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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



VOL VIII. 
GLASGOW-HORTENSE, 



361 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OF 



GENEBAL KNOWLEDGE 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED, 



VOLUME VIII. 
GLASGOW-HORTENSE. 



NEW YORK: 
I). APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BKOADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, hi the year 1874, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 










the Contributors of New. Articles to the Eighth Volume of the Revised 
Edition are the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 

HAIL. 
WILLARD BARTLETT. 

GONDS. 

HINDOO KOOSH. 

Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

HAMLINE, LEONIDAS LEKT. 
HAVEN, ERASTUS OTIS. 
HAVEN, GILBERT. 
HEDDING, ELIJAH. 
JULIUS BING. 

GORTCHAKOFF, ALEXANDER, 
HERTZEN, ALEXANDER, 

and other articles in biography, geography, &c. 

FKANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREATT. 

GOUNOD, CHARLES FRANCOIS. 

GUARNERI, family of. 

HALEVY, JACQUES FRANCOIS FROMENTAL ELIE. 
EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D. 

GREECE, and articles in biography and history. 
ROBERT CARTER. 

HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH. 
JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

GOLD COAST, 

GUIZOT, family of, 

HEDJAZ, 

HERALDRY, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

HELLEBORE, 

HENBANE, and other articles in materia medica. 

T. M. COAN, M. D. 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

HILO. 

HONOLULU. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

HEIR, 

HEREDITAMENTS, and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. 0. DALTON, M. D. 

HEART, 

HEMATINE, 

HISTOLOGY, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 
GLASS, 

GOLD (history and statistics), 
HAMILTON COLLEGE, 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 

and articles in American geography. 

Capt. 0. E. BUTTON, U.S. A., Washington, D.C. 

GUN COTTON. 

GUNNERY. 

GUNPOWDER. 

EGBERT T. EDES; M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

Louis ELSBERG, M. D. 

HAECKEL, ERNST HEINRICH. 

HELMHOLTZ, HERMANN LUDWIG FERDINAND. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

GRASSMANN, HERMANN GI^NTIIEE. 
HEGIRA. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 

HAY COLD. 

HEART, DISEASES OF THE. 
AUSTIN FLINT, Jr., M. D. 
GYMNASTICS. 

ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. 

GUISE, House of, 

HALL, CHARLES FRANCIS, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

EGBERT GUERNSEY, M. D. 

HOMOEOPATHY. 

J. W. HAWES. 

HALIFAX, N. S., 

HARRISBURG, 

HARTFORD, 

and other articles in American geography. 



CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

Prof. T. STERRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

GOLD (geology). 

GRANITE. 

HALL, Prof. JAMES. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

GRANT, ULYSSES S., 
GREELEY, HORACE, 
HARTE, FRANCIS BRET, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 
GLASS SPONGE, 
GLOBIGERINA, 
HIPPARION, 

and other articles in natural history. 

Prof. ALFRED M. MAYER, Stevens Inst. of 
Technology, Hoboken, 3ST. J. 

HARMONY. 
Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

HALL, NEWMAN, 
HAYES, ISAAC ISRAEL, 
. HOME, DANIEL DOUGLAS, 

and other biographical articles. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 
GREGORY, popes. 
GUILD. 
HECLA. 
HONORIUS, popes. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 
GRAVITY. 
HALO. 

Prof. ROSSITER W. RAYMOND, Ph. D. 
GOLD MINING. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

GODWIN, PARKE. 
HAMBURG. 
HANOVER. 
HAREM. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 
HANKOW, 
HESBE-HOMBURG, 
HESSE-NASSAU, 

and other articles in geography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

GOURGUES, DOMINIQUE DE, 
GROS VENTRES, 
HENNEPIN, Louis, 

and articles on American Indians. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

GOULBURN, EDWARD MEYRICK. 
GRISWOLD, ALEXANDER VIETS. 
HOBART, JOHN HENRY. 

Prof. GEORGE THURBER. 
GRAFTING, 
GRAPE, 

GRASSES, 
HEMLOCK SPRUCE, 

and other botanical articles 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

GOTHIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 
GREECE, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF, 
HIEROGLYPHICS, 
HIMYARITES, 

and other articles in philology, &c. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

GUATEMALA, 
HAVANA, 
HAYTI, 
HONDURAS, 

and other Spanish American articles. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

GREECE, WINES OF. 
HALSTEAD, MURAT. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



GLASGOW 



/""^ LASGOW, the chief commercial and manu- 
VJT facturing city of Scotland, in Lanarkshire, 
on the river Clyde, 21 m. from its mouth, and 
41 m. W. S. W. of Edinburgh ; lat. 55 51' 32" 
K, Ion. 4 17' 54" W. ; pop. in 1660, 12,000 ; in 
1765, 23,046 ; in 1801, 83,769 ; in 1851, 347,001 ; 
in 1861, 395,503 ; in 1871, of the parliamenta- 
ry burgh, 477,144, of the whole town, 547,538. 
The city is about 3 m. long, and lies on both sides 



of the river, here about 500 ft. wide, which is 
crossed by two suspension and three stone 
bridges, below which are several ferries. The 
site is mostly level, but in the N. and K W. 
parts are considerable elevations. The original 
burgh, which took its rise from the cathedral 
and the university, is on the N. bank ; but the va- 
rious suburbs are now so closely connected that 
they can hardly be considered otherwise than 




Albert Bridge. Glasgow. 



as portions of one compact city. The principal 
streets are parallel with the river, two of the 
broadest bordering it on either side. There 
are three public parks : the Green, of 140 acres, 
on the N. bank of the Clyde, near the E. end 
of the city ; Kelvingrove, of 40 acres, at the 
W. end ; and Queen's park, of 100 acres, on 
elevated ground at the south. These parks are 



all handsomely laid out and ornamented. The 
streets mostly cross Jt right angles, are well 
paved, lighted, and trained, and are adorned 
with several fine statues. Many of the houses 
are of white freestone, constructed in flats. 
There are two theatres, two museums, two 
public libraries (of 30,000 and 15,000 volumes), 
asylums for the blind, insane, aged, and deaf 



GLASGOW 



GLASS 



and dumb, a university, and 175 churches and 
chapels. The last named are divided as fol- 
lows : Free church, 43 ; Established church, 
40; United Presbyterian, 37; Roman Catholic, 
12 ; Independent, 9 ; Baptist, 7 ; Episcopal, 5 ; 
Reformed Presbyterian, 4 ; other denomina- 
tions, 18. A bishopric was erected in .Glas- 
gow about 1115 ; in 1488 it was made an arch- 
bishopric. At present it is the seat of a bishop 
of the Scotch Episcopal church and of a Roman 
Catholic vicar apostolic. Five daily and 15 
weekly newspapers are published. There is a 
botanic garden of 40 acres in the N. W. part 
of the city, which is open to the public in sum- 
mer. The cathedral, said to be the finest Gothic 
building in Scotland, overlooks the city from 
the northeast. It was built by David I. about 
1133, but was burned in 1192; the present 
edifice was immediately begun, and was con- 
secrated in 1197, but was not finished until the 
present century. Its most celebrated features 
are the crypt and the profusion of brilliant 
stained glass. The university was chartered 
in 1443 by James II., but it had only a feeble 
existence until 1560, when Queen Mary be- 
stowed upon it half of the confiscated church 
property in the city ; this endowment has been 
greatly increased by additional grants from the 
corporation and the crown. It has a library 
of 105,000 volumes, founded in 1473, an ob- 
servatory, and numerous cabinets and collec- 
tions. The grounds include 22 acres, and the 
new buildings, finished in 1870, cost 370,000. 
The number of matriculated students averages 
1,200. The university confers degrees in arts, 
law, medicine, and divinity. The principal 
public buildings are the royal exchange, the 
town hall, and Hutcheson's hospital. The city 
is supplied with water from Loch Katrine, by 
an aqueduct 26 m. long. Glasgow was erected 
into a burgh about 11 90, with the privilege of an 
annual fair. In 1556 it ranked eleventh among 
the towns of Scotland. It is now the fourth 
exporting city of Great Britain, and the second 
in wealth and population. Its immense growth, 
mainly within the present century, is due to 
its situation in the midst of a rich coal and 
iron district, and its seaport facilities. Large 
sums have been spent in clearing and deepen- 
ing the channel of the Clyde, including the re- 
moval of several islands, and it is now naviga- 
ble for vessels of 2,000 tons. The quays are 16,- 
680 ft. in extent. In the 18th century Glasgow 
was the centre of the tobacco trade of Great 
Britain, and its merchants also dealt largely in 
the sugar and other products of the West In- 
dies. Later it entered extensively into brew- 
ing, dyeing, and calico printing, and finally 
into ship building (especially of iron ships), iron 
casting, and machine making, and the prepa- 
ration of chemicals. The St. Rollox chemical 
works, the largest in the world, N. of the ca- 
thedral, cover 16 acres, employ more than 
1,000 men, and have a chimney 450 ft. high. 
A still taller chimney (460 ft.) is that of the 
artificial manure works. In 1871 the number 



of spindles was 2,000,000, consuming annually 
125,000 bales of cotton, and supplying 27,000 
power looms. There are large glass works and 
paper mills, and the turkey-red dyes produced 
here are famous. The value of exports in 1871 
was 10,049,987, of which 2,223,221 were to 
the United States ; the value of imports was 
6,577,575, of which 2,894,273 were from 
the United States. Glasgow is governed by a 
lord provost, 8 bailies, and 39 councillors, with 
the dean of guild from the merchants' and the 
deacon convener from the trades' house, and 
returns three members to the house of com- 
mons. The Romans had a station on the Clyde 
in the locality of the city, and Antoninus's 
wall commenced a few miles W. of it. Tradi- 
tion assigns the foundation of Glasgow to St. 
Kentigern, whom it makes its first bishop, 
about 560. In 1300 a battle between the Scots 
under Wallace and the English under Percy 
was fought in the High street, when Percy was 
defeated and slain. In 1350, '.80, and '81, Glas- 
gow was visited by the plague. About 1542 
the regent Arran besieged the earl of Lennox 
in the bishop's castle, obtained it on promise 
of terms, and put the garrison to the sword. 
The same leaders subsequently fought a battle 
at the Butts in the E. part of the city, when 
the regent gained the victory and plundered it. 
In 1560 reformed superintendents superseded 
Catholic bishops. In 1638 the famous assembly 
of the Presbyterian church was held here, when 
episcopacy was abjured. For several years 
thereafter the city was a prey to both parties 
in the civil Avars. Fire, plague, plunder, and 
famine desolated the place. On June 4, 1690, 
a charter of William and Mary conferred on the 
townsmen the right of electing their own ma- 
gistrates. Glasgow was strongly dissatisfied 
with the union of Scotland and England, but 
in 1715 and again in 1745 sided with the house 
of Hanover and raised a force against the 
Stuarts, for which the pretender's army on 
the retreat from Derby levied contributions. 
On the breaking out of the American revolu- 
tionary war, Glasgow raised a regiment of 
1,000 men, and fitted out 14 privateers. In 
1820 the public peace was disturbed by radical 
political riots, and in 1848 by the chartists. 

GLASS (Sax. glees), in chemistry, any product 
of fusion having the peculiar lustre known as 
vitreous, hard and brittle, whether transparent 
or not; in common use, the transparent pro- 
duct derived from the fusion of silica with an 
alkali to which lime or a metallic oxide is add- 
ed. No material invented by man is to be 
compared with glass in the service it has ren- 
dered. To its aid, applied in a thousand dif- 
ferent forms, the sciences, particularly chemis- 
try and astronomy, are essentially indebted for 
their advancement; and its uses in common 
life render it no less important to the daily 
wants of mankind. The purity of its material 
causes the presence of foreign substances to bo 
instantly detected, and it is consequently the 
most cleanly substance, and especially suited 



GLASS 



for vessels for holding and keeping liquids. It 
resists the action of nearly all the powerful 
chemical reagents ; and but for this substance 
many of them would never have been known, 
nor could they now be made and kept. Noth- 
ing definite is known concerning the discovery 
of the art of glass making or the early history 
of its manufacture. The statement made by 
Pliny that some Phoenician mariners having 
landed on the banks of a small river in Pales- 
tine, " and finding no stones to rest their pots 
on, they placed under them some masses of 
nitrum [soda, as is supposed], which, being 
fused by the heat with the sand of the river, 
produced a liquid and transparent "stream," is 
not generally accepted as showing the origin 
of glass. A stronger heat than could be ob- 
tained from an open fire would be required to 
effect this result. Nor is much more credit to 
be attached to his accounts respecting the pro- 
duction of a glass of malleable character, which 
when thrown upon the ground was merely in- 
dented, and could be restored to shape with a 
hammer, as if it were brass. Some metallic 
salts, as chloride of silver, possess ductility at 
the same time with a glossy appearance, and 
of one of them the articles referred to may 
perhaps have been made ; but all modern ex- 
perience is opposed to the possibility of a vit- 
rified body being malleable. It has been es- 
tablished with certainty that the art was prac- 
tised among the Egyptians at a very early 
period. Paintings on a tomb at Beni Hassan, 
supposed to date from the reign of Osortasen 
I., about 3,000 B. C., represent Theban glass 
blowers at work with blowpipes very similar 
to those used at the present day. A necklace 
bead of material similar to the modern crown 
glass was found at Thebes, bearing the name 
of the queen of Thothmes III., who reigned 
about 1500 B. C., inscribed in hieroglyphics. 
In the British museum there is an interesting 
ancient Egyptian specimen in the form of a 
small bottle of opaque light-blue glass, on which 





FIG. 1. Theban Glass Blowers. 

are painted in yellow the names and titles of 
the same monarch. Ornaments imitating pre- 
cious gems in color and beauty show that the 
art had been brought to a high degree of 
perfection by the Egyptians. Not only was 
glass used by them in making drinking vessels, 



but also for mosaic work, the figures of deities 
and sacred emblems, and even for coffins, in 
all of which they attained excellent workman- 
ship and surprising brilliancy of color. The 
glass works of Alexandria, in operation in the 
time of Strabo and Pliny, were famous among 




FIG. 2. Blue Glass Bot- 
tle with Name of 
Thothmes III. 



FIG. 3. Green Glass Vase with 
Name of Sargon. 



the ancients. According to Theophrastus, the 
processes of cutting or grinding, of gilding and 
coloring, were in use 370 years B. 0. Arti- 
cles of exquisite workmanship were produced, 
but of great cost, and known only as luxuries. 
Vases and cups, some enamelled and beautiful- 
ly cut and wrought with raised figures, and 
some remarkable for the brilliancy of their 
colors, were furnished to the Komans. From 
the Egyptians the Phoenicians are supposed to 
have received the art, which flourished at a 
very early period at Sidon and Tyre. In the 
ruins of Nineveh glass lenses, vases, bottles, 
&c., have been found ; but there is no indica- 
tion of the use of glass for windows. A small 
vase of transparent green glass, on which are 
engraved in outline a lion and the name and 
titles of the Assyrian monarch Sargon, 719 
B. C., is preserved in the British museum, and 
is regarded as the earliest dated specimen of 
transparent glass. It was found in the palace 
of Nimrud in Nineveh. That the manufac- 
ture of glass was extensively practised by the 
ancient Greeks, and that they had acquired 
great skill in the art, are shown by the re- 
markable collection of specimens taken by 
Cesnola from the tombs at Dali on the isl- 
and of Cyprus in 1866-'70, and deposited in 
the metropolitan museum of art, New York, in 
1872. This collection of Greek glass, the most 
extensive known, comprises 1,700 articles, not 
only plain and simple, but various in form and 
color, and iridescent and incrusted. There are 
plates plain, fluted, and with handles, in the va- 
rious colors and in different shades of the same 
color. There is a great variety of ornamen- 
tal cups and vases, and bottles of all sizes and 
shapes known to any people. (See CESNOLA.) 
The manufacture of glass was introduced into 
Rome in the time of Cicero. During the reign 
of Nero great improvements were made and 



8 



GLASS 



great skill was attained in the production of 
ornamental articles. At this early period only 
articles of luxury were produced, chiefly vases 
and cups for the tables of the wealthy, or urns 




Fio. 4. Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Glass in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York. 

and lachrymatories for their tombs. In the 3d 
century articles of glass were in common use. 
Numerous specimens of Roman glass have been 
found in the ruins of Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii. From these it appears that glass was used 
for admitting light to dwellings in Pompeii, al- 
though other houses had window frames filled 
with a kind of transparent talc. The great per- 
fection which the art had attained among the 
Romans is attested by the celebrated Barberini 
or Portland vase in the British museum, said to 
be the most beautiful example known of glass 
of two layers. This vase was found about the 
middle of the IGth century in a marble sar- 
cophagus near Rome, and is supposed to have 
been made as early as 138 B. C. After having 
been for more than two centuries the principal 
ornament in the Barberini palace in Rome, it 
was purchased by the duke of Portland for 
1,029, and placed in the British museum. 
Here it was broken by a madman into many 
pieces, which were afterward joined together 



with great skill. The vase is about 10 inches 
high, and is composed of two layers of glass, 
the under one being of a deep blue color and 
the other of opaque white. The raised figures 
appear in white upon a beautiful background 
of blue, and by some are supposed to rep- 
resent the marriage of Peleus and Thetis. 
In the 13th century, and for several centu- 
ries after, the Venetian was the best and the 
most famous glass in commerce. The princi- 
pal works were at Murano, one of the islands 
adjacent to Venice. Here the manufacture 
was long successfully prosecuted, being sus- 
tained by the fostering care of the government, 
and its workmen being invested with extraor- 
dinary privileges. Glass mirrors were probably 
first made here, and they became famous all 
over Europe, gradually taking the place of the 
mirrors of polished metal which were before in 
use. Many of the ornamental objects they 
produced were exceedingly ingenious, and are 
reproduced and admired even at this day. The 
Bohemians next acquired reputation in this 
art ; and owing to the purity of the materials 
found in abundance in their country, as well as 




FIG. 5. 1 . The Portland Vase. 2. Opposite figures enlarged. 
8. Device on bottom. 4, 4. Devices on, handles. 

to their skill, their wares still continue famous. 
The superiority of the Bohemians was evinced 
especially in the production of white glass, 
made with pure quartz and lime and the pot- 



GLASS 



ash obtained by burning the trees of their im- 
mense forests. This glass was for a long time 
held in the highest estimation, but was des- 
tined to lose its fame when flint glass with lead 
was produced in England. The engraved glass 
of Bohemia became especially celebrated. The 
French, perceiving the importance of the busi- 
ness, early imitated the example of the Vene- 
tians, and gave extraordinary encouragement 
to any of the nobility who would prosecute the 
manufacture. In 1634 attempts were made to 
produce mirrors from blown glass, as was prac- 
tised so successfully by the Venetians; but 
about the year 1666 it was found necessary to 
procure workmen from Venice. Works were 
then erected at Tourlaville near Cherbourg, 
which was selected from the resemblance of 
the locality to that of the works at Murano. 
In 1688 Abraham Thevart introduced in Paris 
the method of making large plates by casting 
the glass instead of blowing ; he thus produced 
heavy plates measuring 84 inches by 50, while 
those previously made had barely reached in 
length the smaller figure named, and were ne- 
cessarily thin. In 1665 the manufacture of 
glass was established at St. Gobain. In the 




FIG. 6. Venetian Glass Bottle. 



18th century the business became very success- 
ful, and has continued so to the present time, 
the products of the establishment ranking 
among the first in quality in the world. The 



first positive allusions to the use of glass for 
windows were made by Lactantius about the 
close of the 3d century, and by St. Jerome about 
the close of the 4th. It is asserted by the 




FIG. 7. Engraved Bohemian Drinking Glass. 

Venerable Bede that glass windows were first 
introduced in England in 674 by the abbot 
Benedict ; but at this time and for many cen- 
turies afterward the use of window glass was 
limited to ecclesiastical structures. Colored 
window glass is known to have been used in 
churches in the 8th century; but for private 
houses glass long continued to be a rarity, and 
in England in the 12th century houses provided 
with glass windows were regarded as magnifi- 
cent. Even in the 16th century in England 
and the 17th in Scotland only the dwellings of 
the wealthy were provided with glass. The 
manufacture of window glass, according to an 
old builder's contract brought to light by Hor- 
ace Walpole, and copied into his " Anecdotes 
of Painting," was conducted in England as 
early as 1439 ; but a decided preference was 
given to that "from beyond the seas." It 



10 



GLASS 



was commenced in London in 1557; and soon 
afterward flint glass also was made there. The 
production of plate glass was undertaken in 
1670 at Lambeth by the duke of Buckingham, 
who imported Venetian workmen. The gov- 
ernment encouraged the enterprise by a bounty 
upon the glass intended for exportation ; and un- 
der this protection, also extended to the differ- 
ent branches of the manufacture, by which the 
cost was reduced from 25 to 50 per cent., many 
other glass factories sprung up in different 
parts of the kingdom ; but their prosperity and 
the progress of the art were afterward greatly 
checked by the excise duties imposed, and the 
surveillance of crown officers over all the ope- 
rations of the works. The bounties and the 
duties, with their annoying restrictions, were 
abolished in 1845, when the suddenly increased 
demand for home consumption brought into 
existence many more establishments. Their 
capacity for production became immense, 'as 
is shown by the fact that the firm of Chance 
and co. executed the large order in sheet glass 
for the crystal palace in 1851 without mate- 
rially affecting their ability to fill their general 
orders. The quality of the English crown glass 
is unrivalled. Glass appears to have been one, 
of the earliest branches of manufacture in- 
troduced into the United States; but to what 
extent it was carried on in early times is un- 
known. In Salmon's " Modern History " (Lon- 
don, 1746), vol. iii., p. 440, mention is made of 
glass works which were commenced at James- 
town, Va., and the completion of which was 
interrupted by the Indian massacre of March 
22, 1622; and in Howe's "Historical Collec- 
tions of Virginia," p. 39, is a quotation from 
"Smith, book iv., p. 18," in which, under date 
of 1615, it is said that "for a long time the la- 
bor of the colony had been misdirected in the 
manufacture of ashes, soap, glass, and tar, in 
which they could by no means compete with 
Sweden and Russia," In Felt's "Annals of 
Salem," Mass., reference is made to the " Glass- 
house Field," so named from the fact that in 
1639 and 1640 several acres of land were ap- 
propriated to Ananias Conklin and others for 
the purpose of aiding them in the manufacture 
of glass, which was carried on for a consid- 
erable period. About 1750 works were es- 
tablished by Germans at Germantown, Mass. 
(now a part of Quincy), for the manufacture of 
bottles, but they were burnt before the revolu- 
tion. But the first glass factory in the United 
States of which we have a precise account was 
built by Mr. Robert Hewes of Boston, in the 
town of Temple, N. H., in 1780. It appears 
that the works were established there on ac- 
count of the cheapness of fuel and labor. In 
the winter of 1780-'81 they were destroyed 
by fire. From a reference to this subject by 
Washington in his diary (1789) it would ap- 
pear that glass was made at that time in New 
Haven. It is believed that in Salem and in 
Uewes's works only bottles and ordinary ware 
were made, and that the first window glass was 



manufactured in Boston. In 1787 a company 
was incorporated for the manufacture of crown 
glass, and after numerous embarrassments the 
first glass was made in 1793, under the super- 
intendence of a German named Lindt. The 
shares of the company attained a high value, and 
the Boston crown glass became celebrated for 
its excellence. The subsequent failure of the 
company was owing to the mismanagement of 
a board of directors who attempted to substi- 
tute American for German clay, and made 
other expensive and unsuccessful experiments ; 
among these was the expansion of their busi- 
ness by the erection of other works for ma- 
king thin crown glass at South Boston and 
sheet glass at Chelmsford. Works were es- 
tablished by the New England crown glass 
company for the manufacture of that article 
in East Cambridge about 1825, and others for 
bottles and for flint glass about the same pe- 
riod. Other crown glass works were erected 
in New York and other states at subsequent 
periods, but all were discontinued many years 
ago. The New England glass company, estab- 
lished in 1817 at East Cambridge for the man- 
ufacture of flint glass, is still in existence, and 
has gained a wide reputation for the excellence 
of its wares. Besides these works, the chief es- 
tablishments for the manufacture of flint glass 
in the United States are in Sandwich, Mass., 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and Pittsburgh, Pa., and its 
vicinity. Sheet glass is made in Lanesbor- 
ough, Mass., New Jersey, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and in a few places in the western 
states. The first plate glass manufactory was 
established at Cheshire, Berkshire co., Mass., 
about 1853. The company afterward removed 
their works to Lenox in the same county, 
and became known as the " Lenox Rough Plate 
Glass Company." They have the machinery 
for making polished plate glass, but have not 
yet produced it in large quantities. Henry R. 
Schoolcraft was employed in his youth in the 
works at Cheshire, and in 1817 he published a 
treatise entitled " Vitreology," designed to ex- 
hibit the application of chemistry to this art. 
Glass is a chemical compound of variable ingre- 
dients, different substances of similar character 
replacing each other to produce its varieties. 
Silicic acid or silica is its principal element, 
which combines with the potash, soda, oxide 
of lead, lime, alumina, and other substances 
that may be added, to produce silicates of 
these bases. By the manufacturer the bases 
are classed as fluxes. Boracic acid may take 
the place of silicic acid to produce vitreous 
borates or glass. The proportions of the bases 
named admitting in their use of indefinite va- 
riations, a wide scope is given for the exer- 
cise of the skill of the manufacturer in pro- 
ducing any particular quality of glass. The 
metallic oxides also afford hirn abundant re- 
sources for imparting any desired hue to his 
product, according as these are judiciously se- 
lected and introduced. The important requi- 
site in all the varieties of glass is a fusible 



GLASS 



11 



compound, which solidifies on cooling into a 
transparent mass, without assuming a crystal- 
line structure. Such a substance is a product 
of the process of reducing metallic ores. The 
compounds produced by the glass manufactu- 
rer range from the most fusible combinations 
of one part of silica with two or three of soda or 
potash, which melt at a cherry-red heat and dis- 
solve in cold water, to the hard and refractory 
silicates of lime and alumina, some of which 
require the powerful heat of a furnace to soft- 
en them. Potash especially increases the fusi- 
bility of glass ; the oxides of lead and of zinc, 
and to some extent barytes, produce a similar 
eft'ect, while they also add to its softness, 
its lustre, its specific gravity, and its power 
of refracting light, and do not interfere with 
its perfect freedom from color, unless the lead 
be used in excess, when it gives a yellowish 
tinge. Iron, in the state of the silicate of the 
protoxide, imparts a dark green color; but 
on adding a small quantity of binoxide of man- 
ganese (Mn0 2 ) the color disappears, as the 
protoxide of iron is converted into the sesqui- 
oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). and the manganese, losing one 
atom of oxygen, becomes MnO. Other me- 
tallic oxides, as those of uranium, copper, sil- 
ver, and gold, are also employed to give in- 
tense colors. Without reference, however, to 
substances used for imparting or removing 
colors, the essential materials of ordinary glass 
may be regarded as silica and boracic acid, the 



alkalies, lime, and oxide of lead. The varie- 
ties of glass are classified by Dr. Knapp as 
follows: 1. Bottle glass, including the varie- 
ties worked into hollow vessels and tubes, as 
common bottles, glass for medicinal bottles, 
white bottle glass for vials, tumblers, tubes, 
&c. The dark-colored varieties are distinguish- 
ed for their large proportion of oxide of iron 
and alumina, and none contain oxide of lead. 
The white bottle glass contains silica, soda 
or potash, and lime. 2. Window glass, inclu- 
ding English crown and cylinder or sheet glass; 
this is a silicate of potash or soda, lime, and 
alumina. 3. Plate glass, differing from the pre- 
ceding only by the greater purity and freedom 
from color of the materials. 4. Flint glass, 
used for grinding, &c., composed of silica, pot- 
ash, and oxide of lead. 5. Crystal, for optical 
purposes and table ware, consisting of silica or 
boracic acid, potash, and more lead than the 
preceding. 6. Strass, the paste used for imita- 
tions of precious stones; it contains much oxide 
of lead, and also metallic oxides used for the 
colors. 7. Enamel, composed of silica, soda, 
and oxide of lead, but rendered opaque by ox- 
ide of tin or antimony, which form a stannate 
or antimoniate with the soda. To these may 
be added the soluble glass, which is a sim- 
ple silicate of soda or of potash, or a mixture 
of the two silicates. The following analyses 
of several kinds of glass are from Knapp's 
" Chemical Technology : " 



VARIETIES OF GLASS. 


No. 


Analyit. 


Silica. 


Potash. 


Sod*. 


Lime. 


Mag- 
nesia. 


MnO. 


Alu- 
mina. 


Oxide 
of 
iron. 


Oxide 
of 
lead. 


Propor- 
tione.* 

5:2 
7:3 
2:1 
4:3 
9:2 
5:1 
4:1 
7:2 
7:2 
9:2 
6:1 
7:1 
5: 
6: 
4: 
5: 
8: 
6:1 
6:1 
9:2 
4:1 
7:2 

7:8 
6:1 


Bottle glass, French 


1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
1 
2 
8 
4 
1 
2 
8 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
3 

4 
1 


Berthier. .. 
Dumas 
Berthier '.'. 
Dumas . .. 

Richardson. 
Cowper. .. 
Berthier .. 
Dumas . .. 
Berthier .. 

Dumas . . . 
Berthier . . 

Faraday . . 
Dumas . . . 

Rowney . . 


60-00 
59-60 
53-55 
45-60 
69-60 
62-00 
69-25 
68-50 
66-37 
71-40 
72-00 
73-85 
68-60 
71-70 
69-20 
62-80 
59-20 
51-40 
51-93 
44-30 
42-50 
38 50 

31-60 
73-00 


8-10 
3-20 
5-48 
6-10 
8-00 

'5 : 50 
6-90 
12-70 
15-80 
22-10 
9-00 
9-40 
13-67 
11-75 
11-70 
7-90 

8-30 
11-50 


'8 : 66 
16-40 
11-30 
18-70 
14-23 
15-00 
17-00 
12-05 
8-10 
2-50 
8-00 


22-30 
18-00 
29-22 
28-10 
13-00 
15-60 
17-25 
7-80 
11-86 
12-40 
6-40 
5-60 
11-00 
10-80 
7-60 
12-50 


7-0 

0-6 
2-2 

2-1 
2 V 


1-2 

0-4 

0-8 

0-1 
0-2 

i-b 


8-00 
6-80 
6-01 
14-00 
8-60 
2-40 
.2-20 

10-00 

8-16 
0-60 
2-60 
8-50 
1-20 
0-40 
1-20 

i : 20 


4-00 
4-40 
5-75 
6-20 

6 : 30 
1-90 

6 : 20 
0-30 
0-EO 
2-60 
0-40 
0-80 


l"-60 
0-70 

28-20 
37-40 
33-28 
43-05 
48-50 
53-00 

50-30 




U 11 


Medicinal glass French 




Window glass, French 




English 


Plate glass French 




" Venetian .. 


White glass, goblet, Bohemia 
French fusible tubing . 


Crystal, London optical 


" Newcastle 








Flint glass, Guinand ... 














" strass 




0-50 





2-0 


1-80 
1-00 


Ox. tin. 
9-80 


" enamel 






Bohemian hard glass tubing 


3-00 


10-50 





The later editions of Dr. Knapp's work give the 
following more recent analyses by Peligot : 


VARIETIES OF GLASS. 


1 
i 


1 


1 


< 


1 


Oxide of tin. 


Oxide of lead. 


j 

i 


1 

1 

J_ 

3-5 


Bohemian 


76-015-08-0 
80-917-60-7 
67-7! 5-58-9 
67-721-09-9 


1-0 

o-s 
i'-4 








Bohemian opal glass. . . 
Venetian Aventurine. 
Bohemian mirror 










7-1 


2'3 


1-1 


3-9 











The second of these is a remarkable glass, being 
a simple silicate of potash with 10 per cent, 
more silica than is contained in Fuchs's soluble 
glass. (See GLASS, SOLUBLE.) Particles of glass 
are dispersed through the semi-transparent, im- 
perfectly melted mass. The compound is not 
attacked by boiling water, and does not attract 
moisture from the air. The ingredients of 

* Relation between the oxygen of the acid and the total 
amount of oxygen in the bases. 



12 



GLASS 



glass appear to be in the proportions of chem- 
ical equivalents results, however, obtained by 
practice and not by mixtures made with this 
view. Various causes affect the stability of 
the combinations and the qualities of the com- 
pounds. The alkali in window glass powder- 
ed and moistened is detected by its action upon 
turmeric paper, and may be partially dissolved 
out by long continued digestion in boiling 
water. Atmospheric agents sometimes remove 
it in part from window panes, leaving a film 
of silica or silicate of lime. The glass of sta- 
ble windows is liable to change its appearance, 
and assume prismatic colors, from the action 
of the ammoniacal vapors upon the silica. 
Changes in the degree of oxidation of its metal- 
lic ingredients, which are sometimes induced 
by atmospheric causes, are also attended by 
changes of colors. Long continued cooling 
has the effect of changing the structure, caus- 
ing it to lose its transparency and become 
devitrified. Its ingredients form among them- 
selves a new arrangement of their particles, 
and compounds are produced which assume 
a crystallized structure. By remelting, the 
vitreous character may be restored, though 
with a loss of a portion of potash which 
was volatilized in the devitrification. In ma- 
king articles of glass, and especially bottles, it 
is necessary to guard against this tendency to 
crystallize, and shorten the process of anneal- 
ing on account of it. Devitrified glass was first 
described by Reaumur, and has hence been 
called Reaumur's porcelain. In consequence 
of the ease with which it may be made into 
any shape, and its tenacity and refractory na- 
ture, not unlike porcelain itself, it has been 
thought that it may be employed as a cheap 
substitute for this material, especially in many 
articles used in chemical laboratories. The 
specific gravity of glass varies with its compo- 
sition, from 2-4 to about 3'6, although optical 
glass of greater specific gravity is sometimes 
made, amounting in some instances to 6. Its 
density and also its refractive property are in- 
creased with the proportion of oxide of lead it 
contains. Brittleness is a quality that limits the 
alteration of the shape of glass within narrow 
bounds, after it has cooled; but when softened 
by heat while it is highly tenacious, no substance 
is more easily moulded into any form, and it 
can be blown by the breath into hollow vessels 
of which the substance is so thin that they may 
almost float in the air. It may also be rapidly 
drawn out into threads of several hundred feet 
in length ; and these have been interwoven in 
fabrics of silk, producing a beautiful effect. In 
the soft plastic state it may be cut with knives 
and scissors like sheets of caoutchouc. It is 
then inelastic like wax ; but when cooled its 
fibres on being beaten fly back with a spring, 
and hollow balls of the material have, when 
dropped upon the smooth face of an anvil from 
the height of 10 or 12 ft., been found to rebound 
without fracture to one third or one half the 
same height. It has the valuable property of 



welding perfectly when red hot, and portions 
brought together are instantly united. When 
moderately heated it is readily broken in any 
direction by the sudden contraction caused by 
the application of a cold body to its surface. It 
is also divided when cold by breaking it along 
lines cut to a slight depth by a diamond, or 
some other extremely hard-pointed body of 
the exact form suited for this purpose ; and it 
may be bored with steel drills, provided these 
are kept slightly moistened with water, which 
forms a paste with the powder produced. Oil 
of turpentine, either alone or holding some 
camphor in solution, is also used for the same 
purpose. Copper tubes fed with emery also 
serve to bore holes in glass. Acids and alka- 
lies act upon glass differently according to its 
composition, and reference should be made to 
this in storing different liquids in bottles. Sili- 
cate of alumina is readily attacked by acids, and 
bottles in which this is in excess are soon cor- 
roded even by the bitartrate of potash in wine, 
and by the reaction the liquor itself is contam- 
inated. A glass that loses its polish by heat ia 
sure to be attacked by acids. Oxide of lead when 
used in large proportion is liable to be in part 
reduced to a metallic state by different chemi- 
cal reagents, and give a black color to the glass. 
All glasses are attacked by hydrofluoric acid. 
In 1863 a series of experiments showing the 
action of sunlight on glass was begun, and has 
since been continued, by Mr. Thomas Gaffield, 
a merchant of Boston, whose collection of 
authorities on glass and kindred subjects is 
more complete than any other in this country. 
As early as 1 824 Prof. Faraday had noticed a 
change in color produced in glass containing 
oxide of manganese when exposed to the sun's 
rays, and this effect was attributed to the ac- 
tion of solar light on that ingredient. Mr. 
Gaflfield's experiments, embracing about 80 dif- 
ferent kinds of glass, colored and uncolored, of 
English, French, German, Belgian, and Ameri- 
can manufacture, have proved that this remark- 
able phenomenon is not limited to glass con- 
taining oxide of manganese, but extends to 
almost every species of glass. That the effect 
is not due to heat, but solely to the actinic 
rays of the sun, is shown by the fact that no 
change of color is produced in the glass when 
it is exposed to heat ; while on the contrary, 
after the discoloration has been produced by 
solar light, the colors thus acquired disappear 
under the action of heat, and the glass as- 
sumes its normal color. This process may be 
repeated indefinitely, the change of color being 
produced by solar light, and the original col- 
or restored by heat. It was also shown that 
the effect was not produced by air or moist- 
ure. In some specimens the change was more 
easily effected than in others; in some days 
were sufficient, in others years were required ; 
but in almost all the change was produced. 
"It is very interesting," says Mr. Gaffield, " to 
witness any one of these series of specimens, 
showing, as in one of white plate, a gradual 



GLASS 



13 



change, commencing in a day or a few days in 
summer, from greenish or bluish white to a 
yellowish white or light yellow, a deep and 
deeper yellow, until it becomes a dark yellow 
or gold color ; and in some Belgian sheet speci- 
mens a gradual change, commencing in a few 
weeks in summer, from brownish yellow to 
deeper yellow, yellowish pink, pink, dark pink, 
purple, and deep purple." The following state- 
ment shows the changes produced in nine differ- 
ent kinds of window glass by one year's ex- 
posure to the sun's rays : 



KIND OF GLASS. 


Color before exposure. 


Color after exposure. 


French white plate . . . 
German crystal plate . 
English plate 


Bluish white. 
Light green. 


Yellowish. 
Bluish tinge. 
Yellowish green. 




U It 


Light purple. 


Belgian sheet .... 


Brownish yellow. 


Deep purple. 


English sheet 
American crystal sheet 

" ordinary sheet. 


Dark green. 
Light bluish white. 
Lighter " " 

Bluish green. 


Brownish green. 
Purplish white. 
Light yellowish 
green. 
No change. 



The colors named above are given from an ob- 
servation of the glass edgewise, when a body 
of color several inches' in depth is seen, where- 
as the usual thickness of the glass varies from 
one fourteenth to one quarter of an inch, and 
shows its color easily only when a white curtain 
or paper is placed behind it. The partial or en- 
tire disuse of oxide of manganese in many win- 
dow-glass manufactories of late years, while it 
has produced an article not so light in color, has 
made one more permanent, which the action of 
sunlight changes but little, if any, in color or 
shade. Mr. Gaffield's experiments were also 
extended to showing the comparative power of 
the different kinds of glass to transmit the ac- 
tinic rays of the sun. Of colored glasses, blue 
was found to transmit the most and red and 
orange the least. The crude materials employ- 
ed in the manufacture of glass are Selected with 
more or less care, according to the quality of 
the articles to be produced. The three princi- 
pal elements of which crown and sheet glass 
are composed are silica, soda, and lime. Of 
these by far the largest element is silica, which 
is now universally supplied in the form of 
sand. English crown and sheet glass generally 
contains about 73 per cent, of silica, and 13 
each of soda and lime. On the continent less 
sulphate is used than in England ; the compo- 
nent parts of foreign sheet glass may be stated 
at 74 per cent, of silica, 11 of soda, and 14 of 
lime. In both cases the remainder consists of 
alumina and oxide of iron. To the above in- 
gredients it is generally the custom to add a 
small quantity of arsenic to assist in oxidizing 
any carbonaceous impurities and to promote 
the decomposition of the other materials, and 
of peroxide of manganese to peroxidize and 
thus reduce the coloring property of the oxide 
of iron present. Silica is obtained in the form 
of quartz sand from sea beaches and from the 
disintegration of quartzose rocks in the inte- 
rior. It was in England once procured from 



flints calcined and ground to powder, whence 
the name flint glass. The purest and best sand 
in the world for manufacturing glass is from 
Lanesborough, Mass., and other portions of 
Berkshire county. Some of it is exported to 
Europe, where it is known as the " Berkshire 
white sand," and there used in making the 
best qualities of glass. The grains are remark- 
able for their purity ; in the mass they appear 
white, but under the microscope each grain is 
limpid like a clear quartz crystal. Other quali- 
ties are procured in various parts of the country. 
Next to the American sand in quality is that 
obtained from Fontainebleau in France, and 
much used by the French manufacturers. It 
is almost entirely free from iron, and is well 
adapted for the manufacture of white glass. 
The sand used by the extensive establishment 
of Chance and co., near Birmingham, England, 
is from Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire. Lime 
may be used either in the state of quicklime or 
in limestone of the purest qualities. Common 
wood ashes have been used to furnish potash, 
and ashes of sea plants to furnish soda; but 
these have been replaced by the crude alkalies 
obtained from them and other sources, and for 
some purposes refined pearlash is employed. 
The carbonate of soda is also extensively pre- 
pared from common salt ; and at Newcastle, Eng- 
land, black bottles are made from rock salt and 
sand from the bed of the river, with carbonate 
of lime of the soap works and the tank waste 
of the alkali makers. Sulphate of soda, the 
waste product of many chemical works, is suc- 
cessfully used, except for plate glass. Although 
glass can be produced from sand and alkali 
without any other addition, lime is a very im- 
portant element, as giving to it hardness and 
insolubility. In flint glass this ingredient is 
replaced by lead, which gives greater brilliancy 
to the glass than lime, but, in consequence of 
the difference between its specific gravity and 
that of the other materials, is the cause of in- 
numerable stria?. Saltpetre and binoxide of 
manganese and arsenic also are often intro- 
duced into the mixtures with the view of pro- 
moting the same object. Alumina and oxide 
of iron are commonly not intentionally used ; 
'they come from the impurities of the other 
materials. Waste glass, called cullet, forms a 
considerable proportion of the raw materials in 
some works; it promotes the fusion and the 
chemical union of the silica and bases mixed 
with it, but must be well sorted, so that no 
qualities be introduced inferior to that intended 
to be made. In melting glass, the raw mate- 
rials, thoroughly ground, mixed together, and 
sifted, are well incorporated with from one quar- 
ter to one third of their weight of broken glass 
before being introduced into the melting pots. 
These are already heated to a white heat in 
the furnace, and receive only two thirds of a 
charge at a time, more being added as the first 
portion melts down. The pot being at last 
filled with the melted "metal," the heat is 
raised as rapidly as possible, and the progress 



GLASS 



of the operation is judged of by the workmen 
dipping iron rods from time to time into the 
mixture and examining the appearance of the 
drops withdrawn. A nearly homogeneous pro- 
duct, which becomes transparent on cooling, 
indicates that the most refractory ingredients 
have been all dissolved. Their mixture has 
been facilitated by the continual disengage- 
ment of carbonic acid gas, which in its escape 
caused the whole to be thrown into ebullition. 
Some of the gas remains in the mass, render- 
ing it spongy and full of vesicles. Unless in 
the manufacture of the finer qualities of glass, 
for which the purest materials are employed, 
there is also a scum, called glass gall or san- 
diver, floating upon the surface, consisting of 
the insoluble matters, and the sulphates of 
soda and lime not taken up by the mixture. 
This is removed by ladling, and the "metal" 
is next fined, which is done by increasing the 
heat to the highest degree, and keeping the 
contents of the pots in a state of perfect fluidity 
from 10 to 30 hours ; in this time the bubbles 
disappear and the insoluble matters settle to 
the bottom. The furnace is then allowed to 
cool until the metal has become viscid, so that 
it may be taken out and worked; and it is 
afterward kept at sufficiently high temperature 
to maintain the glass in this condition, that it 
may be used as required. The arrangements 
of the great circular glass furnaces, with their 
central fire surrounded with eight to twelve 
pots, each reached by its own arch under the 
general dome, admit of enough material being 
melted at once to employ all hands the first 
four working days of the week, the men work- 
ing day and night in six-hour shifts. The ma- 
terials of the furnaces and pots, in order that 
they may withstand the excessive heat and the 
action of the various melted ingredients, must 
be carefully selected from the most refractory 
substances, and the work must be most skil- 
fully executed. The construction of the great 
melting pots is an object of special solicitude, 
and the placing of a new one in the furnace 
while this is in operation is a task of no little 
apparent difficulty and danger. In England 




Fw. 8. Melting Pots. 

they are made of the best Stourbridge fire clay, 
mixed with about one fifth part of ground pot- 
sherds. The work is done entirely by hand, no 
machinery having yet been invented for that 
purpose. An average-sized pot is about 4 ft. 
high, 4 ft. in diameter at top, and somewhat 



smaller at the bottom, and will contain about 
25 cwt. of melted glass. The average duration 
of a pot in the furnace is about eight weeks. 
In the case of window and ordinary bottle 
glass, the pot is a plain round vessel open at 
the top ; but in melting flint glass, it being 
necessary to protect the metal from all external 
impurities, the top of the pot is made in the 
form of an arch or hood, with a small opening 
on one side near the top, which corresponds 
with the nose hole of the furnace, and from 
which the workman withdraws the melted 
glass. Ordinarily two kinds of furnaces are 
used in addition to the annealing oven, one 
for melting the glass, and the other for reheat- 
ing it at different stages during the process of 
manufacture. One of the most important im- 
provements in the manufacture of glass has 
been the adoption of the Siemens regenerating 
gas furnace. (See FURNACE.) The novelty of 
this system consists in taking up the waste heat 
from the furnace in large chambers, and using 
it for raising to a higher temperature the ele- 
ments of combustion. The whole of the fuel, 
except the inorganic portions, is converted into 
gas, not in the furnace itself, but in adjacent 
" producers." The gas and air passing through 
separate chambers, and having each been heated 
to a high degree in the waste-heat chambers, 
meet on entering the furnace, and there ignite, 
producing a heat of wonderful intensity. The 
advantages of this system are a greater inten- 
sity of heat produced from less fuel, and, what 
is very important in the manufacture of glass, 
a degree of cleanliness which cannot be at- 
tained by the older methods of melting. .The 
intensity of the heat produced is indicated by 
the fact that in a sheet-glass furnace contain- 
ing 1,800 cubic feet, materials for about 16 
tons of glass in eight large pots are melted 
and refined into a liquid mass in 25 hours. 
Such is a mere outline of the means employed 
to bring the materials of glass into their desired 
combination. The production of each kind of 
glass is a separate branch of manufacture, in- 
volving many curious details and processes, too 
numerous even to be named in this account. 
The tools employed are few and simple, and 
differ but little from those described in the 
work of Blancourt " On the Art of Glass," 
published in London in 1699. The first in im- 
portance is the pipe or blowing tube, made of 
wrought iron, 4 or 5 ft. long, with a bore from 
^ to 1 in. in diameter, a little larger at the 
mouth end than at the other. It is a long hand, 
partly covered with wood, with which, the end 
being heated red hot, the workman reaches 
into the pot of melted matter and gathers up 
the quantity he requires, and which afterward 
holds- the article in the manipulations to which 
he subjects it; and it is at the same time the 
air tube through which the breath is forced to 
expand the vessel, or through which water is 
sometimes blown to produce the same effect by 
the steam it generates. A solid rod of iron, 
called a punty or pontil, serves to receive the 



GLASS 



15 



article upon its end when freed from the pipe, 
adhesion being secured by the softness of the 
glass or by a little red-hot lump already attach- 
ed to the punty. Spring tongs, like sugar tongs, 
are used to take up bits of melted glass ; and a 
heavier pair, called pucellas, furnished with 




FIG. 9. Tools used in Glassmaking. 

1. Pipe or blowing tube. 2. Pucellas. 8. Shears. 4. Pucel- 
las with wooden blades. 5. Spring tongs. 6. Battledore. 

broa'd but blunt blades, serve to give shape to 
the articles as the instrument in the right hand 
of the workman is pressed upon their surface, 
while, seated upon his bench, he causes with his 
left hand the rod holding the article to roll up 
and down the two long iron arms of his seat, 
upon which it is laid horizontally before him. 
At the same time the vessel is also shaped 
from the interior as well, and is occasionally 
applied to the opening of the furnace to soften 
it entirely or only in some part to which great- 
er distention is given by blowing. The pu- 
cellas are sometimes provided with blades of 
wood, as at 4, fig. 9. Another important in- 
strument is a pair of shears, with which a skil- 
ful workman will cut off with one clip the top 
of a wine glass, as he twirls it round with the 




FIG. 10 Glass Maker's Chair. 

rod to which it is attached held in the left 
hand. The edge softened in the fire is then 
smoothed and polished. Besides these a wood- 
en utensil called a battledore is employed, 
with which the glass is flattened by beating 
when necessary; compasses and calipers and a 
362 VOL. viii. 2 



measure stick are at hand for measuring ; and 
a slender rod of iron forked at one end is used 
to take up the articles, and carry them when 
shaped to the annealing oven, in which they 
are left for some time to be tempered. (See 
ANNEALING.) The marver (Fr. marbre, marble) 
is a smooth polished cast-iron slab, upon the 
surface of which the workman rolls the glass 
at the end of his tube in order to give it a 
perfectly circular form. Those used in the 
manufacture of common black bottles are fur- 
nished on one edge with several concavities, in 
which the mass of metal taken from the melt- 
ing pot is first roughly shaped as it is rolled over 
and over and made to swell by gentle blow- 
ing. One of the most ordinary forms into which 
glass is manufactured is that of bottles, which 
are made in moulds by the process of blowing, 
the kind of glass generally used being the or- 
dinary green or window glass, and flint glass. 
The method of making bottles is described and 
illustrated in the article BOTTLE. Bottles for 
champagne and aerated waters are made of ex- 
traordinary strength, and are sometimes tested 
by the pressure of water before being used. 
Of the various kinds of glass in common use, 
none require more care to insure the purity of 
the materials employed than the crystal or flint 
j glass, of which are made many choice articles 
' for domestic purposes, some of which are sub- 
jected to the processes of cutting or grinding 
and polishing. It possesses the properties of 
great transparency and high refractive power, 
which fit it for lenses for ^optical instruments. 
Flints calcined and ground were formerly used 
to furnish the silica, but pure sand is now gen- 
erally used in its stead. Oxide of lead enters 
largely into its composition, and to this are due 
its brilliancy, density, and comparative softness. 
The oxide should be especially prepared to in- 
sure its purity. Oxide of zinc has been found 
to produce similar effects. The fusion must be 
rapid and at intense heat, and this must be re- 
duced as soon as the metal is thoroughly melt- 
ed and refined by the escape of the bubbles of 
gas, or the product acts upon the alumina and 
iron of the pot, and is thus so contaminated as 
to be worthless. The furnace is usually circu- 
lar in form, and contains from four to ten pots, 
in front of each of which there is an opening 
for the workman. In the manufacture of arti- 
cles of domestic use made of flint glass two 
processes are in use, blowing and pressing, the 
latter being very common in the United States. 
By the former method a mould is sometimes 
used, as in the case of bottles, when the opera- 
tions are similar to those described in working 
ordinary green glass ; or the article may receive 
its symmetrical form from the skill of the work- 
man unaided by any mould. This process may 
be illustrated by describing how a wine glas? 
in three parts is made. The workman, having 
gathered on the end of a blowpipe the requisite 
amount of glass (1, fig. 11), rolls it on the marver 
and expands it by blowing into the tube until 
it assumes the form shown at 2, and after- 



16 



GLASS 



ward, being flattened at the end with the 
battledore, that at 3. A lump of glass is 
now attached to the flat end of the bowl (4), 
which the workman with the pucellas, while 
rotating the pipe on the long arms of the chair 
in which he sits, transforms into the shape 
shown at 5. A globe is now attached to 
the end of this stem (6), which is afterward 
opened and flattened into the form represented 
at 7. A punty tipped with a small knob of 
hot glass is next stuck to the foot of the wine 
glass, which is severed from the blowpipe at 
the dotted line shown at 8! The top of the 
glass is then trimmed with shears (9), after 
which it is flashed and finished as at 10. It 
is now severed from the end of the punty by a 
sharp blow and carried by a boy to the anneal- 
ing oven on the end of a forked rod. In the 
manufacture of articles by the method of press- 
ing, a hollow mould is used made of steel or 
iron, with its interior surface so designed as to 
give the object the required shape and figura- 
tion. This mould may be in one piece or consist 




Fio. 11. Process of Making a Wine Glass. 

of several parts, which are opened when the 
moulded glass is taken put. The process will 
be illustrated by describing the production of a 
tumbler. A lump of glass is gathered from the 
pot on the end of a punty by the " gatherer," 
and being held over the open mould, a suffi- 
cient quantity is cut off with a pair of scissors by 
another workman and drops into the mould. 
This is now pushed under a hand press, and a 
smooth iron plunger is brought down into the 
mould with such force that the hot glass is 
made to fill the entire space between the inside 
of the mould and the plunger, whose size and 
shape are the same as those of the interior 
of the tumbler. The plunger being raised up, 
the mould is taken from the press and turned 
over, when the tumbler is made to drop out 
bottom side up. A punty with a piece of hot 
glass at one end is now attached to the bot- 
tom of the tumbler, which is heated at an- 
other furnace and smoothed by being skilfully 



rubbed with a wooden tool while rotated on 
the arms of the workman's chair ; after which 
it is taken on a fork to the annealing oven. 
By this process articles can be produced with 
a rapidity not attainable in the case of blown 
glass, and therefore with less cost; but the 




FIG. 12. Hand Press. 

latter is generally preferred. The glass com- 
monly used for window panes is one of the 
hardest varieties, and of unsuitable quality for 
shaping into vessels or manufacturing by cut- 
ting or grinding. Besides plate glass, which 
is also used for windows of a more expensive 
character, there are two kinds of window 
glass, known as crown and sheet from the 
different processes of manufacture ; the former 
being first blown into a globe or sphere and 
flattened out into a circular disk, while the 
latter is formed into a cylinder which is af- 
terward opened out into a sheet. In making 
crown glass, the workman gathers from the 
pot on the end of a blowpipe the requisite 
amount of molten glass, which is usually about 
9 Ibs. The pipe being cooled to admit of 
handling, the lump is rolled upon the marver 
to give it a conical form, and a boy blowing 
at the same time through the tube causes 
the glass to swell. It is now heated by hold- 
ing it in the furnace, and is then again rolled 
and enlarged by blowing. The most of the 
glass is worked down to the end of the con- 
ical or pear-shaped lump, the upper part being 
hollow. The solid end is called the bullion. 
This being softened in the furnace, the tube is 
laid across a rest and twirled around, while the 
glass is blown into a globe. During the ex- 
pansion it is important to keep the bullion 
point in a line with the axis of the pipe. This 
is done by a boy holding against the bullion 
point a piece of iron terminating in a small 
cup, while the workman constantly twirls and 
blows through the pipe resting upon an iron 
support. The globe at the end of the tube is 
now pointed toward the flame of the furnace, 
and being constantly twirled, the end toward 
the fire flattens out, the bullion point still form- 
ing a prominence of thicker metal in the 



GLASS 



17 



centre. To this centre a punty with a lump 
of molten glass at its end is next attached, and 
the blowing pipe is separated by applying a 
piece of cold iron around the nose. As it 
breaks away it takes a portion of glass with it, 
leaving a circular opening. Taken up by the 
punty, the glass is held with the nose (or por- 
tion to which the blowing pipe had been at- 
tached) presented to the nose hole of the fur- 
nace. Here it is softened almost to melting, 
while it is all the time twirled around ; it is 
then presented to the flame issuing from the 
great circular opening of the flashing furnace, 
the man holding it being protected from the 
fire by a covering over his head and face. 
Rapidly revolving in this flame, the opening in 
the end grows larger ; the heated air within 
prevents the two opposite faces of the flattened 
spheroid from coming together, and the cen- 
trifugal force is constantly enlarging its diame- 
ter. The opening rapidly increases, until the 
glass becomes a flat circular disk, which being 
removed from the fire is kept rapidly revolving 
until it is cool enough to retain its form. The 
punty is then cracked off, and the disk or table 
is removed upon a fork to the annealing oven 
and set upon edge with the rest, arranged in 
rows and supported by iron rods so as not 
to press against each other, and the thicker 
part in the centre, called the bullion point or 
bull's-eye, also keeping the tables apart and 
open for the circulation of air. The anneal- 
ing is completed in from 24 to 48 hours. Ta- 
bles are thus commonly made of 54 inches 
diameter, and some have been produced of 
70 inches ; but the difficulty of manipulation 
and the uncertainty of the result render the 
making of very large sizes unprofitable. A 
pot containing half a ton commonly produces 
100 tables ; and in the crown glass houses it is 
customary to empty eight such pots in three 
days every week. From the annealing kiln 
the tables are taken to the warehouse and sort- 
ed according to their different qualities and 
defects. Each one is then laid in turn upon 
a " nest " or cushion, and is divided by the dia- 
mond into two pieces, the larger one contain- 
ing the bull's-eye. These are next cut up into 
rectangular panes. The shape and the bull's- 
eye involve considerable waste in cutting; and 
numerous other defects are found in many of 
the sheets. These, however, are compensated 
for by the remarkable brilliancy of surface pe- 
culiar to glass made in this way, which is at- 
tributed by some to the influence of the mar- 
ver, and by others to the effect produced by 
flashing the surface. Crown glass is also free 
from the undulations, or cockles, which often 
disfigure the surface of glass made by the cy- 
lindrical process. In the manufacture of sheet 
glass two furnaces are generally used, one for 
melting or making the glass, and the other for 
reheating it during the process of blowing. The 
latter is usually of an oblong form, with four, five, 
or six holes on each side for as many workmen. 
On each side of this furnace is a pit about 7 ft. 



deep, 16ft. wide, and as long as the furnace; 
over this at intervals of about 2 ft. are erected 
in front of each hole of the furnace wooden 
stagings or platforms, upon which the workman 
stands when swinging the cylinder to and fro and 
over his head. The manufacture of this kind 
of glass may be divided into three processes : 
1, blowing the cylinder ; 2, flattening it out 
into a sheet ; 3, polishing the sheet. The first 
step is to gather from the pot a lump of melted 
glass of the required weight, which experience 
enables the workman to do with great accuracy. 
Dipping the end of a blowpipe into the melted 
metal and twirling it round, he gathers a pear- 
shaped lump of 2 or 3 Ibs. After thia has 
cooled to a dull red, it is again dipped into the 
glass in the pot, and a larger amount withdrawn. 
Thus by degrees a sufficient quantity is collect- 
ed, usually about 20 Ibs., to produce a sheet of 
glass of the required size. When this mass has 
become somewhat cooled, the workman places 
it in a block of wood so hollowed as to allow 
the lump of glass when placed upon it to be 




FIG. 13. Blowing Cylinder Glass. 

blown to the required diameter of the cylinder. 
Here, while a stream of cold water is turned 
upon the block to prevent the wood from being 
burnt and the glass from being scratched, the 
workman revolves the pipe, and blows through 
it, occasionally raising it to an angle of about 
75, until he has formed a hollow pear-shaped 
mass, with its largest diameter, which is the 
same as that of the finished cylinder, next to 
the pipe. It is now taken to the blowing fur- 
nace, where after being heated it is swung to 
and fro in the pit and round in a vertical plane 
over the head of the workman, who stands 
upon the platform above mentioned and keeps 
the lengthening cylinder full of air by occa- 
sionally blowing through the tube. Uniformity 
of thickness and of diameter, which was de- 
termined by the wooden block, is secured by 
the skill of the workman, who when the metal 
runs out too freely holds the cylinder vertically 



18 



GLASS 



above his head, still keeping it well filled with 
air. This operation is skilfully continued until 
a cylinder is produced about 11 in. in diameter 
and about 50 in. long, closed at one end and 
attached to the blowpipe at the other. The 
next step is to open the end of the cylinder, 
which the workman does by filling it with air 
and, after closing the aperture of the pipe with 
his thumb, exposing the end to the heat of the 
furnace. The heat expands the air in the cyl- 
inder, which bursts open at the end where the 
glass is the softest. The aperture thus made 
is widened to the required diameter by rapid- 
ly revolving the cylinder at the furnace hole, 
the pipe resting on an iron support, and subse- 
quently holding it in a vertical position with the 
open end downward until the glass is cooled 
sufficiently to retain its shape. The cylinder 
is now laid upon a wooden rest, or trestle, and 
detached from the pipe by touching with a 
piece of cold iron the pear-shaped neck near 
the nose of the pipe, and gently striking the 
pipe ; an opening about three inches in diam- 
eter is thus formed. This end, the cap of the 




FIG. 14.- The Cylinder in Different Stages of Manufacture. 

cylinder, is now taken off by winding around 
it a thread of hot glass, and after removing it 
applying a piece of cold iron to any point which 
the thread covered. After trimming the other 
end by cutting off about two inches in length 
with a diamond, the cylinder is split open longi- 
tudinally by drawing along its inside surface a 
diamond attached to a long handle and guided 
by a wooden rule. Formerly this splitting was 
done with a red-hot iron, which is still some- 
times used. The cylinder is now taken to the 
flattening oven, where it is placed, with the 
slit uppermost, upon the flattening stone, from 
the irregularities of whose surface it is protect- 
ed by a sheet of glass. The cylinder soon be- 
comes heated and opens out into a wavy sheet, 
the movement being accelerated by the iron 
rod of the workman. The surface of the sheet 
is next rubbed with a piece of .wood attached 
to the end of an iron rod for the purpose of re- 
moving the irregularities of the surface. The 
flattening stone is now moved on wheels to the 
adjoining annealing oven, where the sheets are 



placed for annealing, which usually requires 
from 24 to 36 hours. From the annealing 
oven the sheets are taken to the warehouse, 
where they are smoothed, polished, assorted, 
and cut into panes of the required dimensions. 
The former method of grinding and polishing 
sheet glass by imbedding the sheets in plaster 
of Paris proved inadequate to remove the de- 
fects in the glass consequent upon the mode 
of manufacture. The chief of these was the 
undulating or wavy appearance of the surface, 
called cockles, which was attributed to the dif- 
ference of diameter between the inner and out- 
er surfaces of the cylinder, and which caused 
objects seen through the glass to be distorted. 
Notwithstanding the glass was made very thick 
after the superficial roughness was removed, 
the result was a thin sheet much inferior to 
plate glass. The ingenious process devised by 
Mr. James Chance for producing patent plate 
glass, which is now used in England and most 
factories on the continent, is one of the most 
important improvements in the manufacture. 
By removing the thin outer surface of the glass 
by this method, an evenness and a polish are 
secured, even on the thinnest sheet, which 
make it in many respects equal to plate glass, 
and far superior to the sheet glass produced 
by the old process. The improved method 
consists in placing the sheet to be ground and 
polished upon a flat surface covered with a 
piece of damp soft leather or cotton cloth. A 
slight pressure applied to the glass causes it to 
adhere to the surface of cotton or leather, and 
by thus producing a vacuum the entire sheet 
is firmly maintained in a flat position by atmos- 
pheric pressure. The exposed surfaces of two 
sheets fixed in this manner are rubbed against 
each other in a horizontal position by machine- 
ry, emery and water being constantly supplied 
to keep up the friction. Both sides of the 
sheet are polished in this manner, with only a 
slight diminution of the thickness of the glass. 
After the removal of the sheets from these 
surfaces, they resume by their own elasticity 
their original shape, which is often more or less 
curved. The final polish is given to the sheets 
by a process similar to that used in polishing 
plate glass. In each process through which 
the glass has passed, it was exposed to some 
imperfection, and some of the sheets bear the 
peculiar defects of them all and are of little 
value ; others are suitable for inferior uses, and 
but few are perfect. The wide difference be- 
tween the quality of the best nnd the worst 
sheets is indicated by the fact that the former 
are valued at three times more than the latter. 
The same kind of material is used in the pro- 
duction of both crown and sheet glass. The 
remarkable brilliancy of surface of the former 
gives to it a certain advantage over sheet glass; 
but the larger size easily attained in making 
the latter gives it the supremacy in commerce. 
Of crown glass it is difficult to obtain panes 
of 34 x 22 in., while the usual size of the 
sheets of cylinder glass is 47x32 in., and 



GLASS 



19 



cylinders are occasionally blown 77 in. in 
length, requiring about 38 Ibs. of glass. The 
largest sizes are only produced by the most 
skilful workmen. The relative antiquity of 
the two processes of making crown and sheet 
glass is involved in no little obscurity. ^ The 
cylindrical process is the only one mentioned 
by Theophilus, who is supposed to have lived 
in the 12th century, and this method was 
long retained by the Venetians and the Bo- 
hemians, as being best adapted to the pro- 
duction of their colored glasses on account 
of the uniformity of thickness and of color se- 
cured. But in the north of Germany, France, 
and England, it fell into disuse, and the rotary 
principle prevailed exclusively. Subsequently 
the latter was abandoned on the continent, but 
held its supremacy in England, where crown 
glass was used for houses of the better class, 
while the use of sheet glass was limited to infe- 
rior dwellings. In 1832 the improved process 
of making cylinder glass was introduced into 
England from France, and subsequently the 
improved method above mentioned of polish- 
ing the sheets was adopted. The cylindrical 
method is the one now in general use in Eng- 
land, much of the glass being known in com- 
merce as patent plate. The building or fac- 
tory for the manufacture of plate glass is gen- 
erally of very large size. That of the British 
plate-glass works at Ravenhead, where it is 
called the foundery, is 339 ft. long by 155 wide; 
while the famous halle of St. Gobain in France 
is 174 by 120 ft. In the centre is the square 
melting furnace, with openings on two parallel 
sides for working purposes, while along two 
sides of the great building are arranged anneal- 
ing ovens, which are sometimes 30 by 20 ft. in 
order to receive the immense plates that are to 
be annealed. Two kinds of pots are used, the 
ordinary one, open at the top, for melting the 
glass, and cisterns or cuvettes, in which the 
molten glass is carried to the casting table. In 
France the cuvette is usually of a quadrangular 
form, with a groove in each of its sides, or, as 
in the case of the larger cisterns, in two paral- 
lel sides, in which the tongs or iron frame are 
fitted when the cuvette is moved. Between 
each two pots in the furnace are placed, ac- 
cording to their size, one or more cuvettes. In 
some establishments the cuvette is not now 
used, the metal being poured from the pot in 
which it is melted on to the casting table. In 
France 16 hours are allowed for the melting, 
and the same time for the metal to remain in 
the cuvettes ; but the latter term is often ex- 
tended in order that the aeriform bubbles may 
escape and the excess of soda become vola- 
tilized. Toward the last the temperature is 
allowed to fall, and the glass then acquires the 
slight degree of viscidity suitable for casting. 
The molten glass is transferred from the pots 
into the adjacent cuvettes by means of wrought- 
iron ladles with long handles. When the glass 
is in the proper condition to be cast, the "tongs 
carriage," consisting of two powerful bars of 



iron united like two scissors blades, and resting 
upon two wheels, is pushed into the opening 
made in the furnace, and the cuvette is clamp- 
ed in the quadrant formed at the extremity of 
the tongs, two workmen manipulating the 
handles at the other extremity. The cistern 
thus taken from the furnace, while filled with 
molten glass, is placed on another carriage and 
quickly conveyed to the casting table. This 
consists of a massive slab, usually of cast iron, 
supported by a frame, and generally placed at 
the mouth of the annealing oven. At the 
Thames works in England the casting plate is 
20 ft. long, 11 ft. broad, and 7 in. thick. For- 
merly these tables were of bronze, and the 
great slab of St. Gobain of this alloy weighed 
50,000 Ibs. ; but cast iron was found less liable 
to crack, and is now generally used for this 
purpose. On each side of the table are ribs or 
bars of metal, which keep the glass within prop- 
er limits, and by their height determine the 
thickness of the plate. A copper or bronze 
cylinder about a foot in diameter, resting upon 
these bars, extends across the table. After 
being heated by hot coals placed upon it, 




FIG. 15. Casting Table. 

the table is carefully cleaned preparatory to 
casting. The cistern containing the melted 
glass is raised from the carriage on which it 
was brought from the furnace by means of a 
crane, its outside carefully cleaned, and the 
glass skimmed with a copper sabre. The cu- 
vette is now swung round over the table, over 
which a roller covered with cloth is drawn to 
remove all impurities, and the molten glass 
poured out in front of the cylinder, which be- 
ing rolled from one extremity of the table to 
the other spreads out the glass in a sheet 
of uniform breadth and thickness. The ope- 
ration is a beautiful one from the brilliancy 
of the great surface of melted glass, and the 
variety of colors exhibited upon it after the 
passage of the roller. While the plate is still 
red hot about two inches of its end is turned up 
like a flange, against which an iron rake-like 
instrument is placed, and the plate is thrust for- 
ward into the annealing oven, the temperature 
of which is that of dull redness. Another plate 
is now immediately cast upon the hot table, 
and the annealing oven when filled is closed 
and left for about five days to cool. The pro- 
cess of casting is done so systematically and 
with such despatch in a well regulated estab- 



20 



GLASS 



lishment, that the glass has been taken from the 
furnace, cast, and put into the annealing oven 
in less than five minutes. From the annealing 
oven the plates are taken to the warehouse, 
where they are carefully examined to see how 
they may be cut to the best advantage. In dif- 
ferent manufactories and at different times va- 
rious processes have been in use for grinding 
and smoothing the surface of plate glass, but 
the principle has been the same in all, viz.: 
rubbing the surface to be smoothed with an- 
other surface either of glass or iron, and at the 
same time applying sand or emery of different 
degrees of fineness and water between the two 
impinging surfaces. One of the most approved 
methods of grinding and smoothing the plates 
was introduced into England in 1856, and 
adopted in the British plate-glass works. This 
apparatus consists of a revolving table, 20 ft. 
in diameter, fixed upon a strong cast-iron spin- 
dle, and capable of running at an average speed 
of 25 revolutions a minute. Above the table 
frames are arranged to hold the plates of glass, 
which are laid in a bed of plaster of Paris, with 
the face to be polished resting upon the table. 
These frames also revolve on their centres by 
the friction of the table upon the glass, slowly, 
but so as to present each side of the plates they 
hold to an equal amount of rubbing as they 
are moved nearer to the centre of the table or 
further from it. Sand and water are applied to 
facilitate grinding down the glass. The grind- 
ing by this process is found to be even and 
equal, and the machinery to work smoothly 
and steadily from the facility with which the 
plates accommodate themselves to the power 
applied. After grinding they are smoothed 
with emery powder of finer and finer quali- 
ties, and are thus prepared for polishing. By 
the process above described the grinding and 
smoothing are done by the same machine ; but 
formerly two sets of apparatus were required 
for this purpose. By grinding the surface of 
the plate is made true, but presents a rough 
appearance which is removed by the process 
of smoothing, At this stage it is somewhat 
opaque, and this defect disappears after the 
final process of polishing. This is performed 
chiefly by machinery. The plate of glass hav- 
ing been fixed upon the table by means of 
plaster of Paris, the surface is subjected to the 
action of a series of wooden blocks covered 
with felt and attached to a frame by which 
they are made to move over the surface of the 
glass. At the same time a polishing powder, 
generally red oxide of iron, is applied, while 
the friction may be increased by adding weight 
to the rubbers. Polishing sometimes brings 
out defects which were before concealed ; the 
plates are consequently again assorted, and, if 
need be, reduced to smaller sizes. (For the 
methods of silvering them, see MIRROR.) Bend- 
ing the large plates or the smaller sheets of 
glass for the purpose of fitting them for bow 
windows, &c., is an especial branch of the 
manufacture. A core of refractory material 



and suitable shape is introduced upon the 
floor of the furnace ; and upon this is laid the 
sheet to be bent, which as it softens by gravity 
conforms itself to the shape of the bed upon 
which it is laid. The value of plate glass 
varies greatly with the size. In the United 
States the price of a plate of standard British 
or French glass, 5x3 ft., is about $35 ; but 
when the dimensions are double, the plate 
being 10x6 ft., the price is increased to about 
$175. A plate 14 x 8 ft. is valued at about $500. 
No glass is of such importance in the arts 
as that of which the lenses of optical instru- 
ments are made. Both flint and crown glass 
are applied to this use, but each of them has 
its defects. The former, from the great differ- 
ence in the densities of its ingredients, is with 
much difficulty obtained of homogeneous struc- 
ture, an essential requisite in all glass used for 
optical purposes ; and the latter is difficult to 
procure of uniform composition and texture, 
from the high temperature required for its fu- 
sion and the consequent tendency to devitrify 
in cooling; or if this is obviated by an in- 
creased proportion of alkali in the composition, 
the excess of this causes attraction of moisture 
from the air and a damp surface to the lens. The 
best flint glass is subject to defects, chief among 
which are undulatory appearances called striaa, 
resulting from a want of uniform density in 
the glass, and tending to refract and disperse 
in different directions the rays of light passing 
through it. These defects are of great impor- 
tance when the glass is to be used for optical 
purposes. In 1753 John Dollond, an English 
optician, first began the construction of achro- 
matic object glasses, formed of two kinds of 
glass of different density, in accordance with 
the theory announced not long before by Euler. 
For this purpose Dollond used fragments of 
flint and of crown glass, but did not succeed 
in making object glasses with a larger aperture 
than 2 or 3 in. in diameter ; and when the 
need of telescopes of greater magnifying power 
was strongly felt, it was difficult to produce 
flint glass sufficiently free from striae for a lens 
4 in. in diameter. The scientific bodies of 
France and England offered prizes for the at- 
tainment of this result, and the most renowned 
glass manufacturers at the end of the last and 
the beginning of the present century endeav- 
ored to solve the problem. This was done 
by Guinand of Switzerland, a man not con- 
versant with science, nor even a glass man- 
ufacturer, but an optician. By methods of his 
own he made the furnaces, crucibles, and mix- 
tures he employed, and produced the glass, 
which he shaped and polished, giving without 
knowledge of mathematics the requisite pro- 
portion to the curves of its surface, and com- 
pleted lenses of flint glass of great perfection of 
structure, 9 in. in diameter. The secret of his 
success in making the glass is believed to have 
consisted in keeping the mixture agitated by 
stirring when at its greatest liquidity, and then 
j suffering it to cool and anneal in the pot. From 



GLASS 



21 



the most perfect portions of the comparatively 
homogeneous mass thus obtained, the lenses 
were cut out by a process similar to that of 
sawing blocks of stone. By one of the sons 
of Guinand the secret was imparted to M. 
Bontemps; and in 1828 lenses were made in 
France of 12 to 14 in. diameter. In 1848 Bon- 
temps went to England, and in conjunction 
with the Messrs. Chance and co. made disks of 
flint and of crown glass larger than any be- 
fore produced. At the exhibition in London 
in 1851, a disk of flint glass was exhibited by 
Messrs. Chance and co. 29 in. in diameter and 
weighing 2 cwt. ; and at the Paris exposition 
in 1855 they exhibited one of the same diam- 
eter made of crown glass. One of these was 
afterward sold to the French government for 
1,000. They are of pure color, and of such 
homogeneous structure that the light is trans- 
mitted without polarization. Prof. Faraday, 
one of a committee appointed by the astro- 
nomical society of London to experiment upon 
the means of producing optical lenses, while 
Guinand's secret method of making these 6 
in. in diameter was exciting the admiration 
of the scientific world, discovered the heavy 
glass called by his name (composed of protox- 
ide of lead 104 Ibs., silicate of lead 24, and dry 
boracic acid 25), which has proved of con- 
siderable importance in investigations connect- 
ed with the polarization of light ; but its lia- 
bility to change unfits it for general optical uses. 
Lenses both of flint and of crown glass are 
used in the object glasses of achromatic tele- 
scopes, serving by their combination to coun- 
teract the unequal tendency of each to dis- 
perse the rays of light. It seems to be con- 
ceded by scientific men that the glass best 
adapted to achromatism would be a flint glass 
possessing a smaller refractive power and a 
larger dispersive index, and a crown glass hav- 
ing, conversely, a greater refractive power 
and a less dispersive index. The annual pro- 
duction of plate glass in Europe may be stated 
in round numbers at upward of 10,000,000 sq. 
ft., of which about 4,000,000 sq. ft., valued at 
about 28,000,000 francs, is produced in France, 
8,750,000 in England, 1,500,000 in Germany, 
and 1,000,000 in Belgium. The industry is 
limited to a few large establishments, there 
being six each in France and England, and two 
each in Germany and Belgium. In addition 
to the above, large quantities of rough plate 
glass are made in England for horticultural and 
other cheap purposes. About 15,000,000 sq. 
ft. of window glass, of the value of about 15,- 
000,000 francs, is produced annually in France, 
and about 100,000,000 bottles, valued at about 
20,000,000 francs; the production of flint glass 
amounts to about 15,000,000 francs, and of 
ordinary table glass about the same. The en- 
tire production of the country exceeds 75,000,- 
000 francs. The exports of glass from Eng- 
land in 1872 were 2,131,924 sq. ft. of plate glass, 
valued at 243,780; 113,004 cwt. of flint, 
valued at 300,484; 760,836 cwt. of common 



KINDS. 


No. of 
establish- 
ment!. 


Hands 
em- 
ployed. 


Capital. 


Annual pro- 
duct*. 


Cut 


29 
5 

18 
114 
85 


285 
200 
170 
12,308 
2,859 


$136,700 
195,700 
148,800 
10,385,882 
8,244,560 


$470,875 
355,250 
297,480 
14,300,949 
3,811,308 


Plate 


Stained 


Ware, not specified. 
Window 

Total 


201 


15,822 


$14,111,642 


$19,246,862 





bottles, valued at 373,138; and other kinds 
of glass to the value of 204,593. The latest 
statistics on the manufacture of glass in the 
United States are afforded by the census of 
1870, as follows : 



The establishments were chiefly in Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, New Jersey, and Ohio. Of 
the five manufactories of plate glass, three were 
in Ohio and one each in New York and New 
Hampshire. Not included in this statement 
is the Lenox rough plate glass company at 
Lenox, Mass. The importations of glass and 
glass ware into the United States for the year 
ending June 30, 1873, amounted to $5,834,712, 
including cylinder, crown, and common win- 
dow, $2,759,728 ; cylinder and crown polished, 
$21,217; fluted, rolled, or rough plate, $34,- 
180 ; cast polished plate not silvered (2,482,- 
359 sq. ft.), $1,550,857; cast polished plate sil- 
vered (2,392,274 sq. ft), $823,076; other man- 
ufactures, $2,230,986. Of the cylinder, crown, 
or common window, $2,181,044 worth came 
from Belgium and $451,223 from England; of 
the cast polished plate not silvered, 1,955,666 
sq. ft, valued at $1,252,991 , from England, 246,- 
698 sq. ft, valued at $155,450, from Belgium, 
and 39,047 sq. ft., worth $22,963, from France ; 
of the silvered plate, 2,297,049 sq. ft, valued 
at $764,913, was the production of England. 
COLORED AND ORNAMENTED GLASS. Mould- 
ed or pressed glass never exhibits its full lustre 
or the clearly cut configurations of the mould. 
This defect is remedied by the process called 
cutting glass, which is in reality grinding and 
afterward polishing it. It is easily effected 
upon the soft flint glass by applying the sur- 
faces to be cut to the face of revolving disks of 
iron or copper fed with emery, or, for coarse 
grinding, with sand and water. Stones are 
also used instead of the metallic disks. The 
marks of the rough grinding are removed by a 
smooth grindstone, and the polishing is then 
completed by wooden disks, to which pumice 
or rotten stone, and finally the preparation of 
tin and lead called putty powder, are applied. 
The fine polishing of chandelier drops is effected 
by a lead wheel supplied with fine rotten stone 
and water. Glass globes and lamp shades ac- 
quire their interior ground surface by the wear- 
ing action of sand placed within them, the globes 
being themselves introduced into the interior 
of a drum which is caused to rotate rapidly. 
Letters and designs are engraved on glass by 
the use of small disks of copper set in rapid 
revolution by means of a lathe operated by the 



GLASS 



foot of the workman, or by machinery, and fed 
with fine emery mixed with oil. Lead disks 
are used for the polished work. The object to 
be engraved is skilfully pressed against the re- 
volving wheel or disk by the workman, who is 
guided by the outlines of the design lightly 
traced upon the glass. The art of engraving 
was practised by the ancients. By a recent 
American invention glass may be engraved by 
means of a blast of sand directed upon it. (See 
SAND BLAST.) Pleasing effects are produced by 
engraving through an outer casing of colored 
glass into an interior white, transparent, or 
enamelled glass; this is afterward decorated 
with gold and painted in arabesques or other 
patterns. This work is chiefly the produce 
of Bohemia, Bavaria, and France. Etching is 
also applied to the ornamenting of glass, a pro- 
cess which is effected by the property of hydro- 
fluoric acid to eat into the material, as described 
in the article FLUORINE. The glass is first cov- 
ered over with a varnish that resists the action 
of the acid, and when this coating is dry, the 
lines to be etched are marked through it by 
means of a point. The acid is then poured on, 
and is allowed to remain till it has produced the 
desired effect. The difficulties and danger at- 
tending the use of the acid restrict this process 
to the ornamenting of large polished plates, and 
to the labelling in indelible letters of the bottles 
of chemists and apothecaries. "Work done by 
this method is inferior to that done by the reg- 
ular process of engraving. An improvement 
upon this process has been made by Mar6chal, 
by employing solutions of the neutral fluorides 
of the alkalies. The addition of hydrochloric 
acid to these solutions disengages hydrofluoric 
acid, which, coming in contact in the nascent 
state with the silicic acid of the glass placed in 
the liquid, rapidly produces a clearing upon the 
surface exposed. The French companies of St. 
Louis and Baccarat have adopted this process, 
by which very rich and artistic designs have 
been produced. The colored glasses are pro- 
duced either upon the colorless composition 
called strass for imitations of precious stones 
(see GEMS, ARTIFICIAL), or by introducing the 
various oxides used fpr coloring into the mate- 
rials of flints or other kinds of glass. In the lat- 
ter case the coloring matter is thoroughly fused 
with the glass, which therefore becomes colored 
throughout its entire body. Pigments are also 
applied to the surface of glass, and sometimes by 
their greater fusibility are burnt or melted in. 
Flint glass may be employed for vessels orna- 
mented with colors, and to 6 cwt. of it the 
following ingredients are added for producing 
the respective colors: soft white enamel, 24 
Ibs. arsenic, 6 Ibs. antimony ; hard white enam- 
el, 200 Ibs. putty, prepared from tin and lead ; 
blue transparent glass, 2 Ibs. oxide of cobalt ; 
azure blue, about 6 Ibs. oxide of copper ; ruby 
red, 4 oz. oxide of gold; amethyst or pur- 
ple, 20 Ibs. oxide of manganese ; common or- 
ange, 12 Ibs. iron ore and 4 Ibs. manganese; 
emerald green, 12 Ibs. copper scales and 12 



Ibs. iron ore ; gold topaz color, 3 Ibs. oxide of 
uranium. The colors produced by the metallic 
oxides are found to vary with the degree of 
heat employed. All the colors of the spectrum 
may be obtained with oxide of iron ; and these 
various results do not seem to depend upon the 
different degrees of oxidation, but are thought 
to result from variations in molecular arrange- 
ment, induced perhaps by the action of light. 
By another process the surface alone of the 
glass may be colored. This is done by first 
gathering with the blowpipe a lump of clear 
glass, which after being rolled upon the mar- 
ver is dipped into a pot of melted colored 
glass, forming a lump of colorless glass envel- 
oped in a coating of colored glass. This is 
blown into a globe or cylinder and opened out 
into a sheet or plate in the usual manner, one 
surface of which is clear and the other colored. 
Vessels of various kinds having colored sur- 
faces on the outside may be produced in a sim- 
ilar manner. By cutting through the thin lay- 
er of colored glass to the colorless layer, a 
great variety of colored ornamental glass may 
be produced. By gathering first a lump of 
colored glass and then coating this with melted 
clear glass, the external surface of the vessel 
will be colorless and the inner layer colored. 
" Casing " is a somewhat similar process. The 
article of flint glass when partially blown is in- 
serted into a thin shell of colored glass, pre- 
pared at the same time for its reception, and 
the blowing is continued till the inner one fills 
the shell, with which it is afterward well in- 
corporated by softening in the furnace and fur- 
ther blowing. Several partial casings of dif- 
ferent colors may be thus applied. In making 
etched enamelled glass, the enamel substance 
is ground to an impalpable powder, and laid 
with a brush in a pasty state upon the glass. 
After the paste is dried, the ornament is etched 
out by machinery or by hand, and the glass is 
then softened till the enamel is vitrified and 
incorporated with it. From this it is removed 
to the annealing kiln. The flocked variety of 
enamelled glass is prepared by the same meth- 
od, except that a fine, smooth, opaque surface, 
like satin, much softer and smoother than that 
of ground glass, is previously given to the whole 
surface before the enamel is applied. This va- 
riety has in great part supplanted the other, 
and is justly much admired for the softening 
of the light diffused through it, and for the 
delicacy and beauty of the elaborate and ar- 
tistic designs with which it is ornamented. 
The Venetians and the Bohemians have long 
been celebrated for their skill and ingenuity in 
the production of ornamented glass. Many of 
the ingenious effects produced are imitations 
of ancient manufacture, of which many won- 
derful specimens are preserved in European 
museums. The process of drawing out tubes 
is an interesting one. The workman, having 
gathered a lump of glass on the end of a 
blowpipe, expands it into a globular form with 
very thick walls. Another workman having 



attached a punty to the opposite end, the two 
men separate from each other as quickly as 
possible, thus elongating the glass into a tube. 
The globe immediately contracts across the 
centre, which, being drawn out to the size of 
the tube desired, cools, so that the hotter and 
softer portions next yield in their dimensions, 
and so on until a tube of 100 ft. or more hangs 
between the men. It is kept constantly ro- 
tating in the hands, and is straightened as it 
cools and sets by placing it on the ground. It 
is cut into suitable lengths while hot by taking 
hold of it with cold tongs. The diameter of the 
bore retains its proportion to the thickness of 
the glass ; hence thin tubes must be drawn from 
globes blown to large size, or from small ones 
containing very little metal. In producing 
canes the glass is drawn out without being 
blown. Tubes thus drawn out from colored 
glass are converted into beads by other curious 
processes. This branch of the manufacture is 
extensively practised at Murano. The tubes 
are drawn out 150 ft. in length, and to the 
diameter of a goose quill, those for the smallest 
beads by the workmen receding from each 
other at a pretty rapid trot. The tubes are cut 
into lengths of about 27 in. and assorted for 
size and color. Women or boys then take sev- 
eral together in the left hand, and run them on 
the face of an anvil up to a certain measure, 
and with a blunt steel edge break off the ends 
all of the same length, which is commonly 
about twice the diameter of the tubes ; the bits 
fall into a box. These are next worked about 
in a moistened mixture of wood ashes and sand, 
with which the cylindrical pieces become filled ; 
and they are then introduced with more sand 
into a hollow cylindrical vessel, which is placed 
in a furnace and made to revolve. The glass 
softens, but the paste within the bits prevents 
their sides from being compressed; they be- 
come spherical, and their edges are smoothed 
and polished by the friction. When taken from 
the fire and cleaned from the sand, they are 
ready to be put up for the market. The Vene- 



GLASS 






FIG. 16. Manufacture of Filigree Glass. 

tian filigree glass, which consists of spirally 
twisted white and colored enamel glasses cased 
in transparent glass, is much used for the stems 
of wine glasses, goblets, &c. ; and when ar- 
ranged side by side in alternate colors, it is 
manufactured into tazzas, vases, and other 



ornamental articles. In making this kind of 
glass, pieces of plain, colored, or opaque white 
cane, of uniform length, are arranged on end, 
the different colors alternating, around the in- 
terior of a cylindrical mould. The selection 
and the arrangement of colors depend upon 
the taste of the manufacturer. The mould and 
the pieces having been subjected to a moder- 
ate heat, a solid ball of transparent flint glass, 
attached to the end of a blowpipe or punty, 
is placed within the mould, the various canes 
forming an external coating to the glass, to 
which they become welded. The ball is now 
taken from the mould, reheated, and marvered 
till the adhering canes are rolled into one uni- 
form mass. This being covered with a gath- 
ering of clear glass, the lump thus formed, 
with the ornamental work in the interior, may 
be drawn into canes of any size and presenting 
either the natural or the spiral arrangement ; the 
latter being effected by the workmen rotating 
the glass in opposite directions while drawing 
it out into a cane. By variously arranging 
the colors in this process, and by skilful manip- 
ulations, many wonderful and ingenious effects 
are produced. Beautiful vases are also made 
by the above process, the glass when prepared 
being blown into that form instead of being 
drawn into canes. The mille-Jiori consists of 
a variety of ends of variously colored tubes, 
cut in the form of lozenges, which, having been 
arranged to represent flowers or other orna- 
mental design, are enveloped and massed to- 
gether with transparent glass. The lump is 
then worked into the required form, a very 
common one being hemispherical for use as 
paper weights. Portraits and even watches 
and barometers have been represented in the 
interior of glass ; but in this case these articles 
and the glass have not formed a homogeneous 
mass, the former being arranged in a cavity 
of the latter. Mosaic glass is produced by ar- 
ranging vertically side by side threads or small 
canes of variously colored opa"que or trans- 
parent glass, of uniform lengths, so that the 
ends shall form a ground representing flow- 
ers, arabesques, or any mosaic design. This 
mass is now submitted to a heat sufficient to 
fuse the whole, all the sides at the same time 
being pressed together so as to exclude the 
air from the interstices of the threads. The 
result is a homogeneous solid cane or cylinder, 
which, being cut at right angles or laterally, 
yields a number of layers or copies of the same 
uniform design. This process was practised 
with great skill by the ancients, who are sup- 
posed to have produced pictures in this way ; 
but in existing specimens, the pieces have been 
so accurately united by intense heat or other- 
wise, that the junctures cannot even be dis- 
covered by a powerful magnifying glass. Vitro 
di trino represents fine lace work with inter- 
secting lines of white enamel or transparent 
glass, forming a series of diamond-shaped sec- 
tions, each containing an air bubble of uniform 
size. In making this, a lump of glass is blown 



GLASS 



in a mould, around the inner sides of which are 
arranged pieces of canes of the required colors, 
as described in the case of filigree glass, which, 
adhering to the glass, form ribs or flutes on its 
external surface. The lump, having been twist- 
ed to give the spiral arrangement to the ad- 
hering canes, is formed into a conical shape 
and opened at the base. This forms the inner 
case of the vitro di trino. A corresponding 
outer case is formed in the same manner, which 
being turned inside out, the projecting canes 
appear on the inside of the cup with a reversed 
spiral arrangement. One case is now placed 
within the other, and both being reheated are 
collapsed together, forming uniform air bubbles 
between each white enamel-crossed section. 
The two cases, thus welded into one, may be 
formed into the bowl of a wine glass or other 
vessel. Frosted glass, like the preceding, is 
one of the few specimens of Venetian work not 
made by the ancients ; and although the process 
of making it is exceedingly simple, it was con- 
sidered a lost art until recently practised at the 
Falcon glass works in England. The appear- 
ance of irregularly veined, marble-like pro- 
jecting dislocations, with intervening fissures, 
is produced by immersing the hot glass in cold 
water, quickly withdrawing it, reheating the 
ball of glass, and simultaneously expanding it 
by blowing. Cameo incrustation is also of 




FIG. 17. Cameo Incrustation. 

modern origin, having been first introduced 
by the Bohemians. The figure intended for 
incrustation must be made of materials requi- 
ring a higher degree of heat for their fusion 
than the glass to be used. The figure, having 
been heated, is introduced into a cylindrical- 
shaped piece of glass, attached at one end to 
a blowpipe and open at the other. The open 
end is then closed, leaving the figure in the 
interior of the hollow pocket. The air is now 
exhausted through the hollow tube, which pro- 
duces a collapse and causes the glass and figure 
to form into a homogeneous mass. In making 
" paper weights," thin sections of little orna- 
mented rods are placed in a circular iron 



mould or bed, in the form of the required de- 
sign. A workman presses a piece of hot glass 
on the end of a punty into the mould and takes 
up the design. Then another workman drops 
a piece of hot glass on the opposite side of the 
design. The whole is now taken to the fur- 
nace, where the parts are welded into a hemi- 
spherical form, which magnifies the interior de- 
sign and presents a fine picture enclosed within 
the transparent setting. In making spun glass, 
the workman heats one end of a tube of glass, 
white or colored, by the flame of a lamp, and 
seizing the softened end with a pair of pincers 
draws out a long thread. Owing to the extreme 
ductility of glass, these threads can be drawn 
to an extraordinary fineness and length. In 
some cases spun glass has been made to imitate 
the hair of animals. Among the most valuable 
treatises on the subject of glass are " Curiosities 
of Glass Making," by Apsley Pellatt (London, 
1849), and Guide du verrier, by G. Bontemps 
(Paris, 1868), both of these authors having 
been for many years extensively engaged in 
the manufacture of glass. Among other works 
are those of Neri, "The Art of Glass" (trans- 
lated, London, 1662); Shaw, " The Chemistry 
of Porcelain, Glass, and Pottery" (London, 
1837) ; Henry Chance, " On the Manufacture 
of Crown and Sheet Glass" (London, 1856), 
and "On the Manufacture of Glass" (1868); 
Peligot, I? Art de la verrerie (Paris, 1862); 
Turgan, Les grandes mines de Prance (Paris, 
1862-'70) ; Cochin, La manufacture des glaces 
de Saint- Gobain de 1665 a 1865 (Paris, 1865) ; 
Gaflield, "Action of Sunlight on Glass," re- 
printed from the " American Journal of Sci- 
ence and Arts " (New Haven, 1867) ; Sauzay, 
La verrerie (Paris, 1868), and " Wonders of 
Glass Making in all Ages " (London and New 
York, 1870) ; and Rapports du jury interna- 
tional of the Paris universal exposition of 1867, 
vol. cxi. (Paris, 1868). 

GLASS, Soluble, or Water Glass, an artificial sili- 
cate of soda or potash, or a double silicate of 
both these alkalies. It may be formed by fusing 
8 or 10 parts of dry carbonate of soda or pot- 
ash with 15 parts of white sand or powdered 
quartz or flint. Nearly all glass is to a slight 
extent soluble in water, in consequence of the 
alkaline matter it contains ; and the solubility 
is increased by raising the temperature of the 
water, which under pressure may be carried 
far above the boiling point. Water holding 
caustic alkalies in solution will attack glass 
vessels containing it in consequence of the for- 
mation of a soluble alkaline silicate. It is to 
this quality of solubility that feldspar ordina- 
rily owes its value as a fertilizing ingredient 
of the soil ; and it is from the affinity of caustic 
lime for silica that it may be used for libera- 
ting the alkali in the feldspar. Attention was 
first directed to soluble glass by Fuchs as a 
suitable composition for rendering combustible 
bodies fire-proof; and in 1824 portions of the 
new theatre in Munich were coated with it. 
He also employed it in the style of fresco paint- 



GLASSITES 

ng called stereochromy, for fixing the colors 
see FBESCO PAINTING); and it was used not 
mly upon plastered walls, but with success 
>y Echter directly upon the sandstone of the 
Strasburg minster. Fuchs proposed to render 
wood fire-proof, and even linen also, by means 
>f it ; to protect surfaces from the action of 
he weather; to prepare with it artificial stone; 
and to use it as a cement for glass and porce- 
lain. But it appears to have been most suc- 
cessfully applied by Prof. Kuhlmann at Lille, 
who employed it to prevent the decay of walls 
and edifices, even when built of very inferior 
stone, and in print works and tapestry facto- 
ries for fixing colors upon cotton and paper. 
In England it is employed in the fabrication of 
the celebrated Kansome artificial stone, de- 
scribed in the article CONCRETE and in Dr. 
F. A. P. Barnard's report of the Paris univer- 
sal exposition of 1867. Soluble glass is also 
employed by Baerle and co. of Worms for 
washing wool. Forty parts of water are mixed 
with one of soluble glass at a temperature of 
from 122 to 135 F., and the wool is stirred in 
the mixture for a few minutes. It is then rinsed 
in tepid water, when it is found perfectly clean, 
white, and odorless, without having lost any 
of its softness or other valuable qualities. 
GLASSITES. See SANDEMANIANS. 
GLASS PAINTING. The art of painting upon 
glass is supposed to be of Byzantine origin, 
and to have arisen since the beginning of the 
Christian era. The first authentic account of 
the subject is given in the Diversarum Artium 
Schedula, a work written by Theophilus, prob- 
ably in the 12th century, though by some au- 
thorities its date is assigned to the 10th. The 
complete description given in this treatise of 
the process of painting on glass justifies the 
conclusion that the art itself must have been 
invented at a much earlier period ; but the 
oldest specimens now existing do not date 
further back than the 'beginning of the llth 
century. Indeed, the oldest existing specimens 
to which a date can with certainty be assigned 
has been considered by M. de Lasteyrie and 
other French antiquaries to be the windows in 
the cathedrals at Angers and St. Denis, which 
were painted about the middle of the 12th 
century. The skill of the French painters on 
glass was extolled by Theophilus, and to the 
present time France has continued to be the 
richest storehouse of painted glass of the 
earliest style. The process described by The- 
ophilus continued to be practised until about 
the middle of the 16th century, when the art 
reached its zenith. The most eminent painters 
practised it, as Albert Dtirer, Bernard Palissy, 
and others, and their works are still admired 
in the churches of that period, as the Cologne 
cathedral, York minster, and many others. 
But in the next century the art had entirely 
declined, for the reason, as Labarte suggests in 
his "Illustrated Handbook," that its intention 
was perverted in the transformation of an art 
of purely monumental decoration into an art 



GLASS PAINTING 



25 



of expression. For this oil painting possessed 
greater resources, and glass painting necessarily 
fell into neglect. In some modern attempts 
it is remarked that the primary object of the 
glass in transmitting light appears to be over- 
looked and sacrificed in the opaque shadows 
introduced. In the ancient glass pictures the 
figures were formed of pieces of stained glass, 
and the shadows were laid on with dark 
colors and fixed in the fire. Intense colors 
were exclusively employed, the ruby and blue 
always predominant. The ground was mosaic 
in circles, squares, and lozenges, of massive 
forms, and filled with foliated ornaments in the 
Roman style. Over this were medallions rep- 
resenting historical and biographical subjects 
from the lives of the saints. When figures 
came to be introduced, they were generally 
grotesque and distorted ; but the costumes 
were remarkably correct. The designs always 
harmonized with the style of architecture, 
stately and magnificent in the Norman struc- 
tures, and light and elegant in those of the 
early English models in the 13th century. In 
these the brilliant positive colors were made 
more subsidiary, appearing in borders, geo- 
metric bands, and central points, while the 
ground was of a neutral gray produced by 
lines crossing each other at right angles. The 
designs were also more correctly drawn, and 
shaded with greater delicacy. For the violet 
tint always before used for the faces of the 
figures was substituted a gray or brown upon 
colorless glass. The pieces of glass were of 
larger size, and a single figure was often made 
to occupy a whole window, standing beneath 
an elaborate blue or red canopy. In the back- 
ground, among the architectural fragmentary 
designs, still appeared the old Roman foliated 
ornaments, but intermixed with original stud- 
ies from nature, a style of the art which was af- 
terward carried to great perfection. Not only 
leaves, plants, and trees, but even landscapes 
and buildings in perspective, appeared in the 
latter half of the 15th century. The Scripture 
pieces were often explained by legends painted 
upon the phylacteries, and in the background 
were represented rich blue or red hangings of 
damask. After a long decline, the 1 9th century 
has witnessed a revival in the art of painting 
on glass, which is now extensively practised in 
France, Germany, and England, the finest speci- 
mens being produced at Munich. In earlier 
periods it was devoted chiefly to ornamenting 
cathedral windows with sacred illustrations, 
but it is now used for general purposes of orna- 
mentation, embracing a wide range of secular 
subjects. The belief in the superiority of an- 
cient glass painting, which was even regarded 
by some as one of the lost arts, has been super- 
seded by the opinion held by the highest au- 
thorities that painted glass can now be manu- 
factured superior to the best specimens of the 
middle ages. Indeed, the processes then in use 
have been brought to light by modern research. 
In 1850 a series of chemical analyses was in- 



20 



GLASS PAINTING 



stitutod by Mr. C. Winston of England, who 
during his life made the subject of painted 
tfla^ in its antiquarian aspects a special study, 
jiinl tlio earliest specimens were carefully ana- 
lyzed. The results reached made it eay to re- 
produce both the quality and the color of the an- 
cient glass. Glass painting, which is more prop- 
erly a process of staining, differs from all other 
styles of pictorial art, except the painting of por- 
celain. The colors are different, being wholly 
of mineral composition, and are not merely 
laid on the outside, but fixed by being fused 
into the material, undergoing in the operation 
chemical changes that develop the brilliancy 
and transparency of which the compounds are 
susceptible. The colors are mixed with a flux 
of much easier fusion than the glass, and with 
some vehicle, as boiled oil or spirits of turpen- 
tine. The mixture is usually laid on with a 
brush as in ordinary painting ; and the glass 
being then exposed to heat, the flux melts and 
sinks into the body. None of the clear bright 
colors are perceived until the work is com- 

Sleted, and the artist consequently labors un- 
er great disadvantage in applying the mate- 
rials that are to produce them. He is guided 
either by lines drawn on the back side, which 
show through, or by a cartoon or drawing on 
paper placed there. In the early use of glass 
for windows, especially those of churches, bril- 
liant colors were highly esteemed, and great 
success was attained in the methods of color- 
ing. A bright red color was imparted by the 
ancients with the protoxide of copper. In 
later times it was found impracticable to suc- 
ceed with this on account of the tendency of 
the copper to pass to a peroxide and produce 
a green tinge ; but the practice has been again 
introduced with success by the Tyne company 
in England, at Ohoisy in Franco, and in other 
places. The discovery of the preparation of 
gold and tin, called purple of Cassius, also af- 
forded another means of producing a brilliant 
red. In the history of the art two leadidg 
processes have been prominent. From the 
earliest period until about the middle of the 
16th century the method described by Tho- 
ophilus and known as the mosaic system pre- 
vailed. In this process the glass was colored in 
the manufacture, and blocks of different colors 
having been brought together, the. outlines and 
shading of the design were produced by the ap- 
plication of an enamel color. About the time 
incut ioiu-il it was discovered that all colors be- 
sides yellow, brown, and light red, which had 
previously been imparted by this method, could 
be given to glass by moans of the enamel pro- 
cess; but the works produced by this method 
were greatly inferior to those by the mosaic sys- 
tem. There has been a spirited controversy 
between the advocates of the German method 
of glass painting, in which enamel is used, and 
the English glass painters, who avoid the use 
of enamel as far as possible, as it sometimes 
scales off. It seems to be conceded that the 
beauty of the cathedral glass of the 18th and 



14th centuries was in the brilliancy of the 
glass and the skilful arrangement of designs 
and colors, and not in any enamel work. The 
ordinary method of glass painting, as prac- 
tised in England, is to use for the colored parts 
of the design pieces o^ glass differently colored 
in the process of manufacture, and to employ 
only one enamel color, brown, for tracing the 
outlines and painting the shadows of the pic- 
ture upon the glass. The enamel brown, like 
any other enamel color, consists of coloring 
matter mixed with pulverized glass, called flux 
or enamel. When this is laid on the surface of 
the glass and heated in an oven or furnace, it 
melts, in consequence of being more fusible, 
while the glass is merely at a red heat; on be- 
ing cooled it hardens and produces a perma- 
nent color on the surface of the glass. The 
general colors of the design, 'therefore, are not 
produced by the painter, but by the glass ma- 
ker; the former, as has been stated, using 
pieces of glass already colored. The only ex- 
ception to this is in the case of yellow, which 
is produced on the glass by applying a " stain," 
the principal ingredient of which is oxide or 
chloride of silver. On being exposed to the 
action of a red heat, the yellow stain penetrates 
the glass and imparts to it its tint, the prepa- 
ration of silver being afterward brushed off. 
This process was discovered in the early part 
of the 14th century, and has been used to im- 
part a yellow tint to uncolored and most kinds 
of colored glass. The various tints of yellow 
are the only ones that can be produced on glass 
without altering its surface. By putting on a 
second or third coating of the silver oxide and 
burning in, orange and red stained glasses are 
produced. The process of producing a paint- 
ed glass window is an interesting one. The 
artist first makes an outline on a small scale of 
the stone work of the window, within which 
ho sketches the design, indicating the colors 
to be used and the general treatment of the 
subject. A full-sized drawing or cartoon is 
next made, from which a "cutting drawing" 
is traced, showing the lines where the strips 
of lead are to go, and omitting all other de- 
tails. On this latter drawing, on which the 
colors of the design are indicated by outlines, 
the pieces of different colored glass are laid 
and cut with a diamond, each piece being cut 
out of that particular color or tint required. 
The artist now arranges the pieces of different 
colors in their proper places on the cartoon, 
and traces the outline of the design upon them. 
On being heated in an oven, the opaque lines 
vitrify and are formed indelibly on the surface 
of the glass. After the outlines have been 
thus "burnt" on, the glass is taken again to 
the painter, who covers the cartoon with a 
sheet of colorless glass, or if large a portion of 
it at a time. Thus having the cartoon for a 
guide, he arranges in their proper places on 
the sheet of colorless glass the pieces on which 
the outlines have been traced, and secures 
them firmly with drops of melted resin and 



GLASS PAINTING 



GLASS SNAKE 



beeswax, or other suitable substance. The 
sheet of colorless glass, with the pieces thus ar- 
ranged adhering to it, is placed upon an easel, 
and the shadows of the picture are put on with 
the same material as that used in tracing the 
outlines. The shading, however, is not traced 
from the cartoon, as were the outlines, but is 
done by the skill and experience of the painter. 
When the shading is completed, and the tints 
of yellow, if any are required, are put on, the 
pieces of glass are detached from the colorless 
sheet and again subjected to heat, for the pur- 
pose of " burning in " the shadows. If more 
work by the painter is required, the process is 
repeated, the glass being thus subjected to heat 
in some instances six or seven times. The 
work of the painter being completed, the fin- 
ished pieces are taken by the "leader," who, 
having arranged them by the aid of the " cut- 
ting drawing" so as to form the entire design, 
fastens them together by means of strips of 
grooved lead skilfully fitted around the edges 
of the several pieces. If the window is a largo 
one, as is generally the case, it is divided into 
parts of convenient size, which are fitted to- 
gether when the window is put in its place. 
Bars of iron are also sometimes placed across 
the window at the line of junction and at other 
convenient intervals. This general process of 
producing mosaic stained glass windows has 
been in use from the earliest times, though it 
may have been modified in some of its details; 
and until some other method of imparting 
colors to glass without detracting from its 
transparency and brilliancy is discovered, the 
opaque lead lines in the design must be accept- 
ed as a necessity. In his "Art of Glass Paint- 
ing," Mr. 0. Winston says: "The necessity 
of leading :i glass painting together is one of 
those conditions which cannot be evaded by 
any ingenuity. The lead work and saddle bars 
must be accepted as necessary parts of the 
composition. The design must be made with 
reference to them, and that glass painting must 
be acknowledged to be the best which admits 
of the leads being thrown into the outlines, 
and made to serve as outlines ; and which by 
the simplicity, I might almost say roughness, 
of its design and execution, prevents the harsh- 
ness of the saddle bars from being obtrusive. 
In this respect the glass paintings prior to 1560, 
and until the 18th century, must be considered 
superior to those later works in which the at- 
tempt has been made to ignore the leads and 
saddle bars, by leading the work together in 
squares independently of the outlines of the 
composition, or by twisting the saddle bars so 
as to avoid their cutting the design at regular 
intervals; because both methods immediately 
suggest the idea of a blemished picture, and 
make us immediately perceive how much bet- 
ter the work would be without loads or saddle 
bars.. But a window cannot be constructed 
without them; hence it is better to adopt 
them us essential parts of the design; and the 
beautiful windows of the choir of this [Lich- 



field] cathedral, which bear date between 1632 
and 1589, show that a design so constituted is 
compatible with high pictorial effect." An- 
other condition which must be particularly ob- 
served is the preservation of transparency in 
the highest degree consistent with the pro- 
duction of a picture. For this purpose the 
high lights of the window must be as free 
from shading as possible. Indeed, light shading 
throughout the entire design is one of the con- 
ditions imposed by the nature of the material. 
These conditions were fully recognized by the 
artists of the middle of the IGth century, and 
this fact accounts largely for the superiority 
of their productions to those of their prede- 
cessors. In the best glass paintings of that pe- 
riod there is always an abundance of light in 
the upper portion of the window, while in the 
choice of subjects and their general treatment 
the artist selected those that could be made 
the most effective with the least shading. 
Among numerous works on this subject are : 
Lasteyrie, Histoire de la peinture sur verre 
d^apres des monument en France (2 vols., Paris, 
1838-'5G); Gessert, OescMcJite der Glasmalerei 
(Stuttgart, 1889); Ballantino, "Treatise on 
Painted Glass " (London and Edinburgh, 1845) ; 
Bontemps, Peinture sur verre au dix-neu- 
vieme si&cle (Paris, 1845) ; Weale, " Ancient 
Painted and Stained Glass" (London, 1846); 
Winston, " Inquiry into the Difference of 
Stylo observable in Ancient Glass Paintings, 
especially in England, with Hints on Glass 
Painting" (London, 1847), and "An Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Painted Glass " (Oxford, 
1849) ; Warrington, " History of Stained Glass " 
(London, 1848); Fromberg, "An Essay on the 
Art of Painting on Glass" (London, 1851); 
Bielfeld, " A Guide to Painting on Glass " (Lon- 
don, 1856); and Winston, "Memoirs illustra- 
tive of the Art of Glass Painting" (1865). 

GLASS SNAKE (ophisaurus ventralis, Daud.), 
a North American reptile, improperly called a 
snake, belonging to the order sauropJiidia of 
Gray, and to the chalcidian or cyclosaurian 




Glass Snake (Ophisaurus vcn trails). 

family of saurians of Dum6ril and Bibron. The 
head is lizard-like, sub-oval, with rounded 
snout, covered above with numerous polygonal 
plates, largo anteriorly, the frontal the largest; 



28 



GLASS SNAKE 



the tongue arrow-shaped, triangularly grooved 
in front, free in its anterior extremity, on 
which the papillae are granular; the nostrils 
are near the snout, lateral, opening upward; 
the eyes are small, protected by two movable 
unequal lids ; there are several rows of short 
conical teeth, about 36 in number, on the roof 
of the mouth, chiefly on the pterygoid bones ; 
the intermaxillary teeth are conical, the max- 
illary simple and nearly cylindrical, about 40 
in all above and 36 below ; the external ear is 
a small oval opening just behind the angle of 
the mouth. There is no distinct neck; the 
body is elongated and snake-like, covered with 
small, smooth, slightly imbricated scales, dis- 
posed in circles around the body, about 120 in 
number ; there is no vestige of anterior or pos- 
terior limbs externally, and only their rudiments 
internally ; there is a deep groove separating 
the sides of the body from the abdomen, most 
visible during respiration, and which doubtless 
affords the free movements of the ends of the 
ribs necessary for progression. The tail forms 
at least two thirds of the total length, round, 
and tapering gradually to the tip, covered with 
about 140 rings of scales. Though the shape 
of this reptile is snake-like, the movable lids, 
external auditory openings, less movable verte- 
brae, less extensile tongue, rudimentary ster- 
num, and above all the consolidation of the 
bones of the skull and jaws, sufficiently show 
its saurian affinities. The length varies from 
2 to 3 ft. The head above is mottled with 
black and green, with a yellowish tinge on the 
jaws ; the body and tail above are marked 
with longitudinal and transverse lines of black, 
green, and yellow, each scale marked with 
these three colors; the under surface is yel- 
lowish, brightest on the abdomen ; some slight 
varieties of color are described. It is found on 
the Atlantic coast from southern Virginia to 
Florida, and as far west as the Mississippi, Mis- 
souri, and Ohio rivers ; it has been seen west 
of the Alleghanies as far north as Michigan. 
From the smallness of its gape it cannot de- 
stroy and swallow large prey, like the serpents ; 
it cannot climb nor swim, but passes its life on 
the surface of dry places or in natural cavities 
in the ground, living principally on mollusks, 
insects, annelids, and other small animals, and 
perhaps also partly on vegetable food like the 
sweet potato. It can move with considerable 
speed, and is taken uninjured with difficulty 
on account of the ease with which the joints 
of the tail are separated; the name of glass 
snake was given on account of this extreme 
fragility. The breaking of the tail into small 
pieces in this and in some scincoid reptiles 
seems to be the result of a reflex action in the 
spinal cord, as an irritation of this nervous cen- 
tre will cause a separation even after the tail 
is divided from the body. Dr. Burnett (" Pro- 
ceedings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory," vol. iv., p. 223) ascertained that the cau- 
dal muscles in this reptile do not pass from one 
vertebra to another, but that a portion are in- 



GLASS SPONGE 

serted into the skin, while others terminate mid- 
way between one vertebra and the next, dove- 
tailed as it were between the fibres sent from 
that vertebra, and attached to them only by 
the myolemma; so that there is no rupture of 
muscular fibres, but only a separation of one 
layer of muscles from the adjoining one, when 
the tail of the animal is broken ; the detached 
portion is said to be reproduced in a year. The 
glass snake in its anatomical peculiarities resem- 
bles the chalcidian amphisbaena and the scin- 
coid blindworm (anguis fragilis). 

GLASS SPONGE, or Glass Rope, a silicious sponge 
of the genus hyalonema (Gray) ; the name may 
also be properly applied to other allied genera, 
and especially to the euplectella, which will be 
described under VENUS'S FLOWER-BASKET. This 
sponge was first described and named by Dr. 
J. E. Gray, of the British museum, in 1835 ; 
he regarded it as a coral allied to the sea fans 
(gorgonia), an opinion to which he still adheres, 
against what seems to be an overwhelming 
mass of evidence. As usually seen, this sponge 
consists of a loosely twisted bundle of glassy 
threads, diverging at one end and converging 
at fhe other, which is more or less covered with 
a brown crust, studded with wart-like cylin- 
drical elevations, terminating in radiating ridges. 
The threads are mainly composed of silex, and 
are shining, translucent, and very flexible ; the 
fascicle varies from 12 to 20 in. in length, and 
is about half an inch thick, the threads ranging 
from the size of a bristle to that of a knitting 
needle. The wart-like elevations are generally 
regarded as polyps, of the genus palythoa, con- 
tinuous throughout the crust, of which Dr. 
Gray considers the fascicle the central axis. 
The convergent end, in its natural state, is en- 
veloped in a spongy mass, the fascicle on which 
Dr. Gray regarded as a parasite. The opinions 
of scientific men since Gray have been various. 
Prof. Brandt of St. Petersburg considered the 
sponge a parasite attaching itself to the polyp 
mass and gradually destroying it. Dr. Bower- 
bank regards all the structures above named 
as parts of one sponge, the wart-like elevations 
being the oscula. Prof. Schultze of Bonn rep- 
resents the fascicle and the sponge mass as 
belonging together, the warty crust being re- 
ferred to the polyp palythoa. Ehrenberg re- 
gards the fascicle as an artificial product of 
Japanese industry, and all sponges as of vege- 
table nature. In 1867 Prof. Loven described 
a little, stalked, deep-sea sponge from the coast 
of Norway, the H. boreale, which led him and 
naturalists since to the belief that this sponge 
had been represented upside down; in fact, 
that the glassy threads were below, mooring 
the structure to the sand, mud, or weeds, the 
sponge mass forming the upper portion ; an 
opinion which Dr. Leidy in 1870 modified by 
suggesting that this sponge may be suspended 
by its glassy cable, thinking it highly improba- 
ble that it should be attached by or rest upon 
the base where the large oscula are placed. 
All agree that there is a sponge mass attached 



GLASS SPONGE 



GLAUBER 



29 



to this compound animal, as the microscopic 
structure of the threads is perfectly character- 
istic of sponge spicules ; their silicious charac- 
ter shows that they are not formed by polyps ; 
the sponge mass at the upper end consists of 
an elegant tissue of dense 
masses of very short si- 
licious spicules, forming 
a kind of felt ; the ter- 
minal sponge is more or 
less cup-shaped, with an 
open conical central cav- 
ity. All but Dr. Bower- 
bank admit a parasite, 
the question being wheth- 
er the polyp is a para- 
site on the sponge, or the 
sponge a parasite on the 
polyp. The characters of 
hyalonema will be best 
understood from the an- 
nexed figure. H. mira- 
lile or Sieboldi is found 
in the seas around Japan, 
near Yokohama ; H. Lu- 
sitanicum was found by 
Prof. Bocage of Lisbon 
off the coast of Portu- 
gal ; II. ~boreale, accord- 
ing to Wyville Thomp- 
son not belonging to this 
genus but to a corticate 
type, was found by Prof. 
Loven on the coast of 
Norway ; and this or an 
allied species has late- 
ly been dredged on the 
northern part of our own 
coast. Other glass sponges 
are ffoltenia, figured in 
the "American Natural- 
ist" for July, 1873, and 
pheronema and rossella, 
figured in the " Popular 
Science Monthly " for 
September, 1873. Where 
men like Gray, Bow- 
erbank, Brandt, and 
Schultze entertain such 
different opinions, after 
the examination of hun- 
dreds of specimens, du- 
ring a period of nearly 
40 years, it is certainly 
very difficult to decide 
whether hyalonema be 
wholly a sponge, or 
which, if either, the 
sponge or the polyp, ia 
the parasite. Dr. Leidy, 
in the "American Natu- 
ralist" for March, 1870, alludes to a specimen, 
very much like one in the possession of the 
writer of this article, in which the fascicle ap- 
pears to have been withdrawn from the sponge 
and lain for some time in the sea ; a shark's 



egg is also attached near the top, and the 
tendrils of others are partially imbedded in 
the crust, which has no warty elevations ; this 
seems to favor Dr. Bowerbank's opinion that 
the whole is a sponge, and that the crust is 
not made by a polyp. 

GLASTONBURY, a market town and parish of 
Somersetshire, England, 25 m. S. W. of Bath ; 
pop. in 1871, 3,670. The town occupies a pen- 
insula, formerly an island (Avalon), in the 
river Brue. It derives its interest and im- 
portance almost wholly from its ruins, promi- 
nent among which are those of a famous Bene- 
dictine abbey, founded, it is said, by St. Augus- 
tin in 605, rebuilt in great splendor about a 
century later, and enriched by the liberality 
of successive princes until the time of Ethelred 
I. It suffered from the Danes, and before the 
conquest, when the Normans robbed it of both 
wealth and influence, had gained considerable 
importance and celebrity. Its half ruined walls 
were rebuilt by Stephen and Henry II., and 
its abbot was honored with a mitre and a seat 
among the barons in parliament. At one time 
it was annexed to the see of Wells, the incum- 
bent of which was called bishop of Glaston- 
bury. On the suppression of monasteries by 
Henry VIII. it enjoyed a revenue of 3,508 
13*. 4d. In 1539 Richard Whiting, the last 
abbot, for refusing to surrender the abbey to 
the king, was hanged in his robes on Torhill 
with two of his monks. The abbey ruins, con- 
sisting of portions of the church, the chapel of 
St. Joseph of Arimathea, and a building called 
the abbot's kitchen, are comprised in a quad- 
rangle of 60 acres, which was once encom- 
passed by a high wall. A reputation for sanc- 
tity clung to Glastonbury long after the refor- 
mation, and as late as 1751 10,000 invalids 
flocked hither in a single month, to drink from 
a spring said to cause miraculous cures. 

GLATZ, a town of Prussia, in the province of 
Silesia, on the left bank of the Neisse, 52 m. 
S. W. of Breslau ; pop. in 1871, 11,541. The 
town is defended by an old citadel, a modern 
fortress, and other works. It manufactures 
cotton fabrics, leather, and hosiery, and has a 
Roman Catholic gymnasium, a hospital, infir- 
mary, and barracks. It was fortified as early 
as the llth century, and has sustained numer- 
ous sieges. It was taken in the beginning of 
the thirty years' war by the Protestants, capit- 
ulated in 1622 to the imperial troops, and in 
1742 to the Prussians. The territory of Glatz 
was made a county of the empire in the latter 
part of the 15th century by the emperor Fred- 
erick III., and subsequently formed a part of 
the Austrian dominions, until occupied by 
Frederick the Great in 1742. A part of the 
Sudetic mountains is often designated by the 
name of Glatzer Gebirge. 

GLAUBER, Johann Rudolf, a German chemist, 
born in Karlstadt in 1604, died in Amsterdam 
in 1668. He was a physician and alchemist, 
boasted of wonderful secrets, and was called 
the Paracelsus of his age. He passed his life 



30 



GLAUBER'S SALT 



In his laboratory, successively at Salzburg, 
Frankfort, Cologne, and Amsterdam, first ex- 
hibited the production of artificial salts, and 
discovered the salt to which his name is given. 
He wrote voluminously on chemistry and al- 
chemy, and his works were translated into 
English by C. Packe (London, 1689). 

U.U Bl'it'S SALT, sulphate of soda, found na- 
tive, and produced artificially. The artificial 
salt was named from its discoverer (see above), 
who obtained it in making muriatic acid. The 
natural suit is usually met with as an efflores- 
cence, sometimes deposited around hot springs, 
as at Carlsbad and Cheltenham, or about saline 
ponds, as in the country between the head wa- 
ters of the Arkansas and Santa Fe, on the route 
to the Rocky mountains. It also occurs in a 
cavern near a volcano on the island of Hawaii, 
where it is produced by the action of the vol- 
canic heat and gases upon the sea water. It is 
found as an efflorescence on the limestone rocks 
below the Genesee falls, Rochester, N. Y. It 
crystallizes in forms derived from an oblique 
rhombic prism. The crystals effloresce in the 
air, and lose their water of crystallization. It 
is most soluble in water at the temperature of 
98*2 F., when, according to the experiments 
of Lowel, 412-22 parts of the hydrated salt are 
dissolved by 100 of water; at 77 only 98-48 
parts are taken up, and at 68, 68*35 parts. 

.It has a taste cool at first, then saline 
and bitter. It is white, transparent to opaque, 
<>f vitreous lustre, of hardness from 1'5 to 2, 
and specific gravity 1-481. Its composition is 
represented by the formula NaO, SO. + 10HO, 
making its equivalent 161, and the percentage 
of water . r ).V7'i. It is artificially prepared by 
decomposing common salt by sulphuric acid 
(as in the preparation of hydrochloric acid, of 
which pnxv^ it is the residue), with an excess 
of acid, which is taken up by the addition of 
carbonate of lime. It is very largely manufac- 
tured in England and France in order to pre- 
pare from it carbonate of soda and soda ash ; 
to avoid the production of muriatic acid, a pro- 
cess has been introduced of making the salt 
by the reaction of common salt and sulphate 
of iron upon each other. It is also obtained 
as a residuum in the manufacture of bleaching 
salts, muriate of ammonia, &c., and from sea 
water, by exposing the water to intense cold, 

:his the least soluble salt, separates by 
crystallizing. Sulphate of soda is principally 
of value as a medium for obtaining the other 
talts of soda. Formerly it was much used in 
medicine as an aperient and diuretic ; but sul- 

of magnesia has taken its place, though 

11 sometimes used in small doses in com- 

:i with other drugs. By dissolving it 

in hydrochloric or dilute sulphuric acid, cold 

is prodiiivl. by which water may be frozen in 

' 1 wine coolers have been made 

designed for its use, in which, with 12 Ibs. of 

the salt and lo Ibs. of m-id, lo to 12 Ibs. of ice 

een formed in an Imur. The salt is an 
ingredient in some kinds of glass. 



GLEIG 

GLAUCHAU, a town of Saxony, in the circle 
of Zwickau, 15 m. W. of Chemnitz; pop. in 
1871, 22,036. It contains an old and extensive 
castle and several churches. Next to Chem- 
nitz it is the most important manufacturing 
town of Saxony. The staple articles made here 
are woollen and half- woollen goods, paper, and 
engines. The annual exports exceed in value 
$15,000,000. Glauchau has 12,000 looms, and 
employs many persons in neighboring localities. 
The population has almost quadrupled within 
the last 40 years, and the number of master 
workmen has increased from 300 in 1804 to 
more than 2,000 in 1874. 

GLAUCUS. I. Of Potniffi, the grandson of 
^Eolus, son of Sisyphus and Merope, and father 
of Bellerophon. To make his mares more 
swift and fierce, he prevented them from breed- 
ing, and, according to some, fed them upon 
human flesh. This incensed the gods, and 
especially Aphrodite ; and when Glaucus took 
part with his chariot and horses in the funeral 
games of Pelias at lolcus, the horses in mad- 
ness upset the chariot, and, according to some, 
tore Glaucus to pieces. He was afterward 
believed to haunt the isthmus of Corinth, and 
to frighten horses engaged in the race. One of 
the lost tragedies of ^Eschylus was named from 
him. II. Of Anthedon in Bceotia, a fisherman 
who ate of the divine herb planted by Saturn, 
and became immortal. He built the ship Argo, 
and was her steersman. In the sea fight against 
the Tyrrhenians, he alone was unhurt; he 
leaped overboard, sank to the bottom, and be- 
came a sea divinity. He was said to visit the 
coast of Greece annually, and was revered by 
fisherman and sailors. His many loves were 
a favorite subject with poets. Aristotle says 
that he delivered oracles at Delos, which by 
some were more esteemed than those of 
Apollo. Philistratus describes a statue of him, 
half man and half fish. He was often repre- 
sented on the stage by the Greek dramatists. 

GLEIG, George Robert, a Scottish author, born 
in Stirling, April 20, 1796. He abandoned his 
studies at Oxford to join as a volunteer a regi- 
ment going to Spain in 1813, and served both in 
the Peninsula and in America. On retiring from 
the army he resumed his studies at Oxford, 
took his degree, was ordained, and in 1844 
was appointed chaplain to Chelsea hospital, 
and in 1846 chaplain general to the forces. 
His exertions to establish a system of educa- 
tion for the soldiers gained for him the office 
of inspector general of military schools. His 
works are for the most part histories or novels. 
Of the former, "The Family History of Ens- 
land" (1836; 2d ed., 1854) and the "Military 
History of Great Britain" (1845) are most es- 
teemed; and of the latter, "The Subaltern" 
(1825), "Chelsea Pensioners" (1829), and 
" Country Curate " (1834). His eulogistic " Me- 
moir of Warren Hastings" (1841) has been se- 
verely criticised. In 1858 he collected two 
volumes of his "Essays," chiefly from the 
"Edinburgh" and " Quarterly " reviews, and 




GLEIM 

1859 published his chief work, a life of the 
duke of Wellington (new ed., 1862). 

GLEIM, Johann Wilhelm Lndwig, a German 
poet, born at Ermsleben, near Halberstadt, 
April 2, 1719, died in the latter town, Feb. 18, 
1803. He published odes, fables, tales, and 
songs, which obtained for him the title of the 
German Anacreon. His Siegeslied nach der 
ScJilacht bei BossbacJi is the most famous of his 
battle songs. Gleim was very popular in Ger- 
many, and exercised for about 40 years a mas- 
ter influence on literature. He was a bachelor, 
but his home, kept by his accomplished niece 
Sophie Dorothea Gleim (celebrated in his songs 
under the name of Gleminde), was a favorite 
resort of poets and scholars. An edition of 
his works (7 vols., Halberstadt, 1811-'13) was 
completed by an 8th volume (Leipsic, 1841). 

GLEIWITZ, a town of Prussian Silesia, on the 
Klodnitz, 40 m. S. E. of Oppeln; pop. in 1871, 
12,939. It has a Catholic gymnasium, a Prot- 
estant and two Catholic churches, a synagogue, 
a convent, a hospital, and barracks, and is the 
centre of the mining and smelting industry of 
upper Silesia. 

GLENCOE, one of the wildest and most gloomy 
of the Scottish glens, in the district of Lorn, 
Argyleshire, about 10 m. long, and enclosed by 
lofty mountains. The 
lower part of the glen 
near Loch Leven is cul- 
tivated and wooded, but 
the upper part is ex- 
ceedingly rugged and 
barren, the mountains 
rising almost perpen- 
dicularly in fantastic 
forms, seamed with 
deep furrows worn by 
the winter torrents. A 
small lake, from which 
issues the Cona, lies in 
the middle of the val- 
ley. The path through 
the glen is lined by im- 
mense masses of rock. 
Near its N. W. extrem- 
ity is the scene of the 
' ' massacre of Glencoe. ' ' 
After the revolution of 
1688 many of the Scot- 
tish clans continued in 

arms for King James against King William. In 
August, 1691, the government of William issued 
a proclamation offering an amnesty to such in- 
surgents as should take the oath of allegiance 
on or before Dec. 31. All the chiefs sub- 
mitted within the prescribed time except the 
aged Maclan or Macdonald of Glencoe, whose 
tribe, a few hundred in number, inhabited this 
secluded valley. On Dec. 31 he went to Fort 
William and offered to take the oath ; but the 
colonel in command, not being a magistrate, 
could not administer the oath, and referred the 
chief to the sheriff at Inverary, before whom 
Macdonald took the oath, on Jan. 6, 1692. The 
363 VOL. vin. 3 



GLENDOWER 



31 



earls of Breadalbane and Argyll, and the mas- 
ter of Stair, who were then in London, deter- 
mined to avail themselves of this unintentional 
delay to effect the destruction of the tribe of 
Macdonald, to whom Argyll and Breadalbane 
were hereditary enemies. The master of Stair 
was secretary of state for Scotland, and by 
representing to William that Glencoe had not 
submitted, and that the dwellers in the valley, 
whom he described as a band of robbers, were 
the only remaining obstacle to the complete 
pacification of the highlands, he obtained an 
order for their extirpation. It was executed 
with horrible treachery and cruelty. On Feb. 1 
a body of 120 soldiers, commanded by Campbell 
of Glenlyon, was sent to occupy Glencoe. Pro- 
fessing peace and friendship, they were received 
with the kindest hospitality, and for nearly a 
fortnight lived at free quarters in the utmost 
familiarity with the people. On the evening 
of Feb. 12 the officers supped at Macdonald's 
house. That same night the massacre was be- 
gun. Macdonald and two of his attendants 
were murdered, and his wife received such bar- 
barous treatment that she died the next day. 
About 40 persons were killed that night. De- 
tachments of soldiers were sent to guard the 
outlets of the valley ; but they arrived too late, 




Pass of Glencoe. 

and many of the inhabitants escaped half naked 
to the mountains, where a considerable num- 
ber of the women and children perished of cold 
and hunger. In the morning the assassins set 
the village on fire, and took away with them 
all the flocks and herds of the valley. No pun- 
ishment was inflicted on the authors of this 
crime. A graphic account of the massacre of 
Glencoe is given by Macaulay in his "History 
of England," vol. iv., exonerating King Wil- 
liam. Other able writers inculpate him, and 
the question has been very warmly debated. 

GLENDOWER, or Glendwr, Owen, a Welsh chief- 
tain, born in Merionethshire about 1349, died 



M 



GLENGARRY 



Sept. 20, 1415. His father was Gryffydd Vy- 
chan, and his mother, Elena, was granddaugh- 
ter if Llewellyn, the last Welsh prince of 
Wales He studied law at the inns of court in 
London and became a barrister, but soon quit- 
ted the profession for that of arms. He was 
made squire of the body to Richard II., to 
whom ho !ulhTed throughout his disastrous 
In 1387 he was knighted, and at an 
early ago married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
David llanmer. After the deposition of Rich- 
ard II., he retired to his lordship of Glen- 
dwrdwy in Wales. His retirement was wrong- 
fully construed into disloyalty to the new king 
Henry IV., and his estates were declared for- 
feited, and seized by Lord Grey de Ruthyn, an 
Anglo-Norman nobleman whose domains ad- 
join. d those of Glendower. Glendower then 
proclaimed himself prince of Wales, and called 
his countrymen to arms. The Welsh bards 
espoused the cause of Glendower, and he was 
soon at the head of a considerable force of en- 
thusiastic partisans. In the summer of 1400 he 
seized the estates of Lord Grey. That noble- 
man in reprisal, with the help of Lord Talbot, 
who had been sent to his assistance by the 
king, surprised the residence of Glendower, 
who narrowly escaped capture. Rallying his 
followers, he pillaged and burned the town of 
Ruthyn, and made such progress that the king 
in person took the field against him. A long 
contest ensued, in the course of which Glen- 
dower in 1402 made prisoner his old enemy 
Lord Grey, whom he compelled to pay a ran- 
som of 10,000 marks and to marry his fourth 
daughter, Jane ; he also captured Sir Edward 
Mortimer, but treated him with such kindness 
that he became Glendower's partisan, and ar- 
ranged for him an alliance with the Percys of 
Northumberland. The confederates agreed to 
divide the kingdom among themselves. Glen- 
dower then called together the estates of 
Wales, and was formally crowned prince at 
Machynlleth. In 1403 the confederates gave 
battle to Henry near Shrewsbury, and were de- 
feated, Percy being killed. Glendower in 1404 
entered into alliance with France, and gained 
some victories; but in March, 1405, he was 
defeated at Grosmont castle and at Mynydd 
pwl Melyn, losing 2,300 men. He wandered 
about, hiding himself in woods and caves, until 
the French king sent him 12,000 men, to whom 
Glendower joined 11,000 Welsh, and marching 
into England, penetrated as far as Worcester. 
But after several indecisive engagements the 
allies retreated into Wales, and shortly after- 
ward the French returned to their own coun- 
I'or some years Glendower waged a par- 
tisan and predatory war, and at the time of his 
l.-.ith was negotiating with Sir Gilbert Talbot, 
who had been sent by Henry V. to offer him 
til followers a free pardon. Glendower 
had five daughters and several sons, most or 
Jill of whom t'.-il in kittl,- iti 1400. 

umctKKY. mi K. county of Ontario, Cana- 
da, bordering on Quebec and the river St. Law- 



GLOBE 

rence: area, 462 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 20,524, of 
whom 15,899 were of Scotch, 2,607 of French, 
1 279 of Irish, and 509 of English origin. It 
is watered by several streams, and is intersected 
by the Grand Trunk and the Montreal and Ot- 
tawa Junction railroads. Capital, Alexandria. 

GLEN'S FALLS, a village of Warren co., New 
York, situated on the Hudson river, which is 
here crossed by a bridge, at the terminus of a 
branch of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad, 
46 m. N. of Albany ; pop. in 1870, 4,500. The 
surrounding country is rugged, and in the vi- 
cinity are quarries of black marble. The river, 
here flowing through a ravine, descends 50 ft. 
over a rocky precipice 900 ft. long. The vil- 
lage is connected by a feeder with the Cham- 
plain canal, and contains a planing mill, two 
saw mills, a tannery, a brewery, a flour mill, a 
foundery and machine shop, and manufactories 
of carriages, lime, pumps, &c. Elmwood semi- 
nary, for the superior instruction of females, 
and Glen's Falls academy are flourishing insti- 
tutions. There are two national banks, two 
weekly newspapers, and six churches. 

GLIDDON, George Robins, an American Egyp- 
tologist, born in Devonshire, England, in 1809, 
died in Panama, Nov. 16, 1857. He went at 
an early age to Alexandria, where his father 
was a merchant and also United States con- 
sul. He resided in Egypt 23 years, and was 
during part of the time United States vice con- 
sul at Cairo. After leaving Egypt he came to 
the United States, and lectured at Boston, New 
York, and Philadelphia, on Egyptian antiqui- 
ties. At the time of his death he was agent 
for the Honduras inter-oceanic railway com- 
pany. He was the author of " Appeal to the 
Antiquaries of Europe on the Destruction of 
the Monuments of Egypt " (1841) ; " Discourses 
on Egyptian Archaeology" (London, 1841); 
" Otia jftgyptiaca " (1849) ; " Ancient Egypt " 
(4to, London and Philadelphia, 1850; new ed., 
8vo, London, 1853) ; " Types of Mankind," 
written in conjunction with Dr. J. C. Nott and 
others (Philadelphia, 1 854) ; " Indigenous Races 
of the Earth," also with Dr. Nott and others 
(Philadelphia, 1857) ; and an essay on the pro- 
duction of cotton in the valley of the Nile. 

GLOBE, Artificial, a hollow sphere, on the sur- 
face of which is delineated a map of the earth 
or heavens, with the various circles to which 
points are referred to determine their positions. 
Globes are thus of two sorts, terrestrial and 
celestial. They serve as models to impart cor- 
rect ideas of the form and movements of the 
earth and of the heavenly bodies, of their po- 
sition in relation to each other at different 
times, of the relative positions of places upon 
the earth, and of the principle of designating 
these by lines of latitude and longitude. Globes 
are also applied to the mechanical solution of 
various astronomical problems, as the difference 
of time in different places, dependent on the 
position of the sun in relation to those places, 
the times of the rising and setting of the sun at 
any place, and many other similar questions, 




GLOBE 



may be approximately determined with- 
out recourse to mathematical calculations. But 
it is chiefly for the sake of the clear instruction 
in general geography, which many persons fail 
to derive from maps, that globes are especially 
valuable. It is not known when they were 
first constructed ; but the first celestial globe is 
supposed to have been made by Anaximander 
of Miletus, a pupil of Thales, who flourished in 
the 6th century B. C. Ptolemy made use of 
a terrestrial globe provided with the universal 
meridian, such as is applied to those now in 
use. Martin Behaim, the navigator, constructed 
a terrestrial globe at Nuremberg toward the 
close of the 15th century. Tycho Brahe had 
one of copper nearly 5 ft. in diameter. Another 
was made in Venice in 1683 for Louis XIV., 
12 ft. in diameter. Another, 11 ft. in diameter, 
constructed by Brousch of Limburg, attracted 
the attention of Peter the Great, who purchased 
it and removed it to St. Petersburg. It was 
large enough to accommodate 12 persons sitting 
around a table within it. Its inner surface was 
celestial, the stars being represented by gilded 
nails; and the outer surface was terrestrial. 
The national library of Paris has two globes 
of over 14 ft. diameter. A magnificent copper 
globe made for Louis XVI. is in the Mazarin 
library ; and another of the same material and 
of admirable workmanship, designed by Poir- 
son for the instruction of the king of Rome, 
and bought by Louis XVIII. for 36,000 francs, 
belongs to the museum of the Louvre. In 1851 
a large globe of novel construction was built 
in Leicester square, London, by Mr. Wyld. It 
was 56 ft. in diameter, and the delineations 
were upon the inside only. These were model- 
led in slabs of plaster of Paris, which were set 
like a ceiling on the ribs of zinc which formed 
the framework of the structure. The slabs 
were cast in clay moulds, which were prepared 
with care from the most correct maps on a 
scale of 10 miles to the inch. About 6,000 
slabs were required to cover the whole surface, 
their dimensions varying from two feet square 
as the width diminished toward the poles. The 
topographical features were represented in re- 
lief, and the surface painted in colors. A stair- 
way wound around from the base, by which 
the circular platforms one above another were 
reached that brought the spectators near to 
the inner surface of the great shell. The globes 
used by geographers in the middle of the last 
century were very similar to those now in use. 
Much attention was directed to their manufac- 
ture, and a treatise on their construction and 
use was published in 1769 by George Adams. 
The first requisite is a ball to receive the printed 
map ; this is therefore first accurately measured, 
and due allowance is made for the shrinking 
each segment will experience after being wet. 
The diameter being determined, a silver-steel 
semicircle H in. wide and in. thick is next 
made, of precisely half this diameter less that 
of the wires intended for the poles. A globe 
of wood is now made three eighths of an inch 



less in diameter than the steel circle. Into two 
opposite points of this so-called mould bits of 
No. 7 wire are inserted for poles. Dry paper 
is laid all over it to prevent the pasted paper 
to be next laid from adhering. This is of coarse 
heavy quality, and eight or ten layers saturated 
with paste are applied in succession as evenly 
as possible, covering the whole surface. As this 
coating becomes dry, it shrinks and fits tightly 
over the mould. It is then hung by the poles 
in the front edge of a bench fitted to receive 
it, and by applying a knife on the line of the 
equator while the ball is made to revolve, the 
shell is cut through, so that it may be taken 
off the mould in two hemispheres. This being 
done, a turned stick of right length, with a 
short wire in each end for poles, is introduced, 
one end in each hemisphere, and the two shells 
being brought together are secured by glueing 
their edges. The ball, called in its present 
state the foundation, is placed in the steel 
semicircle, and coated with a composition of 
glue and whiting. Being made to revolve, the 
excess of the composition is removed by the 
circle, and the ball is thus turned smooth and 
true, after which it is carefully dried. The 
next process is to lay out the lines of latitude 
and longitude, which is done by a beam com- 
pass, commencing with the colures and eclip- 
tic. The first meridian is usually made to pass 
through the intersections of the equator and 
ecliptic, the points of the vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes ; and from the former of these points 
the reckoning of the degrees on the equator 
and ecliptic begins. The maps are now to be 
cut on the engraved meridians of each 15, 
thus making 24 segments ; and these are pasted 
in succession with white paste upon the foun- 
dation, the lines drawn upon it serving as guides. 
The fitting requires great care, that the edges 
may be made to exactly coincide, and some 
stretching of the equatorial portions is some- 
times requisite. When dry the paper covering 
is colored, and then sized with gelatine and 
immediately varnished. The final process be- 
fore mounting is to dry again at 200 F. Holtz- 
apftel says : " A globe is usually covered with 
26 pieces of paper, namely, 2 pole papers or 
circles, including 30 around each pole, and 24 
gores meeting at the equator. Sometimes the 
gores extend from the pole to the equator; 
every gore has then a narrow curved central 
notch extending 30 from the equator." The 
globe is hung for support by its poles in a brass 
circle, which goes round it and is called the 
universal meridian, inasmuch as any point upon 
the surface of the globe revolving in this may 
be brought under it. It is divided into de- 
grees, which on one side are reckoned from 
either pole toward the equator for the purpose 
of giving the elevation of the poles, and on the 
other from the equator toward either pole, to 
be used for finding the latitude of places. A 
frame or stand is prepared to receive the globe 
with its brass circle, the top presenting a broad 
horizontal circle with two vertical slots placed 



34 



GLOBE 



opposite each other for receiving the brass 
meridian, which when adjusted is free to slide 
around in its own plane, so that the poles may 
be upright, horizontal, or at any angle to the 
horizontal circle. Around this circle, which 
represents the rational horizon or imaginary 
plane passing through the centre of the earth, 
are drawn several concentric circles ; the inner- 
most represents the horizon, and the slots for 
the brass circle are on the N. and S. points ; 
the degrees on the northern two quadrants are 
reckoned from E. and W. toward the N., and 
those on the southern toward the S. Outside 
of this is the circle representing the calendar, 
with the names of the months and divisions 
corresponding to the days. The next circle 
contains the signs and degrees of the ecliptic, 
so arranged that against each day of the year 
is found the point of the ecliptic in which the 
sun is situated. In some globes the horizontal 
circle is made to revolve. It is attached to 
arms which extend below the brass meridian 
and unite, supporting the adjusting clamp 
which supports the brass meridian. A taper 
pin extends down three inches from the lowest 
part of the arms, and fits into a socket in the 
iron base, thus securing by the revolutions of 
the meridian and horizon in their own planes 
the effect of a universal joint, so that any part 
of the globe can be brought under observa- 
tion without changing the position of the base. 
To the N. pole of the globe is attached a small 
circle of brass, called the hour circle, the pole 
passing through its centre, and holding it so 
that the two move round together, but yet per- 
mitting the hour circle to be moved round by 
the hand upon the axis. The circle is divided 
into 24 equal parts, corresponding to the hours 
of the day, and any one of these can be placed 
upon any meridian by turning the circle. The 
quadrant of altitude is a brass slip equal in 
length to a quarter of the circumference, and 
divided into 90. It is fastened to the brass 
meridian, and is used for measuring degrees in 
any direction on the globe. A mariner's com- 
pass is sometimes attached to the frame of the 
globe for the purpose of placing the meridian 
in a N. and S. line. The various circles con- 
nected with the terrestrial globe are equally 
appropriate to the celestial ; and as the latter 
are ordinarily constructed, the observer is sup- 
posed to be looking down upon the heavens 
presenting a convex surface, upon which the 
tan and constellations are mapped in their 
proper relative positions. To render the na- 
ture of the imaginary circles to which the 
points upon both globes are referred more 
clear for the student, the armillary sphere was 
contrived, which consists of the several circles 
in the f..rm of -rn.luated brass rings placed in 
their appropriate positions, and containing in 
the centre a small globe representing the earth. 
These circles are the horizon, meridian, equator. 
. equinoctial colure, and the solstitial 
colure. The sphere formed by them is sup- 
ported in a frame in the same manner as the 




GLOBIGERINA 

globes. Celestial and terrestrial globes are 
sometimes combined, the latter being enclosed 
in a glass sphere marked with the constella- 
tions. Globes are sometimes made also of 
India rubber or thin paper, and so contrived 
that they may be inflated with air. Some ter- 
restrial globes contain, in addition to the usual 
geographical delineations, geological strata, at- 
mospheric currents, isothermal lines, hydro- 
graphic information, and trade routes ; and in 
some the land is represented in relief. Slate 
globes for school use are made with only the 
lines of latitude and longitude drawn on them ; 
and wooden globes, painted black and similar- 
ly marked, are constructed, on which maps are 
drawn with chalk. 
GLOBE FISH. See SEA PORCUPINE. 
GLOBIGERINA) a microscopic protozoan ani- 
mal, of the foraminiferous order of the class of 
rhizopods. The body is composed of simple 
sarcode or protoplasmic matter, enclosed in a 
shell pierced by numerous mi- 
nute openings, through which a 
film of the animal substance is 
exuded, capable of thro wing out 
small thread-like processes, or 
pseudopodia. The animals in- 
crease by budding, each sarcode 
mass being enveloped in its cal- 
careous shell, but connected irregularly with 
all the rest of the colony ; there is no definite 
shape, the mass being compared by Huxley to 
that of a badly grown raspberry. Recent 
deep-sea dredgings (in the Gulf stream at a 
depth of 3,100 ft., near the Faroe islands at a 
depth of 3,900 ft., off Cape Farewell, Green- 
land, at 7,560 ft., and between the Azores and 
Newfoundland at 10,000 ft., and in the north 
Atlantic at still greater depths in the track of 
the Atlantic cable) have brought up the sheila 
of living globigerinffi from the calcareous ooza 
of the ocean bottom. In the compound proto- 
plasmic animal to which the name of 'bathybiw 
has been given, are found globigerinso, with 
coccoliths and coccospheres ; the ancient chalk 
deposits are made up almost entirely, in many 
specimens, of remains of the three last named 
animals, the same as those now living on the 
bottom of the ocean ; the great central plain 
of the North Atlantic, 1,000 m. wide and many 
hundreds in length, nearly level, is covered 
with a chalky mud containing innumerable glo- 
bigerinee with their attendant coccoliths and 
coccospheres, and the deeper the sea the larger 
are these animals. They doubtless constitute 
the food of the star fishes, which also have been 
dredged from these great depths. There is no 
reason to think that the habits and the habitats 
of the ancient chalk animals were different from 
those of the living globigerinae ; hence we may 
conclude that the chalk formation, constituting 
a large part of southern Great Britain and cen- 
tral and southern Europe, often 1,000 ft. thick, 
is the dried and elevated mud of an ancient 
deep sea. From the fact that this present 
deep-sea fauna is apparently identical with that 




wl 

b ", 



GLOGAU 

the ancient chalk, there seems to be some 
>und for the statement that the cretaceous 
eriod at the bottom of the sea has extended 
the present time. For very interesting sug- 
ions concerning the geology and antiquity 
involved in the study of these animals, the 
reader is referred to a lecture by Prof. Huxley 
" On a Piece of Chalk," delivered in 1868, and 
published in " Lay Sermons and Addresses " 
ew York, 1871). (See BATHYBIUS, Cocco- 

HS, and FOKAMINIFERA.) 

GLOGAIJ, or Gross-Glogan, a town of Prussian 
sia, on the left bank of the Oder, 54 m. 

. W. of Breslau; pop. in 1871, 18,265. It 
strongly fortified, and contains an old cas- 
four churches, a Protestant and a Koman 

tholic gymnasium, extensive barracks, and 

veral hospitals. It is connected by a bridge 

ith an island in the Oder, on which stand the 
cathedral and a strong fortress, built in 1260. 
The town has manufactories of cotton, wool- 
len, and linen goods, sealing wax, and tobacco. 
A principality of Glogau was founded in 1252 
by the third son of Duke Henry II. of Silesia. 
In the following century it was made a duchy, 
hich became extinct in 1506. The town was 

rned in 1420 and in 1615. 

GLOMMEN, the largest river of Norway, ri- 
sing in the mountains of the S. E. part of the 
province of Drontheim, near lat. 63 N"., and 
flowing for the most part nearly due S. through 
several lakes, into the Skager Back. Its length 
is about 360 m. The entire valley through 
which it flows is remarkable for picturesque 
scenery, cataracts, and forests of pine, produ- 
cing the finest timber in Europe. From the 
town of Roraas to the Ojeren lake, the river is 
a mountain torrent. The head of navigation 
is at Sarpsborg, about 10 m. from the mouth. 
The Glommen has more than 20 cataracts, the 
principal one being the celebrated Sarpfoss, 
half a mile above Sarpsborg. The river, a short 
distance above, is divided into two branches, 
which flow in parallel directions to the sea. 
The E. branch, having forced its way through 
a rugged defile, reaches the brink of a preci- 
pice, where, although divided at the summit 
by a projecting cliff, it falls an unbroken cas- 
cade, about 75 ft. The abyss is strewn with 
large masses of granite, which break the vol- 
ume of water into vast sheets of foam. On 
the brink of the fall the stream is about 120 
ft. wide, and from 26 to 30 ft. deep, according 
to the season. The rapids, for a short distance 
inward, are remarkably fine. 

GLORY PEA, a name given by Australians to 
plants of the genus cliantTius, of the order 
leguminosce, especially to the species named, in 
honor of the navigator Dampier, C. Dampieri. 
This is found in the desert regions of Australia 
as a low straggling shrub with light-colored, 
hairy, pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne 
in clusters from the axils of the leaves, and 
are very singular in form and brilliant in color ; 
the standard or banner petal of the flower ap- 
pears in the form of an elongated shield of 



GLOUCESTER 



35 



the most intense scarlet color, with a boss in 
the centre of so dark a brown as to appear 
black. For many years this had been regarded 
as one of the most difficult to raise of all 
greenhouse plants, it being very impatient of 
any disturbance of the root, and being subject 




Glory Pea (Clianthus Dampieri). 

to the attacks of insects, but it was finally 
discovered that it would succeed well by sow- 
ing the seeds in the open border. They should 
be sown after the soil is well warmed by the 
sun, in the place where the plants are intended 
to remain. 

GLOSSOP, a town of Derbyshire, England, 
19 m. N. W. of Sheffield ; pop. in 1871, 5,074, 
and of the borough, 17,046. It consists of an 
old and a new town, the former better built 
than the latter, and contains a fine parish 
church, chapels for Roman Catholics and dis- 
senters, a town hall, and various charitable 
institutions. It is the chief cotton manufac- 
turing place in the county, having more than 
50 cotton mills in the town and its neighbor- 
hood, besides woollen and paper mills, bleach 
fields, dye and print works, and iron founderies. 
On a hill near the town is Melandra castle, the 
site of a Roman station, and a Roman road 
known as the doctors' gate extends from the 
castle to Brough. 

GLOUCESTER. I. A S. W. county of Few Jer- 
sey, separated by the Delaware river from Penn- 
sylvania on the N". W., drained by Big Tim- 
ber, Oldman's, Raccoon, and Mantua creeks; 
area, 280 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 21,562. The 
surface is generally level and much of it cov- 
ered with forests. The soil along the banks 
of the Delaware and for about 7 m. inland 
consists of a clayey loam, productive and well 
cultivated. Marl is found here, and iron ore 
is obtained near Woodbury. The S. E. part 
of the county is sandy and mostly unimproved. 
It is traversed by the West Jersey and _the 
Swedesboro railroad. The chief productions 



GLOUCESTER 



,870 .er. 138,18. *****& 



0382 swine; 3 manufactories of agricul- 
tural implement*, 2 of hoots and shoes, 10 of 
writ** 5 ofVoffins, 2 of glass ware, 2 of 
wind^Tglaw, 7 of saddlery and harness, 8 of 

ppf^id sheet-iron ware, 13 flour and 
6 aw mills. Capital, Woodbury. II. A S.E. 



bay bounded N. by the Piankatank ami ^ 
W. by York river; area, 280 sq. m.; pop. in 
1870, 10,211, of whom 5,429 were colored. 
The surface is level and the soil light and pro- 
ductive. Among the most important exports 
are oysters and fish, the taking of which em- 
ploys large numbers of the inhabitants, and 
wood, which is sent to New York and Phila- 
delphia. The chief productions in 1870 were 
21 966 bushels of wheat, 207,240 of Indian 
_T,,856of oats, 10,673 of Irish and 9,110 
of sweet potatoes. There were 808 horses, 
1,707 milch cows, 8,130 other cattle, and 8,274 
There were 6 saw mills. Capital, 
(ih.iirester Court House. 

(.l.oi ( IM'KB, a N. E. county of New Bruns- 
wick, Canada, bounded N. by the bay of Oha- 
leurs, E. by the gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
drained by Nipisiguit and other rivers ; area, 
1,684 B|. m.; pop. in 1871, 18,810, of whom 
12,680 were of French, 8,695 of Irish, 1,215 
of Scotch, and 982 of English origin. The 
e inland is diversified by hills, between 
w hi. h lie fertile valleys. The climate is favor- 
able for agriculture, while the great extent of 
coast, off which are several islands, and the 
number of good harbors, afford opportunities 
for fishing and lumbering. Ship building is 
actively carried on. Capital, Bathurst. 

GLOUCESTER, a city and port of entry of Es- 
sex co., Massachusetts, on the peninsula of 
Cape Ann, 80 m. N. N. E. of Boston, with 
which it is connected by a branch of the East- 
ern railroad. It formerly comprised the whole 
of Cape Ann, and was 8 m. long by 5 broad ; 
but in 1840 the N. E. portion of the peninsula 
was formed int.. the town of Rockport. The 
city contains six distinct villages, each having a 
pott office, viz. : East G loucester ; Annisquam, 
or Squara, on the N. side of the cape, which 
has a safe harbor much resorted to by fishing 
Teasels; Bay View and Lanesville, noted for 
their fine granite quarries; West Gloucester, 
formerly known as West Parish, which has 
a beach 2 or 3 m. long, of white sand, of 
titles an- exported; and last- 
llage, or "The Harbor," on 



the 8. Hide, which Ims one of the best ports on 
the coast, capacious, safe, easy of access, am 
I'th of water to admit tin 
largest vessels. The harbor is formed by : 
peninsula, known as Ma-tern point, juttm-, 
out from thw main body of Cape Ann in a 



S W direction, and opens into Massachusetts 
my ' On the extremity of the point is a fort 
mounting 10 guns. Gloucester was a place of 
mnortance prior to 1800. It increased slowly 
until 1850, since which its growth has been 
apid The population in 1790 was 4,912 ; in 
[800 5,318; in 1810, 5,901; in 1820, 6,384; 
n 1830, 7,513; in 1840, 6,350; in 1850, 7,780; 
n 1860, 10,904; in 1870, 15,389, of whom 
4,007 were foreigners. The principal portion 
of the city, in the vicinity of the harbor, is 
handsomely and compactly built, and very 
beautifully situated, with extensive and pic- 
turesque sea views, and is a fashionable sum- 
mer resort for bathing and sea air. The city 
hall is an elegant brick building, erected in 
1870 at a cost of $115,000, and two of the 
school houses are large and handsome struc- 
tures. Gloucester is mainly noted for its cod 
and mackerel fisheries, far surpassing any other 
>ort in the country in the number of vessels 
md men employed, and in the value of the 
catch. In 1865 the number of vessels engaged 
was 341, having an aggregate tonnage of 24,- 
450, and employing 4,590 men; capital in- 
vested, $1,865,700; mackerel caught, 154,938 
barrels, valued at $2,190,562; cod and other 
dry fish, 113,028 quintals, worth $706,425; 
value of cod-liver oil sold, $90,420. The value 
of all fishery products was $3,319,457. In 
1878 the catch, with the value of each item, 
was as follows: codfish, 460,000 quintals, 
$2,070,000; other fish, 25,000 quintals, $50,- 
000; fresh fish, including halibut, 9,000,000 
Ibs., $310,000; oil, 275,000 gallons, $165,000; 
mackerel, 86,544 barrels, $1,125,000; her- 
ring, 5,000 barrels, $23,000; shell tish, 18,000 
barrels, $18,000; miscellaneous, $40,000; to- 
tal value, $3,800,000. The number of vessels 
belonging to Gloucester engaged in fishing in 
1873 was 875, with about 3,500 men, of whom 
but a small proportion are residents of the city. 
The business is attended with great risk, 236 
vessels and 1,200 lives having been lost since 
1880. The losses in 1873, the heaviest expe- 
rienced in any year, comprised 31 vessels and 
174 lives. The customs district includes the 
adjoining towns of Essex, Manchester, and 
Rockport. The value of foreign commerce 
for the year ending June 30, 1873, was: ex- 
ports, $1,512; imports, $60,735. The number 
of vessels cleared was 127, of 13,365 tons; en- 
tered, 117, of 17,771 tons. In the coastwise 
trade the entrances were 131, with an auizre- 
gate tonnage of 9,807 ; clearances, 54, of 7,977 
tons. On June 30, 1872, there were 524 ves- 
sels, of 27,537 tons, belonging to the district; 
engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery, 448, 
of -J-.M74 tons, of which 41, of 497 tons, were 
each less than 20 tons ; built during the year, 
18 vessels of 823 tons. The tonnage of the 
district on June 30, 1873, was 28,565 ; num- 
ber of vessels (nearly all schooners), 517, of 
which 420 were employed in fishing, 90 in the 
coasting trade, 6 in foreign commerce, and 1 
in yachting. A line of steamers from Glou- 



GLOUCESTER 



37 



cester runs daily to Boston. The manufac- 
tures are almost exclusively confined to articles 
pertaining to the fisheries, embracing anchors, 
ice crushers, bait mills, ships' blocks, masts 
and spars, boats, leads, fish guano, &c. There 
are six marine railways and 70 wharves. The 
extensive granite quarries on the N. side of 
the cape furnish stone which is mostly used 
for paving, but a considerable quantity is also 
prepared for other purposes. The new post 
office in Boston is built of Gloucester granite, 
and the base of the Scott monument in Wash- 
ington, an immense block weighing nearly 100 
tons, is of the same material. The city con- 
tains three national banks, with an aggregate 
capital of $570,000, and three marine insurance 
companies. It is divided into eight wards, and 
is governed by a mayor, a board of aldermen 
of 8, and a common coun- 
cil of 24 members. There 
is a police court, an effi- 
cient police force, and a 
well organized fire de- 
partment. The assessed 
value of property in 1873 
was $7,714,520 ; taxa- 
tion, $161,352; debt, 
$218,000; value of prop- 
erty belonging to the 
city, $330,785. It is 
lighted with gas. The 
principal charitable as- 
sociations are the Glou- 
cester fishermen's and 
seamen's widows' and 
orphans' aid society and 
the ladies' charitable so- 
ciety. There are 24 pub- 
lic schools, viz. : 1 high, 
7 grammar, 12 primary, 
and 4 ungraded, attend- 
ed by about 3,000 pu- 
pils, and supported at 
an annual cost of about 
$40,000. Two weekly 
newspapers are publish- 
ed. The Sawyer free library contains about 
4,000 volumes. The number of churches is 
12, viz. : 2 Baptist, 2 Congregational, 1 Epis- 
copal, 3 Methodist, 1 Roman Catholic, 1 Unita- 
rian, and 2 Universalist. Besides these, there 
is a society of Swedenborgians who do not 
possess a church edifice. The Indian name of 
Gloucester was Wingaersheek. It was occu- 
pied as a fishing station in 1 624, being the first 
place settled by the English on the N. side of 
Massachusetts bay. In 1642 it was incorpo- 
rated as a town under its present name, some 
of the principal inhabitants having come from 
Gloucester, England. The first schooner ever 
constructed was built, here in 1713 by Capt. 
Andrew Robinson. The British sloop of war 
Falcon, Capt. Lindsay, assailed the town Aug. 
8, 1775, bombarded it for several hours, and 
attempted to cut out some vessels in the har- 
bor, but was driven off by the inhabitants. In 



the second war with Great Britain, Sept. 8, 
1814, Gloucester was attacked by the British 
frigate Tenedos, which, however, did no se- 
rious damage. In both of these wars the town 
sent out swarms of privateers, and contributed 
largely to the manning of the navy. It be- 
came a city in January, 1874. 

GLOUCESTER, a city and municipal and par- 
liamentary borough of England, one of the 
county towns of Gloucestershire, on the left 
bank of the Severn, 95 m. W. by N. of Lon- 
don; pop. in 1871, 18,330. The chief public 
edifice is the cathedral, originally the church 
of a Benedictine abbey. It was built and added 
to at various periods from the llth to the 15th 
century, and is one of the most celebrated Eng- 
lish cathedrals. It is remarkable for the perfec- 
tion of the styles of architecture which indicate 




Gloucester 'Cathedral, from the Southeast. 

the different periods of erection and addition, 
and the choir is considered one of the finest ex- 
amples of florid Gothic in the world. It con- 
tains many monuments, among others those of 
Robert, son of William the Conqueror, Edward 
II., Bishop Warburton, and Dr. Edward Jenner. 
The city also has several handsome parish 
churches, a college, blue-coat and free grammar 
schools, the county hall, hospitals, &c. The 
handsomest portion of the town is at the S. 
end, around a spring of saline chalybeate water 
discovered in 1814. The staple manufactures 
are pins, hardware, gloves, saddles, canvas, 
cutlery, ropes, and soap ; and some ship build- 
ing is carried on. A bell foundery was estab- 
lished prior to 1500, but it has recently been 
removed. Since the completion in 1827 of the 
Berkeley ship canal, by which vessels of 500 
tons burden can come up to the city, the com- 
mercial importance of Gloucester has greatly 



M 



GLOUCESTERSHIKK 



increased. The city is probably of British 
origin. It became a Roman station under the 
name of C'.-Ioma (ilevuro, and under Claudius 
received the name of Claudia Castra. The 
Saxon* called it Gleau-ceaster, and it flourished 
during the heptarchy. In the 17th century it 
was strong fortified, and took a conspicuous 
part against the royalists. The bishopric of 
rter was instituted by Henry VIJl., and 

was joined to Bristol in 1886. 

UOHI.MI.KMIIHK. a S. \V. county of Eng- 
.r.U-rinir n Worcestershire, Warwick- 

'xtor.lshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Somer- 
tu-t -shire Monmouthshire, and Herefordshire; 
area, 1.258 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 534,320. It 
is trav,-rse<l from N. E. to S. W. by the Cots- 
wold hills, which separate the basin of the 
Severn from that of the Thames. The district 
between these hills and the Severn comprises 
the vales of Evesham (principally in Worcester- 
shire), Gloucester, and Berkeley, of surpassing 
beauty and richness. Beyond the Severn the 
greater part of the county is under forest, more 
than 20,000 acres of which still belong to the 
crown ; it is called the forest of Dean, and was 
once the principal source of supply of timber 
f..r the English navy. The chief rivers are 
the Severn, Wye, Lower Avon, Frorae, Thames, 
Colne, and Windrush. This county, having ex- 
tensive and exceedingly rich natural pastures, 
has long been famous for its butter and cheese. 
The celebrated double and single Gloucester 
cheese is principally produced in the Berkeley 
vale. Large numbers of sheep are reared on 
the Cotswold hills and in the forest region, the 
latter being also noted for its orchards and the 
excellence of its cider and perry. Coal exists 

:it abundance ; lead, sulphuret of iron, 
oxide of zinc, limestone, coral, quartz crystals, 
celebrated as Bristol diamonds, and gypsum, 
are also found. The manufactures are wool- 
lens, cottons, silks, hosiery, hats, tick, hardware, 
glass, paper, and carpets. Capitals, Gloucester 
and Bristol ; other chief towns, Cheltenham, 
Cirencester, Stnmd, and Tewkesbury. 

U.o\l. .-uvi-ring for the hand (sometimes 
extending up the arm), with a separate sheath 
for each finger. Gloves are spoken of by Ho- 
mer as worn by Laertes to protect his hands 
while working in the garden. Xenophon speaks 
of Cyrus goinjr without his gloves. The cus- 
tom of giving a glove as a pledge in conclu- 
ding a contract is very ancient, and from this is 
supposed to have ln--n d.-rived the later custom 
of throw inir down a glove as a challenge, which 

posite party accepted by picking up the 
glove and throwing down his own. This is 
traced in Kn-hmd as tar back as the year 
1245. In the middle ages gloves were an ob- 
ject of special regard ; they were made in the 
ni"-1 OOflUJ in:i!iM.-r. "Hi. tin. nt.-d \\ith |,iv<-i<ii< 

stones, ari'l worn t.y kings and church digni- 
taries on ceri-Mionijil occasions. A glove was 

>ny ot Inflowing lands and 
li^tiiti.-s. aii'l ] privation of gloves was a sign 
Of degradation. It was h-r glove which the 



GLOVE 

lady gave her faithful knight to wear in his 
helmet as a pledge of her favor. Down to the 
present time curious ceremonies have been 
associated with gloves, as the custom in some 
parts of Europe of taking them off when enter- 
ing the stable of a prince or a great man, or 
else forfeiting them or their value to the ser- 
vants. In hunting, the same ceremony must 
be performed under the same penalty at the 
death of the stag. Glove money is a term of 
ancient use, meaning money given to servants 
to buy gloves. Embroidered gloves were first 
made in England in 1580, and the custom of 
presenting them to judges at maiden assizes 
is still continued. Presenting a pair of gloves 
for any favor rendered is a very old custom. 

Gloves are made of a variety of materials. 

In cold regions they are of the warmest wool, 
or of the skins of animals with the fur on 
the outside. Thick buckskin, often lined with 
soft woollen, is also used, but in more moderate 
climes lighter qualities of leather, to the softest 
kid, are employed, and also worsted, cotton, and 
silk. The preparations of caoutchouc are ap- 
plied to the same purpose, chiefly for the pro- 
tection of ladies' hands in rough work, such 
as gardening. The art of glove making is car- 
ried to its highest perfection in the manu- 
facture of kid gloves by the French, being 
one of the most important industries of the 
country. The English, who make excellent 
gloves of heavier varieties of leather, largely 
import the best Parisian gloves. Woodstock 
and Worcester are celebrated for their fine 
leather glove manufactories, and kid and other 
gloves are also extensively made in London, 
Yeoville, Ludlow, and Leominster, generally, 
for the best qualities, of skins imported from 
France and Italy. Most of the cheaper kinds 
of so-called kid gloves are made from lamb, 
rat, and other thin skins. Sheepskin gloves, 
generally white, are made for the army. In 
1871 England began to import opossum skins 
from Australia for glove making. Many first- 
class real kid gloves are manufactured in Lon- 
don, but they are generally sold as French. 
Great skill is required for the cutting of the 
skins to the best advantage; this process is 
performed with a pair of scissors after stretch- 
ing and rubbing the skin upon a marble slab 
with a blunt knife. A skin is first cut longi- 
tudinally through the middle, and the single 
strip for the palm and back is next cut off from 
one end of the half skin. The pieces for the 
thumb, the gussets for the fingers, and other 
small pieces to be inserted, must all be worked 
out either from the same skin or from others 
precisely similar. The nearly square piece cut 
off is folded over upon itself, giving a little more 
width for the side designed for the back of the 
hand ; and upon this oblong double strip the 
workman, measuring with his eye and finger, 
marks out the length for the clefts between the 
fingers, which he proceeds to cut and shape. 
Making the hole for the thumb requires the 
greatest skill, for a very slight deviation from 



GLOVER 



GLOWWORM 



39 



I 



the exact shape would cause a bad fit when the 
parts are sewed together, resulting in unequal 
strain and speedy fracture. By improvements 
introduced by M. Jouvin, the thumb piece, 
like the fingers, is of the same piece with the 
rest of the glove, requiring no seam for its at- 
tachment. The cutting also is performed in 
great part by punches of appropriate patterns, 
and some of these are provided with a toothed 
apparatus somewhat resembling a comb, which 
pricks the points for the stitches. The seams are 
sewed with perfect regularity by placing the 
edges to be united in the jaws of a vice, which 
terminate in fine brass teeth like those of a 
comb, but only ^ of an inch long. Between 
these the needle is passed in successive stitches. 
When the sewing is completed the gloves are 

etched, then placed in linen cloth, slightly 
amp, and beaten, by which they are rendered 
softer and more flexible. The last operation 
is pressing. In 1866, while England exported 
680,664 pairs of leather gloves of British make, 
it imported 10, 61 9,220 pairs, of which 10,036,- 
092 were from France. In the same year Eng- 
land exported 315,180 pairs of cotton gloves, 
chiefly to the United States. But in 1868 Ger- 
many was not only competing with England in 
leather gloves in the London market, but it 
sent three fourths of the cotton and Lisle thread 
gloves sold in England, and for export had se- 
cured nearly the entire trade of the United 
States, which had formerly bought this class 
of goods in Nottingham and Leicester. In 
1868 the value of gloves made in France was 
estimated at 50,000,000 francs, and the manu- 
facture was increasing. The chief branch of 
the manufacture carried on in the United States 
is that of buckskin gloves, a kind more pecu- 
liarly American than any other ; and the most 
important seat of this business is at Glovers- 
ville, Fulton co., N. Y. Kid gloves are now 
made to some extent there and in New York. 
t GLOVER, Richard, an English poet and politi- 
cian, born in London in 1712, died there, Nov. 
25, 1785. He was educated for a mercantile 
life, but early manifested a love of letters, and at 
the age of 16 wrote a poem to the memory of 
Sir Isaac Newton. In 1737 he published an epic 
on the Persian invasion of Greece, entitled " Le- 
onidas," which was thought to have an appli- 
cation to English politics, and was for a time 
much admired. A continuation of it, under 
the title of the " Atheniad," appeared in 1787. 
His "London, or the Progress of Commerce," 
and a ballad called "Hosier's Ghost" (1739), 
were written to rouse his countrymen to a war 
with Spain. He was active in politics as an 
opponent of Walpole, and was returned to par- 
liament for Weymouth in 1760. He wrote sev- 
eral tragedies, and a diary which was published 
in 1813, and in the following year appeared 
an " Inquiry " attempting to prove that he 
was the author of the letters of -Junius. 

GLOVERSVILLE, a village in the town of 
Johnstown, Fulton co., New York, 40 m. N. W. 
of Albany, at the terminus of the Fonda, Johns- 



town, and Glovers ville railroad, which con- 
nects with the New York Central at Fonda, 7 
m. distant; pop. in 1870, 4,518. It is chiefly 
noted for its extensive manufactures of gloves 
and mittens. The business was commenced in 
1803, and the village now contains about 140 
establishments, manufacturing two thirds of 
the kid and buckskin gloves and mittens made 
in the United States. There are also manufac- 
tories of machine and glove patterns, organs, 
railroad lamps, carriages, kid and other leath- 
er, a planing mill, two national banks, three 
weekly newspapers, and seven churches. 

GLOWWORM, a name given to several serri- 
corn beetles, constituting the genus lampyris 
(Fab.). The antennae are short, with cylindri- 
cal and compressed articulations ; the head is 
concealed beneath the anterior margin of the 
thorax ; the eyes and the mouth are small ; the 
body is rather soft and depressed, with the 
sides of the abdomen serrated; the elytra are 
coriaceous and slightly flexible. The females 
are wingless, with rudiments of elytra at the 
base of the abdomen, and their general appear- 
ance to the uneducated eye is that of a worm, 
explaining fully the popular name of glow- 




Glowworm (Lampyris splendidula). 
1. Male. 2. Female. 3. Larva of L. noctiluca. 

worm in England, and ver luisant in France. 
In the old Linnasan genus lampyris there were 
as many as 60 species, which have been distrib- 
uted into different genera, so that there were 
only nine species left in the genus in the last 
edition of Dejean's catalogue. There are four 
well known species of glowworm in Europe, 
L. noctiluca, Italica, splendidula, and Tiemip- 
tera ; the second is probably the species whose 
luminous faculty was known to the ancients, 
the Aa/zTrovpt? of the Greeks, and cicindela of 
the Romans. Both sexes are luminous, though 
the light is stronger in the female ; the light 
does not come from the thorax as in the fire- 
fly (elater), but from the posterior part of the 
abdomen on its upper and under surfaces. The 
English glowworm (L. noctiluca, Linn.) is the 
largest European species, about two thirds of 
an inch long in the male, and the female about 
an inch ; the male is brownish gray, with a 
reddish gray margin on the superior portion of 
the thorax, and has both wings and elytra; 
the female is wingless, of a uniform yellow 
white, with a very thin skin below ; in both 
sexes the luminous spots show themselves as 



GLOWWORM 



four bright j>ointa, two on the antepenultimate 

abdominal segment, and two on the next pos- 

The L. Italiea is next in size, and is 

::lu-rn Europe, as the first is in the 

niirtlii-rn i-ountries; the color is black, with 

thorax and legs; both sexes are winged, 

:iinl iniii-h resemble each other, the apterous 

. s spoken of by some entomologists being 
the larva). The L. splendidula is common in 
Germany; the male is winged, brown gray, 
with a bright glassy spot on the convex mar- 
gin of the prothorax ; the female, whitish yel- 

, ith a brown spot on the centre of the 
prothorax, has no wings, and very short oval 
elytra; the luminous spots are two transverse 
bands on the lower surface of the two penulti- 
mate abdominal segments, and in the female 
the whole abdomen diffuses a weak light L. 
hemiptera, a southern species, and the small- 
est one third of an inch long, is opaque black, 
liirhu-r in the female, the posterior ventral 
being whitish; the males have truncated 
t-lvtr.-i, the females none; the light is diffused 
iV'-in two round spots on the penultimate seg- 
ment; the larvae are probably luminous, as 
those of the preceding species were found to be 
by Bunneister. The first three species conceal 




Glowworm (Latnpyria noctilnca). 



themselves in the daytime and appear at night, 
the males flying about in the warm summer 
evenings, while the females betray their situa- 
tions by their tranquil light among the shrubs- 
the last species creeps also by day, especially 
in damp weather, appearing toward the end of 
April ; the third species occurs about the end 
f May and the beginning of June, while the 
first is found most abundantly toward the end 
of summer. The light is greenish or more 
commonly bluish white, intermittent or contin- 
uous at the will of the insect, extinguished in 
of danger, and increased by active motion 
sexual excitement, or artificial heat; it may 
ntmue some hours after death, and when 
t maj be reproduced by warm water ; pois- 
is gases destroy the li-rl.t with life, while 
gen increases its brilliancy ; electricity pro- 
mt no affect on the light, while galvanism 
or reproduces it in dead insects. The 
emipches of Kfllliker and others show that at 
theshinmg spots is a whitish, transparent, fatty 
IM, Permeated by very numerous trachea; this 
Hill 8 h,ne wh,n r,m,,ved from the body, 

W MS Water f u r a long time ' and its pS 
rubbed up., n the fingers display a light 



resembling that from phosphorized mixtures. 
The eggs of the glowworm, the larvae, and the 
nymphs, are luminous; the eggs are hatched 
after a few weeks, and the larvae resemble the 
perfect females, having a body of twelve seg- 
ments, the first three of which bear each a 
pair of feet ; the head is small, and, like the 
caudal segments, retractile; they thrive well 
in captivity when kept in moist earth or herb- 
age, and supplied with slugs and snails, which 
they kill with their arched and sharp-pointed 
jaws, and eagerly devour ; about a week is oc- 
cupied in assuming the state of nymph, and in 
about eight days longer they appear as perfect 
insects. The nymph is larger than the larva, 
but not quite so long ; the color is at first pale 
yellow, with two reddish spots on the posterior 
part of the thorax and the segments, but the 
dull color of the perfect insect is visible toward 
the end of the nymph state; the larval jaws 
disappear, and the antennae are seen to have 
eleven joints, and the tarsi five; the last ab- 
dominal rings are very brilliant, and indeed 
the whole body seems phosphorescent. Ac- 
cording to Dufour, the alimentary canal of the 
perfect female is twice as long as the body, and 
the oesophagus exceedingly short, immediately 
dilating into a short crop. The substance from 
which the luminous property is derived has 
been often made the subject of experiment, but 
as yet, according to Matteucci, without the de- 
tection of any phosphorus in it, though the cir- 
cumstances attending the light resemble the 



being increased by warmth, diminished by cold, 
and destroyed by irrespirable gases, oil, alco- 
hol, acids, and strong saline solutions; these 
phenomena admit of a better explanation on 
Matteucci's theory. This author, in his Lecons 
sur les phenomenes physiques des corps vivants, 
explains all cases of animal phosphorescence on 
physico-chemical principles. From his experi- 
ments we know that the light of the glowworm 
may cease before the death of the animal, or 
may be considerably prolonged after this event; 
that the light is without heat, as far as our rude 
instruments can detect ; that it ceases soonest 
in carbonic acid, and in hydrogen in from 30 to 
40 minutes ; that it is increased in oxygen, and 
.asts three times as long as in other gases, 
both for parts and for the entire insect; that 
it consumes a portion of oxygen, which is re- 
placed by carbonic acid, and is therefore the 
vrpduct of. a true combustion ; that when not 
hinmg, and in contact with oxygen, none of 
-his gas is taken up, and no carbonic acid is 
orrned; that heat to a certain extent increases, 
while cold diminishes its brightness; that when 

e luminous substance has been altered by too 
great heat or the action of gases so as to lose 
its phosphorescence, this .property cannot be 
>v. stabhshed; finally, that carbon and not phos- 

i r ?i S '? ?, ne f the elemei >ts of this substance, 

that the phosphorescence is produced by 

the combination of the carbon with the oxygen 

The luminous matter from the living insect, 





GLUCINA 

cording to the same author, has a peculiar 
.or resembling that of the perspiration of the 
t ; it is neither acid nor alkaline, dries rap- 
ly in the air, seems to coagulate in contact 
ith dilute acids, is not sensibly soluble in al- 
cohol, ether, or weak alkaline solutions, but is 
dissolved in concentrated sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric acids with the aid of heat; chemical 
tests exclude the idea of the presence of albu- 
men, and the ordinary ammoniacal products 
are disengaged by heat. The oxygen of the at- 
mosphere introduced by the numerous tracheae 
comes in contact with this substance, sui gene- 
ris, composed principally of carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, and nitrogen. The intermittence of 
the glowworm's light, and its sudden changes 
m darkness to brightness, as far as present 
vestigations go, are dependent on the differ- 
,t amounts of air introduced into the trachea, 
d the varying activity of respiration and mus- 
lar action. The change in the food of the 
glowworm, from animal juices in the larva 
state to tender plants in the perfect condition, 
explains the contradictory statements of au- 
thors as to the habits of this insect; and the 
ilure of the attempts to introduce it as an 
ment to shrubberies and lawns has gener- 
y arisen from ignorance of the fact that the 
va cannot be raised on vegetable food alone ; 
sides moist herbage or damp earth, minute 
d shells must be supplied. A few specimens 
an articulated animal which may be called 
a glowworm have been found of late years 
in summer in various parts of southern New 
England. The head is small and flat, with very 
short antenna ; the color is cream- white, the 
length about 14 lines, and the whole of this is 
lighted up at night with a permanent lumi- 
nousness less than that of the elaters of the 
West Indies; the light begins to show itself 
between the segments, of which there are 12, 
and at the stigmata, from which it spreads un- 
til the whole animal is illuminated, seeming a 
stick of light without joints or stigmata ; most 
brilliant soon after midnight, they gradually 
fade to the ordinary whitish color at day- 
break. In all these cases of phosphorescent 
articulates it is difficult to say what is the pre- 
cise purpose of the light. (See FIREFLY.) 

GLUCINA (Gr. yAm^, sweet), an earth, first 
obtained by Vauquelin in 1798, consisting, ac- 
cording to Berzelius, of two atoms of the metal 
glucinum, united with three atoms of oxygen ; 
but Awdejew and others regard it as a protox- 
ide, G1O. It is found only in a few minerals, 
as the emerald, beryl, euclase, &c., being con- 
tained in the first two in the proportion of 13f 
per cent., combined with silicic acid. It is ob- 
tained in the form of a white powder, of specific 
gravity about 3, closely resembling alumina. 
It is distinguished by its solubility, when freshly 
prepared in a cold solution of carbonate of am- 
monia, and by its tendency to form a carbon- 
ate by exposure to the air ; also by not giving 
a blue color in the blowpipe test with nitrate 
"* u - u The properties of glucinum, the 




of cobalt. 



GLUOK 41 

metallic base of glucina, have been investigated 
by Debray (Annales de cliimie et de physique 
[3], xliv. 5), who obtained it from the chloride 
by reduction with sodium, the original source 
being the emerald of Limoges. He found it a 
white malleable metal, that could be rolled in 
sheets like gold, of density 2-1, its melting point 
below that of silver. It cannot be made to 
burn in pure oxygen, but appears in the trial 
to be slightly oxidized on the surface, by which 
it is protected from further change. It resists 
the action of sulphur, but combines with chlo- 
rine and iodine. Its alloy with silicium is a 
hard brittle substance, susceptible of a high 
polish. Glucinum is soluble in sulphuric and 
in hydrochloric acids, hydrogen being evolved. 
Nitric acid acts upon it only when heated, and 
then slowly. It dissolves in caustic potash. 
Its symbol is G; chemical equivalent, 9*2. 

GLUCK, Christoph Wilibald von, a German com- 
poser, born at Weidenwang in the Upper Pa- 
latinate, July 2, 1714, died in Vienna, Nov. 15, 
1787. The dates and other particulars in this 
article which differ from those usually given, 
are drawn from documentary evidence sub- 
stantiated or first given to the public by Anton 
Schmid, of the imperial library at Vienna, in 
1854 (Gluclcs Leben und tonkunstleriscJies Wir- 
Tcen). The father, Alexander Johannes Klukh 
(as he always wrote his name), was first a 
huntsman of Prince Eugene, afterward remov- 
ing to Weidenwang as forester. In 1717 he 
entered the service of Count Kaunitz in Bohe- 
mia, and thus the young Christoph came at the 
age of three to the land which, owing to its 
great number of wealthy nobles and convents, 
was then the most favorable to the develop- 
ment of musical talent. In the gymnasia and 
the Jesuit colleges music was earnestly culti- 
vated, and every nobleman had his musical 
chapel ; all churches of any pretensions, very 
many of the smaller parish churches even, had 
their choirs supported by ample funds. The 
treatment of Gluck and his brothers by the 
father was hard even to tyranny; the composer 
in his old age well remembered being forced 
with his brother Anton to follow his father in 
the coldest winter weather into the forests, 
sometimes barefoot, "to make them tough." 
The children had the best school instruction in 
Kamnitz and Eisenberg, and from his 12th to 
his 18th year Christoph was sent to the gym- 
nasium at Kommotau. The boy carried with 
him a good degree of knowledge both in sing- 
ing and playing bowed instruments, and in the 
school of the Jesuits his musical talents were 
specially cultivated. He became a chorister 
in the principal church of the place, and gained 
some knowledge of the harpsichord and organ. 
At 18 he went to Prague to enter the univer- 
sity, but was finally obliged to devote himself 
to music for subsistence. He gave lessons in 
singing and upon the violoncello, sang and 
played in several churches for a small salary, 
and during vacation sang and played in the 
villages of the surrounding country, sometimes 






GLUCK 



being paid in one with eggs, which in another 
he exchanged for bread. After a time he ap- 
peared in the large towns as a violoncellist, 

tracted the attention of Prince Lobko- 
witz, so that when in 1736 he went to Vienna, 
the house of the prince was opened to him, 
and a salary was given which enabled him, at 
22, to study musical science. He now had op- 
portunity also to hear the works of Fux, Cal- 
dara, the brothers Conti, Porsile, and other 
dramatic and church composers, adequately 

aed. The Lombard prince di Melzi, 
hearing Gluck both as a singer and violinist, 
in the soirees of Lobkowitz, appointed him 
chamber musician, took him to Milan, and 
placed him under Sammartini. Having mean- 
while shown talent in composition, in 1740 he 
received an order to compose an opera for the 
court theatre of Milan. The old field of the 
Italian opera of Handel's time had now been 
nearly exhausted, and the works of the day, 
even those of the greatest masters, had gone 
down in the scale until they were little more 
than pieces of music written to give the sing- 
ers opportunity to exhibit their powers. Real 
musical expression was one of the last things 
which entered into the thoughts of the com- 
poser. Hence the first work of Gluck has an 
importance in musical history beyond any oth- 
er of that time, unless the oratorios of Han- 
del be excepted. The text chosen for him was 
the Artaserae of Metastasio, a libretto which 
in its form was sufficient in case Gluck had 
then, which he had not, thought out the system 
which he afterward adopted and which pro- 
duced an entire revolution in the musical 
drama to prevent him from striking out an 
entirely new path. Still the composer had an 
indistinct feeling of the hollowness and insuffi- 
ciency of the recognized forms of dramatic com- 
position, and ventured to make expression the 
great object of his music. He completed the 
work, with the exception of one air, in his own 
manner, and in 1741 had it in study. At the 

hearsal in the theatre a large company 
was present. The new work proved so differ- 
ent from what they were accustomed to hear 

be generally received with smiles, and 
shnifrs, and jokes upon the German composer, 
(ilurk let all pass without remark. For the 
final rehearsal he composed the wanting air in 
the strictest style of the day. It was a beau- 
tiful piece for the singer, and when the audience 
h. an! it they broke into the loudest applause, 
nrnl with iiiiu consent attributed it to Sammar- 
tini. Gluck remained silent. The first public 
performance came off with appropriate scene- 
ry and action. The house was crowded. The 
interest rose with every number, the music 
meeting with the most decided success, until 
tin- modish air, which proved so "stale, flat, 
and unprofitable," so out of character with all 
the rest, that Gluck had to withdraw it and 
substitute one more in the spirit of his work. 
The success was triumphant, and the composer 
was called from city to city of Italy to direct 



the Artaserse. He was now the great operatic 
composer of that era. In 1742 he wrote Demo- 
foonte, text by Metastasio, for Milan ; Deme- 
trio and Ipermnestra, texts by the same, for 
Venice ; in 1743, Artamene for Cremona, and 
Siface for Milan ; in 1744, Fedra for Milan ; 
in 1745, Alessandro neW Indie, by Metastasio, 
under the title Poro, for Turin. Lord Middle- 
sex invited him to London to compose for the 
theatre in the Haymarket, and in 1745 he set 
out for the English capital, but found the thea- 
tre closed. On Jan. 7, 1746, it was reopened, 
with La caduta de" 1 giganti, by Gluck. It was 
not successful, and was only performed five 
times. He afterward produced Artamene with 
better fortune, and Piramo e Tisbe, in which 
pieces from his earlier works were, at the wish 
of the managers, adapted to a new text. This 
failed comparatively ; and this event led Gluck 
to his permanent system of composition, whose 
principles are as follows : 1, that dramatic 
music can only reach its highest power and 
beauty when joined to a text simple, truly 
poetic, and exhibiting natural and definite emo- 
tions and passions with the highest possible 
truth to nature ; 2, that music might be made 
the language of emotion, capable of expressing 
the various feelings of the heart ; 3, that the 
music must follow with all possible exactness 
the rhythm and melody of the words ; 4, that 
in accompaniments the instruments must be 
used to strengthen the expression of the vocal 
parts by their peculiar characters, or to height- 
en the general dramatic effect by employing 
them in contrast to the voice, as the text or 
dramatic situation might demand. From these 
principles it followed that the beautiful arias 
then esteemed the highest efforts of the musi- 
cal art, though in fact unsurpassable as means 
of sensual gratification to the ear, could never 
deeply touch the soul nor rouse any lasting 
emotion. In his later years Gluck was in the 
habit of saying, when an air of this kind was 
commended : " Yes, it is right beautiful ; but 
it does not draw blood." Toward the close of 
1746 the composer returned to Germany. Dla- 
vacz says he became a member of the electoral 
orchestra of Dresden with a respectable salary, 
which seems probable, but in fact none of the 
biographers have cleared up the chronology 
of his life for the two or three years after his 
return. On June 29, 1747, an opera in one act, 
Le nozze d^Ercole e cTEbe, music by Gluck, was 
performed at Pilnitz in honor of the marriage 
of Princess Anna, daughter of Augustus III. 
According to Schmid, La Semiramide rico- 
nosciuta, text by Metastasio, music by Gluck, 
was performed at Vienna on Maria Theresa's 
birthday, in May, 1748 ; and in the autumn of 
the same year a newspaper contains a para- 
graph of news from Hamburg, which is dated 
Oct. 3, and says : " Herr Gluck, so well known 
in music, is at present chapelmaster here in 
place of Scalabrini." In 1749 he removed to 
Vienna, and only left that city when called to 
Italy and Paris to produce his works. In the 



GLUOK 



43 



house of Joseph Pergin, a banker and wholesale 
merchant, he was received both as a friend and 
as music teacher of the two daughters. With 
Marianne he fell in love, and his passion was 
returned. The mother approved the match, 
but when the young man applied to the father 
for the hand of his daughter, he was rudely 
refused, as being but a musician. Wounded 
by this, Gluck now accepted an order to com- 
pose Telemacco for the theatre Argentina at 
Eome, and left Vienna at once, in such haste 
to be away that, without waiting for his pass r 
port, he smuggled himself across the boundary 
in the habit of a Capuchin monk. In 1750 
news came to him that Pergin was dead. As 
m as his opera was upon the stage, where, 
all his other works, it was successful, he 
hastened back to Vienna, and on Sept. 15 was 
larried. The marriage was childless, but few 
been happier, and seldom even during his 
lost tedious journeys were Gluck and his wife 
iparated. In 1751 he visited Naples, to pro- 
La clemema di Tito; in 1754 he com- 
Le Cinesi, a fantastic production, per- 
led at Schlosshof before the emperor and 
Theresa ; and the same year he was 
appointed chapelmaster of the imperial opera 
at Vienna, which office he held until 1764. 
jfore the close of the year he was again called 
Rome, and produced there II trionfo di Ca- 
millo and Antigono, which gained him from the 
>pe the order of knight of the golden spur ; 
lence his title in musical history, Chevalier or 
r. In 1755 he produced the music to Me- 
sio's Ladanza; in 1756, Vinnocenzagim- 
ita in one act, and II re pastore in three, 
tween 1755 and 1762 he composed also a 
3at number of airs and other pieces for a 
jries of ten French operettas and vaudevilles 
srformed in Vienna. In 1760 his principal 
/ork was Tetide, a serenata composed for the 
mptials of the archduke Joseph ; and in 1761 
a most successful ballet, Don Juan, or Das stei- 
nerne Gastmahl, founded upon the same fable 
jrward employed by Da Ponte in his text to 
Mozart's immortal opera. In 1762 77 trionfo 
li Clelia was composed at Bologna, and met 
rith the invariable success of Gluck's produc- 
tions, and then its author returned to Vienna. 
Calzabigi had there ready for him the libretto 
Orfeo ed Euridice, a poem differing com- 
)letely in construction from the Metastasian 
type, which then alone was recognized as clas- 
sic throughout Europe. Orpheus, Eurydice, 
and, in two or three short scenes, Amor are 
the only characters represented. At the be- 
ginning and end a chorus of Greeks, in Tarta- 
rus a chorus of shades and demons, in Elysium 
a chorus of blest spirits, each occupying a sin- 
gle scene, with choral music and ballet, is all 
that divides the attention from the three lead- 
ing characters. The subject, opening with a 
chorus at the tomb lamenting the death of Eu- 
rydice, is the familiar myth, only changed at 
the close, where Amor appears and finally re- 
stores the beloved one to Orpheus. There is 



but little action, and that of the simplest char- 
acter. Everything depended upon exciting 
the sympathies of the audience at the outset, 
and holding them to the end, and this too by 
musical means then new and strange. Twice 
in this work Gluck has shown the daring of 
genius trusting to its own powers, in a manner 
not surpassed by Beethoven himself. At the 
close of the first chorus Orpheus dismisses his 
friends, and is left alone not merely to execute 
a recitative and single air, written expressly 
for the singer to exhibit his powers, but a series 
of them, in which not an ornament or cadenza 
is admitted, and which nothing but the depths 
of expression in Gluck's music could redeem 
even now from the fatal fault of tedium. The 
other case is that in which Orpheus entering 
Tartarus is confronted by demons and shades, 
who by the force of his music at length are led 
to give way and allow him to pass on to Ely- 
sium. On Oct. 5, 1762, the opera was perform- 
ed in public. Surprise and astonishment were 
the emotions with which the audience left the 
house. All hearts had been strangely moved. 
It had interested the company from the first 
singer to the most insignificant dancer in the bal- 
let, and was given with rare perfection. The 
music made its way to all hearts, it became a 
most popular work in Vienna, and is still a 
stock piece in Berlin. In 1763-'5 Gluck com- 
posed Enzio, text by Metastasio; La rencontre 
imprevue, text by L. H. Dancovot (afterward 
very popular in a German translation with the 
title Die Pilgrime von Melcka) ; and II Par- 
nasso confmo, a dramatic poem by Metastasio, 
performed in the palace at Schonbrunn by the 
four daughters of Maria Theresa, sisters of 
Marie Antoinette, their brother, the future 
emperor Joseph, playing the harpsichord ; re- 
vised Telemacco for the Vienna stage, and com- 
posed La corona for the archduchesses. The 
last piece was never performed, owing to the 
sudden death of the emperor Francis. The 
dramatic form of none of these works, although 
they gave Gluck opportunity to prove his inex- 
haustible fund of melodic and harmonic beauty, 
enabled him to follow the path struck out in 
the Orfeo. In the mean time Calzabigi prepared 
another libretto for him, founded upon the 
" Alcestis " of Euripides, and it was successful. 
In 1769 it was printed in score, with the cele- 
brated dedicatory epistle to the grand duke of 
Tuscany. " When I undertook to set the opera 
Alceste to music," he writes, "I purposed care- 
fully to avoid all those abuses which the mis- 
taken vanity of the singers, and the too great 
good nature of composers, had introduced into 
the Italian opera ; abuses which reduced one 
of the noblest and most beautiful forms of the 
drama to the most tedious and ridiculous. I 
sought therefore to bring back music to its true 
sphere, that is, to add to the force of the poetry, 
to strengthen the expression of the emotions 
and the interest of the situations, without inter- 
rupting the action or deforming the music by 
useless ornamentation. I was of opinion that 



44 



GLUCK 



the music must be to the poetry what liveliness 
of color and a happy mixture of light and shade 
M feri fruitless and u.-n iirranged tawing, 
whii-h serve only to add life to the figures 
without injuring the outlines. I have therefore 
taken care not to interrupt the actor in the fire 
of his dialogue, and compel him to wait for the 
performance of some long tedious ritornello, or 
m the midst of a phrase suddenly hold him fast 
at some favorable vowel sound, that he may 
have opportunity by some long passage to ex- 
hibit his voice, or to make him wait while the 
orchestra gives him time to get breath for some 
long fcrmate. Nor have I thought myself at 
liberty to hurry over the second part of an aria, 
wh'-ii" perhaps this is just the most passionate 
and important part of the text, and this only 
to allow the customary repetition of the words 
four times; and just as little have I allowed 
myself to bring the aria to an end where there 
was no pause in the sense, just to gain an op- 
portunity for the singer to show his skill in 
varying a passage. Enough ; I wished to ban- 
ish all those abuses against which sound com- 
mon sense and true taste have so long contend- 
ed in vain. I am of opinion that the overture 
.should prepare the auditors for the character 
of the action which is to be presented, and hint 
at the progress of the same ; that the instru- 
ments must be ever employed in proportion 
only to the degree of interest and passion ; and 
the composer should avoid too marked a dis- 
parity in the dialogue between air and recita- 
tive, in order not to break the sense of a pe- 
riod, or interrupt in a wrong place the energy 
of the action. Further, I considered myself 
bound to devote a great share of my pains to 
the attainment of a noble simplicity ; therefore 
I also avoided an ostentatious heaping up of 
difficulties at the expense of clearness ; I have 
not valued in the least a new thought if it was 
not awakened by the situation and did not give 
the proper expression. Finally, I have even 

Mipelled to sacrifice rules to the improve- 
ment of the effect." In 1769 Gluck produced 
a third opera in the new style, Paride ed Elena, 
but it became popular only with musicians, and 
has in late years never been revived. In that 
yrar ho was called to Parma to compose festi- 
val music for the marriage of the grand duke 
to Maria Amalia, daughter of Maria Theresa. 
Instead of a long opera, divided into acts, four 
short one-act pieces were prepared, Le feste 
di Apollo^ LAtto di Baud e Filemone, ISAtto 
(TAriiteo, and for the fourth the Orfeo given in 
seven scenes, with the greatest success. For 
several years afterward he remained in Vienna, 
enjoying great social distinction, but composing 

u' for the stage. His next great effort 
was the Iphigenie en Aulide, which after many 
struggles and the removal of innumerable ob- 
stacles was finally, through the influence of 
Marie Antoinette, produced on April 19, 1774, 

royal opera in Paris, whither Gluck had 
gone in the previous summer. It was followed 
by an embittered warfare between the adhe- 



rents of the old school, then chiefly represented 
at Paris by Piccini, and the converts to the 
new ideas of Gluck. A catalogue of the wri- 
tings of the Gluckists and Piccinists on the 
two sides of this question would fill one of our 
pages. The final result was the complete vic- 
tory of Gluck. The composer followed up the 
Iphigenie with the Orfeo ed Euridice, adapted 
to the French stage, with the very material 
alteration of changing the part of Orpheus to 
that of a tenor, to suit the voice of Legros, 
there being no contralto adequate to it. The 
success of the work was as striking in Paris as 
in Vienna and Turin. In February, 1775, Gluck 
produced VArbre enchante, in one act, at Ver- 
sailles, a work of no great importance, and 
written merely for a festival given by Marie 
Antoinette to her young brother Maximilian. 
In August his Cythere assiegee was produced 
at the academy, but met with no distinguished 
success. Meantime he was zealously engaged 
upon three works, an adaptation of Alceste to 
the Prussian stage, and the operas Roland and 
Armide, texts by Quinault. Roland he laid 
aside on hearing that it had also been intrusted 
to Piccini, and wrote a sharp letter to Bailly 
du Rollet, which, without the consent of the 
writer, was printed in the Annee litteraire, 
and enraged the Piccinists. Early in 1776 
Gluck was again in Paris with his Alceste. It 
was produced, and hissed off the stage. The 
unlucky composer, who had been behind the 
scenes, rushed from the opera house, and meet- 
ing a friend threw himself into his arms in 
tears. As this ill success was mostly owing to 
cabals among the singers and the personal ef- 
forts of Gluck's opponents, and as the compo- 
ser had influence enough to insure its repeti- 
tion, it made its way with the public, and soon 
took its place only below the Iphigenie and the 
Orfeo. The war of the wits and critics was, 
however, more bitter than ever. Gluck him- 
self seems to have been not a little embittered, 
and his polemical writings are often excessive- 
ly keen. In the midst of his ill success with 
the Alceste came the news that his niece Ma- 
rianne, whose ill health had caused him this 
time to visit Paris alone, had been carried off 
at the age of 16 with the smallpox. Upon her 
the childless musician had lavished all a fa- 
ther's love. She had been a pupil of Millico, 
and when but a child, as Burney records, was 
already a songstress of wonderful powers. It 
was not until Sept. 23, 1777, that the Armide, 
text by Quinault, from Tasso, was produced. 
It was rather coldly received, but is by many 
considered the greatest composition of Gluck, 
and by others only inferior to his later work, 
the Iphigenie en Tauride. Gluck returned to 
Vienna to work upon a new text, Iphigenie en 
Tauride, by a young poet named Guilbard. 
In November, 1778, he was so far advanced 
with it that he returned to Paris, where on 
May 18, 1779, it was produced. Like Haydn's 
" Creation," written when he was nearly 70 
years of age, this opera of Gluck, written at 




GLtfCKSTADT 



age of 64, ranks among the highest efforts 
of the composer ; with many, as before stated, 
it ranks the first. It is still, in a German trans- 
lation, one of the favorite pieces on the Berlin 
stage. It was the crowning triumph of Gluck's 
system of operatic writing, and ended the se- 
ries of works which gave direction to the ge- 
nius of Mehul and Cherubini in Paris, Mozart 
and Beethoven in Germany, in their works for 
the stage. Another piece brought by Gluck 
Paris at this time, the Echo et Narcisse, met 
dth no great success. He returned to Vienna, 
id in 1783 had an attack of apoplexy, which 
msed him to decline the text of Les Danaides, 
it him from Paris. To his dramatic compo- 
tions Gluck added only for the church a De 
Profundis, a psalm, Domine Dominus noster, 
and a part of the sacred cantata, finished by 
Salieri, Le jugement dernier. For months be- 
fore his decease, Gluck had been obliged to use 
the greatest precautions to prevent a return of 
apoplexy. One day he invited two old Paris- 
ian friends to dine with him. After the meal, 
coffee and spirits were placed upon the table, 
and Mme. Gluck went out to order the carriage 
for the daily drive prescribed by the physician. 
One of the friends excusing himself from emp- 
tying his glass, the host at last seized it, swal- 
lowed its contents, and laughingly told them 
not to let his wife know of it, as everything of 
the kind was forbidden to him. The coach 
being ready, Mme. Gluck invited the guests to 
amuse themselves in the garden for a short 
time. Gluck took leave of them at the coach 
door. Fifteen minutes afterward he had an- 
other stroke; the coachman hurried home ; his 
master had already lost all consciousness, and 
soon breathed his last. See Gluck et Piccine, 
by Gustave Desnoiresterres (Paris, 1872). 

GLliCKSTADT, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Schleswig-Holstein, on the right bank 
of the Elbe, 27 m. N. W. of Altona ; pop. in 
1871, 5,073. The inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in commerce and the whale fishery. 
The town was fortified in 1620 by Christian 
IV. It was unsuccessfully attacked by Wal- 
lenstein in 1627, by Tilly in 1628, by Torsten- 
son in 1644, and yielded to the allie's in 1814. 
The fortifications were demolished in 1815, 
and it was declared a free town in 1830. It 
passed into the possession of Prussia in 1866. 
The town has a gymnasium, and is connect- 
ed by rail with Altona, Kiel, and Rendsburg. 
The royal line of the dukes of Holstein assumed 
from this town the name of Holstein-Gluck- 
stadt, while the ducal line bore the name of 
Holstein-Gottorp. 

GLUE (Lat. gluere, to draw together), an im- 
pure variety of gelatine, used in the arts for 
uniting substances through its adhesive quality. 
It is obtained much in the same manner from 
the same substances as gelatine, but usually 
from the more refuse portions, as damaged 
hides and other tissues undergoing putrefaction. 
Glue obtained from bones by the use of acids 
is preferred to that which is obtained by steam, 



GLUE 



45 



the latter being more soluble in cold water. 
The strongest glue is made from the parings 
of ox hides, which yield over 50 per cent. 
They are steeped for several days in milk of 
lime to remove the hair, blood, and other im- 
purities; then washed in cold water, drained 
on an inclined plane, and again washed. Ex- 
posure to the air converts the lime into car- 
bonate, so that in boiling the caustic action of 
the lime is prevented. The material is then 
enclosed in a coarse cloth and put into a cop- 
per boiler, which is two thirds filled with rain 
water, and the whole is boiled. The dissolved 
glue mingles with the water outside of the 
cloth, and when the liquid sets into a firm jelly 
on cooling it is run into a deep vessel or set- 
tling back and kept warm for impurities to sub- 
side. "Water is again added to the boiler, and 
the material in the cloth subjected to a second 
boiling, by which an inferior glue is obtained. 
The liquid in the settling back is drawn into 
coolers, where it solidifies, and is then cut into 
slices with a wire frame. The slices are laid 
upon netting in a drying room, in which there 
is a free circulation of air. The operation of 
drying is a critical one. Too much heat will 
cause liquefaction ; a fog may cause mouldiness, 
and frost will split the slices. Good glue is 
of a pale brown color, hard and brittle, and 
breaks with a glassy fracture. Its other chem- 
ical and physical properties are like those of 
gelatine. The quality of glue may be judged 
of by the quantity of water which the dry 
glue will absorb in 24 hours. The best glue 
kept immersed in water of the temperature of 
60 F. has absorbed 12 times its weight. Oth- 
er qualities, it is said, take up a proportionally 
less quantity. Besides its use for cementing 
wood and hard substances, glue is employed in 
preparing the felt bodies of hats, and as an in- 
gredient in the composition of inking rollers, to 
give them flexibility. Several varieties of glue 
are employed in the arts, some of which may 
properly be noticed here, although they are not 
all preparations of gelatine. If glue is treated 
with a small proportion of nitric acid, it loses 
its property of gelatinizing when cold, though 
not that of causing substances to adhere to- 
gether. With acetic acid a similar effect is 
produced. What is called liquid glue is made 
by slowly adding nitric acid to the ordinary 
preparation of glue in the proportion of 10 oz. 
of strong acid to 2 Ibs. of dry glue dissolved in 
a quart of water. The product is a strong 
glue, which remains in a liquid state, and may 
be thus kept for years always ready for use. 
Marine glue is a preparation of caoutchouc 
dissolved in naphtha or oil of turpentine, with 
the addition of shell lac after the solution has 
by standing several days acquired the consis- 
tency of cream ; two or three parts by weight 
of shell lac are used for one of the solution. 
The composition is then heated and run into 
plates, and when used it is heated to the 
temperature of about 250 F. It possesses 
extraordinary adhesive properties, and being 



GLUKHOV 



GLUTTON 



quite insoluble in water, it has been recom- 
mended as a material for fastening together 
the timbers of ships; so securely are these 
held by its application that it is said they 
will sooner break across the fibres than sepa- 
rate at tin- joint. 

GLI KHOV, a town of Russia, in the govern- 
ment and 108 m. E. by N. of the city of Tcher- 
nigov, on the Yesmana; pop. in 1867, 10,747. 

eight churches and several schools, and 
was formerly the seat of the governor general 
ot I.ittk- liussia. 

M.I TEX, or Vegetable Flbrine, a tough elastic 
substance, named from its adhesive glue-like 
property, an ingredient in wheat especially, and 
in smaller proportion in most of the cerealia 
and in some leguminous plants. When wheat 
flour is well kneaded upon a sieve under a 
stream of water, the starch is removed in sus- 
pension in the water, and the soluble dextrine 
and sugar are washed away, and the gluten re- 
mains behind. This was supposed by Beccaria, 
who first noticed it, to be a distinct principle ; 
but it is found still to retain a little starch, and 
other ingredients are separated from it ac- 
cording to their different reactions when treat- 
ed with boiling alcohol. The pure vegetable 
fi brine is then found to constitute about 72 per 
cent, of the original gluten, while an albumin- 
ous substance called gliadine, vegetable caseine, 
and a vegetable oil make up the remainder. 
Gluten from rye flour contains very little of 
the tenacious ingredient, gliadine; and other 
grains furnish gluten of variable proportions of 
its ingredients. It is gluten which gives to the 
dough of wheat flour its peculiar tenacity, and 
A ing to this that the escape of carbonic 
-acid gas is arrested in the fermentation of 
wheat bread, and the product is consequently 
and more spongy than other bread. 
Macaroni and vermicelli are preparations of 
^ In ten. and the flour of the south of Europe is 
>aid to be peculiarly adapted for this manufac- 

is it generally contains a considerably 
lar<rer proportion of gluten than that grown 
further north. But the proportion is variable 
in wheat of the same vicinity, and it may be 

d by the use of animal manures, espe- 
cially those richest in nitrogen. Liebig noticed 

h -at manured with cow dung (which 
contains but little nitrogen) produced 11-95 per 
cent, of 00 ton; while another portion ma- 
nured with human urine yielded the maximum 
of gluten. :;:,- 1 per cent. Summer wheat grown 
in thejardin de plants at Paris was found to 
1 per cent, of gluten, while a sample 
<>t wmt.T wheat gave but 3'33 per cent. As 
gluten is the ino-t nutritious ingredient in the 
grain*, its proportion has been carefully esti- 
lated by chemists. Vauquelin found it in 

avenging II-IM ,,,. r cent: Dumas 12-50 
per cent.; and Dr. Lewis C. Meek, from 33 
Mmplei gathered from different parts of the 
1 Ditad Mates, found an average of 11-72 the 
range being from 9-85 to 15-25 per cent. Prof 
Hereford, by ultimate analysis of the wheat, in- 



stead of separation of the gluten by mechanical 
washing, obtained an average of 15-14 per cent. 
from six samples. Payen found the propor- 
tions of gluten and other nitrogenous matters 
in wheat to range from 11*20 to 22*75 per cent. ; 
in rye, 13-15; barley, 13-96; oats, 14-39; corn 
meal, 12-50; rice, 7'05. Prof. Johnston found 
in English fine wheat flour 10, in bran of the 
same flour 18, in Scotch oatmeal 18, and in 
corn meal 12 per cent, of gluten. It is found by 
very careful and repeated analyses that the bran 
of wheat and of most other cereals is richer in 
gluten, and consequently more nutritious, than 
the rest of the grain. Hence the preference for 
flour that by thorough bolting has been most 
completely deprived of bran is unwise ; and the 
whitest flour is less valuable for its nutritive 
qualities than that made from the whole grain. 
The bran sometimes constitutes one quarter 
or more of the grain, and, according to the 
analyses of Prof. Johnston, contains 14 to 18 
per cent, of gluten, while the fine flour con- 
tains only 10 per cent. Gluten is readily re- 
duced in quantity, and its tenacity is dimin- 
ished by injury to the grain. Flour dealers and 
bakers judge of the quality of flour by the 
tenacity of the dough made from a few grains 
of it. The subject is further treated under 
ALIMENT. 

GLUTTON, a carnivorous mammal, belonging 
to the family mustelida, subfamily martinm, 
and genus gulo (Storr). The dental formula is 
that of the true martens, viz. : incisors f if , ca- 
nines \~\, premolars |z|, molars !=?, in all 
38 ; the first three molars in the upper and the 
first four in the lower jaw are small, succeeded 
by a larger carnivorous tooth. In dentition and 
general structure the glutton resembles the 




Glutton or Wolverene (Gulo luscus). 



martens; but in its shape, and partially planti- 
grade feet, it so much resembles a small bear 
that many writers have placed it among the 
ursidai. Ihe head is rather pointed and bear- 
like, the eyes and ears very small, the body long 
and stout, the legs short and robust, the claws 



GLYCERINE 



large and sharp, the soles covered for the most 
part with bristly hairs, and the tail short and 
bushy. The glutton of Europe ( O. luscus, Linn.) 
is about as large as a badger, of a deep brown, 
darkish on the back. The voracity of this ani- 
mal, though great, has been much exaggerated. 
It is nocturnal, inhabits the coldest countries, 
as Russia and Siberia, and is active all winter. 
The American glutton, called also wolverene 
and carcajou, seems to be a paler variety of the 
0. luscus ; the color is dark brown above, pass- 
ing into black ; a pale band runs on each side 
from the shoulder around the flanks, uniting 
on the hips ; tail with long bushy hairs. The 
inner fur is soft and short, the outer long and 
coarse, like that of the black bear ; across the 
forehead, on each side of the neck, and between 
the legs, are patches and tufts of white hairs. 
The average length to root of tail is 2f ft., the 
tail from 10 to 12 in., and the height at shoulder 
about a foot; the width of the hind feet is 
nearly 5 in., so that their tracks in the snow 
are not unlike those of the bear. The wolver- 
ene is confined almost exclusively to the north- 
ern regions of the continent, being most abun- 
dant in the Rocky mountains near the arctic 
circle ; it is occasionally seen in northern New 
York, and in the west has been found as far 
south as Great Salt lake. The strength, agility, 
cunning, and voracity attributed to the glutton 
by- the older writers are mostly fabulous; it is 
by no means ferocious, is slow and heavy in 
its motions, not remarkably voracious, neither 
strong nor agile enough to pounce upon and kill 
deer and other large game, and avoids entering 
water in pursuit of prey. The wolverene gen- 
erally hunts at night, spending the day in holes 
and caves; its food consists principally of mice, 
marmots, and other rodents, grouse and other 
birds which have plunged under the snow; 
there is no proof that it destroys the beaver, ex- 
cept occasionally; it may sometimes finish lar- 
ger animals disabled by the hunter, by old age, 
or by accident, and when very hungry will eat 
carrion. It is notorious for following the traps 
of the hunter, and stealing therefrom both the 
bait and the captured animal, and for digging 
up and destroying caches of provisions. The 
wolverene is very suspicious, and rarely caught 
except in carefully concealed steel traps ; it is 
very strong for its size, its weight being from 
25 to 30 Ibs. The young are produced once a 
year, two to four at a time. The fur of the 
wolverene is used for muffs and sleigh robes. 
The specific name luscus was given by Linnaeus 
to an American animal, which happened to 
have but one eye ; should the European glut- 
ton be separated from the wolverene, it would 
be properly called G. lorealis (Nilsson). 

GLYCERINE (Gr. yAwuf, sweet), the sweet 
principle of oils, a triatomic alcohol, the base 
of the compounds found in animal fats and also 
in some vegetable substances, discovered by 
Scheele in 1779. Its composition is represent- 
ed by the formula C 3 H 8 O 3 . It is a colorless, 
transparent, sweet sirup, without odor, of spe- 
364 VOL. vm. 4 



cific gravity 1'28 ; it is inflammable, mixes free- 
ly with water, taking it from the air, is also 
soluble in alcohol, sparingly in ether, and dis- 
solves salts that are soluble in water ; it does 
not become rancid by exposure, but with ani- 
mal tissue may be made to ferment. At a 
temperature above 600 F. it is decomposed, 
being converted into acroleine, acetic acid, and 
inflammable gases. Between 500 and 600 it 
may be distilled with only partial decomposi- 
tion. It may be cooled to 4 F. without 
freezing. Berthelot has succeeded in combi- 
ning it with the fatty acids, and has thus pro- 
duced the organic fatty substances, stearine, 
margarine, oleine, &c. This was eifected by 
keeping the mixture of acids and glycerine at 
a temperature of 212 for several days in close 
vessels. At higher heat much less time is re- 
quired. Glycerine is a product of the process 
of saponification. As prepared by the phar- 
maceutists, it is taken up with boiling water 
from its mixture in a free state with the plum- 
biferous soap called lead plaster. The plaster 
is made by boiling together litharge (oxide of 
lead), olive oil, and water. The oil is decom- 
posed by the lead taking its acids, and the gly- 
cerine is thus liberated. When hot water is 
added in equal quantity to the plaster, the 
mixture is well stirred, and the liquid part is 
decanted ; any lead that may be present is 
thrown down by a current of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and is got rid of by filtering. The 
water is finally removed by evaporation at a 
temperature below 212, leaving the glycerine. 
Various other methods of preparing it are in 
use. The mother liquor of the soap factories 
affords a convenient source of it. From thia 
it is separated by adding a slight excess of sul- 
phuric acid, heating the solution with carbonate 
of baryta, filtering, and, after the filtrate has 
been concentrated by evaporation, taking up 
the glycerine with alcofiol, which is afterward 
to be distilled off. A hot solution of fat has 
been decomposed by injecting into it super- 
heated steam. The fatty acids and glycerine, 
collected in a receiver, separate in two layers, 
the glycerine at the bottom. The acids can be 
drawn off, so as to leave the glycerine with no 
other mixture than water. The method of de- 
tecting the presence of glycerine when in small 
quantity is based on the marked qualities of 
the substance acroleine into which it is in part 
converted by heat. If the substance supposed 
to contain it be separated from foreign mixture 
as far as possible and rapidly heated, either 
alone or with a little anhydrous phosphoric 
acid, the acroleine generated, in case glycerine 
was present, will be detected by the pungent 
acrid odor, somewhat like that from the wick 
of a candle just extinguished. Glycerine is 
formed in small quantities during the process 
of alcoholic fermentation. 0. Friedl and R. 
Silva have succeeded in preparing it artificially 
from the chloride of propylene, which in turn 
is made without the use of glycerine itself. 
Owing to its property of long continuing moist, 



48 



GLYCERINE 



and its strong affinity for water, it may be ap- 
plied to the skin or to mucous surfaces, when 

sired to prevent dryness and to use a 
bland and soothing application, as in chapped 
hands or lips, many skin diseases, a parched 
and glazed condition of the mouth, &c. If ap- 
plied undiluted, it withdraws water from the 
raoister tissues under it. For external uses it 
mar be advantageously combined with tannin, 
carbolic acid, or borax, all of which are readily 
dissolved by it With starch a plasma of any 
required consistency may be formed, which 
takes the place of an ointment, and has the ad- 
vantage of not being greasy, and being capable 
of easy removal by washing. Inferior varieties 
of glycerine may contain irritating impurities. 
Either alone or with a small proportion of car- 
bolic acid, it is a very useful medium for the 
preservation of anatomical specimens in a con- 
dition of pliability, and is also of great value in 
microscopic anatomy. Glycerine is a powerful 
solvent, and may be used in pharmacy to pre- 
vent drying as well as decomposition. The 
vegetable alkaloids dissolve in it readily, and 
may be used in this form for subcutaneous in- 
jection. It has been suggested for internal use 
in diabetes, instead of sugar, and also as a sub- 
stitute for cod -liver oil; but experience does 
not assign to it much value for these purposes. 
For use in cosmetics and perfumery it is large- 
ly manufactured, its soft agreeable qualities, 
without greasiness or liability to putrefy, ren- 
dering it an excellent ingredient in soaps for 
the toilet, pomade, hair tonics, &c. It is lately 
employed in the photographic art, and its use 
is extending for a variety of new purposes. A 
jrly<-orine ointment of much repute for chapped 
hands and excoriations is made as follows: 
} oz. of spermaceti is melted together with a 
drachm of white wax and 2 fluid oz. of oil of 
almonds, by a moderate heat ; the mixture is 
l>oured into a Wedgwood mortar, when a fluid 
ounce of glycerine is added to it and rubbed till 
the ingredients are thoroughly mixed and cold. 
The consumption of glycerine in the manufac- 
ture of beer amounts to more than 20,000 cwt. 
per annum. It also finds extensive use for the 
toll.) wing purposes: mixed with water to fill wet 
gas metres ; to lubricate the inside of moulds 
l'>r piaster casts; to prevent the shrinkage of 
wooden vessels; to preserve meat, fruit, can- 
die*, medicines, mustard, and tobacco; as a 
hair wash; in soaps and cosmetics; for the 
extraction of perfumes ; to impart elasticity to 
paper ; in various photographic operations ; as 
a solvent for certain aniline colors; in calico 

MK; in the preparation of leather; as a 
ito for oil in delicate machinery ; as a 
float to swimming compasses; in mercurial 
manometers; as a substitute for alcohol in the 
preservation of anatomical preparations; to 
prevent the rusting of instruments ; in the ar- 
tificial production of oil of mustard ; to cure 

1*, burns, and bites of venomous insects; 
i !' tvim-nts; fur throat dis- 
iu upyin- ink ; in chemistry to prevent 



GLYPTODON 

the precipitations of the heavy metals; and 
very largely in the manufacture of the explosive 
compounds nitro-glycerine, dynamite, dualline, 
and lithofracteur. (See EXPLOSIVES.) 

GLYNN, a S. E. county of Georgia, bordering 
on the Atlantic, and bounded N. by the Alta- 
maha river ; area, about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 6,376, of whom 3,450 were colored. It 
is traversed by the Macon and Brunswick and 
the Brunswick and Albany railroad. The sur- 
face is level and occupied partly by sandy pine 
barrens, partly by vast swamps, which when 
drained are productive. The sea island cotton 
grows here in perfection. Several islands on 
the coast, one of which is about 12 m. long, 
are included in the county. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 15,589 bushels of Indian 
corn, 6,774 of sweet potatoes, 167 bales of 
cotton, and 740,880 Ibs. of rice. There were 
2 manufactories of tin, copper, and sheet-iron 
ware, 1 iron foundery, and 4 saw mills. Capi- 
tal, Brunswick. 

GLYPTODON, a gigantic fossil mammal, be- 
longing to the edentate order with the mega- 
therium and mylodon, but to the family dasy- 
pidrn or armadillos, found in the post-tertiary 




Glyptodon clavipes. 

deposits of the pampas of South America, and 
especially in the neighborhood of Buenos Ayres. 
This animal, with the fossil genera above men- 
tioned, establishes the transition between the 
sloths and the armadillos, and also indicates 
some pachyderm affinities. Four species have 
been described by Prof. Owen, of which the 
largest is the G. clavipes; this species, in the 
structure of the foot and the articulation of 
the lower jaw, approaches the pachyderms ; it 
resembles the megatherioids in the strong de- 
scending process of the zygomatic arch, com- 
pressed from before backward; the cranium 
was protected by dermal plates, and its well 
developed ridges indicate the existence of very 
powerful muscles. The teeth, eight on each 
side of each jaw, have a large proportion of 
hard dentine, and are characterized by two 
lateral sculptured grooves, whose wide and 
deep channels divide the grinding surface into 
three portions; hence the generic name ap- 
plied by Owen, which means "sculptured 
tooth." The back and sides were covered by 
a carapace composed of thick polygonal bony 
plates, united by sutures, smooth on the inside, 
rough and sculptured externally, to the num- 
ber of more than 2,000. The length of the 
largest living armadillo, covered with a flat- 



GMELIN 



GNAT 



tened shield, is about 3 ft. ; the size of the 
glyptodon may be imagined from the measure- 
ment of its carapace in the museum of the royal 
college of surgeons: the length, following the 
curve of the back, is 5 ft. 7 in. in a straight 
line, or the chord of the arc, 4f ft. ; the breadth, 
following the curve, is 7 ft. in a straight 
line, 3 ft. The tail measured H ft- in length, 
and 14 in. in circumference at the circular 
base; it was slightly depressed toward the 
apex, and gently curved, with the concavity 
upward ; the caudal vertebrae were enclosed in 
an inflexible sheath of bony plates, terminated 
by two ossicles, like a bivalve shell, enabling 
it to pierce the soil if necessary. The feet 
were short and stout, armed with depressed 
nails. The glyptodon, in its firm, convex car- 
apace, scale-covered tail and head, short limbs, 
and consequent slow motions, presents many 
external analogies to chelonian reptiles, and in 
its size and shape must have resembled rather 
the living Galapagos tortoise than the great 
armadillo. Like the living armadillo, the ex- 
tinct glyptodon was confined to the warm parts 
of South America. Other species described 
by Owen are G. ornatus, G. reticulatus, and 
G. tuberculatus, all obtained from the vicinity 
of Buenos Ayres. 

GMELIJf. I. Joliann Georg, a German natural- 
ist, born in Tubingen, June 12, 1709, died there, 
May 20, 1755. In 1731 he became professor 
of chemistry and natural history in St. Peters- 
burg. In 1733-'43 he made a scientific journey 
through Siberia. In 1747 he returned to Tu- 
bingen, and in 1749 was appointed professor of 
botany and chemistry there. His Reisen durch 
Sibirien (4 vols., Gottingen, l751-'2) and Flora 
Sibirica (4 vols., St. Petersburg, 1749-70) are 
his principal works. II. Samuel Gottlieb, a Ger- 
man botanist, nephew of the preceding, born in 
Tubingen about 1744, died at Akhmetkent, in 
the Caucasus, July 27, 1774. He was profes- 
sor of botany in St. Petersburg, and travelled 
extensively through southern Russia and the 
adjacent countries. While on his way from 
Derbend to Kisliar, he was seized and im- 
prisoned by the khan of the Kaitak tribe, 
and died of privation and ill treatment. His 
chief works are Historia Fucorum (1768), and 
Reisen durch Russland zur Untersuchung der 
drei Naturreiche (4 vols., l770-'84), of which 
the concluding part is by Pallas. III. Joliann 
Friedricb, nephew of Johann Georg, born in 
Tubingen, Aug. 8, 1748, died in Gottingen, 
Nov. 1, 1804. In 1771 he became professor 
of natural history and botany at Tubingen, 
and in 1778 professor of medicine and chem- 
istry at Gottingen. He published, among other 
works, Onomatologia Botanica completa (10 
vols., 177l-'8) ; Allgemeine Geschichte der 
mineralischen Gifte (1777); Allgemeine Ge- 
schichte der Pflanzengifte (1777) ; and Ge- 
schichte der Chemie (3 vols., !797-'9). He was 
also the editor of the 13th edition of Linnseus's 
Systema Natures. IV. Leopold, a German chem- 
ist, son of the preceding, born in Gottingen, 



Aug. 2, 1788, died in Heidelberg, April 13, 
1853. He was educated at Gottingen, Tubin- 
gen, and Vienna, and from 1817 to 1851 was 
professor of medicine and chemistry at Heidel- 
berg. In 1820 he made with Tiedemann a 
series of experiments on digestion, the result 
of which was published in his Die Verdauung 
(2 vols., 1826-'7). His principal work is his 
Handbuch der theoretischen Chemie (3 vols., 
1817-'19; 5th ed., completed by Schloss- 
berger, List, and Liebig, 7 vols., 1853-'62). 
There is an English translation of this work, 
by Henry Watt (9 vols., London, 1848-'55). 

GMUND, or Schwabish-Gmiind, a town of Wur- 
temberg, in the circle of the Jaxt, on the Rems, 
28 m. E. K E. of Stuttgart ; pop. in 1871, 10,- 
739. It has a Latin school, a Catholic normal 
school, institutions for the blind and the deaf 
and dumb, an insane asylum, two hospitals, 
important manufactures of gold, silver, copper, 
and bronze ware, and considerable hop culture. 

GNAT, a name commonly given to the fam- 
ily culicidce, of the proboscidean division of 
the order diptera or two-winged insects ; the 
cousin of the French, the mosquito of the 




1. Female (greatly magnified). 2. Male. 

United States. The gnats belong to the genus 
culex (Linn.), which is characterized by a soft, 
elongated body ; long legs ; large head and 
eyes; long, many-jointed antennae, most plu- 
mose in the males; uniform and hairy palpi, 
longest in the males; a sucking proboscis, 
formed of a membranous sheath enclosing from 
two to six sharp bristles or lancets, which 
take the place of jaws, and whose punctures, 
therefore, are properly called bites ; the side 
pieces of this apparatus serve not only as suc- 
tion tubes, but as supporters and protectors of 
the lancets ; wings horizontal, delicate, and 
many-veined ; the winglets, two little scales 
behind the wings, and moving with them, are 
small ; behind these are the knobbed balancers 
or poisers. The old genus culex was divided 
by Meigen into three, and was by him re- 
stricted to such gnats as have the palpi in 
the males longer than the proboscis, and very 
short in the females; the other two were ano- 
pheles (Meigen), in which the palpi of the males 
are as long as the proboscis, and cedes (Hoff- 
mannsegg), in which they are very short in 
both sexes; to these were afterward added 
sdbeihes, with palpi shorter than proboscis; 
megarhinus, with very long recurved proboscis 
and short palpi; and psorophora, with a small 



10 



GNAT 



appendage on each side of the prothorax 
Other genera, ill-characterized for the most 



thaVeb^n added by modern systematists. 
the names gnat and mosquito are also given in 
ne places to members of the family tipulada* ; 
TnTour own mosmiitoes belong to several 
irenera, among which is the genus culex, prop- 
erly confined to the more northern regions of 
the continent. Dr. Harris mentions five species 
,,f rnler and one of anopheles as found in New 
Enffland ; to these many species and several 
genera must be added. Some species are ac- 
tive by day, others only by night, but both are 
equally fond of human blood; the former are 
found principally in marshes and damp woods 
and rarely in houses, and are of more brilliant 
colors than the nocturnal species. The males 
with plumed antennae do not annoy us by their 
bites, but simply flit from flower to flower, 
sipping the dew and sweet juices, requiring 
but little if any food, propagating their species, 
and soon after perishing. The female gnats 
are most persistent biters and annoying mu- 
sicians, at almost all seasons of the year ; from 
the tropics to Lapland and arctic America, man 
is obliged to adopt some contrivance to protect 
himself from their attacks, either the thick 
coat of grease of the northern regions, the sand 
bed of the tropics, the smoky smudge of the 
woods, or the mosquito bars and curtains of 
civilized life. Gnats have been known to ap- 
pear in such swarms as to constitute an insect 
plague, darkening the air like clouds of smoke, 
arresting the progress of invading armies, and 
rendering whole districts for the time uninhab- 
itable; attacking not only man but beasts, 
and, even when not biting, filling every crack 
and corner with their countless multitudes. 
When we consider the immense number of 
these insects, and the comparatively small 
proportion which can ever taste human 
blood, we must admit, what experiments 
with sweetened fluids have confirmed, that 
vegetable juices form the food of the greater 
number of females, and perhaps the natural 
food of all ; many males probably do not eat 
at all. The sucking apparatus is admirably 
contrived for obtaining fluids, animal or vege- 
table, and these insects are provided with \ 
sucking stomach independent of the proper di 
gestive cavity. The sucker is well describee 
and figured by Reaumur in his "Memoirs;' 
the flexible sheath gives support to the lancets 
while they penetrate the skin ; the point of the 
combined lancets is sharper than the finest 
needle, so that the size of each of the severa 
weapons most be very small ; the wounds made 
by this instrument would be insignificant, were 
it not for an irritating secretion from the pro 
boacia, which in some delicate skins produce 
obstinate itching, and, in rare instances, even 
irritable ulcers. The metamorphoses whicl 
gnats and mosquitoes undergo are very curious 
The eggs are deposited in almost any natura 
or artificial receptacle for fresh water, and ar 
arranged in a boat-shaped form ; fixing herself 



>y the four anterior legs to some object at the 
urface of the water, the female crosses her 
lind legs in the form of the letter X ; bringing 
he latter close to the end of the body, on a 
evel with the water, the first egg is received 
ind retained in place by the crossed legs ; as 
he eggs are extruded they are placed side by 
ide vertically, adhering firmly together by the 
glutinous substance which covers them ; when 
he stern of the egg raft is properly raised, it 
s pushed further from the body by the succeed- 
ng ova, always retained in place by the legs 
on the sides ; when the raft is about half made 
and its shape is determined, the legs are un- 
jrossed and placed parallel, and the prow of 
.he boat is narrowed and raised like the stern. 
The boat is always of the same shape, contain- 
ng from 250 to 350 eggs, and is abandoned by 
.he mother to the mercy of the winds and 
waves, which can neither sink, wet, nor break 
t up ; even a temperature below freezing can- 
not destroy the life within these eggs. The larvro 
some out in a few days from the lower end of 




1. Wing of gnat, showing nervures and small cells. 2. Ter- 
mination of abdomen of male. 8. Termination of abdo- 
men of female. 4, 5, 6. Modes of operation of gnat's 
sucker. 7. Gnat's eggs. 8. Boat of gnat's eggs. 

the eggs, which are arranged somewhat like 
the seeds of the ripe sunflower, and the empty 
shell boat is soon destroyed by the weather. 
The larvae of gnats and mosquitoes are the 
well known " wigglers " seen in warm wea- 
ther in almost every collection of standing 
water; they remain, as it were, suspended 
from the surface of the water, head downward, 
breathing air by means of a respiratory tube 
which goes off at an angle from near the end 
of the body, communicating with the tracheae ; 
the tube and the terminal joint are provided 
with radiating hairs ; the head is round, dis- 
tinct, with antennae and ciliated organs which 
keep up a constant current of water toward 
the mouth, and bring within their reach the 
minute animalcules on which they feed ; the 
thorax and ten-jointed abdomen are furnished 
with lateral pencils of hairs. If disturbed, 
these larvae quickly wriggle to the bottom, but 
soon come again to the surface and suspend 
themselves by the respiratory tube. Some 
species are comparatively free from hairs in 




GNAT 

lis condition. After remaining in tlie larva 
state from five to fifteen days, according to the 
weather, and changing their skins two or three 
times, they are changed into pupro, called tum- 
blers from the manner in which they roll over 
and over in the water by means of the fin-like 
paddles at the end of the tail ; they are very 
quick in their motions, and swim with the 
head upward ; the respiratory openings are at 
the end of two tubes situated just behind the 
head, so that the little tumblers remain near 
the surface, head upward, to take in air ; in 
this state, which lasts five or ten days, accord- 
ing to circumstances, the insect takes no food ; 
the future gnat can be distinguished through 
the transparent covering of the pupa. When 
the perfect insect is ready to come forth, the 
pupa skin bursts open on the back toward noon 
on a warm, still, sunny day, and the head of 
the gnat makes its appearance, followed soon 
by the thorax ; this is a process of great dan- 
ger to the insect, as the slightest breeze would 
tip over the emerging form, and consign it to 
certain death in the water; after it has suc- 
ceeded in raising its body except the tail, and 
stands erect like a mast in the pupa shell boat, 
it extricates the front pair of legs and places 
them for support on the surface of the water ; 
the heavy and wet wings are now slowly un- 
folded, that the sun and air may dry them; 
this effected, the danger is over, and the other 
legs are drawn forth and extended on the edge 
.of the pupa case, the body is stretched out, 
the antennae and proboscis elevated ; by this 
time the wings are dry and fully expanded, and 
the insect flies off to revel among the flowers 
or in search of blood, according to the sex. 
The source of the buzzing noise has been much 
discussed by naturalists, and is still the subject 
of dispute ; it has been ascribed to the mouth 
by Mouffet, to the friction of the base of the 
wings against the chest by Kirby ; the wing- 
lets, the poisers, the motion of the wings, the 
rapid passage of air through the thoracic stig- 
mata, and the vibrations of the thorax from 
the contraction of the muscles of the wings, 
have been supposed to be the cause by other 
entomologists ; by whatever organ it be pro- 
duced, Siebold says it is always due to the ac- 
tion of voluntary muscles, and has no connec- 
tion with the respiratory system. It is prob- 
able that the sound is produced by the com- 
bined action of the wings and by the thoracic 
vibrations consequent thereon. It has been 
estimated by Baron de la Tour that the gnat 
vibrates its wings 50 times in a second. This 
very rapid movement probably depends on a 
peculiar form of muscle which has been detect- 
ed in the mosquito and other diptera ; the 
fibrillse are not bound together as in ordinary 
striated muscles, but are separate and parallel, 
formed by the aggregation in a linear series of 
little disks with regular interspaces ; contrac- 
tion of these independent fibrillae takes place 
by the approximation of these disks to each 
other ; some are contracting while others are 



GNEISENAU 



51 



relaxed, so that a constant and rapid move- 
ment of the wings is secured. It is certainly 
a remarkable example of the extent of mod- 
ern microscopic investigation, that the minute 
muscles of the wings and legs of the mosquito 
can be dissected and studied. Some of the bi- 
ting culicidoB do not make a boat of eggs, but 
string their ova end to end ; others deposit them 
in soft mud or in dry sand ; but all require 
moisture in the larva state. As the eggs are 
developed into the perfect insects in about three 
weeks, many broods are hatched in the course 
of the warm season, fully explaining their oc- 
currence in large numbers ; fortunately only a 
small portion of the pupaa succeed in extrica- 
ting themselves from their cases ; thousands of 
them perish by drowning, and are devoured 
by fish, reptiles, and aquatic insects ; the per- 
fect gnats supply food for carnivorous insects, 
the great tribe of fly-catching birds, and the 
bats. The family of tipuladce are also called 
gnats; these are often seen performing their 
aerial dances during the summer, and in shel- 
tered places even in mild days in winter, pre- 
ferring the decline of day ; these dancing com- 
panies are said always to consist exclusively 
of males; any attempt to intrude upon their 
sportive circles shows their quickness of vision 
and of motion, as the whole company is at 
once removed to a distance. These gnats some- 
times crowd into houses in immense numbers. 
GNEISENAU, August, count, a Prussian general, 
born at Schilda, Oct. 28, 1760, died in Posen, 
Aug. 24, 1831. He served in the Austrian 
army, and in that of the margrave of Anspach- 
Baireuth, with whose troops he served in 
America under the English, shortly before the 
close of the revolutionary war. He became 
captain in the Prussian army in 1789, and after 
the battle of Jena was appointed commander 
of the fortress of Colberg (1807), and held the 
place till the peace of Tilsit. The resentment 
of Napoleon caused hia dismissal (1809), but 
he was sent on secret missions to various courts. 
Afterward he was attached to Bliicher's army 
as quartermaster general, and as chief of the 
staff. (See BUTCHER.) He took a leading part 
in the Silesian campaign of 1813, and after the 
battle of Leipsic was made lieutenant general. 
He rendered important services during the cam- 
paign of 1814 in France, and is said to have 
advised the march to Paris. After the peace 
he was made count and general, and received 
a large estate. After the return of Napoleon 
from Elba he again served with Blucher, and 
effected a skilful retreat from Ligny (June 16), 
enabling the Prussians to reappear at Waterloo 
(on the 18th), and to decide the fate of the 
campaign. He now took part in the negotia- 
tions for peace, was made commander of the 
Rhenish corps, and accompanied Blucher to 
England. Disappointed in his expectation of 
constitutional liberty, he tendered his resigna- 
tion. In 1818 he was appointed governor of 
Berlin, and in 1825 field marshal; and in 1831, 
during the Polish insurrection, he commanded 



-.> GNEISS 

the array of observation on the Polish borders, 
soon after which he died of cholera. 

GMH88, one of the roetamorphio rocks, of 
the same composition with granite, from which 
it differs in presenting the three ingredients, 
quartz mica, and feldspar, in tolerably distinct 
layers. The whole mass is often divided into 
distinct beds or strata, and these exhibit a ten- 
dency to cleave along the planes in which the 
mica" is most largely distributed. By increased 
proportion of mica and loss of feldspar, it passes 
into micaceous slate. The name gneissic is 
sometimes given to the group of metamorphic 
rocks, including the micaceous and hornblende 
slates, quartz rocks, &c. They are also called 
hypozoic in reference to their position beneath 
the fossiliferous strata. The series is familiarly 
known in the eastern and middle states, rang- 
ing through Vermont, Massachusetts, the S. E. 
part of New York, northern New Jersey, east- 
ern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. 
The gold region lies in this group. 

GNEIST, Eidolf, a German author, born in 
Berlin, Aug. 18, 1816. He is professor of juris- 
prudence in and pro-rector of the university of 
Berlin, has been a leading liberal member of 
the Prussian chamber, and is the author of 
Dot heutige englische Verfasvungt- vnd Ver- 
v>altung*recht (2 vols., Berlin, 1857-'60), Die 
Getchichte det Selfgovernment in England 
(1868), Gachichte vnd heutige Gestalt der 
Aemter vnd de* Verwaltungsrecht* in England 
(2 vols., 1866), Freie Advokatur (1867), Die 
preuuuche Kreisordnung (1870), Der RecJits- 
ttaat (1872), and other works on Roman and 
German jurisprudence and British institutions. 

GNESEN (Pol. Gniezno), a town of Prussia, 
in the province and 80 m. N. E. of the city of 
Posen ; pop. in 1871, 9,910. It is surrounded by 
walls, has a fine cathedral and other church- 
es, an ecclesiastical seminary, a monastery, and 
a nunnery, and is the seat of a cathedral chap- 
ter. Four annual fairs are held there. It was 
the capital of Poland till 1320, when it was 
superseded by Cracow. It has been many 
times besieged, taken, and pillaged. The arch- 
bishops of Gnesen were the primates of the 
state, and acted as vicars during the often dis- 
puted elections of the kings. 

GHOfiSrs, or GBOSIS. See CNOSSUS. 

GM08TICS (Gr. yvuats, knowledge), a name 
to variom heretical sects in the early 
in church. We know them mainly 
through tlu-ir opponents, almost nothing re- 
iif of Gnostic writings except the frag- 
rj quotations found in orthodox authors, 
was a natural result of the con- 
tact of Christianity with oriental and Greek 
philosophy, ninl was the earliest attempt to 
oonatruct a philosophical system of faith. It 
undertook to answer the most difficult ques- 
tions, such as that of the origin of evil, and 
soon became extravagant, and met the opposi- 
tion of the hading ( 'hristian writers. Gnosti- 
m rail v n mdenmed as heretical, 

and, after having been most prosperous in the 



GNOSTICS 

2d century, declined in the 3d, and in the 6th 
came, with other heresies, under the ban of the 
Justinian code. It was a speculative system, 
and exercised little influence upon the masses 
of the people. It was also mainly confined to 
the eastern church, and had little to do with 
the development of the West. There are three 
principal theories of the character of Gnosti- 
cism. Baur treats it as a philosophy of religion 
resulting from the comparison of various reli- 
gious systems ; Neander as a fusion of Christian 
ideas with oriental theosophy, caused by the pre- 
valence of sensuous ideas within the church ; 
Mohler as an intense and exaggerated Christian 
zeal, seeking some practical solution of the 
problems of sin and evil. All minor theories 
of the purpose and motives of Gnosticism can 
be comprehended in one of these ; and these 
three agree in the general definition, that 
Gnosticism is an attempt to solve the great 
problems of theology by combining the ele- 
ments of pagan mysticism with the Jewish and 
Christian traditions. It is impossible to make 
an accurate definition of a system of which 
the speculations are so vague, and the materials 
for judgment so scattered and fragmentary. 
Different writers vary widely in their method 
of classifying the various Gnostic schools. Some 
classify them by opinions, some by origin, and 
some by locality. The chief Gnostic ideas may 
be summed up under seven heads: 1. God is 
infinitely removed from the actual world, en- 
closed in the abyss (Gr. /&0oc), with which he 
is in fact confounded ; he is separate from every 
work of temporal creation, incomprehensible 
by any mortal, and communicates with the 
lower world only through the mediation of the 
aeons (Gr. ci<5v, age or era), whom he sends 
forth from the depths of his grand solitude. He 
has infinite development in the forces which he 
sends, but no personal or special providence. 
He is the sum of being, yet the extreme of ab- 
straction, and is even called the Not Being 
(OVK uv). 2. Below the abyss, in which God 
alone dwells, or surrounding this abyss, is the 
Pleroma (Gr. Tr^pu^a, fulness), that world of 
light and glory which the aeons inhabit. These 
seons are emanations from God's central ful- 
ness, are embodiments of his divine attributes, 
and fulfil the functions denoted by their seve- 
ral names. Among the higher seons are Mind, 
Reason, Power, Truth, and Life. All of these 
are styled ceons, because they are in some way 
the representatives of the Eternal Being ; but 
only one of them, Nous or Mind (v6oc, or in 
late authors vovf, intellect), proceeds directly 
from the Deity. The others emanate in de- 
scending succession from the first aeon. One 
Gnostic writer compares the emanation of 
these aeons from the Supreme Being to the 
tones of the voice lessening steadily to a faint 
echo. The number and characteristics of these 
aeons are variously stated ; according to Valen- 
tinus, there were 365 of them ; but according 
to all, only the lowest of them has anything to 
do with the material world, occupying the point 



GNOSTICS 



53 



3re the spiritual and material worlds touch 
each other. The office of the higher aeons is to 
people and take care of the spiritual world. 
3. Matter is infinitely separated from God, and 
the material world is the antithesis of the 
spiritual world. Hyle (vty, matter) is either 
absolute deadness and emptiness (/c^vw^a), or 
is a positively evil substance. The creator of 
this material universe is the Demiurge. He is 
himself a creature of the lowest of the aeons, 
Achamoth. He not only creates and rules the 
terrestrial world, but has equal sovereignty 
over the planets and stars. He fulfils, or as 
some say usurps, the functions of the infinite 
God. He appears in Jewish history as Jehovah. 
Other names by which he is known are those 
of Archon and Jaldabaoth, the son of Chaos. 
The immediate work of the Demiurge is evil, 
and it takes the world of man and matter fur- 
ther away from God and the world of light. 4. 
Man has a threefold nature, of spirit, of body, 
and of soul. His soul-nature stands between 
the other two, and forms their connecting bond. 
Men are divided into three classes, according 
to the predominance of one or other of these 
three natures. The first of these classes enjoy 
a light from the world of aeons ; the second are 
left wholly to material and hylic influences; 
while the third are under the direction and in- 
fluence of the Demiurge, who can save them 
from utter debasement, but cannot give them 
spiritual life. Historically, the Christians con- 
stitute the spiritual world; the pagan world 
forms the carnal class; and the Jews occupy 
the intermediate place. But in dividing the 
Christians of their own time, the Gnostics 
numbered two classes, the select few of their 
own number who were admitted to the divine 
secrets, and the large body of common believ- 
ers, who were not able to rise above the psychi- 
cal condition. Some of them maintained that 
though man as connected with matter is by na- 
ture sinful, and though the Demiurge wished to 
create man in his own image, yet unwittingly 
he reproduced in this work of his breath, not 
his own image, but a shadow of that divine 
original which moved before his imagination. 
Man is better than the intention of his creator. 
5. Redemption reaches only the pneumatic 
and psychic classes; the carnal or hylic class 
are destined to annihilation when their mate- 
rial life shall close, and with them such of the 
psychic class as have not accepted the influence 
from the Pleroma. The instrument of redemp- 
tion is the aaon Christ. This aeon came down 
from the spirit world, assumed bodily shape 
without being actually united to any material 
body, and walked among men in Judea as Je- 
sus of Nazareth, not a real human person, but 
an optical illusion, the phantasm of a spiritual 
idea. Some of the Gnostics were willing, in- 
deed, to speak of the human life of Christ ; but 
all denied that his body was composed of the 
elements of corrupt and sinful matter ; it was 
an ethereal body of more delicate fabric than 
the common human body. Hunger would not 



impel him to eat, nor thirst to drink. Yet this 
ethereal body was too gross for the Pleroma, 
and was left in the sun at Christ's ascension. 
The advent of Christ upon the earth was not 
the birth of a prophet, or the coming merely 
of a promised Messiah, but a spiritual appari- 
tion to overthrow the work of the evil spirit 
" an incarnation of the spirit of the sun." The 
presence of Christ anywhere made men con- 
scious of this divine nature. They might doubt 
of the humanity of Christ, but not of his di- 
vinity. The process of redemption, in the 
Gnostic theory, is the communication through 
the aeon Christ of a divine life to the world of 
man, the revelation of that life through this 
mediator. Christ redeems the world as he 
draws the spiritual in the world toward the 
heaven of God. His sufferings and death have 
no influence in the redeeming work, since, in 
the first place, they were illusory, and in the 
second place, sufferings do not redeem, but 
only punish. The manifestation by his acts 
and words of the spirit of God made Christ the 
redeemer. Some expressions in Gnostic wri- 
tings might be interpreted as teaching views of 
redemption more in harmony with the church 
creeds; but nowhere was any doctrine of 
atonement stated, or any stress laid upon the 
crucifixion as its central point. Marcion ex- 
tends the redemption into the world of Hades, 
and maintains that Christ descended into hell 
to lead back the virtuous and believing heathen 
to share salvation with the spiritual Chris- 
tians. In regard to the means of profiting by 
the redemption of Christ, the Gnostic teachers 
were not agreed. Marcion taught a doctrine 
resembling that of Paul, making faith the 
means of justification and the ground of re- 
conciliation. But most of the sect held that 
only " gnosis," the rare superior intelligence and 
comprehension of divine truth, could enable 
men to receive the gift of Christ. This spirit- 
ual knowledge was the evidence of salvation 
to believers. The actual manner of union be- 
tween Christ and his redeemed ones is very 
vaguely described in the Gnostic writings, and 
their language in speaking of redemption and 
its issues is confused. 6. Although the Gnos- 
tics were charged with boasting that they had 
schools rather than churches, yet they held to 
a church which should have a twofold life, 
for the mass of believers, and for the initiated : 
for the first, common exoteric doctrines, and for 
the second, spiritual esoteric doctrines, reveal- 
ed to a secret sacred society within the proper 
circle of the church. Practically they did lit- 
tle, and many of them were content to theorize 
about spiritual truth, while submitting to the 
recognized ecclesiastical order. Baptism was 
to them the important rite, since Jesus became 
Christ at his baptism, and through this rite 
the higher spirit was imparted to the sensuous 
soul. It was the sign of their emancipation 
from demiurgic rule. A few objected to bap- 
tism as too physical a rite, but most of them 
celebrated it with great show and solemnity. 






GNOSTICS 



rd's sapper was to them of less impor- 

only the sign of a material feast, 

,,.i tli.- reality f which their views of the na- 

: Christ threw doubt. Some of them 
kept the feast days of the church, and the fol- 



lowers of Carpocrates allowed the 
images both of Jesus and the saints. 



use of 
While 



the idea of the church was to a great extent 
discarded, much of its ritual and its splendor 
was retained. 7. In practical morals two ten- 
i are to be observed in the Gnostic 
a. On one side is the ascetic tendency, 
whi.-h seeks a complete emancipation from 
matter and from bodily passion, as the seat of 
sin; on the other side the licentious tendency, 
whk-h plunges into excess, on the plea that 
sensual passion is most surely overcome by 
satiety. Many of the charges brought against 
this latter class of Gnostics are, however, to 
be taken with large abatement. There is no 
evidence that their average morality was be- 
low that of the orthodox Christians, or that 
the ascetic tendency was carried to such ex- 
tremes among them as among the Jewish Es- 
senes or the later Christian hermits. Gnosti- 
cism, in the 2d century at least, was rather 
a speculative than a practical heresy, a sys- 
tem of intellectual vagaries rather than of mor- 
al corruptions. In speaking of the principal 
Gnostic teachers, the geographical division 
may be adopted as most convenient, if not 
most philosophical. Of the precursors of Gnos- 
ticism before the formation of its principal 
schools are mentioned: Simon Magus, whose 
authentic history is related in the Acts, but 
of whom legends abound, and after whom the 
sect of the Siraonians was named; Menander, 
said to have been a disciple of Simon ; Corin- 
th us, who considered Judaism a preparation 
for Christianity; Nicolaus, of whom nothing 
is known except that he is reckoned as the 
founder of the sect of the Nicolaitans, noted 
for thoir lax morality, and mentioned in the 
Apocalypse. Of the Syrian school, the chief 
characteristic of which is dualism, the princi- 
pal teachers were: 1. Saturninus, a follower 
lander, who lived at Antioch about the 
year 125, in the reign of Hadrian. He main- 
tained that the lowest coon was formed from 
the spirits of the seven planets; that the evil 
spirit formed a race of hylic men to counteract 
the race formed by this aeon ; and that Christ 
was the on Nous in a visible but not corporeal 
body. His school, never very numerous, was 
confined to the neighborhood of Antioch, and 
was hardly known in the succeeding century. 
2. Bardesanes, who flourished at Edessa in the 
latter half of the 2d century. (See BARDE- 
SAHKS.) 8. Tatian, who lived in the 2d century, 
and is commonly reckoned among the Christian 
apologists. (See TATIAN.) In the Egyptian 
characterized by the emanation theory, 
rere: i. IJasili.K-s. \\lm 
in Alexandria about the year 120, whose 
follower*, the Badlidiana, existed as late as the 
4th century. (See BASILIDES.) 2. Valentinus 



an Alexandrian Jew, who taught in Eome 
about the middle of the 2d century, and died 
in Cyprus about the year 1GO. His system of 
a3ons is divided into three series of 15 pairs, 



an ogdoad, a decad, and a dodecad. 

" 



male and female. 



, 
His 



They are 
threefold Christ " dif- 



fers from that of Basilides. His elaboration 
of Gnostic ideas was more complete and inge- 
nious than that of any other writer, and his 
influence was longer and wider in its extent. 
J. Matter numbers seven distinguished names 
among the successors of Valentinus, five of 
whom founded schools; these are Secundus, 
Ptolemy, Marcus, Colarbasus, Heracleon, The- 
odotus, and Alexander. 3. The Ophites, or 
Naasenes, a powerful sect, yet without any 
distinguished name among their teachers, who 
traced their doctrine to James, the brother of 
the Lord, and existed at a later period than 
the other Gnostic sects. As their name im- 
plies, the serpent was for them a sacred em- 
blem. They regarded the fall of man as a pro- 
gress rather than as a loss, named the Jewish 
Jehovah " Jaldabaoth," or the God of chaos, 
preferred Judas to the other disciples, affirm- 
ing that he betrayed Christ to destroy the 
kingdom of God's enemy, and denied that the 
real Christ was ever crucified. The Sethites 
and Cainites were branches of this sect. The 
moral character of the Ophites was bad, and 
the sect came not only under the constant re- 
buke of the church teachers, but under the im- 
perial ban. Of the Gnostics of Asia Minor, 
the one eminent name is that of Marcion, an 
austere moralist and a vigorous reasoner. Ho 
taught at Kome about the middle of the 2d 
century. His system is characterized by the 
constant antithesis between Christianity and 
Judaism, by a rejection of the Old Testament 
and of all apostolic authority except that of 
Paul, and by a rigid asceticism. His followers 
were numerous even to the time of Moham- 
med. Of the Gnostics not localized, but most- 
ly related by their doctrines to the Gnostics of 
Egypt, may be mentioned the schools of Car- 
pocrates and his son Epiphanes, the Antitacts, 
the Bortonians, the Phibionites, the Archon- 
tics, the Adamites, and the Prodicians. Her- 
mogenes of Carthage is also by some regarded as 
a Gnostic teacher. While the particular sect 
and schools of the Gnostics had disappeared 
almost wholly in the 6th century, their opin- 
ions survived to a much later age, seriously 
affecting not only the orthodox faith, but ap- 
pearing in many of the famous and troublesome 
heresies. Their earlier influence is to be no- 
ticed in the views of the Ebionites and the Do- 
cetfB, in the speculations of the Clementine Ho- 
milies, in the radical theories of Montanism, in 
the fantasies of the New Platonists, and above 
all in the powerful and wide-spread Manichsean 
heresy. Some have also endeavored to find 
traces of Gnosticism in the Sabellian, Arian, 
and Pelagian heresies. In the 7th century 
their doctrines were repeated by the Pauli- 
cians, in the 9th by the Athinganians or " chil- 




GNU 



55 



of the sun," about the close of the llth 
by the Catharists, and in the 12th by the Bogo- 
miles of Byzantium. Some of the opinions of 
the knights templars and of the Waldenses 
seemed to be borrowed from this source, and 
the reveries of Spanish and German mystics are 
not unlike the hymns of Bardesanes. The 
sources from which our knowledge of Gnosti- 
cism is drawn are the single Gnostic work Pis- 
tis Sophia, translated from Coptic into Latin by 
M. G. Schwartze (edited by J. H. Petermann, 
Berlin, 1851); IrenasusVE/ley^oc TW ^ev6uvv[j.ov 
yvucsag (edited by Stieren, Leipsic, 1853) ; frag- 
ments from Irenasus and Hippolytus (edited by 
Emanuel Miller, Oxford, 1851) ; and the works 
of Ignatius, Justin, Tertullian, Clement of Alex- 
andria, Origen, Eusebius, Philastrius, Epipha- 
nius, Theodoret, Augustine, Plotinus, and oth- 
ers. The more important modern works which 
treat of Gnosticism are : Neander, Genetisclie 
Entwiclcelung der vorneJimsten gnostischen Sys- 
teme (Berlin, 1818); E. A. Lewald, De Doc- 
trina Onostica (Heidelberg, 1818); Mohler, 
Ursprung des Onosticismus (Tubingen, 1831) ; 
Baur, Die christliche Gnosis, oder die christ- 
liche KeligionspMlosophie in ihrer geschicht- 
lichen Entwiclcelung (Tubingen, 1835); Mat- 
ter, Histoire critique du gnosticisme (2d ed., 3 
vols., Paris, 1843-'4); the church histories of 
Mosheim, Neander, Gieseler, Hase, and Schaff ; 
Beausobre's " History of Manichaeism," Miin- 
ter's " Ecclesiastical Antiquities," Hitter's "His- 
tory of Philosophy," Corners " Christology," 
and Bunsen's " Hippolytus and his Age." 

GNU, a hollow-horned ruminating animal, in- 
habiting the plains of southern and central Af- 
rica, generally classed with the bovidw or ox 
family, of the genus catoblepas (H. Smith) or 
connochetes (Gray) ; the wilde freest of the Dutch 
colonists at the Cape. It is one of the most 
singular of animals, having the head and horns 
of a buffalo, the body and mane of a horse, and 




White Gnu (Catoblepas gnu). 

the limbs of an antelope. The form of the head, 
neck, and shoulders is decidedly bovine, robust, 
and clumsy; the forehead wide and flat, the 
muzzle broad, and covered with hair except the 
valvular opening of the nostrils ; the eyes large ; 
ears long, narrow, and pointed ; horns present 



in both sexes, above and behind the eyes, close 
together at their origin, descending at first 
downward and outward, then curving upward 
and backward, flattened at the base, cylindrical 
at the tip, rough and irregular. The hair on 
the brows and forehead is long and shaggy, 




Brindled Gnu (Catoblepas gorgon). 

giving a fierce expression to the face ; the neck 
has a rigid mane above, and a long, hairy dew- 
lap below; the shoulders are deep, and sur- 
mounted by a moderate hump ; the body is 
rounded like that of a horse, and the limbs 
delicately formed ; the tail is moderately long, 
with a brush at the end; the hair elsewhere 
on the body is short; the hoofs are rather 
large for the limbs, and the skin of the knees 
is bare and callous, from their habit of going 
on their knees in attack and defence. The 
general color of the common species (C. gnu, 
H. Smith) is yellowish tawny, darkest on the 
back and legs, with the tips of the long hair 
blackish. The gnu, though clumsy in appear- 
ance, is very swift and active, galloping over 
the plains like a horse, and feeding in large 
herds like wild cattle ; when alarmed, it rarely 
takes to flight until it has examined into the 
cause of the danger, a curiosity of which the 
hunter is able to take advantage; it is very 
pugnacious, and is tamed with difficulty. The 
common species is about 3 ft. 10 in. high at the 
shoulders, and 6^ ft. long from nose to tail. A 
second and larger species is the Icokoon or 
brindled gnu, ~blauwe wilde beest (C. taurina et 
gorgon, H. Smith), which measures about 5 ft. 
at the shoulders and 7$ ft. from nose to tail, 
the tail If ft, and the horns about 2 ft. long. 
The face is blackish, the sides of the head and 
neck yellowish gray, the latter and the shoul- 
ders with vertical dark stripes ; the body above 
and the sides glossy reddish gray ; below, and 
the limbs, reddish brown. Both species in- 
habit the extensive grassy plains of central 



56 



GOA 



Africa, advancing southward after the summer 
rains to the Orange river, south of which only 
the common and first named species ranges. 
Great numbers are killed every year by the 
Cape colonists, but their annual visitations still 
continue; the flesh is considered excellent. 

GOA. I. A Portuguese colony in India, on the 
W coast, between lat. 14 54' and 15 45' N., 
and Ion. 78 45' and 74 26' E., bounded N. by 
Sawuntwarree, E. by N. Canara, and W. and S. 
by the Indian ocean ; pop. about 41 8,000. With 
the exception of Damaun and Diu, it is the 
only Portuguese possession in India. It is well 
watered and fertile, producing rice, pepper, co- 
coanuts, betel nuts, and salt. The inhabitants, 
two thirds of whom are Roman Catholics, are 
chiefly descendants of Europeans by native 
women. II. Old Got, a city of the above named 
colony, and formerly capital of the Portuguese 
possessions in India, on an island separated 
from the mainland by the river Mandova, 250 
m. 8. 8. E. of Bombay; pop. about 4,000. 
The houses are built of stone in the European 

the streets are regular, and the public 
buildings far surpass everything else erected 
by Europeans in India, but are falling to de- 
cay, and the ruins of the ancient edifices have 
been used as quarries for building materials in 
the new town. During the 16th century it 
was one of the most flourishing European set- 
tlements in the East ; its walls described a cir- 
cuit of 6 m., and enclosed a population of 150,- 
000 Christians and 50,000 Mohammedans ; but 
the site is unhealthy, and was abandoned early 
in the 18th century. St. Francis Xavier was 
l>uriod there, March 15, 1554; but his remains, 
with his magnificent tomb, covered with 
sculptures representing passages in his life, 
have been removed to the new town. Old 
Goa is now nearly deserted ; but some pains 
are taken to keep the ancient churches and 
public buildings in repair. III. New Goa, Pan- 
Jim, or PangaiM, situated on the same island, 5 
m. nearer to the sea than the old town, on a 
fine bay 8. of a headland called Algoada 
point, with two lighthouses, is a fortified place, 
ati'l since 1768 the Portuguese capital in the 
East; pop. about 24,000. It is the residence 
of the governor and principal Portuguese in- 
habitant-*, and the seat of an archbishop. The 
principal buildings are the cathedral, custom 
house, and the palaces of the archbishop and 
the governor. The trade, once the most im- 
portant of any place in India, is now trifling, 
and is limited to the mother country and the 

niese settlements on the coast of China 
and Africa. The revenue of the colony is about 
1600,000 annually. Goa was taken from the 
Hindoos by the Mohammedan sovereign of the 
Deccan in 1469. In 1510 it was captured by 
'icse, who made it the capital of 
-ts in India; and it has ever since 
remained in their hands except during the pe- 
riod from 1807 to 1815, when it was held by 

itish. In no part of the world was the 
inquisition more vigorously maintained than in 



GOAT 

Goa. A mutiny of the native troops took place 
here in November, 1871. 

GOALPARA, or N. E. Rnngpoor, a district of 
Bengal, British India, bounded N. by the na- 
tive state of Bootan, E. by the district of Cam- 
roop, S. by Mymunsing and the territory of 
the Garrow tribes, and W. by Rungpoor and 
Cooch Behar ; area, 4,433 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
442,761. It produces cotton, tobacco, sugar, 
and mustard. Though belonging properly to 
Bengal, of which it formed a part on the ac- 
quisition of that territory by the British in 
1765, it is often regarded as a district of As- 
sam, with which country it is naturally con- 
nected by similarity of climate, soil, &c. The 
town of the same name, on the Brahmapootra, 
280 m. N. E. of Calcutta, is the chief trading 
place of the region. 

GOAT (capra, Linn.), a hollow-horned rumi- 
nant, of the subfamily ovince, which also con- 
tains the sheep. The genus is characterized 
by a convex forehead, nose for the most part 
straight in its upper outline, and the absence 
of lachrymal sinuses and secreting glands be- 
tween the hoofs ; the horns, present in both 
sexes, but larger and more angular in the males, 
are of a dull yellowish brown color, compress- 
ed and nodose, with a sharp edge behind and 
before, curving backward, but not completing 
a circle, and the tips never coming forward ; 
their curve, unlike those of the sheep, forma 
part of a circle, whose diameter is much longer 
than the head ; their osseous nucleus is porous 
or cellular, communicating with the frontal 
sinuses ; the chin is bearded, the tail very short 
and naked below, the hoofs as high on the in- 
ner as on the outer side, and the mammas, gen- 
erally two, forming an udder ; the nose is cov- 
ered with hair, except a narrow naked space 
between the nostrils; the limbs are strong, 
with a callosity on the carpus. The dental for- 
mula is: incisors $; canines none; molars |z|; 
in all 32 teeth. The hair is never very coarse, 
and sometimes remarkably fine, with a woolly 
down underneath. The period of gestation is 
five months, and the number of young general- 
ly two ; the female is capable of propagating 
at seven months, and the male at a year old ; 
the age of the goat may be extended to 15 years, 
though they are generally old at 6. The males 
emit a powerful odor, and are libidinous and 
pugnacious. They ascend giddy heights, and 
spring with great precision from rock to rock 
where there seems hardly a possibility of their 
obtaining a foothold ; their sight and smell are 
acute. The hunting of the wild species is both 
difficult and dangerous. The goats include the 
ibex of Europe, Asia, and Africa (see IBEX) ; 
the wild agagrus, and the Jemlah goat or the 
jharal. There is no goat indigenous to Amer- 
ica, the so-called Rocky mountain goat being 
in reality an antelope. The common wild goat 
(<?. [hircut] cegagrus, Pallas) inhabits the moun- 
tains of the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Persia, 
and according to some the European Alps. It 
is higher on the legs than the domestic goat, 




GOAT 



57 



ad the horns are large in proportion to the 
size of the animal. The general color is gray- 
ish brown alwve, with a dark dorsal line and 
blackish tail ; the colors are paler in the female. 
Another wild species is the Jemlah goat (G. 
Jemlahica, H. Smith), with depressed, knobby, 




Domestic Goat (Capi-a hircus). 



wrinkled horns, a solid, heavy skull, and ro- 
bust limbs; the hair on the neck and back is 
abundant, long, and loose, and on the sides of 
the head very coarse ; the tail is very short ; 
the color is a dirty whitish fawn. It inhabits 
the district of Jemlah, in the elevated mountain 
chain of central Asia. The C. cossus and C. 
imberbis (De Blainville) are believed to be do- 
mesticated varieties of this species. The jha- 
ral of Hodgson is by Gray referred to the same 
species as the last, forming the genus hemitra- 
gus (Hodg.); they have four mammae. The 
domestic goat (C. hircus, Linn.) resembles the 
C. cegagrus more than any other wild species. 
The common goat of the mountainous coun- 
tries of Europe much resembles the aegagrus, 
and has in some places become so wild as to 
be difficult of approach ; the ears are small and 
upright; the size of the body is smaller, the 
hair coarser, the horns more vertical and turn- 
ing outward, and the colors more varied. The 
Persian goat resembles a small segagrus ; the 
hair is long and coarse. The "Welsh breed is 
large, generally white, with long fine hair, and 
with vertical horns about 3 ft. long. There 
are small hornless breeds of goats in South 
America, the West Indies, and the Pacific isl- 
ands, supposed to have originated from Africa. 
The Angora has long soft hair, mostly white, 
long ears, upright yellowish horns, and a sheep- 
like look. The famous Cashmere (properly 
Thibet) breed have long, straight, silky hair, 
large pendent ears, and slender legs. The Ne- 
paul goat is black, of a high and slender figure, 
with an arched form of nose, and long, hanging, 



whitish ears. The goat of upper Egypt is of 
a brownish color and high stature, with long 
shaggy hair, arched nose, ample pendent ears, 
and the upper jaw so much shorter than the 
under that the lower incisors and chin are ex- 
posed. Goat skins were probably among the 
first materials used for clothing among the 
northern nations. The milk of the goat is 
used for making cheese, and is prescribed as a 
medicine in debilitated constitutions and pul- 
monary diseases. In the malarious regions 
of Asia cow's milk is regarded as a predis- 
posing cause of bilious fevers and diseases of 
the liver, and goat's milk is therefore sub- 
stituted. The flesh of the kid is esteemed as 
food ; from the skin are made fine gloves, va- 
rious garments, and the real Morocco leather ; 
from the hair of one variety are manufactured 
the costly fabrics of Cashmere. (See CASH- 
MEEE.) The Rocky mountain goat is referred 
to the genus capra by Desmoulins, Harlan, Sun- 
devall, Eichardson, Bachman, and Van der 
Hoeven ; but recent examinations go to show 
that in all its essential features and affinities it 
is an antelope, and belongs to the genus aplo- 
cerus (H. Smith). It resembles the goat and 
merino sheep in its figure and size ; the horns 
are small, conical, smooth, nearly erect, and 
jet black. The outer hair is long, straight, and 
white, as fine and soft as that of the Cashmere 
goat ; the chin is bearded ; the external fleece 
hangs down all over the body and upper part 
of the legs ; the under hairs are soft and silky 
like wool. It inhabits the highest and most 
inaccessible peaks of the Rocky mountains 
between the parallels of 40 and 65 N., and is 
most abundant in Washington territory ; it is 
very difficult to procure ; the mountain sheep 




Eocky Mountain Goat (Aplocerus montanup). 

(ovis montana, Cuv.), or big-horn, has been 
often mistaken for it by travellers. The goats 
are rarely found fossil, and belong nearly^to 
the same epoch of creation as man, forming 
probably the first step by their domestication 
in his progress toward civilization. The goat 



58 



GOATSUCKER 



was one of the signs of the ancient zodiac 
(Capricorn) ; the mythological Pan, the god of 
shepherds aiid the supreme power over nature, 
was represented with the horns and legs of a 
goat ; the agi, or shield of Jupiter, was cov- 
ered with the skin of a goat ; this animal was 
sacred to several ancient divinities, and even 
under the Jewish dispensation was emblemati- 
cal of atonement. 

MUlMt Mill, a nocturnal fissirostral bird, 
of the order passeres or insesaores, suborder 
ftruore*, and the family caprimulgidce. The 
family are characterized by a short, very broad, 
depressed bill, with an immense gape extending 
beneath the eyes and rendered larger by nu- 
merous bristles for arresting their insect prey ; 
the eyes are very large, and easily dazzled by 
the full light of day ; the tarsi are short and 
weak, the toes long, the hind toe closely united 
to the base of the inner ; the plumage is soft, 
enabling them to fly without noise. In the 
sombre colors and texture of the feathers, in 
the large head and eyes and nocturnal habits, 
they resemble the owls, but zoologically they 
come nearest to the swift family. The name 
goatsucker is derived from the Latinized Greek 
appellative caprimulgus, which originated in 
the idea that they suck the mamma of goats; 
the French call these birds engoulevente, or 
wind swallowers, and crapauds volants, or fly- 
ing toads, probably on account of the great 
capacity of the mouth. Like the owls, they 
hide themselves by day, coming out toward 
sunset, and pursuing insects on the wing with 
great rapidity during the twilight ; they make 
no nests, but deposit their eggs on the bare 
ground or in slight concavities ; they are found 
in ull parts of the world, but most abundantly 
in South America. There are three subfami- 
lies: tteatornina, or oil birds, found in the 
West and East Indies, Australia, Africa, and 
South America; caprimulgince, alone repre- 
sented in the United States ; and podagerince, 
in Africa and South America. In the first sub- 
family the genus steatorni* (Humboldt) become 
so plump on the rich palm fruits of Guadeloupe 
and Trinidad in the breeding season that their 
fat is compared to that of olive oil, and as such 
is permitted to be used during Lent. Some 
species of the genus nyctibiu* (Vieill.) are as 
large as a short-eared owl. Among the capri- 
mulgina are included the European goatsucker, 
the North American chuckwill's widow, whip- 
)" r\\ ill, and night hawk, and the South Amer- 
ican scissors-tailed goatsucker. The European 
species (oiprimnlgut Europasus, Linn.) is as 
large as a thrush, of a gray brown color, undu- 
lated and spotted with blackish brown, with a 
band of white from the bill to the nape; it 
nestles in the furze, and lays two eggs. From 
the nature of its food and its method of taking 
it, and its manner of flying, it is often called 
i;ire-tailcd swallow; it feeds on noctur- 
n.ii inMCti likr moths and beetles, and migrates 
faring winter into southern Europe and north- 
vrii Africa, The chuckwill's widow (antrosto- 



mus Carolinemis, Gould) is the largest of the 
North American species, being about 13 in. 
long, with an extent of wings of 26 in. ; it has 
very strong bristles at the base of the bill, each 
with lateral filaments ; the wings are long, and 
the tail slightly rounded ; the prevailing color 




CbuckwilTs Widow (Antrostomus Carolinensis). 

is pale rufous, the top of the head reddish 
brown with longitudinal black streaks, the last 
two thirds of the tail feathers (except the four 
central) rufous white, with the outer webs of 
all mottled ; the female has no white patch on 
the tail ; it is found in the southern Atlantic 
and gulf states. The popular name of the bird 
is derived from the sounds which it utters very 
clearly and strongly six or seven times in quick 
succession in a melancholy tone ; they are sel- 




Leona Goatsucker (Macrodipteryx longipennis). 

dom heard in cloudy weather, and never, ac- 
cording to Audubon, when it rains. The flight 
is rapid, graceful, and elevated. It makes its 
appearance from the south in the gulf states 
about the middle of March ; no nest is made, 
but the eggs are laid among the dead leaves ; 




GOBELINS 



59 




the eggs be disturbed, the birds remove them 
their mouths (according to Audubon, who 
itnessed the fact), and place them in another 
locality ; they probably remove the young in 
the same manner. They manifest a great an- 
tipathy to all kinds of snakes. They leave the 
United States about the middle of August. The 
whippoorwill (A. vociferus, Wils.) and the night 
hawk (chordeiles Virginianus, Briss.) will be 
described under their proper titles. The scis- 
sors-tailed species (C.furcifer, Vieill.) of Para- 
uay is remarkable for the length of the outer 
thers of the tail, gradually diminishing to 
tip. Among the podagerince is the Leona 
tsucker (macrodipteryx longipennis, Shaw), 
native of Africa, having the innermost quill 
the wings extremely prolonged and deficient 
webs except at the end, and longer than the 
itself. The genus podager (Wagl.) has 
ig wings and short even tail, and short and 
.thered tarsi ; it is found in the warmer parts 
of South America, frequenting fields and moist 
places, usually in pairs, but occasionally in large 
flocks, chasing insects in the full light of day ; 
it lays two eggs on the bare ground. Most of 
the goatsuckers have the inner edge of the 
iddle claw pectinated, like a comb, for the 
rpose of cleansing the bristles of the bill 
m remains of insects and particles of dirt. 
GOBELINS, Manufactory of the, an establish- 
ent in Paris belonging to the French govern- 
ent, devoted to the production of tapestry 
d carpets. It is situated in the faubourg 
Marcel, upon the Bievre, being No. 254 
Mouffetard. It derives its name from the 
others Jehan and Gilles Gobelin, who discov- 
an improvement in scarlet dye, and erect- 
this building as they believed that the water 
the little stream Bievre possessed qualities 
vantageous to their art. Jehan, the head 
the Gobelin family, died in 1476 ; some 
intain that he was a native of Rheims, and 
hers that he came from Holland. His scar- 
dye soon rose into great repute. The 
tablishment was purchased by Louis XIV., 
.d transformed in 1667 into the manufacture 
ale des meubles de la couronne. The royal 
ry was not only a dye house and a manu- 
tory of tapestry, but an immense workshop 
which everything was executed that was 
eeded for furnishing and decorating houses, 
vers in metal and gold and silversmiths 
roduced chandeliers, torch-holders, candle- 
cks, and statuary bronzes, in keeping with 
e magnificent tapestry designs, which skilful 
eavers wrought after patterns furnished by 
e royal painters ; cabinet makers carved, 
rned, and gilded the wood of the furniture ; 
orentine artists inlaid beautiful mosaics ; and 
us everything, even the knobs and locks of 
dows and doors, was executed in the high- 
style of art. The royal painter, Lebrun, 
as the director of this immense establishment, 
ignard, who succeeded Lebrun, opened in it 
school of design. Though the works were 
~.y to execute private orders, their prosper- 



ered 



ity was chiefly dependent on the patronage of 
Louis XIV. ; and when, on account of the pe- 
cuniary embarrassments of the crown after the 
year 1694, this patronage was withdrawn, all 
the skilled workmen had to be dismissed. Af- 
ter the peace of Ryswick (1697) the Gobelins 
was opened again, but the operations were re- 
stricted to the manufacture of tapestry, which 
was generally made only for presentation to 
crowned heads and persons of distinction. The 
revolution threw the establishment into neg- 
lect, and Napoleon gave it little encourage- 
ment ; but the Bourbons, who returned to the 
old custom of making gifts with the celebrated 
tapestry, brought it again into a flourishing con- 
dition, in which it remained, with slight inter- 
ruptions, till it was partly burned by the com- 
munists, May 24, 1871. The manufactory of 
the Gobelins is now divided into three distinct 
sections : the dye house, the tapestry workshop, 
and the carpet factory. The dye house pro- 
duces not only all different colors, but from 20 to 
30 shades of each. While many of the hang- 
ings worked 50 years ago are already faded, 
the factory is now able to produce any color 
perfectly fast. This great progress is due to 
the labors of the eminent chemist Chevreul, 
who was employed by the government to in- 
struct the Gobelins dyers. Large rooms are 
devoted to the Jiautes lisses, or high warps, 
upon which the tapestries are suspended as the 
work goes on. The warp hangs from a horizon- 
tal cylinder, and as every yard or thereabout 
in length is completed, it is wound upon an- 
other cylinder in the lower part of the frame. 
The principal features of the design being traced 
with white chalk by the artist upon the stretched 
thread of the warp, he marks, with the aid of 
tracings from the picture, which he attaches 
to the warp, the exact positions of the light 
and dark shades. Then, with the pattern con- 
veniently placed for reference, the artist sta- 
tions himself against the back of the tapestry, 
and, with his worsteds and silks at hand, be- 
gins to work in the different colors. The ver- 
tical threads of the warp are divided by a hed- 
dle or cross stick which keeps half of them in 
advance of the rest ; but those behind can be 
brought forward whenever required by means 
of small cords, one of which is attached to each 
warp thread. The left hand is introduced be- 
tween the two sets of threads, taking up as 
many as need be, and through these tbe needle 
is passed from left to right. The thread when 
stretched is piled with the point of the needle, 
and is then passed back in the contrary direc- 
tion through the space opened by shifting the 
position of the front and back threads. By 
ingeniously combining the woofs, the colors 
are made to blend perfectly, and effects are 
obtained like those of painting. The work is 
so slowly executed that an artist is not expect- 
ed to average in a year a production of more 
than about 39 inches square. In 1826 the 
manufactory of carpets, called la savonnerie, 
from an old soap factory in which the making 



60 



GOBERT 



of carpets had been carried on from the year 
1815, was connected with the tapestry estab- 
lishment. The carpets are remarkable for 
smoothness and evenness of texture and their 
strength and fineness, excelling even the Per- 
sian in these respects. Some of them require 

vo to ten years for their completion, and 
cost 80 000 to 150,000 francs. All the carpets 
made during the reign of Napoleon III. were 
used for the decoration of the imperial palaces. 
The largest ever made was manufactured for 
the gallery of the Louvre. It consists of 72 
pieces, the total length being more than 1,300 
ft. Among the celebrated pieces executed 
at this establishment is a picture, completed 
about the year 1844, of the "Massacre of the 
Mamelukes," after the celebrated work of 
Horace Vernet, which has been presented to 
the queen of England. The portrait of Louis 
XIV., by Rigaud, is considered the finest work 
of the Gobelins. Titian's "Assumption" was 
worked after a copy by Serrur into a magnifi- 
cent tapestry 21 ft. high. 

GOBERT, Napoleon, baron, a French philan- 
thropist, born in 1807, died in Cairo, Egypt, in 
1833. He was the son of a general, and godson 
of Napoleon. He served in the army without 
li>rim-tion. By his will the French academy 
and the academy of inscriptions were made his 
residuary legatees, on condition that the for- 
mer should award nine tenths of the income 
of its share of the legacy as a prize to the au- 
thor of the most eloquent work on French 
hi-tory that had appeared during the year pre- 
ceding the distribution, and one tenth to the 

ii merit; and that the academy of in- 
scriptions should award similar prizes to the 
authors of the first and second most learned 
nnl profound works on the history of France ; 
this income to be paid annually to the recipi- 
ents until better works of the same kind should 
appear. The heirs unsuccessfully contested 
the bequest, but the academies compounded 
with them, and secured an income of 10,000 
francs each, which has since 1840 been dis- 
posed of in accordance with the will. 

GOBI (Mongol, a desert), an immense tract 
of country in central Asia, occupying mainly 
the table land between the Altai mountains 
on the north and the Kuenlun on the south, 
between lat. 37 and 50 N., and Ion. 80 and 
120 E. It is about 1,800 m. long, with an 
average breadth of nearly 350 m., though in 
some parts it is much greater; area, about 
600,000 sq. m. It is divided into two nearly 
i, the western being comprehended 
in Torkistap, the eastern in Mongolia, a small 
in;: in the Chinese province of Kansu, 

.i.-hiiiK to the Chinese wall. Of the 
western part little is known; the surface con- 
sists mainly of lino loose sand, which is drift- 
ed about by the winds, and sand storms are 
re-nee. It is drained by the 
Y:irk:md or haria, which falls into Lake Lob- 

fa ha* no outlet, and is consequently 
brackish. Similar salt lakes are numerous 



GODAYERY 

throughout the desert ; and upon these and the 
rivers which flow into them the Tartars pitch 
their tents and raise their cattle. The eastern 
part is somewhat better known ; there are a 
few fertile valleys and some towns ; but a large 
part, called by the Chinese Shamo, or the Sand 
sea, 'is a plain 2,500 to 3,000 ft. above the sea, 
covered with gravel and small stones. Pastur- 
age is the usual occupation of the Mongolians, 
who lead a nomadic life in the mountain frin- 
ges of E. Gobi. It is drained toward the east 
by the head waters of the Amoor, which falls 
into the sea of Okhotsk, and toward the north 
by the Selenga, which, bursting through the 
Altai range, falls into Lake Baikal. The cli- 
mate of the entire desert is intensely cold du- 
ring the winter, which lasts nine months. See 
Atkinson's "Explorations in Siberia, Mongo- 
lia," &c. (1857). 

GOBY, a spiny-rayed fish, of the genus gobius 
(Linn.), found on the rocky and sandy coasts 
of the old world. The black goby (G. niger, 
Linn.), the largest on the British coasts, is about 
6 in. long ; it has two dorsal fins, and the ven- 
trals are united below the throat into a sucking 
disk by which it can attach itself to the rocks, 




Goby (Gobius niger) 



to which it retires to devour its living prey. 
Gobies, like the allied blennies, are very tena- 
cious of life, and will live a considerable time 
out of the water. It was known to the an- 
cients that the goby of the Mediterranean built 
in the spring a nest, well made of seaweeds, in 
which the female deposited her eggs, guarded 
by the male until they were hatched; other 
species make a similar nest. Gobies are some- 
times found in very deep water. 

GODAVERY, a large river of British India, 
rising in the Western Ghauts, about 60 m. from 
the Indian ocean, lat. 19 58' N., Ion. 73 30' E., 
and, after a S. E. course of 900 m. across the 
peninsula, flowing into the bay of Bengal by 
two principal channels. It receives in its course 
the Manjera from the south, and the Poorna 
and Wurdah from the north. After the junc- 
tion of the Wurdah it is a mile wide, and after 
passing through the mountainous region it be- 
comes 4 m. wide. The delta commences at 
Pechakalunka, in lat. 16 57' N., Ion. 81 49' 
E., and contains an area of 500 sq. m. The 
banks of the river on each side are marked by 
ridges a few feet high, formed by deposits du- 
ring the inundation. From Coringa, at its prin- 
cipal mouth, the navigation was until recently 




25O L 



GODDARD 



cticable only for vessels drawing not more 
than 3 ft., and at Sinteral, about 140 m. up 
the river, were several barriers. A dam now 
stretches across the Godavery above one of 
these barriers, nearly a mile long, and from 10 
to 12 ft wide. A canal is thus formed about 
26 m. long, which is provided with double locks 
ft. long and 25 ft. wide. At Enchapully is 
barrier of rocks, and the river becomes very 
uous ; here another dam has been formed 
of loose stones, 3,600 ft. long and 12 to 24 ft. 
high, and a canal was made to connect it with 
the lower level. By these means the river is 
open for navigation up to the Wurdah, which 
can be ascended near to the cotton mart of 
Umrawutty. The completion of these works 
has given a strong impulse to the progress of 
the country. As early as 1846 the East India 
company began their construction, but the out- 
break of the mutiny in 1857 checked the work 
for a long time. In 1863 the work was re- 
sumed, and the river, formerly navigable only 
for small craft and during the rainy season, now 
carries large ships and steamboats far inland. 

GODDARD, Arabella, an English pianist, born 
at St. Servan, near St. Malo, Brittany, in Jan- 
uary, 1836. She very early manifested great mu- 
sical talent, and was instructed on the piano by 
Kalkbrenner in Paris, and, after the removal 
of her parents to London in 1848, by Mrs. 
Anderson, pianist to the queen, and Thalberg. 
Her first public appearance was at a concert in 
her father's residence, March 30, 1850 ; and in 
October she played at the grand national con- 
certs, becoming known as a brilliant performer 
of the music of Thalberg and the modern ro- 
mantic school. Subsequently she studied har- 
mony with Macfarren, and has played more 
classical music. In 1854-'6 she gave concerts 
in the principal cities of France, Germany, and 
Italy. In 1860 she was married to Mr. Davison, 
a musical critic, but still retains professionally 
her maiden name. In 1872 she visited the 
United States and played at the great musical 
festival in Boston. 

GODERICH, a town, port of entry, and the 
capital of Huron co., Ontario, Canada, on the 
E. shore of Lake Huron, at the mouth of the 
Maitland river, and at the terminus of the 
Buffalo and Goderich branch of the Grand 
Trunk railway, 118 m. W. of Toronto ; pop. in 
1871, 3,954. The surrounding country is fer- 
tile and picturesque, and the town is much fre- 
Suented in summer for the cool air from the 
ike. It has a good harbor, protected by a 
pier, and is furnished with a lighthouse. Daily 
lines of steamers run to Sarnia, Detroit, and 
ports on the lake. The fisheries are valuable. 
The town is celebrated for its salt wells, of 
which eight are in operation. It also contains a 
large grain elevator, manufactories of woollens, 
iron castings, machinery, leather, boots and 
shoes, wooden ware, &c., several saw and grist 
mills, two branch banks, two weekly newspa- 
pers, and churches of four denominations. 
GODERICH, Viscount. See RIPON, earl of. 



GODMAN 



61 



GODFREY, Thomas, an American mathemati- 
cian, born in Philadelphia, died in December, 
1749. He had but a common education, and 
followed the business of a glazier in his native 
city ; but he mastered all the books on mathe- 
matics that he could obtain, and learned Latin 
to read mathematical works in that language. 
He borrowed a copy of Newton's Principia 
from James Logan, secretary of the common- 
wealth, and in 1730 communicated to him an 
improvement that he had made in Davis's 
quadrant. In 1732 Logan gave an account of 
the invention to Edmund Hadley of England, 
and Godfrey also prepared a description of it 
addressed to the royal society of London, but 
did not send it, awaiting the eifect of the letter 
to Hadley. No answer was received after an 
interval of a year and a half, and then the in- 
vention of Godfrey was laid before the royal 
society by the botanist Peter Collinson. Mean- 
time, in 1731, Mr. Hadley had presented a paper 
containing a full description of an improve- 
ment of the quadrant similar to that of God- 
frey. 'The rival claims were investigated by 
the royal society, and it was decided that they 
were both entitled to the honor of the inven- 
tion, and a reward of 200 was bestowed on 
Godfrey, in household furniture instead of 
money, on account of his intemperate habits. 
Godfrey's or Hadley's quadrant is the same in 
principle and application as the sextant. 

GODFREY OF BOUILLON. See BOUILLON. 

GODIVA. See COVENTRY. 

GODKIN, Edward Laurence, an American jour- 
nalist, born at Moyne, county Wicklow, Ireland, 
Oct. 2, 1831. He was educated at Queen's 
college, Belfast, and during the Crimean war 
(1854-' 6) was correspondent in Turkey and 
Russia of the London "Daily News." In 1856 
he came to the United States, and made a jour- 
ney on horseback through the southern states, 
which he described in a series of letters to the 
"Daily News." He then studied law in New 
York, and was admitted to the bar in 1858, but 
has never practised. In 1862 he was again 
employed as correspondent of the "Daily 
News," and was also a writer of leading arti- 
cles for the " New York Times." In July, 1865, 
he became editor of "The Nation," and since 
1866 has also been its proprietor. 

GODMAN, John D., an American naturalist, 
born in Annapolis, Md., Dec. 20, 1794, died in 
Germantown, Pa., April 17, 1830. He was 
apprenticed to a printer in Baltimore, but at 
the age of 20 enlisted in the navy and was 
present at the defence of Fort McIIenry. Af- 
ter the war he studied medicine, and practised 
till 1821, when he became professor in the 
medical college of Ohio at Cincinnati, and 
commenced there the " Western Quarterly Re- 
porter." In 1822 he removed to Philadelphia 
and devoted himself to the science of anatomy, 
of which in 1826 he became professor in Rut- 
gers medical school, New York; but he soon 
resigned and went to the "West Indies for his 
health, and on his return settled in German- 



62 



GODOLPIIIN 



town He prepared the zoSlogical articles for 
the " Encyclopaedia Americana " as far as the 
end of the letter C, and contributed to various 
M-u-ntitic periodicals. His principal work is 
\merican Natural History" (3 vols. 8vo, 
Philadelphia, 1823-'8), besides which he pub- 
lished an "Account of some Irregularities 
of Structure and Morbid Anatomy," "Bell's 
Anatomy," with notes, " Anatomical Investi- 
gations," and " Rambles of a Naturalist." 

GODOLPIIIN, Sidney, earl of, an English states- 
man, born in Cornwall about 1635, died Sept. 
5, 1712. Soon after the restoration of the 
monarchy he was made one of the grooms of 
the bedchamber to Charles II., was elected 
member of parliament in 1661, and became 
privy councillor in 1679. He voted for the ex- 
clusion of the duke of York from the throne 
in 1680, was made first commissioner of the 
treasury in 1684, and after the accession of 
James II. was retained in office as chamberlain 
to the queen, and became one of the chief roy- 
al advisers. He took office under William III., 
having become an almost indispensable part of 
the machinery of state, was placed at the head 
of the treasury, and on the accession of Queen 
Anne in 1702 was created lord high treasurer, 
being the first person who had held that office 
since the revolution. He was, however, led 
by Marlborough to doubt the stability of the 
government created by the revolution, and he 
served it for six years while at the same time 
sending professions of attachment and prom- 
ises of service to James. In 1706 he was 
created Viscount Rialton and earl of Godol- 
pliin, attached himself to the whig party, and 
the final result of his struggle with Harley for 
the premiership was his sudden and rude dis- 
missal from office in 1710. Godolphin was the 
most prudent and experienced of the finan- 
ciers of his time. " Every government, there- 
fore," says Macaulay, " found him a useful ser- 
vant ; and there was nothing in his opinions or 
in his character to prevent him from serving 
any government." He was a keen gambler 
und horse racer. 

GODOY, Mtnntl de, a Spanish statesman, born 
in Badajoz, May 12, 1767, died in Paris in Oc- 
tober, 1851. Descended from an old and noble 
family, yet poor, he went to Madrid at the age 
of 17 to seek his fortune. He entered the mili- 
tary service, and his handsome figure, amiable 
character, and elegant manners soon attracted 
the notice first of the ladies of the court, then 
of the queen, and next of the king. His talent 
for intrigue gained him rapid advancement, and 
he was successively created duke of Alcudia, 
generalissimo of the land forces, grand admiral 
.in and of the Indies, secretary of state, 
prim.- minister to succeed Aranda in 1792, 
knight of the golden fleece, and a grandee of 
Spain of the first class. When Louis XVI. 
was brought to trial by the convention, Godoy 
declared war against France ; but by the treaty 
of Basi-1 in 17'.i"> Spain formed an alliance with 
the republic. For this service Charles IV. gave 



GODUNOFF 

him the title of " prince of the peace," and a 
domain which yielded him a large revenue. In 

1797 he married Maria Theresa de Bourbon, 
niece of the king, although it is alleged that he 
was already secretly married to Josephine Tudo, 
the daughter of a military officer. Obliged in 

1798 to resign his power for a time, he re- 
sumed it in 1801, when he signed the treaty 
of Badajoz, which proposed to partition Por- 
tugal between France and Spain, and which 
by a secret article gave to himself more than 
$3,000,000. During his ministry the Spanish 
possession of Louisiana was transferred to 
France. In the height of his power, however, 
he incurred the enmity of the nobles by his pre- 
ponderance in the government, of the priests 
by his opposition to the inquisition, and of the 
people, who attributed to him all the political 
evils they endured ; and soon a strong party 
was formed against him under the patronage 
of the prince of Asturias, afterward Ferdinand 
VII. When Napoleon determined upon the 
dethronement of the Bourbons of Spain, and at 
the same time a criminal suit instigated by the 
prince of Asturias was pending against Godoy, 
the latter advised the royal family to take ref- 
uge in America. This project was not matured 
when an insurrection broke out against Godoy, 
who was seized by the populace in his hotel, 
and his life having been with difficulty saved, 
he was held prisoner to await the course of 
justice. Napoleon however, who wished to 
avail himself of his influence over Charles IV. 
to secure the renunciation of the crown of 
Spain by that monarch, obtained his freedom, 
and invited him to the conferences of Bayonne 
(1808). Godoy drew up the act of abdication 
signed by the king, whom he then accompanied 
in his exile to Rome ; and his immense posses- 
sions in Spain were confiscated. Godoy lived 
in Paris after the death of Charles IV., and 
received a pension of 5,000 francs from Louis 
Philippe, although in 1842 he was reinstated 
in his dignities in Spain. His "Memoirs," of 
which he was only nominally the author, ap- 
peared in Madrid, Paris, and London in 1836. 

GODFflOFF, Boris Fedoroviteh, a czar of Rus- 
sia, bora in 1552, died in 1605. He was a 
brother-in-law of the czar Feodor L, whose 
infirmities of body and mind enabled Godunoff 
to obtain complete control of the government. 
He aspired to the throne, and had most of his 
rivals put to death or exiled. Among his vic- 
tims was Demetrius, the younger brother of 
Feodor and heir to the crown, who was ban- 
ished to Uglitch, where he died by violence 
in 1591. On the death of Feodor, in 1598, 
Godunoff succeeded to the throne, mainly 
through the aid of the patriarch of Moscow, 
the head of the national church. He sought 
to distinguish his reign by various reforms 
and by promoting education, and to dazzle 
the people by magnificent monuments. Great 
disaffection arose in the empire, and in 1604 
a pretender claiming to be Demetrius appear- 
ed from Poland at the head of a consider- 




GODWIN 



63 



able army. He won a battle at Novgorod, 
but was signally defeated at Dobrynitcbe. 
(See DEMETRIUS.) At this juncture Godunoff 
suddenly died, and his death was popularly 
ascribed to poison administered by himself. 
His son and successor, Feodor, perished soon 
after. Russian historians generally consider 
Godunoff as a usurper; but the house of Ro- 
manoff regard him as a legitimate sovereign. 

GODWIN, earl of Wessex, a Saxon noble, born 
about the end of the 10th century, died in 
April, 1053. He was a cowherd, but having 
ingratiated himself with Ulfr, the brother-in- 
law of King Canute, he received in marriage 
the daughter of that chieftain, and became the 
most powerful nobleman in England. In the 
interest of Harold Harefoot he was believed to 
have procured the murder of Prince Alfred ; 
but he was pardoned both by Hardicanute and 
Edward the Confessor, Alfred's brothers, and 
exerted himself to secure the crown for the 
latter. He afterward rebelled against Edward, 
by refusing to punish arbitrarily the men of 
Dover for the riot against Earl Eustace, and 
was obliged to flee the kingdom ; but returning 
with a body of troops, he compelled the king 
to restore his possessions and dignities. Within 
a year after his restoration Godwin died. The 
Norman historians relate that he stood up at 
the king's banquet to aver his innocence of the 
death of Alfred, but fell speechless to the earth, 
and died soon after. He was the father of 
Harold, the last Saxon king. 

GODWIN, George, an English architect and 
author, born at Brompton, Middlesex, Jan. 28, 
1815. He was instrumental in founding the 
London art union in 1836-7, of which in 1839 
he was made chief honorary secretary ; and 
to the " Art Union Magazine," now the " Art 
Journal," he became a constant contributor 
after its establishment in 1839. In 1844, hav- 
ing previously published " The Churches of 
London," he became editor of the " Builder." 
His chief architectural works are St. Mary's 
church, West Brompton, and the restoration 
of the church of St. Mary Redcliff, Bristol. 
He has published " Churches of London " 
(1838), "Facts and Fancies" (1844), "History 
in Ruins" (1853), "London Shadows" (1854), 
"Buildings and Monuments," " Town Swamps 
and London Bridges " (1859), " Memorials for 
Workers," and "Another Blow for Life" 
(1864). He has also written several dramas. 

GODWIN, Parke, an American journalist, 
born in Paterson, N. J., Feb. 25, 1816. He 
graduated at Princeton college in 1834, studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Kentucky, 
but did not practise. From 1837 to 1843 he 
was an editorial contributor to the New York 
"Evening Post," edited by his father-in-law, 
William Cullen Bryant ; and in February, 1848, 
he began a literary and political weekly jour- 
nal, "The Pathfinder," which he continued 
three months, when he resumed his connec- 
tion with the " Evening Post." In February, 
1843, he advocated free trade in a public de- 
365 VOL. vin. 5 



bate in New York with Horace Greeley and 
others. In 1844 he published "A Popular 
View of the Doctrines of Charles Fourier," 
and a treatise on Fourier's ideas of industrial 
association, entitled " Democracy, Pacific and 
Constructive." In 1845 he was appointed a 
deputy collector in the New York custom 
house. For some years he was a frequent con- 
tributor to the " Democratic Review," several 
of his papers advocating important reforms 
which were subsequently carried out in the 
revision of the constitution and code of the 
state of New York. In 1852 he made an ex- 
tended tour in Europe. In 1853 he became 
one of the editors of " Putnam's Monthly 
Magazine," to both the first and second series 
of which (1853-'7 and 1867-'70) he was a fre- 
quent contributor ; and two collections of his 
articles have been reprinted in volumes, " Po- 
litical Essays" (12mo, 1856), and "Out of the 
Past," critical and literary papers (1870). In 
1860 he published the first volume of a "His- 
tory of France," embracing ancient Gaul, and 
terminating with the era of Charlemagne. 
Since 1860 Mr. Godwin has made two pro- 
tracted visits to Europe, during which he pros- 
ecuted his researches in French history. In 
addition to the publications above enumerated, 
he has written "Vala, a Mythological Tale," 
founded upon incidents in the life of Jenny 
Lind (1851) ; translated a part of Goethe's au- 
tobiography and a volume of Zschokke's tales, 
and compiled a "Handbook of Universal Biog- 
raphy " (1851 ; new ed., " Cyclopaedia of Biogra- 
phy," 1865). He is now (1874) preparing " The 
History and Organization of Labor," a volume 
on "The Nineteenth Century, with its Leading 
Men and Movements," and "A Winter Harvest," 
a book of European travels. Until recently he 
was managing editor of the " Evening Post." 

GODWIN. I. William, an English author, born 
at Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, March 3, 1756, 
died in London, April 7, 1836. He was the 
son of a dissenting clergyman, was educated 
in the dissenting college at Hoxton, and in 
1778 became minister of a congregation at 
Stowmarket, Suffolk. At the end of five years 
the incompatibility of this occupation with the 
new moral and political theories he had begun 
to entertain induced him to sever his connec- 
tion with the ministry, and going to London 
he thenceforth devoted himself to literature. 
He soon began to promulgate doctrines which, 
if carried out, would have subverted the whole 
structure of society. Having already acquired 
some reputation by his " Sketches of History " 
(London, 1784) and contributions to the "An- 
nual Register," of which he was at one time 
the principal conductor, he published the " In- 
quiry concerning Political Justice, and its In- 
fluence on General Virtue and Happiness " (2 
vols. 4to, 1793), in which an intellectual re- 
public, founded upon universal benevolence, is 
advocated with persuasive eloquence. In 1794 
he appeared in the political arena as the cham- 
pion of Home Tooke, Thelwall, Hardy, and 



64 GODWIN 

others, who had been brought to trial on a 
charge of treason. In the same year appeared 
hisTost remarkable work, " Caleb Williams," 
a novel designed to illustrate some of the pe- 
culiar views put forth in the "Inquiry con- 
cerning PoliticalJustice;" but the interest of 
the story is so predominant that the social ob- 
ject of the author was entirely overlooked. In 
'1796 he made the acquaintance of Mary Woll- 
stonecraft, author of the "Vindication of the 
(tights of Woman," and, in accordance with 
the views held by both of them respecting mar- 
riage, cohabited with her for six months, when 
for prudential reasons they were married. His 
wife died after giving birth to a daughter, who 
became the second wife of the poet Shelley. 
His " Memoirs of the Author of the Vindica- 
tion of the Rights of Woman " (1798) is a feel- 
ing tribute to her memory, but describes the 
details of her life with a minuteness which 
subjected him to considerable censure. In 1 799 
appeared " St. Leon," containing many incred- 
ible situations, but also many passages of splen- 
did description and true pathos ; it purports to 
be the autobiography of a philosopher who has 
become immortal by the discovery of the elixir 
of life. On this and " Caleb Williams" his 
reputation chiefly rests. His other novels are 
"Fleetwood" (1805), " Mandeville " (1817), 
44 Cloudesley " (1830), and " Deloraine " (1833). 
Among his other works were the tragedies 
44 Antonio " (1800), and 4l Faulkner " (1807-'8) ; 
a 44 Life of Chaucer" (2 vols. 4to, 1803); 
44 Lives of John and Edward Phillips, Nephews 
of Milton" (4to, 1815); and a "History of the 
Commonwealth " (4 vols. 8vo, 1824-'8), writ- 
ten with great impartiality, and valuable as a 
repository of facts. His last important work, 
44 Thoughts on Man, his Nature, Productions, 
and Discoveries " (1881), was a series of essays 
in the style of his earlier writings. A posthu- 
mous work by him, " The Genius of Christian- 
ity Unveiled," was published in 1873. For 
some years he carried on business as a book- 
seller, and under the name of Edward Baldwin 
published a number of children's books, small 
histories, and other compilations, some of which 
were by himself. In the latter part of his life 
be obtained a clerkship in the record office. 

\utobiography, Memoirs, and Correspon- 
dence" wns pul.li.shcd in 1874. II. Mtry Woll- 
stonrrraft, an English authoress, wife of the pre- 
ceding, born in Beverley, Yorkshire, April 27, 
1769, died in London, Sept. 10, 1797. Her fa- 
ther, a man of ungovernable temper, embittered 
her childhood by the cruelty with which he 

1 his family. A natural independence 
<.f character induced her to sever herself from 
such a parent, and upon the death of her mother 
she established a school at Islington, in the di- 
rection of which she was assisted by two of her 
sisters. The illness of a friend in Lisbon called 
her thither f..r a while, and upon her return 

inland she found h.-r school ruined by 
mismanage-in, nt. Alter a short experience as 
a governess in the family of Lord Kingsborough, 



GODWIT 

she determined to devote herself to a literary 
life Having acquired considerable reputation 
by her " Thoughts on the Education of Daugh- 
ters " and some works of fiction, as also by 
translations of Lavater's "Physiognomy" and 
Salzmann's a Elements of Morality," she ven- 
tured in 1791 upon a reply to Burke's " Reflec- 
tions on the French Revolution," and soon 
after published her celebrated " Vindication of 
the Rights of Woman " (1791), in which the 
claim of woman to share with man the func- 
tions he has exclusively exercised is argued 
with boldness and ability. Full of enthusiasm 
for the new ideas which the French revolution 
had inaugurated, she went to Paris, only to 
find her hopes crushed by the overthrow of the 
Girondists. She here also formed a connection 
with an American named Imlay, who deserted 
her. Giving birth to a child, she endeavored 
to put an end to her existence, and afterward 
sought relief from her troubles in writing her 
"Letters from Sweden, Norway, and Den- 
mark" (1796), which she had visited while she 
had her home in Paris. In 1797 she was mar- 
ried to William Godwin, and she died in child- 
bed. Her posthumous works were published 
by her husband (4 vols. 12mo, 1798). 

GODWIT, a bird belonging to the scolopacida, 
or snipe family, and subfamily limosinw, which 
includes also the curlew. It forms the genus 
limosa (Briss.), characterized by a long slender 
bill, inclined a little upward and slightly thick- 
ened at the tip, with sides compressed and 
grooved on both mandibles for nearly the 
whole length ; the upper mandible a little the 
longer, and the gape moderate; wings long 
and pointed, the first quill the longest; tail 
short and even ; tarsi slender, longer than the 
middle toe ; toes long, the outer united to the 
middle by a membrane as far as the first joint; 
hind toe partly resting on the ground ; claws 
short and obtuse. The shape is more slender 
and the bill and legs longer than those of the 
snipes. They are shy birds, frequenting the 
seashore, living chiefly on worms which they 
draw from the mud ; they are found in most 
parts of the world, though most abundantly in 
cold climates, and their habits and manners 
are like those of the curlew ; the flesh is ex- 
cellent eating. The marbled godwit of the 
United States (L. fedoa, Linn.) is, in the fe- 
male, about 20 in. long to the end of the tail, 
the bill 4, tarsus 3, and wing 9 in. ; the malo 
is somewhat smaller. The general color above 
is brownish black variegated with pale reddish, 
the former in bands and the latter in spots; 
below pale rufous, with transverse brownish 
black lines on the breast and sides ; primaries 
dark brown on their outer webs, light rufous 
on the inner; tail light rufous, with brownish 
black bars; bill dark at the end, dull flesh 
color toward the base. It is found over the 
temperate regions of North America, and in 
South America ; it is abundant in Florida 
during the winter, going to the north to breed 
in spring, and returning about the last of Au- 







GODWIT 



gust within the limits of the United States. It 
is a shore bird, rarely seen many miles inland ; 
when feeding it probes the mud with its long 
bill, plunging it in often for its whole length, in 
search of marine worms and small crustaceans, 
flight is quick and regular, in long and fre- 



GOETHE 



65 




Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa). 



quently changing lines. The Hudsonian god- 
wit, a smaller and much rarer American spe- 
cies (L. Hudsonica, Lath.), is about 15 hi. long, 
with an extent of wings of 28 in., tail 3, bill a 
little over 3, and tarsus 2| in. ; weight about 
9 oz. In the adults, the prevailing color above 
is brownish black, with spots and transverse 
burs of pale reddish ; upper tail coverts white ; 
beneath, yellowish red, with transverse bars 
of brownish black, and sometimes the feathers 
tipped with white on the abdomen; tail black, 
white at the base and tipped with the same ; 
under wing coverts black; shafts of primaries 
white. The young are cinereous above, with 
irregular brownish black marks, dull yellowish 




ITudsonian Godwit (Limosa Hudsdnica). 

white below, upper tail coverts white, tail as 
in adult. It is abundant in the northern parts 
of this continent, but rare in the United States, 
and scarcely seen south of New Jersey except 
in winter ; it breeds in the far north ; the fe- 
males are somewhat larger than the males. 



The common godwit of Europe (L. Lapponica, 
Linn.), in its winter plumage, is deep brown- 
ish gray, the feathers edged with whitish ; the 
breast brown gray, whitish underneath ; rump 
white, radiated with brown; in summer the 
prevailing color is reddish. 

GOENTOER, a volcano of Java, about 100 m. 
S. E. of Batavia, nearly 7,000 ft. high. It is 
active, and produces considerable damage by 
periodical eruptions, four of which (1818-'41) 
were especially violent, destroying a vast num- 
ber of coffee trees, and covering large tracts 
with heaps of stones, ashes, and sand. 

GOERTZ. See GORTZ. 

GOES, a town of Holland, on the island of S. 
Beveland, 15 m. W. of Bergen-op-Zoom ; pop. 
in 1867, 6,313. It is surrounded by walls, 
and contains a number of squares, of which 
the Groote Markt, the largest, is planted with 
trees. The public buildings are the town hall, 
a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, a 
new corn exchange, and many schools and 
charitable institutions. Both the old and new 
harbors are defended by forts, and there is an 
active commerce. 

GOES, Hngo van der, a Flemish painter, pupil 
and successor of Van Eyck, flourished in the 
second half of the 15th century. His paintings 
are all of religious subjects, and their chief ex- 
cellence is the grace and dignity of the coun- 
tenances. His masterpiece is a " Crucifixion " 
in the church of St. James at. Bruges. This 
picture was preserved from the general destruc- 
tion of church ornaments in the 16th century 
by being coated with dark clay on which the 
ten commandments were inscribed. 

GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von, a German au- 
thor, born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Aug. 28, 
1749, died in Weimar, -March 22, 1832. His 
father, Johann Kaspar Goethe, the son of a 
tailor of Frankfort, had raised himself to the 
dignity of an imperial councillor, and in 1748 
had married Katharina Elisabeth, daughter of 
Johann Wolfgang Textor, the chief magistrate 
of the city. Their first offspring, the subject 
of this article, inherited the best qualities of 
both parents. The father, a cold, stern, formal, 
and pedantic man, was a person of vigorous 
mind and of rigid will ; and the mother was a 
simple-hearted, genial, vivacious, and affection- 
ate woman, who loved poetry and the romantic 
lore of the nursery. In one of his poems Goethe 
afterward said : " From my father I derive 
my frame and the steady guidance of my life, 
and from my dear little mother my happy dis- 
position and love of story-telling." But he 
derived a great deal more from both ; for the 
father, rigid disciplinarian as he was, early 
indoctrinated him in the knowledge of the 
classics and modern languages, and in the love 
of fine art ; while the mother gave him, be- 
sides her vivacity and animal spirits, that large 
and instinctive wisdom which comes of broad 
human sympathies. Goethe was a precocious 
child, handsome, lively, and sensitive. His 
early education was wholly domestic, in the 



G6 



GOETHE 



company of his only sister Cornelia, to whom 
he was passionately attached. Before he was 
ten years of age he wrote several languages, 
meditated poems, invented stories, and had a 
considerable familiarity with works of art. 
Frankfort was a mediaeval city, full of old as- 
sociations and the remains of antique customs, 
but just beginning to stir with the quick move- 
ments of a more modern trade and industry. 
None of its influences, old or new, were lost 
upon the child, whose position in middle life, 
while it brought him in contact with the most 
cultivated men of society, did not exempt him 
from occasional mixture with the lower orders, 
or from the ruder experiences of life. His first 
love for Gretchen, a girl in the humblest ranks, 
began amid a circle of forgers and delinquents. 
In October, 1765, at the age of 16, he was sent 
to Leipsic to begin his collegiate studies. His 
autobiography passes over this part of his life 
with a few words, but other evidences show 
that it was a time not of hard and varied study 
merely, but of much wild and frolicsome ad- 
venture. While he mastered with an easy 
grace the manifold sciences and arts of a Ger- 
man university, jurisprudence, medicine, logic, 
rhetoric, philosophy, morals, drawing, &c., he 
was no less at home in those wayward and 
capricious sports, in the love-makings and the 
merry-makings, which are natural to this period 
of life. No criminal indulgences are charged 
upon him, but he lived freely and buoyantly, 
preferring often the society of jovial compan- 
ions, free thinkers and actors, to that of the 
more accepted respectabilities of a staid literary 
metropolis. He had already fallen into the 
habit of turning his inward feelings into verse, 
and two dramas, Die Laune dcs Verliebten 
and Die Mitechuldigen, grew out of his more 
erratic impulses. After a brief interval passed 
in sickness at home, during which he read the 
books of the alchemists, he was transferred in 
1770 to the university of Strasburg, where he 
renewed his studies of jurisprudence and the 
natural sciences, enlarged the number of his 
acquaintances, including Herder and Jung- 
Stilling, and foil in love with the daughter of 
a dancing master. Herder's friendship was of 
the greatest use to him, as it introduced him 

reading of Shakespeare, Goldsmith, and 
other English classics, and awakened within 
him a profounder sense of the grand poetry of 
th- Hebrew Scriptures. He had fallen in with 
the family of a clergyman at Sesenheira, where 
there were two daughters, with one of whom, 

rika, he became enamored, and they were 
finally betrothed ; but in leaving the university 
in 1771, he tore himself away from the bond 
and the attachment. Impetuous and headlong 
as he was, there was already a tendency in him 
to value external objects, human and others, 
as they assisted in that deep and varied culture 
whi-h he began to make the principal aim of 
his existence. In 1772 he went to Wetzlar to 
practise law, and in the following year pub- 
lished a play destined to attract public atten- 



tion toward him, and to give the world its 
earliest glimpses of his extraordinary genius. 
This was Gotz von Berlichingen, a dramatic 
version of the story of Gotz of the Iron Hand, 
an old predatory burgrave of the 16th century, 
who made war upon his fellow barons, some- 
times to increase his own store, and sometimes 
defence of the poor. His lawless career 
represented the sturdy struggle of feudalism 
against an advancing civilization, and Goethe 
seized the incidents to present them in a clear, 
powerful, picturesque, and dramatic whole. 
This work was the outbreak of a genius as rude 
and stalwart almost as Gotz himself, asserting 
ts freedom against the fetters of an artificial 
literary spirit; one of the earliest throes in 
that period of intellectual convulsion in Ger- 
many which has taken the name of the Sturm- 
und Drangperiode, or storm and pressure 
period. It excited the greatest enthusiasm in 
the literary world, and romantic dramas for a 
time became the fashion. In 'the interval 
Goethe had passed the time in wandering 
through the Rhine country. At Wetzlar he 
a^ain fell in love, but as the object of his love, 
Charlotte Buff, was betrothed to one Kestner, 
to whom she was soon after married, the affec- 
tion was not returned. A young student named 
Jerusalem, with whom Goethe was intimate, 
having committed suicide because of a similar 
unhappy passion for the wife of one of his 
friends, Goethe wove the incidents of the two 
cases into a novel, which he called Die Leiden 
des jungen Werther (1774), known in English 
as u The Sorrows of Werther." The sensation 
produced by it was prodigious. The most dis- 
tinguished literary men praised it as a pro- 
foundly philosophic romance, while the com- 
mon people were carried away by its eloquence 
and pathos. Its chief success, however, arose 
from the fact that it expressed a certain sad 
longing and discontent which was then a char- 
acteristic of the age. The same year he wrote 
Clavigo, a drama founded on Beaumarchais's 
memoir on Clavijo, projected a drama on Mo- 
hammed, another on Prometheus, only a few 
lines of either of which wore written, and al- 
ready revolved in his mind the drama of /</?/*/. 
Two love engagements, one with Anna Sibylla 
Munch, and the other with Anna Elisabeth 
Schonemann, immortalized in his works under 
the name of Lili, diversified the experiences of 
this period. The fame acquired by Werther 
brought Goethe under the notice of Charles 
Augustus, grand duke of Saxe- Weimar, who in 
1775 invited the poet to spend a few weeks at 
his court. Goethe went there, and the result 
of the friendship thus contracted was that 
Goethe thereafter made Weimar Ins permanent 
residence. He was created a Geheimer Lega- 
tionsrath, or privy councillor of legation, at a 
salary of 1,200 thalers per annum ; but his prin- 
cipal public occupation seems to have been to 
superintend the artistic pleasures of the court. 
Weimar was a small city, without trade or 
manufactures, but made up for its want of 






GOETHE 



67 



commercial activity by its varied literary cul- 
ture. It was filled with notabilities, among 
whom are to be noticed particularly Wieland, 
Herder, Musaus, Knebel, Seckendorf, Corona 
Schroter, the dowager duchess Amalia, Frau 
von Stein, and afterward Schiller. In this 
circle Goethe at once took his place as the 
presiding deity. " He rose like a star in the 
heavens," says Knebel ; " everybody worship- 
ped him, and especially the women." His first 
years there were spent in wild and tumultuous 
enjoyments, in which " affairs of the heart " did 
not always end with the heart. But Goethe's 
nature was too profound, his intellectual ac- 
tivity too great, to be long beguiled by the 
frivolities of masking, hunting, drinking, dan- 
cing, and dicing, and he resumed his more se- 
rious pursuits. The first fruit of his return 
(1779) was IpJiigenie auf Tauris, a prose dra- 
ma, which he afterward turned into a beautiful 
drama in verse. After a visit to Switzerland 
the same year, described in his Briefe aus der 
Schweiz, he composed a little opera, called Jery 
und Bately, full of Swiss inspirations. He also 
began to devote himself strenuously to the 
study of natural science, in which he became 
a proficient. The novel of Wilhelm Meister 
was at the same time in progress, and many 
of his best small poems were produced at this 
period (l780-'83). In 1786 he made a journey 
to Italy, where he passed nearly two years in 
the most laborious study of its antiquities and 
arts, and in the composition of Torquato Tasso, 
a drama suggested by the life of that poet at 
the court of Ferrara. He was so absorbed in 
the past of Italy that he paid little attention to 
its present condition or people. The narrative 
of his travels, Die italianische Reise, contains 
the most charming descriptions of the scenes 
through which he passed. On his return to 
Weimar in 1788, he published Egmont, a ro- 
mantic drama, full of passion and interest, rep- 
resenting a sombre and tragic episode in the 
revolution of the Netherlands, but in which he 
has not confined himself at all to the incidents 
of actual history ; the character of Clarchen 
is by many regarded as one of his most suc- 
cessful female creations. A relation with Frau 
von Stein, which Goethe had long maintained, 
was now broken off, but he soon formed another 
with Christiane Vulpius. She was uneduca- 
ted, and lived in some domestic capacity in his 
house ; but Goethe afterward married her, to 
legitimate his son (born Dec. 25, 1788, died 
Oct. 27, 1830). In 1792 he accompanied the 
army of the king of Prussia and the duke of 
Brunswick in their campaign into France, of 
which he wrote an account. Soon after ap- 
peared his metrical version of Reinecke Fucks. 
The results of his scientific studies appeared 
in his Beitrage zur OptiTc and his Farberilehre, 
in the latter of which he had the hardihood 
to question the correctness of the Newtonian 
theory of colors. He wrote also on the meta- 
morphosis of plants, and on topics of compara- 
tive anatomy. In all these he displayed a re- 



markable penetration and sagacity, and his re- 
marks on the morphology of plants are now 
reckoned among the earlier enunciations of the 
theory of evolution. His acquaintance with 
Schiller, who divided with him the suffrages 
of the poetic German world, began at Jena in 
1794; and though their intercourse was cold at 
first, it ripened into one of the most enduring 
and beautiful friendships recorded in literary 
annals. Schiller's influence upon him was 
both stimulating and ennobling, and from this 
time forth we find him engaged in producing 
his grandest works. The first part of Wil- 
helm Meister (the Lehrjahre) appeared in 1795. 
Hermann und Dorothea, a pastoral poem in 
hexameters, the most perfect of his minor pro- 
ductions, was written in 1797; the Achilleis 
was executed the same year; and he engaged 
in friendly rivalry with Schiller in bringing 
forth a series of ballads, of which Goethe's part, 
Die Braut von Corinth, Der Zaulerlehrling, 
Der Gott und die Bajadere, and Die Schatz- 
grdber, are among the masterpieces of German 
literature. Even these, however, were only 
the preludes of what he was destined to do; 
for the Faust was still revolving itself in his 
thoughts, and the Wilhelm Meister went stead- 
ily forward. At last, in 1805, the great work 
of his life saw the light. The legend of Faust 
had been familiar to him as a child, he had 
thought of it and labored upon it during the 
whole of his youth, and now in the ripeness of 
his manhood it had taken its final shape. "It 
appeals to all minds with the irresistible fas- 
cination of an eternal problem, and with the 
charm of endless variety. It has every element 
wit, pathos, wisdom, buffoonery, mystery, 
melody, reverence, doubt, magic, and irony; 
not a chord of the lyre is unstrung, not a fibre 
of the heart untouched." This work raised 
Goethe to the highest pinnacle of fame, and he 
was universally acknowledged to be the first 
poet of his age. If Goethe had died in 1806, 
he would have achieved a greater renown than 
any other modern man of letters ; but he was 
destined to live 26 years longer, years of con- 
tentment, labor, productiveness, and honor. 
The stormy and errant impulses of his youth 
had been subdued; he had mastered himself 
and his circumstances; the great problem of 
life, which had filled him with strife and im- 
patience, lay clear before him ; his circumstan- 
ces were easy; and his position at the head 
of German literature, which he had himself 
brought out of chaos or formalism into order- 
ly vigor, gained him the homage of Europe. 
Schiller and other friends were dead ; others 
again, friends of earlier days, were separated 
from him in sympathy by the large strides 
which his intellect had made in various paths 
of thought; and a sombre hue fell upon, with- 
out clouding, the serenity of his later years. 
Moreover, the external events of the world 
were full of trouble and agitation. It was the 
era of Napoleon's conquests. Germany pal- 
pitated with the rest of Europe in throbs of 



C8 



GOETHE 



war ; and the grand duke of Weimar was drawn 
into tlio very vortex of commotion. On Oct. 
H 1806, the battle of Jena was fought, and 
Goethe heard in his calm home the reports of 
the cannonades. Soon that home was invaded ; 
the French troops entered his house, ransacked 
his cellars, penetrated even to his bedchamber, 
and though they treated him with respect, 
tilled his soul with indignation and wrath. 
Goethe hud all his life been averse to the dis- 
turbing influence of politics. His impassive- 
ness under the tempestuous influences of the 
time had brought upon him the reproach of 
want of patriotism and of indifference to the 
welfare of humanity. But when the French 
approached Weimar, and Napoleon exhibited 
his spite against Charles Augustus for his active 
sympathy with his countrymen and allies, the 
long-pent feeling of the poet burst forth. " Mis- 
fortune ! " he exclaimed to Falk ; " what is mis- 
fortune? This is misfortune, that a prince 
should be compelled to endure such things from 
foreigners. And if it came to the same pass 
with him as with his ancestor, Duke John, if 
his ruin were certain and irretrievable, let not 
this dismay us; we will take our staff in our 
hand and accompany our master in adversity 
as old Lucas Cranach did ; we will never for- 
suko him. The women and the children, when 
they meet us in the villages, will cast down their 
eyes and weep, and say to one another, * That 
is old Goethe and the former duke of Weimar, 
whom the French emperor drove from his 
throne because he was so true to his friends in 
misfortune ; because he visited his uncle on his 
deathbed; because he would not let his old 
comrades and brothers in arms starve.' " " At 
this," adds Falk, "the tears rolled in streams 
down his cheeks. After a pause, having re- 
covered himself a little, he continued : ' I will 
sing for bread! I will turn strolling ballad- 
singer, and put our misfortunes into verse! I 
will wander into every village and every school 
wherever the name of Goethe is known ; I 
will chant the dishonor of Germany, and the 
children shall learn the song of our shame till 
they are men; and thus they shall sing my 
master on to his throne again, and yours off 
hi- ! ' But as the noise of the French cannon 
withdrew from Weimar, ho began to pipe once 
more in his old peaceful strain. All through 
the revolutionary tumult, in fact, he took ref- 
uge in his studies and scientific experiments. 
On occasion of an interview with Napoleon 
he scarcely remembered the enthusiasm with 
which he had spoken to Falk. Napoleon is 
reported t.i h:i\\- .said, Vousetes un homme, and 
fell to criticising his works, especially Werthcr, 
which he had read, he said, seven times. Goethe 
was flattered by the appreciative words of the 
empen-r, was imited to Paris, and afterward 
was decorated with the cross of the legion of 
honor. In 1809 Goethe printed the most ex- 
ceptionable of his novels, the Wahherwand- 
tchaften (" KK-.-tive Affinities"), in which the 
charms and graces of his style are employed in 



the description of the impulses which spring 
from the collision of passion and duty in the 
relations of marriage. By the title of the book, 
and in the whole spirit of it, he would repre- 
sent that sexual affinities follow the same in- 
evitable law as chemical affinities, and that hu- 
manity struggles impotently against the die- 
tates of nature. Like all his productions, this 
was suggested by circumstances in his own 
experience. The work shocked the moral 
world, in spite of the beauty with which it was 
written, and to this day tasks the ingenuity of 
those of his admirers who seek to defend it 
from attack. His next volumes were of a less 
doubtful kind : the ballads Der TodtenTcram, 
Der getreue Eckart, and Die wandelnde Glocke, 
the Dichtung und Wahrheit, an autobiogra- 
phy, and the Westostlicher Divan, a collection 
of oriental songs and poems. His studies of 
science and contemporary literature were mean- 
time never remitted. In 1816 he published an 
art journal, Kunst und Alterihum, to which he 
contributed largely ; and in 1818 the second 
part of Wilhelm Neister, the Wanderjahre. In 
1825 the jubilee or 50th year of his residence 
in Weimar was celebrated in a grand publie 
festival. In 1831 the second part of Faust ap- 
peared, a continuation of the first part, obscure 
and mystical, but full of passages of rare splen- 
dor, profound thought, grotesque humor, and 
bewitching melody. He supposed himself, and 
many critics supposed, that under the -motley 
garb of the poem there is a deep significance, 
although few have succeeded in detecting it, 
while Goethe's own explanations are arid and 
unsatisfactory to the last degree. As a dramat- 
ic poem it cannot be denied that it was a fail- 
ure, even if we admit that as an enigma, cov- 
ering some recondite philosophy, it deserves 
the closest study. The songs at least, and the 
lyrical parts, are excellent. The old man had 
lost vigor, but his feelings were still exuberant, 
and the singer remained. " If Goethe, 1 ' said 
an admirer of his, " everywhere great, is any- 
where greatest, it is in his songs and ballads. 
They are the spontaneous outgushings of his 
mind in all its moods ; a melodious diary of his 
daily and almost hourly fluctuations of feeling ; 
the breathings of his inward life ; the sparkling 
perennial jets of his momentary affections and 
thoughts. There is the perpetual freshness and 
bloom about them of new spring flowers. Even 
when they seem most trivial, they ring through 
us like snatches of music. So perfect is the 
correspondence of form and substance that their 
charm as a whole defies analysis. It is felt, but 
cannot be detected. Then, again, how diversi- 
fied they are ! Some as simple as the whimper- 
ings of a child ; others wild, grotesque, weird, 
and unearthly ; and others again lofty, proud, 
defiant, like the words of a Titan heaping his 
scorn upon the gods." One year after the 
completion of Faust Goethe was taken ill of a 
cold, which turned into a fatal fever. Tip to 
the hour of his death, however, ho prosecuted 
his intellectual pursuits. His last writing was 



GOETHE 



GOG AND MAGOG 



69 



an essay on the dispute between Geoffrey 
Saint-Hilaire and Cuvier, on the question of 
unity of composition in the animal kingdom ; 
and his last words were, "More light." He 
was then in the 83d year of his age. A seal, 
with an inscription from one of his own poems, 
Ohne Hast, ohne Rast, sent to him on his birth- 
day in 1831, by 15 Englishmen, had given him 
great delight, for among the Englishmen who 
participated in the homage were Wordsworth, 
Scott, Southey, Wilson, Lockhart-, and Carlyle. 
Goethe was the master spirit, the spokesman, 
as Carlyle says, of his age, the artist par excel- 
lence of the 1 9th century. The letters of Goethe 
are among the best illustrations of his charac- 
ter. They are, in the chronological order of 
the periods covered by their dates, those to 
friends in Leipsic (published in 1849), to Merck 
(1835-'47), to Jacobi (1846), to Lavater (1833), 
to Herder (1858), to Knebel (1851), to Klop- 
stock (1833), to the countess Augusta of Stol- 
berg (1839), to Frau von Stein (1848-'51) ; his 
correspondence with Schiller (6 vols., 1828-'9 ; 
2d ed., 1856 ; translated into English by G. H. 
Calvert, Boston, 1845), with Zelter (6 vols., 
1833-'4), with A. W. von Schlegel (1846), with 
the baron von Stein (1846), with Nikolaus 
Meyer (1856), with Dobereiner (1856), with 
Reinhard (1850), with Griiner (1853), with C. 
F. L. Schultz (1836), and with the councillor 
Schultz (1853) ; Goethe's Briefe und Aufsatse 
aus den Jahren l766-'86 (Weimar, 1856) ; " Goe- 
the's Correspondence with the Brothers Hum- 
boldt, 1795 to 1832," edited by Prof. Bratanek 
(3 vols., Cracow, 1873) ; and his Naturwis- 
senschaftliche Correspondent (2 vols., Leipsic, 
1874). His "Correspondence with a Child" 
(Elisabeth or Bettina von Arnirn) is not genuine. 
(See Lewes's " Life of Goethe.") The most im- 
portant notices by his contemporaries are those 
of Eckermann, Gesprache mil Goethe (Leipsic, 
1836 ; translated into English by Margaret Ful- 
ler, Boston, 1839), and Falk, Goethe auspersim- 
lichem Umgang dargestellt (Leipsic, 1832). The 
best biographies are by Viehoif (4 vols., Stutt- 
gart, 1854; 3d ed., 1873), Schafer (2 vols., Bre- 
men, 1851 ; 2d ed., 1858), and G. H. Lewes (2 
vols., London, 1855; translated into German, 
Berlin, 1857-'8; new ed., abridged, 1873). 
Among recent works relating to Goethe are : 
"Goethe and Mendelssohn," by Karl Mendels- 
sohn (English translation, London, 1872); Gc&- 
ihe : ses ceuvres expliques par sa vie, by A. Me- 
zieres (Paris, 1872); and Lesmaitr esses de Goethe, 
by Henri Blase de Bury (Paris, 1873). Bayard 
Taylor and Karl Goedike have lives of Goethe in 
preparation. The oldest complete edition of 
his works is that of Stuttgart and Tubingen (40 
vols., 1827-'31, to which his posthumous works 
were added, 15 vols., 1833-'4). Subsequent 
editions are numerous ; the best are the latest, 
published by Cotta (30 vols. 12mo, and 12 vols. 
8vo, Stuttgart and Ttibingen, 1856-'60). Many 
of his works have been translated into differ- 
ent languages. Among the best into English 
are " Gotz von Berlichingen," by Walter Scott 



(1799); "Wilhelm Meister," by Thomas Car- 
lyle (1824); "Truth and Poetry," by Parke 
Godwin (1847) ; and " Hermann and Doro- 
thea," by Miss Ellen Frothingham (1870). Of 
"Faust" there have been many translations ; 
the best are those of Charles T. Brooks (Bos- 
ton, 1857), and Bayard Taylor (Boston, 1870- 
'72). A monument to Goethe, to be executed 
by Schafer, and erected in the Thiergarten, 
Berlin, was commenced in 1873. 

GOFFE, William, an English regicide, born 
about 1605, died in Hadley, Mass., in 1679. 
He was one of the most fervent of the Puritans, 
was a devoted adherent of Cromwell, one of 
the best officers of the parliamentary army, and 
one of the judges who tried Charles I. After 
the death of the protector and the restora- 
tion of the Stuarts he escaped to America, and 
was in 1660, with his father-in-law Edward 
Whalley, received with courtesy by Gov. En- 
dicott at Boston. Warrants soon after arrived 
for their arrest, a price was set on their heads, 
and Indians as well as English were sent in 
pursuit of them. They removed from house 
to house, living in mills, in the clefts of rocks 
on the seashore, and in caves in the forests. 
They hid themselves for months in a cavern 
near New Haven, from which they issued only 
by night. This retreat was discovered, and 
they fled successively to Milford, Derby, and 
Branford. At length they found an asylum 
in the house of a clergyman at Hadley, where 
Goffe passed the remaining 15 years of his life. 
In 1675 the town of Hadley was surprised du- 
ring a religious service by the Pokanoket In- 
dians under their celebrated chieftain Philip. 
The inhabitants were about to fall beneath the 
tomahawk when an old man with a long white 
beard appeared in the church, rallied the dis- 
heartened colonists, disposed them for a charge 
upon the Indians which he himself led, and put 
the savages to flight. This was Goffe, who in 
the moment of victory disappeared again for 
ever, leaving the colonists in the persuasion 
that a heavenly messenger had fought for them. 

GOG AND MAGOG. These names occur un- 
connected in Genesis and 1 Chronicles as the 
names of several persons ; Magog, in the ethno- 
logical table of the former book (ch. x.), be- 
ing the second son of Japheth, and brother of 
Gomer and Madai, who are generally consid- 
ered to represent the Cimmerians and Medes 
respectively. In Ezekiel Gog and Magog are 
connectedly used to designate a prince and a 
people of the north, apparently of the Scythian 
race. In the book of Revelations the words 
denote the enemies of Christianity who were 
doomed to destruction. The two famous effi- 
gies in Guildhall, London, known as Gog and 
Magog, have been from time immemorial the 
pride of the city. There are various legends 
relating to them. According to one, they rep- 
resent the last survivors of a race of giants 
who infested Britain, and were extirpated by 
the Trojans who came there soon after tho 
destruction of Troy. They were chained as 



70 



GOGOL 



porters before the palace gates, and when 
.,-,1 tlu-iri-nVu-s took their place. An- 
other K-gend says that one of the giants is Gog- 
m&soK and tlie other Corineus, a British giant , 
who killed him. The effigies, originally of 

and pasteboard, were borne about j 
in public shows and processions as early as 
in. and j.robably long before. The present 
trved in wood, and hollow, were set up 
8, They stand upon octagonal pedes- 
tals, and are 14 ft. high. 

GOGOL, Nikolai, a Russian author, born about 
1809, died in Moscow, March 4, 1852. He is 
said to have failed as an actor, and afterward 
to have attempted in vain to obtain a posi- 
tion under the government. Subsequently he 
published " Evenings at a Farmhouse," a col- 
lection of tales and sketches, which met with 
much favor. His first drama was "The In- 
spector," in which the corruption and venality 
>f the officials was severely satirized. About 
1834 he was appointed professor of history in 
the university of St. Petersburg. In 1842 he 
published a novel, " Dead Souls," which has 
been translated into English nnder the title of 
"Home Life in Russia" (London, 1854). It 
narrates the adventures of a rogue who goes 
about purchasing the rights of the proprietors 
to serfs recently dead, whose names have not 
yet been taken from the rolls, in order to obtain 
advances from government. This work attained 
great popularity. He went abroad soon after, 
and in his " Correspondence " (published in 
1847) he eulogized the abuses which he had 
before satirized. By this he lost the favor 
which he had won from the liberals. He fell 
into a state of religious melancholy, and de- 
stroyed all his unpublished manuscripts, some 
of which he said were written under the in- 
spiration of the devil. His complete works, 
comprising tales, dramas, and poems, have been 
published in 4 vols. (Moscow, 1862). 

GOGRA, or Goghra (Hindoo, Gharghara ; the 
Sareyu of Hindoo mythology, and, according to 
Rennell, the Agoranis of Arrian), a river of In- 
dia, which rises on the frontiers of Thibet, in 
the Himalayas, at an altitude of about 18,000 
ft., il..u , S. and then S. E., and falls into the 
-i near Chupra, 115 m. below Benares. 
i'n-t a vast torrent, having a descent of 
15,500 ft in 75 m. ; but after receiving several 
affluents, it becomes navigable for vessels of 
considerable size, the descent diminishing to 12 
ft. per mile. Its whole length is about 600 m. 
iun.-tion with the Ganges it exceeds that 
a depth, breadth, and volume of water. 
(.01 1 l< V/.KS, an Indian tribe of Brazil, long 
masters of the region lying between the Rio Ca- 
:ia or Itabapuana and Cape Sao Thome, 
i- they repeatedly repulsed the Portu- 
.ipti-il tn si'ttK- in those parts. 
"ii was the bow and arrow, in 
"i wliicli tlu-v won- very skilful. They 
took up their abode in places sur- 
rnin.!. p, their dwellings being cab- 

i palm leaves suspended from tree 



GOITRE 

trunks, serving at the same time as a sort of 
ambuscade. Father Vasconcellos, a writer of 
the 17th century, reports that they were a fero- 
cious and cruel people, addicted to eating hu- 
man flesh. Many of these Indians had never- 
theless before his time been baptized as Chris- 
tians, and lived in villages where their descen- 
dants are still found, in the northern portion of 
the province of Rio de Janeiro, rarely mingling 
with the whites. Their numbers are consider- 
able, and they are ingenious, skilful, sprightly, 
and frank when kindly treated, but vindictive, 
improvident, and intemperate, 

GOITRE, an elastic swelling on the front and 
sides of the neck, arising from a hypertrophy 
of the thyroid gland ; it is also called broncho- 
cele and Derbyshire neck. It is generally soft 
and yielding, and varies in size from that of a 
nut to a mass surrounding the greater part of 
the neck, sometimes descending far upon the 
chest ; it is usually slow in its growth, and may 
increase in either lateral lobe or in the median 
isthmus ; it is accompanied by neither tender- 
ness nor discoloration of the skin, and is gene- 
rally definitely circumscribed. When of small 
size it occasions no inconvenience; but when 
large its weight and pressure upon the trachea, 
oesophagus, vessels, and nerves cause headache, 
difficulty of breathing and swallowing, conges- 
tion of the brain, with dizziness, lividity of the 
face, protrusion of the eyes, alteration of the 
voice, dulness of hearing, obstinate cough, end- 
ing in pulmonary disease, and threatening even 
apoplexy and suffocation. The anatomical char- 
acter of the disease is the enlargement of the 
cells of the gland, which are filled with a vis- 
cid fluid or with blood ; in old cases the tumor 
may become hard and partly bony. All ages 
are subject to goitre, but young persons and 
the female sex are most liable to it; it is also 
hereditary. Though occasionally sporadic, it is 
essentially an endemic disease in cold and damp 
countries, as in the deep valleys of the Alps, 
where the air is moist, cold, and stagnant ; it 
is most common in mountain valleys of the 
Alps, the Pyrenees, the Himalaya chain in Asia, 
the Cordilleras in America, the high regions of 
Scotland, and the chalky districts of Derby- 
shire and Nottingham in England. Though 
often connected with cretinism, it does not 
appear to be a scrofulous disease; neither is 
it confined to persons living in poverty and 
uncleanliness, for it is the sad inheritance of 
many wealthy families. Various causes have 
been assigned for goitre, but none of them are 
entirely satisfactory; the most probable are 
the insufficient illumination by the sun, mois- 
ture, and stillness of deep valleys ; deleterious 
emanations from clayey soils ; the use of snow 
water, or that from springs, arising from calca- 
reous formations ; the dcoxygenation of water 
from great elevation, or its contact with metal- 
lic and organic matters eagerly absorbing oxy- 
gen. It seems to be connected rather with the 
geological than with any other character of a 
region. Goitre may be distinguished from oth- 




GOLCONDA 



er tumors in the neck by its shape, consistence, 
and general development on both sides. The 
prognosis in a person advanced in life is unfa- 
vorable, but in early life it may be cured. The 
chief remedy for this disease is iodine, both 
internally and externally, either alone- or com- 
bined with potash and iron ; the patient should 
be removed from the infected district to the 
seashore, and a tonic regimen be pursued. 
When suffocation is imminent from the pres- 
sure of the tumor, relief may be obtained for 
the time by puncture, the seton, ligatures of 
the supplying arteries, or by extirpation of the 
gland ; the last three are dangerous to life, and 
have proved fatal, and the first three may fail 
even if the patient survive the operations. The 
usual treatment is simply palliative, iodine with 
tonics and narcotics. There is a form of goitre 
not uncommon in anemic females in the United 
States and in England, with the symptoms of 
the Alpine disease, though milder, and relieved 
by the tonic treatment of anemia. 
GOLCONDA, an ancient city and fortress of 
lia, in the native state of Hyderabad or the 



GOLD 



71 



Nizam's dominions, 7 m. N. W. of Hyderabad. 
The fortress stands on a rocky eminence, and 
is a large and strong edifice. It is now chiefly 
used as a prison, and as a depository for the 
treasures of the Nizam. The principal inhab- 
itants and bankers of Hyderabad are also per- 
mitted to retain houses in it, to which on any 
alarm they retire with their money and other 
valuables. About 600 yards from the fortress 
are the tombs of the ancient kings of Golconda. 
Each mausoleum occupies the centre of a large 
quadrangular platform, which is approached on 
every side by granite stairs. They are mostly 
constructed of gray stone, ornamented with 
stucco and Indian porcelain, whose colors re- 
tain all their pristine brilliancy, and on which 
are engraved in white characters various ex- 
tracts from the Koran. These mausolea are 
very numerous, and have a striking and im- 
pressive appearance when viewed from a dis- 
tance. Golconda was formerly renowned for 
its diamonds, but they were merely cut and 
polished here, being generally brought from 
Parteall in the S. part of. the Nizam's domin- 




Tombs of the Kings, Golconda. 



ions. It was anciently the capital of a pow- 
erful kingdom of the same name, which arose 
on the overthrow of the Bahmani empire ; but 
it was taken by Aurungzebe and annexed to 
that of Delhi. 

GOLD, a precious metal, ranking the first in 
beauty and value among useful metals from 
the earliest times to the present day ; distin- 
guished for being the only metal of a yellow 
color, and for possessing in the highest degree 
the properties of ductility and malleability. In 
chemistry its symbol is Au, from the Latin au- 
rum, gold; its equivalent number 98'5, or, in 
the usage of many chemists, the double of this, 
197. Its density varies according as the metal 
is more or less compressed ; it is rated when 
hammered at from 19'258 to 19'4. In a finely 



divided state, precipitated from its solution by 
sulphate of iron, it has proved of specific grav- 
ity 20-72. When pure the metal is nearly as 
soft as lead, and is then susceptible of its 
greatest extension by beating or wire-drawing. 
(See GOLD BEATING.) In thin leaf it is trans- 
parent, and the transmitted light is of a green 
color; by heat the color is changed to ruby red, 
and this color the metal finely divided imparts 
under certain conditions to glass. Its melting 
point is variously given as 2016 F., 2192, 
2518, and 2590. In the heat of furnaces it 
is not volatilized ; but gold wire is dispersed 
in vapor by the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, by the 
heat of the sun's rays concentrated by a pow- 
erful convex lens, or by the electric battery. 
As the current traverses it, the vapors pro- 



GOLD 



duced may be collected upon a sheet of paper 
placed beneath the wire; the paper is stained 
a purplish brown by the deposit of finely divi- 
ded gold, and a sheet of silver may be thus 
gilded When gold is fused in large quantity 
and allowed to cool slowly, cubical crystals are 
sometimes observed to form, and crystals ot 
native gold have been found in the form of the 
regular octahedron. Gold is not acted upon 
by alkalies or simple acids, except selenic, nor 
by the oxygen of the air even when long ex- 
posed in a fused state. Neither does sulphur 
affect it ; but it is dissolved by bromine and 
chlorine, or by any combination of acids or 
other substances in which free chlorine is pres- 
ent. This element, as it is generated in mix- 
tures, is a powerful solvent of gold ; and to it 
is due this property of the compound called 
aqua regia, formed of 4 parts of hydrochloric 
and 1 part of nitric acid. Gold forms alloys 
with most of the metals. Silver or copper 
increases its hardness and renders it better 
adapted for wear when ussd for coins, jewelry, 
or plate. Such compounds are also more fusible 
than pure gold. The solder for gold trinkets 
is 1 part of copper to 5 of gold, or to 4 of gold 
and 1 of silver. With mercury gold unites to 
form an amalgam. Mercurial fumes even, com- 
ing in contact with gold, instantly combine 
with and whiten it. The mercury may be 
driven off by heat. (See AMALGAM.) Gold is 
obtained from its solutions in various forms. 
The precipitate by sulphate of iron is a dull 
brown powder, which by pressure acquires the 
metallic lustre and color. The precipitate by 
oxalic acid is yellower and more metallic in 
appearance. The metallic gold which is left 
on evaporating a solution of its compound 
with chlorine and heating the residue is of a 
spongy character and dull hue ; by annealing 
it becomes more dense and yellow, and by 
percussion is readily welded together. (For 
modes of preparing sponge gold and its uses, 
see DENTISTRY.) Gold is very widely distrib- 
uted in nature, and late researches have shown 
that it is present in appreciable quantities in 
the waters of the ocean, where it is associated 
with silver. According to Sonstadt, a ton of 
sea water yields by a simple chemical process 
a grain of gold ; so that the quantity of the 
precious metal thus held in solution must be 
vastly greater than all the gold ever yet ex- 
tracted from the earth. Gold is very general- 
ly diffused throughout the solid rocks, though 
only here and there accumulated in sufficient 
quantities to be economically available. The 
workable deposits of this metal are in stratifiec 
rocks of different formations, from the oldest 
crystallines to the postpliocene sands and grav- 
els, and also in veins traversing rocks of various 
geological periods. The most common vein- 
stone of gold is quartz, but it is also found in 
bitter spar and disseminated in metallic sul- 
phides, such as iron pyrites, which very often 
contains sufficient quantities of the metal to be 
extracted with profit. In this as well as in the 



quartzose gangues the gold is sometimes in 
arge grains or crystalline threads or masses, and 
sometimes disseminated in particles invisible to 
the eye. The opinion is entertained by many 
;hat in pyrites and in other sulphuretted ores 
the gold is sometimes chemically combined 
with the other metals and with sulphur. It 
has been found that the lead of commerce, 
from whatever source derived, is seldom or 
never without a tra*ce of gold. Gold is not, 
as has been erroneously supposed, confined to 
rocks of any one geological period. The gold 
of Colorado is found in veins with metallic sul- 
phurets traversing crystalline rocks of eozoic 
age, and the same is the case in Ontario ; 
while the gold-bearing strata of the Appala- 
chians are in large part if not wholly of pre- 
palffiozoic age, as are those of the Alps and the 
Ural mountains. In Nova Scotia, on the con- 
trary, the gold-bearing rocks are slates and sand- 
stones, supposed to be of lower Cambrian age ; 
and the auriferous strata of Wales as well as 
those of Australia are of that period. The 
gold-bearing veins extensively worked in Tran- 
sylvania traverse sandstones of eocene or ear- 
ly tertiary age, and the gold-bearing quartz of 
California is said to be found in strata of the 
Jurassic formation. It is probable, however, 
that a part of the auriferous rocks of that 
country will be found to be eozoic, while on 
the other hand it appears that the silicious de- 
posits now forming from the thermal waters in 
Nevada contain not only metallic sulphurets 
but small portions of gold ; so that the pro- 
cesses which in former times gave rise to gold- 
bearing veins in that region are still in ope- 
ration. By the disintegration and crumbling 
away of the rocks which contain the auriferous 
veins, the contents of these are swept down 
to lower levels, and the gold by its density al- 
ways seeks the lowest places among the mov- 
ing materials. Thus are produced the aurifer- 
ous gravel deposits in alluvial formations, the 
golden sands of the rivers ; and so have they 
been gathering for long ages past and forming 
deposits, some of which are now seen in situa- 
tions apparently out of reach of such agencies. 
In these deposits, when stripped of the clay 
and sands which cover the lower and richer 
layers, there are found in the irregular-shaped 
cavities of the surface of the rock, in pockets 
and in piles against the projecting strata, the 
accumulated riches of ancient veins, it may be, 
of vast extent. By washing away the inter- 
mixed earthy and stony matters, the metal is 
obtained in dust, flattened scales, small lumps, 
and nuggets of all sizes and shapes, the larger 
pieces rounded by attrition, or ragged from the 
irregular forms they held in their original hard 
quartz matrix. Their size is commonly greater 
than that of gold found in the veins near by, a 
fact first explained by the late Oscar Lieber of 
South Carolina to be due to the solution of gold 
and its subsequent aggregation. Later obser- 
vations of Genth and Selwyn go to confirm 
this view. In these deposits the largest lumps 



GOLD 



of gold ever met with were discovered, as that 
of Cabarrus co., N". C., of 28 Ibs. avoirdupois, or 
37 Ibs. troy, found in 1810 ; the mass weighing 
96 Ibs. troy in Zlatoust, a district of the south- 
ern Ural, in 1842, and now in the imperial 
school of mines at St. Petersburg; a mass 
from Victoria in Australia, which was exhibit- 
ed in London, and weighed 146 Ibs. 3 dvvts. 
troy, of which 6 oz. only were estimated as 
matrix ; and the still larger mass found at Bal- 
larat in that region, and weighing 2,217" oz. 
16 dwts., or about 185 Ibs. troy. According 
to Phillips, the largest piece of gold ever found 
was probably the great Australian nugget, 
known as the " Sarah Sands," which weighed 
233 Ibs. 4 oz. troy. Though in a metallic 
state, gold is never obtained pure ; silver is 
always alloyed with it, but in no definite pro- 
portions. The purest specimen is probably 
one from the Ural, near Yekaterinburg, an- 
alyzed by Rose, which gave, in 100 parts, gold 
98-96, silver 0*16, copper 0'35; its specific 
gravity was 19-099. The product of Califor- 
nia is much of it very near the richness of gold 
of the American and French gold coins, which 
is 900 parts in 1,000. Its average, however, is 
stated to be T VA to T 8 oVo and that of Austra- 
lia T Wo to -^nnr- " specimen of California 
gold, containing gold 90-70, silver 8-80, and 
iron 0-38, was of specific gravity only 14-6, 
and by fusing this was increased to 17'48. 
Gold from the Chaudiere, Canada, of specific 
gravity 17'60, analyzed by T. Sterry Hunt, 
gave gold 87'77, silver 12-23 ; another speci- 
men in fine scales, of specific gravity 16-57, pro- 
duced gold 89-24, silver 10-76. Copper, palla- 
dium, and rhodium are also met with as alloys 
of gold. In Transylvania veins are worked pro- 
ducing an alloy of tellurium, gold, silver, and 
antimony ; the tellurium commonly constitutes 
from 55 to 60 per cent., and the gold from 25 
to 30 per cent. The same compound has been 
recognized at Gold Hill, N. 0. Gold occurs 
in a few other combinations also with tellu- 
rium. In the oldest records of the human 
race mention is made of gold, and like silver 
it was enumerated as an element of riches. 
Throughout the Old Testament there are fre- 
quent allusions to gold and to fine gold. It 
was beaten into thin plates, cut into wires, and 
even woven with threads of linen for the sacer- 
dotal robe of Aaron. It was fashioned into 
breastplates with chains at the ends of wreath- 
en wor"k of pure gold ; and it was used as the 
setting of precious stones. By other nations it 
was made into gods and idols, some of gigantic 
size. Aaron prepared a golden calf for the 
children of Israel, which Moses burned with 
fire and reduced to powder; an operation that 
might have been effected by first melting and 
beating it out into plates. In building the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem the quantities of gold lavish- 
ly employed by Solomon for its furniture and 
decorations implied that it was largely collect- 
ed, and that the ancients had access to mines 
of great extent and richness. Atahuallpa, the 



captured inca of Peru, agreed to bring together 
for his ransom, in the space of two months, 
articles of gold which should fill a room 22 ft. 
long and 17 broad to the height of*9 ft. When 
this was done and the gold melted, it was 
found to amount to I,326,539^>es0s de oro. The 
commercial value of the peso, according to 
Prescott, was equivalent to $11 67, making the 
sum total $15,480,710. The source whence 
the Phoenicians and Israelites derived their im- 
mense supplies of gold was the land of Ophir, 
a region still of uncertain locality. Once in 
three years the fleet of Solomon completed a 
voyage to it and back. Its other products be- 
sides gold brought back to Palestine (1 Kings 
x. 11 and 22), as ivory, spices, precious stones, 
ebony, peacocks, apes, and the almug or san- 
dal wood, indicate that it was in the tropics. 
It is generally presumed to have been either 
the East Indies or that part of the S. E. coast 
of Africa called Sofala by the Arabs. The au- 
riferous character of the desert steppes of Gobi 
was known in the time of Herodotus to the in- 
habitants about the sources of the Indus ; and 
to this day are to be seen along the southern 
Ural the works of ancient mining operations, 
supposed to be those of the nomadic Scythians. 
Ethiopia and Nubia also were largely productive 
of gold ; and the ancient mines discovered by 
Belzoni in the Zabarah mountains are supposed 
to have furnished to the Pharaohs- of Egypt 
their abundant supplies. Thus many aurifer- 
ous regions appear to have been known at dif- 
ferent times, as productive as those of the pres- 
ent period. "While the gold of the deposits con- 
tinued abundant they were vigorously wrought, 
and each district furnished in its turn the prin- 
cipal share of the production of the world. In 
the time of the Romans the precious metals were 
not so abundant, though rich deposits were 
worked along the foot of the Pyrenees, and in 
some of the provinces bordering the Alps. Stra- 
bo (B. iv. ch. 6, sec. 12) refers to the statement 
of Polybius that in his time the gold mines near 
Apulia were so productive that the value of 
gold was reduced one third in Rome. Spain, 
too, had its deposits worked in ancient times 
along the Tagus ; and the Athenians gather- 
ed their supplies of the metals from Thessaly 
and the island of Thasos. In the middle ages 
the art of working gold appears to have been 
little practised. The richness of the known 
mines was comparatively exhausted, and pre- 
vious to the opening of the new fields follow- 
ing the discovery of America, the attention 
of metallurgists was directed to vain attempts 
to transmute the baser into the precious met- 
als. It was estimated that at the time of the 
discovery of America the gold and silver in 
the old world, exclusive of the more or less 
unknown regions of the East, was reduced 
to about 34,000,000, and that the supply no 
more than met the loss by wear. The enor- 
mous importation of gold and silver from the 
new world soon made up the deficiencies of 
the old mining regions, and, reducing the value 



GOLD 



of the metals in comparison with other prod- 
ucts, caused mines which had before been suc- 
issfuHy worked to be abandoned as unprofit- 

i->om>1492 to 1500 the annual amount 
of gold brought into Europe from America is 

,v Huinboldt at 52,000; till 1519 gold 
only was obtained. The same proportion may 
-itV'lv bo extended to the year 1521, when Mex- 

< conquered, and the precious metals, but 
more especially silver, were obtained in vastly 
larger quantities. The mines of Potosi, discov- 
nvd in 1546, gave a still greater preponderance 
to the production of silver, and no data are 
afforded for afterward distinguishing the rela- 
tive proportions of the two metals. But in 
the first 300 years succeeding the discovery, 
the receipts of American gold we're estimated 
nt 3J times the product of the mines of the 
old continent, and those of silver at 12 times 
the product of this metal. In the time of 
Elizabeth gold was obtained at Lead- 
hills in the south of Scotland ; and toward the 
close of the last century, in the county of Wick- 
low in Ireland, about $50,000 worth of gold 
whs collected in two months. These deposits 
soon, however, proved unprofitable. The metal 
\\ .1- in ancient times collected in Cornwall, and 
I-* known to exist in Devonshire. The largest 
portion of British gold has been the product of 
Wales, the principal gold-bearing district of 
which is confined to an area of about 25 sq. m. 
in North Wales. The mines are still worked, 
but there has been a great decrease in the pro- 
dud ion. Upon various rivers of Europe, as 
tin- Rhine, the Rh6ne, the Danube, the Reuss, 
and the Aar of Switzerland, the sands were 
known to be auriferous in places, but too poor 
to pay the expenses of working. In Hungary 
veins containing gold disseminated in ores of 
sulphuret of silver are worked in a partially de- 
composed feldspar of the trachytic formation, 
and also in syenite and porphyritic greenstone ; 
and gold is also extracted from auriferous py- 
rites of trap rocks of the most recent formation. 
The mines of Nagy-Ag and Zalatna in S. W. 
Triiisylvania produce the alloy of tellurium 

Id before referred to. Besides gold, the 
Hungarian mines, worked by the Austrian gov- 
ernment, produce copper, silver, mercury, an- 
timony, lead, iron, and cobalt. In the Austrian 
provinces of Salzburg and Tyrol, at Bockstein 
and at Zell, gold is extracted from poorer ores 
than are elsewhere ever found profitable to 
work. The quartz gangue of the veins and 
tin- ar-illaccous slates of the walls contain au- 

is pyrites, argentiferous mispickel, gray 
argentiferous copper, and sulphuret of silver. 
From these the gold is profitably extracted 
when it amounts to only from 6 to 15 parts in 
1,000,000. At Zell it has been stated that the 
annual product of 50,000 quintals of ore has 
been only 35 marks of gold, or 4 parts in 
1,000,000. The silver, though obtained in six 
or seven times the quantity of the gold, is still 
less than half its value. The total production 
of the Austrian mines for several years past 



has averaged from 5,500 to 5,800 oz. per an- 
num. In Italy various localities were known 
to the ancients as producing gold. At present 
the only mines of consequence are in Pied- 
mont, in the valleys of Anzasca, Toppa, arid 
Antrona, and to a less extent in those of Ala- 
gna, Sesia, and Novara. In Lombardy the 
chief mines are at Peschiera and Minerva di 
Sotto. The ore is an auriferous pyrites con- 
taining about 12 dwts. of gold per ton. The 
total yield of all the mines does not exceed 
$100,000 per annum. In France a small 
amount of gold is produced, chiefly from aurif- 
erous galena ; and there are deposits in Savoy. 
Gold mines have been worked in Spain from 
very remote periods, but the present annual 
production does not exceed about $10,000. 
The mines of the Asiatic slopes of the Ural ex- 
tend along the secondary ridges of the chain in 
a N. and S. direction more than 400 m. The 
crystalline rocks here contain veins, one of 
which is successfully worked at Berezov, near 
Yekaterinburg, by shafts and levels. The 
gangue is pyritiferous quartz with oxide of iron 
resulting from its decomposition, and the rock 
is a partially decayed granite, the quartz re- 
maining in angular grains ; the adjoining for- 
mations are talcose and chloritic slates. All 
the other workings of Russia are alluvial mines. 
These are not only in the Ural district, where 
they have been worked for more than a cen- 
tury, but during the reign of Nicholas a region 
of southern and eastern Siberia, estimated to 
be as large as all of France, was found to be 
more rich in gold than that of the Ural. From 
the great E. and W. chain of the Altai moun- 
tains, which lie between Siberia and Mongolia, 
low ridges are directed toward the north into 
the governments of Tomsk and Yeniseisk, and 
these ridges of crystalline rocks are the reposi- 
tories of the precious metals. In 1843 this re- 
gion produced the value of about $11,000,000, 
while the product of the Ural districts for the 
same year was only about $2,500,000. Until 
the discovery of the mines of California it made 
Russia the greatest gold-producing country of 
the world. The average production of the 
Russian mines amounts to about $15,000,000 
annually ; and their total production from their 
discovery about 1745 to 1874 may be stated in 
round numbers at $600,000,000. The product 
in 1865 was given by Phillips at 69,500 Ibs. 
troy. Little is known of the other gold regions 
of the continent of Asia. The metal is pos- 
sessed, and its deposits are no doubt worked to 
considerable extent, by all the principal nations ; 
but except from the islands of the Indian archi- 
pelago little of it falls into the general circula- 
tion of the world. The river Pactolus of Asia 
Minor is supposed to have furnished from its 
golden sands the foundation of the wealth of 
Croesus. According to Pumpelly, who made 
geological researches in China, Mongolia, and 
Japan during 1862-'5, gold exists in numerous 
localities in no fewer than 14 of the 19 prov- 
inces of China. The richest regions appear 




GOLD 



75 



to be in the province of Szechuen and along 
the branches of the Kuenlun mountain range, 
which, extending in a general E. and W. di- 
rection, penetrate far into central China, be- 
tween Szechuen and the Wei river. There 
are also numerous washings at the base of 
the watershed between Kweichow and Hunan, 
and through the centre of Shantung from S. 
W. to N. E. In these localities placer gold 
is found, and some of them are mentioned as 
furnishing nuggets ; but little is known of 
the production of these washings. It is said 
that extensive sources of gold have long been 
known in China, but that the working of the 
mines has been discontinued by the govern- 
ment in accordance with some of their finan- 
cial theories. The gold-bearing formations 
of eastern Siberia are believed to extend into 
Chinese Tartary, and to connect with those 
of central and southern China. For several 
centuries Japan has ranked high for its pro- 
duction of gold, which constituted a chief 
article of the commerce carried on by the 
Portuguese and Dutch traders. According to 
a Japanese authority, the value of the gold 
exported from Nagasaki from 1611 to 1706 
amounted to $68,000,000, and of silver to 
$157,000,000; while Hildreth states that the 
value of the precious metals exported from Ja- 
pan during the two centuries beginning with 
1540 could not have been less than $200,000,- 
000. But little is known concerning the pres- 
ent production of gold in the empire, or the 
localities where it exists. The gold regions on 
the island of Yesso were surveyed in 1862 by 
Blake and Pumpelly, while in the service of 
the tycoon's government. According to Blake, 
the gold region extends along the Kunui and 
Pusibets rivers and in the range of mountains 
dividing Volcano bay from the west coast. 
Deposits are also supposed to exist in the 
northern and interior portions of the island. 
No veins have yet been found, the gold being 
obtained from washings. It is in fine scales, 
and occurs in the gravel along the streams ; it 
is also found in high terrace deposits on the 
hillsides. The annual product of the island 
does not probably exceed $25,000. There are 
also extensive mines upon a large vein of mixed 
silver and gold ore on the island of Sado, off 
the N. W. coast, which is supposed to have 
furnished a large amount, but the facts regard- 
ing it are jealously guarded by the Japanese. 
Gold is largely used in Japan for gilding, for 
inlaying and overlaying metals, and for alloys 
with copper and silver of various colors and 
degrees of fineness. Gold has long been found 
in abundance in Borneo ; according to Kloos, 
the metal occurs in varying quantities through- 
out the entire island. Placer gold is found on 
the river Kapola, associated with iron ores, 
sulphuret of antimony, and diamonds. The 
production of gold has also been reported in 
India, Thibet, Ceylon, Sumatra, Celebes, and 
the Philippine islands. Africa is believed to 
have been the source of a large proportion of 



the gold possessed by the ancients, and is re- 
ported by modern travellers to be still rich in it. 
The unmanufactured gold obtained from that 
country is in the form of dust, evidently ob- 
tained from alluvial washings. Russegger, who 
travelled through Nubia in 1838, reported the 
mountain chain extending across the interior 
of Africa from E. N. E. to W. S. W., and the 
streams flowing from it, to be auriferous. In 
Sennaar and southern Abyssinia gold occurs in 
placer deposits and in quartz veins traversing 
granite, gneiss, and chloritic slates. The great- 
est portion of the gold brought to the coast is 
from the fields of Bambook, south of the Sene- 
gal, the most important mines in Africa. There 
is a gold district in Kordofan on the upper Nile, 
between Darfoor and Abyssinia, and it is ob- 
tained in small quantities opposite Madagascar. 
A few years ago the annual production of Af- 
rica was estimated by Birkmyre at 4,000 Ibs., 
valued at about $900,000. In 1866 the exist- 
ence of extensive gold fields in south Africa, 
between lat. 17 and 21 30' S., was discovered 
by Hartley, an elephant hunter, and a German 
scientific traveller named Mauch. The gold 
fields occupy the interior region between the 
Zambesi, W. of Tete, and the middle course 
of the Limpopo river. The distance to them, 
from the Portuguese settlement of Sofala is 
about 350 m. The region containing the gold 
is an elevated table land about 7,000 ft. above 
the sea ; it is chiefly occupied by the Matabele 
section of the Caffres, a warlike tribe. The 
travellers above named found beds of glisten- 
ing white quartz rock extending over this 
table land, which were found upon examina- 
tion to contain gold. Particles of gold were 
also found along the sandy margins of rivulets. 
It is supposed by some that these mines were 
known to the Portuguese as early as the 17th 
century, and by others that here was the Ophir 
of Solomon. Although the discovery of the 
south African gold fields attracted consider- 
able attention, the production hitherto seems 
to have been unimportant. The first known 
discovery of gold in Australia was made by 
Count Strzelecki in 1839, and by him com- 
municated to Sir George Gipps, then governor 
of the colony of New South Wales. In defer- 
ence to the wishes of the latter, who was of 
opinion that a widely spread knowledge of the 
existence of gold would prevent the mainte- 
nance of discipline among the 45,000 convicts 
there collected, the discovery was not pro- 
claimed to the world. It was rediscovered in 
1841 by the Bev. W. B. Clarke, a geologist, 
upon whom also silence seems to have been 
enjoined by Governor Gipps. Without knowl- 
edge of these discoveries, it is said, Sir Rode- 
rick Murchison in 1844 publicly asserted the 
high probability of the existence of gold in 
Australia. It is also said that gold was found 
at Cluneg, Victoria, in 1850. The discovery, 
however, which led to the extensive working 
of the mines was made in 1851 by Mr. E. H. 
Hargreaves, who had just returned from Cali- 



76 



GOLD 



foraia, and at once began prospecting near 
Kuthurst on the Macquarie river, New South 
Wales, where gold was found in considerable 
quantities. The announcement of this fact 
caused ranch excitement and a sudden immigra- 
tion of great magnitude to this region, (bee 
EMIGRATION). The government at once laid 
claim to the land and began to grant licenses 
to dig for gold. The gold region was soon 
traced along the range of hills N. and S., and 
new discoveries were made of deposits surpass- 
ing all the rest in richness in the colony of 
Victoria, near the southern coast, 70 m. N. W. 
of Melbourne. In October there were 7,000 
persons engaged in the new diggings at Balla- 
rat near Mt. Buninyong, occupying less than a 
square mile in extent. The next month many 
of these were drawn off to the still richer de- 
posits about Mt. Alexander in the same region, 
where it was estimated that 10,000 persons were 
then employed. In December 63,300 oz. were 
transported to Melbourne from this locality, 
which was then valued at 3 1 9. Gd. per oz. The 
whole amount conveyed from the two locali- 
ties from Sept. 30 to Dec. 31 was 124,835 oz.; 
the whole product of the colony was 345,146 
oz. The immigration the next year of 104,000 
more than doubled the population of Victoria ; 
still richer diggings were discovered at Ben- 
digo, and the total product of the colony for 
the year 1852 was estimated at 4,263,042 oz. 
The estimates made in London of the whole 
amount of gold exported from Victoria and 
New South Wales up to the close of 1852 gave 
for the former a total value of 16,000,000, and 
for the latter 3,500,000; or for 15 months 
nearly four times what the annual production 
of the world was supposed to be five years 
previously. The richest and most extensive 
gold fields of Australia are in the colony of 
Victoria, where the area of the mining region 
is about 725 sq. m. This is divided into the 
mining districts of Ballarat, Beechworth, Sand- 
hu/st, Maryborough, Castlemaine, and Ararat. 
In Australia, as in California, gold is directly 
obtained from three distinct sources, viz. : 
shallow placers, deep diggings, and quartz 
The estimated number of quartz veins 
in Victoria is about 2,000. According to 
Selwyn, " these veins, traversing lower palaeo- 
zoic strata and associated with granitic and 
igneous rocks, are, so far as at present known, 
tin- primary source of the whole of the gold 
raised in Victoria. The thickest and most 
persistent veins, or lines of reef, are found on 
the lower or older portions of the series ; but 
the average yield of gold per ton of stone has, 
I believe, been greater from the thinner veins 
of the upper beds. 1 ' The thickness of these 
veins, which are described as "dikes or reefs," 
varies from that of a thread to 130 ft. They 
have a general meridional direction, and are 
itirlinc'l .it her east or west at angles varying 
:-'ri/.imt:il to vertical. Frequently they 
in the planes of cleavage, occasionally 
between those of the strata, and they often 



intersect both. These veins have been worked 
to a depth exceeding 600 ft., and it has been 
found that the yield does not decrease with 
increase of depth. Mr. Selwyn has reached 
the conclusion that at least two distinct sets 
of quartz veins exist in Australia, one of which 
is entirely barren, and that they have been 
formed at two different and remote periods, 
the barren being the older one. This view 
is corroborated by the fact, well known to 
experienced quartz miners in Australia, that 
in many districts barren and rich quartz ledges 
are found in close proximity. As this same 
phenomenon has been noticed in California 
and the Appalachian gold field, it suggests, 
according to Blake, the probable existence 
of quartz lodes of two or more distinct pe- 
riods in America as in Australia. The great- 
er portion of the gold obtained in Australia 
is from gravel deposits or placers similar to 
those in California. They occur in beds of 
streams, along the banks, and in ancient chan- 
nels running transversely to the existing drain- 
age of the country. Rich deposits are found 
under heavy accumulations of stratified tuffs 
and lavas overlaid with table mountains of ba- 
salt. The thickness of the placer deposits va- 
ries greatly in different places, ranging from 
100 to 400 ft. The ratio of gold obtained from 
quartz mines to that of placers is indicated by 
the production of the two kinds in Victoria in 
1866, viz., 521,017 oz. of quartz and 958,177 
oz. of placer gold. The most productive gold 
fields of Victoria have been those of Ballarat 
and Bendigo. The general description of the 
gold fields of Victoria will apply to those of 
New South Wales. The alluvial deposits, how- 
ever, are not so extensive as in Victoria, and 
the production of the colony has been less. 
South Australia and Queensland are also gold- 
producing, but the amount obtained is small. 
The Australian gold has a higher color and is 
finer than that from California. Its fineness 
ranges from 20 to 23 -5 carats, the Ballarat gold 
being of the highest standard. The Ballarat 
nugget mentioned above, found in 1858, and 
weighing 2,217 oz. 16 dwts., was exhibited at 
the Paris exposition of 18C7, and valued at 
nearly 10,000. Gold was first discovered in 
New Zealand in 1842 ; further discoveries were 
made there in 1851, and in 1856 mining opera- 
tions on an extensive scale were begun. The 
rock formations and alluvial deposits, which 
are deep and extensive, are similar to those in 
Australia. In the United States there are two 
extensive auriferous regions or gold belts, one 
on the Atlantic slope, known as the Appalachian 
gold field, and the other on the Pacific coast, 
embracing California and the neighboring states 
and territories. The Appalachian gold field 
extends southwesterly from Virginia through 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, 
and also includes portions of Alabama and 
Tennessee. The width of the gold range va- 
ries greatly ; in some places it exceeds 75 m. 
The metal does not exist in a continuous belt 






GOLD 



77 



extending through this region ; hut there are 
numerous auriferous tracts, occurring at inter- 
vals and generally parallel with each other, 
though often many miles distant. In North 
Carolina, from which the greatest amounts of 
gold have been obtained, there are two prin- 
cipal belts extending across the state in a S. 
"W. and N. E. direction ; one through Mecklen- 
burg, Cabarrus, Rowan, Davidson, Guilford, 
and Caswell counties, and the other through 
Rutherford, McDowell, and Burke counties. 
The latter is the more westerly of the two, 
being fro'm 10 to 20 m. distant from the base 
of the Blue Ridge; it is also more elevated, 
while the placer deposits are richer and more 
extensive than in the E. belt. In Georgia also 
the range appears to be divided into two belts, 
which are separated by unproductive rocks. 
Quartz veins closely resembling those of Cali- 
fornia are found in these regions. The gold is 
either free in coarse grains, or in fine particles 
disseminated in sulphuret of iron or copper. 
The gold veins of Virginia extend through Fau- 
quier, Culpeper, Louisa, Fluvanna, Bucking- 
ham, and a few other adjoining counties. The 
production at times has been very large, but 
the veins have been extremely fluctuating in 
their yield; and though some of these still 
continue to be worked, their history on the 
whole is by no means favorable. Though gold 
has been found in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and 
Vermont, on the range of the Appalachian 
chain, it has proved insufficient to justify mi- 
ning explorations, except over a limited area in 
Vermont during the year 1859. The veins of 
the southern gold region are found in various 
rocks of a granitic character, and in the horn- 
blendic rock called diorite, all of which are 
often in a decomposed condition to the depth 
of 200 ft. or more. They are also met with in 
a variety of slates, as talcose, micaceous, chlo- 
ritic, and hornblendic. In North Carolina a 
belt of such crystalline slates several miles 
wide is traced through several counties on the 
E. side of another belt of granite and "W. of one 
of hornblendic rock, in all of which the veins 
are found. In South Carolina the geognostical 
relations of the gold are very similar. Steatitic 
strata are met with near the mines, and dikes 
of intrusive rocks are often found cutting the 
veins and sometimes disturbing their regularity. 
The course of the veins is by no means uniform ; 
they run in various directions, and are often 
tortuous as well as displaced by faults. Their 
' most common general bearing is N. E. and 
S. W., with a dip toward the N. W. Veins in 
| which the quartz gangue is highly crystalline 
commonly abound in iron pyrites ; as they are 
explored, pyritous copper is generally met with 
at some depth. In most instances the gold di- 
minishes with the increase of copper, and the 
I latter metal not proving abundant enough to 
pay expenses, the mines are at last abandoned. 
Gold is said to have been discovered in Cabar- 
i rus co. in 1799, but until the early part of the 
present century the gold region of the southern 



states attracted no attention. Gold had been 
gathered to a small extent in various places 
along the ranges of hills on the E. side of the 
Appalachian chain, between the Potomac and 
the Coosa river of Alabama ; but there was no 
regular market for its sale, and no account was 
kept of the quantities collected. These were 
altogether of placer gold. In 1825 a gold vein 
was discovered by Mr. Barringer in Montgomery 
co., N. C., and attention was directed to this 
source, which in some instances proved highly 
productive ; but this branch of mining was 
afterward most successfully prosecuted in Vir- 
ginia, the coarse gold disseminated through the 
white quartz being more conspicuous than in 
the North Carolina veins. In the more broken 
country of the Carolinas and Georgia also the 
deposits of the streams were more attractive. 
In 1824 native gold began to appear in the mint 
at Philadelphia, and the receipts increased rap- 
idly, so that in five or six years it constituted 
the chief portion of the supplies of this metal. 
Up to 1827 North Carolina had been the only 
state producing gold in notable quantities, and 
the aggregate amount from 1804 is estimated 
at about $110,000. The first mint deposits 
from South Carolina were $3,500 in 1829, and 
from Virginia $2,500 in the same year. The 
first deposits of Georgia gold were in 1830 to 
the amount of $212,000. In 1837 the produc- 
tion had become so great that a branch mint 
was established by the government at Char- 
lotte, N. C., and another at Dahlonega, Lump- 
kin co., Ga., both of which commenced opera- 
tions the next year. They were suspended in 
1861, but in 1869 that at Charlotte was rees- 
tablished as an assay office. "When the dis- 
coveries of gold in California were announced, 
the placer deposits and many of the veins in 
the south were abandoned. The total amount 
of southern gold deposited at the mints and 
assay offices of the United States, from the 
opening of the mines to June 30, 1873, was 
$1,631,612 from Virginia, $9,983,585 from 
North Carolina, $1,378,180 from South Caro- 
lina, $7,267,784 from Georgia, $79,018 from 
Tennessee, and $211,827 from Alabama ; total, 
$20,052,006. Of the deposits in 1873, $2,423 
came from Virginia, $120,332 from North Caro- 
lina, $160 from South Carolina, $35,437 from 
Georgia, and $599 from Alabama. The exist- 
ence of gold in California had been known from 
the time of the expedition of Drake, 1577-'9, 
being particularly noticed by Hakluyt in his 
account of the region. The occurrence of gold 
upon the placers was noticed in a work upon 
Upper California published in Spain in 1690, by 
Loyola Cavello, at that time a priest at the mis- 
sion of San Jose, bay of San Francisco. Capt. 
Shelvocke in 1721 speaks favorably of the ap- 
pearance of the soil for gold, and of the prob- 
able richness of the country in metals. The 
" Historico-Geographical Dictionary" of An- 
tonio de Alcedo, l786-'9, positively affirms the 
abundance of gold, even in lumps of 5 to 8 Ibs. 
The favorable appearance of the country for 



78 



GOLD 



cold, and of Oregon also, was noticed by Prof. 
.! I. Dana, and recorded in his geok)g ical re ; 
port of the country. In Hunt's "Merchants 
Magazine" for April, 1847, is a very decided 
statement by Mr. Sl.wt respecting the richness 
of the country in gold, made from his observa- 
tions there the two preceding years ; and he 
confidently predicts that its mineral develop- 
ments will greatly exceed in richness and va- 
riety the most sanguine expectations. In these 
vears the Mormons connected with the army 
were known to have gathered some gold upon 
the banks of the streams, and the Mexicans and 
Indians also. A party of three Americans, two 
of them Mormons, were on Feb. 9, 1848, at but- 
ter's mill on the American fork of the Sacra- 
mento, near the town of Coloma in El Dorado 
co., engaged in repairing the race, which had 
been damaged by the spring freshets, when the 
little daughter of the overseer, named Mar- 
shall, picked up in the race a lump of gold 
and showed it to her father as a pretty stone. 
The discovery did not immediately attract 
much attention ; and the Mormons particularly 
sought to prevent the facts from being made 
public. The Rev. C. S. Lyman, in a letter to 
the " American Journal of Science," of March, 
1848, says: " Gold has been found recently on 
the Sacramento near Sutter's fort. It occurs 
in small masses in the sands of a new mill race, 
and is said to promise well." The news spread 
rapidly, and caused an unparalleled tide of 
emigration to pour in from Mexico, South 
America, the Atlantic states, and even from 
Europe and China. (See CALIFORNIA.) In 
August of that year Governor Mason reported 
4,000 men engaged in working gold, and a daily 
product of the value of $30,000 to $50,000. 
The earlier diggings were mostly deposits rest- 
ing upon the upturned edges of argillaceous 
slates, the gold being found entangled in these 
under the sand and gravel, and also more or 
less mixed through the superficial layers. A 
large proportion was picked out by hand at 
many of the diggings, so abundant were the 
coarse pieces. Attention was early directed 
to the gold veins, and in 1851 regular quartz 
minim? was commenced at Spring Hill in 
Ainador co. In 1857 numerous mills, most 
complete and thorough in their construction, 
were in operation over a great part of the 
country; and mines were opened at greater 
depths than gold is often worked in other 
countries. A shaft of the Mount Hope mining 
company in Grass Valley was carried to the 
depth of 241 ft., reaching the vein at 350 ft. 
following its slope, and the richness of the 
veinstone at this depth gave full encourage- 
ment to the belief that these repositories were 
permanent and inexhaustible. Many other 
mines were worked from 150 to 200 ft. in depth. 
In California, though gold is found E. of the 
Sierra Nevada, among the mountains of the 
coast, and in various other localities, the great 
;rold ri-irinn i on the W. slope of the Sierra, 
and extends from about lat. 35 N. northerly 



to Oregon, a distance of about 500 m. The 
average breadth of this gold belt is about 40 
in. The principal mining operations have been 
confined to a central area extending N. and 
S. about 220 m., between the parallels of 37 
and 40, and embracing Mariposa, Tuolumne, 
Calaveras, Amador, El Dorado, Placer, Neva- 
da, Sierra, Yuba, Butte, and Plumas coun- 
ties. According to William P. Blake, gold- 
bearing veins on the W. slope of the Sier- 
ra Nevada occur in or are closely associated 
with clay states, sandstones, and conglomer- 
ates of the secondary period; also in hard 
and compact granite, in greenstone or dioritic 
rocks, and in dolomite and metamorphic lime- 
stones. In the Coast mountains they are 
found even in the partially metamorphosed 
stratified formations of the cretaceous period. 
The largest and most extensive veins exist in 
the region of the metamorphosed secondary 
rocks, varying in width from a few inches to 
20 or 30 ft., and generally conforming to the 
dip and strike of the strata. " The most ex- 
tensive vein of the state," says Mr. Blake, 
" and perhaps in the world, is known among 
the miners as the 'mother vein,' and extends, 
but with some considerable, breaks and inter- 
ruptions, from Mariposa northwestward for 80 
or 100 m., following a zone or belt of Jurassic 
slates and sandstones, and closely associated 
with a stratum of dolomite or magnesian rock, 
often a magnesite, filled with reticulations of 
quartz veins and charged with pyrites." The 
chief production of California gold has been ob- 
tained from placers. The great placer region 
extends over the central counties from Mariposa 
to Butte. The deposits occur not only in the 
beds of the streams, but also upon the hillsides 
and tops, where ancient watercourses are sup- 
posed to have been. Sometimes they are found 
under enormous accumulations of sand, clay, 
gravel, and even of tufa and lava ; the smoothly 
worn stones are thoroughly cemented together, 
and form a solid conglomerate or "cement;'* 
the auriferous deposits consist of gravel and 
bowlders, varying in size from a grain of wheat 
to masses weighing many tons. These hills on 
the W. slope of the Sierra Nevada cover a tract 
of country in places 50 to 60 m. in width, and 
rise sometimes to the height of 4,000 ft. They 
are traversed by numerous streams, whose 
sources are in the Sierra Nevada. Subject to 
sudden and extreme freshets from the melting 
of the snoAvs and from the long continued rains 
of the wet season, these streams excavate and 
sweep down the loosely aggregated rocks, and 
wear deep cafions and gulches, which extend 
toward the valleys of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin. Thus it was the same agency which 
impressed this peculiar feature upon the topog- 
raphy of the region, and spread the gold from 
the veins in the hills through the ravines and 
down into the valleys. Even upon the elevated 
plains quite to the west of the hills gold is 
collected in strata of sand and clayey deposits, 
which cover the surface to the depth of 15 to 



GOLD 



79 



ft. or more. The clay is often seen to be but 
>artially decomposed slate, still retaining the 
tructure of this rock, which was evidently the 
matrix of the gold. The general gold formation 
f California is found in the neighboring states 
nd territories, the entire territories of theUni- 
ed States west of the Eocky mountains being 
more or less productive. In many parts of this 
egion valuable mines are already worked, and 
here is little doubt that some of them may in 
he future contribute more than California to 
he general gold production of the country. 
n Nevada gold has been obtained from the 
uartz and from placers, but the product of the 
tate has been chiefly derived from the aurif- 
rous silver ores of the great Comstock vein, 
iscovered in 1859, which yields about one 
hird gold and two thirds silver. Gold has 
>een obtained from Oregon since 1850, and the 
ecent production has been roughly estimated 
,t about $2,000,000 annually. It was first 
[iscovered in Washington territory on the E. 
lope of the Cascade mountains in 1858. The 
;old region was traced along the upper Colum- 
ia and its tributaries, and in 1860 it was found 
in the W. slope of the Bitter Root mountains, 
tow in Idaho. There are gold washings in 
Imost all parts of Idaho; the gold contains 
more silver than that of California, and aver- 
ages about '760. In Montana there are exten- 
ive placers and quartz veins, on the E. slopes 
f the Bitter Root mountains, and on both sides 
f the Rocky mountain chain, at the sources 
)f the Missouri river. In Colorado gold occurs 
n lodes or fissure veins, in a belt about 50 m. 
wide, extending over the central portion of the 
territory N. and S. (See COLORADO.) Gold is 
Iso obtained from Utah and Arizona, and is 
mown to exist in Dakota. The auriferous belt 
>f Oregon, and of Idaho, Montana, and Wash- 
ngton territories, extends N. along the slopes 
f the Rocky mountain chain into British Co- 
timbia. The mining of gold in this latter coun- 
ry dates from 1858, though the existence of 
he metal had been announced in 1856. Gold 
las been found on the Eraser river from a point 
ibout 45 m. from its mouth to its source in the 
locky mountains, a distance of upward of 700 
Q. by the meanderings of the river. It is also 
"bund on many tributaries of the Eraser and on 
Vancouver island. The fields which have been 
nost extensively worked are in the Caribou 
listrict, which lies in the N. bend of the Eraser. 
. of this district placers have been discovered 
)n Peace river, and still further N". on the 
"tickeen, which empties into the Pacific S. of 
Sitka, near lat. 55. The metal has also been 
bund above that point, but in small quantities. 
The greater part of the gold from British Co- 
umbia is obtained from shallow placers. The 
production is sent to San Francisco ; it amounted 
n 1873 to $1,250,035. (See BRITISH COLUMBIA.) 
In the province of Ontario, Canada, gold has 
)een found in small irregular deposits of con- 
siderable richness in Madoc. The gangue of 
the gold was in part a ferriferous bitter spar, 
366 VOL. vin. 6 



and in part a peculiar hydrocarbon aceous coaly 
matter, the two being associated in the same 
veins, and alike penetrated by crystalline gold 
of great purity. The adjacent township of 
Marmora has since been found to contain gold 
in quartz veins with mispickel. Though not 
rich, the ore is abundant, and the deposits there 
are now worked on a considerable scale. The 
rocks of this region are crystalline schists, prob- 
ably of Huronian age ; and rich gold-bearing 
veins have recently been discovered in rocks of 
the same period N. of Lake Superior, on Lake 
Shebandowan. For many years the gold-bear- 
ing alluvions of the Chaudiere and the adja- 
cent region in the province of Quebec have 
attracted attention, and have yielded more or 
less gold. It is distributed over a large area, 
but the official returns in 1869 show a produc- 
tion of only 1,050 oz. from the Chaudiere val- 
ley, although small quantities are extracted in 
various other localities in the region. The 
source of the gold appears to be in part in the 
adjacent crystalline rocks of Huronian age, and 
in part in some argillites and sandstones which 
are perhaps of the lower Cambrian period, but 
may be more recent. In both of these for- 
mations, native gold accompanied with sul- 
phurets occurs in quartz veins, which have not 
however as yet been systematically worked. 
In Nova Scotia the auriferous quartz occurs in 
uncrystalline slates and sandstones, for the most 
part in interbedded veins. The workings have 
been on a small scale and very irregular, but 
the quartz is often of great richness. The 
official returns from 1860 to 1872 show a yield 
of 215,871 oz., with a value of 863,484. The 
produce in 1867 was 27,314 oz., but in 1872 
only 13,094 oz. The gold-producing districts 
of South America are in Brazil, Chili, and all 
those countries which lie north of the latter on 
the line of the Andes. As in Europe and Asia, 
it is the N. and S. ranges of hills of micaceous 
and talcose slates, quartz rocks, and granites, 
which produce this metal. In some instances, as 
in Peru and Chili, it is obtained from veins com- 
monly worked for other metals as well as gold ; 
but almost universally it is a product of alluvial 
mines. The yield since the early working of 
the mines has greatly fallen off, and especially 
since the commencement of the present cen- 
tury; and South America, from having been 
the first of the gold-producing countries in the 
world, has now fallen among those of least im- 
portance in this respect. Still it is well known 
that there are districts of great richness yet 
comparatively unworked, and which are likely 
long to continue so from their extreme un- 
healthiness and the want of means of comfort- 
able subsistence. Such is the country about 
the head waters of the Atrato, the Magdalen a, 
and the Cauca. Similar causes, as well as the 
political condition of the countries of Central 
America, have prevented the development of 
their resources in this metal, which it is well 
known follows the Cordilleras northward. On 
the isthmus of Panama discoveries of images 



80 



GOLD 



of gold in the graves of the aborigines point to 
the existence of productive mines in Chinqui, 
the localities of which are not now known. 
The gold is very generally alloyed with cop- 
per; some of it indeed is only 8-carat gold 
while in other samples the proportion is 23 
carats The gold of Mexico has been rather a 
secondary product of its argentiferous veins; 
but in Oajaca are true gold veins m the mica- 
ceous slates and gneiss. The silver ores which 
contain the gold are often argentiferous galena, 
the lead being the prevailing metal. A small 
quantity of gold is annually obtained from 
Central America, and gold placers are known 
to exist in Cuba and Santo Domingo. Al- 
though gold has been found in many places in 
Brazil, the most productive mines have been 
worked in the province of Minas Geraes in the 
vicinity of Ouro Preto, and in the district of 
Turyassu, in the province of Maranhao. The 
large production of Brazilian gold in the 18th 
century was obtained almost exclusively from 
the alluvial washings of Minas Geraes; but 
these became exhausted, and the metal is now 
obtained from the veins or beds worked by 
English capital. The gold found in Brazil, in- 
stead of being enclosed in regular veins, is dis- 
seminated in metalliferous beds. The rock 
formations are supposed to belong to the pa- 
heozoic period. The total production of gold 
in the world has never been determined with 
more than an approximate degree of accuracy. 
There are no statistics showing the exact an- 
nual yield of the different gold-producing coun- 
tries, and the amount produced has been sub- 
ject to computations by different authorities, 
whose results have presented no little variance. 
It is true that in each country an accurate 
record is kept of the amount coined, and of the 
exports and imports, but these results only in- 
dicate approximately the extent of the produc- 
tion. In 1830 it was estimated that for the 
preceding 19 years the average annual produc- 
tion of the precious metals had fallen off about 
$31,000,000 from what it had been before that 
time, the estimated product being as follows : 



COUNTRIES. 



Africa 



ToUl. 



Before 1810. 



$4,000,000 
2,80,000 
LOOO.OOO 

47,000,000 



104080,000 



After 1810. 



$5.000,000 



1,000,000 
15,000,000 



By the estimate of M. Chevalier, in his work 
on money, the total amount of gold and silver 
existing in various forms in 1848 appears to 
have been 1,727,000,000, or $8,500,000,000, 
of which one third was supposed to be gold. 
The annual product of this metal from 1800 to 
1850 had been 3,258,000. By other authori- 
ties the whole amount of gold coin and bullion 
in KurujK- in 1847 was i-stimnted to be about 
250,000,000, and in the world in 1850 600,- 
000,000. According to Phillips, the annual 
production at the beginning of the century was 



about 53,940 Ibs. troy, of which New Granada 
furnished 23 per cent., Brazil and southern 
A.sia 18 per cent, each, Chili 13, Mexico 8, Aus- 

ria 6, and Peru 4 per cent. In 1860 the pro- 
duction had increased to 585,370 Ibs. troy, of 
which the chief countries contributed in the 
following ratio per cent. : Australia, 37; Cali- 

brnia and neighboring states and territories, 
31-9 ; Russia, 11-3. In 1865 the yield amounted 
to 559,587 Ibs. troy, of which 37'5 per cent, 
was the product of California and the neigh- 
boring states and territories, 27'9 of Australia, 
and 12-4 of Russia. The following approxi- 
mate statement of the value of the gold pro- 
duced in the principal gold-producing countries 
in 1867 is given by Blake in his "Production 
of the Precious Metals:" 



Nevada 

Oregon and Washington 

Idaho 

Montana 

Arizona 

New Mexico 

Colorado 

Utah, Appalachians, and other sources 



Total United States 

British Columbia 

Canada and Nova Scotia. 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Chili 

Bolivia 

Peru 

Venezuela, Colombia, Central America, 

Cuba, and Santo Domingo 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Russia 

Austria 

Spain 

Italy 

France 

Great Britain 

Africa 

Borneo and East. Indies 

China, Japan, Central Asia, Roumania, 

and other unenumerated sources . . 



Total 



8.000,000 

5,000,000 

12,000,000 

500,000 

800,000 

2.000,000 

2,700,000 



$56,500.000 

2,000,000 

560.000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

590,000 

800,000 

500,000 

8.000,000 

81,550,000 

6,000,000 

15,500,000 

1,175,000 

8,000 

95,000 



12,000 

900,000 

5,000,000 

5,000,000 



$180,630,000 



Ratio 
per cent. 



43-23 

- 1-96 

76 

4-05 

24-14 
11-17 

- 1-74 



100-00 



The production of Australia above given is 
thus distributed by Blake : Victoria, $26,510,- 
000 ; New South Wales, $4,600,000 ; Queens- 
land, $400,000 ; South Australia, $140,000. 
Since about 1850, by far the greater portion 
of all the gold obtained in the world has been 
the product of the Australian mines and those 
on the Pacific coast of the United States. The 
extent of the Australian production is indicated 
by the following table, from the official " Sta- 
tistical Abstract of the several Colonial and 
other Possessions of the United Kingdom," giv- 
ing the value of the exports of bullion and coin 
from New South Wales and Victoria, from the 
opening of the mines. It should be observed, 
however, that it docs not represent the exact 
production of each colony. The coin was is- 
sued from the branch of the royal mint at Syd- 
ney, New South Wales. A branch mint was 
established at Melbourne, Victoria, in 1872. 



GOLD 



81 





NEW SOUTH WALKS. 


VICTOEIA. 


YEARS. 


Exclusive of 
coin. 


Coin. 


Exclusive of 
coin. 


Cota. 




470,836 




438,777 




1852~ 


2 660'945 




6,135,728 




1853! '. 


1,781,173 




8,644,529 




1854. 


778,209 




8,255,550 




1855 


209 250 




10,904,150 




1856! ! 

1857. . 


188'007 
187,249 


18^44 
914.199 


11,943,458 
10,987,591 




951,856 


1858. . 


98,480 


1,411,251 


30,107,886 


605,678 


1859. . 


215,941 


1,488,833 


9,122,087 


1,304,992 


1860. . 


298,668 


1,579,920 


8,624,860 


565,430 


1861. . 


289,937 


1,720,326 


7,869,758 


1,210,828 


1862. . 


517,105 


2,467,164 


6,685,192 


918,999 


1863. . 


587,920 


1,774,184 


6,520,957 


1,169,471 


1864. . 


304,955 


2,647,516 


6,206,237 


1,029,872 


1865. . 


441,006 


2,325,844 


6,190,317 


809,269 


1866. . 


581,983 


2,815,437 


5,909,987 


961,493 


1867. . 


544,661 


2,041,883 


5,738,993 


671,936 


1868. . 


382.616 


1,771,005 


7,843,197 


507,662 


1869. . 


578,260 


2,184,612 


6.804,179 


684,819 


1870. . 


672,254 


1,200,509 


6,119,782 


577,840 


1871. . 


601,250 


1,724,088 


6,590,962 


847,513 


1872... 


731,120 


1,656,131 


5,197,340 




Total. 


13,016,774 


29,746,556 


161,841,417 


12,317,658 



The exports from New Zealand began in 1857, 
and to the beginning of 1872 had amounted to 
24,492,149. They increased from 40,084 in 
1857 to 2,897,412 in 1866, then gradually 
decreased till 1870, when they amounted to 
2,163,910, but in 1871 increased again to 
2,788,368. The accurate determination of the 
amount of gold produced in the United States 
since the discovery of this metal in California 
is not practicable. As J. Ross Browne, W. 
P. Blake, R. W. Raymond, and others have 
shown, neither the manifests of export, nor the 
mint receipts, nor the bullion shipments of the 
express companies, nor any direct combination 
of these data, will give the required amount. 
This is particularly the case with regard to 
earlier years. The following table, compiled by 
R. W. Raymond, United States commissioner 
of mining statistics, is offered as an approxi- 
mate estimate, the result of careful study of 
numerous treatises and partial statistics, in the 
light of much personal observation of the prin- 
cipal producing districts. Down to 1862 it 
follows the table compiled by J. Arthur Phil- 
lips, and published in his " Gold and Silver." 
From 1862 to 1866 the production of California 
is calculated by deducting from the express re- 
ceipts of uncoined treasure at San Francisco, 
from " the northern and southern mines," the 
receipts from Nevada, and adding 10 per cent, 
to the remainder, to cover amount shipped in 
private hands. From 1866 to 1872 inclusive 
the reports of the United States mining com- 
missioner have been followed as a general 
authority ; but as these do not separate the 
product of gold from that of silver, the divi- 
sion has been made by estimate, based on the 
known conditions and relations of the industry 
of different localities. The figures for 1873 
are based on the express shipments, with arbi- 
trary allowances for product otherwise trans- 
ported. Under the head of u Other States and 
Territories" is included the product of gold 



from Oregon, "Washington, Idaho, Montana, 
Colorado, &c., and one third the product of the 
Comstock lode hi Nevada, that being the aver- 
age proportion of gold by value in the Com- 
stock bullion. The values are given in United 
States gold coin. 

ESTIMATE OF GOLD PKODTTCT OF THE UNITED 
STATES SINCE 1847. 


YEARS. 


California. 


Other states 
and territories. 


TotaL 


1848 


$10,000,000 
40,000,000 
50,000,000 
55,000,000 
60,000,000 
65,000,000 
60,000,000 
55,000,000 
55,000,000 
55,000,000 
50,000,000 
50,000,000 
45,000,000 
40,000,000 
34.700,000 
80,000,000 
26,600,000 
28,500,000 
25,500,000 
25,000,000 
22,000,000 
22,500,000 
25,000,000 
20,000,000 
19,000,000 
17,000,000 





$10,000,000 
40,000,000 
50,000,000 
55,000,000 
60,000,000 
65,000,000 
60,000,000 
55,000,000 
55,000,000 
55,000,000 
50,000,000 
50,000,000 
46,000,000 
43,000,000 
89,200,000 
40,000,000 
46,100,000 
58,225,000 
53,500,000 
51,725,000 
48,000.000 
49,500,000 
50,000,000 
43,500,000 
36,000,000 
36,000,000 


1849 


I860 


1851 

1852 






1853 


1854 




1855 




1856 


1857 





1858 


1859 


$1,000,666 

8,000,000 
4,500,000 
10,000,000 
19,500,000 
24,725,000 
28,000,000 
26,725,000 
26,000,000 
27,000,000 
25,000,000 
23,500,000 
17,000,000 
19,000,000 


1860 


1861 
1862 

1863 


1864 


1865 
1866 


186T 


1868 . 


1869 
1870 


1671 


1872. 


1878 


Total 


$985,800,000 


$254,950,000 


$1,240,750,000 



Other authorities have made the production of 
California in recent years somewhat larger, as 
will appear by reference to the article CALI- 
FORNIA. It is estimated that about three 
fourths of the gold produced is used for coin- 
age, and about one fourth in the arts. Thus, 
estimating the entire product of the world in 
1873 at $100,000,000, it is supposed that the 
consumption in the arts, which has greatly in- 
creased in recent years, approximated $25,- 
000,000. There has also been a recent increas- 
ing demand for gold for coinage, attributed to 
the fact that several countries which formerly 
used gold and silver as the double or alternate 
standard of value, have reformed their mone- 
tary laws, and adopted the gold standard, that 
metal being less variable than silver. Among 
the countries which have recently made this 
change are the United States, Germany, Den- 
mark, Sweden and Norway, and Japan. Great 
Britain adopted the gold standard in 1816. 
France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, and Greece 
still adhere to the double standard. The total 
gold coinage of the world from 1848 to 1872 
has been stated in round numbers at 602,116,- 
000. Of this amount France coined 259,801,- 
000, the United States 185,579,000, England 
123,608,000, and Australia 32,128,000. Ac- 
cording to the latest report of the director of 
the mint, the entire gold coinage of the United 
States to June 30, 1873, amounted to $816,- 
905,878, in addition to $285,358,663 manufac- 
tured into bars, making the total issue from the 



GOLD 



ffl tl 102 964 541 (See rites, or with all the gold in any variety of py- 

mints and assay offices $1,10. ***> *?* .. G ld is c i a9S ifi e d further as quartz gold 

Corns.) Of this amount coinage to the -value ntes ttom ^ ^ in 

of $35,249,837 and bars valued at $20 495 616 (touno ^i , , deposits, &c.). The 

ssued durin mechanical chemi- 



were issued during y-MdKKwK Sods^ extraction are mechanical, chemi- 
1873. The amount of gold c tthTvari cal or both, according to circumstances. Me- 

, exclusive of coins, de PJ sl ** d n a ;/\ 8t t " c h a nical methods involve the agency of air or 
ous mints and assay offices of th %Un rted fe^tes c^ separation is the rude process of 

from their establishment **^ NJ&JJ Rowing, occasionally practised in localities 
the sources of production, has I jjo ng^ ^ wanting . F The dry pulverized 

material is repeatedly thrown into the air, al- 
lowing the wind to carry off the lighter por- 
tions, the remainder being caught as it falls in 
a hide or blanket, or a shallow wooden basin 
called a latea. The process is concluded by 
blowing the last residuum with the mouth. 
Washing is the almost universal method of me- 
chanical separation. In exploring for gold, 
the earth or pulverized rock suspected to con- 
tain it is washed on the blade of a shovel, or 
in an iron pan, wooden latea, or horn scoop. 
The operation is commonly called panning. It 
consists essentially in stirring and shaking un- 
der water the contents of the vessels employed 
The localities given in this table are merely j n 8Uc h a way as to suspend the finer earthy 
those from which the mint deposits were de- par ticles and allow them to escape over the 
clared or inferred to come; hence they do not e( jge, while the gold, with the larger stones or 
represent correctly the actual origin of produc- lumps of clay, remains behind. The stones 
tion. A considerable amount, for example, is are removed with the fingers, and the lumps 
attributed to Kansas, which really produces no o f c ] a y are rubbed between the hands and re- 



SOURCE. VALUE. 


SOURCE. VALUE. 


Virginia 


$1,681,612 78 Washington 
a 9,988,535 M territory... 
a 1,878,180 77 Idaho 
7,267,784 76 Utah 
79,018 69 Nevada 
211,827 79 Wyoming . . . 


$71,662 41 
18,889,785 84 
198,827 91 
1,140,067 94 
158,646 18 


MtkOvOtfa 

j;,-,.nr::i... 


tfawMok 

OUttnta . 


911,171 27 Dakota 
640,080,657 59 Sitka 
27 026 96 Vermont .... 


5,760 00 
897 64 
8,904 97 


kVn-i- 


955,867 44 


Parted from 


Montana . . 
Oregon.... 
(fclondo , 

Maryland .. 
Arizona 


88,982,498 21 
11.950,289 60 
20,574,914 27 
25858 
1,089,074 03 


silver 5,264,224 78 
Contained in 
silver . . 111,736 58 
Refined gold.. 76,285,91280 
Other sources. 9,874,118 22 


N. Hampshire. 820 89 


Total.... |S41,529,129 28 



gold. The gold coinage of Great Britain and 
Australia for 10 years has been as follows : 



nuia 


Kn.Un.l. 


Sydney, Auitralto. 


1868 


. d. 
6,607,466 5 4 


s. d. 
1,876,962 9 10 


1 - ( ;i 


9,585,597 17 6 


2,880,663 4 8 


1866 


2,867614 4 1 


2,859,561 13 9 


1 -/, 


5,076,676 14 6 


2,955,732 8 2 


1867 


496,897 17 11 


2,492,858 15 8 


1808 


1,658,884 8 


2,845,728 8 1 


1-iVi 


7872,204 17 9 


1,319,888 2 2 




2.818,384 18 11 


1,248,298 1 9 


.. 
Kl 


9,919,656 1 2 


2,870,418 18 1 


1872 


15,261 441 15 10 










Total 


6(1,608,815 1 


20,844,611 16 4 



The exports of domestic gold from the United 
States during the year ending Dec. 31, 1873, 
amounted to $55,178,229 in coin, and $12,754,- 
257 in bullion. -GOLD MINING. Gold occurs 
principally in metallic form, as threads, scales, 
spangles, films, grains, monometric crystals, 
nuggets, &c. Such native gold always contains 
from 1 to 40 percent, silver, and often also small 
quantities of iron, copper, mercury, palladium, 
platinum, or iriditim. Gold ores proper are 
rare; the undoubted species are tellurides. 
More commonly gold occurs associated with 
other minerals, chiefly (in decomposed ores) 
the oxides of iron, and (in solid ores) iron and 
ropjMT pyrit-*. iruK-na, blende, mispickel (all 
of whinli may be auriferous), bismuth, stib- 
nite, magnetite, hematite, various spars, and 
quartz. It is lflk-u-<l by many that auriferous 
-* often contains its gold in chemical com- 
bination with antimony, arsenic, or sulphur; 



but this is probably not the case with all py- 



duced to a slime, the process being skilfully 
continued until nothing is left except gold and 
heavy black sand, usually titaniferous iron, 
which accompanies native gold in most locali- 
ties and cannot be separated by washing. 
When perfectly dry, a part of it can be re- 
moved by blowing and a part by the magnet. 
It is common to melt the finer dust with fluxes 
and collect it in buttons. Quicksilver may 
also be introduced in panning, to take up and 
secure the fine gold. The cradle, or rocker, is 
an apparatus somewhat resembling a child's 
cradle. The box is usually about 40 in. long 
and 20 wide, and from 15 in. to 2 ft. high at 
the upper end, upon which is set a hopper or 
riddle, a box 20 in. square and 6 in. deep, hav- 
ing a bottom of sheet iron perforated with 
half-inch holes. Under the riddle is placed an 
inclined apron of canvas, and across the bot- 
tom of the main box are nailed two bars or 
riffles, about three fourths of an inch high. In 
washing, the dirt is shovelled into the hopper, 
and the workman ladles water upon it with one 
hand, rocking the cradle with the other. The 
sheet-iron bottom retains the larger stones; 
the disintegrated earth, passing through the 
riddle, falls upon the apron, which carries it 
to the head of the cradle box, whence it flows 
along the bottom and escapes at the lower end, 
leaving behind the riffle bars the gold, black 
sand, and heavier particles of gravel, which are 
cleaned up two or three times a day. This ap- 
paratus is both slow and wasteful in operation; 
but it is cheap and portable, and requires little 
water, since the same water can be used in it 



over and over again. The long torn is a wood- 









GOLD 



83 



en trough, about 12 ft. long, 20 in. wide at its 
upper end, and 30 in. at the other. It termi- 
nates below with an inclined riddle of punched 
sheet iron, through which the material is car- 
ried by a stream of water entering at the other 
end, and falls upon a riffle box below. A fresh 
supply of dirt is continually shovelled in at the 
head of the trough. This arrangement works 
faster than the rocker, and is not so liable to 
become packed with sand; but the sluice, 
which has now generally superseded it, is ca- 
pable of washing still greater quantities and 
with less loss of gold. This is generally a 
long inclined wooden trough, into which the 
dirt is shovelled, and through which a rapid 
stream of water continually flows. The ordi- 
nary sluice is a series of rough wooden boxes, 
each 12 ft. long, 16 by 20 in. wide, and 10 in. to 
a foot deep. The grade is commonly 10 to 18 
in. on each box. False bottoms are employ- 
ed to retain the gold and prevent the wearing 
out of the boxes. Sluices are sometimes paved 
with stones or wooden blocks, in the crevices 
of which the gold is caught and retained. Eif- 
fles are also inserted, and quicksilver is very 
generally employed to assist in catching the 
gold. The dirt or gravel containing gold is 
shovelled into the sluices at the head of the se- 
ries. Mercury is usually poured, an hour or 
two after the commencement of sluicing, into 
the head of the apparatus, and smaller quanti- 
ties are also introduced at various places along 
the boxes. When the gold is exceedingly fine, 
amalgamated copper plates are sometimes set 
in the sluices, and are considered as effective 
for saving fine gold as an equal surface of pure 
mercury, while they are both cheaper and more 
easily managed. Another arrangement for 
obtaining fine gold consists in allowing a cur- 
rent carrying suspended gold, sand, &c., to 
pass over tanned hides, laid with the hairs di- 
rected against the course of the stream, or over 
rough baize or blanket, such as is now manu- 
factured for the purpose in California. The 
blankets are frequently removed and washed 
in tanks. Where skins are used, as in Brazil, 
they may be dried and beaten over a cloth, 
placed to receive the fallen particles. Sluice 
washing is generally carried on during the day 
only ; but when water is abundant and cheap, 
the work may be continued throughout the 
whole twenty-four hours. The sluices are 
cleaned up once a week, or more seldom, ac- 
cording to the rate at which gold and amal- 
gam accumulate. The amalgam and mercury 
taken from the sluice are panned, to separate 
them from sand, &c., and then strained through 
buckskin or canvas to remove the liquid quick- 
silver. The auriferous amalgam is removed 
from copper plates by first warming and then 
scraping them. This, together with the solid 
amalgam from the strainers, is retorted ; the 
quicksilver passing over from the retort is con- 
densed in water and thus recovered ; while the 
gold is left in the form of a light yellow porous 
mass, called retort gold, and usually constitu- 



ting 35 to 40 per cent, of the weight of amal- 
gam retorted. The length of the sluices em- 
ployed in this process is limited only by the 
cost of their construction and maintenance, and 
the control of the necessary grade. Ground 
sluices are natural gullies, answering the pur- 
pose of wooden sluices in localities where 
water is abundant for short periods only, and 
the construction of permanent sluices would 
not be judicious. In river mining, the current 
of a stream is turned aside, and sluices are 
erected in its bed for washing the dirt there 
accumulated. In beach mining, as carried on 
along the northern part of the California coast 
and the southern part of the Oregon coast, the 
sands on the seashore are explored, and cer- 
tain portions of them, which are found to be 
sufficiently auriferous, are transported to some 
neighboring stream and washed. The origin 
of this gold is the natural concentration by 
tides and currents of a bluff of auriferous sand, 
which in stormy weather is undermined by the 
waves. The position of the deposits is fre- 
quently changed, and mining must therefore 
be carried on in a new place every day. Hill 
diggings and bank diggings are names which 
explain themselves. Many deposits of aurifer- 
ous clay and gravel have been subsequently 
overlaid by barren alluvium ; and the ordinary 
operations of shovelling or blasting would be 
too expensive for the removal of such enor- 
mous masses of unprofitable material. Tunnels 
and drifts are frequently employed for the pur- 
pose of extracting the richer strata. They are 
particularly necessary in those deep placers in 
which the drift materials are united by sili- 
cious or calcareous matter, constituting a hard, 
solid cement. This material is usually mined 
by drifting, and, if too hard for sluicing, is sub- 
jected to a treatment similar to that employed 
for quartz gold. Water for sluicing operations 
is frequently brought from great distances 
through canals, ditches, or flumes, the proprie- 
tors of which sell the water to miners at so 
much the miners' inch, a miners' inch being in 
most localities the quantity flowing in a given 
time through an aperture one inch square 
under a head of six inches. The celebrated 
hydraulic process, invented in Placer co., Cal., 
in 1852, consists in washing down the whole 
surface and underlying mass of auriferous de- 
posits, preparatory to sluicing. This is effected 
by streams of water under great hydraulic 
pressure. The first apparatus of the kind had 
a head of 40 ft. From a barrel situated this 
distance above the mining claim the water was 
drawn through a hose 6 in. in diameter, made 
of common cowhide and ending in a four-foot 
tin tube, the nozzle of which was one inch 
in diameter. From this simple beginning has 
grown in 20 years one of the most remarkable 
mechanical industries of mining. Hundreds 
of miles of ditches, canals, and flumes are now 
employed in conducting water for these opera- 
tions from the high streams of the Sierra; 
canvas and iron hose have replaced the original 



GOLD 



cowhide ; blasts of from 5 to 50 tons of powder 
at a time are fired, to prepare the ground for 
the action of water; nitro-glycenne and the 
diamond drill are used in running preparatory 
tunnels for drainage; chasms of 1,000 ft. m 
vertical depth are successfully crossed by huge 
iron pipes, to convey water to isolated points, 
thus obviating the ancient high, costly, and 
perishable flumes; and from ingeniously con- 
trivi-.i and regulated nozzles streams as much 
as 6 in. in diameter are discharged under pres- 
sures sometimes exceeding 400 ft. of hydraulic 
head, with a velocity of 140 ft. and upward 
per second, delivering more than 1,600 Ibs. of 
water in that unit of time. The water issuing 
from the nozzle seems to the touch as rigid as 
a bar of steel, and strikes the gravel bank in 
the same cylindrical, condensed shape, boring 
into it with immense power. The heavy bowl- 
ders are thrown about like pebbles; and the 
clay, earth, and gravel, disintegrated by the 
torrent, are swept along into the system of 
sluices. It has been estimated that, taking the 
miners' wages in California at $4 per day, the 
cost of handling a cubic yard of gravel would 
be nearly as follows: in the pan, $20; in the 
rocker, $5; with the long torn, $1; by hy- 
draulic process and sluices, 5 cts. This method 
has rendered valuable many California placers 
that were esteemed worthless or exhausted; 
and its employment would doubtless revive 
the importance of abandoned gold fields in 
other parts of the world. Quartz gold (that 
is, gold contained in veins, whether native in 
the quartzose or other gangue, or associated 
more or less intimately with metalliferous min- 
erals) is extracted in most cases by first pul- 
verizing the material, and then washing and 
amalgamating. Stamp mills, iron rollers, re- 
volving plates, drums containing iron balls, 
Chilian mills, arrastras, and jaw crushers are 
among the machines employed in pulverizing 
rock. The arrastra consists of a circular pave- 
ment of stone, about 12 ft. in diameter, sur- 
rounded by a rough curb and forming a kind 
of tub about 2 ft. in depth. An upright shaft, 
working on a pivot in the centre of this circle, 
carries arms to which large stones or mullers 
are attached by chains or thongs. The arms, 
being revolved by horse or mule power, drag 
the mullers over the pavement, upon which 
the ore, previously broken into pieces of about 
e of pigeons' ggs, is distributed. Water 
is added from time to time, until the quartz has 
become reduced to a finely divided state, and 
the contents of the arrastra assume the con- 
sistency of thick cream. Quicksilver is then 
sprinkled over the surface, and the grinding is 
continued until amalgamation is complete. An 
ordinary twelve-foot arrastra will grind and 
;imate 450 Ibs. of quartz in about seven 
bt hours. The amalgam is obtained by 
diluting and agitating the mixture, and allow- 
ing the turbid liquid to run off. The arrastra 
ia slow in operation and wasteful of power, 
but an excellent amalgamator. Hence the 



principle has been very generally adopted in 
amalgamating, while the preliminary pulveri- 
zation is effected by other machinery. The 
Chilian mill consists of a stone or iron basin, 
around which one or two vertical wheels or 
runners, frequently of granite, are made to 
travel. It is generally considered less efficient 
for amalgamation and scarcely more so for 
crushing, while it is more expensive to con- 
struct than the arrastra. Jaw crushers, of 
which Blake's well known stone breaker is 
the type, are widely employed for the pre- 
liminary reduction of rock to a size suitable 
for rollers or stamp mills. Stamping is usually 
regarded as the most economical and efficient 
means of pulverizing the ore. The mills con- 
structed for this purpose are run by steam or 
water power, with the exception of occasional 
rude contrivances in which single stamps have 
been operated by horse power, and of the ex- 
periment now making, it is believed for the 
first time, in the island of Arruba, where wind 
is to be employed as a motive power. The 
best stamp mills in the world are believed 
to be those of California and Nevada. These 
are made up of batteries containing three, four, 
five, or six stamps each ; five is the usual num- 
ber. Each battery works in a cast-iron box 
or mortar, in the bottom of which are laid 
blocks of hardened iron, called dies, to re- 
ceive the shock of the falling stamps. The 
broken rock is fed in suitable quantities into 
the mortar, and crushed between the dies 
and the stamps. Each stamp consists of a 
stem, a collar, a stamp head, and a shoe. The 
stem was formerly made of -ash or other hard 
straight-grained wood, about 6 in. square, to 
the lower end of which a square iron stamp 
head was fastened. At present, in Califor- 
nia, stems of 3 or 3 inch round iron, some 
12 ft. in length, are universally employed. 
The collar is secured upon the upper part 
of the stem, and forms a projection 3 or 4 in. 
wide, under which the cam of the horizontal 
driving shaft catches and lifts, and at the same 
time turns, the stamp. The stem fits below into 
the stamp head, a cylinder of tough cast iron, 
furnished on its lower face with a hard iron 
shoe, which can be replaced when worn out. 
The stamps are dropped 6 to 12 in., at the rate 
of from 25 to 90 drops per minute. Water 
flows into the mortar with the ore; and the 
finely divided product is splashed by the stamps 
through screens of wire cloth or perforated 
sheet iron, set in the walls of the mortar. 
Loose quicksilver and amalgamated copper 
plates are sometimes used inside the mortar. 
The mixture of crushed ore and water is dif- 
ferently treated in different places for the ex- 
traction of gold. Sometimes it is run over 
amalgamated copper plates ; sometimes it is 
first concentrated by means of blankets ; some- 
times it is introduced into pans, somewhat on 
the principle of the arrastra, or into various 
other ingenious forms of apparatus, for the 
purpose of amalgamation. In the most sue- 




GOLD 



85 



cessful establishments, the current conveying 
the sediments is led through a succession of 
apparatus, each machine, sluice, or other con- 
trivance being intended to catch a portion of 
the gold carried past the preceding one. The 
refuse finally escaping is called tailings, and 
usually contains : native gold, so finely divided 
that it has been swept by the current through 
all the apparatus employed ; minute particles 
of amalgam and "floured" quicksilver, carried 
off in the same way ; coarser particles of gold 
adhering to fragments of rock; and, finally, 
gold associated mechanically or chemically 
with iron or copper pyrites, blende, galena, 
and mispickel. The tailings are usually run 
into reservoirs, allowed to settle, and then 
stored in heaps. Sometimes these heaps are 
again amalgamated, with or without a prece- 
ding concentration by washing. It has been 
found in many instances that some kinds of 
pyrites slowly decompose by exposure and 
thus set free fine gold. The metallic sulphu- 
rets are, however, in many cases, separated 
from other tailings by washing immediately 
after the first amalgamation of the ore, and vari- 
ous devices have been employed for the treat- 
ment of such concentrated pyrites, which is 
often the richest in gold of all the constituents 
of the vein stuff. Following the analogy of 
natural decomposition, it has been repeatedly 
attempted, by roasting the pyrites in reverber- 
atory furnaces, to drive off the sulphur and 
oxidize the metallic bases, so as to obtain a 
product containing fine particles of free gold. 
The objection brought against this treatment, 
that the vapors of roasting carry off mechan- 
ically fine particles of gold, seems to be ill- 
founded. More serious objections are the cost 
of the roasting process, and the circumstance 
that the roasted product does not contain the 
gold in a condition suitable for amalgamation. 
It is supposed that the particles when thus 
artificially and rapidly reduced become coated 
with a film of oxide of iron, preventing the 
intimate contact with quicksilver upon which 
amalgamation depends. Very careful roast- 
ing in cylinders, with the addition of salt, is 
said to have obviated this difficulty ; but the 
question of expense remains. The present 
methods of treatment for pyritous gold ores 
are: 1, the extremely fine pulverization of the 
ore, liberating, as far as this is mechanically 
possible, the particles of gold ; 2, the amalga- 
mation of the pyritous residues in pans, with 
the addition of chemicals intended to facilitate 
decomposition ; 3, chlorination ; 4, smelting. 
The chlorination process was introduced by 
Prof. Plattner of Freiberg, Saxony, for the 
treatment of auriferous residues in Silesia. 
As improved by Deetken, it has been employ- 
ed in this country for about 15 years. The 
principle involved is the transformation of 
metallic gold by means of chlorine gas into sol- 
uble chloride of gold (the aurum potabile of 
the alchemists), which can be dissolved in cold 
water and precipitated in the metallic state by 



sulphate of iron. This precipitate may then 
be filtered, dried, and melted with suitable 
fluxes, to obtain a regulus of malleable gold. 
It is necessary that all the gold, and if possi- 
ble nothing else, shall be obtained in the final 
solution. If this is secured, the precipitation 
and melting are easy. To render the gold in 
the ore accessible in a metallic state to the 
chlorine gas, and at the same time to convert 
the base metals into oxides which will not 
unite with the chlorine, the raw ore is finely 
pulverized and (if sulphurets or arseniurets are 
present) roasted. The cost of this treatment, 
amounting in the Pacific states and territories 
to from $12 to $25 a ton, excludes its use for 
low grade ores ; and hence it cannot supersede 
the stamp mill and amalgamation process, 
though it is acknowledged to be metallurgi- 
cally the most complete method of gold extrac- 
tion on a large scale. Ores containing iron, 
copper, gold, and silver may be roasted and de- 
prived of their copper and iron by leaching 
with dilute sulphuric acid, of their silver by 
boiling with concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
of their gold by treating the auriferous resi- 
duum with aqua regia. If lead is present, the 
whole residuum after the removal of copper 
must be melted with lead and cupelled. This 
process is not now used in the United States, 
though it is recommended by high authority. 
Telluric ores are treated in Transylvania in a 
somewhat similar way. The smelting process- 
es for the extraction of gold are the same as 
those for silver. Since the two minerals always 
occur in nature together, the final result of 
smelting is argentiferous gold or auriferous 
silver. The separation of the two metals is 
effected : 1, by dissolving the silver in nitric 
acid or boiling sulphuric acid, which leaves 
behind a brown powder of gold ; 2, by treating 
the alloy with aqua regia, in which gold is dis- 
solved as chloride, while the chloride of silver 
is but slightly soluble ; or 3, by passing a cur- 
rent of chlorine gas through the alloy while 
in a melted state. For separation with nitric 
acid, the alloy should contain 2 parts of silver 
to 1 part of gold. For the separation with 
sulphuric acid, the best results are obtained 
with alloys containing not much less than 3 or 
more than 4 parts of gold in 16 parts, the re- 
mainder being silver and copper. It is usually 
necessary in treating native gold to melt it 
with at least 2^ times its own weight of silver, 
and then to separate by the action of acids the 
silver thus added, and also that originally con- 
tained in the gold. It is said that the chlorine 
process effects a complete separation of the sil- 
ver in one operation, at the time the gold is 
melted, and thus saves much time, material, 
machinery, and interest on capital. Nitric acid 
and sulphuric acid processes are used in the 
mints of the United States, and the chlorine 
process is employed in some of the British 
colonial mints. Among the most recent au- 
thorities on this subject are : Phillips, " The 
Mining and Metallurgy of Gold and Silver" 






GOLD-BEATING 



(London, 1867); J. Ross Browne, "Mineral Re- 
lolJrcesof the Pacific Slope " (New York, 1868) ; 
Blako " Production of the Precious Metals 
(New York, 1869); R. W. Raymond, "Silver 
and Gold " (New York, 1873). See also Sel- 
wyn's "Notes on the Physical Geography, 
Geology, and Mineralogy of Victoria" (Mel- 
bourne, 1866), and the reports on the geology 
of California by J. D. Whitney. 

GOLD-BEATING, the process of hammering 
gold into thin leaves. It is not known what 
were the methods in use by the Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans for obtaining the thin 
leaves they manufactured ; but it is probable 
that they did not differ essentially from the 
simple processes now practised, which were 
brought to their present perfection by contin- 
ued experience and the application of a moder- 
ate degree of skill. The earliest recorded no- 
tice of the mode of preparing gold leaf is that 
of the German monk Theophilus, in or before 
the 12th century, from which it appears that 
parchment was used as a covering to the gold 
during the hammering, and the leaves were 
prevented from sticking by the application of 
red ochre or chalk. When the substance call- 
ed gold-beaters' skin (French, baudruche) was 
first used for the production of the finest qual- 
ities of gold leaf is not known. This material, 
essential to the manufacture, is derived from 
the cfficum of the ox, which, being well clean- 
ed, is doubled together, the two mucous surfaces 
face to face, in which state they unite firmly. 
The membrane is then treated with solutions 
of alum, isinglass, white of eggs, &c., and some- 
times with creosote, and, being beaten between 
folds of paper to expel the grease, is finally 
pressed and dried. The leaves thus obtained, 
each 5 in. square, are made up into moulds, 
each composed of 850 leaves. The casca of 500 
oxen are required for a single mould. Various 
qualities of gold are employed for gold leaf. 
The common coin answers a very good pur- 
pose, and different shades of color are obtained, 
according to the proportions of silver and cop- 
per in the alloy. Chemically pure gold makes 
leaves well adapted for gilding which is to be 
exposed to the weather, as they are less liable 
to tarnish or change color; these are remark- 
able for their property of adhering as they 
touch each other. Deep red colors are obtained 
by alloys of 12 to 16 grains of copper to the 
ounce of gold ; silver, if added when too much 
copper is present, lessens the malleability of 
the alloy. Medium colors, as orange, lemon, 
Ac., result from the alloy of 12 to 20 grains 
of silver and 6 to 8 of copper to the ounce ; 
m.l pule colors from alloys of from 2 to not 
!isin 20 pennyweights of silver to the 
ounce, without copper. The gold, being melt- 
ed in a crucible with a little borax, is cast into 
ingots, commonly 3 or 4 in. long, $ in. wide, 
and about \ in. deep, and weighing about 1,000 
grains each. The ingots are annealed in hot 
to remove the grease d.-riv.-d from the 
moulds and increase the malleability of the 



metal. The French then forge the metal upon 
an anvil with small hammers, reducing its 
thickness to one sixth of an inch, and at the 
same time exposing it to frequent annealings ; 
but this is omitted by the English, who submit 
it at once to the lamination process, or rolling 
between two rollers of polished steel, which 
are adjusted so as to be brought successively 
nearer together. This operation, which for- 
merly reduced the gold to a ribbon an inch 
wide and ^ of an inch thick, is by improved 
machinery now extended till the gold is re- 
duced to a sheet a little more than ^ of an 
inch thick, an ounce making 10 ft. in length 
by 1$ in. in width. The gold, again annealed, 
is next cut up into inch squares, the weight of 
each being about 6 grains. About 150 of these 
pieces are piled alternately with leaves of fine 
calf-skin vellum or of a tough paper manufac- 
tured in France for this purpose, each piece 
being placed in the middle of one of the leaves, 
which are 4 in. square. A number of extra 
leaves are added to the top and bottom of the 
pile, which when completed is called a tool or 
kutch. This is then slipped into a parchment 
case, open at two ends, and this into a similar 
case, so as to enclose the pack on all four sides. 
The pack is now placed upon a block of mar- 
ble, set for an anvil, with a ledge around three 
sides of it, and a leather apron for the fourth 
side, which is held up by the workman, who 
proceeds to beat the pack. He wields a 16- 
Ib. hammer, shifting it from one hand to the 
other without interfering with the regularity 
of the stroke, also occasionally turning the 
pack with the same dexterity. The hammer 
has a slightly convex face, which adds to its 
efficiency in spreading the gold, and the work- 
ing of it is made much easier by the elasticity 
of the pack causing it to rebound. The pack 
is from time to time bent back and forth to 
overcome the adhesion between the gold and 
the vellum or paper ; it is also rolled between 
the hands for the same purpose; and it is oc- 
casionally opened to examine the condition of 
the leaves and properly arrange them. In 
about 20 minutes 1 beating the gold is spread to 
the size of the leaves, covering 16 square inches 
in place of one inch. The pieces are then taken 
out, and each is cut into four square pieces, 
the original 150 pieces being thus increased to 
600. These are again packed, this time in 
gold-beaters' skin, again enclosed in parchment 
cases, and beaten with a smaller hammer, till 
they are extended to the size of the skins. 
This operation requires about two hours. More 
particular care is given now than before to 
folding the pack in order to loosen the leaves. 
When all the gold leaves have expanded to the 
full size, they are taken out and spread by the 
breath one by one upon a cushion, where each 
is cut into four squares by two sharp edges of 
cane fixed crosswise, and used by pressure down- 
ward. To this material the thin leaves do not 
adhere as they do to a steel blade. The squares 
are now 2,400 in number. These are once more 






GOLDBERG 



GOLD COAST 



87 



packed, making three parcels, and beaten as be- 
fore for four hours. This part of the process 
requires the most skill and care from the work- 
man. The skins are the finest, about 5 in. square ; 
the leaves are brought at the end of the opera- 
tion to 3 or 3 in. square. In this condition an 
ounce of gold is made to cover 100 sq. ft. It 
begins to transmit the rays of light, and, if 
slightly alloyed, the green rays particularly, 
but, if highly alloyed with silver, the pale vio- 
let rays also. The beating may be continued, 
and tbe gold be reduced to the thinness of the 
specimens noticed in GILDING ; but there is no 
advantage gained in passing the average of the 
commercial gold leaf, which is about -jFff.oWj 
or that of the French, which is probably less 
than ^jqW o- of an m h thick. The leaves are 
sorted after the final beating, each one being lift- 
ed by a delicate pair of whitewood pincers, and 
spread out by the breath upon a leather cushion. 
It is then trimmed down to about 3J in. square 
by a square frame of sharp cane, and laid be- 
tween the leaves of the book in which it is 
sold. Each book is made to contain 25 gold 
leaves, and these are prevented from adhering 
to the paper by an application to this of red 
ochre or red chalk. Silver and copper are 
both beaten into leaves ; but their value is not 
so great as to render it an object to reduce 
them to anything like the tenuity of gold leaf, 
if their malleability admitted of its being done. 

GOLDBERG, a town of Prussian Silesia, on the 
Katzbach, 10 m. S. W. of Liegnitz; pop. in 1871, 
6,716. It is quaintly built, and has a church 
dating from the beginning of the 13th century. 
Cloth and hosiery are manufactured, and there 
are dye works and distilleries of brandy. The 
gold mines from which it derived its name are 
not now worked. A battle was fought here, 
May 27, 1813, between the French under Mac- 
donald and the Russian reserve under Wittgen- 
stein, and a skirmish (Aug. 23) between the 
former and Bliicher. 

GOLD COAST, a part of the coast of Upper 
Guinea, "W. Africa, lying, according to most 
geographers, between Cape Three Points and 
the river Volta; but the jurisdiction of the Brit- 
ish Gold Coast colony, including the territories 
ceded by the Dutch in 1872, extends from the 
river Assinie, Ion. 3 18' W., to the river Ewue, 
Ion. 1 10' E. ; area, 16,626 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 408,070. The shore line, about 330 m. 
long, is skirted generally by low hills with dense 
woods in the background, but is flat and sandy 
at its extremities, with lagoons inland. There 
are no harbors, and the surf is so violent that 
vessels are obliged to lie from 2 to 5 m. off the 
beach. The chief rivers are the Assinie, Anco- 
ber, Tenda, Bossum Prah or Prah, and the Vol- 
ta. The Gold Coast colony proper consists of 
only the fortified stations and the strip of coast 
dominated by them ; but a protectorate is exer- 
cised by Great Britain over all the tribes lying 
between it and Ashantee. The limits of the 
protectorate are not clearly defined, but it is 
generally understood to extend inland about 80 



in., the river Prah forming its N". boundary in 
the longitude of Elmina and Cape Coast Castle. 
The principal native people inhabiting this ter- 
ritory are the Fantees, but there are a number 
of smaller tribes, the Ahantas, Wassas, Denki- 
ras, Akims, Assins, Aquapims, Crepees, and 
others, all under independent chiefs. Little is 
known of the interior, but the few who have 
penetrated it speak of its vast forests filled with 
tropical life, and of green plains traversed by 
sparkling streams, and its climate is said to be 
more healthy than that of the coast. There are 
no roads, the only means of communicating be- 
tween the villages being by narrow paths, pass- 
able only in single file. Beasts of burden are 
unknown to the natives, who transport all mer- 
chandise and produce to and from the coast on 
their heads. The soil is very fertile, produ- 
cing all the tropical grains and fruits. Traces 
of iron are found at several places on the coast, 
and there are rich gold mines in the interior. 
In the beginning of the 18th century the Dutch 
exported annually from Elmina about 250,000 
worth of gold dust, but the hostility of the na- 
tive tribes has now nearly destroyed the trade. 
The fortified posts of the Gold Coast colony are 
Axim, Dixcove, and Sekundi, in the Ahanta 
country, and Elmina, Cape Coast Castle, Anam- 
boe, and Accra, in the country of the Fantees. 
The French trading station at Assinie has been 
abandoned since 1870. Axim, about 14 m. W. 
of Cape Three Points, is one of the healthiest 
places on the coast, owing probably to the pure 
water which runs from the neighboring hills in 
rivulets. All the tropical plants grow to per- 
fection in its vicinity, and many European vege- 
tables have been successfully introduced. It 
is the only place where rice is raised, and the 
influences so deadly to live stock at other points 
do not extend to it. In the country N. of it 
are rich gold mines, and gold dust, palm oil, 
and palm kernels were once exported in consid- 
erable quantities. The town is commanded by 
Fort St. Anthony, built in its centre on a pre- 
cipitous rock 70 ft. high. Dixcove (called Un- 
fuma by the natives), 11 m. E. of Cape Three 
Points, is defended by a fort, which the Dutch 
thoroughly repaired in 1867. The town is dirty 
and unhealthy, from the exhalations of neigh- 
boring swamps, which harbor numerous croc- 
odiles. Between Axim and Dixcove are the 
ruins of the old forts Great Friedrichsburg, 
Brandenburg, and Dorothea, built originally by 
the Prussians. Bautri or Boutry, 3 m. E. of 
Dixcove, a former Dutch settlement which was 
defended by Fort Batenstein, is now aban- 
doned. Sekundi, the next station, 20 m. from 
Dixcove, is situated on a point, with Fort 
Orange on a steep promontory at its end. The 
environs are fertile, and the country back of 
it is covered with dense woods. The former 
Dutch settlement of Chama is 8 m. further E., 
near the mouth of the Prah. It is commanded 
by Fort St. Sebastian, originally built by the 
Portuguese, and still in a fair state of repair, 
but abandoned on account of the unhealth- 



88 



GOLD COAST 



- of the locality. The Dutch cultiva- 
,. ,-ot ton, Hax, hemp, coffee, tobacco, 
and ground nuts, with much success. From 
Chama to Elmina is about 20 in. Between 
.-in- the native towns of Kommenda (pop. 
4000), with the ruins of an old English fort; 
Koramanie (pop. 2,300), with the remains of 
the Dutch fort Vredenburg ; and Ampeni (pop. 
4,500). Elmina, called by the natives Oddena, 
the capital of the former Dutch colonies, had 
a population of 15,000 in 1867. (See ELMINA.) 
CUR- Coast Castle, 8 m. E., the capital of the 
Gold Coast colony (pop. 10,000), derives its 
name from its fortress built on rocks near the 
seashore. Behind, on a gentle slope, is the 
European town, with picturesque houses sur- 
rounded by gardens of tropical fruits. Anam- 
boe or Anamabu, 10 in. E. of Cape Coast Cas- 
tle, and Accra or Akrah, nearly 70 m. further, 
are the two most easterly fortified settlements 
on the coast, but there are missionary stations 
at several intervening points. The sh\ve trade 
is virtually abolished, but domestic slavery ex- 
ists to a great extent throughout the protecto- 
rate. The principal exports are gold dust, palm 
oil and kernels, gum, ivory, and monkey skins ; 
the imports are cotton and silk goods, guns, 
gunpowder, hardware, tobacco, and wines and 
spirits. The total tonnage of vessels entered 
and cleared, exclusive of coasting trade, in 
1871, was 251,047. The total value of im- 
ports for 1871 was 250,672, of which 171,- 
978 were from Great Britain ; total value of ex- 
ports in 1871, 295,208. The chief trade pre- 
vious to 1872 was with the Ashantees. Since 
1850 the colony, previously under the juris- 
diction of Sierra Leone, has had a government 
of its own, with a governor and executive and 
legislative councils. It has also judicial, mili- 
itary, ecclesiastical, and educational establish- 
ments. The gross amount of public revenue, 
raised in part by a tax of 3 per cent, on im- 
ports, was in 1871 28,609 ; gross expenditure, 
1871, 29,094. An attempt was made to im- 
pose a poll tax of a shilling a head on all the 
protected natives, which in 1852 produced 7,- 
567; in 1861 it had fallen to 1,552, and since 
then it has not been levied. The Dutch did 
not levy any import duties. The first Euro- 
pean nation to establish themselves on the Gold 
Coast were the Portuguese, who began the 
fort at Elmina in 1481. In 1637 it was cap- 
tured by the Dutch, and three years later all 
tin- Portuguese possessions on the coast were 
ceded to tlu-tn. In 1662 the "Company of 
Royal Adventurers of England trading to 
i." and in 1672 the " Royal African Com- 
pany of England," built rival forts and fac- 
m;ir tin- Dutch company's settlements, 
whirli resulted in constant disagreements and 
qimnvk In the war of 1781 the English cap- 
tun-,1 all tlu- hutch forts except Elmina. On 
their n-tor:ition by the treaty of Versailles, 
-neral assumed the government of 
lony, but the rivalry continued and fre- 
quently It-il to bloodshed between the negro 



tribes of the two jurisdictions. Considering 
that this unsatisfactory state of affairs was 
duo principally to the positions of the forts of 
the two nations, which alternated with each 
other, an agreement was made in 1867 that 
the boundary line between the colonies should 
be the Sweet river, a small stream between 
Elmina and Cape Coast Castle ; that all the 
settlements E. of this point should belong to 
England, and all W. of it as far as the Assinie 
river to the Netherlands. In accordance with 
this treaty, the Dutch ceded Mori, Kormantin, 
Assam, Bereku, and Fort Crevecceur at Accra ; 
the English, Apollonia, Dixcove, Sekundi, and 
Kommenda, and the protected territories of 
Wassa, Denkira, and Tufel. The Dutch forts 
were surrendered to the English without 
trouble, but the natives resisted the transfer 
of the English stations to the Dutch. Dis- 
turbances ensued, and on Jan. 31, 1867, the 
Dutch burned Kommenda as a punishment. 
In 1868 they burned Sekundi in retaliation, 
and in 1869 Dixcove. The natives became 
only the more incensed at these measures, and 
the Dutch government, despairing of peace, 
agreed, by a treaty ratified at the Hague Feb. 
17, 1872, to transfer all its possessions to Eng- 
land, which was formally done the following 
April. The Danish settlements had previously 
been ceded to Great Britain (in 1850), so that 
the latter power now controlled the whole 
coast. The king of Ashantee, who had been 
accustomed to draw his supplies of arms and 
ammunition through the Dutch factories free 
of duty, objected to the transfer of the forts, 
which cut him off from access to the coast, 
and declared that the Dutch had no power to 
transfer Elmina, which he said belonged to 
him, the Dutch having paid him a tribute of 
300 a year. In January, 1873, the Ashantees 
crossed the Prah and invaded the protectorate. 
The protected tribes offered but a feeble re- 
sistance, and in June both Cape Coast Castle 
and Elmina were threatened by a force esti- 
mated at 50,000 men. The native king of 
Elmina aided the Ashantees, and four out of 
the eight captains of the quarters into which 
the town is divided refused to take the oath 
of allegiance. On June 30 the quarter of the 
native king was bombarded by the fort and 
destroyed, and in the afternoon of the same 
day the Ashantees were defeated with a loss 
of 500 and their general, and withdrew to 
Effutu, 12 m. distant. In August Takorady 
was bombarded by the British fleet, Dixcove 
repelled an attack of the Ashantees, and Axim, 
where the natives rose against the garrison, 
was burned. In October Gen. Sir Garnet 
Wolseley was sent from England to Cape 
Coast Castle with both civil and military 
powers. Early in January, 1874, he set out 
for Koomassie with about 2,000 white troops, 
building a military road as he went, and the 
Ashantees fell back before him. The Prah 
was crossed without opposition. At Amoaful, 
about 22 m. from Koomassie, a severe battle 






GOLDEN FLEECE 



was fought on Jan. 31, in which the Ashantees 
were defeated with heavy loss, including their 
commander Amanquatia. A second battle 
took place at Ordahsu, 15 m. beyond, on Feb. 
4, the king commanding in person. After six 
hours the Ashantees fled, and the British en- 
tered Koomassie. On the morning of Feb. 6 
the town was fired and the troops began their 
homeward march. A peace was subsequently 
concluded, the king agreeing to pay an indem- 
nity of 50,000 ounces of gold, to renounce the 
protectorate, to keep open a road to the coast, 
and to prohibit human sacrifices. 

GOLDEN FLEECE. See ARGONAUTS. 

GOLDEN FLEECE, Order of the (Span, el toi- 
son de oro ; Fr. ordre de la toison d'or), one of 
the oldest and most important of the orders 
of chivalry, founded at Bruges by Philip the 
Good, duke of Burgundy, on occasion of his 
marriage with the princess Isabella of Portu- 
gal, Jan. 10, 1430, and consecrated to the Vir- 
gin Mary and the apostle Andrew. The stat- 
utes of the order declare that it takes its name 
from the golden fleece which the Argonauts 
went in search of. It is possible that it was 
founded in memory of Philip's father, John the 
Fearless, who was held a prisoner in Colchis, 
and that it was consecrated to St. Andrew be- 
cause that apostle carried the gospel to the land 
of the golden fleece. Some suppose that it re- 
ceived the badge in consequence of the im- 
portant woollen manufactures of the country. 
The decoration of the grand master is a chain 
composed of alternate flints and rays of steel, 
with the golden fleece fastened in the middle. 
The knights wear a golden fleece on a red rib- 
'bon. ^Its design was to maintain the honor 
of knighthood and protect the church, and it 
was sanctioned by Pope Eugenius IV. in 1433 
and by Leo X. in 1516. An article of the stat- 
utes (published at Lille, Nov. 30, 1431, in the 
French language) ordained that if the house of 
Burgundy should become extinct in the male 
line, the husband of the daughter and heiress 
of the last sovereign should be grand master of 
the order. After the death of Charles the 
Bold (1477) the husband of his daughter and 
heiress Mary, Maximilian I. of Austria, there- 
fore inherited the grand mastership. During 
the war of the Spanish succession Charles III. 
(afterward the emperor Charles VI.) and Philip 
V., the contestants for the throne of Spain, 
both claimed this dignity. When the former 
left Spain he carried the archives of the order 
with him, and in 1713 celebrated its revival in 
Vienna. Spain protested against this at the 
congress of Cambrai in 1724, and it was de- 
cided by the treaty of Vienna in 1725 that the 
regents of both states should be permitted to 
confer the order with similar insignia, but that 
the members should be distinguished as knights 
of the Spanish or Austrian golden fleece. After 
the death of Charles VI., Maria Theresa in 
1741 bestowed the office of grand master upon 
her husband Francis I., against which Philip 
V. of Spain protested in the electoral assembly 



GOLDEN NUMBER 89 

at Vienna and at Frankfort. At the peace 
of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, France, England, 
and Holland demanded that the schism should 
be composed ; but as Ferdinand VI. of Spain 
declared that the order was inseparable from 
the Spanish crown, the dispute has remained 
unreconciled, and the order continues in two 
branches, neither of which recognizes the 
other. The original device of the order was 
Autre nauray ("I shall have no other"); but 
Charles the Bold changed it into Je Vay 
empri ("I have accepted it"). The statutes 
ordain that the knights shall recognize no 
other jurisdiction but an assembly of their 
order under the presidency of the grand master 
or of a knight authorized by him, and that 
they shall have precedency of all persons ex- 
cept those of royal blood. The number of 
knights, originally 24, was soon increased to 
31, and in 1516 to 52. In 1851 the order con- 
sisted in Austria of 6 grand crosses, 20 com- 
manders, and 161 knights. 

GOLDEN NUMBER, the place of a given year 
in the lunar cycle. It is used to determine on 
what day the paschal moon falls, and thus to 
find Easter day. The mean length of the lunar 
cycle agrees exactly with 19 Julian years. (See 
CALENDAR, LUNAR CYCLE, and YEAR.) The 
new moons were indicated before the reforma- 
tion of the calendar by means of the lunar 
cycle, which restores them to the same days of 
the civil month, and places them on the same 
days in any two years that occupy the same 
rank in the cycle. Consequently a table of the 
full moon's phases for 19 years will serve for 
any year whatever, when we know its number 
in the cycle. The year preceding the commence- 
ment of our era, when the new moon fell on the 
1st of January, is supposed to be the beginning 
of the cycle, which gives this rule for finding the 
golden number : Add 1 to the date and divide 
the sum by 19 ; the quotient is the number of 
cycles elapsed, and the remainder is the golden 
number. When the remainder is 0, the pro- 
posed year is the last or 19th of the cycle. 
The new moons determined in this manner 
may, however, differ from the astronomical 
new moons as much as two days, because the 
sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, com- 
pensated in the whole period, may in certain 
cases amount to 10, and thereby cause the 
new moon to arrive on the second day before 
or after the mean time. The Gregorian calen- 
dar rejects the golden numbers, as they are 
only adapted to the Julian calendar ; the sup- 
pression of the ten days rendered it necessary 
to place them ten lines lower, and the cente- 
nary intercalation required them to be changed 
every century. Their place is supplied by 
another set of numbers called epacts. (See 
EPACT.) The golden numbers were intro- 
duced into the calendar about the year 530, 
but were disposed as they would have been if 
they had been inserted at the time of the 
council of Nice. It was usual to mark them 
in the calendar with red or gold. 






GOLDENROD 



GOLDENROD (tolulago, Linn.), the name of 
numerous plants, whose showy heads of flow- 
ers, waving like golden wands, make bright 
and gay the sides of roads, hills, and gravelly 
banks in the autumn. A supposed emcacy m 
the plants suggested to the early botanists the 
name tolidago, from Lat. solidare, to make firm. 
Although the general appearance of the ra- 
cemed or else corymbed heads, which bear the 
florets, is diverse, yet the flowers themselves 
ditlV-r only from the asters in the smaller heads 
of (except in one species) yellow flowers. The 
genus is mostly North American, there being 
about 80 species, all of which but three or four 
belong to this country. The most common 
European species is 8. mrgaurea, with a low, 
terete, pubescent stem, which branches above ; 
the lower leaves are elliptical, somewhat hairy, 
acutely serrate, the flower heads in thyrsoid 
racemes. It grows in thickets and woods, 
and formerly was much used in medicine. Its 




Goldenrod (Solidago Canadcnsis). 

principle is astringent and tonic; the leaves 
and flowers, however, were thought aperient. 
It occurs in the northern regions of America, 
bat under very dissimilar forms. Of these, a 
dwarf kind, only a few inches high, with obo- 
vate or lanceolate, mostly entire leaves, and a 
few large flowers, is the variety which Dr. 
Bigelow calls almna ; it occurs in the alpine 
regions >,f N, \\ Hampshire, of Maine, and of 
New York, and on the shore of Lake Superior. 
A second <li>tinet variety is hum-ilk, on the 
rocky banks of western Vermont, Lakes IIu- 

1 Superior, and northward ; and a sub- 
variety with larger and broader leaves, the 
flower heads in nnipU>, compound racemes, the 
flower rays occasionally white instead of yel- 

t<> I... im-t with on gravelly banks of 
-t r , -ain-j at the base of th.- \Yhiu- mountains in 
New Hampshire, A -imilar but. distinct spe- 
cies is /,- (Meyer), which occurs on 
the wooded sides of mountains from Maine to 



GOLDFINCH 

New York and northward. Perhaps the most 
interesting species is the sweet goldenrod (S. 
odora, Ait.), with a slender stem 2 to 3 ft. high, 
often reclined; the leaves linear-lanceolate, 
entire, shining, covered with pellucid dots, 
which secrete a delicious anisate oil ; the flow- 
er heads in racemes spreading in a one-sided 
panicle, the flower rays rather large and con- 
spicuous. It may be occasionally found in rich 
shady woods. An essence distilled from the 
leaves has been used to relieve spasmodic pains. 
One of the earliest indications of the approach 
of autumn is in the flowers of S. licolor, or 
white goldenrod, the only species which has 
white flowers. Next comes into yellow bloom 
the tall Canadian goldenrod (S. Canadensis), 
and following this, the gigantic goldenrod (IS 
giganted), and the tall goldenrod (S. altissima), 
names singularly misapplied, as the altitude of 
both is not unusual. Afterward may be seen 
S. arguta and other species, until the lingering 
florets upon the downy goldenrod (S. nemora- 
lis) indicate the near approach of the cold. 
The goldenrods generally affect dry and ster- 
ile soils, though some are found in bogs and 
moist places, and range from alpine heights to 
the very margin of the sea, where may be seen 
S. sempervirens, with its large, thick, shining 
green leaves, and bold, large-rayed, and con- 
spicuous yellow flowers, and the narrow-leaved 
(S. tenuifolia, Pursh), having very small, crowd- 
ed heads of inconspicuous flowers. Several 
species are peculiar to the western states, as S. 
Ohioensis (Riddel) and 8. Riddelii (Frank.), in 
moist meadows and grassy prairies ; and others, 
as S. Drummondii (Torr. and Gray), upon rocks, 
in common with more ordinary ones, indicating 
a wide distribution of the genus. 

GOLDEN SEAL. See PUOOOON. 

GOLDFINCH (fringilla carduelis, Linn.), one 
of the handsomest of the European fringillidce, 
valued as a cage bird both for its beauty, its 
song, and its docility. It is about 5 in. long, 
with an extent of wings of 9 in. ; the forehead 
and throat are crimson ; the loral space, top 
of the head, and a semicircular band on the 
upper neck black ; the hind neck and back are 
umber brown, passing into ochre yellow on 
the rump ; sides of breast and flanks paler, and 
white below ; smaller wing coverts black, sec- 
ondary rich yellow ; most of the quills black 
with white tips, except the basal half of the 
outer webs, which are yellow ; tail black, 
white tipped. The female is smaller, with less 
crimson, pure black, and bright colors in the 
plumage. Like all caged birds, the goldfinch 
sometimes shows considerable differences in 
color. It will pair and produce progeny with 
the green linnet. Its food consists of the 
seeds of the thistles, grasses, and herbaceous 
plants, which it seeks in small flocks. Its 
song, which is sweet and varied, usually be- 
gins in Great Britain about the end of March 
and continues until July ; its flight is quick and 
buoyant, like that of the linnet. The nest is 
elaborately made of the usual materials, and 



GOLD FISH 



GOLDONI 



91 



led with wool and hair ; the eggs, about five, 
are three quarters of an inch long, of a bluish 
white color, with brown tinges and purplish 
spots. Jt remains in Scotland through the 
winter, though great numbers perish in severe 
is. The goldfinch is easily caught and 




Goldfinch (Fringilla carduclls). 



tamed, and may be taught the notes of other 
birds and many amusing tricks ; it is a great 
favorite both in England and America as a cage 
bird. For the American goldfinches, of the 
genus chrysomitris (Boie), see YELLOW BIRD. 

GOLD FISH or Golden Carp (cyprinus aura- 
tus, Linn.), a native of China, but introduced 
into Europe early in the 17th century. In 
China gold fish are to be found in almost every 
house, and are kept either in porcelain vessels 
or in artificial ponds; wherever known they 
are prized for their beauty, elegant form, grace 
of motion, and docility ; they are very easily 
kept alive in small vessels, if due attention be 
paid to changing the water daily. The usual 
color is bright orange above, lighter on the 
sides, and whitish beneath ; the scales are large 
and striated ; the pupils are black, and the iris 
silvery; the mouth is small and toothless; the 
dorsal fin is single, with the first two rays 
spinous. The colors vary exceedingly by do- 
mestication, and exhibit almost every variety 
of orange, purple, and silvery ; the fins vary j 
considerably, as regards the size of the dorsal 
and the number of the anals; triple tails are 
common, in which case the dorsal is frequently 
absent. The silver fish is a mere variety, and 
the dark colors are the marks of the young 




Gold Fish (Cyprinus auratus). 

fish. It is found in many ponds in New Eng- 
land, bearing well the severity of the winters, 
and breeding in great numbers when protected 
from other fish. Gold fish form one of the 
most interesting ornaments of private gardens, 
and are seen everywhere in the basins of the 



fountains of large cities in the summer season. 
Their food is chiefly infusorial animalcules, 
with bread when in confinement; their flesh 
is not esteemed as food. The intensity of the 
colors and several of their external characters 
are modified by their food, and the new char- 
acters are transmitted to the offspring. In ar- 
tificial ponds they are taught to come to the 
surface at the ringing of a bell. They will live 
in foul water, and a long time out of water on 
account of the loose structure of their gills ; in 
ponds the spawn and young fish are often 
eaten by their larger comrades; their life may 
be prolonged to 20 or 30 years, and they will 
bear great extremes of heat and cold. In com- 
mon with many fresh-water fish, they are at- 
tacked and sometimes destroyed by a parasitic 
fungus, arising from any diseased surface, and 
even from the healthy tissue of the gills. 

GOLD HILL, a town of Storey co., Nevada, 
1 m. S. of the centre of Virginia, and about 190 
m. E. N. E. of San Francisco; pop. in 1860, 638 ; 
in 1870, 4,311, of whom 2,346 were foreigners, 
including 210 Chinese; in 1874, about 13,000. 
It is built in a deep and precipitous cafion of the 
Washoe range of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 
about 6,200 ft. above the sea, and presents a 
very uninviting though unique appearance. It 
is connected by daily lines of stages with Reno 
on the Central Pacific railroad, 20 m. N. W., 
and with Carson City, 12 m. S. W. It is situated 
on the line of the great Comstock lode or ledge, 
the most productive vein of silver and gold ever 
known. Some of the principal mines on the 
lode are within the limits of the town, inclu- 
ding the Alpha, Imperial, Gold Hill (several 
small ones), Yellow Jacket, Kentuck, Crown 
Point, Belcher, and Overman. The Belcher 
mine during the 22 months previous to Novem- 
ber, 1873, returned in dividends to the stock- 
holders $8,232,800, and the Crown Point mine 
about the same amount. There are many 
quartz mills and hoisting works, some of the 
mines being 2,000 ft. deep and requiring heavy 
machinery. The Virginia and Truckee rail- 
road, connecting with Virginia, Carson City, 
and Reno, is used to carry ore to the crushing 
mills, and to supply the mines with wood, &c. 
The water which supplies the town is brought 
from the summit of the Sierra Nevada, 25 m. 
distant, in an iron pipe 12 inches in diameter, 
across the Washoe valley, 1,750 ft. below the 
discharging point in the pipe, and thence to 
Virginia and Gold Hill in a flume. There is 
a fine hall occupied by the miners' union, and 
another belonging to the odd fellows and free- 
masons. The town has a weekly newspaper, 
three public schools with an average attend- 
ance of 400 pupils, and three churches, Epis- 
copal, Methodist, and Roman Catholic. Gold 
Hill was founded in 1859. 

GOLDONI, Carlo, an Italian dramatist, born 
in Venice in 1707, died in Paris in 1793. He 
passed his childhood in the midst of festivals 
and theatrical performances, with which his 
grandfather amused his leisure at a country 



,,._> GOLDONI 

seat near Venice. At the age. of 8 years he 
wrote a sort of comic drama, and at 13 played 
female part* on the stage at Perugia. He 
studied philosophy under the Dominicans at 
Rimini but deserted them to join a troop of 
comedians. His father, a physician, undertook 
to teach him his own profession, but he soon 
solicited an exchange from medicine to law. 
At 16 he was transferred from legal studies at 
Venice to a scholarship in the papal college at 
Pavia, with the design of fitting him for the 
church. Within a year he became accomplished 
in music, dancing, and fencing, and learned a 
little of civil and canonical law. At the close 
of the second year he descended the Ticino and 
the Po with a company of wits and men of 
pleasure, and arriving at Chioggia was called 
upon to preach. His attempt met with brilliant 
success, and he returned to Pavia with a repu- 
tation for eloquence. In the third year of his 
scholarship he composed a satire against the 
inhabitants of the town for an insult that they 
had offered to the students, and was expelled 
from the college. He resumed his studies of 
law, and in 1732 was admitted into the corps 
of advocates at Venice. He had already com- 
posed two comedies, and been manager of the 
theatre where they were produced, playing the 
principal parts himself; and while waiting for 
clients he published a medley of prose and 
verse under the title of Esperiema del passa- 
to, Vcutrologo delV avenire, &c. He soon after 
went to Milan, where his comic opera the 
" Venetian Gondolier " was produced and ap- 
plauded. In 1734 his tragedy of Belisario was 
played at Venice with overwhelming success. 
His second tragedy, Rosamonda, failed in the 
following year. After furnishing other pieces 
with various success to different strolling com- 
panies, he married in 1730, and began to write 
for the company of Sacchi at Venice with the 
design of gradually reforming the Italian thea- 
tre. His aims were to substitute human vices 
and follies for fantastic and frivolous adven- 
tures, to have the plays written in full instead 
of being only sketched by the author and in 
large part improvised by the actors, and to 
banish from the stage the traditional masks and 
costumes by which the Harlequin, Birghella, 
Pantalon, and other chief actors were distin- 
guished. In 1739 he was appointed Genoese 
consul at Venice, but after two years he again 
resumed his wandering life. At Rimini he 
was appointed director of the spectacles and 
amusements; he passed four months in Flor- 
ence, visited Siena, and was received with en- 
thusiasm at Pisa, where he resumed for a short 
time the practice of law, at the same time send- 
ing to Venice some of his most successful corn- 
In 1747 he returned to Venice, deter- 
mined to devote himself to the stage ; and at 
the close of the first season he had raised the 
theatre to which he was attached to a superior- 
ity over its rivals, and during the second year 
pro, hired 18 new pieces of three acts each. 
The excessive labor injured his health, and to 



GOLDSCHMIDT 

indemnify himself he began to publish his com- 
edies, contesting the right to do so with the 
manager. He had already written 120 pieces, 
when in 1761 he was invited to Paris, where 
after writing two years for the Italian theatre 
he was attached to the court as instructor of 
the daughters of the king in the Italian lan- 
guage, and after three years more was awarded 
a pension. He continued to produce comedies 
at intervals, the most successful of which was 
the Bourru lienfaisant. His last literary labor 
was writing his memoirs, which appeared first 
in French (Paris, 1787), and afterward in 
Italian (Venice, 1788) ; they are said by Gibbon 
to be more comical than his best comedies. 
The most striking characteristic of Goldoni as 
an author is his fertility, scarcely surpassed by 
that of Calderon and Lope de Vega. The best 
of his pieces are in the Venetian dialect, and 
his greatest merits are his theatrical skill, and 
the liveliness, piquancy, and humor with which 
he depicts the manners of all classes of society 
in Italy. Schlegel criticises him as deficient in 
depth of characterization and in novelty and 
richness of invention. Critical biographies of 
him have been written by Giovanni (Milan, 
1821), Carrer (Venice, 1824), Gavi (Milan, 
1826), and Meneghezzi (Milan, 1827). Among 
the editions of Goldoni's works may be men- 
tioned that of Venice in 44 vols. 8vo, l788-'95, 
and that of Lucca in 26 vols., 1809. 

GOLDSBOROUGH, Louis Maleshcrbes, an Ameri- 
can naval officer, born in Washington in 1805. 
He was appointed midshipman in 1812, and 
made lieutenant in 1825. During the Seminole 
war he commanded a company of mounted 
volunteers, and also an armed steamer. He 
was made commander in 1841 ; took part in 
the Mexican war, and was afterward senior 
naval officer of a joint army and navy com- 
mission on the Pacific coast. He became cap- 
tain in 1855, and from 1853 to 1857 was super- 
intendent of the naval academy at Annapolis. 
In 1861 he was placed in command of the 
naval part of Burnside's expedition to North 
Carolina. He was made rear admiral in 1862, 
commanded the European squadron in 1865-'7, 
and subsequently the Washington navy yard. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, Hermann, a German painter 
and astronomer, of Jewish descent, born in 
Frankfort, June 17, 1802, died at Fontaine- 
bleau, Sept. 11, 1866. He studied painting at 
Munich under Schnorr and Cornelius, and in 
1836 established himself in Paris. Among his 
paintings are the "Cumsean Sibyl" (1844), 
an "Offering to Venus" (1845), "Cleopatra" 
and a "View of Rome" (1849), and the 
"Death of Romeo and Juliet" (1857). He 
began to devote himself to astronomy in 1847, 
and discovered 14 asteroids between 1852 and 
1861. He also pointed out more than 10,000 
stars that were wanting in the maps of the 
academy at Berlin, and in 1863 announced that 
he had observed six satellites or companion 
stars to Sirius, one of which had been discov- 
ered in the previous year by A Ivan Clark of 



GOLDSMITH 



93 



imbridge, Mass. He made his discoveries 
with an ordinary spyglass from his studio in 
an attic. The academy of sciences bestowed 
on him its grand astronomical prize. 

GOLDSMITH, Oliver, an English author, born 
in the hamlet of Pallas or Pallasmore, county 
Longford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1728, died in Lon- 
don, April 4, 1774. His father was a clergy- 
man of the established church, and at the birth 
of his son was very poor. Oliver's childhood 
gave no special indications of his future great- 
ness. An attack of smallpox from which he 
suffered while a child left its marks upon his 
naturally plain face, which, with a generally 
uninviting exterior, made his personal appear- 
ance especially unprepossessing. His elder 
brother Henry was a student at the university, 
and several relatives contributed to send Oli- 
ver there; and in 1744 he entered Trinity col- 
lege, Dublin, as a sizar or poor scholar. At 
that time the position of that class of students 
was highly disagreeable. Their dress was pe- 
culiar and designed to indicate their poverty, 
and they were required to perform many of 
the menial services of the institution. It was 
with the utmost reluctance that Goldsmith 
submitted to these humbling conditions, and 
while subject to them he was "moody and de- 
sponding." He was often reduced to great 
straits, but by borrowing, pawning his books, 
and writing ballads he contrived to keep his 
place. In 1749 he was admitted to the degree 
of bachelor of arts, and took his final leave of the 
university. He now returned home, and after 
some months had been spent in aimless loiter- 
ings was persuaded to prepare for the church. 
The two years of his probation were spent at 
Lissoy and Ballymahon, among the idlers at 
the village inns or in desultory reading. In 
due time he presented himself, arrayed in a 
fashionable dress, part of which consisted of a 
pair of scarlet breeches, to the bishop of Elphin 
for ordination, and was rejected. He now ob- 
tained employment as tutor in a gentleman's 
family, where he remained a few months, when 
he quarrelled with the family, and so found 
himself once more a free man with more money 
than he had ever before possessed. He bought 
a horse, and, with 30 in his pocket, sallied 
out upon the world. A few weeks after he 
returned home as destitute as he had been six 
months before. A large part of his money had 
been paid for a passage to America, but when 
the ship sailed he was enjoying himself with 
some friends in the country. It was next de- 
termined that he should try the legal profes- 
sion, and an uncle affording him the means, 
he set out for London with 50, which he lost 
in gaming in Dublin ; and after remaining se- 
creted for some time, he again returned to his 
friends. He was next, toward the end of 1752, 
sent to Edinburgh to study medicine. Two 
winters were devoted to hearing lectures ; but 
near the end of his second term, burdened with 
debts and hunted by bailiffs, he escaped from 
Edinburgh and fled to the continent. He passed 



nearly a year at Leyden, ostensibly hearing lec- 
tures, but really devoting most of his time to 
pleasure, and then, after selling his books and 
borrowing money from his friends, he set out 
for Paris, where he attended chemical lectures. 
After remaining there, but a little while, he set 
out to make the tour of the continent. Taking 
parts of Germany and Switzerland in his way, 
he passed to Marseilles, and thence into Italy. 
How he supported himself in these wanderings 
is told by,himself, though his accounts of this 
part of his life must be received with caution. 
He says in the story of the "Philosophical 
Vagabond " in the " Vicar of Wakefield " : "I 
had some knowledge of music, with a tolerable 
voice, and now turned what was my amuse- 
ment into a present means of subsistence 

Whenever I approached a peasant's house to- 
ward nightfall, I played one of my most merry 
tunes, and that procured me not only a lodg- 
ing, but subsistence for the next day." In Italy 
his musical powers no longer availed him, for, 
he said, every peasant was a better musician 
than himself; but he had acquired a habit of 
living by expedients, and here a new one pre- 
sented itself. "In all the foreign universities 
and convents," he continues, "there are upon 
certain days philosophical theses maintained 
against any adventitious disputant, for which, 
if the champion maintain with any degree of 
dexterity, he can claim a gratuity in money, a 
dinner, and a bed for the night. In this man- 
ner, therefore, I fought my way toward Eng- 
land, walked along from city to city, examined 
mankind more nearly, and, if I may so express 
it, saw both sides of the picture." At Padua, 
where he remained some months, he took his 
medical degree. After two years had been spent 
in vagrant rambles, early in 1756 he landed at 
Dover, friendless and penniless. How he made 
his way thence to the metropolis is uncertain ; it 
is only known that "in the middle of February 
he was wandering without friend or acquaint- 
ance, without the knowledge or comfort of one 
kind face, in the lonely, terrible London streets." 
For two or three years after his coming to 
London his history is very obscure. He was 
for some time an assistant to a chemist, and at 
another he practised medicine in South wark, 
acting at the same time as reader and corrector 
of the press for the novelist and publisher 
Samuel Eichardson. He was also for a while 
an usher in a school at Peckham, a business 
which he seems to have especially hated. It 
was while thus engaged that he accidentally 
met with the publisher of the " Monthly Re- 
view," by whom his services were engaged in 
the preparation of that publication. * His daily 
employment was to write for the review under 
the direction of his employer. The pages of 
the magazine very soon gave evidence of the 
acquisition that had been made to its contribu- 
tors, and even the writer himself began to hope 
that his better days were at hand. But his 
path was still a rough one. A daily drudgery 
was required of him, alike irksome to his indo- 



GOLDSMITH 



lence and galling to his pride. These unhappy 
ivlati.ms of the parties could not continue long, 
and accordingly, at the end of five months, the 
engagement was discontinued by mutual con- 
sent But this transaction was one of great 
importance to Goldsmith, for it brought him 
into his appropriate sphere, and discovered to 
himself and others the secret of his power. 
He accordingly continued to write for a va- 
riety of periodicals, but only for immediate re- 
sults. At this time he was appointed physi- 
cian and surgeon to one of the East India com- 
pany's factories on tho coast of Coromandel, 
but for some unexplained reason the post was 
afterward given to another. He then applied 
to the college of surgeons for the post of hos- 
pital mate, but, failing to pass the necessary 
examination, was rejected. In 1759 he issued 
his first acknowledged work, a duodecimo vol- 
ume entitled "An Inquiry into the Present 
State of Polite Learning in Europe." This 
brought him into public notice, and gained him 
acquaintance with some of the principal men 
of letters of the day. In the same year he en- 
gaged in a weekly periodical called " The Bee," 
which met with little encouragement, and lived 
only eight weeks. Soon after this he agreed 
with the publisher- of the daily " Public Led- 
ger " to contribute some articles to that news- 
paper, and the famous "Chinese Letters," re- 
published a few months after under the title 
of " The Citizen of the World," were the re- 
sult. These consist of a series of essays on so- 
ciety and manners, written in the assumed 
character of a Chinese philosopher resident in 
London, in a style of great purity, and in a 
vein of good-natured satire. The book greatly 
improved both the reputation and the finances 
of the writer. lie emerged from his garret, 
and took more eligible rooms in Fleet street, 
where he made acquaintances, among them 
Percy, Smollett, and Johnson, with whom he 
contracted a warm and lasting friendship. 
Burke, who had been at college with him, and 
Hogarth were also frequent visitors here ; and 
here began an intimacy with Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds which only ended with Goldsmith's life. 
He was admitted to membership in the famous 
Literary club at its institution, and lived to see 
many persons of distinction vainly suing for 
the same privilege. Goldsmith now continued 
his labors for the booksellers as a means of 
tt.-iin>orary subsistence. The principal work 
which he produced during this time was the 
" History of England, in a Series of Letters 
from a Nobleman to his Son," which, though 
a mere compilation, was written with a fluency 
and grac^ which won for it the praise of being 
4k the most finished and elegant summary of 
English history in the same compass that had 
been or was likely to be written." The im- 
pressions received during his tour on the con- 
tinent he now gave to the world in the form 
of a poem. " The Traveller " was published 
near the end of 1764, and worked its way slow- 
ly into popularity. " The Vicar of Wakefield " 



was written simultaneously with " The Trav- 
eller," though not published till 1766. The 
manuscript had been sold 18 months before 
for 60, to save its author from the bailiffs. 
He next commenced writing for the stage, and 
in 1767 produced "The Good-Natured Man," 
which was acted at Covent Garden theatre 
the next winter. Though its success was only 
partial, it added to its author's reputation, and 
brought him the substantial reward of 500. 
The winter of 1768-'9 was spent in compiling 
a Roman history, which was published the next 
May, in 2 vols. 8vo. The next year he com- 
menced the compilation of the " History of the 
Earth and Animated Nature," which was issued 
in 1774 in 8 vols. 8vo. In 1770 he published 
" The Deserted Village." The popularity of 
"The Traveller" had prepared the way for 
this poem, and its sale was immense. In 1771 
he brought out another work on the " History 
of England," which in many parts was mere- 
ly a reproduction of the former. Goldsmith's 
condition and circumstances had greatly im- 
proved with the growth of his literary reputa- 
tion ; but his style of living advanced even 
more rapidly than his resources, and his pecu- 
niary embarrassments were daily growing upon 
him. The productions of his pen were in great 
demand, and commanded unusually large prices, 
but were insufficient to meet his increased ex- 
penses. Besides his large compilations and 
his anonymous contributions to periodicals, he 
was steadily occupied with the preparation of 
small volumes, and in original poetical compo- 
sition. His second comedy, "She Stoops to 
Conquer," was written early in 1772, but not 
acted till a year later. It was coldly received 
by Colman, the manager of Covent Garden, 
but strongly sustained by Goldsmith's literary 
and convivial associates, and had a great suc- 
cess. A rich reward of fame greeted the au- 
thor; and, what was more needed, its pecu- 
niary results were highly satisfactory, though 
still far short of meeting his pressing necessi- 
ties. In this state of his affairs, associated 
with the learned, the gay, and the opulent, on 
terms altogether honorable, he found his want 
of money increasing at a rate which rendered 
all hope of relief from his labors entirely des- 
perate. Near the last of March, 1774, he re- 
turned from a brief visit to the country, and 
found himself slightly indisposed by a local 
disorder, which was followed by a low fever, 
under which the overtaxed powers of his sys- 
tem rapidly gave way. He was in the 46th 
year of his age when he died. He was interred 
in the burial ground of the Temple church, but 
no memorial was set up to indicate the place 
of his burial, and it is now found impossible to 
identify it. His friends erected a monument 
to his memory in Westminster abbey, for which 
a Latin inscription was written by Dr. John- 
son ; and in 1837 a marble slab with an Eng- 
lish inscription was placed by the members of 
the Inner Temple in the Temple church. Of 
his works not already mentioned we may cite 



GOLDSTUCKER 



GOLOVNIN 



95 



the "Memoirs of a Protestant condemned to 
the Galleys of France for his Religion," a trans- 
lation from the French, and his first known 
publication (2 vols. 12mo, London, 1758) ; " Life 
of Voltaire," written in 1759 to accompany 
Purdon's translation of the Henriade, but pub- 
lished separately in a magazine ; " Life of 
Richard Nash, Esq., of Bath " (Beau Nash), 
(1762); "Edwin and Angelina" (or "The 
Hermit "), a poem (1765) ; " A short English 
Grammar " (1766) ; " Beauties of English Poe- 
try " (2 vols. 12mo, 1767) ; " Poems for Young 
Ladies" (1767); "Life of Lord Bolingbroke," 
originally prefixed to a dissertation on the state 
of parties, and reprinted separately in 1770 ; 
" Life of Thomas Parnell," prefixed to an edition 
of his poems (1770) ; " The Haunch of Venison, 
a Poem " (1771) ; " The Grecian History " (2 
vols. 8vo, 1774) ; " Retaliation, a Poem " (4to, 
1774) ; a translation of Scarron's Roman co- 
mique (1774) ; and "A Survey of Experimental 
Philosophy" (2 vols. 8vo, 1776). His essays 
were collected and reprinted during his life- 
time. The first collection of his poems ap- 
peared in London in 1780 (2 vols. 12mo), and 
editions have since been issued by Newell, with 
remarks on the actual scene of "The Deserted 
Village " (4to, 1811) ; Mitford, in the " Aldine 
Poets" (12mo, 1831); Bolton Corney (8vo, 
1845) ; E. F. Blanchard, with illustrations by 
Birket Foster and others (8vo, 1858), &c. His 
miscellaneous works have been edited by S. 
Rose, with a memoir by Bishop Percy (4 vols. 
8vo, 1801); with a memoir by Washington Irving 
(4 vols., Paris, 1825) ; by James Prior, with an 
elaborate biography (6 vols. 8vo, London, 1837) ; 
with a life and notes (4 vols. 12mo, 1845) ; and 
by Peter Cunningham (4 vols. 8vo, 1855). The 
last two editions are the most complete and 
accurate that have appeared. There are nu- 
merous reprints and translations of GoMsmith's 
works in France and Germany, and " The Vi- 
car of Wakefield " is there as largely used for 
teaching English as Caesar's " Commentaries " 
for Latin. Biographies of the poet have been 
written by Mitford, Prior, and Irving ; but best 
of all by John Forster, " Life and Adventures 
of Oliver Goldsmith " (1848), enlarged as " Life 
and Times of Oliver Goldsmith " (2 vols., 1854), 
and abridged (1855). Sketches of his life were 
published by Sir Walter Scott in his " Lives 
of the Novelists," and Macaulay in the "Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica." 

GOLDSTUCKER, Tlieodor, a German orientalist, 
born in Konigsberg about 1822, died in Lon- 
don, March 11, 1872. He studied in Bonn un- 
der Wilhelm von Schlegel and Christian Lassen, 
and in Paris under Burnouf, -after which he 
became private tutor at the university of Ber- 
lin, and a friend of Humboldt, who often refers 
to him in the " Cosmos." In 1849 he removed 
to London, at the suggestion of Prof. Wilson, 
whom he assisted in the preparation of a San- 
skrit-English dictionary. He became professor 
of Sanskrit in University college, London, pres- 
ident of the philological society, and member 
367 VOL. vm. 7 



of the Asiatic society ; and in 1866 founded the 
Sanskrit society. He wrote for periodicals and 
cyclopaedias, and among his works are a Ger- 
man translation of a Hindoo drama (1842) and 
a number of English translations of Hindoo 
poems, some of them with the original texts. 
He left unfinished a Sanskrit-English dictionary 
and grammar, and an edition of the Mimansa. 

GOLDTHREAD. See COPTIS. 

GOLF (Dutch, Tcolf, a club), a Scottish game 
played with ball and club. The players num- 
ber one or more on each side, and each is pro- 
vided with a separate ball. The most skilful 
player is he who can land his ball in a given 
series of holes with the fewest strokes of his 
club. To place the ball in a proper position 
for striking off is called "teeing," and the plot 
on which the game is played is termed the 
" putting ground." The balls now used are 
generally made of gutta percha. The game is 
of very ancient date in Scotland, since there 
exist statutes as early as 1457 prohibiting it, 
lest it should interfere with archery. 

GOLGOTHA. See CALVARY. 

GOLIAD, a S. W. county of Texas, intersected 
by the San Antonio river ; area, 900 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 3,628, of whom 876 were colored. 
The surface is generally level, and the soil deep 
and rich. The bottom lands are particularly 
fertile. Stock raising is one of the chief occu- 
pations. The San Antonio and Mexican Gulf 
railroad passes through the N. E. part. Ara- 
nama college, a Presbyterian institution, is at 
the county seat. The chief productions in 1870 
were 37,640 bushels of Indian corn, and 92 
bales of cotton. There were 794 horses, 917 
milch cows, 5,657 other cattle, 4,853 sheep, and 
1,698 swine. Capital, Goliad. 

GOLIUS, Jacobus, a Dutch orientalist, born at 
the Hague in 1596, died in Leyden, Sept. 28, 
1667. He was educated at Leyden, and ap- 
pointed professor of Greek at La Rochelle 
when 2-1 years old, but soon returned to Ley- 
den. In 1622 he joined a Dutch embassy to 
the emperor of Morocco, in order to perfect 
himself in Arabic. In 1624 he succeeded Er- 
penius as professor of Arabic at the university 
of Leyden, from 1625 to 1629 travelled through 
the Levant, and after his return was professor 
of mathematics. He was a voluminous writer 
on oriental philology ; his greatest work is his 
Lexicon Arabico-Latinum (fol., Leyden, 1653). 

GOLLNOW, a town of Prussia, in the province 
of Pomerania, on the Ihna, 14 m. N. E. of Stet- 
tin ; pop. in 1871, 7,273. It has two churches, 
copper works,, and manufactories of ribbon and 
paper. It was formerly a Hanse town. 

GOLOVNIN, Vasili, a Russian navigator, born 
in the government of Riazan in 1776, died in 
St. Petersburg in 1832. He entered the im- 
perial navy at an early age, and soon became 
noted for skill and courage. In 1807 he was 
commissioned by Alexander I. to make a sur- 
vey of the Pacific coast of the empire. He 
sailed from Cronstadt in command of the sloop 
of war Diana, and was occupied till 1811 in 



96 GOLTZ 

examining the coasts of Karatchatka and Rus- 
sian America. In May, 1811, he sailed from 
lVtr..i.-iv!.)vsk in Kamtchatka to make a sur- 
vey of the southern Kurile islands and the coast 
of Tartary. In 1803 a Russian ambassador 
named Resanoff had endeavored to open an 
intercourse with Japan, but had been repulsed, 
as he thought, with insult. In retaliation the 
ship of war which conveyed him to and from 
Japan plundered and burned a number of Jap- 
anese villages on the Kurile islands. These, 
outrages excited the indignation of the Japa- 
nese, and when Golovnin with his vessel appear- 
ed in their waters, he was fired at and peremp- 
torily ordered away. Being in want of water 
and provisions, he persisted in landing, and 
finally went on shore, July 11, with two officers, 
four seamen, and a Kurile interpreter, on the 
island of Kunashir. The Japanese received him 
apparently in a friendly manner, but having 
enticed him and his companions into a castle 
garrisoned by 300 or 400 soldiers, they seized 
the Russians and hurried them over to the large 
island of Yesso. They were removed thence 
to Hakodadi, and in September to Matsmai, 
the capital of Yesso, where they were kept in 
cages in a prison erected for them, and sub- 
jected to a continual cross-examination which 
was very annoying. After several months 
they escaped, wandered for a number of days 
in the forests, and were recaptured. Finally, 
after an imprisonment of 26 months and 26 
days, Golovnin and the other Russians were 
given up in November, 1813. Golovnin reach- 
ed St. Petersburg July 14, 1814, after an ab- 
sence of seven years, was promoted, and re- 
ceived a pension. He was afterward sent on 
an exploring expedition around the world in 
command of the sloop of war Kamtchatka, 
from which he returned in 1819, and of which 
he published a narrative (2 vols. 4to, St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1822). He wrote in Russian " Obser- 
vations upon the Empire of Japan " (2 vols. 8vo, 
1816), and an account of his adventures among 
the Japanese, both of which works have been 
translated into English under the title of " Me- 
moirs of a Captivity in Japan during the years 
1811, '12, and '13, with Observations on the 
Country and the People" (2d ed., 3 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1824). At the time of his death he 
was vice admiral and general superintendent 
of tin- Russian navy. Golovnin was an accu- 
rate observer, and his narrative is one of the 
most interesting of the works upon Japan. He 
wrote also a book containing narratives of ship- 
wrecks and disasters at sea, which appeared 
in a complete edition of his works published 
by his son (5 vols., 1864). 

GOLTZ, Bogumil, a (ierman author, born in 
Warsaw, March 20, 1801, died in Thorn, Nov. 
1 1. 1 ^7i. lie was of German parentage, studied 
_'vmii;isiimi ot' Konigsberg and at the 
f Breslau, and engaged in scientific 
'tu iv. This proving unsuccessful, he de- 
li inisrlf from 1830 to literary pursuits 
settling at Thorn in 1847. His works include 



GONAIVES 

Der MenscJi und die Leute (Berlin, 1858) ; Die 
Deutschen (3 vols., 1860) ; Feigeribldtter (3 vols., 
1861-'2) ; Zur Charakteri&tik und Naturge- 
schichte der Frauen (2d ed., 1863) ; Typen der 
Geselhchaft (3d ed., 1864) ; Die Bildung und 
die Gebildeten (2 vols., 1864) ; Vorlemngen 
(2 vols., 1869) ; and Die WeltklugJieit und Le- 
Ibensweisheit mit ihren correspondirenden Stu- 
dien (2 vols., 1869). 

GOMBO. See GUMBO. 

GOMER, the first named and probably the 
eldest of the seven sons of Japheth (Gen. x. 2, 
3). In Ezek. xxxviii. 6, Gomer designates a 
people who are named in connection with Gog 
and Magog, apparently belonging to the Scy- 
thian family. This people is identified with 
the ancient Cimmerii, and by some also with 
the Cimbri and the more modern Celts. The 
latter view finds an early support in Josephus, 
who renders Gomer by Galatai, that is, Gauls 
or Celts. (See CIMBRI, and CIMMERII.) 

GOMEZ, Estevan, a Portuguese explorer, born 
in the latter part of the 15th century, died in 
Toledo in October, 1525. He accompanied Ma- 
gellan on his celebrated voyage in 1519, as pilot 
of the ship San Antonio. When the fleet entered 
the strait which now bears Magellan's name, 
the San Antonio was sent to explore a channel 
further south. Gomez, who was dissatisfied 
with his position, induced the crew to mutiny, 
and putting the captain in irons returned with 
the ship to Spain, where he arrived in March, 
1521. After a short detention for this act, he 
was set at liberty, and in 1524 sailed from Co- 
runna to search for a northwest passage to the 
Moluccas. He struck the American coast at 
New York bay, made out the direction of the 
Hudson river, and ran north as far as the Pe- 
nobscot. Contrary to the royal orders, he car- 
ried off some of the natives as slaves, probably 
from tb.B Kennebec, and returned to Spain, 
where esclavos (slaves) being mistaken for cla- 
ws (cloves), it was reported to the king that 
Gomezjiad actually reached the Spice islands. 

GO wilt, a N. county of Hungary, bordering 
on the counties of Lipto, Zips, Torna, Borsod, 
Heves, N6grad, and Zolyom ; area, 547 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1869, 103,639, chiefly Magyars and 
Slovaks, the majority of whom are Protestants. 
The surface is mostly mountainous, branches 
of the Carpathians extending into the county. 
It is traversed in all directions by navigable 
rivers, the most important of which are the 
Gran, the Rima, and the Sajo. The chief occu- 
pations are mining and cattle breeding. Cap- 
ital, Rima-Szombath ; largest town, Rosenati. 

GOMORRAH, one of the five cities of the 
plain or valley of Siddim, destroyed on ac- 
count of the wickedness of its inhabitants. 
(See DEAD SEA.) 

GONAIVES, a seaport town of Hayti, on the 
W. shore of a bay of the same name, 67 m. N. 
by W. of Port-au-Prince ; pop. about 4,000. 
The streets are wide, but irregular ; the houses 
badly constructed, and destitute of shade ; and 
the church and military and naval hospitals are 






GONDAR 



GONDS 



97 



the only public buildings of note. The harbor 
is commodious, and the view on the bay de- 
lightful. There are mineral springs near, and 
excellent public baths in the town. Coffee is 
the chief export ; cotton and indigo are raised, 
but not largely exported, as formerly. Haytian 
independence was declared here in 1803. 

GONDAR, a town of Abyssinia, the seat of 
the dbuna, or archbishop of the Abyssinian 
church, and formerly the residence of the negus 
or king, about 25 m. N. of Lake Tzana or Dem- 
bea ; lat. 12 35' N., Ion. 37 50' E. ; pop. about 
7,000. It is built on a hill 1,000 ft. above the 
lake, which is itself upward of 6,000 ft. above 
the sea. The town consists of a number of 
scattered groups of houses, occupying an area 
of about 11 m. in circumference. The Debra 
Mrkan, " hill of light," is the principal quarter, 
situated S. W. of the ruins of a palace of the 
former Abyssinian kings, built in the 16th 
century by the Portuguese. On the east of 
the town flows the Magetzeh, on the west the 
Gaha, which after uniting in one stream empty 
into Lake Tzana. The houses, of which but 
few are two stories high, are built of rough 
blocks of volcanic stone. There are 44 church- 
es and 1,200 clergy. The churches are round, 
and have conical thatched roofs projecting 
beyond the walls, with rows of wooden pillars 
for support, forming a circular alley in which 
the women remain while the men worship 
within. The Jews and Mohammedans have 
their own temples, and are allowed considera- 
ble religious liberty. There are manufactures 
of cotton goods, ornaments, jewelry, parch- 
ment, saddles, parasols, and braided ware. The 
currency consists partly of European gold and 
silver coin, and partly of lumps of rock salt. 
Gondar was during the ,middle ages, and as 
late as the 18th century, the capital of the 
Abyssinian kingdom, and contained more than 
50,000 inhabitants. It became afterward the 
capital of the independent state of Amhara, 
which Theodore subdued in 1853, making 
Gondar once more the capital of Abyssinia, 
which it continued to be till his death in 1868. 

GOiYDOKORO, a town in the territory of the 
Bari negroes, on the White Nile, which is here 
called Yubiri or Kidi, lat. 4 54' N., Ion. 31 
46' E. It is a station of the ivory traders, who 
occupy it for two months each year, after 
which it is deserted. It has only a few miser- 
able huts; the country around it is a desert, 
and the climate unhealthy. A Catholic mission 
was established there in 1853 by Knoblecher, 
but was discontinued in 1858. In 1873 Sir 
Samuel Baker visited it, broke up the slave 
trade, and proclaimed its incorporation with 
the dominions of the khedive of Egypt. 

GONDOLA, a light and swift kind of boat, 
used on the canals of Venice and supplying 
the place of carriages. They are usually 25 or 
30 ft. long, 5 ft. wide in the middle, and sharp 
at both ends, which are curved upward, the 
bow being ornamented with a high serrated 
iron plate something like the letter S in form. 



Near the middle is a small cabin for the use 
of passengers. Formerly immense sums were 
sometimes expended by the great nobles on the 
decoration of these cabins ; and this extrava- 
gance was carried so far that it was found neces- 
sary to pass a law compelling uniformity in style, 
no distinction of ornament or color being per- 
mitted except in the gondolas of foreign am- 
bassadors and in that of the patriarch, who, if 




Gondola. 

a cardinal, was allowed to use red silk or wool 
in the decoration of his cabin. Since that 
time all have been painted black and their 
cabins hung with black cloth. They are pro- 
pelled sometimes by a single gondolier, stand- 
ing at the stern, and sometimes by two, one at 
the stern and one at the bow. At the begin- 
ning of this century there are said to have 
been more than 6,000 gondolas in Venice, and 
the gondoliers formed an important body, no- 
ted for their wit and humor as well as for 
their skill with the oars. They were celebra- 
ted also for their singing and their recitations 
of passages from Tasso and Ariosto, but their 
songs are now seldom heard. 

GONDS, an aboriginal tribe inhabiting the 
highlands of the Central Provinces of India, 
whence that region derives the name of Gond- 
wana or Gundwana. The earliest authentic 
records represent them as already affected by 
intermarriage and association with the Hin- 
doos, and within the historic period their 
original characteristics have been still further 
modified by the same influences. The true 
Gonds, however, appear to be allied to the 
Dravidian races of southern India. They are 
a comparatively rude people, sturdy, restless, 
hardy, and fearless. The skin of the Gond is 
brown, and his hair is straight and black. He 
seldom exceeds 5 ft. 2 in. in height. The entire 
number of Gonds now dwelling in the hill 
tracts of central India is estimated at over 
800,000. Their condition varies greatly in 
different localities. Near the Hindoo boun- 
daries large numbers of them are engaged as 
agricultural laborers; the inhabitants of the 
interior are more secluded, wild, and indepen- 
dent. The Eaj Gonds, in the eastern part of 
Gondwana, have sprung from the intermixture 
of the aborigines and Rajpoots. The Gonds 
possess no written language; they are gene- 
rally somewhat familiar with Hindostanee, but 



\ 






GONGORA Y ARGOTE 



usually MOTCTM among themselves in their 
.rigue. Their religion is a degraded sort 
of pantheism. While polygamy is not pro- 
hibited, it is practically of rare occurrence, as 
a wife cannot be obtained without a payment, 
i-itluT in money or services, to her family. 
The women engage in every sort of labor ex- 
cept that of the chase, in which the men are 
t xm-rnely expert. The chief hunters of the 
villages now use matchlocks in place of the 
bow and arrow, and the men very generally 
carry little axes, which they throw with such 
skill" and precision as to kill birds and animals 
at a considerable distance. These axes are in 
fact the principal agricultural implement of 
the Gonds, as their simple system of cultiva- 
tion consists merely in felling timber, burning 
it, and planting grain in the ashes. The ad- 
vance of the Gonds in civilization appears to 
be proportional to the admixture of the Hindoo 
element with the aboriginal race. Where this 
is small, as in the interior of the highlands, the 
scanty means of the people for subsistence, and 
the constant exposure to malaria and disease, 
operate most powerfully against any increase 
of prosperity. Their general condition as a 
people, however, seems to be gradually im- 
proving under British rule. 

GONGORA T ARGOTE, Luis de, a Spanish poet, 
born in Cordova, Jan. 11, 1561, died there, 
May 23, 1627. He was the son of a distin- 
guished lawyer, and was educated at Sala- 
manca for his father's profession, but aban- 
doned it for poetry. He lived in his native 
city poor and obscure till the age of 43, when, 
having entered holy orders, he was made titu- 
lar chaplain to Philip III.; but after 11 years 
of neglect he returned to Cordova in broken 
health. His early poetry, consisting of ballads 
and odes, is remarkable for vigor and simplicity, 
but later in life he adopted an affected, obscure, 
and highly metaphorical style, which for a time 
became fashionable in Spain, and even in 
France, and was imitated by a large school of 
succeeding poets. It is known as the estilo 
ml to. or cultivated style, and one of its most 
marked features was the use of obsolete and 
i words and of new and forced construc- 
tions. So unintelligible were the poems of 
Gongora that even in his own lifetime com- 
mentaries were written to explain them. His 
were published in 1636-'46, with a com- 
mentary 1,500 pages long by Ooronel, a poet of 
the saroeschool (3 vols. 4to, Madrid). 

MmiUTKS, a group of fossil cephalopods, 

a nautilus-like shell, but with the siphun- 

<al as in the ammonites ; the septa, or 

>ns between the chambers, have one or 

more flexures at the margin. These flexures 

become more and more complex, from the 

species of the Hamilton (middle Devonian) 

period, when they first appear, to those of the 

carbon i ft- n MIS p.-ri...!, \vlu-n they disappear, 

'plaivd in mesozoic time by the cera- 

tites and ammonites, to which they are nearlv 

related. The 0. Marcellentis (Van.), from the 



GONSALVO DE CORDOVA 

Marcellus shales of New York, has been found 
a foot in diameter. Clymenia, an allied genus, 




Goniatites (G. retorsus). 

had the siphuncle ventral, and the septa with- 
out a distinct dorsal lobe on the median line. 

GONIOMETER (Gr. ywvfa, an angle, and fitrpov, 
a measure), an instrument for measuring the 
angles of crystals. Two kinds of goniometers 
are in use, one designed to measure the angles 
by direct application of the instrument to the 
faces of the crystal, and the other by the arc 
through which the crystal must be turned for 
two adjoining faces to reflect in succession the 
same object to the eye. The first and simplest 
form is the common or Haiiy's goniometer. 
It is a graduated semicircular arc with a fixed 
and a movable radius, between which the crys- 
tal is placed, each radius being made to coin- 
cide with the plane of one of its faces. The 
angle of their opening may then be read off on 
the arc. This instrument cannot be depended 
upon for nicety of measurement. The reflect- 
ing goniometer was invented by Dr. Wollaston, 
and several modified forms of it have been in- 
troduced by others. It requires for its use 
crystals with clear faces, that can distinctly re- 
flect the image of a dark line across a clear light, 
as the bar of a window sash. The instrument 
is made with great precision, and its graduated 
arc is furnished with a vernier, by which the 
degrees are divided into minutes. The French 
goniometer of Adelman combines the principles 
of both the common and reflecting instruments, 
and is much less expensive than Wollaston's. 

GONSALVO DE CORDOVA, or Gonzalo Hernandez 
de Cordova, called el Gran Capitan (the Great 
Captain), a Spanish general, born at Montilla, 
near Cordova, March 16, 1453, died in Granada, 
Dec. 2, 1515. His family name was Aguilar, 
but his ancestors rendered such services at the 
conquest of Cordova that St. Ferdinand per- 
mitted them to assume the name of that city. 
At the court of Ferdinand and Isabella Gon- 
salvo attracted attention by his beauty and 
knightly skill and the magnificence of his liv- 
ing. He distinguished himself at Albuera da- 
ring the war with Portugal (1479), but gained 
the greatest renown in the war with the Moors, 
which began in 1481 and ended at the begin- 
ning of 1492. In conjunction with the king's 



GONSALVO DE CORDOVA 



GONZAGA 



99 



secretary, he conducted the secret negotiation 
with the Moorish monarch, Abdallah or Boab- 
dil, which resulted in the capitulation of Gra- 
nada. In 1495 he was sent with a small squad- 
ron against the French who had invaded the 
kingdom of Naples. He landed at Messina, 
and thence crossed over to the mainland. In 
his first battle at Seminara, fought against his 
advice, he was defeated, but his desperate valor 
saved the army from destruction and King 
Ferdinand from capture. His subsequent oper- 
ations were so successful that by the end of 
1496 the French, who a year before had pos- 
sessed the whole kingdom, yielded up their last 
fortress, and withdrew to their own country. 
At the request of the pope, he then laid siege to 
Ostia, which was held by a formidable band of 
freebooters, and carried it by storm. On his 
return to Naples the king gave him the title 
of duke of St. Angelo, with an estate contain- 
ing 3,000 vassals. In the beginning of 1500 he 
was called into the field to suppress a sudden 
insurrection of the Moors of the Alpujarras. 
In May of the same year he sailed from Malaga 
in command of an army of 4,600 men, designed 
to protect Naples, which the French were pre- 
paring to invade a second time. In Septem- 
ber, in conjunction with a Venetian fleet, he 
laid siege to the almost impregnable fortress 
of St. George in Cephalonia, and the place was 
carried by assault in January, 1501. Gonsalvo 
sailed thence to Sicily, where he was waited on 
by an embassy from the Venetian senate bring- 
ing him magnificent presents. Meanwhile, by 
a secret treaty, Louis XII. of France and Fer- 
dinand of Spain had agreed to divide Naples 
between them. Gonsalvo was appointed lieu- 
tenant general of the Spanish portion, which he 
overran and conquered in less than a month, 
except Taranto, which capitulated after a long 
siege, March 1, 1502. The French and Span- 
iards speedily quarrelled about their bounda- 
ries in Naples, and in July their dispute broke 
into open hostilities. Gonsalvo, whose force 
was much inferior to that of the French, threw 
himself into the fortified seaport of Barletta on 
the Adriatic. Here, from July, 1502, to April, 
1503, he sustained one of the most memor- 
able sieges in history, conducted by the duke 
of Nemours and the chevalier Bayard. Hav- 
ing at length received by sea a small reenforce- 
ment, the Great Captain on April 28 broke 
forth from Barletta, gave battle to the French, 
and defeated them, with the slaughter of half 
their army, the loss of all their artillery and 
baggage, and most of their colors. This victory 
decided the war, and in a few weeks all the 
fortresses held by the French were taken or 
surrendered, with the exception of Gaeta, into 
which the remnant of the French army had 
thrown themselves. A long siege ensued, 
which gave time to Louis XII. to despatch into 
Italy one of the finest armies that France had 
ever sent into the field. Gonsalvo met the 
French on the Garigliano, near Gaeta, defeated 
them in several encounters, and on Dec. 29, 



1503, routed them totally with great slaughter. 
This defeat put an end to the French attempt 
to conquer Naples. Gaeta surrendered Jan. 1, 

1504, and by a treaty, Feb. 11, peace was re- 
stored between France and Spain, the latter 
power retaining Naples. Gonsalvo remained 
in Naples, ruling the kingdom as viceroy till 
1507, when Ferdinand, suspecting that he 
meant to make himself independent, recalled 
him to Spain. Soon after his arrival there he 
retired to his estates near Loja, where he lived 
in -great magnificence. In 1512 the French 
again made head in Italy, and Ferdinand called 
upon Gonsalvo to take command of an army 
for the protection of Naples ; and when it be- 
came known that he was to command, nearly 
all the nobles of Spain volunteered. This en- 
thusiasm so augmented Ferdinand's distrust 
that he countermanded his orders, and directed 
Gonsalvo to disband his levies. Three years 
later Gonsalvo was attacked by a quartan 
fever, and removed to his palace in Granada, 
in hopes that the climate of that city would 
benefit his health ; but he died shortly after 
his arrival there. His remains were laid in a 
sumptuous mausoleum in a chapel of the church 
of St. Ger6nimo. 

GONZAGA, a town of Italy, in the province 
and 15 m. S. of the city of Mantua ; pop. about 
15,000. It was formerly fortified, and is cele- 
brated for its old castle, the cradle of the Gon- 
zaga family. Silk is manufactured here. 

GONZAGi, an ancient Italian family which 
ruled over Mantua from 1328 to 1707. Its 
founder was Ludovico I. (died in 1360), and his 
successors branched off into several lines, promi- 
nent among which were those of the dukes of 
Nevers and of Guastalla. Some of the rulers 
of Mantua were distinguished patrons of letters 
and art, and made their court one of the most 
brilliant in Italy. They intermarried with the 
Medici and the Estes, and a number of the 
ladies, especially Cecilia (born about 1424) and 
Lucrezia (died 1576), were renowned for learn- 
ing. Besides Ludovico III. (1444-'78), sur- 
named the Turk for fighting the Mussulmans, 
there were other gallant warriors in the family, 
and particularly Francesco II. (1484-1519) 
and Vincenzo I. (1587-1611) ; and celebrated 
as a cardinal from 1561 till his death (1566) 
was Francesco Gonzaga. On the extinction 
of the elder branch after the death of Vincenzo 
II. (1627), a war for the succession to the do- 
minion of Mantua and other territories result- 
ed in favor of Charles I., duke of Nevers. His 
daughter Maria became queen of Poland, and 
another daughter, Anna, wife of the count 
palatine Edward. The beauty and wit of the 
latter made her conspicuous in Paris at the 
court of Anne of Austria, and her memoirs 
were published in 1686. Charles IV., the last 
duke of Mantua (died in 1708), was dispos- 
sessed in 1707 by Austria for having sided with 
France in the war of the Spanish succession, 
Savoy taking Montferrat. A collateral branch 
of the family still exists, the head of which 



100 



GONZAGA 



(1874) is the marquis Guerrieri-Gonzaga, the 
largest land owner in the district of Gonzaga. 

A pretender to the dominion over Mantua 

appeared in 1841, in a person styling him- 
self Alessandro di Gonzaga, Prince Castiglione. 
He was a soldier of fortune, born in Dresden 
in 1799, and is described by some authorities 
as a Pole of the name of Murzynowski, and 
by others as a son of a Russian officer of Ital- 
ian origin, and again as a son or brother of 
a French officer named Gonzague ; and he was 
successively engaged in the French, Russian, 
and Spanish armies, and in the Polish revo- 
lution of 1830-'31. In the latter part of his 
life he was arrested in Paris for selling decora- 
tions, and on being released after two years 
by Louis Napoleon, he went to London and 
died in 1869. He published Odes patriotiques, 
and several pamphlets and novels. 

GONZAGA, Lnlgi (Sx. ALOYSIUS), a saint of the 
Roman Catholic church, born in the castle of 
Castiglione, near Brescia, March 9, 1568, died 
in Rome, June 21, 1591. He was educated at 
the courts of Florence, Mantua, and Spain, en- 
tered the society of Jesus in 1585, renouncing 
the marquisate of Castiglione in favor of his 
brother, and went in 1591 by order of the pope 
to settle the rival claims of the duke of Mantua 
and of his own brother to the lands of Solferino. 
Coming back to Rome, he found the city de- 
vastated by the plague, devoted himself to the 
sick, and was stricken down by the epidemic. 
He was beatified by Gregory XV. in 1621, and 
canonized in 1726 by Benedict XIII., who de- 
clared him the patron saint of colleges. His 
feast is celebrated on June 21. His life has 
been written in Italian by the Jesuit Cepari, 
and in French by Dorlfians. 

GONZAGA, Thomas Antonio Costa de, a Brazilian 
poet, called the Portuguese Anacreon, born in 
Porto in 1747, died in Mozambique in 1793. 
After studying in the university of Coimbra, 
Portugal, he returned in 1768 to Brazil to enter 
on an official career. In 1788, when he was 
about to be married, he became involved in a 
conspiracy, and was condemned to perpetual 
exile in an island on the coast of eastern Africa, 
which was commuted to ten years' banishment 
to Mozambique. He was attacked by fever 
soon after reaching Africa, from which he re- 
covered only to fall into madness. The most 
interesting of his poems were composed du- 
ring his captivity. They are popular alike in 
Hr.i/il and Portugal, and have been often re- 
printed. In grace, tenderness, purity of style, 
and harmony of verse, he ranks among the 
tir>t Portuguese poets. 

GONZALES, a S. county of Texas, intersected 
by the Guadalupe river; area, 1,026 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 8,951, of whom 3,670 were col- 
ored. It has an undulating surface, about one 
third of which is covered with ash, oak, and 
other timber. The soil is fertile, consisting 
hi. lly of a black loam. There are rich de- 
pesits of coal and iron. Guadalupe college is 
at the county seat. The chief productions in 



GOODALL 

1870 were 203,591 bushels of Indian corn, 28,- 
932 of sweet potatoes, and 2,174 bales of cot- 
ton. There were 8,977 horses, 8,833 milch 
cows, 77,567 other cattle, 5,790 sheep, and 22,- 
153 swine. Capital, Gonzales. 

GOOCHLAND, an E. county of Virginia, bound- 
ed S. by James river ; area, 260 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 10,313 of whom 6,601 were colored. 
The surface is undulating, and the soil, watered 
by numerous creeks, was formerly very fertile. 
Bituminous coal is found in abundance, and a 
little gold has been discovered. It is traversed 
by the James River canal. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 76,177 bushels of wheat, 
101,402 of Indian corn, 72,630 of oats, and 
405,215 Ibs. of tobacco. There were 670 
horses, 2,727 cattle, 3,231 swine, and 16 flour 
mills. Capital, Goochland. 

GOOD, John Mason, an English physician and 
author, born at Epping, Essex, May 25, 1764, 
died in January, 1827. He began his med- 
ical education as apprentice to a surgeon at 
Gosport, afterward studied at Guy's hospital, 
and in 1784 commenced practice as a surgeon 
at Sudbury. He removed to London in 1793, 
and gained in time a large professional con- 
nection. In 1810 he delivered a course of 
lectures at the Surrey institute, which were 
afterward published under the title of "The 
Book df Nature." In 1812 he edited the 
"Letters of Junius," comprising not only the 
acknowledged productions of that .writer, but 
also more than 100 letters and papers of 
doubtful authenticity. He was an accomplish- 
ed linguist, and contributed largely to peri- 
odicals. His principal works are : " Maria, 
an Elegiac Ode" (1786); "Diseases of Pris- 
ons and Poorhouses" (1795); "History of 
Medicine as far as it relates to the Profession 
of an Apothecary " (1795) ; " Parish Work- 
houses" (1798, 1805); "Song of Songs, or 
Sacred Idyls, translated from the Hebrew, 
with Notes" (1803); "Triumph of Britain, 
an Ode" (1803); "Memoirs of Alexander 
Geddes" (1803); "The Nature of Things," 
a translation from Lucretius, with notes (2 
vols. 4to, 1805-7) ; " Essay on Medical Tech- 
nology " (1810) ; " The Book of Job, literally 
translated from the Hebrew," with notes and 
a dissertation (1812); "Physiological System 
of Nosology" (1817); "Pantalogia, or En- 
cyclopaedia comprising a General Dictionary 
of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature," 
in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory and 
Newton Bosworth, published periodically, and 
completed in 12 vols. in 1813; "The Study 
of Medicine " (4 vols., 1822) ; and " The Book 
of Nature " (3 vols., 1826). His life was writ- 
ten by Dr. Gregory (London, 1828). 

GOODALL. I. Edward, an English engraver, 
born in Leeds in September, 1795, died April 
11, 1870. He is known by his engravings 
from Turner's pictures, in which the artist's 
characteristics are reproduced with great fidel- 
ity. Of his smaller works, the illustrations in 
Rogers's " Italy " are best known. His large 



GOOD FRIDAY 



GOODRICH 



101 




e engravings of Turner's "Tivoli," "Co- 
logne," and " Caligula's Bridge " are splendid 
ecimens of the art. II. Frederick, a painter, 
>n of the preceding, born in London, Sept. 
17, 1822. At 14 years of age he received a 
jrize from the society of arts for a drawing 
of Lambeth palace, and at 16 another for his 
first oil painting. He subsequently became 
a frequent exhibitor at the royal academy, of 
which he was elected an associate in 1852, and 
member in 1863. Several of his works, such 
"L' Allegro "and "The Soldier's Dream," 
ve been engraved. His " Tired Soldier " and 
" Village Festival " are in the Vernon gallery. 
GOOD FRIDAY, the anniversary of Christ's 
death. It is only in England that the term 
"good" is applied to this feast. Its ancient 
tie was Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy 
eek. The Saxons named it " Long Friday," 
th because of its long religious services and 
its rigorous and protracted fast. The Ger- 
s term it sometimes Stiller Freitag, be- 
se bells and organs are silent on that day, 
d sometimes Char-Freitag, from an old word 
eaning penitence. As it commemorates the 
on which Christ, the true paschal lamb, 
as slain, it was designated as "the pasch" 
some of the ancient eastern churches ; but 
e appellation of " pasch of the crucifixion," 
>r " the sorrowful pasch," was soon universaliy 
pplied to it by the Greeks, and it is still so 
lied in the East and in several countries of 
western Europe. The early Christian writers 
ntion it as a day of rigorous fasting and 
liar solemnity. The ritual observed both 
the Greek and Latin churches has special 
reference to the circumstances of Christ's 
eath and entombment. Hence in all large 
urches an altar in a separate chapel is deco- 
" with all possible magnificence, and called 
the sepulchre." Thither the consecrated 
ost, or "body of the Lord," is borne in sol- 
procession on Holy Thursday, and con*- 
nues to be visited throughout the day by 
wds of worshippers. On Good Friday morn- 
g, after the chanting of the prophecies fore- 
lling Christ's death and of the recital of his 
assion from the Gospel of St. John, takes 
lace the "adoration" or kissing of the cross, 
crucifix is placed on the steps before the 
igh altar, and while the choir sings the im- 
roperia, or reproaches of the Messiah to 
e people who crucified him, the officiating 
slergy and their attendants approach bare- 
boted, each one making three successive pros- 
.tions before they kiss the feet of the sacred 
age. It is then presented by the celebrant 
the sanctuary railing to the veneration of 
e people. In England, before the reforma- 
tion, this ceremony was called the creeping 
the cross, as appears from a proclamation of 
Henry VIII. : " On Good Friday it shall be de- 
clared ho we creepy ng of the crosse signify eth 
humblynge of ourselfe to Christe before the 
, and the kissynge of it a memorie of our 
.emption made upon the crosse." After 



this ceremony the consecrated host is brought 
in procession from "the sepulchre" to the 
high altar, where it is incensed, offered to the 
adoration of all present, and consumed by the 
celebrant. This is called the "mass of the 
presanctified " or preconsecrated bread, as the 
eucharistic elements are not consecrated on 
that day. In honor of the redemption accom- 
plished on Good Friday, it was customary in 
the early church to release public penitents 
from their probation and the excommunicated 
from their ban. The first Christian emperors, 
not satisfied with closing the law courts during 
Holy and Easter weeks, honored the anni- 
versary of salvation by liberating from prison 
and recalling from exile all but the worst crimi- 
nals ; and also, to encourage the practice then 
becoming general of manumitting slaves in re- 
membrance of Christ's death, by allowing the 
courts and magistrates to perfect the instru- 
ments necessary for this purpose. These cus- 
toms, sanctioned by a decree of Valentinian 
I. in 367, were embodied by Justinian in his 
code. The same spirit afterward pervaded 
the manners and legislation of western peo- 
ples. In England and Ireland Good Friday 
is a legal holiday as well as a fast day. The 
practice of breakfasting on hot cross buns on 
this day is still kept up in the English cities, 
and is also common in the United States. In 
the north of England it is customary to eat 
herb puddings in which a principal ingredient 
is the "passion dock," which in fructification 
produces fancied representations of the cross, 
nails, hammer, &c. The English kings were 
wont in ancient times to hallow rings on Good 
Friday, to preserve the wearers from epilepsy. 
The Protestant Episcopal, Lutheran, and Re- 
formed churches, as well as many Methodists, 
observe the day by fasting and special services. 

GOOD HOPE, Cape of. See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

GOODHUE, a S. E. county of Minnesota, bor- 
dering on the Mississippi, separated from Wis- 
consin by Lake Pepin, and watered by Cannon 
river ; area, about 650 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
22,618. The surface is moderately uneven, 
and the soil fertile. It is traversed by the 
river division of the Milwaukee and St. Paul 
railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 
1,815,603 bushels of wheat, 209,790 of Indian 
corn, 825,301 of oats, 81,878 of barley, 85,390 
of potatoes, 470,201 Ibs. of butter, and 31,- 
468 tons of hay. There were 6,766 horses, 
6,485 milch cows, 9,021 other cattle, 6,241 
sheep, and 6,671 swine; 2 manufactories of 
agricultural implements, 5 of carriages, 4 of 
barrels, 3 of furniture, 8 of saddles and har- 
ness, 5 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 
of woollen goods, 4 saw mills, 8 flour mills, 
and 5 breweries. Capital, Red Wing. 

GOODRICH. I. Eliznr, an American clergy- 
man, born in Wethersfield, Conn., Oct. 26, 
1734, died in Norfolk, Conn., Nov. 21, 1797. 
He graduated at Yale college in 1752, and was 
tutor there in 1755. In the busiest scenes of 
his subsequent ministry he rarely failed to cal- 



LOS 



GOODRICH 



oulate the eclipses of each successive year; 
un.1 when tl.t- aurora borealis of 1780 made its 
appearance, he gave one of the fullest and most 
a'-' unite accounts of it ever published, with 
exact drawings of the auroral arch. In 1756 
be was ordained minister of the Congregation- 
al r iiun-h in Durham, Conn., in which office 
he continued till his death. He was an active 
friend of the revolution, preaching the right 
of resistance, and urging his people to lay 
down their property and lives in the conflict. 
He published several sermons, and left be- 
hind him some hundreds of essays on difficult 
passages of Scripture. II. Channeey iUen, an 
American scholar, grandson of the preceding, 
born in New Haven, Conn., Oct. 23, 1790, died 
there, Feb. 25, 1860. He graduated at Yale 
college in 1810, and was tutor there from 1812 
to 1814. After a course of theological study 
he became pastor of a Congregational church 
in Middletown, Conn. In 1817 he was elected 
professor of rhetoric and oratory in Yale col- 
lege, and continued in that office till 1839, 
when he was transferred to the professorship 
of pastoral theology. He published in 1814 a 
Greek grammar, translated chiefly from Ha- 
ehenherg; this he subsequently revised and 
enlarged, and published under his own name. 
In 1832 he published "Latin Lessons" and 
"Greek Lessons," in which the precepts of 
grammar are throughout accompanied by prac- 
tical exercises. During several years he ed- 
ited the "Quarterly Christian Spectator." In 
1828 Noah Webster, his father-in-law, intrust- 
ed to him the superintendence of the octavo 
abridgment of his large dictionary, and he 
published in 1847 greatly enlarged and im- 
proved editions of the 4to and 8vo dictionaries. 
In 1856 he published in 8vo the new universi- 
ty edition of Webster's dictionary, and in 1859 
a new issue of the unabridged 4to dictionary. 
At the time of his death he was engaged in a 
thorough revision of the dictionary, which 
was published in 1864. III. Samuel Griswold, 
better known under the assumed name of Pe- 
ter Parley, an American author, nephew of 
the preceding, born in Ridgefield, Conn., Aug. 
1 '.'. 1 793, died in New York, May 9, 1860. He 
engaged in the publishing business in Hart- 
imd, after visiting Europe in 1824, es- 
tah limbed himself as & publisher in Boston, 
and edited from 1828 to 1842 the "Token," an 
illuM rated annual, to which he contributed 
several tales and poems. His popular Peter 
Parley series of juvenile books was begun 
soon after his removal to Boston, and gradually 
<l to more than 100 volumes, compri- 
ographies, histories, travels, stories, and 
is illustrations of the arts and sciences. 
The success of these works caused several 
spurious books to appear under his pseudo- 
nyme. In 1*41 he established " Merry's Mu- 
"s MatTa/ine." 1 a juvenile pert- 
, which h- edited till 1854. In 1851 he 



was appointed United States consul at Paris, 
and while there published in French Les fitats 



GOOD WILL 

Unis, aperfu statistigue, Jiistorique, geogra- 
phique, industriel et social" (1852). He was 
also the author of " The Outcast, and other Po- 
ems " (1837 ; illustrated ed., 1851) ; " Fireside 
Education" (1841); "Sketches from a Stu- 
dent's Window;" "Recollections of a Life- 
tune " (1857) ; and " Illustrated Natural History 
of the Animal Kingdom " (1859). IV. Frank 
Boot, an American author, son of the preceding, 
born in Boston, Dec. 14, 1826. He graduated 
at Harvard college in 1845, and was for seve- 
ral years the Paris correspondent of the " New 
York Times," writing under the signature of 
" Dick Tinto." A volume made up from his 
letters was published in 1854, entitled " Tri-col- 
ored Sketches of Paris." He has also pub- 
lished " The Court of Napoleon " (1857), "Man 
upon the Sea " (1858), and " Women pf Beauty 
and Heroism " (1859). 

.GOOD WILL, the interest or advantage sup- 
posed to be attached to a certain established 
business. Nothing can be more uncertain or 
intangible than this ; and it was for some time 
a question whether the law would recognize it 
as of pecuniary value. But it is clear that it 
may have, under some circumstances, a very 
great pecuniary value. If a partnership be 
established in a certain place, and has there 
done business for a long time, in a way which 
has given general satisfaction and attracted a 
wide and to all appearance a permanent patron- 
age or custom, whether this be by the excel- 
lence and variety of its stock of goods, its hon- 
esty and exactness, or its supposed wealth, this 
partnership has a pecuniary interest in this 
good will, in addition to the amount of its mere 
stock and capital. But, while as between part- 
ners this good will is generally considered to 
have a value, and will be recognized and pro- 
vided for by courts of equity in settling any dis- 
putes between them, and in general passes by 
survivorship to the remaining partners when 
one or more die, yet the rules of law which en- 
ter into the adjustment of good will can hardly 
be considered as settled. In case of insolvency, 
it is however clear that a court having juris- 
diction of the case will recognize it as valuable, 
and will take care that no partner behave in 
such a way as to dimmish its value, and will 
make due orders for reducing it by sale or 
otherwise into the form of available assets. 
But when the good will of a business passes by 
the insolvency of the trader into the hands of 
assignees, the trader is no longer under any 
obligations to continue his exertions to increase 
or sustain its value, although he must dp 
nothing to injure it. The good will of a busi- 
ness is often bought and sold, and made the 
subject of arrangement in various ways ; and it 
I would undoubtedly be regarded as a sufficient 
I consideration for a promise to pay money. It 
j has been held that the sale of a business, with 
the stock and " good will," carried with it, by 
implication, a promise not to enter upon a sim- 
ilar business so near to the old stand as to in- 
terfere materially with the purchaser. This 



GOODWIN SANDS 



GOOKIN 



103 



JUlg 

s 



ould seem to be equitable, and ought to be 

irovided for in any sale or transfer of the good 

will. We doubt, however, whether our courts 

ould now infer such an agreement from a 
transfer of the good will, in the absence 
any express stipulation on the subject. 

GOODWIN SANDS, dangerous sand banks off 
E. coast of Kent, England, separated from 
mainland by the. roadstead called the 
Downs, which has an average width of about 
5 m. The banks, which are loose and shift- 
ing, are divided by a narrow channel called 
the Swash, navigable for small boats. The 
northern portion is about 3 m. long, and the 
southern about 10 m., the average width of 
each being 2^ m. At low water many parts 
are dry and firm, but with the coming of the 
tide the sand becomes saturated and dangerous. 
Lightships are stationed at their N. and S. ex- 
mities and N. of the Swash, on which bells 
kept ringing in hazy weather. Many fatal 

ipwrecks have taken place on these sands, 
which are full of danger to vessels passing into 
the Thames or the North sea. They are said 
to have once formed a part of the mainland of 
Kent, and to have belonged to the Saxon earl 
.win shortly before the Norman conquest. 

ey were submerged about A. D. 1200. 

GOODYEAR, Charles, an American inventor, 
born in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 29, 1800, 
died in New York, July 1, 1860. He received 
only a public school education. After coming 
of age, he joined his father Amasa Goodyear, 
the pioneer in the American manufacture of 
hardware, in the hardware business in Phila- 
delphia. The firm being overwhelmed by the 
commercial disasters of 1830, he selected as a 
new occupation the improvement of the manu- 
facture of India rubber. His early experiments 
were carried on at New Haven, Conn., Box- 
bury, Lynn, Boston, and Woburn, Mass., and 
the city of New York. The first important im- 
provement made by him was in New York in 
1836, being a method of depriving India rubber 
f its adhesiveness by dipping it into a prepa- 
ion of nitric acid. The nitric acid gas pro- 
as it was called, was introduced into pub- 
c use, and met with great favor, especially in 
the manufacture of shoes, which continued to 
be made by that process in great numbers at 
Providence, R. I., until it was superseded by 
the superior method of vulcanization. The 
beneficial effect of the nitric acid process was 
confined to the surface, the interior body of the 
gum remaining subject to all the defects of 
native India rubber. It did not satisfy the 
hopes of Goodyear, and in 1838-'9 he made at 
Woburn, Mass., many experiments with com- 
pounds of India rubber and sulphur. In Jan- 
uary, 1839, he observed that a piece of India 
rubber, mixed with ingredients among which 
was sulphur, when accidentally brought in con- 
tact with a red-hot stove, was not melted, but 
that in certain portions it was charred, and in 
other portions it remained elastic though de- 
prived of adhesiveness. The material was vul- 




canized; i. e., it had undergone the change 
produced by a high degree of artificial heat. 
Thus were presented the germs of the two 
forms of vulcanized India rubber, now com- 
monly known as the soft and the hard com- 
pounds. From this time until his death the 
process of vulcanization occupied his whole at- 
tention, but he reaped no adequate pecuniary 
reward for his labors. The Goodyear patents, 
now more than 60 in number, have been very 
expensive in themselves, and still more so from 
the necessity of defending and protecting them 
against infringers. The first publication of the 
process of vulcanization was Goodyear's patent 
for France, dated April 16, 1844. The French 
laws require that the patentee shall put and 
keep his invention in public use in France 
within two years from its date. Goodyear 
endeavored to comply with this and with all 
other requirements of the French laws, and 
thought he had effectually done so ; but the 
courts of France decided that he had not com- 
plied in every particular, and that therefore his 
patent had become void. In England he was 
still more unfortunate. Having sent specimens 
of vulcanized fabrics to Charles Mackintosh 
and co. in 1842, and having opened with them 
a negotiation for the sale of the secret of the 
invention or discovery, one of the partners of 
that firm named Thomas Hancock, availing 
himself of the hints and opportunities thus pre- 
sented to him, rediscovered, as he affirms, the 
process of vulcanization, and described it in a 
patent for England, which was enrolled on 
May 21, 1844, about five weeks after the speci- 
fication and publication of the discovery to the 
world by Goodyear's patent for vulcanization 
in France. The patent of Hancock, held good 
according to English law, thus superseded 
Goodyear's English patent for vulcanization, 
which bore date a few days later. Goodyear, 
however, obtained the great council medal of 
the exhibition of all nations at London in 1851, 
the grand medal of honor of the world's ex- 
hibition at Paris in 1855, and the cross of the 
legion of honor, presented by Napoleon III. 
(See CAOUTCHOUC.) 

GOOKIN, Daniel, an American author and sol- 
dier, born in Kent, England, about 1612, died 
in Cambridge, Mass., March 19, 1687. He came 
with his father to Virginia in 1621, held with 
35 men his plantation, now Newport News, 
against the savages during the Indian massacres 
of March, 1622, and removed in 1644 to Massa- 
chusetts, in consequence of his sympathy with 
the doctrines of the Puritans. He settled in 
Cambridge, and in 1656 became superintendent 
of all the Indians who had submitted to the 
government of Massachusetts, an office which 
he held till his death. He protected the fugi- 
tive regicides in 1661, was appointed one of the 
two licensers of the Cambridge printing press 
in the following year, became unpopular during 
King Philip's war by the protection which he 
extended to the Indians, and in 1681 was made 
major general of the colony. He died so poor 



GOOLE 



GOOSE 



that John Eliot solicited from Robert Boyle a 
gift of 10 for his widow. His "Historical 
Collections of the Indians of Massachusetts' 
bears the date of 1674, and was first published 
in 1792. He is said to have written a history of 
New England, which is lost. 

(,oou:, a town of Yorkshire, England, on 
the Ouse, 22 m. W. of Hull ; pop. in 1871, 
7,680. It is the terminus of the Pontefract 
and Goole railway, and the railway from Hull 
to Doncaster runs through it ; and it has com- 
munication with Leeds, Manchester, and Liver- 
pool by means of the Knottingley and Goole 
canal. There are here extensive docks and 
warehouses, and a slip for repairing vessels. 
Boat building, sail making, and iron founding 
are carried on to some extent. It contains a 
new church, with a lofty tower, places of wor- 
ship for various dissenting denominations, and 
several literary and charitable institutions. 

GOOMTEE, or Goomty (Hin. Gomati), a river 
of British India, rising in the district of Shah- 
jehanpoor, in a small lake, 19 m. E. of Pilli- 
bheet, lat. 28 35' N., Ion. 80 10' E., and after 
a 8. E. course of 482 m., in which it traverses 
the territory of Oude, falling into the Ganges, 
on its left side, in lat. 25 29', Ion. 83 15'. The 
principal town on its banks is Lucknow, 308 
m. from its mouth, to which it is navigable. It 
is wide, in the dry season 4 ft. deep, and it 
rises 15 ft. at Lucknow in the rainy season. 

GOOSANDER, an American fishing duck of the 
subfamily mergince and genus mergus (Linn.) ; 
besides the goosander (M. Americanus, Cassin), 
the subfamily includes the mergansers and the 
smew. The bird is about 27 in. long, and 3 ft. 
in extent of wings; the bill about 3 in., of a 




Gooaander (Mergus Americanus). 

bright r.-d rolor; weights Ibs. ; the female is 
eooridermbly smaller. Common names of this 
species are sawbill, sheldrake, and, for the fe- 
male, dun diver. The feathers of the forehead 
KKtcodia aa acute angle on the bill; the nos- 
trils are large, and near the middle of the bill- 



the plumage is full, soft, and glossy ; there is a 
slight crest in the male ; the wings and tail are 
short, the latter rounded, with 18 feathers; the 
iris is carmine ; the feet orange red in winter, 
vermilion in the breeding season ; the bill nar- 
row, compressed, with a conspicuous black nail, 
the edges with sharp recurved serrations; tarsi 
two thirds the length of the middle toe, much 
compressed. The head. and neck are metallic 
green; lower neck and rest of body beneath 
creamy white, becoming salmon red ; fore part 
of back black ; lower back, rump, and tail 
feathers ashy gray ; most of the wings creamy 
white, except the greater coverts, which are 
black at the base, forming a black bar, and the 
tertials narrowly edged with black; primaries 
black; sides with slight transverse bars. In 
the female the head and neck are chestnut; 
above ashy, salmon-colored below; the black 
base of the secondaries is entirely concealed, 
and there is less white on the wings. In the 
European sheldrake (M. merganser, Linn.) the 
bill is relatively longer and narrower; the elon- 
gated feathers forming the crest are longer and 
more erectile, and begin almost at the base of 
the bill ; and the bar of black on the wings is 
concealed by the lesser coverts. The American 
bird was considered the same as the European, 
until separated by Mr. Cassin in 1853. The 
goosander is found throughout North America, 
breeding in the temperate and northern re- 
gions, in the neighborhood of both salt and 
fresh water; it is abundant in the fur countries. 
It is strong and active, a powerful swimmer, 
excellent diver, and rapid flier; it swims very 
deeply, presenting a small mark for the gun- 
ner, diving at the flash or at the click of the 
lock ; it can run very well on land. It is very vo- 
racious, feeding on fish, mollusks, and reptiles; 
it dives for its prey, rising to the surface with 
the fish or other animal in its bill, and swallows 
it head foremost; its flesh is tough and oily. 
The nest is made near the water, of weeds and 
roots, and is lined with its down ; it is about 
7^ in. in diameter internally, and 4 in. deep ; 
the eggs, 7 or 8, are 3 in. long by two broad, 
smooth, elliptical, and of a uniform dull cream 
color ; the young of a few hours old are ex- 
cellent divers. The note is a harsh croak. 
They are easily caught, like the loon, on hooks 
baited with fish. In their digestive organs, the 
mergansers are more allied to the divers (colym- 
bidce) than to the ducks (anatidai), and seem 
to form a connecting link between the two. 

GOOSE, a web-footed bird, of the order an- 
seres and family anatidce, of which the typical 
species are in the subfamily anserine. The 
other subfamily consists of the plectropterinw, 
or spur-winged geese, in which the bend of 
the wings is armed with a spur or blunt tuber- 
cle; it contains the genera anseranas (Less.), 
of Australia ; plectropterus (Leach), of Africa, 
laving a naked protuberance at the base of 
the culmen and a part of the neck bare ; sar- 
kidiornis (Eyton), of the warm regions of 
America, India, and Africa, having a large, 



GOOSE 



105 



led, laterally compressed caruncle on the 
top of the bill; and chenalopex (Steph.), of 
Africa and tropical America. Of the last the 
Egyptian or fox goose (G. ^Egyptiacus, Linn.) 
is a species, bright-colored, and revered by the 
ancient Egyptians on account of its attach- 
ment to its young; it has been domesticated in 
that country. The subfamily anserince, which 
includes the genera cereopsis (Lath.), anser 
(Linn.), lernicla (Stephens), nettapus (Brandt), 
and a few others, are characterized by a mod- 
erately long neck, bill elevated at the base, as 
long as or shorter than the head, narrowing to 
the tip, which is chiefly formed by a large nail, 
and region in front of the eyes feathered ; the 
long tibia and tarsus elevate the body more 
than in others of the family, making them good 
walkers on the land, while they are also ex- 
cellent swimmers ; the plates on the front of 
the tarsus are small and hexagonal, as in the 
swans, and are not transverse scutellse as in 
the true ducks ; the colors are rarely brilliant, 
white, black, and gray predominating, and both 
sexes, as in the swans, are colored alike. In 
the genus cereopsis (Lath.) the bill is very short, 
with a large and broad nail ; it belongs to Aus- 
tralia, where it wanders on the land in search 
of grasses, on which it principally feeds, be- 
ing never seen on the water; the only species 
(0. Novce Hollandice, Lath.) is of a gray color, 
of the size of the common goose, and is said 
to be easily domesticated. The genus anser 
(Linn.) is characterized by a bill as long as the 
head, mostly red or orange colored; the la- 
mellae of the upper mandible project below 
the edge of the bill as conical points ; the nos- 
trils open behind the middle of the commis- 
sure; the tip of the hind toe reaches the ground. 
The wild goose or gray-lag of Europe (A.ferus, 
Gesn.), the original of the common domestica- 
ted race, is of a gray color, with a brown man- 
tle undulated with gray, and an orange bill. 
The bean goose (A. segetum, Gmel.) is by some 
considered a distinct species, and by others a 
mere variety of the wild goose ; the wings seem 
to be longer, and the forehead is marked with 
white spots; whether a species or a variety, 
the bean goose is probably more or less mixed 
with the former in some of the domesticated 
races. Wild geese seek high latitudes in the 
breeding season and in summer, returning to 
the warmer parts of Europe in the winter; they 
are found mostly in meadows and marshes in 
the interior, where they feed in the daytime on 
aquatic plants, grasses, and grains ; they walk 
well, and are very light on the water, on which 
they generally rest during the night ; they do 
not dive, but plunge the' head under water 
to the extent of their long neck; they are 
rapid and powerful fliers, migrating in two 
lines meeting at an acute angle ; they are not 
polygamous, make their nests on the ground, 
and are very fond of their mates ; the young 
are able to walk as soon as born, and feed 
of their own accord. The flight of wild geese 
is performed without noise, and with an or- 



der which indicates considerable intelligence; 
each individual keeps its place in the ranks, 
the male bird at the head of the triangle or 
line, when it becomes fatigued, retiring to the 
rear, and the next one coming forward to take 
the leading and most fatiguing position. Their 
sight and hearing are acute, and while they 
feed or sleep a sentinel is always on the watch 
to give the alarm at the approach of danger. 
The awkward gait, outstretched neck, gaping 
mouth, and disagreeable voice have obtained 
for the goose the character of stupidity, while 
in reality it is remarkably intelligent. The flesh 
is not very wholesome nor digestible. The 
Chinese tchin-tchu, or Guinea goose (A. cyg- 
noides, Gmel.), called from its size the swan 
goose, is more than 3 ft. long; the bill is 
orange, with a large knob or excrescence on 
the forehead ; under the throat is a pouch, al- 
most bare of feathers ; the color above is pale 
grayish brown, with paler edges ; a black line 
on the back of the neck; anterior neck and 
breast yellowish brown; belly white; sides 
over thighs gray-brown and white; in some 
varieties the bill, knob, and legs are black; 
the throat may be wattled, and the plumage 
mostly or entirely white. Originally from 
China, they have spread extensively over Asia, 
Africa, and Europe, and have been import- 
ed into the United States; they mix freely 
with the common goose, producing fertile hy- 
brids ; they are very noisy and easily alarmed ; 
they walk erect, with the neck much elevated, 
more like a swan than a goose. Among the 
American species of the genus is the white- 
fronted or laughing goose (A. Gambelii, Hartl.), 
which has been separated from the European 
bird (A. albifrons, Gmel.) on account of the 
greater length of the bill. The length is 28 




Laughing Goose (Anser Gambelii). 

in., and the extent of wings 5 ft. ; weight about 
5J Ibs. The bill and legs are red; forehead 
white, margined behind with blackish brown ; 
rest of head and neck grayish brown, paler 
on the throat; back and sides bluish gray, 
feathers anteriorly tipped with brown ; breast 



106 



GOOSE 



and belly grayish white, with brownish black 
.\hiti- in the anal region; tail brown, 
white tipped; secondaries and end of prima- 
,rk brown, rest of wing silvery ash, the 
greater coverts edged with white. This species 
is found over the whole of North America, 
but is rare along the Atlantic coast ; they re- 
tire to the north in March and April, return- 
ing in October ; they are not so shy as other 
species, and their flesh is considered a deli- 
cacy; their food consists principally of land 
plants. The notes are loud, resembling a 
laugh; hence one of their common names. 
The egg is 2| by If in., of a dull yellowish 
green color, with indistinct darker patches. 
The snow goose (A. liyperboreus, Pallas) is 
larger, measuring 30 in. in length and 62 in 
extent of wings, with a weight of nearly 7 Ibs. 
In the adult, the bill and legs are red; the 
general color pure white, with the primaries 
black toward the end and bluish gray at the 
base ; the young, or blue-winged geese, have a 
more bluish and ashy tint, with patches of 
dark brown, constituting the A. ccsrukscens 
(Linn.), which some regard as a distinct species. 
It is found all over North America, breeding 
in the far north ; when young, its flesh is ten- 
der, and far superior to that of the Canada 
goose ; those that feed on the seashore have a 
fishy taste. The egg is yellowish white, 3 by 
2 in. The usual food consists of grasses, rushes, 
insects, and in the autumn berries; it mates 
with the common goose, though the eggs are 
rarely if ever hatched. The American wild 
or Canada goose belongs to the genus ber- 




CaiudA Goose (Bernicla Canadcnsis). 



-'pli.), which is characterized by a bill 
shorter than the head, and by the black 
color of the I,-,; the lamella) of the upper 

ncealed by the margin of the bill- 

3 over the middle of the commissure 
the bind toe d.-v.-it,.,! ; m,l rudimentary, not 
touching the ground. The species or this ge- 

L'rate from the high latitudes of Europe, 



Asia, and America, where they spend the 
summer, to the more southern parts in winter, 
especially South America ; they feed chiefly on 
marine grasses and algae, though some live far 
from water, eating seeds, berries, &c. The 
Canada goose (B. Canadensis, Linn.) is about 
3 ft. long, with an extent of wings of 65 in., 
and a weight of 7 Ibs. The head, neck, bill, 
feet, and tail are black; a large, triangular 
patch of white on the cheeks behind the eyes, 
confluent below ; upper parts grayish brown, 
with paler edges; lower lid white; below 
grayish white, passing into pure white near the 
anal region; upper tail coverts white; pri- 
maries and rump dark brown. It is found 
throughout North America, and accidentally in 
Europe; the spring migration northward be- 
gins with the melting of the snow, from March 
20 to April 30, and the return commences in 
the first half of September, the birds passing 
along the coast, but most numerous in the in- 
terior; their flight is very high, their "honk" 
often being heard when the bird cannot be 
seen, and very regular unless interrupted by 
fogs, storms, or unexpected accidents. The 
food consists of the seeds of grasses and aqua- 
tic plants, slugs and snails, worms, insects, 
tender blades of corn, and Crustacea, shell fish, 
and marine plants on the seashore. They are 
not often found in company with other species ; 
the senses of sight and hearing are very acute, 
and their stratagems for avoiding their enemies 
evince great cunning ; they rarely dive, unless 
when attempting to escape, at which times 
both old and young quickly disappear. The 
males are very pugnacious during their court- 
ship, and defend their mates against all ene- 
mies ; the nest is built on the ground in some 
retired spot near the water, of dried plants; 
the eggs of the wild bird are usually about six, 
though the domesticated birds lay a few more ; 
they average 3 by 2 in., are smooth, thick- 
shelled, and of a dull yellowish green color; 
the period of incubation is 28 days, and they 
have only one brood in a season ; the young 
are able to follow their parents to the water in 
a day or two, but many are destroyed in spite 
of the watchfulness of the mother by snapping 
turtles, gar fish, pickerel, and birds and beasts 
of prey. They are shot from ambush at their 
feeding places, and may be attracted by living 
or artificial decoys ; the flesh of such as have 
lived in the interior is very agreeable, but 
rather strong and fishy in the shore-fed birds. 
Besides man and the animals just mentioned, 
their worst enemies are alligators, the couguar, 
lynx, and raccoon, and the white-headed eagle. 
They are readily domesticated, and when tame 
are advantageously crossed with the common 
goose, the resulting brood being larger and 
more easily raised and fattened than the ori- 
ginals. The flesh and eggs are valuable as food, 
the feathers for beds, the quills for writing 
purposes, and their oil in domestic medicine. 
Ilntchins's goose (B. Hutcliimii, Rich.), called 
by the gunners winter or flight goose, is 25 in. 



GOOSE 



107 



ig,.with an extent of wings of 50 in., and a 
w eight of about 4 Ibs. ; in its color it is precisely 
like the Canada goose ; the eggs are pure white, 
3 by 2 in. ; it is found throughout the northern 
and western parts of America ; its flesh is of 
llent flavor. The B. leucopareia (Brandt), 




Brant Goose (Behiicla brenta). 



from the west coast of America, is about 30 in. , 
long, with an extent of wings of about 5 ft. ; it | 
resembles the Canada goose, but is smaller, and 
of a darker color, especially on the under parts. 
The brant goose (B. Irenta, Steph.) is about 2 
ft. long, with an extent of wings of 4 ft. and a 
weight of 3J Ibs. This species may be known 
by the white crescent on the middle of the side 
of its black neek ; the general color of the upper 
parts is brownish gray with lighter margins to 
the feathers; the wings and tail are darker, 
and the upper tail coverts white ; lower parts 
grayish, passing into white behind. It is a 
salt-water bird, breeding in the north, and 
coming along the Atlantic coast on its return 
south in the middle of autumn ; its flesh is 
considered a most savory food. It is shy, a 
good walker, an excellent swimmer, and, when 




Barnacle Goose (Bernicla leucopsis). 

.founded, a most expert diver ; its food consists 
of marine plants, mollusks, and crustaceans ; it 
is easily tamed, and in captivity thrives well on 
grain, and produces young ; the eggs are white. 
It is found on the Atlantic coasts of North Amer- 
ica and Europe. It is replaced on the Pacific 



coast by the black brant (B. nigricans, Lawr.) ; 
the anterior part of the body of the latter is 
black, the rest dark plumbeous, with white 
patches on the throat, sides of rump, and tail 
coverts ; the bill is wider than in the common 
brant. The barnacle goose (B. leucopsis, Bechst.) 
is 28 in. long, with an extent of wings of 4| ft., 
and a weight of a little over 4 Ibs. ; the fore- 
head, cheeks, and lower parts are white, the 
belly with a bluish tint; the crown, neck, 'an- 
terior back, rump, and tail black ; mantle ash- 
colored. It is common in winter in northern 
Europe, especially on the western shores of 
Great Britain, but is doubtful as an inhabitant 
of the United States ; it is a salt-water species, 
very shy, and highly esteemed as food; the 
eggs are yellowish cream-colored, about 3 by 
2 in. It owes its name of barnacle goose to 
the belief long entertained that it was pro- 
duced by the barnacle, a cirriped articulate 
animal often found adhering to old wood ; an 
opinion expressed so lately as 1636 by Gerard, 
in his "Herbalist." It has also been called 
tree goose from the belief that it originated 
from old and decayed trees. There are several 
large species of geese in South America, of 
which the most remarkable are the antarctic 
(B. antarctica, Gmel.), the males snowy white, 
and the females black with transverse lines; 
and the Magellanic (B. Magellanica, Gmel.), 
ferruginous brown and black, with white wing 
coverts, and bar on tail. The painted goose 
(B. Canagica, Bon., or picta, Pall.), of large 
size, of a bluish gray color, with head, nape, 
and tail white, black throat with white dots, 
and quills with a black stripe anterior to the 
white tip, is common in the Aleutian islands, 
and is doubtless also found on the N. W. coast 
of the United States. The last genus of an- 
serince is nettapus (Brandt), found in the lakes, 
rivers, and estuaries of continental India, Africa, 
and Australia. The bill is small and elevated, 
with short and widely set lamellae ; the nostrils 
basal ; wings moderate and pointed ; tail short 
and rounded; the species are of small size. 
Mr. Blyth says that "the Indian species seems 
totally incapable of standing or walking on the 
ground, but invariably flutters along it in a 
strange, scuffling manner, like a wounded bird ; 
they always descend into the water, never 
alighting on the ground of their own accord." 
The Coromandel goose (N. Coromandelianus, 
Gmel.), of the size of a teal, has the head and 
neck white with black spots; crown black; 
lower neck with black lines; above brown 
with a greenish and reddish gloss; beneath 
white. Prof. Baird places the genus dendro- 
eygna (Swains.) in the goose family, but most 
authors rank it with the anatince or ducks ; it 
is allied to the geese more than to the ducks 
by the elevated base and large nail of the bill, 
the long legs, and the hexagonal scales in front 
of the tarsus ; he describes three species as in- 
habiting the United States. The common tame 
goose is the European wild bird domesticated, 
from which it varies considerably in color, 



108 



(iOOSK 



I.-HS than docks and fowls do from theii 
nil. I originals; it tends to a general gray color 
though ilir vt-nt and upper tail coverts are al- 
ways white; the males are sometimes entirely 
white, and the females generally cinereous and 
gray. In England, Lincolnshire is famous for 
the raising of geese; on the continent, Ilam- 
..n, and Emden, and their neighbor- 
raise the hest breeds. The usual weight 
of a tin- Arouse is 15 or 16 Ibs., and by cramming 
with nourishing food this weight may be dou- 
li.v I-OM lining the bird, to prevent mo- 
tion, mid employing fattening diet and stupe- 
fying substances, the body becomes loaded 
with fat, and the liver becomes enlarged and 
fatty with disease, forming the principal ingre- 
dient in thepdtes defoie gras so much esteemed 
by epicures. Geese are in the best condition 
for the table about Christmas time ; in England 
the feast of St. Michael, and on the continent 
that of St. Martin, are almost universally cele- 
brated by roast goose. Before the days of me- 
tallic pens, goose quills formed a considerable 
arficlo of trade, the living bird being stripped 
once and sometimes twice a year for this pur- 
pose; the value of the feathers for beds and 
pillows is well known, the living birds being 
plucked from three to five times in a year, at 
which periods, if cold weather come on, many 
die ; if well fed and cared for, a goose will yield 
about a pound of feathers in a season. They 
i." IM rally breed only once a year, laying every 
other day, and depositing 7 or 8 eggs; incuba- 
tion is about 80 days, and the female will some- 
times produce enough for three broods, if the 
eggs are taken away in succession ; they begin 
to lay early, are close sitters, and careful of 
th.-ir young; they grow fast, are little liable to 
disease, and are fattened by grain in a short 
time ; when in a locality where they can pick 




Bremen UOOM. 



"P. ""'.' ' " tl...jr food, they are profitable to 

raise for th,,r h* and that of the goslings 

..r tlu-ir ,|u,:U, .Mud r,|, ( - ( .ially for their feathers' 

1 ""<"1 Mat,., the common tame goose 

"' ferope,in whirl, the pmders are white and 

females gray, is the most numerous, and 



GOOSEBERRY 

perhaps as profitable as any. The white Bre- 
men goose is of larger size, handsome, and 
easily raised, but less prolific and hardy. The 
China or tchin-tchu goose, with its variety the 
Guinea or African goose, is very large and 
swan-like, at maturity weighing 50 Ibs. per 
pair. A cross between the last and the Bremen 
bird, called sometimes the mountain goose, is 
highly prized for the table, and attains a weight 
of 35 or 40 Ibs. per pair ; it comes to maturity 
early, and can be reared in 16 weeks to a weight 
of 14 Ibs., dressed. The Canada goose is some- 
times tamed, especially in northern and thinly 
settled localities; it mixes with the common 
goose, though of a different genus, and the 
mongrels, which are not prolific, are considered 
a great delicacy. The goose is a very long- 
lived bird, its age having been known to equal 
100 years. It is probable that many wild 
species, in different parts of the world, might 
by a little care be brought into a state of do- 
mestication, and thus increase the number of 
these useful birds. 

GOOSEBERRY (ribes grossularia, Linn.), the 
name of a familiar garden fruit of small size. 
The original species is indigenous to England, 
France, Germany, and Switzerland, and has 
been found in the Himalayas, and on the banks 
of the Ganges (Royle). The cultivation of the 
gooseberry in gardens was first successfully un- 
dertaken by the Dutch ; but up to the time of 
Miller it had gained but little reputation as a 
table fruit in England. Some suppose that the 
name originated from the use of the berry as a 
sauce for the goose ; but Pryor states that it 
comes through the German Kreuzbeere from the 
Swedish Krusbar, meaning " frizzle berry " and 
" cross berry," the last having allusion to the 
triple spine, which is sometimes in the form of 
a cross. The gooseberry is represented in the 
United States by several species, of which the 
most common is the wild gooseberry (R. cynos- 
'xiti, Linn.), with large berries armed with long 
trickles like a bur, or rarely smooth-skinned ; 
t is found from Canada to the Rocky moun- 
tains near the sources of the Platte river; its 
ruit is pleasant to the taste. The commonest 
smooth gooseberry of New England is the R. 
hirtellum (Mx.), with small, smooth, purple, 
sweet fruit. Another species, R. rotundifolium 
MX.), grows upon rocky places in western 
Massachusetts, and extends to Wisconsin, and 
southward along the mountains to Virginia; 
this bears a smooth-skinned, pleasant fruit. 
The swamp gooseberry (R. laemtr,; Poire!) is 
found in mountain swamps from Massachusetts 
and New York to the arctic circle, and, ac- 
cording to Douglas, in the mountains of Oregon 
and northern California; this species differs 
rom others in its many-flowered racemes; its 
ruit is dark purple, and is unpleasant to the 
taste. The cultivation of the foreign varie 
.ies of the gooseberry is somewhat ditlieult in 
>his country, in consequence ofdrv weather in 
he early summer succeeding the rains of the 
prmg; and when the atmosphere is moist, 



GOOSE FISH 



109 



. High the soil is dry, the berries become 
overgrown with an insidious mildew (erysiphe 
mors uvce, Schw.), which effectually prevents 
their perfect growth. Repeated application of 
a wash made with flowers of sulphur and lime 
alone destroy this mildew, and save the 




>p ; hut the trouhle is generally considered 
too great for the result. A variety or hybrid, 
with #ood-sized berries of a greenish purple 
color and pleasant flavor, called "Houghton's 
seedling," originating in the vicinity of Boston, 
is free from the attacks of this fungus ; this va- 
riety furnishes the greater part of the fruit sold 
in our markets. The cluster, Downing, and 
mountain seedling are other American varieties. 
The fruit in our markets is almost invariably 
sold in the green state for cooking purposes. 
The European varieties are seldom seen in this 
country except in the gardens of amateurs. In 
some of the manufacturing towns of England 
the operatives have gooseberry societies and 
hold exhibitions, the fruit being judged by 
weight. The gooseberry thrives best in a ra- 
ther cool and partially shaded aspect ; and it 
has been observed that the direct rays of the 
sun striking upon the bushes and fruit, when 
grown near walls and fences, cause the berries 
to scald, so that they fall, so rapid is the 
evaporation from its succulent tissues. 

GOOSE FISH, an acanthopterous fish of the 
lophioid family, which contains some of the 
most hideous and voracious of the class. It 
belongs to the genus lophius (Artedi), charac- 
terized by a head enormously large, broad, and 
flat ; the body slender, smooth, with two sep- 
arate dorsal fins; the mouth very wide, the 
lower jaw the longer, armed with numerous 
movable, sharp, conical, recurved teeth on the 
jaws, palate, vomer, and pharyngeal bones; 
tongue smooth ; branchial rays six, and bran- 
chial arches three. Numerous fleshy appen- 
dages or cirrhi are arranged along the edge 



of the lower jaw, the pectoral fins, and to the 
base of the tail ; there are several spines upon 
the head, two just behind the snout, others 
over the eyes and at the back part of the 
skull ; the anterior rays of the dorsal, situated 
on the head, are separated as two slender ten- 
tacles, the first generally with a fleshy appen- 
dage, joined to the skull by bony rings, and 
capable of free motion at the will of the ani- 
mal. The pectorals are elongated into a kind 
of arm, the rays representing fingers, by which 
some members of the family are enabled to 
move as upon legs; hence Cuvier's name of 
pectorales pediculati ; these fins are large and 
digitate at the end, and behind and beneath 
them are the large branchial apertures; the 
ventrals are stout and fleshy, considerably in 
front of the pectorals ; the tail is stout and digi- 
tate at the end. The eyes are large and oval ; 
the nostrils are peculiar in being placed at the 
end of an erectile tube, the summit of which 
expands like the cup of a flower, and which is 
directed toward any odorous object. The skel- 
eton is fibrous rather than bony ; the stomach 
is very large and muscular, and the intestine 
short ; the spinal cord is as long as in other 
fishes, but is remarkably reduced in size below 
its anterior third, while the nerves which arise 
from it form a large bundle within the spinal 
canal, completely concealing the cord. There 
are five species described, of which the L. Ameri- 
canus (Cuv.) and Z. piscatorius (Linn.) are the 
best known. The American goose fish grows 
to a length of 4 or 5 ft., varying in weight from 
15 to 70 Ibs. Its appetite is most voracious, 
and it feeds upon all kinds of fish ; entire sea 
fowl, such as gulls and ducks, have been found 
in its stomach; it is occasionally taken by the 
hook and in nets, but is good for nothing, not 
even its liver containing much oil. Being a 
poor swimmer from the feebleness of its pec- 
toral fins, it remains hidden in the mud or 
sand, waving its fleshy appendages, which 
fishes mistake in the turbid water for food, 
and are thus drawn within the reach of its ca- 




Goose Fish (Lophius Americanus). 

pacious gape. From this habit of fishing, it 
has been called angler and fishing frog, and 
from its hideous appearance and immense 
mouth,' sea devil, wide gab, and devil fish. 
The color of the L. Americanusis dark brown, 
sometimes in blotches, and dirty white below. 



IK) 



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HUM 



112 



GORDON 



GORDON, a N. W. county of Georgia, wa- 
tered by the Oostenaula river and several other 
streams ; area, 830 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,268, 
,,f whom 1,536 were colored. It has a hilly 
surface, underlying which are heds of blue 
limestone. The soil is fertile. The Western 
and Atlantic railroad traverses it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 96,181 bushels of 
wheat, 233,785 of Indian corn, 15,827 of oats, 
11,214 of sweet potatoes, 80,316 Ibs. of butter, 
and 354 bales of cotton. There were 936 
horses, 3,416 cattle, 4,056 sheep, and 7,958 
swine. Capital, Calhoun. 

GORDON, George, commonly called Lord 
George Gordon, an English political agitator, 
born in London in December, 1750, died in 
Newgate prison, Nov. 1, 1793. He was the 
third son of Cosmo George, third duke of 
Gordon, and at a very early age entered the 
navy, from which he retired in 1772. He was 
remarkable for his personal attractions, his 
winning address, and happy facility of adapt- 
ing himself to the tastes of all classes. In 
1774 he entered parliament for the borough of 
Ludgershall. For a year or two he voted 
with the ministry, but in 1776 vehemently op- 
posed them in a speech in which he alleged 
that an attempt had been made to bribe him. 
The ministry subsequently endeavored to per- 
suade him to resign his seat in parliament and 
accept the place of vice admiral of Scotland ; 
an offer which he resolutely declined. From 
this time ho ceased to act with either whigs or 
tories, but spoke with so much effect upon the 
proceedings of either side, that it became a 
common remark that " there were three par- 
ties in parliament, the ministry, the opposition, 
and Lord George Gordon." In 1779 the prop- 
osition to procure from parliament an act for 
the relief of Scottish Roman Catholics, similar 
to Sir George Saville's act passed the previous 
year with reference to England and Ireland, 
caused an extraordinary excitement; and in 
November a society was organized in London 
under the name of the " Protestant Associa- 
tion," of which Gordon was elected president. 
Early in 1780 he presented a petition pray- 
ing for a repeal of Sir George Saville's act; 
but finding the government indifferent to the 
application, he convened a meeting of the as- 
sociation on the evening of May 29, and en- 
joined them to meet on the succeeding Friday 
(June 2) in St. George's fields and carry up 
their petition to parliament for the repeal of 
the act. On the day appointed a concourse of 
people, MtiniAtod at nearly 60,000, assembled in 
8k George's fields, and accompanied him to the 
houses of parliament, which they completely 
arroanded. The house having several times 
refused to take the petition into immediate con- 
sideration, Gordon addressed the mob from 
the top of the gallery stairs, naming the mem- 
bers who had spoken against the measure, and 
protesting that "there would be no help for 
the Scottish people till all the popish chapels 
-ed." At a late hour in the even- 



GORE 

ing they proceeded to the chapels of the Sar- 
dinian and Bavarian legations, which they 
sacked. On Sunday, the 4th, they renewed 
their violence, and from the evening of that 
day until the morning of Thursday, the 8th, 
the city was almost entirely at their mercy. 
The prisons were broken open, the public 
buildings attacked, the houses of Lord Mans- 
field and of many Roman Catholics pillaged 
and burned, and at one time on the 7th 36 fires 
were raging within the limits of London. On 
the evening of that day troops began to pour 
into the city from all sides, and on the next 
afternoon the famous "Gordon" or "no po- 
pery" riots were finally quelled, after more 
than 450 people had been killed and wounded 
by the military, exclusive of a number killed 
by accident. On the 9th Gordon was arrested 
on a charge of treason, and committed to the 
tower. His trial came on in February, 1781, 
and the prisoner, owing to his eloquent and 
skilful defence by Erskine and Kenyon, was 
acquitted on the ground that his intentions in 
assembling the people were not malicious or 
traitorous. In 1788 he was sentenced to sev- 
eral years' imprisonment, and to pay heavy 
fines, for having libelled the administration of 
criminal justice in England, and the queen of 
France. About this time he had become a 
proselyte to Judaism. He continued to send 
forth from his prison handbills and letters of 
an eccentric character, and petitioned the na- 
tional assembly of France to procure his re- 
lease, but without effect. He died of a deliri- 
ous fever, having been in all probability insane 
during the last ten or twelve years of his life. 

GORDON, Sir John Watson, a Scottish painter, 
born in Edinburgh about 1790, died in 1864. 
He received his professional education in Edin- 
burgh, and devoted himself exclusively to por- 
trait painting. Among his portraits are those 
of Scott, De Quincey, and Wilson. In 1850 
he became president of the royal Scottish 
academy, and was made painter limner to the 
queen; and in 1851, having been knighted, he 
was made a member of the London academy. 

GORDON, William, an English clergyman, 
born at Ilitchin about 1730, died in Ipswich 
in October, 1807. He removed to America 
in 1770, was ordained minister of the third 
church in Roxbury in 1772, and became chap- 
lain to the provincial congress of Massachu- 
setts. Returning to England in 1786, he pub- 
lished his " History of the Rise, Progress, and 
Establishment of the Independence of the Uni- 
ted States of America " (4 vols., London, 1788). 

GORE, Catharine Grace, an English novelist, 
born in Nottingham in 1799, died Jan. 29, 1861. 
Her maiden name was Francis. In 1822 she 
married Capt. Charles Gore, and in the follow- 
ing year published her first novel, "Theresa 
Marchmont." This was followed by sever.il 
other novels and tales, up to 1831. She passed 
the five succeeding years on the continent, 
writing little ; but in 1836 she fairly began her 
career as an author. She brought out nearly 



GORE 



GORGES 



113 



TO works under her own name, besides several 
which were published anonymously. Of her 
novels the best known are " Mrs. Armytage," 
"The Diary of a Desennuyee," "Cecil, or the 
Adventures of a Coxcomb," and its sequel, 
" Ormington, or Cecil a Peer," "The Banker's 
Wife," "Pin Money," "Peers and Parvenus," 
" Preferment, or my Uncle the Peer," " Temp- 
tation and Atonement," "Mother and Daugh- 
ter," "Opera, a Tale of the Beau Monde," 
"Woman of Business," and "Woman of the 
World." Among her other works are "Paris, 
Picturesque and Romantic," " Sketch Book 
of Fashion," " Sketches of English Character," 
several translations from the French, among 
which is the "Rose Fancier's Manual," and a 
number of dramas. Her last work was "The 
Two Aristocracies " (1857). 

GORE, Christopher, an American statesman, 
born in Boston, Sept. 21, 1758, died at Wal- 
tham, March 1, 1827. He graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1776, studied law, and was soon 
engaged in good practice. In 1789 he was 
appointed -the first United States district attor- 
ney for Massachusetts ; in 1796 he was chosen 
one of the commissioners to settle the claims 
of the United States upon Great Britain for 
spoliations, and remained in London, success- 
fully engaged in the duties of this office, about 
eight years; in 1803 he acted as charge 
d'affaires ; in 1809 was chosen governor of 
Massachusetts ; and in 1814 was elected to the 
United States senate, where he served about 
three years. He left the most of his property 
to Harvard college. 

GOREE, a small island belonging to France, 
on the W. coast of Africa, 1^ m. S. of Cape 
Verd, and separated from the continent by the 
strait of Dacar ; pop. about 5,000. It is 3 m. 
in circumference, and is nothing more than a 
basaltic rock, which in some places is several 
hundred feet high. The fort occupies an ele- 
vated flat near the centre of the island, and 
the town a sandy plain at the foot of the rock. 
The roadstead is well sheltered, and affords 
safe anchorage for eight months of the year. 
The climate is healthy. In 1869 the imports 
amounted to 10,692,000, and the exports to 
7,270,000 francs; there were 578 arrivals of 
vessels, and 600 clearances. 

GORGES, Sir Ferdinando, lord proprietary of 
the province of Maine, born in Somersetshire, 
England, died at an advanced age in 1647. He 
was a partner in the conspiracy of the earl of 
Essex, against whom he testified on his trial 
in 1601. During the war with Spain he served 
in the navy, and after the peace, in 1604, was 
appointed governor of Plymouth. When Way- 
mouth returned in 1605 from his voyage to 
North America, and brought with him five In- 
dian captives, Gorges took three of them into 
his house, caused them to be instructed in the 
English language, obtained information from 
them of their native country, and determined 
to become a proprietor of domains beyond the 
Atlantic. He persuaded Sir John Popham, 



lord chief justice of England, to share his in- 
tentions, while at the same time influential per- 
sons in London were desiring to renew the at- 
tempts which had been made by Raleigh in 
Virginia. A joint application was arranged, 
and in 1606 the king incorporated two com- 
panies, the first called the London colony, and 
the second the Plymouth colony, between 
which was divided the territory extending 50 
miles inland from the 34th to the 45th parallel 
N. lat. The Plymouth colony had the north- 
ern portion, which was styled North Virginia. 
An exploring ship was sent out by Gorges, but 
was captured by the Spaniards. Three ships 
with 100 settlers sailed from Plymouth, May 
31, 1607, and reached the mouth of the Kenne- 
bec in Maine, where they began a settlement, 
which was abandoned the next spring. In 
1614 Gorges engaged Capt. John Smith, who 
had already visited North Virginia (which he 
called New England), in the service of the 
Plymouth company. He set sail for New Eng- 
land with two ships in March, 1615, but his 
own was dismasted and returned to port, and 
Capt. Dermer in the smaller vessel made the 
voyage, but soon returned. Other attempts 
of Smith were unsuccessful, but in 1616 Gorges 
sent out a party, which encamped on the river 
Saco through the winter, and in 1619-'20 Capt. 
Dermer again made the voyage. In 1620 Gor- 
ges and his associates obtained a new incorpo- 
ration for " the governing of New England in 
America," which was empowered to hold ter- 
ritory extending westward from sea to sea be- 
tween the 40th and 48th parallels N. lat. Gor- 
ges himself united with John Mason in taking 
grants of the district called Laconia, bounded 
by the Merrimack, the Kennebec, the ocean, and 
" the river of Canada," and under his auspices 
several settlements were attempted. His son, 
Capt. Robert Gorges, was appointed in 1623 
by the council for New England " general gov- 
ernor of the country." This council resigned 
its charter to the king in 1635, surrendering 
the administration of its domains to a governor 
general to be appointed by him, and Gorges 
vainly expected this appointment. He now 
determined to establish a miniature sovereignty 
on his own domain. To this end he obtained 
from the king a charter constituting him lord 
proprietary of the province of Maine, with ex- 
traordinary governmental powers, which were 
to be transmissible with the property to his 
heirs and assigns. He sent his son Thomas 
to be deputy governor, and the officers took 
an oath of allegiance to the lord proprietary. 
The province was divided into two counties, 
of which Agamenticus (now York) and Saco 
were respectively the principal settlements ; 
the former received a city charter as Gorgeana 
in 1642. When the four New England colo- 
nies formed a confederacy in 1 643, the settle- 
ments of Gorges were excluded from it, " be- 
cause," says Winthrop, "they ran a different 
course from us both in their ministry and their 
civil administration," and because the proprie- 



1U 



GORGEY 



firv w:n tlu-n in arms in England for the king 
Mftfcat the cause of the Puritans. On Jus 
death the people repeatedly wrote to his heirs ; 
but as no answer was received, they at length 
formed themselves into a body politic for the 
purposes of self-government, and submitted to 
the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. His grand- 
son FEBDINANDO, born in 1629, published 
" America Painted to the Life " (London, 1659), 
sold to Massachusetts in 1677 his proprietary 
rights to the province of Maine for 1,250, and 
died Jan. 25, 1718. 

GORGEY, or Gorgel, Arthur, a Hungarian gen- 
eral, born in the county of Zips, Feb. 5, 1818. 
He entered the military school at Tuln, and 
subsequently the royal Hungarian noble life 
guards at Vienna, and was appointed lieutenant 
in the regiment of Palatine hussars. He soon 
left the army to devote himself to chemical 
studies at Prague. He spent the spring of 1848 
without any participation in the early events 
of the Hungarian revolution ; but when the 
insurrections of the non-Magyar tribes in the 
south of Hungary had compelled the Hungarian 
ministry to declare the country in danger, he 
offered his services to the national government. 
In August he received the command of the na- 
tional guard of the circle W. of the Theiss, and 
was sent to the island of Csepel, formed by the 
Danube, to defend that line against the Croats 
of Ban Jellachich. The ban having been de- 
feated at Pakozd, and having fled toward Vien- 
na, Gdrgey operated with Perczel against the 
Croatian corps, which finally surrendered at 
Ozora (Oct. 7). Kossuth then sent him as 
colonel to the army of the upper Danube, which 
was about to cross the frontier for the deliv- 
erance of Vienna; and after the defeat at 
Schwechat, near Vienna (Oct. 30), he made 
him general-in-chief of the whole army which 
was charged with defending the frontier. Gor- 
gey's force was unfit to maintain a long line 
of defence against the superior and victorious 
army of Windischgratz, and on the approach 
of that general he abandoned the frontier and 
retreated toward Buda, which was also aban- 
doned to the enemy early in 1849. Gorgey 
then crossed the Danube at Pesth, and marched 
toward the Waag. German in all except name 
and descent, he had no sympathy with Kossuth 
und the other revolutionary leaders, and on 
reaching Waitzen issued a manifesto in the form 

declaration of the royal Hungarian corps 
d'armee of the upper Danube," which was di- 
rected quite as much against the republican 
tendencies of Kossuth and his associates as it 
was against the unconstitutional reign of Fran- 
cia Joseph, who had just been declared empe- 
ror. This niaiiifi-.-to, which was followed by 
acts of insubordination on his part, caused Gor- 
aey to be suspected of treacherous designs. 
He waa, however, protected by the various 
perplexities of the government, and the sym- 

- of his army. Hut his situation was not 
leas critical than that of the government. His 
army, consisting of about 15,000 men, was soon 



hemmed in, in the midst of winter, among the 
mountain towns of the mining district. The 
offensive march westward was given up, and a 
retreat toward the upper Theiss commenced. 
After the defeat of Guyon at Windschacht 
(Jan. 21), and of Gorgey at Hodrics (Jan. 22), 
all the three divisions of the army were on tho 
brink of destruction, and all escaped as by a 
miracle, effecting their junction at Neusohl. 
Separating again, they inarched toward tho 
northernmost Hungarian region of the Car- 
pathians, and entered Zips, Gorgey's native 
county, at the beginning of February. Having 
here been surprised at Iglo on the night be- 
tween Feb. 2 and 3, and suffered some incon- 
siderable loss, Guyon soon after (Feb. 5) saved 
the army by his victory on Mount Branyiszko 
over a division of Schlick's corps, which opened 
a junction with the Hungarian corps under 
Klapka on the upper Theiss. Gorgey, who had 
neglected communication with the government 
at Debrecziu, and disbelieved the non-official 
reports of the successful operations of Klapka, 
too late concerted with the latter a common 
plan of attack, and thus missed the opportunity 
of crushing Schlick's corps at Kaschau. Ar- 
rived in that town, Gdrgey received an order 
placing him, like Perczel and Klapka, under 
the Polish general Dembinski, as commander- 
in-chief of the united Hungarian main army. 
Gorgey immediately began intrigues against 
the foreign generalissimo, which much deranged 
the offensive plans of the latter. Dembinski 
doubted the fidelity of Gorgey ; the latter had 
no confidence in the ability of his superior. 
The unfavorable issue of the two days' battle 
of Kapolna (Feb. 26, 27) was ascribed by the 
one to unskilful dispositions, by the other to 
treacherous slowness in execution. The chief 
officers of the army, mostly partisans of Gor- 
gey, openly declared their want of confidence 
in Dembinski ; the government was forced to 
yield, and after a few weeks of interregnum 
Gorgey was appointed general-in-chief of the 
united main army, which was again to take 
the offensive against Windischgratz. Crossing 
the upper Theiss, he began his march on the 
line of operation chosen by Dembinski, but 
with greater success. The whole camgaign was 
an uninterrupted series of victories, which de- 
stroyed the finest imperial troops in Hungary, 
freed Pesth, and rescued the fortress of Comorn. 
The road to Vienna was open, but Buda had 
still to be conquered. Gorgey undertook the 
latter task, but when he had executed it (May 
21) the Russian armies were already approach- 
ing the frontiers of Hungary, and the opportu- 
nity of striking a decisive blow at Austria in 
its capital was lost. Kossuth now conferred 
upon Gorgey the title of lieutenant field mar- 
shal, which he refused to accept. He set him- 
self in opposition to Kossuth's republican plans ; 
and having strengthened his personal position 
by assuming also the duties of minister of war, 
and by the removal from his army of some of 
the most independent and ablest of his generals, 




GORGIAS 

he recommenced the offensive against the Aus- 
trians simultaneously with the invasion of the 
Russians. Political rather than strategical rea- 
sons led him to choose the left bank of the 
Danube as a basis of operations, and he changed 
his plan only after a series of bloody and fruit- 
less struggles on the Waag and Danube (June 
16, 20, 21). On the right bank of the latter 
river his army was forced to give up Raab (June 
28), and he was obliged to retreat into the for- 
tified camp at Oomorn, where he gained more 
glory than success in the great battle of Szony 
(July 2), in which he was wounded. At this 
juncture, when Russians and Austrians were 
advancing from every quarter, a concentration 
of the main armies on the Theiss was resolved 
upon at Pesth ; Meszaros received the nominal, 
and Dembinski the virtual command in chief; 
the capital was again evacuated, and Gorgey 
was finally compelled to sacrifice his plans. 
Leaving a part of his army under Klapka at 
Comorn, he retreated toward Waitzen, where 
he fought (July 15) against the Russian main 
army under Paskevitch ; but being unable to 
break through it, he took his direction toward 
the upper Theiss, and defeated the Russians on 
the Saj6 (July 25) and on the Hernad (July 28). 
The division of Nagy-Sandor was soon after 
surprised and defeated at Debreczin (Aug. 2) ; 
and when Gorgey finally reached Arad, the last 
appointed place of concentration, as well as the 
last seat of the Hungarian government, his army 
alone was still able to fight, all the others which 
had been ordered there having been defeated 
and dispersed ; Bern had lost Transylvania. 
But to resist with success the overwhelming 
forces of Paskevitch and Haynau was now im- 
possible. Having summoned Kossuth to re- 
sign, and been himself invested (Aug. 11) with 
supreme civil and military powers, Gorgey in- 
formed the Russian general Riidiger of his 
intention to surrender his army, relying for 
the fate of his men on the magnanimity of 
the czar. The surrender took place at Vila- 
gos, Aug. 13, 1849, when 20,000 infantry and 
2,000 cavalry laid down their arms. The gen- 
erals and soldiers were then delivered by the 
Russians to the Austrians, the former to be 
executed at Arad (Oct. 6), the latter to serve 
a new term in their army. Gorgey was spared 
at the intercession of the czar, and carried as 
captive to Klagenfurth, where he resumed his 
chemical studies, and wrote Mein Leben und 
Wirlcen in Ungarn in den Jahren 1848 und 
1849 (Leipsic, 1852 ; English translation, " My 
Life and Acts in Hungary," London, 1852). 
On the restoration of the Hungarian constitu- 
tion in 1867, he returned to his country, and 
in 1869 published anonymously Magyarorszdg 
1849-fow es 1866 utdn (" Hungary in 1849 and 
after 1866 "), a review of the situation from a 
politico-strategical point of view. 

GORGIAS, a Greek rhetorician and sophist, 
born in Leontini, Sicily, about 487 B. C., died 
about 380. Pie was a disciple of Empedocles 
and Prodicus, and first appears in history in 



GORILLA 



115 



427, when he was sent to Athens to beseech 
succor for the Leontines attacked by the Sy- 
racusans. He spent the remainder of his life 
chiefly in Greece. He not only captivated 
the Athenian populace by the splendor of his 
eloquence, but gained Alcibiades, Alcidamas, 
^Eschines, and Antisthenes for pupils or imi- 
tators. Plato gave his name to the dialogue 
which he composed against the sophists. The 
views of Gorgias were set forth in a work " On 
Nature," which was early lost, but of which 
considerable extracts still exist. A full account 
of it is given by Theophrastus. The book was 
divided into three sections. In the first he 
argued that nothing had any real existence ; in 
the second, that if there were a real existence, 
it was not in man's power to ascertain it; in 
the third, that existence, even if real and as- 
certainable, could not be communicated. To 
prove these points, he made use of the conclu- 
sions of the Eleatics, which however he did 
not fully accept. , Sextus Empiricus also gives 
a clear description of the work of Gorgias. 
The charm of his oratory is said to have con- 
sisted largely in a profusion of metaphors and 
a poetical choice and arrangement of words. 
According to Plato, he expressly declared that 
he did not profess to impart virtue, but only 
the power of speaking eloquently. 

GORGONA, an island in the Pacific, 30m. from 
the coast of the United States of Colombia, 
to which it belongs; lat. 2 51' N., Ion. 78 4' 
W. ; length from N. to S. 6 m., breadth from 
E. to W. 2 m. The surface is varied, now low 
and undulating, now swelling into mountains, 
one of which is 2,000 ft. above the sea. The 
lower portions are covered with a thick forest 
growth. The soil is very fertile. There are 
few inhabitants. It is chiefly remarkable as 
having been visited by Pizarro immediately 
prior to the conquest of Peru, and having long 
been a favorite resort of buccaneers. 

GORGONS, in Greek mythology, three sisters, 
daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, who had but 
one eye in common, and changed into stone 
whomsoever they looked upon. Homer men- 
tions but one gorgon, which appears as a hid- 
eous phantom in Hades, and whose head, of 
frightful aspect, was represented on the a?gis 
of Athena. Hesiod mentions three, Stheno, 
Euryale, and Medusa, who had hissing ser- 
pents for hair, brazen claws, short wings, and 
a single tusk-like tooth. They were placed in 
the garden of the Hesperides near the realm 
of Night, where Medusa was slain by Perseus. 
Virgil places the gorgons with harpies and 
other monsters at Pluto's palace gate. 

GORILLA, the largest of the anthropoid apes, 
a native of the equatorial region of western 
Africa, and first introduced to the scientific 
world by Dr. T. S. Savage in 1847. There 
were vague reports by voyagers and travellers 
of the existence in Africa of a quadrumanous 
animal larger than the chimpanzee, and there 
were in museums portions of a creature since 
ascertained to be the gorilla; but naturalists 



116 



GORILLA 



had their attention first called to it by the 
paper of Dr. Savage in vol. v. of the " Boston 
Journal of Natural History," in which he de- 
: the external characters and habits, and 
Prof. Jeffries Wyman described four crania and 
several parts of the skeleton. Dr. Savage de- 
scribed it as troglodytes gorilla; Prof. Owen 
called it T. Savagei, retaining it in the same 
genus with the chimpanzee; Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire established for it the genus gorilla in 
1852, and in 1853 gave it the name of G. gina, 
which is the best known, though G. Savagei 
has a prior claim. The common names of the 

n'Ma among the natives of the region where 
found are engeena, geena, and engeela. 
There are specimens of the animal, more or 
less complete, in the collections at Philadelphia, 
Boston, London, and Paris ; and Du Chaillu, 
on his return to the United States in August, 
1859, from the country about the Gaboon river, 
brought with him several complete specimens, 




Gorilla. 

male and female, both skins and skeletons, in 
excellent preservation, most of which are now 
in the London collections. Du Chaillu is the 
first white man who killed a gorilla with his 
own hand, or who had an opportunity of study- 
ing its habits in its native forests. The skull 
male is longer and wider, but less heavy, 
than that of man, and the capacity of the cavity 
which contains the brain is less than one half of 
that of the most degraded human races. The 
most striking peculiarity is the great develop- 
ment of the interparietal and occipital crests 
and the ridges over the orbits, which give an 
angular outline to the skull, resembling the 
orangs in the first and the chimpanzee in the 
: .ara.-t-r ; there is a great thickness of 
the orhital walls, with much space between the 
orbits, and a prominence on the inner wall di- 
rected outward ; n noteworthy character is the 
coalescence of the n.-i-al I .ones above, with a 
median suture on their lower half, the upper 



portion ascending above the nasal processes of 
the superior maxillary and becoming contracted 
between them, slightly projecting as in man ; 
the crests are much less in the female. The 
cranial crests, wide zygomatic arches, and mas- 
sive lower jaw give indication of the power- 
ful muscles. The dental formula is the same 
as in man and the higher quadrumana; the 
canines are enormous, the incisors very wide, 
the lateral ones being more pointed, and the 
lower molars have five tubercles instead of 
four. The bones of the trunk and extremities 
are remarkable for their size and strength; 
the length of the cervical spines is such that 
the nape is more prominent than the back of 
the head ; the scapula and bones of the arm 
indicate the attachment of muscles in com- 
parison with which man's seem like those of 
a child. The expression of the face is scowl- 
ing; the nose is very flat and widely open ; the 
ears are small ; the eyes are much sunk in the 
head, and the lashes are short and thick ; the 
mouth is very wide, the lips large and thin, the 
lower one pendulous and very movable, the 
chin short and receding, and the whole muzzle 
prominent; the face is transversely wrinkled 
and black. The chest is capacious, the shoul- 
ders very wide, and the abdomen everywhere 
projecting. The limbs are greatly developed 
and of immense strength ; the arms are longer 
than in the chimpanzee, reaching far down 
the leg, but according to Owen, whose ob- 
servations are generally confirmed by the 
specimens of Du Chaillu, the arms do not 
extend so low as the knee; while the arm 
and forearm are longer than in the chimpan- 
zee, the hand is shorter, wider, and more hu- 
man in its carpal and metacarpal portions and 
the lateral position of the thumb ; from the 
length of the palm the fingers appear short 
and thick as if swollen; they are also less 
free, as the posterior portion of the three in- 
termediate fingers is covered by the undivided 
integument. There is very little appearance 
of wrist, the circumference at this part being 
twice that of a strong man's ; the fingers taper 
to a point, are not arched, and the nails are 
flat and relatively small ; the fingers are about 
twice the circumference of man's, and the skin 
of the middle joint is callous from the habit of 
the animal of applying these surfaces to the 
ground when it adopts a favorite way of pro- 
gression by swinging its body forward sup- 
ported by and between the hands; the thumb 
is short, and not more than half the size of the 
fore finger. The posterior extremities are oc- 
casionally used alone in standing and in pro- 
gression; the thigh is relatively short, and of a 
nearly uniform size, in its middle portion not 
surpassing in circumference the same part in 
man ; the leg increases in thickness from be- 
low the knee to the ankle ; the tendinous por- 
tion of the muscles is developed more than the 
fleshy, with a great gain in strength. Tho 
foot is longer than the hand, and is human- 
like also in having the three intermediate toes 







GORILLA 



>out the same length, and partly united at 
their base by the integuments; the gorilla is 
essentially quadrumanous, and the posterior 
thumbs are largely developed, widely separated 
from the toes, to which they are easily op- 
posed, and well calculated for prehension. The 
genus gorilla was established by Geoffroy 
Saint-Ililaire on the following characters prin- 
cipally : the head rounded in the young, very 
much" elongated and depressed in the adult, 
with very prominent crapial crests ; the pecu- 
liar conformation of the organs of sense, above 
detailed; the gigantic size; the proportions of 
the limbs, and the characters of the hands and 
feet; and the peculiarities of the teeth. It 
seems sufficiently distinct from troglodytes ni- 
ger. It is not easy to determine the precise 
position of the gorilla in the quadrumanous 
series ; in the structure of the hand and foot 
it comes nearer to man than the chimpanzee 
does ; in the canines it would seem to be below 
even the orangs ; and in the proportion of the 
arm and forearm it is below the chimpanzee. 
The very indefmiteness of its position is an- 
other argument for its separation as a genus 
among the quadrumana. The adult male go- 
rilla is from 5 to 6 ft. high in its natural alti- 
tude, though after death it may be stretched 
beyond this ; most specimens are under 6 ft., 
on account of the relative shortness and gene- 
rally flexed position of the legs; it far sur- 
passes man in the dimensions of the head, 
neck, body, and arms, and in the width of the 
shoulders ; some are said to measure from 7 to 
9 ft. from the end of one outstretched hand to 
that of the other ; one of Du Chaillu's speci- 
mens measures 8 ft. 11 in. The general color 
of the hair, which is coarse and about 2 in. 
long on the arms, an inch on the belly, and 
quite short on the back and legs, is gray in- 
clining to black. There is a black stripe about 
2 in. wide extending diagonally down the 
sides from behind the shoulder to the belly, 
which is entirely black. On the upper portion 
of the back the hair is very thin ; old ones are 
bare in that part. On the arms the hair is 
black, and reversed from the wrist to the el- 
bow ; the chest is nearly bare ; there are a few 
white hairs in the anal region; the face, hands, 
and feet are black ; the hands are hairy as far 
as the division of the fingers, the palms naked 
and callous ; the head has generally a reddish 
tint; on the whole the male would be called 
grayish and the female blackish. The young 
differ greatly from the adults in the shape of 
the head, and the females are less ferocious- 
looking as well as much smaller than the 
males. The gorilla is found on the W. coast 
of Africa, both K and S. of the equator, but 
especially in the wooded districts of the inte- 
rior near the head waters of the Gaboon river, 
and along the Muni river as far E. as the 
Crystal mountains. It is principally an in- 
habitant^ the woods, but though the struc- 
ture of its four hands seems well adapted to 
climbing on trees, it is very rare that a female 



or a young male is seen on them the old 
males never ; its favorite mode of progression 
is on all fours, in a shuffling manner and rolling 
from side to side, but with its head always 
erect and its face looking forward ; on account 
of the greater length of the arms it stoops less 
than the chimpanzee, and is fond of thrusting 
these forward, with the flexed fingers on the 
ground, and of giving its body a half jumping, 
half swinging motion forward between them ; 
when it assumes the erect posture, it flexes the 
arms upward or crosses them on the nape in 
order to counterbalance the tendency of the 
trunk to fall forward. Gorillas are generally 
seen in troops of five r four females and one 
male, but the old males are occasionally met 
wandering alone ; though living in the same 
neighborhood as the chimpanzees, they do not 
associate with them. Their strength is enor- 
mous, not only in the jaw r s, which are able to 
crush the barrel of a musket, but in the hands 
and feet, which they use in common with their 
canines in attack and defence ; they are able 
to break with ease trees three or four inches 
in diameter. The males are exceedingly fero- 
cious, generally attacking man and animals in- 
truding upon their haunts; if wounded, they 
are more terrible than the lion, and in this 
event the hunter's death is sure and speedy if 
his hand trembles or his gun misses fire. They 
approach the enemy standing, advancing a few 
steps at a time, pausing to beat their breasts 
with both hands, and roaring terribly. When 
near enough, they spring upon him, and de- 
stroy him with their powerful hands. One of 
Du Chaillu's men was eviscerated by a single 
blow. The story of their carrying clubs is 
untrue. They are perfectly untamable, in this 
respect differing from the chimpanzee, which, 
in youth at least, appreciates- kind treatment. 
"When living in troops they are shy and diffi- 
cult to approach, but when mated or alone 
they almost invariably offer battle, and are 
then the most terrible of animals. When liv- 
ing near villages, they sometimes come at day- 
break to eat the plantains and sugar cane of 
the natives ; besides these they eat nuts, ber- 
ries, fruits of the oil palm and banana, the acid 
pulp of the amomum, the white portions of 
the leaves of the pineapple, and roots. Unlike 
the chimpanzee, the gorilla makes no shelter 
for itself. In intelligence it is considerably 
inferior to the chimpanzee. It exhibits great 
fondness for its young, of which it has one at a 
time. The reports of its visiting villages and 
carrying off negresses into the woods are mere 
fables. It is generally mute, but sometimes 
amuses itself by a sort of roaring, which, be- 
ginning low, increases till the forest echoes 
with its reverberations. When about to at- 
tack its enemies it gives a terrific yell, which 
resounds far and wide. The negroes of the 
interior are very fond of eating the flesh of go- 
rillas as well as of chimpanzees and monkeys. 
Among the coast tribes, on the other hand, it 
is considered an abomination to eat the flesh 



118 



GORITZ 



of either the gorilla or the chimpanzee, on ac- 
count of their resemblance to man. 

GOKITZ. See GOBZ. 

GOR&HIS, the dominant people of Nepaul 
in India. Little is known of their history un- 
til about 1768, when, having consolidated or 
conquered the petty independent tribes among 
whom Nepaul was parcelled out, they found 
themselves masters of the whole of that coun- 
try, and eventually of almost the entire alpine 
region, as it is called, of northern India. Hav- 
ing invaded Thibet in 1790, they were defeated 
by the Chinese, to whom the lamas had applied 
for assistance, and during a short period they 
remained in nominal subjection to the celestial 
empire; but in 1792 their independence was 
recognized by a commercial treaty with the 
East India company. A few years later they 
were involved in a war with the British. (See 
NEPAUL.) The Gorkhas are of Mongol ori- 
gin, but smaller and darker than the Chinese. 
They are seldom over 5 ft. high, are hardy and 
active, and make good soldiers. They form a 
valuable portion of the native troops enlisted 
in the British army, and won the enthusiastic 
praise of the English officers by their uniform 
fidelity during the sepoy revolt of 1857-'8, and 
their services in the field, particularly during 
the Delhi campaign. They are Hindoos in re- 
ligion, but unlike Hindoos in appearance, cus- 
toms, and freedom from caste prejudice. 

GORKUM, or Gorenm (Dutch, Gorinchem), a 
fortified town of the Netherlands, province of 
South Holland, on the right bank of the Maas, 
22 m. S. E. of Rotterdam ; pop. about 10,000. 
It has a college, a scientific society, the ancient 
church of St. Vincent containing the tombs 
of the lords of Arkel, and the town hall adorned 
with remarkable paintings. It has a consider- 
able trade in corn, hemp, butter, cheese, sal- 
mon, and Frisian horses; there are also yards 
for boat building, and extensive rope walks. 
A canal from Gorkum to Vianen unites the Leek 
with the Maas. Gorkum acquired importance 
in the 14th century, was considered the key of 
Holland at the beginning of the French revolu- 
tion, and was ruined by an inundation in 1809. 
The martyrs of Gorkum is the name given 
in the Roman Marty rology to 19 persons (17 
priests regular and secular, and two Franciscan 
lay brothers) put to death by William de la 
Marck and his gueux de la mer in 1572. They 
were beatified by Pope Clement X. Nov. 24, 
1673, and their feast is held on July 9, the an- 
niversary of their death. 

GOKLITZ, a town of Prussian Silesia, situated 
on an eminence which overhangs the left bank 
of the Neisse, and on the Dresden and Breslau 
railway, 53 m. E. of Dresden; pop. in 1871, 
42,224. It consists of the inner town, which is 
unrounded \\ith \\-alU having 11 gates, and the 
suburbs. The Gothic Protestant church of Sts. 
Peter an<l Paul lias a famous organ. A fine 
Gothic buildini: was erected for the gymnasium 
in 1856. The t.iwn H the seat of several scien- 
tific and literary societies. The town hall con- 



GORRES 

tains a large library. The manufactures are 
linen and woollen cloth, tobacco, starch, &c. 
Gorlitz was a city of great importance in the 
three centuries preceding the reformation, and 
the capital of Upper Lusatia; it then declined, 
but of late the population has rapidly increased 
in consequence of the flourishing industry. 

GOKKES. I. Jakob Joseph von, a German au- 
thor, born in Coblentz, Jan. 25, 1776, 'died in 
Munich, Jan. 29, 1848. After the proclama- 
tion of the French republic he gave up the 
study of medicine to devote himself to politics. 
His ardent republicanism showed itself in his 
first writings, and caused the suppression of a 
periodical published by him. In 1799 he went 
to Paris at the head of a deputation sent by the 
German provinces on the left bank of the Rhine 
to prepare the way for a complete union with 
France. Bonaparte, just raised to power by 
the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire, could not 
find time to confer with the German deputa- 
tion, and Gorres returned homfe with his repub- 
lican hopes much weakened. After his return 
he was appointed professor of natural sciences 
in the college of Coblentz, and he soon after- 
ward published several philosophical works, 
all pervaded with the prevalent idealism. In 
1803 he lectured in the university of Heidel- 
berg, where he resided till 1808, publishing Die 
deutschen Volksbucher, and editing the Einsie- 
dlerzeitung. Returning to Coblentz, he pub- 
lished several works on Asiatic mythology and 
German mediaeval literature. In 1814, after 
the fall of Napoleon, he established Der Ehei- 
nische Mercur, which advocated the restoration 
of the German empire ; it was suppressed by 
the Prussian government in 1816. In 1820 
appeared his Deutsehland und die Revolution, 
warning sovereigns that a new revolution was 
inevitable unless God and the Catholic church 
were made supreme in the restored political 
state. In 1827, after having resided in France 
and Switzerland, he was appointed professor of 
history in the university of Munich. The diffi- 
culty which arose in 1837 between the arch- 
bishop of Cologne and the Prussian govern- 
ment induced him to write his Athanatiut, in 
which he espoused the cause of the archbishop, 
and which had great influence on the Catholics 
of Germany. This he followed up by other 
writings, and he founded the periodical Histo- 
risch-politische Blatter, which took a leading 
part in Catholic literature. In 1844 he cnce 
more advocated the political union of Germany. 
In 1845 he was elected a member of the Mu- 
nich academy of science ; and he published 
about that time treatises on ethnology regard- 
ed as fragments of a comprehensive universal 
history, which he did not live to complete. 
His principal work is Christliche Mystik (4 
vols., Ratisbon, 1836-'42 ). A complete edi- 
tion of his works, edited by his daughter, has 
been published (8 vols., Munich, 1856-'60). A 
sketch of his life was published by his pupil 
Sepp in 1848. II. Gnldo, a German author, 
son of the preceding, born in Coblentz, May 




GORTCHAKOFF 



119 



28, 1805, died July 14, 1852. After the death 
of his father he edited the HistoriscJi-politiscJie 
Blatter, but is chiefly known hy his poems, 
legendary writings, and juvenile books. Among 
these are : Die Jungfrau von Orleans (1834) ; 
Schon Roslein (1838) ; Testkalender in Bildern 
und Liedern (3 vols., 1835-' 9); Marienlieder 
(1842) ; Der Jiurnene Siegfried und sein 
Katnpf init dem Drachen, illustrated by Kaul- 
bach (1843) ; Die Gottesfahrt nach Trier und 
des Teufels Landsturm (1844); and Die arme 
Pilgerin zum heilige Itocke (1846). 

GORTCHAKOFF, a Russian princely family, de- 
scended from the royal house of Rurik, seve- 
ral members of which have distinguished them- 
selves. I. Petr, commander of Smolensk, is 
celebrated for his defence of that place against 
the army of Sigismund III., king of Poland, 
from 1609 to 1611, when it was taken by as- 
sault. II. Dimitri, born in 1756, won a place 
among the poets of Russia by his odes, satires, 
and epistles, and died in 1824. III. Alexander, 
born in 1764, served under Suvaroff against 
the Turks, the Poles under Kosciuszko, and the 
French in the campaign of Switzerland, and 
subsequently with great distinction under Ben- 
ningsen in the campaign of 1807, when he de- 
feated Lannes at Heilsberg and fought at Fried- 
land, acted as chief of the war ministry in 
1812, was appointed general of infantry, and 
died in 1825. IV. Andrei served as major gen- 
eral under Suvaroff in 1799, and commanded 
a division during the French invasion in 1812, 
when he distinguished himself in the battle of 
Borodino ; he left the army in 1828, and died 
in 1855. V. Alexander, a statesman, born July 
16, 1798. He acquired experience in diploma- 
cy under Nesselrode in various employments, 
and in 1824 he was appointed secretary of 
legation in London ; in 1830 charge d'affaires 
in Florence; and in 1832 councillor of the 
embassy at Vienna, where he often acted as 
ambassador during the illness or absence of 
his chief. In 1841 he was sent to Stuttgart, 
and having negotiated the marriage between 
the crown prince (now king) of Wtirtemberg 
and the Russian grand duchess Olga, he was 
in 1846 made privy councillor. In ] 850 he was 
appointed plenipotentiary to the German diet 
at Frankfort, and in 1854 he succeeded Mey- 
endorff as ambassador in Vienna. He dis- 
played consummate tact and ability during the 
Crimean war, and it was mainly through his 
influence that the treaty of Paris was signed 
by Russia (March, 1856); after which he suc- 
ceeded Nesselrode as minister of foreign af- 
fairs. In 1857 he attended the emperor Al- 
exander during his interview with Napoleon 
III. in Stuttgart. As the policy of France 
became hostile to Austria on the Italian ques- 
tion, he increased in friendliness toward the 
former. Ambitious above all to restore the 
prestige of Russia after the calamities of the 
Crimean war, he addressed in 1860 a circular 
despatch to the European powers appealing to 
the same principle of nationalities in the Two 



Sicilies which Russia had always upheld in 
regard to the Christians of the East, and re- 
monstrated against any foreign interference in 
Neapolitan affairs ; at the same time disclaim- 
ing any idea of revenge for past defeats. He 
favored the French expedition of 1861 to Syria 
for the protection of the Christian population 
against renewed massacres ; but preserving en- 
tire independence in his foreign policy, he re- 
fused to associate himself with France and 
Great Britain in their unfriendly attitude to- 
ward the United States after the outbreak of 
the civil war. During the Polish insurrection 
of 1863 he availed himself of the opportunity 
presented by the interference of foreign powers 
in behalf of the Poles, to vindicate the aversion 
of Russia to foreign dictation, and her deter- 
mination to settle her internal affairs in accord- 
ance with the interests and the integrity of the 
empire, and without regard to the views of 
other nations. This course increased his pop- 
ularity at home and his prestige abroad, and 
the emperor, who had assigned to him the title 
of vice chancellor in 1862, now (July, 1863) 
promoted him to the office of chancellor. In 
1866 he succeeded in securing the complete 
separation of the Roman Catholic clergy of 
Poland from the holy see. His most brilliant 
achievement was begun in October, 1870, when, 
after an understanding with Bismarck on the 
subject, he availed himself of the Franco-Ger- 
man war to undo the injury done to Russian 
influence in the East by the treaty of Paris, by 
securing at the London conference of January, 
1871, the revision of that treaty, and the for- 
mation of another (March 13) putting an end 
to the neutralization of the Black sea ; for this 
the emperor conferred upon him the dignity 
of serene highness. In the central Asia ques- 
tion (1873-'4) he exhibited a desire to avoid 
disturbing the friendly relations with England, 
without, however, receding from an aggressive 
policy. Though suffering from the gout, he 
continues (1874) to preside over the chancery, 
but generally spends the summer in Switzer- 
land or Germany for the benefit of his health. 
His eldest son, MIKHAIL, was appointed Rus- 
sian minister at Bern in 1872. VI. Petr, a gen- 
eral, born in Moscow about 1790, died there 
in 1868. He entered the army at an early age, 
fought against Napoleon in the campaigns of 
1807 and 1812-'14, served under Yermoloff 
in the Caucasus, and distinguished himself in 
the war against Turkey in 1828 and 1829, 
when he signed the peace of Adrianople. He 
was made governor general of western Siberia 
in 1839, and general of infantry in 1843, and 
retired from service in 1851 ; but reentered it 
on the breaking out of the Crimean war, and 
commanded a wing of the Russian army at the 
Alma and at Inkerman in 1854. He resigned in 
the spring of 1855, and was in 1858 appointed 
member of the imperial council. VII. Mikhail, 
born in 1795, died May 30, 1861. He served 
against the French in the campaigns of 1807 
and 1812-'14, against the Swedes in 1808-'9, 



GORTON 



GORTZ 



and against the Turks in 1828-'9, when he led 
the sieges of Shumla and Silistria, distinguish- 
c-.l himself in the war of the Polish revolution 
(1831) at Grochow, Ostrolenka, and the taking 
<>f Warsaw, wa> made general of artillery, and 
in 1846 military governor of Warsaw, where 
he subsequently often acted as lieutenant of 
Prince Paskevitch, whom he also accompanied 
on the invasion of Hungary in 1849. In 1853 he 
received the command of the army of invasion 
sent to the Danubian principalities, ceded it 
soon after to Paskevitch, but took it again after 
the raising of the siege of Silistria, and led the 
retreating army to Bessarabia. In 1855 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief in the Crimea 
and southern Russia, and suffered defeat on the 
Tchernaya, but greatly distinguished himself 
by the gallant defence of Sebastopol, as well 
as by the skilful retreat to the North fort after 
the fall of the fortress. In 1856, after the 
death of Paskevitch, he was appointed gov- 
ernor of Poland by Alexander II., and he was 
carrying out that emperor's conciliatory mea- 
sures at the time of his death. 

GORTON, Samuel, a New England religious' en- 
thusiast, the first settler of Warwick, R. I., born 
in Gorton, England, about 1600, died in Rhode 
Island in November or December, 1677. He 
did business in London as a clothier till 1636, 
when he embarked for New England, and 
settled at Boston, and afterward at Plymouth, 
where he began to preach such peculiar doc- 
trines that he was banished from the colony 
on a charge of heresy. With a few followers 
he went to Rhode Island, which had recently 
been settled by exiles from Massachusetts Bay ; 
but falling again into trouble, he was publicly 
whipped for calling the justices "just asses " and 
for other contemptuous acts, and was forced 
to seek an asylum with Roger Williams in 
Providence, about 1641. Here he made him- 
self so obnoxious that in November of that year 
a petition was addressed to the authorities of 
Massachusetts praying that Gorton and his 
company might be "brought to satisfaction." 
That colony having acquired a nominal juris- 
diction over Pawtuxet, where Gorton had set- 
tled, he was summoned to Boston in September, 
1642 ; but he refused to recognize the jurisdic- 
tion thus assumed, and about the same time 
removed to Shawomet, on the W. side of Nar- 
ragansett bay, where he purchased land from 
the sachem Miantonomo. But in Jurue, 1643, 
two inferior sachems contested his claims to 
the land, and applied to the goneral court at 
Boston for assistance. A body of 40 soldiers 
was consequently marched to Shawomet, and 
Gorton and ten of his disciples were carried 
to Boston, where, the question of the land 
being laid aside, they were put on trial for 
their lives as "damnable heretics/' Gorton 
and six others were found guilty, and sen- 
tenced to confinement and hard labor in irons. 
U M:uv!i. IC.H. tln-y \v,-re released, and or- 
dered to leave the colony within 14 days 
Gorton then went to England to obtain re- 



dress, and having procured a letter of safe 
conduct from the earl of Warwick to the 
Massachusetts magistrates, and an order that 
his people should be allowed peaceable pos- 
session of their lands at Shawomet, he returned 
in 1648 to his colony, which he named after 
the earl. Though Massachusetts did not re- 
linquish her claim over the Shawomet settle- 
ment until some years later, Gorton's remain- 
ing years seem to have passed quietly. He 
discharged many important civil offices, and 
on Sundays used to preach to the colonists 
and Indians. It is difficult to determine what 
were his religious opinions. He contemned 
a clergy and all outward forms, and held that 
by union with Christ believers partook of the 
perfection of God, that Christ is both human 
and divine, and that heaven and hell have no 
existence save in the mind. He published 
" Simplicitie's Defence against seven-headed 
Policy," a vindication of his course in New 
England (4to, London, 1646 ; reprinted in the 
collections of the Rhode Island historical so- 
ciety); "An Incorruptible Key composed of 
the CX. Psalme " (1647) ; " Saltmarsh returned 
from the Dead " (1655) ; " An Antidote against 
the common Plague of the World" (1657); 
" Certain Copies of Letters," &c. He also left 
in manuscript a commentary on a part of the 
Gospel of St. Matthew. See his life by J. M. 
Mackie in Sparks's "American Biography." 

GORTYNA, an ancient town of Crete, a little 
S. of the centre of the island, on a plain 
watered by the Lethaeus. It was 90 stadia 
from the Libyan sea, on which it had two 
ports, Lebena and Metallum. It was next in 
importance and splendor to Cnossus, in alliance 
with which it early reduced all the rest of the 
island to subjection ; but it was afterward at war 
Avith Cnossus, and also with Cydonia, against 
which Philopcemen commanded its forces for 
several years. The site of Gortyna is thought 
to be near the modern Hagios Dheka. The 
caverns in the neighborhood have been de- 
scribed by Savary and Tournefort, and Captain 
Spratt sees in them the labyrinth of Minos. 

GORTZ, Georg Heinrich, baron, a Swedish 
statesman, born in Germany, executed in 
Stockholm in March, 1719. He belonged to 
an ancient family, whose original name was 
Schlitz. He became minister of Holstein, and 
was sent in 1706 on a mission to Charles XII., 
who made him his minister of finance and 
afterward prime minister. In both positions 
he evinced rare abilities, as well as great un- 
concern in the choice of his means. He was 
endeavoring to restore the fallen fortunes of 
Sweden by an extraordinary diplomatic com- 
bination (see CHARLES XII.) when the king 
was killed at the siege of Frederikshald (1718), 
and he was arrested and sentenced to the block 
by Ulrica Eleonora and her husband Frederick 
of Hesse, who succeeded to the Swedish throne. 
The pretext for his execution was that he 
had mismanaged the finances and goaded on 
Charles to fatal enterprises. 




GORUCKPOOR 

GORUCKPOOR. I. A district of the North- 
west Provinces, British India, bounded N. by 
Nepaul, W. and S. W. by Oude; area, 7,346 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 2,044,281. The surface 
is generally level, but broken in the E. and S. 
E. parts by ridges of low steep hills. The 
principal rivers are the Gogra, Gunduk, and 
Raptee, which have a S. E. course. The dis- 
trict also abounds in shallow lakes. The soil 
is rendered fertile by careful irrigation. The 
inhabitants are poor, and agriculture is almost 
the only branch of industry. The district was 
ceded to the British in 1801 by the vizier of 
Oude, in commutation of subsidy. II. The 
principal town of the district, on the left bank 
of the Raptee, here crossed by a ferry 600 ft. 
long, 104 m. N. by E. of Benares and 430 m. 
. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 40,000. It is 
surrounded by forests and plantations, and 
during the rainy season is often encompassed 
by water. 

GORZ, or Goritz. I. A circle of Cisleithan 
Austria (generally called Gorz and Gradisca), 
forming with Istria and Trieste the Littoral 
province, but having its own diet; area, 1,143 
sq. m. ; pop. about 200,000, of whom 66 per 
cent, are Slovens, 25 per cent. Friulians, 7 per 
cent. Italians, and the remainder Germans. In 
the middle ages the district belonged to the 
counts of Tyrol ; it was united with the pos- 
sessions of the house of Austria by Maximilian 
L, about 1500. II. The capital of the circle, 
on the Isonzo, 22 m. N. N. W. of Trieste ; pop. 
in 1869, 16,823. It consists of two parts, the 
upper or old town, and the lower or new town. 
The upper is fortified and contains the castle 
of the former counts of Tyrol and Gorz. It 
is the seat of an archbishop and of a central 
episcopal seminary for all the dioceses of the 
Littorale, and has a deaf and dumb institute 
and a chamber of commerce and industry. 
The principal manufactures are leather, sugar, 
and silk. Charles X., the exiled king of France, 
died here in 1836, and his son the duke of 
Angouleme in 1844. 

GOSCHEN, George Joachim, an English states- 
man, born in London in 1831. His father, who 
died in 1866, was a German merchant doing 
business in London. The son was educated 
at Rugby and afterward at Oriel college, Ox- 
ford, but did not graduate on account of his 
scruples against taking certain prescribed oaths. 
In 1853 he became a partner in his father's 
commercial house, and gave special attention 
to financial questions. In 1863 he published 
"The Theory of Foreign Exchanges," which 
is regarded as a standard work. In the same 
year he was returned to parliament for the 
city of London, and took a prominent part in 
the movement for the abolition of religious 
tests and for throwing the universities open to 
dissenters. In July, 1865, under the Palmer- 
ston ministry, he was made vice president of 
the board of control, in November, under Rus- 
sell, a member of the privy council, and in 
January, 1866, chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 



GOSHAWK 



121 



caster. In June, with the other members of 
the ministry, he retired from office. On the 
accession of the Gladstone ministry in Decem- 
ber, 1868, he entered the cabinet as president of 
the poor-law board, and in March, 1871, was 
made first lord of the admiralty. He resigned 
with the other ministers in February, 1874. 

GOSHAWK, a bird of prey of the family fal- 
conidce, subfamily accipitrina, and genus astur 
(Lacep.). The bill is short, broad at the base, 
with the culmen elevated and arched ; the tip 
acute, with the lateral margins festooned in 
the middle ; the nostrils large and in the basal 
cere; wings reaching to the middle of the 
tail, the third, fourth, and fifth quills nearly 
equal and longest ; the tail long and broad ; 
tarsi rather longer than middle toe, covered 
with broad transverse scales in front and be- 
hind ; toes long, strong, and well padded below ; 
claws strong, long, and curved. Gray describes 
13 species, which are found throughout the 
world. The form is rather long and slender, 
the wings comparatively short, and the legs 
and tail long ; they fly very swiftly and strong- 
ly, and always strike their prey while on the 
wing; they lurk about poultry yards, seize a 
duck or a chicken, and are out of shot before 
the farmer is aware of his loss ; they also prey 
upon wild ducks, grouse, pigeons, hares, rabbits, 
squirrels, and other animals of this size ; they 
build their nests on lofty trees, and Jay from 
two to four eggs. The only species in the 
United States is the American goshawk (A. 
atricapillus, Wils.), found all over North Amer- 
ica, but most abundant in the north and north- 
west. The adult female is about 2 ft. long, 
with an extent of wings of 4 ft. and a weight 
of about 3 Ibs. ; the male is smaller ; both sexes 




American Goshawk (Astur atricapillus). 

are alike in plumage. In the adult the general 
color of the upper parts is dark ash-gray, the 
shafts and sometimes the edges of the feath- 
ers black ; head above and neck behind black 
with a grayish tinge; a broad line of white 
over each eye; under parts grayish white, 



122 



GOSHEN 



sides and abdomen tinged with brown ; black- 
ish brown longitudinal streaks on the fore 
ii. ck, and transverse blackish gray lines on 
the breast, sides, and belly; quills brown, si<liy 
on their inner webs; tail with four or live 
broad brownish black bands, and narrowly 
tipped with white. The young birds are dark 
brown above, with light markings; the tail 
ashy; the under parts white, with yellowish 
red tinges, each feather with a longitudinal 
stripe ending in a brown ovate spot. This is 
one of the boldest and most rapid of the genus, 
and follows with untiring wing the flocks of 
wild pigeons and ducks ; it seldom alights un- 
less to devour its prey, and when thus engaged 
stands very erect. The nest is of large size, 
flat, and made of coarse materials ; the eggs 
are of a bluish white color, sometimes with 
light brownish spots. The European goshawk 
resembles the American, but the transverse 
bands on the under surface are much more reg- 
ular. It equals the gerfalcon in size, but not 
in strength and courage; though an ignoble 
bird, and falling obliquely on its prey, it is used 
in falconry for the weaker and ground game, 
such as hares and rabbits, or birds of low 
flight like grouse and ducks. 

GOSHEN, in Biblical geography, the district 
of Egypt in which Jacob and his family set- 
tled, and where his descendants remained till 
their deliverance by Moses. The locality is 
generally fixed in Lower Egypt, E. of the 
Pelusiac branch of the Nile. 

(.OSRKV, a town and village, one of the 
county seats of Orange co., New York, on the 
Erie railway, at the junction of two branches, 
48 ra. N. N. W. of New York; pop. of the 
town in 1870, 8,903 ; of the village, 2,205. It 
is celebrated for its excellent butter, which 
is made chiefly for the New York market. 
The village contains a female seminary, several 
classical schools, two national banks, and two 
weekly newspapers. 

GOSLAR, a town of Hanover, Prussia, 26 m. 
8. E. of Hildesheim, on the Gose, at the base 
of the Rammelsberg; pop. in 1871, 8,923. Its 
most important public edifices are the town 
house, which was erected in the 15th century, 
the imperial palace, now in part a ruin, and the 
Gothic church, whose library contains a con- 
siderable number of Luther's manuscripts. In 
the vicinity are slate quarries, from which N. 
Germany is supplied with that material. The 
inhabitants are chiefly engaged in mining and 
quarrying. It was founded about 920, was the 
residence of several German emperors, and 
was a free imperial city till 1801. 

GOSNOLD, Bartholomew, an English voyager, 
died in Virginia, Aug. 22, 1607. He joined 
Raleigh in his attempt to colonize Virginia, 
and aftor th.- t'.iilure of that enterprise was 
I'l.i- o-l in command of an expedition fitted out 
for planting a settlement in New England. He 
sailed from Falmonth, March 26, 1602, with 
one small vessel and a company of 32 persons, 
Ji of whom were colonists. Instead of follow- 



GOSPORT 

ing the usual route by the Canaries and West 
Indies, he steered directly across the Atlantic, 
and in seven weeks reached Massachusetts bay, 
first seeing land probably not far N. of Nahant. 
Thence he turned S., and landed on Cape Cod, 
to which he gave the name it still bears. Sail- 
ing around the promontory, and stopping at 
the island now known as No Man's Land, but 
which he called Martha's Vineyard, Gosnold 
anchored at the mouth of Buzzard's bay, and 
resolved to plant his colony on an island which 
he called Elizabeth (now known by its Indian 
name of Cuttyhunk). The adventurers here 
built and fortified a house, but the hostility of 
the Indians, scarcity of provisions, and disputes 
about a division of the profits, disheartened 
them, and the whole party returned to Eng- 
land, accomplishing the voyage in five weeks, 
and taking a cargo of sassafras root, cedar, 
furs, and other commodities. The result of 
the expedition was such as to encourage many 
others to follow the same short route across 
the ocean, and pursue the explorations which 
Gosnold had begun. Gosnold next turned his 
eyes toward Virginia, and succeeded in or- 
ganizing a company for colonization in that 
region, the heads of which were Edward Wing- 
field, a merchant, Robert Hunt, a clergyman, 
and Capt. John Smith. A charter was granted 
them by James I., April 10, 1606, which was 
the first instrument of that nature under which 
the English were planted in America ; and on 
Dec. 19, 1606, Gosnold set sail with three 
small vessels and an ill-assorted band of 105 
adventurers. After a tedious voyage, a storm 
having driven them into Chesapeake bay (April 
26, 1607), they sailed up James river, which 
they named after the king, disembarked about 
50 m. above its mouth, and founded the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. Sickness and various 
disasters destroyed 50 of their number before 
autumn, among whom was Gosnold. 

GOSPEL (Sax. god&pell, corresponding to the 
Gr. eiayyAwv, a joyful message), either the 
whole system of the doctrines of Christ, or one 
of the four histories of his life and teachings 
written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. 
The extant spurious gospels, forming a part of 
the apocrypha of the New Testament, are the 
" History of Joseph the Carpenter," the " Gos- 
pel of the Infancy," the "Gospel of Thomas 
the Israelite," the " Protevangelion " of James, 
the " Gospel of the Nativity of Mary," and the 
"Gospel of Nicodemus, or Acts of Pilate." 
Many others, not extant, are mentioned by the 
church fathers. (See APOCRYPHA.) 

GOSPORT, a seaport town of Hampshire, 
England, opposite Portsmouth, on the W. side 
of the entrance to the harbor of the latter ; pop. 
in 1871, 7,366. It is situated on level ground 
and surrounded by fortifications, which form 
part of those of Portsmouth and Portsea. It 
contains two churches and four chapels for 
Protestants and one for Roman Catholics. The 
most conspicuous establishment is the royal 
Clarence victualling yard for supplying vessels. 




GOSSE 



GOSSE, Philip Henry, an English zoologist, 
born in Worcester, April 6, 1810. He went to 
Newfoundland in 1827 in a mercantile capa- 
city, and during a residence there of eight 
years occupied his leisure in collecting insects 
and making colored drawings of them. He 
removed to Lower Canada, where he pursued 
his studies of zoology, particularly entomology, 
for three years, and af- 
terward travelled in the 
United States, making 
in Alabama numerous 
drawings of the lepidop- 
tera of that region, and 
wrote " Letters from 
Alabama, chiefly rela- 
ting to Natural Histo- 
ry." After his return 
to England in 1839, he 
published the results of 
his observations under 
the title of the "Cana- 
dian Naturalist" (Lon- 
don, 1840). In 1844 he 
visited Jamaica to study 
its zoology, and on re- 
turning after 18 months 
published "The Birds 
of Jamaica," which was 
followed by an " Atlas 
of Illustrations " and 
" A Naturalist's Sojourn 
in Jamaica." During the subsequent years 
he published an " Introduction to Zoology," 
and prepared many works for the society for 
the promotion of Christian knowledge. He 
then devoted himself especially to the mi- 
croscopic study of the British rotifera, and 
took a prominent part in the formation of pub- 
lic and private collections of marine animals. 
In 1856 he was elected a member of the royal 
society. His remaining works include : " The 
Aquarium" (1854); "Manual of Marine Zool- 
ogy" (1855); "Tenby, a Seaside Eomance" 
(1856) ; " Life in its Lower, Intermediate, and 
Higher Forms" (185T); "Omphalos, an At- 
tempt to Untie the Gordian Knot" (1857); 
" Evenings at the Microscope " (1 859) ; " Acti- 
nologia Britanniea, a History of the British Sea 
Anemones and Corals" (1860) ; " The Komance 
of Natural History " (1860-'62) ; " A Year at the 
Shore" (1865); and "Land and Sea" (1865). 

GOSSELIES, a market town of Belgium, in 
the province of Hainaut, on the Brussels and 
Charleroi railway, 23 m. S. by E. of Brussels ; 
pop. in 1866, 6,511. It has important manu- 
factories of woollens, hats, steel ware, and 
leather, and near it are large coal mines. The 
battle fought near this place June 26, 1794, be- 
tween the French and the Austrians, is known 
as the battle of Fleurus. 

GOTHA. I. Formerly an independent duchy 
(Saxe-Gotha), but now politically united with 
Coburg under the name of S axe- Coburg- Goth a ; 
pop. of Gotha in 1871, 122,630. (See SAXE- 
COBUKG-GOTHA.) II. The capital, and alter- 



GOTHENBUKG 



123 



nately with Coburg the residence of the duke; 
pop. in 1871, 20,591. It is the principal station 
of the Thuringian railway, by which the dis- 
tance to Halle is 83 m. and to Weimar 30 m. 
The palace of Friedenstein adjoins the town, 
and contains collections of fine arts and one 
of the richest collections of coins in Europe ; 
also a library with upward of 200,000 volumes 




The Ducal Palace, Gotha. 



and more than 6,000 manuscripts, among 
which are 14 folio volumes of St. Bernard's 
correspondence and about 3,000 Arabic and 
Persian manuscripts. Gotha has a famous 
gymnasium, many excellent educational and 
charitable institutions, and an observatory es- 
tablished in 1859 by Hansen. It is one of the 
most prosperous trading and manufacturing 
places of Thuringia. It is the seat of a celebra- 
ted fire and life insurance company, and of the 
geographical establishment of Justus Perthes, 
the publisher of the Almanack de Gotha. 

GOTHAM, a parish of Nottinghamshire, Eng- 
land, the Boeotian rusticity of whose inhabi- 
tants gained them the proverbial appellation 
of " the wise men of Gotham." The name Go- 
tham was satirically applied by Washington 
Irving to the city of New York. 

GOTHENBURG, or Gottenburg (Swed. Goteborg). 
I. A Isen or province of Sweden, in the S. W. 
part of the kingdom, bordering on the Catte- 
gat, the Skager Rack, and Norway ; area, 1,890 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1873, 236,899. It forms a nar- 
row strip of land between the mountains which 
separate it on the east from the province of 
Elfsborg and the rugged coast, which is indent- 
ed by numerous bays and bordered by many 
small islands. The climate is severe ; the soil 
is sterile, and there are few manufactures ex- 
cept in the capital city. II. The capital _of the 
province, and the second commercial city of 
Sweden, at the head of a fiord on the Catte- 
gat at the mouth of the Gotha river, 240 m. 
W. S. W. of Stockholm ; pop. in 1873, 59,329. 



124 



GOTHIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 



It has a good harbor, with 17 ft. of water, 
enclosed by two long ridges of rock about 1 J m. 
apart. There is anchorage for vessels of large 
size, but only the smaller craft can come up to 
the shore. The city is intersected by navigable 
canals, and as it occupies marshy ground, the 
houses of the lower town are generally built 
on piles. The upper town stands on adjacent 
rocky heights. The houses are mostly of stone 
or stuccoed brick, with terraced roofs. The 



principal public edifices are the cathedral, the 
Swedish church, the new exchange, the arsenal, 
the town hall, the theatre, and the East India 
house. The manufactures comprise cottons, 
woollens, sail cloth, tobacco, snuff, glass, paper, 
leather, refined sugar, and porter. Most of the 
merchants are Scotch and English. In 1872 
the entries at the port were 2,161 vessels, of 
598,487 tons; the clearances 1,800 vessels, of 
648,545 tons. The city was founded by Gus- 




Gothenburg. 



tavns Adolphus in 1618, and was once well 
fortified. It has had frequent fires. 

GOTHIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. The 

Gothic language became extinct with that Ger- 
manic race by whom it was spoken. The exist- 
ing Gothic manuscripts are written in charac- 
ters related in form and order to the Greek 
alphabet, and, it is said, invented by Bishop 
Ulfilas. The order of the alphabet has been 
ascertained from the numerical values attached 
to the letters. It is not customary in modern 
books to make use of Ulfilas's characters. The 
original form, order, and numerical value of 
the Gothic alphabet, and the way in which it 
is usually transcribed, are as follows : 

ro**. Kim. TAUT*. TBANBC. FORM. ITCH. VALUE. TBANSC. 



li 

r 

& 
e 

u 

7, 

h 

I' 
i i 

K 
A 

M 
II 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
20 
80 
40 
60 



b 

g 

d 

e 
kv(q) 

z 

h 
th(t>) 

i 

k 

1 

in 



60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

200 

800 

400 

600 

600 

700 

800 



t 
v(w) 

f 

z(ch) 
hv 

6 



900 



The transcription of several letters is not uni- 
form. Some write, instead of kv, qu ; for 0, the 
German w ; and instead of the aspirated hv, a 
simple v or w. Diacritical points are put over 
i at the beginning of a word, or after another 
vowel with which it does not form a diphthong. 
Numbers are distinguished in the manuscripts 
by a dash over the letters, or by being enclosed 
by two dots. For punctuation a colon is some- 
times used, and it serves to divide a discourse 
into parts generally larger than a proposition. 
No Gothic manuscript, however, separates the 
words of a sentence, or indicates whether a 
vowel is long or short. The Gothic verb dis- 
tinguishes two voices, active and middle ; two 
tenses, present and past ; three moods, indica- 
tive, optative, and imperative ; three numbers, 
singular, dual, and plural; an infinitive; and 
a present and a past participle. According to 
the formation of the tenses, there are three 
classes of verbs: the first forms the past by 
reduplicating the verbal root ; the second dis- 
tinguishes the tenses by a change of vowel ; 
the third has a special form only for the present 
tense, forming the past by means of formative 
endings. Grimm designates the first two classes 
as strong, and the third as feeble. Examples : 
1st class, blanda, blend, baibland, blended; 
teka, touch, taitok, touched ; 2d class, binda, 
band, bund, bind, bound, bound ; giba, gab, geb, 
give, gave, given ; 3d class, Jiaba, hdbaidm 
habaips, have, had, had ; sokja, sokida, sokip, 
seek, sought, sought. The past tense is formed 
in the last class by adding da, reduplicated dad, 
the auxiliary do, did. The verb to be is conju- 
gated as follows : Pres. ind. singular, im, is, ist; 




GOTHIC LANGUAGE, &o. 



dual, siu or siju, siuts or sijuts ; plural, sium, 
siup, sind. Past ind. singular, *, vast, vets; 
dual, vesu, vesuts ; plural, vesum, vesup, vesun, 
fec. Nouns have three genders and two num- 
bers. They have inflections for the nominative, 
genitive, dative, and accusative cases, and a few 
have also a vocative case, but only in the sin- 
gular. The stems end either in the vowels a, 
i, u, or in the consonants n, r, nd, and these 
terminations determine the modes of the de- 
clensions. The thematic vowel of the declen- 
sion in a is distinctly preserved only in the 
dative singular and the dative and accusative 
plural, and is lengthened into 6 in the femi- 
nines. The i of the next declension takes gra- 
dation, and an a is introduced before it. The 
declension in u retains the vowel of its theme 
quite persistently, even before the case sign s 
of the nominative masculine and feminine, as 
well as in the nominative neuter, where the 
other declensions drop it. The n of the theme 
disappears in the nominative and vocative of 
the singular. The vowel of the primitive suffix 
dar, par, or tar (as in fadar, father, ~bropar, 
brother, dauh tar, daughter, and smstar, sister), 
is dropped where a case sign is added ; as gen. 
Iroprs, dat. Iropr. The themes in nd comprise 
present participles declined as substantives. 
Adjectives are inflected differently, adopting 
in about half of the cases the demonstrative 
pronoun ja, and assimilating with it ; as Jiardus, 
hard, hardjis, hardjamma, &c. The compara- 
tive degree is rendered by means of the suffixes 
is and 6s, which retain their form at the end 
of adverbs, but are lengthened into izan and 
ozan at the end of adjectives. The superlative 
is formed by adding ta or tan to the is or 6s 
of the comparative ; as froda, clever, comp. 
masc. and neut. frodozan, fern, frodozein, sup. 
masc. frodista, fern, frodisto, &c. The per- 
sonal pronouns are : ik, I ; pu, thou ; is, he ; 
si, she ; ita, it ; Deis, we ; vit, we two ; jus, 
you ; eis, they masc. ; ijos, they fern ; ija, they 
neut. Prepositions govern the genitive, dative, 
or accusative, and precede the words they gov- 
ern. Only three interjections have been found : 
6, oh ; sai, behold ; vai, woe ! The pronouns 
%a, so, pata, he who, she who, that which, are 
used as definite articles. There is no indefinite 
article. The literary documents in which the 
Gothic language has been preserved consist of 
a few manuscripts. The Argenteus Codex, now 
in the library of the university of Upsal, written 
in silver and partly gold letters, is a purple 
parchment, supposed to date from about the 
beginning of the 6th century, at the time of the 
rule of the Ostrogoths in Italy. (See ARGEN- 
TEUS CODEX.) It comprised originally 330 
sheets, with Ulfilas's translation of the gospels 
of Matthew, John, Luke, and Mark, in this 
order; but only 177 sheets have been pre- 
served. (See ULFILAS.) The Codex Carolines 
is a rescript, like all codices except the pre- 
ceding, and is owned by the Wolfenbuttel 
library. It was discovered in 1756, and is 
also supposed to be of Italian origin. It con- 



GOTHS 



125 



tains about 42 verses of the llth to the 15th 
chapter of the epistle to the Romans. The five 
Codices Ambrosiani form part of the Ambro- 
sian library in Milan, and contain fragments 
of the Pauline epistles, of the gospels of Mat- 
thew and John, of the books of Ezra and 
Nehemiah, and a calendar. They were dis- 
covered in 1817 at the convent of Bobbio in 
Italy. There is a parchment manuscript in 
Vienna dating from the 9th century, which 
contains a Runic and several Gothic alphabets, 
with a few words and numerical notations. 
Naples and Arezzo have each a Gothic certifi- 
cate of sale written on papyrus. Another 
manuscript was discovered in 1866 by Franz 
Pfeiffer. It has received the appellation of 
Codex Turinensis, and consists of four sheets 
which had been used as the cover of a book or 
manuscript, and which contain fragments of 
the epistles to the Colossians and Galatians. 
Von der Gabelentz published an account of it 
in the Germania of 1867, and pronounced them 
illegible. In the following year, however, a 
translation by Massmann appeared in the same 
periodical. A complete edition of the literary 
monuments of the Gothic language has been 
published in Leipsic by Von der Gabelentz and 
Lobe (1836-'42), and another in Stuttgart by 
Massmann (1856-'7). Andreas Uppstrom has 
caused an exact reprint to be made of every 
line of Gothic manuscript extant. He pub- 
lished in this manner in 1854 the Codex 
Argenteus, and in 1861 the Codex Carolinus 
and some of the Ambrosian fragments. He 
died in 1865, and his son published in 1868, 
from his posthumous papers, the remaining 
documents. Since the texts could thus be criti- 
cally studied, the Gothic grammars and vocabu- 
laries have been considerably changed. The 
latest researches are embodied in the 5th edi- 
tion of Stamm's Uljilas, oder die uns erhalte- 
nen Denkmaler der gothischen Sprache : Text, 
Worterbuch und Grammatik, which has been 
revised by Moritz Heine (Paderborn, 1872). 

GOTHLAND. See GOTTLAND. 

GOTHS (Lat. Gothones, Guttones, &c.), an ex- 
tinct Germanic race, first mentioned as dwell- 
ing on the coasts of the Baltic during the 4th 
century B. C., and disappearing from history in 
the 8th century A. D. Their origin has not been 
ascertained. Pytheas of Massilia is the first 
who makes mention of them ; he found them 
at the side of the Teutons in the southern por- 
tion of the Baltic region. Pliny, in the 1st 
century A. D., and Ptolemy, in the 2d, place 
them in the same territory. The name of Getse 
given to them by later historians does not prop- 
erly belong to the Gothic race, though Grimm's 
hypothesis connects the Getaa with the Goths. 
Cassiodorus, the principal minister of Theodoric 
the Great, wrote a history of the Goths, which 
chronicles their migrations and wanderings 
from regions beyond the Baltic. Procopins 
speaks of Goths, Vandals, and Gepidae as one 
people in all respects, and describes them as of 
fair complexion, with reddish yellow hair and 



126 



GOTHS 



tall manly forms. Modern authorities consider 
the Vandals. Hernli, Rugii, Gepidro, Alani, Sue- 
vi Longobards, Burgundians, and Franks as the 
principal families of the Gothic race. In the 
latter half of the 2d century A. D. the Goths 
appear on the N. shores of the Black sea. In 
the 3d century they were in possession of the 
region N. of the lower Danube. They invaded 
the Roman territory in 237, plundered Thrace, 
and defeated the emperor Decius in 251. A few 
years later they were defeated by ^Emilianus; 
but in 262 they ravaged Greece, and in 269 in- 
vaded the Roman empire again. The emperor 
Claudius defeated them in that year at Naissus. 
In 272 they obtained possession of Dacia. They 
invaded Moasia in 332, but were repulsed. In 
366 they assisted in the revolt of Procopius ; 
but Valens defeated and drove them beyond 
the Danube. Meanwhile they had become di- 
vided into Ostrogoths and Visigoths, or East- 
ern and Western Goths. The former inhabited 
southern Russia between the Dniester and the 
Don ; the latter the territory from the lower 
Danube to the Carpathian mountains, and from 
Hungary to Bessarabia. Ermanric, who ruled 
over both bodies, came in collision with the 
Huns in 375, and was defeated by them. The 
Goths put themselves thereupon under the pro- 
tection of Valens, who assigned them a terri- 
tory in Thrace ; but reaching the provinces of 
Moesia (Bulgaria and Servia), they took pos- 
session of the country, defeated Valens in a bat- 
tle near Adrianople in 378, and ravaged Achaia 
and Pannonia. The Visigoths submitted to the 
Romans in 382 ; but the Ostrogoths continued 
their ravages several years longer, and finally 
settled in Thrace and Phrygia. Several Gothic 
tribes had already embraced the Christian faith, 
and about the year 360 Ulfilas, bishop of the 
tribes who dwelt in Moesia and Thrace, had 
translated the New Testament into the Gothic 
language. Upon the death of Theodosius, the 
barbarian nations took advantage of the dis- 
sensions of his successors to overrun the di- 
vided empire. The Huns poured in from one 
direction, while an army of Goths under Alaric 
invaded the region between the Adriatic and 
Constantinople, and subsequently marched into 
Italy and sacked Rome. (See ALARIC.) The 
Goths gradually intermingled in blood with 
the inhabitants of Italy. The Huns under At- 
tila, 600,000 barbarians of many tribes, now 
threatened Italy and entered Gaul (A. D. 451). 
They were encountered by Romans and Goths, 
combined under command of Aetius, and suf- 
terrible defeat. Theodoric, king of the 
Visigoths, was among the slain on the side of 
nans. Meanwhile Spain and southern 
France came under Gothic dominion ; and 
Odoacer, a prince of the Heruli, penetrating 
into Italy, dethroned Augnstulus, the last of 

-st-Roman emperors, and assumed the 
title of king of Italy (A. D. 476). Zeno was 
emperor of the East, and, becoming embroiled 
with the Ostrogoths under Theodoric, con- 

: to an invasion of Italy by this prince. 



Theodoric accordingly crossed the Alps, de- 
feated Odoacer, compelled from him, at Ra- 
venna, the surrender of all Italy, and put him 
to death (493). Italy had begun to prosper 
under Odoacer, and the impulse was increased 
by the new king, who reigned 33 years. Profit- 
ing by the Gothic disorders consequent upon the 
death of Theodoric in 526, Justinian sent Beli- 
sarius to Italy. He took Rome, and, gaining the 
admiration of the Goths, was invited to be their 
king. This he refused, but held the Goths in 
subjection for his master. Totila, a noble Goth, 
rebelled, and mastered southern Italy. He was 
about to destroy Rome, but, yielding to the 
remonstrance of Belisarius that it would add 
more to his honor to spare it, contented him- 
self with dispersing the inhabitants (546), and 
repeopling it before the arrival of a fresh army 
from Constantinople under Narses. Totila fell 
in battle (552), and his successor Teias suf- 
fered the same fate (553). Italy was recon- 
quered, and the Gothic monarchy founded by 
Theodoric the Great was extinguished. In 
Spain and southern France the Visigoths main- 
tained a splendid monarchy till 711, when Ro- 
deric was killed in battle against the Moors, 
who, crossing from Africa, subjugated the king- 
dom. The Goths became a cultivated and en- 
lightened people. Grotius gives them high 
commendation for moral it} 7 , integrity, love of 
justice, and good faith. There never had been 
a better administration in Italy than that of 
Theodoric. He was an Arian, but the Catholics 
were not only unmolested by him, but them- 
selves generally acknowledged that at no other 
period did their church enjoy greater prosper- 
ity. The Gothic princes and tribes were gen-, 
erally tolerant of the faith of others. They 
were also distinguished in some degree as friends 
of fine arts, science, and learning. Theodoric 
maintained overseers of works of art, whose 
duties were to guard the statues and to watch 
over the preservation of public buildings. 
These were kept in repair, and others were 
erected. The old Gothic style of architecture, 
comprising what are called transition styles 
with the rounded arch, Byzantine, Lombard, 
Norman, &c., was thus originated; a simple 
massive character of art, which must not be 
confounded with modern Gothic, which dates 
even later than the Lombards in Italy. The 
laws of the Visigoths were digested into a reg- 
ular code 50 years before the Pandects of Jus- 
tinian, who possibly borrowed the idea of a 
code from the Visi^othic princes. Theodoric 
and the Goths in Italy preserved and improved 
the Roman laws. (See CIVIL LAW, vol. iv., p. 
623.) Their form of government was absolute 
monarchy of a mixed elective and hereditary 
nature ; and it has been said of most of the 
Gothic rulers in Italy, that they made good the 
promise of Theodoric, who on ascending the 
throne said that he would strive so to rule the 
empire that the "only regret of the people 
should be that the Goths had not come at an 
earlier period." 



GOTTINGEN 



GOTTSCHALL 



127 



GOTTINGEN, a city of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince and 57 m. S. by E. of the city of Han- 
over; pop. in 1871, 15,841. It is the seat of 
a university (Georgia Augusta), which was 
founded in 1734 by King George II. of England 
and elector of Hanover, and inaugurated Sept. 
17, 1737. Through the eminence of several 
of its professors, among whom were Gesner, 
Heyne, Michaelis, and the two Eichhorns, it 
became toward the end of the century the 
most famous university in Europe. Its for- 
tunes were not materially changed until the 
foundation of the university of Berlin (1810), 
which proved a formidable rival. The stu- 
dents, however, still numbered 3,000 in 1825, 
but the political disturbances of 1831 caused a 
great diminution in the attendance, which in 
1834 was reduced to about 900. Yet the uni- 
versity could still boast of a brilliant array of 
names on its staff, among whom were Blumen- 
bach, Ewald, Mitscherlich, Muller, Gervinus, 
Heeren, and the brothers Grimm. The new 
university building was inaugurated on the day 
of its 100th anniversary in 1837, but before 
the end of the year the government expelled 
seven of the ablest professors, who had pro- 
tested against the abrogation of the Hanoverian 
constitution by King Ernest. Two of the ex- 
pelled professors, Ewald and Weber, resumed 
their functions in 1848, but Gottingen has never 
recovered from the shock which it had re- 
ceived, although it numbered in 1873 101 pro- 
fessors and 925 students. The university library 
comprises 360,000 volumes and 5,000 manu- 
scripts ; it surpasses almost all other German 
libraries in its copious collections of modern 
works, and is one of the best arranged libraries 
in Europe. The academy of sciences comprises 
sections for mathematics, natural sciences, and 
history. The Gelehrte Anzeigen, the oldest 
learned periodical in Germany, is published 
under its auspices. The museum of natural 
history contains a collection bequeathed to it 
by Blumenbach, including human skulls of na- 
tives of all quarters of the globe, a large col- 
lection of coins, and some few works of art. 
Connected with the university are seminaries 
for theology, philology, mathematics, and nat- 
ural sciences; hospitals, cliniques, and an an- 
atomical theatre; a botanical and economical 
garden, a school for veterinary surgeons, a 
chemical laboratory, a fine physiological in- 
stitution, an observatory, and an agricultural 
school. Prominent among the other educa- 
tional establishments is the industrial school of 
Wagemann. There are five Lutheran churches, 
including the university church, a Reformed 
and a Roman Catholic church, and a syna- 
gogue. The charitable institutions are numer- 
ous. The manufactures consist of cloth, wool- 
len stuff, surgical instruments, soap, leather, 
turnery, gold and silver wares, &c. 

GOTTLAND, or Gothland, an island in the Bal- 
tic, belonging to Sweden, between lat. 56 55' 
and 57 57' N. ; length about 80 m., greatest 
breadth 33 m. ; area, about 1,200 sq. m. ; pop. 
369 VOL. viii. 9 



in 1873, 54,239. The island is generally level, 
and but here and there slightly hilly. The 
climate is temperate, the mulberry and grape 
ripening in the open air. The people are chiefly 
employed in rearing cattle and fishing off the 
coast. The island possesses several good har- 
bors. The chief towns are Wisby and Slite, 
the latter protected by forts. A submarine 
telegraph connects the island with the main- 
land of Sweden. 

GOTTSCHALK, Louis Moreau, an American 
pianist and composer, born in New Orleans, 
May 8, 1829, died in Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 18, 
1869. His father was an Englishman of Ger- 
man-Jewish descent, and his mother was of 
French extraction. Louis was their eldest child, 
and gave evidences of a remarkable musical 
organization at three years of age. At six he 
took lessons on the piano and violin, and at 
twelve was sent to Paris, receiving there in- 
struction from Halle and Camille Stamaty on 
the piano and from Maleden in harmony. He 
also formed the friendship of Hector Berlioz, 
from whom he received valuable advice. His 
first appearance as a pianist was on the conti- 
nent, and it was not until Feb. 11, 1853, that 
he was heard in the United States, in concerts 
in New York and elsewhere. The class of mu- 
sic that he played and his skill made for him at 
once a widely extended reputation, and during 
his whole career he commanded the admiration 
of large and enthusiastic audiences. Although 
a composer, his published works exceeding 50 
in number, he was preeminently a pianist. His 
compositions grew out of his love for the in- 
strument, and were almost all written with a 
view to its capabilities. He seemed to have 
no grasp of musical effects except such as 
were producible upon the piano. The pieces 
on which his reputation principally rests were 
illustrative of tropical life, such as Le bananier, 
La savane, Ricordati, La marche de nuit, ma 
charmante, Le mancenillier, Reponds moi, Ojos 
criollos, and many Cuban dances. His arrange- 
ments of the compositions of others are few in 
number and of no special merit ; nor had he any 
exceptional skill as an interpreter of the works 
of other composers. He constantly played his 
own compositions, and with a sensuous charm 
that no other pianist could approach. His 
touch was one of extreme delicacy as well as 
force, and there were no difficulties of the in- 
strument that he had not mastered. The piano 
sang under his hand with wonderful expression. 
He died suddenly while at the height of his 
reputation. 

GOTTSHALL, Rudolph, a German poet and 
dramatist, born in Breslau, Sept. 30, 1823. He 
studied law at Konigsberg, where he published 
anonymously in 1842-' 3 Lieder der Gegenwart 
and Censurfluchtlinge. He was afterward ex- 
pelled from the university of Breslau on ac- 
count of a political demonstration made in his 
favor. After some time he was allowed to re- 
sume his studies in that city, but could not 
obtain a license as a professor, though he re- 






128 



GOTTSCIIED 



ceived a diploma as doctor of philosophy at 
Kdnigsberg, where he became a dramatist. 
Subsequently he resided at Hamburg, Breslau, 
and Posen, and from 1864 at Leipsic as editor 
*,-re Zeit, of Blatter fur literarische Un- 
terhaltungen, and of Der neue Plutarch (1874 
et teg ) His poetical works include OedicJite 
(1849), Die Gottin (1863), Carlo Zeno (1854), 
Neue Gedichte (1858), Kriegslieder (1871), and 
Janus: Friedens- und Kriegsgedichte (1873). 
The most renowned of his plays are the com- 
edy Pitt und Fox, the drama Mazeppa, and the 
tragedies Kaiharina Howard and Herzog Bern- 
hard von Weimar. Among his prose writings 
are Die deutsche Nationalliteratur im 19. Jahr- 
hundert (3 vols., 1853-'72), Poetik (1858), and 
Portrait und Studien (4 vols., 1870-71). 

GOTTSCHED, Jobann Christoph, a German au- 
thor, born at Judithenkirch, near Konigsberg, 
Feb. 2, 1700, died in Leipsic, Dec. 12, 1766. 
He was educated at Konigsberg, studied the- 
ology, but abandoned it for philosophy and 
belles-lettres, and was for 32 years professor 
of logic and metaphysics at Leipsic. He be- 
came president of the literary society of Leip- 
sic in 1726, held for a time a sort of literary 
dictatorship in Germany, placing purity of 
language and clearness and elegance of style 
above all other literary merits, while his op- 
ponents of the Zurich school, Bodmer and 
others, contended for originality and genius. 
He was an indefatigable author, and left trage- 
dies, translations, philosophical treatises, and 
various controversial and critical works. His 
chief merit was in contributing to make the 
German language the sole medium of instruc- 
tion, by publishing popular manuals and abridg- 
ments of scientific and philosophical works in 
the vernacular tongue. 

GOUD1, a town of the Netherlands, in the 
province of South Holland, on both banks 
of the Gouw at its junction with the Neder 
Yssel, 11 m. N. E. of Rotterdam; pop. in 
1868, 15,776. It is entered by five gates, and 
has canals through the centre of all its streets. 
It has five churches, that of St. John being 
very magnificent. The principal manufactures 
are tobacco pipes, cotton fabrics, parchment, 
leather, and white lead. 

GOUGH, Hngh, viscount, a British general, 
born at Woodstown, Ireland, Nov. 3, 1779, 
died March 2, 1869. He entered the army 
in 1794, and, after serving against the Dutch 
at the Cape of Good Hope and in the West 
Indies, in 1809 joined the British forces in 
Spain, distinguishing himself at Talavera, Ba- 
rosa, Vitoria, Nivello, &c. During the war in 
China (1841) he was commander-in-chief of 
the land forces, and for his services was made 
a baronet. Having been transferred to India 
with the supreme command, in December, 
1843, ho gained the battle of Maharajpore 
gainst the Mahrattas of Gwalior. Upon the 
taMkfoa out <.f tin- first Sikh war in 1845, he 
defeated th- i-m-my at Moodkee, Dec. 18, and 
again ut Ferozethah on the 22d. He finished 



GOUJET 

the campaign, Feb. 10, 1846, by taking the in- 
trenched camp of the Sikhs at Sobraon, though 
with terrible loss to his own troops. For these 
victories he was raised to the peerage as Baron 
Gough. His services in the second Sikh war 
(1848-'9) were characterized by bravery rather 
than generalship. At Mamnuggar an inde- 
cisive battle was fought. Another at Chillian- 
wallah (Jan. 13, 1849) came near being a de- 
feat; but after a severe struggle the British 
remained masters of the field, though with the 
loss of nearly 2,500 men. On Feb. 21 Gough 
completely routed the Sikhs at the town of 
Guzerat. News of the dearly bought victory of 
Chillianwallah having reached England, Gough 
was superseded in the command of the In- 
dian army by Sir Charles Napier. The vete- 
ran, however, was raised to the additional rank 
of viscount in acknowledgment of his bravery 
and long service, was thanked by parliament, 
and a pension of 2,000 was settled upon him- 
self and his two next successors. He was 
made field marshal in 1862, and at his death 
was commander of the forces. 

GOUGH, John B., an American orator, born at 
Sandgate, England, Aug. 22, 1817. He came 
to America in 1829, and soon after became a 
bookbinder's apprentice in New York. He be- 
came intemperate, and was accustomed to sing 
and recite in grog shops, where his powers 
of mimicry and action made him a favorite. 
He fell into great poverty, but about 1840 took 
the temperance pledge, and soon began to lec- 
ture on temperance, both in America and Eng- 
land. In time he added other subjects, and 
became a very popular orator. In November, 
1873, he recited one of his orations in New 
York, announcing that this would probably 
be his last public appearance in that city. 
He has published his autobiography (1846), 
and a volume of orations (1854). He resides 
near Worcester, Mass. 

GOUGH, Richard, an English antiquary, born 
in London, Oct. 21, 1735~ died Feb. 20, 1809. 
He was a fellow of the royal society, .and for 
many years director of the society of anti- 
quaries, of which he wrote a history, and to 
whose Archceologia he was a frequent contrib- 
utor. Among his works are enumerated an 
edition of Camden's Britannia, the valuable 
additions to which were the fruit of many 
excursions through England, Scotland, and 
Wales; "Anecdotes of British Topography" 
(4to, 1768; enlarged, 2 vols. 4to, 1780); and 
" Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain " (3 
or 5 vols. fol., !786-'96). 

GOUJET, Claude Pierre, a French author, born 
in Paris, Oct. 19, 1C 97, died there, Feb. 1, 
1767. He was educated at a college of Jesuits, 
entered the order of Oratorians, and proved 
a zealous Jansenist. His labors as historian, 
compiler, and critic injured his health during 
his later years; he lost his sight, and was 
obliged to sell his library. Of his many works 
the ^following are the most important: Billi- 
otheque des ecrivaim eccUsiastiques (3 vols., 



GOUJON 



GOULD 



129 



1736) ; Dissertations sur Vetat des sciences en 
France depuis la mart de Charlemagne jusqu'a 
celle du roi Robert (1737) ; Histoire du ponti- 
ficat de Paul V. ; Bibliotheque francaise, ou 
Histoire litteraire de la France (18 vols. 12mo., 
1740-'59) ; Memoire Jiistorique et litteraire 
sur le college royal de France (4to, 1758) ; 
and Memoires historiques et litteraires (1767). 
He edited Richelet's Dictionnaire, and Moreri's 
Dictionnaire historique. 

GOUJON, Jean, a French sculptor, born in Pa- 
ris about 1515, said to have been killed there on 
St. Bartholomew's day, Aug. 24, 1572. Little 
is known of his life until 1541, when he was 
employed at Paris in producing the beautiful 
sculptures of the rood loft of St. Germain- 
1'Auxerrois, and at Rouen in the cathedral and 
in the church of St. Maclou. In 1548 Henry 
II. employed him in decorating the chateau of 
Anet, which he was building for his mistress, 
Diana of Poitiers. There he produced the 
celebrated group, now belonging to the Louvre, 
of Diana and the stag. Another huntress 
Diana by him is in the chateau of Malmaison. 
In 1550 the fontaine des innocents was com- 
menced in the rue St. Denis; it was trans- 
ported in 1788 to the square which it now 
adorns. He was also employed as an architect 
on the old Louvre. Several of his best works 
are still extant. See (Euvres de Jean Goujon, 
with 90 outline plates by Reveil (Paris, 1844). 

GOULBURN, a city of New South Wales, Aus- 
ia, in Argyle co., near the junction of the 

Iwarree ponds and Wollondilly river, on 
the Great Southern railway, 120 m. S. W. of 
Sydney ; pop. about 3,500. It is the seat of 
an Anglican and a Roman Catholic bishop. 
Prominent among the public buildings are 
several churches, the hospital, the mechanics' 
institute, the court house, and the jail. The 
progress of the town has thus far been chiefly 
due to agriculture ; but in its vicinity are found 
gold, copper, and other metals, and marble. 
Goulburn was made a city in 1865. In 1872 it 
had three newspapers. 

GOULBURN, Edward Meyrich, an English cler- 

man, born in 1818. He was educated at 
ton, and at Balliol college, Oxford, became 
fellow of Merton college in 1841, and for a 
number of years was a tutor in the university, 
being at the same time incumbent of Holywell, 
Oxford. In 1850 he was elected head master 
of Rugby school, and in 1858 became minister 
of Quebec chapel and prebendary of St. Paul's, 
London. He was also appointed one of the 
chaplains in ordinary to the queen and incum- 
bent of St. John's, Paddington, and in 1866 
was made dean of Norwich. Dean Goulburn 
is a voluminous and popular writer. Among 
his chief works are : " The Doctrine of the 
Resurrection of the Body " (Bampton lectures, 
1850) ; " Principles of the Cathedral System 
Vindicated;" "Thoughts on Personal Reli- 
gion," with a sequel on the "Pursuit of Holi- 
ness;" "Sermons in Norwich" (1870); and 
"The Holy Catholic Church " (1873). 



had 

E 



GOULD, Angnstns Addison, an American nat- 
uralist, born in New Ipswich, N. H., April 23, 
1805, died in Boston, Sept. 15, 1866. His 
father's family name was Duren, which was 
changed to that of Gould. He graduated at 
Harvard college in 1825, took his medical de- 
gree in 1830, and commenced practice in Bos- 
ton. During his college life he devoted his 
spare moments to the study of natural history; 
in the early part of his professional career he 
lectured frequently on scientific subjects, and 
for two years gave instruction in botany and 
zoology at Harvard college. In 1855 he deliv- 
ered the annual discourse before the Massachu- 
setts medical society, and in 1856 received the 
appointment of visiting physician to the Mas-, 
sachusetts general hospital. He was an accom- 
plished naturalist, and in the department of 
conchology stood preeminent both at home and 
abroad. His principal published works are: a 
translation of Lamarck's " Genera of Shells " 
(1833) ; " System of Natural History " (1833) ; 
" The Invertebrate Animals of Massachusetts " 
(1841); "Principles of Zoology," with Prof. 
Agassiz (1848) ; " Mollusca and Shells of the 
United States Exploring Expedition under 
Capt. Wilkes" (4to, 1852, with an atlas of 
plates); the completion of Dr. A. Binney's 
"Land Mollusks of the United States" (3 vols. 
4to, 1851-'5) ; " The Mollusca of the North 
Pacific Expedition under Capts. Ringgold and 
Rogers" (1860); and " Otia Conchologica " 
(1863). He was also a frequent contributor to 
scientific and literary periodicals. 

GOULD, Benjamin Apthorp, an American as- 
tronomer, born in Boston, Sept. 27, 1824. Af- 
ter graduating at Harvard college (1844), he 
went to Gottingen, where he pursued his math- 
ematical and astronomical studies under Gauss, 
and took his degree in 1848. He was for some 
time an assistant in the observatory at Altona 
with Schumacher and Petersen. After visiting 
many of the chief observatories of Europe and 
spending some time at each, he returned to 
America, and was employed in the United 
States coast survey, having charge of the lon- 
gitude determinations, the telegraphic methods 
of which he very greatly improved. In 1866 
he made the first determinations of transatlan- 
tic longitude by telegraph cable. In 1856 he 
was appointed director of the Dudley observa- 
tory at' Albany, and superintended its building 
and arrangement in 1857- 1 8. His occupancy 
of this post ended in January, 1859, owing to 
a disagreement with the trustees of the insti- 
tution, which led to a prolonged and painful 
conflict, carried on through pamphlets and the 
public press. A committee of scientific men 
subsequently justified the action of Prof. Gould 
in the matters leading to this misunderstand- 
ing. In 1868 he was appointed to organize 
and direct the national observatory of the Ar- 
gentine Republic at Cordova. After ordering 
the instruments in Europe and erecting the 
building at Cordova, he began work therewith 
four assistants in 1870. Since that time he has 



130 



GOULD 



completed a set of maps of the stars visible 
with the naked eye from his observatory, with 
their positions and magnitudes, and afterward 
undertook a series of zone observations of 
southern stars. Up to April 15, 1874, the great 
number of 83,000 stars had been observed. 
Prof. Gould's principal works are: "Report 
on the Discovery of the Planet Neptune " 
(Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1850); 
" Investigation of the Orbit of Comet V." 
(Washington, 1847); "Discussions of Obser- 
vations made by the United States Astrono- 
mical Expedition to Chili, to determine the 
Solar Parallax" (Washington, 1856); "Dis- 
cussion on the Statistics of the United States 
Sanitary Commission ;" and the charts of stars 
already named, with others of scarcely less im- 
portance. In 1849 he founded at Cambridge, 
Mass., the "Astronomical Journal," the ex- 
penses of which were long borne by himself 
and a few friends. He continued to conduct 
it until its suspension in 1861. 

GOULD, Hannah Flagg, an American poetess, 
born at Lancaster, Mass., in 1789, died at 
Newburyport, Sept. 5, 1865. She was a fre- 
quent contributor to periodical literature, and 
published a volume of poems in 1832, a second 
in 1836, and a third in 1841. Her other books 
are : " Gathered Leaves," a collection of prose 
sketches (1846); "The Diosma," containing 
original and selected poems (1850) ; " The 
Youth's Coronal" (1851); "The Mother's 
Dream, and other Poems" (1853); and 
"Hymns and Poems for Children" (1854). 

GOULD, John, an English naturalist, born in 
Lyme, Dorsetshire, Sept. 14, 1804. Between 
the ages of 14 and 20 he resided at the royal 
gardens at Windsor, studying the habits of 
birds and collecting specimens. He was after- 
ward engaged to prepare specimens for the 
museum of the London zoological society, and 
published " A Century of Birds from the Him- 
alayan Mountains," with illustrations by his 
wife (fol., London, 1832). He next published 
"The Birds of Europe " (1832-7). In 1838 
he went to Australia, where he resided two 
years, collecting materials for his "Birds of 
Australia," also illustrated by his wife (7 vols. 
fol., 1842-'8), and for the " Mammals of Aus- 
tralia" (1845-'59). His "Monograph of the 
Trochilida " (fol., 1850) was suggested by his 
unrivalled collection of humming birds, of 
which he had procured 2,000 specimens, illus- 
trating 320 species. Among his remaining 




Monograph of the Macropodid, or Family of 
Kangaroos" (1841-'2) ; "Monograph of the 
Odontophorinre, or Partridges of America" 
(1844-'50) ; a supplement to the " Birds of 
Australia," containing species recently discov- 
ered ; and a " Handbook to the Birds of Aus- 
tralia," giving all the information on the sub- 
ject to the close of 1865. In 1873 he was pre- 
paring works on Asiatic and on British birds. 



GOUR 

GOUNOD, Charles Francois, a French composer, 
born in Paris, June 17, 1818. He studied 
counterpoint at the Paris conservatory under 
Hal6vy, receiving also instructions in composi- 
tion from Lesueur and Paer. In 1837 he re- 
ceived the second prize of the institute, and in 
1839 *he obtained the first premium for his 
cantata Fernand. In consequence of this suc- 
cess he became privileged to pursue his train- 
ing at Rome at the government expense, and 
there devoted himself to ecclesiastical mu- 
sic. In 1843 he visited Vienna, where he pro- 
cured the performance, in the church of St. 
Paul, of a mass for voices only, in the style of 
Palestrina. Returning to Paris, he was appoint- 
ed musical director at the church of the Mis- 
sions Etrangeres. Here he adopted the mo- 
nastic garb, and remained in obscurity till 1851. 
On April 16, 1851, he produced unsuccessfully 
his first opera, entitled Sappho. In 1852 some 
choruses, written for M. Ponsard's classical 
tragedy Ulysse, were performed at the Theatre 
Francais. In October, 1854, La nonne san- 
glante, a grand opera, was performed unsuccess- 
fully, as was in 1858 an attempt at comic opera, 
consisting of a musical setting of Moliere's 
Medecin malgre lui. On March 19, 1859, was- 
produced at the Theatre Lyrique the work on 
which Gounod's reputation chiefly rests, Faust. 
This was succeeded by Philemon et Baucis, a 
three-act opera ; La reine de Sala, a grand 
opera ; Mirella, an Italian version of the French 
Mireille ; and Romeo e Oiulietta. In addition 
to these works, he has composed masses, 
psalms, and motets, for single and double cho- 
rus. Among the most praiseworthy of his 
compositions of this class are his " St. Cecilia 
Mass " and a setting of the psalm "By. the 
Waters of Babylon." Of late years he has 
lived principally in London. 

GOUR, Ganr, or Lneknonti, a ruined city of 
Bengal, British India, 179 m. N. of Calcutta. 
Its remains are spread over a range of low 
hills which extend along the E. bank of the 
Bhagruttee, and cover a space 7 m. long (15 
m. including suburban villages) by 2 or 3 m. 
broad. Many of the buildings have been de- 
molished for the sake of the bricks of which 
they were constructed, but several grand edi- 
fices are still standing. Of these the most 
remarkable are a mosque, built of brick, and 
lined with a kind of black porphyry, a curious 
building faced with bricks of various colors, an 
obelisk 100 ft. high, numerous reservoirs, and 
two lofty gates of the citadel. Several villages 
have grown up on part of the site, and the rest 
is mainly covered with forests or is under cul- 
tivation. The earliest record of Gour dates 
from 648, when it was governed by indepen- 
dent chieftains. At the beginning of the 13th 
century it was taken by an officer of the vice- 
roy of Delhi under Shahal ud-Din, monarch 
of Ghore in Afghanistan; and in 1212 it be- 
came the capital of Bengal, an eminence which 
it retained, except during an interval of about 
50 years previous to 1409, until the British 



GOURD 



GOURGAUD 



131 



gained possession of the district in the 18th 
century. Its decline, however, began about 
1574, when Monaim Khan, commander of 
\kbar's troops, captured it and made it the 
3at of an independent power, but in a few 
lonths fell a victim, with nearly all his troops, 
3 the deadly climate. No cause lias since con- 
ributed so much to its decay as the diversion 
)f the Ganges from its former to its present 
lannel, 4 or 5 m. distant, in the 17th century. 
GOURD (Fr. gourde, a swelling), a name ap- 
)lied in Europe to plants of the order cucurbi- 
aceas in general, but restricted in the United 
States to the lagenaria, the hard shell of which 
put to various domestic uses. To the gourd 
mily belong the pumpkin, squash, watermel- 
i, cucumber, muskmelon, and several others 
jultivated for ornament or known as weeds, 
members of the family are succulent ten- 
ril-bearing herbs with a watery juice ; alter- 
,te and palmately ribbed, lobed, or Dangled 
ives, and monoecious, sometimes dioecious 




Common Gourd (Lagenaria vuigaris). 

>wers; the calyx coherent with the ovary 
ower superior) ; corolla mostly monopetalous; 
e stamens are usually three and singularly 
ntorted and united ; the fruit generally fleshy, 
t sometimes with a hard shell when ripe, 
e common gourd, bottle or calabash gourd, 
jenaria vulgaris, is a native of Asia and Af- 
ca; it climbs to a great distance, and has 
my, unpleasantly scented leaves. The 
lie flowers are on long stalks, white with 
enish veins ; the fertile on short stalks, and 
roducing a fruit that varies much in shape, 
"le commonest form is shaped like a water 
ttle with a large base and a swollen handle ; 
e rind of this when ripe is very hard and 
oody. By making an opening at the place 
here the stem joins the fruit and removing 
ie contents, it makes, after soaking to re- 
move the bitterness, an excellent water bottle. 
With an opening in the side it is a convenient 
er; and when sawed in two across the 



larger part, the lower portion forms a dish, 
while the upper serves as a funnel. A variety 
is known at the west as sugar-trough gourd, 
the large flattened-spherical shell of which will 
hold several gallons. Hercules' s club or Cali- 
fornia gourd produces a fruit sometimes 5 or 
6 ft. long. Under the name of ornamental or 
fancy gourds several, mostly species of cucur- 
lita, are grown for their small, handsomely 
marked, and variously shaped fruit. (See 
PUMPKIN, and SQUASH.) 

GOURGAUD, Gaspard, baron, a French general, 
born in Versailles, Sept. 14, 1783, died July 
26, 1852. He studied at the polytechnic 
school, and at that of Chalons, entered the 
army in 1802, and fought in the campaigns of 
Germany (1805-'6), of Poland (1807), of Spain 
(1808), and again in Germany (1809). Sent to 
Dantzic in 1811 to examine the strength of its 
fortifications, his reports gained the favor of 
Napoleon, whom he accompanied to Russia in 
1812. He was wounded at Smolensk ; at Mos- 
cow he prevented an explosion of 5,000 cwt. 
of gunpowder stored in the Kremlin, and was 
rewarded with the title of baron. On the re- 
treat he proved his bravery at the passage of 
the Beresina. He was first officier Cordon- 
nance to Napoleon during the campaign in 
Saxony in 1813, where after the battle of 
Leipsic he saved the corps of Oudinot by de- 
laying the command of Napoleon to destroy 
the bridge of Freiberg. After the battle of 
Brienne in the campaign of 1814, he saved Na- 
poleon at Mezieres from a troop of Cossacks, 
one of whom was already aiming his lance at 
the emperor. After the fall of Napoleon he 
was well treated by the Bourbons, on whose 
flight he joined the emperor (1815). Made 
general after the battle of Fleurus, he was 
among the last on the battle field of Waterloo, 
followed Napoleon to Malmaison and Roche- 
fort, and carried his letter to the prince regent 
of England. Chosen one of the three who were 
allowed to follow the emperor in his exile, he 
lived three years at St. Helena, but left the 
island in consequence of illness and misunder- 
standings, went to England, and tried in vain 
to interest the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle and 
Maria Louisa in favor of the emperor. In 
1821 he was allowed to return to France, 
where a legacy from Napoleon enabled him 
to live independently, though deprived of his 
titles. Together with Gen. Montholon he pub- 
lished the Memoires de Napoleon d Sainte- 
Helene (8 vols., London, 1823). His Examen 
critique (1825) of Segur's "History of the 
Grand Army " caused a duel between the two 
generals, and was followed by a sharp contro- 
versy with Sir Walter Scott, who accused him 
of having compromised his master at St. He- 
lena. Under Louis Philippe he was made peer 
of France, and in 1840 accompanied the duke 
de Joinville on his voyage to St. Helena, to 
bring the remains of Napoleon to Paris. In 
1849 he was elected to the legislative assembly, 
where he voted with the conservatives. 



132 



GOURGUES 



GOURGrES, Dominique de, a French adventurer, 
born at Mmit-di-Marsan, Gascony, about 1530, 
died in Tours about 1693. He served in the 
war with Spain, was taken prisoner in Italy 
and put in chains in the galleys, was captured 
with the vessel by the Turks, and recaptured 
by the knights of Malta. He afterward made 
voyages to Africa, Brazil, and the East. In 
1567 he sailed from Bordeaux, with three small 
vessels equipped with 100 arquebusiers and 80 
sailors, to avenge the massacre of the French 
colonists in Florida by the Spaniards under 
Menendez. He landed at St. Mary's river, made 
an alliance with an Indian chief, who joined 
him with 300 savages, captured Fort San Mateo 
on the St. John's river, and two other forts, 
slaughtered most of the garrisons, and hung 
his prisoners on the same trees on which the 
French had suffered. Menendez had placed 
over his victims the inscription, " Not as to 
Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans;" and Gour- 
gues retaliated by putting over the Spaniards 
whom he executed, " Not as to Spaniards, but 
as to traitors, robbers, and murderers." On 
his return to France his surrender was de- 
manded by the Spanish ambassador, but he 
found asylum among his friends at Rouen, 
and lived in obscurity for many years. When 
Queen Elizabeth of England, hearing of his mis- 
fortunes, invited him to enter her service, the 
French king restored him to favor. Shortly 
before his death Dom Antonio of Portugal ap- 
pointed him commander of his fleet against 
Philip II. An account of his expedition to Flor- 
ida was published by Basanier, Voyage du capi- 
taine Qourgues dans la Floride (4to, 1586). 
Parkman's "Pioneers of France in the New 
World" (1865) has a full account of Gourgues. 

GorsSLT, Thomas Marie Joseph, a French pre- 
late, born at Montigny-les-Cherlieux, Haute- 
8a6ne, May 1, 1792, died in Rheims, Dec. 24, 
1866. He was the son of a peasant, and labor- 
ed in the field until his 17th year. In 1817 he 
was ordained priest, and after a brief interval 
was appointed professor of moral theology in 
the seminary of Besancon, where he remained 
for 17 years. In 1825 he published Exposition 
de la doctrine de Vfigliae sur le pret a interet, 
which showed that he was far in advance of 
the common opinion regarding usury. Other 
writings on the relations between the civil 
code and moral theology brought him to the 
notice of the government ; and in 1835 he was 
made bishop of Perigueux, and in 1836 arch- 
bishop of Rheims. In 1850 he was created 
a cardinal and senator of France. Through- 
out his citreor ho never forgot his humble 
origin, and delighted to have his aged father, 
chid in his homely peasant's garb, placed con- 
pkmonily in a seat of honor near himself in 
the services of his cathedral. His most re- 
markable works are Theologie dogmatique (2 
vols. 8vo, 1844 ; 8th ed., 1856), and Theoloqie 
morale (2 vols. 8vo, 1848; 12th ed., 1862), 
which are to be found in almost every priest's 
library on both sides of the Atlantic. 



GOUT 

GOUT, a painful disease affecting principally 
the fibrous tissues about the smaller joints, and 
intimately connected with an excess of uric 
acid and its compounds in the blood. Various 
names have been given according to the part 
affected, as podagra when in the feet, chiragra 
when in the hands, &c. ; but all such, and 
probably many cases of neuralgia accompanied 
by oxalic deposits in the urine, are mere forms 
of one disease. A common attack of acute 
gout is generally preceded by uneasiness, indi- 
gestion, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, 
biliary derangement, dull pains or numbness in 
the parts to be affected, often with feverish 
symptoms ; but in some cases, on the contra- 
ry, the disease comes on in the midst of appa- 
rent health and well-being, and occasionally at 
night during refreshing sleep. In most cases it 
makes itself known by an acute pain in the me- 
tatarso-phalangeal joint of the great toe; dif- 
ferent sufferers compare this to the sensations 
produced by the contact of a drop of cold 
water, or of cold or heated metal, or by twist- 
ing, dislocation, or laceration, as by a nail or 
wedge driven into the foot ; this is accompa- 
nied by feverish symptoms, urinary sediment, 
extreme tenderness, restlessness, involuntary 
muscular contractions, sleeplessness, and per- 
spiration ; the affected joint is swollen, red, 
and hot. This series of symptoms may last 
four or five days, to be followed after a day 
or two by three or four others, continuing in 
all from two to three weeks ; the severity 
of the attack, its persistence, its seat, and its 
metastases vary according to circumstances. 
This first warning past, the luxurious epicure 
may not receive another, even if he persist in 
his indulgences, for months, or perhaps years ; 
but the second comes, and the third, and so on, 
the intervals between the attacks becoming 
less ; though the pain be less severe, the joints 
are more discolored and swollen, with O3dema 
and chalky deposits in their neighborhood; 
and by a sudden retrocession toward the inter- 
nal vital organs, life may be seriously threat- 
ened. When gout becomes chronic the attacks 
are more irregular, less severe, more frequent 
and sudden, leaving one joint for another after 
slight exposure to cold and moisture, excess at 
table, or vivid emotions ; in this form, the con- 
tinuance of the pain and the fear of injuring 
the gouty joints render its subjects cross, fret- 
ful, and disagreeable, though persons thus af- 
fected are often able to devote themselves to 
serious study and important private and pub- 
lic business. The pathology of gout reduces 
itself chiefly to the abnormal presence of 
uric acid in the blood, and to the deposit 
of urate of soda in the fibrous tissue around 
the joints and sheaths of tendons. Gout is 
rare before the age of 20, and men of robust 
constitution and of a mixed sanguine and bil- 
ious temperament are far more liable to it 
than females ; it may be inherited, and seems 
independent of climate except so far as it in- 
fluences the diet of a people, the northern races 



GOUT 



GOVERNOR'S ISLAND 



133 



ing generally less temperate in the use of 
stimulating food and drinks than southern na- 
tions. A life of indolent sensuality, amid the 
excitements and passions of civilization in cities, 
and the use of highly seasoned animal food 
with alcoholic stimulants, are the predisposing 
causes to this disease. A person may have 
a gouty diathesis, and die from the evils arising 
from it, without having experienced what is 
popularly understood as a "fit of the gout;" 
the gout poison (uric acid) may be eliminated 
from the blood in any organ rich in fibrous 
tissue, and from recent researches it would 
seem that many cases of neuralgia (sciatica 
and hemicrania), lithiasis, and oxaluria, with 
oxalate of lime deposits in the urine, are symp- 
toms of the same morbific action, and excess of 
uric acid in the blood either from over pro- 
duction or accumulation ; the habits and man- 
ner of life, the tissues most affected, and the 
peculiar urinary deposit, indicate the identity 
of the above forms of disease, and the pro- 
priety of the same treatment in all. Organic 
chemistry teaches that in the gouty diathesis, 
with excess of urates and oxalates, there is a 
deficiency of oxygen in the system ; hence the 
uric acid may remain unchanged, or may be 
oxidized only into oxalic acid, the later remain- 
ing as such instead of undergoing further oxi- 
dation and being converted into carbonic acid 
and urea, in which forms it can be removed 
from the organism. We find gout attacking 
the upper ranks of society, who indulge in a 
highly nitrogenous diet, which tends to pro- 
duce uric acid in excess, even though the nor- 
mal quantity should be duly eliminated, and 
the disease assumes the form of urate of soda 
deposits in the joints ; in .the lower classes, 
consuming less animal and stimulating food, and 
taking in more oxygen from their daily exercise, 
the uric acid becomes the oxalic, and the gouty 
diathesis manifests itself in neuralgia with ox- 
,te of lime in abundance in the urine. By 
any authors rheumatism is considered closely 
allied to gout; and accordingly cases of the 
latter disease affecting especially fibrous tissues 
are sometimes called rheumatic gout, a patho- 
logical hybrid as absurd and impossible as scar- 
latinic measles would be, as Dr. Garrod has 
clearly shown ; a gouty person may have also 
rheumatism, but the two diseases are distinct 
and cannot pass the one into the other, the 
former having as a prominent character an 
excess of uric, and the latter of lactic acid. 
There are few diseases which have more em- 
pirical remedies extolled for their cure than 
gout ; almost every drastic purgative, diuretic, 
tonic, and narcotic has been pressed into the 
service, either for external or internal use. To 
say nothing here of soothing topical applica- 
tions, colchicum has enjoyed, and deservedly, 
a great reputation in the treatment of gout 
and neuralgia, between the attacks and in their 
chronic forms ; it is most efficacious when it 
acts upon the skin and bowels. The acetate 
of potash and other alkalies are in favor with 



uia 

? 



many, both for their diuretic property and as 
alkalizing the acid in the blood and urine. Ni- 
tre-muriatic acid has been found of advantage 
for supplying the oxygen necessary for the 
conversion of the uric into oxalic acid, and 
the latter into carbonic acid and urea. The 
judicious use of purgatives, abstinence from 
highly nitrogenous food and stimulating drinks, 
attention to hygienic rules, and avoiding expo- 
sure to dampness, cold, and fatigue of body or 
mind, are absolutely necessary as aids in the 
treatment of this disease: 

GOIJVION SAINT-CYR, Laurent, a French mar- 
shal, born in Toul, April 13, 1764, died at 
Hyeres, March 17, 1830. He studied the fine 
arts, and in 1792 enlisted among the volunteers 
who marched to the invaded frontier. Being 
elected captain by his companions, he was at- 
tached to the staff of Gen. Custine, and in the 
course of a year rose to the rank of general of 
division. In 1796 he commanded a division of 
the army on the Rhine under Moreau. In 1798 
he was sent to Rome to reestablish discipline 
in the army, which had nearly revolted against 
Masse'na, and succeeded. After the 18th Bru- 
maire he again served under Moreau, and de- 
feated Kray at Biberach (May 9, 1800). In 

1801 he was sent as ambassador to Spain, and in 

1802 commanded the French army of observa- 
tion in southern Italy. He was too indepen- 
dent in his conduct and sentiments to please 
Napoleon, who assigned him to employment 
which gave him no opportunity of gaining dis- 
tinction. In 1808 he was sent to Catalonia, 
and relieved Barcelona in spite of the scanty 
resources placed at his disposal ; but dissatisfied 
with the treatment he received, he sent in his 
resignation and left his post without waiting for 
his successor. This being considered a breach 
of discipline, he was cashiered and ordered to 
his country seat, where he remained for two 
years in a kind of imprisonment. In 1811 he 
was called back to service, in 1812 commanded a 
corps in the great army which invaded Russia, 
and defeated Prince "Wittgenstein at Polotzk on 
the Dtina, Aug. 17-18 ; for this victory he was 
made a marshal. During 1813 he made a heroic 
stand at Dresden, signing at last an honorable 
capitulation, which however was not sanctioned 
by Prince Sch warzenberg, and he and his troops 
were sent prisoners to Austria. He consequently 
took no part in the events which marked the 
fall of the empire. He gave in his adhesion to 
the Bourbons, and on the second restoration 
became minister of war under Talleyrand, and 
again in 1817. He retired in 1819, and devoted 
his leisure to the preparation of his Memoires 
(8 vols., 1829-'31). 

GOVERNOR'S ISLAND, a fortified post of the 
United States, lying in New York harbor, at 
the entrance of East river, about m. S. of 
the Battery, and separated from Brooklyn by 
Buttermilk channel. It is about a mile in cir- 
cumference, and contains Castle William, Fort 
Columbus, and South battery, the last com- 
manding the entrance to Buttermilk channel. 



134 



GOWER 



GOWER, John, an English poet, born, accord- 
ing to tradition, in Yorkshire, though some 
authorities make him a native of Kent or of 
. about 1325, died in 1408. He was a 
gentleman of considerable estate, and appears 
to have studied law and to have contracted a 
friendship with Chaucer. It has been said, 
hut on insufficient proof, that he attained the 
dignity of chief justice of the court of common 
pleas. Like Chaucer he was a Lancastrian, 
and like him also a censurer of the vices of the 
clergy. Chaucer dedicates his "Troilus and 
Cressida" to Gower, calling him "moral 
Gower," and the latter in his Confessio Aman- 
tis introduces Venus calling Chaucer "my 
disciple and my poete." Gower's chief works 
are the Speculum Meditantis, a treatise on the 
duties of married life, in French verse, in ten 
books; the Vox Clamantis, a poem in seven 
books, describing in Latin elegiacs the insur- 
rection of the commons under Richard II.; 
and the Confessio Amantis, an English poem 
in eight books, said to have been written at 
the suggestion of Richard II. Of these works 
the first is supposed to have perished, the sec- 
ond exists in manuscript copies, and the third, 
which was finished about 1393, was first pub- 
lished by Caxton in 1483. A new edition, with 
the life of the author and a glossary, by Dr. 
Reinhold Pauli, appeared in London in 1857 
(3 vols. 8vo). Some smaller poems of no great 
merit are preserved in manuscript in the libra- 
ry of Trinity college, Cambridge ; and Warton 
discovered in the library of the marquis of 
Stafford a volume of lalades in French, which 
was printed in 1818 by Lord Gower for the 
Roxburghe club. Gower is known chiefly by 
his Confessio Amantis, which was undoubt- 
edly suggested by Chaucer's English poems. 
Hallam says: "He is always sensible, pol- 
ished, perspicuous, and not prosaic in the 
worst sense of the word." In his latter years 
he was blind. 

GOYA, a city of the Argentine Republic, in 
the province and 100 m. S. of the city of Cor- 
rientes, on a email river of the same name, 
near its junction with the Parana ; pop. in 
1869, 10,907, of whom only 1,839 were able to 
read. It is situated in a low, flat district, 
which in the rainy season is converted into a 
vast marsh. The city was founded in 1807, 
and considerably enlarged in 1850. Its indus- 
try is chiefly connected with cattle rearing. 

GOYAMA, a city of Brazil, in the province 
of Pernambuco, on the river Goyanna, here 
crossed by two bridges, 1,200 m. N. N. E. of Rio 
de Janeiro ; pop. about 9,000. There are sev- 
eral churches, a convent, a tannery, and public 
stores. A cattle fair is held weekly. The 
port, large and spacious, with sufficient depth 
f water for coasting craft, is 9 m. from the 
sea. The surrounding country is fertile, and 
in a high state of cultivation. The chief com- 
merce is in cotton, sugar, rum, hides, timber, 
fancy woods, and castor oil, which are gene- 
rally sent to the port of Recife. 



GOYAZ 

GOYAZ. I. A central province of Brazil, ly- 
ing between lat. 6 and 21 5' S., and Ion. 44 
35' and 50 58' W. ; area, 284,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
about 151,000, besides about 12,000 indepen- 
dent Indians. It comprises the basin of the 
Tocantins above its junction with the Ara- 
guay, and the E. portion of the basin of the 
latter river, together with nearly the whole of 
the N. side of the basin of the Paranahyba. 
The surface is generally mountainous. The 
Cordilheira Grande traverses it from the ex- 
treme north to about lat. 16 S., where it 
unites with the Montes Pyrenees, the culmi- 
nating point of which, Goyaz, has an elevation 
of about 9,500 ft. Several sierras extend 
from S. to N., forming for the most part the 
E. boundary, and with the Cordilheira Grande 
and the Pyrenees encircling the basin of the 
Tocantins. The main ranges are intersected 
by numerous subsidiary ones, from which the 
country slopes gradually down to the sea level. 
The geological structure is imperfectly known. 
It has been appropriately described as " a met- 
amorphic island in a sea of sandstone, the 
sandstones having been swept away from the 
greater part of the river basins, leaving irregu- 
lar metamorphic rocks exposed." The great 
plains and valleys lying between the mountains 
are watered by numerous rivers, among which 
is the Tocantins ; this, formed by the union of 
the Maranhao and the Paranatinga, flows N". 
to its confluence with the Araguay, in the N". 
corner of the province, receiving in its course 
many considerable affluents. The Araguay, 
which belongs only in part to the province, is 
much larger than the Tocantins, and hence is 
properly the main stream, and is navigable for 
steamers, which run to Pard (Belem), at the 
mouth of the Amazon. Gold is found in 
many parts, the neighborhood of the capital 
being especially auriferous. Diamonds and 
other precious stones have been discovered in 
various places. The country is generally open, 
although there is an extensive forest tract ly- 
ing near the capital. The lowlands are not 
well fitted for cultivation ; but the highlands 
are fertile, producing millet, mandioca, rice, 
and a small species of beans. Cotton, coffee, 
and tobacco are produced ; the grape flourish- 
es, affording two vintages in the year. Mel- 
ons, bananas, oranges, &c., abound. The vanil- 
la bean, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, and senna grow 
spontaneously. Palms are numerous, especial- 
ly the beautiful species known as the ~buriti, 
from the fruit of which is produced a bever- 
age resembling wine. A considerable part of 
the province is especially adapted for grazing, 
and there are many cattle, horses, and swine. 
Wild animals and birds, especially macaws and 
parrots, are numerous. II. A city, capital of 
the province, on the river Vermalho, in lat. 16 
20' S., Ion. 50 W., about 600 m. N. W. of Rio 
de Janeiro ; pop. about 8,500. It is very nearly 
in the centre of Brazil, being almost equidis- 
tant from Para, Porto Alegre, and the fron- 
tiers of Peru and Uruguay. The site is uneven, 



GOZO 



GRAAL 



135 



t the streets are regularly laid out, although 
ill paved. Most of the houses are built with 
mud walls. The principal edifices are the gov- 
ernor's palace, the house of legislation, the 
prison, and the municipal slaughter house. 
One of the churches has a fine exterior. The 
river is here crossed by two handsome bridges. 
There is very little trade. The climate is sa- 
lubrious, but in summer the heat is excessive. 
The town was founded in 1736, and was then 
called Santa Anna. It was incorporated as a 
city in 1739, when it received its present name 

Goyaz, or, in full, Villa Boa de Goyaz. 

GOZO. See MALTA. 

GOZZI, Carlo, count, an Italian dramatist, 
born in Venice about 1720, died April 4, 1806. 
He early published some poetry, but was 
obliged to enlist in the army owing to pecuni- 
ary embarrassment. After three years he re- 
turned to Venice, and became the most witty 
member of the Granalleschi society, which 
was devoted to learning and also to convivial 
and burlesque purposes. He began to ridicule 
the plays of the abbate Cliiari, and ended by 
attacking those of Goldoni, against whom he 
directed his satire La tartana degli influssi 
per Tanno Mssestile 1757, which made him 
famous. His dramatic pieces, based on fairy 
tales, were for a time exceedingly popular, es- 
pecially Turandote, which Schiller adapted to 
the German stage. He afterward wrote trage- 
dies. He published a complete edition of his 
plays in 12 vols. (Venice, 1791). Werthes trans- 
lated his plays into German (5 vols., Bern, 
1795), and Streckfuss prepared a German ver- 
sion of his fairy tales (Berlin, 1805). He face- 
tiously gave to his autobiography the title of 
Memorie inutili della vita di Carlo Gozzi (3 
vols., Venice, 1797). His brother GASPARO 
(1713-'86) was a voluminous writer in prose 
and verse, but is best remembered as the author 
of the Osservatore veneto (published periodical- 
ly), Sermoni, and other humorously critical pro- 
ductions. His works, including his Difesa di 
Dante, were collected in 16 vols. (1818). 

GRAAF, Regnier de, a Dutch physician, born at 
Schoonhoven in 1641, died in Delft, Aug. 17, 
1673. He was especially distinguished for hav- 
ing originated the discovery that reproduction 
takes place in the viviparous as well as in the 
oviparous animals by means of ovarian eggs, 
and that all animals are therefore essentially 
oviparous. The "Graafian vesicles" of the 
mammalian ovary were discovered and de- 
scribed by him, although he mistook their ex- 
act nature and considered, them as true eggs, 
while they have since been shown to be only 
the receptacles within which the microscopic 
egg is contained. He also acquired a wide 
reputation by his investigations on the pancre- 
atic juice. His works are : Disputatio Medica 
de Natura et Usu Sued Pancreatid (Ley den, 
1664); De Virorum Organis Generationi in- 
sermentibus, &c. (1668); Epistola de nonnullis 
circa Partes Genitales novis invcntis (1668) ; 
Tractatus Anatomico-Medicus de Sued Pancre- 



atid Natura et Usu (1671) ; and De Mulierum 
Organis Generationi insermentibus (1672). 

GRAAL, or Grail, the Holy (in old French, san 
greal; in old English, sancgreall; either from 
Fr. saint, holy, and the Celtic greall, Provencal 
grazal, and mediaeval Latin gradalis, a vase or 
cup, or from the French sang real^ the "real 
blood " of Christ), one of the leading themes 
of mediaeval romance, fabled to have been the 
cup or chalice used by Christ in the last supper, 
and in which he changed the wine into his 
blood. This chalice, preserved by Joseph of 
Arimathea, had also received the blood which 
flowed from the side of Christ on the cross. 
So says the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus; 
but no early mention is made of it by either 
profane or ecclesiastical writers'. In the 12th 
century, at the dawn of romantic literature, it 
reappeared as the central subject of the prophe- 
cies of Merlin, and the object of the adventurous 
quest of the knights of the round table. Eo- 
mance mixed it up with the struggles in Spain 
between Moors and Christians, and with the 
foundation of the order of templars in Pales- 
tine. In the Arthurian romances Joseph of 
Arimathea (sometimes confounded with a bish- 
op named Joseph sent by St. Augustine from 
Africa to England), on his arrival in Britain, 
consecrated his son first bishop of the island, 
and made his Christian relatives kings instead 
of the British pagan kings. Kept in prison by 
the Jews during the 50 years which imme- 
diately followed the death of Christ, he had 
been preserved from the approaches of old age 
by the possession of the holy graal, and was 
released by the Saviour in person, who taught 
him the words of the mass, and bade him re- 
new daily the sacrament of the last supper. 
The holy graal lay thus at the foundation of 
the Christian priesthood. St. Joseph of Ari- 
mathea, in some forms of the legend, was the 
ever-living possessor of the precious relic ; in 
others he died after the lapse of several centu- 
ries, bestowing his authority and the holy graal 
on his son, who in his turn died after conse- 
crating one of his relatives as his successor. 
.The last possessor, a contemporary of King Ar- 
thur, unmindful of his holy trust, sinned, and 
forthwith the holy vessel disappeared and was 
lost. The knights of the round table undertook 
the task of recovering it; but it baffled the 
seekers, as no one could see it who was not 
a virgin in body. Lancelot of the lake had 
arrived at the door of the chamber where the 
holy graal was ; warned to depart, he neverthe- 
less ventured to look in, " and saw a table of 
silver and the holy vessel covered with red 
samite, and many angels about it, whereof one 
of them held a candell of wax burning, and the 
other held a crosse and the ornaments of the 
alter." Having dared to enter, a blast of fire 
smote him to the ground, where he lay " twen- 
ty-four days and as many nights as a dead 
man." It was reserved to Sir Galahad, who 
was possessed of perfect purity, to behold it 
peacefully before his death. Immediately after 



13G 



GRACCHUS 



this event the holy graal was taken up to heav- 
en. In other romances Sir Percival is distin- 
u'uished in tin- place of Sir Galahad. At a later 
peril id >e\vral churches in France and Italy 
claimed to possess the holy graal ; and in 1101 
the crusaders obtained a cup which was believ- 
ed for some time to be identical with it, and 
which is still preserved in the cathedral of 
Genoa. The Queste du Saint Graal is among 
the longest of live great romances composing 
the Arthurian cycle. The Parcival and Titu- 
ral of Wolfram von Eschenbach treat the same 
subject. See also Tennyson's "Idyls of the 
King," and " History of the Holy Grail," edited 
from MS. by F. J. Furnivall (London, 1874). 

GRACCHUS. I. Tiberius Sempronins, a Roman 
statesman, born about 168 B. C., died in 133. 
His father, Tiberius Gracchus, had been censor 
and consul, and had twice obtained a triumph. 
His mother, Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Afri- 
canus, had remained a widow, devoting herself 
to the education of her children, in which she 
was assisted by eminent Greek teachers. Tibe- 
rius, the oldest, made his first campaign in Af- 
rica under his uncle Scipio, and next tilled the 
office of qua3stor under the consul Mancinus 
in his unlucky campaign against the Numan- 
tines. The high regard in which the latter 
held both his father and his uncle induced them 
to grant to Tiberius, with whom alone they 
would treat, the favorable terms which saved 
the Roman army. But the senate refused to 
ratify the treaty, and had resolved to send back 
Mancinus and all his officers, when Tiberius in- 
terfered and saved the officers, the consul alone 
being given up. At the close of 134 he was elect- 
ed tribune, and commenced his career as a polit- 
ical agitator. The multitude of slaves brought 
into Italy by the long and frequent wars had 
taken the place in agricultural occupations of 
the original farmers, while the small proprie- 
tors, during the protracted terms of military 
service, had been bought out by the rich. Thus 
all Italy was owned by a few large proprietors, 
who employed slave labor almost exclusively 
in the cultivation of the soil. The city at the 
same time was crowded with veteran soldiers, 
many of whom had thus lost their estates and 
all of whom were needy. Prompted by his 
own ambition and abetted by his mother and 
friends, Tiberius from the commencement of 
his tribuneship talked openly of reviving the 
Licinian law, by which no man could hold 
more than bWjugera (about 330 acres) of land, 
and thus the surplus would become the prop- 
erty of the poor citizens. He framed a modi- 
fication of the Licinian law (see AGRARIAN 
LAWS), which ho proposed to the tribes, and 
which was firmly resisted by the patricians and 
the wealthy. Three commissioners were to be 
appointed to superintend the working of the 
new law; and crowds hastened to Rome to 
tak- -ides with Tiberius or the senate. Mean- 
while the latter had obtained the veto of M. 
OetaviiH derma, the other tribune, and thus 
each time the law was proposed the proceed- 



ings were quashed. Tiberius, incensed at this 
mode of opposition, exercised his veto on other 
questions, stopping the public supplies, and the 
government came to a standstill. It was evi- 
dent that one or both of the tribunes must re- 
tire from office. Gracchus at length put the 
question to the tribes, and it was voted to eject 
Octavius, who was dragged from the tribune's 
chair. The agrarian law was passed imme- 
diately, and Tiberius, his brother Caius, and his 
father-in-law Appius Claudius, were appointed 
commissioners. Thereupon the senate refused 
to vote Tiberius more than a denarius and a 
half (about 20 cents) a day for his expenses as 
a public officer. At this juncture Attalus, 
king of Pergamus, died, bequeathing his king- 
dom and treasures to the Roman people. Grac- 
chus forthwith proposed to divide the trea- 
sure among the recipients of land under the 
new law, and to give the popular assembly, 
instead of -the senate, the management of the 
kingdom. He was formally accused of aspi- 
ring to be king, and made a lame defence be- 
fore the people. Seeing his popularity wa- 
ning, he sought to be elected tribune for a 
second term ; and this being demurred to as 
illegal, a whole day's discussion ensued. Next 
morning, learning that the senate would op- 
pose his election by force, he armed his fol- 
lowers, and was proceeding to clear the capi- 
tol when Scipio Nasica at the head of the 
senators attacked his partisans, and slew 300 
of them, as well as Tiberius himself. II. Cains 
Sempronins, brother of the preceding, born 
about 159 B. C., died in 121. At the death 
of Tiberius he was left with Appius Claudius 
as commissioner for carrying out the agrarian 
law, but abstained from taking any part in 
politics for several years. In 124 he returned 
to Rome from Sardinia, where he had been 
consul's quaestor under L. Aurelius Orestes, 
was immediately summoned before the censors 
to give an account of his administration, de- 
fended himself successfully, and became a can- 
didate for the tribuneship. He was elected, 
and commenced by having a law passed aimed 
at Popilius, who had persecuted his brother's 
friends. Popilius fled from Rome, and was 
banished from Italy. Next came a poor-law, 
by which a monthly distribution of grain was 
to be made to the people at an almost nominal 
price. After this he transferred the judicial 
power in a very great measure to the knights. 
These measures gained him great popularity. 
During his second tribuneship (122) he pro- 
posed the extension of the Roman franchise to 
all Italy. But this ultimately led to his ruin. 
M. Livius Drusus, his colleague, was persuaded 
by the senate to veto this law, which he did 
with the applause of the tribes. Furthermore, 
Drusus outbid him again in the popular favor 
by offering to establish at once twelve colonies 
of 3,000 persons each, who were to have their 
allotments free. Gracchus having seconded a 
parallel proposition, mado by the tribune Ru- 
brius, to colonize a spot near Carthage, the 




GRACES 

snate sent him thither as commissioner. When 
he returned his popularity was gone. In the 
next election for tribunes his name was omit- 
ted. The law founding the colony near Car- 
thage had been unpopular, and soon after his 
return it was proposed to repeal it. This he 
resisted, uniting with Fulvius, a commissioner 
of the agrarian law, and inciting the populace 
to acts of violence. In the tumult one of the 
opposite party was slain by a follower of Grac- 
chus, and the senate named the consul Opimius 
dictator. He summoned Gracchus and Fulvius 
to answer the charge of murder. Gracchus 
submitted, but his partisans were in arms, and 
a conflict ensued. He had crossed the Tiber 
and taken refuge in a grove of the Furies, 
where, hard pressed by his enemies, he com- 
manded his servant to slay him. He is rep- 
resented as a man of surpassing eloquence. 

GRACES, The (Lat. Gratia, Gr. Xdpire^ my- 
thological beings, generally described as daugh- 
ters of Jupiter, but called by some daughters 
of Apollo, and by others of Bacchus; their 
maternity is still more undecided. The Spar- 
tans and Athenians recognized only two Cha- 
rites, but Hesiod enumerates three, whom he 
names Euphrosyne, Aglaia, and Thalia; and 
this number and nomenclature generally pre- 
vailed. The Graces were the goddesses of social 
festivity, happiness, and mirth, the inspirers 
of those virtues and amenities which render 
human intercourse delightful, and the patron- 
esses of whatever is graceful and beautiful in na- 
ture or in art. Great poets, painters, and sculp- 
tors were the peculiar objects of their favor. 
The Graces were commonly represented as the 
companions of other divinities, especially Apol- 
lo, Venus, and Cupid ; and their attributes are 
made always to harmonize with those of the 
deity upon whom they attend. Thus as the 
companions of Apollo they bear musical instru- 
ments, while as those of Venus they carry 
myrtle, roses, or dice. They are usually rep- 
resented as virgins in the bloom of life, em- 
bracing each other, and sometimes appear 
clothed, sometimes naked. 

GRACIAS, or Gracias a Dios (" Thanks to God "), 
an inland city of Honduras, capital of a de- 
partment of the same name, situated in a fer- 
tile plain, near the foot of a steep and craggy 
mountain, 77m. W. by N". of Comayagua; lat. 
14 30' N., Ion. 88 50' W. Though now having 
only 3,000 inhabitants, Gracias was once a flour- 
ishing city, with a large population, attracted 
thither by the rich mines of the surrounding 
country, and was the chief entrepot for mer- 
chandise in transitu from Puerto Caballos to 
the populous region of Guatemala. It was 
founded in 1530 by Gabriel de Rojas, and en- 
larged in 1536 by Gonzalo (or more probably 
Pedro) de Alvarado. Until 1544 it was the 
seat of government of Guatemala and Nica- 
ragua ; but since then it has gradually fallen 
from its original splendor, the only traces of 
which are now visible in the parish church 
and the convent of La Merced. Although mi- 



GRADUATION 



137 



ning is still followed to a considerable extent, 
and opals of the finest quality are found in the 
vicinity, the inhabitants depend chiefly on agri- 
culture for subsistence. The climate is very 
salubrious. Near the town a mountain torrent, 
one of the tributaries of the Rio Santiago or 
Venta, plunges by two successive leaps to a 
depth of 1,200 feet. 

GRACIAS I DIGS, Cape, the K E. point of 
Central America, at the mouth of the large 
river Coco or Segovia, in lat. 15 N., Ion. 83 
12' W. It was so named by Columbus, when, 
in his fourth voyage, after beating for many 
days against head winds and adverse currents, 
he finally succeeded in turning the angle of the 
continent, and taking his course southward. 
There is a harbor near the cape, with but 16 
feet of water. 

GRACIOSA, one of the Azores, so called from 
its beautiful situation and extreme productive- 
ness, lat. 39 5' K, Ion. 28 4' W. ; area, 32 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 12,000. Its chief exports are 
corn, wine, brandy, fruit, hemp, and flax. Chief 
town, Santa Cruz. 

GRADUATION, the art of dividing astronomi- 
cal, geodetical, and other mathematical instru- 
ments. It was formerly done by hand with 
ordinary dividing instruments, and so few 
makers possessed the requisite skill that it was 
very difficult to procure good instruments for 
the ordinary purposes of navigation ; but now 
the operation is performed with great exact- 
ness by machines called dividing engines. Jesse 
Ramsden, a cloth presser, who subsequently 
turned his attention to engraving, being brought 
in contact with mathematical instrument ma- 
kers, was led to construct the engine which for 
many years was called by his name. At that 
time it was considered so valuable that the 
English commissioners of longitude entered 
into a contract with him (1775) to instruct a 
certain number of persons, not exceeding ten, 
in the method of making and using it, and to 
divide sextants and octants at certain prices as 
long as the engine remained in his possession, 
they becoming the purchasers for the sum of 
315, and giving 300 in addition for the in- 
vention. Perfect as the instrument was then 
considered, it has since been greatly improved, 
so that it is now automatic, the whole operation 
of dividing a circle, after it has been placed on 
the engine, being performed by a motion given 
by the descent of a weight, or by a crank 
turned by hand. The engine consists of a large 
wheel of bell metal, the circumference being 
ratched into 720, 1,080, 1,440, 2,160, or 4,320 
teeth, or any number which, divided by 2, 3, 
4, 6, or 12, will give 360. These teeth are cut 
with great accuracy, and the wheel is turned 
on its centre by an endless screw, by which it 
may be moved any number of degrees or parts 
desired. The dividing point is fixed in a frame 
which admits of a free and easy motion to and 
from the centre. In England, Troughton, 
Simms, Thomas, Jones, Ross, and a few others, 
have been successful in making these engines, 



138 



GR^VIUS 



while many others have failed. On the con- 
tinent of Europe they were first made auto- 
matic, and other improvements were also made 
in them. Gambey of Paris has so arranged 
his as to divide an instrument without any ec- 
centricity, even when placed in a slightly ec- 
centric position on the engine. Oertling of 
Berlin has an arrangement for correcting any 
original errors in the teeth while dividing, and 
other mechanists of celebrity have constructed 
them to suit their own views, and for their 
own use. In the United States there is a large 
one belonging to the coast survey, made by 
Simms of London, and afterward made auto- 
matic by Saxton; also one in Philadelphia 
made by Young, and one in New York by the 
Messrs. Blunt, both of which are automatic. 
There'is no branch of the mechanic arts which 
requires more skill in the use of tools, more 
geometrical knowledge, and greater patience, 
than the construction of a circular dividing 
engine. The large astronomical instruments 
are divided in a different manner, and, unless 
placed on a large engine from which the divi- 
sions may be in a manner copied, are original 
divisions. Troughton, Simms, and Jones of 
London have used movable microscopes with 
micrometers; while others on the continent 
of Europe have availed themselves of the 
feeling lever, a powerful instrument for that 
purpose invented by the astronomer Bessel. 
Straight line divisions for scales, &c., are made 
by means of a screw, a milled roller, or a wedge 
which is employed to move a platform sliding 
freely beneath a cutting frame, and carrying 
the scale to be divided. In the use of the screw 
much depends on its accuracy, and, with re- 
gard to the roller or wedge, on the working 
or manner of applying them. When great ac- 
curacy is required, the divisions are tested by 
means of two microscopes, and an error can be 
detected of j^Vor f an inch. The ruling ma- 
chines used by engravers in this country are 
well calculated for this purpose. 

GH KYII'S, Johann Georg (GRAEFE), a German 
scholar, born in Naumburg, Jan. 29, 1632, died 
in Utrecht, Jan. 11, 1703. He had begun to 
study law at Leipsic, when, meeting with 
Gronpvius at Deventer, he determined to be- 
gin his education over again, devoting himself 
to belles-lettres. After remaining two years at 
Deventer, he passed to Amsterdam, where he 
studied history under Morus and Blondel, and 
abjured Lutheranism for Calvinism. In 1658 
he succeeded Gronovius in the athengeum of 
Deventer, and in 1661 obtained the chair of 
eloquence in the academy of Utrecht, to which 
was attached in 1667 that of politics and his- 
tory. Louis XIV. gave him a pension, and the 
mmvrsitk-s of Bddelbere. Leyden, and Padua 
in vain sought to attach him to them. Among 
his works are editions of Hesiod, Cicero, Ca- 
tullus. Til.iillus, I'ropi-rtius, Suetonius, and Flo- 
rus, and Thesauri of Italian antiquities. 

GRAFE. I. Karl Ferdinand von, a German sur- 
geon, born in Warsaw, March 8, 1787, died in 



GRAFTING 

| Hanover, July 4, 1840. He graduated as a 
doctor of medicine at Leipsic in 1807, and in 
1811 became professor of surgery in Berlin. 
During the war with Napoleon he superin- 
tended the military hospitals, and after the 
restoration of peace (1815) he became a mem- 
ber of the medical staff of the army. Students 
from all parts of the world attended his lec- 
tures, and on his visit to England he was the 
guest of the king. In Paris Dupuytren invited 
him to take his place as a lecturer. In 1840 
he was summoned to Hanover to operate upon 
the eyes of the crown prince (the present 
ex-king George), but he suddenly died after 
his arrival there. The revival of the rhino- 
plastic process was due in a great measure 
to the labors of Griife, who propounded his 
system in his work Rhinoplastik (Berlin, 1818). 
II. Albreeht von, a German oculist, son of the 
preceding, born in Berlin in May, 1828, died 
there, July 18, 1870. He studied mathematics 
and the natural sciences, and afterward medi- 
cine, at Berlin, Prague, Vienna, and Paris, devo- 
ting himself particularly to ophthalmology, and 
founded in Berlin a private establishment for 
the treatment of the eyes. He was also pro- 
fessor of ophthalmology in the university. He 
was distinguished for great practical and scien- 
tific acquirements in ophthalmology, the lead- 
ing journal of this department of medicine at 
Berlin, Von Grafts Archivfur OpJithalmologim 
being conducted under his name with the col- 
laboration of Profs. F. Arlt, F. C. Donders, 
and Th. Leber. Most of Von Grafe's important 
contributions were published in this journal. 
These were papers on the "Physiology and 
Pathology of the Oblique Muscles of the Eye- 
ball," on " Double Vision after Operations for 
Strabismus," on "Diphtheritic Conjunctivitis," 
on the " Effect of the most refrangible Solar 
Rays upon Sensation," on the "Treatment of 
Glaucoma by Iridectomy," on the " Cerebral 
Causes of Blindness," and on a modified form of 
the operation for the extraction of cataract. He 
was also a frequent contributor to the medical 
society of Berlin and to various medical jour- 
nals. III. Alfred Karl, nephew and some time 
assistant of the preceding, born Nov. 23, 1830. 
In 1858 he graduated at Halle, afterward be- 
came professor there, and founded an ophthal- 
mic institute, which is visited by several thou- 
sand patients annually. He was the first to 
obtain a recognition of the study of diseases of 
the eyes as a special science in the Prussian 
universities. He has published KliniscJie Ana- 
lyse der Motilitdtestdrungen des Aiiges (Berlin, 
1858), Symptomenlehre der Augenmuslfellah- 
mungen (1867), and Ein Wort zur Erinne- 
rung an Albrecht von Grafe (1870). 

GRAFEXBERG. See PRIESSNITZ. 

GRAFTING, the process in horticulture by 
which a portion of a plant is made to unite 
with another plant, whether of the same kind 
or of another variety or species. The plant 
upon which the operation is performed is called 
the stock ; the portion inserted in or joined 



GRAFTING 



139 



with it the scion or graft. No attempts to- 
ward grafting plants on others which do not 
belong to the same natural order have been 
successful. Generally speaking, varieties suc- 
ceed best on varieties, species on species, or 
species and varieties on allied genera. All our 
cultivated fruits, for instance, are improved 
varieties of some original species. Out of 
thousands of varieties raised from the seeds of 
some previous excellent variety, it is not likely 
that any will be precisely like the immediate 
parent; some few may be equal or superior 
to it, but the great majority will be inferior. 
When a new and decidedly valuable variety 
occurs, it becomes a matter of importance to 
perpetuate it in as many individual plants as 
possible, and this, with trees, is usually done 
by grafting. The trifling effect that the stock 
has upon the scion enables the poorer varie- 
ties to be employed in furnishing the trunk 
and root to the smaller and younger scion. A 
piece of well ripened wood, in the form of a 
twig of the growth of the previous season hav- 
ing three or four buds upon it, is thus transferred 
to the poorer kind, and forms a living extrem- 
ity, which extends itself into branches and 
forms a new head or top. Fruit trees are 
grafted on plants of their own kind, called free 
stocks, or they are grafted upon a related 
variety or species to accomplish some particu- 
lar end. Certain stocks induce early fruiting 
and a dwarfed growth ; to dwarf the apple, it 
is grafted upon the paradise, a distinct varie- 
ty of apple ; the pear is dwarfed by grafting 
upon the quince. A species of cherry called the 
mahaleb (prunus mahalcb) is used for dwarf- 
ing the cherry, and the sloe and the beach 
plum for the plum. The peach upon its own 
roots does not grow well in stiff and cold soils, 
and for such situations it is worked upon a 
plum stock. The pear will grow when grafted 
upon the apple, but the union is short-lived ; 
it is also sometimes grafted upon the thorn and 
mountain ash, but such unions are a matter of 
fancy rather th an utility; nurserymen use only 
the stocks we have mentioned. The raising of 
stocks is an important part of the nurseryman's 
business ; though a tree may be grafted at 
almost any age, in nurseries where hundreds 
of thousands are worked every year the stocks 
used are as small as practicable. Free stocks 
for the apple and pear are raised from seeds, 
while the dwarfing paradise and quince stocks 
are grown from layers and cuttings. Most of 
the grafting in nurseries is done indoors in the 
winter. The stocks, which are a quarter of an 
inch or more in diameter, are taken up in the 
autumn and buried in an accessible place ; when 
worked, the root is shortened, the top cut off, 
and the scion inserted at the " collar," or where 
root and stem join. The grafted roots are set in 
boxes of sand and kept in a cellar until they 
can be planted in spring. The operation is 
performed with great rapidity, and several me- 
chanical appliances have been devised for facili- 
tating the work. Sometimes pieces of the root 



are used as stocks, but there has been much dis- 
cussion and great difference of opinion as to the 
value of the trees so produced. Stone fruits 
are more difficult to graft than the apple and 
pear, but if it- be done sufficiently early in 
spring the plum may be so treated very suc- 
cessfully ; the peach is rarely grafted at the 
north, but it succeeds at the south ; this fruit 
is usually propagated by that form of grafting 
called budding. Although fruit trees are graft- 
ed with scions of ripened wood, there are some 
trees which will only succeed when green wood 
is used for both scion and stock; this kind 
of grafting is called herbaceous. Many ever- 
greens can be grafted in the ordinary way, but 
the pines only succeed with herbaceous graft- 
ing, and the same may be said of some nut- 
bearing trees. Ornamental trees of various 
kinds are propagated by grafting, especially 
where it is desired to perpetuate some indivi- 
dual peculiarity, such as a pendent or weeping 
habit, or foliage of an unusual shape or color. 
Some weeping trees which are naturally low, 
as the weeping beech, ash, and poplar, form 
elegant specimens when grafted upon a stock 
8 or 10 ft. high. Among ornamental trees 
and shrubs grafting is resorted to as the 
most rapid means of propagation: sometimes 
a variety cannot be multiplied readily from cut- 
tings, but can be grafted upon some related 
stock that will grow rapidly. The choicer 
species of clematis, now so much prized as 
ornamental climbers, take root with great 
difficulty, while some of the older kinds strike 
root freely; the florist grows these from cut- 
tings, and grafts the more difficult subjects 
upon their roots. The fine double camellias 
will not grow from cuttings, but are propaga- 
ted by grafting upon the single kinds which 
readily do so. Epiphyllums and other trail- 
ing cactuses make fine plants by grafting them 
upon a stout stem of cereus triangularis or 
one of the pereskias. Successful grafting of 
the apple upon the maple, the rose upon the 
black currant, and the like, is impossible, al- 
though instances of it are often narrated. 
The utility of the operation of grafting de- 
pends upon the fact that a bud is the repre- 
sentative of the tree from which it is taken; 
it has the possibility of unlimited development ; 
and as it will, if allowed to extend into a 
branch on the tree where it has formed, repeat 
all the characters of the tree, so when taken 
from the tree which produced it and planted as 
it were in the substance of another tree, it will 
develop a branch like the parent tree, and not 
like the stock with which it is united. Between 
the wood and bark of exogenous trees, inclu- 
ding all northern fruit trees, there is a layer 
in which the forces of vegetation are most 
active ; here the wood of the tree receives 
each year a layer of new wood, outside of the 
old, and the inner bark has deposited upon it 
a new layer upon the inside of that of previous 
years. This portion, which is neither perfect 
wood nor bark, but the place where both are 



GRAFTING 



being formed, is called the cambium layer. It 
is this which, if a cut be made in a tree, sends 
out a new growth to close over and repair the 
wound ; and it is upon the extraordinary vital- 
ity of this rumhium that the success of grafting 
depends. The mechanical operations of graft- 
ing are various, but they all have for their ob- 
ject the bringing of the newly forming wood 
and bark of the scion into the closest possible 
contact with those of the stock. As a general 
rule, grafting is most successful when the scions 
are quite dormant, but the forces of vegetation 
in the stock are active. Fruit-tree scions are 
cut at any time after the fall of the leaf be- 
fore the buds begin to swell, and kept in damp 
sand or saw dust to prevent drying. Cleft 
grafting is in this country the most common 
and likewise the most clumsy method, and yet 
very often the most successful. It is practised 
upon stocks from an inch to several inches in 
diameter. The branches of old trees are re- 
newed by this method, the grafts being inserted 
in the branches. Sometimes the entire tree of 
four or five inches diameter is cut to a bare 
stock and used in the same manner. The stock, 
whether trunk or branch, is cut over horizon- 
tally with a sharp saw, and the surface pared 
smooth with a knife ; a cleft about two inches 
deep is made in the stock with a grafting knife 
and mallet ; the scion to be grafted is prepared 
by sloping its lower end in the form of a wedge 
about an inch and a half long, leaving it a little 
thicker on the outer edge. The cleft being 
kept open with a wedge, the scion is carefully 





1. Cleft Gratting. 

I. The Deration with the stock cut horizontally. 2. With 
a sloping cat. 

<l.wn to the place fitting its inner bark 
on one si.U-, so that the inner edges of the bark 
of stock Mini so'x.n may coincide. The wedge 
i< thru withdrawn, and the scions are retained 
in place by the springing together of the cleft, 
Warn the graft H r<>\viv<l with a mixture of 



loam and cow dung, or with grafting wax, to 
exclude the air and to facilitate the union. 
Until a few years ago clay and loam were ex- 
clusively used, but grafting wax is neater and 
more effective. Various compositions are in 
use ; they consist of resin and wax melted to- 




FIG. 2. Whip Grafting, 
showing the tongues 
prepared and after- 
ward bound together. 




FIG. 8. 



-Whip Grafting on the 
Collar. 



gether, with lard or linseed oil, and should be 
of such consistency as to remain plastic in cool 
weather, yet not run in hot weather. It is best 
applied by means of strips of well worn muslin 
or calico saturated with the composition. For 
root grafts, well waxed cotton twine, or paper 
waxed on one side, may be used. Where the 
stock is large two scions are put in on opposite 
sides, but with small stocks only one is used, 
and the stock at the side opposite to the scion is 
cut in a sloping manner to facilitate healing. 
Another process, called whip or tongue grafting, 
is considered the most expeditious. The stock 
upon which it is performed must be slender, 
from the size of a goose quill to any diameter 
which coincides with the thickness of the graft. 
Some smooth, clear part of the stock being se- 
lected, it is sloped on one side with a knife to 
a very acute angle. A scion having two or 
more buds, and of the size to match the stock, 
is cut with a slope to correspond with that 
upon the stock ; then upon each slope or cut 
surface is cut a tongue ; the scion and stock 
are locked together by means of these tongues 
in a manner that will be understood by an ex- 
amination of the engraving. The barks of both 
being made to correspond, a piece of waxed 
cloth or waxed twine is wound round them to 
hold them in place. After the graft pushes its 
buds, the binding should be loosened and finally 
removed, when the adhesion is completed. This 
method is used in root grafting, and may be 
practised also on flowering shrubs. In saddle 
grafting, the scion is cleft instead of the stock ; 
the stock is pared away on each side to an acute 
angle, so as to allow the scion to sit or ride 




GRAFTING 



upon it, and the union of the edges of the barks 
made as complete as possible on each side. 
Crown grafting is by many preferred to cleft 
grafting, as there is no split made in the stock, 
which often leads to decay ; it is practised upon 
large trees of which the wood is too hard and 
stubborn to be cleft, or upon small stocks. Sev- 
eral scions are pared away on one side of the 
lower end for about two inches, so as to make 
that side flat and leave a shoulder forming a 
right angle with it. The head of the stock 
being sawn off horizontally, and the cut portion 
smoothed, the bark is gently raised from the 
wood and thin wedges inserted. The scions 
are now pushed under the bark, their shoulders 
resting on the crown of the stock ; the wedges 
being withdrawn, the whole is covered with 
wax or waxed cloth. After the grafts have 
grown, and made long, tender shoots, which 
they will be apt to do with much rapidity and 
vigor, they should be secured to long stakes 
ited near the stock and rising above it, to 



GRAFTON 



141 




ti. Crown Grafting, showing the completed opera- 
tion and an enlarged view of the scion. 
ent the wind from breaking off the newly 
ed top at the junction with the stock ; or 
where the grafts are in the head of a tree, their 
vigor is controlled by pinching. Sometimes 
it is essential to replace limbs that have 
been broken from young trees, or from branches 
of older ones, and to restore the symmetry 
of form ; and this is done by side grafting. 
Here the bark and a little of the wood is 
sloped off from the side of the trunk or of 
the branch, and the lower end of the scion 
is cut so as to fit the part as near as possible ; 
lit is then fixed in the branch or trunk, first 
tonguing both as in whip grafting, tying them 
with bast, and claying or waxing over. Another 
form of side grafting is used on the camellia 
and other hard-wooded shrubs ; a long, nearly 
perpendicular cut is made in the stem, in which 
the scion is placed. Inarching is only a kind 
of grafting, and is employed where the cut 
scion is not easily united to the desired 
stock. Two branches, or two stocks of the 



two distinct plants, are brought close together, 
and the prepared surfaces are matched and 
tongued, as in whip grafting ; after a while a 
perfect union will take place, when the inarched 
portion is to be separated from its parent root, 
and it henceforth becomes the branch or top of 
its new foster moth- 
er. The two plants 
to 'be inarched must 
be brought near to 
one another, which is 
usually accomplished 
by having one of 
them in a pot. In 
some cases the same 
object is effected by 
placing the lower end 
of the branch to be 
inarched in a bottle, 
which is kept sup- 
plied with water. 
Budding is only a va- 
riety of grafting in 
which a single bud 
is used instead of a 
scion with several ; 
it is also called shield 
grafting. (See BUD- 
DING.) The prac- 
tice of grafting seems 
to have been long 
known; but the pro- 
cesses have multipli- 
ed with the discov- 
eries and improve- FIG. 5,-Inarching. 
ments m horticul- 
ture, and others besides those mentioned 
here are employed for particular subjects. A 
full account of all the processes known will 
be found in L "Art de greffer, by Baltet. Du 
Breuil's "Arboriculture," Barry's "Fruit Gar- 
den," and Thomas's "Fruit Culturist" may 
also be consulted for practical details. 

GRAFTON, a W. county of New Hampshire, 
bounded W. by the Connecticut river ; area, 
1,463 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 39,103. It has a 
mountainous surface, containing some of the 
celebrated summits of the White mountains 
and the Franconia range. Much of the land 
is devoted to pasturage, but parts of it are sus- 
ceptible of high cultivation. The Northern 
(N. H.) and its Bristol branch, the White 
Mountain, and the Boston, Concord, and Mon- 
treal railroads pass through the county. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 57,802 bushels 
of wheat, 198,165 of Indian corn, 390,172 of 
oats, 1,078,208 of potatoes, 1,095,623 Ibs. of 
butter, 189,602 of cheese, 446,197 of wool, 
650,445 of maple sugar, 26,377 of hops, and 
140,220 tons of hay. There were 7,135 horses, 
12,748 milch cows, 6,685 working oxen, 14,562 
other cattle, 86,681 sheep, and 4,302 swine. 
The number of manufactories was 646, with an 
aggregate capital of $2,362,735 ; value of pro- 
ducts, $5,012,033. The most important were 
5 of agricultural implements, 15 of clothing, 1 




11-' 



GRAFTON 



of elastic sponge, 7 of furniture, 14 of gloves 
and mittens, 5 of hosiery, 3 of iron castings, 
1 1 of dressed skins, 8 of paper, 4 of shoe pegs, 
25 of starch, 6 of woollen goods, 69 saw mills, 
10 tanneries, 5 currying establishments, and 6 
flour mills. Capital, Haverhill. 

GRAFTOX, a town of Worcester co., Massa- 
chusetts, on the Blackstone and Quinsigamond 
:ind on the Blackstone canal and t?he 
Boston and Albany and Providence and Wor- 
cester railroads, 38 m. S. W. of Boston ; pop. 
in 1870, 4,594. It comprises several villages, 
and is extensively engaged in manufacturing, 
the canal and rivers furnishing water power. 
There are 8 cotton mills, with 30,170 spindles, 
several currying establishments, and extensive 
boot and shoe factories. The town has also mica 
quarries, two national banks, 18 public schools, 
including a high school, and seven churches. 

GRAGNANO, a town of S. Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Naples, at the foot of Monte Pendolo, 
19 m. S. E. of Naples; pop. about 10,000. It 
is the seat of a bishop, and has manufactures 
of macaroni and a considerable trade in wine. 

GRAHAM. I. An extreme W. county of North 
Carolina, formed since the census of 1870 from 
Cherokee co., bounded N. E. by the Tennessee 
river, and separated from Tennessee by the 
Iron mountains ; area, about 300 sq. m. The 
surface is mountainous; the soil of the val- 
leys is fertile. Capital, Fort Montgomery. II. 
A N. W. unsettled county of Kansas; area, 
900 sq. m. It is intersected by the South fork 
of Solomon river, and drained by Saline river. 

GRAHAM, Isabella, a Scottish philanthropist, 
born in Lanarkshire, July 29, 1742, died in 
New York, July 27, 1814. Her maiden name 
was Marshall. In 1765 she married Dr. John 
Graham, an army surgeon, and went with him 
to Canada and to Antigua, where he died in 
1774. Returning to Scotland, she taught school 
in Paisley and in Edinburgh. In 1789 she 
came to New York, and established a seminary 
for young ladies. Before leaving Scotland she 
originated the " Penny Society," now known as 
tho " Society for the Relief of the Destitute 
Sick ;" and through her efforts in part or en- 
tirely, the " Society for the Relief of Poor 
Widows," the " Orphan Asylum Society," the 
"Society for Promoting Industry among the 
Poor," and the first " Sunday School for Ig- 
norant Adults," were established in New York. 
She aided also in organizing the first mission- 
ary society and the first monthly missionary 
prayer meeting in the city ; was the first presi- 
dent of the Magdalen society ; systematically 
visiu-d the inmates of the hospital, and the 
sick IVmale convicts in the state prison ; and 
to hundreds of families distributed Bibles, as 
well as tracts prepared under her own direc- 
tion. Hi T nit -mi lira were written by Dr. Mason 
(8vo, 1816), and her letters and correspondence 
1 1-y her daughter, Mrs. Bethune, were 
published in New York in 1838. 

GRAHAM, John, Viscount Dundee and Lord 
O rah am of Claverhouse (by which latter title 



GRAHAM 

he is most generally known), a Scottish soldier, 
born near Dundee in 1643, killed at the battle 
of Killiecrankie, July 17, 1689. Educated at 
the university of St. Andrews, he served both 
the French and the Dutch as a soldier of for- 
tune from about 1670 to 1677, when he re- 
turned to England. Letters of recommenda- 
tion from the prince of Orange to Charles II. 
caused him to be appointed captain of one of 
the troops of dragoons which the king was 
sending into the western lowlands to force the 
Covenanters to comply with the established 
religion. His own merciless severity was so 
well seconded by his troopers, that his name 
is held in lasting execration. Defeated at 
Drumclog by the exasperated Covenanters, 
he took a fearful revenge at Both well bridge, 
and continued his atrocities through the west- 
ern shires. Ennobled in November, 1688, by 
James II., he ardently espoused the king's 
cause against the prince of Orange, attended 
the parliament convened in Edinburgh to ar- 
range the succession to the crown, and, be- 
coming alarmed for his personal safety, fled 
from the city with a squadron of horse. Sev- 
eral disaffected clans and a body of Irish joined 
him. At the pass of Killiecrankie he routed 
the troops of William III., and fell by a chance 
shot in the moment of victory. His qualities 
as a soldier and a politician, which were con- 
spicuously displayed during the last few months 
of his life, have diverted attention somewhat 
from his crimes; and Sir Walter Scott, in 
his " Old Mortality," has presented a vigorous 
though highly colored picture of him. One 
of the latest attempts to relieve his character 
from the odium which attaches to it was made 
by Prof. Aytoun in the appendix to his " Lays 
of the Scottish Cavaliers." See also '' Me- 
morials and Letters illustrative of the Life and 
Times of John Graham of Claverhouse, Vis- 
count Dundee, by Mark Napier " (3 vols., Ed- 
inburgh, 1859-'62). 

GRAHAM, Sylvester, an American reformer, 
born in Suffield, Conn., in 1794, died in North- 
ampton, Mass., Sept. 11, 1851. Almost from 
childhood he was dyspeptic and rheumatic, and 
having tried successively farm labor, paper 
making, travelling with a horse dealer, shop- 
keeping, and teaching, was driven from them 
all by feeble health and symptoms of con- 
sumption. In 1823 he entered Amherst col- 
lege to prepare for the ministry. There the 
fervor of his elocution was ridiculed as the- 
atrical, and this almost determined him to 
seek some other profession; but in 1826 he 
married, and soon after became a Presbyte- 
rian preacher. In 1830 the Pennsylvania tem- 
perance society engaged him as a lecturer, 
and he took up the study of physiology and 
anatomy, from which he was convinced that 
the only permanent cure for intemperance 
was to be found in correct habits of living 
and judicious diet. This idea, which he ex- 
tended to the cure of diseases generally, was 
set forth in his "Essay on Cholera" (1832), 









GRAHAM 



and in a course of lectures which he delivered 
at various places and published under the title 
" Graham Lectures of the Science of Human 
Life" (2 vols., Boston, 1839). He also pub- 
lished a "Lecture to Young Men on Chastity," 
which made a great sensation, and a treatise 
on " Bread and Bread Making." Bread made 
from unbolted flour still bears his name. A 
few years before his death he began a " Phi- 
losophy of Sacred History," intended to show 
the harmony between Scriptural teachings and 
his views on dietetics ; he finished only one vol- 
ume of it, which was published posthumously. 

GRAHAM, Thomas, a Scottish chemist, born in 
Glasgow, Dec. 20, 1805, died in London, Sept. 
15, 1869. He studied at the universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, and after graduating 
opened a laboratory in Glasgow and lectured 
on chemistry at the mechanics' institute. He 
was professor at the Andersonian university 
in Glasgow from 1830 to 1837, and at the uni- 
versity college in London from 1837 to 1855. 
Having, as a non-resident assayer, submitted 
all the specie in the mint to a uniform scien- 
tific standard, he became, in February, 1855, Sir 
John Herschel's successor as master of the 
mint, and held this office till his death. He 
was one of the founders and the first president 
of the chemical society of London, for many 
years president of the Cavendish society, and a 
fellow and twice vice president of the royal 
society, which gave him many medals. He 
conducted many physical and chemical inves- 
tigations for the government, including one of 
especial interest on the effect of hail storms 
in the Newcastle coal mines, reporting on the 
ventilation of the houses of parliament, and in 
1851, with Professors Miller and Hoffmann, on 
ithe quality of the metropolitan water supply. 
He discovered the law of diffusion of gases and 
the polybasic character of phosphoric acid ; 
demonstrated the existence of a diffusive pow- 
er in liquids resembling that in gases, to which 
he applied the name of omosis, and determined 
its relation to endosmosis and exosmosis ; ex- 
pounded new theories on the composition of 
salts, and extended his researches to the tran- 
spirability of gases. His discoveries and oth- 
er labors are embraced in his u Elements 
of Chemistry" (London, 1842), edited with 
notes and additions by Dr. Robert Bridges 
(Philadelphia, 1852; new eds., 2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1856-'8, and 1865 ; German translation 
by Otto, 3d ed., Brunswick, 1857). He con- 
tributed important papers to the " Philosoph- 
ical Transactions," and the annals of the chem- 
ical and other scientific societies. His genius 
is highly appreciated in Germany, and A. "W. 
Hoffmann published in Berlin (1870) his Oe- 
ddchtnissrede auf Thomas Graham. A bronze 
statue of Graham was placed in George square, 
| Glasgow, in 1872. 

GRAHAM, William Alexander, an American 

statesman, born in Lincoln co., K C., Sept. 

6, 1804. He was educated to the law, and 

in 1833 entered public life as a member of 

370 VOL. vin. 10 



GRAHAM ISLAND 



143 



the lower branch of the state legislature, of 
which he was several times elected speaker. 
He represented North Carolina in the United 
States senate between 1841 and 1843, and was 
governor of the state from January, 1845, to Jan- 
uary, 1849. On the accession of Mr. Fillmore 
to the presidency he was appointed secretary 
of the navy, an office which he filled until June, 
1852, when, receiving from the whig national 
convention the nomination for vice president, 
he resigned the secretaryship. During the last 
year of the civil war he was a senator in the 
confederate congress, and in 1866 he was a del- 
egate to the union convention in Philadelphia. 
GRAHAM ISLAJVD, or Isle of Julia, a volcanic 
island, which appeared in the Mediterranean 
in July, 1831, and disappeared toward the 
close of October. The locality was about 
midway between Sciacca in Sicily and the 
island of Pantellaria, lat. 37 8' K, Ion. 12 
42' E. The depth of water had been found, 
a few years before, to exceed 100 fathoms. 
An earthquake shock was felt over the spot 
three weeks before the appearance of the 
island ; and on July 10, a few days be- 
fore land was observed, a waterspout was 
seen by a Sicilian navigator, which was suc- 
ceeded by an immense column of steam rising 
to the estimated height of 1,800 feet. Fire 
was seen on the 17th by the master of the 
brig Adelaide of London. On the 18th the 
Sicilian captain, repassing the spot, found a 
small island, 12 ft. out of water, with a crater 
in its centre, ejecting volcanic matter and im- 
mense columns of vapor. About the same 
time Commander Swinburne, R. N., reported 
it to be 70 or 80 yards in external diameter, 
and its lip as thin as it could be consistent with 
its height, which might be 20 ft. above the sea 
at the highest point. On July 23, as reported 
and sketched by Mr. Russell of H. M. ship St. 
Vincent, the circumference of the island was 
three fourths of a mile, and its highest point 
80 ft. above the water. At that time columns 
of water were ejected to the height of 800 to 
1,000 ft., and scorise were thrown, it was sup- 
posed, twice as high. The first landing was 
effected on Aug. 3, by Capt. Senhouse of the 
St. Vincent, who hoisted the British flag, and 
called the island by the name which was after- 
ward adopted by the royal and geographical 
societies. The island was then from 1J to 1 
m. in circumference, and its highest point was 
about 180 ft. above the surface. A deep cir- 
cular crater lay between two longitudinal hills, 
by which it was entirely shut in except for 
about 250 yards on its S. E. side, where 
a bank only 3 ft. high separated it from the 
sea. The crater was filled with boiling salt 
water of a dingy red color, from which rose 
a nauseous and oppressive vapor. The only 
gas evolved in large quantity was carbonic 
acid. Some authorities have made it about this 
time to be 3 m. in circumference, with a 
maximum height exceeding 200 ft. On Aug. 
25 it was reduced to 2 m., and on Sept. 3 to 



144 



GRAHAME 



only f m., with a maximum height of 107 
ft. The crater was then 780 yards in cir- 
ruiMlVrence. The materials which composed 
tin- island were scoriae, pumice, and lapilli, 
arranged in regular strata which sloped steeply 
away from the crater. The only substances 
found not of volcanic nature were fragments of 
dolomitic limestone. No lava was ever seen 
to flow, and no solid beds were formed which 
could resist the action of the waves. By these 
all the loose materials were washed away, so 
that at the close of October it may be said to 
have entirely disappeared. Two years after- 
ward Capt. Swinburne found a dangerous reef 
at the spot, in the centre of which was a black 
rock of the diameter of 26 fathoms, from 9 to 
11 ft. under water. Around it, extending 60 
fathoms to deep water, were banks of black 
volcanic stones and loose sand. The black 
rock in the centre was supposed by Lyell to be 
solid lava which rose in the crater and became 
solidified and formed a dike. Another shoal 
460 ft. S. W. of the great reef marked the spot 
where another outbreak of boiling water and 
steam had been observed in the month of 
August, 1881. In July, 1863, the island reap- 
peared, and in a few weeks rose to the height 
of 200 or 260 ft. ; but it was soon demolished 
by the wash of the waves. The volcano had 
appeared once or twice previous to 1831. It 
is said that a smoking island existed in this 
spot about the year 1801, and the shoal is 
marked in old charts. This island has been 
called by seven names, and is sometimes still 
known as Ferdinandea. 

GRAHAME, James, a Scottish poet, born in 
Glasgow, April 22, 1765, died near that city, 
Nov. 30, 1811. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, went to Edinburgh, and 
became a writer to the signet in 1791, and a 
member of the faculty of advocates in 1795. 
But the legal profession had always been dis- 
tasteful to him, and in the spring of 1809 he 
went to England, where he was ordained a 
minister of the established church, and became 
curate of Shipton, Gloucestershire, and after- 
ward of Sedgetield, in Durham. His principal 
Ccal works are "The Sabbath," "Mary, 
m of Scots," "British Georgics" and 
44 The Birds of Scotland." 

GRAHAME, James, a Scottish historian, born 
in Glasgow, Dec. 21, 1790, died in London, July 
8, 1842. He studied at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, but soon terminated his connection 
with that institution, and after preparatory 
studies was admitted an advocate at the Scot- 
tish bar in 1812. For nearly 14 years he 
practised his profession, until he was obliged 
through ill health to seek a more genial cli- 
mate. Settling in the south of England in the 
spring of 1826, he devoted himself to the prep- 
aration of a history of the United States. His 
early education, his religious views, which 
were those professed by the Scotch Covenant- 
ers and Puritans, and his zeal in the cause of 
civil liberty, combined to render the subject 



GRAIN 

attractive to him. In 1827 the first two vol- 
umes were published, and in 1836 a new edi- 
tion appeared in 4 vols. 8vo, bringing the his- 
tory down to the year 1776. The thoroughly 
American spirit in which the work was writ- 
ten interfered with its success in England, and 
for several years it attracted little notice in the 
United States; but in 1839 the author received 
from Harvard college the degree of LL. D., and 
in 1841 an article on his history by Prescott 
appeared in the "North American Review." 
Four years later an edition of his work was 
published at Philadelphia in 4 vols. 8vo, suc- 
ceeded in 1846 and 1848 by editions in 2 vols. 
each, that of 1846 containing a memoir of the 
author by Josiah Quincy. Mr. Quincy also 
published a work entitled "The Memory of the 
late Jarnes Grahame, the Historian of the Uni- 
ted States, vindicated from the Charges of Mr. 
Bancroft" (8vo, Boston, 1846). In 1837 Mr. 
Grahame, who for some years previous had re- 
sided at Nantes, France, began to collect ma- 
terials for continuing his history, but was com- 
pelled by ill health toward the close of the year 
to abstain from literary labor of all kinds. His 
last work was a pamphlet entitled, " Who is to 
Blame? or Cursory Review of the American 
Apology for American Accession to Negro Sla- 
very " (London, 1842). The subject had excited 
his attention for many years, and he had testi- 
fied his sincerity by joining with his children 
in liberating a number of slaves they had joint- 
ly inherited from his wife. He wrote pam- 
phlets on various social and religious questions, 
including a " Defence of the Scottish Presbyte- 
rians and Covenanters against the Author of 
the 4 Tales of my Landlord ;' " but the absorb- 
ing study of the best years of his life was 
American history. He delighted to call him- 
self an American by adoption, and declared 
that his daughter was " hardly dearer to him 
than America and American renown." His 
"History of the United States" is written, ac- 
cording to Chancellor Kent, '' with great grav- 
ity and dignity, moderation and justice." 

GRAHAM'S TOWN, a town of Cape Colony, 
capital of the district of Albany, 22 m. N. N. 
W. of Bathurst, and 465 m. E. by N. of Cape 
Town ; pop. about 8,000. It is pleasantly situ- 
ated on an eminence surrounded by high grassy 
hills. The streets are wide ; the dwellings pro- 
vided with gardens well watered and stocked 
with fruit trees. There are several handsome 
churches, a public library, two banks, and a 
flourishing grammar school. It is the see of 
an Anglican and a Roman Catholic bishop. 

GRAIL, Holy. See GEAAL. 

GRAIN (Lat. granum, a seed), the smallest 
measure of weight in use, about equal to that 
of a kernel of wheat. A statute passed in Eng- 
land in 1266 ordained that 32 grains of wheat, 
taken from the middle of the ear and well 
dried, should make a pennyweight, 20 of which 
should make an ounce, 12 of which should make 
a pound. The pound, therefore, consisted then 
of 7,680 grains, but afterward of only 5,760, in 







GRAIN COAST 

mence of the division of the pennyweight 
into 24 grains. The present troy pound is 5,760 
grains, and the avoirdupois pound 7,000. 

GRAIN COAST, a part of the coast of upper 
Guinea, W. Africa, between Capes Mesurado 
and Palmas, comprising a large part of the 
coast of Liberia. It receives its name from the 
cardamom, or grain of paradise, called other- 
wise Guinea grains and Malagueta pepper, 
which is exported. (See LIBERIA.) 

GRAINGER, a K E. county of Tennessee, 
bounded N. W. by Clinch river and S. E. by 
Holston river, here navigable by steamboats ; 
area, about 330 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 12,421, 
of whom 1,030 were colored. The surface 
is hilly, Clinch mountain crossing the county 
from N. W. to S. E. The river bottoms are 
fertile, and the highlands are rich in iron and 
other ores. The chief productions in 1870 
were 78,146 bushels of wheat, 363,260 of In- 
dian corn, 86,005 of oats, 12,285 of Irish and 
8,045 of sweet potatoes, and 709 tons of hay. 
There were 2,233 horses, 2,248 milch cows, 
4,670 other cattle, 9,797 sheep, and 17,723 
swine. Capital, Rutledge. 

GRARLE. I. A conirostral bird of the East 
Indian genus gracula (Linn.), constituting in 
itself the subfamily guaculince of the family 
sturnidcs or starlings. The species, especially 
the mina bird (G. religiosa), are celebrated for 
their powers of song and speech. (See MINO 
BIRD.) II* In the United States, the name 
of birds of the subfamily quiscalina or boat- 
tails, which includes the genera scolecophagus 
(Swains.), quiscalus (Vieill.), and scaphidurus 
(Swains.). The genus scolecophagus has the 
bill shorter than the head, nearly straight, 
slender, with the edges inflexed; the wings 
moderate and pointed, the first quill shorter 
than the second, third, and fourth, which are 
longest ; the tail shorter than the wings, flat 
and nearly even ; tarsi as long as the middle 
toe, with broad scutellae ; toes long and slen- 
der, the hind toe long, and the slender claws 
sharp and slightly curved. The rusty grakle 
(S. ferrugineus, Swains.) is about 9 in. long, 
extent of wings 14 in., bill 1 in., tarsus 1 ; 
the plumage is soft and glossy, of a deep black 
color, with greenish and bluish reflections; 
the female is smaller, of a general brownish or 
rusty black, the feathers beneath margined 
with brownish ; the young resemble the female, 
with the head, neck, and lower parts light- 
3r brown, and the rump tinged with gray; 
n the autumn and winter even the males be- 
come rather rusty. They are found from the 
\tlantic coast to the Missouri, migrating to 
he far north in the spring to breed ; in the 
lutumn they return to the south in small flocks 
vith the cow-bunting and red-winged black- 
)ird, with which they associate until spring 
eturns. The flight is quick and undulating, 
nd the walk is graceful, the tail being jerked 
ip and down at every step. They frequent 
he corn fields and rice plantations, where they 
o little mischief; they are fond of the com- 



GRAKLE 



145 



pany of cattle, picking out the grain from their 
droppings ; in the winter they resort to marsh- 
es and watercourses, feeding on aquatic insects 
and small mollusks. Their note is a kind of 
chuck, but during the breeding season they are 
noisy and have a lively and agreeable song. 
They are not very shy. The nest is built on 
low bushes in moist places, of coarse materials, 
and the eggs, four or five, are light blue, streaked 
and dashed with lines of brown and deep black. 
The Mexican grakle (S. cyanocephalus, Cab.) 
is a somewhat larger bird, with a stouter bill, 
and a purplish gloss confined to the head and 
neck ; it is found from Minnesota to the Pacific, 
and as far south as Mexico. The other grakles 
belong principally to the genus quiscalus, char- 
acterized by a bill as long as the head, broad, 
with the edges inflexed, and the tip of the 
upper mandible overhanging the under ; the 
wings moderate, the second, third, and fourth 
quills the longest ; the tail longer than the 
wings, graduated and the sides turned upward ; 
the tarsi as long as the middle toe, strong, and 
greatly scutellated ; the toes strong, and the hind 
one long, all scutellated; claws short, robust, 
and slightly curved. More than 12 species are 
described, which migrate according to the sea- 
sons ; in winter their immense flocks are very 
destructive on plantations, while in spring they 
devour from the fields and ploughed lands great 
numbers of worms, grubs, and caterpillars, in- 
jurious to vegetation ; they pull the young corn 
soon after it has sprouted, and also attack it 
when in the milky state. The species found in 
the United States are best distinguished by the 
size and form of the tail. The largest is the 
great-tailed grakle (Q. macrourus, Swains.), 18 
in. long, with an extent of wing of about 27, 
and the tail 9 ; the color is shining black, with 
purple and green reflections, and the feathers 
of the head soft and velvety ; it is found from 
the valley of the Rio Grande in Texas south- 
ward. The boat-tailed grakle, great crow- 
blackbird, or jackdaw as it is sometimes called 
(Q. major, Vieill.), is about 16 in. long, with an 
extent of wings of 2 ft. ; the color is shining 
black, the purple gloss being confined to the 
head, neck, and fore part of the breast, else- 
where with green reflections ; the crown feath- 
ers are coarse and stiff. Their habits are the 
same as those of the other grakles ; they seek 
their food among the salt marshes and along 
the muddy shores, eating fiddler crabs, insects, 
worms, shrimps, and other aquatic animals; 
they are fond of the eggs of other birds, and 
commit depredations in the corn and rice fields. 
They are very shy, and fly at a considerable 
elevation and for long distances ; the notes 
are harsh and shrill, though rather pleasing in 
the love season. The nest is large, of coarse 
materials, placed on tall reeds growing in the 
water, on smilax bushes, and on live oaks, 
where they breed in communities ; they begin 
to lay about the 1st of April, sometimes earlier ; 
the eggs, four or five, are dull white with 
irregular streaks of brown and black ; only one 



I! 



L46 



GRAMMAR 



brood is raised in a season. This species is 
found in the southern Atlantic and gulf states, 
near the coast, and in Texas. During the 
breeding season, the sides of the tail are turned 
upward, whence its common name has been 




Purple Grakl* (Qulscaluu veruicolor). 1. Female. 2. Male. 

derived. The purple grakle, or common crow- 
blackbird (Q. versicolor, Vieill.), is 13 in. long, 
with an extent of wings of 19 ; the head and 
neck are steel-blue, the rest of the plumage 
with varied reflections of bronze, golden, green, 
violet, and copper ; the female is smaller, with 
a less brilliant and more brownish plumage. 
The habits are the same as in the others of 
the genus ; the friends of the farmer in spring 
by devouring grubs, in summer and early au- 
tumn they dispute the possession of the corn 
fields with the planters, who seek to frighten 
or destroy them ; their mischief is so great that 
the corn is sometimes steeped in saline and 
bitter solutions to prevent it from being pulled 
up; in cold weather they feed upon beech 
nuts, acorns, and the refuse of the cattle pens. 
In the southern states the nest is generally in 
a hole in a decayed tree ; the eggs, four to six, 
are bluish, with brown and black streaks and 
blotches ; in the north, pine trees are favorite 
places for their nests. They are found in the 
Atlantic states, from New England to Florida, 
and on the high central plains of the continent. 
The flesh is eatable. The genus seaphidurus 
has a long bill, with the culmen advancing on 
the forehead, and sloping to an acute and curved 
tip ; the wings are long and pointed, the first 
quill the longest ; the tail lengthened, gradu- 
ated, with the sides turned upward. They are 
found in the West Indies and in South America. 

<<KAMMAR. See LANGUAGE. 

MMM.lIK. tin- French unit of weight, equal 
to 15- l :',i>r> r ra in8 troy, or very nearly of a 
dram avoirdupois. It is the weight of a cubic 
MOtimetre of distilled water at the temper- 
ature of maximum density, 4 0., or 39-2 F. 



GRAMONT 

The gramme is divided, according to the French 
system, into 10 decigrammes, 100 centigrammes, 
or 1,000 milligrammes. Its multiples by 10 are 
successively deca-, hecto-, kilo-, and myria- 
grammes. The weight of the kilogramme, or 
1,000 grammes, is equal to 2 -6793 Ibs. troy, or 
2-2046 Ibs. avoirdupois. In rough estimates 50 
kilogrammes are often conveniently taken as 
equivalent to 1 cwt., being only If Ib. short 
of this, and 1,000 kilogrammes as 1 ton, the 
deficiency being only 35*4 Ibs. 

GRAMONT, an ancient French family, which 
traces its origin to the 14th century, takes its 
name from the seigneurial estate of Gramont in 
Lower Navarre, and has produced several dis- 
tinguished men. I. Antoine 111., duke de, dis- 
tinguished himself in several campaigns during 
the reigns of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV., be- 
came marshal of France in 1641, was commis- 
sioned in 1660 to bring from Spain the infanta 
Maria Theresa as bride of Louis XIV., and 
died in 1678. He left personal Memoires^ 
which were published by one of his sons. II. 
Philibert, count de, brother of the preceding, 
born in 1621, died Jan. 10, 1707. His innu- 
merable love affairs, gambling adventures, and 
intrigues have been handed down to posterity 
in the sprightly narrative by his brother-in- 
law, Anthony Hamilton. This hero of fashion- 
able licentiousness, after figuring indifferent- 
ly in several campaigns, was ordered to leave 
France in 1662, because he had been pre- 
sumptuous enough to pay his homage to Mile. 
Lamothe Houdancourt, upon whom Louis 
XIV. had fixed his affections. He then re- 
paired to the court of Charles II. of England, 
where he became the favorite of many ladies 
of rank and beauty. He was stopped at last 
in his career of debauchery by an enforced 
marriage with Eliza Hamilton. He returned to 
France with his wife, who was appointed lady 
in the household of Queen Maria Theresa. He 
was 80 years old when, to divert him, his 
brother-in-law undertook the Memoires which 
were to perpetuate his name. III. Antoine 
Agenor Alfred, duke de, a French diplomatist, 
born in Paris, Aug. 14, 1819. He commenced 
his diplomatic career in 1852, and represented 
France successively at Oassel, Stuttgart, Turin, 
and Rome. He was sent to Vienna in 1861, 
and held the post of ambassador there until in 
May, 1870, he entered the Ollivier cabinet as 
minister of foreign affairs. When Prince Leo- 
pold of Hohenzollern spontaneously renounced 
his candidacy for the Spanish crown, Gramont 
further insisted that the king of Prussia should 
give a solemn promise that no prince of his 
house should in future be a candidate for the 
throne of Spain. On July 15 Gramont offi- 
cially announced to the French chambers that 
war existed between France and Prussia. 
When the Ollivier ministry were compelled to 
resign, Aug. 9, 1870, Gramont retired to pri- 
vate life. During and since the war he has 
been the object of vehement attacks in the 
French journals. In January, 1872, he was 



GRAMPIANS 



GRANADA 



147 



150 



summoned, with Marshal Leboeuf, to appear 
before a committee of inquiry into the causes 
of the revolution of Sept. 4, 1870. 
GRAMPIANS, a range of mountains traversing 
tland diagonally from S. W. to N. E. for 
m., and forming the natural boundary be- 
tween the highlands and the lowlands. Be- 
inning in Argyleshire, on the W. coast, near 
S. W. extremity of Loch Awe, they pass 
g the W. and N. boundaries of Perthshire, 
eluding the Ben Lomond hills in Stirling- 
ire to the south, and at Cairn Ealer divide 
to two branches, which pass to the sea re- 
vely on the N. and S. sides of the river 
The term is not strictly limited in its 
lication, but in its widest usage it includes 
the highest mountains of Scotland. Seve- 
of its summits, as Ben Nevis, Ben Macdhui, 
irntoul, and Cairngorm, rise to a height of 
ut 4,000 ft. 

GRAMPUS, a porpoise-like cetacean, belong- 
to the genus phocwna (Cuvier); English 
iters, however, make a generic name of the 
grampus, calling the animal G. orca 
abr.). The name seems to be a corruption 
the French grand polsson (large fish), to 
hich its size well entitles it. Other names 
finner and black-fish whale, from its dorsal 
and prevailing color; killer or thrasher, 
its alleged habit of attacking and killing 
e whale. It attains a length of 25 to 30 ft., 
th a circumference of 10 or 12 ; the snout is 
and rounded, the lower jaw broader and 
orter than the upper; the teeth are about 
22 above and 22 below, large, strong, coni- 
and somewhat hooked ; the so-called dor- 
fin, near the middle of the back, is 4 ft. 
, and the pectorals are large and oval ; the 
is lunate, thick, and powerful. The color 
black above, suddenly changing to white on 
sides and beneath; a large white patch 
ind and above the eyes. It is occasionally 




Grampus (Grampus orca). 



seen on our coast, and not unfrequently on the 
shores of Europe and in the middle Atlantic ; 
its favorite haunts are the northern regions, in 
the vicinity of Greenland and Spitzbergen. 
They are often met in small herds of six or 
eight, chasing each other as if in sport ; they 
are swift and strong, which renders their 
capture difficult, and they yield comparatively 
little oil. The grampus is exceedingly vora- 



cious and entirely carnivorous, devouring large 
fish, such as cod, halibut, skates, turbots, &c., 
smaller cetaceans, and even seals. American 
whalemen call it killer and thrasher, and af- 
firm that a herd of them will surround a large 
whale, bite and tear away its flesh with their 
powerful teeth, and finally weary and destroy 
it; the accounts of such cetacean combats 
are probably exaggerated, but from the size, 
strength, and voracious habits of the grampus, 
no doubt even whales sometimes fall victims to 
their hungry herds. The oil, though small in 
quantity, is of excellent quality. Gray, in the 
Spicilegia Zoologica, vol. ii., describes other 
species, as G. intermedius, Heavisidii, and ob- 
scurus, the last two from the Cape of Good 
Hope; all the species are frequently called 
dolphins, though they have not the prolonged 
beak of the latter. 

GRAN (Hung. JSsztergom). I. A N. W. coun- 
ty of Hungary, traversed from W. to E. by the 
Danube ; area, 424 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 65,- 
306, mostly Magyars. The surface toward the 
centre is flat, in the north generally level, and 
mountainous in the south. The river Gran 
(Hung. Garam), which rises in the Carpathians, 
traverses the N. E. portion of the county. The 
soil, which is generally fertile, produces corn, 
fruits, and wine, of which the Neszmelyi is 
favorably known in commerce. Coal, lime- 
stone, and gray, red, and variegated marble are 
found. II. A city, capital of the county, on 
the right bank of the Danube, crossed here by 
a bridge, opposite the mouth of the Gran, 24 
m. N. N. W. of Pesth ; pop. in 1870, 8,780. It 
is a royal free city, the seat of an archbishop, 
primate of Hungary, who was made cardinal 
in 1874, and contains many remarkable build- 
ings, the most conspicuous of which are the 
palace of the primate, the houses of the chap- 
ter, and the cathedral, in the Italian style, one 
of the finest churches of Europe, built on a 
precipitous height overlooking the Danube. It 
has also a gymnasium and a theological semi- 
j nary. The inhabitants are chiefly employed 
I in the manufacture of woollen cloth. Gran is 
j said to have been founded by the Romans. It 
continued to flourish until it was destroyed 
by the Tartars, on their. invasion of Hungary, 
1241-'3. At a later period it was taken by 
the Turks, and reconquered in 1683 by John 
Sobieski. 

GRANADA. I. A W. department of Nicara- 
gua, between Lake Nicaragua and Lake Ma- 
nagua, and bordering on the Pacific ; area, 
2,943 sq. m. ; pop. about 56,000. The gen- 
eral aspect of this department is that of an 
extensive table land, with a gentle descent to- 
ward the lakes and steep acclivities on the side 
of the Pacific. A low central chain of moun- 
tains divides the country into almost equal por- 
tions, the northern and western being essen- 
tially volcanic, though cultivated in every di- 
rection and densely populated, in spite of the 
great scarcity of water. Among the numerous 
volcanoes are Mombacho, Masaya, Madera, and 



143 



GRANADA 



Ometepe, on the beautiful island of Zapatera, 
in Lake Nicaragua. A few of the volcanoes 
are still active, but the most recent serious 
eruption was that of Masaya in 1858. Be- 
sides the two large lakes, there are several 
small ones having no visible outlet. There 
are no navigable rivers. The mineral pro- 
ductions are abundant, and many mineral 
springs exist. II. A city, capital of the de- 
partment, on the W. shore of Lake Nicaragua, 
27 m. S. E. of Managua; pop. about 10,000. 
The streets are irregular and unpaved. There 
are three ancient churches. On the lake side 
stand the remains of the old fortifications of 
the city. A company was formed in 1872 for 
raising the water of the lake to the city by 
machinery, the elevation being 58 ft. The 
hospital is in a dilapidated condition, and one 
wing is used as a prison for females. The 
university courses are held in the halls of 
the ancient cloister of San Francisco. The 
situation of Granada is unequalled in a com- 
mercial point of view by any other inland 
town in Central America, but its trade is at a 
low ebb, although the products of several de- 
partments concentrate here for shipment by 
the lake steamers, which leave twice or thrice 
a month, and reach the Atlantic through the 
Rio San Juan. The town was founded in 1523, 
and was in the latter part of the 17th century 
repeatedly plundered and partially destroyed 
by buccaneers. The usurper Chamorro having 
taken refuge here, the democrats besieged the 
city from May, 1854, to February, 1855. After 
the death of Chamorro, in 1855, the filibuster 
William Walker took the city by surprise, 
burned it, and established a provisional gov- 
ernment which lasted till 1857, when Granada 
was retaken by the united arms of San Salva- 
dor and Guatemala. A large portion of the 
city has been rebuilt since that time ; but whole 
squares still lie in ruin, covered with vegetation. 
GRANADA. I* An ancient kingdom of Spain, 
in Andalusia, now comprising the three mod- 
ern provinces of Malaga, Granada, and Alme- 
ria, bounded S. and E. by the Mediterranean ; 
greatest length about 200 m., greatest breadth 
about 80 m. ; area, 11,063 sq. m. The surface 
is diversified, with lofty mountains, beautiful 
valleys, and extensive plains. The Sierra Ne- 
vada mountains traverse the territory from E. 
to W. ; their summits are crowned with per- 
petual snow, and one of them, the Cerro de 
Mulhacen, attains an elevation of 11,654 ft. 
above the sea, and is the highest mountain in 
Spain. The only railway of the province con- 
nects the city of Granada with Antequera and 
the railway from Malaga to Cordova. The 
principal riven are the Jenil, the Almanzora, 
and the Guadalorze. The climate of the 

:in districts is cold, that of the plains 
temperate, and that of the valleys sultry and 

:i iy, ivsp.'rially during the prevalence of 
the wind called solano, which blows periodi- 
cally from the Mediterranean. The soil is 
barren or fertile in proportion to the possibil- 



ity of irrigating it from the mountain streams. 
Agriculture is the chief business. The princi- 
pal manufacture is silk. The wine is generally 
inferior, but the tierno, muscatel, and Malaga 
are exceptions, and have a high reputation. 
The sugar cane grown in the neighborhood of 
Velez Malaga is deemed fully equal to that of 
the West Indies for size and juiciness. The 
foreign trade is not important, and is chiefly 
carried on through the ports of Alrneria and 
Malaga. This province formed an opulent, 
civilized, and powerful kingdom under a Moor- 
ish dynasty founded in 1238, which was over- 
thrown by Ferdinand the Catholic in 1492. 
II. A modern province, bounded N. by Cor- 
dova, Jaen, and Albacete, E. and S. by Al- 
meria and the Mediterranean, S. W. by Malaga, 
and N. W. by Cordova ; area, 4,937 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870 estimated at 485,000. It is al- 
most entirely mountainous, the only large tract 
of level country within its boundaries being 
the Vega or plain of Granada, on the Jenil, 
between the capital and Loja. HI. A city, the 
capital of the province and kingdom, on two 
declivities of the Sierra Nevada and on the 
plain between them, 34 m. from the Mediter- 
ranean, and 224 m. S. of Madrid ; lat. 37 13' 
N., Ion. 3 40' W. ; pop. about 68,000. The 
river Darro flows through it, and falls into the 
Jenil just outside the walls. The site of the 
city is about 2,000 ft. above the sea, and its 
appearance from a distance is singularly pictu- 
resque and beautiful. It is divided into the city 
proper, the Alhambra suburb, the Albaycin 
suburb, and the Antequeruela suburb. The 
first three are partially fortified, but the fourth 
is entirely open, and here the working classes 
generally reside. The streets are narrow and 
crooked, but the houses are well built in an- 
tique oriental style. There are several hand- 
some squares and numerous public fountains. 
But the public edifices and the monuments of 
its former splendor are the great attractions 
of Granada, and first among these must be 
ranked the Alhambra, or ancient palace of the 
Moorish kings. (See ALHAMBRA.) The Gothic 
cathedral is profusely ornamented with jasper 
and colored marble, and surmounted with a 
dome resting on 12 arches, beneath which 
stands the gorgeously decorated altar. The 
church of Nuestra Senora de las Angustias is 
remarkable for its altar and towers ; the church 
of San Jos6, a modern structure, for its ele- 
gance. The monastery of San Ger6nimo con- 
tains the tomb of its founder, Gonsalvo de 
Cordova ; but his bones were dug up and cast 
out by a mob who plundered the convent in 
1836. Granada contains the unfinished palace 
of Charles V., the Generalife, a Moorish palace 
surrounded with gardens and fountains, an 
episcopal palace, a university, and a general 
hospital, as well as many conventual establish- 
ments for both sexes. The chief manufactures 
are silk, woollen stuffs, hats, paper, saltpetre, 
and gunpowder. The trade is insignificant, 
and the roads leading to the city are so wretch- 



GRANADA 



GRANDEE 



149 



ed that in the rainy season they are almost im- 
passable. Granada was founded by the Moors 
in the 10th century, and from 1238 was the 



version in 1492, when it was taken by Fer- 
dinand and Isabella after a protracted siege. 
It prospered for another century, but when 



capital of the kingdom of Granada till its sub- the Moors, who composed the greater part of 




Granada. 



population, were finally expelled from Spain 
1609, it received a blow from which it has 
7er recovered. At the height of its splen- 
dor it is said to have contained as many as 
500,000 inhabitants. 

GRANADA, New. See COLOMBIA. 
GRANADILLA (Span., diminutive of granada, 
pomegranate), the Spanish-American name 
)r the edible fruit of several species of passi- 
ra, especially that of P. quadrangularis. 
le genus passiflora, which will be described 
ler PASSION FLOWER, is well known for the 
beauty of the flowers of many species 
rb.ich are common greenhouse climbers. Oth- 
^ edible-fruited species are P. edulis, P. lau- 
ifolia (the water lemon), P. maliformis (the 
jweet calabash), and P. incarnata, the may- 
)p of the southern states. P. quadrangu- 
iris is a native of the West Indies, where its 
rait is esteemed for the dessert. In French 
rorks upon horticulture it is placed among 
'ie exotic fruits to be grown under glass, and 
aadillas thus produced are sometimes seen 
the markets of Paris and London. In our 
mouses the plant is often seen in flower, 
>ut rarely in fruit, as gardeners do not seem to 
be aware that the flowers require to be arti- 
^cially fertilized with their own pollen or that 
" some other species, else the fruit will not 
3t. The fruit is 6 or 8 in. in diameter, of a 
mulberry color, and with an odor something 
like the pineapple or strawberry. The purple 
pulp, which encloses numerous seeds, is sub- 
acid, and is usually eaten with wine and sugar. 
In contrast with the fruit, the root of this spe- 
cies is powerfully narcotic and emetic. 



GRANBY, John Manners, commonly called mar- 
quis of, an English general, born Jan. 2, 1721, 
died in Scarborough, Oct. 19, 1770. He was 
the eldest son of the third duke of Rutland, was 
educated at Eton and Cambridge, and during 
the rebellion of 1745 raised a regiment of foot 
at his own expense. In 1759 he was sent to 
Germany as second in command, under Lord 
George Sackville, of the troops destined to co- 
operate with Prussia. Lord George having re- 
signed, Granby succeeded to the chief com- 
mand of the British, and served with distinction 
during the remainder of the seven years' war. 
In 1760, while still in the field, he was appoint- 
ed a member of the privy council. In 1763 he 
became master general of the ordnance, and 
in 1766 commander-in-chief of the forces. He 
also served several terms in parliament. He 
was exceedingly popular, but his military quali- 
ties appear to have been greatly overrated. 

GRAND, the N. W. county of Colorado. See 
SUMMIT. 

GRANDEE (Span, grande de Etpafta), the 
highest rank of Spanish nobility. The gran- 
dees of Spain were the great nobles descended 
from the ancient chief feudatories of the crown, 
and from members of the royal family. They 
had the right to levy soldiers under their own 
banner, were free from taxes, and could not be 
subjected to the jurisdiction of any civil or 
criminal court without the express command 
of the king. They also claimed the right to 
make war upon the king without incurring the 
guilt of treason. As the power of the mon- 
arch increased, the privileges of the grandees 
were restricted, till little was left but the right 



150 



GRAND FORKS 



of wearing their hats in the royal presence, 
and of being saluted by the guards at the royal 
palace. The Spanish grandees considered them- 
selves superior in rank to all the other nobil- 
ity of Europe, and second only to princes of 
royal blood. On public occasions the order of 
precedence placed them next to the high pre- 
lates. Many of the grandees had no title; 
others had the titles of count, marquis, and 
duke, and some possessed enormous estates. 
Among the richest were the dukes of Medina 
Celi, Alva, Ossuna, Altamira, Infantado, and 
Arcos. The duke of Arcos, in the latter part 
of the 18th century, maintained 3,000 servants. 
The grandees have no privileges now. 

GRAND FORKS, a N. E. county of Dakota 
territory, recently formed, and not included in 
the census of 1870; area, about 4,000 sq. m. 
It is separated on the east from Minnesota by 
the Red river, and is drained by several afflu- 
ents of that stream. 

GRAM) HAVEN, a city, port of entry, and the 
capital of Ottawa co., Michigan, at the mouth 
of Grand river, on the E. shore of Lake Michi- 
gan, opposite Milwaukee, and 90 m. W. N. W. 
of Lansing ; pop. in 1870, 3,147. It is bounded 
on two sides by hills, and in the neighborhood 
are extensive peach orchards. Springs possess- 
ing medicinai properties have lately been dis- 
covered. The city contains one of the finest 
hotels in the state, a cemetery of 40 acres, and 
three school houses. It is the W. terminus 
of the Detroit and Milwaukee railroad, and is 
intersected by the Michigan Lake Shore line. 
Steamers run throughout the year to Milwau- 
kee, and in summer a daily line plies to Grand 
Rapids. The principal manufactories are sev- 
en saw mills, a shingle mill, a machine shop, 
two ship yards, and one manufactory each of 
agricultural implements and furniture, of sash, 
doors, and blinds, of spinning wheels, and of 
curtain rollers. There are a dry dock, a na- 
tional bank, two weekly newspapers, a high 
school, and 11 churches. Grand Haven was 
laid out in 1836, though a trading post had 
been established on its site by the northwest- 
ern fur company in 1825. It received a city 
charter in 1867. 

GRAND ISLE, a N. W. county of Vermont, 
consisting of a number of islands in Lake 
Champlain and the S. part of a peninsula jut- 
ting into the lake from Canada between Riche- 
lieu or St. John's river and Missisquoi bay ; 
area, about 77 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,082. 
The chief islands are North Hero, South Hero, 
and Isle La Motte. The surface is undulating, 
and the soil fertile. The county is famous for 
its orchards, which yield the finest apples in 
the state. The chief productions in 1870 were 
21,073 bushels of Indian corn, 105,431 of oats, 
26,876 of buckwheat, 26,295 of peas and beans 
51,599 of potatoes, 160,653 Ibs. of butter, 83,- 
838 of wool, 12,271 tons of hay, and 15,982 Ibs. 
of hops. There were 1,285 horses, 2,827 cat- 
tle, and 16,087 sheep. The lake is here navi- 
gable by vessels of 90 tons. The Vermont 



GRAND RAPIDS 

Central railroad crosses the N. part of the 
county. Capital, North Hero. 

GRAND MANAN, or Menan, an island off the E. 
coast of Maine, at the entrance to the bay of 
Fundy, belonging to Charlotte co., New Bruns- 
wick ; pop. in 1871, 1,867. Its length is near- 
ly 20 m., and its average breadth about 5 m. 
It abounds with excellent timber, and has sev- 
eral fishing stations. The coast is deeply in- 
dented, and affords numerous good harbors. 
There is a lighthouse on the island, lat. 44 45' 
52" N., Ion. 66 44' 4" W. 

GRANDPRE, Louis Marie Joseph Ohier, count de, 
a French navigator and traveller, born in St. 
Malo, May 7, 1761, died in Paris, Jan. 7, 1846. 
After a long experience on the sea as a trader, 
he entered the navy, and at the end of 15 
years' service was admitted to the hotel de* 
invalides, where he remained until his death. 
He published Voyage d la cote occidental* 
d>Afrique,fait dans les annees 1786 et 1787 (2 
vols. 8vo, 1801), in which he gives an interest- 
ing account from his own observation of the 
Congo slave trade before the French revolution ; 
Voyage dans Vlnde et au Bengalefait dans les 
annees 1789 et 1790 (1801), followed by Voyage 
dans la mer Rouge. He also published a Dic- 
tionnaire universel de geographic maritime (2 
vols. 4to, 1803), an Abrege elementaire de geo- 
graphic physique (8vo, 1825), a Repertoire po- 
ly glotte de la marine (2 vols. 8vo, 1829), and 
many essays, among them a Memoire sur I 'em- 
placement que VUe Atlantide peut avoir occupe 
entre Pancien et le nouveau monde. 

GRAND RAPIDS, a city and the capital of 
"Kent co., Michigan, situated at the rapids of 
Grand river, here spanned by five bridges, 30 
m. E. of Lake Michigan and 60 m. W. N. W. 
of Lansing; pop. in 1850, 2,686; in 1860, 
8,085 ; in 1870, 16,507, of whom 5,725 were 
foreigners. It is built on both sides of the 
river, which here, deviating from its general 
W. direction, runs nearly S. - between high 
bluffs about a mile apart, which gradually di- 
verge and nearly disappear above and below 
the city. The central school building, erected 
in 1868 at a cost of $50,000, is on the highest 
part of the bluffs E. of the river, and com- 
mands a fine view. The county jail, built in 
1872, is a fine specimen of architecture. There 
are many handsome residences, a number of 
gravelled streets, and several miles of street 
railroad. The river is navigable to this point 
for steamers of considerable size. Six railroads 
intersect here: the Detroit and Milwaukee, 
the Grand Rapids and Indiana, the Grand 
River Valley division of the Michigan Central, 
the Kalamazoo division of the Michigan South- 
ern, the Chicago and Michigan Lake Shore, 
and the Grand Rapids, Newaygo, and Lake 
Shore. The rapids furnish extensive water 
power, which is utilized by means of two 
canals. The one on the E. side of the river is 
2,600 ft. long, 140 ft. wide at the upper and 30 
ft. at the lower end ; the W. side canal is 3,300 
ft. long, 100 ft. wide at the upper and 50 ft. at 



GRAND RIVER 



GRANICUS 



151 



lower end. Only a portion of the available 
power is in actual use. The principal manu- 
factures are of wood work, embracing furni- 
ire, barrels, and rim and bent work, tubs, 
Is, sashes and blinds, carriages and wagons, 
There are also manufactories of agricul- 
iral implements and brushes, several founde- 
3s and machine shops, chemical works, tan- 
3ries, breweries, &c. The pine lumber pro- 
iced in 1872 exceeded 60,000,000 ft. A 
rge establishment for preserving fruit has re- 
itly been erected. Four firms, with an ag- 
sgate capital of $400,000, are engaged in 
tarrying and manufacturing gypsum, which 
abundant in the vicinity, the annual produc- 
m being about 100,000 tons. Cream-colored 
ricks, known as Milwaukee bricks, are also 
lufactured here. There are two national 
with an aggregate capital of $700,000, 
id a savings bank. The city is divided into 
wards, is lighted with gas, and has an 
icient police force and a paid fire department, 
le assessed value of property in 1873 was 
,949,282. The United States circuit and 
ict courts for the W. district of Michigan 
held here. The school buildings are nine 
number, including a high school. There is 
public library with more than 7,000 volumes, 
free reading room, and a scientific institute 
rhich has a fine museum. There are three 
ly and five weekly (one Dutch and one Ger- 
i) newspapers, two monthly periodicals, and 
churches. Grand Rapids was first settled 
1833, and incorporated in 1850. 
GRAND RIVER (Ind. name, Washtenong), a^ 
rer of Michigan, and the largest which lies* 
rholly in that state. It rises in the S. E. part 
the lower peninsula, in two branches which 
ite near Jackson, and after a K W. and W. 
>urse of about 270 m., including its numerous 
indings, it discharges into Lake Michigan at 
md Haven. It is about 950 ft. wide at its 
ith, and deep enough for vessels of less than 
ft. draught. Steamboats ascend 40 m. to 
le rapids, where the river has a fall of 18 ft. 
a mile; and small boats ply between the 
of the rapids and Lyons, about 50 m. 
ler. The principal affluents are the Rogue, 
, Maple, Looking-glass, and Red Cedar from 
le north, and the Thornapple from the south, 
lackson, Lansing, Grand Rapids, and Grand 
Haven are the chief towns on its banks. 

GRAND RIVER, one of the constituents of the 
Colorado of the "West, rises in the Rocky moun- 
tains in Colorado territory, 5 or 6 m. W. of Long's 
peak, in about lat. 40 17' K, Ion. 105 43' W. 
It pursues a general S. W. course of about 350 
m., and joins the Green in Utah territory. It 
Is S. just before entering Utah, and then 
as it crosses the boundary, resuming its 
ineral direction. The only important tributary 
the north is Milk creek, which joins the 
lin stream near its source. From the south 
it receives the Blue river (which, rising near the 
base of Mt. Lincoln, has by some been regarded 
as the true source of the Grand), Piney creek, 



Roaring fork, the Gunnison or South fork (the 
largest tributary), and the San Miguel and Do- 
lores rivers, which unite and empty into the 
Grand just beyond the Utah border. It flows 
through a mountainous region, forming deep 
and precipitous cafions. 

GRAND TRAVERSE, a N. W. county of the S. 
peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. E. by 
Grand Traverse bay ; area, about 500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 4,443. It is drained by Grand 
Traverse river, which enters the bay of the 
same name. The surface is undulating and 
dotted over with a great number of small lakes. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 31,157 
bushels of wheat, 26,708 of Indian corn, 15,218 
of oats, 94,174 of potatoes, and 3,544 tons of 
hay. There were 2 flour and 9 saw mills. Cap- 
ital, Grand Traverse City. 

GRANDVILLE, Jean Ignace Isidore, whose real 
name was GERARD, a French caricaturist, born 
in Nancy in September, 1803, died at Vanves, 
near Paris, in March, 1847. He was the son of 
a miniature painter, and attracted attention in 
1828 by his Metamorphoses dujour, illustrating 
prevailing follies and vices by representing well 
known personages with the faces of animals. 
His political caricatures and his pictures of ani- 
mals increased his reputation, and he furnished 
many designs for illustrated and humorous 
journals, for Lafontaine's fables, and for many 
other works. In the latter part of his life he 
took up fantastic and ghostly subjects, and he 
died in a lunatic asylum. See Grandmlle, by 
Charles Blanc (Paris, 1855). 

GRANE, Gran, or Quade (Arabic, El-Kueit\ a 
seaport town of Arabia, in the district of El- 
Hasa or Ahsa, on a bay of the same name, 
at the N. W. corner of the Persian gulf, 90 m. 
S. of Bassorah ; lat. 29 23' K, Ion. 47 51' E. ; 
pop. about 9,000. It is on a peninsula jutting 
into the bay, which is 60 m. in circuit, affords 
excellent anchorage for the largest vessels, and 
is well protected by the small island of Felej 
or Felitche. In the town there is a scar- 
city of water. Most of the houses are built of 
clay, but many wealthy merchants reside here. 
Trade is carried on with the Red sea and India. 

GRANGE, National. See HUSBANDRY, PA- 
TRONS OF. 

GRANGER, Gideon, an American statesman, 
born at Suffield, Conn., July 19, 1767, died at 
Canandaigua, N. Y., Dec. 31, 1822. He grad- 
uated at Yale college in 1787, and rose to emi- 
nence at the bar. In 1801 President Jefferson 
appointed him postmaster general. He was 
reappointed by President Madison, but was 
displaced in 1814 for opposing Madison's policy. 
He then removed to Canandaigua, N". Y. He 
gave 1,000 acres of land to further the con- 
struction of the Erie canal. His son FRAN- 
CIS, born Dec. 1, 1792, was also a prominent 
lawyer and member of congress, and post- 
master general from March to July, 1841. He 
died at Canandaigua, N. Y., Aug. 28, 1868. 

GRAN1CUS (now Khodja Tckai), in ancient 
geography, a small river of Asia Minor, rising 



L52 



GRANIER 



N. W. of Mt. Ida, and emptying into the Pro- 
pontis after a N. E. course of 50 or 60 m. It 
is famous as the scene of the first decisive 
victory of Alexander the Great over the Per- 
sians, 334 B. 0. 

GRAM KB, Adolphe Bernard, commonly called 
A. GRANIER DE OASBAGNAC, a French journal- 
ist, born in the department of Gers about 1806. 
He was educated at the college of Toulouse, 
and began his career at Paris in 1832, by wri- 
ting literary criticisms for the Journal des De- 
bats and the Revue de Paris. The asperity of 
his articles displeased Bertin, editor of the De- 
bats, and Granier joined the Presse, then just 
founded by Girardin. In this journal he de- 
fended Victor Hugo and the romantic school, 
and wrote severe criticisms upon Racine. A 
collection of these articles was published in 
1852 under the title of Portraits litteraires. In 
1837 he published Histoire des classes ounrieres 
et des classes bourgeoises, and in 1840 Histoire 
des classes nobles et des classes anoblies. He 
also wrote pamphlets in defence of slavery, by 
which he recommended himself to the planters 
of Martinique and Guadeloupe ; and in 1840 he 
made a visit to the "West Indies, of which an ac- 
count was given in his Voyage aux Antilles (2 
vols., 1842-'4). While there he married Mile. 
Beauvallon, a Creole. On his return to Paris 
he became editor of the Globe. His conduct 
of this journal involved him in various contro- 
versies and duels. In 1845 his brother-in-law 
Beauvallon, who was employed upon the same 
paper, killed Dujarrier, the manager of the 
Presse, in a duel, and was prosecuted for having 
nsed unfair means. He was acquitted, but was 
afterward convicted of having procured his ac- 
quittal with false witnesses. Granier de Cas- 
sagnac testified on these trials in behalf of his 
brother-in-law, and his character was compro- 
mised by their result. The Globe having been 
discontinued in 1846, he founded an ultra-con- 
servative journal called ISfipoque, which exist- 
ed for two years. He was then sent by Guizot 
to found a journal at Rome for the promotion 
of French interests. On the breaking out of 
the revolution of 1848 he returned to France, 
but did not go to Paris till 1850. He was a de- 
clared opponent of the republic and a devoted 
adherent of Louis Napoleon. He became in 
1850 the principal editor of the Pouvoir, then 
a regular contributor to the Constitutionnel, 
mul in 1857 founded the Reveil. This survived 
but a year, and he then assumed the direction 
of the Pays. The next paper which he edited 
was UKcho, which in 1863 was merged in the 
Nation. In 1866 he resumed the direction of 
the Pays. He was four times elected to the 
chamber of deputies, as a government candi- 
d.it,-. lH52-'69. In the chamber he was a vio- 
lent partisan of the government. In 1868 he 
\<>fr<l with six of his colleagues against a law 
which was favorable to the press, and replied 
to ar-L-nMirnts advanced by Picard and Ollivier 
in relation to it with a challenge to fight. 
Both he and his son, Paul de Oassagnac, be- 



GRANITE 

came notorious for the great number of con- 
troversies, duels, and broils in which they were 
engaged. After the French reverses in the 
war of 1870-'71 he resided partly at Wilhelms- 
hohe and partly at Brussels. After the res- 
toration of peace he returned to Paris and 
wrote occasionally for the Pays. In 1873 he 
published Histoire des origines de la langue 
francaise, in which he contended, as he had 
done in the Presse in 1836 and in his Antiquite 
des patois : anteriorite de la langue francaise 
sur le latin (1859), that the French was spoken 
in Gaul before Latin was introduced. He has 
also published Histoire des causes de la revolu- 
tion francaise (1850 ; 2d ed., 3 vols., 1856); His- 
toire du directoire (3 vols., 1851-'6) ; Histoire 
de la chute du roi Louis Philippe, de la repu- 
blique de 1848 et du retablissement de V empire 
(2 vols., 1857); Histoire des Girondins et des 
massacres de septembre (2 vols., 1860) ; and 
UEmpereur et la democratic moderne (1861). 

GRANITE, a hard firm rock, made up essen- 
tially of crystalline grains of feldspar and 
quartz, deriving its name from its granular 
structure. The typical granites are generally 
described as composed of a potash feldspar 
(orthoclase), quartz, and mica ; but there are 
similar rocks which entirely lack the mica, and 
others in which it is replaced by hornblende. 
To this latter combination some writers give 
the name of syenite, but this term appears to 
have been originally employed to designate 
a rock composed of hornblende with a soda 
feldspar (albite, oligoclase, or labradorite), and 
^without quartz, being identical with what by 
other authors is called diorite. It seems bet- 
ter therefore to follow the example of certain 
German lithologists, who define granite as a 
binary aggregate of orthoclase feldspar and 
quartz, in which mica and hornblende may be 
present as accidental minerals, giving rise to 
micaceous and hornblendic granite, while the 
variety from which they are both absent is 
termed normal or binary granite. In some 
cases a chloritic mineral, often confounded with 
talc, takes the place of mica, and gives rise to 
what has been called protogine or talcose gran- 
ite. The color of the feldspar of granite is 
generally white, gray, or reddish, while the 
quartz is either colorless or somewhat smoky, 
the hornblende greenish black, and the mica 
varies in color from nearly white to brownish 
or blackish. Associated with the orthoclase, 
some granites contain portions of a soda feld- 
spar, which may be either albite or oligoclase, 
distinguished from the former by its whitp 
or greenish-white color, which often contrasts 
with the reddish tint of the orthoclase. There 
are various degrees of fineness in the texture of 
granites, and some of them, which have large 
crystals of orthoclase imbedded in a finely 
granular mixture of the constituent minerals, 
are called porphyritic granites. Geologically 
granite is described as an unstratified rock, 
from the fact that it wants the banded or strat- 
ified structure which characterizes gneiss, ft 



GRANITE 



153 



granular rock made up of the same mineral 
species arranged in layers, which are generally 
supposed to represent planes of deposition. 
Moreover, granite appears in irregular masses, 
breaking through gneiss and various crystalline 
stratified rocks, and often sending out veins or 
dikes into the midst of these. All the rela- 
tions of the true granites to the stratified rocks 
are in fact such as to suggest the notion that 
the former have been extruded in a more or 
pasty condition from below the latter, 
a the microscopic study of the minute cav- 
ities often found in the quartz of granites, 
rhich are filled with water or saline solutions, 
>rby has concluded that this rock must have 
jonsolidated at a temperature in some cases 
ipproaching a red heat, and under a degree 
)f pressure which implies that it was at that 
time buried beneath a very great weight of 
>ck. There is a popular notion that granite 
the oldest of all rocks, and is in fact the sub- 
ratum which underlies all others; but this 
lea rests upon certain misconceptions, and is 
jbably incorrect. It is true that it is found 
making up through the newer crystalline 
ratified rocks, the primitive slate formations 
' some geologists ; but these are seen to rest 
i an older formation composed in great 
of highly crystalline gneiss, which, though 
ra granite-like in its aspect, is clearly strat- 
ied, and includes beds of quartzite, limestone, 
ad iron ores. This oldest known series, to 
rhich the name of Laurentian is given, was by 
>me of the earlier geologists mistaken for the 
anite which was supposed to underlie the 
)wer series, and it has been suggested witn 
mch probability that it is the gneisses of this 
Id series, which in a softened condition have 
een forced upward among the overlying for- 
lations, where they take the form of unstrati- 
ied granites. The primitive rock, which is 
ipposed to have been before all stratified de- 
sits, is everywhere concealed by these, and 
m chemical analogies may be supposed to 
lave been very unlike granite. The so-called 
lites of the Alps are now shown to be strat- 
[ rocks of eozoic age, which, by great and 
>rofound folds have been brought up and made 
n some cases to overlie the newer strata. 
(See ALPS.) The dikes of a fine-grained gran- 
ite, which appear as offshoots from the great 
eruptive masses, are not to be confounded with 
the granite veinstones, which appear to have 
been formed by a process of gradual deposition 
from aqueous solution in fissures or cavities in 
~ie rocks. Such veins, although often made 
in great part of feldspar and quartz with 
lica, are closely related to the veinstones of 
quartz and calc spar, which are so often the 
gangue of metallic ores. They frequently pre- 
sent a banded structure parallel with the walls 
of the enclosing rock, and are remarkable for 
containing in many cases large and beautiful 
crystals, not only of the constituent minerals 
of granite, but of rarer species. Among the 
most common of these are garnet, tourmaline, 



beryl, topaz, columbite, and cassiterite. The 
gneisses and mica schists of what has been 
called the Montalban or White mountain series 
of the Appalachians are noted for the abun- 
dance of these veins, and for the fine minerals 
which these contain. Some of these granite 
veins are mined for the mica which they afford, 
and others for the pure and abundant white 
orthoclase which is sought for the manufacture 
of porcelain. These veins are of very various 
sizes, sometimes 100 feet or more in breadth, 
and often traverse the enclosing rocks at right 
angles. A peculiar aggregate is sometimes 
found in these veins, in which plates and im- 
perfect skeleton crystals of quartz are so scat- 
tered through the masses of cleavable ortho- 
clase, that a section across the ends of these 
plates presents the appearance of written 
characters or hieroglyphics on a ground of 
feldspar ; hence the name of graphic granite. 
Granite is very strong and durable, and resists 
the atmospheric influences ; but in the south- 
ern and western parts of the United States and 
in South America, as also in central France, it 
is found to be softened and decayed to consid- 
erable depths. This softening, which. Dolo- 
mieu called the maladie du granit, and as- 
cribed to the evolution of carbonic acid from 
the interior of the earth, depends upon a chem- 
ical decomposition of the feldspar, which loses 
its alkali and a part of the silica in a soluble 
form, leaving a hydrated silicate of alumina, 
which in its purest form constitutes kaolin 
or porcelain clay. The feldspars and horn- 
blendes of the gneisses undergo a similar change. 
According to Sterry Hunt, this decomposition 
is not recent, and is not connected with an evo- 
lution of carbonic acid from below, but was 
effected in remote periods, when the whole at- 
mosphere was highly charged with this gas, and 
has ceased in modern times ; although it is not 
impossible that some such changes may now be 
going on in localities where an abundance of 
carbonic acid is given off from the earth. The 
red granites from Peterhead, near Aberdeen in 
Scotland, are especially esteemed for their beau- 
ty of color. Similar red granites are found on 
the coasts of Maine and New Brunswick ; and 
the hornblendic granites of Rockport and Quin- 
cy in Massachusetts are quarried in very large 
quantities and shipped to distant points. 
True granite is found in masses of great solid- 
ity, unbroken by seams and of remarkably uni- 
form structure. It is seen upon the sides of 
mountains covering acres, with hardly a crack 
or seam. But, however massive and unbro- 
ken it appears, it exhibits when quarried a ten- 
dency to divide more easily in some directions 
than in others, and is found to be realiy trav- 
ersed by parallel seams, which separate it into 
blocks more or less symmetrical. Having great 
durability, and being so hard and compact that 
the finer varieties are susceptible of a good 
polish, and when carved retain better than any 
other rock used for architectural purposes the 
sharp edges of mouldings, granite has always 



154 



GRANSON 



occupied the first rank among building stones. 
Its great strength to resist pressure is exhib- 
ited in the trial of the Aberdeen granite used 
in the construction of the piers in the vaults 
of the London custom house. A half-inch cube 
of the best stone required to crush it the pres- 
sure of 24,556 Ibs. It is easily split in large 
blocks by a very simple process. With a hand 
drill and hammer a workman bores a succes- 
sion of holes from 3 to 6 in. in depth, and 2 to 
6 in. apart, along the line where he wishes to 
open the stone. The depth and number of the 
holes are proportioned to the size of the block. 
Into each of the round holes thus made he in- 
troduces two slips of iron called half-rounds, 
buckings, or feathers, being of wedge form, 
but round on one side, and running to a point. 
He then inserts a small steel wedge between 
the flat faces of the two half-rounds and gently 
tightens it with the hammer. This being done, 
he moves along the line tapping each wedge in 
order, and repeating the process till the strain 
causes a crack, which gradually opens, sepa- 
rating the block. Good granite of close grain 
and uniform texture should in this way make 
a clean separation, the crack going straight 
through twice or three times the depth of the 
holes. It may even be quarried out of the solid 
ledge in the same manner, provided there are 
natural seams; and where practicable the pro- 
cess is much to be preferred to blasting, which 
wastes the stone, breaking it into irregular frag- 
ments. But the latter is necessary in quarrying, 
to expose suitable faces for splitting, and to 
open seams. Blocks of great size may be ob- 
tained from good quarries, much larger indeed 
than there is any demand for. They are often 
split out from 40 to 80 ft. in length, and are 
afterward reduced to smaller sizes. They are 
sold in the rough blocks commonly by the ton 
of 14 cubic feet, or if dressed, by the superficial 
foot of hammered surface. In many parts of 
the country gneisses of great homogeneousness 
and with little evidence of stratification are 
quarried under the name of granite, for which 
they furnish an excellent substitute. Such is 
the case with some of the gneisses of the Lau- 
rentian in New York, and still more with the 
fine-grained gray gneisses of the Montalban 
series in New England and further southward 
in the Blue Ridge. The so-called granites of 
Hallowell and Augusta in Maine, and of Con- 
conl in New Hampshire, are examples of these 
granite-like gneisses. They are somewhat more 
U-M.I.T than the true granites, but are more 
easily wrought, and from their beauty of color 
ami t.-xture are greatly esteemed for architec- 
tural purposes. A very fine variety of so-called 
granite is largely quarried on the James river 
near Richmond. Virginia, but it is not certain 
whether it is a true granite or one of the gneisses 
above described. 

<;U\\so\. or Grandson, a town of Switzer- 
land, in the canton of Vaud, on the lake of ' 
Nrnt'rlmtel, near its S. W. extremity; pop. 
about 1,600. It is chiefly memorable for the 



GRANT 

victory achieved near it, March 3, 1476, by the 
Swiss over Charles the Bold of Burgundy. 
(See CHARLES THE BOLD.) 

GRANT, a word constantly used in deeds of 
conveyance, and which once had a specific 
meaning, that now is almost lost. By the rules 
of the early common law all estates of land of 
which actual delivery could be made, could be 
transferred only " by livery (delivery) of seisin 
(possession) ; " that is, by open and actual or 
symbolic (a key for a house, a sward for a 
field, &c.) transfer of possession from the one 
party to the other. But there were valuable 
interests which could not be transferred in this 
way, as rents, estates in expectancy, reversions 
and remainders, and generally all mere rights 
and all incorporeal hereditaments. These could 
be transferred only by deeds containing the 
proper words of transfer. Of these, one of the 
principal was concedo, translated by "grant;" 
and all things which could be transferred only 
in this way were said "to lie in grant," while 
all of the first named class of interests and es- 
tates were said " to lie in livery." With con- 
cedo (grant), do (give) was always used; and 
these two words, " give and grant," were said 
to be the appropriate and peculiar words of 
a grant. This distinction between livery and 
grant was once very important ; but it is now 
little more than a part of the obsolete learning 
of the law. In all deeds of land, or of any in- 
terest in land, corporeal or incorporeal, it is 
customary to say " give and grant." In several 
of the United States the peculiar meaning and 
force of the word may be regarded as abrogated 
by statute ; for all deeds of bargain and sale, of 
lease and release, and all conveyances of the 
freehold, are declared to be grants. The same 
broad construction is given to the word by the 
practice of conveyancers and of courts in other 
states, and it would probably be found to pre- 
vail generally for all practical purposes. 

GRANT, the name of 11 counties in the United 
States. I. A N. E. county of West Virginia, 
bordering N. W. on Maryland, crossed by the 
Alleghany mountains, and watered by the N. 
and S. branches of the Potomac ; area, 500 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,467, of whom 331 were col- 
ored. The soil of the valleys is fertile. Iron 
ore is found. The chief productions in 1870 
were 31,631 bushels of wheat, 52,350 of Indian 
corn, 10,593 of oats, 67,587 Ibs. of butter, 20,- 
689 of wool, and 4,787 tons of hay. There 
were 1,435 horses, 1,739 milch cows, 4,730 
other cattle, 7,551 sheep, and 3,116 swine. 
Capital, Grant Court House. II. A N. central 
parish of Louisiana, bounded E. by Little river 
and S. W. by Red river ; area, about 500 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,517, of whom 2,414 were 
colored. It is well watered. The surface is 
level, and the soil productive. Pine timber 
abounds. The chief productions in 1870 were 
58,786 bushels of Indian corn, 9,948 of sweet 
potatoes, 2,119 of peas and beans, and 4,377 
bales of cotton. There were 651 horses, 
1,097 milch cows, 1,771 other cattle, and 4,791 



GRANT 



155 



nne. Capital, Colfax. III. A S. central 
)unty of Arkansas, watered by the Saline 
iver ; area, about 650 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
,943, of whom 339 were colored. The sur- 
je is generally level, and the soil fertile. The 
lief productions in 1870 were 105,664 bushels 
Indian corn, 22,147 of sweet potatoes, and 
,145 bales of cotton. There were 748 horses, 
,367 milch cows, 3,303 other cattle, 2,022 
leep, and 8,770 swine. Capital, Sheridan. 
V. A N. county of Kentucky, drained by 
jle river, an affluent of the Kentucky ; area, 
rat 200 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,529, of whom 
were colored. It occupies a part of the Dry 
lidge, which separates the waters of the Lick- 
from those of the Kentucky. The Louis- 
le and Cincinnati short line railroad passes 
the N. border. The surface is undulating 
id well timbered, and the soil is fertile. The 
lief productions in 1870 were 41,974 bushels 
wheat, 20,384 of rye, 611,568 of Indian 
i, 31,059 of oats, 17,668 of potatoes, 137,- 
Ibs. of butter, 164,295 of tobacco, and 
,541 tons of hay. There were 3,790 horses, 
J64 milch cows, 3,960 other cattle, 7,233 
ep, and 19,563 swine; 4 flour mills, 5 saw 
Is, and 2 wool-carding and cloth-dressing 
iblishments. Capital, Williamstown. V. A 
itral county of Indiana, drained by Missis- 
lewa river ; area, 420 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
1.8,487. It is intersected by the Pittsburgh, 
mati, and St. Louis railroad. It has a 
jvel surface and an excellent soil, adapted to 
in, grass, and fruit. The chief productions 
1870 were 374,574 bushels of wheat, 540,- 
53 of Indian corn, 68,349 of oats, 41,657 of 
rtatoes, 375,244 Ibs. of butter, 84,824 of wool, 
,068 bushels of flax seed, and 9,448 tons of 
ly. There were 6,942 horses, 5,052 milch 
>ws, 6,636 other cattle, 25,290 sheep, and 27,- 
swine. The principal manufactories were 
of carriages, 2 of clothing, 2 of woollen 
flour, 3 planing, and 32 saw mills, 
ipital, Marion. VI. A S. W. county of Wis- 
sin, separated from Iowa on the W. and S. 
L by the Mississippi river, bounded N. and 
r. W. by the Wisconsin and S. by Illinois ; area, 
1. m. ; pop. in 1870, 37,979. The sur- 
is diversified by valleys, ridges, prairies, 
id woodlands; the soil, watered by Platte, 
int, Blue, and other rivers, is fertile. Lead 
id zinc are abundant, and the former metal 
found throughout the S. part of the county, 
rb.ich is said to produce more than 6,000,000 
a year. There were 5 mines in operation 
1870. The Milwaukee and St. Paul (Prai- 
du Chien division) railroad crosses the N. 
, and the Mineral Point railroad terminates 
Platteville in this county. The chief pro- 
luctions in 1870 were 914,455 bushels of wheat, 
1,744,398 of Indian corn, 1,433,020 of oats, 
44,316 of barley, 288,017 of potatoes, 17,- 
971 of flax seed, 861,028 Ibs. of butter, 75,821 
of wool, 44,585 of hops, and 39,244 tons of 
hay. There were 13,901 horses, 13,312 milch 
cows, 23,301 other cattle, 24,936 sheep, and 



51,254 swine ; 18 manufactories of carriages, 
9 of barrels and casks, 3 of bricks, 1 of gun- 
powder, 6 of pig lead, 9 of saddlery and 
harness, 5 of woollen goods, 5 saw mills, 4 
breweries, and 13 flour mills. Capital, Lan- 
caster. VII. A central W. county of Minneso- 
ta; area, about 625 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 340. 
There are a number of small lakes and streams. 
The surface is level, and the soil fertile. The 
St. Paul and Pacific railroad crosses the S. W. 
part. Capital, Grant Court House. VIII. A 
S. W. county of Nebraska, bordering on Kan- 
sas, and bounded on the N. E. by the Platte 
river; area, about 3,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
484. Since then it has been absorbed by 
other counties. IX. A S. E. county of Oregon, 
bordering on Nevada ; area, 21,000 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 2,251, of whom 940 were Chi- 
nese. The N. W. portion is watered by John 
Day's river, a branch of the Columbia, the E. 
part by Malheur river, an affluent of the Snake, 
and in the south are a number of lakes. The 
Blue mountains cross the N. part. Along 
the streams is some fertile land, the grazing 
lands are more extensive, and forests are com- 
mon, but much of the county consists of barren 
sage plains and rocky hills. Gold was dis- 
covered in this county in 1861, since which 
time it is estimated that $10,000,000 have been 
produced. The chief productions in 1870 were 
17,459 bushels of wheat, 23,426 of oats, 22,172 
of barley, 13,225 of potatoes, and 1,193 tons 
of hay. There were 507 horses, 1,384 milch 
cows, 2,112 other cattle, 1,154 sheep, and 1,248 
swine. Capital, Canyon City. X. An E. coun- 
ty of Dakota territory, bordering on Minne- 
sota, recently formed, and not included in the 
census of 1870 ; area, about 700 sq. m It is 
bounded on the N. E. by Big Stone laie, and 
is drained by affluents of the Minnesota river. 
XI. The S. W. county of New Mexico, bounded 
S. by Mexico and W. by Arizona ; area, about 
10,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,143. The Gila 
river and its tributaries drain the N. and W. 
portions, while the Rio de los Mimbres flows 
through the E. part. The Sierra Madre range 
occupies a portion of the county. The soil in 
parts is fertile. Copper and gold are found, 
and there are three quartz mills and a saw 
mill. Capital, Pinos Altos. 

GRANT, Anne, better known as Mrs. Grant 
of Laggan, a Scottish authoress, born in Glas- 
gow, Feb. 21, 1755, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 
7, 1838. Her father, Duncan McVicar, an 
officer in the British army, was ordered to 
America while she was a child. He received 
a grant of land in Vermont, and added to it 
by purchase. Ill health obliged him to return 
to Scotland in 1768, and his lands were confis- 
cated on the breaking out of the revolutionary 
war. In 1779 Anne married the Rev. James 
Grant of Laggan, Inverness-shire, and had a 
large number of children. On his death in 
1801 she was left in straitened circumstances, 
and in 1803 published a volume of poetry, 
which met with immediate favor. She next 



156 



GRANT 



published "Letters from the Mountains" (3 
vols., London, 1806-7), which contains descrip- 
tions of highland scenery, character, and le- 
gends. Her " Memoirs of an American Lady " 
(2 vols., 1808) gives a pleasant picture of her 
own childhood and of colonial life in America. 
Other works are, "Essays on the Superstitions 
of the Highlanders of Scotland" (2 vols., 
1811), and "Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen, a 
Poem " (1814). After 1810 she resided in Ed- 
inburgh, and toward the close of her life she 
received a pension of 100. In 1844 appear- 
ed the " Memoir and Correspondence of Mrs. 
Grant of Laggan " (3 vols.), the memoir being 
an autobiography, continued by her son, John 
Peter Grant, who died in Edinburgh in 1871. 

GRANT, Sir Francis, a Scottish artist, born in 
Edinburgh in 1803. His precocious talent for 
painting was encouraged by Sir Walter Scott, 
and his earliest work was exhibited in 1834. 
In 1837 he executed for the earl of Chester- 
field "The Meet of his Majesty's Staghounds," 
with more than 40 portraits of noted sports- 
men. Subsequently he produced " Melton 
Hunt," which was purchased by the duke of 
Wellington. Afterward he became distinguish- 
ed as a portrait painter, and executed nume- 
rous pictures of beautiful women and celebra- 
ted men. In 1866 he succeeded Eastlake as 
president of the royal academy. 

GRANT, James, a British journalist, born in 
Elgin, Scotland, in 1806. He started the " Elgin 
Courier" in 1827, and removed to London in 
1834, where he soon formed a connection with 
the " Morning Advertiser," and became its 
editor in 1850. He has published " Random 
Recollections of the House of Commons " (Lon- 
don, 1836), "The Bench and the Bar" (2 vols., 
1837), "The Metropolitan Pulpit" (2 vols., 
1839), "Travels in London," "Portraits of 
Public Characters," and "Paris and its Peo- 
ple." His " God is Love " and " Our Heaven- 
ly Home " have passed through many editions. 
In 1871 he published in two volumes "The 
Newspaper Press, its Origin, Progress, and 
Present Position." 

GRANT, James, a Scottish novelist, born in 
Edinburgh, Aug. 1, 1822. His father was an 
officer in the British army, and his own educa- 
tion was mostly received in barracks in Brit- 
ish North America. After serving for a short 
time in the 62d regiment as ensign, he resigned 
his fMinmission in 1840, and devoted himself 
to litiT.-itnrv. He has been a voluminous wri- 
ter of military and historical romances, some 
of which have had a very extensive circulation 
in a cheap form. His chief publications are : 
'Hi-- Romance of War" (4 vols., 1846-7); 
"Adventures of an Aide-de-Camp " (1848)- 
"Memoirs of Kirkcaldy of Grange" (1849); 
r Fenton, or the Scottish Cavalier" 
(1850); "Bothwell, or the Days of Mary 
Queen of Scots " (1851) ; "Jane Seton " (1853) ; 
"Harry Ogilvie " (1856); "Dick Rodney" 
(1862); "Second to None" (1864); "The 
White Cockade "(1867); and "Under the Red 



Dragon " (1872). Most of his works have been 
reprinted in the United States; some have 
been translated into French, and all into Da- 
nish and German. Mr. Grant is a frequent 
contributor to periodicals. 

GRANT, James Augustus, a British traveller, 
born in Nairn, Scotland, in 1827. He was 
educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen. In 
1845 he received an appointment in the Indian 
army, took part in both sieges of Mooltan and 
in the battle of Guzerat, and was with Have- 
lock at Lucknow. In 1861 he accompanied 
Capt. Speke on his second expedition to the 
lake region of central Africa. After traver- 
sing a district never before visited by white 
men, they reached Gondokoro in March, 1863, 
whence they soon after returned to England. 
Capt. Grant furnished the designs of the maps 
and engravings in Speke's " Journal of the Dis- 
covery of the Source of the Nile," and in 1864 
published " A Walk across Africa, or Domestic 
Scenes from my Nile Journal." In 1866 he 
was made a commander of the bath. In 1868 
he accompanied Lord Napier in the Abyssinian 
expedition as head of the intelligence depart- 
ment, and was nominated a commander of the 
order of the star of India for his services. He 
is now (1874) a major in the Bengal army. 

GRANT, Sir James Hope, a British soldier, bro- 
ther of Sir Francis Grant, born at Kilgraston, 
Perthshire, July 22, 1808. He entered the army 
in 1826, and was brigade major under Lord Sal- 
toun in the first English war against China. He 
served through the campaign in the Punjaub 
in 1848-'9, continued in the Indian service, 
and was made brevet colonel in 1854, and 
major general and knight commander of the 
bath in 1858. The last distinction was con- 
ferred upon him especially in recognition of 
distinguished service at the siege of Delhi, the 
relief of Lucknow, and the operations at Cawn- 
pore. He was put in command of the British 
forces in China in 1859, and conducted the 
campaign there to its successful termination in 
the capture of Peking in 1860. For this he 
was formally thanked by parliament, and made 
a knight grand cross of the bath. In 1861 he 
was made lieutenant general and commander- 
in-chief at Madras, in 1867 quartermaster gen- 
eral at headquarters, and in 1871 commander 
of the division at Aldershott. In January, 
1874, a compilation from his private journals 
during his Indian campaigns was published in 
London, under the title of " Incidents in the 
Sepoy War, 1857-'8." 

GRANT, Ulysses S., eighteenth president of 
the United States, born at Point Pleasant, 0., 
April 27, 1822. His ancestors were Scotch. 
In 1823 his parents removed to the village of 
Georgetown, O., where his boyhood was passed. 
He entered West Point military academy in 
1839, appointed by the Hon. Thomas L. Hamer, 
member of congress. His name originally was 
Hiram Ulysses ; but the appointment was blun- 
deringly made out for Ulysses S., and so it had 
to remain. The study in which he showed 



GRANT 



157 



lost proficiency during his course at the acad- 
emy was mathematics. He graduated in 1843, 
ranking 21st in a class of 39, and was made a 
brevet second lieutenant of infantry and at- 
tached as a supernumerary lieutenant to the 4th 
regiment, which was stationed on the Missouri 
frontier. In the summer of 1845 the regiment 
was ordered to Texas, to join the army of 
Gen. Taylor. On Sept. 30 Grant was commis- 
sioned as a full lieutenant. He first saw blood 
shed at Palo Alto, May 8, 1846, and took part 
also in the battles of Resaca de la Palma and 
Monterey, and the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
April, 1847, he was made quartermaster of his 
regiment, but still participated in all active 
operations ; and after the battle of Molino del 
Rey, Sept. 8, 1847, he was appointed on the 
field a first lieutenant for his gallantry. In his 
report of the battle of Ohapultepec (Sept. 13, 
1847) Col. Garland, commanding the first bri- 
gade, said : " The rear of the enemy had made 
a stand behind a breastwork, from which they 
were driven by detachments of the 2d artillery 
under Capt. Brooks and the 4th infantry under 
Lieut. Grant, supported by other regiments of 
the division, after a short but sharp conflict." 
"I must not omit to call attention to Lieut. 
Grant, 4th infantry, who acquitted himself most 
nobly, upon several occasions, under my own 
observation." Grant was brevetted captain for 
his conduct at Chapultepec, to date from the 
battle. After the capture of the city of Mexico 
he returned with his regiment, and was sta- 
tioned first at Detroit, and then at Sackett's 
Harbor. In 1848 he married Miss Julia T. Dent 
of St. Louis, sister of one of his classmates. In 
1852 he accompanied his regiment to Califor- 
nia and Oregon, and while at Fort Vancouver, 
Aug. 5, 1853, was commissioned full captain. 
On July 31, 1854, he resigned, and removed to 
St. Louis, cultivating a farm near that city and 
engaging in business as a real estate agent. 
In 1859 he was employed by his father in the 
leather trade at Galena, 111. When the civil 
war broke out, he was chosen to command a 
company of volunteers, with which he marched 
to Springfield. There he was retained as an 
aid to Gov. Yates, and acted as mustering officer 
of Illinois volunteers until he became colonel 
of the 21st regiment, his commission dating 
from June 17, 1861. He joined his regiment 
at Mattoon, organized and drilled it at Casey - 
yille, and then crossed into Missouri, where 
it formed part of the guard of the Hannibal 
and Hudson railroad. On July 31 he was 
placed in command of the troops at Mexico, 
forming a part of Gen. Pope's force. On Aug. 

3 he was promoted to brigadier general of 
volunteers, the commission being dated back 
to May 17, and assumed command of the troops 
at Cairo, which were soon increased by the 
addition of Gen. McClernand's brigade. He 
seized Paducah, at the mouth of the Tennessee, 
on Sept. 6, and Smithland, at the mouth of the 
Cumberland, on the 25th. In a proclamation 
to the citizens of Paducah he said : " I have 



nothing to do with opinions, and shall deal 
only with armed rebellion and its aiders and 
abettors." On Oct. 16 he sent out a detach- 
ment under Col. Plummer to check the advance 
of the confederate forces under Gen. Jeff 
Thompson, which was accomplished by a bat- 
tle at Fredericktown, Mo., on the 21st. On 
Nov. 7, with two brigades, Grant fought the 
battle of Belmont, where he commanded in 
person and had a horse shot under him. Gen. 
Halleck, on assuming command of the depart- 
ment of Missouri, gave Gen. Grant the com- 
mand of the district of Cairo (Dec. 21), which 
was so extended as to form one of the largest 
military divisions in the country, including the 
southern part of Illinois, that portion of Ken- 
tucky west of the Cumberland river, and the 
southern counties of Missouri. After a re- 
connoissance in force toward Columbus in Jan- 
uary, 1862, Grant started on Feb. 3 from Pa- 
ducah, with a force of 15,000 men, aided by 
Commodore Foote with a fleet of gunboats, for 
the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, the 
former of which commanded the Tennessee 
river, and the latter the Cumberland, near the 
dividing line between Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. Fort Henry, commanded by the confeder- 
ate Gen. Tilghman, surrendered on Feb. 6, and 
Fort Donelson, commanded by Gen. Buckner, 
on the 16th. The reduction of Fort Henry 
was mainly the work of the gunboats ; Fort 
Donelson was only captured after a severe 
battle (Feb. 15), in which the federal forces, 
which had been increased to 30,000 or more, 
sustained a loss of 2,300. In answer to Buck- 
ner's proposal that commissioners be appoint- 
ed to arrange the terms of capitulation, Grant 
wrote : " No terms other than an uncondition- 
al and immediate surrender can be accepted. 
I propose to move immediately upon your 
works." The capture of Fort Donelson with 
all its defenders except Gen. Floyd's brigade 
was the first brilliant and substantial victory 
that had crowned the federal arms. To the 
gratification at so great a military success was 
added a popular admiration of the terse and 
soldierly declaration in which the surrender 
had been demanded ; and the hero of the affair 
sprang at once into national celebrity. He was 
immediately commissioned major general of vol- 
unteers, to date from Feb. 16. Gen. C. F. Smith 
had been directed by Gen. Halleck to make 
an expedition up the Tennessee with about 
40,000 men ; but he died soon after it started, 
and the command devolved upon Gen. Grant. 
A large portion of the force, after lying three 
weeks at Pittsburgh Landing, in preparation 
for an attack on Corinth, was surprised at day- 
break of April 6 by an overwhelming confed- 
erate force under Gen. A. S. Johnston, driven 
from its camp, and routed with heavy loss. 
Gen. Grant arrived on the field of battle at 
8 A. M., and reformed the lines. Heavy re- 
enforcements, under Gen. Buell, having ar- 
rived in the night, the battle was renewed on 
the 7th, and the enemy, defeated, withdrew 



158 



GRANT 



to Corinth. The loss on each side was about 
12,000. Gen. Grant was slightly wounded. 
Gen. Halleck, arriving at the front two or 
three days afterward, began siege operations 
against Corinth ; but the confederates evacua- 
ted the place on the last days of May. Hal- 
leck was called to Washington on July 11, and 
Grant became commander of the department 
of West Tennessee, with headquarters at Cor- 
inth. The most serious problem that demand- 
ed his immediate attention was the disposal of 
guerillas, spies, and traders, who were crossing 
the lines on all' sorts of pretexts, carrying in- 
formation and stores to the enemy. He issued 
several severe orders against them, took pos- 
session of all unoccupied buildings in Memphis 
and rented them for the benefit of the United 
States government, and gave the Memphis 
"Avalanche" the alternative of suspending 
publication or dismissing an editor who had 
written an " incendiary and treasonable " ar- 
ticle. On Sept. 17 Grant ordered an advance 
from Corinth, to stop the progress of the con- 
federate Gen. Price, who had a large force 
concentrated at luka. A battle was fought at 
this place, Sept. 19, and a complete victory 
gained. As Gen. Bragg's force was pushing 
toward the Ohio river, Grant now removed his 
headquarters to Jackson, Tenn. The confed- 
erates under Price and Van Dorn, 40,000 strong, 
attacked his position at Corinth, which was 
heW by Rosecrans with about 20,000 (Oct. 3 
and 4). After a desperate fight, the assailants 
were repulsed with heavy loss and pursued 
beyond the Hatchie river. Buell moved out 
to intercept Bragg, and defeated him at Perry- 
ville, Oct. 8, whereupon he retreated to East 
Tennessee. On the 16th Gen. Grant's depart- 
ment was extended by the addition of a por- 
tion of Mississippi, as far as Vicksburg, and 
designated as the department of the Tennessee ; 
the forces under his command were constituted 
the 13th army corps. The most stringent mea- 
sures were taken to prevent plundering and 
illegal trading, as necessary to military disci- 
pline under the peculiar circumstances of an 
army so placed in a mingled community of 
friends and foes. After unsuccessful move- 
ments against Vicksburg, " the Gibraltar of the 
Mississippi," from the north, and the loss of an 
immense quantity of stores which the confed- 
erates (Dec. 20) seized and destroyed at Holly 
Springs, Grant moved his army down the west 
bank of the river, crossed to the east side at a 
point below the city on the last day of April, 
1863, defeated the enemy in the actions of 
Raymond, Jackson, Champion's Hill, and Big 
mark, preventing Gen. J. E. Johnston from 
joining Pemberton at Vicksburg, and laid 
siege to that place, May 18. The city was sur- 
rendered, with about 27,000 prisoners, on July 
4, 1868. Thereupon Grant was promoted to 
the rank of major general in the regular array. 
In October he was placed in command of 
the military division of the Mississippi, compri- 
sing the departments commanded by Sherman, 



Thomas, Burnside, and Hooker. Immediately 
after the capture of Vicksburg he had sent 
heavy reenforcements to Gen. Sherman on 
the Big Black river, who was thereby enabled 
to drive the confederate force under Johnston 
out of Jackson. Grant concentrated his forces 
for the defence of Chattanooga, which was 
threatened by Bragg, and the latter's positions 
on Missionary ridge and Lookout mountain 
were carried by assault on Nov. 24 and 25. 
Bragg's forces retreated to Dalton, Ga., being 
followed as far as Ringgold. The pursuing 
columns were then sent to the relief of Knox- 
ville, which, held by Burnside, was closely in- 
vested by Longstreet. Gen. Halleck, in his 
annual report, said : " Considering the strength 
of the rebel position and the difficulty of storm- 
ing his intrenchments, the battle of Chatta- 
nooga must be considered the most remarkable 
in history. Not only did the officers and men 
exhibit great skill and daring in their operations 
on the field, but the highest praise is due to 
the commanding general for his admirable dis- 
positions for dislodging the enemy from a po- 
sition apparently impregnable. Moreover, by 
turning his right flank and throwing him back 
upon Ringgold and Dalton, Sherman's forces 
were interposed between Bragg and Long- 
street, so as to prevent any possibility of their 
forming a junction." The first measure passed 
in the congressional session of 1863-'4 was 
a resolution providing that a gold medal be 
struck for Gen. Grant, and returning thanks 
to him and his army. Resolutions of thanks 
were also passed by the legislatures of New 
York and Ohio. A bill reviving the grade of 
lieutenant general in the army was passed by 
congress, and on March 1, 1864, received the 
signature of President Lincoln, who at once 
nominated Gen. Grant for the position. The 
senate confirmed the nomination on the follow- 
ing day. On the eve of starting for Washing- 
ton to receive the commission, Grant wrote 
a letter to Gen. Sherman, in which he said: 
" Whilst I have been eminently successful in 
this war, in at least gaining the confidence of 
the public, no one feels more than I how much 
of this success is due to the energy, skill, and 
the harmonious putting forth of that energy 
and skill, of those whom it has been my good 
fortune to have occupying subordinate posi- 
tions under me. There are many officers to 
whom these remarks are applicable to a greater 
or less degree, proportionate to their ability as 
soldiers; but what I want is, to express my 
thanks to you and McPherson, as the men to 
whom, above all others, I feel indebted for 
whatever I have had of success." Grant ar- 
rived in Washington on March 9, received his 
commission at the hands of the president, and 
on the 17th issued his first general order, dated 
at Nashville, assuming command of the armies 
of the United States, and announcing that 
headquarters would be in the field, and until 
further orders with the army of the Potomac. 
Not before during the civil war had any one 




GRANT 



159 



leral in the field commanded all the national 
armies. Grant, with nearly 700,000 men in 
the field, at once planned two campaigns, to be 
directed simultaneously against vital points of 
the confederacy by the two chief armies under 
his command : the one, under Gen. Meade, to 
operate against Richmond, defended by Lee; 
the other, under Gen. Sherman, against At- 
lanta, defended by Johnston. At midnight 
on May 3 Grant began the movement against 
Richmond, crossing the Rapidan with the 
army of the Potomac, which was joined two 
days later by the 9th corps under Burnside, 
and, with an aggregate force of 140,000 men, 
pushing through the Wilderness by the right 
of Lee's position, in the endeavor to place him- 
self between the confederate army and the 
confederate capital. Lee was apprised of the 
movement on the morning of the 4th, and 
boldly took the offensive, pushing eastward to 
strike the federal columns on the march. The 
immediate result was the bloody battle of the 
Wilderness, which foiled Grant's first attempt 
to interpose his army between Lee's and Rich- 
mond. Making another advance by the left 
flank, he was again confronted by Lee at 
Spottsylvania ; and after partial success and 
a bloody repulse, he repeated the movement 
again, only to find Lee in a strong position on 
the North Anna river ; and still a fourth ad- 
vance brought the army of the Potomac before 
the absolutely impregnable rifle pits of Cold 
Harbor. After a costly assault on these, Grant 
once more moved his army by the left flank 
and crossed the James. The day after the 
success of Spottsylvania he had sent a des- 
patch to the government, which closed with 
these words : "I propose to fight it out on 
this line if it takes all summer." His losses 
in the campaign from the Rapidan to the 
James (May 3 to June 15) were 54,551, killed, 
wounded, and missing. Lee's losses were 
about 32,000. Sherman opened his campaign 
toward Atlanta as soon as Grant telegraphed 
to him that the army of the Potomac had 
crossed the Rapidan. At the same time Grant 
had directed Sigel to advance from Winchester 
up the Shenandoah toward Staunton, and Crook 
to advance from Charleston up the Kanawha 
toward Lynchburg. But Sigel was defeated 
at Newmarket by Breckinridge, and Crook, 
after considerable fighting, was compelled to 
retreat. Meanwhile Gen. Butler, with the 
army of the James, had been directed to cap- 
ture and hold Petersburg, and if possible to in- 
vest Richmond closely from the south side, but 
had totally failed to do so. All these flanking 
movements being foiled, and Lee being neither 
defeated in the open field nor cut off from Rich- 
mond, the great problem of the war instantly 
narrowed itself down to a siege of Petersburg, 
which Grant now began. Lee's attempt to 
create a diversion by an invasion of Maryland 
and an attack on Washington failed, Sheridan 
ultimately driving back the invaders up the 
valley of the Shenandoah ; while, in Georgia, 
371 VOL. viii. 11 



Johnston was unable to check the advance of 
Sherman, and his successor in command, Hood, 
was forced to evacuate Atlanta, and lost his 
army before Nashville. The siege of Peters- 
burg ended, after the victory at Five Forks, in. 
the beginning of April, 1865, when Richmond 
was evacuated and Lee retreated westward to- 
ward Danville, followed closely by Grant, who 
finally forced the surrender of his remaining 
force, which took place at Appomattox Court 
House, April 9. After the war Grant fixed 
his headquarters at Washington ; and on July 
25, 1866, he was commissioned general of the 
United States army, the rank having been cre- 
ated for him. On Aug. 12, 1867, when Pres- 
ident Johnson suspended Secretary Stanton 
from office, Gen. Grant was made secretary of 
war ad interim, and held the position until 
Jan. 14, 1868, when he returned it to Mr. Stan- 
ton, whose removal the senate had refused to 
sanction. The president wished Grant to re- 
tain the office notwithstanding the action of 
congress, and Grant, in a letter to him dated 
Feb. 3, closing a somewhat tangled corre- 
spondence, said : "I can but regard this whole 
matter, from the beginning to the end, as an at- 
tempt to involve me in the resistance of law for 
which you hesitated to assume the responsibili- 
ty in orders, and thus to destroy my character 
before the country. I am, in a measure, con- 
firmed in this conclusion by your recent orders 
directing me to disobey orders from the secre- 
tary of war, my superior and your subordinate, 
without having countermanded his authority to 
issue the orders I am to disobey." At the re- 
publican national convention held in Chicago 
May 21, 1868, Gen. Grant on the first ballot 
was unanimously nominated for president, with 
Schuyler Colfax for vice president. Their 
democratic competitors were Horatio Seymour 
and Francis P. Blair. Grant and Colfax car- 
ried 26 states, and received 214 electoral votes, 
against 80 for Seymour and Blair. Grant was 
inaugurated president on March 4, 1869, and 
on the next day sent in to the senate the fol- 
lowing nominations for cabinet officers : Elihu 
B. Washburne of Illinois, secretary of state ; 
Alexander T. Stewart of New York, secretary 
of the treasury ; Jacob D. Cox of Ohio, secre- 
tary of the interior ; Adolph E. Borie of Penn- 
sylvania, secretary of the navy ; John M. Scho- 
field of Illinois, secretary of war ; John A. 
J. Creswell of Maryland, postmaster general ; 
E. Rockwood Hoar of Massachusetts, attorney 
general. These nominations were at once con- 
firmed, but it was discovered that Mr. Stewart 
was disqualified by an act of 1789, which pro- 
vided that no person should hold the office of 
secretary of the treasury who was " directly 
or indirectly concerned or interested in carry- 
ing on the business of trade or commerce." 
The president, in a brief message, thereupon 
suggested to congress that Mr. Stewart be ex- 
empted by joint resolution from the action of 
the law. This was objected to, and Mr. Stew- 
art declined, and George S. Boutwell of Massa- 



160 



GRANT 



chusetts was appointed in his stead. Soon 
afterward Mr. Washburne gave up the office 
of secretary of state, being appointed minister 
to France, and was succeeded by Hamilton 
Fish of New York ; while Secretary Schofield 
retired from the war department, and was suc- 
ceeded by John A. Rawlins of Illinois, who 
.Th.l in September, when the vacancy was 
tilled by the appointment of William W. Bel- 
knap of Iowa. Mr. Borie resigned in June, and 
was succeeded by George M. Robeson of New 
Jersey. Mr. Hoar resigned in July, 1870, and 
was succeeded by A. T. Akerman of Georgia, 
who resigned in December, 1871, and was suc- 
ceeded by George H. Williams of Oregon. Mr. 
Cox resigned in November, 1870, and was suc- 
ceeded by Columbus Delano of Ohio. As 
President Grant was in political harmony with 
the majority in congress, the reconstruction 
of the lately rebellious states, which had been 
delayed by the lack of such harmony during 
the previous administration, now went on. A 
proclamation by President Grant, dated May 
19, directed that there should be no reduction 
of the wages paid to government employees in 
consequence of the reduction in the hours of 
labor which congress had enacted. In 1871 
President Grant urged the annexation of Santo 
Domingo as a territory of the United States. 
A treaty to effect this, and also one by which 
the peninsula and bay of Samana were ceded 
to the United States for 50 years at an annual 
rental of $150,000 in gold, had been signed 
Nov. 29, 1869, on behalf of President Grant 
and President Baez. Early in 1870 these 
treaties were confirmed by a popular vote in 
Santo Domingo ; but it was believed that a free 
election had not been held, and it was said 
that, in anticipation of annexation, the Domin- 
ican government had granted to private indi- 
viduals every valuable franchise or piece of 
property in its possession. In conformity with 
a resolution of congress, President Grant ap- 
pointed B. F. Wade of Ohio, A. D. White of 
New York, and S. G. Howe of Massachusetts, 
as commissioners to visit Santo Domingo, ac- 
companied by several scientific men, and re- 
port upon the condition of the country, the 
government, and the people. Their report, 
submitted in April, 1871, was favorable to an- 
nexation; but the senate withheld its appro- 
val of the treaties. A "joint high commission " 
of five British and five American members 
met at Washington, Feb. 27, 1871, and on 
May 8 signed a treaty on the subject of the 
coast fisheries, river navigation, and the "Ala- 
bama claims." The last named question was 
submitted to a court of arbitration to meet 
at ^Geneva, Switzerland, which on Sept. 14, 
1872, awarded the gross sum of $15,500,000, 
to be paid by the British government to the 
United States for damages to American com- 
merce by confederate cruisers fitted out in 
British ports. The act to enforce the provi- I 
sions of the 14th amendment of the constitu- 
tion, popularly known as the Ku-Klux bill, I 



GRANVELLE 

was followed by a presidential proclamation 
exhorting obedience to it; and on Oct. 17, 
1871, the president suspended the privilege 
of habeas corpus in the northern counties of 
South Carolina. Under the provisions of an 
act of congress of March 3, 1871, President 
Grant appointed a board of seven commission- 
ers to inquire into the condition of the civil 
service and devise a plan for rendering it more 
efficient. The chairman of the board, George 
William Curtis, resigned in March, 1873, be- 
cause of essential differences between his views 
and the president's on the enforcement of the 
rules. At the national republican convention 
held in Philadelphia, June 5, 1872, President 
Grant was renominated by acclamation, and 
Henry Wilson of Massachusetts received the 
nomination for vice president; while Horace 
Greeley and B. Gratz Brown were the candi- 
dates of both the liberal republicans and the 
democrats. Grant and Wilson received 286 
votes in the electoral college, against 80 for 
other candidates. Grant's popular majority 
over Greeley was 762,991. During the last 
session of the 42d congress the salary of the 
president was doubled, and those of the vice 
president, speaker of the house, justices of the 
supreme court, and heads of departments in- 
creased 25 per cent. William M. Richardson 
of Massachusetts became secretary of the trea- 
sury March 4, 1873, and was succeeded on 
June 2, 1874, by Benjamin H. Bristow of Ken- 
tucky. On the death of Chief Justice Chase 
in 1873, the president nominated successively 
George H. Williams, Caleb Gushing, and Mor- 
rison R. Waite of Ohio ; the last named was 
confirmed. On April 22, 1874, he vetoed a 
bill to increase the currency. Accounts of the 
battles fought by Gen. Grant will be found 
under their respective titles. See " Military 
History of Ulysses S. Grant," by Adam Badeau 
(vol. i., New York, 1868) ; " Life of Ulysses 
S. Grant," by 0. A. Dana and J. H. Wilson 
(Springfield, 1868); and "Report of the Oper- 
ations of the Union Army from March, 1862, to 
the Close of the Rebellion " (New York, 1866). 
GRANVELLE, intoine Pemnot, cardinal de, a 
Spanish statesman, born in Besancon, Aug. 
20, 1517, died in Madrid, Sept. 21, 1586. He 
was the son of Nicolas Perrenot, the chancellor 
and minister of the emperor Charles V. He 
was educated at Dole, Padua, and Louvain, 
and mastered seven languages. At the age 
of 23 he was appointed canon of Liege ca- 
thedral and bishop of Arras. At the council 
of Trent, in 1545, he defended the emperor's 
war policy against France, and obtained an 
appointment as councillor of state. After the 
battle of Miihlberg (1547) he drew up the 
treaty of peace between the emperor and the 
German Protestants, and contrived to retain 
the landgrave of Hesse a prisoner, contrary to 
the promise made to him. In 1550 he suc- 
ceeded his father as chancellor. He accompa- 
nied the emperor on his flight from Innsprnck 
in 1552, and displayed great ability in negotia- 




GRANVELLE 

g the treaty of Passau, which followed it. 
The first service of importance which he ren- 
dered Philip, the emperor's son, was in arrang- 
ing (1553) his marriage with Mary of England. 
On the accession of Philip II. in 1555, Gran- 
velle became his minister, and delivered on his 
behalf an eloquent address to the Flemish peo- 
ple. While Philip remained in the Netherlands 
he was guided by the counsels of his minister. 
The regulations in reference to Protestantism, 
adopted in 1550, were reenacted in 1556. The 
Spaniards having gained the victory of St. 
Quentin over the French, Granvelle was in- 
strumental in negotiating the treaty of Ca- 
teau-Cambr6sis, which was signed in 1559. 
Soon afterward Philip II. returned to Spain, 
and left Margaret of Parma regent of the Neth- 
erlands ; but with her was associated a council, 
advisory power in doubtful and important cases 
being reserved to a consulta consisting of three 
members of the council. Granvelle was one 
of this select body, and had the other two com- 
pletely under his control ; and it was soon 
obvious that he wielded all the power of Spain 
in the Netherlands. His administration became 
odious, and his appointment was considered a 
violation of the law, because he was a foreigner. 
His paramount object was the restoration of 
the supremacy of the Catholic church. Spanish 
troops were retained in the country ; the gen- 
eral assembly of the states was not called to- 
gether ; and 13 new bishoprics were created. 
In 1560 Granvelle was made archbishop of 
Mechlin, and primate. But what incensed the 
people most was the preparations for the intro- 
duction of the Spanish inquisition. Granvelle 
alone was held responsible for these abuses, 
and the wrath of the nobles and the people was 
concentrated upon him. In 1561 he was crea- 
ted a cardinal. In 1563 William of Orange, 
Egmont, and Horn united in a formal remon- 
strance to the king against his proceedings, but 
without avail. At last even Margaret of Parma 
yielded to the pressure and joined in the request 
for his recall. But it was not until Granvelle 
himself had signified his acquiescence that 
Philip II. commanded him " to leave the Low 
Countries for a few days, and go to Burgundy 
to see his mother." He obeyed the command 
in 1564, and never returned. He retired to 
Besangon, and occupied himself with litera- 
ture and the physical sciences. In 1565 he 
went to Rome by the king's order, and par- 
ticipated in the election of Pope Pius V. In 
1570 he was employed to negotiate the alliance 
between Spain, Rome, and Venice against the 
Turks. He next became viceroy of Naples, and 
in 1575 was recalled to Madrid, where Philip 
made him president of the supreme council of 
Italy and Castile. He negotiated the terms of 
union between Spain and Portugal, and when 
Philip went to take possession of his new king- 
dom, Granvelle acted as regent during his ab- 
sence. The marriage contract between the 
infanta Catharine and the duke of Savoy was 
effected by his management. In 1584 he re- 



GRANVILLE 



161 



signed the archbishopric of Mechlin, to accept 
the less opulent see of Besancon. He was a 
patron of letters, enriched the college of Be- 
sancon, founded by his father, and contributed 
largely to support the printing establishment 
of Plantin at Antwerp. He left a large num- 
ber of his own letters, of those of foreign min- 
isters, of Charles V., and of Philip, and of state 
papers and documents. Eighty years after- 
ward they were assorted by the abbe Boissot, 
forming a collection of 82 volumes. A selec- 
tion from them has been published by the 
French government (9 vols. 4to, 1841-'61). 

GKANYILLE, a N. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on Virginia, intersected by Tar river 
and watered by the Neuse river ; area, about 
750 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 24,831, of whom 
13,355 were colored. The surface is slightly 
hilly, and the soil generally good. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 110,209 bushels of 
wheat, 306,113 of Indian corn, 115,593 of oats, 
16,484 of Irish and 34,298 of sweet potatoes, 
129,595 Ibs. of butter, 2,134,228 of tobacco, and 
277 bales of cotton. There were 2,722 horses, 
4,073 milch cows, 4,828 other cattle, 881 sheep, 
and 18,986 swine ; 2 iron founderies, and 39 
manufactories of tobacco. The county is trav- 
ersed by the Raleigh and Gaston and the Roa- 
noke Valley railroads. Capital, Oxford. 

GRANYILLE, a village of Licking co., Ohio, 
pleasantly situated on an affluent of Licking 
river, 3 m. from the Central Ohio division of 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and 25 m. E. 
N. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 1,109. The 
town is neatly built. Denison university (Bap- 
tist) was organized in 1831, and in 1872 had 
10 professors and instructors, 191 students (71 
collegiate), and a library of 11,000 volumes. 
The scientific department, organized in 1854, 
had 21 students. The Granville female col- 
lege had 8 instructors and 111 students; and 
the young ladies' institute (Baptist) had 8 in- 
structors and 115 students. 

GRANVILLE, a seaport town of Normandy, 
France, in the department of La Manche, on 
the English channel, at the mouth of the Bosq, 
29 m. S. W. of St. L6 ; pop. in 1866, 15,622. 
It has a small harbor with a fine granite pier 
capable of mounting cannon, is built in terraces 
formed on the side of a promontory, is sur- 
rounded with walls, and has a fort on the sum- 
mit of the promontory. The town has a school 
of navigation, and the inhabitants are chiefly 
engaged in the cod and oyster fishery. 

GRANVILLE, George, Baron Lansdowne, an 
English author and statesman, born in 1667, 
died Jan. 30, 1735. He entered Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, at the age of 10, and three 
years later received the degree of M. A. About 
the same time he began to write poetry, and 
on the accession of James II. addressed sev- 
eral pieces of verse to him. During the reign 
of William and Mary he lived in retirement 
and wrote several plays, one of which, " He- 
roic Love," is highly praised in a passage of 
Dryden. His 



162 



GRANVILLE 



formed 40 times. Becoming by the death of 
his father and elder brother the head of the 
influential family of Granville, he entered par- 
liament in 1710, and in the same year was ap- 
pointed secretary of war in place of Walpole. 
In January, 1712, he was created Baron Lans- 
downe of Biddeford. Upon the queen's death 
he lost his offices, and, on account of his 
avowed sympathy for the pretender and his 
participation in the scheme for raising an in- 
surrection in the west of England, was com- 
mitted to the tower in September, 1715, where 
he was confined till Feb. 8, 1717. Being sus- 
pected again in 1722 of some connection with 
the Atterbury plot, he retired to France, and 
returning to England in 1732 published his 
works in prose and poetry in 2 vols. 4to. 

GRANVILLE, Granville George Leveson Cower, 
second earl, a British statesman, born in Lon- 
don, May 11, 1815. He was educated at Eton 
and Oxford, and entered public life in 1835 as 
attach6 to the British embassy at Paris, of 
which his father, the first Earl Granville, a well 
known diplomatist, was the head. In 1836 he 
was returned to parliament for the borough of 
Morpeth, subsequently became under secretary 
of state for foreign affairs, and sat for Lichfield 
from September, 1841, to January, 1846, when 
he succeeded to his title. He held the seals of 
the foreign office in the Russell cabinet from 
December, 1851, to February, 1852, and was 
lord president of the council from December, 
1852, to June, 1854, from February, 1855, to 
February, 1858, and from June, 1859, to June, 
1866. In 1868 he again became a member of 
the cabinet as secretary of state for the colonies. 
In the house of lords he was a leader in de- 
bate, and ably sustained liberal views in regard 
to the Irish church bill, 1869, and the land 
bill, 1870. On the death of Lord Clarendon in 
1 870 he became secretary for foreign affairs. He 
resigned with the other members of the Glad- 
stone cabinet in February, 1874. 

GRANVILLE, John Carteret, earl, an English 
statesman, born in Bedfordshire, April 22, 1690, 
died Jan. 2, 1763. He was educated at West- 
minster school and at Oxford, and as Baron 
Carteret took his seat in the house of lords 
in 1711. His zeal in support of the Protestant 
succession caused George I. to promote him in 

1715 to be bailiff of the island of Jersey, and in 

1716 to be lord lieutenant of Devonshire. In 
1718 he was ambassador to Sweden ; in 1720 
ambassador extraordinary at the congress of 
Cambrai; from May, 1721, to April, 1724, 
secretary of state ; and from that time till 
1730, with a brief intermission, he was lord 
lieutenant of Ireland. Afterward he was 
prominent in the debates in the house of lords 
till February, 1742, when he was again made 
secretary of state, and in September following 
was sent to the states general to assist in de- 
vising measures to maintain the liberties of 
the United Provinces. The succeeding year 
he passed with the king in Hanover. In 1744, 
by the death of his mother, he succeeded to 



GRAPE 

the title of Earl Granville, and shortly after 
he was compelled to resign his office. Du- 
ring his parliamentary career he was conspicu- 
ous for his speeches on questions arising from 
the Edinburgh riots, and he was the mover for 
the settlement of 100,000 a year from the 
civil list on the Prince of Wales. Macaulay 
says : "No public man of that age had great- 
er courage, greater ambition, greater activity, 
greater talents for debate or for declamation, 
No public man had such profound and exten- 
sive learning. His knowledge of modern lan- 
guages was prodigious. He spoke and wrote 
French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German, 
even Swedish." He alone of the ministers of 
George I. could converse with the monarch in 
his native tongue. His ministry was popularly 
termed the "drunken administration," an ex- 
pression not altogether figurative, for Gran- 
ville's habits were extremely convivial, and 
champagne lent its aid to keep him in that 
state of joyous excitement in which his life 
was passed. No misfortune could depress him. 
His spirits were constantly high. When driven 
from office, says Macaulay, "he retired laugh- 
ing to his books and his bottle." Ill as he had 
been used, he did not seem, says Horace Wal- 
pole, " to have any resentment, or indeed any 
feeling except thirst." 

GRAPE, the fruit of woody vines of the genus 
vitis (the ancient Latin name), the type of the 
order vitacece, which includes shrubs climb- 
ing by tendrils. At each node or joint of the 
grape-vine is borne a leaf, with a tendril or 
flower cluster upon the opposite side ; the 
leaves are long-petioled, palmately veined, va- 
riously lobed and smooth or downy in different 
species; in the axil of each leaf are produced 
two buds, one of which develops the same 
season, producing what the vineyardist calls 
"laterals," while the other remains dormant 
as a provision for the growth of the following 
year. The tendrils are branched ; the branches 
have hooks at the ends, and when these catch 
hold of some supporting object the tendril 
coils spirally, rapidly becomes woody, and holds 
the vine with great firmness. The tendril 
may be considered as a modified branch, which 
in some cases bears flowers and fruit ; nothing 
is more common than to find in our native 
vines clusters in which one of their branches 
retains its tendril character and helps to hold 
up the fruit. The flowers of the wild grape 
are sometimes dioecious, but in cultivated ones 
perfect ; they are very small ; the calyx short 
and lined with a disk, which bears the petals 
and stamens ; petals five, cohering at the apex T 
and forming a little cap which in flowering 
falls off entire ; stamens five, with a gland or 
lobe of the disk between each pair ; a single 
pistil, with a two-lobed stigma, has a two- 
celled ovary with two ovules in each cell ; this 
in ripening becomes a one- to four-seeded berry. 
The flowers of the grape are delightfully fra- 
grant, recalling the odor of mignonette. Grapes 
are found in the temperate climates of both 




GRAPE 



163 



___:iispheres. There is at present some con- 
fusion about the species, but in a horticultural 
view they are divided into European and 
American grapes. The European grape, mtis 
mnifera, is the species that in some of its nu- 
3rous varieties is cultivated in most European 




European Grape (Vitis vinifera). 

Asiatic countries. Regel, the distinguished 
1st and director of the imperial gardens 
St. Petersburg, has recently given the some- 
hat startling opinion that F. vinifera is not 
a true species, but a hybrid between F. la- 
brusca and F. milpina, both of which are na- 
tives of North America, Japan, Mantchooria, 
and the Himalaya. He bases his opinion upon 
the facts that the European vine is not found 
in a truly wild state, but only as an escape 
from cultivation, and that the two species sug- 
gested as its parents are found wild in that 
portion of Asia in which the cultivation of the 
vine originated. Whatever may have been its 
origin, it will continue to be known by our 
cultivators as the European or foreign grape. 
Very early in the history of America attempts 
ere made to cultivate the foreign grape in 
e open air, and these have been repeated 
m time to time up to the present day ; but 
in no instance have they met with success east 
of the Rocky mountains. In exceptionally fa- 
vorable localities, as in city yards, the foreign 
vine has here and there succeeded for a few 
years ; but in order to grow it with certainty 
it must have the protection of glass. Upon 
A he Pacific coast the case is different; the 
"esuit missionaries early discovered that the 
il and climate were adapted to the foreign 
ipe, and after California was settled by 
mericans grape culture, confined almost ex- 
lusively to foreign varieties, became one of 
the important industries of the state. (See 
AMERICAN "WINES.) The foreign vine is dis- 
tinguished from American species principally 
by the character of the fruit ; in the latter the 



we 
fro 



more or less firm pulp, which slips from the 
skin, while a foreign grape may be broken open 
with the pulp still adhering to the skin, and 
the seeds so free from it that they will fall 
out or may be readily separated. The culti- 
vation of the foreign grape under glass is fol- 
lowed to a considerable extent both as a mat- 
ter of luxury and of profit. Two modes of 
culture are practised: in the cold grapery, 
which is a glass house without artificial heat, 
and in the forcing grapery, which is heated 
and the vines brought into growth and fruiting 
at such times as are desired. For details ref- 
erence may be had to special treatises. Of 
American species of the genus mtis producing 
edible fruit, botanists recognize four: F. la- 
~brusca, the northern fox grape; F. cestivalis, 
the summer grape; F. cordifolia, the frost 
grape; and F. vulpina, the muscadine or 
southern fox grape. Several grapes from west 
of the Mississippi have been described as dis- 
tinct species by some botanists, but others re- 
gard them as only forms of the above. The 
American grapes differ so much in the wild 
state, in form of leaf and size, shape, and color 
of the fruit, that it is often difficult to decide 
to which species a specimen should be referred ; 
and when they are subjected to cultivation the 
variation is still more strongly marked. In no 
branch of fruit culture has there been greater 
progress than in the cultivation of American 
grapes. Twenty-five years ago the Catawba 
and Isabella were the only kinds grown to any 
considerable extent, while at the present time 
the varieties are numbered by hundreds, and 
additions are yearly made to the list. In the 
article AMEKICAN WINES the leading varieties 
are named, and the species from which they 
are supposed to have originated indicated. In 
the vineyards of the eastern states the growing 
of the fruit for market is quite as important as 
raising it for wine, and in the wine districts 
the fruit is packed and shipped as table fruit 
so long as it will bring a price above that at 
which it can be profitably crushed for wine. 
By keeping them at a low temperature some 
varieties may be preserved in good condition 




Flower of the Grape, magnified. 

1 . Young flower. 2. Vertical section of flower. 8. Flower 
without corolla. 

for several months after they are gathered. 
Aside from the commercial value of the grape, 
it is of great importance as one of the few 
fruits that can be conveniently produced in 
cities and towns. While judicious treatment 



seeds are enveloped and held together by a is essential to the best results, it will grow 



164 



GRAPE 



and bear fruit under the most adverse cir- 
cumstances, and it is cultivated for its abun- 
dant shade as well as for its fruit. Within 
a few years a new class of grapes has sprung 
up, produced by hybridizing native varieties 
with the foreign. Mr. Rogers of Salem, Mass., 
was the first to attempt this upon an exten- 
sive scale, but the varieties he produced are 
not very strongly marked with the charac- 
teristics of the foreign vine. Dr. Wylie of 
Chester, S. 0., Mr. Underbill of Croton Point, 
N. Y., and others, have produced varieties 
which in the fruit make a near approach to 
the exotic grape, while the foliage is more like 
that of its native parent. The vine is propa- 
gated with the greatest ease by layers and from 
cuttings; in commercial nurseries the propa- 
gation is from cuttings, except with a few va- 
rieties that take root with difficulty, and these 
are grown from layers. Cuttings of the last 
season's growth of wood removed in the au- 
tumn pruning, with two or three buds upon 
each, are buried in a dry place until spring, and 
then set out in rows with one bud at the sur- 
face of the ground and the others below ; with 
some varieties a large percentage of such cut- 
tings will form roots and make salable vines 
by autumn; other kinds are very uncertain 
when treated in this way, and these are started 
under glass, from what are called single eyes, 
which consist of one bud with a short piece of 
the wood attached ; these eyes are planted in a 
bed of sand, and by a proper management of 
heat and moisture roots and leaves are soon 
formed, when the young plants are transferred 
to a rich soil. Vines are sometimes propagated, 
especially in the case of rare kinds, from cut- 
tings of green shoots, but planters do not ap- 
prove of vines thus produced. In the matter 
of pruning and training there is a considerable 
difference of opinion and practice among vine- 
yardists, but they all agree in controlling the 
growth of the vine within certain bounds. 
Whatever the system of pruning, its successful 
practice depends upon a knowledge of the man- 
ner of growth of the vine. The fruit of a vine 
is produced upon shoots which in spring push 
from buds upon branches or canes which grew 
the season before. If a young vine consisting 
of a single stem having 20 buds is left unprun- 
ed, the majority of these buds will develop as 
shoots ; the few uppermost will start first and 
be the most vigorous, while those below will be 
weak ; at the end of the season such a vine will 
have two or three strong canes above and a 
few slender ones below ; the next year, if still 
unpruned, the stronger canes will follow the 
same course as did the single one, and the most 
vigorous growth and the fruit-bearing buds will 
be still further from the root; and if the vine 
be allowed to grow entirely wild for several 
years, fruit will be found only upon the extreme 
branches. One great object in pruning is to 
keep the fruit-bearing portion of the vine near 
the ground ; another is to keep up a constant 
supply of fruit-bearing wood, and another to 



GRAPE SHOT 

so regulate the amount of fruit borne by each 
vine that it shall attain the greatest possible 
development and excellence. The methods of 
pruning are thoroughly discussed in the recent 
treatises upon grape culture. The vine grower 
has many enemies to contend with, one of the 
most destructive of which is mildew, which 
consists of two or more forms or species of 
parasitic fungi. The most common mildew up- 
on native grapes, peronoapora, appears as small 
grayish patches of down on the under side of 
the leaves, and on the young shoots and fruit 
stalks ; if not arrested, it soon destroys the foli- 
age of the vine and checks the development of 
the fruit. Flowers of sulphur, frequently and 
persistently applied by means of a bellows in- 
vented for the purpose, will prevent the further 
spread of this destructive parasite. Another 
form of mildew, oidium or erysiphe, makes its 
appearance on the upper side of the leaves and 
on the fruit, especially upon exotic vines under 
glass, though in certain situations and in very 
dry seasons it attacks vineyards of the native 
grape; one form of "rot" upon the fruit is 
due to this. Insects of various kinds, from the 
time the' leaf begins to expand until the fruit is 
gathered, demand the constant vigilance of the 
cultivator. Of late years a minute aphis-like 
insect has been discovered, though its ravages 
were noticed long before the cause was ascer- 
tained, the phylloxera vastatrix; this attacks 
both the roots and the leaves, but not always 
to the same degree in all varieties ; those that 
have descended from the summer grape (V. 
(Estwalis) seem to be more exempt from its 
attacks than others. In Europe the devasta- 
tions of this insect have been so great as to 
completely destroy the grape industry in parts 
of France as well as in other vine-growing 
countries. It is believed in France that the in- 
sect was introduced from this country, and in 
1873 the commissioner of agriculture sent M. 
Planchon to investigate the habits of phyllox- 
era in what they regard as its native locali- 
ties. The best history of this insect will be 
found in the third, fourth, and fifth reports of 
C. V. Riley, state entomologist of Missouri, 
which are comprised in the reports of the 
Missouri state board of agriculture for 1870, '71, 
and '72. No satisfactory remedy has been 
discovered. The principal varieties of foreign 
and native grapes are described in Downing's 
"Fruit and Fruit Trees of America" (revised 
ed., 1869) and other general works upon fruits. 
Special treatises upon the grape are numerous; 
the most important to the American cultivator 
are "American Grape Grower's Guide," by 
William Chorlton, and "Grape Culture and 
Wine Making," by A. Haraszthy, both mainly 
devoted to the foreign grape; "The Grapo 
Culturist," by A. S. Fuller; " Grapes and Wine," 
by George Hussmann ; and " Culture of the 
Grape," by W. C. Strong. 

GRAPE SHOT, formerly small shot put into a 
canvas bag, which was corded into cylindrical 
form to fit the piece of ordnance from which 




GRAPHITE 



it was to be fired. This was superseded by 
canister shot, in which the balls are confined in 
a canister of iron plate. The term grape shot is 
now applied to an assemblage of iron shot fast- 
ened around a metallic spindle, giving the ap- 
pearance of a bunch of grapes. The shots fly 
asunder as they leave the gun, and are very 
destructive at short distances. 

GRAPHITE (Gr. ypafaiv, to write), a mineral 
commonly called black lead or plumbago, but 
which titles are incorrect, as it contains no 
lead. Its composition is similar to that of an- 
thracite coal, containing usually from 90 to 
95 per cent, of carbon, with from 4 to 10 per 
cent, of iron, and traces of silica, alumina, lime, 
and magnesia. Specimens have been found in 
Ceylon said to contain 98*55 per cent, of car- 
' Dn. It occurs in beds and imbedded masses 
id laminae, in granite, gneiss, mica schist, and 
illine limestone, and sometimes in green- 
le. It is sometimes the result of alteration 
heat of the coal formation, and is an ordi- 
iry artificial product of the destructive dis- 
lation of coal in the retorts of gas works. It 
found in nature in both a crystalline and 
)rphous condition, opaque, of a metallic, 
si-gray color and lustre, and giving a pecu- 
r, shining, greasy streak on paper. Its spe- 
ic gravity is 2 '09, rising somewhat above 
lis as impurities increase. Its hardness ranges 
fcween 1 and 2. Crystallized graphite occurs 
six-sided tables, belonging to the hexagonal 
stem, cleaving perfectly in the direction of 
base, and having the basal planes striated 
llel to the alternate sides ; but the mineral 
more commonly found in foliated or granular 
It is found associated with olivene and 
ihene at Ticonderoga, N. Y., and in beds of 
leiss at Sturbridge, Mass., usually in a scaly 
id granular, but sometimes approaching a 
illine form. It is also found at North 
)kfield, Brimfield, and Hinsdale, Mass., at 
andon, Yt., and at Grenville, Canada, where 
; is associated with sphene and tabular spar. It 
jcurs near Amity, Orange co., N. Y., in white 
nestone, associated with spinel, chondrodite, 
id hornblende ; at Eossie, 4 St. Lawrence co., 
nth iron ore, and in gneiss; in Bucks co., 
., near Attleboro, associated with tabular 
>ar, pyroxene, and scapolite, and also in sye- 
ite at ManselPs black-lead mine near the 
le locality. There is a large deposit at St. 
John, N. B. The mine at Borrowdale in 
imberland, England, has long been celebra- 
" for yielding graphite of a superior quality 
>r making black-lead pencils, one of its prin- 
uses. The mine has been known since 
le time of Queen Elizabeth, and probably 
irnished the first lead pencils ever made, as 
leir invention cannot be traced back as far 
the discovery of the mine. It is in a moun- 
lin, 8 m. S. of Keswick, 2,000 ft. high. The 
ineral occurs in small nests in trap. The 
are about the size of the fist. The mine 
le so valuable as to be an object of plun- 
, being reached underground from neigh- 



GRASSE 



165 



boring mines, and being once forcibly taken 
possession of at the surface. The graphite was 
of so pure a quality that it required but little 
preparation for the market; and much of it 
was sawed up in its natural state for pencils. 
The mine is now nearly exhausted, and has 
not been worked for many years. Graphite 
has been found in Germany, France, Austria, 
and South America, and in enormous masses 
in N. E. Siberia. Besides furnishing a material 
for writing pencils, it is used for making cru- 
cibles, and linings for small furnaces; as an 
ingredient in lubricating compounds for ma- 
chinery ; for giving a smooth surface to the 
moulds of metal castings, and for polishing 
stoves and iron castings generally ; and also for 
a coating to wax or other impressions of ob- 
jects designed to be electrotyped, for the pur- 
pose of forming a good conducting surface for 
the galvanic current. It has also been em- 
ployed by Graham as a diaphragm in his dif- 
fusiometer or instrument for observing the 
comparative rate of diffusion of gases. (See 
CETJOIBLE, and PENCIL.) 

GRAPTOLITES (Gr. -yp&fetv, to write, and Woe, 
stone), a genus of fossil acalephs, of as many 
as 20 species, found only in the Silurian rocks, 
abounding particularly in the slates of the Hud- 
son river group. So numerous are these early 
forms of zoophytes in the Llandeilo rocks of 
Europe, that it has even been thought prob- 
able that the carbonaceous character of the 
slates was owing to the abundance of their re- 
mains. As found in the black slates, their sil- 




1. Graptolithus Logani, showing the centre of a branching 
group. 2. Portion of a branchlet. 3. Same, much en- 
larged. 4, 5. Forms of Phyllograptus typus. 6. Graptoli- 
thus pristis. 1. Young of a graptolite. 

very forms are obscurely retained, and the fos- 
sils may easily be mistaken for impressions of 
plants. They are long and slender, resembling 
some algse, as well as the feather part of a 
quill, whence their name. When found in cal- 
careous strata their forms are more distinct. 
Their nearest living analogues are the sea firs 
or sertularians, of which the species inhabit 
muddy sediment, such as the black slates must 
once have been. 

GRASS CLOTH. See RAMIE. 

GRASSE, La, a town of 8. E. France, in the 
department -of Alpes-Maritimes, 18 m. W. of 
Nice; pop. in 1866, 12,241. It was formerly 
the seat of a bishop, has a Gothic cathedral, a 
college, a public library, and large manufacto- 
ries of essences and perfumes, soap, and silk 
goods. In the vicinity are quarries of marble 
and alabaster, and extensive olive groves. 



166 



GRASSES 




GRASSES, plants of the natural order grami- 
nea, one of the most extensive in number of 
species and individuals, and one of the most im- 
portant in its relation to man. The stem (culm) 
is jointed, sometimes solid, but usually hollow, 
and closed at the joints (nodes) ; from each 
joint rises a leaf stalk which is broad and en- 
velops the stem, called the sheath (vagina), 
which with few exceptions is split upon one 
side for its whole length ; at the apex of the 
sheaths are borne the leaves, which are alter- 
nate, the blade (lami- 
na) usually narrow, 
and with parallel veins; 
where the blade and 
sheath join is a small 
membranous appen- 
dage, the ligule, which 
is sometimes represent- 
ed by a fringe of hairs. 
The flowers are ar- 
ranged at the summit 
of the stem in strict 
spikes, racemes, or 
loose panicles, and are 
in spikelets, which con- 

F,o. i.-Phienm, .pikelet * of one or numerous 
flowers (florets). The 

parts of the flowers are chaffy, usually green 
when young and becoming straw-colored 
at maturity, and are described collectively as 
glumaceous (Lat. gluma, a husk), a term also 
applied to the flowers of some allied families. 
In structure the flowers present some very 
complex forms, while that in the more com- 
mon species is exceedingly simple, and may be 
readily understood by an examination of the 
common red-top, a species of agro&tis, or timo- 
thy (pTileum\ to be found almost everywhere. 
A single spikelet of either of these will be 
found, as in the engraving of phleum, to con- 
sist of two concave scales called glumes, one 
placed slightly above and within the other; 
within these are the floret, consisting also of 
two scales, and the palets, the upper and inner 
of which is more or less covered by the outer, 
and usually smaller and of more delicate tex- 
ture ; the essential 
parts of the flower 
are within and pro- 
tected by the palets ; 
the stamens, one to 
six (usually three), 
have slender filaments 
with anthers attached 
l.y the middle (versa- 
tile); pistil one, with 
a one-celled, one-ovul- 

ed ovary crowned by Fiu . 2..^ ikelet 
two (rarely three) 

the stigmas of which are feathery or 
biury; the ovary in ripening becomes a grain 
(caryopsis), which consists of the usually adhe- 
rent pericarp (the hull), within which is the seed 
proper, consisting of a small embryo situated at 
the base and on the outside of a floury albumen ; 




at the base of the pistil are situated one or two 
minute scales (lodiculas), which are usually so 
small as to escape the notice of a careless ob- 
server, but in some genera are as long as the 
ovary. This is the general structure of one- 
flowered grasses, but it is varied in different 
genera by the suppression of the upper palet, 
or even by the absence of both glumes, and 
the prolongation of the apex of one or both 
glumes or the lower palet into a bristle-like 
appendage, the awn. In the many-flowered 
grasses, of which hair grass (aira) will serve as 
a familiar illustration, there are two glumes, and 
within these two to several florets placed one 
above another upon a short axis (rachis), all 
of which except the upper one contain stamens 
and a pistil ; the uppermost floret in the oat 
and in many other many-flowered grasses is 
neutral or imperfect ; the lower palet in the 
oat is strongly many-nerved, and bears below 
its apex a strong and twisted awn. The nu- 




FIG. 8. Poa, spikelet. 



FIG. 4. Anthoxanthuin, 
spikelet. 



merous species of poa, including the meadow- 
grasses, June grass, blue grass, &c., afford ex- 
amples of many-flowered grasses in which the 
spikelets are compressed, the palets without 
awns, and more or less clothed with cottony 
hairs. The suborders of the family and the 
genera are founded upon various modifications 
of a very simple structure, some of which have 
been here indicated. In the sweet-scented ver- 
nal grass we have another modification ; this 
grass appears to be one-flowered, but it is real- 
ly three-flowered, with the upper and lower 
florets abortive and appearing one on each side 
of the perfect one as an awned empty palet. 
In barley (hordeum) and wheat (triticum) the 
spikelets are sessile in the excavations of a zig- 
zag stem or rachis; in the barley the spikelets 
are one-flowered, only the central one some^ 
times being fertile, as in two-rowed barley, 
and at others all three being fertile, when 
the spike or head becomes six-rowed, and the 
glumes are placed upon the side of the spike- 
lets opposite the stem and form a bristle-like 
involucre. Grasses are annuals or perennials, 
and in some of the perennial species the root 
stock runs for a long distance underground, as in 
the couch grass, or "quack" (triticum repens), 
which often becomes a serious pest to the cul- 




GRASSES 



16T 



tivator. The root stocks, improperly called 
roots, possess great vitality, and if broken in 
the processes of cultivation, each joint is capa- 
ble of producing a new plant. The genera and 
species of grasses are numerous, and are esti- 
mated to form ^ 2 part of all known flowering 





FIG. 5. Sweet-scented 
Vernal Grass (Antho- 
xanthum odoratum). 



FIG. 6. Eed-top 
(Agrostis vulgaris). 



ts; they are found in all parts of the 
In temperate regions they are usually 
low growth and carpet the surface of the 
th, but toward the tropics they are taller 
more tree-like in habit. The extremes in 
,ture are striking when we contrast the 
mute Phippsia of the arctic regions, only 
inch in height, with the tropical bamboo, 
hich elevates its stem, strong enough to serve 
mast, to the height of 60 ft. The grasses 
by far the most useful of all plants, the or- 
r including wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, 
ce, millet, guinea corn, and sugar cane, be- 
des numerous less known grains which fur- 
ish breadstuifs to aboriginal people in various 
arts of the world, and many species used for 
animal food in the form of hay. In enumera- 
ting the useful qualities and harmless character 
'f grasses, an exception has been made in the 
ise of darnel (lolium temulentum), which has 
ng had the reputation of producing a poison- 
s grain ; but, as will be seen under DARNEL, 
is is doubted. Aside from furnishing food, 
e economical uses of the grasses are many ; 
e of the most important of these are given 
nder BAMBOO ; other grasses furnish materials 
r mats, cordage, the plaiting of hats, &c. One 
' the sources of paper stock has within a few 
ears- been found in the esparto grasses, ly- 
geum sparteum and stipa tenacissima, of the 
shores of the Mediterranean. Some species, 
as the sand reed of our coasts, and especially 
the tussock grass (dactylis ccespitosa) of the 
Falkland islands, are of essential service in re- 
taining the blowing sands. Different genera 





FIG. 7. June or Blue 
Grass (Poa pratensis). 



have species which are highly fragrant; the 
sweet-scented vernal grass (anthoxanthum odo- 
ratum) has a grateful vanilla-like odor, and to 
its presence is due the fact that the new-mown 
hay of the older states is so much more fra- 
grant than that in more recently settled locali- 
ties, where this grass 
has not yet become nat- 
uralized. Seneca grass 
or holy grass (hierochloa 
fiorealis), a native spe- 
cies, has a still more 
marked odor. Two or 
more species of andro- 
pogon furnish the oil- 
of-lemon grass or citro- 
nelle, used in perfume- 
ry ; and the vetiver of 
the French comes from 
another species of the 
same genus. Perma- 
nent Meadow and Pas- 
ture Grasses. The num- 
ber of grasses sown by 
American farmers is 
limited ; the common 
practice being to sow 
one or two sorts toge- 
ther with clover, mow 
it for hay for one or two 
years, and then use the field for pasturing un- 
til the land is required for cultivation. They 
rarely sow grass expressly for making a per- 
manent pasture ; and as the grasses best for hay 
are not those most suited to grazing, our pas- 
tures are of an inferior character compared with 
, those of England. 

Timothy (phleum 
pratense) stands 
at the head of the 
hay-making grass- 
es. (See TIMOTHY.) 
Next in order is 
red-top (agrostis 
vulgaris), also call- 
ed in different lo- 
calities fine - top, 
Rhode Island bent, 
Borden's grass, 
and in Pennsylva- 
nia and southward 
herd's grass, a 
name which in 
New York and 
New England is 
exclusively applied 
to phleum or tim- 
othy ; it was for- 
merly called Eng- 
lish grass. It 
grows from 1 to 2 ft. high, according to sit- 
uation, and has a slender open panicle of 
small one-flowered spikelets, the reddish color 
of which suggested its best known common 
name. It varies greatly with the character of 
the soil, but in no case yields as largely as tim- 




FIG. 8. Orchard Grass (Dacty- 
lis glomerata). 



168 



GRASSES 



othy, and its great value is in its permanence 
as a pasture grass. White-top (agrostis alba) 
often appears spontaneously in pastures, and 
is readily distinguished from red-top by its 
greenish white flowers ; agriculturists are not 
agreed as to its value. Orchard grass (dactylis 
glomerata) is next in importance, as it is val- 
uable for hay, and especially so for pasturage, 
and it will grow better than most other grasses 
in the shade of trees. It is a rather coarse spe- 
cies, grows 3 and even 6 ft. high, and bears a 
dense branching panicle, on which its several- 
flowered spikeletsare arranged in crowded, one- 
sided clusters ; it has a tendency to form tus- 
socks, which unfits it for lawns ; and for hay 
or pasturage the seed should be sown very 
thickly in order to produce a fine herbage. 
June grass (poa pratensis) is the most valuable 
of the poas ; it is also known as smooth-stalked 
meadow grass, green grass, and Kentucky blue 
grass. By reason of its creeping root stocks it 
rapidly forms a dense turf, and is more valued 
for the pasture than the meadow; but it is 
used for hay, its after-math or second cutting 
being heavier than the first. It adapts itself 
to a wide range of country, and endures ex- 
treme cold without injury; it forms a large 
portion of the best pastures of Europe as well 
as of this country. Varying greatly in different 
soils and climates, it has received a number of 
local names besides those already given. It 
attains its greatest luxuriance in the limestone 
regions of Kentucky, where it spontaneously 
takes possession of the land, or "comes in," as 
the farmers say. The blue-grass pastures of 
Kentucky have long been celebrated, and at 
one time it was supposed that the grass was a 
peculiar one; but it is now well ascertained 
that it is only the common June grass grow- 
ing in a peculiarly genial soil and climate. So 
variable is this species that the English wri- 
ters on grasses recognize a half dozen or more 
named varieties. Other species of poa are 
found in our fields and pastures, the principal of 
which are the fowl meadow grass or false red- 
top (P. serotina), and the roughish meadow 
grass (P. trivialis), which resembles June 
grass, but blooms in moist meadows nearly a 
month later. The tall fescue (festuca elatior), 
though rarely sown, often appears in meadows 
and pastures ; the sheep's fescue (F. ovina) and 
the hard fescue (var. duriuscula) grow upon 
sandy hard soils, and in some localities form the 
bulk of the sheep pasturage. The tall meadow- 
oat grass (avena elatior) was some years ago 
overpraised as " the grass of the Andes," and 
fell into disrepute ; but it has latterly been re- 
garded with more favor, and is valued by those 
who have cultivated it. Meadow foxtail (alope- 
curus pratensis) is highly prized as a pasture 
grass in England, and is sparingly introduced 
into this country; it has a resemblance to 
timothy, but the structure of the flowers is 
dUbrent, and it is much more soft to the touch. 
Sweet-scented vernal grass, the odor of which 
baa been already mentioned, is common in 



meadows, though it is rarely sown; while it 
adds to the enjoyment of the haying season, it 
is of no agricultural value. Under the name 
of rescue grass, a plant was much lauded in 
Europe a few years ago as something that 
would rescue fields from sterility and farmers 




FIG. 



.Buffalo Grass (Buchloo dactyloides). 
1. Male. 2. Female. 



from ruin ; the seed was sold as ~bromus ScJira- 
deri, but it is probably a form of bromus unio- 
loides, and of little value. Italian rye grass is 
a form of the variable lolium perenne, other 
varieties of which are known as Russell's, 
Pacey's, and Stickney's rye grasses ; it is val- 
uable for hay, pasturage, or soiling, especially 
on irrigated meadows. Annual Grasses. 
Among those of this class grown for hay are 
Hungarian grass (panicum [setaria] Germani- 
cum) and Italian millet (P. miliaceum), which 
are often useful in supplementing a short hay 
crop. The foliage of some of the cereal grains 
is used for forage, it being cut before the grain 
ripens and cured like hay ; oat, rye, and maize 
are those principally grown. Grasses of Spon- 
taneous Growth. Bermuda grass (cynodon 
dactylon) is a native of Europe, Asia, and Af- 
rica, and is abundantly naturalized south of 
Pennsylvania. It is a low, much-branched 
perennial, creeping extensively by root stocks, 
and soon forms a dense mat that completely 
excludes all other vegetation. In most locali- 
ties it is regarded as a troublesome weed, but 
it is of great value where other grasses will 
not grow for pasturage, and even for hay ; in 
this country, at least, it is not known to per- 
fect seed. Buffalo grass (buchloe dactyloides), 
in the prairies west of the Mississippi, extends 
from the British possessions to Mexico, and is 
the support not only of buffalo and deer, but 
the animals of the recent settler ; it is one of 
the few examples of a dioecious grass, and the 
male and female plants are so unlike in their 
flowering parts that until within a few years 
they were regarded as belonging to distinct 




GRASSES 



genera; the pistillate or female flowers are 
enclosed by a bur-like woody involucre; it 
runs extensively by stolons, and forms a dense 
turf, the foliage of which is but a few inches 
high. Mezquite grass is often mentioned by 
travellers in the far southwest; like other local 
names in new countries, this is applied to quite 
different plants; it seems to be given to what- 
7QT grasses grow in the region of the mezquite 
ee, and species of aristida, bouteloua, and 
ren the buffalo grass, have this name given to 
lem by different persons. Grama grass is 
Iso praised by those who visit Spanish Amer- 
m countries, and comprises a number of spe- 
js of bouteloua. Another indefinite name 
>f travellers is " bunch grass," given to any 
id that forms clumps or tufts; festucas, 
utelouas, triticums, and eriocoma all bear 
lis name. Grasses regarded as Weeds. One 
of the most troublesome weeds of the farmer 
and gardener is couch grass (triticum repens), 
already mentioned. Chess or cheat (bromus 
secalinus) is a pest of the grain fields, often so 
abundant from unclean seed as to induce igno- 
rant farmers to believe that wheat really turns 
into chess. Dogs-tail or wire grass (eleusine 
Indica) is a common weed in the streets of 
)wns and villages, and encroaches upon the 
near them. Barnyard grass (panicum 
alii) is common in waste places, and 
rb.ere the soil is rich grows with great luxu- 
iance, but being an annual is easily subdued. 
The crab or finger grass (panicum sanguinale) 
late in summer one of the most annoying of 
le gardener's pests, as it roots at every joint, 
id unless eradicated when very young is 
iblesome. Marsh Grasses. Along the mar- 
of rivers, especially where salt and fresh 
3r meet, there are often wide tracts cover- 
with verdure and known as meadows or 
les. When the growth is sufficiently fine 
lese meadows are mowed, and the product, 
lown as marsh hay or salt hay, is largely 
sed for bedding animals and for mulching. 
)ften a large share of this hay consists of 
rasses, but frequently it is made up of rushes 
" sedges ; a small rush (juncus Gerardi and 
perhaps others), called "black grass," often 
covers large tracts. Among the grasses prop- 
found in such localities are species of 
irtina, glyceria, and phragmites. Orna- 
mtal Grasses. Several tropical grasses are 
>wn as greenhouse plants, and in late years 
> taste for cultivating the hardier kinds in 
le open border has greatly increased. Some 
" these, like erianthus Ravenna and the pam- 
s grass (gynerium argenteum), are grown 
>r their stately appearance; their flower 
;alks grow to the height of 12 ft., and 
leir long leaves form large clumps of graceful 
itline. Other species are cultivated for the 
jauty of their flowers, which are dried for 
laking ornamental bouquets. In some of the 
lorticultural establishments of Germany bou- 
lets of dried grasses are an article of export. 
-Very many kinds of grass not here enumer- 



GRASSHOPPER 



169 



ated are more or less well known, the more 
important of which are treated in separate ar- 
ticles, as CANARY GRASS, FEATHER GRASS, MIL- 
LET, REED, &c. Many plants commonly called 
grasses do not belong to the grass family. In 
some agricultural works, clover, lucerne, sain- 
foin, and other forage plants are incorrectly 
classed as grasses ; these will be found under 
their proper titles. The most complete general 
scientific treatises upon grasses are Kunth's 
Enumeratio Plantarum (5 vols., Stuttgart, 
1833-'50) and Steudel's Synopsis Graminea- 
rum (Stuttgart, 1855). The species east of 
the Mississippi are described in Gray's "Man- 
ual of the Botany of the Northern United 
States" (New York, 1867) and Chapman's 
"Flora of the Southern United States " (New 
York, 1860) ; those of the far western portions 
of our territory are scattered through various 
reports and memoirs. Flint's "Grasses and 
Forage Plants " (Boston, 1867) is the principal 
American work upon the agricultural grasses. 
GRASSHOPPER, a name properly applied to 
orthopterous insects of the family locustadce. 
Some European entomologists assign the gene- 
ric name locusta to the grasshopper ; the sau- 
terelles of the French include both locusts and 
grasshoppers; great inconvenience has arisen 
from this confusion of names, which will be 
avoided by calling the grasshoppers locustadce, 
and the locusts acrydii. The locustadw are 
characterized by having long antennae, four 
joints to all their feet, wing covers sloping 
downward at the sides of the body, and the 
end of the abdomen in the females provided 
with a projecting sword-shaped piercer; the 
jaws are formed for mastication; the upper 
wings are thick and opaque, overlapping a lit- 
tle on the back, this portion forming a long 
triangle, traversed in the males by strong pro- 
jecting veins, between which are thin, transpa- 
rent, membranous spaces ; the under wings 
are thin and folded in plaits like a fan ; they 
undergo a partial transformation the larvas 
and pupse being active, voracious, and wing- 
less; they are injurious to vegetation in all 
their forms. The males emit a shrill sound 
produced by the friction of the overlapping 
portions of the wings, intensified by the vibra- 
tion of the air contained in the internal air 
sacs, and its action upon a complicated series of 
valves and membranous plates about the ori- 
gins of the wings and legs. Most grasshop- 
pers are of a green color, more or less resem- 
bling the leaves upon which they feed ; they 
are more active by night than by day ; when 
taken, they emit from the mouth a dark-col- 
ored fluid, known by every school boy as 
"molasses;" they do not associate together, 
nor migrate from place to place in large num- 
bers, as do the locusts proper. Some live upon 
grass and herbaceous plants, and the females 
lay their eggs in the ground in holes made by 
their nearly straight piercers; the eggs are 
elongated, ellipsoidal, very numerous, from 
one fourth to one fifth of an inch long, and 



170 



GRASSHOPPER 



covered with a thin varnish-like film. Others 
live upon trees and shrubs, like the katydid ; 
their wings and covers are broader, and they 
deposit tlu-ireggs on the branches of trees in 
regular rows, having shaved off the bark with 
tlu-ir short and curved piercer. The legs are 




Oblong Leaf-winged Grasshopper (Phylloptera oblongifolia). 

three pairs, the posterior being much the long- 
est and capable of performing the jumps 
whence these insects derive their name ; they 
nil end in elastic hooks. The flight of the 
grasshopper is short, unsteady, and noiseless, 
compared with that of the locust. The Amer- 
ican katydid (platypJiyllum concavum, Harris) 
will be described under that title. Other na- 
tive grasshoppers are : 1. The spotted wingless 
grasshopper (phalangopsis maculata, Harris), 
pale yellowish brown, with small light spots 
on the darker back, smooth and shining, with 
arched back, from half an inch to about an 
inch long; it is common, under stones and 
sticks in the woods, has the short thick body 
and stout hind thighs of a cricket, and is en- 
tirely destitute of wings. 2. The oblong leaf- 
winged grasshopper (phylloptera ollongifolia, 
De Geer) is of a brilliant green, with very deli- 
cate wings, the under extending far beyond 
the upper; the body is only about an inch 
long, but to the end of the wings it often mea- 
sures three inches; in its perfect state it is 
found upon trees in September and October; 




Narrow-leayed Grasshopper (Phancroptera angustifolia). 



1'iriii- flight it makes a whizzing noise. 3 
The curved-tailed grasshopper (P. curvicauda, 
B Geer), of the middle and southern states, is 
a larger species, with wing covers broadest in 
the middle. 4. The narrow-leaved grasshopper 
(phaneroptera angustifolia, Harris) is green 



with wing covers rounded at the tips and 
shorter than the wings, a short bent piercer, 
and in the male a long tapering projection from 
the under side of the body ; it measures in the 
body three quarters of an inch, and to the end 
of the wings about an inch and three quarters; 
it comes to maturity early in September. 6. 
The common meadow grasshopper (orchelimum 
mtlgare, Harris), so numerous near the end of 
summer at different ages, is of a general green, 
with a brown stripe on the top of the head and 
thorax; it measures at maturity about three 
quarters of an inch to the end of the body, and 
a quarter of an inch more to the end of the 
semi-transparent wing covers ; the shrilling or- 
gans consist of a transparent glassy spot in the 
overlapping portion of each wing cover, which 
is larger and stronger than in other grasshop- 
pers; the hindmost thighs are smooth, there 
are two spines on the middle of the breast, and 
the antenna? extend beyond the end of the hind 
legs. 6. The sword-bearer grasshopper (cono- 
cepkalus ensiger, Harris) has the head conical, 
extending to a blunt point between the eyes, 
and along, straight, sword-shaped piercer; it 
measures an inch to the end of the body, and 




Common Meadow Grasshopper (Orchelimum vulgare). 

an inch more to the end of the wing covers ; 
it is pale green, with whitish head, and pale 
brownish green legs and abdomen. The young 
grasshopper comes from the egg without wings ; 
passing through several moultings, the body 
increases and little stump-like wings appear; 
the wings gradually become longer with each 
change of skin, the insect hopping about by 
means of its muscular hind thighs ; after ceas- 
ing to grow, the wings are perfect organs 
of flight, and the grasshopper enters upon its 
short life ; the song by degrees becomes less, 
the body shrivels, the legs wither, the appetite 
ceases, and in three or four weeks the whole 
number are dead. The larvae remain in the 
earth or wherever the eggs are deposited all 
winter, and are hatched in the spring ; they 
are voracious as larva, pupa, and perfect in- 
sect, and in all these stages are eagerly de- 
voured by fowls, especially turkeys. The 
Cjen grasshopper of Europe (L. viridissima, 
tr.) is two inches long, of a fine green with- 
out spots. The L. verrucivora (Fabr.) is green, 
with the wing covers spotted with brown and 
black ; it bites severely, and the Swedes sub- 
mit their warts to its mandibles, asserting 
that after its bite the warts quickly disappear. 






GRASSMANtf 



There are many other species in different parts 
of the world, but none merit attention for 
their destructiveness in comparison with the 
locusts; war is rarely waged against grass- 
hoppers, as their natural enemies, birds, do- 
mestic fowls, and sand wasps, keep them down 
in proper limits. 

GRASSMAM, Hermann Giinther, a German 
mathematician, born in Stettin, Prussia, April 
15, 1809. His father was professor of mathe- 
matics in the gymnasium of Stettin and the 
author of several mathematical text books. 
Hermann studied theology and mathematics, 
and from 1834 to 1852 was a teacher in the 
Otto-Schule in Stettin, when he succeeded his 
father as professor of mathematics in the gym- 
nasium. In 1844 he published the first part 
of Die Wissenschaft der extensiven Grosse, eine 
neue mathematische Disciplin. This part also 
bore the special title Die lineale Ausdehnungs- 
lehre, ein neuer Zweig der Maihematik, darge- 
stellt und durch Anwendungen avf die ubrigen 
Zweige der MathematiTe, wie auch auf die 
Statik, Mechanifc, die LeJire vom Magnetismus 
und die Krystallonomie erlautert. In the 
preface to this work he gave a short account 
of his discovery, and declared his intention to 
make its development and application the chief 
object of his life. He further developed his 
theory in Geometrische Analyse (1847), which 
obtained the prize offered by the Prince Jablo- 
novvski scientific society of Leipsic, and in arti- 
cles in Oelle's mathematical journal treating 
the higher classes of curves. In 1853 Cauchy 
published in the Comptes rendus of the French 
academy a method of resolving algebraical equa- 
tions and other problems by means of certain 
symbolical quantities, which he called clefs alge- 
bralques. The method was identical with that 
employed by Grassmann, and the latter imme- 
diately addressed a " claim of priority " to the 
academy. A committee was appointed to ex- 
amine the question, but it never made any re- 
port, and Cauchy abruptly broke off the publi- 
cation of his articles. In 1862 Grassmann 
completed the development of his theory by 
publishing Die Ausdehnungslehre volhtandig 
und in strenger Form "bearbeitet. This work 
is in strict mathematical form, after the model 
of Euclid's Elements, consisting almost entire- 
ly of propositions and demonstrations. In it 
he develops the connection of his theory with 
every branch of mathematics, from arithmetic 
to the integral calculus, and discusses its appli- 
cation to geometry. The profoundly meta- 
physical character of his first work and the ex- 
ceedingly abstract form of the last, together 
with the total absence of all geometrical fig- 
ures and all simple illustrations, have very 
much retarded the progress of his doctrine 
among professed mathematicians, and have pre- 
vented its comprehension by any others. It 
has many striking analogies to the quaternions 
of Sir William Rowan Hamilton. There can 
be little doubt that the theory of Grassmann, 
or one essentially the same, and only differing 



GRATIAtf 



171 



somewhat in form, will in time supersede the 
whole system of analytical geometry as founded 
by Descartes and so greatly developed by the 
labors of subsequent mathematicians. Grass- 
mann has been a frequent contributor to the 
leading scientific journals of Germany, and has 
published text books on various branches of 
science. He has an extensive knowledge of 
languages, published in 1870 a work on the 
German names of plants, and is now (1874) en- 
gaged in publishing a Sanskrit-German diction- 
ary to the Rig Veda. 

GRASS TREE, one of the English names given 
to plants of the genus xanthorrhcea, which are 
also called grass-gum trees and black-boys. 
They belong to the order liliacece, and are es- 
pecially distinguished by their crowns of long, 
pendulous, grass-like leaves, from the centre of 
which arises a long stem bearing at its summit 
a dense flower spike looking somewhat like a 
large cat-tail (typha). Some species have very 
short stems, while others have trunks 6 to 18 
ft. high, which, with their singular tufts of 
leaves, form a striking feature in the Australian 
landscape. X. arlorea, X. australis, both ar- 
borescent, and X. hastilis. nearly stemless, are 
the best known species, as they are the prin- 
cipal ones in cultivation as ornamental green- 
house plants. Two resins obtained from these 
plants have been known for some time ; one is 
yellow and called Botany Bay resin and gum 
acaroides, and the other red, resembling drag- 
on's blood, and known as black-boy gum. 
They are aromatic, contain cinnamic and ben- 
zoic acids, and have the general properties of 
the balsams proper. No important use seems 
to have been found for these products. 

GRATIAN (AUGUSTUS GKATIANUS), emperor 
of Rome, born in Pannonia in 359, slain at 
Lugdunum (Lyons) in 383. His father, Valen- 
tinian I., bestowed upon him the title of Au- 
gustus in his childhood, but when he died in 
375 the officers of the army compelled Gratian 
to give his half brother Valentinian II., then a 
young child, a share in the western empire, the 
East being in the hands of his uncle Valens. 
Gratian received Gaul, Spain, and Britain, and 
reigned over Italy, Illyricum, and Africa as 
guardian of his brother. Great severity marked 
the beginning of his reign. When the East 
was attacked by the Goths, Gratian was de- 
layed in aiding his uncle by another incursion 
of barbarians from the north; and when he 
finally marched to his rescue, he received the 
news of his defeat and death (378), which 
made him the ruler of both parts of the empire. 
In the next year he ceded the East to the 
younger Theodosius, Several wars with bar- 
barous tribes on the Rhine and Danube were 
successfully terminated, and Gratian, who is 
praised by both Christian and pagan historians 
as just, moderate, and virtuous, now enjoyed a 
few years of repose at his residence in Milan, 
where he became the friend of St. Ambrose. 
By the confiscation of the property of the 
temples and the abolition of the privileges of 



172 



GRATIOT 



the priests, ho greatly contributed to the down- 
fall of paganism. A military rebellion, which 
broke out in Britain under Maximus, and spread 
to Gaul, deprived him of his throne and life. 

GRATIOT, a central county of the S. penin- 
sula of Michigan, drained by Pine and Maple 
rivers; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,810. 
It has an undulating surface and a productive 
soil, partially covered with pine timber. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 127,111 bushels 
of wheat, 81,655 of Indian corn, 64,923 of oats, 
95,354 of potatoes, 306,436 Ibs. of butter, 44,- 
903 of wool, and 13,297 tons of hay. There 
were 2,072 horses, 3,288 milch cows, 4,748 
other cattle, 11,536 sheep, and 4,890 swine; 4 
flour mills, and 13 saw mills. Capital, Ithaca. 

GRATRY, Angnste Joseph Alphons*, abbe, a 
French theologian, born in Lille, March 30, 
1805, died at Montreux, Switzerland, Feb. 6, 
1872. In 1841 he was appointed director of 
the college of Ste. Barbe, Paris, and in 1846 
chaplain of the superior normal school. In 1851 
a controversy with his colleague, M. Vacherot, 
led to their resigning their positions. Gratry 
now founded, in conjunction with the abb6 
Petetot, a society of priests called "Oratory 
of the Immaculate Conception," and devoted 
himself in an especial manner to the conver- 
sion and instruction of the Parisian youth. In 
1861 he was appointed by Bishop Dupanloup 
vicar general of Orleans, and in 1863 became 
professor of moral theology in the Sorbonne. 
On the publication of his Cours de philosophic 
(1855-'7) he was hailed as a valuable auxiliary 
by the ontologists. In 1864 he vehemently 
attacked Renan and the whole rationalistic 
school ; and in 1867 he was elected a member 
of the French academy, chiefly, it is thought, 
in consideration of his three works, Paix, medi- 
tations historiques et religieuses (1862), Sources, 
conseih pour la conduite de T esprit (2 vols. 8vo, 
1861-'2), and Commentaires sur Vevangile de 
Saint Matthieu (1863). In 1869 his connection 
with Pere Hyacinthe and the "International 
League of Peace" drew on him the censure of 
the superior of the Oratory, from which body 
he thereupon withdrew. In 1870 he published 
two letters on the position of parties in the 
council of the Vatican, which he retracted in 
December, 1872, in a letter to the new arch- 
bishop of Paris, Guibert. His principal works, 
besides those above mentioned, are: Philoso- 
vhie du Credo (1861); Jems-Christ, lettres a 
M. Renan (1864); Lea sophittes et la critique 
(1864) ; II, N // I'crreyce (1866) ; and La morale 
etlaloide Wiutoire (2 vols. 8vo, 1868). 

GRATTAN, Henry, an Irish statesman and 
orator, born in Dublin, July 3, 1746, died in 
London, May 14, 1820. His father, a barrister 
and a Protestant, was for many years record- 
' Dublin and also a member of the Irish 
partUment Il.-nry entered Trinity college, 
Dublin, in 1765, and graduated with distinction 
in 17<:7, after which he removed to London 
and became a student in the Middle Temple 
Hi admiration for the eloquence of Lord Chat- 



GRATTAN 

ham determined him to become an orator. 
He was admitted to the Irish bar in 1772, and 
in 1775 entered the Irish parliament as repre- 
sentative of Charlemont. He at once joined 
the opposition, and united with Flood and the 
leading patriots of the day in endeavoring to 
obtain free trade for Ireland. On April 19, 
1780, he introduced and supported with great 
eloquence the famous declaration of right, 
denying the power of the British parliament 
to legislate for Ireland. His motion was lost, 
but he became the idol of the Irish people. 
He fired their national spirit, and through his 
influence the volunteer bands assembling from 
all parts of Ireland were swelled to the num- 
ber of 80,000. These volunteers held a meet- 
ing at Dungannon in February, 1782, and passed 
unanimously the resolution drawn up by Mr. 
Grattan, that " a claim of any body of men, 
other than the king, lords, and commons of 
Ireland, to make laws to bind this kingdom, is 
unconstitutional, illegal, and a grievance." On 
April 16, 1782, he repeated in the house of 
commons his motion for a declaration of Irish 
right. The resolutions were carried by an 
overwhelming majority. Mr. Fox decided in- 
stantly to yield, and brought in a Trill for re- 
pealing the act (6 George I.) by which the 
British parliament claimed the right to bind 
Ireland by British laws. Grattan was now the 
most popular man in Ireland, and parliament 
proposed to vote him 100,000 " as a testimony 
of the national gratitude for great national ser- 
vices." It was only at the earnest request of 
his friends that he agreed to accept half the 
amount. During the following sessions of 
parliament he found a bitter and sarcastic op- 
ponent in Flood, who encouraged the story 
which had been set on foot, that Grattan hav- 
ing received his pay had ceased to be a patriot. 
In 1785, by his opposition to the propositions 
regarding the trade between Great Britain and 
Ireland, known as Ord's propositions, he re- 
gained his popularity. In 1790 he was returned 
to parliament by the city of Dublin. On the 
arrival in 1795 of Earl Fitzwilliam, he asso- 
ciated himself with that nobleman in origi- 
nating plans for the peace and prosperity of his 
native country. After the earl's recall dissen- 
sions arose, and the society of United Irish- 
men proposed to form a republic, and opened 
intercourse with France to gain help. Grat- 
tan, after advising conciliatory measures in 
vain, withdrew from parliament. When Mr. 
Pitt proposed measures for uniting Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland, he again obtained a seat in 
parliament as member for Wicklo\v, for the 
express purpose of opposing this measure ; but 
when the union had been effected he entered 
the imperial parliament as representative of the 
borough of Malton in 1805, and of Dublin in 
1806. In opposition to the corporation of his 
native city, he advocated Catholic emancipa- 
tion, and undertook a journey to London, while 
in feeble health, to present a petition from the 
Catholics to the house of commons. When 



GRATTAN 

his friends remonstrated, he replied that he 
would be happy to die in the discharge of his 
duty, and he did in fact sink under the exer- 
tion soon after his arrival. Grattan was be- 
low medium stature and exceedingly unpre- 
possessing in appearance. His oratory was 
impassioned, and he was often entirely over- 
come by his subject. His private character 
was without a blemish. His speeches were 
edited by his son Henry Grattan (4 vols., Lon- 
don, 1822), and a selection from them by D. O. 
Maddyn (Dublin, 1845). A volume of his 
miscellaneous works appeared in 1822, and his 
"Life and Times" by his son in 1839-'46 (5 
vols., London). 

GRATTAN, Thomas Coltey, an Irish novelist, 
born in Dublin in 1796, died in London, July 
4, 1864. He studied law, and procured a com- 
mission in the army, but renounced both pro- 
fessions on his marriage, and afterward resi- 
ded in France. At the age of 25 he published 
"Philibert," a metrical romance, which was 
a complete failure. He next became a contrib- 
utor to various magazines and reviews, and 
in 1823 published in two volumes the first se- 
ries of " Highways and Byways." A second 
series appeared in 1824, and a third in 1827, 
each in three volumes. Establishing himself 
in Brussels, he wrote a number of works, of 
which "Traits of Travel" (3 vols., 1829), 
"The Heiress of Bruges" (4 vols., 1830; new 
ed., 3 vols., 1834-'49), " History of the Nether- 
lands " (1830), " Jacqueline of Holland " (1842), 
and " Legends of the Rhine " (3 vols., 1849), 
are the best known. Having actively sup- 
ported the candidacy of King Leopold in the 
Belgian revolution of 1830, he was at the re- 
quest of that sovereign appointed in 1839 Brit- 
ish consul to Boston, which office he resigned 
in 1852, to accept one in the queen's household. 
His "Civilized America" (2 vols., London, 
1859) is a spiteful record of his experiences in 
North America. His last work was "Beaten 
Paths" (2 vols., 1862). 

JRATTONI, SeYerino, an Italian engineer, born 
Voghera, Dec. 7, 1816. After extensive 

idies, he was from 1845 to 1851 director of 
an observatory under Plana, and formed the 
acquaintance of Cavour, who consulted him on 
public works, especially on the project of pierc- 
ing Mont Cenis. Grattoni, being elected to 
the chamber of deputies, supported Cavour's 
policy, and was soon called upon, together with 
Sommeiller and Grandis, to devote himself to 
the Mont Cenis tunnel scheme. While Som- 
meiller supplied the chief inventive power, and 
Grandis a sound judgment on theoretical ques- 
tions, Grattoni, by his skill, energy, and perse- 
verance, became the organizing genius of the 
work, which was completed in September, 1871. 

GRATZ, or Gratz, a town of Austria, capital 
of the province of Styria, on the Mur, 90 m. 
3. S. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1870, 80,732. It 
consists of the town proper, which is on the 
left bank of the river, and is fortified, and of 
four suburbs connected with the town and 



GRAVEL 



173 



with each other by bridges. The chief public 
buildings are a magnificent Gothic cathedral 
erected by the emperor Frederick III. in 1456 ; 
St. Catharine's chapel, built as a mausoleum by 
Ferdinand II., whose remains repose here ; the 
Landhaus, where the diet of Styria holds its ses- 
sions ; the old palace of the Styrian dukes ; the 
university, founded in 1586, subsequently abol- 
ished, restored in 1827, and having in 1873-'4 
70 professors and 975 students, with a library 
of about 70,000 volumes and 7,500 MSS. ; the 
Johanneum, an institution established in 1811 
by Archduke John for the encouragement of 
the arts, sciences, and manufactures of Styria; 
and the refectory or convicte, the largest build- 
ing in Gratz, formerly belonging to the Jesuits, 
but now a collegiate school. It is the seat of 
a Roman Catholic bishop, who bears the title 
of bishop of Seckau. There are 22 Catholic 
churches, a Protestant church, and 10 con- 
vents. The principal manufactures are cot- 
ton, woollen, silk, hardware, leather, and paper. 

GRAUBUNDEff, or Graubiindten. See GEISONS. 

GRAIDENZ, a fortified town of Prussia, in 
the province of West Prussia, on the Vistula, 
60 m. S. of Dantzic; pop. in 1871, 15,559. It 
has a Protestant and five Roman Catholic 
churches, a convent, a gymnasium, a normal 
school, and two hospitals. There are manu- 
factories of cloth, tobacco, and carriages, sev- 
eral breweries and distilleries, a considerable 
trade in cloth and corn, some shipping, and 
four annual fairs. The fortress was built by 
Frederick the Great, and became famous in 
1807 for its brave defence by Courbiere. 

GRAUN, Karl Heinrich, a German composer, 
born in Wahrenbruck, Saxony, in 1701, died in 
Berlin, Aug. 8, 1759. He studied music in 
Dresden, subsequently became tenor and com- 
poser to the opera house in Brunswick, and in 
1740 was appointed by Frederick the Great 
his chapelmaster, a position which he occupied 
during the remainder of his life. He was the 
author of 30 operas, and an immense number 
of cantatas and miscellaneous pieces. His 
best works are the oratorio Der Tod Jesii, 
and his Te Deum. 

GRAVE CREEK. See MOUNDSVILLE. 

GRAVEL, small stones, commonly intermixed 
with sand, and sometimes with clayey or cal- 
careous earth. Such a mixture constitutes the 
principal portion of the drift formation ; and 
where this prevails, the surface of the coun- 
try is often covered to unknown depths with 
deposits of sand and gravel. It forms hills 
throughout New England, and nearly the 
whole of Long Island is covered with it. (See 
DILUVIUM.) It is of more recent formation 
wherever rocks, especially the granitic, are 
comminuted by joint action of atmospheric 
and fluviatile agents, and their materials are 
gathered in the bed and banks of swift running 
streams. On the beaches of seas and lakes, 
the gravel, piled up in beds of coarse pebbles 
and washed clean of sand and all earthy mat- 
ters, is called shingle. 



174 



GRAVEL 



GRAVEL, substances consolidated and pre- 
cipitated from the urine within the body, in 
certain diseased conditions of the system, dif- 
fering from calculi by their small size, and 
generally voided without surgical interference. 
(See CALCULI.) The appearance of gravel is 
important as evidence of a disposition to cal- 
culous deposits, and as indicating the proper 
treatment. When the disposition exists, any- 
thing which obstructs the passage of urine fa- 
vors the precipitation of gravel. There are 
three kinds of gravel, as there are three princi- 
pal forms of calculi, viz. : the lithic, the ox- 
alic, and the phosphatic. Lithic or uric acid, a 
highly nitrogenous compound, exists normally 
in the urine in combination with soda ; if the 
urine be abormally acid, the lithic acid will be 
precipitated in a crystalline form, constituting 
the lithic or red gravel ; lithic acid when pure 
is white, but in human urine it assumes the 
tint of its coloring matter, which causes it to 
look like Cayenne pepper. The urine con- 
taining this gravel is generally acid, high-col- 
ored, scanty, but clear ; in what is called a " fit 
of the gravel," this acid is precipitated in large 
quantity, accompanied by fever, pains shooting 
from the loins to the bladder, frequent and 
scalding micturition, &c. The causes which 
predispose to the excessive formation of lithic 
acid have been detailed in the article GOUT, 
with which disease gravel is intimately con- 
nected ; it will be sufficient to say here that the 
use of highly nitrogenous food and stimulating 
drinks, and sedentary or slothful habits, are 
very likely to induce both gout and lithic acid 
gravel. Though not unfrequently occurring 
in children, gravel is most common between 
the ages of 40 and 65 ; it is comparatively rare 
in warm climates, or in persons living chiefly 
on vegetable food. On the principles of Lie- 
big, the great indication for the treatment of 
the red gravel is to promote the action of oxy- 
gen on lithic acid so as to cause its conversion 
into urea and carbonic acid, and its consequent 
escape from the system through the urine and 
the perspiration ; in other words, to take in 
an increased supply of oxygen by exercise in 
the open air, by preparations of iron, and by 
the nitro-muriatic acid ; to moderate the quan- 
tity of highly nitrogenous food, avoiding that 
containing much starch and sugar, as well as 
malt and fermented liquors; to secure a healthy 
action of the skin by suitable clothing and at- 
tention to cleanliness ; to remove all intestinal 
obstructions, and to neutralize acidity, if neces- 
sary, by the administration of alkalies. The 
lithic acid gravel may be regarded as the sign 
of an inflammatory or congestive habit, but the 
next form, or the oxalic acid gravel, belongs 
to an irritable or nervous constitution, and is 
usually accompanied by a dry skin, dyspepsia, 
boils, carbuncles in advanced life, and nervous 
exhaustion or despondency ; the urine is trans- 
parent, pale greenish yellow, of moderate speci- 
fic gravity, and free from sediments, but con- 
taining minute crystals of oxalate of lime. The 



GRAVELOTTE 

causes of this diathesis are such as produce 
dyspepsia, nervous debility, and hypochondriac 
diseases : residence in malarious districts, and 
unwholesome vegetable food. The treatment 
is very similar to that for lithic acid gravel, it 
being remembered that in this case the sys- 
tem craves less oxygen ; distilled water is ad- 
vised in order that lime may not in this way 
be introduced into the system and endanger 
the formation of mulberry calculi; alkalies, 
with ammonia, tonics, and the mineral acids, 
are required according to circumstances. Oxa- 
late of lime deposits, however, are usually 
much less abundant and less irritating than 
those of uric acid, and, as a general rule, are 
less important indications of an unhealthy 
state of the system. The white gravel may 
be either the ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate 
or the phosphate of lime, or the mixture of 
the two. The earthy phosphates are naturally 
held in solution by the acid reaction of the 
urine ; and when this is neutralized or replaced 
by an alkaline reaction, these phosphates are 
precipitated in the form of a white amorphous 
powder. If the urine become ammoniacal, a 
new compound is formed, namely, the triple 
phosphate of magnesia and ammonia. This 
substance has the form of three-sided pris- 
matic crystals, sometimes large enough to be 
distinguished by the naked eye. The phos- 
phatic diathesis is generally seen in pale and 
weak persons, complaining of nervous exhaus- 
tion, as Dr. Prout maintains, on account of 
the great consumption of phosphorus in ner- 
vous diseases ; it may be produced by exces- 
sive fatigue of body or mind, intense study, 
unwholesome food, weakening medicines, and 
chronic urinary affections. The treatment 
should consist of tonics. 

GRAVELINES (Flem. G-ravelinglie ; Ger. Gra- 
velingeri), a fortified seaport town of France, 
in the department of Le Nord, near the mouth 
of the Aa, 10 m. W. S. W. of Dunkirk ; pop. in 
1866, 6,510. It contains a handsome market 
place, a church built in the 16th century, and 
a modern town hall, and has an extensive coast- 
ing trade and active fisheries. Cheese, butter, 
and eggs are exported ; sail cloth and linens 
are manufactured, and there is some ship build- 
ing. The town was founded in 1160 by Count 
Thierry of Alsace and Flanders. A famous 
victory was achieved here by the Spaniards 
under Egmont over the French under the 
marshal de Thermes, July 13, 155,8. It was 
annexed to France by the treaty of the Pyre- 
nees (1659). Louis XIV. had new fortifica- 
tions constructed, designed by Vauban. 

GRAVELOTTE, a village of Germany, in Al- 
sace-Lorraine, on the Moselle, 8 m. W. of Metz ; 
pop. 700. Here on Aug. 18, 1870, the first and 
second German armies, commanded by Gen. 
Steinmetz and Prince Frederick Charles under 
King William in person, obtained a great vic- 
tory over the French under Marshal Bazaine. 
The battle of Gravelotte decided the fate of 
Metz. It was probably the bloodiest and the 



GRAVES 



GRAVITY 



175 



on 
G 



3t hotly contested of the war, the loss of 
le Germans being about 20,000 in killed and 
wounded, and that of the French, who occu- 
pied superior positions and acted on the defen- 
sive, about 13,000. 

GRAVES, a S. W. county of Kentucky, bor- 
dering on Tennessee, and drained by Mayfield 
creek and Obion river ; area, 515 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 19,398, of whom 2,329 were colored. 
It is traversed by the Paducah and Memphis 
railroad. The surface is level and the soil gen- 
erally productive. The chief productions in 
1870 were 96,453 bushels of wheat, 842,445 of 
Indian corn, 24,424 of oats, 14,952 of Irish and 
24,259 of sweet potatoes, 158,380 Ibs. of butter, 
4,774,195 of tobacco, and 187 bales of cotton. 
There were 3,935 horses, 2,311 mules and asses, 
3,681 milch cows, 4,404 other cattle, 13,876 
sheep, and 31,570 swine ; 1 woollen factory, 
and 2 wool-carding and cloth-dressing estab- 
lishments.' Capital, Mayfield. 

GRAVES, Robert, an English engraver, born 
May 7, 1798, died in London, Feb. 28, 1873. 
He was the eldest son of Robert Graves, a noted 
connoisseur of rare prints, and the grandson 
of a printseller. Among his latest productions 
were a series of portraits from the works of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gainsborough, and 
" is last work was the portrait of Charles Dick- 
after Frith. 

GRAVESANDE, Willem Jakob ran >s, a Dutch 
philosopher, born in Bois-le-Duc, Sept. 27, 1688, 
died in Leyden, Feb. 28, 1742. He published 
at the age of 18 an essay on perspective, and a 
philosophical thesis on suicide. After comple- 
ting his studies in the university of Leipsic in 
1707, he was admitted to the bar at the Hague, 
where he wrote for the Journal Litteraire 
an examination of Fontenelle's " Geometry of 
the Infinite," a dissertation on the construc- 
tion of the air pump, one concerning the force 
of bodies, in which he embraced the opinion 
of Leibnitz against that of Newton, and dis- 
sertations upon the motion of the earth, &c. 
In 1717 he was appointed professor of mathe- 
matics and astronomy in the university of 
Leyden, and exchanged his chair in 1734 for 
that of philosophy, which he held till his death. 
His philosophical writings are eclectic in char- 
acter, combining portions of the doctrines of 
Locke, Descartes, and Leibnitz. His principal 
works are: Phy sices Elementa Mathematica 
(2 vols. 4to, the Hague, 1720-'23) ; Matheseos 
Universalis Elementa (8vo, Leyden, 1727) ; 
and Introductio ad Philosophiam, Metaphysi- 
cam et Logicam (Leyden, 1736-'7). 

GRAVESEND, a municipal borough, town, and 
river port of Kent, England, on the right bank 
of the Thames, 21 m. E. by S. of London ; pop. 
in 1871, 21,183. The principal public edifices 
are the town hall, parochial church (where 
Pocahontas is buried), literary institution, and 
theatre. Ship building is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent, but the chief trade arises from 
supplying outward-bound ships with stores and 
clothing. Gravesend is the limit of the port 
372 VOL. viii.12 



of London ; inward-bound vessels stop here 
for examination by the customs officers. 

GRAVIER, Jacques, a French missionary in 
America, died in 1708. Soon after his arrival 
in Canada, in 1684, he was sent to the Illinois 
region, where he followed up the labors of Mar- 
quette and Allouez among the Kaskaskias and 
other bands of the Illinois, and became the real 
founder of the mission, which he directed for 
many years, meeting much opposition from the 
medicine men, and receiving at their hands a 
wound which ultimately caused his death. He 
compiled a grammar of the Illinois, which was 
highly esteemed and formed the basis of all 
subsequent works of the kind. "When Iberville 
began the settlement of Louisiana, the Illinois 
prepared to go down the Mississippi ; but the 
Kaskaskias, the first to move, were induced by 
Gravier to halt at the place which now bears 
their name. He went down to confer with 
Iberville, and has left a journal of his canoe 
voyage. He descended again in 1706, and went 
to Europe. He returned in February, 1708, 
but must have reembarked, as he died at sea 
in April. Of his writings the following have 
been printed : Relation de ce qui tfest passe 
dans la mission de Vlmmaculee Conception au 
pays des Illinois 1693-'4 (8vo, New York, 
1857) ; Relation ou Journal du voyage en 1700 
depuis le pays des Illinois jusqu'd V embouchure 
du Mississipi (1859) ; Lettre sur les affaires de 
la Louisiane, fev. 23, 1708 (1865). 

GRAY INA, a town of S. Italy, in the province 
and 36 m. S. W. of the city of Bari, on a river 
of the same name, an affluent of the Bradano ; 
pop. about 14,000. It is the seat of a bishop, 
and has five churches and a gymnasium. It was 
unsuccessfully besieged by the Saracens in 975, 

GRAVINA, GiOTanni Vincenzo, an Italian jurist, 
born at Roggiano, Jan. 20, 1664, died in Rome, 
Jan. 6, 1718. Devoting himself to civil and 
canon law, he went to Rome in 1689, published 
several brief works on morals and literature, 
and in 1695, having collected 15 of his friends 
in his garden, formed the academy of the Ar- 
cadians. In 1699 he was appointed professor 
of civil law in the college of La Sapienza, and 
in 1703 of canon law. He soon after published 
his works on the " Origin of the Civil Law " 
and on the " Roman Empire." A schism took 
place in 1711 in the academy of the Arcadians, 
and Gravina and his friends withdrew and 
founded the Quirina academy. He was the 
adoptive father of Metastasio. 

GRAVITY, or Gravitation (Lat. granites, 
weight), in physics, the tendency of bodies to- 
ward each other or toward a centre of attrac- 
tion. In the article ASTRONOMY we have con- 
sidered the history of the discovery of the great 
law of gravitation, and have sketched the ap- 
plication of the law to elucidate a variety of 
problems of interest connected with the mo- 
tions of the celestial bodies; in the article 
EARTH we have considered the application of 
this law to determine the mass and figure of 
the earth ; and in dealing with the lunar mo- 



176 



GRAVITY 



tions, we shall have to consider more in detail 
the perturbative action of gravity. In the 
present place, therefore, we limit ourselves to 
the consideration of terrestrial gravity in its 
effects on bodies upon or close to the surface 
of the earth. There are two ways in which 
the action of gravity at any station can bo 
measured. We can examine its effect in caus- 
ing bodies to have weight ; this is the statical 
action of gravity. Or we can consider its 
effect upon bodies let fall to the earth ; the ve- 
locity acquired in a given time affords the means 
of estimating this, the dynamical action of 
gravity. For many reasons the latter is the 
more convenient method of measuring it. The 
balance, the readiest and most trustworthy 
method of weighing bodies, obviously fails us 
when the measurement of the effect of gravity 
is in question, since the weight and the body 
weighed are equally under its influence. Nor 
can the spring balance be trusted for compar- 
ing the action of gravity at different stations, 
even though the utmost precaution has been 
exercised in freeing the instrument from the 
disturbing influences of differences or changes 
of temperature. No difficulties of this sort 
attend the dynamical method of measuring 
gravity; because bodies of different specific 
gravity, or the same body in different condi- 
tions of temperature, will fall (invacuo) through 
the same space in the same time under the in- 
fluence of gravity. The resistance of the air 
may indeed be neglected where the difference 
of specific gravity is very small, as in the case 
of the same mass of metal at different tempera- 
tures. The method of measurement here in- 
dicated is however comparatively rough. It 
was that used by Galileo to determine the 
time of fall of bodies under the influence of 
gravity, and by means of the mechanical ar- 
rangement called Atwood's machine it can be 
applied to obtain a fair approximation to the 
velocity acquired in a given time. But for all 
delicate researches the pendulum is employed. 
It is known that when a pendulum swings in 
a short arc its rate of swing is appreciably 
constant (though the small arc should vary), 
and depends on the length and figure of the 
pendulum and the action of gravity. Contri- 
vances have been invented by which the true 
rate of swing at any place, for a pendulum of 
known figure, can be most accurately ascer- 
tained. This being effected, it becomes possi- 
ble to compare the action of gravity at differ- 
ent terrestrial stations. Gravity varies on the 
earth's surface owing to two principal causes. 
In the first place, the earth is rotating, and every 
point on its surface therefore has a tendency 
(constantly overcome by gravity) to move in 
a straight line tangent to the earth's surface. 
This tendency is commonly called the centrif- 
ugal force due to the earth's rotation ; an ob- 
jectionable mode of expression, because no 
force properly so called is in question. The 
tendency is mere inertia. If the tendency 
were the same at all stations, gravity would 



be uniformly affected, and no difference would 
accrue; but the tendency is greatest at the 
equator, where the motion is most rapid, and 
diminishes thence to the poles, where it is zero. 
The action of gravity in producing weight or 
in causing the fall of a body is obviously di- 
minished by this tendency; and being most 
diminished at the equator, gravity is there least 
on this account, and gradually increases to- 
ward the poles. It is estimated that, so far as 
this cause alone is concerned, gravity at the 
equator should be less than at the poles by 
^ part. But secondly, owing to the same 
cause (the rotation of the earth), the terrestrial 
globe is not a perfect sphere, but is compressed 
at the poles. Hence a body placed at a pole 
of the earth is nearer to the centre of gravity 
than a body placed at the equator ; and though 
this cause alone would not suffice to render the 
action of gravity greater on the body at the 
pole, since at the bottom of a mine gravity 
may be and usually is less than at the mouth 
(see EAETH), yet under the actual circum- 
stances a body at the pole is on the whole 
brought under the more effective action of 
gravity. A complete mathematical comparison 
of the attractions under the two conditions 
shows that gravity at the equator, so far as the 
cause we are now considering is concerned, is 
less than gravity at the poles by about -^fa. 
Combining the two effects, we obtain for the 
total decrease of gravity at the equator: 
y^+^zs-j^y. In other words, if gravity at 
the poles be represented by 195, gravity at the 
equator will be represented by 194. Minor 
causes exist, which however need not here be 
taken into consideration. We may simply 
mention that they arise from the non-homo- 
geneity of the earth's substance (near the 
place of observation), as the existence of can- 
ties, of great masses of unusual density, and so 
on. The following table shows the results ob- 
tained by Capt. Kater in different parts of the 
British isles : 



PLACE OF 
OBSERVATION. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Vibrations 
in a mean 
golar day. 


Leu-thofthe 
pendulum 
vibrating 
lecondg. 


TJnst 


60 45' 


28-01" 


86096-90 


89-17146 


Portsoy 
Leith Fort 
Clifton 
Arbury Hill . . . 
London 
Shanklin Farm . 


57 40 
55 53 
58 27 
52 12 
51 81 
50 87 


58-65 
40-80 
43-12 
55-32 
8-40 
23-94 


86,086-05 
86,079-40 
86,068-90 
86,065-05 
86,061-52 
86,058-07 


39-16159 
89-15554 
89-14600 
89-14250 
89-13929 
89-18614 



Deducing from these values the velocity ac- 
quired by a body in falling, Capt. Kater found 
that a body falling at Leith Fort would acquire 
in one second a velocity of 32-207 feet per 
second ; and that the variation in this velocity 
for one degree of difference of latitude is at 
Leith only -0000832 of its own amount. The 
following table gives the length of the seconds 
pendulum at different places, and the value of 
the accelerating force of gravity according to 
Sir George Airy : 



GRAVITY (SPECIFIC) 



177 



OBSERVER. 

' 


Place. 


Latitude. 


Length of pendulum 
vibrating seconds, 
in inches. 


Velocity in feet ac- 
quired in one second 
by a body falling 
from rest. 


Sabine 


Spitzbergen 


N. 79 50' 


39-21469 


82-2528 


Sabine 




70 40 


39 19475 


82 "23 68 




Stockholm '. ... 


69 21 


89-16541 


82*2122 


Bessel 


Konigsberg 


64 42 


39-15072 


82-2002 


Sabine 




51 29 


89-13983 


82*1912 


Borda Biot and Sabine 


Paris 


48 60 


89-12851 


82*1819 


Biot ... 


Bordeaux 


44 50 


89-11296 


82*1691 




New York 


40 48 


89-10120 


82 "1594 




Sandwich islands 


20 52 


89-04690 


32'1148 


gabine 


Trinidad 


10 89 


89 01888 


82-0918 




Kawak 


8. 2 


89 01433 


82*0880 




Ascension 


7 55 


89 02863 


82 0956 


Freycinet and Duperrey . . 


Mauritius 


20 10 


89-04684 


82*1151 


Brisbane and Rumker 


Paramatta 


83 49 


89-07452 


82-1875 


Frevcinet and Dunerrev. . . 


Falkland islands... 


51 85 


89-13781 


82*1895 




these values the following very simple 
and convenient formula has been deduced : If 
L denote the length of a seconds pendulum 
at any latitude A, and 39-017 inches be the 
igth of a seconds pendulum at the equator, 




YITY, Specific, the ratio of the weight of 
one body to that of an equal volume of an- 
other, adopted as a standard of reference. For 
solids and liquids the standard is pure water, 
at a temperature of 60 F., the barometer being 
at 30 inches. Air is the standard for aeriform 
bodies. A cubic foot of water weighing 1,000 
oz., if the same bulk of another substance, as 
for instance cast iron, is found to weigh 7,200 
pz., its proportional weight or specific gravity 
is 7'2. It is convenient to know the figures 
representing this proportion for every sub- 
stance in common use, that the weight of any 
given bulk may be readily determined ; and 
for all substances the specific gravity is used 
among other tests for the purpose of distin- 
guishing bodies from each other, the same 
substance being found, under the same cir- 
cumstances, to retain its peculiar proportional 
weight or density. Hence tables of specific 
gravity are prepared for reference, and in 
every scientific description of substances the 
specific gravity is mentioned. In practical use, 
the weight of a cubic foot is obtained from the 
figures representing the density by moving the 
decimal point three figures to the right, which 
obviously from the example above gives the 
ounces, and these divided by 16 the pounds 
avoirdupois, in the cubic foot. Different meth- 
ods may be employed to ascertain the specific 
gravity of solids. That by measuring the bulk 
and weighing is rarely practicable, nor is it 
desirable. As a body immersed in water must 
displace its own bulk of the fluid, the specific 
gravity may be ascertained by introducing a 
body, after weighing it, into a suitable vessel 
exactly filled with water, and then weighing 
the fluid which is expelled. The proportional 
weight is then at once obtained. Wax will 
cause its own weight of water to overflow; its 
specific gravity is then 1. Platinum, according 
to the condition it is in, will cause only from 
A- to FT? of its weight of water to escape, 



showing its specific gravity to be from 21 to 
21*5. But a more exact method than this is 
commonly employed. The difference of weight 
of the same substance, weighed in air and when 
immersed in water, is exactly that of the water 
it displaces, and may consequently be taken as 
the weight of its own bulk of water. The spe- 
cific gravity then is obtained by weighing the 
body first in air, and then, suspended by a fibre 
of silk or a hair, in water, and dividing the 
weight in air by the difference. If the body is 
lighter than water, it is to be attached to one 
heavier, to make it sink; then find the loss 
of the two by immersion, and also the loss of 
the heavier body ; the difference will express 
the weight of water displaced by the lighter 
body, whose weight divided by this difference 
will give its specific gravity. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the substance examined must 
be free from mixture of foreign matters, and 
especially from cavities that may contain air. 
Minerals, if suspected to contain such, should 
be coarsely pulverized, and then the second 
method above may be conveniently applied to 
determine their density. The specific gravity 
of fine powders may be determined by one of 
the methods employed for ascertaining the spe- 
cific gravity of fluids, viz. : by comparing the 
weight of a measured quantity with that of the 
same quantity of water. A glass vessel called a 
specific gravity bottle is commonly employed, 
which is furnished with a slender neck, upon 
which is a mark indicating the height readied 
by 1,000 grains of water. The substance to be 
examined is introduced till it reaches the same 
mark, and, the weight of the empty bottle be- 
ing known, only one weighing is required to 
obtain the result. A common method for find- 
ing the specific gravity of fluids is by the in- 
strument called a hydrometer or areometer, of 
which several kinds are in use, all dependent 
on the principle that the weights required to im- 
merse a light body, as a bulb of glass, in different 
fluids, are proportional to the densities of these 
fluids. Such instruments are used for ascer- 
taining the specific gravity of liquors, as an in- 
dication of their strength. (See HYDROMETER.) 
Gaseous bodies are weighed in a thin glass 
flask or other vessel made for the purpose, and 



178 



GRAVITY (SPECIFIC) 



GRAY 



provided with a stopcock. The vessel is ex- 
hausted of air before the introduction of the 
gas. The experiment requires particular care, 
as the result will be found to vary under differ- 
ent conditions of pressure, temperature, and 
the hygrometric state of the atmosphere. The 
temperature of the air should be 60 and baro- 
metric pressure 30 inches. The specific gravi- 
ties may also be calculated from the atomic 
weights of the gases : when the atomic volume 
is equal to that of hydrogen, it is obtained by 
multiplying the specific gravity of hydrogen by 
the atomic weight of the gas ; when the atomic 
volume is half that of hydrogen, the specific 
gravity of the gas is equal to the specific gravi- 
ty of hydrogen multiplied by twice the atomic 
weight of the gas ; and when the atomic vol- 
ume is twice that of hydrogen, the specific 
gravity of the gas is equal to the specific gravi- 
ty of hydrogen multiplied by half the atomic 
weight of the gas. The proportions of two in- 
gredients in a compound, as in an alloy of gold 
and silver, may be found by multiplying the 
specific gravity of each ingredient by the dif- 
ference between it and the specific gravity of 
the compound. As the sum of the products is 
to the respective products, so is the specific 
gravity of the body to the proportions of the 
ingredients ; then as the specific gravity of the 
compound is to the weight of the compound, 
so are each of the proportions to the weight of 
its material. The following table presents the 
specific gravities of substances most likely to 
be referred to, collected from various sources. 
The weight of a cubic foot in ounces avoirdu- 
pois is seen by moving the decimal point three 
figures to the right. 

TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 



Acid, acetic 1-062 



.irs.-nir 



3-891 



boracic, crystallized 1-479 

boracic, fused 

citric 

hydrochloric 



1-084 
1-200 



nitric 1-271 to 1-588 

aquiaregia 1-284 

phosphoric, liquid . 1-658 
phosphoric, solid . . 2-800 

sulphuric 1-841 

Alabaster 1-874 

Alcohol, absolute 1 792 

of commerce 0-885 

Ale or beer 1-085 

Alum 1-724 

Aluminum.... 2-560 to 2-670 

Amber 1-064 to MOO 

Ambergris .... 0'780 to 0^26 
Amethyst, common. . . 2-750 
oriental, or violet 

sapphire. 8-809 to 4-1 60 

Ammonia 0-876 

Anthracite . 
Antimony . 
Asphaltum 



0-876 
1-860 to 1-850 

6-702 

0-905 to 1-650 

4-000 



Cadmium 8-600 

Caoutchouc 0-938 

Chalk 2-784 

Cinnabar 8-998 

Clay 1-980 

Coal,bituminous 1-020 to 1-350 

Cobalt, cast 7-812 

Copal 1-045 

Copper, native 8-940 

cast 8-788 

wire 8-878 

coin 8-915 

Coral 2-540 to 2-850 

Diamond 8'521 to8'550 

Dolomite 2-540 to 2 -830 

Earth, mean of the 



globe 



5-210 



sulphate of (heavy 

par).... 4 800 to 4-720 
2-864, 

0-956 to 0-964 

Bismuth 9-82-2 

Brandy 0-887 

Brass 7-824 to 8-896 

wire 8-644 



Emerald 2-678 to 2-775 

Ether.sulphuric 632 to 0'775 

Fat of beef 0-928 

Feldspar 2-400 to 2 "620 

Freestone 2-148 

Garnet 8-150 to 4-800 

Glass, bottle 2-783 

crown 2-520 

preen 2-642 

flint 2-760 to 8'829 

plate 2-760 

plate of St. Oobain. 2-488 
Gold, native. 15-600 to 19-500 



pure, cast 

hammered 

coin 

22 carats fine. 
20 carats fine . , 



Brick 1-900 to 2-000 ! Granite, Quincy 

Bronze, gun metal.... 8-700 Staten island! , w 

Jiutu ' r 942 , Graphite 1-9S7 to 2'400 



19-258 
19-362 
17-647 
17-4^6 
15-709 
2-652 
2-780 



Grindstone ........... 2-143 

Gunpowder, loose, -j to [JS 
close shaken 0-937 to I'OOO 
solid ....... 1-550 to 1-800 

Gum arable ........... 1-452 

Gypsum, compact. -j to J'Hl 
Heliotrope or blood- 

stone ...... 2-630 to 2-700 

Hematite iron ore. 



Honey ............... 1-456 

Hyacinth ...... 4-000 to 4-750 

Ice .................. 0-930 

Iodine ................ 4-948 

Iridium, hammered... 28-000 

Iron, malleable. 7'645to7'S17 

cast ............... 7-207 

ore, magnetic 4-900 to 5'200 
Ivory ......... 1-822 to 1-917 

Lard ................ 0-947 

Lead, cast. . . . 11-850 to 11-445 

white ............. 7-235 

ore, galena.. 7-250 to 7-780 
Lime, quick .......... 0-804 

Limestone, com- j 2-886 
pact .......... 1 to8-000 

crystallized ....... 2-722 

Magnesia, carb. 2-222 to 2-612 
Malachite ..... 8-700 to 4-000 

Manganese ore (psilo- 

melane). . . 3'700 to 4-330 
Marble, Carrara ...... 2-716 

Parian ............ 2-837 

Egyptian ......... 2-668 

Mercury, common 13-568 
pure ............... 14-000 

Mica .......... 2-750 to 3-100 

Milk .......... 1-082 

Myrrh ............... 1-360 

Naphtha ...... 0-700 to 0-847 

Nickel, cast .......... 8-279 

Nitre (saltpetre) ...... 1-900 

Oil, castor ........... 0-970 

linseed ............ 0940 

olive ............. 0-915 

turpentine ........ 0-870 

whale ............. 0-923 

Opal ................. 2-114 

Opium ............... 1837 

Palladium ........... 11-800 

Pearl, oriental. . 2-510 to 2-750 



Peruvian bark ....... 0-784 

Pewter .............. 7-471 

Phosphorus .......... 1-770 

Platinum, native. 



refined ............ 19-500 

hammered ........ 20-836 

wire .............. 21-041 

laminated ......... 22-069 

Porcelain, China ...... 2-385 

Sevres ............ 2-145 

Porphyry ..... 2-458 to 2-972 

Potassium ........... 0-865 

Proof spirit .......... 0-923 

Quartz ........ 2-500 to 2'800 

Rhodium ............ 11-000 

Rosin ................ 1-100 

Ruby ................ 4-283 

Salt, common ........ 2'130 

Sand ......... 1-500 to 1-800 

Sapphire, oriental ____ 8'994 

Serpentine ____ 2 '507 to 2'59l 

Silver, pure, cast ..... 10-474 

hammered ........ 10-510 

coin .............. 10-534 

Slate ......... 2-110 to 2'672 

Soapstone ..... 2-650 to 2-800 

Sodium .............. 0-972 

Spermaceti .......... 0-943 

Steel, hard ..... 7-816 to 7-340 

soft ............... 7-S33 

Sugar ................ 1-606 

Sulphur, native ...... 2-033 

fused ............. 1-990 

Tallow ............... 0-941 

Tar ................. 1-015 

Tellurium ..... 5-700 to 6-115 

Tin, cast ............. 7291 

hardened ..... 7-299 

Topaz ......... 3-400 to 3-650 

Tourmaline. . . . 2-940 to 8-300 

Tungsten ............ 17-400 

Turquoise ..... 2-600 to 2 '830 

Ultramarine .......... 2-362 

Vinegar ....... 1-013 to 1 080 

Water, distilled ...... 1-000 

sea ............... 1-023 

Dead sea .......... 1-240 

Wine, Burgundy ..... 0-991 

white champagne . . 0-99T 
Wood (see tables in 

article FUEL). 
Zinc, cast ............ 7'190 



GRAY, a town of France, in the department 
of Haute-Sa6ne, on the left bank of the river 
Saone, 30 m. S. W. of Vesoul ; pop. in 1866, 
6,764. It is on a hill, in the form of an amphi- 
theatre, and the streets are narrow, but the 
town is pretty well built. The river is spanned 
by a suspension bridge and one of stone. There 
are a college, a public library, and a theatre. 
The chief manufactures are hair cloth, wool- 
len goods, leather, and starch. In the environs 
are several iron works. Gray is a very an- 
cient town, and was the last place in Franche- 
Comte which submitted to Louis XIV. in 1668. 

GRAY, Asa, an American botanist, born in 
Paris, Oneida co., K Y., Nov. 18, 1810. He 
graduated at the Fairfield medical college in 
1831, but abandoned the practice of medicine, 
and applied himself to the study of botany. In 
1834 he was appointed botanist to the United 
States exploring expedition ; but as some time 
elapsed before it was ready to sail, he resigned 
that situation. In 1842 he was elected Fisher 
professor of natural history in Harvard college. 
In his numerous writings he has shown equal 
ability in communicating elementary knowl- 
edge and in elucidating recondite theory. His 
elementary works, " Elements of Botany," pub- 



GRAY 



179 



ished in 1836, and especially his later series, 
"How Plants Grow," "How Plants Behave," 
"Lessons in Botany," and "Structural and 
Systematic Botany " (1858), are unsurpassed in 
the language for precision, simplicity, perspi- 
lity, and comprehensiveness. His labors are 
jcorded in numerous papers contributed to 
principal scientific journals and academical 
lemoirs of the day, and in several special 
rorks. He came forward at a time when the 
Id artificial systems of botany were giving 
ray before the natural system. Dr. Gray, 
dth Dr. John Torrey, was among the first 
rho arranged the heterogeneous assemblage 
species upon the natural basis of affinity, 
bile actively engaged in describing the new 
is which were pouring in upon them from 
inmerous explorations in our hitherto almost 
iknown territory, they were elaborating the 
cumulated knowledge of their predecessors 
rhich remained in a crude form. In 1838 Dr. 
irray commenced, in conjunction with Dr. 
Torrey, the publication of a "Flora of North 
lerica," intended to give a thorough and 
iprehensive history of the botany of the 
mtry upon the basis of the then little known 
itural system. This was continued as far as 
le end of the order composites ; but as the ex- 
plorations of several collectors were accumu- 
ing masses of new material from our west- 
borders, the " Flora '* was suspended until 
lis wealth of matter could be aggregated un- 
one head. The government expeditions to 
le Pacific coast also returned laden with bo- 
lical treasures, which were described by Dr. 
rray and Dr. Torrey in the government re- 
>rts. In 1848 Dr. Gray began his " Genera 
the Plants of the United States, illustrated 
>y Isaac Sprague," and in the same year the 
' Manual of the Botany of the Northern United 
tates," several editions of which, enlarged 
id amended, have since appeared. In 1854 
>peared the first volume of the " Botany of 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
ler Capt. Wilkes," a work in which the au- 
thor has shown himself able to treat of the 
)otany of remote regions with the same criti- 
power that he has applied to the North 
imerican flora. In 1861 he published "A 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise on the 
)rigin of Species, and of its American Review- 
"s." He is an associate editor of the " Amer- 
in Journal of Science and Arts." In 1873 
10 retired from active service in teaching, to 
" jvote himself to the charge of the herbarium 
)f Harvard college, and to scientific work. In 
1874 he was appointed a regent of the Smith- 
lian institution in place of Prof. Agassiz. 
GRAY, David, a Scottish poet, born at Dunti- 
le, near Glasgow, Jan. 29, 1838, died atMerk- 
id, Dec. 3, 1861. His father was a hand- 
weaver with a large family. David, the 
Idest, was intended for the ministry. "When 
was still very young the family removed 
Merkland, on the other side of the Luggie, 
with which stream much of his poetry is as- 



sociated. He finished his education with a 
partial course at Glasgow university, becoming 
proficient in Greek, Latin, and French. After 
spending some time there as a private tutor, 
he wrote to Mr. Milnes (now Lord Houghton), 
enclosing manuscript poems and asking for 
advice. Milnes recognized his genius, but dis- 
couraged his plan of going to London as a liter- 
ary adventurer. Nevertheless he went, arri- 
ving there early in May, 1860, with but a sov- 
ereign in his pocket. He spent the first night 
in Hyde Park, contracting the pulmonary dis- 
ease of which he died. Meanwhile he had 
sent his poem "The Luggie" in manuscript 
to several literary men of celebrity, but none 
of them found time to read it. He called on 
Milnes, who befriended him and sent the 
poem to Thackeray, recommending it for the 
"Cornhill Magazine;" but Thackeray reject- 
ed it. It soon became evident that Gray was 
seriously ill, and Milnes sent him home to 
Scotland. At last, through the agency of 
Sydney Dobell, a publisher was found for his 
poems, and a specimen page of proof reached 
the author the day before he died. " The Lug- 
gie and other Poems " appeared in London in 
1862, and in Boston in 1864 (enlarged ed., 1874). 

GRAY, Henry Peters, an American painter, 
born in New York, June 23, 1819. He entered 
the studio of Daniel Huntington in 1838, and 
in 1839 went to Europe, where he painted his 
pictures of "Thou art Gone," the "Roman 
Girl," the "Billet Doux," &c. Returning to 
New York in 1843, he executed a number of 
small pictures of genre and history ; and after 
another absence abroad in 1845-'6, during 
which he produced his " Teaching a Child to 
Pray," "Proserpine and Bacchus," Cupid beg- 
ging his Arrows," &c., he settled in New York. 
Among the most important of his works are 
the " Wages of War," the " Apple of Discord," 
"Hagar and the Angel," "Portia and Bas- 
sanio," "Charity," "Genevieve," "Cleopatra," 
"St. Christopher," "I Fiore di Fiesole," and 
the " Origin of the American Flag." He has 
also painted several hundred portraits. From 
1869 to 1871 he was president of the national 
academy of design. In 1871 he went to Eu- 
rope, and still continues to reside there (1874). 

GRAY. I. John Edward, an English naturalist, 
born at Walsall in 1800. For nearly 50 years 
he has been connected with the British mu- 
seum, over the natural history department of 
which he now presides (1874). In addition to 
his labors in arranging the collections of the 
museum, he has been a voluminous contributor 
to natural history, particularly in the depart- 
ment of zoology ; and profiting by the advan- 
tages which his position has afforded him, he 
has probably described and classified a larger 
number of animal forms than any other natu- 
ralist. The most valuable of his numerous 
works are the catalogues of the museum, inclu- 
ding those on mollusca, mammalia, and reptiles, 
in which, besides the lists of animals, he gives 
much information on the habits, character, and 



180 



GRAY 



uses of the different species. His writings are 
comprised under the following heads : the gen- 
eral subject of natural history, the mammalia, 
birds, reptiles, fishes, articulate animals, the 
mollusca, and the radiata. His papers on the 
mammalia and the mollusca in 1852 amounted 
to considerably over 100 in each department, 
those on the latter subject being particularly 
valuable on account of their extensive and 
exact information. The most important of 
them is the " Systematic Arrangement of Mol- 
luscous Animals, with Characters of Families." 
In his conchological studies he has received 
much assistance from his wife, an accomplished 
naturalist, and the author of "Figures of Mol- 
luscous Animals for the Use of Students," de- 
scriptions of which have been given by Mr. 
Gray. A larger share of his attention has 
however been devoted to herpetology than to 
any other branch of natural science, and more 
than 70 papers describing the structure and 
habits of species from many parts of the world 
are included among his writings. Dr. Gray 
has been prominent in the work of reforming 
prison discipline and in sanitary measures, 
founded the Greenwich society of useful knowl- 
edge, and claims to have originated the plan 
of cheap postage prepaid by stamps. II. George 
Robert, an English naturalist, brother of the 
preceding, born at Little Chelsea, July 8, 1808. 
He early began the study of zoology at the 
British museum, was employed in the zoolo- 
gical department from 1831, and in 1869 be- 
came assistant keeper of the zoological collec- 
tions. He is the author of several works and 
papers on entomology and ornithology, and in 
1832 contributed the entomological portion to 
the English edition of Cuvier's " Animal King- 
dom." He published a "List of the Genera 
of Birds," reedited in 1841 and in 1855. His 
large work, "Genera of Birds " (3 vols., 1837- 
'49), is universally valued by naturalists. In 
1870 he published his " Hand List of the Gen- 
era and Species of Birds," embracing 2,915 
genera and subgenera, and 11,162 species. 

GRAY, Thomas, an English poet, born in 
Oornhill, London, Dec. 26, 1716, died July 30, 
1771. He was educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge, where his expenses were borne by his 
mother, his father refusing to maintain him. 
At Eton Gray formed an intimacy with Richard 
West, a son of the lord chancellor of Ireland, 
and also with Horace Walpole, with whom in 
1739-'41 he travelled in France and Italy. He 
spent 11 months at Florence, and there began 
his Latin poem De Principiis Cogitandi. He 
returned in 1741, and became bachelor of the 
civil law at Cambridge, though he never of- 
fered to practise, but continued to live at his 
university. He corresponded frequently with 
West, and communicated to him a portion of a 
tragedy called "Agrippina," in which Nero 
and Jiis mother and Seneca were to be promi- 
nent characters, but which West induced him 
to abandon. He was easily affected by discour- 
aging criticism, and had nearly laid aside his 



" Progress of Poesy " because Mason said he did 
not think it would take with the public. Hav- 
ing become estranged from Walpole, and West 
having died in 1742, Gray was much depressed. 
At this time he wrote his " Ode to Adversity " 
and the ode " On a Distant Prospect of Eton 
College." About the same time he was en- 
gaged on his Latin poem De Principiis, in 
which he designed to teach Locke's meta- 
physics in hexameters. From 1742 he remain- 
ed at Cambridge, always dissatisfied with the 
place, and never professing contentment. In 
1748 he began a poem, which he never com- 
pleted, "On Government and Education." If 
has some fine lines, in spite of the unpoetical 
subject. Gray, although of refined tastes and 
manners, shrank from society, living chiefly 
among scholars. He encouraged Mason, then 
a young poet, revised his verses, and helped 
him to an election as fellow of Pembroke hall. 
Mason became his constant associate, and was 
afterward his biographer. In 1749 Gray fin- 
ished the " Elegy written in a Country Church- 
yard," said to have been begun seven years 
before, in the churchyard of Stoke-Pogis, 
Buckinghamshire, in which town his mother 
was living. It originally appeared in 1752, 
and achieved an immediate popularity, four 
editions being called for within a year. Seve- 
ral of his pieces were printed in 1753 with de- 
signs by Mr. Bentley, and, being too few to 
make a book of the usual size, were printed 
only on one side of the leaf. The poems and 
the plates together sold well. In 1756 he re- 
moved to Pembroke hall. His odes, "The 
Progress of Poesy " and " The Bard," appeared 
in 1757, and were received with much ridicule. 
Few professed to understand them, but the 
public finally learned to admire. His poems 
were parodied in two odes which not long after 
appeared on "Obscurity" and "Oblivion." 
Between the years 1759 and 1762 he occupied 
lodgings in Southampton row, near the British 
museum, then just opened, and made extracts 
from the Harleian and other collections which 
filled a considerable folio volume. On the death 
of Cibber the laureateship was offered to him, 
which he declined. He was appointed in 1768 
professor of modern history at Cambridge. 
His health now rapidly declined. In the au- 
tumn of 1770 he was able to travel in Wales; 
he saw Westmoreland and Cumberland, and 
wrote in correspondence a delightful narrative 
of his travels. He died of gout in the stomach, 
and was buried at Stoke-Pogis. Gray was 
small, delicate, of handsome features, and stu- 
diously refined. His manners were nice to ef- 
feminacy, his dress carefully adjusted to the 
fashions of the day. He speaks of himself as a 
person of great pride and reserve ; but he was 
capable of strong and tender emotion. He 
could often be satirical, and among his inti- 
mate friends his conversation was singularly 
entertaining and instructive, but he spoke little 
in company. To his great attainments all his 
friends bear testimony, but he left no public 



GRAYDON 



GRAYSON 



181 




E 



f of them. He was a botanist, a zoologist, 
an architect, and an antiquary. He had read 
all the Greek classics, and planned an edition 
of Strabo. He was familiar with history, was 
learned in art, had studied the schools of phi- 
" sophy, and wrote better Latin verse than 
y of his contemporaries. His "Elegy "is 
e culmination of his genius, almost every line 
ving fixed itself upon the popular mind, 
mong the best of the numerous editions of 
ay's poems are those by W. Mason, with his 
irs and a memoir (4 vols. 8vo, York, 1778) ; 
by the Rev. John Mitford, with notes and 
memoir (London, 1814), several times repub- 
" ed. An edition of his complete works, 
ith Mason's memoir, was issued by T. J. 
athias (2 vols. 4to, London, 1814). Mr. Mit- 
d also published in 1853 Gray's correspon- 
nce with Mason, showing that the poet's let- 
were mutilated by Mason in his edition. 
GRAYDON, Alexander, an American author, 
rn in Bristol, Pa., April 10, 1752, died in 
Philadelphia, May 2, 1818. He was educated in 
"hiladelphia, and in 1775 joined the colonial 
as captain. After carrying a supply of 
.ey to the troops under the command of Gen. 
uyler at Lake George, he joined the army at 
ew York, and was taken prisoner in the ac- 
n on Harlem heights. He was confined in New 
York and at Flatbush, was afterward liberated 
parole, and exchanged in 1778. He resided 
Harrisburg from 1785 to 1799, when he re- 
oved to a farm near that city, from which he 
returned to Philadelphia in 1816. He pub- 
lished in 1811 his "Memoirs of a Life, chiefly 
d in Pennsylvania, within the last Sixty 
ears," illustrative of revolutionary manners 
d history. It was republished in Edinburgh 
822) and in Philadelphia (1846). 
GRAYLING, a soft-rayed fish, of the salmon 
ily, and genus thymallus (Cuv.), found in 
rivers of northern Europe, Asia, and Amer- 
The English grayling has the head and 
y elongated, the former pointed and flat- 
.eil on the top ; two dorsals, the first much 
ger than it is high and with numerous rays, 
second small, adipose, and rayless; the 
uth small; the teeth numerous, conical, 
all, in a single series on the jaws and ante- 
r part of the vomer, none on the tongue; 
scales rather large, and the lateral line not 
conspicuous ; the air bladder is capacious, 
d communicates with the gullet by a very 
.1 tube; the caudal is forked; branchios- 
_, 1 rays seven or eight. It is very handsome 
d lively, though less active than the trout ; 
:e general color is light yellowish brown, 
with reflections of golden, copper, green, and 
blue, and some dark spots; the head brown, 
and the tins darker than the body ; the dorsal 
fin is varied with square dusky spots ; the col- 
ors grow darker by age, and in dark waters ; 
the iris is golden yellow, and the pupil blue. 
This is probably the T. vulgaris (Nilss.), found 
in a few of the rivers of England, in restricted 
localities, in Sweden, Norway, and Lapland, 



but probably not in Ireland or Scotland. It 
prefers rivers with rocky and gravelly bottom, 
with alternate stream and pool; it swims 
deeper than the trout, and feeds on flies and 
aquatic larvae, especially on those which con- 
struct cases (like the May flies), and on small 
shells and crustaceans. It is excellent for the 
table, is in the finest condition in October and 
November, and should be dressed soon after 
being taken ; it rises to the fly, but less readily 
than the trout. From the size of its dorsal it 
cannot stem rapid currents nor leap falls. The 
generic name was given from an alleged re- 
semblance of the odor of its flesh to that of 
thyme ; from its color and odor St. Ambrose 
is said to have called it the "flower of fishes." 
Unlike other salmoriidm, it spawns in April or 
May; the average length is 10 or 12 in., with 
a weight of about 1 lb., but they have been 
taken weighing 4$ Ibs. For a full and inter- 
esting account of the habits and history of this 
fish, the reader is referred to the seventh 
" Conversation " in " Salmonia," by Sir Hum- 
phry Davy. Other species are the T. vexilli- 
fer (Ag.), from the rivers of France and the 
Swiss lakes and streams; and the naked- 
throated grayling (T. gymnothorax, Val.), in 




Back's Grayling (Thymallus signifer). 



which the parts beneath the throat are desti- 
tute of scales, found in Prussia and Russia. 
The grayling is called ombre in French and 
Aesche in German, probably from its prevailing 
ashy gray color in the water. In America, 
this fish has been found in the cold clear 
waters of Great Bear and Winter lakes, and 
in streams emptying into Mackenzie river. 
Back's grayling (T. signifer, Rich.) has not 
been discovered south of lat. 62 N. ; this is a 
large species, about 17 in. long, and highly 
esteemed by the Esquimaux and the wyageurs. 
GRAYSON. I. A S. W. county of Virginia, 
bounded S. by North Carolina and N. W. by 
the Iron mountain ; area, 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 9,587, of whom 754 were colored. It is 
intersected by Kanawha or New river. The 
county is well adapted for grazing. Iron ore 
is abundant. The chief productions in 1870 
were 30,060 bushels of wheat, 42,704 of rye, 
109,938 of Indian corn, 63,695 of oats, 12,313 
of potatoes, 91,543 Ibs. of butter, 25,326 of 
wool, and 4,016 tons of hay. There were 2,056 
horses, 2,947 milch cows, 4,057 other cattle, 
11,811 sheep, 7,778 swine, and 4 flour mills. 
Capital, Independence. II. A N. county of 
Texas, separated by Red river from the In- 



I 



182 



GRAZIANI 



dian territory; area, 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 
14,387, of whom 2,145 were colored. The sur- 
face is undulating and partly covered with for- 
ests of oak, ash, and elm. The soil is a dark 
fertile loam, suitable for various kinds of fruit, 
grain, cotton, and pasturage. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 39,768 bushels of wheat, 
577, 540 of Indian corn, 113,241 of oats, 39,411 of 
sweet potatoes, 111,840 Ibs. of butter, and 2,885 
bales of cotton. There were 7, 324 horses, 4, 840 
milch cows, 26,167 other cattle, 5,911 sheep, 
18,535 swine, 4 saw mills, and 4 wool-carding 
establishments. Capital, Sherman. III. A cen- 
tral county of Kentucky, bounded N. by Rough 
creek and drained by several affluents of Green 
river; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,- 
580, of whom 407 were colored. It is traversed 
by the Elizabethtown and Paducah railroad. 
The surface is level or undulating and the soil 
moderately fertile. Anthracite and carbonifer- 
ous limestone are found in abundance, and 
there are several white sulphur springs. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 25,448 bushels 
of wheat, 377,005 of Indian corn, 80,953 of 
oats, 20,722 of potatoes, 149,001 Ibs. of butter, 
859,760 of tobacco, and 1,398 tons of hay. 
There were 3,172 horses, 2,816 milch cows, 
4,158 other cattle, 14,543 sheep, and 17,934 
swine ; 3 flour and 4 saw mills, and 3 wool-card- 
ing and cloth-dressing establishments. Capi- 
tal, Litchfield. 

GRAZIANI, Franeeseo, an Italian vocalist, born 
at Fermo, April 26, 1829. He became famous 
in Paris in 1851 as Aston in Lucia di Lammer- 
moor, and sustained his reputation as one of the 
best baritones of the day by his subsequent per- 
formances in Florence, New York, London, and 
St. Petersburg. His brother LUDOVIOO, born 
in August, 1823, excels as a tenor ; the part of 
Germon in La traviata was written for him. 

GREAT HARRINGTON, a town of Berkshire 
co., Massachusetts, on the Housatonic river and 
railroad, 40 m. W. of Springfield; pop. in 1870, 
4,320. It is pleasantly situated, watered by a 
number of good mill streams, and surrounded 
by beautiful hills. It contains beds of iron ore 
and quarries of fine variegated marble. The 
manufactures embrace cotton goods, paper, 
woollens, pig iron, bricks, and saw-mill pro- 
ducts. It has a national bank, a savings bank, 
a weekly newspaper, 18 public schools, inclu- 
ding a high school, and 7 churches. It com- 
prises three villages, viz.: Great Harrington, 
Housatonic, and Van Deusenville. Great Har- 
rington was the county seat till 1787 

GREAT BASIN, or Fremont's Basin, the region 
lying between the Wahsatch mountains on the 
east and the Sierra Nevada on the west em- 
bracing Nevada, the W. portion of Utah, and 
the S. E. part of California. In shape it re- 
sembles an ancient shield, the broad end toward 
the north, and the S. extremity rounded to a 
point. Its waters have no outlet to the ocean, 
and it evidently formed at a remote period an 
inland sea. The greatest depressions are near 
the borders, especially along the E. and W. 



GREAT BRITAIN 

sides, while the central portion reaches a much 
greater elevation, and is broken into a series 
of detached ridges. Along the line of the 
Central Pacific railroad the elevations are as 
follows: at Brigham, on the border of Great 
Salt lake, 4,220 ft. above the level of the sea; 
at Pequop, a short distance W. of the Nevada 
boundary, 6,184 ft. ; and at Desert, in the W. 
part of Nevada, 4,017 ft. The height at the 
points of greatest depression in the S. E. and 
S. W. parts has not been accurately determined, 
but in the neighborhood of Sevier lake it is not 
more than 4,500 ft. above the sea. The high- 
est ranges in the basin probably attain an ele- 
vation of from 7,500 to 8,000 ft. The Wah- 
satch range, which, running almost directly N. 
and S. near the 112th meridian, forms the E. 
rim, rises abruptly from the narrow plains, sel- 
dom sending out foot hills or slopes. The moun- 
tain ridges in the interior, separated by valleys 
of various width, run parallel to each other in 
a N. and S. direction, determining tho course 
of the minor streams, though the few principal 
rivers break through them. The elevation which 
forms the N. rim, separating the basin from the 
valley of the Columbia, also consists of parallel 
ridges running N. and S. The principal body 
of water is Great Salt lake in the N. E. part, 
the region draining into it being known as the 
Great Salt Lake basin. Other lakes are Utah 
and Sevier, in Utah; Walker's lake, Carson 
lake, Pyramid lake, and Mud lake, in Nevada ; 
and Mono and Owen's lakes, in California. 
Bear river empties into Great Salt lake; the 
Provo or Timpanogas into Utah lake; while 
the Jordan discharges the waters of Utah lake 
into Great Salt lake. Sevier, Walker's, Car- 
son, and Owen's lakes receive rivers of the 
same names ; the Truckee empties into Pyramid 
lake. Humboldt river rises in the N. E. part 
of Nevada, and after a course a little S. of W. 
of about 300 m. disappears in the " Humboldt 
sink." Reese river flows N. toward the Hum- 
boldt, but generally sinks before reaching it. 
The greater portion of the basin is an arid 
and sterile waste, covered with alkaline depos- 
its, and producing only a growth of sage brush. 
Considerable tracts, however, may be rendered 
productive by irrigation, and larger portions 
are adapted to grazing. Except upon the 
mountains in the N. part forests scarcely exist. 
The climate is dry, rain rarely falling from 
April to October. The basin is rich in the 
precious metals, particularly silver. 

GREAT BEAR LAKE. See BEAR LAKE. 

GREAT BRITAIN, in a geographical sense, the 
largest and most important island of Europe, 
and in a political sense, as popularly used, the 
British empire, or the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland. Britain (Britannia) 
was the ancient name of the island, by which 
it was known to the Romans. The western 
peninsular projection of France, called by the 
Romans Armorica, was occupied by the same 
race that constituted the aboriginal population 
of Britain. As early as the 6th century of our 



GREAT FALLS 



GREAT SALT LAKE 



183 



the French applied the term Bretagne 

Jritain) to Armorica, and to distinguish the 
itinental from the insular Britain, called the 
ler "Little Britain" and the latter "Great 

itain." The term Great Britain was little 
by the islanders themselves until the ac- 
sion of James I. to the crown of England in 
1603 united the whole of the island under one 

>vereign. By the legislative union between 

igland and Scotland in 1707 Great Britain 

same the legal name of the kingdom. The 

land comprises England, Wales, and Scotland. 

jotland is frequently termed North Britain. 

le official style of the empire is " The United 
[ingdom of Great Britain and Ireland," but 
in current language the term Great Britain in- 
ludes politically the British and Irish king- 
is, and is the common designation of the 
Thole imperial power. (See BRITISH EMPIRE, 
" D, SCOTLAND, and WALES.) 

GREAT FALLS. See SOMEKSWORTH. 

GREAT GRIMSBY, a parliamentary and mu- 
nicipal borough and seaport of Lincolnshire, 
England, on the right bank of the Humber, 30 
m. N. E. of Lincoln ; pop. in 1871, 20,238. The 
town consists of two portions : the older is at 
the head of the harbor, and the newer, called 
the Marsh, extends along the east side of 
the harbor. It has free grammar schools, a 
national school, a mechanics' institute, and a 
new town hall. There is a large trade in fish, 
timber, coal, and salt. 

GREAT KANAWHA RIVER, a large stream of 
North Carolina and the Virginias, called in 
the upper part of its course New river. It 
rises in the N. W. part of the former state, 
between the Blue Ridge and Iron mountain, 
and flows N. E. to the N. part of Grayson co., 
Va., where it passes through a defile in the 
Iron mountain, and, bending toward the N. W., 
breaks through Walker's, Peter's, and Green- 
brier ridges of the Alleghanies. After re- 
ceiving Gauley river in Fayette co., W. Va., it 
takes the name of Great Kanawha, passes 
through the coal and salt region, and joins the 
Ohio at Point Pleasant, Mason co., W. Va. 
Its length is about 400 in. ; its width 66 m. 
above its mouth is 450 ft., and at the junction 
of Gauley river, 100 m. above its mouth, 1,500 
ft. It is navigable at all seasons to a point 
about 2 m. below the Gauley, where the river 
has a picturesque perpendicular fall of 50 ft. 
Its principal affluents are the Greenbrier, 
Gauley, and Elk on the north, and Coal river 
on the south. The principal towns on its 
banks are Pearisburg, Va., and Fayetteville, 
Charleston, and Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

GREAT MAULOW, a town of Buckingham- 
shire, England, on the Thames, 11 m. N. E. of 
Reading; pop. in 1871, 6,619. It has a fine 
church, manufactories of paper and lace, and 
a considerable trade in lumber, coal, and corn. 

GREATOREX, Eliza, an American artist, born 
at Manor Hamilton, Connaught, Ireland, Dec. 
25, 1820. She is the daughter of the Rev. J. 
C. Pratt, a Wesleyan minister. When 19 years 



old she came to the United States, and married 
Henry W. Greatorex, the son of the organist 
of Westminster abbey. From 1854 to 1856 she 
studied landscape painting with W. W. Wither- 
spoon of New York, and then visited England 
and Ireland, making drawings of lake scenery. 
In 1862 she studied under Edouard Lambinet in 
Paris, and afterward sketched along the Rhine. 
She went again to Europe in 1866, and made 
pen-and-ink drawings in England, Holland, 
Germany, Italy, and Paris. In 1868-'9 she 
made pen-and-ink drawings of the old build- 
ings in and around New York. In 1870 she 
returned to Europe and studied landscape and 
architectural drawing in Munich, where she 
published in 1872 " The Homes of Oberammer- 
gau" (New York, 1873), a series of 20 etchings 
from pen-and-ink sketches, with notes from her 
diary. In 1873 she published " Summer Etch- 
ings in Colorado," with 21 illustrations, and an 
album of " Etchings in Nuremberg." Her best 
known oil paintings are a " View on the 
Housatonic" (1863), "The Forge" (1864), and 
" Somerindyke House " (1869). 

GREATRAKES, Valentine, an Irish quack, born 
at Affane, county Waterford, Feb. 14, 1628, 
died in Dublin, probably about 1700. He was 
educated at Trinity college, Dublin, and on 
the outbreak of the rebellion went to England, 
where he devoted some time to the study of 
the classics and divinity. He served in the 
parliamentary army from 1649 to 1656, when 
he returned to Ireland and was made a justice 
of the peace in county Cork, and held other 
offices which were taken from him at the resto- 
ration. Soon afterward he claimed the power 
to cure the king's evil and all other diseases 
by the touch ; and in 1665 he went to London, 
where the king invited him to Whitehall, and 
where he is alleged to have performed many 
cures, which were attested by Robert Boyle, 
Sir John Godolphin, and many other eminent 
persons. Dr. Henry Stubbe published a pam- 
phlet in praise of Greatrakes' s skill, under the 
title "The Miraculist Conformist" (Oxford, 
1666). Greatrakes having failed in one in- 
stance to effect a cure, David Lloyd published 
a pamphlet entitled " Wonders no Miracles " 
(London, 1666), in which he denounced him 
as a cheat. To this Greatrakes replied in a 
letter addressed to Boyle, entitled "Account 
of Val. Greatrakes and divers of his strange 
Cures." In 1667 he returned to Ireland. 

GREAT SALT LAKE, an extensive sheet of 
water in Utah, lying in the Great Basin, be- 
tween lat. 40 40' and 41 45' N., and Ion. 111 
50' and 113 10' W. Its outline is somewhat 
irregular. There are several islands, of which 
the principal are Church or Antelope island 
in the southeast, and Stansbury island in the 
southwest. The lake is 75 m. long from N. W. 
to S. E. and about 30 m. broad. Its surface 
is 4,200 ft. above the level of the sea. It has 
no outlet. The water is shallow, the depth 
in many extensive parts being not more than 
2 or 3 ft. Utah lake, a body of fresh water 



184 GREAT SLAVE LAKE 

85 m. long and 100 ft. above the level of Great 
Salt lake is 26 m. S. E. of the latter, and flows 
into it through a river called the Jordan. Utah 
lake ahounds with fish. Bear river flows into 
the Great Salt lake from the north, and several 
smaller rivers from the east. The floods of 
spring spread the lake over large tracts, from 
which it recedes as summer advances. It was 
evidently once vastly more extensive than at 
present. The country around it is mostly des- 
olate and barren, though there are portions 
which irrigation would render very fertile. 
The water is transparent, but excessively salt ; 
it contains about 22 per cent, of chloride of 
sodium (common salt), slightly mixed with 
other salts, forming one of the purest and most 
concentrated brines in the world. Its specific 
gravity is 1-17. There are no fish in the lake, 
but several species of insects and a species of 
crustacean (artemia fertility have been found 
(see " United States Geological Survey of the 
Territories" for 1872, pp. 744-'5); and im- 
mense flocks of gulls, wild ducks, geese, and 
swans frequent its snores and islands. The 
water is so buoyant that a man may float in it 
at full length upon his back, having his head 
and neck, his legs to the knee, and both arms 
to the elbow, entirely out of water. If he as- 
sumes a sitting position, with the arms extend- 
ed, his shoulders will rise above the water. 
Swimming, however, is difficult from the ten- 
dency of the lower extremities to rise above the 
surface ; and the brine is so strong that it can- 
not be swallowed without danger of strangula- 
tion, while a particle of it in the eye causes in- 
tense pain. A bath in this water is refreshing 
and invigorating, though the body requires to be 
washed afterward in fresh water. The first 
mention of the Great Salt lake was by Baron La 
Hontan in 1689, who gathered from the Indians 
west of the Mississippi some vague notions of 
its existence. It was explored and described 
in 1843 by Fremont, who was the first to navi- 
gate its waters. A thorough survey was made 
in 1849-'50 by Capt. Howard Stansbury of 
the United States army, whose report of " An 
Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt 
Lake" was printed at Washington by order 
of congress in 1852. Another edition was 
published at Philadelphia in 1855. "The City 
of the Great Salt Lake," commonly called Salt 
Lake City, is situated on the Jordan river, 
which connects Lake Utah with the Great 
Salt lake, about 7 m. S. of the latter. (See 
SALT LAKE CITY.) 

GREAT SLAVE LAKE (Fr. Lac de FEsclave), 
a large irregular sheet of water in a district of 
the same name in the northwest territories of 
Canada, between lat. 60 40' and 63 N., and 
Ion. 109 30' and 117 30' W. ; length from E. 
to W., 300 m. ; greatest breadth, 50 m. Its N. 
-h*r. 9 are steep and rough, and from them it 
receives the outlets of Aylmer and Artillery 
lakes. On the south it presents a less rugged 
bank, and is entered by a river of its own name, 
flowing N. for about 300 m. from the W. end 



GREBE 

of Lake Athabasca. It contains a number of 
islands, some of which are well wooded. For 
half the year it is frozen over. Mackenzie 
river connects it with the Arctic ocean. 

GREAVES, John, an English mathematician 
and antiquary, born in Hampshire in 1602, 
died in London, Oct. 8, 1652. He was edu- 
cated at Oxford, and in 1630 was chosen geo- 
metrical lecturer in Gresham college, London. 
After visiting Holland, France, and Italy, he 
embarked in 1637 for Constantinople, whence 
he went to Egypt to examine the pyramids, 
of which no satisfactory account had then been 
given, and in 1640 returned to England, bring- 
ing with him several Arabic, Persian, and 
Greek manuscripts, and a large collection of 
gems, coins, &c. Soon after his return he was 
appointed Savilian professor of astronomy at 
Oxford. In 1648, having been ejected from 
Oxford for royalism, he settled in London. He 
published a " Discourse on the Roman Foot 
and Denarius" (1647), wrote a Persian gram- 
mar, and partly compiled a Persian lexicon. 
A collection of his minor papers was published 
in two volumes in 1737. 

GREBE, a lobe-footed bird of the family co* 
lymbidce, and subfamily podicipinw, compri- 
sing the genera podiceps (Lath.) and podilym- 
bus (Lesson). The genus podiceps has a long, 
straight, and slender bill, the culm en slightly 
curved at the tip, which is sharp and entire, 
the sides compressed, and the nostrils longitu- 
dinal and in a short groove ; the wings short 
and pointed, the first and second quills the 
longest and slightly emarginated near the tips; 
tail short, a mere tuft of loose feathers ; tarsi 
shorter than the middle toe, much compressed, 
covered with scales serrated posteriorly ; toes 
long, lobed on the sides, and united by webs at 
the base; hind toe short and broadly lobed; 
nails short, broad, flat, and obtuse. More 
than 20 species are -described, in all parts of 
the world; they are usually seen in small 
flocks on the shores of fresh-water lakes and 
rivers and near the seacoast, and rarely on 
land, as the posterior position of the legs ren- 
ders it very difficult for them to walk ; they are 
excellent swimmers and expert divers, flying 
under water to a considerable depth in pursuit 
of fish ; they are generally short and rapid 
flyers, but during their migrations the flight is 
elevated and long sustained ; when alarmed, 
they hide among the reeds, or sink under wa- 
ter, leaving only the bill out, till the danger is 
over. The food consists of fish and aquatic 
animals and plants ; the nest is made of grasses, 
lined with down, attached to the reeds or float- 
ing ; the eggs are three or four in number. 
The American species vary much in size ; one 
of the largest is the crested grebe (P. cristatus. 
Lath.), 24 in. long, with an extent of wings or 
33 ; the adult male has a blackish brown bill, 
about 2 in. long ; upper part of head and 
crest, nape and upper plumage, blackish brown ; 
the ruff, which birds of this genus have in the 
breeding season, is reddish brown ending in 



GKEBE 



GEEECE 



185 



lack ; cheeks, throat, band before eye, hume- 
ral feathers, and secondaries white ; fore part 
and sides of neck reddish brown; rest of 
under parts silvery white; primaries dark 
brown ; iris bright carmine ; in the females 
young the crest is very slight, and the up- 




Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus). 



per parts are tinged with gray. It is found 
along the Atlantic coast from the fur countries, 
where it breeds, southward, and as far as Tex- 
as in the winter, and also on the Pacific shore. 
All the species have the head rather small, the 
eyes near the bill, the neck long and slender, 
and the body flattened ; the plumage is thick 
and soft, and silky on the under surface. The 
red-necked grebe (P. griseigena, Gray), 18 in. 
long, is found from the fur countries as far 
south as Pennsylvania in the winter; it is a 
stouter bird, with shorter neck and smaller 
crest and ruff, than the preceding species. The 
largest known species is the western grebe 
(P. occidentalis^ Lawrence), 29 in. long, with 
an extent of wings of 3 ft. ; it inhabits the Pa- 
cific coast from Washington territory to Cali- 
fornia. The horned grebe (P. comutus, Lath.) 
is about 14 in. long ; the sides of the head are 
tufted, and of a yellowish red color ; the feath- 
ers of the upper parts are margined with gray ; 
throat glossy black; fore neck and upper 
breast chestnut red ; lower parts shining white. 
It is very generally distributed over North 
America ; it is known to gunners as the " hell 
diver," from its activity in diving ; like that of 
all the grebes, the flesh has a strong fishy fla- 
vor, and is rarely eaten except by the north- 
west Indians, who also make under garments 
of the soft plumage of the lower parts. In 
the genus podilymbus the bill is shorter than 
the head, strong, with the culmen much arched 
to the tip, which is hooked over the lower man- 
dible; there are no ornamental ruffs. Only 
two species are described, one in North and 
the other in South America, generally distrib- 
uted over the temperate regions, preferring 



fresh water. The pied-bill grebe, or dobchick 
(P. podicepSj Lawr. ; P. Carolinensis, Lath.), is 
14 in. long, with a pale blue bill crossed by a 
black band ; the upper plumage very dark 
brown; chin and throat with a black patch; 
cheeks, sides of neck, and abdomen grayish 
white; upper breast and sides rusty brown; 
the female has not the black patches. 

GREECE, a country of southeastern Europe, 
occupying the central and southern portions 
of the large and irregular peninsula which 
extends into the Mediterranean between the 
Ionian and the ./Egean seas. By its own in- 
habitants, both in ancient and modern times, 
the country has been called Hellas; but the 
early population of Italy, gaining their first 
knowledge of the region from the Grseci (Tpai- 
/cot), o