., in 1782. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, enjoyed a reputation as a wit and man of 
letters, and contributed some papers to the 
"Spectator." He visited Virginia in 1739 to 
look after the large estates he had inherited 
from his mother, the daughter of Lord Cul- 
peper, governor of the province between 
1680 and 1683. They comprised upward of 
5,700,000 acres lying between the Potomac 
and Kappahannock rivers, on both sides of the 



Blue Ridge, including a great portion of the 
Shenandoah valley. He resided afterward 
at Belvoir, near Mount Vernon, on the Poto- 
mac. In 1748 he made the acquaintance of 
George Washington, then a youth of 16, and, 
impressed with his energy and talents, em- 
ployed him to survey his lands lying west of the 
Blue Ridge. This was the commencement of 
an intimacy between Fairfax and Washington, 
which survived all differences of opinion on 
political subjects, and terminated only with 
the death of the former. So favorable was the 
report of Washington, that his employer soon 
after took up his residence at Greenway Court, 
in the midst of a manor of 10,000 acres, about 
12 miles from Winchester, where during the 
remainder of his life he lived in a state of ba- 
ronial hospitality. During the panic on the 
Virginian frontier after the defeat of Braddock, 
Fairfax organized a troop of horse, and, as 
lord lieutenant of Frederick county, called out 
the local militia. During the revolutionary 
war he adhered to the royal cause. The sur- 
render at Yorktown deeply wounded his na- 
tional pride, and, according to tradition, was 
the immediate cause of his death, which hap- 
pened soon after. The generosity of Lord 
Fairfax is exemplified in the, surrender of his 
large estates in England to his brother, and in 
his frequent gifts of lands to his poor neighbors 
in Virginia. The title is still vested in his 
descendants, the present and llth baron (1874) 
being John Coutee Fairfax, M. D., of Bladens- 
burg, Md. 

FAIRFIELD. I. A S. W. county of Connecti- 
cut, bordering on Long Island sound and the 
state of New York, and bounded N. E. by the 
Housatonic river ; area, 647 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 95,276. It has excellent harbors all 
along the coast, and contains several important 
commercial ports. The Housatonic is naviga- 
ble by steamboats, and supplies valuable water 
power. The surface of the county is consider- 
ably diversified, and the soil is good. It is 
traversed by numerous railroads connecting 
with New York, New Haven, Albany, &c. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 13,312 bushels 
of wheat, 46,457 of rye, 285,683 of Indian 
corn, 172,482 of oats, 515,128 of potatoes, 78,- 
950 tons of hay, 880,261 Ibs. of butter, and 
190,047 of tobacco. There were 5,652 horses, 
14,214 milch cows, 15,263 other cattle, 6,082 
sheep, and 8,200 swine. There were 754 
manufacturing establishments, with an aggre- 
gate capital of $12,145,097. The most impor- 
tant were 2 of ammunition, 12 of boots and 
shoes, 7 of buttons, 24 of carriages and wagons, 
32 of clothing, 3 of cotton goods, 3 of drugs 
and chemicals, 1 of small arms, 7 of furniture, 
4 of gas, 14 of hardware, 6 of hat materials, 
27 of hats and caps, 1 of rubber goods, 2 of 
patent and enamelled leather, 4 of engines and 
boilers, 5 of tombstones, 18 of saddlery and 
harness, 7 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 1 of 
sewing-machine fixtures, 3 of sewing machines, 
1 of steel, 3 of steel springs, 1 of straw goods, 

23 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of 
wire work, 9 of woollen goods, 1 planing mill, 
23 flour mills, 13 iron works, and 4 brass 
founderies. Capitals, Bridgeport and Danbury. 
II. A N. central county of South Carolina, 
bounded S. W. by Broad river, and N. E. by 
the Wateree ; area, 680 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
19,888, of whom 14,101 were colored. It has 
an uneven surface and a fertile soil. It is 
traversed by the Charlotte, Columbia, and 
Augusta, the Spartanburg and Union, and the 
Greenfield and Columbia railroads. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 28,005 bushels of 
wheat, 218,054 of Indian corn, 16,269 of oats, 
and 14,024 bales of cotton. There were 1,142 
horses, 2,556 mules and asses, 2,891 milch 
cows, 3,900 other cattle, and 6,044 swine. 
Capital, Winnsborough. III. A central coun- 
ty of Ohio, with a surface diversified by hills, 
plains, and rolling lands, and a soil of great 
fertility; area, 490 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 81,- 
138. It is intersected by the Ohio and Hock- 
ing canals, and the Cincinnati and Muskingum 
Valley and the Hocking Valley railroads ; and 
is drained by the head stream of Hocking river, 
and by several small creeks. Limestone and 
freestone are abundant. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 553,924 bushels of wheat, 1,706,- 
216 of Indian corn, 24,238 of oats, 24,431 of 
barley, 116,231 of potatoes, 25,107 tons of hay, 
609,348 Ibs. of butter, and 175,239 of wool. 
There were 8,728 horses, 7,956 milch cows, 
13,204 other cattle, 40,138 sheep, and 35,995 
swine ; 4 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 12 of carriages and wagons, 9 of clothing, 
4 of iron castings, 12 of saddlery and harness, 
4 of woollen goods, 2 planing and 9 saw mills, 
8 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, 4 brew- 
eries, and 13 flour mills. Capital, Lancaster. 

FAIRFIELD, a town, port of entry, and for- 
merly capital of Fairfield co., Connecticut, on 
Long Island sound, and on the New York and 
New Haven railroad, 20 m. W. S. W. of New 
Haven; pop. in 1870, 5,645. The village is 
half a mile from the sound, principally on one 
broad street, and in the vicinity is a spacious 
hotel for summer visitors. The village of 
Greenfield Hill, in which Dr. Timothy D wight 
resided, is in this town. About 1-J- m. E. of Fair- 
field village is Black Rock, one of the finest 
harbors in Connecticut, accessible for large 
vessels at all times of the tide. About 2 m. 
W. of Fairfield, at the mouth of Mile river, is 
the village of Southport, the principal business 
centre of the town. The value of the foreign 
commerce for the year ending June 30, 1873, 
was $29,410. There were registered, enrolled, 
and licensed 184 vessels of 11,507 tons, of 
which 175 of 8,918 tons were sailing vessels, 7" 
steamers, and 2 barges ; built during the year, 
19 vessels of 210 tons. The town contains 2 
carriage factories, a harness factory, a national 
bank, a savings institution, an insurance agen- 
cy, 16 public schools, and 7 churches. Fair- 
field was settled in 1639, and incorporated in 
1616. In 1779 it was burned by the British 



linder Gov. Try on. Since the census of 1870 
a portion containing about 1,900 inhabitants 
has been annexed to Bridgeport. 

FAIRIES, supernatural beings, generally hu- 
man in appearance, but endowed with super- 
human power, who have played an important 
part in the popular superstition of nearly all 
nations, and are still believed to exist by the 
common people of many countries. The origin 
of the word is obscure, but it is probably related 
to the Latin fata, (pi. of fatum\ which is the 
Italian (sing.) for fairy. The difference between 
a fairy and a god or goddess of ancient Greece 
and other polytheistic lands is very small in re- 
gard to the superhuman power which they are 
believed to possess ; but fairies are never objects 
of worship, or of religious sentiment and cere- 
mony, though occasionally invoked for aid, or 
propitiated. Fairies are believed to suffer death 
after a more or less extended period. They 
are either benevolent or malicious, and accord- 
ingly either the protectors or persecutors of 
human beings. Some seem to have no other 
purpose than that of enticing young mortals 
into their habitations, and treating them for a 
season to all manner of sensual pleasure. Their 
nature varies, however, with every nation. 
The acvins of the Hindoo Vedas are the general 
helpers of favorite individuals ; they assist in 
love intrigues, remove bodily infirmities, supply 
riches, succor in danger, and ride in chariots of 
gold. But numerous similar beings are spoken 
of in the Vedas, and it may be that the adityas, 
also commonly mentioned with the epithet asu- 
ra, belong to the same class. The peris of the 
Persian legends are delicate creatures of won- 
drous beauty, and either male or female. They 
protect mortals against the power of the devs, 
who strive to drag them into sin and eternal 
destruction. Though not immortal, they en- 
joy great longevity ; and though possessed of 
superhuman power, they are quite human in 
sentiment and passion. The Arabs believe in 
jinns, who take the place of the Persian peris, 
and fight against the devs. They are said to 
have lived on earth several thousand years 
before Adam, and a tradition from the pro- 
phet says they were formed of smokeless fire. 
They are to die before the general resurrection, 
but many of them have already been slain by 
shooting stars hurled at them from heaven. 
Not all are obedient to the will of God ; some 
become ghouls and side with the devs. They 
are said to dwell with the peris in the moun- 
tains of Kaf, or Jinnestan, which is the boun- 
dary region of the flat circular earth. They 
propagate their species, and unite sometimes 
with human beings. They can render them- 
selves visible and invisible, and assume the 
form of animals. The Jews believed in beings 
like the Arabian jinns, whom they called she- 
dim, sehirim, or mazzikim. According to Tal- 
mudical legends, the shedim were offspring of 
Adam, who after having eaten from the tree of 
life was under excommunication for 130 years, 
and begat during that time spirits, demons, 
312 VOL. vn. 5 

and spectres of the night. They are said to re- 
semble angels in being able to see without being 
seen, in having wings, and in knowing the 
future ; and to resemble man in eating and 
drinking, marrying, and bearing children, and 
in being subject to death. They have the 
power of assuming any form they please. The 
Grecian mythology abounds in personifications, 
and the beings who presided over the various 
parts of external nature were mostly con- 
ceived to be females, and were denominated 
nymphs, which originally signified newly mar- 
ried women. They were always represented in 
the perfection of beauty, and dwelt, under the 
various names of oreads, dryads, naiads, lim- 
niads, and nereids, in mountains, trees, springs, 
lakes, the sea, caverns, and grottoes. Their 
life resembled that of women, and they oc* 
casionally bestowed their love on mortals. 
They possessed power to reward and punish, 
and to protect and persecute. The fairies of 
the Romans were like those of Greece, and 
were generally supposed to lead a solitary life 
in fountains, streams, and lakes. Of these Ege- 
ria, Anna Perenna, and Juturna were the most 
famous. The rural lares resembled the Gothic 
dwarfs in size, and were regarded as being the 
souls of dead men who lingered near their 
earthly habitations. The lares formed part of 
the Etrurian religion, and differed from the 
penates, who were not fairy-like beings, but 
gods, or personifications of natural powers. 
The old Italians believed in a being, called an 
incubo, that had the power of revealing hidden 
treasures. A being very much resembling it 
occurs still in the popular tales of modern Na- 
ples. He is a stout little man with a broad- 
brimmed hat and a long coat, and leads people 
to places where treasures are concealed. His 
name is Monacello, which is given also to other 
diminutive beings resembling the house spirit 
of the Germanic nations. The most prominent 
figures in ancient and modern Italian legends 
are the fate. These beings are ruled by Demo- 
gorgon, who resides in the Himalaya moun- 
tains, and are summoned to him every fifth 
year. One of them, the Fata Morgana, was 
the personification of Fortune, and plays an 
important role in the Orlando innamorato. 
In that poem Boiardo introduces the Fata Sil- 
vanella, who raised a tomb over Narcissus, 
and then dissolved away in a fountain; and 
when Brandamarte opens the tomb and kisses 
the hideous serpent that thrusts out its head, 
it becomes a beautiful maiden. Other fate are 
Nera, Bianca, Alcina, Dragontina, and Falerina. 
The fairies of Spain are not very numerous, 
and Spanish fairy lore is very scanty. There 
is a tale of a girl seized by demons who re- 
side at the bottom of a lake ; another of a 
nobleman who married a woman that flew into 
the air at hearing the name of the Virgin 
Mary ; and another of a hunchback musician, 
who was one night surrounded by little beings, 
whom he so pleased with his art that they 
removed his hunch. The greatest reputation 


is enjoyed by the duendes and trasgos, who re- 
semble the house spirits. The dracs of southern 
France assume the human form, reside in the 
caverns of rivers, and entice bathing women 
and boys. The follets inhabit the houses of 
simple country people, and are invisible, though 
their voices are heard ; their chief employ- 
ment seems to be pelting people with stones 
and household utensils. There are also ac- 
counts of spirits who suddenly enter a house, 
ransack and upset everything, and torment 
those who are sleeping in it. The fadas were 
fairy ladies who became the spouses of men, 
and lived with them in great felicity ; but when 
a husband discovered the secret of their nature, 
or became unfaithful, he either died instantly 
or led a wretched life for the remainder of his 
days. The fees, lutins, or gobelins of the north 
of France are similar to the kobolds and nisses 
of other nations. The fees are small and 
handsome, dance in circles or fairy rings by 
night, haunt solitary springs and grottoes, 
mount and gallop strange horses, sitting upon 
the neck and tying together locks of the mane 
to form stirrups, always bring luck by their 
presence, and, like the fairies of most coun- 
tries, were believed to preside at births, to 
love young children, to give them presents, 
and to steal them away, leaving instead their 
own fairy offspring, which were called change- 
lings, and were unusually beautiful in counte- 
nance but evil in propensities. In the 12th and 
13th centuries the forest of Brezeliande, near 
Quentin in Brittany, was thought to contain the 
tomb of Merlin, and to be a chief seat of the 
fairies. The white ladies were Norman fairies, 
and often malignant. They were supposed to 
be attached to certain great families, in whose 
affairs they interfered, sometimes for good, 
sometimes for evil. The white lady of Avenel 
in Scott's romance of " The Monastery " is an 
instance of this kind. The lutins or goblins 
were playful and malicious elves, pinching 
children and maidens, twisting their hair into 
inexplicable knots when they were asleep, and 
delighting to perplex peasants and to bring 
them into difficulty. One of the chief articles 
of accusation against the maid of Orleans was 
that she resorted to a fountain of the fairies to 
see her visions; and in Brittany there are 
fountains still regarded by the natives as sacred 
to the fairies, and believed to sometimes change 
into gold or diamond the hand that is inserted 
into them. The Eddas of the Scandinavians 
tell of alfs that are either whiter than the sun 
and live on earth, or blacker than pitch, and 
live under ground; and of dvergar, who are 
diminutive beings dwelling in rocks and hills, 
and skilful workmen in gold, silver, and iron. 
The alfs live still in the imagination of the 
peasantry of Scandinavia, and are distinguish- 
ed as either white or black. The white alfs 
are the good elves, who dwell in the air, dance 
on the grass, and have when they show them- 
selves a handsome human form. The black 
alfs are the evil elves, who frequently inflict 

injury on mankind. The elves are believed to 
have kings, and to celebrate weddings and en- 
joy banqueting, and singing. The Norwegians 
call the elves huldrctfouc, and their music hul- 
draslaat. There is also a tune called the elf 
king's tune, which is well known, but not 
sung or played ; for as soon as it begins both 
old and young, and even inanimate objects, 
are impelled to dance, and the player cannot 
stop unless he manages to play the tune back- 
ward. The Danes call the elves ellefolk, and 
believe that they live in elle moors. An elf 
man is an old man with a low-crowned hat. 
The elf woman is young and fair in front, 
but behind she is hollow like a dough trough ; 
and she has an instrument which when she 
plays on it ravishes the hearts of young men. 
The more usual appellation of the dwarfs is troll 
or trold, and they are represented as living 
either in single families or in large communities 
inside of hills and mounds. Their character 
seems to have gradually sunk down to the 
level of the peasantry. They are regarded as 
rich, obliging, and neighborly, but they have 
a sad propensity for stealing. The nisses are 
domestic fairies of Norway, and are fond of 
frolicking by moonlight and of driving in 
sledges in the winter. Every church had its 
niss, who was then called a TcirJcegrim; it 
looked after propriety of manners and pun- 
ished misconduct. The rivers and lakes are 
inhabited by necks, stromkarls, and other beings 
similar to mermen and mermaids. They are 
wonderful musicians, and when they play on 
their harps all nature has to dance. The 
Germans believed in dwarfs and elves, wild 
women, kobolds, and nixes or water spirits. 
The dwarfs were also known as the still 
people and the little people, and had their 
abodes underground and in the clefts of 
mountains. They visited the surface of the 
earth only by night, and could render them- 
selves invisible and pass through rocks and 
walls. They were generally benevolent. The 
beings called "little wights" inhabited south- 
ern Germany. They are only a few inches in 
stature, and look like old men with long beards, 
dressed like miners, with lanterns and tools. 
They announce a death in a family by knock- 
ing three times. The wild women are beauti- 
ful, and live in the mountain Wunderberg, on 
the moor near Salzburg. Kobolds assist in the 
household, and love to play tricks on the ser- 
vants. The miner's kobold reveals valuable 
veins and protects the virtuous. The nixes 
inhabit lakes and rivers ; the male is like a man, 
old and long-bearded, has green teeth, and 
always wears a green hat ; the female appears 
sometimes as a beautiful maiden, but often in 
a body terminating in the form of a fish or 
of a horse. They have magnificent dwellings 
under the water, to which they love to en- 
tice handsome mortals. They comb their 
golden locks on sunny days, sitting on rocks 
and trees. In Ireland and Scotland fairies 
were believed to shoot at cattle with arrows 




headed with flint, and thus to bewitch them ; 
these small arrowheads are known to the 
country people and antiquaries as elf arrows. 
The elf fire was the ignis fatuus, and other 
luminous points on moors and heaths were 
called fairy sparks. A mole or defect on a 
person was a fairy nip or an elvish mark, and 
a matted lock of hair in the neck an elf lock. 
The Gaelic fairies are very handsome, are usu- 
ally attired in green, and dance, lend and bor- 
row, and make shoes very rapidly. The Gaels 
call them daoine sJii or men of peace, and their 
habitations shians or tomhams, which are like 
turrets, and consist of masses of stone. Some 
mortals have been among them, and after 
banqueting with them they fell asleep and 
awoke after a hundred years. The brownie and 
kelpie of the Highlands seek to decoy unwary 
people to ride on them when they appear in 
the form of horses, and plunge with them into 
the neighboring loch or river. The fairies of 
England correspond with those of the Scan- 
dinavians and Germans, but the fairies of the 
English people are somewhat different from 
those of the poets. The popular fairies were 
either rural elves, inhabiting woods, fields, 
mountains, and caverns ; or house spirits, usu- 
ally called hobgoblins or Robin Goodfellows. 
The fairies of the " Faerie Queen " of Spen- 
ser and those of the "Midsummer Night's 
Drearn " are not the same. The former are 
stately beings, typical of the moral virtues, 
with traits borrowed from the Italian fairy 
mythology, dwelling in enchanted castles, sur- 
rounded by courts of knights and ladies, and 
ruling over extensive kingdoms. Shakespeare 
adopted the elves and pixies of popular super- 
stition, with their diminutive stature, fondness 
for dancing, love of cleanliness, and child- 
stealing propensities, formed them into a com- 
munity ruled over by Oberon and Titania or 
Queen Mab, and gave immortality to "that 
merry wanderer of the night," Puck, alias 
Robin Goodfellow, alias Hobgoblin. The 
"Mad Pranks and Merry Jests of Robin Good- 
fellow " (printed by the Percy society, 1841) 
was originally published in the age of Shake- 
speare, and furnishes the first records of this 
mischievous son of a fairy, who "from hag- 
bred Merlin's time " had been famous for his 
pranks. Corresponding to him are the Ril- 
bezahl or Number Nip of German fairy lore, 
the Cluricaune of Ireland, the Eulenspiegel of 
Germany, and the Howleglass or Owlespiegle of 
Scotland. The North American Indians have 
many quaint fairy legends, which have been 
collected and narrated by Schoolcraft ; and it 
appears from Mitford's "Tales of Old Japan" 
that the Japanese have numerous books of 
fairy stories, in which the fox plays an impor- 
tant part. These stories are mostly for children. 
The earliest collection of European fairy 
stories in prose was the Italian Notti piacevoli 
of Straparola (Venice, 1550). The best Ital- 
ian collection is the Pentamerone of Giambat- 
tista Basile (Naples, 1637 ; translated from 

the Neapolitan by W. E. Taylor, London, 
1856) ; it is full of learned allusions and keen 
satire, and designed for the amusement only 
of grown persons. Near the end of the 17th 
century the Contes des fees of Perrault and 
Madame d'Auluoy, and their successors, gave 
vogue to fairy stories throughout Europe, writ- 
ten chiefly for the instruction and amusement 
of children. The " Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments," introduced into Europe by Galland 
about the beginning of the 18th century, con- 
tributed much to their popularity, and was 
quickly followed by various imitations of the 
Arabian, Persian, Turkish, and Mongol tales. 
The " Tales of the Genii " by James Ridley, 
the Fables et contes indiens of Langles, and 
the later Contes chinois of Remusat, are ex- 
amples. The best later imitations are some of 
the tales of Tieck, Musaus, and Novalis, and 
especially of La Motte Fouque, and the ro- 
mance of the caliph " Vathek," by Beckford. 
Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tales hold a 
high rank in this species of literature. The 
best works on the subject are Keightley's 
" Fairy Mythology " (enlarged ed., 1850) ; 
Scott's "Essay on the Fairy Superstition," in 
the "Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border;" 
Croker's "Fairy Legends and Traditions of 
the South of Ireland " (1825) ; Dalyell's " Dark- 
er Superstitions of Scotland" (1838); "Rus- 
sian Popular Tales," translated from the Ger- 
man of Dietrich, with an introduction by 
Grimm (London, 1857); Dasent's "Popular 
Tales from the Norse " (1859) ; Strahlheim's 
SagenscJiatz aller VolJcer der alien Welt (Frank- 
fort, 1862) ; Braun's NaturgescMcJite der Sage 
(2 vols., Munich, 1864-'5); and Kremer's 
Ueber die sudarabiscJte Sage (Leipsic, 1866). 


FAITHORNE. I. William, an English engraver, 
born in London about 1625, died there in May, 
1691. He was a pupil of Sir Robert Peake, 
served under him in the royal army, was cap- 
tured at Basinghouse and confined in Alders- 
gate, and engraved several plates while in 
prison. He was at length released and went 
to France, where he received instruction from 
Robert Nanteuil. In 1650 he was permitted to 
return, and set up a shop near Temple Bar, 
where he did a large business in Italian, 
Dutch, and English prints, and also continued 
his professional work. He is most famous for 
his portraits, of which he produced a large 
number, including Cromwell, Prince Rupert, 
Milton, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Thomas Hobbes, 
and Robert Boyle. In 1662 he published a 
treatise on engraving and etching. II. William, 
son of the preceding, born in 1656, died in 
1686. Like his father, his best works were 
portraits ; but he confined himself mainly to 
the mezzotint process. He became dissipated, 
and died early. Among his portraits are those 
of Mary, princess of Orange, Queen Anne 
when princess of Denmark, and Dryden. 

FAKIR (an Arabic word meaning a poor 
man), the name of a mendicant order in the 



East Indies, like the dervishes of Persia and 
Turkey. The first condition of an Indian men- 
dicant monk is poverty. He wears a rent robe, 
such as the Mussulmans pretend the ancient 
prophets wore. In 10 things, according to 
Hassan al-Bassri, he is like a dog: he is al- 
ways hungry ; he has no sure abiding place ; 
he watches by night ; he never abandons his 
master, even when maltreated ; he is satisfied 


is highly honored. They are the children of 
poor parents, who live in retirement in mosques, 
devoted to the reading of the Koran and the 
study of the laws, till they become qualified for 
the duties of mollahs or doctors of theology. 
The fakirs often inflict upon themselves very 
severe penances. Some remain bent forward 
in the form of a right angle until they grow 
permanently into that shape. Others lay fire 
on their heads till their scalps are burned to 
the bone. Sometimes a fakir ties his wrists 
to his ankles, has his back plastered with filth, 
and then makes a journey of hundreds of 
miles, rolling along like a cart wheel, and 
stopping at the villages for rest and food. 

FALAISE (Lat. Falesid), a town of Norman- 
dy, France, in the department of Calvados, 
22 m. S. S. E. of Caen, on the river Ante, and 
on a branch of the Western railway ; pop. in 
1866, 8,621. It is built upon cliffs, command- 
ed by an old Norman castle and surrounded by 
a picturesque country. It has a communal 
college, a public library, several ancient 
churches, and an equestrian statue of William 
the Conqueror, who was born here, erected in 

Fakirs performing Penance. 

with the lowest place ; he yields his place to 
whoever wishes it; he loves whoever beats 
him; keeps quiet while others eat; accom- 
panies his master without ever thinking of re- 
turning to the place he has left ; and leaves 
no heritage after death. The number of Mus- 
sulman and Hindoo fakirs in India is estimated 
at more than 1,000,000 ; besides whom there 
are many other religious ascetics. Some fa- 
kirs remain isolated, go entirely naked, and 
sleep on the ground with no covering. They 
never use wood for making fire, but employ the 
dried dung of cows ; regarding this as an act 
of devotion, since the cow is a sacred animal 
in India. They carry a cudgel, a battle axe, or 
spear, on which are hung rags of various col- 
ors, and they traverse the country begging and 
instructing credulous people in religion. It is 
dangerous both to his money and life for an 
unprotected person to meet them. Another 
class of fakirs unite into companies, and wear 
fantastic and many-colored robes. They choose 
a chief, who is distinguished by having a 
poorer dress than the others, and who has a 
long chain attached to one of his legs. When 
he prays he shakes his chain, and the multi- 
tude press around him, embrace his feet, and 
receive his counsel and precepts. He has 
formulas for the cure of the paralytic, and es- 
pecially of sterile women, One class of fakirs 

Castle of Falaise. 

1851. The celebrated fair of Guibray, insti- 
tuted in the llth century, is annually held 
here in August in a suburb of that name. The 
town has manufactures of cotton and hosiery. 

FALASHAS, the Jewish population of Abys- 
sinia, numbering about 250,000, who have in- 
habited that country from time immemorial. 
Their name signifies exiles or wanderers, and 
they profess to have come originally from Pal- 



estine and to have belonged to the tribe of 
Levi. They are Jewish in their modes of life, 
though not in their appearance, and differ from 
their co-religionists in regarding commerce as 
incompatible with the Mosaic law. They cul- 
tivate the soil, and excel in various trades, es- 
pecially as architects. They are laborious and 
well behaved, but unable or unwilling to per- 
form military duty, from which they are con- 
sequently exempt. They are so rigid in the 
observance of the sabbath that they abstain 
even from dressing themselves on that day. 
They constituted in the higher regions of 
the country an independent tribe under the 
rule of their own kings and queens until 
the beginning of the 17th century, when they 
were driven from their mountain homes and 
compelled to reside among their enemies the 
Amharas. They live at present in the prov- 
inces of Dembea, Godjam, Quara, Tchelga, and 
Woggera ; and their villages are easily recog- 
nized by the red clay pots at the top of their 
synagogues. They have the Old Testament in 
the Geez language, and the apocryphal books 
which are accepted by the Abyssinian church. 
See articles by Joseph Halevy in the Bul- 
letin of the French geographical society, March 
and April, 1869.' 

FALCON, a bird of prey, belonging to the or- 
der raptores, family falconidm, subfamily fal- 
conina, and to the typical genus falco (Linn.). 
This subfamily contains the following genera, 
in addition to falco, of which about a dozen 
species are described: hypotriorchis (Boie), 
with as many species; ieracidea (Gould), with 
two species, found in Australia; tinnunculus 
(Vieill.), with a dozen species ; ierax (Vigors), 
with six species, in India and its islands ; and 
harpagus (Vigors), in South America, with a 
single species, characterized by having the 
lateral margin of the bill armed with two dis- 
tinct teeth on each side. The birds of these 
genera may all be called falcons, from the 
common characters of a short bill, much curved 
from the base to the tip, with its sides more or 
less furnished with serrations called teeth ; the 
cere covering the nostrils, which are rounded 
or linear ; the wings lengthened and pointed, 
the second and third quills generally the long- 
est ; the tail lengthened and rounded ; the toes 
long and slender, and claws curved and acute. 
The birds of the genus falco, which only will 
be treated in this article, are called noble birds 
of prey, because in proportion to their size 
they are the most courageous and powerful ; 
they are also more docile, and were formerly 
much used in the sport of falconry to pursue 
and kill game, returning to their masters when 
called. The pigeon hawk (H. columbarius), 
and the sparrow hawk (T. sparveriiis), though 
both falcons, will be described under these 
names. The falcons are found throughout the 
world, regardless of climate ; they are power- 
ful and rapid fliers, hovering over their prey 
and darting perpendicularly upon it ; they 
pursue birds chiefly, but attack also the smaller 

quadrupeds. The common or peregrine falcon 
(F. peregrinus, Linn.) has a large and round 
head, a short thin neck, a robust body broad 
in front, stout short tarsi, covered with imbri- 
cated scales largest in front, the tibial feathers 
covering the knee, long and strong toes and 

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). 

sharp claws. The plumage is compact and 
imbricated, the feathers rounded on the back, 
broad on the breast, long and pointed on the 
sides ; between the eye and bill and on the 
forehead they are bristly. The bill is blackish 
blue at the tip and pale green at the base, the 
iris hazel, the feet bright yellow, and the claws 
black. The head and hind neck in the adult 
male are grayish black tinged with blue, the 
rest of the upper parts dark bluish gray with 
indistinct dark brown bars; the quills dark 
brown, with transverse reddish white spots on 
the inner webs; the grayish brown tail has 
about 12 blackish bars, diminishing in breadth 
and intensity from the tip; the throat and 
front of neck white ; a broad triangular mark 
of blackish blue extends downward on the 
white of the cheeks from the corner of the 
mouth; the sides, breast, and thighs are red- 
dish white, with transverse dark brown spots ; 
the under wing feathers are whitish, with 
transverse darker bars. The length is about 
16 in., the extent of wings 30, bill 1, tarsus 
1, and middle toe 2. In old males the tints 
of the back become lighter, sometimes ash- 
gray ; the young males are darker, with rufous 
tips and edges to the feathers, and the tail is 
blacker, with reddish white tips and bars; 
there is considerable variety at the different 
ages in the birds of the United States and of 
Europe. Bonaparte calls the American bird 
F. anatum. The adult female, as in birds of 
prey generally, is nearly one third larger than 
the male, being about 20 in. in length, 36 in 
extent of wings, with the beak, tarsus, and 
toes longer; the color of the upper parts Js 
deeper brown, with the tips of the secondaries 
and tail whitish ; the transverse markings run 
higher up on the breast, and are broader and 



of deeper hue on the other parts; the color 
below is more yellowish, and the vent feathers 
are reddish. This falcon, which is also called 
the great-footed and the duck hawk, according 
to Audubon, was formerly rare in the United 
States, which it now can hardly be said to be. 
It flies with astonishing rapidity, turning in its 
course in the most surprising manner. A fa- 
vorite prey is the duck, which it seizes on the 
wing, on the surface of the water, or on land ; 
when within a few feet of its victim, it stretches 
out the legs and claws and drops upon the 
trembling bird almost perpendicularly ; if the 
victim is light, it flies off with it immediately 
to some quiet place ; if too heavy, it kills and 
devours it in the nearest convenient place. 
It has been known to attack a mallarc 1 on 
the wing, and even to pounce upon a wound- 
ed teal within a few yards of the sportsman. 
Pigeons, blackbirds, water fowl, and beach 
birds, and even dead fish, are eaten by this 
falcon. Turning the bird it has caught belly 
upward, it clears off the feathers from the 
breast and tears the flesh to pieces with great 
avidity. This species is solitary, except during 
the pairing of the breeding season, which is in 
very early spring ; it is found in all parts of 
the United States and in Cuba, coming to the 
south in the winter months. The nest is made 
of coarse sticks, generally on the shelf of some 
precipitous rock ; Audubon is of opinion that 
they breed in the United States ; they are 
common on the shores of Hudson bay and 
arctic America in summer, according to Rich- 
ardson ; the eggs are rounded, reddish brown, 
with irregular markings of a darker tint. The 
peregrine falcon is distributed over temperate 
Europe, where the country is mountainous and 
the seacoast precipitous. When in full plu- 
mage and good condition, for its compact mus- 
cular form, great strength, boldness, and fero- 
city, it may be taken as the very type of a bird 
of prey ; it is among birds what the lion and 
tiger are among mammals ; fearless in attack, 
swift in pursuit, strong and fierce, it justly 
claims the first rank among the noble birds of 
prey. Before the invention of gunpowder, fal- 
cons were very frequently trained to pursue 
herons and various kinds of game, and falconry 
was a favorite sport of kings and nobles ; even 
now falcons are occasionally used for this purpose 
in Great Britain. Birds of prey have been 
trained to the chase from remote antiquity ; 
the custom is mentioned by early writers, but 
it was not till the time of Huber, in 1784, that 
the distinction between birds of high and low 
flight, which had long been understood in prac- 
tice, was shown to exist in the anatomical 
structure of the wings and talons. The fal- 
cons belong to the former division ; from their 
long and slender and entire wings, when they 
wish to rise in the air vertically they are 
obliged to fly against the wind, though ob- 
liquely they easily mount to great elevations, 
where they sport rapidly in all directions ; they 
carry the head straight ; their claws are long, 

supple, and sharp, and their grasp is firm ; they 
seize their prey at once if small and slow, but 
strike repeatedly with their talons to weaken 
and arrest the flight of heavier and swifter 
birds, and with great precision attack the vital 
part at the hollow of the back of the head or 
between the shoulders and ribs. These birds 
have been called rowers from their mode of 
flight. The ignoble birds of prey, as the gos- 
hawk and other hawks, are called sailers ; their 
wings are shorter and thicker, with their sur- 
face interrupted by the unequal lengths of the 
quills, and they fly to best advantage with the 
wind, sailing with the wings extended and 
motionless, allowing themselves to be carried 
along by the wind ; their talons being shorter, 
less powerful, and straighter than in the falcon, - 
they strike with less force and precision, and 
when they have seized a bird or a quadruped 
compress it to death or strangle it with their 
claws ; their beaks are not toothed, and they 
can seldom penetrate the skulls of the larger 
birds ; they prefer to hunt in thick woods, while 
the falcons pursue their prey high in the air. 
Falcons and hawks are best trained from the 
nest ; they have bells attached to their feet, 
jesses of soft leather to the tarsi, and hoods 
on the head which prevent them from seeing 
while they allow them to eat ; birds taken after 
they have left the nest, or which have been 
caught in snares, are the most difficult to train, 
and confinement hunger, fatigue, and purga- 
tives are employed to subdue them to a point 
necessary for lessons ; they are taught to leap 
upon the hand of their master to receive food, 
which is placed on a rude representation, of the 
bird or animal which they are to be taught to 
pursue ; from an effigy they are advanced to 
living animals, with more or less length of 
tether, until left at perfect liberty. The larger 
and older the bird, the more- difficult the train- 
ing, and the most ignoble are generally the 
most rebellious ; in the order of docility these 
birds are the merlin, the hobby, the common 
falcon, and the gerfalcon (all noble birds) ; and 
the ignoble hawks are the least docile, though 
the goshawk is said to be very easily trained. 
They are fed with beef and mutton, deprived 
of all fat and tendon, and scrupulously cleaned 
of all dirt ; they are taught to pursue other 
birds of prey, the heron, the crow, the pie, 
larks, quails, partridges, the hare, and other 
game. Descriptions of the lordly sport of fal- 
conry can be found in the romances of Walter 
Scott and other delineators of the days of chiv- 
alry. (See FALCONET.) The falcon is a very 
long-lived bird ; there is a tale that one which 
belonged to James I. in 1610, with a gold collar 
bearing that date, was found at the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1793, and, though more than 
180 years old, was said to be possessed of con- 
siderable vigor ; but the natural term of life of 
this species must be much less. The falcon of 
Henry IV. of France flew from Fontainebleau 
to Malta, 1,000 miles, in a day ; and many sim- 
ilar instances of their speed are on record. 



The lanner (F. lanarius, Linn.) seems to be 
an undoubted species of northern Europe and 
Asia, and intermediate between the gerfalcon 
and the peregrine ; it is about 1|- ft. long, with 
wings two thirds as long as the tail ; its colors 
resemble those of the young peregrine, and the 

Lanner Falcon (F. lanarius). 

name has even been applied to immature birds 
of this species ; but Mr. Gould, in his " Birds 
of Europe," figures and describes it as distinct. 
It has not the black spots on the cheeks, and 
the markings of the breast are longitudinal 
instead of transverse. The Iceland falcon or 
gerfalcon (F. gyrfalco, Linn.) is the largest of 
the genus, and varies much in its appearance at 
different ages. In the adult the head is nearly 
white, the feathers of the crown having hair- 
brown shafts, those of the nape having the 
brown more extensive ; the under parts are 
white, the breast, thighs, and tail coverts pure 
white, but the sides and abdomen are often 

Gerfalcon (Falco gyrfalco). 

spotted and lined with brown ; the upper parts 
have the centre of the feathers hair-brown, 
with a white margin ; the greater coverts, sec- 
ondaries, and quills are barred with brown and 
edged with white, and the two central feath- 

ers of the otherwise white tail are barred with 
brown; the bill is pale bluish gray, with the 
upper tooth and the lower notch strongly de- 
veloped ; the legs and feet are colored like the 
bill. Some specimens are almost entirely white. 
The length is from 20 to 24 in., the extent of 
wings a, little over 4 ft., the bill 1 and the 
tarsus 2 in. ; according to Audubon, in the im- 
mature state, as observed by him in Labrador, 
the female, though the larger and heavier bird, 
has the extent of wings less by an inch than 
the male; the weight of the male is a few 
ounces less, and that of the female a few ounces 
more than 3 Ibs. The form is that of a very 
powerful bird, the tail being longer in propor- 
tion than that of the peregrine, and the tarsi 
feathered If in. downward. It ranges over 
the northern regions of Europe and America ; 
Iceland is one" of its favorite resorts, so much so 
that the bird has received one of its most com- 
mon names from this island ; it is found along 
the precipitous shores of Norway and Sweden, 
and in Greenland, the arctic regions, and the 
Hudson bay district, extending as far south as 
Labrador, where Audubon found it breeding; 
it is rare in Great Britain, and is a northern 
and maritime species, especially frequent near 
the breeding places of sea fowl. In manner, 
flight, and cry it resembles the peregrine, be- 
ing if possible more daring. In falconry this 
species was highly prized, and extraordinary 
prices were formerly paid for individuals ; they 
were brought chiefly from Iceland and Nor- 
way. There is still much uncertainty about 
the varieties of this bird ; naturalists generally 
make but one species, but falconers are of 
opinion that the Iceland and the Norway birds 
are distinct species ; if the latter be true, the 
American bird may also prove different from 
any of the European species. The American 
bird is sometimes called F. Islandicus (Gmel.). 
Audubon describes and figures a pair of im- 
mature birds which he obtained in Labrador 
in August. The general color of the plumage 
in this condition is brownish gray above, the 
feathers having a narrow paler margin; the 
upper tail coverts, quills, and tail are tipped, 
spotted, and barred with brownish white ; the 
throat is brownish white, with five streaks of 
brown, and the lower parts generally are of 
the former color, longitudinally patched with 
dark brown ; the under tail coverts are striped 
alternately brown and white. The female has 
the same colors, except in having the two mid- 
dle tail feathers spotted with white like the 
others, these in the male being without the 
spots. The nest found by Audubon was about 
2 ft. in diameter, flat, made of sticks, sea- 
weed, and mosses. The eggs, according to 
Mr. Yarrell, are dull white, mottled all over 
with pale reddish brown. They feed in Lab- 
rador on puffins, grouse, partridges, ducks, 
hares, and other animals of this size, and 
also on fish. Mr. Hancock (* ' Annals and Mag- 
azine of Natural History," vol. xiii., 1854, p. 
110), who described the Greenland falcon (F. 



Oroenlandicus, Hanc.) as a distinct species, 
says it is never dark-colored like the young of 
the Iceland falcon, its plumage from the nest 
being whiter than the mature livery of the lat- 
ter, and not unfrequently as white as that of the 
adults of its own species. The mature Green- 
land bird is distinguished from the young by 
the cordate and arrow-head markings of the 
back and scapulars; the young have above 
large oblong spots, with long narrow dashes on 
the head and lower parts, the marking from 
dark gray becoming with age almost black ; the 
cere, feet, and toes also change from light livid 
blue to pale yellow. Like other falcons, it gets 
the mature plumage at the first moult. In fact, 
the Greenland falcon may be said to have a 
white plumage with dark markings, and the 
Iceland bird dark plumage with white mark- 
ings ; whether they are distinct species will be 
determined by the definition of what consti- 
tutes specific characters. Both species occur 
in America ; the Greenland bird probably does 
not breed in Iceland, and is only occasional- 
ly seen there, driven from its more northern 
haunts by severe weather ; the Iceland bird 
sometimes breeds in Greenland. The weight 
of evidence seems to be in favor of these birds 
being distinct species. Other falcons, which 
have been trained to pursue game, are the H. 
subbuteo, H. cesalon, and T. alaudarius, which 
will be described respectively under the popu- 
lar names of HOBBY, MEBLIN, and KESTEEL. 

FALCONE, Anicllo, an Italian painter, born in 
Naples in 1600, died in France in 1665. He 
was a pupil of Spagnoletto, and set up an acad- 
emy of his own. At the time of Masaniello's 
revolt he formed his pupils into a secret band 
for retaliation upon the Spaniards. When the 
insurrection was ended he fled to France, 
where he was employed by Colbert. He is 
especially famous for his battle pieces. They 
are not .numerous, and command great prices. 
Their excellence is in their extreme fidelity to 
nature, and their brilliant coloring. Salvator 
Rosa was one of his numerous pupils. 

FALCONER, Hngh, a British palaeontologist, 
born at Forres, Scotland, Feb. 29, 1808, died 
in England, Jan. 31, 1865. He studied at the 
universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, re- 
ceived his diploma as physician in 1829, was 
employed as surgeon by the East India com- 
pany, and in 1832 as director of a botanical 
garden in one of the Anglo-Indian towns, 
whence he explored the Himalaya. He pub- 
lished " Selections from the Bostan of Saadi " 
(London, 1838), and (jointly with T. Proby 
Cautley) Fauna Antigua Swalensis (1846), a 
laborious work, with descriptions of numerous 
fossils in the Sivalik hills. The " Palseontolo- 
gical Memoirs of Hugh Falconer " (2 vols., 1868) 
include a sketch of his life. 

FALCONER, William, a British poet, born in 
Edinburgh about 1730, lost at sea in 1769. He 
was the son of a barber, whose other children 
were all deaf and dumb. At the age of 18 
being second mate of the Britannia, he was 


shipwrecked off Cape Colonna, on the coast 
of Greece, and was one of the three who sur- 
vived the wreck, which afterward became the 
subject of his principal poem, "The Ship- 
wreck." This was published in 1762. He 
compiled a "Universal Marine Dictionary" 
(republished in 1815, enlarged and modernized 
by W. Burney, LL. D.), and wrote several 
poems, including a political satire directed 
against Lord Chatham, Wilkes, and Churchill. 
In 1769 he sailed for India in the frigate Au- 
rora, which, after touching at the Cape of 
Good Hope, was never heard from again. 

FALCONET, Etienne Maurice, a French sculptor, 
born in Paris in 1716, died in 1791. He was a 
pupil of Lemoine, and early gained distinction 
by a statue of Milo of Crotona. Many of his 
works were destroyed at the time of the revolu- 
tion. None of them were equal in merit to the 
immense bronze equestrian statue of Peter the 
Great, which he executed at St. Petersburg, 
by order of Catharine II., in l776-'8. 

FALCONRY, the art of training falcons or 
other birds of prey for the chase, the sport it- 
self being called in English hawking, in French 
le vol. A falconry is also the place where such 
birds are kept. The practice is very ancient 
in Europe, and yet more so in Asia. "We have 
no mention of it among the Romans till after 
the time of Vespasian. It was certainly in 
existence in the 4th and 5th centuries. In 
Britain it appears to have been a favorite rec- 
reation in the reign of Ethelbert II. of Kent, 
A. D. 760. King Alfred had his falconers, and a 
book on falconry is still extant attributed to Ed- 
ward the Confessor. Harold II. is represented 
in the Bayeux tapestry as visiting the court 
of Duke William of Normandy with a hawk on 
his fist. The Domesday book makes frequent 
mention of falconries and eyries for breeding. 
In the time of Henry II., William Knot, the 
king's tenant, paid his rent at the exchequer in 
three hawks and three gerfalcons. King John 
was devoted to the sport. Nicholas, a Dane, 
was to give the king a hawk every time he 
came trading to England. The sport died out 
in England in the time of the Stuarts. In 
France falconry was most practised in the time 
of Francis I. (1515-'47). His grand falconer 
had an annual re venue of 4,000 florins, and had 
under him 50 gentlemen and 50 falconers, the 
whole establishment costing annually 40,000 
florins. Under Louis XIV. the institution was 
yet more expensive. Louis XVI. tried in vain 
to reduce the expense of the royal falconry ; 
but finally the revolution swept it away. In 
Germany the sport was honored in the reign 
of Frederick II., and in the 14th century fiefs 
called Habichtslehen, or hawk tenures, were 
granted on condition of payment in trained 
hawks. The sport retained its existence in 
Germany till toward the close of the 18th cen- 
tury. In Italy falconry was a favorite pastime. 
In the East, the Persians are skilful in training 
falcons to hunt all manner of birds, and even 
gazelles. The vocabulary of hawking in Eng- 




land was as extensive as its ordinances, and 
several of its terms have been adopted into the 
language. Hawks' legs were their arms; their 
talons, pounces; wings, sails; the long feathers 
of the wings, beams; tail, the train; breast 
feathers, the mails ; crop, the gorge. A cover 
for the bird's head was the hood. When the 
hawk fluttered to escape, it bated; to sleep 
was to jouk ; to stretch one wing back was to 
mantle ; to shake itself was to rouse ; to recross 
its wings again was to warble ; to tear the 
feathers from its prey was to plume ; to raise 
its prey aloft before descending was to truss ; 
to descend on its prey was to stoop ; to fly off 
after crows was to check. A living prey was 
quarry ; when dead, pelt. Taming a bird was 
called reclaiming, by the French affaitage ; 
and an old, stanch, pattern hawk was called a 
make-hawk. No rank was excluded from the 
enjoyment of hawking, but each condition of 
men must confine themselves to their peculiar 
grade of hawk and quarry. The sinecure office 
of grand falconer of England is hereditary in 
the family of the duke of St. Albans. Among 
the most noted treatises on falconry is one 
written by Frederick II. of Germany (died in 
1250), annotated by his son Manfred, and re- 
published with several other treatises by J. G. 
Schneider in 1788 (2 vols., Leipsic). Others 
are: the famous " Boke of St. Albans," by 
Lady Juliana Berners (fol., 1481), containing 
the " Treaty ses perteynyng to Hawkynge, 
Huntynge, and Fysshynge with an Angle;" 
Hieracosophion, vel de Re Accipitraria, a poem 
in three books, by De Thou (1584) ; La fau- 
connerie, by Charles d'Esperon (Paris, 1605); 
Latham on "Falconry" (1615-'18). Among 
the more recent works on the subject are " Fal- 
conry in the British Isles," by Salvin and Brod- 
rick (London, 1855), and "Falconry, its Claims, 
History, and Practice," by G. E. Freeman 
(London, 1859). 

FALERII (also called ^Equum Faliscum orFa- 
lisca), an ancient city of Italy, one of the 12 
Etruscan cities, a few miles W. of the Tiber, and 
N". W. of Mount Soracte, near Civita Castellana. 
It was the capital and perhaps the only city of 
the Falisci, a people of Pelasgic origin, whose 
territory extended from the Tiber to Lake Vico, 
and who in the early ages of Rome were reck- 
oned among the most dangerous enemies of the 
republic. It is first mentioned in 437 B. C., 
when the Falisci lent their support to the Fi- 
denates, who had revolted against Rome. It 
was besieged and taken by Camillus about 394. 
The inhabitants again joined the enemies of 
Rome in 356 ; made a treaty in 352 ; revolted 
anew about 312, and were subjugated; rose in 
rebellion again in 293, and again in 241, when 
they were punished by the destruction of their 
town. They were removed to a less defensible 
site, where a colony was established named 
Junonia Faliscorum, from a famous temple of 
Juno. The latter site is now occupied only by 
a farm house and a ruined church, known as 
Sta. Maria di Falari, but a large portion of the 

ancient walls, with their gates and towers, 
still exists. 

FALERNUS AGER, a district in the northern 
part of ancient Campania, extending from the 
Massican hills to the bank of the Vulturnus, 
from which the ancient Romans obtained one 
of their choicest wines. The Falernian wine 
was red, very spirituous, and most powerful 
when from 15 to 20 years old. Its excellence 
is celebrated by the Roman poets, particularly 
by Horace. It was declining in quality in the 
time of Pliny, from want of care in the culti- 
vation, and the vineyards disappeared in the 
6th century. 

FALIERI, Marino, doge of Venice, the most 
celebrated of the several doges of the same 
family, born ^about 1275, beheaded April 17, 
1355. In 1346 he rendered eminent services 
to the republic as commander-in-chief at the 
siege of Zara in Dalmatia, which was taken 
after a splendid victory over Louis the Great 
of Hungary. Subsequently he was Venetian 
ambassador at Genoa and Rome. In 1354 he 
was summoned home from Rome, and elected 
doge although nearly an octogenarian. With- 
in a month the entire Venetian fleet of 61 
vessels was captured by the Genoese, with 
a loss to the former of 4,000 men killed and 
nearly 6,000 prisoners. Hardly had the new 
doge succeeded, Jan. 5, 1355, in concluding a 
four months' truce with Genoa, when a con- 
test broke out in his own palace, which proved 
fatal to himself. A young nobleman of Venice, 
Michele Steno, enamored of one of the dogessa's 
maids of honor, on occasion of one of the balls 
given during carnival, took liberties with her 
which, although excusable under the excite- 
ment of the season, gave umbrage to the doge, 
who ordered Steno to leave the palace. The 
young man, exasperated by this treatment, 
avenged it by writing upon the chair of the 
doge the following words : Marino Falieri dal- 
la bella moglie, altri la gode ed egli la man- 
tiene ("Marino Falieri's beautiful wife is sup- 
ported by him, but enjoyed by others "). The 
doge's wrath knew no bounds, and as the senate 
and the councils refused to treat the affair as a 
question of state, and the criminal court sen- 
tenced Steno to only a brief term of imprison- 
ment and a year's exile, Falieri determined to 
wreak vengeance by exterminating the whole 
body of the nobility, who were hated by the 
populace as tyrants. The day fixed for the 
consummation of this design was April 15, 
1355, but the conspiracy was discovered on the 
evening previous ; the doge was arrested, and 
after a full confession of his guilt, he was sen- 
tenced to death and beheaded. In the council 
hall of the palace, where the portraits of the 
doges of Venice are religiously preserved, a 
black drapery covers the spot intended for that 
of Falieri, bearing the inscription : Spazio di 
Marino Falieri, decapitate. The fate of the 
doge has been a favorite theme with poets. 
Byron made it the subject of a tragedy, giving 
in the notes a full account of Falieri's life. 



I A l,k, .loli ami Daniel, a German philanthro- 
pist and author, born in Dantzic in 1768, died 
Feb. 14, 1826. He entered the university of 
Halle, where he produced several satirical po- 
ems, which attracted the notice of Wieland, 
who introduced him into the literary circles 
of Weimar. He wrote 
an account of his per- 
sonal intercourse with 
Goethe, which appeared 
after the death of both 
(Goethe aus naherem 
personlicJiem Umgange 
dargestellt, 2d ed., Leip- 
sic, 1836). A selection 
of Falk's writings ap- 
peared in 1818, and a 
new collection of his 
satirical works in 1826. 
He wrote for the Ta- 
schenbuch, of which he 
was the editor (1797- 
1803), an article on the 
condition of hospitals in 
Berlin, which induced 
the government to re- 
form them. In 1813 he 
founded at Weimar an 
institution for the edu- 
cation of poor children, 
which bears the name of Fallcisches Institut. 

FALKIRK, a municipal and parliamentary 
burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland, on a com- 
manding eminence, 24 m. W. of Edinburgh ; 
pop. in 1871, 9,547. Its name, Fallow Kirk, is 
a translation of the obsolete English ~breck, 
both signifying speckled church. It has a fine 
parish church, several churches of dissenting 
congregations, a school of art, and a horticul- 
tural society. There are in Falkirk, and in 
the connected villages of Grahamston, Bains- 
ford, and Carron, printing establishments, tan- 
neries, breweries, a manufactory of pyrolig- 
neous acid, the immense iron works of Carron, 
a foundery employing 500 men, and branches 
of the banks of Scotland and England. Its 
chief celebrity is due to its cattle fairs, the 
most important in Scotland, which take place 
annually in August, September, and October, 
each lasting from two days to a week. The 
last is the largest. These trysts, as the Scots 
call the fairs, have flourished more than 200 
years. Falkirk was a place of note in the 
llth century. The ancient parish church, 
built by Malcolm Canmore in 1057, was de- 
molished in 1810 to give place to the present 
one. Here Edward I. in 1298 conquered Wil- 
liam Wallace, and in 1746 the young pretend- 
er, Charles Edward, defeated the English army 
under Gen. Hawley. 

FALKLAND, a royal burgh of Fifeshire, Scot- 
land, at the base of the Lomond hills, 22 m. N. 
of Edinburgh ; pop. in 1871, 1,144. The E. 
Lomond hill rises so abruptly behind it as to in- 
tercept the rays of the sun during several weeks 
in the winter. The town consists principally 


of a single street, and many of the houses have 
an antique appearance. The chief object of 
interest is the ancient palace, now in ruins, 
begun about 1500 and completed by James V., 
who died in it in 1542. It ceased to be a royal 
residence on the accession of James VI. to the 

Palace at Falkland. 

English throne, but was visited by both Charles 
I. and Charles II. No traces now exist of the 
more ancient castle in which David, duke of 
Kothesay, was starved to death in 1402. The 
English family of Gary derive from this place 
the title of viscount. 

FALKLAND, Lneins Cary, viscount, an English 
politician and man of letters, born at Burford, 
Oxfordshire, in 1610, killed Sept. 20, 1643. 
His father, Sir Henry Cary, who was made 
Viscount Falkland in the peerage of Scotland 
in 1620, held various offices under James I. 
Lucius was educated at Trinity college, Dub- 
lin, and at St. John's college, Cambridge, and 
at the age of 19 inherited the estate of his 
grandmother, wife of Chief Baron Tanfield, 
worth more than 2,000 per annum. He 
afterward married and settled at Great Tew, 
near Oxford, and in 1633 became Lord Falk- 
land by the death of his father. In his country 
life he had for his associates learned men from 
Oxford and London, and was distinguished for 
hospitality and considerate benevolence. Falk- 
land wrote both in prose and verse. He studied 
theology deeply, published a "Discourse of 
the Infallibility of the Church of Rome," and 
was the author of other works, now little 
known. He was chosen a member of the 
short parliament in April, 1640, for Newport, 
Isle of Wight, and afterward of the long par- 
liament, and shared deeply in the determina- 
tion to establish the government on a con- 
stitutional basis. He was a strenuous advo- 
cate of the bill of attainder, even when it was 
opposed by Pym and Hampden, who preferred 
proceeding by impeachment. He moved the im- 


peachment of the lord keeper Finch. He dis- 
tinguished himself in the attacks that were made 
on ship money, and on the judges who had pro- 
nounced the levying of it legal, and in those 
which were directed against the church. But 
suddenly, without apparent cause, he left the 
reform party, and he who had said the bishops 
were stark mad, and therefore should be sent 
to Bedlam, was soon heard to complain that 
they who hated the bishops hated them worse 
than the devil, and they who loved them did 
not love them so well as their dinners. In 
the memorable debate on the grand remon- 
strance, Falkland was the second speaker, fol- 
lowing Hyde, and against the remonstrance. 
His course on this occasion, with his earlier 
opposition to the abolition of the church, led 
the king to make him the offer of the post of 
secretary of state, which he accepted. Of 
the exact part which Falkland had in the gov- 
ernment scarcely anything is known, but he 
and his two associates in the administration, 
Colepeper and Hyde, received marks of hos- 
tility in the commons. He wrote the royal 
answer to the parliament's 19 propositions, 
then joined the king at York, and signed his 
declaration that he did not mean to make war 
on the parliament. Shortly afterward Falk- 
land was removed from the commons, and 
placed on the list of those whom the parlia- 
mentary commander was ordered to exclude 
from mercy. He behaved with gallantry at 
the battle of Edgehill, and had his advice 
been taken the king would have won a com- 
plete victory. In some negotiations that fol- 
lowed, he labored earnestly for peace. The 
campaign of 1643 was for a long time favor- 
able to the king, and Falkland accompanied 
him to Bristol, and thence to the siege of 
Gloucester. The advance of the parliamentary 
army compelled the king to raise the siege. 
In the first battle of Newbury Falkland placed 
himself at the head of Sir John Byron's regi- 
ment. Receiving an order to charge a body 
of foot, he advanced between hedges lined 
with musketeers, and received a ball in the 
stomach, from which he died instantly. The 
body was found the next day, and buried in 
Great Tew church. He left a wife and three 
sons. Among the best works which treat of 
him is Forster's " Historical and Biographical 
Essays" (London, 1858). 

FALKLAND ISLANDS (Fr. Malouines ; Sp. 
Malvinas), a group in the S. Atlantic, belong- 
ing to Great Britain, and consisting of about 
200 islands, 300 m. E. of the entrance to the 
strait of Magellan, between lat. 51 and 52 45' 
S., and Ion. 57 and 62 W. ; area, about 
7,600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 812. All but two 
are very small. East Falkland is about 90 m. 
long, 40 m. broad, and 3,000 sq. m. in area ; 
West Falkland, separated from the former by 
a channel from 2 to 18 m. wide, called Falk- 
land sound, is 80 m. long, 25 m. broad, and 
about 2,300 sq. m. in area. The other princi- 
pal islands are Great Swan, Saunders, Pebble, 

Keppel, Eagle, Weddell, and Lively. The 
coasts are very irregular, in some places rocky 
and precipitous, in others low. Bays and in- 
lets are numerous, and East and West Falk- 
land are nearly divided by several deep inden- 
tations. There are few rivers, the San Carlos, 
30 m. long, which flows into the sea on the 
N. W. coast of East Falkland, being the largest. 
There are many fresh- water ponds and brooks. 
The surface is broken by ridges of bleak hills, 
the highest of which are in East Falkland, 
though the average elevation of West Falk- 
land is the greater. Mt. Usborne, one of the 
Wickham hills, in the E. island, is 2,300 ft. 
above the sea; the other summits are from 
800 to 2,000 ft. high. The country south 
of the Wickham hills is a level plain. The 
whole aspect of the group is dreary and un- 
inviting. The commonest geological formation 
is quartz, which in some places is seen cov- 
ering the bottoms of the valleys, broken into 
sharp fragments, and disposed in level sheets 
or streams like rivers of stone. Sandstone and 
clay slate also occur. The soil of such por- 
tions as have been explored is mostly peat or 
sandy clay covered thinly with vegetable mould. 
The valleys of the streams are exceedingly 
rich. The climate is like that of England, 
but more equable. The temperature of sum- 
mer ranges from 45 to 70 F., and that of 
winter from 30 to 50 ; mean temperature of 
the year, 47. Severe and destructive snow 
storms occasionally occur. There are no trees 
on the isl ands. The most important production 
is grass, which grows to a great length and pos- 
sesses remarkably nutritious properties. Three 
or four kinds of bushes are found ; the com- 
mon garden vegetables of England thrive; 
barley and oats are cultivated, but wheat is 
raised with difficulty. The only quadruped 
indigenous to the islands is the warrah or 
wolf fox, which is peculiar to this archipelago. 
Other animals have been left here by Euro- 
peans, and in East Falkland there are many 
thousand wild cattle sprung from stock thus 
introduced. Horses, sheep, wild" hogs, rabbits, 
seals, and wild fowl are found, and many French 
and American vessels hunt the black whale 
off the W. coast of West Falkland. In 1871 
the value of imports was 23,715, of exports 
24,692; the revenue was 6,940 (about half 
of which is a parliamentary grant), the expen- 
ditures 6,324. The fisheries and the guano 
deposits on West Falkland are considerable 
sources of wealth. A British colony called 
Stanley, at the head of Port William inlet on 
the N. E. coast of East Falkland, has an ex- 
cellent harbor, and is the only settlement in the 
whole group. Since 1869 the Falkland islands 
have been the seat of an Anglican bishop. 
The main object of the British government in 
keeping up the establishment here is to afford 
ships a place of call for water and fresh pro- 
visions. The total tonnage of vessels entered 
and cleared in 1871 was 59,979 tons. The isl- 
ands were discovered by John Davis, in August, 



1592, and were visited a century later by Strong, 
who called the sound Falkland, and the islands 
afterward took the same name. The French 
planted a colony on Berkeley sound, East Falk- 
land, in 1763, and the English established 
themselves at Port Egmont, West Falkland, 
about two years later. The French in 1767 
ceded their settlement to the Spaniards, who 
drove away the English in 1770. They after- 
ward restored Port Egmont to the British, and 
some time later the islands were abandoned 
by both parties. Buenos Ayres took posses- 
sion of East Falkland in 1820, and founded a 
colony there in 1823, which in consequence 
of a dispute was destroyed in 1831 by a United 
States man-of-war. It was shortly after given 
up to the British. 

FALKNER, Thomas, an English missionary, 
born in Manchester in 1710, died at Plow- 
den Hall, Jan. 30, 1784. He was the son of a 
surgeon, and followed the same profession in 
South America and other countries. While ill 
at Buenos Ayres he was attended by members 
of the society of Jesus. He abjured the Pres- 
byterian faith to join that order, in which he dis- 
tinguished himself by missionary labors during 
40 years, and he was also employed by the 
Spanish authorities in surveying part of the 
South American coast. On the dissolution of 
the order he went to Spain, where he became 
chaplain to one of his countrymen, whom he 
accompanied to the vicinity of Worcester, 
England. He wrote a number of works in 
different languages, chiefly relating to the Amer- 
ican continent. His principal publication, " A 
Description of Patagonia and the adjoining 
Parts of South America, and some Particulars 
relating to Falkland Islands," &c. (Hereford 
and London, 1774; abridged, "A Treatise of 
the Patagonians," &c., Darlington, 1788), was 
translated into German and French. 


FALLMERAYER, Philipp Jakob, a German his- 
torian and traveller, born at Tschotsch, near 
Brixen, in the Tyrol, Dec. 10, 1791, died in 
Munich, April 26, 1862. He served as a sub- 
lieutenant in the campaigns of 1813-'15, and 
subsequently became a professor in the college 
of Augsburg and in the lyceum at Landshut. 
He travelled in the East from 1831 to 1836, 
spent several years in southern France, Italy, 
and Geneva, made a second tour through Asia 
Minor in 1840, published the results of his 
ethnological and historical researches in Frag- 
mente am dem Orient (2 vols., Stuttgart, 
1845), visited Palestine and Syria in 1847, was 
a member of the German parliament in 1848, 
and became a professor in the university of 
Munich, but was dismissed in 1849 on account 
of his liberal views. The most important of 
his historical writings are Geschiclite des Kai- 
serthums Trapezunt (Munich, 1831), and Ge- 
schichte der HalMnsel Morea im Mittelalter 
(2 vols., Stuttgart, 1830-'36). In the latter 
work he maintains that the present inhabi- 
tants of Greece have little or no affinity of race 

with the ancient Hellenes, and may be con- 
sidered, notwithstanding their language, a 
branch of the Slavic family. Many of his es- 
says published in the Augsburg Allgemeine 
Zeitung belong to the best writings of their 
kind. His Gesammelte Werke, published after 
his death by Thomas, contains the Neue Frag- 
mente aus dem Orient, and a large number 
of political, historical, and critical essays. His 
works exhibit a rare combination of profound 
scholarship and philosophical depth with the 
faculty of presenting the results of scientific 
researches in a perspicuous and graceful form. 

FALLOPPIO, or Fallopins, Gabriello, an Italian 
anatomist, born inModena about 1523, died in 
1562. He was one of the three naturalists 
who, according to Cuvier, contributed to the 
revival of the study of anatomy in the 16th 
century, the other two being Vesalius and 
Eustachi. He was a pupil of Vesalius, and 
after travelling through Europe was for a time 
professor of anatomy at Ferrara, and afterward 
for several years at Pisa. In 1551 he was 
appointed professor of anatomy and surgery 
at Padua, where he also devoted himself to 
the study of botany, and became director of 
the botanical garden. He published in 1561 
his principal work, Ofiservationes Anatomic^ 
which was one of the best anatomical treatises 
of his century, and has been several times 
reprinted. He gave an exact description of 
the structure of the ear, one of the canals of 
which still bears his name. He also first indica- 
ted the use of the two ducts extending from 
the ovaria to the womb on each side of the 
fundus, which are called from him Fallopian 
tubes. After a short but brilliant career, in 
which he became distinguished as a professor, 
botanist, and surgeon, as well as anatomist, he 
died and left his chair to Fabricius, his pupil. 

FALLOUX, Frederic Alfred Pierre, viscount de, a 
French author and statesman, born in Angers, 
May 7, 1811. He first made himself known 
by a history of Louis XVI. (Paris, 1840 ; 2d 
ed., 1843), and by his Histoire de St. Pie V. (2 
vols., 1844; 3d ed., 1859), the former of which 
showed his legitimist, the latter his Catholic 
sentiments. In 1846 he was elected a member 
of the chamber of deputies, where he took his 
seat among the legitimists. After the revolu- 
tion of February, 1848, Falloux was returned 
to the constituent assembly, where he boldly 
displayed his anti-revolutionary views. Ap- 
pointed reporter in the question of national 
workshops, he moved the dissolution of the 
chamber, which was the signal for the uprising 
of the red republicans in June. On Dec. 20, 
1848, he was made by Louis Napoleon minister 
of worship and public instruction, which post 
he resigned in October, 1849, in consequence 
of having been censured for submitting to the 
legislative assembly an organic measure rela- 
ting to education without having brought it 
before the notice of the council of state. He 
then took his place in the legislative assembly. 
After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he re- 




tired from public life. In 1855 he became as- 
sistant editor of the Correspondent, the lead- 
ing Catholic review, and took an active part 
in the violent controversy which that journal, 
in the name of the moderate section of the 
Catholic party, sustained against the Univers 
newspaper. Falloux published on behalf of 
his friends the pamphlet Le parti catholique. 
He also took an active part in the Catholic 
congress held at Mechlin in 1867, and with 
Mgr. Dupanloup supported the doctrines of the 
syllabus. Among his later publications are: 
Mme. Swetchine, sa vie et ses ceuvres (2 vols., 
1859) ; La convention du 15 septembre (1864) ; 
and Lettres inedites de Mme. Swetchine (1866). 
FALLOW DEER (dama vulgaris), a cervine 
animal, distinguished from the stag or red deer 
by its smaller size, spotted coat, and palmated 
horns. There are two varieties, the one spot- 
ted, said to be descended from the spotted axis 
of India, the other deep brown, said to have 
been introduced into England from Norway by 

Fallow Deer (Dama vulgaris). 

James I. It is remarkable that where fallow 
and red deer are kept together in the same 
parks, as often in Great Britain, they never as- 
sociate in companies, much less are ever known 
to breed in common, but carefully avoid each 
other, even so far as to shun the places which 
either species may have chanced to frequent. 
The bucks of the fallow deer are much smaller 
than the harts of the red deer, and are easily 
distinguished by their horns or antlers, which, 
instead of being round and pointed at the upper 
extremity, with several forward tines or branch- 
es, are round only at the base near the head, 
having a single pair of brow antlers, and a sin- 
gle pair of anterior points a little higher up the 
stem, above which the horns spread out into 
flat palmated surfaces, projecting a little forward 
; the top, and having several posterior sharp 
snags or processes. The buck during his first 
year is called a fawn ; the second, a pricket ; 
the third, a sorrel ; the fourth, a sore ; the fifth, 
a buck of the first head ; the sixth, a great 

buck. The fallow deer breed at two years 
old, and bring forth one, two, or three fawns ; 
they come to their maturity at three years, and 
live to about 20. The rutting time of the buck 
commences about the middle of September, af- 
ter which he is out of season, his flesh being 
no longer eatable. He sheds his horns in April 
or May, and his new ones are fully grown 
about the end of August. He is in height of 
season in July. The doe comes into season 
when the buck goes put, and continues until 
twelfthtide. She begins to fawn in May, and 
continues until midsummer. The bucks herd 
together, and are easy to be tamed, when they 
become impudently familiar and intimate. The 
cry of the buck is called braying or grunting, 
sometimes growling, as that of the hart is 
termed belling. The fallow deer are kept in 
England merely as ornaments to park scenery 
and for supplying venison to the table ; never 
any longer, as of old, for sporting purposes. 
The venison is more succulent, tender, and juicy 
than that of the red deer, and it is not unusual 
to find the buck, in high season, with three and 
four inches of fat on the brisket. Yarious pas- 
tures produce various degrees of excellence in 
the venison. Where the wild thyme is abun- 
dant, the flesh is noted for its delicious aromatic 
flavor ; and it is remarked that the more level 
and luxuriantly pastured parks of the south 
of England produce the fattest venison, while 
those of the north, abounding in broken ground, 
glens, and knolls, covered with broom and fern, 
yield it of the highest flavor. So late as the 
reigns of the Stuart monarch s, shooting the 
fallow deer with the crossbow, coursing it with 
greyhounds in the royal parks and chases, and 
turning it out to hunt with the buckhounds, 
were royal amusements. The buckhounds are 
still kept up, and the "master of the buck- 
hounds" is a high, honorary court office, held 
by some sporting nobleman ; but they no longer 
hunt the buck, the hart or stag of the red deer 
having been for many years substituted for the 
fallow buck, as being far more cunning, strong- 
er, fleeter, and capable of supporting longer 
chases. In many parts of Germany, in Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden, the fallow deer 
runs wild in the forests, and is strictly preserved 
for the use of royalty and the territorial nobles. 
It is usually driven with hounds or beaters, and 
killed with fowling pieces and buckshot. The 
height at the shoulders is about 3 ft. The skin 
affords a valuable leather, and the horns are 
used for knife handles and similar purposes. 

FALL RIVER, a city and port of entry of 
Bristol co., Massachusetts, on Mount Hope bay, 
an arm of Narragansett bay, at the mouth of 
Taunton river, 45 m. S. by W. of Boston ; pop. 
in 1850, 11,524; in 1860, 14,026; in 1870, 26,- 
766, of whom 11,478 were foreigners. It is 
on high ground, with well shaded streets, hand- 
some churches, and many granite edifices, the 
stone being obtained from large quarries in 
the vicinity. It contains two handsome parks, 
and includes the localities popularly known as 




Copicut, Globe village, Mechanicsville, Mount 
Hope village, New Boston, and Steep Brook. 
The Old Colony and Newport railroad furnishes 
communication with Boston, and the Provi- 
dence, Warren, and Bristol line connects the 
city with Providence; while daily lines of 
steamers run to Providence, Newport, and 
New York. The harbor is safe, commodious, 
easy of access, and deep enough for the largest 
vessels. The value of the foreign commerce 
for the year ending June 30, 1873, was $217,- 
028 ; 53 vessels of 11,833 tons entered from, 
and 27 of 4,542 tons cleared for foreign ports ; 
entered in the coastwise trade, 413 steamers 
of 870,592 tons, and 47 sailing vessels of 8,208 
tons; cleared, 315 steamers of 828,081 tons, 
and 25 sailing vessels of 6,075 tons ; employed 
in the cod and mackerel fishery, 37 vessels of 
554 tons; belonging to the port, 14 steamers 
of 2,311 tons, and 127 sailing vessels of 11,411 
tons. Fall river, from which the city derives 
its name, is a small stream emptying into the 
Taunton near its mouth. It rises in a chain of 
ponds connected by a narrow channel and cov- 
ering an area of 5,000 acres, which lie about 
2 m. from the bay and receive the outlets of 
several other sheets of water embracing an 
are'a of 2,000 acres more. TJie river, having 
a descent of 130 ft. in less than half a mile, 
and furnished with an unfailing supply of wa- 
ter, possesses remarkable advantages as a mill 
stream, which have been improved by the 
erection of a dam at the outlet of the ponds. 
The lower banks are entirely built up with 
manufactories, which are now, however, most- 
ly run by steam. The manufacture of cotton 
goods, which has increased with remarkable 
rapidity within the last 10 years, is the chief 
industry, Fall River containing more spindles 
than any other city in the United States. Print 
cloths are the principal item of production. 
The number of corporations is 34, of which 16 
have been formed since 1870, having a capital 
of $14,870,000, and owning 41 mills with 
29,521 looms and 1,269,788 spindles; hands 
employed, 15,145; monthly wages, $492,250; 
bales of cotton consumed annually, 132,775; 
production, 331,875,000 yards. The city also 
contains a woollen mill, two print works, a 
bleachery, a brass founding and finishing es- 
tablishment, several iron works and machine 
shops, producing steam engines, cotton ma- 
chinery, turbine water wheels, &c., 4 manu- 
factories of cotton thread, 2 of twine and wick- 
ing, 2 of files, 6 of carriages, 4 of soap, 1 of 
soda, 5 of oil, 3 of weavers' reeds and harness 
a ship-building establishment, and several pla- 
ning mills. There are seven national banks, 
with an aggregate capital of $2,250,000, and 
four savings banks, having in October, 1873, 
21,190 depositors and deposits to the amount 
of $8,891,002 95. The Fall River savings bank 
incorporated in 1828, had 11,128 depositors 
and deposits to the amount of $5,274,998 09. 
Fall River is divided into six wards, and is 
governed by a mayor, a board of aldermen of 

one member, and a common council of three 
members, from each ward. There is a police 
court, and a police force of about 30 men under 
the city marshal. In 1872 there were a high 
school, 29 grammar, 29 primary, and 3 evening 
schools, having 99 teachers and an average at- 
tendance of 4,277 pupils. The total expendi- 
ture for school purposes was $145,477 80, of 
which $44,412 46 was for teachers' wages. 
The public library contains 10,678 volumes. 
Two daily and two weekly newspapers are 
published. There are 24 churches, viz. : 3 
Baptist, 3 Congregational, 2 Christian, 1 Epis- 
copal, 1 Friends', 5 Methodist, 1 New Jerusa- 
lem, 1 Presbyterian, 6 Roman Catholic, and 1 
Unitarian. Fall River, formerly a part of 
Freetown, was incorporated as a separate town 
in 1803. Its name was soon after changed to 
Troy, but in 1834 the old appellation was re- 
stored. It received a city charter in 1854, and 
in 1862 the town of Fall River, Newport co., . 
R. I., with 3,377 inhabitants, was annexed to it. 

FALLS, a central county of Texas, intersected 
by Brazos river; area, 795 sq. m.; pop. in 
1870, 9,851, of whom 4,681 were colored. 
Most of the surface is occupied by rolling 
prairies, the soil of which is a rich black loam. 
The river bottoms are still more fertile, and 
produce good crops of Indian corn and cotton, 
with plenty of oak, pecan, cedar, cottonwood, 
and other timber. Limestone underlies a large 
part of the county, and a vast ledge of it cross- 
ing the bed of Brazos river causes the falls 
from which the county derives its name. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 403,094 bushels 
of Indian corn, 31,424 of sweet potatoes, and 
14,126 bales of cotton. There were 5,269 
horses, 2,405 milch cows, 17,602 other cattle, 
and 7,406 swine. Capital, Marlin. 

FALMOUTH, a parliamentary borough and 
seaport of Cornwall, England, beautifully sit- 
uated on the S. W. side of a harbor on the 
channel, at the mouth of the river Fal, 45 m. 
S. W. of Plymouth; pop. in 1871, 5,294. It 
is on a steep acclivity, reaching to the water's 
edge, and consists mainly of one long narrow 
street. It has many good stone houses, and a 
plentiful supply of water in the N. and S. 
quarters, where the ground is arranged in ter- 
races. The harbor, one of the finest in Great 
Britain, is formed by the estuary of the Fal. It 
is 12 to 18 fathoms deep, and can contain 500 
vessels. It is defended on the west by Pen- 
dennis castle, and on the east by St. Mawes 
castle, both built by Henry VIII. and im- 
proved by Elizabeth. Pendennis castle under- 
went a long siege by Cromwell, traces of whose 
encampment near by are still visible. It now 
contains barracks, storehouses, magazines, &c. 
Sir Walter Raleigh visited the harbor on his 
return from the coast of Guiana, and first called 
attention to its great advantages, which had 
till then been altogether overlooked. The en- 
trance is about 1 m. wide, and the bay, which 
runs 6 or 7 m. inland, is a favorite resort of 
British vessels in time of war. Before the in- 




troduction of mail steamers it was the principal 
station for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Amer- 
ican packet service, and carried on an exten- 
sive trade with those countries. It exports 
pilchards, which are taken off its coast, tin, 
and copper, and imports timber, hemp, tallow, 
rum, sugar, grain, wine, and fruits. It has 
large ship-building yards, roperies, breweries, 
and a flourishing trade in maritime supplies. 
The number of vessels registered as belonging 
to the port is 150. The royal Cornwall poly- 
technic society, the first institution of the kind 
established in England, founded in 1833 for the 
encouragement of the sciences, art, and indus- 
try, meets annually at Falmouth. 

FALSE IMPRISONMENT. The jealous watch- 
fulness of the common law of England for the 
protection and preservation of personal liberty 
is nowhere proved more distinctly than in the 
provisions of the law respecting what is techni- 
cally called false imprisonment. In their ex- 
tent and fulness they are quite peculiar to that 
law ; and while the principles on which they 
rest, and some of the rules derived from them, 
may be discerned even in Saxon times, they 
have certainly been developed and systematized 
in later ages, as the worth of personal liber- 
ty became more accurately estimated and the 
means of preserving it better understood. False 
imprisonment, in the law of England and the 
United States, may now be defined as any in- 
tentional and unlawful restraint of a person. 
It may be : 1, the restraint or arrest of a per- 
son under color of law, by means of an illegal 
or insufficient process; 2, such restraint or 
arrest by means of a legal instrument, but at 
an illegal time, as on Sunday or any other day 
generally prohibited, or at any time which is 
illegal and unauthorized in respect to the per- 
son restrained ; 3, without color or pretence 
of law, as when one confines another to his 
room or house without legal authority to do 
so. False imprisonment may be with force or 
wholly without force ; as if one, without touch- 
ing another, by words only, or .even by gestures 
only, compels him by fear to abstain from go- 
ing where he has a right to go, or to go where 
he wishes not to go and is under no obligation 
to go. It is false imprisonment to confront a 
man in the street, and, without touching him, 
constrain him to arrest his course or change it 
against his will. The remedies for false impris- 
onment are threefold : 1, an action for trespass 
vi et armis, when the party imprisoned may 
recover not only such damages as are capable 
of being estimated on the evidence, but such 
further sum as the jury, in cases where the party 
had no reason to believe his conduct lawful, 
may consider proportioned to the character of 
the wrong; 2, the writ of habeas corpus for 
immediate relief from the restraint; 3, indict- 
ment at common law for false imprisonment 
of any kind, for which the guilty party may be 
ly punished. In some of the United 
States there are various statutory provisions 
respecting certain kinds of false imprisonment. 

FALSE PRETENCES. Any one who acquires 
property by means of false pretences has no 
legal title to it, and it may be recovered by 
the party from whom it was thus obtained, 
and who is still the legal owner. (See FEAUD.) 
But besides this civil remedy, the statutes of 
England and of the United States make the ob- 
taining of property by false pretences an in- 
dictable offence. The expressions in our state 
statutes are various ; but in general, any one 
who by means of false pretences, and with a 
fraudulent design, obtains possession of money, 
merchandise, goods, or wares of any descrip- 
tion, or obtains the signature of another to a 
deed, note, or other contract or writing for the 
transfer of property or the payment of money, 
becomes liable under the statute. It is impos- 
sible to define precisely the false pretences 
which expose one to this punishment. It is 
obvious that they cannot be slight suggestions 
which are without foundation, or open and ob- 
vious falsehoods by which no man in his senses 
would be deceived. In the first place, they 
must be intended to produce an injurious 
effect ; and in the next place, they must be 
such as would be likely to deceive a person of 
ordinary discretion, who is to a reasonable ex- 
tent on his guard. They must relate to exist- 
ing facts, and not be mere promises of some- 
thing to be done in the future. If the pretences 
or misrepresentations are numerous, and most 
of them are honest, but some one of them is at 
once material, false, and fraudulent, the offence 
is committed ; and this is so, although the 
statements which were true exercised the prin- 
cipal influence in obtaining the property for the 
guilty party, provided it would not have been 
given him but for the statement also which was 
false. It may be remarked that no false pre- 
tences made after the contract was completed 
will constitute the offence, even if they were 
made before the property was delivered, unless 
the delivery or execution was at first withheld, 
and then brought about by the false pretences. 
At common law the nearest provision to this 
of the modern statutes was one which exposed 
to indictment and punishment as a cheat a 
person who obtained possession of money or 
goods by means of what were called false 
tokens, by which was meant forged papers, or 
other counterfeit symbols or evidence of own- 
ership or authority. Language similar to this 
ancient rule is used in some of our statutes, 
as in those of Pennsylvania. The first statute 
against false pretences in England was 30 
George II., c. 24 ; and this has been followed 
by the different states of the Union, more or 
less exactly. The most common instances of 
indictments under these statutes are for the 
obtaining of goods by buyers under false pre- 
tences as to their responsibility or resources ; 
and it was mainly to suppress these that the 
statutes were intended. 

FALSEN, Knntsen Magnus, a Norwegian his- 
torian, born at Opslo, Sept. 17, 1782, died in 
Christiania, Jan. 13, 1830. He was a son of 



the poet Enevold von Falsen, was educated in 
Copenhagen, became a lawyer and judge in 
Norway, and was a member of the constituent 
diet of Eidsvold (1814), and deputy to the 
storthing (1815-'22). He voluntarily gave up 
his title of nobility, but became unpopular in 
1822, when, as attorney general, he defended 
such measures of the government as conflict- 
ed with his formerly enunciated views. The 
storthing in 1824 withdrew the appropriation 
for his office, upon which the king appointed 
him governor of Bergen, and in 1827 he re- 
moved to Christiania as justice of the supreme 
court. His principal work is Norges flistorie 
(4 vols., Christiania, 1823-'4). 

FALSTER, an island of Denmark, in the Bal- 
tic, S. of Seeland, separated from the island 
of Moen on the northeast by Gron sound, and 
from that of Laaland on the west by Guld- 
borg sound, and forming part of the bailiwick 
of Maribo ; area, including the little island of 
Hasselo, 181 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 25,000. In 
the northeast it is mountainous, and elsewhere 
entirely flat. On account of its abundant fruits, 
it is called the orchard of Denmark. Grain, 
flax, hemp, hops, honey, and wax are the princi- 
pal products. Cattle, hogs, and poultry abound, 
and peat, chalk, and building stone are found. 
The chief town, Nykiobing, contains a castle 
and cathedral, and has an active trade ; pop. 
in 1870, 3,645. Originally in possession of 
Danish nobles, the island passed into that of the 
royal family, and a number of Danish queens 
resided in its capital in the 16th and in the 
early part of the 17th century. 

FAMAGOSTA, or Famagnsta (anc. Arsinoe ; 
Turk. Mciusa\ a seaport town of the island 
of Cyprus, on the E. coast, about 12 m. N. "W. 
of Cape Grego ; pop. about 800. It is about 
two miles in circumference, and is little more 
than a confused mass of ruins, the ancient 
streets being choked up and the buildings 
fallen into decay ; but the fortifications erected 
by the Genoese and Venetians are in a good 
state of preservation, and the cannon mounted 
by the latter still defend its walls. Of the 200 
churches which it formerly contained, but a 
few ruined ones remain. The Latin cathedral 
of St. Nicholas, now a mosque, is a fine speci- 
men of mediaeval architecture. In it the Lu- 
signans were crowned kings of Jerusalem, and 
many interesting monuments are still to be 
seen in its interior. On the N. side of the 
town are bomb-proofs and cannon founderies. 
There are but two gates, one on the south and 
one opening toward the port. The harbor is 
narrow and its entrance is shallow, but there 
is good anchorage before the town in eight 
fathoms of water. Without the walls is the 
suburb of Varoskia, which contains most of 
the population. The surrounding country is 
bleak and barren. About 5 m. to the north 
are the ruins of ancient Salamis. The original 
city was one of those built by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus in honor of his sister Arsinoe. After 
the battle of Actium it was called by Augustus 


Fama Augusta. It was of great importance du- 
ring the crusades, and it was there that Guy de 
Lusignan received the crown of Cyprus in 1191 
from Richard I. of England. It was taken by 
the Genoese in 1373, and in 1489 by the Vene- 
tians, under whom it became a rich and pow- 
erful city. In 1571 it fell into the hands of 
the Turks, after a siege of four months, in 
which it was nearly destroyed ; and in 1735 an 
earthquake completed its ruin. 

FAJV, an implement used to produce coolness 
by agitating the air. Its origin is traced to re- 
mote antiquity, and is ascribed by some histo- 
rians to Kan-si, daughter of a Chinese mandarin. 
On the walls of the tombs at Thebes, the king 
is represented surrounded by his fan-bearers, 
who bore the instruments as standards in war, , 
while in times of peace they waited upon the 
monarch in the temple, refreshing him with 
the fans, and at the same time driving away 
insects from the sacred offerings. The fashion 
spread from Persia to Asia Minor, and in 
Greece we find traces of fans as early as 500 
B. 0. The wings of a bird joined laterally and 
fastened to a delicate handle constituted a most 
beautiful fan. The fan of the priest of Isis, 
when the worship of that divinity began to 
prevail in Greece, was semicircular, made of 
feathers of different lengths, pointed at the 
top, and waved by a female slave. In one of 
the tragedies of Euripides a eunuch is intro- 
duced, who says that, in accordance with 
Phrygian custom, he had used his fan to pro- 
tect Helen against the effects of the heat. In 
Rome fans became popular among the ladies, 
and at dinner parties slaves with fans stood 
behind the guests. The Roman poets, Ovid, 
Terence, and Propertius, frequently allude to 
their use, and the pictures on the ancient vases 
also indicate the wide prevalence of the fash- 
ion. In the middle ages fans made of eagle or 
peacock feathers, in various forms, and fastened 
with a handle of gold, silver, or ivory, were a 
lucrative article of trade in the Levantine mar- 
kets, whence they were exported to Venice 
and other Italian cities. Catharine de' Medici 
introduced into France fans which could be 
folded in the manner of those of the present 
day. Having been favorably received by the 
court of Henry II., they became objects of 
great luxury during the reigns of Louis XIV. 
and Louis XV. No toilet was considered 
complete without a fan, the cost of which fre- 
quently exceeded $70. Picturesque landscapes, 
the most exquisite paper of China, the most 
elegant taffeta of Florence, precious stones and 
diamonds, all in turn were put in requisition to 
enhance the appearance and the value of the 
fan. Manufacturers of fans soon became nu- 
merous in Paris; and previous to 1673, when 
a charter was granted to them by Louis XIV., 
they had organized themselves into a corpora- 
tion. In England, fans were in fashion in the 
time of Henry VIII. In Shakespeare's " Mer- 
ry Wives of Windsor" an allusion to fans is 
made by Falstaff to Pistol. A superb fan set 




with diamonds was presented to Queen Eliza- 
beth on New Year's day. Among the articles 
received by Cortes from Montezuma were five 
fans of variegated feathers, four of them with 
10 and one with 13 rods embossed with gold, 
and one fan, also with variegated featherwork, 
with 37 rods plated with gold. In Spain at 
an early day fans were special favorites with 
ladies, and the Spanish lady, as well as the 
ladies of Spanish extraction in the new world, 
are inimitable in their management (manejo) 
of the fan (abanico.) They carry on conversa- 
tions with it, and a book might be written to 
explain the complicated code of signals by which 
they express their feelings with the fan. The 
best and cheapest lacquered fans are produced 
in China. Those made of i vory , bone, and feath- 
ers are destined chiefly for the European and 
American markets. The fans which the Chinese 
use are of polished or japanned bamboo, cov- 
ered with paper, and vary in price from 20 to 
30 cents a dozen. The state fan which is used 
on great occasions in China and India is pre- 
cisely of the same semicircular form and point- 
ed top which was in fashion among the ancient 
Greeks. In Japan the fan is to be seen on 
all occasions, among all classes of society, and 
in the hands of men, women, and children. 
Where the European takes off his hat in token 
of politeness, the Japanese performs the same 
courtesy by waving his fan. In the schools dili- 
gent scholars receive fans in reward for their 
zeal. A gentleman, in giving alms to a beggar, 
puts the money upon his fan. When a criminal 
of rank is sentenced to death, his doom is pro- 
claimed to him by presenting him with a fan, 
and his head is taken off while he bows and 
stretches out his hand to receive the fatal gift. 
Japanese fans, generally ornamented with gro- 
tesque pictures, are exported in large quanti- 
ties to the United States, where they are as 
popular as those of China for their cheapness 
and neatness. Fans were used for allegorical 
purposes in the mythology of Greece, and the 
Egyptian custom of employing them in temples 
and for religious purposes has also been per- 
petuated in the ritual of the modern Greek 
church, which places a fan in the hands of its 
deacons. They are used to this day in Eome 
on public occasions, especially at the festa di 
cattedra, when the pope is escorted by two men 
who carry feather fans with ivory handles, but 
do not use them. Next to China and Japan, 
France is most celebrated for the manufacture 
of fans, but beautiful fans are also made in the 
United States, in England, at Brussels, Geneva, 
Vienna, and at various other places. The manu- 
facture in France presents an interesting in- 
stance of the subdivision of labor, 20 different 
processes being required to produce a fan which 
sells for less than three cents, as well as one 
worth several thousand francs. This industry 
gives employment to thousands of persons, and 
its aggregate value for Paris alone is estimated 
at 7,000,000 francs annually. In France, the 
fan is occasionally used by genttemen at the 
313 VOL. vii. 6 

theatres, having first appeared on a warm sum- 
mer evening of 1828, during the representa- 
tion of Corisandre at the comic opera. Hence 
the name of corisandre applied in France to 
fans used by gentlemen. 

FANARIOTES, or Phanariotes, the Greeks who 
reside in the Fanar -or Phanar district of Con- 
stantinople, whose ancestors had escaped the 
fury of the Turkish conquerors after the capture 
of that city by Mohammed II. (1453). Origi- 
nally employed as translators of public docu- 
ments and as secretaries and stewards of distin- 
guished personages, they gradually acquired by 
their wealth, as well as by their abilities and 
intrigues, great political, financial, and social 
importance in Turkey. The office of dragoman 
of the divan was for the first time intrusted to 
a Greek in the 17th century, under Mohammed 
IV., and has since been uniformly conferred 
upon Fanariotes. Most of the hospodars of 
Moldavia and Wallachia from the latter part 
of the 17th century to the beginning of the 
19th were also members of Fanariote families 
(Callimachi, Cantacuzene, Cantemir, Ducas, 
Karadja, Musuri, Sutzo, Ypsilanti, &c.). The 
Fanariotes were the principal bankers of Con- 
stantinople, and as such dispensers of an exten- 
sive patronage in the bestowal of public offices. 

FANDANGO, the oldest national dance of 
Spain, especially of Andalusia. Some suppose 
it to have been introduced by the Moors ; others 
say the Moors found the dance already estab- 
lished, and trace its origin to the most an- 
cient times. It is danced in three-four time by 
one couple only, usually to the accompaniment 
of the guitar, and occasionally also of the 
tambourine, the dancers beating time with cas- 
tanets and the spectators by clapping their 
hands. The Andalusian villagers dance it al- 
most every evening, and always on Sunday. 
The dancers and their friends sing improvised 
couplets ; and the lady offers her cheek to the 
men present after each dance, and allows her- 
self to be embraced by all of them. The fan- 
dango is described as vivacious, graceful, and 
voluptuous. Repeated efforts of the clergy to 
suppress the dance have proved inadequate to 
overcome its popularity among the peasantry. 

FANEUIL, Peter, the founder of Faneuil hall 
in Boston, born of a French Huguenot family 
in New Rochelle, N, Y., in 1700, died in Bos- 
ton, March 3, 1743. He became a merchant in 
Boston, and in 1740, after the project of erect- 
ing a public market house in Boston had been 
discussed for some years, he offered at a public 
meeting to build a suitable edifice at his own 
cost as a gift to the town ; but so strong was 
the opposition to market houses that, although 
a vote of thanks was passed unanimously, the 
offer was accepted by a majority of only seven. 
The building was commenced in Dock square in 
September of the same year, and finished in 
two years. It comprised a market house on 
the ground floor, and a town hall with other 
rooms (an addition to the original plan) over it. 
In 1761 it was destroyed by fire ; in 1763 it 



was rebuilt by the town; and in 1775, during 
the British occupation of Boston, it was used 
for a theatre. In 1805 it was enlarged by the 
addition of another story, and was increased in 
width. During the revolutionary period it was 
the usual place of meeting of the patriots, from 
which it gained the name of the cradle of 
American liberty. 

FANFANI, Pletro, an Italian philologist and 
novelist, born at Pistoja, Tuscany, in 1817. 
He studied medicine, but gave his attention 
chiefly to philology, and in 1847 founded at 
Pistoja a magazine relating to that science 
(Ricordi filologici). The next year he enlisted 
in the war against the Austrians, and fell into 
their hands. After his release he published 
(1849) critical comments on the dictionary of 
the academy della Orusca, which involved him 
in an acrimonious and successful controversy 
with that institution. Gioberti obtained em- 
ployment for him in the ministry of education 
at Turin. Subsequently he held an office under 
the Tuscan government at Florence, where in 
1859 he became director of the famous Maru- 
cellian library, which post he still held in 1873. 
He has published Etruria, studi di filologia, 
di letteratura, di pulllica istruzione e di belle 
arti (2 vols., Florence, 1851-'2) ; 11 Borgfiini, 
giornale di filologia e di letfere italiane (3 
vols., 1863-'5) ; Vocabolario delV uso toscano 
(2 vols., 1863); Commento alia Divina Corn- 
media tfAnonimo Florentine del secolo XIV. 
(3 vols., Bologna, 1866); and Lettere precettive 
di eccellenti scrittori (2d ed., 1871). Among 
his other writings are : La Paolina, a novel in 
the Florentine dialect (2d ed., 1868) ; Una lam- 
lola, a story for children (1869) ; and Cecco d> 
Ascoli, a historical narrative of the 14th cen- 
tury (1870 ; Leipsic, 1871). 

FAXXIERE, Francois Angnste and Francois Jo- 
seph, French engravers and carvers, brothers, 
the former born at Longwy in 1818, and the 
latter in 1822. Adopting the profession of 
their father, they received with the assistance 
of their grandfather, M. Fauconnier, an ex- 
cellent training, and reached by their joint 
labors a greater eminence in carving and em- 
bossing on metals than any artist since Ben- 
venuto Cellini. They were rewarded with 
prizes at the exposition of 1849, and the elder 
brother, who produced large works in gold 
with bass reliefs at that of 1855, was m,ade 
chevalier of the legion of honor. Their sub- 
sequent joint masterpieces are two shields rep- 
resenting incidents from Orlando furioso, exe- 
cuted for the duke de Luynes. 

FAWIN. I. A N. W. county of Georgia, 
bordering on Tennessee and North Carolina ; 
area, 425 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 5,429, of whom 
114 were colored. The surface is mountain- 
ous. The chief productions in 1870 were 3,947 
bushels of wheat, 7,027 of rye, 113,754 of In- 
dian corn, and 6,210 of oats. There were 
3,472 cattle, 5,123 sheep, and 7,571 swine. 
Capital, Morganton. II. A N. E. county 
of Texas, separated from the Indian territory 


by Red river, and drained by Sulphur fork of 
that stream, and by Bois d'Arc creek ; area, 
about 800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 13,207, of 
whom 2,484 were colored. It consists princi- 
pally of highly fertile prairie lands. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 17,648 bushels of 
wheat, 476,563 of Indian corn, 53,472 of oats, 
23,193 of sweet potatoes, 123,835 Ibs. of butter, 
and 5,699 bales of cotton. There were 7,041 
horses, 20,436 cattle, 5,681 sheep, and 18,345 
swine. Capital, Bonham. 

FAMffl, James W., an officer of the Texan 
revolution, born in North Carolina, killed at 
Goliad, Texas, March 27, 1836. He was a 
captain in the Texan service in 1835, and on 
Oct. 28, at the head of 90 men, with Capt. 
Bowie, defeated a superior Mexican force near, 
Bexar. Gen. Houston soon afterward made 
him colonel of artillery and inspector general. 
In January, 1836, he set out to reenforce Dr. 
James Grant, commanding an unauthorized ex- 
pedition to Matamoros. At Refugio he learn- 
ed the destruction of Grant's party and fell 
back to Goliad, which he put in a state of 
defence. But by Houston's order he marched 
toward Victoria, and on March 19 was attacked 
at the Coleta river by a Mexican force under 
Gen. Urrea. Throwing up a breastwork of 
wagons, baggage, and earth, the Texans de- 
fended themselves with spirit until night inter- 
rupted the fighting, Col. Fannin being among 
the wounded. The battle was renewed on 
the 20th, but the Mexicans having received 
a reinforcement of 500 men, with artillery, 
a capitulation was signed, by which it was 
agreed that the Texans should be treated as 
prisoners of war, and as soon as possible sent 
to the United States. Having surrendered 
their arms, they were taken to Goliad, where 
on the 26th an order was received from Santa 
Anna requiring them to be shot. At daybreak 
the next morning the prisoners, 357 in number 
(the four physicians and their four assistants 
being spared), were marched out under various 
pretexts, and fired upon in divisions. Fannin 
was killed last. Many attempted to escape, 
and were cut down by the cavalry, but 27 are 
believed to have eluded pursuit. 

FAMING, David, a tory and freebooter of 
North Carolina during the war of the revolu- 
tion, born of low parentage in Wake co., N. C., 
about 1756, died in Digby, Nova Scotia, in 
1825. He seems to have been a carpenter, but 
led a vagabond life, trafficking with the Indians, 
and being connected for some time with the 
notorious Col. McGirth on the Pedee. When 
Wilmington was occupied by the British in 
1781, Fanning, having been robbed by a party 
of men who called themselves whigs, attached 
himself to the tories, collected a small band of 
desperadoes, and scoured the country, com- 
mitting frightful atrocities, but doing such good 
service to the British that Major Craig rewarded 
him with the royal uniform, and gave him a 
commission as lieutenant colonel in the militia. 
He captured many prominent whigs, hanging 




tliose who had incurred his personal resent- 
ment upon the nearest tree. His name was a 
terror to the whole country ; he was excepted 
in every treaty and enactment made in favor of 
the royalists, and was one of the three persons 
excluded by name from the benefits of the 
general " act of pardon and oblivion " of of- 
fences committed during the revolution. On 
the other hand, his romantic mode of life and 
personal daring, displayed many times in battle, 
drew around him numerous followers, whom 
he disciplined with great strictness. He is said 
to have commanded at one time 200 or 300 
men. When the whigs began to gain the 
ascendancy in North Carolina, he went to 
Florida, and afterward to St. John's, N. B., 
where he assumed a respectable deportment, 
and became member of the assembly. About 
1800 he Was sentenced to be hanged for rape, 
but escaped, and was afterward pardoned. 

FANO, a seaport of central Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Pesaro, on the Adriatic, near the 
mouth of the Metauro, 30 m. N. W. of Ancona ; 
pop. about 20,000. It is surrounded by old 
walls, built by the emperor Augustus, in whose 
honor was erected here a triumphal arch of 
white marble, which is still standing. Few 
cities of central Italy surpass it in artistic trea- 
sures or richness of the surrounding soil and 
scenery. The cathedral is adorned with 16 
frescoes by Domenichino, representing events 
in the life of the Virgin. Many of the 13 
other churches, and several public buildings 
and private mansions, contain paintings by the 
great Italian masters, marbles, statues, and 
fine monuments. It is the seat of a bishop, and 
has a lyceum, a gymnasium, a technical school, 
a public library, and a theatre considered one 
of the finest in Italy. The manufactures are 
chiefly of silk stuffs and twist, and the trade 
is in corn, oil, &c. The port was once much 
frequented, but is now choked up with sand, 
and visited only by small coasting vessels. 
Fano occupies the site of the ancient Fanum 
Fortunae, so called from a temple of Fortune 
built by the Romans, and commemorative of 
their victory over Hasdrubal on the river Me- 
taurus, in the second Punic war. It was the 
scene of a victory by Narses over the Goths 
under Totila. In 1511 Pope Julius II. establish- 
ed here the first printing press in Europe with 
movable Arabic types. 

FANSHAWE, Sir Richard, an English poet and 
diplomatist, born at Ware Park, Hertfordshire, 
in June, 1608, died in Madrid, June 16, 1666. 
He studied in Jesus college, Cambridge, and in 
the Inner Temple. He then went abroad to 
study manners and languages, and on his re- 
turn home became secretary to the embassy at 
Madrid, where he remained till 1638. On the 
outbreak of the civil war he declared for the 
crown, and was made secretary to the prince 
of Wales. In 1648 he was appointed treasurer 
to the navy under Prince Rupert, and two 
years later he was made a baronet, and sent 
to Madrid to implore the assistance of Spain; 

He was taken prisoner at the battle of Worces- 
ter, but being released passed several years in 
retirement, translating the "Lusiad" of Ca- 
moens, and upon the death of Cromwell joined 
Charles II. at Breda. He was appointed mas- 
ter of requests and Latin secretary to the ex- 
iled monarch, and after the restoration was 
elected to parliament, and was sent upon diplo- 
matic missions to Madrid and Lisbon, negotia- 
ting the marriage of Charles with the infanta 
Catharine of Portugal. Besides his version of 
the "Lusiad" (1655), he translated the Pastor 
fido of Guarini and the odes of Horace, and 
wrote a few short original poems. The "Origi- 
nal Letters and Negotiations of Sir Richard 
Fanshawe, the Earl of Sandwich, the Earl of 
Sunderland, and Sir William Godolphin " (8vo, 
London, 1724) is a valuable contribution to 
history. The "Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe," 
written by herself, with extracts from the cor- 
respondence of her husband, edited by Sir N. 
H. Nicolas, was published in London in 1830. 

FANTEE, a country of the Gold Coast, W. 
Africa, bounded N. W. and N. by Assin and 
Dubbin, E. by Aquapim, S. by the gulf of Guinea, 
and W. by Wassaw, lying near lat. 5 30' N., 
Ion. 1 W. Capital, Mankasim. It is watered 
by several rivers, is said to be fertile and popu- 
lous, and has several important trading stations 
along its coast. The inhabitants are remark- 
ably cleanly, are more muscular than the Ash- 
antees, and may be distinguished from other 

A Fantee Woman. 

African tribes by small scarifications on the 
back of the neck and the upper part of the 
cheek bones. Their heads are high and round, 
and their color is a dull brownish black. They 
have long faces with jaws protruding to an 
unusual extent, flat noses, thick lips, and very 
large ears. The dress of both sexes consists 



of a single piece of cloth wrapped loosely 
around the hody. They pay a nominal obedi- 
ence to chiefs called caboceers, besides whom 
every village has its local magistrate. They 
formerly governed or influenced a seaboard 
district extending about 100 m. along the coast. 
About 1807, becoming involved in a war with 
the king of Ashantee, they obtained the active 
interference of the English, who had a small 
fort in Anamboe, one of their towns ; but this 
alliance, while it plunged the British into a 
disastrous quarrel, proved of no benefit to the 
Fantees, whose territory after a long struggle 
was occupied by the victorious Ashantees. In 
1823 the Fantees, encouraged by the British, 
rebelled, but were again subdued, the British 
being defeated by the Ashantees, and their 
commander, Sir Charles McCarthy, captured 
and put to death. In 1826, however, the Brit- 
ish defeated the Ashantees and compelled them 
to retire to their own territories. From that 
time for nearly half a century the Fantees 
were unmolested under British protection. 
But in 1872 the Dutch possessions on the Gold 
Coast were transferred by treaty to Great 
Britain, and in 1873 Koffee Calcalli, king of 
Ashantee, complaining that some of the stipula- 
tions of his treaties with the Dutch had been 
violated by the British, declared war against 
them, overran and ravaged the Fantee terri- 
tories, and in September was threatening Cape 
Coast Castle with a numerous army. The 
British government, holding itself bound to 
protect its allies, the Fantees, sent a powerful 
force to the Gold Coast under command of 
Gen. Wolseley, who in November was advan- 
cing toward Copmassie, the Ashantee capital, 
driving before him the army of Koffee Calcalli, 
which was estimated to be about 40,000 strong. 

FANTI, Manfredo, an Italian general, born in 
Carpi, Modena, about 1810, died April 5, 1865. 
He took part in 1831 in the unsuccessful insur- 
rection against the Austrians, served afterward 
in the French army, passed into the royal ser- 
vice of Spain in 1835, and returned at the out- 
break of the revolution of 1848 to Italy, where 
he became a major general in the Sardinian 
army. In 1855 he commanded one of the four 
brigades sent to the Crimea, and in the war 
of 1859 took part as lieutenant general in the 
battles of Magenta and Solferino. In January, 
1860, he accepted the portfolios of war and of 
marine in the cabinet of Count Cavour, in Feb- 
ruary became senator, and in September com- 
manded the expedition against the Papal States. 
He left the cabinet in 1861, and in 1862 be- 
came commandant general of the military de- 
partment of Florence. 

FARADAY, Michael, an English chemist and 
natural philosopher, born at Newington, Sur- 
rey, Sept. 22, 1791, died at Hampton Court, 
Aug. 25, 1867. His father was a blacksmith, 
of feeble health, and very poor. A short dis- 
tance from their home in London was a book- 
seller's and bookbinder's shop kept by George 


Riebau, and there Faraday went, when 13 years 
of age, as an errand boy, on trial, for one year. 
It was a part of his duty at first to carry round 
the newspapers that were lent out by his mas- 
ter. At the end of a year he became an ap- 
prentice to Riebau, the indentures to continue 
seven years. " In consideration of his faithful 
service," no premium was given to the master. 
Faraday says of himself: " While an apprentice 
I loved to read the scientific books which were 
under my hands, and among them delighted in 
Marcet's 'Conversations on Chemistry' and 
the electrical treatises in the ' Encyclopedia 
Britannica.' I made such simple experiments 
as could be defrayed in their expense by a few 
pence per week, and also constructed an elec- 
trical machine, first with a glass vial, and after- 
ward with a real cylinder, as well as other 
electrical apparatus of a corresponding kind." 
" My master," he says, " allowed me to go occa- 
sionally of an evening to hear the lectures de- 
livered by Mr. Tatum on natural philosophy at 
his house, 53 Dorset street. The charge was 
one shilling per lecture, and my brother Robert 
(who was a blacksmith) made me a present 
of the money for several." That he might be 
able to illustrate scientific lectures, he took 
lessons in drawing of a Mr. Masquirier, who 
also lent him Taylor's "Perspective," "which 
I studied closely," he says, " copied all the 
drawings, and made some other simple ones." 
Among the notes Faraday has left of his own 
life occurs the following: "During my ap- 
prenticeship I had the good fortune, through 
the kindness of Mr. Dance, who was a cus- 
tomer of my master's shop, and also a member 
of the royal institution, to hear four of the last 
lectures of Sir Humphry Davy in that locality. 
Of these I made notes, and then wrote out 
the lectures in a fuller form, interspersing 
them with such drawings as I could make. I 
wrote to Sir Humphry Davy, sending as a 
proof of my earnestness the notes I had taken." 
He was invited by Davy to call upon him, 
which resulted in his appointment as assistant in 
the laboratory of the royal institution, whither 
he went in March, 1813. In October of the 
same year he went with Davy abroad, as amanu- 
ensis and assistant in experiments. The tour 
lasted only a year and a half, but was full of 
the most vivid interest to young Faraday. In 
the latter part of April, 1815, they returned to 
England, and Faraday, now 23 years of age, 
resumed his place as assistant in the labora- 
tory, and was also made assistant in the mine- 
ralogical collection, and superintendent of the 
apparatus, at a salary of 30 shillings per week. 
During the year 1816 he gave seven lectures 
before the " City Philosophical Society:" 1, on 
the general properties of matter ; 2, on the at- 
traction of cohesion; 3, on chemical affinity; 
4, on radiant matter ; 5, 6, and 7, on oxygen, 
chlorine, iodine, fluorine, hydrogen, and nitro- 
gen. His first paper appeared in the "Quar- 
terly Journal of Sciences," and was an analy- 
sis of some caustic lime from Tuscany, which 



had been sent to Davy by the duchess of 
Montrose. In 1817 he gave a second course 
of lectures before the city philosophical so- 
ciety, at the tenth of which, on carbon, he 
used notes for the first time, instead of read- 
ing his lectures. In 1818 he investigated the 
subject of sounding flames, showing that they 
were not dependent, as De la Rive had sup- 
posed, upon the sudden expansion and con- 
densation of vapor, but that they were con- 
nected with musical vibrations produced in a 
manner similar to the tones of a flute or of 
an organ pipe. He obtained the sounds as 
well when using a flame of carbonic oxide gas 
as when using one of hydrogen. In 1819 he 
made a tour on foot through Wales, and kept a 
journal in which there are many passages man- 
ifesting his intense love of nature and his vivid 
powers of description. In 1820 he published 
a paper on two new compounds of chlorine 
and carbon, and on a compound of iodine, 
carbon, and hydrogen. It was read before 
the royal society, and was the first which was 
published in the " Philosophical Transactions." 
On June 12, 1821, he was married to Miss Sa- 
rah Barnard, a daughter of an elder in the 
Sandemanian church, and, having obtained 
leave, took his wife to reside at the royal in- 
stitution, where they remained until they 
moved to the house assigned them in Hampton 
Court by the queen in 1858. A month after 
his marriage he became a member of the San- 
demanian church. His ideas of religion are 
indicated by the following quotation from a 
lecture delivered on medical education in 1854 : 
"High as man is placed above the creatures 
around him, there is a higher and far more 
exalted position within his view ; and the ways 
are infinite in which he occupies his thoughts 
about his fears, or hopes, or expectations of a 
future life. I believe that the truth of the fu- 
ture cannot be brought to his knowledge by 
any exertion of his mental powers, however 
exalted they may be; that it is made known 
to him by other teaching than his own, and is 
received through simple belief of the testimony 
given. Let no one suppose for a moment that 
the self-education I am about to commend, in 
respect to the things of this life, extends to any 
consideration of the hope set before us, as if 
man by reasoning could find out God." In 
1821 there occurred the only unpleasant cir- 
cumstance that seems ever to have been con- 
nected with his life. Dr. Wollaston was the 
first person to entertain the idea of causing a 
wire to revolve around a magnet, or upon its 
own axis, and in a visit to Davy at the royal 
institution made some experiments and con- 
versed upon the subject, during a part of 
which time Faraday was present. It greatly 
excited his interest, and he could not refrain 
from making experiments, the result of which 
was that in the months of July, August, and 
September he wrote a history of the progress 
of electro-magnetism, which was published in 
the "Annals of Philosophy." In the latter 

month he made the discovery of the rotation 
of a wire in a voltaic circuit round a magnet, 
and of a magnet round a wire. He says: "I 
did not realize Dr. Wollaston's expectation 
of the rotation of the electro-magnetic wire 
round its axis; that fact was discovered by 
Ampere at a later date." These experiments 
and publications of Faraday created consider- 
able feeling, so much that the matter was dis- 
cussed two years afterward, when he was pro- 
posed as a member of the royal society. He 
was charged with trespassing upon the prov- 
ince of .another, and with using another's im- 
plements in cultivating the field ; but his un- 
blemished character in all other relations, and 
the great discoveries which he made in this 
abstruse department of electro-chemistry and 
electro-magnetism, at last removed all tinge 
of imputation of wrong intention; and long 
before he closed his labors all men of science 
were heartily glad that Faraday had followed 
his inclinations. About the year 1822 and for 
some time after he investigated the subject of 
the liquefaction of vapors and gases, and in 
1823 examined a substance which had been 
regarded as pure chlorine, but which Davy in 
1810 had proved to be a hydrate. Faraday 
first analyzed this hydrate, and then at the 
instance of Davy subjected it to the action of 
its own pressure on being heated in a strong 
sealed tube, by which means he obtained liquid 
chlorine. Extending his experiments to other 
gases, he succeeded in reducing a number of 
them to a liquid state. His first memoir was 
read before the royal society April 10, 1823, 
and the second on Dec. 19, 1844. Prof. Tyn- 
dall says that while making his first series of 
experiments an explosion occurred by which 
13 pieces of glass were driven into his eyes. 
In 1825 he published a paper in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions " on new compounds of 
carbon and hydrogen, in which he announced 
the discovery of benzole. But his mind contin- 
ually reverted from chemistry to physics, and 
in 1826 he was again engaged upon the subject 
of vaporization, in which he came to the con- 
clusion that a limit exists, and that our atmos- 
phere does not contain the vapors of what are 
usually denominated the fixed constituents of 
the earth's crust. During the year he had ten 
papers in the " Quarterly Journal," one of the 
principal being on pure caoutchouc, his analy- 
sis of which is given in the article on that 
substance in this work. In 1825 Faraday was 
appointed with Sir John Herschel and Mr. 
Dolland on a committee to examine the manu- 
facture of glass for optical purposes. Their 
experiments continued for four years, when 
Faraday delivered his first Bakerian lecture 
"On the Manufacture of Glass for Optical 
Purposes." This paper required three succes- 
sive sittings of the royal society, and although 
the investigation had not much immediate 
practical use, it led to other and very impor- 
tant discoveries. In 1831 he published a paper 
on vibrating surfaces, in which he solved the 



problem of the cause of the collection of lyco- 
podium seeds and other light bodies upon the 
vibrating parts of sounding plates, instead of 
upon the nodal lines where sand is collected, by 
showing that the light bodies are prevented 
from settling on the nodal lines by minute 
whirlwinds formed in the air over the vibrating 
parts. In 1827 he published his "Chemical 
Manipulations" (1 vol. 8vo ; 2d ed., 1830; 3d 
ed., 1842). In April of this year he gave his 
first course of six lectures before the royal 
institution upon the atmosphere, gases, vapor, 
chemical affinity, definite proportions, flame, 
galvanism, and magnetism as evolved by elec- 
tricity. Between February and May he de- 
livered twelve lectures at the London institution 
on the subject of chemical manipulation. In 
December 'he commenced a course of lectures 
on chemistry to juvenile audiences. His power 
of imparting the elementary principles of science 
to youthful minds was wonderful, owing not 
only to the logical simplicity of his mind, but 
to his happy choice of and manner of making 
experiments. These courses of lectures suc- 
ceeded each other from year to year, and it 
was also his habit to deliver popular lectures 
on Friday evenings at the royal institution 
throughout nearly his whole scientific career. 
In 1829 he was appointed lecturer on chemis- 
try in the royal academy at Woolwich. In 
1831 he commenced his celebrated series of 
electrical researches, which were continued 
through a great number of years. He investi- 
gated the induction of electric currents and the 
evolution of electricity from magnetism; and 
although Oersted was the' discoverer of electro- 
magnetism, and Ampere its expounder, Faraday 
made the science of magneto-electricity sub- 
stantially what it is at the present day. In 
this year he also began to develop his theory 
of lines of magnetic force. In 1833 he was 
appointed the first Fullerian professor of chem- 
istry at the royal institution, and during the 
same and the succeeding year he studied the 
laws of electro-chemical decomposition, and 
applied the word electrode in place of pole to 
the conductors connected with a decomposing 
cell, the fluid in which he called an electrolyte, 
and the act of its decomposition electrolysis. 
The positive electrode he called the anode, and 
the negative the cathode, and also applied the 
terms anions and cations to the chemical ele- 
ments of the electrolytes which pass respec- 
tively to the anode and cathode. He now 
applied himself to the determination of elec- 
tric quantity, and for this purpose devised 
his voltameter, by which he showed that the 
amount of electricity generated in a voltaic 
battery depends upon the amount of chemical 
decomposition, thus establishing the doctrine of 
u definite electro-chemical decomposition." He 
investigated the contact theory of Volta, and 
in doing so developed the ideas which he al- 
ways afterward entertained on the conservation 
of force, illustrating the fallacy of the contact 
theory of galvanism by showing that if true a 

force could be produced without drawing its 
supply from any consuming source. His first 
great paper on frictional electricity was sent to 
the royal society Nov. 30, 1837. In his inves- 
tigation of this subject he developed his induc- 
tive theory of electricity, and by numerous 
memorable experiments illustrated the " specific 
inductive capacity " of dielectrics, in which he 
supposed the molecules of the dielectric to form 
a chain of communication between the inducing 
and the induced body. He also, during the 
years 1836-'8, made experiments for the Trinity 
house on electric light for lighthouses, a subject 
which again in the latter part of his life en- 
gaged much of his attention. In 1840 he was 
elected an elder in the Sandemanian church, 
but held the office only for 3-J- years, during 
which period, when in London, he preached on 
alternate Sundays. His great labors had im- 
paired his health, and in 1841 he went with 
his wife to Switzerland, spending much of the 
time at Interlaken and at the falls of Giessbach, 
returning at the end of September in the same 
year. In 1842 he made experiments upon the 
generation of electricity by steam, prompted 
thereto by the invention of the celebrated 
hydro-electric machine of Sir William Arm- 
strong, and showed that it was caused by fric- 
tion, and not by vaporization, as had been 
supposed. He performed very little laboratory 
work till the end of 1844, indulging in the 
mean time in needful rest. In the beginning 
of 1845 he made a second series of experiments 
on the condensation of gases, and about the 
first of September began the investigation of 
the magnetic relations of light, which led him 
to the discovery of the peculiar phenomena of 
magnecrystallic action. In November he an- 
nounced his discovery of the "Magnetization 
of Light and the Illumination of the Lines of 
Magnetic Force." Whatever doubt there may 
be as to the soundness of his theory in every 
particular, his paper is full of the profoundest 
thought. "I have long," he says, "held an 
opinion almost amounting to a conviction, in 
common I believe with many other lovers of 
natural knowledge, that the various forms 
under which the forces of matter are made 
manifest have one common origin ; in other 
words, are so directly related and mutually 
dependent, that they are convertible, as it were, 
into one another, and possess equivalents of 
power in their action." He always held that 
the theory of gravitation, not as it existed in 
the mind of Newton, but as commonly under- 
stood, embraced an absurdity, by supposing 
that when the manifestation of attraction be- 
tween two bodies decreased in proportion to 
the square of their distance from each other, 
an equivalent of energy was lost ; thus denying 
the doctrine of " conservation of force," which 
he considered as established. In December 
of the same year he published a memoir ad- 
dressed to the royal society on the " Mag- 
netic Condition of all Matter," in which he 
discussed the phenomena presented by diamag- 




netic bodies, or such as are repelled by the 
poles of a magnet instead of being attracted, 
like iron or other paramagnetic bodies, as he 
termed them. Between this time and 1851 
he was much occupied with the magnetic 
condition of gases, finding, among other facts, 
oxygen to be powerfully paramagnetic. Among 
the papers published is one on the diamag- 
netic condition of flame and gases in the " Phi- 
losophical Magazine " for December, 1847, and 
two elaborate memoirs on atmospheric mag- 
netism sent to the royal society on Oct. 9 and 
Nov. 19, 1850. He applies his theory of the 
lines of magnetic force to the solution of the 
cause of the distribution of magnetism in the 
earth's atmosphere, and of annual and diurnal 
variations; and although it has been found that 
the variation in the declination of the magnetic 
needle is connected with solar spots, it can 
scarcely be doubted, as Tyndall remarks, "that 
a body so magnetic as oxygen, swathing the 
earth and subject to variations of temperature, 
diurnal and annual, must aifect the manifesta- 
tions of terrestrial magnetism." Faraday was 
opposed to the atomic theory, and it is very 
difficult, perhaps impossible, to comprehend 
his idea of the subject. In the place of an 
atom as a particle of matter he substituted a 
point or centre of force, and connected points 
of force with lines of force. He says : "This 
view of the constitution of matter would seem 
to involve necessarily the conclusion that mat- 
ter fills all space, or at least all space to which 
gravitation extends ; for gravitation is a prop- 
erty of matter dependent on a certain force, 
and it is this force which constitutes the mat- 
ter. In that view matter is not mutually 
penetrable ; but each atom extends, so to say, 
throughout the whole of the solar system, yet 
always retaining its own centre of force." In 
1853, at the request of many friends, he was 
induced to investigate the phenomena of "ta- 
ble-turning," and he prepared apparatus with 
which to test the reality of the phenomena in 
question. The investigations were conducted 
with great care, but he discovered no manifes- 
tations of any of the forces, natural or super- 
natural, which had been suggested as possibly 
concerned in the phenomena. In 1854 he made 
a series of experiments connected with subma- 
rine telegraphy, which were of great value. In 
1855 he brought his experimental -researches 
on electricity to a close, having followed them, 
along with his other investigations, during a 
quarter of a century. "The record of this 
work which he has left in his manuscripts and 
republished in his three volumes of ' Electrical 
Researches' will ever remain," says his biog- 
rapher, Dr. Bence Jones, " as his noblest monu- 
ment : full of genius in the conception ; full of 
finished and most accurate work in the execu- 
tion ; in quantity so vast that it seems impos- 
sible that one man could have done so much. 
Lastly, the circumstances under which this 
work was done were those of penury. During 
a ^reat part of these 26 years the royal institu- 

tion was kept alive by the lectures which Fara- 
day gave for it. He had no grant from the 
royal society, and throughout almost the whole 
of this time the fixed income which the insti- 
tution could afford to give him was 100 a 
year, to which the Fullerian professorship 
added nearly 100 more." In 1856 he was 
again engaged in experimenting for the Trinity 
house with electric light for lighthouses, and it 
is thought that his frequent journeys and night 
excursions in the channel during the winter, 
when he was 70 years of age, were the remote 
causes of his last illness. In 1858 the queen 
assigned him a house in Hampton Court. In 
1860 he resumed his eldership in the Sande- 
manian church, and held it for the same period 
as before, resigning in consequence of not be- 
ing able conscientiously to perform the duties 
of the office. On June 20, 1862, he gave his 
last Friday evening lecture, which was on the 
subject of gas furnaces ; in the notes for the lec- 
ture he mentions his loss of memory. He was 
the "prince of popular lecturers," and drew 
crowds from the theatres to the lecture room 
of the royal institution on Friday evenings. It 
was here that he appeared in his glory, absorbed 
and earnest as a child over his toys, repeating 
his experiments, in which none were more in- 
terested than the lecturer himself. His facility 
in experimenting was a gift of genius, and 
his lectures to children are said to have been 
the most perfect examples of extemporaneous 
speaking. He was an honorary member of 72 
societies, in almost every part of the world. 
Besides his voluminous manuscripts, papers in 
the "Philosophical Transactions," and jour- 
nals, the following works have been pub- 
lished: "Chemical Manipulations" (1827); 
"Researches in Electricity" (1831-'55); "Lec- 
tures on Non-Metallic Elements " (1853) ; " Re- 
searches in Chemistry and Physics" (1859); 
"Lectures on the Forces of Matter "'(I860) ; 
and "Lectures on the Chemical History of a 
Candle" (1861). The chief biographies of 
Faraday are: a small memoir by Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone; "Faraday as a Discoverer," by 
Prof. Tyndall (1868) ; and "Life and Letters of 
Faraday," by Dr. Bence Jones (1869). 

FARADIZATION, a term applied to the pro- 
duction of induced currents of electricity, and 
particularly their employment in electro-thera- 
peutics. The generation of this form of elec- 
tricity was discovered by Faraday in 1831, and 
is produced by suddenly magnetizing and de- 
magnetizing a soft bar of iron, or interrupting 
the flow of the galvanic current through a 
helix, around which bar or helix a secondary 
coil of wire is placed. Secondary currents are 
induced in the latter at every interruption of 
the galvanic or magnetic force. (See GALVAN- 

FAREHAM, a market town of Hampshire, 
England, a station on the Southwestern rail- 
way, on slightly elevated ground, at the head 
of a short arm of the sea, 5 m. N. W. of Ports- 
mouth ; pop. in 1871, 7,023. It contains a 



handsome parish church, and Independent and 
Wesley an Methodist churches, free schools, and 
a hall for a philosophical institution. Ship 
building was once actively carried on, but has 
declined. Earthenware, bricks, and terra cotta 
are manufactured in large quantities, and the 
latter is largely exported. There is also a 
considerable trade in grain, canvas, rope, and 
timber. Fareham is a resort for sea bathing. 

FiREL, Gnillaume, a French reformer, born 
near Gap, in Dauphiny, in 1489, died in Neuf- 
chatel, Sept. 13, 1565. While studying at Paris 
he embraced the new doctrines, and went 
with his friend Lefevre d'Etaples to Meaux, 
where he began to preach. He returned to 
Paris in 1523, went to Basel the next year, be- 
came intimate with Zwingli, Haller, Grebel, 
and other reformers, quarrelled with Erasmus, 
and was banished from Basel, all within a few 
weeks, and then retired to Strasburg, where 
he was intimate with" Bncer. Preaching after- 
ward at Montbeliard and other places, his in- 
temperate zeal drew him into many troubles. 
One day he interrupted a procession in honor 
of St. Anthony by snatching the statue of the 
saint and throwing it into the river. To es- 
cape the consequences he fled, and travelled in 
Alsace and Switzerland. In 1527 he went to 
Aigle and taught school under an assumed 
name. In 1532, with Antoine Saunier, he rep- 
resented the reformed churches in the synod 
convened by the Vaudois of Piedmont at Chan- 
forans, and on his return was invited to a con- 
ference with the Catholics at Geneva, where 
the controversy became stormy, blows were 
exchanged, and the magistrates had to inter- 
fere. He was ordered to leave the city, re- 
turned in 1533, was again banished, came back 
in 1534 with letters from the seigniory of Bern, 
and in 1536 persuaded Calvin to aid him in 
the organization of the reformed church at 
Geneva. The party of "Libertines" gaming 
the upper hand in the election of 1538, Farel 
and Calvin were banished. Farel went to 
Strasburg, and organized the Protestants there 
amid much opposition. In March, 1543, a 
body of troops under Claude de Guise fell upon 
a congregation gathered around him at Gorze 
in France. Farel was wounded, and narrowly 
escaped with his life. He then settled as 
pastor at Neufchatel. In 1557 he was sent to 
the Protestant princes of Germany to ask 
their assistance for the Vaudois, and soon after 
he incurred the displeasure of Calvin and others 
by marrying a young girl. In 1561 he preached 
at Gap with all the violence of his youth, and 
was thrown into prison, from which his follow- 
ers released him, letting him down from the 
rampart in a basket. Farel was a fine scholar 
and excited great admiration by the brilliancy 
of his oratory. His writings were numerous, 
but mostly of temporary interest. 

FARIA Y SOIISA, Manoel de, a Portuguese and 
Spanish historian and poet, born in Portugal, 
March 18, 1590, died in Madrid, June 3, 1649. 
He was a son of Amador Perez de Erro, and 


assumed the name of his mother, who belonged 
to the ancient Portuguese Faria family. He 
Was incited to poetical composition by his ad- 
miration for Albania, as he called Catharina 
Machado, who became his wife. After his 
marriage he settled in Madrid, and from 1630 
to 1634 he was special envoy to Rome. On 
his return he was placed for some time under 
arrest, the pagan allusions and inferences in 
his Comentarios sobre la Lusiada (2 vols., 
Madrid, 1639) having given offence to the in- 
quisition, though he regarded himself as a de- 
vout Roman Catholic. His subsequent effu- 
sions, collected under the title of Fuente de 
Aganipe (4 vols., Madrid, 1644-' 6), are in 
Spanish, excepting 200 sonnets and a few other 
pieces in Portuguese. His Discursos morales y 
politicos, published under the title of Noches 
claras, consist of dialogues, divided into seven 
nights. His principal historical works are : 
Epitome de las Mstorias portuguesas (Madrid, 
1628; enlarged ed., Brussels, 1730); Asia 
Portuguesa (3 vols., Lisbon, 1666-'75); Euro- 
pea Portuguesa (3 vols., Lisbon, 1667-'78); 
and Africa Portuguesa (1 681). He was among 
the first trustworthy writers on China, and his 
Imperio de China, edited by Father Semmedo 
(Madrid, 1842), has been translated into French 
and Italian. Lope de Vega called him the 
prince of critics. 

FARIBAULT, a S. county of Minnesota, bor- 
dering on Iowa, and drained by Blue Earth 
river and its branches ; area, 720 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 9,940. The surface is mostly prairie; 
the soil is fertile. The Minnesota and North- 
western and the Southern Minnesota railroads 
pass through the county. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 552,940 bushels of wheat, 
137,496 of Indian corn, 394,992 of oats, 25,786 
of barley, 29,321 of potatoes, 15,398 tons of 
hay, and 259,645 Ibs. of butter. There were 
2,995 horses, 3,235 milch cows, 4,864 other 
cattle, 4,127 sheep, and 3,394 swine. Capital, 
Blue Earth City. 

FARIBAULT, a town and the capital of Rice 
co., Minnesota, at the confluence of the Can- 
non and Straight rivers, and on the Iowa and 
Minnesota division of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee, and St. Paul railroad, 46 m. S. of St. 
Paul; pop. in 1870, 3,045. It is the seat of 
the state asylum for the deaf, dumb, and blind, 
and of an Episcopal academy, and contains sev- 
eral other schools, six or eight churches, two 
weekly newspapers, two national banks, and 
several flour mills, saw mills, founderies, &c. 

FARINELLI (originally BROSCHI), Carlo, on 
Italian singer, born in Naples or in Andria, 
Jan. 24, 1705, died in Bologna, July 15, 1782. 
The extraordinary beauty of his soprano voice 
was attributed to his having been emasculated. 
He was a favorite pupil of Porpora, and met 
with brilliant success at the principal theatres 
of Italy. In 1734 he went to London, where 
he soon created an excitement. He performed 
three years in England, and netted every year 
5,000. In France his success was equally 




great. In Madrid he dissipated the melancholy 
of Philip V., became the king's chief favorite, 
and after his death was similarly honored by 
Ferdinand VI., receiving an annual salary of 
$10,000, on condition that he should sing only 
for the royal ears. He prevailed upon Ferdi- 
nand to organize a theatre in the palace, for 
which he engaged eminent artists from Italy, 
and of which he became the director. For 
20 years he ruled the court of Spain, not 
only by the charms of his voice, but gradu- 
ally by his influence in political affairs. In 
1759, on the accession of Charles III., Farinelli 
fell into disgrace, and three years later was 
ordered to leave the kingdom. He then took 
up his abode at Bologna, and built a splendid 
palace in the vicinity of the town, in which he 
passed the rest of his life. 

FARMER, Hngh, an English theologian, born 
in Shropshire in 1714, died in London, Feb. 5, 
1787. He was educated at the academy in 
Northampton under Dr. Doddridge, and be- 
came pastor of a dissenting congregation at 
"Walthamstow, Essex, where he wrote several 
theological treatises. He removed to London in 
1 761, and became afterward preacher to the con- 
gregation of Salters' hall, and one of the Tuesday 
lecturers at the same place. He published an 
" Inquiry into the Nature and Design of our 
Lord's Temptation in the Wilderness " (1761), 
a "Dissertation on the Miracles" (1771), an 
"Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testa- 
ment " (1775), and a work entitled " The Gen- 
eral Prevalence of the Worship of Human Spir- 
its in the ancient Heathen Nations" (1783). 
He considered miracles to be absolute proofs 
of a divine mission. 

FARMER, John, an American genealogist, 
born in Ohelmsford, Mass., June 12, 1789, died 
in Concord, N. H., Aug. 13, 1838. After teach- 
ing school for ten years, he studied the early 
settlement of New England, and his " Gene- 
alogical Register," published in 1829, is thought 
to contain the names of nearly all the first 
European settlers in that region. A new and 
enlarged edition of this work, by James Sav- 
age of Boston, was published in 1860-'62. Mr. 
Farmer superintended an edition of Belknap's 
" History of New Hampshire," to which he 
added many valuable notes; and he con- 
tributed various papers to historical and anti- 
quarian societies, and to periodicals. 

FARMERS GENERAL, in France, financial and 
privileged associations which before the revo- 
lution of 1789 took upon lease various branches 
of the public revenue. This system origina- 
ted in the 13th century, when Philip the Fair, 
in consideration of certain sums paid to him, 
several times permitted Lombard bankers and 
Jews to collect the taxes. The consequent 
exactions, cruelties, imprisonments, and even 
executions, often caused popular rebellions ; 
yet in the reign of Louis XIII. the lessees had 
become a power in the state, and often trans- 
ferred their leases to still more unscrupulous 
subordinates. In 1720, under the regency, the 

individual leases were united in &ferme generale, 
which was let to a company, whose members 
were called fermiers generaux. Their number 
was originally 40, afterward increased to 60. 
In consideration of an annual payment of 55,- 
000,000 livres, they had the privilege of levying 
the taxes on articles of consumption ; and on 
the renewal of this privilege in 1726, 80,000,- 
000 livres annually were paid. In 1774 the 
farmers paid 135,000,000 francs for this right, 
and in 1789, 180,000,000, and yet made im- 
mense fortunes. In 1759 the contracts of the 
farmers general were quashed by Silhouette, 
but the system soon revived, as it was favor- 
able to the court and ministers. The constitu- 
ent assembly in 1790 suppressed the associa- 
tion. In 1794 all the farmers general then liv- 
ing were brought before the revolutionary tri- 
bunal, and condemned ; 28, including Lavoisier 
the chemist, were executed May 8, 1794, and 
the remaining three some days afterward. 

FARNE, Fearne, or Fern Islands, several small 
islands and rocks in the North sea, from 2 to 5 
m. from the English coast, and nearly oppo- 
site Bamborough. Two lighthouses have been 
erected on the largest. In rough weather the 
passage between the isles is very dangerous, 
and several disastrous shipwrecks, attended 
with great loss of life, have occurred here. 

FARNESE, a family of Italian princes, who 
derived their name from their ancestral castle 
of Farneto near Orvieto, and whose genealogy 
is traced to the middle of the 13th century. 
Prominent as a soldier among the early mem- 
bers of the family was PIETEO, who commanded 
the Florentine army in their victorious battle 
against the Pisans at San Piero, in May, 1363, 
and died of the plague within a few weeks. 
The historical celebrity of the house dates 
from 1534, when Cardinal Alessandro Farnese 
became pope under the name of Paul III. In 
1545 he erected Parma and Piacenza into a 
duchy for the benefit of his natural son, PIE- 
TRO LIJIGI, a dissolute and cruel ruler, against 
whom many nobles revolted in concert with 
Gonzaga, the imperial governor of Milan, at 
whose instigation he was assassinated Sept. 10, 
1547. His son OTTAVIO (1520-'86) was recon- 
ciled with Austria through his wife, the famous 
Margaret of Parma, natural daughter of Charles 
V., and his reign of over 30 years was peace- 
ful and happy. He was succeeded by his son 
ALESSANDRO (1546-'92). He was educated by 
his mother, and enlisted in the service of Spain 
in early youth. He fought in the naval battle 
of Lepanto in 1571, and was sent in 1577 to the 
Netherlands, where in the following year he 
took part in the victory of Gembloux, won by 
Don John of Austria over the Dutch. He suc- 
ceeded Don John as governor of the Low 
Countries, and forced the Belgian provinces 
into submission, successively taking Maestricht, 
Breda, Tournay, Dunkirk, Bruges, Ypres, 
Ghent, and Antwerp (1579-'85), the latter city 
after one of the most memorable sieges re- 
corded in history. On his father's death in 




1586 he inherited the duchy, but did not even 
visit his dominions. In 1588 he was put in 
command of the armada which Philip II. of 
Spain sent against England ; but being shut up 
with his army in Antwerp by the Dutch flo- 
tilla, he was only a spectator of its disastrous 
failure. In 1590 he invaded France at the 
head of the Spanish army and relieved Paris, 
which was then besieged by Henry IV. In 
1592 he marched into Normandy, and obliged 
Biron to raise the siege of Eouen, one of the 
principal cities held by the leaguers; but he 
received here a wound which afterward proved 
fatal. Being attacked by Henry IV., who 
hemmed in his army between the Seine and 
the English channel, he foiled the efforts of his 
opponent, and succeeded in landing his troops 
on the opposite bank of the river, when they 
returned to the Netherlands. As for himself, 
he was unable to proceed further than Arras, 
where he breathed his last. He was a man 
of consummate military and diplomatic genius. 
A bronze equestrian statue of him by John of 
Bologna adorns the principal public square at 
Piacenza. His successor was his son by the 
princess Mary of Portugal, RANUZIO I. (1569- 
1622). He was a lover of science and art, but 
notorious for his ferocity against noble families, 
a number of whom he had executed, confis- 
cating their property for alleged conspiracy. 
He married a niece of Pope Clement VIII. 
His son and successor ODOAEDO (1612-'46) was 
fond of magnificence and lavish in the expen- 
diture of money, and possessed various accom- 
plishments. But, insatiable in his ambition, 
he entered into an alliance with France against 
Spain and Austria in 1633, by which he nearly 
lost his duchies. In 1639 Pope Urban VIII. 
deprived him of the duchy of Castro, upon 
which Odoardo had raised money which he 
was unable to pay. After five years of wran- 
gling Castro was restored to him through the 
intervention of France and Venice. RANUZIO 
II., his son and successor, was the fattest of a 
family noted for obesity. He died in 1694, and 
was succeeded by his son FKANCESCO, who died 
in 1727, and was followed on the throne by 
his brother ANTONIO. This prince, born in 
1670, was likewise exceedingly corpulent, and 
cared for little besides eating and sleeping. 
Leaving no issue, he designated as his succes- 
sor Don Carlos, son of Philip V. of Spain and 
of his niece Elizabeth Farnese. The Farnese 
family became extinct with him in 1731, and 
the rule of Parma and Piacenza passed into 
the hands of the infante of Spain, consequent 
upon a convention signed in Vienna in the 
same year. The Farnese palace in Rome, 
now belonging by inheritance to the deposed 
king of Naples, was finished under the di- 
rection of Michel Angelo, who designed the 
whole upper part of the building with its 
imposing entablature. It is regarded as the 
finest piece of architecture in Rome, and was 
constructed of blocks of travertine which were 
taken by the nephews of Pope Paul III. from 

the theatre of Marcellus and the Colosseum. 
The grounds are adorned by two fountains, 
whose granite basins, 17 ft. long and 4 ft. 
wide, were taken from the baths of Caracalla. 
The most celebrated statuary has been removed 
to the museum of Naples, including the torso 
Farnese, or Farnese bull, and the Farnese 
Hercules, or the Hercules of Glycon. Among 
the few monuments which remain in the pal- 
ace is a colossal one representing Alessandro 
Farnese crowned by Victory, sculptured out 
of a column taken from the basilica of Con- 
stantine. The most exquisite paintings are 
the frescoes of Annibale Carracci and his 
pupils in the gallery on the upper floor. 
The villa Farnesina, in the Lungara of the 
Trastevere, opposite the Corsini palace, was 
designed by Baldassare Peruzzi for Agosti- 
no Chigi (1506), who gave here in 1518 an 
extravagant entertainment in honor of Leo 
X. ; the plate, on being removed from the 
table, was thrown into the Tiber. This palace, 
mainly celebrated for its frescoes by Raphael 
and his pupils, became the property of the 
Farnese family, and passed with its other 
possessions to the Neapolitan Bourbons. The 
kings of Naples supported here an academy of 
painting, and eventually sold the palace to the 
Spanish duke Ripalda, who still owns it. The 
Farnese gardens (Orti Farnesianf) occupy the 
whole northwestern summit of the Palatine 
hill, and contain interesting ruins of the pal- 
aces of the Caesars. Napoleon III. purchased 
these grounds in 1861 from the king of Naples 
for 250,000 francs, and spent 750,000 francs on 
the excavations alone, designed to aid in hia 
work on Julius Caesar. In 1870 he sold them 
for 650,000 francs to the city authorities of 
Rome, on condition of their continuing the 
excavations under the direction of Pietro Rosa. 
FiRNHAM, Eliza W., an American philanthro- 
pist and author, born at Rensselaerville, Al- 
bany co., N. Y., Nov. 17, 1815, died in New 
York, Dec. 15, 1864. Her maiden name was 
Burhans. In 1835 she went to Illinois, and 
in 1836 married Thomas J. Farnham. In 1841 
she returned to New York, where she visited 
prisons and lectured to women till the spring 
of 1844, when she became matron of the fe- 
male department of the state prison at Sing 
Sing, hoping to govern such an institution by 
kindness alone. She remained four years, and 
while there published " Life in Prairie Land," 
and edited an edition of Sampson's "Criminal 
Jurisprudence." In 1848 she removed to Bos- 
ton, and was connected for some time with 
the institution for the blind in that city. In 
1849 she went to California, and in 1856 re- 
turned to New York, and published " Califor- 
nia Indoors and Out." For the next two 
years she studied medicine. In 1859 she or- 
ganized a society to aid and protect destitute 
women in emigrating to the west, and went 
at different times to the western states with 
large numbers of such persons. The same 
year she published "My Early Days." She 




again visited California, and in 1864 published 
"Woman and her Era" (2 vols. 12mo, New 
York), a work on the position and rights of 
woman. In 1865 appeared a posthumous 
work, " The Ideal Attained." 

FARNHAM, Thomas Jefferson, an American 
traveller, husband of the preceding, born in 
Vermont in 1804, died in California in Sep- 
tember, 1848. In 1839 he organized and head- 
ed a small expedition across the continent to 
Oregon. He went to California the same year, 
and took an active part in procuring the 
release of a large number of Americans and 
English who had been imprisoned by the Mex- 
ican government. In 1842 he published " Trav- 
els in Oregon Territory;" in 1845, "Travels 
in California and Scenes in the Pacific," and 
"A Memoir of the Northwest Boundary Line;" 
and in 1848, " Mexico, its Geography, People, 
and Institutions." 

FARO, or Pharo, a game of chance at cards, 
said to derive its name from the figure of an 
Egyptian Pharaoh which was formerly placed 
on one of the cards. It may be played by any 
number of persons, who sit at a table gene- 
rally covered with green cloth. The keeper of 
the table is called the- banker. The player, 
called the punter (from Ital. puntare, to point), 
receives a livret or small book from which to 
choose his cards, upon which he may at his 
option set any number of stakes, which are 
limited in amount in accordance with the capi- 
tal of the banker. The banker turns up the 
cards from a complete pack, one by one, lay- 
ing them first to his right for the bank and 
then to his left for the player, till all the cards 
are dealt out. The first card is considered 
blank. The banker wins when the card equal 
in points to that on which the stake is set 
turns up on his right hand, but loses when it 
is dealt to the left. The drawing of each two 
cards is called a "turn." The player loses 
half the stake when his card comes out twice 
in the same turn. This is called a " split." 
The last card but one, the chance of which the 
banker claims, but which is now frequently 
given up, is called hocly (a certainty). The 
last card neither wins nor loses. "Where a 
punter gains, he may either take his money or 
paroli ; that is to say, double his chance by 
venturing both his stake and gains, which he 
intimates by bending a corner of his card up- 
ward. If he wins again, he may play sept et 
lc rff, which means that after having gained a 
paroli he tries to win seven fold, bending his 
card a second time. Should he again be suc- 
cessful, he can paroli for quinze et le va, for 
tn-nte et le va, and finally for soixante et le 
r", which is the highest chance in the game. 
Faro was formerly in vogue in France, Eng- 
land, and Europe generally, and still retains 
its popularity in various parts of the world. 
The method of play in the United States is as 
follows: The dealer, with a large array of 
hecks at his right hand, representing $1, $5, 
$20, and upward, takes his seat at a table. In 

the centre of the table is a suit of cards, callec 
"the lay-out," arranged in the following order 














The king, queen, and knave are called "the 
big figure ;" the ace, deuce, and trey, "the little 
figure;" and the 6, 7, and 8, "the pot." On 
these cards the player places the sums he 
wishes to bet. The dealer shuffles a pack of 
cards (the option of shuffling resting also with 
any of the players who call for it), has them 
cut, and then places them in a box, from which 
he deliberately slides them one by one. The 
first is called the " soda card," and is set aside ; 
the next is the banker's card, and wins for 
him all sums bet upon it; the next is the 
player's card, and so on alternately. It is in 
the power of the player, by placing a small 
copper on the amount he places on the card, 
to reverse the chance. This, which is called 
" coppering," enables the player to bet on or 
against whichever card he pleases. The dealer 
stops between each two cards while new bets 
are being made as checks change from one 
card to another, and thus the game proceeds 
to the close of the pack, when a fresh deal is 
made, and the process is repeated. The bank 
wins on "splits," which is supposed to be the 
only odds in its favor ; but it possesses others 
in its superior amount of capital, and in the 
inclination of most players to stake heavier 
in the effort to recover than to support good 
luck. When but two cards are left in the box, 
the player has the privilege of " calling the 
last turn," that is, guessing in which order 
they will appear ; if correct, he wins four times 
the amount of his stake. In Germany the 
cards are not dealt from a box, but nailed to 
a pine board and torn off one by one by the 
dealer. Here the dealer is generally assisted 
also by one or two croupiers, who attend to 
the playing and receiving, guarding against 
errors, and shuffling the pack. 

FARO, a city of Portugal, capital of the 
province of Algarve, near the mouth of the 
Yalfermoso, 62 m. E. of Cape St. Vincent, 
and 140 m. S. E.of Lisbon; pop. about 8,500. 
It was destroyed by the English in 1596, and 
by earthquakes in 1722 and 1755, and now 
presents a modern appearance, though, with 
the exception of the principal square and of a 
fortress, the houses are generally poor. The 
town has a cathedral, a theological seminary, 
and a mathematical school for the army. The 
cathedra], said to have been a mosque, is a 
time-worn building. In the E. and highest 
part of the city is an ancient and imposing 
castle surrounded by Moorish walls, and in 
the same direction is an arch with a statue 
of St. Thomas Aquinas. Blindness prevails to 



a great extent, owing to the light sandy soil. 
Sand bars render the port, which is defended 
by a small citadel, almost inaccessible ; but 
tolerable anchorage is obtained in the road- 
stead formed by three small islands at the 
mouth of the river. The coasting trade is 
active, especially in southern fruit. Figs and 
oranges are the most important products. 

FAROCHON, Jean Baptlste Eugene, a French 
medallist and sculptor, born in Paris in 1807. 
He studied under David, early executed busts, 
small statues, and medallions, received a prize 
in 1835, studied in Italy as a pensioner of the 
academy, and on his return to Paris gained 
reputation by his medallions. Devoting him- 
self to statuary, he produced in 1859 his mas- 
terpiece, u The Mother," which was again ex- 
hibited in 1867. Since 1863 he has been pro- 
fessor at the school of fine arts. 

FAROE, or Faro Isles (Dan. F&rderne), a group 
belonging to Denmark, in the Atlantic ocean, 
N. of Scotland, between lat. 61 20' and 62 25' 
N., and Ion. 6 10' and 7 35' W. ; area, 510 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,992. They are 22 in 
number, 17 of the larger ones being inhabited. 
The largest of them are Stromo, the central 
island, 27 m. long and 7 m. broad, with about 
2,600 inhabitants, and Ostero, 20 m. long and 10 
m. broad, with a population of about 2,100. 
Next in size are Sydero, Sando, and Vaago. The 
interior of the islands is generally hilly, the 
mountains varying in height from 1,000 to 2,800 
ft. The valleys are narrow, and the rivulets 
flowing through them are so swollen during the 
rainy season as to render travelling impossible. 
The prevailing rocks are greenstone and clay- 
stone of various kinds. Some of the islands 
contain coal mines, and fine opal and traces of 
iron, copper, and other metals are found. The 
soil seldom exceeds a foot in depth, though in 
some places it is 4 ft. deep. Turnips, potatoes, 
and a few other vegetables flourish, but barley 
is the only cereal that matures, and even that 
often fails in consequence of the sudden changes 
of temperature. There is no timber ; coal and 
turf are used for fuel. The pasture lands are 
luxuriant, and the wealth of the islanders con- 
sists chiefly in sheep, which yield a very fine 
wool. The horses are small, but hardy, active, 
and sure-footed. The cows are also small. Sea 
fowl valuable for their flesh and feathers abound 
on the coasts. Ship building is carried on with 
success. There are cloth and stocking manu- 
factories and a few tanneries. Fisheries of the 
whale, seal, cod, and herring, and the collect- 
ing of eider down, constitute a large part of 
the resources of the country. Bread and salt 
are luxuries. The population, descendants of 
the old Northmen, are vigorous and laborious, 
and of loyal and religious character. The 
common language is a dialect of the Norse, 
but the official language is Danish. The long- 
est day of summer, including the long twi- 
light, is 24 hours, and the shortest of winter 
4 hours. Monks from the Scottish isles first 
founded in the Faroe group a few hermitages. 


In the 9th century fugitive Norwegian pirates 
established themselves under Grimr Kamban. 
The islands became Danish when Norway was 
united with Denmark in 1380. During the 
18th century they were notorious as the seat 
of smugglers. They were occupied by the 
English from 1807 to 1814. The administra- 
tion is composed of a Danish amtmand or bai- 
liff, who is commander of the armed force, 
and a landfoged, who is director of the police ; 
and they are represented in the legislature of 
Denmark by a deputy appointed by the king. 
Commerce with the Faroe islands is a monopoly 
of government, and Danish ships are permitted 
to approach them only between May and Sep- 
tember. Capital, Thorshavn, on the S. E. side 
of Stromo ; pop. about 800. 

FARQl'IIAR, George, a British comic drama- 
tist, born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1678, died 
in London in April, 1707. After a brief career 
at Trinity college, Dublin, he appeared in his 
17th year as a comedian upon the Dublin stage. 
While performing in the " Indian Emperor " 
of Dryden, he accidentally inflicted a serious 
wound upon his antagonist in fencing, which 
caused him to renounce the boards for ever. 
He went to London in 1696, obtained a com- 
mission in the army, and applied himself to 
dramatic composition. He lived gayly and 
licentiously, and during the ten years before 
he sank a victim to anxiety and ill health he 
produced seven comedies, superior in vivacity 
and ease of style, and in clear and rapid de- 
velopment of intrigue, to any that had before 
appeared in England. The last and best of 
these was the "Beaux Stratagem" (1707), 
which still keeps the stage. He also left a 
volume of "Miscellanies," consisting of poems, 
essays, and letters. His works have much of 
the smartness and indelicacy fashionable in 
his time, but are written in better language 
and are less designedly vicious than the plays 
which preceded the revolution of 1688. He 
passed a troubled though merry life, and left 
two daughters in indigence, whom in a brief 
and touching note he recommended to the 
kindness of his friend the actor Wilks. A com- 
plete edition of his works appeared in 2 vols. 
12mo in 1772. 

FARRAGIJT, David Glascoe, an American ad- 
miral, born at Campbell's station, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., July 5, 1801, died in Portsmouth, 
N. H., Aug. 14, 1870. He entered the navy 
as midshipman at the age of 11, and his first 
service was on board the famous Essex, in 
which he participated in the engagement that 
resulted in the capture of the British ship Alert, 
and also in the three hours' fight in the bay of 
Valparaiso, March 28, 1814, before the Essex 
surrendered to the Phoebe and Cherub. In 
his report of the battle Commodore Porter 
commended "the lad Farragut," and regretted 
that he was too young for promotion. Under 
the same commander Farragut took part in the 
attack on the rendezvous of pirates at Cape 
Cruz on the southern coast of Cuba in 1823. 



The fight lasted 12 hours, and resulted in the 
defeat of the pirates and the destruction of 
their boats and village. From this time for 
nearly 40 years he was sailing about the world 
or quietly serving at naval stations, rising 
slowly by seniority. He was commissioned 
lieutenant in 1825, commander in 1841, and 
captain in 1855 ; and his most important com- 
mand in all that time was that of the Mare 
Island navy yard, California, 1854-'8. When 
the civil war began, Farragut was 60 years of 
age, and had been in the service more than 48 
years. He was living at Norfolk, Va., " waiting 
orders," on the day when intelligence was re- 
ceived that Virginia had seceded. He hastily 
collected a few valuables, put his loaded pistols 
in his pocket, and within two hours was with 
his family on board a steamer bound north. 
Leaving his family at Hastings-on-the-Hudson, 
he reported at Washington, where he remained 
nine months jn comparative inactivity. His 
first orders for active duty appointed him com- 
mander of the expedition for the capture of New 
Orleans and opening of the Mississippi river. 
These orders reached him Jan. 20, 1862, and 
in two weeks he was under way in his flagship 
the Hartford. On reaching the gulf of Mexico 
he first arranged the blockade of the whole 
coast, and then with the more formidable por- 
tion of his fleet entered the Mississippi. A 
mortar flotilla was attached to the expedition, 
but Farragut placed no reliance upon it. The 
bombardment of the forts a little above the 
mouths of the river was kept up continuously 
for six days and nights ; but the enemy daily 
added to their defences, and beyond the burn- 
ing of the barracks within Fort Jackson the 
works, mounting 120 guns, were as formidable 
as at the commencement of the bombardment. 
Without further delay, Farragut in the night 
of April 24 signalled his squadron to get under 
way, and, delivering broadsides of grape, ran 
past the forts " under such a fire from them," 
he wrote, " as I imagine the world has never 
seen." Beyond the forts he encountered and 
destroyed a fleet of 20 armed steamers, 4 iron- 
clad rams (one of 4,000 tons), and a multitude 
of fire rafts. Next ne silenced the two formi- 
dable Chalmette batteries, on either side of 
the river three miles below New Orleans, and 
at noon the second day anchored with the city 
beneath his guns. In the passage of the forts 
his fleet received 165 shots, 37 men were killed 
and 147 wounded, and one vessel, the Varuna, 
was sunk. Farragut next proceeded to Vicks- 
burg (attacking Grand Gulf in passing), for the 
purpose of reducing that stronghold, and, run- 
ning his vessels safely past the powerful bat- 
teries, communicated with the squadron brought 
down from the upper Mississippi ; but notwith- 
standing all his exertions, the attack failed from 
the lack of a cooperating land force. He then 
repassed the batteries and withdrew his fleet 
to Pensacola for repairs. On July 11, on the 
recommendation of the president, he received 
the thanks of congress, and on the reorganiza- 

tion of the navy in the same month was placed 
first on the list of rear admirals. In the fol- 
lowing autumn the capture of Corpus Christi, 
Sabine pass, and Galveston was effected by 
his squadron. In March, 1863, Farragut again 
advanced against Vicksburg, but encountered 
so tremendous a fire at Port Hudson that but 
two vessels, the Hartford and the Albatross, 
succeeded in passing the batteries. All the 
vessels of his squadron were terribly cut up, 
and the fine frigate Mississippi was destroyed. 
With his flag ship and her small consort he 
kept on to Vicksburg, and established commu- 
nication with the upper Mississippi fleet and 
with the army under Gen. Grant. By this ex- 
ploit he obtained control of the river between 
Port Hudson and Vicksburg, established a 
blockade of the Red river, and thus intercepted 
the supplies from Texas destined for the con- 
federate armies. About the last of May he 
returned and engaged the batteries at Port 
Hudson, and from that time till July 9, when 
the garrison surrendered, efficiently cooperated 
with the army in its investment of the place. 
The following summer Farragut summoned his 
squadron to the attack of Mobile, and on the 
morning of Aug. 5, 1864, conducted his force 
past Forts Morgan and Gaines guarding the en- 
trance, and further on in the bay engaged and 
vanquished the confederate fleet of iron-clads, 
winning, after a desperate fight of several hours, 
a victory next in lustre and consequence only 
to that of New Orleans. In this battle, just 
as the iron-clad Tecumseh was opposite Fort 
Morgan, a torpedo was exploded under her, and 
in three minutes she had sunk, carrying down 
her commander, T. A. Craven, and more than 
100 of her crew. The Brooklyn, the leading 
ship of the line, supposing it to have been the 
confederate ram Tennessee which had blown 
up, gave three hearty cheers, but, soon dis- 
covering the mistake, made signal to the ad- 
miral : " Our best monitor is sunk." Shortly 
afterward the Brooklyn discovered a nest of 
torpedoes close ahead, and stopped, to avoid 
running into them. Farragut, who had had 
himself lashed to the Hartford's rigging, seized 
upon this circumstance to dash forward and 
assume the head of the line ; a position which 
he had reluctantly yielded to the Brooklyn at 
the earnest solicitation of his captains, who 
felt confident that the leading ship would 
be destroyed. Again congress expressed to 
Farragut the gratitude of the country, and 
created for him the grade of vice admiral, 
in which office he was confirmed Dec. 21, 
1864; and on July 25, 1866, congress again 
created a higher office, that of admiral, and 
conferred it upon him. In 1867 Farragut sailed 
from Brooklyn in the frigate Franklin, and 
commanded the European squadron until 1868. 
Wherever he touched during that cruise he re- 
ceived most distinguished honors alike from 
sovereigns and people. While on a journey 
undertaken for the improvement of his failing 
health, he died at the Portsmouth navy yard. 




A mural tablet in his honor was placed in the 
church of the Incarnation, New York, Nov. 10, 
1873. See " Life and Naval Career of D. G. 
Farragut," by P. 0. Headley (New York, 1865). 

FARRAR> I. John, an American mathema- 
tician, born in Lincoln, Mass., July 1, 1779, 
died in Cambridge, May 8, 1853. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1803, and studied 
divinity at Andover, but accepted the appoint- 
ment of Greek tutor at Harvard in 1805. In 
1807 he was chosen Hollis professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy, and set himself 
the task of raising the standard of mathematical 
education to the European level. In 1818 he 
published for the use of his pupils a translation 
of Lacroix's " Elements of Algebra," followed 
by selections from Legendre, Biot, B6zout, and 
others. These works were at once adopted 
as text books by Harvard college, and by 
the United States military academy. He also 
contributed to the scientific periodicals, to the 
"North American Review," and to the "Me- 
moirs" of the American academy. In 1836 
he resigned his chair in consequence of a pain- 
ful illness which eventually caused his death. 
II. Eliza Rotch, an American authoress, second 
wife of the preceding, born at New Bedford, 
Mass., in 1792, died at Springfield, April 22, 
1870. She married Prof. Farrar in 1828. 
Among her earliest publication's are " The Chil- 
dren's Robinson Crusoe," "Life of Lafayette," 
44 Howard," and " Youth's Letter Writer." Her 
most popular work, "Young Lady's Friend" 
(1837), passed through many editions in the 
United States and in England. In 1865 she 
published "Recollections of Seventy Years." 

FARREN, Eliza, countess of Derby, an English 
actress, born in Liverpool in 1759, died April 
23, 1829. Her father, a native of Cork, who 
was successively a surgeon, an apothecary, and 
an actor, left his family in great indigence. 
Eliza made her de"but in Liverpool in 1773, and 
'in London in 1777, where she played succes- 
sively at the Haymarket, Covent Garden, and 
Drury Lane. Although a very graceful and 
lively actress, she owed her reputation chiefly 
to her remarkable beauty, which received the 
homage of the most illustrious men of the time. 
She was esteemed as much for her virtues as 
her beauty, and on May 1, 1797, became the 
wife of the 12th earl of Derby, then a widower. 

FARS, or Farsistan (Pers., land of the Per- 
sians ; anc. Persis), a S. W. province of Persia, 
bounded N. W. by Khuzistan, N. by Irak-Ajemi 
and Khorasan, E. by Kerman, S. by Laristan 
and the Persian gulf, and W. by the Persian 
gulf; area estimated at about 50,000 sq. m. 
pop. between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000, inclu- 
ding Turkomans, Banians, and a small num- 
ber of Jews. It is divided into the Ger- 
masir and Sirhud, or warm and cold regions. 
The former extends inland from the coast, its 
surface being a sandy plain, wholly dependent 
for vegetation on the periodical rains. The 
latter comprises the more elevated region be- 
longing to the great range of mountains which 

extend from the Caucasus to the gulf, and which 
in this part are exceedingly steep toward the 
sea. This portion of the province consists of 
fertile valleys. A few of them, as Shiraz, Ka- 
zerun, and Merdusht, are cultivated, but many 
are wooded and uninhabited. The southern 
part of the coast E. of Ras Berdistan is occu- 
pied by Arabs, who acknowledge the authority 
of the sultan of Muscat, and in the northern 
districts there are some tribes of Kurds. East- 
ward the country is more open, sandy, and ill 
supplied with water. The chief rivers are 
the Sitaregyan, flowing into the Persian gulf, 
and the Bendemir, falling into the salt lake 
Bakhtegan. Another salt lake, near Shiraz, 
supplies the province with salt. The general 
products of the country are tobacco in large, 
quantity, wine, rice, dates, opium, linen, cotton, 
silk, cochineal, and roses for the manufacture of 
attar. Iron and lead mines exist, as also quar- 
ries of marble and alabaster. Bo,rax and naph- 
tha are among the chemical products. Atten- 
tion is given to the raising of horses, camels, 
and asses, for use and export. The inhabitants 
of this province are considered the most indus- 
trious in Persia. They manufacture woollen, 
silk, and cotton stuffs, and carry on an extensive 
trade with India. The government is vested 
in a prince of the sovereign's family, under 
whom are governors of districts. There are 
many interesting remains of antiquity. The 
tomb of Cyrus is at Murgab, the ancient Pa- 
sargada ; the ruins of Persepolis are between 
that town and Shiraz. Inoculation is said to 
have been known among the tribes of Fara 
for centuries. Among the principal towns are 
Shiraz, the capital; Kazerun, with excellent 
opium produced in the vicinity; Darab or Da- 
rabgerd, famous for its date trees ; and Bushire, 
the chief port in the Persian gulf. (See PERSIS.) 

FARTHINGALE (Fr. vertugadin, It. guardin- 
fante, Sp. vertugado, guardian of virtue), a pet- 
ticoat spread to a wide circumference by hoops 
of willow, whalebone, or iron, introduced into 
England under this name in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. In the reign of Anne it was called a tub 
petticoat. It appeared in^France early in the 
reign of Louis XV. under the name of vertu- 
gadin and panier, or basket petticoat, its great- 
est diameter being made equal to the height 
of the lady. Its abandonment was effected 
near the close of the same reign by Mile. Clai- 
ron, who appeared on the stage without it ; but 
it again became fashionable under Marie Antoi- 
nette. In England the hoop, the successor of 
the farthingale, went out of fashion in the reign 
of George IV., who forbade it at court. 

FAST (Sax. fcestan, to keep), abstinence from 
food, especially as a religious observance ; ap- 
plied also to the period of such abstinence. 
Fasting was practised in all the old religions 
known to history, with the single exception 
of that of Zoroaster. It appears to have been 
also in use among the semi-civilized and savage 
tribes in both hemispheres. The Mohamme- 
dans observe strictly the fast of the month of 



Ramadan, abstaining from all food daily from 
sunrise until sunset. On the Hebrews the law 
of Moses enjoined one annual fast on the day 
of atonement ; others were observed by the 
nation in course of time in memory of great 
calamities. The modern Hebrews observe six 
fasts of obligation ; the most fervent keep many 
more. The fast consists in abstaining from 
all food and drink from sunrise till nightfall, 
' the fast of atonement alone from sunset until 
nightfall the next day. Both the eastern and 
western churches from the earliest times ob- 
served the Lenten fast of 40 days in memory 
of Christ's fasting. The Greek church enjoins 
fasts on all Wednesdays and Fridays, on the 40 
days before Christmas, and the 40 days before 
Easter, the period extending from the week 
after Pentecost until June 29, and from Aug. 1 
to Aug. 14, besides numerous other fasts as a 
preparation to ecclesiastical festivals; in all 130 
fast days in the year. There is a legal dis- 
tinction made by both the Latin and eastern 
churches betw,een "fasting," which implies the 
refraining from all food, and "abstinence," 
which is the refraining from flesh meat, eggs, 
milk, butter, and cheese. Thus, Roman Cath- 
olics abstain from flesh meat on all Fridays ex- 
cept Christmas day, and on the rogation days, 
or three days before Ascension Thursday. 
The fasts universally observed in the Catholic 
church are those of Lent, of the ember days, 
and of the vigils of Christmas, Pentecost, the 
Assumption (Aug. 15), and All Saints (Nov. 1). 
Protestants generally admit the utility of 
fasting, while denying its necessity. They do 
not admit the legal distinction between fasting 
and abstinence. The English church and the 
Protestant Episcopal church of America main- 
tain on their ecclesiastical calendar, under the 
name of fasts, both the "days of abstinence" 
and the "fast days" of the Catholic church. 
The Presbyterian church in the United States 
follows the doctrine of the Westminster Con- 
fession, that "solemn fastings" are "in their 
times and seasons" to be used in a holy and 
religious manner. The Methodist Episcopal 
church enjoins fasting or abstinence on the 
people, and advises weekly fasts to be kept by 
her clergy. The New England Puritans, while 
rejecting ecclesiastical fasts, observed them- 
selves "seasons of fasting and prayer," and ad- 
mitted both the right and duty of the civil ruler 
to set apart days for such purpose. In New 
England it is still customary for the governors 
<>t' states to appoint in the spring "a day of 
tasting, humiliation, and prayer," which is gen- 
erally observed in the churches. During the 
civil war the president of the United States 
recommended by proclamation such days to be 
observed by the nation. 

FASTI, in Roman antiquity, registers of the 
days, months, and other divisions of the year, 
corresponding to modern calendars. The term 
is variously derived from fas, divine law, and 
/r?', to speak, as it properly designated those 
days of the year on which legal business could 

without impiety be transacted, or legal judg- 
ment be given by the magistrates. The fasti 
calendares or sacri, the chief division of these 
registers, contained the enumeration of all the 
days, divided into months and weeks of eight 
days according to the nundince (the days of 
each of the latter being designated by the first 
eight letters of the alphabet), the calends, nones, 
and ides. Days on which legal business could 
be transacted were marked by F. &s fasti; 
those from which judicial transactions were ex j 
eluded by N. as nefasti ; the days on which 
justice could only be administered at certain 
hours were called ex parte fasti, also intercisi, 
and were marked in the calendar, when justice 
could be demanded during the early part of 
the day, by F. P.,fasto primo; and days on 
which the assemblies of the comitia were held 
by C. Primarily these registers are said to 
have been intrusted by Numa as sacred books 
to the care of the pontifex maximus, and for 
nearly four centuries the knowledge of the 
calendar continued to be in exclusive posses- 
sion of the priests, one of whom regularly an- 
nounced the new moon, and the period inter- 
tervening between the calends and the nones. 
On the nones the rex sacrorum proclaimed the 
various festivals to be observed in the course 
of the month, and the days on which they 
would fall. This knowledge, previously jeal- 
ously kept to themselves by the priests and pa- 
tricians, was first made public in 304 B. 0. by 
Cneius Flavius, by some believed to have been 
a scribe to Claudius Caecus. Besides the above 
mentioned divisions of time, with their nota- 
tion, they generally contained the enumeration 
of festivals and games, which were fixed on 
certain days, astronomical observations on the 
rising and setting of the stars and on the sea- 
sons, and sometimes brief notices about reli- 
gious rites, as well as of remarkable events. In 
later times flattery inserted the exploits and 
honors of the rulers of Rome and their families. 
The rural fasti (rustici, distinguished from the 
urbani) also contained several directions for 
rustic labors to be performed each month. A 
different kind of fasti were those called an- 
nales or Mstorici, also magistrates or consu- 
lares, a sort of chronicles, containing the names 
of the chief magistrates for each year, and short 
accounts of remarkable events noted opposite 
to the days on which they occurred. Hence 
the meaning of historical records in general 
attached to the term fasti in poets, while it is 
used in prose writers of the registers of consuls, 
dictators, censors, and other magistrates, be- 
longing to the public archives. Several speci- 
mens of fasti of different kinds have been dis- 
covered in the last three centuries, none of 
which, however, are older than the age of Au- 
gustus. The fasti Maffeani, the complete mar- 
ble original of which was long preserved in the 
Maffei palace at Rome, but finally disappeared, 
are now known by a copy prepared by Pighius ; 
the Verriani, known as the Prasnestine calen- 
dar, comprising only five months, are histor- 



ically no less remarkable. The latter appear 
to have contained ample information about fes- 
tivals, and details of the honors bestowed upon 
and the triumphs achieved by Caesar, Octavia- 
nus, and Tiberius. A most remarkable speci- 
men of the second class was discovered in 1546 
in the forum Eomanum, in large fragments, 
giving the list of consuls from the 250th to the 
765th year of Rome, and is known under the 
name of fasti Gapitolini. New fragments of 
the same tablets were found in 1817 and in 
1818. Originally they contained the records 
of Rome from the expulsion of the kings to the 
death of Augustus. Labbe has given fasti con- 
sulares out of a MS. of the college of Clermont 
in his Bibliotheca Nova. Several modern wri- 
ters, as Sigonius, Reland, and Baiter, have pub- 
lished chronological tables of Roman magis- 
trates under the title of fasti. 


FATA MORGANA, or castles of the fairy Mor- 
gana, a mirage occasionally seen from emi- 
nences on the Calabrian shore, looking west- 
ward upon the strait of Messina. It occurs in 
still mornings, when the waters are unruffled 
by breeze or current, and the sun, rising above 
the mountains of Calabria, strikes down upon 
the smooth surface at an angle of 45. The 
heat then acts rapidly upon the stagnant air, 
the strata of which but slowly intermingling 
present a series of mirrors which variously re- 
flect the objects upon the surface. The tides 
must have operated to raise the surface into a 
convex form, as sometimes occurs at this lo- 
cality. Objects on the Sicilian shore opposite, 
beneath the dark background of the mountains 
of Messina, are refracted and reflected upon 
the water in mid channel, presenting enlarged 
and duplicated images. Gigantic figures of 
men and horses move over the picture, as sim- 
ilar images in miniature are seen flitting across 
the white sheet of the camera obscura. Some- 
times the sky above the water is so impreg- 
nated with vapor that it surrounds these ob- 
jects with a colored hue. The wonderful ex- 
hibition is but of short duration. The phe- 
nomenon is not peculiar to this locality, though 
the configuration of the coast and the meteoro- 
logical conditions of the region concur to ren- 
der its exhibition more frequent and more beau- 
tiful here than elsewhere. 


FATUUTES, or Fatimides, the descendants of 
Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed, a power- 
ful Arab dynasty which for two centuries ruled 
Egypt and Syria, while the Abbasside caliphs 
reigned at Bagdad. They claimed as their 
founder Ismael, the 6th of the 12 imams who 
were descended from Ali and Fatima ; but this 
claim was disputed, and they were variously 
said to have first appeared in Persia, in Egypt, 
and at Fez, and to have been descendants of a 
Jew, a locksmith, and an eastern sage. They 
first attained to empire under Abu Obeidallah, 
who in A. D. 909 announced himself in Syria as 

the mahdi, or director of the faithful, foretold 
by the Koran, and expected as the Messiah by a 
class of heterodox Mussulmans. Denounced by 
the caliph, he fled to Egypt, was imprisoned for 
a time in north Africa, but was afterward rec- 
ognized as a messenger from heaven, and made 
himself caliph of the whole country from the 
straits of Gibraltar to the border of Egypt. His 
successor conquered the island of Sicily. Moez, 
the 4th caliph, wrested Egypt from the Ab- 
bassides in 970, founded Cairo, fixing his resi- 
dence in its present suburb of Fostat, and con- 
quered Palestine and a large part of Syria. 
Aziz, his successor (975-996), consolidated and 
extended his conquests, and embellished Cairo 
with many monuments. His son Hakem (996- 
1021) was preeminently distinguished for fanat- 
icism and cruelty, persecuting alike Christians, 
Jews, and orthodox Mohammedans. Declaring 
himself a manifestation of God, he became near 
the close of his reign the founder of a new re- 
ligion, now represented by the Druses of Syria, 
who expect his reappearance as their Messiah. 
From his time the power of the Fatimites 
declined. On the death of Adhed, the 14th 
caliph, in 1171, the dynasty was extinguished, 
and a new one established by Saladin. (See 

FAUCHE, Hippolyte, a French orientalist, born 
at Auxerre in 1797, died at Juilly, department 
of Seine-et-Marne, in 1869. His fortune enabled 
him to devote his whole life to Hindoo litera- 
ture, and he translated into French many cele- 
brated Sanskrit poems and other works. His 
labors were repeatedly rewarded by academical 
prizes. His most extensive translations are the 
Mmdyana (9 vols., 1854-'8) and the MaJia 
Bharata (7 vols., 1863-7), which latter was 
interrupted by his death. He also published 
poetry and a novel. 

FAUCHER, Leon, a French political econo- 
mist, born in Limoges, Sept. 8, 1803, died in 
Marseilles, Dec. 14, 1854. When a boy he sup- 
ported himself and his mother by making de- 
signs for embroidery, and afterward became a 
teacher in Paris. After the revolution of 1830 
he was successively editor of the Temps, the 
Constitutionnel, and the Courrier Fran$ais. 
He was chosen to the chamber of deputies for 
Rheims in 1846, and, joining the opposition 
party, was prominent in the debates on ques- 
tions touching political economy. He was 
elected by the department of Marne to the con- 
stituent assembly of 1848. In December of 
that year, and again in April, 1851, he was ap- 
pointed by Louis Napoleon minister of the in- 
terior, serving each time but a few months. 
He was instrumental in preparing the law of 
May 31, 1850, restricting the limits of suffrage ; 
but he declined to accept office under Louis 
Napoleon after the coup d'etat. He now de- 
voted himself chiefly to the interests of the 
credit fonder, having previously become known 
by his advocacy of a gradual reduction of duties, 
and of a commercial league between France, 
Belgium, Spain, and Switzerland, as a coun- 




terpoise to the German Zollverein. Among 
his remarkable earlier efforts were an essay 
in the Revue des Deux Mondes on the relations 
of property in France, and a pamphlet in 1838 
on prison reform. His principal work, Etudes 
sur V Angleterre, a description of the social, 
industrial, and political institutions of England, 
appeared in 1845. 

FAULK, a S. E. central'county of Dakota ter- 
ritory, recently formed, and not included in 
the census of 1870; area, about 900 sq. m. It 
is drained by the North fork of Dakota or 
James river, and consists largely of table land. 

FAOfS, in Roman mythology, rural divinities, 
descended from Faunus, king of Latium, who 
introduced into that country the worship of 
the gods and the labors of agriculture. The 
poets ascribed to them horns, and the figure 
of a goat below their waist, but made them 
gayer and less hideous than the satyrs. .Fauns, 
like satyrs, were introduced upon the ancient 
stage in comic scenes. The cabalistic mythol- 
ogy also admits the existence of fauns, whom 
it regards as imperfect creatures. It supposes 
that God had created their souls, but, sur- 
prised by the sabbath, had not time to finish 
their bodies. Hence these unfinished beings 
seek to shun the sabbath, on which day they 
retire to the deepest solitudes of the forests. 

FAUNTLEROY, Henry, an English forger, born 
in London about 1784, executed there, Nov. 
30, 1824. He early joined the London bank- 
ing house of Marsh, Stracey, and co., and about 
1814 began a system of forgeries involving 
about 400,000, though the bank of England 
prosecuted him only for 170,000. Among 
his papers was a most business-like statement, 
drawn up by his own hand as a private mem- 
orandum, containing a list of transactions to 
the amount of 120,000, with the names of 
the persons whom he had defrauded by selling 
the stocks they had deposited with him, through 
forged powers of attorney ; and the conclu- 
sive plainness of this statement led to his con- 
viction. The interval of ten years between 
the beginning and the detection of his crime 
has been ascribed to his presumed integrity, 
and to the fact of his forgeries having been 
committed upon funded property and not upon 
bills of exchange, including an amount of 
200,000 that belonged to his own wards, 
which he drew by means of forged documents. 
Uosides, he had no accomplices, and all the 
transactions were confined to England, and 
chiefly to London. Fauntleroy was the last 
forger hanged in England, capital punishment 
for forgery having been finally abolished in 1832. 

FAUQUIER, a N. E. county of Virginia, bound- 
N. W. by the Blue Eidge, and S. W. by 
the Rappahannock river and one of its branch- 
es ; area, 680 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 19,960, of 
whom 7,856 were colored. It has a diversified 
surface, a productive soil, and is rich in minerals. 
There are several gold mines which have been 
worked with profit, and beds of magnesia and 
soapstone have been discovered. It is traversed 
314 VOL. vii. 7 

by the Orange, Alexandria, and Manassas rail- 
road and branches. The chief productions in 
1870 were 269,952 bushels of wheat, 824,947 
of Indian corn, 180,591 of oats, 37,010 of po- 
tatoes, 6,611 tons of hay, 194,986 Ibs. of Gut- 
ter, and 39,493 of wool. There were 5,811 
horses, 5,325 milch cows, 15,208 other cattle, 
12,137 sheep, and 14,289 swine; 19 flour and 
2 saw mills, 6 tanneries, and 6 currying estab- 
lishments. Capital, Warrenton. 

FAURE, Jean Baptiste, a French vocalist, born 
at Moulins, Jan. 15, 1830. He first appeared 
at the Ope>a Comique in 1852, and in 1857 
became professor at the conservatory, -where 
he had been educated. In 1861 he made his 
first appearance at the Grand Opera, and he 
has since acquired great reputation as a bari- 
tone singer, his voice being both powerful and 
sweet. He is most admired in Mozart's Don 
Juan, Meyerbeer's Africaine, Thomas's Ham- 
let, and as Mephistopheles in Gounod's Faust, 
in which he excels as a basso. He married in 
Paris, Dec. 21, 1828. Having at an early age 
become acquainted with Auber, she was induced 
by him to cultivate her voice at the conserva- 
tory, where she gained a prize in 1842. She 
first performed at the Ope>a Comique in 1852, 
gradually rising to distinction by her pleasant 
and well trained voice and sprightly acting. 
Her best parts were in the Val d'Andorre, 
the jfitoile du Nord, and kindred operas. In 
1863 she performed in Mendelssohn's Lisbetli 
at the Thlatre Lyrique, but has since retired 
from the stage. 

FAURIEL, Claude Charles, a French historian 
and critic, born in St. "Etienne, Oct. 21, 1772, 
died in Paris, July 15, 1844. After receiving 
a good education he entered the army in 1793, 
served under La Tour d'Auvergne, and became 
secretary to Gen. Dugommier; but after a 
year's service he returned to St. Etienne, where 
he received a civil appointment. Subsequently 
he was private secretary to Fouche", minister 
of police, but resigned in 1802 when he saw 
Napoleon about to be made consul for life. 
He had in the mean while contracted literary 
tastes and friendships. He studied Arabic 
with De Sacy, and was one of the first Euro- 
peans to learn Sanskrit ; gathered a multitude 
of facts as to the less known tongues, as the 
Basque, Gallic, and Old German ; wrote trans- 
lations from the Danish poet Baggesen, and 
the Italian poets Manzoni and Berchet ; collect- 
ed materials for a history of stoicism, which 
he never finished ; and translated many Greek 
songs. From 1824 to 1826 he resided in Italy, 
studying oriental languages, and soon after- 
ward founded, in connection with other orien- 
talists, the Asiatic society. In 1830 he was 
appointed professor of foreign literature in the 
faculty of letters at Paris. This chair, which 
was created for him by the duke de Broglie, 
he filled for nearly 14 years, lecturing on com- 
parative philology, the origin of the French and 
Italian languages, ancient and mediaeval poetry. 



and the drama. His principal works are : Chants 
populaires de la Grece moderne, with trans- 
lations and notes (1824-'5); Histoire de la 

Gaule meridionale sous la domination 
querants germains (4 vols., 1836) ; Histoire de la 
croisade contre les heretiques albigeois, trans- 
lated from the Provencal verse of a contempo- 
rary (1837) ; Eistoire de la poesie proven c ale 
(3 vols., 1846) ; and Dante et les origines de la 
langue et de la litterature italiennes (2 vols., 
1854) ; besides some literary collections, and 
important articles in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes (1832-'48), and in the Bibliotheque de 
VEcole des Chartes. A portion of the " His- 
tory of Provencal Poetry " was translated into 
English by G. J. Adler (New York, 1860). 

FAUST, or Fanstns, Dr. Johann, a prominent 
character of the national and popular poetry 
of Germany. According to tradition, he was a 
celebrated necromancer, born about 1480 at 
Knittlingen in Wiirtemberg, or, as others have 
it, at Roda, near Weimar, or Anhalt. He is said 
to have studied magic at Cracow. Having mas- 
tered all the secret sciences, and being dissatis- 
fied at the shallowness of human knowledge, 
he made an agreement with the Evil One, ac- 
cording to which the devil was to serve Faust 
for full 24 years, after which Faust's soul was 
to be delivered to eternal damnation. The 
contract, signed by Faust with his own blood, 
contained the following conditions : " 1, he 
shall renounce God and all celestial hosts ; 2, 
he shall be an enemy of all mankind; 3, he 
shall not obey priests ; 4, he shall not go to 
church nor partake of the holy sacraments ; 
5, he shall hate and shun wedlock." Faust 
having signed these conditions, Satan sent him 
as a familiar spirit Mephistopheles, a devil 
" who likes to live among men." Faust now 
began a brilliant worldly career. He revelled 
in all manner of sensual enjoyment, of which 
his attentive devil servant, with an inexhausti- 
ble fertility of imagination, was always invent- 
ing new and more attractive forms. When 
remorse tormented Faust and surfeit led* him 
to sober reflection, Mephistopheles diverted 
him with all kinds of curious devilries. Dis- 
gusted at last with his life of dissipation, Faust 
yearned for matrimony ; but Satan appeared in 
all the terrors of fire and brimstone, frightened 
him out of this purpose, and then sent him 
from the lower regions the beautiful Greek 
Helena as a concubine, who bore him a son, 
Justus Faustus. As the term of 24 years 
draws to its close, he seeks relief and salvation 
from priests, but nothing avails him. All flee 
from the doomed man. Midnight approaches; 
an unearthly noise is heard from Faust's room, 
the howling of a storm which shakes the house 
to its very foundation, demoniacal laughter, 
cries of pain and anguish, a piercing, heart- 
rending call for help, followed by the stillness 
of death. Next morning they find Faust's 
room empty, but on the floor and walls evi- 
dence of a violent struggle, pools of blood and 
shattered brains; the corpse, mangled in a 

most horrible manner, they find upon a dung- 
hill. The beautiful Helena and her son have 
disappeared for ever. That some such person 
as Faust has existed is asserted in the most 
direct manner by writers who profess to have 
conversed with him. Among these eye wit- 
nesses are Philip Melanchthon, the great re- 
former, and Conrad Gesner ; and even in Lu- 
ther's " Table Talk " mention is made of Dr. 
Faustus as a man irretrievably lost. But it is 
not certain that the real name of this man was 
Faust. Joseph Gorres maintains that a cer- 
tain George Sabellicus is the only historical 
person in whom the original of Faust can be 
recognized. Faust's death is presumed to have 
taken place in 1538. Tradition has connected 
with his name a great number of biographical 
traits and magical feats formerly ascribed to 
other reputed conjurers. The tragical fate of 
Faust is represented as resulting from an ir- 
reconcilable conflict of faith and knowledge. 
Goethe, in his grand drama, has attempted a 
poetical solution of the legend. The moral of 
his Faust is, that man's longing after knowl- 
edge may lead him into extraordinary errors 
and failings, but cannot destroy his better na- 
ture. The first printed biography of Faust ap- 
peared in 1587, at Frankfort : Eistoria von D. 
Johann Famten, den weitbeschreyten Zauberer 
und Schwarzlcunstler. In 1588 appeared a 
rhymed edition and a translation into low Ger- 
man ; in 1589, a translation into French, His- 
toire prodigieuse et lamentable de Jean Faust ; 
about the same time an English version, "A 
Ballad of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus, 
the great Conjurer;" and shortly after, "The 
History of the Damnable Life and Deserved 
Death of Dr. John Faustus." The latter ver- 
sion seems to have been the basis of Christopher 
Marlowe's drama, "Life and Death of Dr. Faus- 
tus," which in its turn was transformed into a 
German puppet play, from which Goethe drew 
the first conception of his tragedy. In 1599 
G. R.Widmann published Warhaftige Eistorien 
von den grewlichen vnd abschewlichen Sunden 
vnd Lastern, auch von melen wunderbarlichen 
vnd seltzamen abentheuren so D. Johannes 
Faustus hat getrieben (3 vols., Hamburg). A 
new version appeared in 1674, which was 
often republished, but replaced at last by an 
abridged edition of Widmann's work (1728). 
A great number of books on necromancy also 
pretend to give, from original manuscripts of 
Faust, his cabalistic formulas, charms, talis- 
mans, &c. All of these publications, and also 
all important monographs bearing upon this 
subject, have been reprinted in the valuable 
collection of J. Scheible, Das Kloster weltlich 
und geistlicJi (Stuttgart, 1847). More than 250 
different works on the legend of Faust are 
enumerated in Peter's Literatur der Faustsage 
(2 vols., Halle, 1849). 

FAUST, or Fust, Johann, an associate of Gu- 
tenberg and Schoffer in the first development 
of the art of printing, born in Mentz, died in 
Paris about 1466. He was a wealthy gold- 



smith, and probably had no share in the inven- 
tion of the art. His connection with it com- 
menced in 1450, when Gutenberg induced him 
to enter into partnership with him, and ad- 
vance funds to establish the business of print- 
ing at Mentz, Faust having a lien on the mate- 
rials as security. The only known productions 
of the press of Faust and Gutenberg are an in- 
dulgence granted by Pope Nicholas V. to Pau- 
linus Chappe, ambassador of the king of Cy- 
prus, of which 13 copies on vellum printed in 
1454 remain, and two copies of a second edi- 
tion printed in 1455, and an " Appeal to Chris- 
tendom against the Turks," supposed to belong 
to the former year. The celebrated folio Latin 
Bible of the Mazarin library is also attrib- 
uted to this period. This is a close imitation 
of the best writing, the rubricated capitals 
being written in by hand. A copy of it, the 
only complete one in America, is in the library 
of Mr. James Lenox of New York; it cost 
$2,600. In 1455 Faust put an end to the part- 
nership by suing Gutenberg for his advances, 
and taking possession of the greater part of 
the stock in satisfaction of the debt. Faust 
then associated with himself Peter Schoffer, 
his son-in-law, who had been in their employ- 
ment, and had perfected the process of making 
movable metallic types by the invention of the 
punch. The first complete result of this new 
invention was the Rationale Dimnorum Offici- 
ontm of Durandus (large folio, 1459). Two 
editions of a psalter, beautifully executed, had 
previously appeared with the imprint of Faust 
and Schoffer (1457 and 1459), but in these the 
large capitals were cut on wood. Copies of 
nine other works from their press with date 
and imprint still exist, including a Latin Vul- 
gate Bible (2 vols. large fol., 1462), and the 
D& Officiis and Paradoxa of Cicero (small fol., 
1466 ; a copy of this, the first printed classic 
author, is in the Astor library, New York). At 
the sacking of Mentz in 1462 by one of the two 
rival archbishops, Adolph of Nassau, Faust's 
workmen were scattered, and the printing pro- 
cess, which had been kept as a secret in Mentz, 
was divulged by them in other countries. A 
short time afterward, however, Faust was en- 
abled to resume his operations. He made sev- 
eral journeys to Paris, where he is supposed to 
have died of the plague. 


FAUSTINA. I. Annia Galeria, commonly distin- 
guished as Faustina Senior, daughter of Annius 
Verus, prefect of Rome, and wife of the em- 
peror Antoninus Pius, born about A. D. 104, died 
in 141. She ascended the throne with Antoni- 
nus in 138, receiving the title of Augusta ; and 
though the emperor grieved at her profligacy, 
his affection for her made him place her after 
death among the goddesses, raise temples and 
altars to her, and have medals struck in her 
honor, exceeding in number and variety those 
in honor of any other Roman empress. II. 
Annia, called Faustina Junior, younger daugh- 
ter of the preceding, wife of her cousin the em- 

peror Marcus Aurelius, born about A. D. 125, 
died in 175. She surpassed even the dissolute 
manners of her mother. The emperor was 
aware of her disorderly life, but loved her 
notwithstanding the railleries and murmurings 
of the people and the advice of his friends. 
She accompanied him in an expedition to the 
East, and suddenly died at a village near the 
foot of Mt. Taurus. Aurelius mourned for her, 
ranked her among the goddesses, caused med- 
als to be struck in her honor inscribed Pudi- 
citia, and exalted the place where she died into 
a city named Faustinopolis. 

FAUVEAU, Felicie de, a French sculptress, born 
in Florence in 1803. She belongs to an old 
legitimist family of Brittany, and was patron- 
ized by Louis XVIII. and Charles X. She 
partook in 1832 in the royalist movement in 
La Vend6e, and on the arrest of the duchess 
de Berri escaped to Brussels, and then to Flor- 
ence. Her group of " The Abbot " (1827) illus- 
trates one of Walter Scott's romances, and 
her most successful work represents Christina 
and Monaldeschi (1829). In 1842 she exhib- 
ited in Paris various works, including " Judith 
showing the Head of Holophernes to the Peo- 
ple." Prominent among her later works are 
the Dante monument (1852), representing the 
tragic death of Paolo Malatesta and Francesca 
da Rimini, and the mausoleum of a young 
Florentine girl (1860). 

FAUVELET, Jean Baptiste, a French painter, 
born in Bordeaux in 1822. He is a disciple 
of Meissonier's style of genre painting. His 
earliest pictures, "A Young Man Reading" 
(1845), "The Two Roses," and "The Concert" 
(1847), were succeeded in 1848-'9 by "Non- 
chalance" and "The Carver." The govern- 
ment purchased in 1855 his " Two Musicians" 
for the Luxembourg. Among his later paint- 
ings is " The Prodigal Son " (1869). 

FAVARA, a town of Sicily, in the province 
and 3 m. S. E. of the city of Girgenti, on an 
eminence; pop. about 13,500. It has a beau- 
tiful castle, built in the 14th century, and in 
the neighborhood are many sulphur pits. 

FAVART, Marie Jnstine Benoite, a French ac- 
tress, born in Avignon in 1727, died in 1772. 
She was a daughter of M. du Ronceray, a mu- 
sician, and first appeared as a vocalist at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, in 1744, under the 
name of Mile, de Chantilly. Next year she 
married the dramatist and inventor of the 
vaudeville, CHAELES SIMON FAVART, who, by 
following soon after the camp of Marshal Saxe 
with a dramatic troupe, subjected himself and 
his wife to severe persecutions on account of 
her rejecting the marshal's addresses. After 
the marshal's death in 1750 she resumed acting 
in Paris, chiefly in her husband's plays. She 
excelled equally as actress, singer, and dancer, 
and introduced many excellent innovations in 
costume and other accessories. The plays of 
her husband, who survived her 20 years, fill 
10 volumes, and some of her own are included 
in (Euvres choisies de M. et Mme. Favart (Paris, 




JUSTIN (1749-1800), became also an actor and 

FAVART, Pierrette Ignacc, popularly known 
as Marie Favart, a French actress, born at 
Beaune, Feb. 16, 1833. Her family name was 
Pinigaud, but she assumed the name of M. 
Favart, who adopted her as a daughter. She 
was educated at the conservatory, and be- 
came a most popular actress and a member 
of the Theatre Francais. She belongs to the 
classical school, and is singularly elegant and 
impressive in her appearance and most ex- 
quisite in her elocution. She was greatly 
admired in 1864 as Esther, and among her 
most brilliant impersonations is Dofia Sol in 

FAVERSHAM, or FeTersham, a market town, 
borough, and parish of Kent, England, and a 
member of the cinque port of Dover, on a 
branch of the Swale, 45 m. E. S. E. of London ; 
pop. in 1871, 7,189. It contains a handsome 
church, several chapels, schools, and assembly 
rooms, a theatre, and the remains of an ab- 
bey founded by King Stephen. The town has 
long been famous for the manufacture of gun- 
powder, and has also some factories of Roman 
cement. Its chief trade is in oysters. It is ac- 
cessible to vessels of 150 tons. 

FAVIGNANA (anc. ^Egusa or ^Etliusa, an im- 
portant Roman naval station), an island of the 
^Egades group in the Mediterranean, 8 m. from 
the K W. coast of Sicily; pop. 4,000. It is 
about 5 m. long and from 2 to 3 m. broad. The 
surface is low, with the exception of a range 
of hills running through the centre, on the cul- 
minating summit of which is the castle of San- 
ta Catarina. There is a good harbor on the 
E. side, on which stand the town and fortress 
of San Leonardo. San Giacomo, the principal 
place, is on the N. coast. The island produces 
good wine and fruits, and has several quarries 
and extensive tunny and anchovy fisheries, in 
the produce of which, and in sheep, goats, 
poultry, &c., it has a flourishing export trade. 

FAVOSITES, a family of fossil corals belong- 
ing to the hydroid acalephs. Their cells are 
divided by horizontal 
partitions, like those of 
the millepores, which, 
according to Agassiz, 
are true acalephs; but 
the species are so polyp- 
like that until recently 
they were classed with 
the polyps. According 
to Dana, they are a com- 
prehensive type, inter- 
mediate between the 
polyps and the higher acalephs, and having some 
9f the characters of both. They are all palaeo- 
zoic, especially Devonian and upper Silurian. 

FAVRAS, Thomas Mahi, marquis de, a French 
conspirator, born in Blois in 1745, hanged in 
Paris, Feb. 19, 1790. Having entered the army 
and served in several campaigns, he was made 

Favosites Niagariensis. 

first lieutenant in the Swiss guards of the 
count de Provence (afterward Louis XVIII.), 
and in 1787 commanded a legion in Holland 
during the insurrection against the stadth older. 
In December, 1789, he was apprehended as the 
ringleader of a plot to introduce an army of 
30,000 men, Swiss and Germans, into Paris by 
night, which was to murder Bailly, Lafayette, 
and Decker, and to carry off the royal family 
and the seals of state to P6ronne. He was 
supposed to be a secret agent of the highest 
personages, and suspicion was directed to the 
count de Provence, who exculpated himself by 
a speech at the h6tel de ville. Favras was sum- 
moned before the Chatelet, where he defended 
himself with great calmness. His witnesses 
were refused a hearing, and the whole trial 
was conducted in the most irregular manner. 
The populace shouted "Favras to the lamp 
post," and he was condemned to be hanged. 
He met his fate with unshaken fortitude. 
When told that no revelations would save his 
own life, he answered, " Then my secret shall 
die with me." His execution took place at 
night, by the light of torches, amid the jests 
of the crowd. 

FAVRE, Jnles Claude Gabriel, a French states- 
man and advocate, born in Lyons, March 21, 
1809. His ancestors came from Piedmont, 
and his father was a merchant. He studied 
law in Paris, early acquired eminence by de- 
fending (1834-'5) persons implicated in social- 
istic and revolutionary proceedings, and after 
the revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, was succes- 
sively chief secretary in the ministry of the 
interior, member of the constituent assembly, 
and under secretary for foreign affairs. Elected 
to the legislative assembly, he was one of the 
leaders of the opposition during the presi- 
dency of Louis Napoleon, and after the coup 
d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, declined to recognize 
the new constitution. Defeated as a candidate 
for the corps legislatif in Lyons in 1857, he 
was returned in 1858 by a district of Paris, and 
won additional fame by his brilliant though un- 
availing defence of Orsini, who had attempted 
to assassinate the emperor. He was the most 
eloquent of the five so-called irreconcilable op- 
ponents of the second empire. Being chosen 
in 1863 as representative both in Paris and 
Lyons, he took his seat for the latter city, and 
made powerful speeches against the Mexican 
expedition and against the imperial policy in 
regard to the Roman question, and denounced 
the convention of Gastein as favoring the unity 
of Germany at the expense of France. Though 
persevering in his hostility to Napoleon III., 
he was defeated by the socialist Raspail at the 
election of 1869, and only secured his reelec- 
tion in Paris, where he was opposed by Roche- 
fort and Cantagrel, by the latter's withdrawal. 
His vehement opposition to the policy of the 
emperor, continued during the Ollivier ministry 
and the plebiscite movement in the earlier part 
of 1870, contributed much to increase public 
excitement; and he also joined Thiers in con- 




demning the warlike preparations against Prus- 
sia, which ended in the declaration of war on 
July 19. But from the moment he saw the 
country irretrievably committed to the contest, 
he accepted the situation and insisted upon im- 
mediately arming the national guard. In the 
session of the corps legislatif held the day 
after the surrender of Sedan, Favre denounced 
Napoleon and his regime as responsible for 
the national disasters, and the next day (Sept. 
4) urged his deposition and that of his dynasty, 
and proposed the appointment of an executive 
committee for resisting to the last the invasion 
of French territory. The republic being pro- 
claimed, he became vice president of the pro- 
visional government of national defence, and 
minister of foreign affairs. In his diplomatic 
circular he declared that France would not 
cede an inch of her soil nor a stone of her 
fortresses, and held Prussia responsible for the 
continuation of the war, since the ruler who 
had begun it was supplanted by a new gov- 
ernment which had nothing to do with the 
opening of hostilities. He met Bismarck at 
the castle of Ferrieres, Sept. 19, and under- 
took to pay any amount of indemnity, but re- 
jected any cession of territory as humiliating 
and dishonorable. The conditions imposed by 
Bismarck in a subsequent interview for an ar- 
mistice pending the elections were not accept- 
ed. A state paper issued by Favre on the sub- 
ject of these negotiations led to a counter- 
statement from Bismarck, Sept. 27, and the 
war went on. In October, after Gambetta's 
departure for Tours, Favre became ad interim 
minister of the interior, and attempted to put 
down the seditious movements in the besieged 
capital. On Oct. 31 he shared the captivity of 
Gen. Trochu in the invasion of the hotel de 
ville. After the conclusion of a three weeks' 
truce with the Germans on Jan. 28, he in- 
sisted upon respecting it, and Gambetta's con- 
trary decrees were declared null and void. 
Favre continued to be minister of foreign 
affairs after the election of Thiers as pro- 
visional president in February, 1871, and he 
went to Frankfort with the minister of finance, 
Pouyer-Quertier, to sign with Bismarck the 
definitive treaty of peace (May 10). He re- 
signed his post at the end of July, the osten- 
sible cause being his disagreement with Thiers 
and the majority of the assembly in regard to 
the petitions in favor of the restoration of 
the temporal power of the pope ; but the in- 
creasing influence of the conservative party 
had rendered his position untenable for some 
time, although his personal relations with Thiers 
never ceased to be cordial. His reputed wife 
had died June 12, 1870; and one Laluye hav- 
ing asserted that she had been only his mis- 
Favre prosecuted him and others for 
defamation, and though Laluye was fined and 
imprisoned for one year, the mortifying pub- 
licity given to the affair confirmed him in his 
desire to withdraw from politics for a time, 
and devote himself exclusively to the law. He 

has published Rome et la republiqu^ franpaise 
(Paris, 1871), and Le gouvernement du 4 sep- 
tembre (2 vols., 187l-'2), which have been trans- 
lated into English. 

FAWCETT, Henry, an English political writer 
and statesman, born in Salisbury in 1833. He 
graduated at Trinity hall, Cambridge, in 1856, 
and was elected a fellow in the same year. In 
1857 he unsuccessfully contested Southwark, on 
liberal principles, for parliament. In Septem- 
ber, 1858, while out shooting, he met with an 
accident by which he lost the sight of both eyes ; 
but he nevertheless became an extensive con- 
tributor to the reviews of articles on political 
science and economy, and has published sev- 
eral works, among which are " A Manual of Po- 
litical Economy " (1863) and " The Economic 
Position of the British Laborer" (1866). He 
contested the borough of Cambridge unsuccess- 
fully in 1862, and in 1863 was elected professor 
of political economy in the university of Cam- 
bridge. In 1864 he ran for Brighton, and was 
again defeated, but was returned for that place 
in 1865, and reflected in 1868. In parliament 
he has distinguished himself as an advocate 
of republican principles, in conjunction with 
Sir Charles Dilke and Auberon Herbert. In 
1869 he published a revised edition of his 
"Manual of Political Economy," with two new 
chapters on " National Education " and " The 
Poor Laws and their Influence on Pauperism," 
and in 1871 a work entitled "Pauperism, its 
Causes and Remedies." A collection of his 
"Speeches" was published in 1873. Prof. 
Fawcett was married, April 23, 1867, to Milli- 
cent Garrett, who published in 1870 a " Political 
Economy for Beginners ;" and in 1872 appeared 
a joint work entitled "Essays and Lectures, by 
Henry and MiUicent Garrett Fawcett." 

FAWKES, Guy, an English conspirator, born 
in Yorkshire, executed in London, Jan. 30, 
1606. He was a soldier of fortune in the Span- 
ish army in the Netherlands, when in 1604 the 
scheme of blowing up the parliament house, 
with the king, lords, and commons, was con- 
ceived by Robert Catesby, in revenge for the 
penal laws against Roman Catholics. Fawkes 
was admitted into the conspiracy, and return- 
ed to England in May of that year. Thomas 
Percy, one of the confederates, rented a house 
adjoining that in which parliament was to as- 
semble, of which Fawkes, who was unknown 
in London, took possession as his servant, un- 
der the assumed name of Johnson. Parliament 
was soon after adjourned till Feb. 7, 1605, and 
on Dec. 11 preceding the conspirators met in 
the hired house of Percy, and began to exca- 
vate a mine. Seven men were thus occupied 
until Christmas eve, never appearing in the 
upper part of the house, while Fawkes kept 
constant watch above. Parliament was again 
prorogued from Feb. 7 to Oct. 3, and the con- 
spirators therefore dispersed for a time, but 
completed their arrangements between Feb- 
ruary and May. They hired a vault imme- 
diately below the house of lords, which had 



just been vacated by a dealer in coal, into 
which they conveyed by night 36 barrels of 
powder, and covered them with fagots. They 
again dispersed, Fawkes proceeding to Flanders 
to secure foreign cooperation. As money was 
needed, three wealthy gentlemen, Sir Everard 
Digby, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresh- 
am, were made privy to the plot. The meet- 
ing of parliament was again deferred to Nov. 
5, and Fawkes was appointed to fire the mine. 
The conspiracy was detected by an anonymous 
letter entreating Lord Monteagle, a Roman 
Catholic peer, to absent himself from the par- 
liament, and intimating a terrible danger. The 
letter resulted in a search on the night of Nov. 

4, when Fawkes was seized just after issuing 
from the cellar, in which the powder was dis- 
covered. Matches and touchwood were found 
in his pockets. Brought before the king and 
council, he boldly avowed his purpose, but not 
even the rack could extort the names of his as- 
sociates till they had appeared in arms. The 
failure of the plot was complete. Fawkes was 
arraigned, condemned, and executed, as were 
seven of his confederates, while others were 
tried separately. This conspiracy led to ad- 
ditional penal statutes against the Roman 
Catholics. The anniversary of the plot, Nov. 

5, was long celebrated in England and New 
England by the boys carry ing 'about an effigy 
of Guy Fawkes, which was finally burned. It 
was till recently a legal holiday in England. 

FAXARDO, Diego Saavedra, a Spanish author 
and statesman, born in Algezares, in the prov- 
ince of Murcia, in 1584, died in Madrid, Aug. 
24, 1648. Having graduated as a doctor of 
law at the university of Salamanca, he accom- 
panied as secretary Cardinal Borgia, appointed 
ambassador to Rome, and afterward succeeded 
him. His talents and ability in his negotia- 
tions gained for him the favor of his sovereign, 
and during 36 years he was constantly em- 
ployed on important diplomatic missions in 
Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. His last mis- 
sion was at the congress of Minister from 1643 
to 1 646, as representative of Philip I Y. The first 
edition of his most successful work, Empresas 
politicas, 6 idea de un principe politico cris- 
tiano, &c., intended to instruct the infante of 
Spain, to whom it was dedicated, in the duties 
of government, appeared at Minister in 1646. 
He wrote the first two volumes of the " History 
of the Goths m Spain." His complete works 
were published at Antwerp in 1688, and a new 
edition at Madrid in 1789-' 90. 

FAY, Andras, a Hungarian poet, born at Ko- 
hany, in the county of Zemplen, May 30, 1786, 
died July 26, 1864. He studied law, became 
an advocate, and subsequently officiated as an 
administrative officer of the county of Pesth, 
and in 1835 as its deputy at the diet. His fee- 
ble health obliged him to retire, and he thence- 
forth devoted himself to literature. He was 
one of the founders of the national theatre of 
Buda, and was an active member of the in- 
dustrial society, of the society of arts, of the 


academy, &c. Among his poetical writings 
the most noted is his Mesek ("Fables," Vienna, 
1820; 2d ed., 1824; German translation by 
Petz, Vienna, 1821). He wrote two works 
treating on female education and the social 
and economical development of Hungary, No- 
neveles, &c. (Pesth, 1840), and Kelet nepe nyu- 
goton (Pesth, 1841). A collection of his works 
appeared at Pesth in 1843-'4 (8 vols.). 

FAY, Theodore Sedgwick, an American author, 
born in New York, Feb. 10, 1807. He received 
a liberal education, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1828, but became soon after one of the 
editors of the "New York Mirror," and de- 
voted himself to literature. He has published 
the following works : " Dreams and Reveries 
of a Quiet Man " (1832) ; " The Minute Book," , 
a journal of foreign travel ; " Norman Les- 
lie," a romance (1835); "Sydney Clifton" 
(1839); "The Countess Ida" (1840); " Ho- 
boken, a Romance of New York" (1843); 
" Robert Rueful" (1844); "Ulric, or the 
Voices," a poem (1851); "Views of Chris- 
tianity" (1856); "Great Outlines of Geogra- 
phy" (1867); "First Steps in Geography" 
(1873) ; and a series of papers on Shakespeare. 
He was secretary of the American legation in 
Berlin from 1837 to 1853, and minister resi- 
dent in Bern, Switzerland, from 1853 to 1861. 

FAYAL, one of the Azores or Western Islands, 
belonging to Portugal, in lat. 38 30' N., Ion. 
28 40' W. ; area about 40 sq. m. ; pop. about 
27,000. The surface is rugged, and in some 
parts mountainous. The climate is mild and 
healthful. The soil is in general very fertile. 
The principal vegetable productions are firs, 
palms, vines, pineapples, oranges, potatoes, cab- 
bages, maize, and wheat. The chief object of 
commerce is wine, of which the annual produce 
is about 200 pipes; and in good seasons from 
8,000 to 10,000 pipes, the product of all the 
islands, have been exported from Fayal. The 
other most important exports are fruit, espe- 
cially oranges, and corn. The imports are 
manufactured goods, cotton twist, flax, coffee, 
sugar, tea, tobacco, and soap. In 1859 the 
island was visited by a severe famine, occa- 
sioned by the failure of three successive crops. 
Fayal has the best harbor of all the Azorean 
group, and a considerable transit trade. Many 
American whalers touch here and land the oil 
of such fish as they have caught in their out- 
ward voyage, whence it is shipped for its des- 
tination. Capital, Horta, or Villa Orta (some- 
times improperly called Fayal), a handsome 
town on the S. E. side of the island, adjoining 
the harbor before mentioned ; pop. 5,000 or 
6,000. The steam packets of the British West 
India mail company regularly call at Horta. 

FAYETTE, the name of 11 counties in the 
United States. I. A S. W. county of Pennsyl- 
vania, bordering on Maryland and West Vir- 
ginia, and bounded W. by the Monongahela 
river; area, about 800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
43,284. There are two mountain ridges : one 
called Laurel hill, stretching along the E. 



boundary, and the other known as Chestnut 
ridge, a branch of the Alleghanies, traversing 
the central part. The rest of the surface is 
mostly undulating. The soil is fertile in the 
N. W. part, but elsewhere is better adapted to 
pasturage than to tillage. Iron and bituminous 
coal are abundant. It is intersected by the 
national road, and accessible by steamboats on 
the Monongahela. The Pittsburgh and Oon- 
nellsville railroad passes through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 302,536 bushels of 
wheat, 22,768 of rye, 824,268 of Indian corn, 
633,897 of oats, 79,665 of potatoes, 35,725 tons 
of hay, 691,623 Ibs. of butter, and 287,752 of 
wool. There were 8,318 horses, 8,404 milch 
cows, 15,799 other cattle, 65,261 sheep, and 
15,852 swine ; 20 manufactories of carriages 
and wagons, 1 of cars, 1 of cement, 4 of bricks, 
13 of clothing, 7 of coke, 13 of barrels and 
casks, 4 of window glass, 9 of iron and products 
of the same, 3 of machinery, 12 of saddlery and 
harness, 4 of woollen goods, 1 ship building and 
repairing establishment, 3 planing mills, 13 saw 
mills, 7 distilleries, 13 tanneries, 4 currying 
establishments, and 21 flour mills. Capital, 
Uniontown. II. A S. central county of West 
Virginia, bounded N. by the Gauley river, and 
N. E. by Meadow river ; area, 770 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 6,647, of whom 118 were colored. It 
has a mountainous surface, with several con- 
siderable elevations, the highest of which are 
Gauley and Sewell mountains. Near the Ka- 
nawha or New river, which intersects the 
county, is a remarkable cliff, 1,000 ft. high, 
called Marshall's pillar. The scenery of the 
county is exceedingly picturesque ; the soil is 
generally good, and among the highlands par- 
ticularly there are many open tracts of remark- 
able fertility. Iron ore is the principal mineral. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 13,317 
bushels of wheat, 123,220 of Indian corn, 
41,991 of oats, 72,188 Ibs. of butter, 16,331 
of wool, and 188,165 of tobacco. There were 
1,317 horses, 2,267 milch cows, 3,036 other 
cattle, 8,709 sheep, and 6,892 swine. Capital, 
Fayetteville. III. A W. county of Georgia, 
bounded S. and E. by Flint river; area, 300 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,983, of whom 1,121 
were colored. The surface is mostly level, and 
the soil, formed by the disintegration of primary 
rocks, is unproductive. Granite and iron are 
the principal minerals. The Atlanta and West 
Point and the Savannah, Griffin, and North 
Alabama railroads traverse it. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 25,646 bushels of wheat, 
104,486 of Indian corn, 11,916 of oats, and 
2,951 bales of cotton. There were 3,587 cattle, 
2,241 sheep, and 5,779 swine. Capital, Fay- 
etteville. IV. A N. W. county of Alabama; 
area, about 550 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,136, of 
whom 1,077 were colored. It has a moderately 
uneven surface, drained by numerous streams, 
and a productive soil. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 14,266 bushels of wheat, 201,228 
of Indian corn, 13,283 of oats, 27,702 of sweet 
potatoes, 13,194 Ibs. of wool, 97,350 of butter, 

and 1,909 bales of cotton. There were 1,450 
horses, 2,534 milch cows, 5,107 other cattle, 
6,354 sheep, and 10,983 swine. Capital, Fay- 
ette Court House. V. A S. E. county of Texas, 
intersected by the Colorado river, which is 
navigable during half the year to this point; 
area, 1,025 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 16,863, of 
whom 5,901 were colored. The surface is un- 
dulating, and the soil, consisting of a black 
sandy loam, is highly productive. Coal is the 
most important mineral production. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 459,392 bushels of 
Indian corn, 34,206 of sweet potatoes, 144,196 
Ibs. of butter, 16,280 of wool, and 10,653 bales 
of cotton. There were 6,650 horses, 10,836 
milch cows, 44,593 other cattle, 10,006 sheep, 
and 17,293 swine; 12 sawmills and 4 manu- 
factories of saddlery and harness. Capital, La 
Grange. VI. A S. W. county of Tennessee, 
bordering on Mississippi, and watered by Loo- 
sahatchie and Wolf rivers ; area, about 550 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 26,145, of whom 16,987 were 
colored. It has a fertile, well cultivated soil. 
It is traversed by the Memphis and Charleston, 
and its Somerville branch, and the Memphis 
and Louisville railroads. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 11,786 bushels of wheat, 
627,271 of Indian corn, 26,077 of sweet pota- 
toes, and 20,131 bales of cotton. There were 
2,839 horses, 4,073 mules and asses, 4,534 milch 
cows, 5,277 other cattle, 3,828 sheep, and 30,- 
762 swine ; 1 saw mill and 4 flour mills, and 5 
manufactories of carriages and wagons. Capi- 
tal, Somerville. VII. A central county of Ken- 
tucky, bounded S. by Kentucky river, and 
drained by some of its affluents ; area, about 
300 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 26,656, of whom 12,- 
513 were colored. It has a rolling surface, and 
a fertile and well tilled soil, underlying which 
is an excellent species of building stone called 
blue or Trenton limestone. The Kentucky 
Central and the Louisville, Cincinnati, and 
Lexington railroads pass through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 76,362 bushels of 
wheat, 42,628 of rye, 1,117,190 of Indian corn, 
176,276 of oats, 25,267 of barley, 49,432 of 
potatoes, 4,399 tons of hay, 157,742 Ibs. of 
butter, and 28,421 of wool. There were 5,522 
horses, 2,354 mules and asses, 3,753 milch 
cows, 12,501 other cattle, 7,477 sheep, and 
20,676 swine; 4 manufactories of agricultural 
implements, 8 of bagging, 3 of boots and shoes, 
20 of carriages and wagons, 3 of confectionery, 
1 of cotton goods, 2 of furniture, 1 of gas, 1 of 
malt, 5 of saddlery and harness, 5 of tin, cop- 
per, and sheet-iron ware, 2 planing mills, 8 
distilleries, and 7 flour mills. Capital, Lexing- 
ton. VIII. A S. W. county of Ohio; area, 414 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 17,170. It has a level or 
undulating surface, and a fertile soil, consisting 
of deep black loam. It is intersected by the 
Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley railroad. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 160,510 
bushels of wheat, 2,055,926 of Indian corn, 
66,841 of oats, 50,929 of potatoes, 12,015 tons 
of hay, 361,725 Ibs. of butter, and 154,739 of 



wool. There were 7,235 horses, 4,889 milch 
cows, 12,277 other cattle, 34,394 sheep, and 
51,955 swine; 2 manufactories of boots and 
shoes, 10 of bricks, 7 of carriages and wagons, 
5 of saddlery and harness, 1 of sashes, doors, 
and blinds, 1 of woollen goods, 2 flour mills, 
and 4 saw mills. Capital, Washington. IX. 
A S. E. county of Indiana ; area, about 200 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,476. The surface is 
level or undulating, and the soil fertile. Lime- 
stone is the principal rock. The Fort Wayne, 
Muncie, and Cincinnati, the Cincinnati and 
Indianapolis Junction, the White Water Val- 
ley, and the Columbus, Shelby, and Cambridge 
City branch of the Jeffersonville, Madison, and 
Indianapolis railroads intersect it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 271,150 bushels of 
wheat, 635,454 of Indian corn, 56,348 of oats, 
26,118 of potatoes, 5.524 tons of hay, 93,874 
Ibs. of butter, and 31,208 of wool. There were 
3,601 horses, 2,631 milch cows, 5,167 other 
cattle, 8,105 sheep, and 20,879 swine; 2 manu- 
factories of boots and shoes, 11 of carriages 
and wagons, 3 of furniture, 1 of iron castings, 
1 of machinery, 1 of printing paper, 7 of sad- 
dlery and harness, 1 of woollen goods, 4 flour 
mills, and 3 saw mills. Capital, Connersville. 
X. A S. central county of Illinois, intersected 
by Kaskaskia river ; area, 640 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 19,638. The surface is level, and occu- 
pied by alternate tracts of fertile prairie and 
good timber land. A number of small streams 
supply it with water power. The Illinois 
Central and the St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre 
Haute, and Indianapolis railroads pass through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 351,310 
bushels of wheat, 962,525 of Indian corn, 497,- 
395 of oats, 73,845 of potatoes, 20,844 tons of 
hay, 393,710 Ibs. of butter, 54,446 of wool, and 
38,155 of tobacco. There were 8,898 horses, 
6,261 milch cows, 7,928 other cattle, 21,234 
sheep, and 23,817 swine; 11 manufactories of 
carriages and wagons, 10 flour mills, and 20 
saw mills. Capital, Vandalia. XI. A N. E. 
county of Iowa; area, 720 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
16,973. It is drained by the head branches of 
Turkey river, is well supplied with water power, 
and has a healthy climate. The surface is un- 
dulating, and occupied partly by fertile prairies 
and partly by forests. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 478,538 bushels of wheat, 448,028 
of Indian corn, 395,075 of oats, 29,553 of bar- 
ley, 58,652 of potatoes, 27,327 tons of hay, 
454,868 Ibs. of butter, and 38,290 of wool. 
There were 4,901 horses, 5,527 milch cows, 
7,646 other cattle, 11,771 sheep, and 14,160 
swine ; 4 manufactories of carriages and wag- 
ons, 2 of barrels and casks, 5 of saddlery and 
harness, 1 brewery, 10 flour mills, and 13 saw 
mills. Capital, West Union. 

FAYETTEVILLE, a city and the capital of 
Cumberland co., North Carolina, on the W. 
bank of Cape Fear river, at the head of natu- 
ral navigation, 100 m. above Wilmington, and 
at the terminus of the Western railroad of North 
Carolina, 55 m. S. of Raleigh ; pop. in 1870, 


4,660, of whom 2,318 were colored. Itisthe cen- 
tre of an active trade, and the seat of manufac- 
tures of some importance. The Cape Fear river 
has been rendered navigable by means of locks 
and dams as far as the coal mines of Chatham 
co., and plank roads have been constructed lead- 
ing to various parts of the interior. The neigh- 
boring pine forests furnish large quantities of 
lumber, tar, and turpentine for exportation. 
The city contains 10 turpentine distilleries, two 
manufactories of cotton sheetings, and two na- 
tional banks. It is governed by a mayor and 
a board of seven commissioners. It has an 
academy, a female high school, a colored pri- 
mary school, two private schools, a semi-week- 
ly and two weekly newspapers, and 25 church- 
es, viz. : 5 Baptist, 3 Episcopal, 8 Methodist, , 
8 Presbyterian, and 1 Eoman Catholic. Fay- 
etteville was settled in 1762, and before re- 
ceiving its present name in 1784 was known 
successively as Campbelltown and Cross Creek. 
In 1831 it was partly destroyed -by fire. The 
United States arsenal at this point, containing 
35,000 small arms besides a number of cannon 
and a considerable quantity of ammunition, 
was taken possession of by the confederates, 
April 22, 1861. The city was occupied by 
Gen. Sherman, March 11-14, 1865, when the 
arsenal with the machinery which had been 
brought from Harper's Ferry was destroyed. 

FAYOOM, or Faynm (Copt. PMoum, the wa- 
ters), a valley of central Egypt, anciently the 
Arsinoite nome, about 40 m. S. W. of Cairo, 
on the W. side of the Nile ; length from 
E. to W. about 40 m., breadth about 30 m. ; 
pop. nearly 150,000. It is of an almost oval 
form, enclosed by a chain of the Libyan hills, 
which here bend round to the west and north. 
It forms in fact a basin with only one opening 
toward the Nile on the east, and gradually 
sloping toward the north and south, the north- 
ern depression being occupied by the Birket- 
el-Keroon, long supposed to be identical with 
Lake Morris. It is supplied with water from 
the Bahar Yusef (canal of Joseph), which is 
divided into numerous branches to irrigate the 
country. The parts thus watered are remark- 
ably fertile, producing grain, cotton, olives, 
figs, apricots, and other tropical fruits. Roses 
are abundant, and the natives produce large 
quantities of rose water, which is sold all 
over Egypt. The principal town is Medinet 
el-Fayoom (anc. Crocodilopolis and Arsino'e), 
near which are several broken columns of red 
granite, carved in old Egyptian style with 
lotus-bud capitals, supposed to mark the site 
of the famous labyrinth described by Herodo- 
tus. N. of the town Belzoni found two im- 
mense stone pedestals, called by the natives 
Pharaoh's feet, various granite statues, some 
wrought iron, and a quantity of half melted 
glass. At some distance stands a syenite 
obelisk, 43 ft. high and covered with sculptures. 
About 3 m. from the lake stands a temple 
known as Kasr Keroon, 94 ft. long, 63 ft. 
broad, and 40 ft. high, with 14 chambers, 




which appears to be of the Roman period. On 
the S. W. bank of the lake are what are sup- 
posed to be the remains of Bacchis. The di- 
rection of the principal streets and the ground 
plans of houses may still be traced. 

FAZY, Jean James, a Swiss politician, born in 
Geneva, May 12, 1796. He completed his edu- 
cation in France, wrote several treatises on 
political economy, and was extensively con- 
nected with journalism in Paris (where his 
radical opinions involved him in difficulties 
with the French government) and in Switzer- 
land. After his return to Geneva he took an 
active part in the establishment of a new con- 
stitution, and distinguished himself as the prin- 
cipal champion of the introduction of trial by 
jury, which institution was adopted, Jan. 12, 
1 844. In 1 846 the radicals became exasperated 
at the neutrality observed by the Genevese 
government in the conflict between the Cath- 
olic and Protestant cantons. A revolution 
broke out on Oct. 5, a provisional government 
was established on the 9th, and Fazy, who 
placed himself at its head, became the ruling 
spirit of the new grand council of Geneva. 
The city was embellished under his direction, 
and he also gave a powerful impulse to the 
construction of railways and telegraphs. As a 
delegate of Geneva in 1847 he exerted himself 
in behalf of the new federal constitution, which 
was adopted Sept. 12, 1848. From February 
to December, 1848, he was out of office, owing 
to disagreement with some of his colleagues ; 
but with this exception he was uninterrupted- 
ly at the head of the Genevese government un- 
til Nov. 14, 1853. In 1853 he was vice presi- 
dent of the federal council of states, and in 
1854 president ; and in 1855 he was reinstated 
in his former position of president of the gov- 
ernment of Geneva, but had to resign in No- 
vember, 1864. Having been indicted as the 
leader of the riots which took place in August, 
he fled to France, but returned when the case 
was abandoned, and obtained once more a 
seat in the grand council, which he gave up 
again in 1865, and accepted anew in 1868. He 
has written Essai d^un precis de Vhistoire de la 
republiqw de Genhe (Geneva, 1838). 

FEATHER GRASS (stipa pennata, Willd.), a 
grass readily distinguishable by its elegant and 
feather-like awns. It grows in close, matted 
tufts, having very long, fine, wiry, dark green 
leaves, numerous tall flower stalks with small 
florets, succeeded by an abundance of sharp- 
pointed elliptical grains, each of which is sur- 
mounted by the feathered awn or bristle, a 
foot or more in length. This is of a rich bird- 
of-paradise color, and gives a remarkable beau- 
ty to the plant. Gerarde, a famous herbalist 
in 1597, informs us that these awned seeds 
were worn in his time by "sundry ladies in- 
stead of feathers." It is this species which is 
the principal grass in those portions of the 
steppes of Asia called the truva or pasturing 
grounds, growing in immense quantities, and 
developing its woody root stocks above the 

soil, much to the annoyance of the mower. 
The seeds of this beautiful grass are frequently 

Feather Grass (Stipa pennata). 

imported from abroad and sold in our seed 
shops, but they seldom vegetate. 

FEATHER RIVER, a stream rising in the 
N. E. part of Plumas co., California, which 
flows S. W. and S. through a rich gold region, 
and empties into the Sacramento, 30 m. above 
Sacramento City ; length about 180 m. It is 
navigable as far as Marysville, to which point 
steamboats ascend from San Francisco. The 
North and Middle forks, and Yuba river, are 
its principal tributaries. 

FEATHERS, a complicated modification of the 
tegumentary system, forming the external cov- 
ering or plumage of birds. Though chemical- 
ly similar to and homologous with the hair of 
mammals, their anatomical structure is in some 
respects different. An ordinary feather is 
composed of a quill or barrel, a shaft, and a 
vane or beard consisting of barbs and barbules. 
The quill, the part attached to the skin, is a 
hollow cylinder, semi-transparent, composed 
of coagulated albumen, resembling horn both 
in appearance and chemical constitution. It 
is light, but strong, terminated below by an 
obtuse extremity pierced by an opening, the 
lower umbilicus, through which the primary 
nutritive vessels enter ; above, it is continuous 
with the shaft, with which it communicates 
internally by an opening, the upper umbilicus ; 
the cavity contains a series of conical shrivelled 
membranes, fitting one upon the other, that 
have formerly been subservient to the growth 
of the feather. The shaft is more or less 
quadrilateral, gradually diminishing in size to 
the tip ; it is always slightly curved, convex 
above, and the concave lower surface, divided 
longitudinally by a groove, presents two in- 
clined planes meeting at an obtuse angle ; it is 
covered by a thin horny layer, and contains 
in its interior a white, soft, elastic substance, 




or beard. 4. 

cessory plume. 
The lower umbiii- 

called the pith, which supplies strength and 
nourishment to the feather. The vane consists 
of two webs, one on each side of the ^ shaft, 
each web being formed of a series of laminae or 
barbs, of varying thickness, width, and length, 
arranged obliquely on the shaft, and composed 
of the same material ; their 
flat sides are placed close to 
each other, enabling them to 
resist any ordinary force act- 
ing in the direction of their 
plane, as the impulse of the 
air in the act of flight, though 
yielding readily to any force 
applied in the line of the 
shaft. The barbs taper to a 
point, but are broad near the 
shaft, and in the large wing 
feathers the convexity of one 
is received into a concavity 
of another; but the barbs 
are kept in place chiefly by 
barbules, minute curved fila- 
ments arising from the upper 
edge of the barb, as the lat- 
ter does from the shaft ; there 
are two sets, one curved up- 

FIG 1 -Parts of the ward and the ther down - 

Feather. ward, those of one barb hook- 

1. The quill. 2. The ing so firmly into those of 

tne next as to form a close 

, ., . , 

5. and compact surface ; in the 
iii- ostrich the barbules are well 
' Upperum ' developed, but are long, loose, 
and separate, giving that soft 
character conveyed by the term plume. The 
barbules are sometimes provided with a similar 
apparatus on their sides called barbicels, as in 
the quills of the golden eagle and albatross ; 
these serve to keep the barbules in position, 
but are less numerous than the latter. In most 
feathers there is an appendage near the upper 
umbilicus of a downy character, called the ac- 
cessory plume ; small in the quills of the wings 
and tail, in some body feathers of hawks, 
ducks, and gulls it is of large size, in some spe- 
cies as large as the feather which supports it ; 
'in the emu two plumy feathers arise from one 
quill, and sometimes three in the cassowary, 
the additional plumes being these accessory 
feathers ; in the ostrich there is no such addi- 
tional tuft. There is, therefore, every grada- 
tion from a simple barrel and shaft, as in the 
cassowary's quills, to the feather with barbs, 
barbules, and barbicels. Some feathers are all 
downy, like the abdominal ones of the eagle- 
owl ; others have very little down, as the 
harsh plumage of the penguin ; in the eider 
duck, and other arctic species, there is at the 
base of the common feathers a soft downy 
covering, securing warmth without weight, 
like the soft fur at the base of the hair of arc- 
tic mammals; young birds are covered with 
down before the development of feathers, the 
latter being guided through the skin by the 
former. In the chick the formation of down 

begins on the eighth day of incubation, and is 
continued until the hatching; 10 to 12 radia- 
ting filaments are formed at the same time in an 
epidermic sheath, which soon after birth dries 
and sets free the plumes, allowing them to 
spread out as a pencil of down ; a stem is de- 
veloped, and the downy filaments become the 
primary web of the feather. Feathers in some 
cases resemble stiff bristly hairs, as about the 
bill in most birds, and the. tuft on the breast 
of the wild turkey. In the genus dasylophus, 
peculiar to the Philippine islands, we have re- 
markable instances of the modifications of the 
epidermic covering of birds. In D. Cumingii 
(Fras.), the feathers of the crest, breast, and 
throat are changed at their extremities into 
ovoid horny lamellae, looking like shining black 
spangles, expansions of the true horny structure 
of the shaft ; something of the kind is seen in 
the Bohemian chatterer or wax-wing (ampelis 
garrulus, Linn.), in which some of the secon- 
dary and tertial quill feathers end in small, 
oblong, flat appendages, in color and consis- 
tence resembling red sealing wax, which are 
also expanded horny prolongations of the shafts 
of the ordinary feathers. In D. superciliosus 
(Cuv.), the only other species of the genus, 
the feathers over each eye are changed for 
three fourths of their length into red silky 
hairs or bristles, the base of the feather having 
the usual appearance; each 
shaft seems to divide into 
several of these hair-like fila- 
ments, which are finer and 
more silky than the append- 
age on the breast of the tur- 
key, and directly continuous 
with ordinary feather struc- 
ture, while in the turkey 
there is a complete transfor- 
mation of feathers into hairs 
in the whole extent. In most 
birds there will be found a 
number of simple hair-like 
feathers scattered over the 
skin after they have been 
plucked ; they arise from 
short bulbs or slender round- 
ed shafts. Feathers are de- 
veloped in depressions in the 
skin lined by an inversion 
of the epidermis which sur- 
rounds the bulb ; they grow 
by the addition of new cells 
from the bulb, which become 
modified into the horny and 
fibrous stem, and by the elon- 
gation and extension of pre- 
viously formed cells ; like the 
hair, they originate in fol- 
licles producing epidermic 
cells, though when fully formed the cellular 
structure is widely departed from except in 
the medullary portion. They are, when first 
formed, living organized parts, developed from 
a matrix connected with the vascular layer 

Fie. 2. Matrix of a 
prowing Feather, 
laid open. 

' the 
ternal membrane. 
8, 3. Matter of 
the vane. 4. Inter- 
nal membrane. 5. 
Bulb, or medulla. 



of the skin, and growing by nutrient vessels ; 
when fully developed, the vessels become atro- 
phied, and the feathers dry and gradually die 
from the summit to the base, so that at last 
they become dead foreign bodies, as completely 
incapable of vital modifications as the perfect 

FIGS. 8 and 4. Structure of the Bulb. 
FIG. 8. 1, 1, 1. Bulb. 2. Part FIG. 4. 1. The medulla or 
of the bulb in process of dry- 
Ing up as the shaft forms. 
8. Part of the completed 

shaft. 4,4. Growing barbs. 

bulb. 2 2, 8 8, 4 4, 5 5. 
Membranous cones, indi- 
cating stages of growth of 
the medullary matter. 

horns of the deer. The matrix which pro- 
duces the feather, according to Owen, has the 
form of an elongated cylindrical cone, and con- 
sists of a capsule, a bulb, and intermediate 
membranes which give proper form to the se- 
cretion of the bulb ; as the conical matrix sinks 
into and becomes more intimately connected 
with the true skin, 
its apex protrudes 
above the surface, 
and the investing 
capsule drops off to 
give passage to the 
feather which has 
been growing du- 
ring this period ; 
the capsule is made 
up of several lay- 
ers, the outermost 
consisting of epi- 
dermic cells, and 
its centre is oc- 
cupied by a soft 
fibrous bulb freely 
supplied with blood 
vessels from below and a nerve ; between the 
bulb and the capsule are two parallel mem- 
branes, in whose oblique septa or partitions the 
barbs and barbules are developed, nearly in the 
same way that the enamel of the teeth is formed 

FIG. 5. Section of the Shaft and 
Vane magnified. 

1. The pith. 2. Horny external 
surface of shaft. 3. Concave 
internal surface. 4. Flat side 
of shaft. 5. 5. Bases of barbs. 
6, 6. Barbules. 

between the membrane of the pulp and that of 
the capsule. The part to which the barbs are 
attached and the pith of the shaft are formed 
respectively from the outer and inner surfaces 
of the membranes of the compound capsule; 
the shaft and barbs at the apex of the cylinder 
become hardened first, and are softer the nearer 
the base of the matrix ; the first formed parts 
are pushed forward by the cell growth at the 
base, the products of the bulb being moulded 
into shape by the membranes exterior to it ; 
the successive stages of the growth of the med- 
ullary matter are indicated by a series of mem- 
branous cones or caps, the last formed of which 
cannot escape from the hardened and closed 
shaft, and constitute the light dry pith seen in 
the interior of the quill ; these cones are origi- 
nally connected together by a central tube, and 
the last remains of the bulb are seen in the lig- 
ament which passes from the pith through the 
lower umbilicus, attaching the quill to the skin. 
Feathers grow with great rapidity, and in some 
birds to a length of more than two feet ; they are 
almost always renewed annually, and in many 
species twice a year ; this amount of formative 
power demands a considerable increase of the 
cutaneous circulation, making the season of 
moulting always a critical period in the life of 
a bird. The plumage is generally changed sev- 
eral times before the bird is adult; but some 
of the falcons are said to assume the mature 
plumage after the first moult, as the Greenland 
and Iceland falcons. Feathers serve to protect 
birds from injurious external influences, such 
as extremes of cold and heat, rain, &c., for 
which their texture and imbricated arrange- 
ment admirably adapt them ; and they also 
furnish their principal means of locomotion, in 
the latter case being stronger, more compact, 
and longer than those which cover the body. 
They generally increase in size from the head 
backward, and have received special names ac- 
cording to the region of the body, which are 
important aids in describing and recognizing 
species. Some of these names, constantly used 
in the ornithological articles of this Cyclopae- 
dia, not readily understood from the words 
themselves, are as follows : the scapulars, above 
the shoulder blade and humerus, apparently 
on the back when the wing is closed ; axillaries, 
long and straight feathers at the upper end of 
the humerus, under the wing ; tibials, covering 
the leg ; lesser wing coverts, the small feathers 
in rows upon the forearm ; under coverts, lining 
the lower side of the wings ; the longest quill 
feathers, arising from the bones of the hand, 
are the primaries ; the secondaries arise from 
the outer portion of the ulna, and the tertiaries 
from its inner portion and the humerus ; the 
bastard wing consists of the quills growing 
from the rudimentary thumb; greater wing 
coverts, the feathers over the quills ; tail coverts, 
upper and under, those above and below the 
base of the tail feathers. The relative size of 
the quills on the hand and forearm, and the con- 
sequent form of the wings, are characteristic of 



the families of birds, and modify essentially 
their powers of flight. The breadth of the 
wing depends principally on the length of the 
secondary quills, and its length on that of the 
primaries. Leaving out of view the proportions 
of the bones and the force of the muscles of the 
wings, when the primaries are longest at the 
extremity of the pinion, as in the falcons and 
swallows, causing an acuminate form of wing, 
we may know that the powers of flight are 
great, requiring comparatively little exertion in 
the bird ; but when the longest primaries are in 
the middle of the series, giving rise to a short, 
broad wing, as in the partridge and grouse, the 
bird can fly only a short distance at a time, with 
great effort, and a whir well known to the 
sportsman. Not only the shape of the wing, 
but the close texture of its feathers, must be 
taken into account in the rapid strong flight of 
the falcon; the loose soft feathers of the wings 
in the owls, and the serrated outer edge of the 
primaries, while they prevent rapid flight, en- 
able them to pounce noiselessly upon their vigi- 
lant prey. Most birds, and especially the aqua- 
tic families, are provided with an oil gland at 
the base of the tail, whose unctuous secretion is 
distributed over the feathers by means of the 
bill, protecting their surface against moisture ; 
the shedding of the water is not owing entirely 
to the oily covering, but also to a thin plate of 
air entangled by the feathers, and probably also 
to an actual repulsion of the particles of water 
by the feathers, as is seen in the leaves of many 
aquatic plants ; the arranging of the plumes by 
the bill of the bird being rather to enable them 
to take down a large quantity of air, than to 
apply any repellent oily covering. The plumage 
of birds has an infinite variety of colors, from 
the sombre tints of the raven to the pure white 
of the egrets, and the gorgeous hues of the lory, 
toucan, trogon, and humming birds; the females 
have generally less lively colors, and the sum- 
mer livery of both sexes is often different from 
that of winter. One of the most curious phe- 
nomena connected with feathers is the annual 
moult, and the change of color during that and 
the breeding season; moulting usually takes 
place after the young have been hatched, the 
whole plumage becoming dull and rough, and 
the bird more or less indisposed, with a tem- 
porary loss of voice in the singing species. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Yarrell, the plumage of birds is 
changed by the mere alteration of the color of 
the feathers ; by the growth of new feathers 
without the loss of any old ones ; by the pro- 
duction of new feathers in the place of old ones 
thrown off, wholly or in part ; and by the wear- 
ing off of the light tips as the breeding season 
approaches, exposing the brighter tints under- 
neath. The first two of these changes occur in 
adults at the end of spring, the third being par- 
tial in spring and complete in autumn. Though 
the perfect plumage is non- vascular and epi- 
dermic, the colors change, probably by some 
vital process, without the loss of a feather; 
when the winter livery succeeding the autum- 

nal moult begins to assume its bright characters, 
the new color generally commences at the part 
of the web nearest the body, and gradually ex- 
tends to the tip. Until within the last few 
years the changes of color in the fur of mam- 
mals (as in the ermine in winter), and in the 
plumage of birds in the season of reproduction, 
were supposed to be effected by the simple 
reproduction of the hairs and feathers ; but this 
cannot be the case, as many facts go to prove 
that these changes occur at other times than 
the period of moulting, and without the loss of 
a hair or feather. It is well known that vivid 
emotions of fear or grief may turn the human 
hair gray or white in so short a period that 
there could be no change in the hair itself to 
account for it ; and a case is on record of a 
starling which became white after being rescued 
from a cat. It has been maintained by Schlegel 
and Martin that many birds always get their 
wedding plumage without moulting. The fact 
being admitted, how can the change of color 
be explained in the mature feather, which has 
no vascular or nervous communication with 
the skin ? The wearing away of the light tips, 
mentioned by Mr. Yarrell, is not only unphysi- 
ological, but in most cases does not happen. 
Dr. Weinland, from the examination of bleached 
specimens in museums, and of recent birds, ex- 
presses the belief that the brightness and fading 
of the colors are owing to the increase or dim- 
inution of an oily matter in the feathers; the. 
microscopic examination of the web of feathers 
from the breast of a fresh merganser (mergus 
serrator, Linn.) showed numerous lacuna of a 
reddish oil-like fluid; some weeks after, the 
same feathers, having become nearly white 
from exposure to light, disclosed air bubbles 
instead of the reddish fluid ; from this he con- 
cludes that the evaporation of the oily fluid, 
and the filling of the spaces with air as in the 
case of the white water lily, produces the 
changes of color. If this fluid be oily, as there 
is good reason to believe, mere physical imbi- 
bition would be sufficient to introduce it into 
the dead feathers, as it is well known that fat 
passes through all tissues very readily, even 
through compact horn. In the season of re- 
production, the nutritive and organic functions 
are performed with their utmost vigor, and the 
supply of fatty coloring matter would flow free- 
ly to the feathers ; under the opposite condi- 
tions of debility, cold, or insufficient food, the 
oily matter would be withdrawn and the feath- 
ers would fade. In regard to the value of 
feathers to man, it will be sufficient to enume- 
rate the ornamental employment of the plumes 
of the ostrich, egrets, cranes, and peacock; the 
economical uses of the down of the eider duck 
and the plumage of the goose ; the importance 
of the goose quill before the introduction of 
steel and gold pens, and the adherence of many 
at the present day to the more perishable, 
less convenient, but softer-moving quill; not 
to more than allude to the consumption of the 
plumage of the gorgeous tropical birds in the 




manufacture of feather flowers, and the utility 
of the do \vriy arctic skins as articles of dress in 
the regions of perpetual snow. 

FEBRUARY (Lat. Februarim, from februare, 
to purify ; so called from februa, the festival 
of expiation and lustration, which was held on 
the 15th of this month), the second month in 
our present calendar, containing 28 days ordi- 
narily, and 29 days in leap year. It was not 
in the calendar of Romulus. Numa added two 
months to the year, January at the beginning 
and February at the end. It was first placed 
after January by the decemvirs about 450 B. 0. 

FECAMP (formerly Fescan or Fescamp ; Lat, 
Fiscamum or Fiscamnum}, a seaport town of 
France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, 
22 m. N. N. E. of Havre, on a branch railway 
from Rouen, and at the entrance of the river 
Fecamp into the channel ; pop. in 1866, 12,- 
832. The town has two remarkable churches, 
a hydrographical school, a library, a theatre, 
a commercial court, a chamber of commerce, 
and extensive sea-bathing establishments. The 
chief occupations of the inhabitants are fishing, 
ship building, and commerce, but its manufac- 
tures are also becoming important. The town 
is believed to owe its origin to a celebrated 
female convent which was founded about 662. 
It lias repeatedly been destroyed in times of 
war. As early as the 13th century it was 
famous for its herring fisheries. 

FECHNER, Gnstay Theodor, a German natural- 
ist, born at Gross-Sahrchen, Lusatia, April 19, 
1801. He studied at the university of Leipsic, 
and was professor of physics there from 1834 
to 1839, when a disease of the eyes disabled 
him from teaching, and he devoted himself 
especially to anthropology and natural phi- 
losophy. He had early attracted attention by 
researches in galvanism, by translations of 
French scientific works, by papers relating to 
chemistry and pharmacy, and by humorous 
writings, Stapelia mixta, which ie published 
in 1824 under the name of Dr. Mises. In his 
Beweis, dass der Mond aus Jodine lestehe (2d 
ed., 1832) he deals with scientific problems in a 
humorous vein. His BilcJilein vom Leben nacJi 
dem Tode (1836), Gediclite (1842), and Raih- 
selbilchlein (3d ed., 1865) contain admirable spe- 
cimens of poetry. His other principal works 
are : Nanna, oder uberdasSeelenlebender Pflan- 
zen (1848) ; Zend-Avesta, oder iiber die Dinge 
den Himmels und des Jenseits (3 vols., 1851) ; 
Elemente der PsycTiophysilc, his most im- 
portant scientific work (2 vols., 1860); and 
PhysikaliscJie und philosophische Atomenlehre 
(2d ed., 1864). 

FECHTER, Charles Albert, a French actor, 
born in London, Oct. 23, 1824. The son of a 
German father and a French mother, he was 
reared principally in England and France, and 
after a good education he began in Paris the 
study of sculpture. Manifesting a strong in- 
clination for the stage, he made his first ap- 
pearance while still very young at the Salle 
Moliere in Le mari de la veuve. After some 

weeks at the conservatory, he joined a com- 
pany of French comedians for a year's tour 
through Italy. Returning- to Paris, he again 
applied himself to sculpture, at the same time 
playing minor characters in the Theatre Fran- 
cais. His first great success was in 1846 in 
the French theatre at Berlin, where he ap- 
peared as the original Duval in La dame aux 
camelias of Dumas the younger. In 1847 he 
played for a few weeks with a French company 
in London, and afterward till 1853 at different 
times he was prominent on the boards of the 
theatres Ambigu, Varietes, Historique, Porte 
Saint-Martin, and Vaudeville in Paris. From 
March, 1857, to the end of 1858, he was joint 
manager with M. de la Rounat of the OdSon. 
Two years afterward he was induced to un- 
dertake characters in English on the London 
stage, and on Oct. 27, 1860, he opened at the 
Princess's theatre as Ruy Bias in his own ver- 
sion of Victor Hugo's play. On March 19, 
1861, he appeared as Hamlet, playing the part 
in a flaxen wig and making other marked in- 
novations upon the costume and conventionali- 
ties of the character. He played the part 70 
successive nights, and excited an animated dis- 
cussion among the London critics. He followed 
with Othello, lago, Macbeth, Coriolanus, the 
"Corsican Brothers," Claude Melnotte, and 
other characters, in nearly all of which he 
achieved a remarkable success, in spite of his 
disregard of the traditions and conventionalities 
of the English stage. He leased the Lyceum, 
Jan. 1, 1863, opening as Legadere in "The 
Duke's Motto," and continued his manage- 
ment of that theatre for some years. He 
made his first appearence in America as Ruy 
Bias, in Niblo's theatre in New York, Jan. 10, 
1870. In October following he opened the 
Globe theatre in Boston as manager, but soon 
returned to New York, and after a brief en- 
gagement at the French theatre, where he 
played several characters in English, he went 
back to London. Returning to New York in 
1872, he leased the French theatre, and re- 
modelled it; but failing to secure possession 
of the property, he made his first reappearance 
in New York, April 28, 1873, at the Grand 
Opera House, as Edmond Dantes in his own 
version of "Monte Cristo." 

FEDCHENKO, Alexei, a Russian naturalist, born 
about 1830, died near the summit of the Col 
du Geant, Switzerland, Aug. 14, 1873. He 
resided at Moscow, and was a high authority 
on the geography of central Asia. He went 
to Switzerland to compare the glaciers of Mont 
Blanc and the Col du Geant with those which 
he had discovered in the mountains of Khokan. 
He left Montreux on foot for Chamouni Aug. 
12, and on the 14th proceeded to the Col du 
Geant with two guides. He had gone within 
about two hours' walk of the summit when a 
violent storm and avalanches of snow forced 
him to retrace his steps, and he fell from 
exhaustion and perished. He left unfinished 
an important work, which his wife, who ac- 



companied him in all his journeys, though not 
in this ascent, designs publishing. 

FEDERALISTS, a political party in the United 
States who claimed to be the peculiar friends 
of the constitution and of the federal govern- 
ment. Their opponents, the republicans, they 
called anti-federalists, and charged them to a 
certain extent with hostility to or distrust of 
the United States constitution and the general 
government. The republicans, however, stren- 
uously denied the truth of these charges. The 
federalist party was formed in 1788. Its most 
distinguished leaders were Washington, Adams, 
Hamilton, Jay, and Marshall ; and the leading 
federalist states were Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, supported generally, though not uni- 
formly, by the rest of New England; while 
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Burr, George Clin- 
ton, and Gallatin led the opposition. In the 
contests of the French revolution, the federalists 
leaned to the side of England, the republicans 
to that of France. The former were defeated 
in the presidential election of 1800, when the 
republican candidates were elected, Jefferson 
president, and Burr vice president. Their op- 
position to the war of 1812, and above all the 
calling of the Hartford convention, completed 
their destruction as a national party. In 1816 
Monroe, the republican candidate for president, 
received the electoral votes of all the states 
with the exception of Massachusetts, Connec- 
ticut, and Delaware, which gave 34 votes 
against him, while from the other states he re- 
ceived 183. At the next election in 1820 the 
federalist party was disbanded, Monroe receiv- 
ing every electoral vote except one. 


FEE, a law term, derived probably from Sax. 
feh, or more accurately feoh, compensation or 
payment. As landed estates were given by 
the northern conquerors of the Roman prov- 
inces to their nobles and soldiers as compen- 
sation or wages for military service, fee came 
to mean the estate itself. It was Latinized 
into feudum or feodum, from which the word 
feudal arose, because it was this tenure of land 
which characterized what is called the feudal 
system. The derivation and original meaning 
of this word are not certainly known, but what 
we have given is, we think, supported by the 
best reasons. In law, estate does not mean 
the land, but the title which a man has in the 
land ; so the word fee is now used to signify, 
not the land, but the kind of estate or tenure by 
which it is held. The word fee alone means 
an estate without qualification or limitation; 
hence the phrase fee simple means the highest 
estate held of any superior or lord, or by any 
tenure or service, or strictly speaking, by any 
tenure whatever ; and the word simple means 
only that nothing is added to limit or condition 
the word fee. Hence an estate in fee and an 
estate in fee simple are the same thing. This 
is an absolute estate of inheritance ; or an 
estate which a man holds, descendible to his 
heirs for ever. There is no event by which it 


must be terminated or defeated, and no limita- 
tion or restriction by force of which it must 
descend to a certain heir or heirs, in exclusion 
of the rest. A fee simple may be acquired by 
descent or by purchase. In law, purchase 
means every mode of acquiring land except 
descent ; hence if land be given to a man, or 
devised to him, and he takes by gift or by 
devise, still he is said in law to take by pur- 
chase. The essential words in any instrument 
by which a man should take land in fee, 
whether by will or deed, are, to the grantee, 
or devisee, and "his heirs." For if land be 
given to a man without the word " heirs," he 
takes only an estate for his own life, and at his 
death (if there be no remainder over) it reverts 
to the grantor or his heirs ; and at common 
law there are no words which could supply 
the want of these u words of inheritance," as 
they are called, where there could be heirs. 
Thus, if land were conveyed or devised to a 
man " and his successors," he took only an 
estate for life ; but if these words were used in 
a deed or devise to a corporation, they were 
the proper words to create a fee simple, be- 
cause a corporation should have perpetual suc- 
cession, but cannot have heirs. If land be 
granted or devised to A, B, and C, as trustees, 
then also the word successors would in general 
carry a fee. The ancient severity of the rule 
requiring words of inheritance is now relaxed 
somewhat in England, and more in the United 
States (in some of the states by statute), es- 
pecially in respect to wills and trusts. In wills, 
any words distinctly indicating the purpose of 
the testator to devise all his estate and interest 
in a piece of land, are always held now to carry 
a fee simple ; and in trusts, if one has land 
given to him with power to sell, this is held to 
be a power to convey in fee simple. In deeds 
it is always better to add the words of inheri- 
tance, but the word " assigns " is not necessary 
to give the power of transfer, although usually 
added. There may be a fee simple not only in 
lands, but in franchises and liberties ; and in 
England, in dignities and the rights and priv- 
ileges attached to them ; and even in personal 
property, as in an annuity. Fees may be less 
than fee simple, and they are so whenever not 
simple ; that is, whenever the fee is in any 
way restrained or diminished. A qualified fee, 
technically so called, is one in which, by an 
original limitation, the land goes to a man and 
his heirs general, and yet is not confined to the 
issue of his own body ; as if it be given him 
and to his heirs on the part of his father or a 
certain ancestor. A determinable fee is a fee 
which may continue for ever, but which may 
be determined by the happening of some event 
which is uncertain. Instances usually given 
of this are lands conveyed or devised to a man 
and his heirs until an infant shall attain a cer- 
tain age, or until such a person shall be mar- 
ried, or shall have children. A conditional 
fee means either a fee to which at its origin 
some condition was annexed, which being 



performed will defeat the estate, or the per- 
formance of which is necessary to preserve 
the estate, or the performance or occurrence 
of which is necessary to vest estate. But these 
three phrases are not definable with exact ac- 
curacy, and are sometimes used one for the 
other. Fee tail is a law term of more precise 
meaning. It is derived from the Norman 
French word tattler, to cut, because it is a 
lesser estate of inheritance cut or carved out 
of the fee simple ; and it exists where a con- 
veyance or devise is made to a person named 
and the heirs of his body or some specified 
class of the heirs of his body, as for instance 
the heirs male or heirs female of his body, or 
the heirs of his body begotten of his then wife. 
The difference between this and a fee simple is 
at once perceived , for while the latter on the 
owner's death will pass by descent to his heirs 
general, who may be collateral relatives, the 
former will descend only in the line indicated 
by the instrument creating the estate. For- 
merly the understanding was that the grantee 
of an estate tail had only a life interest, and 
could convey no more ; but afterward means 
were devised by which he might convey a fee, 
and this in the hands of his grantee would 
necessarily be a fee simple. The usual mode of 
doing this was the process of suffering a com- 
mon recovery, but by statute 3 and 4 William 
IV., c. 74, the same result may be accomplished 
by an ordinary deed of conveyance duly en- 
rolled. Legislation of a similar nature has also 
been adopted for Ireland and Scotland. In the 
United States estates tail have had no practical 
existence since the revolution. In some of the 
states they are wholly unknown. In others 
they become at once, by force of statutory 
provisions, estates in fee simple. In others a 
tenant in fee tail bars the entail by a simple 
conveyance in fee simple. In yet others, and 
they are numerous, they are simply abolished 
by statute, without any reservation whatever. 
FEEJEE (Fyi, or Viti) ISLANDS, a group in 
the South Pacific ocean, between lat. 15 30' 
and 20 30' S., and Ion. 176 50' E. and 178 20' 
W. Feejee is the name in the windward, and 
Viti in the leeward part of the group. There 
are some 225 islands, of which about 140 are 
inhabited. The population is estimated at 
250,000, of whom 4,000 are whites. Viti Levu, 
or Naviti Levu, is the largest and most popu- 
lous of the group ; it is about 64 m. from N. 
to S. and 97 from E. to W. Suva harbor is 
free from shoals, well sheltered, and of easy 
ingress and egress. The best known towns on 
this island are Namena, Ndawasamu, Tova, 
Nakorotubu, Rakiraki, Tavua, Mba, Namoli, 
Nandy, Vunda, Vitogo or Veitiri, Mbetarau- 
rau, Nandroga, Ndeumba, and Suva. Vanua 
Levu (Great island), generally called Vuya by 
its inhabitants, ranks next to Viti Levu, and is 
69 m. N. of Bau, a small island on the E. side 
of the latter, from which distances in the group 
are reckoned ; it is 115 m. long from E. N. E. 
to W. S. W., and on an average 25 m. broad. 

The principal towns of Vanua Levu are Mbua, 
Ndama, Navave, Solevi, Navatu, Nasavusavu, 
Undu, Namuka, Mathuata, Eaviravi, and 
Wailea. The bay of Nasavusavu, 10 m. long 
by 5 broad, is surrounded by very high and 
broken land, rising in many places into lofty 
needle-shaped peaks; behind them several 
other high peaks reach to about 4,000 ft. A 
considerable stream of fresh water enters the 
bay, and a mile below on the beach are hot 
springs, which are continually steaming. The 
rock in the neighborhood is compact coral and 
volcanic breccia. The water has a faint smell 
of sulphur and a strong saline taste. The na- 
tives use the springs to boil their food, which 
is done by covering them with leaves and 
grass, when rapid ebullition ensues in the pre- 
viously quiescent water. Taviuni, commonly 
but erroneously called by the white residents 
Vuna or Somosomo, is the third island in size 
and importance ; it is about 24 m. long and 9 
m. broad, and 5 m. S. E. of Vanua Levu. The 
whole island is one vast mountain, 2,052 ft. 
high, and very fertile. On the top is a lake 
containing an abundance of large eels. The 
principal towns on it are Somosomo, Vuna, 
Weilangi, Wainikeli, and Mbouma. Kadavu 
or Kandavu is a large, populous, and well 
wooded island, 69 m. S. S. W. of Bau and 48 m. 
from the nearest point of Viti Levu ; it is 32 
m. long, and averages 4 m. in breadth. On 
the west is a small bay, Malatta, which offers 
temporary anchorage, but it is difficult to 
enter on account of reefs. Westward of Ma- 
latta is Tavutha bay, frequented by whalers. E. 
of Kadavu, and between it and the island of 
Ono, is a well protected harbor. The Mbuki- 
leru mountain is very high. Another popu- 
lous island is Gau or Ngau, 13 m. long and 4 
broad, 38 m. E. of Bau. The reef extends a 
mile and a half off the N". E. point, and several 
miles off the S. side, but is close to the island 
on the east, where there are several openings, 
but none fit for anchorage. There is good 
holding ground in the bay opposite the town 
of Lakemba. Other towns on this island are 
Sawayake (the chief town), Nakumbuna, Na- 
waikama (at which there are hot springs), 
Nakorowaro, Levuka, Ourata, Nathavanandi, 
Lekanai, Nggarani, and Vioni. Koro (mean- 
ing " a town ") is a very fine island, 9 m. long 
by 4 wide, 59 m. N. E. of Bau, with an 
anchorage on the N. W. side. The chief towns 
are Wailevu or Sithila, Tangandrenga, Thawa- 
levu, Nasau, Waitaya, and Korolailai. Mo- 
ala, a high volcanic island, about 4 m. wide by 
8 long, 86 m. E. S. E. of Bau, has several 
towns, among them Navathunimasi and Tha- 
kova. The reef on the N. side of Moala is a 
collection of sunken and detached patches ; that 
on the N. E. extends 2-J- m. ; to the westward 
are several passages through the reef, quite safe 
with a favorable wind. Ovalau, a mountain- 
ous island about 20 m. from Bau, 8 m. long N. 
and S., and 7 m. broad, is of volcanic forma- 
tion, and its rocks are composed of a conglom- 



erate or pudding stone. The valleys extend 
only a short distance into the interior and 
have little level ground ; they are exceedingly 
fertile, with a deep, rich soil, and well culti- 
vated. Its harbors are all formed by the reefs. 
Levuka, a town on .the E. side of the island, is 
chiefly inhabited by foreigners. It is the seat 
of the Feejeean government, the residence of 
foreign consuls, the principal shipping port, and 
has several hotels, churches, and stores. The 
metropolis of Feejee, containing upward of 
1,000 inhabitants, is Bau, or Mbau, on the 
small island of the same name, which is con- 
nected with the large island Viti Levu by a 
long flat of coral, ford able at high water, and 
in places bare at low water. Lakemba, or 
Lakeba, is the principal island on the wind- 
ward side of the group, 160 m. E. S. E. of 
Bau; the chief town is Tumbou. Other in- 
habited islands are Batiki or Mbatiki, Beqa or 
Mbeng-ga, Cakaudrove-i-wai or Thakaundrove, 
Cikobia or Thikombia, Kabara or Kambara, 
Komo, Macuata or Mathuata, Malolo, Nairai, 
Nayau, Ogea or Ongea, Oneata, Rewa, Vanua 
Balavu or Mbalavu, Vulaga or Vulanga, often 
called Fulanga, and Yacata or Yathata. 
From the meteorological register kept at Le- 
vuka by Col. "W. J. Smythe, from January to 
the end of April, it appears that the maximum 
heat amounted on the 1st of January to 91 9', 
and that the minimum temperature on the 8th 
of April was 72. The average rain during 
these four months was IV'29 in. ; thunder was 
heard almost daily, while the wind was gener- 
ally very light. Thomas Williams places the 
mean temperature of the group at 80. There 
is a large number of rainy days, but uninter- 
rupted dry weather often continues for two or 
three months. Among the botanical produc- 
tions are numerous varieties of the dioscorceaor 
yam, called urn; the balabala, a kind of palm 
or tree fern, of which the heart is eaten in 
times of scarcity; the bau, with an edible 
fruit and a beautiful brown or red wood, used 
for canoes and boxes ; the bele, of which the 
leaves are cooked and eaten ; the bokoi, which 
has a fruit scarcely distinguishable from the 
kavika, a kind of Malay apple tree with a 
quince-like fruit ; the bovu-dama, which fur- 
nishes a heavy timber of a light color ; and the 
bulou, with a root resembling in taste an old 
potato. There is an elegant variety of fern 
called conini. The dalici bears spike-shaped 
flowers, and yields a hard and useful timber ; 
but the most useful tree for canoe building, 
masts, and all kinds of carpentry, is the 
damauu. A fruit somewhat like a plum is 
borne by the dawa and the dawamoli. Bread 
is made from the fruit of the dogo and the 
dogokana. The wood of the duva, pounded 
into fibres and fastened to a line, poisons or 
stupefies fish, which turn on their back as if 
they were dead, but soon recover when left to 
themselves. The fruit of the ivi is either 
baked or boiled, or grated and made into bread 
or pudding. The leaves of the danidani and 

the kura are used medicinally. The smaller 
branches of the loselose are used by the natives 
as torches. But the most important of all the 
botanical productions is the cocoanut tree, 
here called niu, almost every part of which is 
put to some use. Drums are made of the wood 
of the tavola; fans and umbrellas from the 
leaves of the viu, a kind of palm. A fruit very 
much like the raspberry is obtained from the 
wagadrogadro. The root of the lagona (piper 
mythisticum) is chewed and mixed with water 
and drunk as a beverage. The bitu and the 
bituvatu are kinds of bamboo which grow ex- 
tensively. Cotton has succeeded admirably, 
and can be harvested within six months. Many 
of the colonists are planting coffee. Fishes are 
plentiful, including the porpoise, sole, mullet,- 
and many other edible kinds ; also a large shark, 
called mego, and a still more dangerous fish 
called ogo. A kind of sea worm called labolo, 
found on some reefs toward the latter part of the 
year, is much esteemed by the natives as food. 
A maggot called yavato, which bores into 
wood, is much eaten on the poor islands. There 
are several kinds of oyster (civa), of which the 
large pearl shell is ground and used for orna- 
ments. The coqe, a sacred bird, has a singular 
cry, much like a dog's or the human voice. 
There is a small bird somewhat like a corn- 
crake, called Mci; a vampire bat, called beka ; 
a large sea gull, called Icasaqa; the kitu, a bird 
destructive to the sugar cane ; the kulu, a spe- 
cies of red parrot, whose feathers are much 
valued for fringes of mats and personal orna- 
ments; the sacred lawedua, a sea bird with 
two long feathers in its tail; owls, hawks, 
pigeons, &c. From a pair of horses introduced 
in 1851 all the mission stations have been sup- 
plied. Some islands of the group are much 
troubled with mosquitoes. The natives are 
above the middle height, sleek and portly, with 
stout limbs and short necks. They are of 
darker complexion than the copper-colored and 
lighter than the black races. Their hair is 
black, long, frizzled, and bushy, sometimes en- 
croaching on the forehead and joined by whis- 
kers to a thick round or pointed beard, to 
which moustaches are often added. They are 
almost free from tattooing; only the women 
are tattooed, and that on the parts of the body 
which are covered. The men dress in a sort 
of sash of white, brown, or figured masi, using 
generally about six yards, though a wealthy 
man will wear one sometimes nearly 300 ft. 
long. The women wear a liku or fringed band, 
made of the bark of a tree, the fibre of a wild 
root, and some kinds of grass; the fringe is 
from 3 to 10 inches deep. The turban, worn 
only by the men of the respectable classes, is a 
fine masi of one thickness, and has a gauze-like 
appearance. They bore the lobe of the ear 
and distend the hole, and wear enormous ear 
ornaments. Both sexes paint their bodies, and 
seem to prefer red ; they also besmear them- 
selves with oil. The hair is the most impor- 
tant part of the toilet, and is dressed in gro- 



tesque forms, sometimes attaining a diameter 
of 5 ft. The chief's barber is held in high re- 
spect, and his hands are not allowed to touch 
food. The hair is colored sometimes with two 
or more* dyes. They are fond of music, and 
have invented the nose flute, the conch shell, 
the pandean pipes, a jewsharp made of a strip 
of bamboo, and several sorts of drums. The 
singing is invariably in a major key. The mu- 
sicians perform on one note, the base alternating 
with the air ; they then sound one of the com- 
mon chords in the base cleff without the alter- 
nation. The natives love to dance and are fond 
of poetry. Their verses occasionally rhyme, 
but seldom preserve a uniform measure. In 
chanting the chorus is repeated at the end of 
each line. Girls are betrothed at a very early 
age, and often to old men. Brothers and sis- 
ters, first cousins, fathers and sons-in-law, 

A Feejeean. 

mothers and daughters-in-law are forbidden to 
speak to each other or to eat from the same 
dish. The latter prohibition extends to hus- 
bands and wives. The common people usually 
take two meals a day, the chief three or more. 
As they abhor drinking after each other from 
the same cup, they hold the vessel about ten 
inches above the mouth, and pour the stream 
down the throat. They eat with their fingers. 
Rheumatism is common ; they relieve the pa- 
tient by making deep incisions over the part 
affected. The law of descent is curious. The 
successor of a chief is his next brother, failing 
whom, his own eldest son or the eldest son of 
his eldest brother fills his place ; but the rank 
of the mother often causes an infraction of this 
rule. The person of a pagan high chief is taboo 
or sacred. In some cases they claim a divine 
origin. Everything becomes consecrated which 

the supreme chief touches. He works some- 
times at agricultural labor or plaits sinnet. 
He has always several attendants about his 
person, who feed him and perform the most 
servile offices. He has no throne, but squats 
on the ground like his subjects. A peculiar 
language is used when speaking of the chief. 
All his actions and the members of his body 
are hyperbolized. Respect is indicated by the 
utterance of a peculiar shout or chant called 
tama ; this is uttered by inferiors on approach- 
ing a chief or chief town. It is necessary to 
crouch when a chief passes by. Standing in 
the presence of the chief is not allowed, and 
all who move about the house in which he is 
creep, or, if on their feet, advance bent, as in 
act of obeisance. No one may cross a chief 
behind his back ; the inferior must pass in 
front of the superior, and when at sea must not 
pass the canoe of a chief on the outrigger side. 
If a chief stumbles or falls, his subjects must do 
the same. The best produce of the gardens, 
the best animals, and the best fish are present- 
ed, to the chiefs. Pay day of taxes is regarded 
as a high festival. Whale's teeth, women, and 
canoes are prominent articles of tribute. The 
criminality of an act is in inverse proportion to 
the rank of the offender. Murder by 'a chief 
is less heinous than petty larceny by a man of 
low rank. The most serious offences are theft, 
adultery, abduction, witchcraft, infringement 
of a taboo, disrespect to a chief, incendiarism, 
and treason. Theft is punished by a fine, re- 
payment in kind, loss of a finger, or clubbing. 
The contumacious are punished by a fine, or 
loss of a finger, ear, or nose. The other crimes 
are punished by death, the instrument being the 
club, noose, or musket. Adultery is the crime 
most severely visited. The adulterer may be 
put to death, or he may be compelled to give 
up his own wife to the aggrieved man, or his 
property may be destroyed or taken away from 
him. The principle of vicarious atonement is 
acknowledged. A man sentenced to death will 
often surrender his father to suffer in his stead. 
There is also a species of pecuniary atonement 
called soro, of which there are five varieties; the 
soro with a whale's tooth, a mat, club, musket, 
or other valuable, is the most common. Society 
is divided into six recognized classes : 1, kings 
and queens; 2, chiefs of large districts or isl- 
ands ; 3, chiefs of towns, priests, and ambassa- 
dors; 4, distinguished warriors of low birth, 
chiefs of the carpenters, and chiefs of the turtle 
catchers ; 5, common people ; 6, slaves by war. 
Rank is hereditary through the female line. 
The dignity of a pagan chief is estimated by 
the number of his wives. The rights of the 
vasu, or sister's son, constitute one of the pecu- 
liar institutions of Feejee. A vasu of rank can 
claim anything in his mother's land, .excepting 
the wives, home, and land of a chief. In the 
moral and intellectual state of the Feejeeans 
there is a wide distinction between the pagan 
and Christian natives. As the majority are 
pagans, their customs, laws, and religion may 


VOL. VII. 8 



still be regarded as the national standards of 
Feejee. Capt. Wilkes says of them : " They 
are truly wretches in the strongest sense of 
the term, and degraded beyond the conception 
of civilized people." Strangulation of women, 
especially widows, infanticide, and other enor- 
mities prevail to a frightful extent. Fore- 
most among their describable vices stands can- 
nibalism ; not only are prisoners taken in war 
consumed, but persons of the same tribe and 
village fall victims to the greed of their neigh- 
bors. The cooked human body is termed in 
the Feejee language lakolo or "long pig." 
As an English gentleman may send a choice 
haunch of venison as a present to another, so 
one Feejee chief will send a stalwart subject 
roasted entire like an ox, carefully trussed, 
and escorted by a procession to the residence 
of an ally. The epicures of Feejee prefer the 
flesh of women to that of men, and deem the 
thick of the arm and the thigh the tit-bits of 
the lalcolo. The women are seldom allowed to 
taste it. The flesh of white men is held in low 
repute ; it is said to be comparatively insipid 
or tainted with tobacco. A Feejeean is always 
armed, and war is the normal condition. The 
mountain fastnesses are well fortified with 
strong palisades and stone breastworks, pierced 
with loopholes. The arms chiefly used are 
clubs, spears, battle axes, the bow, the sling, 
and the musket. A peculiar weapon is the 
missile club, which is worn in the girdle, some- 
times in pairs. It is a short stick, with a knob 
at one end, is hurled with great precision, and 
is a favorite weapon with assassins. The sick 
and aged request their sons to strangle them, 
or, if they are too slow to make this request, 
their sons suggest to them that they have lived 
long enough. To be strangled or buried alive 
by one's children is considered a most honor- 
able death. They expect to be in the next 
world exactly as they were here, and affection- 
ate children are unwilling to have their parents 
pass into the next world in an infirm state, and 
therefore strangle or bury them alive out of 
kindness. The relatives hold a wake over the 
intended victim while living and anointed for 
the sepulchre, and go into mourning after the 
entombment. The signs of mourning are the 
cropping of the hair and the joints of the 
small toe or little finger. Another remarkable 
custom is the loloku or strangling of the wives 
and next friends of the deceased. Abortion is 
practised to a great extent by medicated waters 
or mechanical means. Boys are circumcised 
when from seven to twelve years old. The 
native religions are local ; each island has its 
own gods, traditions, and superstitions. All 
the systems belong to the lowest types of poly- 
theism, and all are impregnated with the filth 
and savageness which characterize the actual 
existence of the people. The mythologies have 
some features in common ; they retain the dis- 
tinction between dii minores and dii majores, 
between gods and demigods. The latter class 
is made up chiefly of deceased chiefs and re- 

spected ancestors. Monsters and other objects 
of wonder are admissible to this class. Most 
of the gods are supposed to have jurisdiction 
only over the tribes, islands, or districts where 
they are worshipped. Each trade has its tu- 
telary deities. The Feejeeans have no idols, 
but reverence certain stones as shrines of the 
god, and hold certain birds and fishes as sacred. 
Every Feejeean considers himself under the 
protection of some special god, and refrains 
from eating the animal which is his symbol. 
Each chief has his ambati, or priest, who acts 
in concert with him, and helps him govern his 
clansmen. The priests are known by an oval 
frontlet of scarlet feathers, and a long-toothed 
comb made of several pieces of wood fastened 
together with much ingenuity. There are 
priestesses, but few of sufficient importance to 
have a temple. The priests are consulted as 
oracles; the responses are given after convul- 
sions, supposed to be caused by the presence 
of the god. There are various modes of divina- 
tion, all of the most childish character, such 
as by biting a leaf or pouring water down the 
arm. They have a strong belief in all sorts of 
apparitions, witches, ghosts, wizards, and the 
evil eye. They believe in a sort of fairies who 
dance on the hills by moonlight and sing songs. 
The future world in their opinion is much the 
same as the present. But concerning the doc- 
trines of the Feejeean religion it is scarcely 
possible to learn anything. The people know 
nothing, and the priests dislike to communicate 
their knowledge. Burotu is the name of their 
place of departed spirits, and is said to be a 
most delightful abode ; but the Feejeeans be- 
lieve that, except for great chiefs, it is very 
difficult to pass into it. The only way by 
which an inferior naan can hope to gain admis- 
sion is by telling a lie to the god, and proclaim- 
ing himself a chief with so much apparent 
truthfulness that he is allowed to enter. In a 
large number of the islands, a particular town 
in Vanua Levu is thought to be the entrance 
to the spirit world. The houses in this town 
are built with their doors opposite to each 
other, so that the shade may pass through 
without interruption. The inhabitants speak 
in low tones, and if at a little distance commu- 
nicate their thoughts by signs. Sneezing is 
ominous, and varies in its luck, according as it 
proceeds from the right or left nostril. The 
temples, lure, or fully ~bure Icaloo (anything 
wonderful, whether good or bad, is denoted 
by Icaloo), are built on a mound of earth, and 
found in every village, and some of the villages 
have many of them. No labor is thought too 
great for the decoration of a bure. Their 
marvellous skill in plaiting sinnet is best shown 
in such a building ; every beam, post, and pil- 
lar is entirely covered with the most beautiful 
patterns, chiefly in black and red ; even large 
cords are made of sinnet and hung in festoons 
from the eaves. But these bures, though con- 
sidered temples, are mostly used for secular 
purposes. Visitors are generally quartered in 




them, and the principal men of the village 
often make the bure their sleeping place. 
When a chief wishes to propitiate a deity he 
offers a great quantity of food in his temple, 
and inviting his friends consumes it in a gen- 
eral feast. The Feejeean language belongs to 
the Oceanic or Malayo-Polynesian type. The 
letters may be easily represented with the Eng- 
lish alphabet, omitting h, x, and z. It has the 
same nine parts of speech as the English. The 
articles are Ico or 0, koi or oi, a or na, and ai 
or nai. All adjectives are used as abstract 
nouns, as mnaka, good, and also goodness ; but 
the verbs are the most fruitful source of nouns. 
All nouns used without taganne, a male, or 
alewa, a female, are of common gender; also 
nouns of relationship, as luvena, a son or 
daughter, watina, a husband or wife. The num- 
ber of nouns is shown by prefixing numerals, 
or by the personal pronoun used in relation to 
them. There are some nouns to express cer- 
tain things by tens, hundreds, and thousands 
only. Case is shown by particles preceding 
the nouns. Valca is a particle much used ; it 
changes nouns into adjectives, as vuravura, 
the world, vafcavuravura, like the world ; it 
changes adjectives into adverbs, as mnaka^ 
good, vakvinaka, well; with nouns it ex- 
presses the possession of the thing, as vale, 
a house, vakavale, having a house ; and it 
changes adjectives into verbs, and intransitive 
into transitive verbs. Some verbs have differ- 
ent terminations when affecting different ob- 
jects, as sokota na vanua, to sail to land, solco- 
talca na waga, to sail the canoe. There are 
many reduplicated forms of verbs. Repetition 
of words is used to a great extent, and implies 
either frequency or intensity : sa vosa vosa vosa, 
talk, talk, talk, means always talking. Prepo- 
sitions and conjunctions are few, but interjec- 
tions are very numerous. Expletives, or orna- 
mental particles, abound. Feejeean syntax is 
extremely simple. A proper accentuation is 
also very easily obtained. The accent is in- 
variably on the last syllable, or last but one. 
A different quantity often alters the sense of a 
Feejeean word. The Feejee group, which now 
contains, exclusive of coral islets, an area of 
about 5,500 square miles of dry land, is be- 
lieved to have spread at the period when the 
corals began to grow over at least 15,000 square 
miles. Viti Levu and Vanua Levu are sup- 
posed to have formed a single island, which 
subsidence has separated by inundating the 
low intermediate area. The natives present a 
mixture of Papuan and Polynesian characters. 
Ethnology offers nothing of importance con- 
cerning them, for the Papuan race is one of 
the least known sections of mankind. The na- 
tives know nothing of former immigrations ; 
they had no intercourse with other nations, 
except on casual visits, and they believe that 
they never occupied any country but the one 
where they now dwell. Even among the many 
independent states in the group there is little 
social and commercial communication, and no 

political connection. Intestine quarrels and 
wars make up the history of the Feejees. The 
Dutch navigator Tasman saw the group on 
Feb. 6, 1643, and called it Prince William's 
islands, but effected no landing. On May 4, 
1789, they were seen by Lieut. William Bligh, 
in his long and perilous boat voyage after being 
turned adrift from the Bounty, who gave them 
his own name. The first settlement by Euro- 
peans was made by a party of escaped convicts 
from New South Wales in 1804. The Amer- 
ican exploring expedition under Lieut. Wilkes, 
1838-'42, first excited the interest of civilized 
nations in the Feejee islands. The first British 
consul was appointed in 1858, and since then 
negotiations have been pending to put the 
group under the English government, on the 
suggestion of King Thakombau. But he was 
never king of Feejee, and he has long since lost 
the hold he formerly had upon the people and 
land. His reason for desiring to place the isl- 
ands under British rule seems to have been 
merely to escape a claim on the part of an 
American citizen named Williams, whose house 
was accidentally burned, and who demanded 
an enormous sum for " destruction and spolia- 
tion of property." In 1869, 70 white residents 
petitioned the United States government to as- 
sume the dominion or protectorate of the isl- 
ands. The white population having increased, 
a regular government was established in 1871, 
and a constitution adopted. This was subse- 
quently abolished, and the government relapsed 
into barbarism. In 1874, partly owing to the 
wretched state of the finances, the sovereignty 
of Feejee was accepted by Great Britain. In 
1835 two Wesleyan missionaries made the first 
attempt to introduce Christianity in Feejee; 
missionaries of other sects followed ; and after 
the usual history of massacres and persecutions, 
the churches report a most wonderful suc- 
cess. There are said to be more than 900 
chapels and preaching places, 1,500 day schools, 
a theological institute, and more than 100,000 
attendants on public worship. See Wilkes's 
" United States Exploring Expedition around 
the World" (New York, 1856); Williams and 
Calvert's "Fiji and the Fijians" (London, 
1858; revised ed., 1870); Mrs. Smythe's "Ten 
Months in the Fiji Islands" (London, 1864); 
the Rev. J. E. Wood's " Uncivilized Races of 
the World " (Hartford, 1870) ; and David Ha- 
zlewood's "Fijian aild English Dictionary," 
containing brief hints on native customs, &c. 
(London, 1872). 



FEITH, Rhijnvis, a Dutch poet, born at 
Zwolle, Feb. 7, 1753, died there, Feb. 8, 1824. 
He completed his studies at Leyden in 1770, 
when he returned to his native town, where 
he spent the rest of his life in literary pursuits, 
holding at the same time an office in connec- 
tion with the admiralty and that of burgo- 
master. His best lyrical productions are his 
Oden en gedichten (4 vols., Amsterdam, 1796- 




1810). One of his finest tragedies is Ines de 
Castro (1793), and his most finished prose 
writings are Brieven over verscheiden onderwer- 
pen (6 vols., 1784-'94). A complete edition 
of his works was published soon after his death 
(11 vols., Rotterdam, 1824). 

FELAMTX, or Felaniche, a town of Spain, on 
the island of Majorca, 25 m. E. S. E. of Palma; 
pop. about 8,000. It is in a fertile valley sur- 
rounded by mountains, and contains spacious 
streets and six squares. There is an ancient 
Moorish castle, with a subterranean vault, on 
the adjoining mountain of San Salvador de 
Felanitx. An active trade is carried on in 
cattle, wine, fruit, and colonial produce. Linen 
and woollen goods and other articles are manu- 
factured. The place is of great antiquity. The 
neighboring mountains abound with Moorish 

FELDKIRCH, a town of Austria, in Vorarl- 
berg, on the 111, and on the railway leading 
from the Tyrol into Switzerland, 20 m. S. S. 
W. of Bregenz ; pop. 3,000. It is the seat of a 
vicar general who has jurisdiction over all the 
churches of Vorarlberg, and of a Jesuit college 
which has a large number of pupils from Aus- 
tria, Germany, and other countries. It has 
cotton mills, machine and fire engine facto- 
ries, a bell foundery, tile worksj manufactories 
of articles of wood, distilleries of Kirschwasser, 
and an extensive trade. 

FELDSPAR (Ger. Feldspath, from Feld, field, 
and Spath, spar), a species of aluminous mine- 
rals very abundantly distributed, principally in 
plutonic and volcanic rocks, as granite, gneiss, 
greenstone, and trachyte. The different spe- 
cies were formerly confounded, but they are 
now distinctly classified, not only by the differ- 
ent crystalline forms which they present, but, 
when these are the same, by distinct chemical 
composition. The feldspars are in all cases 
anhydrous double silicates, consisting of a sili- 
cate of alumina combined with a silicate of 
some one or more of the protoxides of potash, 
soda, lithia, baryta, or lime. The proportion 
between the aluminous or sesquioxide base 
and the protoxide bases is constant, being one 
equivalent of each, making the oxygen ratio 
1 to 3; but the proportion of silica varies, 
causing considerable variation in the density 
and hardness. The amount of silica corre- 
sponds much to that in the rock in which the 
feldspar is found, and to the minerals asso- 
ciated with it, the more highly silicated kinds 
occurring in granite, and the less silicated in 
basalts. When a granite has large crystals 
of feldspar disseminated through it, it is called 
porphyritic granite, and sometimes porphyry, 
particularly when the proportion of feldspar is 
large. The various species of feldspar are 
given in the following table, as classified by 
Prof. Dana, with their systems of crystalliza- 
tion, and also their composition as indicated by 
the oxygen ratios of constituents ; the first col- 
umn of figures showing the protoxide, and the 
second the aluminous base, while the last col- 

umn gives the proportion of silica according to 
the same ratio : 


System of 

Proportion of 

Anorthite, lime feldspar 
Labradorite, lime-soda feldspar.. 
Hyalophane, baryta-soda " . 
Andesite, soda-lime " 
Oligoclase, " " " . 
Albite soda feldspar. 


Monoclinic . 
Triclinic.. . . 

Monoclinic . 








Orthoclase, potash feldspar 

All the feldspars may be fused before the blow- 
pipe, with more or less difficulty, to a vitreous 
enamel, and this property causes them to be 
extensively used for glazing porcelain. The 
crystals of the several varieties range in hard- 
ness from 6 to 7 upon a scale of 10, being 
harder than glass, but less so than quartz. 
Their specific gravity varies from 2 '5 in ortho- 
clase to 2'7 in labradorite. The crystals of 
some species exhibit a beautiful play of colors ; 
labradorite, the lime-soda feldspar, first dis- 
covered by the Moravian missionaries on the 
shores of St. Paul's isle off the coast of Labra- 
dor, being the most beautiful. The splendid 
opalescent and chatoyant reflections of this 
mineral have made it much prized as an article 
of jewelry. The cause of the play of colors 
has been satisfactorily explained by Reusch, 
who finds a cleavage structure of extreme del- 
icacy transverse to the median section. He 
therefore regards the color as that of thin 
plates, produced by the interference of the 
rays of light. The more common feldspars are 
orthoclase, or common potash feldspar, and 
albite, or soda feldspar. The potash species is 
the one most frequently met with, and is the 
usual associate of mica and quartz in ordinary 
granite, and of hornblende and quartz in sy- 
enitic granite. Fine crystals of orthoclase are 
found at Carlsbad and Elnbogen in Bohemia ; 
at St. Agnes in Cornwall; in the Mourne 
mountains in Ireland, associated with beryl 
and topaz ; in great abundance in trachyte at 
Drachenfels, on the Rhine; and also in the 
lavas of Vesuvius, in the valley called Fossa 
Grande. In the United States, it is found at 
Mt. Desert on the coast of Maine, of a fine 
green ; in Massachusetts, at South Royalton 
and Barre, in large crystals; in Connecticut, 
in the gneiss quarries at Haddam, and the 
feldspar quarries at Middletown, in crystals a 
foot long and from 6 to 8 in. thick ; in New 
York, at Potsdam, St. Lawrence co., in crystals 
a foot thick, at Warwick, Orange co., asso- 
ciated with tourmaline and zircon, and in many 
other places. The formula of orthoclase is 
K 2 O, A1 4 O 3 , 6SiO a . The old formula, regard- 
ing silica as SiO 3 and using the small atomic 
weight of oxygen, is KOSiO s , Al 2 O 3 3SiO 8 . 
Albite, or cleavelandite, the soda feldspar, 
often replaces orthoclase as a constituent of 
granite, and in some instances is associated 
with it, as in Pompey's pillar, when it gene- 
rally has a whiter color. Veins of albite 


granite often contain the rarer granite mine- 
rals, such as beryl and tourmaline. In its 
compact state as felsite, it is the base of albite 
porphyry. It is found in Maine, at Paris, with 
red and blue tourmalines ; in Massachusetts, at 
Chesterfield ; in Connecticut, at Haddarn, with 
beryl, columbite, and black tourmaline, and in 
other localities; in New York, at Granville, 
Washington co., in white transparent crystals ; 
in Pennsylvania, at Unionville, Delaware co., 
where a granular variety is a matrix for corun- 
dum ; and in Calaveras co., California, with na- 
tive gold and auriferous pyrites. Albite has 
the same composition as that of orthoclase or 
potash feldspar, substituting soda in place of 
potash. Soda feldspars yield more rapidly 
than potash feldspars to the decomposing ac- 
tion of water and carbonic acid; and accord- 
ingly Prof. T. Sterry Hunt finds in the more 
recent crystalline rocks of Canada a less devel- 
opment of soda feldspar than of any other kinds, 
and conceives the carbonate of sodium result- 
ing from the decomposition of the albite and 
similar minerals of the older rocks to have re- 
acted with the chloride of calcium of the palae- 
ozoic ocean, producing deposits of carbonate 
of calcium and the chloride of sodium which is 
held in solution. In general, the decomposi- 
tion of the feldspathic rocks has furnished the 
principal mass of the various clays, those con- 
taining the largest proportion of feldspar af- 
fording the finest deposits, such as kaolin, of 
which porcelain is made. The soil derived 
from them, particularly the common potash 
species, is noted for its fertility when under 
good cultivation, on account of their furnish- 
ing a large supply of potash, an important con- 
stituent of plants. The application of caustic 
lime to such soils, when they are worn, has 
the effect of liberating a portion of the potash, 
with the formation of silicate of lime ; this ac- 
counts for the great difference often noticed in 
the fertilizing effects of the application of lime, 
depending upon the mineral character of the 
soil and upon the condition of the lime. 

FELEGYHA/A, or FelegyMza, a town of Hun- 
gary, in the district of Little Cumania, 65 m. 
S. E. of Pesth ; pop. in 1870, 21,313. It is situ- 
ated in an exceedingly fertile region, and con- 
tains a large Eoman Catholic parish church, a 
gymnasium, and a fine town hall. The princi- 
pal products of the vicinity are grain, fruit, to- 
bacco, and wine, which is made in great quan- 
tities. There are four annual cattle fairs, which 
are much frequented. 

FELICE, Fortnnato Bartolommeo, an Italian au- 
thor, born in Rome about 1725, died at Yverdun, 
Switzerland, Feb. 7, 1789. He studied under the 
direction of the Jesuits, and became a teacher of 
various sciences in Rome and in Naples. His 
abduction of a nun from a convent in the lat- 
ter city obliged him to seek refuge elsewhere, 
and about 1756 he settled at Bern, where he 
became a Protestant. At a later period he 
founded a printing establishment and a board- 
ing school at Yverdun. He translated into 



Italian the works of Descartes, D'Alembert, 
and Newton, and edited with Tscharner (1758- 
'67) L^estato della letteratura and other peri- 
odicals. He edited Burlamaqui's Principe du 
droit naturel et des gens, and published an 
abridgment of the same under the title of 
Lemons du droit de la nature et des gens (4 
vols., Yverdun, 1769), and many other works. 
His most extensive production is the Encyclo- 
pedic, ou Dictionnaire universel des connois- 
sances Jiumaines (48 vols. 4to, and 10 vols. of 
illustrations, 1770-'80). It was based on Dide- 
rot's cyclopaedia, and he was assisted by Euler, 
Haller, and other eminent scholars. From this 
he compiled a Dictionnaire de la justice natu- 
relle et cimle (13 vols., 1778). 

FELIX, called FELIX OF V ALOIS, a saint of 
the Roman Catholic church, and founder (with 
John of Matha) of the order of Trinitarians, 
born in the district of Yalois, France, April 
19, 1127, died in the monastery of Cerfroi, 
Nov. 4, 1212. He was a man of considerable 
wealth, which he renounced to become a her- 
mit in the forest of Galeresse, diocese of Meaux, 
where he dwelt until his 60th year. About 
that time John of Matha became his disciple, 
and inspired him with the idea of devoting 
his remaining years to the labor of redeeming 
the Christians held in bondage by the Mo- 
hammedans. For this purpose they both went 
to Rome in 1197 and submitted their design 
to Pope Innocent III. He approved it, and 
in furtherance of it religious order was 
established, styled the " order of the Trinity," 
or "for the redemption of captives," John of 
Matha being appointed its "minister general." 
Returning to France, they established a mon- 
astery in Cerfroi, which became the cradle 
of the order of Trinitarians. "While John of 
Matha journeyed to Italy and Africa, Felix 
governed and propagated the new order. He 
obtained for it an establishment in Paris, near 
a chapel dedicated to St. Mathurin, and from 
this circumstance his monks were there called 
les Mathurins. The order established by him 
is called indiscriminately Trinitarians or Re- 
demptionists. See for his biography Baillet, 
Vies des saints, under date of Nov. 20, and 
Richard and Giraud, Bibliotheque sacree. 

FELIX, Celestin Joseph, a French preacher, 
born at Neuville-sur-1'Escaut, near Valencien- 
nes, June 28, 1810. He studied at Cambrai, 
and after his ordination was employed there 
in pastoral duties. He entered the novitiate 
of the Jesuits in 1837, and was appointed pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in the college of Bruge- 
lette. While there a discourse delivered by 
him at an academic celebration caused his su' 
periors to employ him exclusively in the min- 
istry of preaching. He went to Paris, heard 
the best speakers of the bar, the pulpit, and 
the legislature, preached his first course of 
Advent sermons in the church of St. Thomas 
d'Aquin in 1851, and the Lenten course in St. 
Germain des Pres in 1852. In 1853 he suc- 
ceeded Lacordaire and Ravignan in the pulpit 



of Notre Dame ; and from that year until 1869 
he held that post. He was superior of his 
order in Nancy, when in June, 1871, he was 
appointed superior of the Jesuit residence in 
the rue de Sevres, Paris, in place of Pere 
Ollivaint, killed during the commune. His 
sermons have been published under the title 
of Le progres par le Christianisme : Confe- 
rences de Notre-Dame (13 vols. 8vo, Paris, 

FELLAHS (Arab, fallah, a cultivator), a 
term applied without distinction to all the 
peasantry in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. Of 
the various races which exist in Egypt the 
Fellahs are the most ancient, and are probably 
mainly the descendants of the old Egyptians. 
They still present a physiognomy resembling 
that which is found upon ancient Egyptian 
sculptures. A patient and laborious popula- 
tion, they have held for ages the soil which 


the Nile fertilizes. They are generally of large 
stature, with broad chests, muscular limbs, and 
black and piercing eyes. The conformation 
of the brain indicates an intelligent race, the 
facial angle being usually almost a right angle, 
though within the Delta the Arab type of 
countenance predominates. The antique Egyp- 
tian type reappears most strikingly in the wo- 
men, who, though slender and graceful, are 
remarkably strong. The dress of the Fellahs 
indicates misery and privation, being rarely 
more than a shirt, leaving bare the arms, legs, 
and breast. Their ordinary nourishment is 
coarse bread, water, and onions, to which they 
are sometimes able to add cheese, dates, beans, 
or rice. They live in huts about four feet 
high, the only furniture of which is a mat on 
which to sleep, a water jug, and a few kitchen 
utensils. They remain attached to the rudest 


agricultural methods, and use almost the sa 
implements as their remote ancestors ; yet i 
fruitfulness of the soil compensates for their 
lack of skill. Mehemet AH failed in his efforts 
to introduce among them the implements of 
modern invention. They are able to endure 
the greatest fatigue, and to work through the 
whole day in a burning climate with very little 
food, accompanying their labors with songs. 
The women ' share the heaviest labors of the 
men . The Fellahs in Palestine are addicted to 
theft and robbery, and are averse to work un- 
less compelled by necessity. This arises partly 
from their natural indolence, and partly from 
the exactions of an arbitrary government, 
which views with distrust any acquisition of 
wealth. They are generally in debt to usurers, 
who lend them money at a ruinous rate of 


FELLENBERG, Philipp Emannel Ton, a Swiss 
educator and philanthropist, founder of the in- 
stitutions at Hofwyl, born in Bern, June 27, 
1771, died there, Nov. 21, 1844. His father 
was a member of the government and a friend 
of Pestalozzi. His mother was a descendant 
of the Dutch admiral Van Tromp. He studied 
at Colmar and Tubingen, and travelled ex- 
tensively with a view of familiarizing himself 
with the condition of the working and suffer- 
ing classes. He was at Paris shortly after the 
fall of Robespierre, and there his early convic- 
tions became strengthened that improved sys- 
tems of education alone can protect society 
against revolutions. Returning to Switzerland 
after taking part against the French, he was 
exiled when they had succeeded in taking 
Bern, and went to Germany, where he resided 
some time. After his return to Switzerland he 
was employed by the government in a mission 
to Paris, and in high military and political 
functions at home. Finding that nothing would 
be done by the government for the accomplish- 
ment of his favorite educational projects, he 
resolved to devote his large fortune to the pur- 
chase of the estate of Hofwyl near Bern, and to 
the establishment of model institutions in ac- 
cordance with the views of Pestalozzi. Fellen- 
berg's aim was to elevate all classes by opening 
an institution alike to the poor and the rich, 
and by not only making agriculture the basis 
of his instruction, but also elevating that pro- 
fession to the dignity of a science. Apart 
from the agricultural school, he founded an 
establishment for the manufacture of improved 
agricultural implements. At the same time he 
laid the foundation of a scientific institution, 
for which the first building was erected in 1807. 
The agricultural institution was opened in 
1808, and he established in the same year a 
normal school, which became popular among 
the teachers of Switzerland, and grew in im- 
portance as its advantages became known 
abroad. The institution was gradually enlarged, 
and comprised altogether seven distinct schools, 
to which a primary school was added in 1830, 




and still another school for children at a sub- 
sequent period. By these schools, and by his 
writings on the subject of agriculture and edu- 
cation, Fellenberg exerted a remarkable influ- 
ence in Europe ; and although the institutions 
which he founded were dissolved after his 
death, after having been conducted for several 
years by one of his sons, kindred institutions 
have sprung up in Switzerland and Germa- 
ny, and the celebrated pauper colony of the 
Netherlands at Frederiksoord, province of 
Drenthe, was founded in 1818 by a pupil of 
Hofwyl. Fellenberg was assisted in his be- 
nevolent labors by his wife, and by the great- 
er number of their nine children. See Hamni, 
Fellenberg' l s Leben und Wirlcen (Bern, 1845). 
Robert Dale Owen was a pupil at Hofwyl, 
and in his autobiography (''Threading his 
Way," 1874) has given an interesting account 
of the school. 

FELLER, Francois Xavier de, a Belgian author, 
born in Brussels, Aug. 18, 1735, died in Ratis- 
bon, May 21, 1802. He was educated in the 
Jesuits' colleges at Luxemburg and Rheims, 
and after becoming a member of their order 
was employed as professor at Luxemburg and 
Liege. He went afterward to Tyrnau in Hun- 
gary, and after passing some time there, he 
travelled extensively in Hungary, Austria, Bo- 
hemia, Poland, and Italy. He was preacher in 
the college of Liege when the order of Jesuits 
was suppressed in Belgium in 1773, and after- 
ward devoted himself to literature. Being 
compelled to leave Belgium at the occupation 
of that country by France in 1794, he spent 
two years at Paderborn, and subsequently re- 
tired to Ratisbon. Among his works are Ob- 
servations pliilosopJiiques sur le systeme de New- 
ton (3d and enlarged ed., Liege, 1778), and 
Catechisme pfiilosopMque (4th ed., 1805 ; new 
ed., from the author's annotations, Lyons, 
1819). He left many other writings, chiefly on 
religious subjects; but his principal work is 
his Biographie universelle, ou Dictionnaire his- 
torique, &c., which passed through many edi- 
tions, and after his death was revised and con- 
tinued under the direction of M. Charles Weiss 
and the abb6 Busson, and brought down to 
1848 (9 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1847-'56). 

FELLOWES, Robert, an English author, born 
in Norfolk in 1770, died in 1847. He gradu- 
ated at St. Mary's hall, Oxford, and in 1795 
took holy orders, but subsequently rejected the 
doctrines of the established church, and adopt- 
ed the opinions which are given at length in 
his "Religion of the Universe," published in 
London in 1836. He had previously published 
"A Picture of Christian Philosophy" (8vo, 
London, 1800); "Religion without Cant" 
(1801) ; " The Guide to Immortality " (3 vols., 

304); "A Manual of Piety, adapted to the 
Wants and calculated for the Improvement of 
all Sects of Christians" (1807); "A Body of 
Theology, principally practical, in a Series of 
Lectures " (2 vols., 1807), &c. Mr. Fellowes 
was an intimate friend of Dr. Parr and Baron 

Maseres, the latter of whom left him the greater 
part of his large fortune, to be dispensed in 
literary and benevolent enterprises. He was 
one of the earliest advocates of the establish- 
ment of the university of London, of which 
he was a frequent and liberal benefactor. 

FELLOWS, Sir Charles, an English traveller 
and archaeologist, born in Nottingham in 1799, 
died Nov. 8, 1860. He published a " Journal 
written during an Excursion in Asia Minor " 
(8vo, London, 1839), in which he gave descrip- 
tions of the superb architectural and sculptural 
remains of the cities of Xanthus and Tlos. The 
interest excited by the work induced the gov- 
ernment to apply to the Porte for a firman, 
authorizing the removal of specimens of the 
ancient works of art described by Mr. Fellows, 
who departed on a second tour through Lycia, 
in the course of which he discovered 13 other 
ruined cities. Having learned that the Porte 
declined to grant the firman, he returned to 
England, and published " An Account of Dis- 
coveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during 
a Second Excursion in Asia Minor " (8vo, 1841). 
The government were at last successful in pro- 
curing the desired firman, and a new expe- 
dition succeeded in transporting to England 
a number of cases of sculptures, which are 
now deposited in the "Lycian Saloon" of 
the British museum. Another expedition, also 
under the direction of Mr. Fellows, brought 
a number of additional marbles to England 
in 1844. For these services he received in 
1845 the honor of knighthood. His remain- 
ing publications are : *" Account of the Xan- 
thian Marbles in the British Museum" (1843), 
a pamphlet written to correct some misstate- 
ments ; " Account of the Trophy Monument 
at Xanthus" (1848); and "Coins of Ancient 
Lycia" (1855). 

FELO DE SE, one who commits felony against 
or upon himself. As felony is, in common- 
law language, any capital offence, and mur- 
der is the only capital offence which a man 
can commit against himself, a felo de se is a 
self-murderer, or one who kills himself with 
malice aforethought. Indeed, the legal defini- 
tion of a felony de se (or suicide) is said to in- 
clude the doing of any unlawful and malicious 
act, although aimed primarily against another, 
whereby death ensues to the guilty person. In 
England this crime was punished not only with 
forfeiture of goods and chattels, like other felo- 
nies, but, to mark the detestation of the law, 
and to deter others from a similar crime, the 
body was treated ignominiously, and buried in 
the open highway with a stake thrust through 
it. This very ancient rule fell into general if 
not entire disuse in England many years ago, 
but it was not repealed until the statute 4 
George IV., c. 51 ; and even then, to manifest 
the horror of the law at the act of suicide, it 
was ordered that the body (which might be 
placed in a churchyard or other consecrated 
ground) should be buried at night, and with- 
out the performance of religious rites. 




Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. iv., p. 190.) 
Suicide does ot seem ever to have been made 
punishable as a crime by any statutory provi- 
sions of the United States; nor are we aware 
that the barbarous usages of England in rela- 
tion to the burial of the corpse were ever prac- 
tised here. It is held at the common law that 
if one encourage and assist another in the com- 
mission of suicide, he is guilty of murder as a 

FELONY. The origin and the exact meaning 
of this common-law term are both uncertain. 
There is about equally good authority for de- 
riving it from the Saxon words feh, fee, and 
Ion, price or pay, when its primary sense would 
be forfeiture or loss of fee ; or from a single 
word felen, to fall or fail, when its meaning 
might be the falling of the guilty party into 
crime, or the falling of his land into the hands 
of his lord by forfeiture. It seems quite cer- 
tain that in England, from the earliest times, 
felony was always attended by absolute for- 
feiture of land or of goods, or of both ; and 
the definition of Blackstone (4 Bl. Com. 95) is, 
in accordance with this principle : " An offence 
which occasions a total forfeiture of lands or 
goods, or both, at the common law, and to 
which capital or other punishment may be 
superadded, according to the degree of guilt." 
But we understand Blackstone to mean, gen- 
erally, by felony, all capital crimes below trea- 
son (p. 98); and Coke says (3 Inst. 15) that 
treason itself was anciently included within 
the meaning of felony. In those distant ages 
a felon was to be punished : 1, by loss of life ; 
2, by loss of land ; 3, by loss of goods ; 4, by 
loss of blood, or attainder, under which he 
could have no heir, and none could ever 
claim through him. In more recent times 
felony meant in practice any crime punishable 
with death ; and therefore when a statute de- 
clared any offence to be felony, it became at 
once punishable with death ; and vice versa, a 
crime which is made punishable with death 
becomes thereby a felony. Even in early times 
felony was sometimes defined as any capital 
crime ; although it is said that before the reign 
of Henry I. felonies were punished only by 
pecuniary mulct or fine, and that sovereign 
having about 1108 ordered those guilty of 
felony to be hanged, this has since been the 
law of England. (Tomlin's "Law Diction- 
ary," word " Felony.") It cannot be doubt- 
ed, however, that at common law the forfeit- 
ure incurred by the crime was the essence 
and the test of felony. In the United States 
there is little or no forfeiture for crime (see 
FORFEITURE) ; and in England capital offences 
are far less numerous than formerly. It may 
be said that in the United States the word, 
so far as it has any definite meaning, signifies 
a crime punishable with death or imprison- 
ment. The statutes of some of the states de- 
fine it as any offence punishable to a certain 
extent, as by death or confinement in the state 
prison or penitentiary. 

F.ELSINO, Jakob, a German engraver, born in 
Darmstadt in 1802. He received his first in- 
struction from his father, studied at the acade- 
my of Milan, and acquired reputation by his 
faithful reproduction of the manner of the 
painters whose works he engraved. After re- 
siding in Italy, and visiting Munich and Paris, 
he returned to Darmstadt in 1839. His best 
engravings are from Carlo Dolce's " Christ on 
the Mount of Olives," Andrea del Sarto's "Ma- 
donna on the Throne," Kaphael's " Yiolin Play- 
er," Bendemann's "Young Girl at the Foun- 
tain," Overbeck's "Holy Family," Crespi's 
"Christ with the Cross," Correggio's "Mar- 
riage of St. Catharine," and Steinbruck's "St. 
Genevieve," and other paintings of the Diis- 
seldorf school. 

FELT, a fabric of wool or fur, separate or 
mixed, manufactured by matting the fibres to- 
gether without spinning or weaving. The fur 
of the beaver, hare, rabbit, and seal, camel's 
and goat's hair, and the wool of the sheep, are 
well adapted for this process. Felt is an an- 
cient manufacture, supposed by Pliny to have 
been produced before woven cloth. It is prob- 
ably the same as the lana coacta anciently 
used for the cloaks of soldiers, and by the La- 
cedaemonians for hats. Early in the present 
century a piece of ancient felt was discovered 
with some other stuffs in a tomb at St. Germain 
des Pres, and a paper relating to them was pre- 
sented by Desmarest in 1806 to the academy 
of sciences. The production of a fabric from 
the loose fibres results from the tendency these 
have from their barbed structure to work to- 
gether when rubbed, each fibre moving for- 
ward in the direction of its larger end without 
a possibility of moving in the other direction. 
This peculiar structure of the animal fibre, so dif- 
ferent from that of the smooth vegetable fibres, 
is readily perceived on drawing a filament of 
wool through the fingers, holding it first by 
one end and then by the other. Examined 
through a powerful microscope, the short fibre 
exhibits the appearance of a continuous vege- 
table growth with numerous sprouts, all point- 
ing toward the smaller end. In a filament of 
merino wool as many as 2,400 of these projec- 
tions or teeth have been found in a single inch ; 
and in one of Saxon wool of superior felting 
quality there were 2, TOO serrations in the same 
space. Southdown wool, which is not so much 
esteemed for this use, contained only 2,080 ser- 
rations in one inch ; and Leicester wool, which 
is not at all adapted for felting, only 1,860. The 
short curly fibres of wool, freed from grease 
and brought together, intertwine at once very 
closely and form a compact mat. By rubbing 
this with the hands, and moistening it with 
some soapy liquid, the matter is made more 
dense according to the pressure with which it 
is rubbed. At last the fibres can go no further 
without danger of fracture, and the fabric be- 
comes hard and stiff. It may, however, be 
made thicker to any desired extent by adding 
more fibres and rubbing these in by separate 




layers. Drugget is a variety of felt in which 
machinery is made to agitate and work the 
fibres of wool together. A coarse variety of 
felt cloth has of late years been introduced, in 
the manufacture of which improvements have 
been made greatly facilitating the process. 
The method of making felt will be more partic- 
ularly noticed in the article HAT. 

FELTHAM, or Felltham, Owen, an English au- 
thor, died about 1680. No event of his life is 
known except that he resided for many years 
in the house of the earl of Thomond. He 
wrote " Resolves, Divine, Political, and Moral " 
(3d, and 1st complete ed., 1628 ; 10th ed., 
1677), which has been highly admired for its 
exuberance of wit and fancy, fervent piety, 
and occasional subtlety of thought. Feltham 
is the author also of a few minor pieces in 
prose and verse. 

FELT03V, Cornelius Conway, an American scho- 
lar and writer, born at Newbury, Mass., Nov. 
6, 1807, died at Chester, Pa., Feb. 26, 1862. 
He graduated at Harvard college in 1827. 
While in college he was distinguished for his 
literary tastes, and the wide range of his stud- 
ies. He supported himself to some extent by 
teaching in Concord and Boston, and in the 
Round Hill school at Northampton, Mass. In 
his senior year he was one of the conductors 
of the " Harvard Register," a students' periodi- 
cal. After leaving college he was engaged for 
two years, in conjunction with two of his 
classmates, in the charge of the Livingston 
high school in Geneseo, N. Y. He was ap- 
pointed Latin tutor in Harvard college in 1829, 
Greek tutor in the following year, college pro- 
fessor of Greek in 1832, and Eliot professor of 
Greek literature in 1834. In addition to the 
duties of this professorship he filled for many 
years the office of regent of the college. In 
1833 he published an edition of Homer, with 
English notes and Flaxman's illustrations, 
which has since passed through several edi- 
tions, with revisions and emendations. In 1840 
a translation by him of Menzel's work on 
" German Literature," in three volumes, was 
published among Ripley's " Specimens of For- 
eign Literature." In the same year appeared 
his " Greek Reader," containing selections in 
prose and verse from Greek authors, with Eng- 
lish notes and a vocabulary; this has since 
been frequently reprinted. In 1841 he pub- 
lished an edition of the " Clouds" of Aristo- 
phanes, with an introduction and notes ; since 
revised and republished in England. In 1843 
he aided Professors Sears and Edwards in the 
preparation of a work on classical studies, con- 
taining essays on classical subjects, mostly 
translated from the German. He assisted 
Longfellow in the preparation of the " Poets 
and Poetry of Europe," which appeared in 
1845. In 1847 editions of the Panegyricus of 
Isocrates and of the "Agamemnon" of JEschy- 
lus, with introductions and English notes, were 
published by him ; a second edition of the for- 
mer appeared in 1854, and of the latter in 

1859. In 1849 he translated from the French 
the work of Prof. Guyot on physical geogra- 
phy, called "The Earth and Man;" and in 
the same year he published an edition of the 
"Birds" of Aristophanes, with an introduc- 
tion and English notes, which was republished 
in England. In 1852 he edited a selection 
from the writings of Prof. Popkin, his prede- 
cessor in the Eliot professorship, with an in- 
troductory biographical notice. In the same 
year he published a volume of selections from 
the Greek historians, arranged in the order of 
events. The period from April, 1853, to May, 
1854, was spent by him in a European tour, 
in the course of which he visited Great Brit- 
ain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Greece ; giving about five months to the last 
named country, visiting its most interesting lo- 
calities, and carefully studying its architectu- 
ral remains. In 1855 he revised for publica- 
tion in the United States Smith's " History of 
Greece," adding a preface, notes, and a con- 
tinuation from the Roman conquest to the 
present time. In the same year an edition 
of Lord Carlisle's "Diary in Turkish and 
Greek Waters " was prepared by him for the 
American press, with notes, illustrations, and 
a preface. In 1856 he published a selection 
from modern Greek writers in prose and 
verse. Besides the above, he compiled an ele- 
mentary work on Greek and Roman metres, 
and wrote a life of Gen. Eaton for Sparks's 
" American Biography," and also various occa- 
sional addresses, and numerous contributions 
to the "North American Review," "Chris- 
tian Examiner," and other periodical publica- 
tions. He delivered four courses of lectures 
before the Lowell institute in Boston, on sub- 
jects connected with the history and litera- 
ture of Greece. He wrote the articles on Agas- 
siz, Athens, Attica, Demosthenes, Euripides, 
Greece, and Homer for the first edition of this 
Cyclopaedia. He was a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts board of education, and one of the 
regents of the Smithsonian institution. In the 
summer of 1858 he made a second visit to Eu- 
rope, partly on account of impaired health, 
and partly to complete some investigations into 
the language, topography, education, &c., of 
Greece. An account of this visit was given in 
his "Familiar Letters from Europe," published 
after his death (Boston, 1864). In 1860, on 
the resignation of President Walker, he was 
elected president of Harvard college. His 
most important work, " Greece, Ancient and 
Modern," was published posthumously in 1867 
(2 vols. 8vo) ; it was made up chiefly from his 
lectures before the Lowell institute. 

FELTRE, a town of Italy, in the province 
and 18 m. S. W. of the city of Belluno, on the 
border of Tyrol, at the confluence of two small 
affluents of the Piave, at the foot of the last 
slopes of the Rhaetian Alps ; pop. about 5,500 
Remains of the mediaeval fortifications are still 
visible in the upper town. The cathedral con- 
tains fine pictures. The monte di pietd, found- 



ed in the 15th century by Father Bernardi- 
ni, is regarded as the oldest establishment of 
the kind in Europe. Wax bleaching and silk 
weaving are the principal branches of industry, 
and there is a brisk trade in wine, silk, and 
oil. The former see of Feltre has been united 
with that of Belluno, but the town is still the 
seat of a vicar apostolic. Marshal Clarke, one 
of Napoleon's generals, derived his ducal title 
from this place. 

FEMERN, Fehmern, or Fehmarn, an island of 
Prussia, in the province of Schleswig-Holstein, 
separated from Holstein by the Fehmarn sound, 
and from the Danish island of Laaland by the 
Fehmarn belt, 37 m. E. N. E. of Kiel ; area, 
about TO sq. m. ; pop. about 10,000. It is 
accessible only to small boats, owing to the 
shallowness of the sea. The principal pro- 
ducts are grain and peas. There is an active 
trade in woollen hosiery, and a number of the 
inhabitants are also engaged in fishing. Capi- 
tal, Burg or Borg. Femern was taken in 
1420 by King Eric of Denmark, who had all 
the young women slain on the so-called Maiden 
mountain, near the village of Petersdorf. It 
was recovered by the duke of Holstein in 1426. 
The treaty of Flensburg, 1580, gave the island 
to the Gottorp line of dukes, with whom it 
passed to Denmark two centuries afterward. 
Femern was taken by Prussia in March, 1864, 
during the war with Denmark. 

FENCING, the art of attack and defence with 
any weapon but such as cut or break by sheer 
force. The word is, however, understood to 
allude especially to the management of the 
small sword or rapier, and when any other 
arm, such as broadsword, bayonet, or stick, 
is used, the kind of weapon is specified. Fen- 
cing was cultivated by the ancients, as shown 
by the Roman gladiators. During the period 
when suits of armor were worn by combatants, 
battle axes and other ponderous weapons were 
much adopted, and fencing fell into disuse. 
When, however, metal casing was abandoned, 
it came again into vogue. The peculiar state 
of society existing in Italy in the 16th century 
made such knowledge more needed there than 
elsewhere; consequently the Italians became 
the most expert fencers of that epoch, and were 
the teachers of the art to other nations. The 
next country which found the art to be a ne- 
cessity was Spain, whither it was imported 
from Italy. There the art was improved, and 
the amendments were accepted by the Italians. 
From Italy fencing was also imported into 
France, where the court and gentry favored it 
so much* that it quickly took a fresh develop- 
ment, and a new school was established. 
Though the principal object in studying the 
art of fencing is to enable men to wield arms 
with advantage, it is also pursued by many as 
a recreation and an exercise. While it demands 
no violent straining of the muscles, it develops 
in an extraordinary degree the whole physique, 
and imparts the most perfect delicacy of touch, 
with steadiness and lightness of hand. The 


fundamental principle upon which is based the 
defence of the person by means of the small 
sword is a peculiar application of the power 
of the lever, whereby the fencer who parries 
an attack causes the point of his adversary's 
blade to deviate from the direct course, and 
throws it aside from his bo'dy through pressing 
or striking the faible (part near the point) of 
his adversary's weapon by tl\Q forte (part near 
the handle) of his own. The surface of the 
front of the body is, in fencing language, di- 
vided by an imaginary line, horizontal, and 
just below the breast, separating the upper 
from the lower portion ; the upper part is again 
subdivided by a perpendicular line, the right 
of which is termed the outside, the left the in- 
side. There were in the old school eight 
parries, distinguished by the Italian numerals 
primo, secondo, terzo, quarto, &c., from which 
are taken the modern terms prime, seconde, 
tierce, carte, &c. -The instrument adopted for 
exercise is called a foil ; it has a handle similar 
to the small sword, which it is intended to 
'represent ; it has a guard of metal or leather 
between the handle and the blade, which blade 
is of pliant steel, having at the end a button in 
place of a point. The parries are made with 
the weapon itself; the upper part of the body 
to the right is defended by the parry termed 
tierce, the upper part to the left by that termed 
carte, and the lower line by seconde. Of the 
old parries these are the chief; indeed the 
others are nearly obsolete, or used only in cer- 
tain exceptional cases. When the fencer is 
left-handed, the left of his person instead of 
the right is most exposed to his adversary, and 
the parries of carte and tierce are reversed. 
The fencer is expected to depend upon his 
sword hand for protection, rather than upon 
his agility of leg; nevertheless he must be 
quick and active on his legs to be able to ad- 
vance, retreat, or lunge. Thrusts are directed 
solely at the body ; a hit upon a limb can only 
be accidental, and in a fencing school will not 
be counted as a hit. An attack or a riposte 
may be made by the mere extension of the 
arm, or accompanied by a lunge, that is, by 
advancing the body, stepping forward with the 
right foot without moving the left one. An 
engagement means the crossing of the blades. 
A riposte means the attack without pause by 
the fencer who has parried. The early Italian 
and Spanish schools taught the management 
of the sword aided generally by the dagger or 
the mantlet ; the shifting of the position of the 
fencer to the right or left was also called into 
requisition in avoiding an attack. But since 
the habit of wearing the dagger and mantlet 
has been abandoned, and the velocity of attack 
and riposte has become so great that the dag- 
ger and mantlet would be an encumbrance, 
and the shifting of the position would be fatal 
to him who relied upon it, the instruction in 
defence has been confined solely to the foil. 
The Italian foil is long, some 38 to 40 in. ; the 
ancient was longer than the more modern. 



The Italian is also much heavier and less pli- 
ant than the French foil, which is only 34 in. 
in length. The handle has just beneath the 
guard a ring in which the fencer inserts his fore 
and middle fingers to grasp firmly the weapon, 
which is further secured to the hand by a 
bandage ; whereas the French use neither the 
ring nor the bandage. The guard to protect 
the hand is of metal in the Italian foil, and 
very large ; in the French foil it is much small- 
er and lighter. The pure Italian school is in 
vogue only in lower Italy and Sicily, and the 
Neapolitan masters are justly celebrated for 
their adroitness in this particular method. The 
characteristic of the Neapolitan school (which 
more than any other partakes of the old Italian 
and Spanish) is to extend the arm so as con- 
stantly to present the point direct to the ad- 
versary's breast ; the hand is kept in the centre 
of the person at nearly the elevation of the 
shoulder ; the large guard between the handle 
and the blade serves somewhat the purpose of 
a little shield by causing the attacking point to 
glance off the hand of the fencer on the defen- 
sive, slightly bearing to the left or right (carte 
or tierce), according as he finds himself men- 
aced. The arm being already fully extended 
has the tendency to keep an adversary at a 
distance, and also facilitates the lunge of the 
attacker. The fencer can also defend himself 
by a circle parry, which the Neapolitan makes 
by describing with the point a small circle 8 
to 12 in. in diameter, for the purpose of catch- 
ing up an adversary's point which may glide 
away from the engagement under the blade, 
menacing the lower line, or the upper one if it 
complete the disengagement. The Venetian 
school, of those of upper Italy, resembles most 
the Neapolitan ; the Piedmontese is mixed, par- 
taking of the old French and the Neapolitan. 
The Spanish school is a modification of the 
Neapolitan, in which the attack is assisted by 
extraordinary gymnastics of the leg, the fencer 
at times throwing himself nearly on the ground 
and attacking much in the lower line. This, 
like every other peculiarity, when well execu- 
ted, is very embarrassing to one not accustomed 
to it. When the French established a method 
of their own, the deviation from the Italian 
model consisted in the fencer having a less ex- 
tended sword arm, the hand (medium guard) at 
the height of the breast, the elbow slightly bent, 
and the point of the sword at about the height 
of the eye. The knees were a little more bent, 
but the body was kept back as if to get out of 
reach of attack. Among the additions to the 
defence may be especially noted the half circle 
(old style), having the hand about level with 
the shoulder and the point depressed to the 
leight of the waist, protecting the lower line 
to the left (carte), and being consequently the 
opposite of seconde, which bore the adversary's 
blade to the right. A new mode of attack was 
also introduced, termed coupe, or the cutting 
over the point instead of disengaging under 
the blade. Here were also introduced the bat- 

tement or sharp tap preceding an attack, the 
effect of which is to make the person thus at- 
tacked grasp his foil nervously and thus render 
his hand for the moment rigid and unsuited to 
parry with rapidity. The change of engage- 
ment has much the same effect. Some disarms 
were introduced, but they are practically use- 
less except when the hit is given by the same 
blow, for an adversary who is seen to be dis- 
armed cannot be touched. Lafaugere intro- 
duced the couronnement, which was made by 
raising the hand instantly after the parry (carte 
or tierce), and with the forte of one's own blade 
mastering the faible of the adversary's, then 
(as the latter in this situation tries to close 
the line of the riposte) turning or sliding the 
blade round it without quitting it, and deliver- 
ing the riposte in the opposite line to that of 
the parry. The half-circle parry of Bertrand is 
made with the nails upward, the hand at the 
height and to the right of the forehead, the arm 
more than half extended, the point very slight- 
ly depressed and projecting leftward about as 
far as the line of the left shoulder, rather but 
not completely in the direction of the adver- 
sary. The blade in this parry catches up the 
attacking foil and exposes the entire body of 
the attacker to a riposte, which comes with 
incredible velocity, the point after the half- 
circle parry being very near to the breast of 
the opponent. The instruction for the small 
sword is the basis of the attack and defence 
with every other weapon ; nevertheless almost 
every attack and parry with the broadsword 
is the reverse of those with the small sword. 
Instead of having the point further out than 
the hand on the side of the guard, the blade 
is kept across the body ; instead of the touch 
being the guide, the eye principally directs the 
movements ; instead of piercing with the point, 
the hit consists of a cut with the blade. The 
cut can be given as a blow, or with a light hand, 
which makes it razor fashion. There are also 
circle parries called moulinets, whereby the 
man who parries swings round his sword, de- 
scribing a complete circle with the point, and 
having his own wrist as the pivot for the 
movement. The use of the broadsword on 
horseback is but a variation of its application 
by a combatant on foot; the horseman is 
obliged to protect his horse as well as himself. 
Heavy cavalry are armed with long heavy 
swords, and hit heavily. The Turks have 
curved scymitars and adopt the razor cut ; they 
also use swords weighted at the extremity, 
whereby they combine together the blow and 
the razor cut. The Germans have a long sword 
which they (students especially) manoeuvre 
with an extended arm ; it may be regarded 
as the Neapolitan school applied to the broad- 
sword. The bayonet at the end of the musket 
is, when employed by a line of soldiers, a very 
formidable weapon; but on account of the 
leverage it offers it is of little use to an isolated 
man, unless to defend himself against a mount- 
ed dragoon. The motion of the bayonets in 



line (the stock of the musket grasped by the 
right hand and the barrel steadied by the left) 
should be straight forward; any attempt to 
parry by leverage right or left would only 
cause a point to glance from one man into 
some other. The foot soldier isolated can parry 
head or body cuts and thrusts from sabre or 
lance, and can riposte by jerking forward or 
right or left the point, striking the horse if he 
miss the rider. Certain modern bayonets used 
for the rifle corps are very long, with a view 
to compensate in a measure for the short- 
ness of the firearms at the end of which they 
are fixed. Such bayonets have besides their 
point an edge wherewith to cut. The lance is 
utterly worthless, except for cavalry, by whom 
it can be most efficiently employed in pursuing 
a routed foe; its use as a fencing weapon, 
therefore, requires little explanation. The 
knife or dagger requires quickness of hand and 
eye. The blow can be given by striking down- 
ward, straight forward, or upward ; in the two 
latter cases the weapon is shifted from the 
ordinary grasp of the handle, so that the pom- 
mel rests in the palm of the hand and the stab 
is given with ease and force. The Spanish 
colonists employ their hats held in their left 
hands as shields, and also to, mask the attack, 
concealing the knife behind the hat. The stick 
is a formidable weapon used to inflict'blows, as 
with the broadsword ; the ferrule end can as 
a point be most effectually driven into the face 
of an adversary. The quarterstaff is out of 
use ; it was held in the middle and used not 
only in striking but in thrusting, when one end 
was suddenly driven forward like a bayonet. 
In 1536 Marozzo of Venice published the first 
work on the subject. Other works are : Thi- 
bault, Academic de Vepee (Paris, 1628) ; Meyer, 
Kunst des Fechtens (1670) ; La Boissiere IJArt 
des armes (Paris, 1815) ; Otto, System der 
Fechtkunst (Olmiitz 1852); Linsingen, Hand- 
~buch des BajonnetfecJitens (Hanover, 1854); 
J. Hewitt, " Ancient Armors and Weapons in 
Europe" (Oxford, 1855); G. B. McOlellan, 
" Manual of Bayonet Exercise " (Philadelphia, 
1856); G. Patten, "Infantry Drill and Sabre 
Exercise " (New York, 1861). 

FENELON, Bertrand de Salignac, marquis de 
la Mothe, a French diplomatist, died in 1589. 
After having served with distinction in the 
army, he was ambassador to England at the 
time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and 
was charged by Charles IX. to endeavor to ap- 
pease the resentment of Elizabeth. The most 
important of his numerous writings are : Me- 
moires touchant V Angleterre et la Suisse, ou 
Sommaire de la negotiation en 1571 ; Nego- 
tiations de la Mothe Fenelon et de Michel, sieur 
de Mauvissiere, en Angleterre, containing some 
curious correspondence between Catharine de' 
Medici and her son Charles IX. relating to 
Queen Elizabeth, Mary queen of Scots, and 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew ; and Depeches 
de M. de la Mothe Fenelon. These were pub- 
lished in theMemoires of Castelnau. 

FENELON. I. Francois de Salignac de la Mothe, 

or Lamotte, a French prelate and author, born 
at the chateau of Fenelon, in Perigord, Aug. 6, 
1651, died in Cambrai, Jan. 7, 1715. He was 
the son of Pons de Salignac, count de la Mothe 
Fenelon, and a 'nephew of the marquis de 
Fenelon, under whose care he received much of 
his education. At the age of 12 he was sent to 
the university of Cahors, and a few years later 
he removed to Paris in order to complete his 
course of philosophy in the college of Plessis. 
He next entered the theological seminary of 
St. Sulpice, under the direction of the abb6 
Tronson, and about 1675 received holy orders. 
He wished at first to devote himself to foreign 
missions, but this design was overruled ; and 
after three years passed as a preacher and cate- 
chist at the church of St. Sulpice, he was ap- 
pointed by the archbishop of Paris superior 
of the society of Nouvelles Catholiques, estab- 
lished for the instruction of female converts. 
Meanwhile he cultivated the friendship of the 
abbe" Fleury and of Bossuet, bishop of Meaux, 
and was a frequent guest at the brilliant re- 
unions which took place at the bishop's coun- 
try seat. The distinguished society into which 
he was thus thrown, the charm of his manners, 
and his eloquence in the pulpit, soon drew him 
into public notice. To enable him to meet his 
expenses, one of his uncles, the bishop of Sar- 
lat, gave him a small living at which he was 
not required to reside permanently. It yielded 
him 3,000 francs a year, much of which he 
spent upon the poor, and this until 1694 was 
his only income. His first public service was 
in the capacity of missionary to the Protestants 
in Saintonge and Poitou, after the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes. He was presented to 
Louis XIV. by Bossuet, and the only favor he 
asked of the king in accepting the office was 
that no violence should be used within the field 
of his mission. Aided by the abbes de Lan- 
geron and Fleury, but still more by his own 
mild and amiable character, he succeeded in 
winning over large numbers of the Protestants, 
and soon tranquillized a population whom per- 
secution had roused to a dangerous excitement. 
After his return to Paris in 1 689 Louis appointed 
him preceptor to his grandsons, the dukes of 
Burgundy, Anjou, and Berry. For their use 
Fenelon composed "Dialogues of the Dead," 
"Directions for the Conscience of a King," 
" Abridgment of the Lives of Ancient Philoso- 
phers," and the "Adventures of Telemachus." 
The success with which he discharged his im- 
portant and delicate trust gained him for some 
time neither praise nor pecuniary reward. 
Louis, though not blind to his merit, was never 
his friend ; but Mme. de Maintenon had long 
been one of his warmest admirers, and it was 
probably through her influence that he received 
in 1 694 the rich abbacy of St. Valery. Toward 
the close of this year he drafted the famous 
anonymous letter to the king, setting forth the 
disorders and abuses of his reign, which was 
first published by D'Alembert, and whose au- 

thenticity, after much dispute, was settled by 
the discovery of the original MS. in 1825. It 
is not probable that Louis suspected the au- 
thor, for in the following February he nomina- 
ted Fe"nelon to the archbishopric of Cambrai. 
The ceremony of consecration was performed 
in the chapel of St. Cyr, July 10, 1695, but the 
new prelate retained his connection with his 
pupils, with whom it was arranged that he 
should pass three months of every year. Hon- 
ored by the king, beloved by the young princes, 
esteemed and consulted by the most influential 
person of the court, and holding high stations 
in the church and the palace, he was now at 
the height of his prosperity ; but his disgrace 
was already preparing. With a natural ten- 
dency to all that is mild and spiritual in reli- 
gion, he had long felt a sympathy for the doc- 
trines of Mme. Guyon, whose system of " qui- 
etism " was attracting a large share of attention 
at court, and had gained proselytes in the king's 
household. She was charged with heresy, and 
demanded a commission to inquire into the 
matter. Bossuet, the bishop of Chalons, and 
Tronson were appointed. Besides the writings 
of Mme. Guyon, the commission was obliged to 
investigate what Fenelon was daily writing and 
preaching on the subject, perhaps with the in- 
tention of turning upon himself the condem- 
nation that was threatening his friend. F6ne- 
lon was so humble in his intercourse with the 
commission, that his judges, though startled at 
his errors, would urge nothing against him. 
These conferences had lasted nearly a year, and 
it was necessary to put an end to them. Bos- 
suet and his two colleagues agreed upon a se- 
ries of articles which should settle the matter ; 
and making a sort of formulary, they invited 
Fenelon to subscribe to it. He hesitated for a 
long time, but at last acceded to the demands 
of the prelates. During the interval of editing 
and signing the formulary, Fe"nelon was called 
to the archbishopric of Cambrai, and after his 
consecration occurred between him and Bos- 
suet that celebrated controversy which forms 
almost an epoch in French literature. As 
Archbishop F6nelon assumed a more decided 
tone, Bossuet explained the articles of the 
formulary in an abridged report of the previous 
conferences, and asked Fenelon to give this 
book, entitled Instructions sur les etats d'orai- 
son, his ecclesiastical approbation, as the other 
two prelates of the commission had done. 
Fenelon refused ; he would not even read the 
book ; and from this refusal dates the literary 
war between these two great prelates. F6ne- 
lon published his famous book, Maximes des 
saints. Bossuet denounced him to the court 
as a fanatic ; the king struck his name from the 
list of preceptors to the royal family, and or- 
dered him to retire to his diocese ; Mme. de 
Maintenon withdrew her favor, and his friend- 
ship for Mme. Guyon was even made a theme 
for the grossest calumnies. He sent the ob- 
noxious book to Rome, where Louis used all 
his influence to obtain its condemnation. Af- 


ter a delay of nine months Innocent XII. pro- 
nounced a mild censure of the Maximes des 
saints, but addressed at the same time to cer- 
tain prelates who had been most severe in their 
attacks on the author the following caustic re- 
buke : Peccamt excessu amoris divini, sed vos 
peccastis defectu amoris proximi (" He has 
sinned through excess of love of God, but you 
have sinned through lack of love for your 
neighbor"). Immediately on receiving the 
sentence, in March, 1699, Fenelon hastened to 
declare his submission, and to publish the con- 
demnation of his own book in a mandatory 
letter. In the following month his Aventures 
de Telemaque, which had hitherto remained in 
manuscript, was given to the world by the dis- 
honesty of a servant who had been employed 
to have the work copied, but who sold it to a 
bookseller without disclosing the author's name. 
The king having been told that it was from the 
pen of the archbishop of Cambrai, and probably 
sharing a suspicion then current that the book 
was designed as a satire on the court, took 
measures to suppress it. A few copies escaped 
seizure, and an imperfect edition was printed 
in Holland in 1699, and others followed rapidly. 
This event destroyed all hope of restoration to 
royal favor, and for the rest of his life F6nelon 
devoted himself exclusively to the affairs of his 
diocese and to literary pursuits. It was now 
that his character was seen in its brightest light. 
He visited the peasants in their cottages, shared 
their humble fare, heard their complaints, re- 
lieved their wants, and made his palace an 
asylum for the unfortunate. His charities were 
enormous. When his diocese was traversed by 
hostile armies during the war of the Spanish 
succession, he was allowed to pass unhindered 
through the ranks of the enemy on his errands 
of benevolence. He founded the theological 
seminary of Cambrai, and devoted himself to 
the instruction of the clergy. When his pupil 
the duke of Burgundy became dauphin by the 
death of his father, he addressed to him a 
"Plan of Government," proposing the estab- 
lishment of states general and provincial, with 
many reforms in public administration ; and 
had the prince lived to reign, it is thought that 
Fenelon would have been his prime minister. 
The archbishop did not long survive his pupil. 
Of the excellence of Fenelon's best work, 
the "Adventures of Telemachus," no better 
proof could he given than its general and last- 
ing popularity. Hallam denies it the high char- 
acter of an epic, but gives it the first place 
among classical romances. t It has been trans- 
lated into nearly all European languages, and 
has been turned into verse in English, Latin, 
Greek, &c. His controversial writings, which 
comprise works against the Jansenists and Gal- 
licans, on quietism, &c., are distinguished by 
an unwonted preference of individual Christian 
experience to the testimony of the traditions 
of the church, and Catholic critics stigmatize 
them as chimerical. His spiritual works, a 
collection of which (CEuvres spirituelles, 5 vols. 



12mo) appeared at Amsterdam in 1731, are 
used by persons of all denominations. His ser- 
mons (12mo, 1744), written during his youth, 
hold no very high place among productions of 
their kind, though not without eloquent pas- 
sages. Among his other works are: Traite 
de Veducation desfilles (12mo, 1687), written 
at the request of the duchess de Beauvilliers ; 
Traite du ministere des pasteurs (1688); De- 
monstration de V existence de Dieu (1713), after 
" Telemachus " his longest and most important 
work ; and Dialogues sur I* eloquence en general, 
et sur celle de la chaire en particulier, with a 
Lettre sur la rhetorique et la poesie, addressed 
to the French academy (1718). An edition 
appeared at Paris in 1787-92 (9 vols. 4tc), at 
the cost of the assembly of the clergy of France, 
but does not contain the Maximes des saints, 
the Mandements, nor the writings on Jansen- 
ism and quietism. The best editions of Fene- 
lon's complete works are those by Gosselin and 
Caron (34 vols., Versailles and Paris, 1820-'30), 
Adrien Leclere (38 vols., Paris, 1827-'30), and 
the abbe Gosselin (10 vols. large 8vo, Lille, 
1852). The best editions of his literary works 
are Didier's (Paris, 1861) and Ducrocq's (1862) ; 
of his philosophical works, Charpentier's (Paris, 
1843) and Hachette's (1860) - and that of his 
educational works, Didot's (Paris, 1850). Of the 
English translations of " Telemachus," the most 
esteemed is that of John Hawkesworth, LL. D. 
(4to, London, 1768, and 12mo, New York, 1859). 
His life has been written by the 'chevalier 
Ramsay (the Hague, 1723), his grand-nephew 
Francois Louis, marquis de la Mothe-Fenelon 
(1747), Y. M. de Querbeuf (published with the 
Paris edition of 1787-'92), Cardinal Bausset (3 
vols. 8vo, Paris, 1808-' 9 ; translated into Eng- 
lish by Mudford, London, 1810, and abridged 
by Charles Butler, 1810), Lemaire (Paris, 1826), 
Celarier (Paris, 1844), Villemain, Lamartine, 
&c. The Histoire litteraire de Fenelon, ou 
Revue Jiistorique et analytique de ses ozuvres, by 
the abb6 Gosselin, appeared in 1843. II. Fran- 
c.ois de Salignac de la Mothe, a French missionary, 
half brother of the preceding, born in 1641, died 
in 1679. He entered the congregation of St. Sul- 
pice, and was sent to Canada in 1667. He was 
soon after missionary to some Cayuga Indians 
who had settled on Quint e bay, 'Canada, and 
founded an establishment for Indian children. 
During the collision between church and state 
he preached a sermon at Montreal in 1674, for 
which the count de Frontenac arrested him and 
brought him to Quebec. Fenelon refused to 
recognize the governor's authority or to remove 
his hat, on which Frontenac sent him out of the 
colony to France. The identity of names and 
profession led Hennepin to confound the two 
brothers, and some American writers have thus 
bewi led to believe that the author of " Tele- 
maehus " was a missionary in New York. 

FENELON, Gabriel Jacques de Salignac, marquis 
de la Mothe, a French soldier and diplomatist, 
nephew of the preceding, born in 1688, killed 
in battle, Oct. 11, 1746. In 1724 he was ap- 


pointed ambassador to Holland, and in 1728 
represented France at the congress of Soissons. 
In 1733 he negotiated a treaty of neutrality 
with the states of Holland. In 1738 he was 
made lieutenant general, and served under 
Marshal Saxe. He was mortally wounded at 
the battle of Raucoux. He wrote Memoires 
diplomatiques, and published the first complete 
edition of Les aventures de Telemaque, with a 
dedicatory epistle (2 vols., 1717). 

FENIANS, a political association having for 
its aim the independence of Ireland. The 
name is derived from the Fionna or Fianna, 
an Irish militia or home guard organized in the 
3d century, and commanded by Fionn or Finn, 
who is said to be the Fingal of Ossian. He 
was slain in battle in 283, and the Fianna 
under his grandson Osgar were practically an- 
nihilated during a civil strife in 296. We 
shall here treat of the acts of the various or- 
ganizations in Great Britain and the United 
States, designated under the local names of 
the "Phoenix Society," "Irish Revolutionary 
Brotherhood" (I. R. B.), "Fenian Brother- 
hood," and " Nationalists," but better known as 
Fenians. The Fenian brotherhood was found- 
ed in New York in 1857 by Michael Doheny, 
John O'Mahony, and Michael Corcoran, subse- 
quently a brigadier general in the Union army. 
At the same time a kindred organization al- 
ready existing in Ireland, under the name of 
the Phoenix society, was developed into large 
proportions by James Stephens, the funds for 
its maintenance being sent over from New 
York. Stephens came to America in 1858, 
reported the existence of 35,000 enrolled and 
disciplined followers, and solicited further aid. 
At a meeting of the "friends of Ireland," 
called in New York, a fund was raised, and 
the Fenian brotherhood was formally organ- 
ized under John O'Mahony as president. Just 
then several members of Phoenix clubs were 
arrested in Ireland ; and this incident, reveal- 
ing to Stephens the existence of traitors in his 
own ranks and the watchfulness of the British 
government, compelled him to adopt a course 
of caution and temporary inaction. But the 
occurrence gave a great impulse to the Fenian 
cause in America ; one of its consequences being 
the organization of the first " Phoenix " regi- 
ment in the United States, Col. Corcoran's 
69th New York national guard, which refused 
to parade at the visit of the prince of Wales in 
1860. Stephens, who had taken up his abode 
in Paris, with large funds at his disposal, was 
buoyed up by the certainty that his supporters 
in America were hourly increasing. In Ire- 
land his subordinates covered the provinces 
with a network of clubs, which met secretly 
to drill. In 1860 O'Mahony visited Ireland, 
inspected the most important districts, and 
held a meeting of the Fenian leaders in Dublin, 
at which definite plans of action were agreed 
upon. Stephens forthwith returned to Ireland, 
and O'Mahony to the United States, the or- 
ganization receiving from their presence a new 



impulse in both countries. The Fenian broth- 
erhood, when O'Mahony was first placed at its 
head, numbered 40 members, all in New York 
city ; it now extended its ramifications all over 
the United States, and even into British America 
and Australia, while in Great Britain it estab- 
lished " circles " wherever Irishmen were to 
be found. Stephens divided his followers into 
four classes : A, colonels, in command of battal- 
ions ; B, captains, commanding companies of 
100 men ; 0, sergeants, at the head of 20 men ; 
D, privates. " Unreserved obedience to orders, 
absolute discretion in communicating with out- 
siders, and active zeal in extending the organ- 
ization," were the main principles inculcated 
on all. Catholics in Ireland were prohibited 
by law from possessing firearms ; hence one of 
the great difficulties of carrying out any ag- 
gressive movement. But smithies for the man- 
ufacture of pikes were stealthily established in 
many places. This deficiency of firearms, and 
the want of preconcerted action among the 
leaders, combined with other reasons, caused 
the failure of the enterprise in Ireland. In 
the United States up to 1863 the Fenian or- 
ganization was but little known and less un- 
derstood. Americans saw men assembling by 
night, and quietly drilling ; but they were con- 
founded with the military organizations every- 
where existing, and were supposed to be made 
up of working men who could meet for drill 
at no other time. The " circles " established 
in all American cities furnished not a few regi- 
ments at the commencement of the civil war. 
After the first battle of Bull Run, and the re- 
turn to New York of the 69th regiment, the 
"Irish Brigade " under Thomas Francis Meagher 
was formed ; the movement was imitated else- 
where, even in the south, and the Fenian ele- 
ment was active in filling up the ranks of 
volunteer regiments. "When in 1862 Michael 
Corcoran was liberated from a southern prison, 
his prominent position as a Fenian leader served 
not a little to draw the organization into the 
Union ranks, with, the ulterior hope of using 
the military experience thus acquired in the 
cause of Ireland. This raised the hopes of 
Stephens and his confederates in Ireland. Early 
in 1863, T. 0. Luby, one of the Irish leaders, 
came to America, and not only visited in com- 
pany with O'Mahony the principal Fenian cen- 
tres in the United States, but was allowed to 
penetrate the lines of the Union army, and to 
hold meetings at the headquarters of Irish regi- 
ments. This tour raised on both sides of the 
Atlantic expectations of speedy success. On 
3, 1863, the American organization, or 
Fenian brotherhood, held its first "national 
congress " in Chicago, the delegates represent- 
ing 15.000 enrolled Fenians, one half of whom 
were in the Union army. This assembly pro- 
claimed the Fenian brotherhood to be strictly 
in accordance with the laws of the United 
States, ignored partisan politics and differences 
in religion, and declared the Irish people to be 
a distinct nationality, with James Stephens as 

its head, to whom, with central officers elected 
by an annual congress, state officers elected by 
state organizations, and " centres " elected by 
circles, the direction of affairs should be in- 
trusted. A grand fair, ostensibly for the re- 
lief of Irish sufferers, but in reality to aid the 
Fenian brotherhood, was held in Chicago at 
the close of this congress, and contributed a 
large amount to the treasury. The cause had 
hitherto had no official organ in Ireland. Im- 
mediately on his return to that country, how- 
ever, was published the first number of the 
" Irish People " in Dublin, Nov. 28, 1863. The 
bold utterances of this sheet caused the police 
to watch every movement at the various cen- 
tres of Fenian activity. On Feb. 23, 1864, a 
riot occurred at a public meeting in the Rotun- 
da, Dublin, in which Mr. A. M. Sullivan, who 
had openly attacked the "I. R. B.," was, to- 
gether with his adherents, " the national party," 
ejected by the Fenians. The numbers of the 
latter, and the perfect discipline with which 
they acted in their attack on the opposing fac- 
tion, were a revelation to the authorities, while 
the victory itself was to the friends of Ireland 
prophetic of the dissensions destined to mar 
every attempt at revolution. Stephens again 
returned to the United States in March, 1864, 
and visited the different corps of the Union 
armies, under the pseudonyme of Captain Daly. 
The prudence and secrecy which always char- 
acterized the movements of this leader found 
but few imitators among his followers. The 
bravado with which the Irish press in America 
and the " Irish People " in Dublin spoke of 
the near liberation of Ireland, and the enthu- 
siasm expressed by the Irish masses at home 
and abroad, served the British government 
effectively. Stephens left New York at the 
end of July, his presence having given an 
extraordinary impulse to the spread of the 
brotherhood. When the second Fenian con- 
gress assembled in Cincinnati, Jan. 17; 1865, 
the circles had increased five fold, and the 
financial receipts exceeded the total of the 
seven previous years. A report from an agent 
sent to Ireland stated that the masses were desi- 
rous of revolution, and that the middle classes, 
though hesitating, would in extremity act with 
the patriots. The surrender of the confeder- 
ate armies and the disbandment of the Union 
forces left free those Irish officers and soldiers 
on whom were centred mainly the expectations 
of the revolutionists. Many of these officers 
now went to Great Britain; and about this 
time disaffection began to spread among the 
Irish troops in the British service. It was no 
longer a secret that the " Fenian conspiracy " 
had its ramifications all over Great Britain as 
well as Ireland. On Sept. 8 a proclamation 
from Stephens was circulated among the circles 
in Ireland, announcing that the time for action 
had come. " I speak with a knowledge and 
authority to which no other man could pre- 
tend," he says, in concluding; "the flag of 
Ireland, of the Irish republic, must this year 



be raised ! " But every purpose and act of 
Stephens was made known to the British gov- 
ernment. On the night of Sept. 15 a squad 
of the Dublin police suddenly seized the of- 
fice of the " Irish People," taking into custo- 
dy Jeremiah O'Donovan-Rossa, the registered 
proprietor, and several of the editorial staff 
and other employees, among whom was Pierce 
Nagle, who turned crown witness at the sub- 
sequent trial. Another squad arrested Thomas 
0. Luby, the chief editor, at his residence, cap- 
turing among other documents a letter ad- 
dressed to " Miss Frazer," but which in reality 
was an official document signed by James 
Stephens appointing a committee of three to 
govern "the home organization," with the 
same supreme authority hitherto exercised by 
himself. There were resolutions also from the 
brotherhood in America, signed by O'Mahony, 
formally recognizing Stephens as the chief 
executive and head of the Irish republic. The 
next day appeared two proclamations from 
the viceroy, Lord Wodehouse. The first an- 
nounced the existence of "the Fenian con- 
spiracy," and offered a reward of 200 for the 
apprehension of James Stephens ; the second 
declared military law in the city and county 
of Cork, and offered another reward of 200 
for the apprehension of one Geary. Simul- 
taneously with the arrests in Dublin, which 
continued daily for several weeks, others were 
made in different parts of Ireland. In England, 
at the same time, several leading Fenians were 
arrested in Liverpool, Manchester, and other 
cities. On an American steamer landing at 
Queenstown, 0. U. O'Connell, an aide-de-camp 
of O'Mahony, was taken into custody, and upon 
him were found papers incriminating many 
persons. The utmost energy was displayed by 
the British authorities ; vessels of war were 
despatched to the principal seaports, and a 
cordon of gunboats surrounded the Irish 
coasts. Stephens, under the name of James 
Herbert, had occupied a villa near Dublin, 
where on the night of Nov. 11 he with three 
others was arrested by the police. He was 
committed to prison, whence he escaped on 
the 24th of the same month, and finally 
reached France. Bills of exchange in large 
amounts from the Fenian treasury in New 
York to the Irish leaders had fallen into the 
hands of the government. No sooner had 
tidings of this reached the United States than 
the " central council of the Fenian brother- 
hood," sitting in New York, summoned the 
third congress, which assembled in Phila- 
delphia, Oct. 18. During its sitting, P. J. 
Meehan, editor of the " Irish American," and 
accredited agent to the brotherhood in Ire- 
laud, returned, and reported the home organi- 
zation as " powerful, the management master- 
ly, and the position solid," and this at the 
very moment when the Irish revolutionists 
were utterly helpless. To this congress 350 
circles, representing 30 states, sent deputies, 
and among the circles those styled "army and 

navy " had 14,620 members. This session of 
the third congress authorized the establish- 
ment of a " Fenian sisterhood," which spread 
rapidly, and proved a successful auxiliary in 
raising funds. It also adopted a new constitu- 
tion, creating a president, secretaries of depart- 
ments, a senate and house of representatives, 
and authorized the issue of bonds of the Irish 
republic. A deputation from this "conven- 
tion of Irish- American citizens " obtained from 
President Johnson the release from Fortress 
Monroe of John Mitchel, who had been con- 
fined as a prisoner of state. He was des- 
patched to Europe as the accredited agent of 
the brotherhood, and bore with him a large 
surn of money in aid of the struggle in Ireland. 
After the adjournment of this congress public 
offices were opened in New York, and the 
issue and sale of bonds were actively carried 
on for some time. But a fatal dissension now 
manifested itself between O'Mahony and the 
newly created senate. Meanwhile events in 
Ireland were hurrying onward. The special 
commission to try the Fenian prisoners com- 
menced in Dublin Nov. 27. O'Donovan-Rossa 
was sentenced to penal servitude for life, and 
Luby and O'Leary for 20 years. The judges 
then proceeded to Cork, where similar punish- 
ments were dealt out. In the mean time the 
rupture in New York between O'Mahony, who 
had been created president of the whole broth- 
erhood, and the majority of the senate, had been 
gradually widening. He and his friends wished 
to operate in Ireland, while the senate favored 
the scheme of an armed expedition into Cana- 
da, and henceforth were designated by their op- 
ponents as the Canada party. On Jan. 2, 1866, 
the fourth Fenian congress assembled in New 
York. More than 400 delegates attended from 
Canada, Australia, and all parts of the United 
States. The old constitution was restored and 
O'Mahony reinstated as head centre. These 
proceedings were accepted by a military con- 
vention held in New York, Feb. 22 ; but the 
hope of a permanent reconciliation soon ended 
in a worse misunderstanding. The sentences 
pronounced in Ireland on the prisoners did not 
seem to damp the courage of the Fenians. On 
Feb. 24 Lord Wodehouse wrote to the Eng- 
lish home secretary that as many as 500 Irish- 
men from America, " thoroughly reckless, and 
possessed of considerable military experience," 
were known to be engaged in swearing in 
members throughout the country; adding: 
"The disaffection of the population is alarm- 
ing, and is day by day spreading more and 
more through every part of the country." 
Parliament on Feb. 17 suspended the habeas 
corpus act. A large number of arrests were 
made in Dublin, and before the end of March 
670 persons had been taken into custody, the 
number reaching 756 at the accession of the 
Derby ministry in July. The excitement of 
the Irish element in America became uncon- 
trollable. Meetings were held in the chief 
cities, and the central office in New York was 



urged to immediate action. O'Mahony was at 
length formally impeached and deposed by the 
senate, and Col. William R. Roberts was elected 
in his stead. While Roberts was preparing 
to move on Canada, O'Mahony was induced 
to consent to an attempt to occupy the island 
of Campo Bello, New Brunswick. A steamer 
was purchased in New York early in April 
for the purpose of carrying arms to Eastport, 
Maine, a few miles from Campo Bello. The 
command of the expedition was assumed by 
Major B. Doran Killian. Five hundred men 
quietly gathered at Eastport, and awaited the 
arrival of the steamer with the arms. But 
O'Mahony, who was still recognized as presi- 
dent by a portion of the Fenians, had counter- 
manded the sailing of the steamer, and order- 
ed the New York Fenians at Boston to return 
home. From Portland was now sent a schooner 
with 750 stand of arms, the offering of Fenian 
sympathizers ; but the arms were seized by the 
United States authorities, and Gen. Meade hav- 
ing arrived and telegraphed for troops, the Fe- 
nians dispersed and made their way home as 
best they could. On May 10 Stephens arrived 
in New York, apparently confident that both 
parties would yield to his leadership. O'Ma- 
hony, in order to facilitate a reunion, gave in 
his resignation, which was accepted, and Major 
Killian was removed from his command. The 
Roberts party immediately came to an issue 
with Stephens on the proposed invasion of 
Canada. This Stephens decidedly opposed, 
urging that all present efforts should be to raise 
money for the purpose of helping " the men in 
the gap" in Ireland. These men, he said, 
numbering hundreds of thousands, needed only 
money to win their independence. All this 
while both factions continued bitterly to assail 
each other's motives and acts. Under the mil- 
itary direction of Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny, 
an officer of the American army, the Roberts 
party began to act about the middle of May. 
On the 19th 1,200 stand of arms were seized 
at Rouse's Point, near the Canadian frontier, 
by the United States custom-house officers. 
From the 29th to the 31st bodies of Fenians 
from various points of the west and southwest 
moved toward Canada, and a new seizure of 
anus was made at St. Albans on the 30th by 
the United States authorities. The Canadian 
government put the entire militia of the west- 
ern provinces under arms, and they took the 
field under Sir John Mitchell, while companies 
of volunteers and regulars were sent to the 
various threatened points. On June 1, 1,200 
or 1,500 Fenians under Col. O'Neil crossed the 
Niagara river at Buffalo and took possession of 
an unoccupied work called Fort Erie. On the 
M they were attacked at a place called Lime- 
Ridge, and held their position, losing 
several killed and wounded and many prison- 

They withdrew the same night, and TOO 
iv (.TO intercepted by the United States gunboat 
ICichigan. Subsequently Gen. Barry, in com- 
mand of the frontier, paroled 1,500 upen their 

316 VOL. vii. 9 

promising to return to their homes, and to de- 
sist in future from any violation of the neutral- 
ity laws; the officers being required to give 
bail to appear and answer when required for 
an infraction of the laws. The Fenians con- 
tinued to pour into Buffalo, but were ordered 
back by their commanding officers. Along the 
frontier of Vermont Gen. Meade concentrated 
a large force of United States troops. The 
president issued a proclamation of neutrality, 
and gave orders for the arrest of the Fenian 
leaders. On June Y Gen. Sweeny and his staff 
were arrested in St. Albans, Roberts in New 
York, and several others in Buffalo. Roberts 
having refused to give parole or bail, was de- 
tained in jail for several days, and then released. 
During this period large sums of money were 
contributed ; and the proposed rising in Ireland 
was made the occasion of a " final call " for 
funds, issued Aug. 25, 1865. From that date 
up to April, 1866, the sum of $250,000 was 
contributed by the Fenian brotherhood, of 
which the British government intercepted 
$42,000, and $3,500 were lost by an agent in 
Ireland. To counteract the effect of these 
disasters Stephens pledged his word that there 
should be a fight in Ireland within the coining 
year. In September Roberts summoned a 
congress in Troy, which was numerously at- 
tended. The case of Col. R. B. Lynch and a 
priest named McMahon, who had been taken 
prisoners at Limestone Ridge, tried, and con- 
demned to death, served for a time to keep alive 
public attention in the United States; but 
through the good offices of the American gov- 
ernment, these sentences were commuted. In 
December Stephens called a meeting of Fenian 
centres in New York, in which future plans of" 
action in Ireland were discussed. He was op- 
posed to any overt attempt under present cir- 
cumstances ; and to convince his followers that 
his advice was not the result of personal fear, 
he professed his readiness to go at once to, Eng- 
land and allow the British authorities to do 
their worst upon him. But while rejecting 
this offer, the party of action would not accede 
to their chief's prudent counsels. About- 50 
persons were sent, in conformity with the 
promise of another rising wrung from Stephens, 
as "commissaries" to Great Britain; among 
them were the two "centres" Kelly and Dea- 
sy, and Godfrey Massey. The invasion of Can- 
ada, the publicity, given in America to the de- 
signs of the Fenian leaders, the agitation fos- 
tered on both sides of the Atlantic on the occa- 
sion of the condemnation to death of Lynch 
and McMahon, and above all the exact infor- 
mation obtained by the British authorities from 
agents in the Fenian ranks, caused a second 
suspension of the habeas corpus act, Aug. 10. 
A reward of 2,000 was offered in November 
for the apprehension of Stephens, said to be on 
his way to Ireland ; fresh regiments were sent 
to the latter country ; and 97 leading emissa- 
ries of the brotherhood were arrested and im- 
prisoned under the viceroy's warrant. . It there- 



fore behooved Massey and his confederates to 
be wary. Having resolved to make England 
the principal field of action, they established a 
" central directory " of 15 members in London, 
while subordinate directories were formed in 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, 
and Glasgow. Massey, after making a tour of 
inspection in Ireland, reported the organization 
there to be so numerous and well appointed 
that a rising was forthwith resolved upon, and 
a plan of campaign adopted. The castle of 
Chester was garrisoned by a company belong- 
ing to an Irish regiment, and in it was stored a 
considerable quantity of arms and ammunition. 
A plan was formed to seize these, and the llth 
of February was fixed upon for its execution. 
On the 10th the directory met in Liverpool to 
arrange the last details for the morrow's opera- 
tions. At midnight the magistrates of Liver- 
pool were fully informed of everything by one 
Congdon, who exhibited a commission in the 
Union army and another in the Fenian service. 
In less than half an hour the mayor of Chester 
was warned of his danger, and he hastened to 
post a strong body of men in the castle. From 
2-J- A. M. every train arriving in Chester brought 
many Fenians, until their number reached some 
1,200 at 4^- P. M. At that hou? a company of 
regular troops arrived from Manchester, and a 
regiment of the guards was promised from Lon- 
don. Numbers of special constables had mean- 
while been sworn in and armed. The Fenians 
saw they had been betrayed, and after some fu- 
tile demonstrations dispersed under cover of 
night. It was now impossible for the directory 
to countermand in time the simultaneous rising 
in Ireland, where the government had also been 
informed of everything, and had taken pre- 
cautionary measures. Killarney had been cho- 
sen as the centre of Fenian operations in the 
south, and Capt. O'Connor was intrusted with 
the command. But at noon on Feb. 12 the 
frigate Gladiator, at anchor in Valentia bay, 
landed her marines to protect and assist the 
coast guard. At the same hour Capt. Moriarty 
was taken prisoner, and a body of 800 Fenians 
were dispersed without any serious resistance. 
Another large body withdrew into the Toomies 
mountains, but fled before the advance of the 
military. The attack on Chester castle and 
this rising in the south of Ireland were, in the 
conception of the directory, only preliminaries 
to a general insurrectionary movement through- 
out Ireland, which was to take place on March 
5. This, it was commonly believed, was the 
day fixed in Canada for the execution of 
Fenian prisoners. But on March 3 Godfrey 
Massey, who had come over from England 
with final instructions, was taken prisoner at 
Limerick station. He divulged to the British 
government everything pertaining to the pres- 
ent plans and organization of the Fenian body, 
and its history. However, on the 5th the ri- 
sing took place in Dublin, in accordance with 
the orders issued by the leaders. After dark, 
along every road which led from the capital 

and the neighboring towns to Tullaght hill, 
numerous bodies of men were seen advancing 
in silence, and arming themselves at certain 
places on their way. A band of mounted po- 
licemen attacked and drove back a column of 
several hundred Fenians, who in the darkness, 
unaware of the extent of the attacking force, 
were stricken with a panic which became 
general. About the same hour a body of 
1,000 partly armed men took possession of 
the police barracks and the city hall of Drog- 
heda, and held them throughout the 6th ; but 
finding no sympathy among the citizens, they 
disappeared during the night. In Munster 
the insurrection was pretty general; but be- 
yond tearing up railway tracks, destroying 
telegraphic lines, and attacking isolated posts 
of constabulary and coast guards, nothing came 
of the movement in the south of Ireland. A 
considerable force of insurgents took refuge in 
the Galtee hills, whence they were soon driven 
by a heavy fall of snow. The special commis- 
sion appointed to try the Fenian prisoners be- 
gan its session in Dublin on April 8. In the 
subsequent trials T. F. Burke was condemned 
to death in Dublin, and John McCafferty in 
Cork, but their sentences were afterward com- 
muted to penal servitude for life. Stephens had 
meanwhile been relieved of the management 
of the Fenian organization, and the direction 
was vested in a committee until the fifth con- 
gress met in New York, Feb. 27, 1867. It 
elected as central executive A. A. Griffin; 
much money was raised and many measures 
were projected to aid " the men in the gap." 
The president of the United States was vainly 
appealed to for the purpose of obtaining belli- 
gerent rights for the Fenians. Toward the end 
of May a second invasion of Canada began to be 
talked of. Large bodies of men were seen drill- 
ing in Detroit and Buffalo, and recruiting of- 
fices were kept open by the Fenians ; and St. 
Albans and Ogdensburgh were spoken of as de- 
pots of military stores and points of departure 
for a new expedition. But the United States 
authorities exerted the utmost vigilance, and 
orders were issued on July 30 for the arrest 
of all who should attempt any violation of the 
neutrality laws. The parent organization of 
the Fenian brotherhood had, however, des- 
patched in April an expedition to Ireland. On 
April 13 the brig Erin's Hope sailed from New 
York with 5,500 stand of arms, 3 batteries of 
artillery, 1,000 sabres, 5,000,000 rounds of 
small ammunition, a large supply of artillery 
ammunition, equipments for a brigade, and 39 
officers of every grade of infantry, cavalry, ar- 
tillery, and engineers. On May 18 she made 
Black Rock, 12 miles from the mouth of Done- 
gal bay, and in a week got into communication 
with parties on shore. She remained 20 days 
on the coast of Ireland and four on that of 
England, and made three landings on the 
former and one on the latter. Several of the 
officers set ashore were captured; but the 
military stores were brought back to New 



York. The return of the Erin's Hope pre- 
vented the sailing of a second vessel already 
half fitted up. Meanwhile a " provisional gov- 
ernment " had been directing the movements 
of the home organization. In June, 1867, 
three of the directors brought against the 
fourth charges which compelled the dissolution 
of that body in July. Toward the end of that 
month a convention of delegates in Manchester 
elected Thomas J. Kelly central executive of 
the Irish republic. This did not meet the ap- 
proval of the revolutionists, and another con- 
vention in the following winter appointed a 
supreme council of the I. R. B., consisting of 
seven members. Thus arose in the home or- 
ganization a division similar to that which 
paralyzed the Fenian brotherhood in America. 
The sixth national congress of the Fenian bro- 
therhood, embracing delegates from 18 states 
and the British provinces, assembled in New 
York Aug. 21. The object of this convoca- 
tion was to reconstruct the brotherhood to 
meet the altered aspect of affairs in Ireland. 
The constitution was slightly amended, and 
John Savage was made chief executive. He 
found the treasury not only empty but sev- 
eral thousand dollars in debt, and saw that 
neither the time nor the means warranted 
armed collision. He therefore proclaimed a 
new era, to be based on discipline, obedience, 
and intelligence. The directory in England 
now . set about " organizing militarily " the 
Irish population throughout Great Britain, in 
order to keep the government in constant 
alarm. During the night of Sept. 13-14 the 
police of Manchester attempted to arrest four 
men of suspicious appearance; two of them 
escaped, and the others proved to be Col. 
T. J. Kelly and his aid, Oapt. Deasy. On 
the 18th the van in which they were con- 
ducted to prison was attacked, the prisoners 
were rescued, and Sergeant Brett, in charge 
of the van, was killed. Subsequently five 
persons, Allen, O'Brien, Larkin, Maguire, and 
Condon, were arrested, tried in Manchester, 
and condemned to death (Nov. 13),- though 
protesting their innocence. From the moment 
of Brett's assassination every city in Great 
Britain was kept in a state of excitement and 
alarm, and several depots of arms and ammu- 
nition belonging to volunteer regiments were 
seized by the Fenians. This excitement cul- 
minated with the condemnation of the Man- 
chester prisoners. Efforts were made to ob- 
tain a commutation of the sentence of the chief 
offenders ; but neither the home secretary nor 
the queen would receive the deputations sent 
to them, nor were the attempts made to carry 
an appeal to a higher court more successful. 
Allen, O'Brien, and Larkin were executed Nov. 
23, Maguire and Condon having been reprieved. 
On Nov. 24 the Irish population of Manchester 
and London turned out en masse to march in 
funeral procession in honor of the dead. A 
week later Dublin witnessed a similar and 
more imposing pageant. The 3d of December 

had been appointed for like demonstrations 
in Liverpool, Leeds, Glasgow, Cork, and Wa- 
terford; but -the authorities forbade them. 
On Nov. 23 Col. Burke, a well known Fenian 
leader, was arrested by the London police, 
and with, him one Casey, who had made a 
most determined effort to rescue him. They 
were both lodged in Clerkenwell bridewell. 
On Dec. 13, between 2 and 3 o'clock P. M., a 
barrel of powder which had been brought 
through the narrow and populous Corporation 
lane to the foot of the high wall enclosing the 
prison exploded, blowing down the wall, shat- 
tering all the neighboring houses, killing 6 
persons on the spot, and wounding 120 others, 
11 of whom subsequently died; but the es- 
cape of Burke, the supposed object of the ex- 
plosion, was not effected. Amid the universal 
alarm and indignation, incendiary fires broke 
out in various parts of London. Thousands 
of special constables were sworn in daily in 
London for several weeks, until the number 
amounted to 50,000. The other cities contain- 
ing any considerable Irish population followed 
this example. Five men and one woman were 
subsequently arrested for complicity in this 
outrage, one of whom, Michael Barrett, was 
found guilty of murder. The Fenians did not 
abate their activity in Ireland after the execu- 
tions in Manchester and the Clerkenwell ex- 
plosion. A large number of revolvers had found 
their way into the hands of the initiated. On 
Feb. 7, 1868, Capt. Mackay (Lomasney), who 
had been the foremost leader in the March in- 
surrection of the last year, was arrested in Cork 
with several others. The arrest led to riotous 
assemblages, in which firearms were used, and 
which were speedily suppressed. The Irish 
residents of London on Feb. 11 presented 
an address to the queen expressive of their 
loyalty, and repudiating the acts of the Fe- 
nians; it was signed by nearly 23,000 persons. 
Two events also occurred in the following 
months which alienated much sympathy from 
the Fenian cause. On March 11 the duke 
of Edinburgh was dangerously wounded by a 
man named O'Farrel in Port Jackson, Australia. 
The assassin, though accused of being a Fenian, 
protested with his dying breath that he was 
not. On April 7 Thomas Darcy McGee, a 
member of the Canadian ministry, was killed 
on the steps of his own door; his opposition to 
Fenianism was alleged as the motive for the 
deed. These events so wrought on the public 
mind in England, that every effort made to 
obtain a commutation of the death penalty in 
the case of Michael Barrett utterly failed, and 
he was executed, May 26. They had also an 
effect on the trials of Burke and Mackay, who 
were sentenced to 15 and 12 years' penal servi- 
tude. The conviction had now become general 
that Fenianism was crushed. On July 31 the 
queen in closing the session of parliament de- 
clared that "the cessation of the long con- 
tinued efforts to promote rebellion in Ireland 
has for some time rendered unnecessary the 



exercise by the executive of exceptional powers. 
I rejoice to learn that no person is now detained 
under the provisions of the act for the sus- 
pension of the habeas corpus, and that no 
prisoner awaits trial in Ireland for an offence 
connected with the Fenian conspiracy." The 
seventh Fenian congress assembled in New 
York, Aug. 24, 1868, and on the next day a 
" union convention of independent circles and 
clubs" met in the same city to devise means 
of ending the division in the Fenian ranks. 
Both bodies agreed in creating a commission 
to proceed to Europe, and endeavor to har- 
monize the conflicting claims for the control 
of the " home organization," and to secure a 
governing body on the American elective prin- 
ciple, which would represent officially all the 
"nationalists" in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Mr. Savage was chosen for this mission, and 
proceeded at once to Paris, where in a con- 
ference held in January, 1869, the project was 
successfully carried out. It now became the 
purpose of the Fenian leaders in America 
and Ireland to obtain the release of their im- 
prisoned friends, and to induce the United 
States government to interfere in favor of sev- 
eral of them who were naturalized citizens. 
The corporation of Dublin proceeded to Lon- 
don in a body, and appeared, with the lord 
mayor at its head, at the bar of the house of 
commons, with a petition of amnesty for the 
prisoners. The English government, yielding 
to these solicitations, granted a free pardon to 
several. The combined and persistent efforts 
made in favor of amnesty for the prisoners 
were coupled everywhere with a demand for 
tenant right. This double agitation assumed 
such proportions that in the autumn the gov- 
ernment sent additional regiments to Ireland. 
In the United States the Fenian brotherhood 
was legally chartered in August, under the act 
incorporating benevolent societies. The eighth 
congress assembled in New York, Aug. 25, 1869. 
Mr. Savage reported the union effected be- 
tween the branches of the brotherhood in 
Great Britain and Ireland, and the progress 
both in numbers and character made by it in 
the United States. He also denied officially 
a report that Fenianism had entered into a 
league with European socialism. This year 
1869 was rendered memorable by the disestab- 
lishment of the Irish church, and this measure 
was followed up by the passage in 1870 of an 
Irish land bill. The Fenians claim both these 
measures as the legitimate offspring of their 
efforts; and some English statesmen avowed 
that they were the necessary consequences of 
the Fenian agitation. The rigors to which the 
Fenian prisoners were subjected furnished a 
fertile topic for continued agitation. The sub- 
ject had been brought before congress in De- 
cember, 1869 ; and on Feb. 10, 1870, the house of 
representatives by resolution condemned such 
cruelty, and urged the president to interfere in 
behalf of the victims. In Ireland J. O'Dono- 
van-Rossa, while a prisoner, had been elect- 


ed to parliament for the county of Tipperary ; 
the election was declared void, and Mr. C. J. 
Kickham, a recently released Fenian convict, 
was proposed for the vacancy, but failed of 
election. Thus was the popular sentiment 
kept in continual effervescence among the Irish 
in Great Britain, while in the United States 
the senate party on May 24 assembled another 
expedition on the Canadian frontier. President 
Grant lost no time in issuing a proclamation 
against the raiders, and Gen. Meade hastened 
to the border to enforce it. Col. O'Neill and 
several of his officers were imprisoned, and the 
men and arms were seized by the United States 
authorities. The ninth congress of the Fenian 
brotherhood assembled in New York on Aug. ' 
30. O'Neill, in his prison in Windsor, Vt,, 
signed an agreement on Sept. 7, in the name 
of his adherents, by which they were reunited 
to the parent society. The British govern- 
ment, after witnessing this last impotent effort 
at invasion, and passing the Irish land bill, 
granted in December a partial amnesty to 
the political prisoners, on condition that they 
should quit British soil for ever. In February, 

1871, Mr. Savage insisted on laying down his 
charge in the brotherhood ; his resignation was 
accepted by the tenth congress on March 21, 
and the office was abolished, and the direction 
vested in an executive council. A committee 
appointed to investigate the past financial 
affairs of the brotherhood reported that the 
total amount received in a little more than 12 
years was $626,043, of which $425,254 were 
" expended for Irish revolutionary purposes di- 
rect," and $197,669 were " expended in Amer- 
ica." The report states that of the amount 
expended in America, at least two thirds were 
not for organizing purposes and office salaries, 
but "for objects indirectly connected with the 
cause of the revolution in the British islands, 
such as the purchase of arms and vessels, the 
pay of armorers, the rent of armories, the sup- 
port of men sent here on duty from Ireland, 
the relief of refugees (a vast sum), and the sup- 
port of the families of some of the officers and 
men sent on duty to Ireland and England." 
The llth Fenian congress, which met Aug. 20, 

1872, reduced the number of the executive 
council to 10, to be elected by congress, inclu- 
ding a chief secretary who is the executive 
officer of the organization, a position at pres- 
ent (November, 1873) held by John O'Mahony. 

FEMEC, an African canine animal, resem- 
bling a diminutive fox, belonging to the genus 
megalotis (Illiger). So vulpine is its look, that 
Mr. Gray, in his catalogue of the British mu- 
seum, calls it vulpes Zaarensis (Skiold.). When 
first described by Bruce the traveller, its zo- 
ological position was so ill determined that 
Buffon, who gives a good figure of the animal, 
called it Vanonyme; it was referred to rodents 
and quadrumana by others ; Zimmermann, 
from the examination of the teeth, seems first 
to have detected its dog-like affinities, and 
placed it in the genus canis ; but whoever dis- 


covered its true position, there can be no doubt 
that it belongs at the end of the canine family 
of digitigrade carnivora. From the enormous 
comparative size of the ears Illiger established 
the genus megalotis, which does not appear to 
differ much from v ulpes ; taking this well se- 
lected name of the genus, and the name of its 
first scientific describer for the species, it may 
properly be called M. Brucei (Griff.). Accord- 
ing to Bruce, the animal is 9 or 10 in. long, 
with a foxy snout, ears half as long as the body 
and broad in proportion ; tbe color white, 
mixed with gray and fawn color ; the tail yel- 
low, dark at the end, long, with soft and bushy 
hair like that of a fox ; the ears thin, and mar- 
gined with white hairs. The dentition, general 
appearance, and habits are canine ; the feet 
are four-toed, with the rudiment of a fifth, 
and the nails are not retractile as Desmarest 
at first supposed. It inhabits northern Afri- 
ca, particularly Abyssinia, Nubia, and Egypt. 
There seems to be a second species, nearly 
allied to but different from Bruce's fennec, the 
M. Lalandii (H. Smith) ; this is gray, with 




Fennec (Megalotis Brucei). 

the hairs of the dorsal line longer and blacker 
than the rest, and the tufted tail black with a 
gray base. Kiippell gives the discovery of the 
first species to Skioldebrand, a Swede, whom 
Bruce accuses of supplanting him by an un- 
worthy artifice ; he calls the fennec canis zerda 
(Zimm.), and makes it 23 in. long, including the 
tail, which is 8 in. It lives in holes which it 
digs in the sands of the desert, and not in 
trees as is supposed by Bruce ; it is shy, very 
quick in its motions, and solitary ; its food 
consists mainly of insects, especially locusts, 
eggs, dates, and other sweet fruits, and proba- 
bly small animals ; its bark resembles that of 
a dog, but is more shrill ; the internal orifice 
of the ear is said to be very small. It is 
sometimes called zerda. 

FENNEL (fc&niculum, Koel.), a genus of um- 
belliferous plants, to which the British species 
(F. Tiilgare, Willd.), found on chalky cliffs in 
the southern parts of England, belongs. It is 
cultivated for the sake of the pleasant aromat- 
c^qualities of its leaves. It is frequently met 
with both wild and in gardens in the United. 
States. Its leaves are singularly spread out 

into finely cut and almost hair-like teguments ; 
its flowers are yellow, and the stalks of the 
plant are glaucous. Once introduced into the 
garden, it propagates itself for years. A more 
attractive kind is ihejinochio or Azorean fen- 
nel (F. dulce), an annual cultivated in Italy as 

Fennel (Faeniculum vulgare). 

celery is with us. Several other species of fen- 
nel are known, some of which are admired 
for their pungency. Two kinds of fennel seed 
are found in the shops, one being sweeter than 
the other. It contains a volatile oil of agreea- 
ble odor, and is used in medicine as an aromatic. 
It yields its virtue to hot water and alcohol. 
The seeds of the shops are obtained partly 
from this country, but mostly from Germany. 
The odor of the seed and of the plant is fra- 
grant, and its taste agreeable to most people. 
The infusion, prepared by adding two or three 
drams of the seeds to boiling water, is the best 
form for administering it. It lessens the dis- 
agreeable taste of senna and rhubarb, and acts 
generally as a carminative. 

FENTON. I. Edward, an English navigator, 
born in Nottinghamshire about 1550, died at 
Deptford in 1603. He served for some time in 
the English army in Ireland, but joined in 1577 
one of Frobisher's expeditions for the discov- 
ery of a northwest passage to Asia. The fleet 
being scattered by storms, Fenton returned to 
Bristol. Another expedition in which he took 
part ended disastrously. Early in 1582 he was 
placed in command of an expedition of four 
armed vessels, and sailed for Brazil with the 
ostensible purpose of passing the strait of Ma- 
gellan. He however put in at St. Vincent, 
where he destroyed the flag ship of a Spanish 
squadron. In 1588 he gained much credit as 
commander of a vessel against the Spanish ar- 
mada. II. Sir Geoffrey, an English author and 
statesman, elder brother of the preceding, died 
in Dublin, Oct. 19, 1608. He received a good 
education, and acquired literary distinction, 
especially by translating from the Italian Guic- 




ciardini's " History of the Wars of Italy," which 
he dedicated to Queen Elizabeth (1579). He 
afterward became the principal secretary of 
state for Ireland, and exerted great influence 
in restoring th ere loyalty and tranquillity. His 
daughter became in 1603 the second wife of 
Richard Boyle, the great earl of Cork. He 
published a number of other works, the best 
known of which are " Golden Epistles," gath- 
ered from the works of Guevara and other 
foreign authors. III. ElUah, an English poet, 
of the same family with, the preceding, born 
in Shelton, Staffordshire, May 20, 1683, died in 
East Hampstead, Berkshire, July 13, 1730. He 
studied at Cambridge, but becoming a nonjuror 
he was obliged to leave the university, after 
which he accompanied the earl of Orrery to 
Flanders as private secretary. On his return 
to England in 1705, he was employed in school 
teaching. Afterward the earl of Orrery con- 
fided to him the education of his son, and six 
years later Fenton became associated with 
Pope in a version of the Odyssey. According 
to Dr. Johnson, Fenton translated the 1st, 4th, 
19th, and 20th books. In 1723 a tragedy en- 
titled "Mariamne" gained him more than 
1,000. In 1727 he published a new edition 
of Milton's works, with a brief life of the au- 
thor, and in 1729 a fine annotated edition of 
"Waller's poems. 

FENTRESS, a N. E. county of Tennessee, 
bordering on Kentucky, and drained by sev- 
eral affluents of Cumberland river ; area, 570 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,717, of whom 170 were 
colored.' The surface consists principally of 
high table lands of the Cumberland mountains, 
affording excellent pastures. Timber is abun- 
dant, and coal is found in various places. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 10,339 bushels of 
wheat, 109,084 of Indian corn, 24,067 of oats, 
and 11,713 of potatoes. There were 942 
horses, 4,624 cattle, 5,021 sheep, and 12,017 
swine. Capital, Jamestown. 

FENWICR, George, proprietor of part of Con- 
necticut, died in 1657. He came to America 
in 1636 to take charge of the plantation 
of. Saybrook, so called after Lords Say and 
Brook, who with others had in 1632 procured 
a patent for the territory from Robert, earl 
of Warwick. Returning to England, he came 
back again in 1639, and from that time, as 
one of the patentees and agent for the oth- 
ers, superintended and governed the settlement 
Saybrook till 1644, when he sold its juris- 
diction and territory to the Connecticut col- 
ony, as his associates had given up their con- 
templated removal to America. He after- 
ward returned to England, where he became 
a colonel in the parliamentary army, and was 
appointed one of the judges of Charles I. 

FEODOR, or Fedor (Theodore), the name 
of three emperors of Russia. Feodor I., born 
about 1557, died in January, 1598. He was a 
son of Ivan IV., the Terrible, and succeeded 
him in March, 1584. Noted for his incapacity, 
his brother-in-law, Boris Feodorovitch Godu- 

noff, became the virtual ruler of the empire, 
and succeeded to the throne after having caused 
the assassination of Feodor's brother Deme- 
trius. Feodor himself, the last of the house of 
Rurik, was believed to have been poisoned. 
Feodor II., son of Boris Godunoff, was dethroned 
and murdered in June, 1605, after a reign of 
two months, by the partisans of the first pseu- 
do-Demetrius. Feodor III. (also designated II.), 
elder son of the czar Alexis, born in May, 
1661, died May 8, 1682. He succeeded his 
father in 1676, was engaged in warfare with 
Poland and Turkey, curbed the power of the 
nobility, established in 1680 the first Russian 
school in Moscow, and introduced other re- 
forms. He excluded from the succession his 
imbecile brother Ivan, and bequeathed the 
throne to his half brother Peter the Great. 


FERDINAND, the name of several European ' 
sovereigns, arranged below under the heads of 
Germany, Naples, Spain, and Tuscany ; Austria 
being included under Germany, Sicily under 
Naples, and Aragon and Castile under Spain. 


FERDINAND I., emperor of Germany, son 
of Philip I. of Spain and younger brother 
of Charles V., born at Alcala, Spain, in 1503, 
died July 25, 1564. After the death of his 
grandfather, the emperor Maximilian L, he 
received as his share of the dominions of the 
house of Hapsburg the duchy of Austria and 
other German possessions. In 1521 he married 
Anna, sister of Louis II., king of Hungary and 
Bohemia, who in 1526 fell at the battle of 
Mohacs and left no issue. Ferdinand claimed 
the right of succession in the name of his wife, 
and by right of previous family compacts. 
The states of Bohemia acknowledged him, but 
in Hungary a strong party declared for John 
Zapolya, waywode of Transylvania. Ferdi-, 
nand marched against Zapolya, and his gen- 
eral Nicholas von Salm defeated him near 
Tokay ; but the latter soliciting the aid of the 
Turks, Sultan Solyman espoused his cause. 
Ferdinand was forced to retreat to Vienna, 
where he was besieged by the Turks in 1529. 
After a long and bloody war a treaty was con- 
cluded, by which it was agreed that Zapolya 
should preserve the title of king of Hungary 
during his life, together with the districts then 
in his possession, after which they were to pass 
to Ferdinand. This treaty, however, owing to 
the prevailing influence of the Turks in Hun- 
gary, was not carried into effect, and the east- 
ern parts of the country remained in possession 
of Zapolya' s successor, as prince of Transylva- 
nia. In 1531 Ferdinand was elected king of 
the Romans ; and on the abdication of Charles 
V. in 1556, he succeeded him in the empire. 
Pope Paul IV. refused to acknowledge him, 
on the ground that Charles V. had not ob- 
tained his permission to abdicate. Paul died 
before serious consequences had resulted from 
his refusal, and his successor, Pius IV., rec- 




ognized Ferdinand. The electors, both Prot- 
estants and Catholics, met and decided that 
thereafter it should no longer be required 
of the emperors of Germany to receive the 
crown from the pope, thus putting an end to 
the many controversies and wars of which the 
dependence of the German emperor on the see 
of Borne had been the cause. In Bohemia Fer- 
dinand arbitrarily declared the crown heredi- 
tary in his family without the sanction of the 
states. A portion of the population opposed 
him by force of arms, but the insurrection 
was suppressed. He was tolerant to the Prot- 
estants, and tried to effect a union between 
them and the Catholics by inducing them to 
send deputies to the council of Trent. He also 
endeavored to obtain from the pope the use of 
the cup for the laity in the communion, and the 
liberty of marriage for the priests. He was 
succeeded in the empire, as well as in Hungary 
and Bohemia, by his son Maximilian II. 

FERDINAND II., emperor of Germany and king 
of Hungary and Bohemia, born July 9, 1578, 
died in Vienna, Feb. 15, 1637. He was the son 
of Charles, duke of Styria, third son of Ferdi- 
nand II He was a zealous Catholic, and is said 
to have made a vow at Loretto that he would 
exterminate Protestantism. .His cousin Mat-, 
thias, emperor of Germany and king of Hun- 
gary and Bohemia, abdicated in his favor the 
crown of the latter country in 1617, and pro- 
cured his election as king of the Eomans and 
as his successor in Hungary. The states of Bo- 
hemia refused to acknowledge Ferdinand, and 
a powerful Protestant rising was organized, at 
the head of which was Count Thurn. Short- 
ly after the death of Matthias (March, 1619), 
Ferdinand was besieged in Vienna, the insur- 
gents threatening to shut him up in a monas- 
tery, and cause his children to be educated as 
Protestants. He however remained firm, and 
being relieved by the timely arrival of loyal 
troops, repaired to Frankfort and claimed the 
imperial crown. He received the votes of all 
the Catholic electors, and was crowned em- 
peror. The states of Bohemia now offered the 
royal crown to the elector palatine, Frederick 
V., son-in-law of James I. of England. Hun- 
gary united with Bohemia against Ferdinand, 
and Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania joined his 
enemies. This was properly the beginning 
of the thirty years' war. Ferdinand was sup- 
ported by Spain, and Frederick was totally de- 
feated at the battle of Prague in 1620, and 
driven into exile. Ferdinand was now ac- 
knowledged as emperor of Germany and king 
of Bohemia. He abolished the constitutional 
charter of Bohemia, and undertook most vio- 
lent measures against the Protestants ; but the 
latter strengthened their league in Germany 
by placing Christian IV. of Denmark at its 
head (1625). The imperialists, under Tilly and 
Wallenstein, were victorious in several cam- 
paigns ; and the war was temporarily closed in 
1629 by the peace of Liibeck. Ferdinand now 
redoubled the severity of his measures against 

the Protestants, when he received a formidable 
check by the intervention of Gustavus Adolphus 
of Sweden in 1630. The Protestants were upon 
the whole successful until the death of Gustavus 
at the battle of Ltitzen, Nov. 6, 1632. The vic- 
tory at Nordlingen in 1634 was the last great 
success of Ferdinand's army. 

FERDINAND III,, emperor of Germany and 
king of Hungary and Bohemia, son of the pre- 
ceding, born at Gratz in Styria, July 20, 1608, 
died at Vienna, April 2, 1657. He succeeded 
his father in 1637. From him he also received 
the inheritance of the thirty years' war, which 
soon took the aspect of a political rather than 
a religious conflict, Spain taking part with 
Ferdinand and France with the allied Protes- 
tants. The war was closed, as far as Germany 
was concerned, by the treaty of Westphalia, 
Oct. 24, 1648, although hostilities were still 
carried on between France and Spain. By 
this treaty Ferdinand gave up most of Alsace 
to France and a part of Pomerania to Sweden, 
recognized the independence of the Swiss con- 
federation, restored to the son of the elector 
palatine Frederick V. a portion of his father's 
possessions, and acknowledged the rights of his 
Protestant subjects. He was succeeded by his 
second son, Leopold I. ; the elder, crowned in 
1653 king of the Romans as Ferdinand IV., 
having died in 1654. 

FERDINAND I., emperor of Austria and king 
of Hungary and Bohemia (as such Ferdinand 
V.), born April 19, 1793. His father was 
Francis I. (II.), who in 1806 resigned the title of 
emperor of Germany, having already assumed 
that of hereditary emperor of Austria. Fer- 
dinand was crowned as future king of Hungary 
in 1830, in 1835 succeeded his father, and in 
1836 was crowned in Bohemia. His character 
was weak, and he was a mere tool in the hands 
of his minister, Prince Metternich. Disheart- 
ened by the troubles of 1848, he resigned the 
crown in favor of his nephew Francis Joseph 
(Dec. 2), and took up his residence at Prague. 


FERDINAND I., king of Naples, illegitimate 
son of Alfonso the Magnanimous, born about 
1424, died Jan. 25, 1494. His father, who had 
ruled both Naples and Sicily, as well as Ara- 
gon and Sardinia, bequeathed to him at his 
death in 1458 the throne of Naples. His reign 
was troubled, and the nobles conspired to aid 
John of Anjou in a descent upon the country. 
Ferdinand lost the battle of Nola in 1460, 
escaped to Naples with but 20 followers, and 
was reduced to the last extremity. He was, 
however, favored by Pope Pius II. and by 
Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan; and his 
partisans were greatly strengthened by the 
alliance of the Albanian chieftain Scanderbeg, 
who put himself at the head of the army of 
Ferdinand, defeated John of Anjou at Troja in 
1462, and forced him to leave Italy. Ferdinand 
was cruel and revengeful. Count Piccinino 
was one of his illustrious victims. In this reign 


the Turks made a descent upon Italy and cap- | 
tared Otranto in 1480, but Ferdinand recov- ; 
ered this city from them in 1481. Five years 
later the nobles revolted, and Ferdinand, after 
yielding to their demands, refused to fulfil his 
promises, and put the leader of the revolt to 
death. He was excommunicated by Pope In- 
nocent VIII. in 1489, but regained his favor 
in 1492, and died while the formidable expe- 
dition of Charles VIII. of France was preparing 
to set out toward Italy. 

FERDINAND II., king of Naples, grandson 
of the preceding, and son of Alfonso II., born 
about 1468, died in 1496. His father, feeling 
himself universally detested, abdicated in his 
favor in 1495 ; but the people had conceived 
such a dislike for the house of Aragon, that 
Ferdinand's kindness toward them was treated 
only with derision. Many of his cities hav- 
ing sent ambassadors to the invading enemy, 
Charles VIII. of France, he renounced his 
throne, and took refuge in Ischia. But as 
soon as Charles left Naples the people recalled 
Ferdinand, who obtained money and soldiers 
from Venice in exchange for several Adriatic 
towns, and reconquered his kingdom. With 
the permission of Pope Alexander VI. he mar- 
ried his father's sister. 


FERDINAND IV., king of Naples (afterward 
king of the Two Sicilies as Ferdinand I.), born 
in Naples, Jan. 12, 1751, died there, Jan. 4, 
1825. When in 1759 his father, King Charles, 
became king of Spain, he succeeded him upon 
the throne of Naples, in accordance with the 
recent treaties of Utrecht, Madrid, and Vienna, 
which prohibited the reunion of the two crowns 
in any one prince of the house of Bourbon. 
Ferdinand being only eight years old, Mar- 
quis Tanucci was appointed regent. In 1768 he 
married Carolina Maria, daughter of the em- 
press Maria Theresa, and left the affairs of 
government to his imperious wife and her 
favorite minister Acton. The cabinet of Ma- 
drid lost all influence over the court of Naples, 
which closely allied itself with the cabinets 
of Vienna and London, and joined the first 
coalition against France. Though forced in 
1796 to make peace with France, Ferdinand 
renewed the war after the departure of Na- 
poleon to Egypt. Austria, Sardinia, Tuscany, 
and Naples formed a league, and Ferdinand 
hurried to occupy Rome (November, 1798) ; 
but not receiving much aid from his allies, he 
withdrew before the arms of the French, who 
in 1799 entered Naples soon after Ferdinand 
with his family had escaped in an English fleet 
to Palermo. The Parthenopean republic was 
established in Naples, but after a few months 
Ferdinand was restored to his capital by a 
Calabrian army under Cardinal Ruffo. A ter- 
rible inquisition now began against the repub- 
licans, the city was abandoned to the lazzaroni, 
and Ferdinand seemed to have returned only 
to shed the blood of his subjects. The success- 
es of the French in Germany and Italy obliged 

him in 1801 to sign a treaty surrendering a 
portion of his territory, and to support French 
troops in the remainder, thus putting Naples 
under the domination of France. War break- 
ing out in 1805 between France and Austria, 
Queen Caroline thought it a favorable oppor- 
tunity for throwing off the French yoke, and 
prompted Ferdinand to violate the treaty and 
to receive the support of an Anglo-Russian 
army. Hardly had he done this when Austria, 
conquered at Austerlitz, assented to the treaty 
of Presburg. Before its conclusion Napoleon 
sent an army against Naples, which obliged 
Ferdinand and his queen again to take refuge 
in Sicily, refused offers of negotiation, and 
on Dec. 25, 1805, declared that the house of 
Bourbon had ceased to reign over that king- 
dom, and gave the throne first to his brother 
Joseph, and in 1808 to his brother-in-law Mu- 
rat. Ferdinand, protected by England, was 
able to save Sicily from French conquest ; but 
the queen, as little willing to bear English as 
French supremacy, embroiled herself with the 
English ambassador, Lord William Bentinck, 
was obliged to leave the island in 1811, and 
died in Vienna in 1814. Ferdinand was in 1812 
forced to proclaim a constitution, and finally 
to resign his government to his son Francis. 
After Murat was dethroned by Austria in 1815, 
Ferdinand was restored to his former throne, 
and on Dec. 12, 1816, united Sicily and Naples 
into a single state, under the title of the Two 
Sicilies. He abolished the constitution which 
he had granted while in Sicily, but was forced 
to proclaim the democratic Spanish constitu- 
tion of 1812 by a rising of the carbonari in 
1820. He was soon after reestablished in ab- 
solute power by the Austrians. 

FERDINAND II., king of the Two Sicilies, 
grandson of the preceding, born in Palermo, 
Jan. 12, 1810, died in Naples, May 22, 1859. 
He succeeded his father Francis I. in 1830, and 
at once excited the most lively hopes by par- 
doning several political offenders and introdu- 
cing economical reforms and liberal measures. 
Having thus lulled the revolutionary party, he 
changed his policy, adopting the principles of 
absolutism ; and the history of the kingdom 
from that time is a history of conspiracies and 
rebellions, followed by trials, imprisonments, 
and executions. After many revolts and at- 
tempts at revolt in various parts, all Sicily rose 
in insurrection in January, 1848, and armed 
bands marched upon Naples to demand a lib- 
eral government. A constitution was granted 
them, modelled after the French charter of 
1830 ; but the double dealing of the court and 
the impatience of the democrats led to a bloody 
collision at Naples, May 15, after which Fer- 
dinand dissolved the chambers, annihilated the 
constitution, and restored the ancient order of 
things. Toward the close of the year Pope 
Pius IX. took refuge at Gaeta under his pro- 
tection, and in 1849 received the assistance of 
Neapolitan troops against the Mazzini govern- 
ment at Rome ; for which service he bestowed 




upon Ferdinand the title of rex piissimm. 1 
reconquest of Sicily, which had proclaimed 
independence, was completed after a protracted 
struggle. In the contests with the insurgents 
Ferdinand had ordered the bombardment of 
his principal cities, and thus obtained the epi- 
thet of bombardatore, abbreviated into "Bom- 
ba," by which he has often been designated. 
The harshest treatment was exercised toward 
the political prisoners in Naples, who were 
estimated by Mr. Gladstone in 1851 to number 
at least 13,000. At the Paris congress of 1856 
Ferdinand was advised to pursue a milder 
system of government, and to grant a general 
amnesty, which he declined to do. On Dec. 8 
of that year a private soldier attempted to as- 
sassinate him. In 1857 the seizure and confis- 
cation of the Cagliari, a Sardinian merchant 
steamer in which revolutionists had been con- 
veyed to Naples, led to a diplomatic rupture 
between Naples and Sardinia, France, and 
England. A few months before his death he 
proclaimed an amnesty, but with such limita- 
tions that only 70 bagnio convicts would profit 
by it; they were banished for life, and re- 
stricted to reside in America. 


FERDINAND I., the Great, king of Castile, 
Leon, and Galicia, born about 1000, died in 
Leon, Dec. 27, 10G5. He was the second son 
of Sancho el Mayor, king of Navarre. In 1033 
he received the hand of Sancha, sister of Ber- 
mudo III. of Leon, and the title of king of Cas- 
fcile, which was henceforth recognized as an in- 
dependent sovereignty. On the death of San- 
cho in 1035, Bermudo attempted to reannex 
the new state to his dominions ; but he was de- 
feated and slain by Ferdinand in 1037. The 
young king of Castile forthwith claimed and 
received the crown of Leon, in right of his 
queen ; and by able management and forbear- 
ance he reconciled to his cause many lords 
who at first had opposed his accession to the 
throne. He soon gained popularity by his 
respect for the laws of the country, his main- 
tenance of the ancient fueros, and his strict 
administration of justice. He invaded Portu- 
gal and acquired in 1045 a considerable portion 
of it. From 1046 to 1049 he was engaged in 
wars against the Moors, and reduced the kings 
of Saragossa and Toledo to tributaries. His 
elder brother, Garcia III., king of Navarre, 
having attacked him in 1054, lost his life in 
a buttle fought near Burgos, in the plains of 
Atapuerca. By this victory Ferdinand gained 
several districts which formerly belonged to 
Navarre, and became the most powerful among 
the Christian princes in the peninsula. In 1056 
he took the title of emperor, to indicate his 
supremacy in Spain. Toward the centre of 
the peninsula, he extended the boundary of 
Castile to the gates of Alcala de Henares, and 
carried hostilities into Valencia and Andalusia, 
compelling the emir of Seville to swear alle- 
giance and to restore to him the relics of St. 

Isidro (1063). His last days were spent in 
extraordinary devotional exercises. Attacked 
by a sickness which he knew would be fatal, 
he returned to Leon, and divided his realms 
between his three sons. 

FERDINAND II., king of Leon, Asturias, and 
Galicia, son of Alfonso VIII. , died in 1188. 
He succeeded his father in 1157, the king- 
dom of Castile being given to his brother San- 
cho III. He carried on several successful 
wars against Portugal and the Moors, and in- 
stituted the order of the Christian knights of 
St. James. 

FERDINAND III., saint, king of Castile and 
Leon, born in 1199, died in Seville, May 30, 
1252. The son of Alfonso IX. of Leon by 
Berengaria, queen of Castile, he was indebted 
to his mother for the latter kingdom, of which 
he was placed in possession in 1217. His power 
being firmly established, he commenced in 1225 
against the Mohammedans a career of conquest 
which effectually broke the Moorish power in 
Spain. In concert with several other princes 
he first carried his arms through Murcia and 
Andalusia. Alfonso, dying in 1230, declared 
his marriage with Berengaria void, and des- 
ignated his two daughters by his first mar- 
riage as his successors. Ferdinand interrupted 
his progress for a while to secure the inherit- 
ance, which he soon accomplished, and thus 
permanently united the kingdoms of Castile 
and Leon. Being now sovereign of Spain from 
the bay of Biscay to the banks of the Guadal- 
quivir, and from the confines of Portugal to 
those of Aragon and Valencia, he was enabled 
to push his conquests with renewed energy. 
In 1233 he triumphed over Aben Hud, king 
of Murcia ; he then successively obtained pos- 
session of Toledo, Cordova, Ubeda, Trujillo, 
Jaen, and finally Seville, which surrendered 
Nov. 23, 1248, after a siege of a year and a 
half. Ferdinand was an unsparing enemy of 
the Jews and Albigenses who had sought a 
refuge within his dominions. He founded the 
university of Salamanca, and was canonized 
by Pope Clement X. in 1671. 

FERDINAND IV., king of Castile and Leon, 
son of Sancho IV., born in Seville in 1285, 
died in 1312. He was only ten years old when 
his father died, and he saw himself assailed at 
once by his uncle Enrique, who coveted the 
regency, by Don Juan Nunez de Lara, who 
wanted to increase his estates, and by the in- 
fantes of La Cerda, who claimed the crown, 
and who, respectively aided by the kings of 
Portugal and Aragon, aimed at a partition of 
the kingdom. In these difficult circumstances 
the young king was sustained by the ability 
of his mother, Maria de Molina. She suc- 
ceeded in dividing his enemies, conciliated the 
king of Portugal, whose daughter Con stanza 
was married to Ferdinand, and also made an 
alliance with the king of Aragon. Ferdinand 
in 1305 made war upon the Mohammedans, 
gained advantages over them, and took Gibral- 
tar (1309). The order of templars having been 



abolished by Clement V., be Confiscated their 
property and shared their spoils with the other 
orders of chivalry. There is a legend that in 
an expedition against the Moors, having or- 
dered the two brothers Carvajal to be put to 
death upon mere suspicion, they cited him to 
appear with them in 30 days before the judg- 
ment seat of God ; and within the prescribed 
time he was found dead on his couch, on which 
he had been taking his siesta. 

FERDINAND V. of Castile, II. of Aragon, 
III. of Naples, and II. of Sicily, surnamed 
the Catholic, born at Sos, Aragon, March 10, 
1452, died at Madrigalejo, Jan. 23, 1516. The 
son of John II., king of Navarre and Aragon, 
and of his second wife Juana Henriquez, he 
was as early as 1468, through the influence of 
his mother, declared by his father king of 
Sicily and associate in the crown of Aragon. 
On Oct. 19, 1469, he married at Valladolid Isa- 
bella, princess of Asturias, the sister and law- 
ful heiress of King Henry IV. of Castile. On 
the demise of the latter, Dec. 12, 1474, Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella were proclaimed joint sov- 
ereigns of Castile. Several powerful nobles, 
among whom were the marquis of Villena, the 
archbishop of Toledo, and the grand master of 
Calatrava, aided by the king of Portugal, rose 
in arms in the name of Juana (called Beltra- 
neja, from her supposed father, Beltran de la 
Cueva), whom the late king had recognized as 
his daughter, but who had been set aside by 
the cortes on a charge of illegitimacy, which 
was never legally proved. Ferdinand's army 
gained a decisive victory over them at Toro, 
and in 1479 a treaty put an end to the civil 
war, and Juana, deserted by all her partisans, 
took the veil. John II. having died at the be- 
ginning of the same year, Ferdinand inherited 
Aragon, and thus became the undisputed mas- 
ter of the peninsula, with the exception of 
Portugal, Navarre (which was given to John's 
daughter Eleanor), and Granada. His chief 
policy was to fortify the power of the crown, 
and he reached his aim principally by reorgan- 
izing and increasing the hermandad or brother- 
hood for the suppression of disorder and bri- 
gandage, by improving the administration of 
justice, by acquiring the mastership of the 
several orders of knighthood, and obtaining the 
power of appointing the bishops, but above all 
by means of the inquisition, which served not 
only as a guard against heresy, but also as a 
political institution to keep the nobility and 
clergy in check. The intolerance was perhaps 
still greater against the Jews than the relapsed 
heretics. On March 31, 1492, t an edict for 
their expulsion was issued by the sovereigns at 
Granada. The number thus driven forth is 
estimated by some as high as 800,000, but by 
others, according to Prescott with more proba- 
bility, at 160,000. They sought refuge in Por- 
tugal, France, Italy, Africa, and the Levant. 
Before this, however, Ferdinand and Isabella 
had succeeded in accomplishing their long 
cherished design of destroying the last vestige 

of Moorish power in Spain. The kingdom of 
Granada, all that remained of the once power- 
ful empire of the Moors, succumbed to the 
assaults of the Christian warriors ; the city 
itself, the siege of which was conducted by the 
king and queen in person, surrendered Jan. 2, 
1492, after a heroic resistance ; and the last 
of its sovereigns, Abdallah or Boabdil, retired 
to Africa. When the Moors attempted a re- 
volt in 1501, Ferdinand ordered them to be- 
come converted or to leave the kingdom, and 
it is said that from then till the time of Philip 
about 3,000,000 Moors left the country. In 
the discovery of America by Columbus Ferdi- 
nand had little if any share; he evinced no 
disposition to assist the discoverer, and the 
glory of having aided him belongs exclusively 
to Isabella. Charles VIII. of France having 
conquered the kingdom of Naples in 1494, Fer- 
dinand sent thither in the following year his 
great general Gonsalvo de Cordova, and with- 
in a few months the French were expelled and 
the Spaniards got a foothold in Italy, which 
advantage they afterward improved. In 1500 
he concluded a treaty of alliance with Louis 
XII. of France, by which the two monarchs 
divided between themselves beforehand the 
kingdom, which was to be conquered by their 
united forces ; but scarcely was this accom- 
plished when the allies quarrelled, and Gon- 
salvo de Cordova for the second time drove 
the French out of southern Italy (1503-'4), 
which thenceforth remained in the hands of 
Ferdinand, as king of Naples and Sicily. 
Family difficulties interfered for a while with 
his power and the progress of his conquests. 
Juana, the only daughter left to him (Isabella 
having been married to Emanuel of Portugal, 
and Catharine to Prince Arthur and afterward 
to Henry VIII. of England), had been married 
in 1496 to the archduke Philip, son of the em- 
peror Maximilian ; and on the death of Isabella 
in 1504, this young prince claimed the regency 
of Castile in the name of his wife. This brought 
on a contest between him and his father-in-law, 
which terminated in favor of Ferdinand, who 
was appointed regent in place of the young 
heir Charles on account of the premature death 
of Philip in 1506 and the insanity of his wife 
Juana. The king now found himself at lib- 
erty to give undivided attention to the affairs 
of Italy, and exercised there a paramount in- 
fluence, not by his arms only, but by his su- 
perior political talents. He took part in the 
league of Cambrai against Venice in 1508 ; then 
in the holy league in 1511 against the French, 
whom the princes of Italy desired to expel 
from the peninsula ; and in all these transac- 
tions he was generally the gainer. Besides 
the kingdom of Naples, he added to his do- 
minions several towns and fortresses on the 
coast of Africa, which were conquered by Car- 
dinal Ximenes and Count Navarro in 1509 and 
1510, and the kingdom of Navarre, which he 
wrested from Catherine de Foix and her hus- 
band Jean d'Albret in 1512. By a singular 



whim, or perhaps through the trouhles cre- 
ated by the archduke Philip, Ferdinand had 
been estranged from his grandson Charles, 
afterward emperor under the title of Charles 
V. ; and he thought of depriving him of part 
at least of his inheritance. He had conse- 
quently married in 1505 Germaine de Foix, 
a niece of Louis XII. of France ; but the child 
he had by her died, and he was thus disap- 
pointed in his hopes. In 1513 .he took a phil- 
tre for the purpose of restoring his exhausted 
vigor ; but the potion produced a lingering ill- 
ness which ended in death. Ferdinand was 
the founder of the greatness of Spain ; he con- 
solidated the whole peninsula, with the excep- 
tion of Portugal, into a single political body ; 
gained for the crown a power which it had 
never possessed before ; extended its influence 
beyond the peninsula, and gave it weight in 
the general affairs of Europe. To reach the 
aim of his ambition he was far from being over 
scrupulous in his means ; a crafty politician and 
avaricious in every respect, he did not hesitate 
to break his word, or even his oath, when in- 
terest or bigotry commanded. But notwith- 
standing his perfidy and treachery, his memory 
has been held in great reverence. in Spain; and 
the severity shown toward him by some his- 
torians cannot prevent posterity from regard- 
ing him as one of the ablest princes of his age. 
A just appreciation of his life and times may 
be found in Prescott's " History of Ferdinand 
and Isabella." (See ISABELLA.) 

FERDINAND VI., surnamed the Wise, king of 
Spain, born Sept. 23, 1713, died Aug. 10, 1759. 
He was the son of Philip V. and Louisa Maria 
of Savoy, and ascended the throne in 1746. 
His government was one of justice, prudence, 
and peace. He encouraged manufactures, arts, 
and literature. He was one of the signers of 
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). He was 
succeeded by his half brother Charles III. 

FERDINAND VII., king of Spain, born in San 
Ildefonso, Oct. 13, 1784, died in Madrid, Sept. 
29, 1833. He was the eldest son of Charles IV. 
and Louisa Maria of Parma. In 1789 he was 
declared prince of Asturias and heir apparent 
to the crown. Under the influence of his pre- 
ceptor, the canon Escoiquiz, he early felt a 
strong aversion to Godoy, prince of the peace, 
the favorite of both his parents. This was ag- 
gravated by Maria Antonietta of Naples, whom 
he married in 1802, and kindled into hatred in 
1806 upon the sudden death of his wife, whom 
he asserted without sufficient proofs to have 
been poisoned. Henceforth two hostile fac- 
tions openly divided the cgurt : that of Godoy, 
supported by the king and queen, and that of 
the prince of Asturias, comprising the great 
majority of the nation, who shared in his hatred 
of the favorite. The dissensions between the 
son and the father, who was but a tool in the 
hands of his queen and Godoy, grew into 
scandalous quarrels. The crown prince, at the 
instigation of Escoiquiz and others, addressed 
a letter to Napoleon, complaining of Godoy's 

conduct, and proposing to place himself under 
his protection, and to marry a member of his 
family. He also copied a memorial to the king 
against Godoy, which he was to have read to 
him in person; but Charles had him arrest- 
ed and kept in close confinement. A royal 
proclamation issued Oct. 30, 1807, denounced 
Ferdinand as having laid a plot against the 
power and even the life of his father. In a 
vague but humble letter, Ferdinand confessed 
that he had sinned against his father and king, 
implored forgiveness, and was publicly par- 
doned. These transactions were soon followed 
by more serious events. The royal family, who 
acted under the advice of Godoy, having at- 
tempted to leave Aranjuez with the ultimate 
view of embarking for America, a sedition 
broke out, March 18, 1808; the departure was 
prevented, and the people, infuriated against 
Godoy, stormed his palace, seized, wounded, 
and would have murdered him, had not the 
prince of Asturias, moved by the tears of his 
mother, used his influence over the crowd to 
save his life. The king was so much frighten- 
ed that he abdicated the next day in favor of 
his son. Two days later he attempted a re- 
traction, maintaining that his abdication had 
been forced; but the prince, who had been 
active in all these transactions, assumed the 
title of king, and made his solemn entry into 
Madrid, March 24. The peninsula was already 
invaded by Freneh troops, and Murat soon 
marched into the capital. Ferdinand hoped 
to conciliate Napoleon by submission; he went 
as far as Bayonneto meet him ; here, notwith- 
standing the empty honors which were paid 
to him, he found himself a prisoner, and was 
made to understand that he must restore the 
crown to his father. The old king, his queen, 
her favorite, and the infantes had also been 
brought to Bayonne ; and yielding to a pres- 
sure which he was unable to resist, Ferdinand 
assented to the surrender of his royal title. 
But this title, and all the rights it conferred, 
had already been resigned (May 5) by Charles 
into the hands of Napoleon. The emperor de- 
clared that "the house of Bourbon had ceased 
to reign in Spain," and placed his brother 
Joseph on the vacant throne. Ferdinand was 
immediately transferred to the castle of Va- 
lencay, where he remained nearly six years. 
At length Napoleon, in the hope of diverting 
Spain, which Joseph had lost, from the co- 
alition against him, liberated his captive; by 
the treaty of Dec. 11, 1813, he restored to him 
the Spanish crown, on condition that he would 
make the English evacuate the peninsula, se- 
cure a large income to his parents, and keep in 
their offices and immunities all the Spaniards 
who had been in the service of King Joseph. 
On March 10, 1814, Ferdinand left Valencay ; 
and on his arrival in Spain he was welcomed 
by popular acclamations. He did not abide by 
the terms of the treaty with Napoleon, but 
.expelled at once the afrancesados (supporters 
of the French government), annulled the pro- 



ceeclings of the cortes, and abolished the con- 
stitution. All the members of the cortes or 
the regencies who had participated in the 
framing of the constitution of 1812, or had 
faithfully adhered to it, were arraigned before 
courts martial, tried, and sentenced. A number 
perished on the scaffold ; hundreds of the most 
illustrious were sent to dungeons in Africa or 
imprisoned at home ; the most fortunate were 
exiled. For six years Spain was given up to 
the unrelenting cruelty of a revengeful tyrant, 
whose gross personal appearance and habits 
but added to the disgust of the people. At 
last discontent ripened into insurrection, the 
signal for which was given by the army. 
Troops assembled at the Isla de Leon to sail 
for South America revolted under Col. Riego, 
Jan. 1, 1820, and proclaimed the constitution 
of 1812, and the whole army followed their 
example. Ferdinand convoked the cortes and 
swore (March 9) faithfully to observe the in- 
strument he had formerly annulled. Under 
the influence of a provisional junta who as- 
sumed the direction of affairs, he abolished the 
inquisition, banished the Jesuits, and reestab- 
lished the freedom of the press. On the open- 
ing of the cortes, July 9, he renewed his oath 
to the constitution, and appeared to act in per- 
fect accord with that assembly, while at the 
same time he was intriguing to defeat the plans 
of his own cabinet and to encourage the plots 
of .the opposite party. This 'double dealing 
soon brought about bloody riots and finally 
civil war in the capital and nearly all the prov- 
inces. The liberals or constitutionalists, who 
formed a large majority of the nation, were 
strenuously opposed by tire serviles or ultra 
royalists. The latter, pretending that the king 
was a prisoner in the hands of the cortes, or- 
ganized an apostolic junta, and raised bands of 
insurgents in Navarre and Catalonia, under the 
name of " army of the faith." Monks and friars, 
among whom Merino was conspicuous, were at 
the head of these bands. At Madrid, the royal 
guards, secretly incited by their own master, 
attempted in July, 1822, to reestablish by force 
his absolute power ; but after a violent struggle 
they were put down. Henceforth the constitu- 
tionalists held Ferdinand in a kind of imprison- 
ment scarcely disguised under court ceremonial. 
A liberal ministry was appointed ; energetic 
measures were resorted to; the " army of the 
faith" was totally defeated; its chiefs and sol- 
diers, as well as the ultra-royalist committee 
known as the regency of TJrgel, fled to France. 
The revolution was thus triumphant; but the 
" holy alliance " were preparing for its over- 
throw. France, which had assembled an army of 
observation near the Pyrenees, received orders 
from the congress of Verona to march into 
Spain for the purpose of restoring Ferdinand's 
authority. On the news of the threatened in- 
vasion, the king was removed to Seville, March 
20, 1823 ; and on the rapid advance of the 
French under the command of the duke d'An- 
gouleme through the peninsula, he was declared 


to be insane, suspended from his power, super- 
seded by a regency, and taken to Cadiz, where 
the constitutionalists intended to make a stand. 
But this project was baffled by the French 
army, which stormed the Trocaidero, Aug. 31. 
The cortes then decided on declaring King 
Ferdinand reestablished; and the monarch at 
once published (Sept. 30) a proclamation grant- 
ing a general amnesty, and securing the en- 
gagements entered into by the constitutional 
government. But having left Cadiz the next 
day, he revoked the proclamation and all his 
acts since March 7, 1820. He made his solemn 
entrance into Madrid, with the applause of the 
ultra royalists, Nov. 13, and the work of ven- 
geance commenced, and was continued for 
years. The noblest victims fell under the 
sword of the executioner, and terror reigned 
throughout Spain. Ferdinand did not even 
evince the least forbearance toward those who 
had served him most faithfully, but used his 
power against his friends as well as his foes. 
The most important Spanish colonies in Ameri- 
ca gained their independence during his reign. 
He had already been married three times and 
had no children, and took as his fourth wife, 
Dec. \1, 1829, Maria Christina, daughter of 
King Francis of Naples. This queen, much 
younger than her husband, gave him two 
daughters, and procured from him the publi- 
cation of a decree abrogating the Salic law. 
This excited the anger of the partisans of Don 
Carlos, the king's brother ; and insurrectionary 
movements broke out in the provinces, while 
intrigues were set on foot at the court for the 
recall of the decree. During a temporary ill- 
ness the king was prevailed upon to abrogate 
it ; but Christina, resuming her sway over her 
husband's mind, had it confirmed, and re- 
ceived herself the title of regent, while Carlos 
and many of his adherents were ordered out 
of the kingdom. This rekindled civil war, 
which broke out with great violence soon after 
the death of Ferdinand. His daughter Isa- 
bella, a child of three years, inherited the 
crown ; but it was not secured to her till after 
a protracted and bloody contest. 


FERDINAND III., grand duke of Tuscany and 
archduke of Austria, born in Florence, May 
6, 1769, died there, June 18, 1824. He came 
into possession of Tuscany in 1790, when his 
father Leopold II. was called to the imperial 
throne of Germany. The French invaded his 
dominions in 1796, under Bonaparte, and con- 
quered them in 1799. Ferdinand became dis- 
possessed by the treaty of Luneville in 1801, 
but in 1803 obtained as indemnity the arch- 
bishopric of Salzburg, with the title of elector 
of the empire. This electorate he exchanged 
in 1805 for Wtirzburg, and in 1806 was ad- 
mitted into the confederation of the Rhine. 
After Napoleon's abdication in 1814 Ferdinand 
was restored to the grand duchy of Tuscany, 
but was again obliged to abandon his capital 




for a short time in 1815, when Murat pro- 
claimed the independence of Italy. The battle 
of Waterloo restored him. 

FERDINAND IV., grand duke of Tuscany and 
archduke of Austria, grandson of the prece- 
ding, born June 10, 1835. He married Anna 
Maria, daughter of the king of Saxony, in 1856, 
and began to reign in 1859, after the abdica- 
tion of his father Leopold II. ; but a few 
months later the Tuscan constituent assembly 
declared in favor of annexation to Sardinia, 
which was consummated March 22, 1860, and 
which involved the forfeiture of the grand- 
ducal crown of Tuscany. 

FERDINAND (Augustus Francis Anthony), titular 
king of Portugal, born Oct. 29, 1816. He is a 
son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 
In 1836 he became the second husband of 
Queen Maria II. of Portugal, and the title of 
king was conferred on him, Sept. 16, 1837. 
After the death of the queen (Nov. 15, 1853) 
he was regent during the minority of his son, 
the late Pedro Y., which ended Sept. 16, 1855. 
In 1870 he declined the Spanish crown offered 
to him by Prim and Serrano. He excels as a 
painter and engraver, and possesses many other 
accomplishments. He married on June 10, 
1869, Eliza Ilensler, born in Boston, Mass., in 
1840. She is the daughter of a German 
shoemaker. Possessing remarkable beauty of 
person and voice, she was educated for the 
opera, and first appeared in New York in her 
16th year. She afterward studied in Paris, 
sang at the Grand Opera with little success, 
and went to Lisbon, where she became a favor- 
ite. Ferdinand procured for her the title of 
countess of Edla previous to marrying her. 

FERENTINO (anc. Ferentinum), a town of 
Italy, in the province and 40 m. S. E. of the 
city of Rome ; pop. about 8,000. It is situated 
nearly 1,600 ft. above the sea, and is sur- 
rounded by ancient walls built of hewn stone 
without mortar. The cathedral is paved with 
ancient marbles and mosaics. Ferentino is cel- 
ebrated for its splendid view over the Volscian 
mountains, for its mineral springs, and for its 
antiquities. Besides large portions of the 
walls built in the Cyclopean style of large ir- 
regular and polygonal blocks, there are many 
other interesting remains of Roman structures 
and numerous inscriptions. The ancient Fe- 
rentinum seems, judging from the remains, to 
have been an important place, although little 
mention is made of it in history beyond the 
fact that Hannibal devastated it in 211 B. 0. 
Horace alludes to Ferentinum as a remote 
country town, but he is supposed to refer to 
another place of the same name in Tuscany. 

FERGUSON, Adam, a Scottish philosopher and 
historian, born at Logierait, Perthshire, in 1724, 
died in St. Andrews, Feb. 22, 1816. He was 
educated in Perth and in the university of St. 
Andrews, and studied theology in Edinburgh, 
where he became associated with Robertson, 
Blair, and Home. In 1745, though he had stu- 

died but half the required term, he was ordained, 
in consequence of having been selected for his 
knowledge of the Gaelic language to act as 
chaplain of one of the highland regiments, 
which he accompanied to Flanders. He re- 
mained in this situation till 1757, when he be- 
came conspicuous by his defence of the moral- 
ity of stage plays, written upon occasion of 
the success of his friend Home's tragedy of 
" Douglas." In 1759 he was elected professor 
of natural philosophy in the university of Ed- 
inburgh, and in 1764 of moral philosophy. In 
1778 he came to America as secretary of the 
commission appointed to negotiate with the 
revolted colonies, his place in the university 
being supplied during his year's absence by 
Dugald Stewart, who in 1785 became his suc- 
cessor. In his 70th year he paid a visit to 
the principal cities of the continent, and was 
elected a member of several learned societies. 
The last years of his life were passed in St. 
Andrews, where he observed a strictly Pytha- 
gorean diet. His " History of the Progress and 
Termination of the Roman Republic " (1783) 
is valuable for its philosophical reflections, 
clearness of style, and masterly portraitures 
of character. His "Essay on the History of 
Civil Society" (176 7) discusses the origin, end, 
and form of. government, affirms the natural 
sociability of men, in opposition to the hy- 
pothesis of Hobbes of their natural hostility, 
and defends civilization against the charges of 
Rousseau. His philosophical views are con- 
tained in his " Institutes of Moral Philosophy " 
(1769), and in his " Principles of Moral and 
Political Science " (1792). He belongs by his 
general method to the school of Bacon, recom- 
mending everywhere experience and the study 
of facts as the condition of successful research. 
FERGUSON, James, a Scottish experimental 
philosopher and astronomer, born near Keith, 
Banffshire, in 1710, died in London, Nov. 16, 
1776. His father, a day laborer, taught him 
to read and write, which was the only educa- 
tion he was able to bestow on his children. 
When seven or eight years of age his attention 
was attracted to mechanics by observing his 
father raise a heavy weight with a lever. He 
investigated the principle and made several 
machines combining the lever and the pulley, 
which he described in a treatise with draw- 
ings. On showing this to a gentleman, he was 
surprised to find that those things had been 
treated of before, but was equally pleased that 
he had discovered the true principle. While 
tending sheep he made models of mills, spinning 
wheels, and other machines, acquired the rudi- 
ments of astronomy, taught himself to draw, 
made maps, and learned the principles of ge- 
ography. By the aid of patrons he afterward 
studied portrait painting in Edinburgh, and 
next medicine, but finally devoted himself to 
astronomy. In 1743 he removed to London, 
where he attracted attention by a publication 
of astronomical tables. In 1747 he published 
"A Dissertation on the Phenomena of the 



Harvest Moon," and afterward lectured in 
many places on experimental philosophy and 
astronomy. George III. settled on him a pen- 
sion of 50. His latter years were mostly de- 
voted to the delivery of his lectures, which 
had become very popular. The most important 
of his works are: "Astronomy Explained on 
Sir Isaac Newton's Principles " (4to, London, 
1756); "Lectures on Mechanics," &c. (8vo, 
1764) ; " An Easy Introduction to Astronomy " 
(1769) ; " An Introduction to Electricity " 
(1770); and "Art of Drawing in Perspective" 
(1775). Sir David Brewster published cor- 
rected editions of his "Lectures" and "As- 
tronomy " in 1805 and 1811. 

FERGUSON, Robert, an English physician, 
born in India in 1799, died June 25, 1865. He 
studied medicine at the universities of Heidel- 
berg and Edinburgh, took the degree of M. D. 
in 1825, and settled in London, where he rap- 
idly acquired a large and lucrative practice. 
He became physician to the general lying-in 
hospital, professor of midwifery at King's col- 
lege, and physician-accoucheur to King's col- 
lege hospital. He was also physician extraor- 
dinary to the queen, whom he attended in all 
her confinements. His chief publications are 
an " Essay on Puerperal Fever " and an edi- 
tion of Gooch's works. 

FERGUSSON, James, a British writer on archi- 
tecture, born at Ayr, Scotland, 'in 1808. He 
was educated at the high school of Edinburgh, 
and after several years' experience in a count- 
ing house in Holland and England, went in 
1829 to India, where for ten years he was en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits. Returning to 
England, he devoted himself to art and litera- 
ture. During his residence in India he had 
taken great interest in the ancient architectu- 
ral remains, and among the fruits of his ob- 
servations was a description of the rock-cut 
temples with illustrations by himself (1845), 
and "Picturesque Illustrations of Ancient 
Architecture in Hindostan " (1847 -'8). In 
1847 he published "Ancient Topography of 
Jerusalem," in which he undertook to show 
that the building known as the mosque of 
Omar is the church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 
1849 appeared the first volume of his "His- 
torical Inquiry into the True Principles of 
Beauty in Art, more especially with reference 
to Architecture," which was succeeded by 
the " Illustrated Handbook of Architecture " 
(1855), in the preparation of which he used 
the materials already collected for the succeed- 
ing volumes of the former work. In these 
works he gives a complete survey of the archi- 
tectural monuments of the chief nations of 
ancient and modern times, and offers many 
suggestions of great practical value. His 
" Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored " 
(1851), published while Mr. Layard's excava- 
tions were proceeding, exhibits a profound 
knowledge of the architecture of the Assyrians 
and Persians ; and upon the subsequent estab- 
lishment of the crystal palace at Sydenham, 

j of which he was the general manager for some 
time after its opening, he personally superin- 
tended the arrangement of the Nineveh court. 
His attention had been drawn in India to the 
use and application of earthworks in modern 
fortifications, and he proposed the substitution 
of circular forms for angles and bastions, and 
of earthworks for masonry. On this subject 
he published " The Peril of Portsmouth " and 
"Portsmouth Protected," and "Essay on a 
proposed New System of Fortification " (1849). 
His system was put in practice in the Russian 
defence of Sebastopol, and frequently employed 
in the civil war in the United States. In 1859 
he became one of the royal commissioners for 
the defences of the United Kingdom. In 1871 
he received the royal gold medal of the insti- 
tute of British architects. Besides the works 
mentioned, he has published "A History of 
Architecture in all Countries," a reconstruction 
of his "Handbook" (3 vols., 1862-'7), "Rude 
Stone Monuments of all Ages " (1872), and " Tree 
and Serpent Worship " (new ed., 1874). 

FERGUSSON, Sir William, a Scottish surgeon, 
born at Prestonpans, East Lothian, March 20, 
1808. He early became confidential assistant 
to the celebrated anatomists Dr. Knox and 
John Turner, and in 1828 licentiate of the col- 
lege of surgeons. He began to lecture on 
surgery in 1831, and in 1840 was called to 
London as professor of surgery in 'King's col- 
lege. He was surgeon in ordinary to the prince 
consort Albert, and was created a baronet 
in 1865. He was elected president of the roy- 
al college of surgeons July 11, 1870. Besides 
special papers on cleft palate, lithotomy, litho- 
trity, aneurism, and others, he has published 
"A System of Practical Surgery" (London, 
1848), and " Progress of Anatomy and Surgery 
in the 19th Century" (1867). He is also the 
inventor of numerous surgical instruments. 

FERISHTAH, Mohammed Kasim, a Persian his- 
torian, born in Astrabad about 1560, died prob- 
ably about 1611. His father left his native 
country to travel in India, where he settled in 
the Deccan as instructor to the son of one 
of the reigning princes. The young Ferish- 
tah was advanced to honors at court, but 
subsequently, induced by civil' commotions and 
changes of government, repaired to the court 
of Ibrahim Adil Shah in Bejapore, where he 
passed the remainder of his life, and wrote his 
history of India. This work, which was first 
published in 1606, is one of the most authorita- 
tive oriental histories ; it contains all the facts 
which the author deemed worthy to extract 
from more than 30 older histories, and is still 
in India the most popular history of the coun- 
try. The introduction gives a brief account 
of India prior to the Mohammedan conquest, 
and then follows in 12 books a history of the 
kings of the different provinces, and of the 
European settlers. At the conclusion there is 
a short account of the geography, climate, and 
other physical circumstances of the country. 
It was several times partially translated into 




English, and the whole work, with the excep- 
tion of some passages which have been since 
liscovered, was published in London in 1829 
)y Col. John Briggs, under the title of " The 
listory of the Rise and Progress of the Mo- 
lammedan Power in India, from its commence- 
lent in 1000 to 1620." Col. Briggs also pub- 
ished an edition in Persian at Bombay in 1831. 

FERLAND, Jean Baptiste Antoinc, a Canadian his- 
torian, born in Montreal, Dec. 25, 1805, died in 
Quebec, Jan. 8, 1864. He was ordained priest 
in 1828, and afterward appointed professor of 
listory in Laval university. He published a re- 
view of Brasseur de Bourbourg's " History of 
Canada ;" " Notes on the first Register of 
Quebec;" "Journal of a Voyage on the Coast 
of Gaspesie;" "Labrador;" and a "Life of 
Bishop Plessis." At the time of his death he 
was engaged on a " Course of Canadian His- 
tory ;" the first volume had appeared, and the 
second was in the press. 

FERMANAGH, an inland county of Ireland, 
>rovince of Ulster, bordering on the counties 

)onegal, Tyrone, Monaghan, Cavan, and Lei- 
trim; area, 714 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 92,688. 
It lies almost wholly in the basin of Lough 
ilrne, which divides it lengthwise into two 
learly equal portions. Its S. W. part is rnoun- 

unous, and the N. E. part rises into steep 
lills. The soil is as varied as the surface, but 
except a wide belt in the south is not remark- 
ibly fertile. The productions are oats, barley, 

r heat, flax, potatoes, turnips, and hay. Cattle 
are bred on the high grounds, and butter, eggs, 
"JC M are exported. Limestone, marl, potter's 
jlay, and small quantities of coal and iron, are 
the chief mineral products. Timber is more 
ibundant than in most Irish counties, but is 

rown principally on the large estates, many 
of the county having a desolate appear- 

ice. There are no important manufactures, 

id few large towns ; those worthy of notice 
Enniskillen, Lisnaskea, and Lowtherstown. 

FERMAT, Pierre de, a French mathematician, 
born in southern France in August, 1601, died 
in Toulouse, Jan. 12, 1665. He studied law, and 
became in 1631 councillor at the parliament 
)f Toulouse, devoting his leisure to mathemati- 
cal studies. D'Alembert, Lagrange, and other 

Yench authorities claim for him the honor of 

iving been the principal inventor of the differ- 
ential calculus ; and Laplace states that it was 
due to Fermat and his colaborer, Pascal. His 
theories are chiefly contained in his treatise De 
Maximis et Minimis, republished in 1679 with 
his miscellaneous scientific writings. Descartes 
combated his propositions concerning the cal- 
culus, and Fermat opposed Descartes's views 
in respect to geometry and optics. 

FERMENTATION (Lat. fermentum, leaven, a 
contraction of fermmentum, from fervere, to 
boil), the conversion of an organic substance 
into one or more new compounds, under the 
influence of a body which is called a ferment. 
It is a process which with more or less skill 
has been employed from the earliest times in 

the manufacture of alcoholic beverage?, but its 
philosophy has been but imperfectly understood 
until recent times, and several questions still 
remain involved in doubt, and are matters of 
warm controversy. Formerly chemists recog- 
nized four kinds of fermentation, the vinous, 
the panary, the acetous, and the putrefactive ; 
but now the panary is included in the. vinous, 
while other kinds have been added, the number 
not being definitely settled. The following list 
may be given as the one usually recognized, 
although it will be seen that some of them are 
probably parts of the processes of others: 1, 
saccharine; 2, alcoholic or vinous; 3, acetic; 
4, lactic ; 5, butyric ; 6, mucous or viscous ; 7, 
putrefactive. To these there might be added 
without impropriety the benzoic, in which the 
amygdaline of the bitter almond, under the 
influence of emulsine, forms prussic acid and 
other bodies ; and the sinapic, in which oil of 
mustard is produced during fermentation of the 
flour of black mustard. The act of digestion 
may also not improperly be regarded as a 
species of fermentation, because it involves, 
under the influence of minute organic cells, 
furnished by the mucous coat of the stomach, 
a transformation of proteine compounds into 
albuminose, which is just as truly a change by 
the influence of a ferment as the formation of 
lactic acid from lactic sugar, or of glucose from 
dextrine. 1. Saccharine Fermentation. In the 
article BREWING is described the process for 
the malting of barley, in which the produc- 
tion of diastase from albuminous matter accom- 
panies the evolution of the grain into plumula 
and radicle. This diastase is the ferment of 
saccharine fermentation, by whose influence the 
starch of the grain is converted into sugar ; the 
steps in the process being, first, the formation 
of soluble starch, then dextrine or gum, which 
next passes into glucose or grape sugar. Starch, 
soluble starch, and dextrine have the same 
chemical constitution, or more strictly speaking 
have the same proportion of elements, and may 
therefore be considered as allotropic conditions 
of each other. The transformation of dextrine 
into glucose consists in the assimilation of the 
elements of water, and may be represented in 
the following equation : 

C 6 H 10 5 

H 2 = C 6 H 12 6 
Water, Glucose. 

There is usually at the same time produced a 
small quantity of lactic acid, in consequence of 
a catalytic action, probably of the diastase, by 
which the glucose, having the same proportion 
of elements as lactic sugar, but differently 
grouped, takes on the functions of the latter sub- 
stance and splits up into lactic acid. The sac- 
charine fermentation, which takes place in malt- 
ing, is promoted by the action of heat, which 
should commence at about 85 and terminate 
at about 135 F. ; but in a decoction of malt, as 
in the mash tun of the brewer, it is conducted at 
a higher temperature, from 158 to 167. The 
drying of the malt in kilns* at this stage arrests 


the conversion of the sugar into lactic acid, 
which is evolved in considerahle quantity if 
the malt is allowed to cool in a moist state. 
The action of dilute acids, assisted by heat, 
also has the power of converting starch into 
dextrine and grape sugar. (See DEXTRINE.) 
2. Alcoholic or Vinous Fermentation. If a 
decoction of malt is allowed to stand for a 
time in the open air at a temperature varying 
from 40 to 85 F., a change takes place, in 
which bubbles of carbonic acid gas may be 
seen to rise from the mass ; and upon exami- 
nation it will be found that portions of the 
sugar and gluten have disappeared, and in their 
place will be found alcohol, lactic, acetic, and 
succinic acids, and some glycerine, in varying 
proportions, depending upon the temperature 
and the amount of saccharification that had 
taken place in the malt. There will also be 
found more or less of a viscous substance con- 
taining yeast cells and germs and other micro- 
scopic organisms, and some mannite. If, how- 
ever, instead of allowing the decoction of malt 
to ferment spontaneously, it be kept at a tem- 
perature of 158 to 167 F. until most of the 
dextrine has been converted into glucose, and 
then filtered and cooled to 70 or 85 with suffi- 
cient rapidity to prevent the commencement 
of premature fermentation, and then a quantity 
of brewer's yeast which has been kept in a 
warm place until it begins to 'decay be stirred 
in the mass, brisk fermentation will soon be 
induced, by which nearly all the glucose will 
be transformed into alcohol and carbonic acid, 
as represented in the following equation : 

C C II ]Q 0, 

2C 2 H 6 + 2C0 2 
Alcohol. Carbonic acid. 

Under the most favorable circumstances not 
more than 95 per cent, of the sugar passes into 
alcohol and carbonic acid, the remainder being 
converted into succinic acid and glycerine. 
Both these bodies are formed, according to 
Pasteur, as follows : 

49C 6 H 12 6 + 30H 2 = 12C 4 H 6 4 + 72C 3 H 8 O 3 + 80C0 2 
Glucose. Water. Succinic acid. Glycerine. Carb.acid. 

The production* of succinic acid in alcoholic 
fermentation was discovered by C. Schmidt in 
1847. Pasteur discovered a few years ago that 
glycerine was also one of the products. Amylic 
alcohol or fusel oil is also frequently produced 
in alcoholic fermentation. Cane sugar, Ci 2 H 2 2 
On, does not pass into alcohol and carbonic 
acid directly, but is first converted into glucose 
by assimilating one equivalent of water, thus : 

C 12 H 22 O 

22n H 2 

r. Water. 

2C fl H 12 6 

It then passes into alcohol and carbonic acid as 
before represented. Milk sugar, Ci 2 H 24 Oi 2 , 
which has the same proportion of elements as 
grape sugar, but with a different molecular ar- 
rangement, is also transformed into alcohol and 
carbonic acid under the influence of cheese or 
other proteine bodies in a state of decay ; first 

passing, according to some observers, into glu- 
cose. Must of grape or juice of fruit, if boiled 
and suspended in a bladder in the midst of 
fermenting must or wort, will not ferment; 
and it has been stated that if yeast cells be 
prevented from coming in contact with the 
fermentable liquid, fermentation will not take 
place, although the soluble contents of the 
cells may pass through the membrane. Should 
this statement be substantiated by further ob- 
servation, it would go to show that the exceed- 
ingly minute germs of yeast cannot penetrate 
through the coats of animal membranes, al- 
though so small as to be scarcely visible under 
a magnifying power of 2,800 diameters, and 
would also show that fermentation, whatever 
may be the question as to its being itself a vital 
process or a chemical one, cannot take place 
without the influence of these vitalized germs. ' 
Yeast, torula cerevisice or mycoderma vini, is a 
fungoid vegetable organism, composed of mi- 
croscopic globules which attain a maximum 
diameter of about ^-^ of an inch. Each 
globule is composed of a thin membranous cell 
wall having the composition of cellulose, C 6 
Hio0 6 , and is filled with a gelatinous proteine 
compound, principally consisting of exceeding- 
ly minute germinal granules. There are two 
varieties of yeast, depending upon the mode 
of propagation. When fermentation is con- 
ducted below 45 F., the propagation is carried 
on by an increase of the germinal granules 
within the cells by assimilation of nutriment 
from the fermenting liquid, until the cell wall 
bursts and the partially organized granules 
which are liberated proceed in their develop- 
ment, forming in turn parent cells. Yeast 
formed in this manner is called by the German 
brewers bottom yeast (Unterhefe), and is the 
kind used in the fermentation of Bavarian beer. 
It is deposited during the process at the bot- 
tom of the fermenting tun in the form of a 
grayish viscid or gelatinous mass, the yeast 
being more or less mixed with other sedimen- 
tary matter. TVhen, however, the temperature 
at which the fermentation is conducted is much 
above 45, say from 70 to 85, the develop- 
ment of germinal matter becomes much more 
rapid, and it passes, according to Dr. Lionel 
Beale, through pores of the parent cell wall, per- 
haps carrying a thin pellicle with it, and makes 
its appearance upon the outside in the form of 
what have been called buds, first discovered by 
Cagniard de la Tour. (See fig. 1.) These buds, 
which for a time remain attached by pedicles to 
the parent cells, then go on developing, and in 
time become detached and assume the functions 
of parent cells ; or buds may spring from them 
before their separation, and thus branches ex- 
tending to some distance may be formed, as in 
fig. 2. Fig. 3 exhibits an appearance often 
noticed : several buds growing from one parent 
cell, each filled with granular matter, and 
presenting an irregular outline. On account 
of its branching structure, yeast which grows 
in this way becomes buoyant from the collec- 



tion of bubbles of carbonic acid gas between 
the branches, and rises to the top of the liquid, 
and therefore is called top yeast (Oberhefe). It 
is the kind used in the fermentation of the wort 
of ale and strong spirituous liquors. It would 
appear, however, that the mode of propagation 

FIG. 1. Growing 1 yeast 
cells and most minute 
germs, magnified 2,000 
diameters (Beale). 

FIG. 2. Yeast cells, grow- 
ing during 48 hours, 
magnified 250 diame- 
ters (Beale). 

does not instantly change in either variety 
upon a change of temperature. Thus top yeast 
placed in a fermentable liquid having a tem- 
perature of 45 is said not to pass into bottom 
yeast at once, as though a habit had been ac- 
quired; and conversely, 
bottom yeast will not de- 
velop as top yeast under 
a certain length of time. 
Yeast globules do not in- 
crease in number in pure 
sugar ^solutions, but the 
older globules waste away 
while the new buds grow 
at the expense of their FIG. 8. Growing yeast 
contents. To effect the %$ *FXk*% 

fermentation of 100 parts nified 1,300 diameters 

of sugar requires about (Beale). 
one part of yeast, weighed when dry. When 
the proportion of sugar is greater the excess 
remains unaltered, the cells will be ruptured, 
and the solution will be found to contain a 
certain quantity of lactate and acetate of am- 
monia, and other ammoniacal salts. When, 
however, instead of a pure sugar solution, a 
saccharine vegetable infusion, as sweet wort, 
is employed as the fermentable liquid, the yeast 
cells rapidly increase at the expense of the 
azotized matters which are present and which 
are essential as their nutriment. During the 
fermentation of beer they often increase to eight 
or ten times their original quantity. The fol- 
lowing table, according to Mitscherlich, gives 
the composition of yeast in its active and in its 
exhausted state, the amount of ash being de- 
ducted : 


Active cells. 

Spent cells. 



47' 6 








35' 8 



The inorganic matter represented by the ash 
amounts to about 7*5 per cent, of the dried 
317 VOL. vii. 10 

yeast, and is composed, according to Mulder, 
entirely of phosphates of potash, soda, lime, 
and magnesia. 3. Acetic Fermentation. Liebig 
regarded the conversion of alcohol into acetic 
acid rather as a process of eremacausis, or slow 
oxidation, by which hydrogen was removed and 
oxygen substituted; but as the process is facili- 
tated by ferments, particularly by the my coder- 
ma aceti, it is generally regarded as a species 
of fermentation. Alcohol is readily oxidized 
by the influence of finely divided platinum into 
acetic acid, and also by binoxide of manganese 
and bichromate of potash. It is supposed that 
the reaction includes two stages : first the for- 
mation of aldehyde by the abstraction of two 
equivalents of hydrogen, water being at the 
same time formed ; and subsequently the ad- 
dition of one equivalent of oxygen, as repre- 
sented by the following equations : 

C 2 H 6 

O = C 2 H 4 O 4- 

H 2 O 


C 2 H 4 .+ O = C 2 H 4 2 
Aldehyde. Acetic acid. 

If the supply of oxygen be insufficient, much 
of the aldehyde remains unconverted into acetic 
acid, and on account of its great volatility may 
pass away in vapor. Pure diluted alcohol does 
not absorb oxygen from the air, but requires 
the presence of some inducing body which 
shall modify the atomic character of the oxy- 
gen, and also perhaps of that of the alcohol, 
so that the affinity of the constituent hydrogen 
and the atmospheric oxygen shall be increased. 
4. Lactic Fermentation. When milk is left 
to stand for a time, the lactic sugar (CiaH^Oia) 
which it contains decomposes into lactic acid. 
The transformation is exceedingly simple, con- 
sisting merely in the splitting up of the mole- 
cules of sugar into a less complex arrangement, 
Oi 2 H 2 4Oi2 becoming 203HO 3 , or lactic acid. 
Oaseine while passing into a state of decay was 
formerly supposed to be the ferment which in- 
duced the process ; but according to Hallier 
and others, it consists of minute organisms 
which are developed from spores of penicillium 
crustaceum. (See figs. *4, 5, 6, 7.) The pro- 
cess is usually accompanied or immediately fol- 
lowed by the coagulation of the milk, an ac- 
tion which is generally ascribed to the ab- 
straction of the alkaline constituents of the 
caseine, which are supposed to hold it in so- 
lution; but it is asserted by some observers 
that coagulation of new milk by rennet often 
commences before any lactic acid makes its 
appearance. Another mode of producing lac- 
teous fermentation is by the employment of 
glucose. When a solution of glucose is mixed 
with new sour cheese, or with milk and chalk, 
and exposed to a temperature of 75 or 80 F. 
for some weeks, with frequent stirring, the 
sugar is converted into lactic acid, which when 
chalk is used combines with the base, forming 
lactate of lime. The chalk is used for the pur- 
pose of combining with the acid, the accumu- 



lation of winch to a certain amount arrests 
the process. 5. Butyric Fermentation. To- 
ward the close of lactic fermentation butyric 
acid makes its appearance, accompanied by the 
evolution of hydrogen and carbonic acid, par- 
ticularly when sugar of milk and lime are em- 
ployed. The formation is represented by the 
following equation : 

2C 3 H 6 3 = C 4 H 8 2 + 2C0 2 
Lactic acid. Butyric acid. 


6. Viscous or Mucous Fermentation. When 
the juices of beet root and carrot are left in a 
warm place for a few days, they spontaneously 
pass into the viscous state, for which reason 
this has been called the viscous fermentation. 
During the process there is an escape of car- 
bonic acid and hydrogen, as in the case of 
butyric fermentation, and the formation of 
mannite, gum, and lactic acid. It has been 
described as taking place under the influence 
of a peculiar ferment composed of minute 
spherules, which are probably a species of pe- 
nicillium. It is doubtful whether this should 
be considered as a distinct species, or as an 
incident in lactic or butyric fermentation. 
7. Putrefactive Fermentation. This occurs 
when bodies containing nitrogenous compounds 
decompose spontaneously in a limited amount 
of air. When the decomposing substance is 
freely exposed to the air, and there is not too 
much moisture present, eremacausis or slow 
combustion takes place (see EREMACATJSIS) ; 
but if the access of air is much obstructed, 
as when the decaying body is submerged in 
water, a more complex reaction takes place, 
in which several very offensive gases are evol- 
ved, prominent among which is sulphuretted 
hydrogen, the gas which gives the odor of 
rotten eggs. Phosphuretted hydrogen, carbu- 
retted hydrogen, ammonia, free nitrogen and 
hydrogen gases, and acetic, lactic, butyric, and 
valeric acids, as well as several noxious com- 
pounds, the nature of many of which is not 
perfectly understood, are also formed. The 
putrefaction which takes place soon after the 
death of a person or animal generates poisonous 
matter of great virulence. It is, however, the 
opinion of Dr. Lionel Beale that the peculiar 
matter which is the most poisonous is engen- 
dered at about the time of death, and perhaps 
a few hours before. (" Disease Germs, their 
Nature and Origin," London, 1872.) Com- 
plete exclusion of the air prevents putre- 
faction. If fermentable liquids are first boiled 
and sealed tightly in close jars, they may be 
kept for an indefinite time without undergo- 
ing either vinous or putrefactive fermentation. 
The commencement of the process is a matter 
which is involved in some obscurity. A piece 
of wood or animal tissue undergoing erema- 
causis, if supplied with sufficient moisture and 
nearly excluded from the air, immediately be- 
gins to putrefy. Whether the ferment is the 
decaying matter itself, or consists of living or- 
ganisms, is a question that has not been decided. 

Pasteur regards putrefaction as a peculiar spe- 
cies of fermentation caused by animal organ- 
isms of the genus vibrio, of which there are six 
known species ; and he also regards each of 
them as having the power of exciting a particu- 
lar mode of putrefaction. If a putrescible 
liquid holding air in solution is sealed in a glass 
vessel and left to stand for a time, certain infu- 
soria, monas crepusculum and bacterium tcrmo, 
are first developed. They absorb oxygen from 
the air and evolve carbonic acid, and then die 
and fall to the bottom as a sediment. If germs 
of the vibrio are present, they become devel- 
oped, and the process of putrefaction com- 
mences. These vibrions, according to Pasteur, 
cannot exist in a liquid which contains oxygen. 
If the putrescible liquid is exposed to the air, 
the monads and bacteria are first developed, 
and forming a pellicle on the surface prevent 
the access of oxygen to the interior. Putrefac- 
tion then commences, but the products are par- 
tially decomposed by the influence of the layer 
of infusoria, and receiving oxygen are converted 
into water, carbonic acid, and ammonia. Pas- 
teur also regards the slow oxidation of animal 
and vegetable matters, such as moistened saw- 
dust, as dependent upon the influence of the 
lower cryptogamic and infusorial organisms, 
without the presence of which he thinks dead 
organized matter would be subject to but little 
change. There is a tendency at the present 
time to regard all kinds of fermentation as 
due to the development of living organisms, 
either animal or vegetable, depending princi- 
pally upon the nature and condition of the fer- 
menting liquid. According to Pasteur, it is 
always accompanied by an incessant inter- 
change of molecules between the fermenting 
substance and the living cells which develop 
themselves within it. In the souring of wine, 
a growth of mycoderma aceti forms on the 
surface, and has the power of condensing the 
oxygen of the air, like that of platinum black, 
or of the blood globules, and conveying it to 
the liquid on which it rests. Pasteur also says 
that the germs which cause the fermentation 
of grape juice come from the exterior of the 
fruit. He finds with the microscope organized 
corpuscles attached to the grape skins, which 
he regards as germs of the ferment. He more- 
over holds that alcoholic fermentation may be 
conducted without the presence of atmospheric 
oxygen, and in an atmosphere comp6sed en- 
tirely of carbonic acid; in accordance with 
which idea he has invented and patented ap- 
paratus for brewing, by which atmospheric air 
is excluded during fermentation, one great ad- 
vantage of which he claims is that the germs 
of other ferments which produce lactic, acetic, 
and butyric acids are excluded, and beer yeast 
or true alcoholic ferment alone allowed to act, 
by which a greater percentage and also better 
quality of product is obtained, and in a more 
economical way. Experiments have been made 
by Pasteur and others in which boiled must 
and other fermentable liquids have been sub- 



jected to the action of filtered and heated air 
and oxygen without the production of fermen- 
tation ; and they have also introduced the pulp 
of fruits into boiled must, with the same result 
when it was excluded from the presence of un- 
filtered air. Fermentation has also been car- 
ried on in tubes having their ends closed by 
thin membranes, and placed in fermentable 
liquids, but without exciting in the latter any 
fermentation except when natural air was ad- 
mitted, which, it is contended, always carries 
the germs of ferments. M. Fremy maintains 
that certain experiments which he has made 
controvert the position of the upholders of 
the physiological theory. At a session of the 
French academy of sciences held in October, 
1872, a discussion of the subject took place 
between M. Pasteur and M. Fremy, in which 
the latter contended that the influence of at- 
mospheric dust in the phenomena of fermenta- 
tion is only secondary and accidental, and that 
the true origin of ferments is in the mass of 
the fermentable substance. Fremy is disposed 
to believe that Pasteur did not establish fer- 
mentation in the boiled must in which he had 
placed grape juice, because he placed it in other 
conditions, besides those of exclusion of air, in 
which alcoholic fermentation could not take 
place. He recounted some experiments which 
he had made, among which was the following : 
He squeezed the pulp of some pears and other 
lits, but without breaking the skins, and 
)lacing them in favorable situations, found at 
end of several days that they contained 
stable quantities of alcohol ; fermentation 
laving been produced in the interior of the 
lit where, in his opinion, the dust of the air 
mid not exert any influence. Fremy there- 
fore believes that the parenchyma of fruits con- 
iins the material which is capable of taking 
conditions by which it may form ferments, 
[e contends that there is a great number of 
lents that are neither organized nor living, 
rhich are capable of producing various kinds 
fermentation, depending upon the conditions 
which the fermentable matter is placed, 
-.iebig compares the action of a ferment to 
lat of heat, by .which the atomic constituents 
)f organic molecules are shaken asunder and 
ift to recombine under the influence of forces 
that may be present. Acetic acid is separated 
")y heat into carbonic acid and acetone ; just 
sugar is separated by yeast into carbonic 
;id and alcohol. He regards vital action and 
lemical action as phenomena which must be 
sidered separately in seeking an explana- 
tion of fermentation, and holds that the fact 
it yeast causes fermentation in a pure so- 
ition of sugar is opposed to the idea that the 
lecomposition of sugar is caused by the devel- 
)pment and increase of yeast cells ; for yeast 
msists chiefly of a substance containing nitro- 
?n and sulphur, besides phosphates, and these 
lot be furnished by the sugar ; and more- 
)ver, beer yeast causes a similar decomposition 
* f other substances, malate of lime being con- 

verted into carbonic acid, acetate, carbonate, 
and succinate of lime. Salicine is also decom- 
posed by yeast into saligenine and salicylic 
acid ; " and a similar decomposition of salicine 
is produced by emulsine without any recogni- 
zable physiological process being concerned in 
the change. Emulsine acts upon amygdaline 
in like manner, its effects being recognizable in 
a few minutes by the new products. Emulsion 
of sweet almonds also undergoes active vinous 
fermentation when mixed with grape sugar. 
But if substances containing sulphur and nitro- 
gen, like emulsine, are, by reason of alteration 
in the arrangement of their atoms, capable of 
inducing change in other organic molecules, 
so that they separate into new products, there 
is reason for suspecting that in the action which 
yeast exerts upon sugar its sulphuretted and 
nitrogenous constituent plays a similar part." 
On the other hand, the experiments of Hallier 
are more in support of the views of Pasteur. 
According to this observer, the same germinal 
molecules develop, according to the nature of 
the fermentable substances in which they are 
deposited, into the fungoid forms peculiar to 
each fermentation. The forms which induce 
putrefaction, fermentation, and mildew are all 
varieties of one another. When they are de- 
veloped within the fluids they are cellular for- 
mations, but when they grow upon the surface 
they produce fructification. Hallier agrees with 
Pasteur's view that the germs are all carried 
by the air. The following, condensed from the 
" Quarterly Journal of Science," is a brief sum- 
mary of Hallier's views. The most abundant 
source of germs appears to be the penicillium 
crustaceum (fig. 4), whose spores are universal- 
ly spread because it is more hardy, more fertile, 
and develops at lower temperatures than others 
of its kind. A spore of penicillium falling into 
a watery fluid bursts into a multitude of parti- 
cles, each of which may be the radicle of a 
living fungus. The minute particles unite in 
twos, forming a double cell, and divide with 
great rapidity. (See fig. 5.) The minute parti- 
cles then unite in chains, constituting lepto- 
thrix, which is not a species, but a form of vege- 
tation common to many species. In pure water 
development can go no further, and after a few 

FIG. 4. Fructification 
of Penicillium crus- 
taceum (Hallier). 

FIG. 5. Spores of Penicillium crus- 
taceum bursting in water and 
setting free their contained par- 
ticles, micrococci, which unite 
in rows or chains (Hallier). 

hours the organisms cease to be formed, the 
presence of a nitrogenous substance being ne- 
cessary for further development. The minute 
spherules, micrococci, are the special ferment 
of putrefaction. In the presence of sugar the 
spherule enlarges and becomes a nucleated cell, 



cryptococcus, which is identical with the yeast 
cell. (See fig. 6.) In milk, during lacteous fer- 
mentation, the micrococcus elongates and forms 
jointed staff-like cells, as in fig. 7, arthrococcus ; 
and in acetic fermentation the cells become lan- 
cet-shaped. According to these views, alcoholic 

FIG. 6. Cryptococcus in vari- 
ous grades of development 
from Penicillium (Hallier). 

FIG. 7. Arthrococcus, 
found in sour milk 

and putrefactive fermentations are both due to 
the influence of a single agent, transported from 
place to place in the air, which everywhere 
contains germinal matter, protoplasm, bioplasm, 
or whatever it may be called ; the living mole- 
cules growing wherever they find a suitable 
soil, and in different soils developing into differ- 
ent forms, producing by their vital acts different 
effects. The microscopic investigations of Dr. 
Beale upon the development of the yeast plant 
show that the cells vary in size more than is 
usually represented, and that the development 
of buds is greater, the layer cells having as many 
as ten or more buds. (See figs. 1 and 3.) He 
says : " The different germinal matter within the 
yeast cell is the material upon which alone all 
growth and action depends. Were it not for 
the bioplasm or germinal matter, the cell would 
be lifeless and passive, incapable of exciting fer- 
mentation or any change whatever ; and it may 
under favorable circumstances undergo devel- 
opment into complete yeast cells, so that by 
the artificial division of one thousands may re- 
sult. And if the soft, bioplasmic matter which 
can be expressed from the yeast cell be placed 
under favorable conditions, every particle of it 
may germinate. This matter alone furnishes 
the germs, it alone grows and appropriates the 
nutrient material ; in short, it alone manifests 
the phenomena peculiar to living things. The 
little buds or gemmules above referred to, de- 
tached from the parent mass, and capable of 
independent existence, are, many of them, much 
less than TjnjVs-o *' an mc ^ m diameter ; but 
each is living, and will grow under favorable 
circumstances into a body like the parent cell, 
giving origin in its turn to countless descen- 
dants. These very minute particles divide and 
subdivide independently, producing still more 
minute particles, capable of growth and divi- 
sion like themselves; . . . and this mode of 
multiplication may go on for a long period, 
perhaps for an indefinite time, if certain con- 
ditions persist. But if any one of these exces- 

sively minute particles falls into a medium con- 
taining suitable pabulum, it will appropriate it 
and soon pass on to a higher stage of develoj 
ment. In this case branches may be forme( 
and from them may proceed stems which gro\ 
upward into the air, and bear upon their sum- 
mits heads in which spores are found, these 
last being so well protected from the influ- 
ence of destructive agents that the germinal 
matter within can retain its vitality for a 
great length of time. The' spores just re- 
ferred to are so light as to be easily sup- 
ported in the atmosphere, and they may be 
carried a long distance by currents of air." 
Bechamp has made an investigation into the 
action of chalk which is used in lactic 
butyric fermentation. As has been state 
the chalk is added for the purpose of j 
venting an accumulation of acid in the 
lution ; and although this is an important 
tion, Bechamp has shown that chalk is itself 
capable of establishing alcoholic, lactic, and 
butyric fermentations. The chalk formation 
consists principally of the remains of minute 
organisms ; but independently of these fossils, 
he finds that chalk contains living organisms 
of extreme minuteness, which he has named 
microzyma cretce, and regards as the most 
powerful ferments known. A sample of native 
chalk, taken from the centre of a large block 
and mixed with water, reveals under the mi- 
croscope numerous bright points having very 
lively trepidating movements, which are the 
organisms in question. The following experi- 
ment shows their power of inducing fermenta- 
tion : There were intimately mixed 420 grms. 
of starch paste, 30 grms. of chalk, and 4 drops 
of creosote. At the same time a similar mix- 
ture was made, except that pure carbonate of 
lime was used in place of chalk. In three days 
the starch in the mixture containing chalk 
was liquefied, but no change was produced in 
the one containing pure carbonate of lime. On 
Nov. 14, 1864, 100 grms. of starch, 1,500 cc. 
of water, and 10 drops of creosote were mixed 
with 100 grms. of chalk. On March 30, 1866, 
the mixture was analyzed and found to contain 
4 cc. of absolute alcohol, 8 grms. of butyric 
acid, and 5 '2 grms. of crystallized acetate of 
soda. On April 25, 1865, 80 grms. of cane 
sugar, 1,400 grms. of chalk were mixed with 
1,500 cc. of water containing creosote, and 
when examined on June 14 following yielded 
2'6 cc. of absolute alcohol, 4'5 grms. of buty-i 
ric acid, 6*8 grms. of acetate of soda, and 9! 
grms. of lactate of lime. When proper pre-i 
cautions are taken no other ferment is found 
in the liquid after fermentation besides those 
contained in the chalk, and which have be- 
come considerably augmented. Fermentation 
is retarded or arrested by the action of vari- 
ous substances. An accumulation of about 
15 per cent, of alcohol in the process arrests 
it. Lactic fermentation is also arrested when 
a certain quantity of lactic acid accumu- 
lates. Sulphurous acid, even in small quan- 


titles, has a remarkable effect in arresting fer- 
mentation, especially the acetic, and sulphite 
of calcium is extensively used by manufactu- 
rers of cider and wine, and judiciously em- 
ployed does not injure the beverage. Sulphur- 
ous acid is coming into use in distilleries in the 
process of mashing, with a view to prolong it 
so that an increased amount of dextrine and 
fecula may be converted into glucose before fer- 
mentation commences. The mineral acids gen- 
erally, chlorine, chloroform, camphor, carbolic 
and formic acids, and creosote, as well as most 
mineral salts, also turpentine and essential oils, 
have in varying degrees the property of arrest- 
ing or preventing fermentation. The employ- 
ment of common salt to prevent putrefactive 
fermentation is a familiar example of antisep- 
tic action. According to Dumas, alcoholic fer- 
mentation is not affected by earthy carbonates 
and neutral salts of potash and lime, and it is 
accelerated by a solution of bitartrate of potash, 
the yeast cells becoming more perfect, and 
filled with plastic matter containing numerous 
germs and mobile corpuscles. From all the 
researches which have been made into the 
subject of fermentation, whether the ferment 
be considered merely as an organic body in a 
state of change, or as a living organism, the 
explanation of the process is assisted by a con- 
sideration of the vibratory theory of molecular 
physics. When two or more bodies are brought 
into intimate contact with each other, as where 
a ferment is suspended or stirred in a ferment- 
able liquid, so that the molecules are intermin- 
gled, a tendency to produce a change of vibra- 
tory motion in them must follow as a necessary 
consequence ; and this tendency is much modi- 
fied by the addition or abstraction of heat. 
The difficulty of ascertaining experimentally 
whether any of the minute germs, which re- 
quire the highest powers of the microscope 
yet attained to enable them to be seen, may 
be present in a liquid, places the question as 
to the ultimate cause of fermentation in doubt, 
and it seems that the nearest approach to a so- 
lution of it must thus far depend upon logical 
inferences. Bucholz found that no fungi could 
be detected in milk mixed with a small quan- 
tity of carbolic acid, but that nevertheless it 
slowly turned sour. He therefore inferred 
that lactic fermentation is not due to the ac- 
tion of living organisms, but to a chemical fer- 
ment contained or formed in the milk. But 
although he found no fungi, minute organic 
germs may have been present, undiscoverable 
by the microscopic power which he employed. 
Bechamp, before making the experiments with 
chalk described above, had also found that 
creosote in certain quantities prevented the 
development of spores of fungi and germs of 
infusoria, without interfering with the action 
of ferments. The influence which may be ex- 
erted by undeveloped germs under similar cir- 
cumstances is a matter difficult to determine. 
There is a suggestion contained in the results 
of experiments which have been made by Pas- 



teur and others with boiled fermented liquors. 
It is asserted that they may be preserved for 
an indefinite time if filtered air or pure oxygen 
only is admitted into the vessel. Now, Payen 
found that certain organic spores did not lose 
the power of germination till heated to 284 F. ; 
and others maintain that organic germs will re- 
tain their vitality at much higher temperatures 
than this. It is certain that the decomposition 
of the proteine body is arrested by boiling, so 
that its influence is destroyed ; but it is quite 
probable that germs which have hitherto es- 
caped detection by means of the microscope 
may yet remain alive. If, therefore, it be a 
fact that boiling will for an indefinite time 
preserve a fermentable liquor when natural air 
is excluded, this would seem to indicate that 
something more than the presence of organic 
germs is necessary to induce fermentation, 
such as proteine compounds in a certain state 
of change, the peculiar action of which, how- 
ever, may be advantageously manifested in the 
presence of yeast or some living organism. 
The facts also that brewers find in their prac- 
tice that yeast does not exert its powers advan- 
tageously unless, before being added to the fer- 
menting tun, it be kept in a warm place till 
incipient putrefaction takes place, and that 
washed yeast when added to wort does not 
produce fermentation until a certain time has 
elapsed, strengthen the opinion. The fact, 
however, that, although undecomposed pro- 
teine compounds may be contained in the 
boiled liquor, they will not begin to decay in 
the presence of filtered air or pure oxygen, 
but require the admission of natural air, would 
indicate that they also require the presence of 
some body having a chemical or catalytic force 
not possessed by pure oxygen, which is re- 
moved from the atmosphere by filtration. 

FERMO (anc. Firmum Picenum), a town of 
Italy, in the province of Ascoli, 32 m. S. E. of 
Ancona, and 3 m. from the Adriatic; pop. 
about 20,000. It is the seat of an archbishop, 
has a cathedral and seven other churches, 
a lyceum, a communal gymnasium, a public 
library, and a theatre. It exports corn, silk, 
and woollens. It was founded by the Sabines 
before Rome existed, and became in 264 B. 0. 
a Roman colony. From the 8th century it 
generally belonged to the papal dominions till 
1860, when it became part of the kingdom of 
Italy. It is the birthplace of Lactantius. 

FERMOY, a town of Ireland, in the county 
and 19 m. N. E. of the city of Cork, on both 
sides of the Blackwater, which is here spanned 
by a fine stone bridge, built in 1866 ; pop. in 
1871, 7,611. At the beginning of the present 
century there were here only a few cabins, 
until Mr. John Anderson, the owner of the es- 
tate, built a hotel, and erected for the govern- 
ment barracks sufficient for 3,000 men. Fer- 
moy thus became the central military station 
of Ireland. Mr. Anderson also laid out streets 
and built houses which constitute the greater 
part of the town. It has a Roman Catholic 



cathedral, several Protestant churches, two 
colleges (Fermoy college, and St. Colman's 
Roman Catholic college), two convents, and 
three branch banks. 


FERNANDINA, a port of entry and the capi- 
tal of Nassau co., Florida, situated on the W. 
shore of Amelia island, at the entrance of 
Amelia river, which separates it from the 
mainland, into Cumberland sound, 160 m. E. 
by N. of Tallahassee ; pop. in 1870, 1,722, of 
whom 959 were colored. The harbor is land- 
locked and capacious, and is unsurpassed on 
the Atlantic coast S. of Chesapeake bay. Ves- 
sels drawing 19 or 20 feet of water can cross 
the bar at high tide, and the largest ships can 
unload at the wharves.- The climate, mild in 
winter and tempered in summer by the sea 
breezes, is very healthful. In the vicinity are 
numerous sugar, cotton, and orange planta- 
tions. The town, which is the seat of the 
Protestant Episcopal bishopric of Florida, con- 
tains seven churches, a 
young ladies' seminary 
under the charge of the 
bishop, and a weekly 
newspaper. It has an 
important trade in lum- 
ber, and possesses a 
large cotton-ginning es- 
tablishment and a man- 
ufactory of cotton-seed 
oil. Lines of steamers 
to Savannah, Charles- 
ton, and New York 
touch here. The value 
of the foreign commerce 
for the year ending 
June 30, 1873, was 
$327,859; 52 vessels 
of 14,789 tons entered 
from, and 63 of 22,217 
tons cleared for foreign 
ports; entered in the 
coastwise trade, 112 
steamers of 77,708 tons, 

and 105 sailing vessels of 28,493 tons ; cleared, 
110 steamers of 76,292 tons, and 106 sailing 
vessels of 26,021 tons. Fernandina was built 
by the Spaniards in the early part of this 
century, but was of little importance until the 
completion of the Florida railroad, extending 
from this point to Cedar Keys. 

FERNANDO DE NORONHA, a group of small 
islands in the Atlantic ocean, belonging to 
Brazil, situated about 210 m. N. E. of Cape St. 
Roque ; lat. of S. E. extremity of the principal 
island, 3 50' S., Ion. 32 28' W. The shores 
are rocky, and difficult of access on account 
of the violence of the surf. The largest island, 
which gives the name to the group, is about 
20 m. in circumference. In it is a conical 
mountain about 1,000 ft. high, the upper part 
of which is very steep, and on one side over- 
hangs its base. It is composed of phonolitic 
rock, which has been severed into irregular 


columns. The island is covered with wood, 
but such is the aridity of its climate, there 
being sometimes no rain for two years, that 
vegetable production is very limited. It con- 
tains two harbors, and the coasts abound with 
fish. It is used as a place of banishment by 
Brazil, whose government maintains a garrison 
there to prevent the escape of criminals. No 
woman is permitted to land on it. Another 
of these islands is about 1 m. square, and the 
rest are mere rocky islets, separated from the 
main islands by very narrow channels. 

FERNANDO PO (Port. Fernao do Po\ an 
island in the bight of Biafra, W. coast of 
Africa, about 25 m. from the mainland, lying 
between lat. 3 12' and 3 47' N., and Ion. 8 
26' and 8 57' E. ; pop. variously estimated at 
from 5,000 to 20,000. It is about 44 m. long 
and 20 m. broad. Rising in bold precipitous 
cliffs from the sea, its surface gradually be- 
comes more and more elevated, until in Clar- 
ence peak, near the N. extremity, it attains an 

Clarence Peak, Fernando Po. 

altitude of 10,650 ft. The rocks are wholly 
of volcanic formation. The soil, which is 
mostly covered with wood, is everywhere well 
watered and fertile. The scenery is pictu- 
resque and beautiful, the highest summits and 
the deepest vales being alike adorned with 
luxuriant vegetation. The principal vegetable 
products are palms, the bombax or silk cotton 
tree, the goora (sterculia), a species of ebony, 
the sugar cane, here growing wild, and yams, 
which form the staple food of the inhabitants. 
The most numerous quadrupeds are antelopes, 
monkeys, squirrels, and rats. The rivers 
abound in fish and alligators. The coast is in- 
dented with several creeks and bays, the most 
capacious of which is Maidstone bay, at the 
N. E. extremity, where is situated the capital, 
Clarencetown. The aborigines of Fernando 
Po, called Edeeyahs, are widely different in 
appearance and language from the natives of 




the continent. They are of lighter complexion 
and better features, well made and muscular, 
and in disposition brave, generous, and amiable. 
Their dwellings are of very rude construction, 
consisting merely of palm-leaf mats thrown 
loosely over upright poles. This island was 
discovered by the Portuguese in 1471, and 
named after the leader of the expedition. In 
1778 it ceded to the Spaniards, who at- 
tempted to colonize it and carry on a slave 
trade, but were repelled by the natives. In 
1827 Spain permitted it to be occupied by the 
British, who in 1834 abandoned it on account 
of its insalubrity ; since which period the 
Spaniards have again claimed it and changed 
its name to Puerto de Isabel, and now use it 
as a place of banishment for criminals. During 
the British possession a Baptist mission was 
established here ; but in 1858 the missionaries 
were expelled by the Spanish government. 

FERNEY, or Fernex, a town of France, in the 
department of Ain, on the frontier of Switzer- 
land, at the foot of the Jura mountains, 5 m. 
N. W. of Geneva; pop. about 1,200. It was 
a place of refuge for the Huguenots during the 
era of religious persecution in France, and 
was for 20 years the residence of Voltaire. 
When he bought the land, about 1758, Ferney 
was a miserable hamlet, consisting only of a 
few hovels. By his exertions it became a 
prosperous town, with nearly 1,500 inhabi- 
tants. He drained and cultivated the adja- 
cent grounds, and caused Geneva watchmakers 
and other industrious artisans to settle there, 
while the constant concourse of visitors and 
travellers contributed to enhance the general 
prosperity. The death of Voltaire proved 
disastrous to the industry of the place, the 
persons employed in the manufacture of 
watches being reduced from 800 to about 200. 
The chateau in which he lived has undergone 
many alterations, so that few relics of him re- 
main. Adjoining the chateau are two small edi- 
fices, one the theatre and the other the church 
built by Voltaire. Upon the porch of the lat- 
ter is the following inscription : Deo erexit Vol- 
tariua. In front of the chateau is the mauso- 
leum which he had built with the utmost atten- 
tion to artistic execution. 

FERNIG, Felicite and Theophile de, French 
heroines, sisters, born at Mortagne, depart- 
ment of Le Nord, Felicite in 1776, Theophile 
in 1779. They distinguished themselves by 
bravery on many occasions, especially at the 
battles of Valmy and Jemmapes, having enlist- 
ed without their father's knowledge in a com- 
pany of national guards which he commanded 
in 1792. Their services were officially recog- 
nized, and are commemorated in Lamartine's 
" History of the Girondists." Theophile, who 
had musical and poetical talents, died in Brus- 
sels in 1818. Felicite" became the wife of M. 
Van der Walen, a Belgian officer, whose life 
she had saved, and died much later. 

FERNKORN, Anton Dominik, a German sculptor 
and bronze founder, born at Erfurt, March 17, 

1813. He spent a number of years in a foun- 
dery at Munich, and at the same time attended 
the academy of Schwanthaler. In 1840 he 
settled in Vienna, and having produced sev- 
eral excellent works was made director of a 
government bronze foundery. Among his best 
productions are the colossal equestrian statue 
of the archduke Charles, finished in 1860, and 
the monument to Prince Eugene in 1865. In 
1866 he became insane, and was placed in a 
private asylum at Dobling, near Vienna. 

FERNS, the highest order of cryptogamous 
plants, forming a natural group distinguished 
for beauty and elegance, and much cultivated 
for ornament. Ferns are leafy plants producing 
a stem or rhizome, which creeps below or upon 
the surface of the earth, and sometimes rises 
to the height of 50 ft. as a tree trunk, crowned 
with terminal leaves or fronds. The rhizome 
is a fibrous woody cylinder, growing only at 
the end, and so of equal diameter throughout, 
giving out rootlets anywhere on its surface, 
and presenting on a cross section a hard fibrous 
rind composed of the angular bases of fallen 
fronds, enclosing a cellular tissue with a ring 
of woody plates, folded and curled, which are 
in fact the bases of the leaf stalks, and in the 
centre a cellular mass or highly developed pith. 
The stem is in fact a consolidated bundle of leaf 
stalks. The frond is circinate or coiled in ver- 
nation, and when unfolded is often of great 
size (25 ft. long). From this and the minute 
subdivision of the frond it has been considered 
rather a leaf-bearing branch than a proper 
leaf; but there are all gradations from an en- 
tire frond to one most minutely divided, and in 
the latter case the membranous portion proves 
on examination to be one, however deeply in- 
cised. The petiole is never sheathing or articu- 
lated at the base, although in some tropical 
species the base is much enlarged and forms 
an elastic joint, quite edible. The size of the 
fronds varies from a diameter of less than a 
quarter of an inch to an expansion unequalled 
by any other vegetable except some seaweeds. 
In several cases buds spring out on the surface 
or edges of the frond, and thus multiply the 
species; this is the case in the walking fern, 
camptosorus, where the tip of the elongated 
hastate frond bends to the earth and takes 
root, giving rise to new plants. The veins of 
the pinnse or leaflets of the fronds are various- 
ly arranged, and usually so definitely in each 
genus as to be used in generic distinctions. 
The fructification of ferns is always on the 
lower face of the fronds, which sometimes un- 
der its influence are reduced to simple supports 
in the shape of a spike or panicle ; it consists 
of sporangia or capsules, each containing many 
spores, and usually attached to the nerves or 
veins, but sometimes covering the whole sur- 
face. These capsules are grouped in clusters 
of various forms called sori, and each cluster is 
often covered until ripe by a fold of the leaf 
membrane called an indusium. The order of 
ferns is divided into suborders, most botanists 



recognizing as many as eight, founded upon the 
structure, manner of attachment, and mode of 
opening of the sporangia. By far the largest of 
these suborders is the polypodiacece, or true 
ferns, which includes the great majority of 
those with which we are familiar in the wild 

Rock Fern (Polypodium vulgare). 

state or in cultivation. In ferns of this sub- 
order the structure of the. sporangium is 
curious. A little bundle of cellular pores on 
a stem of the same cell formation is clasped 
around by a ring of thick and elastic segments, 
each resembling a U with the rounded part in- 
ward and the sides united. While the sporan- 
gium is alive and full of sap the arms of the (J 

Hart's Tongue (Scolopendrium officinarum). 

remain almost parallel; but as the ring dries 
the arms shrink together, and the capsule is 
ruptured, often with force enough to throw the 
minute spores to some distance. The position 
of the sporangia on the frond is an import- 
ant generic distinction. In the common rock 

fern (polypodium) they are round, cinnamon- 
colored dots in rows each side of the midrib ; 
hart's tongue (scolopendrium) they form 


numerous obliquely transverse lines ; in maiden- 
hair (adiantum) a bit of the edge of the frond 
folds over the capsules ; in the brake (pteris) 

Maiden-hair (Adiantum pedatum). 

the whole edge is folded over; and in the 
asplenium and many other ferns the sporangia 
are in oblong masses pinnately arranged each 
side of the midrib of the smaller divisions of 
the frond. In hymenopliyllum, of a different 
suborder, the capsules are contained in a calyx- 
like urn springing from the terminal veins. In 
the ophioglossacece, which include our com- 

Common Brake (Pteris aquilina). 

mon adder's tongue and moon wort, the spo- 
rangia are entirely without the elastic ring, and 
open by a transverse slit into two valves. The 
spores are very minute and of various shapes, 
and form the brown (rarely green) dust which 
falls when a ripe frond is shaken. The mode 



Adder's Tongue (Ophio- 
glossum vulgatum). 

in which ferns are fecundated is a modern 
discovery, but the process may be watched un- 
der the microscope by so wing the spores of any 
common fern in a moist place. The spore swells 
with the moisture and ruptures its walls; a 
little radicle or rootlet 
is thrown out, consist- 
ing of a single cell, and 
at the same time an- 
other cell spreads out 
as a tube of irregular 
fofm, which soon forms 
partitions through its 
mass, and by multiplica- 
tion of these cells be- 
comes a small green leaf- 
like expansion called a 
protJiallus. On the un- 
der surface of this spring 
organs of two kinds, 
the antheridia and 
arcTiegonia. The former 
are filled with minute 
spiral bodies called an- 
therozoids, which have 
cilia and the power of 
motion in water, which 
is always abundant on 
the under side of the 
)rothallus; when mature they pass into the 
ihegonia, which are cup-like organs, open 
rhen mature, and containing one or more cells 
rhich the contact of the antherozoids causes 
develop, and soon a root appears, then the 
irst frond, and so on until the complete fern is 
ie result. The species of ferns at present de- 
iribed are 2,235, although some botanists make 
the number above 3,000. In the earlier geolo- 
gical ages ferns formed a most important part 
" the vegetation, as is plainly seen in the coal 
ields, where numerous fronds and stems are 
reserved; but from the general absence of 
:uctification on these remains, it is often im- 
sible to distinguish the species. They are 
low found all over the world, but especially in 
ie warmer and moister climates ; thus in the 
Lntilles they comprise ^ of the vegetation, in 
)ceanica or |, in St. Helena , in Juan Fer- 
idez , and in England -fa. The Hawaiian 
islands and New Caledonia are particularly rich 
species. The tree ferns are chiefly confined 
the torrid zone, but Martens found them 50 
high in Japan, and Robert Brown found 
irborescent ferns at the extremity of Tasmania, 
id even at Dusky bay in New Zealand, near 
lat. 46 S. Most tree ferns are easily propa- 
ited by planting sections of their stems, which 
ily leaf out. For the classification of ferns, 
rhich is very unsettled and depends on tecbni- 
il differences, see Hooker's " Genera," Hooker 
id Baker's "Synopsis," or Smith's "Ferns, 
British and Foreign ;" and for local descrip- 
tions see local floras. The uses of ferns are 
lot very prominent. On the Hawaiian islands 
ie stem of a tree fern is often baked in the 
im cracks of the volcanoes, and by long 

cooking becomes quite palatable, although ra- 
ther leathery, and tasteless without salt. The 
enlarged bases of the petioles of other spe- 
cies are cooked and eaten in times of scarcity ; 
when raw they smell precisely like a raw po- 
tato. The stems and midribs of some smaller 
species are woven into baskets and hats. A 
few species are considered medicinal, and some 
are aromatic and used to scent cocoanut oil. 
In cultivation ferns may be adapted to a va- 
riety of localities ; for, although generally found 
in shady places, many thrive in the full tropical 
sun if the air be moist, and some grow on dry 
rocks and even on the uninviting surface of lava 

Tree Ferns. 

1. Alsophila excelsa. 2. Dicksonia arborescens. 3. Cyathea 
elepans. 4. Cyathea arborea. 5. Heinitelia speciosa. 
6. Drynaria coronans. 7. Platycerium grande. 8. Bird's 
nest fern. 9. Asplenium lucidum. 

streams. A compost of peat or bog earth, de- 
cayed leaf mould, yellow loam, and silver sand 
nT equal proportions, may be used in potting 
ferns; but it must be well underdrained, and 
the addition of a few fragments of mortar ^or 
limestone is advantageous. Several species 
climb on rocks, like ivies; others cling to 
trees, or, like the beautiful climbing fern (lygo- 
dium), run over bushes. About 1830 Mr. N. B. 
Ward of England, in investigating the trans- 
formations of an insect, buried its chrysalis in 
some earth in a closed glass bottle. A seedling 
fern and a grass sprang up from the soil and 
grew within the confined atmosphere of the 


vessel. This led to experiments upon the growth 
of plants, especially ferns, in close cases, and re- 
sulted in establishing the fact that these plants 
would not only grow under such conditions, 
but that most ferns would flourish much better 
than in the open air. Wardian cases, which 
resulted from this discovery, are now in gen- 
eral use for the cultivation of ferns, and are 
among the most popular as they are the most 
beautiful of household ornaments. 

FEROJV, Firmin Eloi, a French painter, born 
in Paris, Dec. 1, 1802. He studied under Gros, 
and received the great prize in 1825 for his 
picture of "Damon and Pythias." Among 
his subsequent works are "Hannibal in the 
Alps" (1833), "The Resurrection of Lazarus " 
(1835), and " Christ arrested by Judas " and 
"Souvenir of Tunis" (1855). Many of his 
pictures are in the museum of Versailles, and 
he was a favorite painter of Louis Philippe 
and his sons; but his reputation has declined. 

FEROZEPOOR, a town of British India, in 
the Punjaub, about 3 m. S. of the river Ghara, 
45 m. S. S. E. of Lahore ; pop. about 10,000. 
The ruins which surround it show that it 
was once a large city. It came into pos- 
session of the British in 1835, since when it 
has been greatly improved, and bids fair to 
become of considerable military and commer- 
cial importance. In May, 1857, during the 
sepoy rebellion, a regiment of- native infantry 
revolted, but were driven out of the fort by a 
handful of Europeans, and fled after plundering 
and burning the houses, hospitals, and church. 
In August following a regiment of cavalry re- 
volted, but after killing several persons were 
repulsed and dispersed. 

J EUR AM), Antoine Francois Claude, count, a 
French politician and historian, born in Paris, 
July 4, 1751, died there, Jan. 17, 1825. At the 
age of 18 years he was admitted a counsellor 
in the parliament of Paris by special dispen- 
sation. He left Paris in 1789, and attached 
himself to the prince of Conde ; and after the 
death of Louis XVI. he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the council of regency. He returned 
to France in 1801, devoted himself to litera- 
ture, and published a work, on which he had 
been long engaged, entitled De Vesprit de 
Vhistoire, which was a bold defence of abso- 
lute monarchy. He was engaged to complete 
Rulhiere's unfinished Histoire de Vanarchie de 
Pologne et du demembrement de cette repu- 
~blique ; but the imperial police prevented the 
publication on the ground that the work be- 
longed to the government, it having been ori- 
ginally written for the instruction of Louis 
XVL, then dauphin. After the restoration of 
the Bourbons he was appointed minister of 
state and postmaster general. He was a mem- 
ber of the academy, and author of several dra- 
matic and a large number of political works, 
the latter of which were conservative and 
many of them reactionary in their tendency. 

FERRARA. I. A province of Italy, formerly 
a part of the Papal States, bounded N. by 


the main branch of the Po, which divides it 
from Lombardy, E. by the Adriatic, S. by the 
provinces of Ravenna and Bologna, and W. 
by Modena, from which it is partly separated 
by the river Panaro ; area, 1,009 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 215,369. The surface is flat, 
and in many parts below the level of the Po, 
and protected from inundation by embank- 
ments along the river. A considerable portion 
of the E. part of the province is almost con- 
stantly under water. In June, 1872, there 
was a terrible inundation by which 20,000 
people were rendered homeless. The soil is 
rich and fertile, but the vast swamps render 
the atmosphere more or less unwholesome, 
especially in summer. The chief products are 
grain, rice, flax, hemp, wine, olives, and silk. 
Extensive pastures favor the rearing of cattle, 
and the fisheries are of some importance. The - 
province formerly constituted the greater part 
of the duchy of Ferrara, which was ruled by 
the house of Este from the early part of the 
13th century to 1598, when it was annexed to 
the Papal States. In 1796 it was taken by 
the French and formed part first of the Cisal- 
pine republic, and afterward of the kingdom 
of Italy, till 1814, when it was restored to the 
pope, with the exception of a small portion 
between the Po di Goro and the Po della 
Maestra, which was secured to Austria by the 
congress of Vienna, together with the right 
of garrisoning the citadel of Ferrara. The 
province was governed by a papal legate or 
cardinal, and was called a legation, until No- 
vember, 1850, when it came under the admin- 
istration of an inferior prelate. In June, 1859, 
the Austrian troops were withdrawn from the 
capital, and in March, 1860, it was annexed 
to the kingdom of Sardinia. The principal 
towns besides the capital are Lugo, Cento, 
Bagnacavallo, and Comacchio, the last a forti- 
fied town, situated on an island in the midst 
of extensive swamps, and noted for its fish- 
eries, which are celebrated by Tasso and Ari- 
osto. II. A city, capital of the province, situ- 
ated in a flat unhealthy country, only about 7 
ft. above the level of the sea, on the left bank 
of the Volano, branch of the Po, about 5 m. 
S. of the main channel of that river, 26 m. N. 
E. of Bologna and 88 m. N. W. of Ravenna ; 
pop. as a commune, in 1871, 72,447, of whom 
less than one half were in the city proper. 
Ferrara was a small village until the beginning 
of the 7th century, when it was walled by the 
exarch of Ravenna. The bishopric of Fer- 
rara dates from 661, the archbishopric from 
1735. A general council was convened here 
in 1438, but was removed to Florence. (See 
Under the rule of the princes of Este the city 
gained great importance, especially in the 16th 
century, when it was celebrated for learning, 
poetry, art, and the refinement and splendor 
of its ducal court. In the 15th century it was 
famous for its school of painting. In the early 
part of the 16th it gave an asylum to Calvin 




and other religious reformers. Guarini, Boiar- 
do, Ariosto, and Tasso were among the most 
illustrious ornaments of its court. The city 
had in its most prosperous period about 100,- 
000 inhabitants. It still retains many ves- 
tiges of its former splendor. The churches 
contain fine works of art, especially that of the 
Oampo Santo, which occupies the site of the 
old Certosa convent. The cathedral of St. 
Paul was consecrated in 1135, and contains the 
tomb of Urban III. Santa Maria del Vado 
is the oldest church, but has been entirely 
altered by modern restoration. That of San 
Francesco is famous for its echo, which has 16 
reverberations. Ariosto was buried in the 
church of San Benedetto, but in 1801 his re- 
mains were removed to the public library. 

Castle of Ferrara. 

The finest of the palaces of Ferrara are the 
Diamond palace, or Villa Ercole, and the 
palazzo del Magistro, where the accademia 
Ariostea holds its sittings. In the hospital of 
Santa Anna a small room on the ground floor 
is still shown in which Tasso is said to have 
lu'eii confined as a lunatic for many years by 
Alfonso II., but the identity of this room with 
his place of confinement is now very generally 
disbelieved ; and near the city is the villa Bel 
Biguardo, where the poet enjoyed the society 
of Eleonora of Este. The university of Fer- 
rara was founded in 1321, renovated in 1402, 
closed in 1797, and reopened in 1824. It was 
again closed during the revolutionary troubles 

of 1848-'9, and reopened Nov. 1, 1850, after 
the reestablishment of the papal authority. It 
is chiefly renowned as a school of jurispru- 
dence and medicine, and is attended by 200 to 
300 students. It contains a collection of an- 
tiquities, a library of 80,000 volumes and 900 
MSS., comprising some of Guarini, Ariosto, 
and Tasso, and many valuable editions of the 
15th and 16th centuries. Ferrara possesses 
one of the finest and largest theatres of Italy, 
a botanical garden, and many charitable in- 
stitutions and convents. In the centre of the 
city is a castle flanked with towers and sur- 
rounded by wet ditches, which was formerly 
the palace of the dukes. The population is 
chiefly collected in the vicinity of this castle, 
and but thinly scattered elsewhere. The city 
is enclosed with walls and defended on the W. 
side by the citadel. The Austrians took pos- 
session of the whole city in August, 1847, but 
the troops were withdrawn in December, and 
the Austrian occupation remained confined to 
the citadel until July 14, 1848, when the city 
was again seized by Prince Liechtenstein. On 
Feb. 18, 1849, it was occupied for a short time 
by Gen. Haynau, who imposed upon the in- 
habitants a contribution of 200,000 scudi. In 
June, 1859, after the battle of Magenta, the 
Austrian forces withdrew from the citadel, 
and it was destroyed. 

FERRARI, Gandenzio, a painter of the Milan- 
ese school, born at Valduggia in 1484, died in 
Milan in 1550. His principal works are illus- 
trative of the story of creation and of the early 
events of Christianity, and are found in the gal- 
leries and churches of Lombardy. He was also 
a sculptor, architect, mathematician, and poet. 

FERRARI, Giuseppe, an Italian philosopher 
and historian, born in Milan about 1811. In 
1831 he graduated as a doctor of law in the 
university of Pavia, but devoted himself to 
literature and philosophy, and became a disci- 
ple of Romagnosi. In 1835 appeared his com- 
plete edition of the works of Vico, reprinted 
in 1853, in Milan, in the collection of Italian 
classics. In 1837 he went to France, and pub- 
lished in 1839 Vico et Vltalie. In 1840 he be- 
came professor of philosophy at the college 
of Rochefort, and afterward at Strasburg, but 
soon lost his office on account of his radical- 
ism. In 1847 he published Essai sur le prin- 
cipe et les limites de la philosophic de Vhis- 
toire, his most important work. After the 
revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, he was reinstated 
in his chair at Strasburg, but the dislike of 
the French clergy followed him there, and to 
Bourges, whither he removed at the end of 
that year, and they eventually succeeded in 
procuring his dismissal (June 13, 1849). In 
1859 he returned to Italy and became a mem- 
ber of parliament, and successively professor 
in Turin, Milan, and Florence. He is the fore- 
most Italian representative of positivism, and 
attempts a philosophical reconstruction of the 
political development of nations, founded ex- 
clusively upon experience and induction. His 




more recent works include Filosofia delta rivo- 
luzione (1851) ; Histoire des revolutions cPIta- 
lie (4 vols., Paris, 1856-'8) ; and Corso di lezioni 
sugli scrittori politici italiani (1862-'3). 

FERRARI, Lnigi, an Italian sculptor, born in 
Venice in 1810. He studied under his father 
Bartolorameo, an eminent artist, and was early 
employed in connection with Can ova's monu- 
ment to Titian. In 1827 he exhibited his first 
work, a statuette of the Virgin ; and since 1851 
he has been professor of statuary at the acad- 
emy of fine arts in Venice. Among his prin- 
cipal works are "Laocoon," in the museum of 
Brescia; two figures representing a " Nymph 
collecting Lotus " and " Melancholy ;" and 
marble statues of King David, of the Madonna 
della Ooncezione, of Marco Polo, and of St. 
Justus, in Trieste. He has executed many 
funeral monuments, and busts and statues of 
angels, nymphs, and children. 

FERRE, Theopliile Charles, a French commu- 
nist, born about 1845, executed at Satory, near 
Paris, Nov. 28, 1871. He was a merchant's 
clerk, and was early implicated in revolutionary 
movements. During the insurrection of March, 
1871, he favored the assassination of Gens. Le- 
comte and Clement-Thomas, and became a 
member of the commune and of the commission 
of public safety, adjunct procurator general, 
and prefect of police. On May 27 he presided 
over a massacre of hostages, after having re- 
leased and armed the inmates of the peniten- 
tiary and converted them into executioners. 
One of the most ferocious terrorists, he set fire 
to the prefecture of police, and ordered the 
burning of the ministry of finance. Previous 
to his execution, he wrote to his sister that he 
died as he had lived, a materialist. 

FERREIRA, Antonio, a Portuguese poet, born in 
Lisbon in 1528, died there of the plague in 
1569. He was a contemporary of Camoens, 
and perfected the elegiac and epistolary style 
already introduced with success by Sa de Mi- 
randa. He enriched Portuguese poetry with 
the epithalamium, the epigram, ode, and tra- 
gedy, and the influence which he exerted in 
kindling a love for classical scholarship caused 
him to be called the Horace of Portugal. His 
Poemas lusitanos, which are distinguished by 
remarkable purity of language, appeared in 
1598, and his complete works in 1771. His 
best comedy is Comedia do cioso (the " Jealous 
Man "), and his masterpiece is the tragedy of 
Ines de Castro. An English translation of this 
tragedy, by Mr. Musgrave, appeared in 1825. 

FERRET, a carnivorous digitigrade animal, 
belonging to the weasel family, and the genus 
putorius (Cuv.). The dentition is: incisors, 
| ; canines, \~_\ ; molars, |:f , two above and 
three below being false molars. Since the 
time of Linnaeus the ferret has been generally 
considered a southern or albino variety of the 
polecat (P. foztidus, Klein), principally from 
their producing offspring together; but they 
may more properly be considered distinct 
species for the following reasons : the ferret is 

a native of Africa and warm regions, and only 
exists in Europe in a domesticated state, being 
very sensitive to cold, and requiring the pro- 
tection of man ; its size is smaller, its shape 
more slender, and its snout sharper than in the 
polecat ; and its habits, though quite as san- 
guinary, do not enable it to live wild in the 
woods. The length of the ferret (P. furo, 
Linn.) is from 12 to 14 in. from nose to base of 
tail, the latter being about 5 in. long. It is an 
error to suppose that the ferret is always white, 
with pink eyes, as such individuals are only 
albino varieties, such as occur in many other 
animals ; the general color is an irregular mix- 
ture of yellow and black, the fur being long 
and fine, with an undergrowth of cinereous 
woolly hair ; the yellowest animals are most 
subject to albinism. Both sexes are alike in 
color, but the male is the larger, being about 3 
in. high at the shoulder and 4 in. at the sa- 
crum. Though ranked as a domesticated ani- 
mal, and employed by man to hunt rabbits and 
rats, it is far from docile or gentle, and never 
seems to have any affection for those who feed 

Ferret (Putorius furo). 

and take care of it. According to Strabo, it was 
introduced from northern Africa into Spain, 
whence it has spread over Europe. In its nat- 
ural condition it has the habits of the polecat 
and weasels, sucking the blood of small quad- 
rupeds and birds, and devouring eggs ; itisnoc-' 
turnal, sleeping nearly all day ; in captivity it is 
fed on bread and milk and raw meat. It pro- 
duces young twice a year, and from five to eight 
at a time ; gestation is about six weeks, and the 
young are said by F. Cuvier to be born hair- 
less and with closed eyes, and to be frequently 
devoured by the mother. Its natural enmity 
to the rabbit has been taken advantage of by 
man, who trains it to enter the burrows of 
these animals, and to drive them out into nets 
spread over the entrance ; the ferret is muzzled 
to prevent its killing the rabbits, otherwise it is 
believed it would suck their blood, and go to 
sleep in the burrow. It will also soon rid a house 
of rats and mice. For these reasons the ferret is 
cared for by man, without whose aid it would 
not survive in Europe ; it is carefully bred in 




captivity, and sometimes crossed with the pole- 
cat, which is supposed to increase its ferocity. 
The ferret is easily irritated, and then emits a 
strong disagreeable odor. It is generally be- 
lieved that the ferrets kill by sucking the blood 
of their victims, aiming at the jugular vein or 
the great vessels of the neck ; but the rapidity 
of the death is entirely inconsistent with so 
long a process as this. Experiments have 
shown that the ferret often inflicts but a single 
wound, which is almost instantly fatal, and 
frequently immediately disengages itself from 
the body of its victim to attack and kill another 
in a similar manner ; the single wound is in the 
side of the neck, under or behind the ear, and 
may or may not pierce the large blood vessels ; 
the canines enter the spinal cord between the 
skull and the first vertebra of the neck, de- 
stroying its victim by the same process as the 
bull-fighter with his keen sword, or the Spanish 
executioner with the steel point of the garrote, 
making neither a lacerated nor a contused 
wound, but penetrating into the medulla ob- 
longata, the very centre of life, instantly ar- 
resting the action of the heart and respiratory 
muscles, and at once destroying consciousness, 
sensation, and motion. This is one of many 
instances in which the instinct of animals has 
anticipated the slow deductions of science. 
The truth seems to be that when the animal 
is of small size, it is killed by the ferret by 
wounding the upper part of the spinal cord ; 
but that when it is of superior size and strength, 
the ferret seizes it wherever it can, producing 
death by loss of blood, pain, and exhaustion of 
strength. After the animal is dead, the ferret, 
like other weasels, no doubt sucks its blood, 
though the statement generally made in works 
on natural history, from Buffon to F. Cuvier 
and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, that death is uni- 
formly caused in this manner, is untrue. 

FERRIER, James Frederick, a Scottish meta- 
physician, born in Edinburgh in November, 
1808, died at St. Andrews, June 11, 1864. He 
was a nephew of Miss Ferrier the authoress, 
graduated at Oxford in 1832, and was admitted 
the next year to the Scottish bar. He married 
a daughter of Prof. James Wilson, whose col- 
lected works he subsequently edited; and he 
early contributed to " Blackwood's Magazine " 
essays on philosophical and literary subjects. 
In 1842 he was elected professor of history 
in the university of Edinburgh, and in 1845 
of moral philosophy at St. Andrews. His lec- 
tures and conversation displayed great learn- 
ing, independence of thought, and felicity of 
expression, and he was one of the ornaments 
of the intellectual circles o/ Edinburgh. His 
principal work, " Institutes of Metaphysics : 
the Theory of Knowing and Being," appeared 
in 1854 ; and his " Lectures on Greek Philoso- 
phy" and other philosophical remains were 
edited by Sir A. Grant and E. L. Lushington 
(2 vols., 1866). He attempted to construct a 
system of idealism, which however has found 
few if any disciples ; but he called attention 

to many vital principles of thought, and Ueber- 
weg accords to him in his "History of Philos- 
ophy "^ a rare preeminence among English phi- 
losophical writers. 

FERRIER, Snsan Edmonston, a Scottish novel- 
ist, born in Edinburgh about 1782, died there 
in November, 1854. Her works, all published 
anonymously, are: "Marriage" (1818), "The 
Inheritance" (1824), and "Destiny, or the 
Chief's Daughter" (1831). She possessed a 
rare ability for delineating national character- 
istics, genial wit, and a quick sense of the lu- 
dicrous. Sir Walter Scott pays a tribute to 
her talent at the conclusion of his " Legend of 
Montrose." She was his frequent guest at 
Abbotsford, and contributed by her society to 
relieve the sadness which clouded the last days 
of his life. She was never married. 

FERRIERES, a village of France, in the de- 
partment of Seine-et-Marne, 15 m. E. of Paris; 
pop. about 800. In the 17th century it was a 
marquisate, afterward belonged to Fouche, and 
was finally purchased by Baron Rothschild, for 
whom the English architect Paxton built here 
one of the most magnificent chateaux in France, 
in the style of the last period of Italian renais- 
sance. From Sept. 19 to Oct. 5, 1870, it was 
the headquarters of King William of Prussia. 
An interview between Jules Favre and Bis- 
marck took place there immediately after the 
arrival of the king. 

FERRO, or Hierro, the most, westerly and 
smallest of the Canary islands, in lat. 27 40' 
N., Ion. 18 W. ; length 18 m., greatest breadth 
9 m. ; area, about 100 sq. m. ; pop. about 4,600. 
The ancient geographers supposed this to be 
the westernmost point of the world, and drew 
through it the first meridian ; they are imitated 
by the Germans (who place it at 17 40' from 
Greenwich), and others of eastern Europe who 
follow them. Chief town, Valverde. 

FERROL, a seaport city of Spain, on the N. 
arm of the bay of Betanzos, in the province 
and 12 m. N. E. of the city of Corunna; pop. 
about 23,000. Its harbor, which is defended 
by Forts Palma and San Felipe, is one of the 
best in Europe. The town is well built, and 
protected on the land side by formidable forti- 
fications. It has an immense marine arsenal, 
covering nearly 24 acres, with a basin and 
docks, which are among the finest in Europe. 
The marine barracks afford accommodation for 
6,000 men. In connection with the arsenal 
there is a school for seamanship and engineer- 
ing ; there is also a naval observatory. Ferrol 
has a few manufactures, but being a military 
port, foreign merchant vessels are excluded 
from it. It was but a small fishing town prior 
to 1752, when its fortifications were begun by 
Ferdinand VI. The English failed in an attack 
upon it in 1799, but it was taken by the French 
in 1809 and 1823. 


FERRY, a place where persons, animals, or 
goods are carried across a river or other 
water; in law, a liberty or franchise so to 




transport persons or things. Such a franchise 
can exist in England only by grant from the 
king, or by a prescription which supposes a 
grant; and being granted and accepted, the 
grantee is indictable if he have not suitable 
means of transport. In the United States, fer- 
ries are created as well as regulated generally 
by statutes, although there may be ancient fer- 
ries resting on usage and prescription. The ter- 
mini of the ferry are at the water's edge, and 
shift with that if it varies ; but the owner has a 
right of way to and from the ferry. Ferrymen 
are common carriers, and have the rights and 
come under the obligations of common carriers. 
Thus, they may determine (within reasonable 
limits) when and how often, and upon what 
terms, their boats shall cross the water, and 
what they will transport ; but all these things 
they must do by general rules, without favor- 
itism or arbitrary exception. They are liable 
for all loss of or injury to property in their 
possession, unless it be caused by the act of 
God or of the public enemy. This liability 
does not attach when persons or things are 
coming toward or going from their boats, but 
begins as soon as they are on the boat, or on 
the slip or flat, and continues while they are 
there. One who owns a ferry, and employs 
persons to do all the labor and the actual trans- 
port, is in law the ferryman, and liable ac- 
cordingly. But if he leases the* ferry, reserving 
only his rent, the lessee in possession, and not 
the owner, is the responsible ferryman; and 
this is true even if the rent reserved be a cer- 
tain proportion of the receipts. 

FERSEN, Axel, count, a Swedish soldier, born 
in Stockholm about 1750, killed June 20, 1810. 
He was educated at the military academy of 
Turin, and entered the Swedish army, but 
afterward went to Versailles, and was made 
colonel of the royal regiment of Swedes, the 
body guard of Louis XVI. He served in the 
American revolutionary war with distinction, 
and was aide-de-camp of Rochambeau at York- 
town. Upon his return to France he became 
a devoted adherent of the Bourbons, and Marie 
Antoinette especially distinguished him. In 
the flight to Varennes Fersen was the disguised 
coachman of the royal fugitives. After their 
capture he escaped, and was employed by Gus- 
tavus III. in furthering the project of reinstating 
the Bourbon dynasty in France. Toward the 
end of his life he became the favorite of Charles 
XIII., and his sister enjoyed in an equal degree 
the favor of the queen ; but both were unpop- 
ular with the people. Fersen was made grand 
marshal of the kingdom ; but the sudden death 
of the crown prince, Christian Augustus of 
Augustenb'urg, gave rise to suspicion that Fer- 
sen had poisoned him. A tumult occurred at 
the funeral, and while the troops looked on 
with indifference, the mob killed Fersen with 
sticks and stones in the great square of the 
Riddarhus in Stockholm. His sister escaped 
in disguise. It is now universally acknowl- 
edged that Fersen was guiltless. 

FESCA. I. Friedrich Ernst, a German com- 
poser and musician, born in Magdeburg, Feb. 
15, 1789, died May 24, 1826. His father held 
a minor municipal office in Magdeburg, and 
devoted much of his time to the practice of the 
violoncello and piano, and his mother had been 
a professional vocalist in early life. When he 
was but four years of age he could perform 
pieces of moderate difficulty upon the piano, 
and began the violin. He studied harmony 
and counterpoint under the instruction of Mtil- 
ler at Leipsic. In 1805 he made his first public 
appearance as a violinist, playing a concerto 
of his own in E minor. He soon after became 
attached to the chapel royal at Cassel, where 
he remained till 1813. After the dissolution 
of the kingdom of Westphalia he went to 
Vienna, and thence to Carlsruhe, where he be- 
came attached to the court of the grand duke ' 
of Baden. Here he remained 11 years and 
composed the majority of his works, including 
quartets and quintets for stringed instruments, 
overtures, symphonies, two operas, and settings 
of several of the psalms for solo voices, chorus, 
and orchestra. He was a man of noble disposi- 
tion, kindly heart, and much devotional feel- 
ing. His works, formed on the best models, 
display a refined and elevated taste and a 
delicate fancy. II. Alexander Ernst, a German 
composer and musician, son of the preceding, 
born in Carlsruhe, May 22, 1820, died in Bruns- 
wick, Feb. 22, 1849. He studied the piano 
under Taubert and composition under Rungen- 
hagen and Wilhelm Bach. At the age of 18 
he brought out at Carlsruhe a comic opera 
entitled Mariette. His compositions evinced a 
fine original and progressive talent, especially 
his chamber music and songs, many of which 
have been republished in this country. 

FESCENNINE VERSES, licentious poems sung 
at the private festivals of the ancient Romans, 
particularly at nuptial celebrations. They de- 
rived their name and origin from Fescennium, 
an Etruscan city, where they seem to have 
been a rude dramatic entertainment improvised 
in the intoxication of rustic festivals. They 
were composed with the most unbounded li- 
cense, accompanied with uncouth posturing 
and dances, and gave delight to the yet savage 
and untaught Romans. The later satire and 
comedy took their origin from them, and Catul- 
lus introduced them into his epithalamia ; but 
in attaining a better literary character these 
verses hardly improved their morals. 

FESCH, Joseph, cardinal, and archbishop of 
Lyons, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Jan. 3, 1763, 
died in Rome, May 13, 1839. He was the son 
of a Swiss officer in the Genoese service, and 
half brother of Letizia Ramolino, the mother 
of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was archdeacon 
of the chapter of Ajaccio when the chapters 
were suppressed by the revolution of 1789. In 
1793 he was exiled with the Bonapartes, and 
being without resources laid aside his priesthood 
and was appointed commissary of war to the 
army of Italy, of which subsequently his nephew 




Napoleon received the command. He resumed 
his ecclesiastical functions when the first consul 
determined to reestablish in France the Cath- 
olic worship, and was active in the negotiations 
between Napoleon and Pius VII. which pre- 
pared for the concordat of July 15, 1801. The 
influence of his nephew made him archbishop 
of Lyons in 1802, and obtained a cardinal's hat 
for him in 1803. As ambassador of France at 
Rome in 1804, after conducting the negotia- 
tions, he accompanied Pius VII. on his way to 
Paris to crown the emperor. Many civil digni- 
ties and emoluments were subsequently con- 
ferred upon him, but in 1809 he declined the 
archbishopric of Paris, to which Napoleon, 
wishing to make some one of his family the 
head of the French clergy, nominated him. 
He was president of the council which sat in 
Paris in 1810, and also of the national council 
of 1811, called to consider the disagreement 
between Napoleon and the holy see concern- 
ing the nomination of bishops. In this capa- 
city he did not satisfy the e'mperor, and for a 
time he disappeared from court ; and he after- 
ward adhered to the pope, greatly to the dis- 
pleasure of his nephew. Upon the fall of 
Napoleon he retired to Rome, but was recalled 
to Paris during the hundred days. After the 
battle of Waterloo he lived in retirement in 
Rome. His collection of paintings, one of the 
largest ever brought together by a single per- 
son, was dispersed after his death. 

FESSENDEN, Thomas Green, an American au- 
thor and journalist, born in "Walpole, N. H., 
April 22, 1771, died in Boston, Nov. 11, 1837. 
He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1796, 
and studied law in Vermont, employing his 
leisure hours in writing humorous poems and 
other papers for the "Farmer's Weekly Mu- 
seum " of Walpole, then edited by Joseph 
Dennie. In 1801 he went to England as the 
agent for a newly invented machine, the failure 
of which to answer its purpose involved him 
in pecuniary difficulties. He produced in 1803 
a poem entitled " Terrible Tractoration," in 
which the metallic tractors of Perkins are 
advertised, and the medical profession is sati- 
rized. It was successful in London, where it 
was published anonymously. It was repub- 
lished in New York in 1804, and again in 1806 
in an enlarged form, under the title of "The 
Minute Philosopher." A third edition ap- 
peared toward the close of the author's life. 
He returned to America in 1804, and was en- 
gaged in various avocations till 1822, when he 
commenced the publication of the "New Eng- 
land Farmer," with which he remained con- 
nected during the remainder of his life. He 
also edited the "Horticultural Register" and 
the "Silk Manual," and contributed articles to 
a variety of journals. His remaining works 
cm* : " Original Poems," published in England 
and America ; " Democracy Unveiled " (1806) ; 
" American Clerk's Companion " (1815) ; " The 
Ladies' Monitor" (1818); and "Laws of Pat- 
ents for new Inventions " (1822). 

FESSENDEN, William Pitt, an American states- 
man, born in Boscawen, N. H., Oct. 16, 1806, 
died in Portland, Me., Sept. 8, 1869. He grad- 
uated at Bowdoin college in 1823, was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1827, and commenced practice 
in Bridgton, Me., but in 1829 removed to Port- 
land, where he soon attained eminence as a 
counsellor and advocate. He belonged to the 
whig party, was a member of the legislature 
of Maine in 1832 and again in 1840, and from 
1841 to 1843 was a representative in congress. 
He was again in the legislature in 1845-' 6 and 
1853-'4. In the latter year, although the legis- 
t lature was democratic in both branches, he was 
chosen, by a union of the whigs and freesoil 
democrats, United States senator, an office 
which he held almost uninterruptedly until his 
death. This election, brought about by the 
disturbing elements introduced by the Kansas- 
Nebraska question, was the preliminary step 
toward the establishment in Maine of the re- 
publican party, of which he was one of the 
chief organizers. In 1861 he was a member 
of the " peace congress." In July, 1864, he 
was appointed by President Lincoln secretary 
of the treasury, to succeed Salmon P. Chase ; 
but he resigned the position in 1865 to resume 
his seat in the senate. During his connection 
with this body he served as chairman of the 
finance committee and of the committee on 
public buildings and grounds, as a member of 
the committees on foreign relations and the 
library, as regent of the Smithsonian institu- 
tion, and as chairman of the special joint com- 
mission on reconstruction. He was the author 
of the report of the last named committee, rec- 
ommending an amendment to the constitution. 
On the impeachment trial of President Johnson, 
he was one of the few republican senators who 
voted for acquittal. He was an invalid during 
the later years of his life. 

FESSLER, Ignaz Anrelins, a Hungarian author, 
born in 1756, died in St. Petersburg, Dec. 15, 
1839. He was a Capuchin friar, but was dis- 
missed from that order and became professor of 
oriental languages and hermeneutics in Lem- 
berg, where his tragedy of Sidney TV as performed 
in 1787. This being denounced as impious and 
revolutionary, he was obliged to flee, and re- 
paired to Silesia. He embraced Protestantism, 
and in 1796 went to Berlin, where he joined 
Fichte in reforming a lodge of freemasons. In 
1809 he became professor of oriental languages 
and philosophy at St. Petersburg, but soon lost 
this office on account of his alleged atheistic 
doctrines. Subsequently he was Protestant 
bishop of Saratov, and from 1833 till his death 
was general superintendent and ecclesiastical 
councillor of the Lutheran community of St. 
Petersburg. He was often involved in difficul- 
ties, especially as member of a Russian official 
committee at Sarepta, where he was charged 
with wishing to convert the Moravian com- 
munity of that city into a Protestant organiza- 
tion similar to that of the Jesuits. His prin- 
cipal work is GescMchte der Ungarn und deren 



Landsassen (10 vols., Leipsic, 1812-'2o). He 
also wrote several historical novels, and works 
relating to oriental languages and philosophy, 
freemasonry, and literature, and an autobiog- 
raphy (RucJcblicke aufmeine siebzigjahrige Pit- 
gerschaft, Breslau, 1826 ; 2d ed., 1851). 

I KSSLKK, Joseph, an Austrian prelate, born 
at Lochau, Tyrol, Dec. 2, 1813. In 1837 he 
was ordained priest in Brixen, and devoted 
himself to teaching. He was professor of his- 
tory and canon law for eleven years in the 
seminary of Brixen, and for four years in the 
university of Vienna, where he filled for four 
years more the newly established chair on the 
"Decretals." In 1861 the pope summoned 
him to Rome, and employed him in managing 
the affairs of the eastern churches, appointing 
him also consultor of the Propaganda on orien- 
tal rites. The bishop of Brixen at the same 
time named him his vicar general. Pius IX. 
nominated him, April 7, 1862, bishop of Nyssa 
in partibus; and on March 27, 1865, he was 
made bishop of St. Polten in Lower Austria. 
His long studies and labors on patrology, church 
history, and canon law, as well as in all that 
relates to -the holding of diocesan, provincial, 
and general councils, caused the pope to desig- 
nate him in 1869 as secretary of the council of 
the Vatican. 

FETH ALI, Fntteh ill, Fateh All, or Fath' AH, 
shah of Persia, called before his -accession Baba 
Khan, born about 1762, died in 1834. In 1797 
he succeeded his uncle, Aga Mohammed, found- 
er of the Kadjar dynasty, after having put 
down several claimants to the throne. In 
1799 Col. Malcolm was sent by the governor 
general of India on a mission to Feth Ali, and 
concluded a treaty by which the latter was to 
attack Khorasan and Afghanistan, and receive 
subsidies from England for that purpose. In 
1803 war broke out between Persia and Russia 
for the possession of Georgia, whose ruler had 
transferred his allegiance from the former to 
the latter power. In 1805 Napoleon offered 
Feth Ali his alliance and protection in the 
prosecution of the war, and in 1807 sent Gen. 
Gardanne as ambassador to Persia. The treaty 
of Tilsit having, however, put an end to hostili- 
ties between France and Russia, the Persian 
king abandoned the French alliance for that 
of the English ; but he was obliged in 1813 by 
the successes of the Russians to yield Georgia 
to the czar by treaty. In 1821 a war broke 
out between Persia and the Ottoman empire 
on account of the extortions and oppressions 
practised by Turkish functionaries upon Per- 
sian pilgrims, and was terminated in 1823 by 
a treaty favorable to Persia. In 1826 Feth 
Ali, thinking to profit by the death of the czar 
Alexander, and to reconquer Georgia, declared 
war against the Russians ; but his army, com- 
manded by his favorite son Abbas Mirza, was 
vanquished by Gen. Paskevitch, and he was 
forced in 1828 to abandon Persian Armenia to 
Russia, and to make the Aras the boundary of 
his dominions. He amused himself in his leisure 


with writing verses, and left a collection of 
odes and songs. He had 500 females in his 
harem, and in 1826 is said to have had 81 sons 
and 53 daughters. He was succeeded by his 
grandson Mohammed, the son of Abbas Mirza, 
who died shortly before his father. 

FETIALES, or Feciales, in ancient Rome, a 
college of priests, consisting of 20 members be- 
longing to the noblest families, who held office 
for life, with power to fill vacancies in their 
number, and whose duty it was to carry the 
complaints and grievances of the Roman people 
before the magistrates and rulers of offending 
cities and tribes, to ask redress, to declare in 
case of refusal whether there was sufficient 
reason for hostilities, to perform the religious 
rites of warning the enemy, of declaration of 
war, and of ratification of peace, and to watch 
over the strict observance of treaties. This in- 
stitution is believed to have existed among the 
people of Etruria. Its introduction at Rome is 
attributed by some to Numa, by others to An- 
cus Marcius. When the policy of Rome be- 
came that of continual conquest, the institution 
lost its influence, preserving only its religious 
character. The etymology of the term is un- 
certain. It has been variously derived from 
the Latin words fides, fcedus, ferio, and facio, 
and the Greek <$[u. 

FETICHISM, Feticism, or Fetishism (Port, fei- 
tipao, magic ; perhaps connected with the Lat. 
fasdnum, a bewitching), the religious worship 
of material things (fetiches) as the abodes of 
spirits. It is the lowest of the forms of wor- 
ship found among uncivilized tribes, and exists 
especially among the negroes in Africa/ There 
are two kinds of fetiches, natural and artificial. 
Among the former are celebrated rocks, par- 
ticularly high mountain peaks where the light- 
ning is supposed to dwell; single trees, and 
more frequently whole forests ; many animals, 
as serpents, one of which has its own temple, 
where the snakes are kept by priestesses; 
snails, crocodiles (with the Ashantees), goats, 
sheep, &c. Usefulness and hurtfulness seem to 
have often dictated their selection, but not al- 
ways. Artificial fetiches are either public, 
preserved by priests, or private, purchasable 
from them usually at a very high price. Kings 
and princes have large collections of fetiches, 
and every family has at least one. They are 
hereditary, and either hung up in the dwell- 
ings or worn on the neck or elsewhere, and 
even fastened on domestic animals. Occa- 
sionally t^ey are made in rude imitation of the 
human form, and the public fetiches are some- 
times of gold and very large. The worship- 
pers provide their fetiches liberally with food, 
but if their prayers are not granted they fre- 
quently throw them away, or beat them to 
pieces. They have also festivals and sacrifices. 
For the latter the victims are oxen, swine, and 
other animals ; but sometimes criminals, pris- 
oners, or persons of the lowest classes of the 
tribe are immolated. The festivals are gene- 
rally attended by excess in drinking, thefts, 




fights, and gross licentiousness. The priests 
form a separate society, with hereditary dig- 
nity, property, and privileges. They have in 
particular the right of retaining the slaves who 
come to them, or, as they call it, present their 
bodies to the fetich. The limits of the term 
fetichism are yet unsettled, as some exclude 
from it the worship of forests, mountains, 
rivers, &c., and all such as are made to resem- 
ble the human form. 

FETIS, Francois Joseph, a Belgian composer 
and writer on music, born in Mons, March 25, 
1784, died in Brussels, March 27, 1871. His 
father was an organist, and at the age of ten 
he was engaged as organist in his native town. 
Subsequently, after taking lessons from the 
most eminent teachers in Paris, he travelled in 
Germany and Italy, and made himself familiar 
with the works of the great masters of those 
countries. He returned to Paris in 1806, mar- 
ried a rich woman, and devoted himself to the 
study of the history of music, especially of 
that of the middle ages. In 1813, a reverse 
of fortune obliging him to return to the prac- 
tice of his profession, he became organist and 
teacher of music at Douai, and in 1818 was 
appointed professor in the conservatory of 
Paris, and soon after published his Traite du 
contrepoint et de la fugue. In 1827 he found- 
ed the first journal devoted to musical criti- 
cism that had appeared in France, the Revue 
musicale, which he edited till 1835. At the 
same time he was pursuing his researches upon 
the theory of harmony, writing articles for 
various periodicals, and volumes upon the his- 
tory and curiosities of music, and composing 
operas and pieces of sacred music. In 1832 he 
began his historical concerts, which have since 
found imitators in Germany and England. In 
1833 the king of Belgium appointed him chapel 
master and director of the royal conservatory 
of Brussels. In 1864 he superintended the 
production of Meyerbeer's opera L" 1 Africaine, 
in accordance with a direction in the will of 
the composer. His own most successful opera 
was La vieille, which was performed for 100 
t nights. As a writer on musical history he is 
unrivalled, and his works on almost every topic 
connected with music are numerous. His prin- 
cipal writings are : Biographie universelle des 
musiciens, et fiibliographie generate de la mu- 
sique, preceded by an epitome of the history 
of music (8 vols., Brussels, 1835-'44) ; Traite 
complet de la theorie et de la pratique de Vhar- 
monie, contenant la doctrine de la science et de 
Vart (Paris, 1853) ; and a sketch of Meyerbeer 
in the Revue contemporaine (Paris, 1859). 
His son EDOFAED FRANQOIS Louis, born at Bou- 
vines, May 12, 1816, was appointed in 1838 
conservator of the royal library of Brussels, 
and is the author of Les musiciens beiges (2 
vols., 1848), Les artistes beiges' d Vetranger 
(vols. i. and ii., 1858), &c. 

FElTHEREvS, Sophie de, baroness, mistress of 
the last prince of Cond6 (Louis Henri Joseph, 
duke de Bourbon), born in the Isle of Wight 
318 VOL. vii. 11 

about 1795, died in England, Jan. 2, 1841. 
She was the daughter of a fisherman named 
Clarke, represented herself as the widow of 
a Mr. Dawes, and is believed to have been on 
the stage; but the accounts of her life are 
conflicting until about 1817, when she became 
the mistress of the prince of Conde. At his 
instigation she married in 1818 the baron 
Adolphe de Feucheres, who became a member 
of his household, when the prince settled upon 
her 72,000 francs per annum. In 1822 she was 
divorced from the baron. She exercised over 
Oonde an almost unbounded influence. In 
1824 he presented her with the domains of 
Boissy and St. Leu, and in 1825 with 1,000,000 
francs, besides leaving her 2,000,000 by his 
will, dated Aug. 30, 1829. A year afterward 
(Aug. 27, 1830) the prince was found hanging in 
his room, under circumstances which fixed the 
suspicions of his relatives upon the baroness, 
and also upon Louis Philippe; for in order 
to ingratiate herself with the Orleans family 
she is said to have prevailed upon the prince 
to bequeath the bulk of his large fortune to 
his godson, the duke d'Aumale, a disposition 
which just before his death he seemed inclined 
to revoke in favor of the count de Chambord. 
His relatives accused her of having murdered 
the prince, and insisted upon a judicial investi- 
gation; but nothing could be proved against 
her, and the prince's death was ascribed to 
suicide. (See Histoire complete du proces rela- 
tif d la mart et au testament du due de Bour- 
lon, Paris, 1832.) She left her immense for- 
tune to her niece, Mile. Sophie Tanceron. The 
baron de Feucheres gave to the hospitals of 
Paris his whole share in the property of his 
former wife. 

FEUDAL SYSTEM, the name given to the con- 
dition of society that prevailed in Europe during 
the middle ages. Its germs were probably Asia- 
tic, and in Asia, though never so fully developed, 
it has outlasted the system established in Eu- 
rope. It had the firmest existence in France, 
Germany, Aragon, a large part of Italy, Eng- 
land after the conquest, and Scotland, while 
other European countries were more or less 
influenced by it. The system grew up in Eu- 
rope from the 5th to the 9th century, and was 
the consequence of the perpetual struggle of 
civilization against barbarism. Like all systems 
that have lived for any great length of time, it 
had a progressive formation. The struggle out 
of which it grew began with the fall of the 
imperial authority in so many parts of the Ro- 
man empire ; and when feudalism had estab- 
lished itself, the way had been prepared for a 
far greater advance toward the establishment of 
civilization. In France, feudalism was brought 
into a rude but intelligible form in the 10th 
century, and " the feudal period " is held to 
synchronize with the ten generations during 
which the throne of that country was held by 
the elder branch of the Capet family, 987-1328. 
For some generations previous to the extinc- 
tion of the Carlovingian dynasty it had had a 



rude existence, and many of its incidents are 
traceable in legislation to the reign of Charle- 
magne, throughout the limits of whose vast 
dominion feudalism had at a later period its 
fullest continental development. " The regu- 
lar machinery and systematic establishment of 
feuds, in fact," says Hallam, u may be consid- 
ered as almost confined to the dominions of 
Charlemagne, and to those countries which 
afterward derived from them." But it is not 
until a much later time that we find " the feu- 
dal period " clearly established. As the chief 
object of the great monarchs of the Carlovin- 
gian line was the establishment of a consoli- 
dated empire, it can scarely be held that they 
deliberately sought to develop a system whose 
very essence was the disintegration of every 
country in which it existed. The imbecility 
of the later kings of the second race favored 
the advance of feudalism in France; and in 
that country it was known earlier than any- 
where else, and there it received its essential 
peculiarities. At the time of the conquest of 
Gaul, and the rise of the Merovingians, there 
were many freeholds, that is, independent 
properties ; but in the course of the five fol- 
lowing centuries most of these had disappeared. 
The beneficiary condition became the common 
condition of territorial property. Benefice and 
fief are words that express the same facts at 
different dates. In the middle of the 12th 
century feodum and ~beneficium were used in- 
terchangeably, as they had been used for some 
time previously to that date. The exact nature 
of benefices has been the source of consider- 
able dispute, but the better opinion is that 
their ordinary duration was the life of the pos- 
sessor, after which they reverted to the fisc ; 
yet there were instances of hereditary'benefices 
as early as the Merovingian times. The ten- 
dency to retain property in their families would 
lead men to make use of a variety of means to 
render what they held hereditary, while the 
weakness of the kings would not enable them 
to resist claims powerfully urged in behalf of the 
sons of beneficiaries. Under the feudal system 
the territorial element was known as the fief, 
and it has been argued that this did not mean 
originally the land itself, but only the tenure 
thereof, its relation of dependence toward the 
suzerain ; but the weight of authority is ad- 
verse to this view, though it is admitted that 
at a later period some such distinction may 
have been made. The titles, or most of them, 
which became so identified with feudalism, 
were not originally hereditary, but were made 
so gradually, like the property possessions which 
rendered the great vassals so powerful. Dukes, 
counts, and marquises, or margraves, were at 
first provincial governors, officers intrusted 
with certain specific duties, the margraves be- 
ing charged with the custody of the frontiers. 
The weakness of the Merovingian kings made 
these officers very important persons in the 
state. The Carlovingians sought to lessen their 
power, and with some success so long as that 

race produced able kings ; but under Charle- 
magne's successors the counts rapidly acquired 
influence and wealth, and political station. The 
same man was allowed to enjoy several coun- 
ties, in all of which he endeavored to acquire 
landed property, and to assume a right to his 
dignities. In the last quarter of the 9th cen- 
tury the succession of a son to a father's county 
was a recognized usage ; and " in the next cen- 
tury," says Hallam, "there followed an entire 
prostration of the royal authority, and the 
counts usurped their governments as little sov- 
ereignties, with the domains and all regalian 
rights, subject only to the feudal superiority 
of the king. They now added the name of the 
county to their own, and their wives took the 
appellation of countess. In Italy, the inde- 
pendence of the dukes was still more complete ; 
and although Otho the Great and his descen- 
dants kept a stricter rein over those of Ger- 
many, yet we find the great fiefs of their empire, 
throughout the 10th century, granted almost 
invariably to the male and even female heirs 
of the last possessor." Thus the hereditary 
principle was recognized in a double respect- 
as related to the possession of land, and as re- 
lated to the possession of political power. The 
counts became the enemies of the allodial pro- 
prietors, whose importance was derived from a 
system entirely unlike that upon which their con- 
sequence rested. The king and the law could 
not protect the allodialists or independent pro- 
prietors from being spoiled by their enemies. 
Many of them surrendered their lands, and 
received them back upon feudal conditions; 
or they acknowledged themselves vassals of a 
suzerain. Yet the allodial lands were not en- 
tirely extinguished. They were common in the 
south of France, the strength of the feudal ten- 
ures being between the Somme and the Loire. 
According to the old French law, allodial lands 
were always noble, like fiefs, down to 1580. 
In the German empire many estates continued 
to be held by allodial tenures. This part of the 
subject is involved in considerable obscurity, 
for in the royal charters of the 10th and llth 
centuries the word allodium is continually used 
for a feud, or hereditary benefice. "Several 
passages in ancient laws and instruments," 
says Hallam, " concur to prove that besides the 
relation established between lord and vassal by 
beneficiary grants, there was another species 
more personal, and more closely resembling 
that of patron and client in the Koman repub- 
lic. This was usually called commendation, 
and appears to have been founded on two very 
general principles, both of which the distracted 
state of society inculcated. The weak needed 
the protection of the powerful ; and the gov- 
ernment needed some security for public order. 
Even before the invasion of the Franks, Salvian, 
a writer of the 5th century, mentions the cus- 
tom of obtaining the protection of the great, by 
money, and blames their rapacity, though he 
allows the natural reasonableness of the prac- 
tice. The disadvantageous condition of the 



less powerful freemen, which ended in the ser- 
vitude of one part and in the feudal vassalage 
of another, led such as fortunately still pre- 
served their allodial property to insure its de- 
fence by a stipulated payment of money. Such 
payments may be traced in extant charters, 
chiefly indeed of monasteries. In the case of 
private persons, it may be presumed that this 
voluntary contract was frequently changed by 
the stronger party into a perfect feudal depen- 
dence. From this, however, as I imagine, it 
probably differed, in being capable of dissolu- 
tion at the inferior's pleasure, without incur- 
ring a forfeiture, as well as having no relation 
to land. Homage, however, seems to have 
been incident to commendation, as well as to 
vassalage. Military service was sometimes the 
condition of this engagement. It was the law 
of France, so late at least as the commencement 
of the third race of kings, that no man could 
take a part in private wars except in defence 
of his own lord. Indeed, there is reason to 
infer from the capitularies of Charles the Bald 
that every man was bound to attach himself 
to some lord, though it was the privilege of a 
freeman to choose his own superior. And this 
is strongly supported by the analogy of our 
Anglo-Saxon laws, where it is frequently re- 
peated that no man should continue without a 
lord." By the edict of Milan, issued by Conrad 
II., emperor of Germany, in 1037, four regula- 
tions are established : " that no man should be 
deprived of his fief, whether held of the empe- 
ror or a mesne lord, but by the laws of the 
empire and the judgment of his peers ; that 
from such judgment an immediate vassal might 
appeal to his sovereign ; that fiefs should be 
inherited by sons and their children, or on their 
failure by brothers, provided they were feuda 
paterna, such as had descended from the fa- 
ther ; and that the lord should not alienate the 
fief of his vassal without his consent." This 
edict, though relating immediately only to Lom- 
bardy, is thought to mark* the full maturity of 
the feudal system, and the last stage of its pro- 
gress. Its object was to put an end to disa- 
greements between inferior vassals and their 
immediate lords, which had been caused by 
the want of settled usage. Guizot is of opinion 
that the essential facts of the feudal system 
may be reduced to three, viz. : 1, the particular 
nature of territorial property, real, full, heredi- 
tary, and yet derived from a superior, impo- 
sing certain personal obligations on its posses- 
sor, under pain of forfeiture ; in a word, want- 
ing in that complete independence which is 
now its characteristic ; 2, the amalgamation of 
sovereignty with property, the attribution to 
the proprietor of the soil, over all the inhabi- 
tants of that soil, of the whole or nearly the 
whole of those rights which constitute what 
we call sovereignty, and which are now pos- 
sessed only by government, the public power ; 
3, the hierarchal system of legislative, judicial, 
and military institutions, which united the pos- 
sessors of fiefs among themselves, and formed 

them into a general society. Of feudal rela- 
tions, support and fidelity were the principal. 
The vassal owed service to his lord, and the 
lord protection to his vassal. If the vassal 
failed in his obligation, his land was forfeited ; 
if the lord failed, he lost his seigniory. It is 
disputed whether the vassal was bound to fol- 
low his lord's standard against his own kin- 
dred. As respected the king, the relations were 
loose and shifting. There are instances of vas- 
sals aiding their immediate superiors against 
the king ; and the royal power was always in 
antagonism to the feudal system. The cere- 
monies which took place when a fief was con- 
ferred were principally homage, fealty, and in- 
vestiture. The first expressed the submission 
and devotedness of the vassal toward his lord. 
The oath of fealty differed little in language 
from the act of homage, but was indispensable, 
was taken by ecclesiastics, but not by minors, 
and could be received by proxy. Investiture 
was the actual conveyance of feudal lands, and 
was proper or improper. By the first, the vas- 
sal was put in possession upon the ground, by 
the lord or his deputy, which the English law 
calls livery of seisin ; by the second, possession 
was given symbolically, by the delivery of a 
branch, turf, or stone, or some other natural 
object, according to custom. Nearly a hundred 
varieties of investiture are mentioned. The 
vassal's duties commenced with his investiture. 
These were very numerous, and it is impossible 
to define them at large. They embraced nearly 
every obligation that can exist in such a state 
of society as then prevailed over most of Chris- 
tendom. They varied, too, with place and time. 
Military service depended upon circumstances, 
though 40 days was the usual term that the 
tenant of a knight's fee was bound to be in the 
field at his own expense. Among the feudal 
incidents advantageous to the lord were reliefs, 
fines upon alienation, escheats, aid, wardship, 
and marriage, the two latter placing the wards 
and orphan minors among his vassals almost 
entirely at his mercy. The control of female 
vassals with respect to marriage was carried 
to its utmost extent in the Latin kingdom of 
Jerusalem, founded by the first crusaders at 
the time when the feudal system was at its 
height. Improper fiefs, as they were called to 
distinguish them from the military fiefs, were 
in time granted, in order to gratify pride or 
to raise money. " They were granted for a 
price, and without reference to military service. 
The language of the feudal law was applied 
by a kind of metaphor to almost every transfer 
of property. Hence, pensions of money and 
allowances of provisions, however remote from 
right notions of a fief, were sometimes granted 
under that name ; and even where land was 
the subject of the donation, its conditions were 
often lucrative, often honorary, and sometimes 
ludicrous." Fiefs of office, too, were granted, 
by which persons received grants of land on 
condition of performing some domestic service 
to the lord. The mechanic arts were carried 



on in the houses of the great by persons receiv- 
ing lands upon these conditions. The feudal 
system was exclusive in its spirit. In strict- 
ness, a person not noble by birth could not pos- 
sess a fief, though there were occasional excep- 
tions to this rule, which increased as the aris- 
tocratical spirit declined. Three descents were 
necessary to remove fully the stain of ignoble 
blood. Children born of an ignoble mother, in 
lawful wedlock, were looked upon as of ille- 
gitimate origin. The higher clergy, as prelates 
and abbots, were feudal nobles. Ecclesiastical 
tenants came within the scope of feudal duty. 
Below the gentle classes were the freemen and 
the serfs. The former were dwellers in char- 
tered towns, and were destined to have an im- 
portant part in destroying the feudal system ; 
and in England, the yeomanry, to whose exis- 
tence that country owed its leading place in the 
military system of Europe, were also among 
the freemen. The serfs, or villeins, were among 
the most abject of mankind, and were despised 
and maltreated because they had been degraded 
and injured. In some countries a distinction 
was made between villeins and serfs, the latter 
being compelled to perform the vilest labors, 
and thoroughly enslaved, while the condition 
of the former was not so harsh, their payments 
and duties being defined. Probably at no time 
in the world's history have the mass of the 
people been so badly treated as during the ex- 
istence of the feudal system ; and many of those 
customs and opinions that still impede the 
growth of the people in knowledge and happi- 
ness in several countries, are but relics of that 
system, and yet continue to do its work. 
There were several causes for the decline of 
feudalism. The two extremes of society were 
alike interested in its destruction, and continu- 
ally sought it : the king, feebly grasping a scep- 
tre that was scarcely more than a fool's bau- 
ble ; and the squalid people, who were treated 
by the ruling classes with less consideration 
than they bestowed upon beasts of chase. The 
growth of the institution of chivalry, which 
was one of the children of feudalism, was inju- 
rious to the system whence it sprung. The 
feudal system had much to do with the crusades, 
and it was probably the only state of society 
in which those expeditions could either have 
been undertaken, or have been renewed from 
tune to time during nearly 200 years ; yet they 
worked most injuriously to it, and helped to 
prepare the way for its fall. The growth of the 
towns, the increase of commerce, the develop- 
ment of the commercial spirit, the acquisition 
of military knowledge by the people in several 
countries, scientific inventions and discoveries, 
and the application of gunpowder to the uses 
of war, aided its downfall. In France it failed 
utterly as a bulwark against the English inva- 
sions of the 14th century, which rapidly accel- 
erated its fate. It might have remained pow- 
erful during the first century of the Valois kings 
had it not proved totally Unequal to the busi- 
ness it claimed as peculiarly its own, that of 


defending the soil its members owned, and the 
country they governed. See Sismondi, His- 
toire des francais and Histoire des republiques 
italiennes; Guizot, Histoire generale de la ci- 
vilisation en France and Histoire generale de la 
civilisation en Europe; Michelet, Histoire de 
France ; Hallam, " Europe during the Middle 
Ages;" Bell, "Historical Studies of Feudal- 
ism " (London, 1852) ; and Lacroix, " Manners, 
Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages, 
and during the Renaissance Period " (transla- 
ted from the French, London, 1874). 

FEl EKBAdl. I. Paul Johann Anselm, a Ger- 
man jurist, born in Jena, Nov. 14, 1775, died in 
Frankfort, May 29, 1833. He studied law at 
Jena, and became professor of feudal law there 
in 1801, of criminal and civil law at Kiel in 1802, 
and at Landshut in 1804. In 1805 he was ap- 
pointed to prepare a civil code for Bavaria, in 
1808 became privy councillor, in 1814 a judge 
at Bamberg, and in 1817 president of the court 
of appeals at Anspach. While there he under- 
took to investigate the story of Kaspar Hauser, 
without much regard to the sovereign families 
thought to be compromised in the matter. He 
was the author of many standard law books. 
Of these, the Lehrbuch des gemeinen in Deutsch- 
land gultigen peinlichen Rechts (1801) is one of 
the highest authorities on the subject of crimi- 
nal law in Germany. II. Lndwig Andreas, a Ger- 
man philosopher, son of the preceding, born in 
Landshut, July 28, 1804, died near Nuremberg, 
Sept. 12, 1872. He studied theology and phi- 
losophy at Heidelberg and Berlin, and became a 
tutor at the university of Erlangen in 1828, but 
retired into private life soon after, occupying 
himself solely with literary labors. In 1844 he 
delivered a brief course of lectures at the uni- 
versity of Heidelberg. He subsequently retired 
to a small village in Franconia, where he di- 
rected an industrial establishment, and devoted 
his leisure hours to literary pursuits. The lat- 
ter part of his life was passed in poverty, and 
a subscription for his benefit was raised not 
long before his death. Among his works (a 
collection of which has been published in 10 
vols., Leipsic, 1846-'66) the following are the 
most important: Abalard und Eeloise (Ans- 
pach, 1833) ; Geschichte der neuern Philoso- 
phic von Bacon von Verulam ~bis Spinoza (1 863) ; 
Darstellung, EntwicTcelung und KritiTc der 
Leibniz 1 schen Philosophic (1837) ; Pierre Bayle 
(1838) ; Das Wesen des Christenthums (Leip- 
sic, 1841 ; English translation by Mrs. Lewes, 
London, 1854) ; Das Wesen der Religion (2d ed., 
1849); and Gottheit, Freiheit und UnsterUich- 
Iceit (1866). Feuerbach transformed the He- 
gelian doctrine into naturalism. The leading 
principle of his philosophy is the identification 
of God with the idealized essence of man, or the 
deified essence of nature. His own statement 
is: "My theory may be condensed in two 
words : nature and man. That being which, 
in my opinion, is the presupposition, the cause 
of existence of man, is not God a mysterious, 
vague, indefinite term but nature. On the 


other hand, that being in which nature becomes 
conscious of itself, is man. . . . True, it fol- 
lows from my theory that there is no God, that 
is to say, no abstract being, distinct from na- 
ture and man, which disposes of the destinies 
of the universe and mankind at its discretion ; 
but this negation is only a consequence of the 
cognition of God's identity with the essence of 
nature and man." 

FEUILLANTS, a branch of the order of Cister- 
cians, founded in France in 1577 by Jean de la 
Barriere, abbot of the monastery of Feuillant, 
in the diocese of Rieux, Languedoc, for the 
stricter observance of the rules of St. Benedict, 
and declared independent by Sixtus V. in 1586. 
It received originally a very severe discipline, 
its members being obliged to go with naked 
head and feet, to sleep upon planks, and to eat 
on their knees. The rules were subsequently 
greatly relaxed, and the order spread over 
France and Italy. It was distinguished by the 
part which its members, especially the preach- 
er Bernard de Montgaillard, called Le petit 
Feuillant, took in the civil wars of France in 
the time of the league. After having been the 
centre of numerous agitations, the Feuillants 
of France were in 1630 separated from those 
of Italy. Their costume was a white robe with- 
>ut a scapular, and a white cowl. De la Bar- 
riere founded at the same time a female order 
of Feuillantes, whose convent was first near 
Toulouse, and afterward, by invitation of Anne 
of Austria, in Paris. The severe discipline to 
which the members of this order at first sub- 
jected themselves caused the death of many of 
them, and was reprimanded by the pope. The 
order lasted till 1790. In the French revolu- 
tion a club founded by Lafayette, Sieye"s, and 
others, at first called the company of 1789, and 
opposed to the Jacobins, was known as the 
Feuillants, from their meeting in a convent of 
the abolished order. In March, 1791, it was 
broken up by a mob. 

FEUILLET, Octave, a French novelist and 
dramatist, born in St. L6, La Manche, Aug. 11, 
1812. He was educated in Paris in the col- 
lege of Louis-le-Grand, and in 1845 he wrote, 
under the pseudonyme of Desire" Hazard, in 
conjunction with Paul Bocage and Albert 
Aubert, a romance entitled Le grand meil- 
lard, published in the National. Since then 
he has written a large number of romances, 
comedies, dramas, and farces, nearly all of 
which have been received favorably. In 1862 
he succeeded Scribe as a member of the French 
academy. He was afterward appointed libra- 
rian of the imperial residences, which position 
he held until the revolution of Sept. 4, 1870. 
Among his novels are: PolicUnelle (1846); 
Onesta (1848); Redemption (1849); BellaJi 
(1850); Le cheveu Uanc (1853); La petite 
comtesse (1856); Le roman d'un jeune homme 
pauvre (1858), which has been translated into 
many languages; Histoire de Sibylle (1862), 
scarcely less popular than the preceding ; and 
Monsieur de Camors (1867), a story remark- 



able for invention and vigor, but regarded as 
exceedingly demoralizing in its tendencies. 
His plays include La nuit terrible (1845), Le 
bourgeois de Rome (1846), La crise (1848), Le 
pour et le centre (1849), Dalila (1857), Montjoye 
(1863), La belle au bois dormant (1865), Le caa 
de conscience (1867), Julie (1869), and Le 
Sphinx (1874), the last the most sensational 
of them all. He has written also, jointly with 
Paul Bocage, a number of other dramas, and 
has published several poems. 

FEVAL, Paul Henri Corentin, a French novelist, 
born at Rennes, Nov. 28, 1817. He belongs 
to an old legitimist family, studied law, but 
became a banker's clerk, and then a writer. 
His Mysteres de Londres (11 vols., 1844), some- 
what in the vein of Sue and Soulie", passed 
through many editions, and has been trans- 
lated into foreign languages. He has since 
published some 200 volumes, including Les 
amours de Paris (6 vols., 1845) ; Le Jils du 
diable (12 vols., 1846) ; Les belles de nuit (8 
vols., 1850); Le bossu (12 vols., 1858); and 
Les tribunaux secrets (8 vols., 1864). English 
translations of some of his novels appeared in 

FEVER (Lat. febris, probably a transposition 
for ferbis, from fervere, to be hot), or Pyrexia 
(Gr. Trip%ic,, from Trvpicauv, to be feverish, de- 
rived from TrDp, fire), a morbid state character- 
ized especially, as the names denote, by an in- 
crease of the temperature of the body, generally 
together with acceleration of the circulation, 
loss of appetite, thirst, muscular debility, men- 
tal weakness, lassitude, and derangement of 
the functions of most of the important organs 
of the body. The significance of the term 
fever has been enhanced of late by the use of 
the thermometer placed either in the armpit 
or within some one of the outlets of the body. 
The thermometer shows morbid increase of the 
heat of the body in some cases when this is not 
apparent to the hand placed on the skin, and 
when the patient may have a sensation of 
coldness. During the so-called cold stage of 
an intermittent fever, the thermometer shows 
the heat of the body to be moderately raised. 
Fever may be said to exist whenever the heat 
of the body is raised above the maximum of 
health, namely, about 99 F. Fever is distin- 
guished as symptomatic when it is dependent 
upon a local inflammation; and it is said to 
be idiopathic, or essential, whenever it cannot 
be attributed to any local cause. A symptom- 
atic fever, as implied in the name, is only a symp- 
tom of disease ; it does not constitute per se the 
disease ; but an idiopathic or essential fever is 
reckoned as a disease. In the classification of 
diseases there are numerous fevers, which will 
be separately considered under the title FE- 
VERS, excepting measles, smallpox, plague, and 
a few others, which are treated under their own 
names. In both symptomatic and idiopathic 
fever the increase of temperature affords not 
only evidence of the existence of the febrile 
state, but a criterion of its intensity. The fever 




is intense in proportion to the increase of the 
heat of the body, as determined by the ther- 
mometer. The range of the morbid rise is 
from 99 to 110. Moreover, the temperature 
both in symptomatic fever and in the fevers is 
a criterion of the immediate danger to life. 
A temperature above 105, if persisting, always 
denotes great gravity, and death is imminent 
if the temperature remains for any length of 
time above that point. The increase of heat 
is in part due to a morbid activity in the mo- 
lecular changes incident to disintegration of tis- 
sue, but our existing knowledge does not enable 
the pathologist to give a full explanation of the 
rationale of fever. At present it is an unset- 
tled pathological question to what extent the 
increase of heat is causative of the various 
morbid phenomena which are presented in 
connection with symptomatic and essential 
fever. This question is important as bearing 
on the employment of drugs and other mea- 
sures of treatment with a view to dimin- 
ish the heat of the body. There are cer- 
tain remedies which from their effect upon 
temperature are called antipyretics ; such are 
quinia in full doses, digitalis, veratrum mri- 
de, &c. The most potent measure for dimin- 
ishing temperature, however, is the employ- 
ment of water externally, either in the form of 
the shower or plunge bath, the douche, the wet 
sheet, or by sponging the surface of the body. 
Drinking freely of cold water also has this 
effect. Antipyretic treatment has recently en- 
tered more largely into medical practice than 
formerly, from more attention having been 
given to the study of animal heat in different 
diseases by means of the thermometer. 

FEVER BCSH (benzoin odoriferum, Nees), a 
shrub from 4 to 10 ft. high, with long, slender, 
and brittle branches, common in the northern 

Fever Bush (Benzoin odoriferum). 

United States, and remarkable for its graceful 
form and large handsome leaves, especially 
when it grows upon the margin of some cold, 

swampy place in the deep shade of woods. 
Here it produces an abundance of flowers and 
fruit. The flowers appear in April or May in 
clusters from three to six in number, are of a 
greenish yellow color, and come out where the 
last year's leaves were. The fruit is a small, 
oval, dark red or purple drupe, in bunches of 
two to five. The twigs or young branches are 
smooth and of a bright green, which assumes 
an olive tint the next year, and afterward a 
pearly gray. A decoction of the twigs is used 
to alleviate the itching from poisoning by su- 
mach. According to Dr. Darlington, it is also 
used as a medicine for cattle in the spring. 
The berries have a pleasant, spicy taste, and 
have sometimes been used as allspice. 

FEVERS, or Pyrexiw, diseases characterized 
by a morbid increase of animal heat not refer- 
able to any local affection ; that is, diseases in 
which the febrile state is idiopathic or essen- 
tial. (See FEVEE.) A fever lasting but a 
single day in some cases, or continuing for a 
few days in other cases, is called ephemeral 
fever or a febricula. It is without danger, 
as a rule, and calls for only palliative treat- 
ment. Exclusive of this form of fever, the dif- 
ferent fevers are classified as follows: 1. Fe- 
vers characterized by periodical intermissions or 
marked remissions. This class is distinguished 
as periodical, or, from their causation, malarial 
fevers. Intermittent fever and remittent fever 
are embraced under these names, and yellow 
fever is generally included in this class. 2. 
Fevers which, in contrast with the foregoing, 
are characterized by a continuous febrile state, 
are called continued fevers. The fevers so 
classified are typhus and typhoid fever, relaps- 
ing fever, and erysipelatous fever. 3. Fevers 
in which an eruption on the skin is a promi- 
nent and a pretty constant feature are dis- 
tinguished as eruptive fevers, namely, small- 
pox, chicken pox, scarlet fever, and measles. 
To this list may be added the disease known as 
the plague. Other diseases which are essential- 
ly fevers are not always nosologically so classi- 
fied. Examples of this kind are insolation or 
sunstroke, cerebro-spinal meningitis, influenza, 
and diphtheria. I. PERIODICAL FEVERS. 1. In- 
termittent and Remittent Fevers. The period- 
ical fevers of malarial origin manifest this re- 
markable peculiarity : Intermissions or remis- 
sions recur at regular intervals, following a law 
of periodicity. This is especially marked in in- 
termittent fever, called also fever and ague, 
chills and fever, and various other names. This 
law of periodicity varies, giving rise to what are 
known as the different types of an intermittent 
fever. The regular or simple types are as fol- 
lows : , the quotidian type, in which a par- 
oxysm of fever recurs on each successive day ; 
5, the tertian type, in which the paroxysms 
recur on every other or every third day ; c, 
the quartan type, in which two days elapse be- 
tween the paroxysms, that is, in which they 
recur on the fourth day, dating from the com- 
mencement of one to the commencement of 



the next paroxysm. Compound types, as they 
are termed, are the double quotidian, two par- 
oxysms occurring daily ; the double tertian, a 
paroxysm occurring daily, the paroxysms dif- 
fering in certain respects on two successive 
days, but corresponding on alternate days ; a 
double quartan, in which a paroxysm occurs 
on two successive days, and on the third day 
there is no paroxysm. Extremely rare vari- 
eties of type are a quintan, sextan, heptan, and 
octan; these names expressing the length of 
the intervals. The facts thus exemplifying a 
law of periodicity are, with our existing knowl- 
edge, inexplicable. A paroxysm of an inter- 
mittent fever, when complete, consists of three 
periods or stages, called generally the cold, the 
hot, and the sweating stage. These different 
stages are of variable duration, the length of 
the paroxysm in different cases varying from 
three to eight hours. The cold stage is some- 
times characterized by shaking, that is, mus- 
cular tremor or rigor, and sometimes only by a 
sense of chilliness. This stage is sometimes 
wanting. The intensity of the fever varies 
much in different cases in the hot stage, and 
so the amount and continuance of the sweating 
which follows. If not arrested by remedies, 
intermittent fever tends to continue indefinite- 
ly, and is apt to induce notable anemia or 
impoverishment of the blood (see CHLOKOSIS), 
and sometimes general dropsy. Enlargement 
of the spleen is an occasional result of the 
disease. There are certain remedies which 
possess the power of arresting the parox- 
ysms, and these remedies are therefore called 
antiperiodics. The drugs which especially 
have this power are the salts of quinia or 
quinine. (See CINCHONA.) In the vast ma- 
jority of the cases of intermittent fever, the 
disease is promptly cured by quinine, which, 
given judiciously, does no harm. This drug 
also has a prophylactic power ; that is, it pre- 
vents the occurrence of intermittent fever, and 
protects against relapses. Other remedies 
which are efficacious, but in a less degree, are 
salacine, bebeerine, ferrocyanide of iron or 
Prussian blue, strychnia, and arsenic. Remit- 
tent fever is also often controlled by quinia 
and other periodics. In general, intermittent 
and remittent fevers are not immediately 
dangerous to life, even if they be allowed to 
continue; but they are sometimes attended 
with great danger, and they may cause death 
within a few hours. In these cases the 
disease is distinguished as pernicious intermit- 
tent or remittent fever. In some, portions of 
this country it is called congestive chill. Pa- 
tients affected with this fatal form may fall 
quickly into unconsciousness (coma), from 
which they do not emerge; some cases are 
characterized by delirium, and sometimes 
vomiting and purging occur, followed by a 
state of collapse resembling that in epidemic 
cholera. Pernicious intermittent or remittent 
fever is more apt to occur in tropical than 
in cold and temperate climates. Cases are 

more likely to occur at certain seasons than at 
others ; and whenever their occurrence is ob- 
served, it is immensely important to arrest the 
disease in every instance as speedily as pos- 
sible, lest succeeding paroxysms may prove to 
be pernicious. If .a patient pass through one 
paroxysm in which the symptoms threatened 
danger, the treatment which succeeded in pre- 
venting another paroxysm may be the means 
of saving life. Quinine should be given 
promptly and boldly under such circumstances. 
The nature of the special cause of intermit- 
tent and remittent fever is unknown. Wheth- 
er it be a chemical product or a living en- 
tity (animal or vegetable) is as yet a question 
which can only be met with reasoning and 
speculations. The cause is endemic in certain 
situations, and therefore it is of telluric origin. 
It is more likely to emanate from marshy situ- 
ations than from those in which the soil is 
dry, and hence it has been called marsh miasm. 
It is contained in the lower strata of the at- 
mosphere, and is present especially between 
sunset and sunrise. It is a very remarkable 
fact that the special cause may remain for a 
long time latent in the system ; patients some- 
times do not experience the disease until many 
months or even years after the morbific agent 
has entered the body. Persons who have 
had periodical fever are liable during many 
years to relapses, without any fresh exposure 
to the cause. Remittent fever has been called 
bilious remittent, or simply bilious fever ; but 
there is no ground for referring the pathology 
of this fever especially to the liver, as these 
names would imply. Periodical fever may 
be combined with continued fever, giving rise 
to a hybrid disease which of late years, in this 
country, has been called typho-malarial fever. 
The view generally held is that the special 
cause of periodical fever, as well as the special 
causes of all the essential fevers, produces its 
morbid manifestations by its presence and the 
changes which it occasions in the blood. The 
blood changes have been supposed to be analo- 
gous to those in fermentation, or those which 
are chemically called catalytic. The name 
zymotic (Gr. #7/77, leaven) is based on this 
hypothesis. The diseases which are supposed 
to involve fermentation or catalytic changes in 
the blood have been nosologically distinguished 
as zymotic diseases. Many cogent considera- 
tions render it probable that the special causes 
of different fevers are living germs or entities, 
but their existence has not as yet been satis- 
factorily demonstrated. 2. Yellow Fever. This, 
although included in the class of fevers called 
periodical, differs essentially from intermittent 
and remittent fever, and is a distinct species. 
It has doubtless its own special cause, that is, 
a cause peculiar to this fever. The disease 
prevails only in certain portions of the globe, 
and is rare in any but tropical or sub-tropical 
regions. As a rule, in these regions it is rarely 
prevalent in the colder months of the year. 
The yellow fever zone, as it is termed, is be- 



tween lat. 20 S. and 40 N. The disease pre- 
vails more in the eastern than in the western 
hemisphere, and in certain parts of Europe and 
America more than in Africa. In the western 
world it occurs especially in the commercial 
towns on the Atlantic coast south of Charles- 
ton, on the gulf of Mexico, and in the West 
India islands. In some seasons it prevails 
either as an endemic or an epidemic, and is 
largely destructive of human life. The mor- 
tality varies much in different seasons, the 
variation ranging from 10 to 75 per cent. The 
question as to its contagiousness has been here- 
tofore much mooted, but at the present time 
comparatively few physicians regard it as com- 
municable. The special cause, however, may 
be transported by means of infected vessels and 
merchandise, and in this way the disease is 
liable to be imported. Hence the disinfection 
of vessels coming from ports where the disease 
prevails, together with certain quarantine re- 
strictions, are important. The nature of the 
special cause of this, as of others of the essential 
fevers, is unknown, but the germ theory is 
perhaps the most consistent with known facts 
relating to the history of epidemics. Facts 
show that the prevalence of the disease in situ- 
ations where it is indigenous, and also where 
it has been imported, is much promoted by 
auxiliary causes, such as overcrowding, defec- 
tive drainage or sewerage, filth', and other cir- 
cumstances affecting unfavorably public health. 
The special cause is destroyed by a temperature 
of 32 F. Irrespective of the killing effect of 
frost, epidemics appear to have a self-limited 
duration, averaging .a little under 60 days. 
Acclimation protects against the disease, the 
natives of yellow fever localities, and those 
who have been long resident therein, being 
rarely attacked, although they have never ex- 
perienced it; and this is one of the diseases 
which, as a rule, are experienced but once in a 
lifetime, being in this respect in striking con- 
trast to intermittent and remittent fever. In 
places where the disease is indigenous, it is 
common for it to occur sporadically during the 
hot seasons ; that is, cases occur, but not in a 
sufficient number to constitute an endemic ; and 
when persons receive into the system the spe- 
cial cause in a place where the disease prevails, 
and going to another place experience in the 
latter the disease, as a rule it is not dissemi- 
nated. These facts show that the special cause 
is not generated within the bodies of those af- 
fected. Yellow fever generally is abrupt in its 
attack; that is, it is preceded by few or no 
premonitions as a rule. It commences with a 
chill, which is often not of marked intensity. 
The fever varies in its intensity in different 
cases, as denoted by the temperature, the pulse, 
and other symptoms. Pain in the loins and 
limbs is usually a prominent symptom. The 
fever continues for a period ranging in different 
cases from a few hours to three days, when it 
either subsides notably or entirely ceases. In 
mild cases convalescence now ensues ; and in 

a certain proportion of cases the disease is 
mild, and not always easily discriminated from 
an ephemeral fever or a febricula. In grave 
cases the symptoms which especially denote 
gravity occur after this paroxysm of fever. 
Among these symptoms is yellowness of the 
skin, or jaundice, whence the name yellow 
fever. This, however, does not occur in all 
cases, being absent in very mild attacks. It 
denotes a certain measure of gravity, but is by 
no means a fatal omen. A much graver symp- 
tom is the vomiting of blood, or, as it is called, 
the black vomit. Oases very rarely end favor- 
ably when this symptom occurs. Hemorrhage 
in other situations, namely, the bowels, blad- 
der, nose, eyes, and wounds which may exist 
on the skin, is an event denoting danger in 
proportion to the loss of blood. Suppression 
of urine occurs in some cases ; and convulsions 
with coma, which sometimes occur, are prob- 
ably caused by the retention in the blood of 
the excrementitious principles of the urine. 
The mode of death is generally by exhaustion. 
The muscular strength in some instances is 
preserved in a remarkable degree, patients not 
taking to the bed and sometimes continuing their 
avocations until shortly before daath. These 
have been called "walking cases." The dura- 
tion of the disease in fatal cases ranges from three 
to nine days, the average being less than a week. 
The treatment does not embrace any specially 
curative remedies. Quinia and mercury have 
been considered as exerting a controlling in- 
fluence over the disease, but at the present 
time no one attributes such a power to these 
remedies. Complete rest is highly important. 
Opiates and other anodyne remedies are in- 
dicated if there be great restlessness. All per- 
turbatory and debilitating medication is inju- 
rious. Diaphoretic remedies are considered 
useful. Alcoholic stimulants are to be given, if 
tolerated, in .proportion as the symptoms denote 
exhaustion. There is reason to believe that 
lives are sometimes saved by the free use of 
wine or spirits. Remedies to palliate vomiting, 
and to avert hemorrhage if this occurs, enter 
into the treatment. II. CONTINUED FEVERS. 
3. Typhus Fever. Of the fevers distinguished 
as continued, typhus and typhoid were former- 
ly considered identical ; but the researches of 
Louis and later observers have established their 
non-identity. They are distinct species of fe- 
ver, and not merely different varieties of one 
disease. The name typhus (Gr. ri^of, stupor) 
has reference to the stupor which is a marked 
feature in the majority of the cases of the fe- 
ver so called. It was applied to the disease in 
1759 by Sauvages. In this country the disease 
has been known as ship fever from the fact 
that it is imported in emigrant vessels. It 
prevails especially in Ireland. It has also been 
called jail fever, camp fever, petechial fever, 
&c. ^ It is a contagious disease, being com- 
municated by an impalpable emanation from 
the bodies of those affected with it ; that is, 
by an infectious miasm, the nature of which is 



not known. The extent of its diffusion, or 
what is termed the infecting distance, is not 
great, and it is rarely that the contagion is 
transported by means of clothing or other sub- 
stances to which it adheres ; that is, by fo- 
mites. In general, it is necessary that the 
miasm be concentrated, as when the emana- 
tions from a number of patients accumulate 
in hospital wards, or when the room in 
which a single patient is treated is small and 
ill ventilated, for the disease to be communi- 
cated, excepting to those who may be brought 
into close and continued contact with cases. 
Among nurses and physicians in the fever 
wards of a hospital, a considerable proportion 
contract the disease. A single case in a hos- 
pital ward may communicate the disease to 
patients lying in close proximity. It is prob- 
able that the special cause is sometimes gene- 
rated in the concentrated emanations from the 
bodies of healthy persons congregated in over- 
crowded and imperfectly ventilated apart- 
ments, as in jails, camps, almshouses, and 
crowded ships. In typhus, as in other fevers, 
the intensity of the febrile condition is denoted 
especially by the temperature of the body, the 
range in different cases varying from 102 to 
107 F. The temperature in the evening, as a 
rule, is some what higher than that of the morn- 
ing ; and approaching convalescence is often 
first denoted by a fall of temperature. The 
frequency of the pulse is also a good criterion 
of the severity of the disease. In most cases 
there is marked stupor throughout its course. 
The patient often lies in apparent somnolen- 
cy, and when aroused the countenance has a 
stupid, besotted expression. The face has a 
dusky hue, from the retardation of the circu- 
lation through the capillary vessels. A low 
muttering delirium is frequent, patients often 
attempting to get out of bed from some tran- 
sient delusion, but being easily induced for the 
moment to refrain from the attempt. Active 
delirium requiring forcible restraint is rare. 
The tongue is often covered with a thick brown 
or black coating, and, if not prevented by the 
removal of the accumulations on the teeth and 
lips, these become covered with a dark or 
black material called sordes. Tremor of the 
muscles of the extremities, called sulsultus 
tendinum, occurs in severe cases. The bowels 
are usually constipated. Swelling and suppu- 
ration of the parotid glands occasionally occur. 
In the great majority of cases there is an 
eruption on the skin, the character of which 
serves to distinguish this fever. It appears 
generally on the third day after the patient 
takes to the bed. The distinctive characters 
are as follows : It is maculated, that is, consists 
of spots, not elevated above the surface of the 
skin, of a dark or dusky color, and not readily 
obliterated by pressure with the finger. They 
continue throughout the disease, and are per- 
ceptible after death. Frequently the body and 
limbs are thickly studded with them, but in 
some cases they are few in number and limited 

to the trunk. This fever differs from the ma- 
larial fevers (intermittent and remittent) in 
being a self-limited disease. The length of its 
course varies between 8 and 20 days, the mean 
duration being about 14 days. The mortality 
varies considerably at different times and 
places, the range of variation being from 9 to 
25 per cent. ; the average mortality is as 1 to 
5 or 6. The death rate differs according to 
the age of patients; it is least between 10 and 
20 years, increases progressively after the age 
of 30, and the proportion of fatal cases is about 
one half after 50 years of age. A fatal termi- 
nation is sometimes attributable to an impor- 
tant complication, as for example pneumonia ; 
and it may be due to an antecedent disease, 
such as some affection of the kidneys. In gen- 
eral, the mode of dying is by exhaustion or as- 
thenia. 4. Typhoid Fever. Although this has 
many symptoms in common with typhus, it 
differs in essential points. The name signifies 
resemblance to typhus. Owing to the existence 
of a characteristic affection of the intestines, it 
is called by German writers abdominal typhus, 
and by English and American writers, for the 
same reason, enteric fever. This characteristic 
intestinal affection is one of the essential points 
of distinction between typhoid and typhus fe- 
ver. The affection is seated in the Peyerian 
and solitary glands of the small intestine. 
These glandular sacs become enlarged by mor- 
bid growth, softening ensues, and at length 
they exfoliate or slough away, leaving ulcera- 
tions in the spaces they occupied. Perfora- 
tion of the intestines is an accident which some- 
times occurs, the contents of the intestinal ca- 
nal escaping into the peritoneal cavity ; perito- 
nitis follows as a result, terminating almost 
always in death. Another occasional event is 
hemorrhage from the ulcers. This is sometimes 
profuse, and may be the cause of a fatal termi- 
nation; but in the majority of the cases in 
which this accident occurs recovery takes 
place. The mesenteric glands which are in im- 
mediate relation to the Peyerian and solitary 
glands become considerably enlarged. If re- 
covery from this fever takes place, the enlarge- 
ment of these glands gradually disappears, and 
the intestinal ulcerations become cicatrized. 
The spleen is also constantly more or less en- 
larged and softened in typhoid fever. These 
morbid changes constitute what are called the 
anatomical characteristics of this disease ; they 
are wanting in typhus fever. Typhoid fever is 
undoubtedly communicable ; yet it is rarely 
communicated to those who are brought into 
contact with cases of it, namely, physicians, 
nurses, and fellow patients in hospital wards ; 
and it occurs when it is quite impossible to at- 
tribute it to a contagium. Hence, this is a dis- 
ease which, although produced in a certain 
proportion of cases irrespective of either a 
virus or an infectious miasm, may yet generate 
either one or both of these forms of conta- 
gious material. Facts go to show strongly that 
the contagium is contained in the intestinal 



evacuations, and that the disease may be dif- 
fused by means of drinking water into which 
excrement in ever so small quantities has found 
access. Outbreaks of this fever have been re- 
peatedly traced to defective waste pipes and 
obstructed drains or sewers. This fever is not 
restricted in its prevalence to any particular 
sections, but it is indigenous in every quarter 
of the globe. All ages are not alike liable to 
it. It is rare in infancy, but not very unfre- 
quent in childhood, and occurs very rarely 
after the age of 50 years. It is more apt to 
prevail in the autumnal months than at other 
seasons. It was observed by Louis that in 
Paris persons who had resided there but a 
short time were more likely to be affected than 
native or older residents, and this has been 
observed in other cities. In most cases typhoid 
fever is developed gradually. The average pe- 
riod from the first evidence of illness to the 
time of taking to the bed is about five days. 
The early symptoms are chilly sensations, pain 
in the head, loins, and limbs, lassitude, and 
looseness of the bowels. Bleeding from the 
nose is of frequent occurrence. During the 
course of the fever stupor, as in cases of typhus, 
is more or less marked. Low muttering delir- 
ium is common, and in severe cases subsultus 
tendinum. The symptoms which are espe- 
cially distinctive, as contrasted with typhus fe- 
ver, are those referable to the iritestinal affec- 
tion, namely, diarrhoea, flatulent distention of 
the abdomen, tenderness in the iliac regions, 
and a sound of gurgling when pressure is made 
in these regions. These are known as the ab- 
dominal symptoms of typhoid fever. In the 
majority of cases there is a characteristic erup- 
tion, usually confined to the trunk, but some- 
times extending to the limbs. The eruption, 
however, is rarely abundant, differing in this 
respect from that of typhus. It also differs 
in character, that of typhoid fever being pap- 
ular (pimples, not spots) ; the color is rose 
red (hence called the rose papules) ; the red- 
ness disappears momentarily on pressure with 
the finger ; the papules are not persistent, but 
come and go throughout the disease, and all 
appearance of the eruption disappears after 
death. The eruption appears later than in ty- 
phus, not being discoverable until about the 
seventh day from the time the patient takes 
to the bed. The duration of the fever is lon- 
ger than that of typhus, the average, dating 
from the time of taking to the bed, being about 
16 days in the cases which end in recovery ; 
it is somewhat less in fatal cases. In some 
cases the duration is greatly protracted, and 
may extend to 60 days. Kelapses sometimes 
occur, the patient during convalescence or 
shortly after recovery being again seized and 
passing through a second course of the fever. 
These second attacks rarely prove fatal. Con- 
valescence is preceded by a decline in the tem- 
perature of the body (called defervescence); 
and frequently before a persistent reduction 
there are notable variations, as shown by the 

thermometer, between the morning and even- 
ing temperature. The average mortality is 
about the same as that from typhus, 1 to 5 or 
6 ; the rate varies much, however, at different 
times and places. Generally death is attribu- 
table to accidents, such as perforation of the 
intestine and haemorrhage ; to complications, 
as for example pneumonia; or to the existence 
of antecedent disease. The general principles 
of treatment are the same in cases of typhus 
and typhoid fever. It is doubtful if the cause 
of these diseases be ever arrested, but they 
appear sometimes to end prematurely ; abort, 
as it were, spontaneously. It may be said, at 
all events, that there are no known measures 
which can be relied upon for cutting short 
their course. The great object, therefore, is to 
aid in bringing them to a termination in recov- 
ery. The mineral acids have been found to di- 
minish the rate of mortality. The use of cold 
water, by means of the bath, the wet pack, 
and sponging the surface, not only affords re- 
lief by the abstraction of heat, but clinical 
observation has shown that it conduces to re- 
covery. Supporting the powers of life by a 
proper alimentation, and resorting to alcoholic 
stimulants when these powers begin to fail, con- 
stitute essential measures of treatment. Milk is 
preeminently the appropriate article of diet, and 
alcoholic stimulants are sometimes tolerated 
in very large quantities without any of the ex- 
citant or intoxicating effects which they would 
produce in health. There is reason to believe 
that lives are sometimes saved by the very free 
use of alcoholic stimulants, but it is important 
always to be governed in their use by the indi- 
cations afforded by the symptoms. Favorable 
hygienic conditions are important, such as free 
ventilation, a proper temperature, and cleanli- 
ness. The benefit of an abundance of pure air 
is illustrated by the success with which these 
fevers have been treated in tents. In addition 
to the general principles of treatment, particu- 
lar symptoms and events claim, of course, ap- 
propriate therapeutic measures. As already 
stated in the account of periodical fevers, the 
special cause of these (malaria) may act in 
conjunction with the special cause of typhoid 
fever, giving rise to a combination of the symp- 
toms of both kinds of fever, the disease be- 
ing then known as typho-malarial fever. In 
cases of this compound fever the indications 
for treatment relate to the twofold causation. 
5. Spotted Fever. This name was given to a 
fever which prevailed in New England, New 
York, and Pennsylvania from 1807 to 1815. 
It was considered at that time to be a form 
of typhus fever, and was called also typhus 
petechialis, typhus syncopalis, and typhus gra- 
vior. The name has recently by some writers 
been applied to the disease generally known 
as cerebro-spinal meningitis, or cerebro-spi- 
nal fever (see BRAIN, DISEASES OF THE), the 
opinion being held that the latter disease is 
the same as that to which the name was for- 
merly given. The reason for the name is the 



occurrence, during the progress of the disease, 
of dark or purple spots which are caused by 
small extravasations of blood in the skin. As 
these spots (petechia) occur in only a certain 
proportion of cases, and are present in other 
affections, the name spotted fever is not ap- 
propriate. Differences of opinion as to the 
nature and proper treatment of the disease 
first mentioned gave rise to a violent con- 
troversy, in reference to which see the fol- 
lowing publications: Miner and Tully's "Es- 
says on Fever and other Subjects" (1823); 
Miner, "Typhus Syncopalis' 1 (1825); North 
and Strong on "Spotted Fever;" report of 
a committee of the Massachusetts medical so- 
ciety in its " Transactions," vol. ii. ; Gallup 
on the "Epidemics of Vermont;" and Hale 
on the " Spotted Fever in Gardiner." 6. He- 
lapsing Fever. Another of the continued fe- 
vers, now known by this name, has prevailed 
at different times in England, Ireland, and 
Scotland, but is rare on the continent of Eu- 
rope. It prevailed among the English and 
French troops in the Crimea during the war 
with Russia. In this country it never prevailed 
to any extent prior to the winter of 1869-"TO, 
during which and the following summer it ex- 
isted as an epidemic in New York and other 
large cities. The disease was evidently im- 
ported by foreign immigrants. It is undoubt- 
edly a contagious disease, but not highly so ; 
considerable exposure seems to be required. 
The infecting distance is restricted to a limited 
area, and it is not certain that the contagium 
is transported by means of fomites. The 
prevalence of the disease is aided much by 
cooperating causes, namely, destitution, depri- 
vation, and deficient alimentation. From the 
apparent influence of the latter, the disease 
has been called "famine fever" and "hun- 
ger pest." It is developed abruptly, and usu- 
ally commences with a well pronounced chill, 
which is at once followed by more or less in- 
crease of the heat of the body, with frequency 
of the pulse, and the usual concomitants of 
the febrile state. Frequently the patient per- 
spires freely soon after the commencement of 
the fever. In most cases the fever is intense, 
the thermometer in the armpit showing a tem- 
perature frequently from 103 to 105, con- 
tinuing with but little fluctuation until the 
paroxysm ends ; that is, for a period varying, 
in the great majority of cases, from five to 
seven days. Exceptionally the duration of 
this paroxysm is as brief as two, or as long 
as twelve, days. The febrile state subsides 
abruptly at the end of the paroxysm, when 
the temperature, together with the pulse, some- 
times falls below the standard of health, re- 
turning to this standard after a day or two. 
The patient remains free from fever for a 
period varying from two to twelve days, the 
average duration being about seven days. 
Then occurs another paroxysm of fever, the 
intensity of which is sometimes greater and 
sometimes less than that of the primary one. 

This relapsing paroxysm varies usually from 
three to five days, exceptionally lasting only a 
single day, or extending even to ten days. The 
relapse is occasionally wanting, and in rare 
cases a third, a fourth, or even a fifth relapse 
has been observed. During the paroxysm nau- 
sea and vomiting are apt to be more or less 
prominent as symptoms. Sometimes blood is 
vomited, and hence, among a variety of names, 
the disease has heretofore been called mild 
yellow fever. Jaundice occurs in a small pro- 
portion of cases. Pain in the joints and in 
the muscles of the loins and limbs is usually a 
marked feature of this fever. Delirium rarely 
occurs. There is no characteristic eruption. 
Important complications are of very unfrequent 
occurrence. The mortality from this disease 
is slight, varying in different collections of 
cases from 2 to 4 per cent. In the fatal cases 
the death is sometimes due to complications or 
antecedent diseases; but instances of sudden 
death from syncope have been repeatedly ob- 
served, and also from coma and convulsions 
following suppression of the urine. Persons 
who have experienced the disease are not ex- 
empt from subsequent attacks. The fever can- 
not be cut short by any known means. The 
first consideration in the treatment is the tem- 
perature. Relief is obtained by the direct ab- 
straction of heat through baths, the wet pack 
or sponging, and by antipyretic remedies. The 
palliation of the muscular and arthritic pain is 
the next object of treatment, requiring the use 
of opiates. Further indications relate to the 
kidneys, if their action be deficient, and to ali- 
mentation. The dietetic management, espe- 
cially when the patient has been insufficiently 
nourished, is highly important ; and, as in the 
treatment of other fevers, milk should consti- 
tute the basis of the diet. 7. Epidemic Ery- 
sipelas. A fever called epidemic erysipelatous 
fever, or epidemic erysipelas, and popularly 
known in some parts of the country by the 
name of black tongue, prevailed extensively 
in the New England and the middle, west- 
ern, and southern states, from 1841 to 
1846. Erysipelas often occurred during the 
course of the disease, but not in the majority 
of cases; it appeared in different situations, 
was more or less extensive, and was apt to lead 
to suppuration, gangrene, and sloughing. In- 
flammation of the throat (pharyngitis) was a 
very constant local affection. The disease was 
not unfrequently complicated with inflamma- 
tion of serous membranes (pleuritis, peritonitis, 
and meningitis), and with pneumonia. Sup- 
puration of the glands of the neck was not 
uncommon. The mortality was large, owing 
to the complications just named. Laryngitis 
and oadema of the glottis were other complica- 
tions leading to a fatal result. Irrespective of 
the danger connected with the local affections, 
the disease was mild, running its course in five 
or six days. Bleeding and other so-called 
antiphlogistic measures of treatment appeared 
to be hurtful. Tonic and supporting measures 



fulfilled better the therapeutical indications. 
It was observed that in places where the dis- 
ease prevailed cases of puerperal fever were 
also prevalent. It was the general opinion 
among physicians that the fever was commu- 
nicable. A fever accompanied by pharyngi- 
tis or inflammation of the throat prevailed in 
the winter and spring of 1857 in the western 
part of the state of New York, in the adjacent 
parts of Pennsylvania, and in Canada. Its 
usual duration was from three to six days, and 
it terminated uniformly in recovery. A simi- 
lar fever prevailed in 1866 among the United 
States troops stationed at Hart 1 s island, in Long 
Island sound. It is probable that this fever 
has occurred at other times and places with- 
out having been described by medical writers. 
The disease as yet has no name. It differs 
from acute pharyngitis in that it is manifestly 
an essential fever ; that is, the febrile state is 
not symptomatic of the local affection, but the 
latter is secondary to or a complication of the 
fever. It is analogous to the epidemic erysipel- 
atous fever in the constancy of the pharyngeal 
affection. III. ERUPTIVE FEVERS. 8. Scarlet 
Fever, or Scarlatina. This is distinguished 
from other eruptive fevers by the fact of the 
eruption being an exanthema, an efflorescence, 
or a rash, these terms not being strictly ap- 
plicable to vesicles and pustules. The disease 
sometimes commences with a chill, and in 
most cases vomiting is a primary symptom, es- 
pecially in children. The fever which at once 
occurs is usually intense, the axillary tempera- 
ture often rising to 105, or even higher. The 
pulse in general is correspondingly frequent. 
The surface of the body often gives to the 
touch a burning sensation. The rash appears 
in about 24 hours after the date of the invasion, 
and with very few exceptions breaks out first 
on the face and neck, being diffused over the 
body in the course of 24 hours. The color 
of the rash is scarlet, whence the name. The 
rash in some cases is equally diffused over the 
whole skin, giving rise to an appearance like 
that of a boiled lobster. In other cases it 
is limited to patches varying in number and 
size, with irregular or serrated margins. The 
skin is somewhat swollen, and the rash oc- 
casions a burning sensation, with in some cases 
intense itching. Very generally the erup- 
tion takes place in the throat, more or less 
redness being apparent here, simultaneously 
with or before the appearance of the rash on 
the skin. Generally with the redness there is 
more or less swelling of the tonsils. Some 
cases are characterized by severe inflammation 
of the throat, accompanied by either an ash- 
colored product or an exudation resembling 
that which takes place in diphtheria ; and with 
this affection of the throat the glands of the 
neck become inflamed and sometimes suppu- 
rate. When the throat affection is severe the 
disease has been called scarlatina anginosa. 
The inflammation in some rare cases extends 
from the throat into the middle ear, giving rise 

to perforation of the tympanum, with perhaps 
loss of the ossicles, and resulting in more or 
less impairment of the sense of hearing. The 
cutaneous eruption continues from four to six 
days. Then follows the stage of desquamation. 
The cuticle generally in this stage exfoliates, 
and is separated either in the form of branny 
scales, or in large flakes or patches. In some 
instances the cuticle of the hands is separated 
intact, and may be stripped off like a glove. 
The itching in this stage is sometimes extreme- 
ly annoying. In favorable cases the duration 
of this stage may be reckoned to be five or six 
days, when convalescence is established. Fre- 
quently, however, this stage is much protract- 
ed. Aside from variations in respect of gravity 
and danger incident to the throat affection, 
scarlet fever differs greatly in the intensity of 
the fever and constitutional symptoms. The 
disease in a certain proportion of cases is ex- 
tremely mild, the patient perhaps not being 
confined to the bed. In other cases it is ex- 
tremely severe, and it may prove fatal within 
a few days or even hours. In no other disease 
are the two extremes more widely separated. 
Death sometimes takes place before the erup- 
tion appears. An affection of the kidneys, 
namely, inflammation of the membrane lining 
the uriniferous tubes (desquamative or tubal 
nephritis), is occasionally a concomitant, but 
oftener a sequel, of scarlet fever. This local 
affection may interfere with the excretory 
function of the kidneys so as to occasion re- 
tention of urinary principles in the blood, con- 
stituting the morbid condition called urasmia ; 
and this condition may prove serious, giving 
rise to coma and convulsions. Occurring as 
a sequel of scarlet fever, this affection of the 
kidneys leads to general dropsy. From, this 
the patient recovers, provided fatal effects of 
uremia do not take place. Scarlet fever is 
highly contagious, and it may be communicated 
by means of fomites. The infectious material 
remains for a long time in garments, &c., pre- 
serving its power of producing the disease. 
The time which elapses from the reception of 
the infection before the manifestation of the 
disease, that is, the period of incubation, is 
short, sometimes not more than 24 hours, and 
rarely exceeding a week. As a rule the disease 
is experienced but once, but exceptions are not 
very rare. Children are much more susceptible 
to the special cause than adults. After 40 
years of age the susceptibility generally ceases. 
Children under two years rarely contract the 
disease. The treatment in mild cases of scarlet 
fever is very simple. Active medication is not 
indicated. It suffices to diminish the animal 
heat by sponging the body and giving cooling 
drinks, with such palliative remedies as par- 
ticular symptoms may denote, observing proper 
hygienic precautions. In severe cases the use 
of the cold bath or the wet pack is highly 
beneficial, not merely as affording relief but 
diminishing danger. The value in this disease 
of the direct abstraction of heat by these means 




has been very fully established by clinical ex- 
perience. Inunction of the surface of the trunk 
and limbs with fat bacon or some oleaginous 
preparation allays the itching, which is often 
very distressing, and in the opinion of some the 
severity of the disease is thereby much lessened. 
As in other diseases, whenever the symptoms 
show failure of the vital powers, supporting 
measures of treatment (alcoholic stimulants 
and alimentation) are indicated. There are 
no known remedies which exert a specific con- 
trol over this disease, more than over the con- 
tinued and the other eruptive fevers. Care 
during convalescence in scarlet fever is consid- 
ered as especially important with reference to 
the liability to the affection of the kidneys al- 
ready referred to. This care relates particu- 
larly to exposure to cold ; and a fact important 
to be borne in mind is, that this affection of 
the kidneys as often follows mild as severe 
cases of scarlet fever. Belladonna has been 
supposed to afford protection against this dis- 
ease after exposure to the infection. This is 
not certain. Complete protection can be se- 
cured only by avoiding the infection through 
contact or proximity to patients, and disinfect- 
ing everything which may convey it. For the 
other eruptive fevers, see CHICKEN Pox, SMALL- 

FEYDEAU, Ernest lime, a French author, born 
in Paris, March 16, 1821, died there, Oct. 28, 
1873. He published a volume of poetry in 
1844, and acquired notoriety in 1858 by his 
questionable novel Fanny. His subsequent 
works of a similar kind were not as popular ; 
nor was he successful as a playwright. He 
was connected with various journals, and his 
miscellaneous writings include Histoire gene- 
rale des usages funebres et des sepultures des 
peuples anciens (3 vols., 1858); Le secret du 
Itonheur, sketches of Algerian life (2 vols., 1864; 
English translation, 2 vols., 1867) ; and UAlle- 
magne en 1871 (Paris, 1872). 

FEYJ06 Y MONTENEGRO, Francisco Benito Jero- 
nimo, a Spanish reformer, born probably at Car- 
damiro, Oct. 8, 1676, died in Oviedo, May 16, 
1764. He was a Benedictine monk, and be- 
came professor of divinity at Oviedo, abbot, 
and eventually general of the Benedictine or- 
der. He resided the greater part of his life in 
the monastery at Oviedo, devoted to literary, 
philosophical, and scientific labors. He opposed 
the philosophical system then taught in Spain, 
maintaining Bacon's principle of induction in 
the physical sciences, and ridiculing the pre- 
vailing fallacies in regard to astronomy and 
astrology. He published his dissertations un- 
der the title of Teatro critico universal, 6 dis- 
cursos varies en todo genero de materias, para 
desengaflo de err ores comunes (1736-'42), and 
continued them under the title of Gartas erudi- 
tas (1742-' 60). His works have gone through 
many editions, and selections from them were 
translated into French by D'Hermilly (Paris, 
1745), and into English by John Brett (Lon- 
don, 1770-'80). 

FEZ (Ar. Fas). I. A province of Morocco, 
occupying the N. portion of the empire, bound- 
ed N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Algeria, 
and W. by the Atlantic. It is traversed in the 
east and south by branches of the Atlas moun- 
tains, but the western portions form a rich 
champaign country, productive in grain, chiefly 
wheat and barley, honey, tobacco, olives, and 
wine. The chief river is the Seboo, which, 
rising in the E. part of the province near the 
Atlas mountain, passes within 6 m. of the city 
of Fez, and enters the Atlantic at Mamora, 
where it is navigable. The chief cities are Fez 
and Tangier, the principal commercial seats of 
the empire, Mequinez, Tetuan, El-Araish, Salee, 
Rabat, and Kasr el-Kebir. The Spanish pre- 
sidios of Ceuta, Alhucemas, Sefior de Velez, 
and Melilla are in this province, on the Medi- 
terranean. Fez formed a part of Mauritania 
Tingitana under the Romans. Early in the 
5th century the Vandals settled here, and re- 
mained until the conquest of N". W. Africa by 
the Arabs. It was subject successively to the 
eastern caliphs and the Ommiyades of Spain, 
and was afterward an independent kingdom 
till conquered and annexed to Morocco about 
1548. II. A city, capital of the province, in 
lat. 34 6' K, Ion. 5 1' W., about 85 m. from 
the Mediterranean, and 90 in. from the Atlan- 
tic ; pop. estimated at 88,000, including 65,000 
Moors and Arabs, 10,000 Berbers, 9,000 Jews, 
and 4,000 negroes. It is situated on the slope 
of a valley watered by a small affluent of the 
Seboo, which divides within the city into 
two branches, supplying the baths and foun- 
tains. The city, surrounded by dilapidated 
walls, is 4 m. in circuit, and is divided into 
the old and new towns, both, however, an- 
cient, and both composed of narrow, dirty 
streets. The houses are of brick, with galle- 
ries and flat roofs. It is one of the three 
residences of the emperor, but the palace, al- 
though large, is not remarkable. In the 16th 
century this place was a famous seat of Arabic 
learning. It has yet a university called the 
house of science, colleges, and elementary 
schools. Formerly the city contained some 
hundreds of mosques, and is said still to have 
100, of which the principal are El-Karubin 
and the mosque of Sultan Muley Edris, founder 
of the city (in the 9th century). The former 
has a covered court for women to pray in, and 
the latter, which contains the remains of the 
founder, is a sanctuary for criminals. From 
its abundance of mosques and relics Fez is a 
holy city to the western Arabs. It possesses 
200 caravansaries, some hospitals, and manu- 
factories of woollens, sashes, silk stuffs and 
girdles, the red woollen caps called fez (dyed 
of a bright red color by means of a berry found 
in the vicinity), slippers, coarse linens, fine car- 
pets, saddlery, arms, &c. Of the fine leather 
known by the name of morocco, the red comes 
from Fez. Its artisans are very skilful in gold- 
smith's work and jewelry. It is the depot of 
the inland trade, and collects for export gums, 



spices, ostrich feathers, ivory, &c. Caravans 
set out from the city semi-annually, in March 
and October, across the desert for Timbuctoo. 
They complete the round journey in 139 days, 
of which only 54 are employed in actual travel. 
FEZZAN (anc. Phazania, and the land of the 
Garamantes), an inland country of N. Africa, 
supposed to extend from about lat. 23 to 31 
N., and from Ion. 12 to 18 E., but the boun- 
daries are ill defined; pop. about 50,000. 
lit lies south of the pashalic of Tripoli, to 
which it is tributary, and is bounded on all 
other sides by the Sahara. In consequence 
of the want of moisture, and the great heat, 
it is almost barren of vegetation. The soil 
consists of black shining sandstone, or the 
fine sand of the desert, gypsum, and rock 
salt, with strata of dolomite and limestone. 
The valleys intersecting the low ranges of hills 
contain the cultivable land of the region. Its 
northern parts are traversed by two ridges of 
stony and sandy hills, which in some places 
attain an elevation of 1,200 ft. from their base. 
In the eastern district they are called El-Ha- 
ruj, but in the west take the name of the Ghu- 
rian and Soodah mountains. S. of the Soo- 
dah extends the salt-incrusted desert of Ben 
Afien. The table land of Moorzook occupies 
the middle and southern parts of the country. 
The land lies in a hollow lower than the sur- 
rounding desert. The heat in -summer is in- 
tense, rising sometimes to 133 F. In winter 
the cold is greater than might be anticipated 
from its latitude ; in 1850 snow fell at Sokna, 
and ice as thick as a man's finger was found at 
Moorzook. There are no rivers or brooks, rain 
seldom falls, thunder storms are rare, and the 
climate is very unhealthy for Europeans. Dates 
are the staple product; small quantities of 
maize and barley are raised. Among the other 
productions are figs, pomegranates, watermel- 
ons, legumes, durra, and a little wheat. Of 
domestic animals, goats are the most numer- 
ous ; camels, horses, and asses are reared. Of 
wild animals, there are the lion, leopard, hyasna, 
jackal, buffalo, fox, and porcupine ; among 
birds, vultures, falcons, and other birds of 
prey, with ostriches and bustards. Fezzan is 
exempt from flies, but ants, scorpions, and 
bugs abound. Planted on the high road of 
commerce between the coast of Africa and the 
interior, the inhabitants place their main re- 
liance upon the caravan trade. From Cairo to 
Moorzook the caravan takes about 40 days, 
from Tripoli to the same place about 25 days. 
Of manufactures, besides a little leather and 
articles in iron, the country is almost destitute. 
Fezzan is inhabited by two branches of the 
Berber race: the Tuariks, who occupy the 
northwest, and the Tibboos, who dwell in the 
southeast. Their complexion is dark brown, 
and their persons are well formed. They 
speak a corrupt dialect of Arabic and Berber. 
Their writing is in the Mograbin characters, 
but they have little idea of arithmetic, and 
reckon everything by dots in the sand, ten in 


a line. Their media of exchange are Spanish 
coin and grain. The country is ruled by a 
sultan, who resides at Moorzook. The chief 
sources of his revenue are taxes upon slaves 
and merchandise. The only places exhibiting 
prosperity, according to Barth, are Moorzook 
and Sokna; the population of each is estima- 
ted at about 3,000. L. Cornelius Balbus the 
younger, Roman proconsul of Africa, penetra- 
ted into Phazania about 20 B. C. The remains 
of Roman civilization, in the shape of columns 
or mausoleums, are still found as far S. as 26 
25'. In the 7th century Fezzan fell under the 
dominion of the Arabs, who introduced Mo- 
hammedanism, to which religion the people 
are still fanatically attached. Since then Fez- 
zan has generally been tributary to some Arab 
potentate. In 1811 the bey Mukni usurped 
the throne and acknowledged allegiance to the 
pasha of Tripoli, Fezzan has been much visit- 
ed by modern travellers, and is regarded as the 
starting point for the interior of Negroland. 
Denham and Clapperton, Oudney, Hornemann, 
Lyon, Ritchie, Barth, Richardson, and lastly 
Dr. Vogel, have all visited and described it. 

FIARD, Jean Baptiste, abbe, a French eccle- 
siastic, born in Dijon, Nov. 28, 1736, died 
there, Sept. 30, 1818. He accounted for the 
perversities of human conduct by ascribing 
them to demoniac agency. It was his opinion 
that Voltaire and other philosophers of his 
time were merely demons, and he denounced 
them as such before an assembly of the clergy 
of France in 1775. The French revolution 
seemed to him a great diabolic triumph, and 
his opinion was confirmed by his own impris- 
onment for two years for persistence in the ex- 
ercise of the priesthood. Among his writings 
are Lettres philosophiques sur la magie (Dijon, 
1803), and La France trompee par les magi- 
dens et demonoldtres du 18 f siecle, fait demontre 
par des faits (Dijon, 1803). 

FIBRINE, a nitrogenous organic substance, 
existing in a fluid form in the blood and lymph, 
and capable of spontaneous coagulation when 
withdrawn from the vessels of the living body. 
Vegetable fibrine, a substance analogous to it 
in composition, is found in the newly express- 
ed juices of plants, particularly of the grape, 
when these are allowed to stand for some time, 
and the gelatinous substance that is deposited 
is washed free from the coloring matter asso- 
ciated with it. A similar substance exists 
also in wheat flour, being separated in the glu- 
ten. Fibrine is obtained from freshly drawn 
blood by taking up the ropy portions that ad- 
here to a twig with which it is stirred, and 
thoroughly cleansing these of coloring and 
soluble matters by washing. It is a soft white 
substance, and becomes on drying yellowish, 
brittle, and semi-transparent. Numerous anal- 
yses have been made of the fibrine, albumen, 
and caseine derived from vegetables used for 
food the albumen from the clarified juice of 
turnips, asparagus, &c., and the caseine from 
beans and peas; and the results prove a close 



analogy of composition not only among them- 
selves, but with the chief constituents of the 
blood, animal fibre and albumen. One of the 
analyses of animal fi brine by Sherer might al- 
most equally well be given for either of the 
other substances, or indeed for the caseine of 
milk, which is a similar substance. The fol- 
lowing is one of many quoted by Liebig: 
carbon, 54*454; hydrogen, 7'069; nitrogen, 
15-762; oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, 22*715. 
Fibrine is exceedingly important as an ingre- 
dient of the blood, since it is due to its pres- 
ence alone that the blood is capable of coagu- 
lating in wounds or after the ligature of blood 
vessels, and thus arresting the haemorrhage 
which would otherwise continue to take place. 
Its proportion in the blood is rather over two 
parts per thousand, in the lymph about one 
part per thousand. 

FICHTE. I. Johann Gottlieb, a German phi- 
losopher, born at Rammenau in Lusatia, May 
19, 1762, died in Berlin, Jan. 27, 1814. He 
was the son of a poor weaver, and owed his 
education to a wealthy nobleman, the baron 
of Miltitz. He studied theology at Jena, Leip- 
sic, and Wittenberg, 1780-'83, and for ten years 
obtained a precarious living as a private tutor. 
While at Konigsberg in 1791 he became ac- 
quainted with Kant, of whom he had been one 
of the earliest and most enthusiastic admirers, 
and as an application of his philosophy wrote 
a pamphlet entiled Kritik aller Offenbarungen 
("Review of all Revelations"), which, pub- 
lished anonymously, was generally believed to 
have been written by Kant himself. In 1793, 
while residing in Switzerland, he published a 
work in two volumes " to rectify public opinion 
in regard to the French revolution." In 1794 
he obtained a professorship of philosophy at 
the university of Jena through the influence of 
Goethe, then secretary of state of Saxe-Weimar. 
Here he commenced a series of lectures on 
the science of knowledge ( Wissenschaftslehre), 
and gave also a course of Sunday lectures on 
the literary calling. In the same year he pub- 
lished a treatise containing the fundamental 
doctrines of his philosophical system, Ueber 
den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre, and during 
the next five years his system was matured 
and completed. By it he immediately took 
rank among the most original of living philoso- 
phers, and as it appeared to furnish a meta- 
physical basis for progressive political and reli- 
gious views, he was considered one of the lead- 
ers of the liberal party in Germany. In con- 
junction with Niethammer he also published a 
philosophical journal, in which were inserted 
articles containing certain views which were 
considered by many as tending directly to athe- 
ism. The grand-ducal government, alarmed at 
the boldness of his theories, insisted on his re- 
moval, and Goethe, though secretly sympa- 
thizing with him, felt bound to express his offi- 
cial disapprobation. Fichte resigned his pro- 
fessorship and appealed to the public in a 
pamphlet entitled Appellation gegen die An- 

Tdage des Atheismus, which, though proving his 
deep earnestness, could scarcely be considered 
a conclusive refutation of the objections raised 
against his doctrines. He maintained in it 
that science could conceive the idea of exis- 
tence only in regard to such beings or things as 
belonged to the province of sensual perception, 
and that therefore it could not be applied to 
God. God was not an individual being, but 
merely a manifestation of supreme laws, the 
logical order of events, the ordo ordinans of 
the universe. He said it was no less ridiculous 
to ask a philosopher if his doctrines were athe- 
istic than to ask a mathematician whether a 
triangle was green or red. From Jena Fichte 
went to Berlin, where by his writings and lec- 
tures he exerted a great influence on public 
opinion, and after the reverses which befell the 
Prussian monarchy (1806) became one of the 
most conspicuous and powerful anti-Napoleonic 
agitators. For a few months only (1805) he ac- 
cepted a professorship at the university of Er- 
langen, where he delivered his celebrated lec- 
tures Ueber das Wesen des Gelehrten. While 
the French conquerors were still in Berlin he 
delivered in the academy his Eeden- an die 
deutsche Nation, which are admired as a mon- 
ument of the most intense patriotism and 
depth of thought. Immediately after the es- 
tablishment of the Berlin university in 1810, 
he accepted a professorship there. In 1813 
he resumed his political activity with great 
success. When at last the deliverance of Ger- 
many from French oppression had given him 
sufficient tranquillity of mind to resume the 
completion of his philosophical system, he fell 
a victim to the noble exertions of his wife in 
the cause of charity. By nursing the sick and 
wounded in the military hospitals for five 
months she had become infected with typhus. 
She recovered, but her husband, who had also 
taken the disease, succumbed to it. Besides 
the above mentioned publications, the following 
are Fichte's principal works : Grundlage der 
gesammten Wissenschaftslehre (1794) ; Grund- 
lage des Naturrechts (1796-'7) ; System der 
Sittenlehre (1798) ; Ueber die Bestimmung des 
Menschen (1801) ; Anweisung zum seligen Le- 
len (1806). His complete works were pub- 
lished at Berlin in 1845. To give a succinct 
and intelligible analysis of Fichte's philosophi- 
cal system is next to impossible. . His language 
is abstruse and liable to misconstruction, to 
which indeed Fichte's philosophy has been 
subject in a higher degree perhaps than that 
of any other modern philosopher. Thus, for 
instance, to designate the self-conscious intel- 
lect as contrasted with the non-conscious ob- 
jects of its conception, he uses the personal 
pronoun "I" as contrasted to the "not I" 
(Ich and Nicht-Ich, in English versions gen- 
erally rendered by the Latin ego and non-ego) ; 
and this was misconstrued by many of his con- 
temporaries as a deification of his own indivi- 
dual self, while in point of fact he meant only 
that which by other moderns has been called 



the absolute, and by the ancient philosophers 
the substance. Fichte's philosophy was in- 
tended to amplify that of Kant. Kant, in in- 
vestigating the theory of human cognition, had 
arrived at the conclusion that the properties 
of external objects, by which they are discerned 
and known, are not realities, transferred from 
without into the human mind, but mere forms 
of conception innate in the mind. Hence he 
argued that objects per se, or such as they 
really are, independent of human cognition, 
are utterly unknown to man. So far as man 
is concerned, they are only phenomena ; that 
is to say, for man they exist only as they 
appear to the mind according to its forms of 
conception (categories), while as noumena, or 
such as they are per se, they are unknown and 
inconceivable. What Fichte attempts to prove 
is simply this : that between objects as they ap- 
pear to human conception and as they actually 
are there is no real difference, since the forms 
of human cognition are identical with the ac- 
tion of the absolute intellect ; that objects are 
the limit set by the absolute within itself in 
order to arrive at perfect self-consciousness; 
that the absolute (the IcTi) is at the same time 
subject and object, the ideal and the real. Ke- 
duced to plainer language, all this would mean 
that God (the absolute subject, the great active 
and creative "I") and nature (the "not I," 
the aggregate of objects) are united in a similar 
manner as soul and body ; that the absolute 
intellect pervades all and everything, and that 
the human mind is an integral part of the 
absolute intellect. But, clothed in the most 
singular and obscure formulas, the theory of 
Fichte was understood by many to mean that 
all reality existed only in the imagination of 
man, and was in fact merely an outward reflec- 
tion or manifestation of the workings of the hu- 
man mind. Such was not his idea, and the 
term "idealist," when applied to Fichte, has a 
different meaning from that in which it is ap- 
plied to Berkeley. That the ultimate conse- 
quences of Fichte's system would have led him 
into a sort of pantheistical mysticism is apparent 
from his later writings, in which the U I" is 
much more clearly than in his earlier works 
set forth as God, and all individual minds 
only as reflections of the absolute. Applying 
his metaphysical theories to ethics, Fichte 
concludes that morality consists in the har- 
mony of man's thoughts (conscience) and ac- 
tions. Entire freedom of action and self-de- 
termination is, according to Fichte, not merely 
the preliminary condition of morality, but 
morality itself. Hence law should be nothing 
more than a determination of the boundaries 
within which the free action of the individual 
must be confined, so as to concede the same 
freedom to others. Law has no meaning or 
existence without society. The object of so- 
ciety is the realization of the supreme law as 
conceived by human reason. The most perfect 
state of human society would be the true king- 
dom of heaven, since the absolute or God is 


revealed in the rational development of man- 
kind. It is easily seen how these ethical doc- 
trines of Fichte appeared in practice. Main- 
taining that self-reliance and self-determina- 
tion were the only guarantees of true morality, 
and contending against the assumption of the 
divine right of political institutions, he fur- 
nished a philosophical basis to the liberal politi- 
cal parties who opposed the sanctity of popu- 
lar rights to the assumed divine right of mon- 
archs. In order to insure to the people the 
greatest possible amount of rational well be- 
ing, Fichte taught that the introduction of the 
most universal popular education was one of 
the principal duties of the state. In regard 
to this subject his urgent appeals to the Ger- 
man governments were highly successful. The 
identity of the subject and object, or of the 
ideal and real, as taught by Fichte, became the 
basis as well of Schelling's nature -philosophy 
as of Hegel's philosophical system, the former 
of which attempts a logical construction of the 
universe from the standpoint of the object (na- 
ture), while the other attempts the same from 
the point of view of the subject (the human 
mind). The Grundzuge des gegenwdrtigen 
Zeitalters ("Characteristics of the Present 
Age"), Wesen des Gelehrten ("Nature of the 
Scholar"), Bestimmung des Menschen ("Vo- 
cation of Man"), Bestimmung des Gelehrten 
("Vocation of the Scholar