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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"







THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA. 



VOL. IX. 
HORTENSIUS-KINGLAKE. 



414 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OF 



GENEBAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME IX. 
HOETENSIUS-KINGLAKE. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, aecording to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 




Among the Contributors to the Ninth Volume of the Revised Edition are the 

following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. C. 
HURRICANE. 

WILLAKD BARTLETT. 

INDIA. 

INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

KASHGAR. 

KHOKAN. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D.D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

HUNTINGDON, SELINA, Countess of. 
JANES, EDMUND STONER. 
KIDDEE, DANIEL PARISH. 

JULIUS BINO. 

ISMAIL PASHA, Khedive of Egypt, 
KAULBACH, WILIIELM VON, 

nd other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

FBANCIS C. BOWMAN. 

HCMMEL, JODANN NEPOMUK. 
JOSQOIN DES PRS. 
KELLOGG, CLARA LOUISA. 

T. S. BRADFORD, U. S. Coast Survey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

HYDROGRAPHY. 

EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D. 

JOANNA I. and II., Queens of Naples, 
JOHN, Archduke of Austria, 
KENT, England, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

ROBERT CARTER. 
HOTTENTOTS, 
HOUSTON, SAM, 
HUGIIES, THOMAS, 
Huns, 
JAY, JOHN, 
JAY, WILLIAW, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

HOUOIITON. RICHARD MONCKTON MILNES, Lord, 
HUXLEV, THOMAS HENRY, 
t IRON MASK, Man in the, 

JlDDAII, 

KIDD, WILLIAM. 

and other articles In biography, geography, and 
history. 

Prof. E. II. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

HYPOPHOSPHITES, 
HYPOSULPUATES, 
IODINE, 

and other articles in matcria medico. 

T. M. COAN, M. D. 

KALAKAUA, DAVID. 

KAUAI. 

KILAUEA. 

Hon. T. M. COOI.EY, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 

HUSBAND AND WIFE, 
and other legal articles. 

Rev. S. 8. CUTTING, D. D., Rochester Univer- 
sity, N. Y. 

JUDSON, ADONIRAM. 
JUDSON, ANN HASSELTINE. 
JUDSON, SARAH HALL. 
JUDSON, EMILY CUUBRUCK. 



Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 



HYBRID, 

HYDROPHOBIA, 

HYGIENE, 

INOCULATION, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 

ILLINOIS, 
INDIANA, 
IOWA, 

KANSAS, 
KENTUCKY, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Prof. THOMAS M. DROWN, M. D., Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pa. 
IRON. 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in matcria medics. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

HUGO, VICTOR MARIK. 
HUNTER, JOHN. 
KEARNY, PHILIP. 

Prof. W. E. GRIFFIS, Imperial College, Tokio, 
Japan. 

JAPAN. 
KAN AG AW A. 

ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. 

JACKSON, THOMAS JONATHAN, 
JOHNSTON, JOSEPH ECCLESTON, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

J. W. HAWES. 

HOUSTON, Texas, 

IDAHO, 

IDIOCY, 

INDIAN TERRITORY, 

JERSEY CITY, 

KANSAS CITY, 

KEY WEST, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Hon. CHARLES C. HAZEWELL, Boston, Mass. 

JACKSON, ANDREW. 

M. HEILPRIN. 
HUNGARY. 

J. C. HEPBURN, M. D., LL. D., Yokohama, 
Japan. 

JAPAN, LANGUAGE op. 

CHAELES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

HUYGENS, CHRISTIAN. 

HYDRAULIC RAM. 

HYDROMECHANICS. 

HYDROMETER. 

INFLAMMATION. 

INSANITY. 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, M. D., Boston. 

JACKSON, CHARLES. 
JACKSON, JAMES, M. D. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

INGELOW. JEAN, 
IRVING, WASHINGTON, 
JOHNSON, ANDREW, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 



iv 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE NINTH VOLUME. 



Prof. 0. A. JOT, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

INDIUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. 8. KNBELAND, M. D., Mass. lust, of 
Technology, Boston. 

HOUND, 

HUMMING BIED, 
Ezjnu, 

HYDROIDS, 
ICHTHYOLOGY, 
ICHTHYOSAURUS, 
KINO CEAB, 
KINO FISH, 

and other articles in zoology. 

Eev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

HOWARD, OLIVEE OTIS, 
HUDSON BAY, 
INDEPENDENTS, 
JACQUELINE OF BAVARIA, 
JOHN, King of Saxony, 

and other articles in biography. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

ICELAND, 

ICONOCLASTS, 

IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, 

INDULGENCE, 

INFALLIBILITY, 

JESUITS, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
KEROSENE. 

Count L. F. DE POURTALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

INDIAN OCEAN. 
JUAN FERNANDEZ. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 
JUPITER. 

Prof. ROSSITER W. RAYMOND, Ph. D. 

IRON MANUFACTURE. 
IRON OKI:-. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

HURLBEET, "WILLIAM HENRY. 
HUELBUT, STEPHEN AUGUSTUS. 
INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITIONS. 
KEBLE, JOHN. 

W. E. ROGERS, Late Capt. Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A. 
INFANTRY. 

ERNEST SATOW, Japanese Secretary H. B. M. 
Legation, Tokio, Japan. 

JAPAN, LITERATURE or. 



JOHN SAVAGE. 

IRELAND. 
Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

IRELAND, CHURCH OF, 
JANBENIUS, CORNELIUS, 
JANSENIBTS, 

and articles in biography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

HURONS. 

ILLINOIS (Indians). 

IROQUOIS. 

KANSAS. 

KEECHIES. 

KICKAPOOS. 

Prof. J. A. SPENOEE, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

HOWSON, JOHN SAUL. 
HUDSON, HENRY NORMAN. 
HUNTINGTON, FREDEEICK DAN. 
JOWETT, BENJAMIN. 
KAYE, JOHN. 

K L. THIEBLIN. 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

Prof. GEORGE THUBBEB. 

HOTBED, 

HYACINTH, 

IMMORTELLES, 

INDIAN SHOT, 

INSECT FERTILIZATION, 

INSECTIVOEOUS PLAMTS, 

IVY, 

JUNIPER, 

KALMIA, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

INDIA, RACES AND LANGUAGES OF, 

INDIA, RELIGIONS AND RELIGIOUS LITERATURE OF, 

INDO-CHINESE RAOES AND LANGUAGES, 

IRANIC RACES AND LANGUAGES, 

ITALIC RACES AND LANGUAGES, 

JAVA, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF, 

and other archaeological, oriental, and philologi- 
cal articles. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

HUANCATSLICA, 
HUANUCO, 

ITURBIDE, AGUSTIN DE, 

JAMAICA, 

JORULLO, 

JUAREZ, BENITO PABLO, 

and other Spanish American articles. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

HUNGARY, WINES OF. 
ITALY, WINES OF. 

Gen. JAMES HARRISON WILSON, 

IRON-CLAD SHIPS. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



HORTENSIUS 

HOBTEXSirs, Qnlntus, a Roman orator, born 
in 114 B.C., died in 50. At the age of 19 
he made a speech in the forum, and gained the 
applause of the orators Crassus and Scsevola. 
He joined the side of Sulla in the civil war, 
and afterward was a constant supporter of the 
aristocratic party. When Cicero first came to 
the forum Hortensins was called the rex judi- 
ciorum. Though professionally rivals, they 
seem to have lived on friendly terms ; and in 
the beginning of the De Claris Oratoribug, 
Cicero pays an eloquent tribute to the memory 
of Hortensius. When obliged to leave the city 
on account of the impeachment of Clodius, 
however, Cicero was bitter against the sup- 
posed duplicity of Hortensius, and it was not 
till some time after his return that he was 
convinced of the injustice of his suspicion. 
In 81 Hortensius was made quaestor; in 75, 
sedile; in 72, prsetor; and in 69, consul, with 
Q. Csecilius Metellus. The year before his con- 
sulship occurred the trial of Verres, in which 
the two rival orators were opposed. After 
his consulship, Hortensius took an active part 
against Pompey, opposing the Gabinian law, 
which gave Pompey the control of the Medi- 
terranean sea, and the Manilian law, which 
transferred to his command the army against 
Mithridates. Cicero subsequently joined the 
same party, and we find them pleading often 
in common. They defended together C. Rabi- 
rius, L. Murtena, and P. Sulla. Ten years be- 
fore his death Hortensius withdrew from public 
life. He had acquired great wealth, and own- 
ed villas at Tusculum, Bauli, and Laurentum. 

nORTICCLTUBE, the most perfect method of 
tilling the earth so as to produce the best re- 
sults, whether the products are objects of 
utility or of beauty. It is difficult to define 
the line between horticulture and improved 
agriculture upon the one side, and landscape 
architecture upon the other. Horticulture or 
gardening has been pursued from the earliest 



HORTICULTURE 

times of civilization or national refinement. 
Among the Romans, according to Pliny, small 
gardens filled with roses, violets, and other 
sweet-scented flowers were in repute; while 
many of the choicest plants and flowers which 
we now cherish were cultivated by the ancient 
Greeks. Horticultural art declined, however, 
with the fall of Rome, and not until long after 
did it revive under the monastic institutions. 
A part of the policy of Charlemagne was the 
establishment of gardens by royal edict, pre- 
scribing the very plants which were to be 
grown. In the 16th century several botanic 
gardens were founded by Alfonso d'Este, duke 
of. Ferrara, and in consequence many other 
noblemen had fine gardens of their own. The 
Venetians and Paduans followed the example, 
and in 1555 a garden founded at Pisa by 
Cosmo de' Medici had become so rich in plants 
as to excite admiration. The garden at Mont- 
pellier in France, founded by Henry IV., con- 
tained before the end of the 16th century up- 
ward of 1,300 French, Alpine, and Pyrenean 
plants. At this time the garden at Breslau in 
Germany, to which the celebrated botanist 
Fuchs was attached, was in existence ; and in 
1577, at the suggestion of Bontius, was founded 
the garden at Leyden. In England, pleasure 
gardens with fountains and shady walks, with 
hedges and designs, were known from the time 
of the conquest, but it was not until the con- 
struction of conservatories for the preservation 
of tender plants that horticulture made much 
progress. According to London, it was not 
till 1717 that such structures were furnished 
with glass roofs, and from this time a new era 
in gardening began. The education and train- 
ing of young persons to the practice of gar- 
dening raised the occupation to an art, and has 
brought horticulture in European countries 
especially to a high rank. We have considered 
horticulture as the acme of agriculture ; and 
those familiar only with ordinary farm tillage 



6 



HORTUS SIOCDS 



would be surprised to find how productive land 
can be made when husbanded by practical gar- 
dening. In the best market gardens the soil, 
by abundant manuring and working, is kept up 
to the highest attainable state of fertility, and 
is made to produce always two, and frequently 
three and four crops in a year. It often hap- 
pens that a single acre near a large city yields 
the cultivator a greater profit than many entire 
farms bring to their owners. Within the last 
30 or 40 years horticulture in the United States 
has rapidly advanced, and its progress has 
been largely due to the influence of the various 
horticultural societies, especially those of Penn- 
sylvania and Massachusetts. In this country 
there are very few magnificent gardens ; but 
in the diffusion of a knowledge of horticul- 
ture among the people at large there has been 
a steady advance, and a special literature per- 
taining to the science and practice of horticul- 
ture has sprung up. The large works of other 
countries upon the general subject are superior 
to any yet published here, but our works npon 
separate topics are more thorough and prac- 
tical than those of any European country. 
Among the earlier horticultural works pub- 
lished in this country is " The American Gar- 
dener," by \yilliam Cobbett (New York, 1819). 
"The American Gardener's Calendar," by B. 
McMahon (Philadelphia, 1819), is one of the 
few works embracing every department of 
horticulture. In landscape gardening the lead- 
ing authors are A. J. Downing, Copeland, 
Weidenmann, and Scott; in arboriculture, 
Warder, Hoopes, and Bryant; in flower gar- 
dening, including roses, Breck, Buist, Rand, 
Parkman, and Parsons. In floriculture under 
glass, " Practical Horticulture," by Peter Hen- 
derson (New York, 1868), is the only recent 
work. Among works on vegetable gardening, 
the most prominent are Burr's " Vegetables of 
America," White's " Gardening for the South," 
Quinn's " Money in the Garden," and Hender- 
son's "Gardening for Profit." The leading 
agricultural journals have each a horticultural 
department with a competent editor, and there 
are now only three journals devoted solely to 
horticulture ; these are " The Horticulturist " 
(New York), established by A. J. Downing in 
1846, and now (1874) edited by II. T. Williams; 
" The Gardener's Monthly " (Philadelphia, 
1859), Thomas Meehan, editor; and "The 
California Horticulturist " (San Francisco, 
1871), C. Stephens, editor. 

HORTL'S SICCUS. See HEKBAEIUM. 

IIORDS, a god of the Egyptians, son of Osiris 
and Isis. He represented the rising sun. He 
pierces with a spear the serpent Apophis or 
Apap, the vapors of dawn. He avenges his 
father Osiris, whom Set or Sutekh, also called 
Baal, kills, and whom the prayers of Isis re- 
suscitate. The death of Osiris, the grief of 
Isis, and the final defeat of Set, the god of evil, 
are common themes in oriental mythologies, 
and recur in the stories of Cybele and Atys, 
and of Venus and Adonis. The youthful 



HOSACK 

Horus was held forth as a model for all princes, 
and as a type of royal virtues. He was often 
represented as a little child, sometimes in the 
lap of Isis, and always with a finger on his 
mouth, which is the common Egyptian sign 
indicative of extreme youth or infancy. The 
Greeks identified Horus with their god Har- 
pocrates, whom they represented also with a 
finger on the lips; but mistaking the signifi- 
cance of the sign, they regarded it as a symbol 
of silence, secrecy, and mystery, and ascribed 
these attributes to the deity. He became ac- 
cordingly a favorite subject for speculation 
with the later philosophers. His worship was 
also carried into Rome, where, probably on 
account of excesses committed in the mysteri- 
ous rituals, it was for a while forbidden. The 
peach was considered the sacred fruit of the 
god. The Egyptians also believed that Horus 
held in conjunction with Anubis the balance in 
which the hearts of the dead are weighed be- 
fore Osiris and the 42 assessors, and that ho 
or Smon beheaded those found wanting on the 
nemma or infernal scaffold. 

IIOU VATII. lllbily, a Hungarian historian, born 
at Szentes, Oct. 20, 1809. He was ordained as 
priest in 1830, and became in 1844 professor 
of the Hungarian language and literature in 
the Theresianum at Vienna. In 1848, during 
the Hungarian revolution, he was made bishop 
of Csanad, and ex officio a member of the up- 
per house in the diet ; and in 1849 ho was min- 
ister of public worship and education. The 
Hungarian uprising having been overthrown, 
he took refuge first in France, and afterward 
in Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy, where for 
several years he prosecuted his studies in Hun- 
garian history. In the mean while the Aus- 
trian government sentenced him to death in 
his absence. In 1866 he was permitted to re- 
turn to his native country, and in 1869 he was 
unanimously elected member of the diet for 
Szegedin. His works on Hungarian history, in 
Hungarian, include "Hungarian History" (4 
vols., Papa, 1842-'6; abridged in 1 vol., Pesth, 
1847; enlarged in 6 vols., 1859-'63 ; German 
translation, 2d ed., 1861) ; " Twenty-five Years 
of Hungarian History " (2 vols., Geneva, 1863 ; 
German translation, Leipsic, 1866); "History 
of the War of Independence in Hungary" (3 
vols., Geneva, 1865); and "Reply to the Let- 
ters of Kossuth," a pamphlet setting forth the 
great importance for Hungary of the compro- 
mise with Austria in 1867. He has also pub- 
lished a collection of Hungarian historical docu- 
ments in 4 vols. 

IIOSACK, David, an American physician, born 
in New York, Aug. 31, 1769, died Dec. 23, 
1835. He studied in Columbia college from 
1786 to 1788, thence went to Princeton col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1789, and receiv- 
ed his degree as doctor of medicine in Phila- 
delphia in 1791. He subsequently continued 
his medical studies in London and Edinburgh ; 
and on his return home in 1794 brought with 
him a cabinet of minerals obtained from Wer- 



IIOSANNA 



HOTBED 



ner, and a collection of duplicate specimens of 
plants from the herbarium of Linnaaus. This 
collection of dried plants gathered by Linnaeus 
now constitutes a part of the museum of the 
lyceum of natural history of New York. In 
1795 he was appointed professor of botany in 
Columbia college, and in 1797 of materia med- 
ica. In 1807 he became professor of materia 
medica and of midwifery in the newly created 
college of physicians and surgeons, and in 1811 
of the theory and practice of physic and clini- 
cal medicine, to which were afterward added 
obstetrics and the diseases of women and chil- 
dren. He retained his post after the union of 
the two rival medical faculties of Columbia 
college and the college of physicians and sur- 
geons in September, 18.13. Resigning with the 
rest of the faculty in 1826, he aided in organi- 
zing the Rutgers medical school, which ceased 
in 1830. Dr. Hosack held several public medi- 
cal offices, and was prominent in the promo- 
tion and management of municipal institutions. 
He founded in 1810, with Dr. Francis, the 
"American Medical and Philosophical Regis- 
ter," and was a fellow of the royal societies of 
London and Edinburgh. Among his works 
are : "A Biographical Memoir of Hugh Wil- 
liamson, M.D., LL.D." (8vo, 1820); "Essays 
on Various Subjects of Medical Science" (3 
vols.. 1824-'30) ; " System of Practical Nosolo- 
gy "(1829); "Memoirs of De Witt Clinton" 
(4to, 1829); "Lectures on the Theory and 
Practice of Physic," edited by the Rev. II. W. 
Ducachet, M.D. (1838). 

HOSANNA (Heb. JiosMah na, Save, we pray), 
in Jewish antiquity, a form of acclamation on 
joyous and triumphal occasions. At the feast 
of tabernacles it was customary to sing Ps. 
cxviii. 25, which contains the words hoshfah 
na, while the people carried green boughs of 
palm and myrtle and branches of willow. 
Hence the prayers were called hosanna, and 
the seventh day of the feast the great hosanna. 
The term was employed as a salutation to 
Christ on his public entry into Jerusalem. 

IIOSKA, the first of the minor prophets. He 
was the son of Beeri, commenced his prophecy 
about 785 B. C., and exercised his office at in- 
tervals for about 60 years. He was a resident 
of the kingdom of Israel, against which most 
of his prophecies are directed, rebuking and 
threatening the people for their sins, and ex- 
horting them to repentance. His style is con- 
cise, sententious, and abrupt ; and his prophe- 
cies are in one continued series, without any 
distinction as to the times when they were de- 
livered or their subjects. 

HOSMER, Harriet C., an American sculptor, 
born in Watertown, Mass., Oct. 9, 1830. She 
studied sculpture in the studio of Mr. Steven- 
son in Boston, also with her father, a physician, 
and in the medical college of St. Louis. In 
the summer of 1851 slie commenced her first 
sriginal work, a bust of Hesper. Late in 1852 
she went to Rome, entered the studio of Gib- 
bon, and passed her first winter in modelling 



from the antique. Her busts of Daphne and 
Medusa were her first attempts at original de- 
sign in Rome, and were followed by a statue 
of CEnone. For the public library of St. Louis 
she also executed her " Beatrice Cenci." In 
1855 she modelled a statue of Puck, the popu- 
larity of which procured her orders for nearly 
30 copies. In 1859 she finished a colossal sta- 
tue of " Zenobia in Chains." This was followed 
by a statue of Thomas II. Benton in bronze for 
Lafayette park, St. Louis, and a " Sleeping 
Faun." She still resides in Rome (1874). 

HOSPITAL (Lat. hospitalia, apartments for 
guests), an institution for the reception and 
relief of the sick, wounded, or infirm. The 
word has undergone great changes of significa- 
tion. The earliest known hospital for the sick 
was founded in the latter part of the 4th cen- 
tury at Caesarea ; St. Chrysostom built one at 
his own expense in Constantinople ; and Fabi- 
ola, the friend of St. Jerome, founded one at 
Rome. The Hotel-Dieu in Paris, founded in 
the 7th century, has long been the largest and 
finest hospital in the world. It was rebuilt 
in the 12th century, and has been extended 
from time to time until now it covers five acres. 
The Hotel-Dieu of Lyons, said to have been 
founded by Childebert in the 6th century, al- 
most equals it. Rome had 24 hospitals in the 
9th century; and in the llth they began to 
be established for pilgrims in the Holy Land. 
Archbishop Lanfranc built a hospital at Can- 
terbury in 1070. The oldest hospitals in Lon- 
don are St. Bartholomew's, which dates from 
1546; Bethlehem, 1547; and St. Thomas's, 
1553. In all civilized countries every consid- 
erable city now lias one or more hospitals, 
sustained by charity, endowment, or govern- 
ment grants. Frequently they are connected 
with medical schools, for mutual advantage. 
Many have elaborate and costly buildings ; but 
the latest theories are not in favor of perma- 
nent structures, which are believed to harbor 
the germs of disease. Military field hospitals, 
first known in the 6th century, have now, in 
connection with the ambulance system (see 
AMBULANCE), been made highly efficient. A 
yellow flag is the sign of a hospital. 

HOSPITALLERS. See SAINT JOHN OF JERU- 
SALEM,- KNIGHTS OF. 

HOTBED, in gardening, a bed of earth en- 
closed by a frame, which is covered by movable 
sashes, and heated from below by means of 
fermenting vegetable matter. In large estab- 
lishments the hotbed is replaced by a glass 
structure heated by flues or by hot-water pipes. 
(See GBEENHOUSE.) When vegetables are made 
to grow out of their proper season, they are 
said to be forced ; large quantities of lettuce, 
radishes, &c., are forced for market in hotbeds 
during the winter months. The most general 
use of the hotbed is in starting such seeds as 
would germinate very slowly, if at all, in the 
open ground, and to' forward plants for an early 
crop of those kinds that are later sown in the 
open air ; by the use of the hotbed, plants six 



8 



HOTBED 



weeks old, of cauliflower and cabbage for ex- 
ample, may be had for planting out at the time 
when the outside soil is dry and warm enough 
to allow of the sowing of seeds, thus enabling 
the gardener to produce a much earlier crop. 
The hotbed allows us to extend the season of 
many vegetables about two months ; for in- 
stance, the season of tomatoes would be a very 
short one if we depended upon plants from 
seed sown in the open ground, but with the 
aid of the hotbed the plants may be so far 
forward as to be ready to flower at the time 
when it is safe to put them out. The usual 
heating material is horse dung; this is turned 
over a few times at intervals of a few days, 
and when in a state of active fermentation is 
laid up in a regularly formed bed 3 or 4 ft. 
thick, and a foot wider on each side than the 
frame of the hotbed ; care is taken to have the 
manure evenly packed, and it is beaten with 
the fork to make it solid ; the frame is then 
set upon the manure; fine, light, rich soil 
should be at hand, and when the thermometer 
shows that the heat of the bed (at first very vio- 
lent) has receded to 90, this is spread evenly 
over the manure to the depth of 6 or 8 in. ; 
then the seeds may be sown. The use of one 
third or one half its bulk of forest leaves with 
the manure gives a more gentle and more 
lasting heat. The hotbed for a family garden 
is made in the manner described, and the frame, 
usually permanent, is large enough for two or 
three sashes. In market gardens the method 
is quite different. The regular hotbed sash is 
usually 6x3 ft. ; the bars to hold the glass run 
longitudinally, there being no cross bars, but the 
glass is lapped at the edges about a quarter of 
an inch. The width of the bed is the length 
of the sash, and the length of the bed is deter- 
mined by the number of sashes ; an excavation 
is made 2J ft. deep, and of the required size ; 
this is boarded up with rough boards nailed 
to posts ; the boarding extends above the sur- 
face of the ground 12 in. in front and 18 in. at 
the rear; cross pieces are nailed from front to 
rear, upon which the sash can slide. The ma- 
nure is then placed in this pit and the soil put 
upon it as before described. Mats of straw or 
shutters of thin boards are provided to protect 
the bed in cold nights, and to afford shading 
when needed. The hotbed should be in a 
sheltered place well exposed to the sun ; if 
need be, shelter from cold winds is afforded 
by making a fence, or setting up a wind-break 
of brush. As soon as the young plants are up 
they require the same care in weeding, thinning, 
watering, and loosening the soil, as those in the 
open ground ; besides this, the sashes must be 
opened more or less, according to the weather, 
to prevent injury from too great heat, and when 
open must be closed should the outer tempera- 
ture fall, to prevent damage from cold. Unless 
the beds are carefully attended to in both par- 
ticulars, an hour of neglect may destroy the 
contents. Many plants require transplanting, 
when largo enough, into other hotbeds before 



HOT SPRINGS 

they are finally set out. Before setting in the 
open ground the plants are hardened by gradu- 
ally exposing them by the removal of the 
sashes whenever the night temperature will 
allow. The usual night temperature for a hot- 
bed is 55 to 65, and that in the day 70 to 
80. Where many varieties are to be sown in 
a bed, it is convenient, instead of sowing the 
seeds in the soil of the bed, to sow them in 
shallow wooden boxes 2 or 3 in. deep. Be- 
sides seeds, roots of various kinds are for- 
warded in hotbeds ; sweet potatoes are buried 
in the soil of the bed in order to get sets for 
planting; dahlia roots are started, and such 
slow-growing bulbs as tuberoses are best for- 
warded in this way before putting them out. 
A little bottom heat will often resuscitate a 
languishing plant or start a backward one into 
growth, and a hotbed is often useful as a place 
in which to plunge the pots of such plants. 
Where a very gentle and long continued heat 
is required, what is called a bark pit is used ; 
in this spent tanner's bark, or waste tan, as it 
is called, takes the place of manure. 

IIO I HO, Heinrleh Gnstay, a German author, 
horn in Berlin, May 22, 1802, died there, Dec. 
25, 1873. He studied in Berlin, and was one 
of the most distinguished pupils of Hegel. In 
1828 he became professor of history in the 
military school of Berlin, and in 1829 professor 
in the university; in 1830 assistant curator 
of the gallery of paintings, and in 1859 director 
of the collection of engravings in the royal 
museum. He published an edition of Hegel's 
Vorlesungen uber Aesthetik (3 vols., Berlin, 
1835-'8), and acquired celebrity as a historian 
and critic of Flemish and German art. His 
works include Geachichte der deutacJien und 
niederlandiscJien Malerei (2 vols., 1840-'43, left 
unfinished) ; Die Malerschule Hubert's van 
Eyck, &c. (2 vols., 1855-'9) ; and Die Heixter- 
werlce der Malerei torn Ende des 3. Itis Anfang 
de 18. Jahrhunderts (1865 et seq.). . 

HOT SPRINGS, a S. W. central county of 
Arkansas, intersected by Washita river ; area 
in 1870, about 900 sq. m. ; pop. 5,877, of whom 
650 were colored. It has a hilly surface. The 
soil is very fertile in the river bottoms, and 
timber is abundant. It is traversed by the 
Cairo and Fulton railroad. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 5,796 bushels of wheat, 
196,848 of Indian corn, 15,851 of sweet pota- 
toes, and 843 bales of cotton. There were 
964 horses, 3,896 cattle, 1,779 sheep, and 11,- 
364 swine. The portion containing the hot 
springs whence its name is derived was set off 
to form Garland co. in 1873, reducing the area 
given above. Capital, Rockport. 

HOT SPRINGS, a town and the capital of Gar- 
land co., Arkansas, about 45 m. W. S. W. of 
Little Rock, 6 m. N. of the Washita river, and 
21 m. from Malvern on the Cairo and Fulton 
railroad; pop. in 1870, 1,276, of whom 296 
were colored. It is built principally in the 
narrow valley of Hot Spring creek, running 
N. and S., and contains 8 or 10 hotels, 3 



HOTTENTOTS 



HOUDETOT 



schools, 2 weekly newspapers, and 5 churches. 
In the vicinity is found valuable stone for hones 
and whetstones, of which considerable quanti- 
ties are quarried. The springs (57 in number) 
issue from the W. slope of Hot Spring moun- 
tain, vary in temperature from 93 to 150, and 
discharge into the creek about 500,000 gallons 
a day. They are much resorted to by invalids 
and tourists. See " The Hot Springs as They 
Are," by Charles Cutter (Little Rock, 1874). 

HOTTENTOTS, a people of South Africa, in- 
cluding the original inhabitants of the territo- 
ry now occupied by Cape Colony. Van Kie- 
beek, the founder of this colony in 1652, states 
that they called themselves, according to the 
various dialects, Koi-koin, Tkuhgrub, Quenau, 
and Quaquas. It is supposed that the name 
of Hottentots was given them by the Dutch, 
probably in imitation of the clicking sounds 
in the language of the natives. The general 
characteristics of the Hottentots are a pecu- 
liarly livid and yellowish brown skin, crisp 
and tufted hair, a narrow forehead, projecting 
cheek bones, a pointed chin, a body of me- 
dium height and rather tough than strong, 
small hands and feet, and a flat and nar- 
row skull. The Griqnas are half-breeds de- 
scended from Hottentot mothers and Dutch 
fathers. The Hottentots are skilled in horse- 
manship, and are intelligent and courageous. 
They are of a mild disposition, but given to 
lying, stealing, drunkenness, and sensuality. 
They are ruled by chiefs who are controlled 
by councils. Their religious notions are cen- 
tred in a supreme being, who is little else 
than a deified chieftain. They believe in a fu- 
ture life, and fear the return of spirits. They 
have various superstitions. They refuse to 
have their photographs taken lest it should 
deprive them of a portion of their life. They 
sometimes mutilate their hands as a protection 
against evil influences. As an example of their 
intellectual capacity may be mentioned the 
Hottentot Andreas Stoffles, who was master 
of several languages, and could make a good 
speech in English. The Damaras, a nomadic 
warrior tribe who came to South Africa from 
the central regions of that continent about the 
middle of the 18th century, are now almost 
extinct. Nearest related to the Hottentots 
are the Bushmen. See BUSHMEN, and ETH- 
NOLOGY ; also Fritsch, Die Eingeborenen Sud- 
afrikas (Breslau, 1872), and Perty, Anthro- 
pologie (2 vols., Leipsic, 1873-'4). The Hot- 
tentot language has four dialects. The Nama 
dialect is spoken by the Namaquas (properly 
Nama-kha or Nama-na, Ma and na being plu- 
ral suffixes, the one of masculine, the other of 
common gender), N. W. of Cape Colony, and 
also by the Damaras, N. of them, but it does 
not seem to be their original tongue. It is the 
oldest and purest of the dialects, but, like the 
speech of all savages, it may be subdivided into 
everal sub-dialects according to tribes and 
even families. The Khora dialect is spoken by 
he Koraquas (better Khora-kha or Kora-na), 



N. of the upper Orange river, and is in age 
and purity greatly inferior to the Nama. The 
Cape dialect is the least cultivated of all, and 
no grammar of it has been published. The 
same is the case with the dialect of the eastern 
races. The Hottentot is, generally speaking, 
of a monosyllabic structure. It is rich in diph- 
thongs and remarkably delicate in the use 
of inflectional final sounds, which contrast 
strangely with the constantly recurring initial 
clicking sounds. Flectional forms are pro- 
duced by suffixes to the verbal root. Mascu- 
line, feminine, and common genders, and sin- 
gular, dual* and plural numbers, are distin- 
guished, and in case of pronouns not only in 
the third, but even in the first and second per- 
son. These distinctions, however, are not as 
clear as in other languages. The Bushman 
language also is considered a form of the Hot- 
tentot. Missionaries speak of it as hard and 
rough, and as represented by numerous dia- 
lects among the races of the desert and moun- 
tains of the interior. See Tindall, " Grammar 
and Vocabulary of the Namaqua-Hottentot 
Language" (no date); Bleek, "Comparative 
Grammar of the South African Languages" 
(2 vols., Capetown and London, 1862-'9); and 
F. Muller, Seise der Oeeterreichiochen Fregatte 
Novara : LinguwtwcJier Theil (Vienna, 1867). 

HOTTENTOTS' BREAD. See TOBTOIBE PLANT. 

HOTTINGER, Joliann Hcinrieh, a Swiss philolo- 
gist, born in Zurich, March 10, 1620, drowned 
June 5, 1667. He studied at Groningen, and 
afterward at Leyden. In 1642 he became pro- 
fessor of church history in Zurich, and in 1643 
also of the Hebrew language; and in 1653 he 
was appointed to the chair of rhetoric, logic, 
and Scriptural theology. In 1655 he accepted 
the professorship of eastern languages and Bib- 
lical criticism at Heidelberg. On his return to 
Zurich in 1661 he was made rector of the uni- 
versity. His increasing reputation led to an 
invitation from the university of Leyden in 
1667, which he was ready to accept, when, 
while crossing the river Limmath in the vicin- 
ity of Zurich, he was drowned by the upsetting 
of a boat, with several of his children. Among 
his works are Thesaurus Philologicvi, sen Cla- 
tis Scriptures (Zurich, 1649), and Etymologicum 
Orientale, sive Lexicon Harmonicum Hepta- 
glotton (Frankfort, 1661). His son, JOHANN 
JAKOB (1652-1735), wrote HehetiscJie Eirchen- 
geschichte (Zurich, 1708-'29); and another JO- 
HANN JAKOB, of the same family (1783-1859). 
wrote a Oeschichte der Schweizeriechen Eir- 
chentrennung (Zurich, 1825-'7). 

HOUDETOT, Elisabeth Fran^olse Sophie d', coun- 
tess, a French lady celebrated by her associa- 
tion with Rousseau, born in Paris about 1730, 
died Jan. 22, 1813. She was a daughter of 
M. de la Live de Bellegarde, and married about 
1748 the count d'Houdetot, to whom she bore 
a son in 1750. She left him toward 1753, and 
lived with the poet Saint-Lambert till his death 
in 1803. While residing at the chateau of 
Eau-Bonne near Andilly, and in the vicinity 



10 



HOUDIN 



of the Hermitage which her sister-in-law Mine. 
d'Epinay had fitted up for Rousseau, she renew- 
ed her acquaintance with the latter, whom she 
had previously met in her relative's house in 
Paris. He fell in love with her, ami idealized 
her in his Julie, ou la nouvelle Helo'ise, describ- 
ing the vicissitudes of his passion and of his 
relation with her in his Confessions; but the 
countess protested against his exaggerations, 
and according to Rousseau's account as well as 
her own she remained faithful to her lover 
Saint-Lambert, although she felt much flat- 
tered by Rousseau's admiration. She had fine 
hair, but was far from handsome. When Saint- 
Lambert became idiotic in his old age she 
nursed him. Her husband, who died some 10 
years before her lover, never lost his regard 
for her. Her son became a lieutenant general, 
and his three sons acquired eminence respec- 
tively in civil and military life and in literature. 

HDl'DI.V, Robert, a French conjurer, born in 
Blois, Deo. 6, 1805, died there in June, 1871. 
His father, a watchmaker, gave him a good 
education at the college of Orleans, and at 18 
years of age placed him in a lawyer's office ; 
but having an extraordinary taste for mechan- 
ics, his father consented that ho should learn 
watchmaking. While engaged in this occupa- 
tion, the perusal of works on natural magic 
and a friendship formed with a travelling con- 
jurer inspired him with an inclination for jug- 
gling. Having married, he went to Paris and 
engaged in his trade. He employed himself for 
a year in reconstructing a complicated ma- 
chine, and so overstrained his mind as to lose 
all mental power for five years. After recov- 
ering he devoted himself for some time to ma- 
king mechanical toys and automata, and at the 
Paris exhibition of 1844 obtained a medal for 
several curious figures of this kind. In 1845 
he opened a series of exhibitions in juggling 
which became famous throughout Europe, and 
in 1848 he performed with great success in 
England. In 1855, at the great Paris exhi- 
bition, ho gained the gold medal for his sci- 
entific application of electricity to clocks, and 
shortly after relinquished his exhibition to his 
brother-in-law Hamilton, retiring with a for- 
tune to Blois. In 1856 the French government, 
finding that the Arabs in Algeria were fre- 
quently stirred up to rebellion by the pre- 
tended miracles of their marabouts or priests, 
invited Houdin to visit that colony, and if pos- 
sible excel the magicians in their own tricks. 
He completely succeeded, passing through sev- 
eral very singular adventures while so doing. 
In 1857 ho published Robert Houdin, sa -Die, sea 
osuvres, son thedtre, and in 1859 bis Confidences, 
which has been translated into English (Phila- 
delphia, 1859). In 1861 he published Les tri- 
ckeries des (frees devoiles, exposing the cheats 
of gamblers. 

HIM !>!\, Jean Antoiae, a French sculptor, 
born in Versailles, March 20, 1741, died in 
Paris, July 15, 1828. Having gained the first 
prize for sculpture in the royal academy at Pa- 



HOUGHTON 

ris, he passed ten years in Rome, and finished, 
among other works, the statue of St. Bruno in 
the church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli. Re- 
turning to Paris, he executed during the next 
15 years admirable busts of Rousseau, Diderot, 
D'Alembert, Gluck,Turgot, Franklin, Mirabeau, 
and many other distinguished men ; statues of 
Voltaire and Tourvillo; the "Diana" for the 
empress of Russia; tho "Shivering Woman," 
and other works, which placed him in the first 
rank of French sculptors, and procured his ad- 
mission to the academy. He made at this time 
tho statue of a muscular skeleton of tho human 
body, which he afterward reproduced in smaller 
size, and which has been often copied and used 
for the artistic study of anatomy. In 1785 he 
accompanied Franklin to the United States, to 
prepare the model for the statue of Washing- 
ton ordered by the state of Virginia, and 
passed two weeks at Mount Vernon for that 
purpose. The statue, bearing the sculptor's 
legend, fait par Houdon, citayen francais, 
1788, in the hall of the capitol at Richmond, 
according to the testimony of Lafayette and 
other personal friends of Washington, is the 
best representation of him ever made. Among 
his later works were busts of Napoleon and 
Josephine and other celebrities of the first 
empire, and the statue of Cicero in the Lux- 
embourg palace. 

HOUGHT01V, a N. W. county of the upper 
peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. W. by Lake 
Superior, indented on the N. E. by Keweenaw 
bay, and drained by Sturgeon river and other 
streams; area, about 2,000 srj. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 13,879. The surface is uneven and rocky, 
tho N. W. portion consisting of the upper half 
of Keweenaw point, a peninsula lying between 
Lake Superior and Keweenaw bay, through 
which runs the Mineral range, and which con- 
tains Torch lake and Portage lake, discharging 
into the bay. Silver and iron ore are found, 
but the great wealth of the county is in its 
copper mines, which are situated in the Mineral 
range near Portage lake, the most productive 
being the Calumet and Hecla mine on the N. 
border. According to the census of 1870, 
there were 11 copper mines, employing 2,961 
hands, and producing $3,231,888 worth of ore. 
The product of 1872 was 12,602 tons (four fifths 
of the product of the Lake Superior region), 
of which the Calumet and Hecla mine yielded 
9,800 tons. The ore is in a nearly pure state. 
Tho chief productions in 1870 were 8,595 
bushels of oats, 22,040 of potatoes, and 703 
tons of hay. There were 3 manufactories of 
clothing, 2 of iron" castings, 1 of machinery. 
1 of sonp and candles, 12 of copper (milled and 
smelted), 4 of tin, copper, and shoet-iron ware, 
4 breweries, 2 planing mills, and 5 saw mills. 
Capital, Houghton. 

HOUGHTON, Richard Monckttra Milnes, lord, an 
English author, born in Yorkshire, June 19, 
1809. He graduated at Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, in 1831, entered parliament as member 
for Pontefract in 1837, and represented that 



HOUGHTON 



HOUND 



11 



constituency till Aug. 20, 1863, when he was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Houghton. 
He began his political life as a conservative, 
but soon allied himself with the liberals. In 
the house of commons he advocated popular 
education, religious equality, and measures for 
the reformation of criminals, and proved him- 
self a warm friend of Italy in its struggles for 
unity and freedom. In early life he travelled 
much in southern Europe and in the East, and 
he has published several volumes of travels 
and a number of poems, some of the latter 
descriptive of oriental life and scenery. His 
works are : " Memorials of a Tour in Greece " 
(1833); "Memorials of a Residence on the 
Continent, and Historical Poems," and " Poeti- 
cal Works" (1838); "Poetry for the People, 
and other Poems" (1840); "Memorials of 
Many Scenes: Poems " (1843); "Palm Leaves: 
Eastern Poems," "Poems Legendary and His- 
torical," and " Poems of Many Years " (1844) ; 
"Good Night and Good Morning" (1859); 
"Monographs, Personal and Social" (1873); 
and " Poetical Works " (1874). He edited the 
letters and literary remains of John Keats, with 
a memoir (1848), has published many pam- 
phlets and speeches on political topics, includ- 
ing "Thoughts on Party Politics," ' Real Union 
of England and Ireland," and "Events of 1848, 
especially in their relation to Great Britain," 
and has contributed articles to the " Westmin- 
ster Review " and other periodicals. 

HOUGHTON, William, an English clergyman, 
born in Norwich in 1807. He graduated at 
Highbury college, London, in 1832, and in 1833 
became minister of the Congregational church 
at Windsor. In 1844 he succeeded Dr. Robert 
Vaughan as minister of the Congregational 
society at Kensington, and in 1855 was elected 
chairman of the Congregational union of Eng- 
land and Wales, and delivered the " Congrega- 
tional lecture," his subject being " The Ages of 
Christendom." Dr. Houghton has travelled 
extensively in the East, and has written many 
books, the most important of which is "The 
Ecclesiastical History of England " (4 vols., Lon- 
don, 1870). Among his other works is " Coun- 
try Walks of a Naturalist with his Children " 
(1869). He represented the English Indepen- 
dents at the meeting of the evangelical alliance 
held in New York in 1873. 

HOUND (cani* sagax), the name of several 
varieties of large and powerful dogs hunting 
by scent, and trained to pursue the stag, the 
fox, the hare, and other animals, and even 
man. The progenitors of the hound races 
were probably, according to Hamilton Smith, 
the jungle koola (lycucus tiyris, H. Smith) and 
the buansuah (canin primavvs, Hodg.), both of 
the warmer parts of Asia. (See Doo.) These 
were domesticated after the more wolf-like 
varieties, and display in all the breeds a ten- 
dency to the three colors of white, black, and 
tan, characterizing them in their wild state. 
The cranium has a larger cerebral cavity than 
in less sagacious dogs, with a more convex fore- 



head, wider space between the eyes for the 
organ of smell, and broader jaws ; most varie- 
ties have also a wide nose, full and prominent 
eyes, large hanging ears, a raised and truncated 
tail, and often a spurious toe on the hind feet. 
There are two races, the one with short hair, 
the hounds proper, and the other with long 
hair, like the setter and spaniel, and used as 
gun and water dogs ; the pointer seems to 
occupy an intermediate place between them. 
The faculties which make the hounds so useful 
in hunting must have existed in the original 
species, and have been cultivated in regard to 
special game according to the fancy of man; 
the blood, stag, and fox hounds have no intui- 
tive tendency to pursue respectively man, the 
deer, and the fox, and these only, but have 
been trained with great care to hunt a single 
game. The most ancient form of hound fig- 
ured upon the Egyptian monuments resembles 
much the bloodhound, which was formerly so 
much esteemed for its sagacity, strength, and 
olfactory acuteness. The bloodhound, once 
employed to trace felons, enemies, and fugi- 
tives, or to bring the huntsman to the retreat 
of a wounded animal, has been fully described 
under that title; it is now kept in civilized 
countries rather for show than use. The stag 
hound is but little smaller than the blood- 
hound, and like it is slow, sure, and steady ; in 
fact it is a mongrel bloodhound, the cross being 
either soihe greyhound or swift fox hound ; 
it has a large, rather short and sharp head, 
long hanging ears, muscular limbs, small feet, 
and tail carried high; the color is always more 
or less white with fulvous markings. Stag 
hunting, as performed in the fatiguing and 
cruel manner of the 17th and 18th centuries, 
is now rare, and this form of hound has be- 
come nearly if not entirely extinct. The fox 
hound of the present day is a perfect model of 




English Fox Hound. 

a hunting dog, and is a carefully bred cross 
between the bloodhound and the greyhound, 
probably with the intermixture of the southern 
English and perhaps other hounds; exactly how 
it has attained its present character it is impos- 
sible to determine. It is lower at the shoulders 



12 



HODNSLOW 



and more slenderly built than the stag hound, 
with shorter hair, and the color is white, with 
larger clouds of black and tan, one on each side 
of the head, covering the ears, another on each 
flank, and a third at the root of the tail. Its 
speed is such that none but a thoroughbred 
hunter can keep up with it, and its endurance 
so great that a pack has been known to run for 
ten hours, tiring out three changes of horses, 
and severely testing the strength of the sports- 
men. Breeders differ as to the best size for fox 
hounds, but from 22 to 24 in. high at the shoul- 
der is generally considered the most advantage- 
ous. The best food is thought to be oatmeal 
and well. boiled horse flesh, attention being paid 
to their constitution, the season of the year, and 
'amount of work to be done. The cry of a pack 
of hounds, once so cheering and melodious, has 
lost much of its romantic interest from the 
change man has effected in the character of 
these animals ; the other good points of a hound, 
such as pureness of stock, beauty of form, speed, 
endurance, and acuteness of smell, are more 
highly prized in a pack than harmonious voices. 
The average value of an established pack of 
fox hounds may be set down at about 1,000, 
though some have been sold for more than 
twice that sum; single hounds are often sold 
as high as 100 guineas. (See BEAGLE, BLOOD- 
HOUND, DOG, GREYHOUND, and HARBIEB.) 

HOCNSLOW, a town of Middlesex, England, 10 
m. W. S. W. of London ; pop. in 1871 ,*9,294. It 
consists of a single street, which stretches along 
the Great Western road from London. On 
Hounslow heath, which previous to the pres- 
ent century was frequently the scene of high- 
way robberies, now stand gunpowder mills. 

HOUR (Gr. upa ; Lat. hora), a measure of 
time equal to -^ of a mean solar day, or this 
proportion of the period between sunrise and 
sunrise at the time of the equinoxes. Thus 
applied, it becomes a definite measure ; but as 
employed by the ancients to designate -fa of 
the natural day, it was an indefinite period, 
varying with the times of rising and setting 
of the sun, times which continually changed 
with the season, and between increasing ex- 
tremes as the observations were made in high- 
er and higher latitudes. Even in the latitude 
of Rome, the length of the hour on June 25 
was about -^ part of 15 hours 6 minutes, as 
now reckoned, and on December 23 it was only 
-fz part of 8 hours 54 minutes. At the two 
equinoxes only would the hour agree with its 
present measure. Hours thus divided were 
known as " temporary hours," in reference to 
their constant change of length. When the 
day was thus first divided is unknown. Herod- 
otus states that the Greeks obtained the prac- 
tice from the Babylonians. Wilkinson, how- 
ever, says that " there is reason to believe that 
the day and night were divided, each into 12 
hours, by the Egyptians, some centuries before 
that idea could have been imparted to the 
Greeks from Babylon." The division of the 
night as well as the day into 12 equal parts was 



HOUSELEEK 

not practised by the Romans until the time of 
the Punic wars, and the use of equinoctial 
hours was not adopted till toward the end of 
the 4th century of our era ; the first calendar 
known to have been made after this system 
is the Calendarium Rusticum Farnesianum. 
Hours are now reckoned in common practice 
in two series of 12 each, from midnight to 
midday, and from this to midnight, which cor- 
responds to the supposed divisions of the an- 
cient Egyptians. Astronomers count 24 hours 
from one midday to the next; and the Ital- 
ians 24 hours from one sunset to the next, 
changing the commencement of the day with 
the season. The Chinese divide the day into 
12 hours, one of their hours being equal to 
two of ours. They reckon from an hour (of 
our time) before midnight. In the use of 
clocks in the llth century it was the duty of 
the sacristans of the churches to regulate the 
horologia each morning. 

HOUR CIRCLES, or Horary Circles, great circles 
of the sphere, passing through the poles, and 
consequently perpendicular to the equator. 
They are meridians at every f part of the 
circumference, their planes thus making an- 
gles of 15 with each other. 

HOIRIS, the black-eyed damsels of the Mo- 
hammedan paradise, formed of pure musk, and 
made by a peculiar creation perpetual virgins. 
They dwell in green gardens and pearl pavil- 
ions, among lotus and acacia trees, with fruits 
in abundance, near flowing streams, reposing 
on lofty couches adorned with gold and pre- 
cious stones. Some of the pavilions which 
they occupy are 60 miles square. The very 
meanest of the faithful will have 72 houris, be- 
sides the wives which he married when living. 
They join in concert with the angel Israfil, the 
most melodious of God's creatures, and the 
branches of the trees give an ^Eolian accom- 
paniment. They may, if they desire, have 
children, which within an hour shall be con- 
ceived, born, and grow to maturity. Algaz- 
zali regards the descriptions of the houris in 
the Koran as allegorical, and designed to con- 
vey an impression of the spiritual beatitude of 
the saints; and the orientalist Hyde affirms 
that an enlightened belief prevails among the 
wiser Mohammedans. 

HOURS, in mythology. See RORJE. 

HOCSATONIC, a river of New England, which 
rises in Berkshire co., Mass., flows into Con- 
necticut, winds through Litchfleld co., forms 
a part of the boundary between New Haven 
co. and Fairfield co., and falls into Long Island 
sound below Milford. Its entire length is 
about 150 m. Its scenery in general is very 
picturesque, and on its banks are numerous 
large mills. The Housatonic railroad follows 
its course for about 75 m. 

HOl'SELEEK (sempervivum, Linn.), a genus of 
plants of the natural order crassulacece, having 
thick succulent stems and leaves, the former 
frequently short, with the leaves so closely 
crowded upon them as to form a dense rosette, 



HOUSELEEK 



HOUSSA 



13 



and ornamental flowers, either yellow or red. 
The houseleeks are found in the mountains of 
southern and central Europe, the Canaries, 
and various parts of Asia and Africa. The 
common houseleek (8. tectorum, Linn.) has 
very thick, succulent leaves, disposed about a 




Common Houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum). 

short stem in a circular manner. It will grow 
in the most scanty soils and where it is exposed 
to drought, patches of it several feet in circum- 
ference thriving for years upon the exposed 
surfaces of rocks that are partially shaded. In 
Europe it is very common upon the thatched 
roofs of houses; it was formerly supposed to 
serve as a protection from lightning, and in 
early times every 
house was required 
to have it ; the cus- 
tom still prevails, 
and it is said that 
the plant tends to 
preserve the thatch. 
Within a few years 
the taste in garden- 
ing has led to the 
use of sempervi- 




Cobweb Houseleek (Semperrivum arachnotdcum). 

vums and other succulents for forming beds 
of a mosaic of living plants. The neat com- 
pact habit of the houseleeks and the related 
cotyledons, echeverias, &c., as well as the va- 
riety in color presented by the leaves, espe- 



cially adapt them to this purpose ; and these 
plants, which were formerly kept as single 
specimens by the curious, are now raised by 
the florists in large quantities for ornamen- 
tal planting. One of the most valued for 
this purpose is S. calcareum from the Alps 
(incorrectly 8. Californicum of florists), and 
several others are employed. A very striking 
and interesting little species is the cobweb 
houseleek (8. arachnoideum), also an alpine 
species; its rosettes, about an inch across, 
grow close together in large clumps ; the tiny 
leaves are connected by a fine down which 
passes from tip to tip, making the plant look 
as if an industrious spider had spun its web 
over it. Where sparrows abound the plant 
cannot be grown in perfection, as these birds 
rob it of the web to use in their nests. The 
tree houseleek (S. arboreum), from the Ca- 
naries, has a branching stem 3 ft. or more high, 
each branch terminated by a handsome rosette 




Tree Houacleek (Sempervivum arboreum). 

of green leaves, or in the varieties yellow 
margined or purple. It is a greenhouse plant, 
and was formerly common as a window plant. 
The houseleeks are not remarkable for useful 
qualities. The fresh leaves of the ensao of 
Madeira (S. glutinosum, Alton) are used by the 
fishermen to rub upon their nets, to preserve 
them. Malic acid combined with lime exists 
in 8. tectorum. Its juices are considered cool- 
ing, and its bruised leaves are used in domestic 
practice as applications to burns, ulcers, and 
inflammation, and from them also a simple and 
cooling salve is prepared. 

HOCSSA, or Hiussa, a country of central Af- 
rica, bounded N. by the Sahara, E. by Bor- 
noo, S. by Nufi, and W. by the Quorra. The 
people are negroes, and the Foolahs or Fella- 
tah s are the ruling race. Barth found the coun- 
try divided into 10 provinces. Kano, in the 
province of the same name, is the principal 
city in point of commerce, and has about 30,- 
000 inhabitants ; it is in lat. 12 0' 19" N. and 



14: 



HOUSSAYE 



Ion. 8 40' E. Katagum, E. by N. of Kano, has 
from 7,000 to 8,000 inhabitants. Sackatoo, in 
the N. W. part of the country, has upward of 
20,000 inhabitants, and has one of the best sup- 
plied markets in central Africa. Wurno, 15 m. 
N. E. of Sackatoo, on the river Rima, is a new 
town founded in 1831 ; its population is about 
12,000. Zaria, the capital of the province of 
Zegzeg, is in lat. 10 69' N. and Ion. 8 E. ; 
it is surrounded by a beautiful and highly cul- 
tivated country, and its population is estimated 
at 50,000. Houssa is well watered, being 
traversed by the rivers Sackatoo, Mariadi, 
Zirmie. Bugga, Zoma, and other tributaries of 
the Niger. It is considerably elevated above 
the sea, and its climate is consequently cooler 
and more healthy than that of the other coun- 
tries of central Africa. The land is well culti- 
vated, the principal crop being Indian corn, 
of which two harvests are annually produced. 
Cotton is largely raised, and Kano is famous 
throughout central Africa for its dyed cloths. 
Tobacco, indigo, rice, and various kinds of 
grain and fruits are diligently cultivated. At 
Sackatoo there are extensive manufactures of 
leather, iron, and cotton cloths ; and an active 
commerce is carried on in all the cities by 
means of open markets, which are frequented 
by traders from the neighboring countries 
and from remote parts of the continent. The 
people of Houssa are mostly Mohammedans. 
They have attained to some degree of civiliza- 
tion, have a written language, and have his- 
torical records reaching back to the 13th cen- 
tury of our era. They were converted to Mo- 
hammedanism in the 16th century, and were 
conquered by the Foolahs in 1807, when Kat- 
sena, then their principal city, surrendered 
after a desperate defence of seven years. 

IlOl'SSAYK. I. Arsene, a French author, born 
at Bruyeres, near Laon, March 28, 1815. While 
young he went to Paris, where his two novels, 
La couronne de bluets and La pecheresse, ap- 
peared in 1836. The friendship of Jules Janin 
and Theophile Gautier, and his association in 
work with Jules Sandeau, aided to establish 
him in the literary world. From 1844 to 1849 
he was editor of L 1 Artiste, and his Histoire de 
la peinture flamande et hollandaise (fol., 1846) 
was aided by a subscription of 50,000 francs 
from the government. This work was receiv- 
ed with popular favor, although charged with 
plagiarism. At the revolution of 1848 he was 
thrown into political prominence, and was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the assembly. He 
was manager of the Theatre Francais from 
1840 to 1856, and he became one of the most 
notorious courtiers of the second empire. In 
1861 he became one of the proprietors and the 
managing editor of La Presse. His numerous 
writings include poetry, plays, essays, and pop- 
ular sketches of celebrated and fashionable 
women. Among them are Nos grandes dames (4 
vols., 1868), Les Parisiennes (4 vols., 1869-'70), 
and Mademoiselle Cleopdtre (new ed., 1874). 
II. Henry, a French author, son of the prece- 



IIOUSTON 

ding, born in Paris, Feb. 24, 1848. He be- 
came known in 1867 by his Histoire d'Apelles, 
and his subsequent works include Histoire 
d'Alcibiade et de la republique athenienne 
depuis la mart de Pericles jusqu'd, Vatenement 
des trente tyrans (2 vols., Paris, 1874). 

IIOUSTOIVt I. A central county of Georgia, 
bounded E. by the Ocinulgeo river, which is 
navigable by steamboats, and drained by seve- 
ral of its affluents ; area, 875 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 20,406, of whom 15,332 were colored. 
The surface is undulating, and the soil, of 
limestone formation, is very fertile. The 
Southwestern railroad passes through the 
county. The chief productions in 1870 were 
3,536 bushels of wheat, 363,895 of Indian corn, 
40,107 of sweet potatoes, and 3,819 bales of 
cotton. There were 834 horses, 2,730 mules 
and asses, 1,502 milch cows, 3,890 other cattle, 
and 10,963 swine; 1 manufactory of agricul- 
tural implements, 3 of carriages, 1 of cotton 
goods, 1 flour mill, and 7 saw mills. Capital, 
Perry. II. A S. E. county of Texas, bounded 
E. by Neches river, and W. by Trinity river, 
both navigable ; area, 1,090 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 8,147, of whom 3,542 were colored. It 
has a highly fertile soil, and a rolling surface 
diversified in some places with hills, and well 
timbered with oak, pine, ash, hickory, black 
walnut, &c. The Houston and Great North- 
ern railroad traverses it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 33,163 bushels of Indian 
corn, 5,779 of sweet potatoes, and 920 bales of 
cotton. There were 297 horses, 2,684 cattle, 
and 3,171 swine. Capital, Crockett. HI. A 
N. W. county of Tennessee, formed since the 
census of 1870, bounded W. by the Tennessee 
and N. E. by Cumberland river ; area, about 
350 sq. m. The surface is undulating and the 
soil fertile. The Louisville and Nashville and 
Great Southern railroad passes through the N. 
part. The assessed value of property in 1871 
was $344,775. Capital, Erin. IV. A S. E. 
county of Minnesota, separated on the E. from 
Wisconsin by the Mississippi, bordering on 
Iowa on the S., and intersected by Root river ; 
area, about 575 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,936. 
The surface is undulating and mostly wooded, 
only about a fifth being occupied by prairies. 
The soil, resting on magnesian limestone, is 
very fertile. The Southern Minnesota and the 
Chicago, Dubuque, and Minnesota railroads 
intersect it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 623,557 bushels of wheat, 249,761 of In- 
dian corn, 227,688 of oats, 31,182 of barley, 
32,065 of potatoes, 27,560 Ibs. of hops, 14,286 
of wool, 229,183 of butter, and 14,776 tons of 
hay. There were 2,917 horses, 3,614 milch 
cows, 4,536 other cattle, 4,697 sheep, and 6,305 
swine ; 1 car factory, 6 flour mills, and 2 saw 
mills. Capital, Caledonia. 

HOUSTON, a city and the capital of Harris 
co., Texas, the second city in the state in pop- 
ulation and importance, situated at the head 
of tide water on Buffalo bayou, 45 m. above its 
mouth in Galveston bay, 46 N. W. of Galves- 



HOUSTON 



15 



ton, and 150 m. E. S. E. of Austin ; pop. in 
1860, 4,845 ; in 1870, 9,382, of whom 3,691 
were colored; in 1874, estimated by the local 
authorities at 20,000. It is built on the left 
bank of the bayou, which is spanned by several 
bridges, the principal ones being of iron, and 
embraces an area of 9 sq. m. The city hall 
and market house of brick, just finished at a 
cost of $400,000, is 272 ft. long by 146 ft. wide, 
and has two towers, 14 by 21 ft. and 114 ft. 
high. It contains a hall, 70 by 110 ft., fitted 
up for public entertainments and capable of 
seating 1,300 persons. The masonic temple is 
a handsome structure costing $200,000. The 
principal hotel, the largest in the state, has 
accommodations for 500 guests. The city is 
lighted with gas, and is easily drained. The 
construction of street railroads and grading of 
streets are in progress. Houston is the centre 



of the railroad system of the state, and attracts 
the trade of the surrounding country, which 
is ricli in grazing and agricultural products. 
There are six diverging lines: the Houston and 
Texas Central ; the Houston and Great North- 
ern and International ; Houston Trip and Bra- 
zoria; Galveston, Houston, and Henderson; 
New Orleans and Texas ; and Buffalo Bayou, 
Brazos, and Colorado. The bayou opposite 
the city has a depth of 5 ft., but owing to bars 
in Galveston bay vessels drawing more than 4 
ft. cannot reach this point. Improvements are 
in progress by the United States government 
and an incorporated company, which will ren- 
der Houston accessible by vessels drawing 9 ft. 
The navigation of the bayou is mainly con- 
trolled by the Houston direct navigation com- 
pany, which hac a capital of $300,000, and 
owns 6 steamers, 4 tugs, and 24 barges. The 




Market and Oper 

whole number of vessels regularly engaged in 
the trade of the bayou in 1872 was 71, viz.: 
steamers, 10 ; tugs, 6 ; barges, 30 ; schooners, 
mostly employed in the lumber trade with the 
Sabine, Louisiana, and Florida coasts, 25. An 
extensive lumber trade is also carried on by 
flatboats with the bayous emptying into Buffalo 
bayou and San Jacinto river. The principal 
business, however, is manufacturing, in which 
Houston surpasses all other places in the state. 
The chief establishments, besides the extensive 
machine shops of the railroads, are 2 cotton fac- 
tories, 4 iron and brass founderies, 3 car facto- 
ries, 4 planing mills and wood works, 5 manu- 
factories of furniture, 2 of soap, 1 of cement 
pipe, 1 of bone dust, 5 sheet-iron and tin works, 
5 carriage and wagon works, 1 beef-packing 
and Ice-manufacturing establishment, and 7 
brick yards. There are three nurseries, two 
415 VOL. ix. 2 



House, Houston. 

fire and marine insurance companies, a cotton 
press company, two national banks with a cap- 
ital of $200,000, and a state bank with $500,000 
capital. The valuation of property in 1873 
was $7,669,625. The state fair is held here an- 
nually. The city contains 14 public schools, 
which in 1872 had 26 teachers and 1,228 pu- 
pils, two public libraries with about 3,000 vol- 
umes, three daily and six weekly newspapers, 
two monthly periodicals, and 12 churches. 
Houston was settled in 1836, and in 1837 was 
temporarily the seat of government. 

noi'STON, Sam, an American soldier, born 
near Lexington, Va., March 2, 1793, died at 
Huntersville, Texas, July 25, 1863. His father 
served in the revolutionary war, and held the 
post of inspector of brigade till his death in 
1807. His mother, after her husband's death, 
emigrated witli her six sons and three daugh- 



16 



HOUSTON 



ters to East Tennessee, within 8 m. of the Cher- 
okee country. Sam had read a few books, 
among them Pope's translation of the Iliad, of 
which he could repeat nearly the whole from 
memory. He desired to learn Greek and Latin, 
but was refused by his schoolmaster, upon 
which he left the school, and entered a store 
as clerk. This occupation he had no relish for, 
and absconding, he crossed the Tennessee river, 
and lived with the Indians about three years. 
Though under 18 years of age, he was six feet 
high and an active hunter, and stood high in 
the esteem of his savage associates. Oolooteka, 
one of their chiefs, adopted him as his son. In 
1811 he returned to his family, and opened a 
school. In 1813, during the war with Great 
Britain, he enlisted as a common soldier, was 
promoted to be an ensign, and fought under 
Jackson against the Indians at the battle of 
the great bend of the Tallapoosa, March 24, 
1814, where he was severely wounded. After 
the ratification of peace in 1815 he was pro- 
moted to be a lieutenant, and was stationed 
near Knoxville, Tenn., and afterward at New 
Orleans. In November, 1817, he was appoint- 
ed a subordinate Indian agent to carry out the 
treaty with the Cherokees which had just been 
ratified. In the following winter he conducted 
a delegation of Indians to Washington. Com- 
plaints were made against him to the govern- 
ment on account of his exertions to prevent 
the unlawful importation of African negroes 
through Florida, then a Spanish province. 
He was acquitted of all blame by the gov- 
ernment ; but conceiving himself to be ill 
treated, he resigned his commission in the 
army, March 1, 1818, settled in Nashville, 
and began to study law. In six months he 
was admitted to the bar, and began practice in 
Lebanon, 30 m. E. of Nashville. He was soon 
appointed adjutant general of the state, with 
the rank of colonel ; and in 1819 he was elected 
district attorney of the Davidson district, and 
took up his residence in Nashville. In 1821 
he was elected major general of militia, and in 
1823 a representative in congress. He was re- 
elected in 1825 by an almost unanimous vote, 
and in August, 1827, was chosen governor of 
Tennessee. In January, 1829, he was mar- 
ried, and in April, for reasons unknown to the 
public, separated from his wife, resigned his 
office, went to the west of Arkansas, to which 
his former friends the Cherokees had removed, 
and presented himself before Oolooteka, who 
had now become the principal chief of the 
tribe. He was kindly received, and by an 
official act of the ruling chiefs, Oct. 21, 1829, 
was formally admitted to all the rights and 
privileges of the Cherokee nation. In 1832 
he went to Washington to remonstrate against 
the frauds and outrages practised upon the 
Indians. This resulted in the removal of five 
government agents from office, and he be- 
came involved in a series of personal and legal 
contests with the removed agents and their 
friends. He was accused in the house of rep- 



resentatives by W. R. Stansbury of Ohio of 
having attempted to obtain from government 
a fraudulent contract for Indian rations. This 
led to a personal rencontre between Houston 
and Stansbury, who was severely beaten. For 
this Houston was arrested, and publicly cen- 
sured by the speaker of the house. He was 
also tried for assault, and fined $500 ; but the 
sentence of the court was not enforced, and 
the fine was afterward remitted by President 
Jackson. A committee of which Mr. Stans- 
bury was chairman was appointed to investi- 
gate the charge of fraud, but reported that 
it was not sustained. Houston returned to 
his wigwam, and in December, 1832, went to 
Texas, where a revolutionary movement was 
organizing against the Mexican government. 
In the constitutional convention, which -met 
April 1, 1833, Houston exercised a controlling 
influence. When the war with Mexico began 
he was chosen general of the military district 
east of the Trinity, and in October, 1835, mus- 
tered his forces and led them to the camp of 
Gen. Austin, who was besieging Bexar. He 
was soon elected commander-in-chief of the 
Texan army. After the declaration of Texan 
independence, he resigned his command, and 
was immediately reelected commander-in-chief 
of the army of the new republic. On March 
10, 1836, he went to the camp of Gonzalez and 
took command of the army of 374 men, ill or- 
ganized, poorly armed, and without supplies. 
The fort of the Alamo had just been taken by 
the Mexicans, and its garrison of about 170 put 
to death. On March 12 information reached 
the camp of this massacre, accompanied by 
the statement that the president of Mexico, 
Santa Anna, was close at hand with an army 
of 5,000 men. The wildest panic seized the 
Texan camp. Houston promptly restored or- 
der, and fell back to the Colorado, receiving 
from time to time small reinforcements, till at 
length the entire number of his force was 650 
men. He had no artillery, and Col. Fannin, 
who was stationed at Goliad with 500 men 
well armed and supplied with artillery, was 
ordered to join him; but he was intercepted 
by a vastly superior force, and after a desperate 
defence capitulated, March 20, and with his 
command of 357 was massacred in cold blood, 
March 27. Santa Anna advanced to Ilarris- 
burg, the capital, which he laid in ashes, and 
marched upon the town called New Washington. 
Here upon the San Jacinto he was encountered 
by Houston, who had at length received two 
six-pounders from Cincinnati. His force had 
been increased till it numbered 783 men, all 
volunteers, most of whom had never seen a 
battle ; but, led in a general charge by Houston, 
with shouts of " Remember the Alamo! " "Re- 
member Goliad ! " they utterly routed (April 21) 
the Mexican force of 1,600 regulars, of whom 
G30 were killed and nearly all the remainder 
captured. The Texans had only 8 killed and 25 
wounded. The next day Santa Anna, disguised 
as a common soldier, was captured and brought 



IIOVEDEN 



HOWARD 



17 



before Houston, who rebuked him for the cruel 
and perfidious massacres of Goliad and the 
Alamo, but protected him from the wrath of 
the Texans. A treaty made with the captive 
president secured the independence of Texas. 
Houston, who had been severely wounded in 
the ankle, was relieved from the command of 
the army, and sailed for New Orleans, where 
he arrived almost in a dying condition. In 
July, however, he returned to his home in Na- 
cogdoches. In the following September he 
was elected president of Texas, and was in- 
augurated Oct. 22, 1836. He appointed his 
political rivals to important offices, liberated 
Santa Anna, and opened negotiations with 
the United States government for the an- 
nexation of Texas to the Union. His presi- 
dential term expired Dec. 12, 1838; and as 
the constitution made him ineligible for the 
next term, he was succeeded by Mirabeau B. 
Lamar. During the three years of the next 
presidential term Texas became involved in 
wars with the Indian tribes on her borders, 
in disastrous expeditions against the Mexican 
territories, and in debt to an enormous amount. 
The expenditures for the year 1841 amounted to 
$1,176,288, and the receipts to only $442,604. 
Houston, who had meantime been twice elected 
to congress, was reelected president in Septem- 
ber, 1841, by more than three quarters of the 
votes. After a stormy administration, beset 
at the outset with difficulties of the gravest 
character, which were met with firmness and 
overcome with great judgment and ability, he 
retired from his second presidential term in De- 
cember, 1844. He had paid off a large amount 
of the national debt, had kept the expendi- 
tures far within the revenues, restored peace 
and trade with Mexico, made treaties with all 
the hostile Indian tribes, and lastly had nego- 
tiated successfully the great measure of annexa- 
tion to the United States, though its final con- 
summation did not take place till after the ex- 
piration of his constitutional term of office, 
when he was once more ineligible. Texas be- 
came one of the United States in 1845, and 
Sam Houston and Thomas J. Rusk were the 
first senators she sent to Washington. Hous- 
ton was reelected at the end of his term in 
1853, and remained in the senate till March 4, 
1859. As a senator, he was the zealous ad- 
vocate of justice and humanity to the Indians. 
He opposed the Kansas and Nebraska bill, in a 
speech March 3, 1854, and gave in his adhesion 
to the "Know-Nothing" or American party. 
In 1858 he voted against the Lecompton con- 
stitution of Kansas. On Aug. 1, 1859, he was 
elected governor of Texas. He opposed seces- 
sion in 1861, and long resisted the clamor for 
an extra session of the Texas legislature ; and 
ho finally resigned his office in preference to 
taking the oath required by the convention. 

HOYEDEN, Roger d, an English chronicler, 
born in Yorkshire about the middle of the 12th 
century. He was attached to the court of 
Henry II., and was employed in visiting mon- 



asteries, and in watching over the revenues 
that accrued to the king on the death of the 
superiors. His history, Annales RerttmAngU- 
carum, is a continuation of the ecclesiastical his- 
tory of Bede, beginning where he left off (731), 
and extending to 1202, the third year of the 
reign of King John. Its accuracy is attested by 
Sir Henry Savile, Selden, Leland, and Nicolson. 
It was published in Savile's Scriptores post 
Bedam (London, 1595), and translated by II. 
T. Riley for Bohn's " Antiquarian Library." 

HOVEY, Alvah, an American clergyman, born 
in Thetford, Vt., March 5, 1820. He gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth college in 1844. Having 
taught in the academy at New London one 
year, he studied theology at Newton, Mass., 
completing the course in 1848. He was pastor 
of the Baptist church at New Gloucester, Me., 
for one year, and in 1850 returned to Newton 
theological institution, and taught in the de- 
partment of Biblical literature till 1853. He 
became professor of ecclesiastical history in 
1853 and of theology and Christian ethics in 
1855, which latter post he still retains (1874). 
He received the degree of D. D. from Brown 
university in 1856. He has published a transla- 
tion of Perthes's " Life of Chrysostom," jointly 
with the Rev. D. B. Ford (Boston, 1854) ; " Life 
and Times of Backus" (1858) ; "The State of 
the Impenitent Dead " (1859); "The Miracles 
of Christ as Attested by the Evangelists" 
(1863); "The Scriptural Law of Divorce" 
(1866) ; and " Religion and the State" (1874). 

HOWARD, the name of eight counties in the 
United States. I. A central county of Mary- 
land, bounded N. E. by the Patapsco river, 
and S. W. by the Patuxent ; area, 225 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 14,150, of whom 3,474 were 
colored. It has an uneven surface, rising in 
some places into hills. The valleys are gen- 
erally fertile. The Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road and the Washington branch pass through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 128,- 
376 bushels of wheat, 415,719 of Indian corn, 
204,877 of oats, 97,929 of potatoes, 182,980 
Ibs. of tobacco, 189,646 of butter, and 7,445 
tons of hay. There were 2,958 horses, 8,100 
milch cows, 3,056 other cattle, 2,516 .sheep, 
and 8,441 swine ; 3 cotton mills, 1 woollen mill, 
and 5 flour mills. Capital, Ellicott City. II. A 
S. W. county of Arkansas, formed in 1873 
from portions of Hempstead, Pike, Polk, and 
Sevier cos. It is well watered by affluents of 
Little river and of the Little Missouri. The 
surface is irregular, consisting of hills, valleys, 
and river bottoms. The valleys and bottoms 
produce corn and cotton ; the hills are better 
adapted to the smaller grains and fruit. Tim- 
ber is abundant, and lead, silver, and marl are 
found. Capital, Centre Point. III. A central 
county of Indiana, traversed by Wildcat creek, 
an affluent of the Wabash ; area, 279 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 15,847. It has a level surface 
and an excellent soil. The Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati, and St. Louis, and the Indianapolis, 
Peru, and Chicago railroads intersect at the 



18 



HOWARD 



county seat. The chief productions in 1870 
were 287,875 bushels of wheat, 356,401 of In- 
dian corn, 34,031 of oats, 37,668 of potatoes, 
46,429 Ibs. of wool, 121,777 of butter, and 
4,250 tons of hay. There were 3,803 horses, 
2,687 milch cows, 4,424 other cattle, 14,393 
sheep, and 14,656 swine; 5 flour mills, 3 pla- 
ning mills, 36 saw mills, and 3 woollen facto- 
ries. Capital, Kokomo. IV. A N. E. county 
of Iowa, bordering on Minnesota, and watered 
by the Wapsipinicon, Turkey, and Upper Iowa 
rivers; area, about 430 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
6,282. It is well timbered, and has tracts of 
prairie. The Iowa and Minnesota division of 
the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad crosses the 
N. E. corner. The chief productions in 1870 
were 321,514 bushels of wheat, 120,234 of 
Indian corn, 263,258 of oats, 30,713 of pota- 
toes, 408,351 Ibs. of butter, and 14,880 tons of 
hay. There were 2,175 horses, 2,734 milch 
cows, 3,922 other cattle, 1,648 sheep, and 
2,640 swine. Capital, New Oregon. V. A 
central county of Missouri, bounded S. and W. 
by the Missouri river, and drained by some of 
its small tributaries ; area, 430 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 17,233, of whom 5,193 were colored. It 
abounds in anthracite coal, and has quarries 
of limestone and sandstone. The surface is 
rolling, and the soil fertile. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 400,410 bushels of wheat, 
917,335 of Indian corn, 152,490 of oats, 42,422 
of potatoes, 788,132 Ibs. of tobacco, 66,554 of 
wool, 126,216 of butter, and 3,856 tons of hay. 
There were 5,799 horses, 2,425 mules and asses, 
4,103 milch cows, 7,326 other cattle, 19,156 
sheep, and 35,094 swine ; 2 manufactories of 
carriages, 4 of saddlery and harness, and 4 
flour mills. Capital, Fayette. VI. A S. E. 
county of Kansas, bordering on the Indian ter- 
ritory, and drained by Suicide creek and other 
branches of the Arkansas, and by Fall river ; 
area, 1,271 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,794. The 
surface is undulating and the soil fertile. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 4,766 bushels 
of wheat, 26,795 of Indian corn, 2,710 of oats, 
2,304 of potatoes, and 150 tons of hay. There 
were 243 horses, 502 milch cows, 1,348 other 
cattle,*592 sheep, 'and 435 swine. Capital, Elk 
Falls. VII. An E. central county of Nebraska, 
intersected by Loup fork of the Platte river 
and its branches ; area, 576 sq. m. ; not in- 
cluded in the census of 1870. VIII. A N. W. 
county of Dakota, bordering on Montana, re- 
cently formed and not included in the census 
of 1870 ; area, about 3,500 sq. m. It is bounded 
N. by the Missouri, intersected by the Little 
Missouri, and watered by other streams. 

HOWARD, Charles, Lord Howard of Effing- 
ham, an English admiral, born in 1536, died 
Dec. 14, 1624. His father, William, son of 
Thomas, second duke of Norfolk, was lord high 
admiral of England and lord privy seal. The 
son was sent to France in 1559 to congratulate 
Francis II. on his accession to the throne, and 
served with credit on land and sea for many 
years. In 1585 he was appointed lord high ad- 



miral, and in 1588 succeeded in averting from 
the English coasts the attack of the Spanish ar- 
mada. In 1596 he participated with the earl 
of Essex in the capture of Cadiz and the de- 
struction of the Spanish shipping there, for 
which service he was created carl of Notting- 
ham. The appointment of Essex in the suc- 
ceeding year to be hereditary earl marshal, 
with precedence over the lord high admiral, 
induced Lord Howard to resign the latter 
office ; but he subsequently resumed it, and in 
1599, during the alarm at the prospect of 
another Spanish invasion, and of an insurrec- 
tion under Essex in Ireland, was appointed 
by the queen lieutenant general of England. 
He commanded the party which captured Essex 
in London, and retained his office under James 
I. until a few years before his death, when' he 
resigned it in favor of Buckingham, receiving 
in compensation a pension of 1,000, and the 
acquittal of a debt of 1,800 due the crown. 

HOWARD, Henry, earl of Surrey. See SURREY. 

HOWARD, Joint, an English philanthropist, 
born in Enfield, Sept. 2, 1726, died in Kherson, 
Russia, Jan. 20, 1790. At 16 years of age he 
was apprenticed to a grocer in London ; but 
upon the death of his father soon after, he 
purchased his indentures and travelled on the 
continent. Returning to England, he occupied 
himself with medical and scientific studies at 
Stoke Newington. About the age of 25 he ex- 
perienced a severe attack of illness, and upon 
his recovery testified his gratitude to his land- 
lady, who had nursed him, and who was 27 
years his senior, by marrying her. She died 
at the end of three years, and Howard in 1756 
embarked for Lisbon, with a view of doing 
something to alleviate the calamity of .the 
great earthquake. On the voyage he was 
taken prisoner by a French privateer and car- 
ried into Brest, where he witnessed the inhu- 
man treatment of prisoners of war. Having 
procured the exchange of himself and his 
fellow captives, he returned to England, mar- 
ried a second time in 1758, and settled upon 
an estate at Cardington, Bedfordshire, which 
he had inherited from his father. His career 
of active philanthropy may be said to date 
from this time. He built schools and model 
cottages for the peasantry, the latter the first 
erected in England for their benefit; and Car- 
dington, formerly a wretched and filthy village, 
now attracted attention by its neatness and 
the healthful and thrifty appearance of its in- 
habitants. In 1765 his second wife died, and 
for several years he was employed in his stu- 
dies and reformatory plans, and in travelling 
on the continent. He was named tor the office 
of sheriff 1 of Bedfordshire in his absence, and 
upon his return in 1773 accepted, and visited 
in his official capacity the Bedford jail, in 
which John Bunyan wrote his " Pilgrim's 
Progress." The wretched condition of the 
prisoners made a deep impression upon him ; 
and the confinement of many innocent persons 
for months and sometimes for years, from in- 



HOWARD 



19 



ability to pay their fees of jail delivery, so 
shocked him that he proposed to the magis- 
trates to pay regular salaries to the jailers, in 
place of the fees collected from the prisoners. 
The magistrates, unprepared for such an inno- 
vation, asked for a precedent, and, in his fruit- 
less exertions to find one, Howard visited every 
town in England containing a prison. He col- 
lected a mass of information respecting prison 
abuses, which he communicated in # report to 
the house of commons, who gave him a vote 
of thanks, and in 1774 passed bills "for the re- 
lief of acquitted prisoners in the matter of 
fees" and "for preserving the health of pris- 
oners." At his own expense he caused copies 
of the new laws to be sent to every jailer in the 
kingdom. The prominence thus given to his 
name secured his election from Bedford to the 
house of commons ; but his sympathy with the 
American revolution aroused the ministry to 
oppose liim, and a parliamentary scrutiny un- 
seated him. He never afterward participated 
in political life, but gave bis whole time to the 
philanthropic plans in which he had embarked. 
He reexamined the principal penal establish- 
ments of England, and visited those of France, 
Germany, and the Low Countries ; then made a 
new tour through England, examining the opera- 
tion of the new jail act, and relieving much dis- 
tress among poor debtors, and revisited a large 
portion of the continent. The result of these 
researches appeared in his " State of the Prisons 
in England and "Wales, with Preliminary Ob- 
servations and an Account of some Foreign 
Prisons " (4to, 1777). One of the first fruits 
of this publication was the determination of 
the ministry to make a trial of the discipline 
of hard labor in one of the large prisons. But 
as no building was adapted to the purpose, 
Howard undertook in 1778 another tour to 
collect plans and information, in the course of 
which he visited the Low Countries, Germany, 
Italy, and France, and travelled upward of 
4,000 miles. In the succeeding year he made 
another survey of English prisons, and in 1780 
published an appendix to his work. A bill, 
drafted by Sir William Blackstone and Mr. 
Eden, was now passed for building two peni- 
tentiaries on the hard labor system, of which 
Howard was appointed the first supervisor. 
To escape controversy as to the site of the 
buildings, he resigned his office, and between 
1781 and 1784 travelled through Denmark, 
Sweden, Russia, Poland, Spain, and Portugal, 
publishing in 1784 a second appendix and a 
new edition of his work. His labors for a 
period of more than ten years had left him 
with impaired pecuniary resources and shat- 
tered health ; but he embarked upon a second 
series of philanthropic researches with a zeal 
surpassing his physical powers, volunteering 
to procure for the British government informa- 
tion relating to quarantine establishments. The 
French government was incensed against him 
for having published in 1780 a translation of a 
suppressed French account of the interior of 



the Bastile, and refused him a passport. He 
therefore travelled through the country in vari- 
ous disguises, and, after a series of romantic 
adventures and several narrow escapes from 
the police, who were constantly on his track, 
succeeded in visiting the new lazaretto at 
Marseilles. He proceeded thence to Malta, 
Zante, Smyrna, and Constantinople, fearlessly 
exposing his person in infected places. That 
ho might speak with authority on the subject 
of pest houses, he went to Smyrna, sought out 
a foul ship, and sailed in her for Venice. 
After a voyage of 60 days, during which he 
assisted the crew in beating off an attack of 
pirates, he arrived at his destination and was 
subjected to a rigorous confinement in the 
Venetian lazaretto, under which his health 
suffered severely. He returned to England in 
February, 1787, after an absence of 16 months, 
and published his second great work, "An 
Account of the Principal Lazarettos of Europe, 
with various Papers relating to the Plague, 
together with further Observations on some 
Foreign Prisons and Hospitals, and additional 
Remarks on the Present State of those in Great 
Britain and Ireland " (4to, 1789), in the preface 
to which he announced his intention to pursue 
his inquiries in the same direction, observing 
that his conduct was not from rashness or en- 
thusiasm, but a serious conviction of duty. In 
the summer of 1789 he started on his last con- 
tinental tour, meaning to pass through Russia 
to the East, but was cut off by camp fever 
which he contracted from a patient at Kher- 
son, on the Black sea. He expended nearly 
the whole of his fortune in various benefactions. 
In his private relations he was pure-minded, 
pious, and upright. See Hepworth Dixon's 
" Howard and the Prison World of Europe " 
(2d ed., London, 1850); also the memoirs by 
Dr. Aikin, J. B. Brown, the Rev. J. A. Field, 
and T. Taylor. A marble statue of him was 
erected in St. Paul's cathedral, London. 

HOWARD, John Eager, an American revolu- 
tionary soldier, horn in Baltimore co., Md., 
June 4, 1752, died Oct. 12, 1827. In 1776 he 
commanded a company in the flying camp un- 
der Gen. Mercer, which took part in the bat- 
tle of White Plains. Upon the disbanding of 
his corps in 1776, he was commissioned major 
in the 4th Maryland regiment of the line, with 
which he took part in the battles of German- 
town and Monmouth. In 1780, as lieutenant 
colonel of the 5th Maryland regiment, he 
fought at Camden under Gates (Aug. 16), and 
in the latter part of the year joined -the army 
under Greene. In the battle of Cowpens, Jan. 
17, 1781, he displayed great gallantry, and the 
bayonet charge of the Maryland troops under 
his command secured victory to the Ameri- 
cans. At one period of the day he held in his 
hands the swords of seven officers of the 71st 
British regiment who had surrendered to him. 
This was said to have been the first occasion 
in the war on which the bayonet was effective- 
ly used by the American troops. For his ser- 



20 



HOWARD 



HOWARD UNIVERSITY 



vices in this battle Col. Howard received from 
congress a silver medal. He fought at Guil- 
ford Court House (March 15), materially aiding 
Greene in effecting his retreat, and again at 
Hobkirk's Hill (April 25). After the latter 
battle he succeeded to the command of the 2d 
Maryland regiment. At Eutaw Springs (Sept. 
8) his troops were so cut up that the com- 
mand was reduced to Col. Howard, a single 
commissioned officer, and 30 men. With this 
small force he was returning to the charge 
when he was severely wounded. lie was 
governor of Maryland from 1789 to 1792, Uni- 
ted States senator from 1796 to 1803, and in 
1798 was selected by Washington, in anticipa- 
tion of war with France, for one of his briga- 
dier generals. During the panic in Baltimore 
subsequent to the capture of Washington by 
the British troops in 1814, he was one of the 
most earnest opponents of 'the capitulation. 

HOWARD, Oliver Otis, an American soldier, 
born at Leeds, Maine, Nov. 8, 1830. He gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin college in 1850, and at West 
Point in 1854, and became instructor in mathe- 
matics there in 1857. He resigned his com- 
mission as first lieutenant June 4, 1861, to take 
command of a regiment of Maine volunteers. 
At the battle of Bull Run he commanded a bri- 
gade, and was made brigadier general of volun- 
teers, Sept. 3. He was assigned to a brigade 
in the army of the Potomac, and in the battle 
of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862, lost his right arm. 
After the battle of Antietam he took command 
of a division of the 2d corps, and at the battle 
of Chancellorsville he commanded the llth 
corps. At Gettysburg, after the death of Rey- 
nolds, he commanded during the first day of 
the battle. He afterward received a commis- 
sion as major general of volunteers, dating from 
Nov. 29, 1862. He was engaged at Lookout 
Valley, Oct. 29, 1863, at Chattanooga, Nov. 
23-25, and in the operations for the relief of 
Knoxville in December. On July 27, 1864, he 
took command of the army of the Tennessee. 
He was in most of the battles of the Georgia 
campaign ending in the capture of Atlanta, 
and commanded the right wing of Sherman's 
army in its march to the sea and through the 
Carolinas. He was appointed a brigadier gen- 
eral in the regular army, his commission to 
date from Dec. 21, 1864; and brevet major gen- 
eral March 13, 1865. On May 12, 1865, he was 
appointed commissioner of the freedmen's bu- 
reau, and held that office until the closing of 
the bureau by law, June 30, 1872. He was 
made a trustee of Howard university March 
19, 1867, president of that institution April 6, 
1869, and resigned in 1873. He was appoint- 
ed special commissioner to the Indians March 
6, 1872, and spent eight months on that duty 
in New Mexico and Arizona. In March, 1874, 
he was tried by court martial on charges of 

Eecuniary dishonesty in the management of the 
reedmen's bureau, and was acquitted. 

HOWARD, Thomas, third duke of Norfolk, 
an English statesman, born about 1473, died 



July 18, 1554. In 1513 he became high admi- 
ral of England, and in the same year aided his 
father in gaining the battle of Flodden field, 
for which he was created earl of Surrey. He 
afterward quelled an insurrection in Ireland 
under O'Neal, and one incited by the Catho- 
lics in the north of England. Though a stanch 
Catholic, he succeeded by his prudent conduct 
in disarming for a long time the suspicion and 
jealousy "of Henry VIII., who however con- 
demned to death his son, the accomplished earl 
of Surrey. The duke himself was finally con- 
demned to be beheaded for treason ; but the 
king dying before his execution, a respite was 
granted him, and he was kept a prisoner in 
the tower throughout the reign of Edward VI. 
On the accession of Mary in 1553 he was re- . 
stored to his rank and property. 

HOWARD, Thomas, earl of Arundel. See 
ARUNDEL. 

HOWARD UNIVERSITY, an institution of learn- 
ing in Washington, D. C., organized by a special 
act of congress in 1867, and named from Gen. 
O. O. Howard, one of its founders. It was do- 
signed to afford advanced instruction especial- 
ly to colored students, but in the admissions 
no distinction is made as to color or sex, and 
among its instructors and students are white 
and colored persons of both sexes. The uni- 
versity grounds are near the head of Seventh 
street, where are grouped nine buildings, the 
chief of which is four stories high and contains 
rooms for lectures and recitations, a chapel, 
library, philosophical apparatus, museum, and 
offices. Miner hall is three stories high, with 
rooms for 100 young women, while Clark hall 
has accommodations for 200 male students. 
The general management of the institution is 
vested in a board of 21 trustees. The univer- 
sity comprises a normal department with a 
two years' course of study, including also, for 
younger students, the model school and the 
Miner school ; the preparatory, with a course 
of three years ; the collegiate, four years ; the 
theological, two years; the law, two years; 
the medical, three years; and the military, 
commercial, and musical departments. An ex- 
amination is required for admission to the col- 
legiate department, and upon the completion 
of the course the degree of A. B. is conferred. 
Special efforts have been made to give the law 
department the most complete facilities for im- 
parting a thorough legal education. From 
this school have graduated 49 young men and 
one young woman. The whole number of in- 
structors connected with the university is 28, 
including 4 in the collegiate, 5 in the theologi- 
cal, 3 in the law, and 9 in the medical depart- 
ment. The number of students in 1872-'3 was 
238 in the normal, 100 in the preparatory, 35 
in the collegiate, 26 in the theological, 67 in the 
law, 45 in the medical, 84 in the commercial, 
and 21 in the musical department ; total, after 
deducting repetitions, 567. About two thirds 
of the students are colored. Indigent students 
may be relieved from paying the tuition fee. 



HOWE 



21 



The university possesses a library of 7,500 vol- 
umes, a mineralogical cabinet, a museum of cu- 
riosities, and a picture gallery. Although the 
government of the United States aided in the 
establishment of the university, it is now de- 
pendent upon contributions and fees received 
from students. More than $100,000 toward a 
proposed endowment of $300,000 has been 
subscribed. Gen. Howard was president of 
the university until the latter part of 1873, 
when he resigned, and John M. Langston (col- 
ored), dean of the law department, was ap- 
pointed vice president. 

HOWE, the name of three British officers con- 
nected with American history, all of them sons 
of Emanuel Scrope Howe, Viscount Howe in 
the peerage of Ireland. I. George Augustus, 
general, born in 1724, killed at Ticonderoga, 
July 8, 1758. In 1757 he was sent to America 
in command of the 60th regiment, and arrived 
at Halifax in July. .On Sept. 28 he was put 
in command of the 55th foot, and on Dec. 29 
was made brigadier general. On July 6, 1758, 
he landed under Abercrombie at the outlet of 
Lake George. Coming suddenly upon a French 
force, he fell in the ensuing skirmish. Tho 
general court of Massachusetts appropriated 
250 for a monument to him, which was erect- 
ed in Westminster abbey. II. Richard, admi- 
ral, born in London in 1725, died there, Aug. 
6, 1799. He entered the navy at the age of 
14, and served with distinction against the 
French from 1745 to 1759. After the conclu- 
sion of peace he obtained a seat at the admiral- 
ty board. In 1765 he was appointed treasurer 
of the navy, and entered parliament for Dart- 
mouth. Five years later he was made rear 
admiral of the blue, and commanded a fleet in 
the Mediterranean. In 1776 he sailed for North 
America with the rank of vice admiral of the 
blue, and as joint commissioner with his brother 
William for restoring peace. He was variously 
employed against the American forces for two 
years, and in August, 1778, had an indecisive 
encounter with a superior French fleet under 
Count d'Estaing, off the coast of Rhode Island, 
both fleets being much shattered by a severe 
storm. In April, 1782, he was made a peer 
of Great Britain, under the title of Viscount 
Howe, having since 1758 borne the Irish title 
of the same grade, inherited from his brother 
George. In the latter part of 1782 he succeeded 
in bringing into the harbor of Gibraltar the 
fleet sent to the relief of Gen. Eliott, then be- 
sieged there by the combined French and Span- 
ish forces. For these and previous services he 
was in August, 1788, created Earl and Baron 
Howe of Langar. In 1793 he was put in com- 
mand of the channel fleet. On June 1, 1794, 
he gained a victory over the French off the 
western coast of Frqnce, and received the 
thanks of parliament. In the succeeding year 
he was made admiral of the fleet, and in 1797 
a knight of the garter. His last important ser- 
vice was the suppression of the mutiny in the 
fleet at Spithead in 1797. His memoirs were 



compiled by Sir John Barrow (London, 1838). 
III. William, general, born Aug. 10, 1729, died 
July 12, 1814. He commanded the light in- 
fantry under Wolfe in the battle on the heights 
of Abraham, near Quebec (1759), and in 1775 
succeeded Gen. Gage as commander of the 
British forces in America. He commanded at 
the battle of Bunker Hill, and after the evacua- 
tion of Boston retired to Halifax. Subsequently 
he defeated the Americans on Long Island, 
Aug. 27, 1776, took possession of New York, 
Sept. 15, directed the movements in the Jer- 
seys and in Pennsylvania, and repelled the 
American attack at Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777. 
He was succeeded by Sir Henry Clinton in May, 
1778. His conduct was severely criticised, but 
an investigation ordered by parliament in 1779 
freed him from blame. He succeeded his bro- 
ther Eichard in the Irish viscounty, and at the 
time of his death was a privy councillor and 
governor of Plymouth. 

HOWE, Ellas, an American inventor, born in 
Spencer, Mass., July 9, 1819, died in Brooklyn, 
. Y., Oct. 3, 1867. He lived with his father, 
who was both farmer and miller, till 1835, 
working upon the farm and in the mill, and 
attending the district school during the winters. 
He then went to Lowell, and was employed in 
a manufactory of cotton machinery, and after- 
ward worked in a machine shop in Boston. 
Here he developed his invention of the sewing 
machine, completing his first machine in May, 
1845, and securing a patent Sept. 10, 1846. 
After constructing four machines in the United 
States, he visited England in 1847, and re- 
mained two years. He returned to Boston en- 
tirely destitute, and resumed his trade. From 
this period till 1854 he was involved in expen- 
sive lawsuits, when the principal infringers of 
his patents acknowledged his rights, and ar- 
ranged to manufacture sewing machines under 
licenses from him. His income now steadily 
increased, reaching $200,000 ; and his fortune 
realized from his invention is said to have 
amounted to $2,000,000. During the civil war 
he enlisted as a private in a Connecticut regi- 
ment, and when the payment of the regiment 
was delayed by the government, he advanced 
the necessary money. (See SEWING MACHINE.) 

HOWE, John, an English clergyman, born 
at Loughborough, Leicestershire, May 17, 1630, 
died in London, April 2, 1705. He gradu- 
ated at Christ's college, Cambridge, became 
pastor of a nonconformist church in Great Tor- 
rington, and was selected by Cromwell in 1657 
for his domestic chaplain. After the restora- 
tion and the act of uniformity he led a wan- 
dering life, and continued to preach in private 
houses. He passed five years in Ireland, where 
he was chaplain to Lord Massarene in the par- 
ish of Antrim, was pastor of a congregation in 
London from 1675 to 1684, travelled on the 
continent with Lord Wharton in 1685, became 
pastor of the English church at Utrecht, and 
returned to England in 1687, when James II. 
published his declaration for liberty of con- 



HOWE 



IIOWITT 



science. A complete edition of his works, 
with a life by the Rev. John Hunt, appeared in 
London in 8 vols. (1810-'22; new ed., 1868), 
and with a life by Edmund Oalamy in 1 vol. 
(1838). A biography, by Henry Rogers, was 
published in 1836. 

HOWE. I. Samuel Gridley, an American phi- 
lanthropist, born in Boston, Nov. 10, 1801. He 
studied in the Boston grammar school, thence 
went to Brown university, where he gradu- 
ated in 1821, and studied medicine in Boston. 
In 1824 he went to Greece, and served as a 
surgeon in the patriot army and in various oth- 
er capacities till 1830. In 1831 he returned 
to the United States, and soon became inter- 
ested in the project for establishing an institu- 
tion for the blind in Boston. He accepted the 
charge of it, and embarked at once for Europe, 
to acquire the necessary information and en- 
gage teachers, visiting the schools of France 
and England for this purpose. While in Paris 
he was made president of the Polish commit- 
tee, and undertook to carry and distribute 
funds for the relief of the detachment of the 
Polish army which had crossed into Prussia. 
In the discharge of this duty he was arrested 
and imprisoned for about six weeks by the 
Prussian government. He was then liberated, 
and escorted over the French frontier by night. 
In 1832 the Perkins institution for the blind, 
in Boston, was put in operation under his 
charge. A notable achievement in this insti- 
tution is the education of Laura Bridgman, a 
blind deaf mute. (See BBIDGMAN, LAUBA.) 
He took a prominent part in founding the ex- 
perimental school for the training of idiots, 
which resulted in the organization, in 1851, of 
the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feeble- 
minded youth. He was actively engaged in the 
anti-slavery movement, and was a freesoil can- 
didate for congress from Boston in 1846. He 
engaged earnestly in the sanitary movement 
in behalf of the soldiers during the civil war. 
In 1867 he again went to Greece as bearer of 
supplies for the Cretans in their struggle with 
the Turks, and subsequently edited in Boston 
" The Cretan." In 1871 he was one of the 
commissioners to visit Santo Domingo and re- 
port upon the question of the annexation of 
that island to the United States, of which he has 
since been an earnest advocate. He has pub- 
lished a " Historical Sketch of the Greek Revo- 
lution" (1828), and a " Reader for the Blind," 
in raised characters (1839). II. Julia Ward, an 
American poetess, wife of the preceding, born 
in New York, May 27, 1819. Her early edu- 
cation comprised an unusually wide range of 
studies. In 1843 she was married to Dr. Howe, 
with whom she made a tour in Europe. In 
1850 she again went to Europe, being absent 
more than a year, a great part of the time in 
Rome. After her return she published " Pas- 
sion Flowers," a volume of poems (1854) ; 
" The World's Own," a drama (1855) ; " Words 
for the Hour" (1856); "Lenore," a tragedy 
(1857); and "Hippolytus," a tragedy (1858). 



During the winter of 1858-'9 she visited Cuba, 
and in I860 published "A Trip to Cuba." A 
volume of poems, "Later Lyrics," appeared in 
1866. In 1807 she accompanied her husband 
to Greece, and published " From the Oak to 
the Olive " (1868). She is a prominent speaker 
in behalf of woman's rights. 

HOWELL, a S. county of Missouri, bordering 
on Arkansas, and drained by Spring river and 
affluents of the N. fork of the White; area, 
about 900 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,218, of whom 
24 were colored. The surface is hilly, and the 
soil in the valleys fertile. There are large 
forests of pine. The chief productions in 1870 
were 15,356 bushels of wheat, 115,728 of In- 
dian corn, and 8,454 of oats. There were 
1,132 horses, 3,201 cattle, 2,707 sheep, and 
5,656 swine. Capital, West Plains. 

HOWELL, James, an English author, born near 
Brecknock, -Wales, in 1596, died in 1666. He 
was educated at Jesus college, Oxford, and 
passed many years on the continent, as a mer- 
cantile agent, as travelling tutor, or in a diplo- 
matic capacity. In 1640 he was appointed 
clerk to the council at Whitehall, but after the 
breaking out of the civil war he was thrown 
into the Fleet, where he languished until after 
the death of Charles I. After the restoration 
he was appointed historiographer royal, an 
office which he retained until his death. How- 
ell's publications number about 40, the greater 
part as well as the best of them being in prose. 
His EpMolcR Ho-EKance, or "Familiar Let- 
ters," first printed in 1645-'55, and of which 
many editions have appeared, was the second 
published collection of epistolary literature in 
the English language. 

HO WELLS, William Dean, an American author, 
born in Martinsville, Belmont co., Ohio, March 
1, 1837. He learned the printing business in 
his father's office, and worked at that trade 
for 12 years. He then became connected 
with the " Ohio State Journal " as assistant 
editor, and up to 1860 had published six po- 
ems in the " Atlantic Monthly," besides a life 
of Abraham Lincoln, and 1 , with John J. Piatt, 
a volume of verse called "Poems of Two 
Friends." He was appointed by President 
Lincoln United States consul at Venice, where 
he remained till 1865. On his return home ho 
joined the staff of the " Nation," and shortly 
after became assistant editor of the "Atlan- 
tic," which magazine passed into his sole con- 
trol as editor in July, 1871. His publications 
are : " Venetian Life " (London and New York, 
1866); "Italian Journeys" (1867); "No Love 
Lost," a poem (1868); "Suburban Sketches" 
(1869); "Their Wedding Journey" (1872); 
and "A Chance Acquaintance" (1873). 

HOWITT. I. William, an English author, 
born at Heanor, Derbyshire, in 1795. His pa- 
rents were members of the society of Friends, 
and in 1823 he married Mary Botham, also a 
member of the society. They made a pedes- 
trian excursion through Great Britain, and 
subsequently embarked in literature, writing 



HOWITZER 



HUACA 



several books in common, the first being " The 
Forest Minstrel and other Poems" (1823). In 
1840 he went to Heidelberg for the education 
of his children. In 1847 he established " How- 
itt's Journal," winch was published only a 
short time. In 1852-'4 he was engaged in 
gold mining in Australia. His principal works 
are: "Book of the Seasons" (1831); "Popu- 
lar History of Priestcraft" (1834); "Rural 
Life of England" (1837) ; "Colonization and 
Christianity" (1838); "Boy's Country Book " 
(1839) ; " Visits to Remarkable Places " (1839) ; 
"Student Life of Germany" (1841); "Rural 
and Domestic Life of Germany" (1842); 
" Jack of the Mill " (1844) ; " The Aristocracy 
of England " (1846) ; " Homes and Haunts of 
the British Poets" (1847); "The Year Book 
of the Country" (1847); "The Hall and the 
Hamlet" (1847); "Stories of English Life" 
(1853); "Natural History of Magic " (1854); 
Land, Labor, and Gold" (1855); "The Man 
of the People" (1860); "Illustrated History 
of England" (1861); "The Ruined Castles and 
Abbeys of Great Britain" (1861); "History 
of the Supernatural in all Ages and Nations " 
(1863); "Discoveries in Australia" (1865); 
and " The Mad War Planet, and Other Poems " 
(1871). II. Mary Botham, an English authoress, 
wife of the preceding, born at Uttoxeter about 
1804. She is joint author with her husband 
of several of the books above mentioned. 
Among her numerous separate publications 
are the novels " Wood Leighton " (1836) and 
"The Heir of Wast Wayland" (1851). She 
has written many volumes, in prose and verse, 
designed for the young, and has made numer- 
ous translations from the Swedish of Fre- 
drika Bremer, the Danish of Andersen, and 
the German of various authors. Her later 
works are: "Biographical Sketches of the 
Queens of England" (1862); "The Cost of 
Caergwyn " (1864) ; " Birds and their Nests " 
(1871); and "A Pleasant Life" (1871). AN- 
NA MART, daughter of the preceding, married 
in 1859 to Mr. A. A. Watte, has published 
"An Art Student in Munich" (1853), and 
"The School of Life" (1857). Her sister 
MABGABET has published " Twelve Months with 
Fredrika Bremer in Sweden" (2 vols., 1866). 

HOWITZER. See AEXILLEEY, vol. i., p. 786. 

HOWSOJf, John Sanl, an English clergyman, 
born in 1816. He graduated at Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, a double first, in 1837, and 
in each of the next three years obtained a 
prize for an essay. In 1845 he took orders 
and became senior classical master in Liver- 
pool college, of which he was principal from 
]R49 to 1865. In 1866 he was made vicar of 
Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, and in 1867 dean 
of Chester. He has made numerous con- 
tributions to Biblical literature, his principal 
publication being "The Life and Epistles of 
St. Paul" (2 vols. 4to, 1850-'52), which he 
wrote conjointly with the Rev. W. J. Cony- 
beare, furnishing the historical, geographical, 
and descriptive matter. He has also published 



"The Character of St. Paul" (18C4) and 
"Metaphors of St. Paul" (1868). 

HOWTH, Hill of, a peninsula of Ireland, county 
Dublin, forming the N. boundary of Dublin 
bay. It is a rocky and picturesque elevation, 
rising to the height of 563 ft., 3 m. long and 2 
m. broad, having at its extremity a lighthouse. 
Howth gives the title of earl to the family of 
St. Lawrence, the descendants of its Anglo- 
Norman conquerors. A harbor of 52 acres 
has been formed at Howth, costing 500,000. 

HOXTER, a town of Prussia, in the province 
of Westphalia, on the Weser, crossed here by a 
stone bridge, 28 m. E. N. E. of Paderborn ; pop. 
in 1871, 5,041. It is a thriving manufacturing 
and commercial place, and paper, cotton goods, 
and linen are made. Hoxter was formerly the 
capital of the ecclesiastical principality of 
Korvei, and belonged to the Hanseatic league. 
It abounds with reminiscences of the battles 
of Charlemagne against the Saxons, and the 
watch tower on the neighboring Brunsberg is 
according to some traditions the relic of a for- 
midable Saxon fortress built by Bruno, brother 
of Wittikind. The town endured many mili- 
tary vicissitudes during the 17th century. 

HIM I.K. Edmund, an English writer on games, 
born in 1672, died- in 1769. So generally is 
his principal work accepted as authority in 
card playing, that "according to Hoyle " has 
become a proverb. There have been many 
editions of his book, among which are " Hoyle's 
Games, Improved and Enlarged by G. H." 
(London, 1853); " Hoyle's Games made Famil- 
iar" (London, 1855); and "Hoyle's Games, 
containing the Rules for playing Fashionable 
Games" (Philadelphia, 1859). 

III! II! VM s MAURIS. See RABANUS. 

Ill A< A. a Peruvian word, signifying some- 
thing sacred, applied particularly to sepulchral 
mounds. Among the Peruvians all persons 
remarkable for their inventions, or for having in 
any way ameliorated the condition of mankind, 
were the recipients of a kind of hero worship. 
Few had temples, their shrines being generally 
their tombs, called huacas. The Peruvians 
made sacrifices to the huacas, which were sup- 
posed to respond to petitions and questions 
supported by appropriate offerings made in a 
proper spirit. The inner chambers of these 
oracular tombs were sometimes inhabited by 
priests; and generally they seem to have been 
devices whereby an inferior class of priests ob- 
tained their support. Some were of great ex- 
tent, and erected over the remains of the in- 
cas, who were entitled to divine honors after 
death, and over the chiefs of provinces. In ac- 
cordance with an invariable custom, the wealth 
of these high personages was buried with 
them. The violation of their tombs was com- 
menced soon after the conquest, and from some 
of them vast treasures were taken. A single 
huaca among the ruins of Chimu, near the port 
of Trujillo in Pern, opened in 1563 by Garcia 
Gutierrez, afforded so large a treasure of gold 
and silver, that he paid 85,547 castellanos of 



HUALLAGA 



HUBBARD 



gold, as the royal fifth, into the treasury of 
Trujillo. But he did not obtain the whole of 
it, for in 1592 it was again opened, and 47,020 
castellanos of gold were paid into the treasury 
as the royal fifth. So it seems that not less 
than 677,600 castellanos of gold, equal to 
$931,000, were taken from this single tomb. 
The name huaca, as applied to aboriginal 
graves, gradually became extended to the 
provinces adjacent to Peru on the north, where 
they were also found to contain more or less 
of treasure. The name has also been applied 
to Indian graves in the district of Chiriqui in 
Colombia, whence many golden ornaments 
and images have been extracted. 

HUALLAGA, a river of Peru, rising on the E. 
slope of the Eastern Cordillera, about lat. 10 
S. and Ion. 75 30' W., flowing N. W. parallel to 
that range as far as lat. 8, where it curves to 
the N. E., and joining the Marafion or Upper 
Amazon at La Laguna, lat. 4 50' S. and Ion. 
75 40' W., after a tortuous course of some 
600 m., mainly through the Pampa do Sacra- 
mento, a region of which little is definitely 
known. For 60 m. from its mouth the Hua- 
llaga is navigable by the largest vessels ; 
above that point rapids occur at intervals of 
about 50 m., but these do not impede the 
passage of canoes, especially in the upper por- 
tion of the river. 

HUA9IANGA. See AYACUOHO. 

HI A\( A\ I,U< A. I. An inland department of 
Peru, occupying a portion of the valley bor- 
dered by the Eastern and Western Cordilleras 
S. E. of the department of Lima. The surface 
is intersected by numerous hills, and watered 
by the Jauja and other rivers, and numerous 
lakes. The climate is mostly very cold, and the 
soil rather inferior to that of other parts of the 
republic. There being no forests, wood isscarce, 
and the chief combustible used is a species 
of grass called iehu. Gold is found, silver is 
abundant, and there is some copper; but the 
principal mineral product is mercury, es- 
pecially that from the mine in the Cerro de 
Santa Barbara, discovered in 1563, the mean 
annual yield of which for 200 years was from 
400,000 to 600,000 Ibs. Large numbers of cat- 
tle, sheep, and llamas are reared, and wool of 
excellent quality is exported. II. A city, cap- 
ital of the department, and of a province of 
the same name, 150 m. S. E. of Lima ; pop. 
about 8,000. The streets are regular, and the 
houses solidly constructed of stone ; several 
stone bridges cross the streams intersecting the 
town. Owing to the elevation, 12,670 ft. above 
the sea, the climate is very cold, and the town 
is exposed to fierce tempests, thunder, hail, and 
frost. Husbandry, cattle rearing, and mining 
are the chief occupations. In the immediate 
vicinity are numerous mercury furnaces ; and 
excellent colors are extracted from a peculiar 
species of metalliferous clay which abounds in 
the neighborhood. 

IltAXTA, a town of Peru, in the department 
of Ayacucho, 205 m. S. E. of Lima; pop. 



about 5,000. It is in a very picturesque and 
fertile region, is well built of stone, and has a 
large trade in cattle, sheep, grain, fruit, coca, 
dragon's blood, cinnamon, honey, &c. 

Ill 1M>. I. An inland department of Peru, 
occupying a portion of the valley bordered by 
the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, N. of the 
department of Lima. The surface is irregular, 
being intersected by hills mostly densely wood- 
ed, and delightful vales, watered by the Hua- 
llaga, Jauja, and numerous minor streams. 
The climate, hot in the low and cold in the 
elevated regions, is very salubrious, and the 
soil is extremely fertile and well cultivated. 
Precious woods, particularly cedar, and coca 
leaves are important articles of commerce. 
The sugar cane thrives well, and sugar is man- 
ufactured in several places ; and cotfee of su- 
perior quality is grown. The plains, though 
of inconsiderable extent, afford good pasturage 
for large herds of cattle and sheep; and the 
horses of Concepcion are highly esteemed. 
The district of Cerro de Pasco, formerly the 
capital of the department, has long been cele- 
brated as the principal mining region of Peru. 
There are weaving factories at Tarma and else- 
where. Ruins of towns, temples, palaces, and 
fortresses, in various parts of the department, 
attest the opulence and civilization of the an- 
cient Incas, once the exclusive lords of the 
soil. II. A city, capital of the department, and 
of a province and district of the same name, 
near the river Huallaga, 165 m. N. N. E. of Li- 
ma; pop. about 7,000. The only objects of 
interest still remaining in this once flourishing 
city are the ruins of edifices attesting its early 
splendor, and particularly a palace and temple 
of the sun, built by the Incas. Besides mining 
and agriculture, the manufacture of sweet- 
meats, much prized in Lima, occupies many of 
the inhabitants. It was founded in 1539 by 
Gomez Alvarado, who named it Leon de los 
Caballeros. 

Ill \K I/, an inland city of Peru, capital of 
the department of Ancachs, and of a district of 
its own name, 192 m. N. N. W. of Lima; pop. 
about 6,000. It is situated in the valley of 
Huaraz, one of the most fertile in the republic, 
and derives its importance from the large quan- 
tities of wheat and other grains, sugar, fruit, 
and cattle which it exports. Wood is here ex- 
tremely scarce, and in its stead a species of 
peat called champa is used for fuel. The min- 
eral productions, including gold, silver, and 
copper, are of considerable value. A railway 
is in course of construction (1874) from Iluaraz 
to Chimbote, 172 m. 

HCASTECAS. See QUETZALCOATL. 

HUBBARD, William, an American historian, 
born in England in 1621, died in Ipswich, 
Mass., Sept. 14, 1704. He graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1642, and was ordained in 
1658 as minister at Ipswich, where he contin- 
ued during the remainder of his life. In 1688 
he was temporary rector or president of Har- 
vard college. He is the author of " A Narra- 



HUBBARDTON 



HUBER 



25 



live of the Troubles with the Indians from 
1607 to 1677, with a Discourse" (4to, Boston, 
1677), the map accompanying which is sup- 
posed to be the first executed in America, and 
" Memoir of Gen. Denison " (1084). He left 
also in manuscript a general history of New 
England, for which the colony paid him 50. 
For the most of the earlier annals lie was in- 
debted to Winthrop's MS. journal, and his 
MS. has been used by other historians and an- 
nalists. It was published by the Massachusetts 
historical society in 1815 (8vo, Cambridge). 

HCBBARDTON, a town of Rutland co., Ver- 
mont, 48 m. S. W. of Montpelier ; pop. in 
1870, 606. It is noted for a battle between 
the British and Americans, July 7, 1777. The 
American army under Gen. St. Clair having 
been forced to evacuate Ticonderoga, July 6, 
their main body marched through Hubbardton 
to Castleton, leaving a rear guard of 1,000 half 
equipped nlen under Cols. Warner, Francis, 
and Haile, to wait at Hubbardton for the strag- 
glers. Here on the following morning they 
were overtaken by about double their number 
of British, commanded by Gen. Fraser. The 
battle began at 7 A. M. The charge of the 
Americans at first forced the enemy to give 
way, but they soon formed again, while at the 
same time Col. Francis was mortally wounded, 
his men fell back, and Gen. Riedesel appeared 
on the field with a heavy reenforcement for 
the British. Warner was obliged to retreat, 
leaving 30 of his men killed and 294 wounded 
and prisoners, while the British acknowledged 
a loss of 183 killed and wounded, though, ac- 
cording to Ethan Allen, they lost 300. Col. 
Haile withdrew from the field with 300 men 
without coming into action. He demanded a 
court martial to investigate the charge of cow- 
ardice brought against him, but died in captiv- 
ity before it could be held. A monument on 
the battle field was inaugurated July 7, 1859. 

IIl'BKR, Francois, a Swiss naturalist, born in 
Geneva, July 2, 1750, died in Lausanne, Dec. 
21, 1831. At 15 years of age a too close devo- 
tion to the study of the natural sciences, 
which he had followed from childhood, affect- 
ed his health and eyesight, and he was taken 
to Paris for medical treatment. His health 
was soon restored, but the disease of his eyes 
was pronounced incurable, and ho soon after 
became totally blind. Before that time he 
had won the affections of a young lady, Mile. 
Lullin, who married him, and until the close 
of his life was unremitting in her devotion to 
him. Being left by his father in comfortable 
circumstances, he resumed his investigations 
in natural science, in which he was aided by 
his wife, and a faithful attendant named Bnr- 
nens, who ultimately became his reader and 
amanuensis. He had previously given much 
attention to the habits of bees, and believing 
that many of the statements of Reaumur and 
Bonnet on the subject were erroneous, he pro- 
ceeded, with the assistance of his wife and at- 
tendant, to make a vast number of original 



observations, which, having been digested and 
systematically arranged by him, were first pub- 
lished in his Lettres d Gh. Bonnet (1792). The 
work was reprinted in 1796, and again in 1814, 
under the title of Nomelles observations iur lea 
abeilles, both times with important additions. 
The last edition contained his Hernoire sur 
Vorigine de la cire, in preparing which he was 
assisted by his son Pierre. The impregnation 
of the queen bee, and many other important 
facts in the economy of the beehive, were first 
made known in this work, which from its in- 
trinsic merits, as well as the unusual circum- 
stances under which it was prepared, made 
Huber's name famous throughout Europe. 
Subsequently, with the cooperation of Sene- 
bier, he produced a Memoire sur I'irifluence de 
Fair et des diverses substances gazeuses dans la 
germination des differentes plantes (Geneva, 
1801). PIEBRE, his son, born in Geneva in 
1777, was the author of several valuable papers 
relating to bees and butterflies, and published 
Kecherches sur les fpurmis indigenes (1810). 
He died at Yverdun in 1840. 

Ill Ui:u. Jean Rodolphe, a Swiss painter, born 
in Basel in 1668, died in 1748. He studied in 
Switzerland and in Italy, and executed works 
for various German princes, including histori- 
cal pictures for the palace of the duke of Wur- 
temberg at Stuttgart. He excelled in correct- 
ness of drawing and vigorous coloring, and on 
account of his surprising facility in portrait 
painting was called the Tintoretto of Switzer- 
land, though greatly inferior to that master. 

IllBKK, Jobann Nepomnk, a German theolo- 
gian, born in Munich, Aug. 18, 1830. He 
graduated at the university of Munich in 1854, 
and became professor in 1859. His Philosophie 
der Kirchenviiter (Munich, 1859) was in 1860 
placed on the prohibitory index, and an effort 
was made to prevent students from attending 
his lectures. His rupture with the ultramon- 
tanes became still wider in 18C3, when in an 
assembly of Roman Catholic scholars he stood 
alone in asserting the right of free investigation 
in theology. In 1871 he became the foremost 
adversary of the society of Jesus, and one of 
the principal leaders of the Old Catholic move- 
ment in Bavaria, in opposition to the papal de- 
cree of infallibility. His works include Johann 
Scotus Erigena (Munich, 1859); Idee der Un- 
sterUichkeit (1861); Die ProJetarier (1864); 
Professor StocH in Munster, and Offener Brief 
an Professor StocM, exposing the pantheism 
of Thomas Aquinas (1864); Studien (1867); 
Freiheiten der framisischen Kirche (1870); 
Das Papstthum und der Staat (1870) ; Die 
Lehre Darwins kritiscJi, betrachtet (1870); and 
Kleine Schriften (1871). 

Ill ISKK. Murlf, a Swiss authoress, born in 
Geneva in 1695, died in Lyons, June 13, 1753. 
She was the daughter of a merchant, received 
a scientific education, never married, and spent 
her whole life in seclusion, study, and charita- 
ble labor. Her principal works are : Systemes 
des theologiens ancieits et modernes conciliis 



26 



IIUBKIl 



(Geneva, 1731 ; enlarged ed., 1T39); and Let- 
tres sur la religion essentielle A Vhomme (1739; 
new ed., enlarged, 6 vols., 1754). 

IIMil.ll. I. Michael, a German scholar, born 
at Frontenhausen, Bavaria, in 1727, died in 
Leipsic, April 15, 1804. He resided in Paris 
for several years, and went to Leipsie in 1766, 
where he became a teacher of the French lan- 
guage. He translated into French many poems 
of Klopstock, Wieland, Lessing, and others 
( Ghoix d.epoesiesallemandes,4:vo}s., Paris, 1766), 
and other works, among which is Winckel- 
inann's Kunstgeschichte (3 vols., Leipsie, 1781), 
and wrote Notices generates des graveurs et des 
peintres (Dresden, 1787). II. Lndwlg Ferdinand, 
son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1764, 
died near Leipsie, Dec. 24, 1804. In 1798 he 
became editor of the Allgemeine Zeitung in 
Stuttgart. He translated dramas from the 
English and French, and wrote a number of 
plays and collections of tales. He also pub- 
lished Friedenspraliminarien (10 vols., Ber- 
lin, 1793-'6). A collection of his later works 
was published by his widow (4 vols., Tubin- 
gen, 1806-'19). III. Therese, wife of the pre- 
ceding, born in Gottingen, May 7, 1764, died 
in Augsburg, June 15, 1829. She was a 
daughter of Heyne, and was first married to 
the traveller Johann Georg Forster, and after- 
ward in 1794 to Huber, under whose name 
many of her writings were published.. In 
1819 she became editor of the Morgenllatt at 
Stuttgart, and published Forster's Briefwechsel 
.with a biographical sketch (2 vols., Leipsie, 
1828-'9). A collection of her Erzilhlungen 
was published by her son (6 vols., Leipsie, 
1830-'33). IV. Victor Aime, son of the prece- 
ding, born in Stuttgart, March 10, 1800, died at 
Wernigerode, July 19, 1869. He studied med- 
icine, travelled extensively, and was professor 
in various places, lastly in 1843 of languages 
and literature at Berlin, retiring in 1850. As 
a publicist he opposed the revolutionary move- 
ments of 184G-'9, but subsequently left the 
ranks of the ultra conservatives. His later 
writings embrace popular politico-economical 
subjects, but his reputation rests mainly on his 
works relating to the English and Spanish 
languages and literature. The more celebrated 
of them, besides those treating of the history 
of the Cid, are: Skizzen aus Spanien (4 vols., 
Gottingen, 1828-'35); Die neuromantische Poe- 
sie in Frankreich (Leipsie, 1833) ; Die engluchen 
Univeriitaten (2 vols., Cassel, 1839-'40) ; and 
Keisebriefe aus Eelgien, Frankreich und Eng- 
land (2 vols., Hamburg, 1855). His biography 
by Elvers was published in 1872. 

Ml i:\Kll, Karl, a German painter, born in 
Konigsberg, June 14, 1814. He is a disciple 
of the Diisseldorf school, and excels in genre 
pictures. In 1864 he was appointed profes- 
sor at Diisseldorf. Many of his works have 
been_ brought to the United States. 

H'UBNER, Rndolf Jnlins Benno, a German his- 
torical painter, born in Prussian Silesia in 1806. 
He studied in Berlin under Schadow, and fol- 



HUO 

lowed his master to Diisseldorf. Among hio 
earlier works were illustrations of Goethe's 
ballad of the " Fisherman," and " Orlando de- 
livering Isabella," a scene in Ariosto's epic. He 
has also gained reputation as a painter of car- 
toons and portraits. He became a resident of 
Dresden in 1839, and professor at the academy 
there in 1841. He sent to the universal expo- 
sition of 1867 a historical painting of the " Dis- 
cussion between Luther and Eck," and two re- 
ligious paintings, "Jesus at the Age of twelve," 
and the^" Magdalen by the Body of Christ." 

HUC, Evariste Regis, a French missionary and 
traveller, born in Toulouse, Aug. 1, 1813, died 
in Paris, March 31, 1860. He studied theology 
in his native city, and taught in the seminary 
there for a while, after which he entered the 
order of Lazarists, and was ordained priest in 
Paris in 1839. Resolving to devote himself to 
the Chinese missions, he set sail from Havre a 
few days after his ordination, and reached Ma- 
cao about the month of August. He passed 18 
months in the Lazarist seminary at this place, 
preparing himself for the work he was about 
to undertake, and in the early part of 1840, 
shaving his head with the exception of the 
queue which he had carefully cultivated since 
his arrival, dyeing his skin, and putting on the 
Chinese costume, he started from Canton for 
the interior of the empire. After directing a 
Christian mission in the southern provinces, he 
went to Peking, where he perfected himself in 
the Chinese language, and subsequently estab- 
lished himself at He-Shuy (valley of Black 
Waters), in Mongolia, just north of the great 
wall and not far from Peking, where there was 
a considerable population of Chinese Chris- 
tians, lie visited various parts of Mongolia, 
acquiring the dialect of the country, and trans- 
lating into Mongol several books of prayer and 
instruction. In 1844 the vicar apostolic of 
Mongolia directed M. Hue and another French 
Lazarist, Joseph Gabet, to make a journey 
through the vicariate, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining its extent and studying the character 
and manners of the Tartars. Adopting the 
costume of the Thibetan lamas or priests, and 
accompanied by a young lama convert, named 
Samdadshiemba, they set out in September, 
travelling S. W. along the Mongolian side of 
the great wall. Their caravan consisted of a 
horse, a mule, and three camels. Their only 
guides were a map and a compass. At night 
they slept in tents, and their food during 18 
months was generally confined to tea and a lit- 
tle meal. After a few days' journey they ar- 
rived at the city of Tolon-noor, where they 
completed their outfit. At the large new town 
of Shagan-kooren they crossed the Iloang-ho 
river and entered the sandy steppes of the Or- 
toos country, where they suffered for want of 
water and forage. Crossing the Hoang-ho 
again with great difficulty at a season of inun- 
dation, they entered the N. E. part of the Chi- 
nese province of Kansu in the early part of 
November, and remained two days at a frontier 



IIUO 



HDDSON 



27 



town. In January, 1845, they reached Tang- 
kiutil, on the boundary between Kansu and 
the territory of Koko-nor. From Lassa, the 
capital of Thibet, their point of destination, 
they were yet distant four months' journey 
across a desert utterly uninhabited except by 
robbers. They consequently resolved to wait 
here eight months for the arrival of a Thibetan 
embassy on its way home from Peking, under 
whose escort they might travel in safety. 
During their stay they studied the Thibetan 
language and Buddhist books with the assis- 
tance of a teacher, and after awhile they were 
invited to take up their abode in the famous 
lamasery of Koonboom, about 30 m. distant. 
In this establishment, which numbers about 
4,000 lamas, they remained three months, 
treated, as they were in all parts of Mongolia, 
with great kindness. At the end of that time 
they removed to Chogortan, a summer estab- 
lishment belonging to the lamasery. Toward 
the end of September the embassy arrived, and 
the missionaries joined the caravan, which 
consisted of 2,000 men and 3,700 animals. In 
crossing the desert and climbing the snow- 
covered mountains over which their route led 
them, they suffered the most terrible hard- 
ships. M. Gabet fell ill and was every moment 
expected to die, but they were obliged to press 
on with the sick man fastened, to his camel. 
On Jan. 29, 1846, they entered Lassa. After a 
few days they were summoned before the ka- 
lon or regent, the real ruler of the country un- 
der the nominal supremacy of the grand lama, 
who received them well, gave them a residence 
of his own, and allowed them to preach and 
set up a little chapel. The Chinese ambassador, 
Keshen, who had conducted the negotiations 
with the British at Canton in 1840-'41, soon 
interposed on political grounds, and they were 
sent to Chingtoofoo, capital of the Chinese 
province of Sechuen, and their neophyte Sam- 
dadshiemba back to his own country. MM. 
Hue and Gabet left Lassa March 15, and trav- 
elled in palanquins with great state, having a 
mandarin and a body of soldiers for escort. 
They wore the richest Chinese robes, and in- 
sisted upon putting on the yellow cap and red 
girdle reserved for members of the imperial 
family. These precautions secured respectful 
treatment throughout their journey. Their 
expenses were defrayed by government. At 
Chingtoofoo they were put on trial, and it was 
resolved to send them to Canton. The journey 
was performed in the same state, sometimes 
overland, sometimes on the Yangtse-kiang and 
other navigable rivers. In October, 1846, they 
arrived at Canton, and soon went to the Laza- 
rist seminary at Macao. Here M. Hue remain- 
ed between two and three years, arranging for 
publication his notes of travel. M. Gabet re- 
turned to Europe in November, and thence 
proceeded to South America, where he died 
soon afterward at Rio de Janeiro. In 1849 M. 
Hue set out for Peking, intending to revisit 
the missions in Mongolia; but an inundation 



obliged him to remain six months at a Chris- 
tian station in the province of Chekiang, and 
shortly after his arrival at the capital the shat- 
tered state of his health induced him to return 
home. He sailed from Macao Jan. 1, 1852, 
visited Ceylon, India, Egypt, Palestine, and 
Syria, and landed at Marseilles in June of the 
same year. He subsequently fixed his residence 
in Paris. His Souvenirs d'-un voyage dans la 
Tartarie, le Thibet et la Chine appeared in 1852 
(2 vols. 8vo, Paris), and was translated into 
English by William Hazlitt (London, 1852). 
This work is not only one of the most interest- 
ing books of travel which have been written 
during the present generation, but is stored 
with valuable information with regard to the 
history, inhabitants, and geography of the pre- 
viously almost unknown region of Mongolia. 
U Empire chinois (2 vols. 8vo, 1854 ; English 
translation, London, 1855) relates the adven- 
tures of the missionaries during their journey 
from Lassa to Canton; it is written in an at- 
tractive style, enlivened with much humor, 
and a large part of it is devoted to a general 
account of the manners, customs, government, 
laws, and internal condition of the Chinese 
empire. He also wrote Le Christianisme en 
Chine, en Tartarie et au Thibet (4 vols., 1857- 
'8 ; translated into English, 3 vols.). 

Ill (KLEBERRY. See WHORTLEBERRY. 

HIDDERSFIELD, a market town and par- 
liamentary borough of England, in the West 
riding of Yorkshire, on the Colne, 35 m. S. W. 
of York, and 204 m. by railway N. N. W. of 
London ; pop. in 1871, of the borough, 70,253, 
of the town, 38,658. There are in the town 
34 places of worship, of which 9 belong to the 
established church, 5 to the Congregationalists, 
and 14 to the Methodists. There are two col- 
leges, a philosophical hall, and a mechanics' 
institute. It is connected by canals with the 
Mersey and the Humber. It is one of the chief 
seats of the woollen manufacture in England, 
of which nearly every variety is produced. It 
has an extensive cloth hall, where a fair is held 
each Tuesday attended by upward of 600 manu- 
facturers. There are also cotton mills, brew- 
eries, chemical works, and dye houses. 

HtDSOJV, a N. E. county of New Jersey, 
bounded E. by the Hudson river and New 
York bay, S. by the Kills, separating it from 
Staten island, S. W. and W. by Passaic river 
and Newark bay, and N. W. by the Hacken- 
sack, which also intersects the S. W. part ; 
area, 75 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 129,0(57. It has 
a diversified surface, rising into hills on each 
side of the Hackensack. Limestone, copper, 
and magnetic iron ore are found. The Morris 
canal passes through it, and numerous railroads 
radiate from Jersey City and Hoboken. The 
value of farms in 1870 was $3,134,000; of farm 
productions, chiefly market vegetables, $312,- 
920. There were 333 manufacturing establish- 
ments, with an aggregate capital of $3,280,526, 
and an annual product of $24,256,017. The 
most important were 1 manufactory of boxes, 



28 



HUDSON 



19 of bread, &c., 1 of cars, 25 of clothing, 1 of 
cooperage, 3 of crucibles, 2 of drugs and chemi- 
cals, 1 of feathers, 3 of gas, 1 of heating appa- 
ratus, 1 of India-rubber goods, 11 of iron, 3 of 
jewelry, 11 of machinery, 6 of marble and 
stone work, 2 of molasses and sirup, 4 of oak- 
um, 1 of castor oil, 2 of paints, 2 of paper, 1 of 
polishing preparations, 3 of silk goods, 4 of soap 
and candles, 3 of steel, 8 of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 37 of cigars, 1 of watches, 1 
flour mill, 4 breweries, 2 saw mills, and 4 pork- 
packing establishments. Capital, Jersey City. 
HUDSON, a city and the capital of Columbia 
co., New York, situated on the E. or left bank 
of the Hudson river, at the head of ship navi- 
gation, 116m. above New York city and 29 m. 
below Albany; pop. in 1850, 6,280; in 1860, 
7,187; in 1870, 8,615. It is beautifully situ- 
ated on rising ground, and presents a highly 
picturesque appearance, especially when seen 
from the river at a distance. A slate bluff 
rises abruptly from the water to a height of 60 
ft., whence a ridge slopes upward for 1J m., 
terminating in Prospect hill, 500 ft. above the 
river. The principal street runs along this 
ridge, from Prospect hill to a public square 
laid out on the summit of the bluff. The city 
is divided into four wards, and is regularly laid 
out, with streets crossing each other at right 
angles. The principal public buildings are the 
court house, a handsome marble and limestone 
building, 116 ft. long and 60 ft. high, sur- 
mounted by a dome and faced by an Ionic 
portico, and the city hall, a brick edifice, con- 
taining the post office. Hudson is a terminus 
of the Hudson and Boston railroad, and an im- 
portant station on the Hudson River railroad. 
It has regular steamboat communication with 
Albany and New York ; and from Athens on 
the opposite bank of the river, with which it is 
connected by a steam ferry, a branch of the 
New York Central railroad extends to Sche- 
nectady. The wharves are built on two bays 
at either side of the public square, and are ac- 
cessible by large ships. It is said that at one 
time Hudson owned a larger amount of ship- 
ping than New York. It was made a port of 
entry in 1795, had an extensive commerce with 
the West Indies and Europe, and owned a num- 
ber of whaling and fishing vessels. Its com- 
merce was destroyed during the embargo and 
the war of 1812; and although the whaling 
business was resumed, it has since been entirely 
abandoned. Its trade, however, is still im- 
portant, the principal article of export being 
pressed hay for the New York market. The 
chief manufactures are of iron. The Hudson 
iron company and the Columbia iron works to- 
gether turn out from 60 to 75 tons of pig iron 
per day. There are two machine shops, two 
iron founderies, a stove foundery, manufacto- 
ries of steam fire engines, paper car wheels, 
tiles, and pianos, six carriage factories, two 
breweries, three rectifying establishments, knit- 
ting mills, a spoke factory, a pump and block 
factory, a tannery, a flour mill, three national 



banks with a capital of $750,000, a savings 
bank, and 10 hotels. The city is lighted with 
gas, is supplied with drinking water through 
iron pipes from a spring 2 m. distant, and has 
an efficient fire department. There are six 
public schools with about 1,000 pupils, an acad- 
emy, three public libraries, two daily and three 
weekly newspapers, an orphan asylum, and 12 
churches. Hudson, originally known as Clave- 
rack Landing, was settled in 1783. It was in- 
corporated as a city in 1785. A lunatic asy- 
lum was established here in 1832, but given up 
on the opening of the state asylum at Utica. 

HUDSON, a township and village of Summit 
co., Ohio, at the junction of the Cleveland and 
Pittsburgh and the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, and 
Columbus railroads, 25 m. S. by E. of Cleveland 
and 120 m. N. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 
1,520. The village is pleasantly situated and 
neatly bnilt. It is the seat of the Western Re- 
serve cqllege, chartered in 1826, which has 
handsome grounds and five substantial college 
halls. In 1872-'3 the academical department 
had 8 professors and instructors, 52 students, 
and a library of 10,000 volumes; the prepara- 
tory department had 2 instructors and 47 pu- 
pils. The medical department (Cleveland med- 
ical college) is in Cleveland; it was founded 
in 1843, and in 1871-'2 had 14 professors and 
instructors, 76 students, and a library of 6,000 
volumes. There is also a female seminary. 

HUDSON, Henry, a British navigator and dis- 
coverer, born about the middle of the 16th 
century. He was first employed by a compa- 
ny of London merchants to search for the N. 
W. passage in 1607, when he sailed in a small 
vessel with a crew of only ten men and a boy 
to the E. coast of Greenland, lat. 80, where 
he was stopped by ice. After three months of 
fruitless exploration he returned to England, 
whence he sailed again, April 21, 1608, hoping 
to find the passage between Nova Zembla and 
Spitzbergen, but was again hindered by ice, 
not being able to get to the eastward of the 
former land. On April 4, 1609, he began 
another voyage to the N. E. of Asia, sailing 
from Amsterdam in the service of the Dutch 
East India company. His crew being unable 
to endure the climate, he sailed for the Ameri- 
can coast, hoping to find a passage N. of Vir- 
ginia. On July 18 he anchored in a harbor on 
the coast of Maine. Sailing S., he discovered 
Delaware bay on Aug. 28 and explored it. Re- 
turning, he anchored within Sandy Hook Sept. 
3, and on the llth discovered the river that 
bears his name. In April, 1610, he began his 
fourth voyage with 23 sailors, passing in June 
and July through the strait and into the bay 
which now bear his name. Finding, how- 
ever, that this did not give him an open route 
westward, he resolved to winter there and 
resume explorations in the spring. His pro- 
visions ran short, and he was compelled to 
return. It is said that he incautiously de- 
clared that in their destitute condition he would 
have to leave some behind, and in a mutiny he 



HUDSON 



HUDSON RIVER 



29 



was seized and placed with his son and seven 
others who remained faithful to him in an open 
boat, and abandoned. His fate was revealed 
by one of the mutineers, and an expedition was 
sent from England in quest of him, but no trace 
of him was ever discovered. " A Collection 
of Documents forming a Monograph of the 
Voyages of Henry Hudson," edited, with an 
introduction, by George Asher, was published 
in London by the Hakluyt society in 1860. See 
also a "Historical Inquiry concerning Henry 
Hudson," by J. M. Read, jr. (Albany, 1866). 

Ill ls(, Henry Norman, an American essayist, 
born in Cornwall, Vt., Jan. 28, 1814. His early 
youth was passed on a farm ; from his 18th to 
his 21st year he lived in Middlebury as an ap- 
prentice at the trade of coachmaking, during 
which time he prepared himself for college. 
He graduated at Middlebury college in 1840, 
and went to Kentucky, where he remained a 
year engaged in teaching, an occupation which 
he subsequently followed for two years in 
Huntsville, Ala. Having during this time ap- 
plied himself especially to the study of Shake- 
speare, he wrote and delivered at Huntsville a 
course of lectures on the great dramatist, which 
he subsequently delivered in different parts of 
the country, and finally printed (2 vols. 12mo, 
New York, 1848). In 1844 he became a com- 
municant of the Episcopal church, and was or- 
dained to the priesthood in New York in 1849. 
He has since edited the works of Shakespeare 
(11 vols. 12mo, Boston, 1850-'57), and for a 
short time edited the "Churchman." He was 
rector of the Episcopal church in Litchfield, 
Conn., in 1859 and 1860. In the winter of 
1860-'61 he delivered a new course of Shake- 
spearian lectures. During the civil war he 
was a chaplain in the army, and subsequently 
taught school in Boston, and for two years 
edited the "Saturday Evening Gazette." He 
has published " A Chaplain's Campaign with 
Gen. Butler" (1865), a " School Shakespeare" 
(1870), " Shakespeare, his Life, Art, and Char- 
acters" (1872), and "Sermons" (1874). 

HUDSON, Jeffery. See DWARF. 

HUDSON BAY, an inland sea of British North 
America, between lat. 51 and 64 N., and Ion. 
77 and 95 W. It is of irregular shape, 850 
m. long N. and S., and 600 m. broad. Its S. 
extremity is called James bay. In its mouth, 
at the northeast, lies Southampton island ; out- 
side of this it communicates with Davis strait 
by means of Hudson strait, and E. of South- 
ampton island Fox channel extends N. The 
coasts are generally high, rocky, and rugged. 
The depth of the middle of the bay has been 
taken at 150 fathoms, but it is probably more. 
Southampton island is formed of high rocky 
masses, and seems to be composed of several 
small islands separated by straits, always closed 
however by ice. There are many other islands, 
and many reefs and sand banks. The princi- 
pal rivers flowing into the bay are the Great 
Whale river, on the E. coast ; the Main, Abbi- 
tabbe, Moose, and Albany, into James bay ; and 



the Weenisk, Severn, Hayes, Nelson, Churchill, 
and Seal, on the W. coast. It was formerly 
supposed that there were two tides in the bay, 
one from the east and another from the west ; 
and this error led to the belief in a channel 
communicating with the western sea, which 
was thought to be not far distant. Navigation 
is possible only during two months, the bay 
being completely frozen over or obstructed by 
drift ice during the rest of the year. Before 
the navigation of the bay was understood, it 
was usual to take two seasons for a voyage 
from England; nd the captain who succeeded 
in returning the same year was awarded a prize 
of 50. Accounts differ ns to the abundance 
of fish in Hudson bay. The Hudson bay com- 
pany gave little attention to fisheries, yet the 
white whale is found there, and the whale 
fishery was once of considerable importance. 

HUDSON BAY TEBRITORY. See NORTHWEST 
TERRITORIES. 

HUDSON RIVER, in New York, one of the 
most beautiful and important rivers in the 
United States. Its remote sources are in the 
Adirondack mountains, in the N. E. part of the 
state, more than 4,000 ft. above the sea. Its 
principal head streams rise in Hamilton and Es- 
sex cos., serving as the outlets to a great num- 
ber of small highland lakes. Several of these 
streams unite in the S. W. part of Essex co., 
and the river formed by their junction flows 
in a tortuous course S. E. to about the centre 
of Warren co., where it receives the outlet of 
Schroon lake on the east, about 8 m. W. of the 
S. part of Lake George. It runs from this 
point nearly S. to the town of Corinth, on the 
boundary between Warren and Saratoga cos., 
receiving on its way the Sacondaga river from 
the west, and some smaller streams, and then 
turns sharply to the east, following that gene- 
ral direction with several bends until it reaches 
Glen's Falls, where it has a fall of 50 ft. Soon 
after passing this point it sweeps around to the 
south, and flows in that direction with little 
deviation to its mouth, a distance of about 190 
m., separating Washington, Rensselaer, Colum- 
bia, Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester, and New 
York cos., on the east, from Saratoga, Albany, 
Greene, Ulster, Orange, and Rockland cos., and 
the state of New Jersey on the west. From 
Glen's Falls to Troy its course is much broken 
by rapids, but at the latter place, 151 m. from 
its mouth, it is affected by the tide and becomes 
a broad, deep, sluggish stream. From Albany, 
6 m. below Troy, its general width is from 800 
to 700 yards, though it greatly exceeds this 
in certain places. Its banks are elevated and 
picturesque throughout nearly its whole course. 
The upper part of the river is bordered by gen- 
tle eminences, covered with cultivated fields, 
interspersed with pleasant towns and villages, 
while in Greene and Ulster cos. its valley is 
bounded W. by the Catskill mountains, which 
in the former approach within 7 in. of the 
river. A short distance below Newburgh, Cl 
m. from New York, it begins its passage through 



30 



HUDSON RIVER 



HUE 



the beautiful hills called the Highlands, which 
rise abruptly from the water ; . in some places 
vessels following the channel pass so near the 
shore that one can almost touch the cliffs from 
their decks. The most remarkable of these 
hills are Breakneck (1,187 ft. in height), Bea- 
con, so named from the signal fires which 
used to burn on its summit during the revo- 
lutionary war (1,685 ft.), Butter (1,500 ft.), 
Crow Nest (1,428 ft.), Sugarloaf mountain, 
Bull hill, Anthony's Nose (1,128 ft.), and 
Dunderberg (Thunder Hill) or Donderbarrack 
(Thunder Chamber). The Highlands cover 
an area of about 16 by 25 m., and the river 
flows through them with many windings, 
which add greatly to its beauty. In the midst 
of them, on a bold promontory commanding 
magnificent views both N. and S., is West 
Point, the seat of the United States military 
academy. Fort Putnam, the ruins of which 
remain, was built here during the war of inde- 
pendence by the Americans, and a chain was 
stretched across the river at this place to pre- 
vent the passage of British ships. Several other 
sites memorable in the history of that period 
are pointed out to tourists in various parts of 
the river. Shortly after emerging from the 
Highlands the Hudson widens into the expanse 
known as Haverstraw bay, immediately below 
which is Tappan bay, extending from Teller's 
Point to Piermont, about 12m. long and 3 to 4; 
m. wide. On the W. shore a range of trap 
rock called the Palisades rises perpendicularly 
from the water's edge to a height of from 300 to 
500 ft., extending from the New Jersey boun- 
dary just below Pierrnont to Fort Lee, 9 m. 
from New York bay, the range being thus 
about 15 m. long. From this place to its mouth 
the Hudson is between 1 and 2 m. wide. It 
falls into New York bay in lat. 40 42' N., Ion. 
74 1' 30" W., its whole length being a little 
over 300 m. Its fall from Albany to its 
mouth, according to the United States coast 
survey reports, is only about 5 ft. On the 
E. side of its mouth lies New York city, on the 
W. side Jersey City and Hoboken. The Hud- 
son has few tributaries, the largest being the 
Hoosac, Mohawk, Walkill, and Croton. Spuyten 
Duyvil creek connects it with the Harlem river, 
which flows into the East river, forming the 
N. boundary of Manhattan island. The basin 
of the Hudson occupies about two thirds of the 
E. border of the state, and a large part of the 
interior. The principal cities and towns on its 
banks are Lansingburgh, Troy, Hudson, Pough- 
keepsie, Peekskill, Sing Sing, Tarrytown, Yon- 
kers, and New York, on the east, and Water- 
ford, West Troy, Albany, Catskill, Kingston, 
Rondout, Newburgh, Haverstraw, Nyack, Pier- 
mont, Hoboken, and Jersey City on the west. It 
is navigable by ships to Hudson, by steamboats 
to Troy, and by sloops, by means of a dam and 
lock, to Waterford, at the mouth of the Mo- 
hawk. The passenger steamers from New 
York to Albany and Troy are noted for their 
elegance and fine proportions. A little below 



Albany the navigation is at times obstructed 
by shifting sands called the Overslaugh, for the 
removal of which large expenditures have been 
made by the United States government. New 
York is indebted for much of its prosperity to 
this river, which forms one of the principal 
channels of communication between the east 
and west, and is connected with the great lakes 
by the Erie canal and the Erie and New York 
Central railroads, with Lake Champlain and 
Canada by canal and railroad, and with the 
Delaware river and the Pennsylvania coal re- 
gion by the Delaware and Hudson canal. The 
Hudson River railroad runs along its east bank 
from New York to Troy, and a railroad has 
been commenced along its west bank from Jer- 
sey City to Albany. In 1524 Verrazzani, sail- 
ing under a commission from Francis I. of 
France, entered the bay of New York and 
sailed a short distance up the river in a boat. 
Henry Hudson discovered it Sept. 11, 1609, ex- 
plored it above the mouth of the Mohawk, and 
called it " river of the mountains." This name 
was soon changed to Mauritius, in honor of 
Prince Maurice of Nassau; and about 1682 it 
became generally known as the North river, to 
distinguish it from the Delaware or South river. 
The name Hudson's river had been applied to 
it by the English not long after its discovery in 
1609. The Indians are said to have called it 
Shatemuc and Cahohatatea. The first success- 
ful attempt at steam navigation was made on 
the Hudson by Robert Fulton in 1807. 

HUDSON STRAIT, in British North America, 
connects Hudson bay with the ocean and Da- 
vis strait, between lat. 60 and 64 N., and Ion. 
65 and 77 W. Its length is 450 in., its average 
breadth 100 m., and its least breadth 60 m. 

HUE, a city of Asia, capital of the empire of 
Anam, and of the province of the same name, 
on the Hn6 roadstead, about 10 m. from the 
China sea; lat. 16 28' N., Ion. 107 32' E. ; 
pop. estimated at from 80,000 to 100,000. It 
is composed of two cities, an outer and an in- 
ner. The former is surrounded by the river, 
and by walls 5 m. in circumference and 60 ft. 
high, fortified in the European manner. It is 
entered by ten bridges and as many correspond- 
ing gates, and contains the palaces of the king's 
near relatives, the different public offices, bar- 
racks, prisons, magazines, granaries, and the 
dwelling houses and shops of the citizens. In 
the centre of the outer city is the inner one, 
which is also walled, and in which are the pal- 
aces and seraglio of the king, the palace of his 
mother, the palace wherein the sovereign re- 
ceives his mandarins, and guard rooms for the 
sentinels on duty. Hu6 is a naval station, and 
has extensive ship yards and a largo cannon 
foundery. The streets are traversed by navi- 
gable canals. The roadstead is an excellent 
and well sheltered harbor. The citadel is for- 
tified after the European fashion, and would 
require 50,000 men to fully garrison it. The 
commercial and manufacturing activity of Ilud 
is extensive. In 1787 the city was formally 



HUELVA 



HtTFELAND 



31 



ceded to the French, hut has never been occu- 
pied by them. 

Ill Kl,\ I. I. A S. W. province of Spain, 
forming the W. extremity of Andalusia, bor- 
dering on Portugal, the Atlantic, and the prov- 
inces of Cadiz, Seville, and Badajoz ; area, 
4,118 sq. in. ; pop. in 1870, 196,469. The 
larger portion of the province is a picturesque 
mountain land, being traversed by a continua- 
tion of the Sierra Morena, known as the Sier- 
ra de Aroche. It is but little cultivated and 
thinly peopled. It has mines of copper, iron, 
lead, and coal, salt works, and mineral springs. 
The copper mines on the Rio Tinto are cele- 
brated. The chief rivers are the Guadiana, 
which forms part of its western frontier, and 
the Tinto. The principal towns, besides the 
capital, are Moguer, Ayamonte, Cartaya, La 
Palma, Valverde del Camino, and Aracena. 
II. A town, capital of the province, situated on 
a peninsula between the mouths of the Tinto 
and the Odiel, 50 m. W. S. W. of Seville ; pop. 
about 10,000. It has broad, clean streets, two 
churches, two hospitals, a high school, a thea- 
tre, barracks, a beautiful promenade, and an 
ancient aqueduct. Copper is largely exported, 
and there is a brisk coasting trade with Cadiz 
and Seville. It is the site of the ancient 
Onoba, of which considerable remains exist. 

Ill KH1 l\0, a S. county of Colorado, drained 
by a river of the same name; area, about 
2,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,250. The sur- 
face is generally mountainous. The land along 
the Huerfano and its branches is fertile, and 
Indian corn grows well, but stock raising is 
the chief industry. Some gold and silver is 
found in the mountains. The Denver and Rio 
Grande railroad traverses the county. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 5,597 bushels 
of wheat, 13,080 of Indian corn, 2,170 of oats, 
and 37,779 Ibs. of wool. There were 281 
horses, 1,987 milch cows, 2,349 other cattle, 
30,704 sheep, and 413 swine. Capital, Badito. 

Ill KS( 1. I, A province of Spain, in Arngon, 
bordering on France and the provinces of L6- 
rida, Saragossa, and Navarre; area, 5,872 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 274,623. The N. part, which 
is covered by offsets of the Pyrenees, is rugged 
and mountainous ; but the S. is level and fer- 
tile. The principal rivers are the Cinca, Alca- 
nadre, Isnela, Gallego, and Aragon, all tribu- 
taries of the Ebro. Wine, oil, and cattle are 
produced. Iron, copper, and lead are found, 
but there is little mining. The manufac- 
tures are linen, woollen, and hempen fabrics, 
&c. The principal towns are Huesca, Barbas- 
tro, Fraga, Monzon, and Jaca. II. A town 
(anc. Osca), capital of the province, on the 
Isuela, 35 m. N. E. of Saragossa ; pop. about 
10,000. It is a place of great antiquity. Ser- 
torius founded here a college for the instruc- 
tion of Iberian youth in Greek and Roman 
learning. Julius Ca;sar raised it to the dignity 
of a municipium, and honored it with the title 
of Osca Urbs Victrix. In 1096 Pedro I. of 
Aragon recovered this city from the Moors, 
416 VOL. ix. 3 



who called it Weshha, and annexed it to his 
dominions. It is the seat of a bishop, has a 
beautiful Gothic cathedral, four churches, an 
episcopal seminary, two colleges, a theatre, and 
barracks. The university, which was founded 
by Pedro IV. of Aragon in 1354, has recently 
been abolished. The industry is confined to 
tanning and weaving of coarse linen. 

Ill KT. Pierre Daniel, a French scholar, born 
in Caen, Feb. 8, 1630, died in Paris, Jan. 26, 
1721. He studied at Caen and Paris, and trav- 
elled in Holland and Sweden in 1652. In 1670 
he was appointed by the king sub-preceptor un- 
der Bossuet of the dauphin, and he directed for 
his royal pupil the preparation of the Delphin 
edition of the classics (ad usum Delphini). He 
was received into the French academy in 1674, 
became bishop of Avranches in 1689, resigned 
that office after ten years, and soon afterward 
entered an establishment of the Jesuits at Paris. 
His principal works are: De Interpretatione 
(Paris, 1661); Lettre sur Vorigine des romans 
(1670), full of curious researches; Demonttra- 
tio Evangelica (1679) ; Censura Philosophies 
Cartesians (1689), in which he appears as an 
opponent of Cartesianism ; Histoire du com- 
merce et de la navigation des anciens (Lyons, 
1716); and Traite philosophique de lafaiblesse 
de Vesprit humain (Amsterdam, 1723), which 
caused him to he classed among .skeptics. He 
wrote memoirs of his life in Latin (1718; 
French translation by Charles Nisard, Paris, 
1853). His complete works appeared in 1856, 
in 6 vols. 

Ill 1 1,1. VM>. Christoph Willielm, a German phy- 
sician, born at Langensalza, Thnringia, Aug. 
12, 1762, died in Berlin, Aug. 25, 1836. He 
studied at Jena and Gottingen, graduated as 
M. D. in 1783, and was appointed professor of 
medicine at Jena in 1793. In 1798 he removed 
to Berlin, and after the establishment of the 
university of Berlin (1809) he became profes- 
sor there of special pathology and therapeutics. 
His work on the art of prolonging life (Makro- 
biotik, oder die Kunst das mensehliche Leben zu 
verlangern, Jena, 1796 ; 8th ed., Berlin, 1860) 
was translated into several European lan- 
guages. Among his other works is one on 
scrofulous diseases ( Ueber die Natur, Erkennt- 
niasmittel und Heilart der Skrophelkrankheit, 
Jena, 1795). His work on the physical train- 
ing of infants (Outer Bath an Mutter alter die 
wichtigsten Punkte der phyiischen Erziehung 
der Kinder in den ersten Jahren, Berlin, 1799 ; 
10th ed., 1866) produced many reforms in the 
system of education ; while his Enchiridion 
Medicum (Berlin, 1836; 10th ed., 1857), which 
gives the experiences of his 50 years of practice, 
is still consulted. His System der praktischen 
Heilkunde (Jena and Leipsic, 1800-'5), and his 
Gesehichte der Oesundheit (Berlin, 1812), are 
much esteemed. He introduced the system of 
mortuary houses for the prevention of burying 
alive, the first of which was erected at Weimar 
under his superintendence ; and endowed char- 
itable institutions for poor physicians and phy- 



32 



HUGEL 



sicians' widows. His autobiography, edited by 
Gosclien, was published in 1803. 

Ill (,CI., Karl Alexander Anselm, baron, a Gor- 
man traveller, born in Ratisbon, April 25, 1796, 
died in Brussels, June 2, 1870. He studied 
law in Heidelberg, served as an Austrian officer 
in 1813-'14, and held an appointment in the 
embassy sent to induce Christian, the tempo- 
rary king of Norway, to resign. In 1821 he 
went in a diplomatic capacity to Naples, and 
afterward lived several years in Vienna. In 
1831 he set out to visit Greece, Asia Minor, 
Egypt, Barbary, and remote portions of India 
and central Asia. He returned to Europe in 
1837, bringing with him a collection illustra- 
ting ethnography and natural history, as well as 
antique coins, manuscripts, jewelry, paintings, 
and silver vessels. The whole collection was 
purchased for the imperial museum in Vien- 
na. Ho wrote Botanisches Archiv (Vienna, 
1837) ; Ka&chmir und das Reich der Sikhs (4 
vols., Stuttgart, 1840-'42); and Das BecTcen 
con Kabul (2 vols., Vienna, 1851-'2). 

HCGKK. I. Isaac, an American revolutionary 
general, born at Limerick plantation, 8. 0., 
March 19, 1742, died in Charleston in Novem- 
ber, 1797. He was one of five patriot broth- 
ers active in the revolution. Their parents 
were wealthy, and the sons completed their 
education in Europe. Isaac first served under 
Col. Middleton in the expedition against the 
Cherokees in 1760. He was made lieutenant 
colonel of the 1st South Carolina regiment, 
June 17, 1775, and subsequently colonel of the 
5th regiment ; took a conspicuous part in the 
engagements connected with the siege of Sa- 
vannah in 1778; was made a brigadier general 
Jan. 19, 1779; commanded a force of cavalry 
at the siege of Charleston in 1780, which was 
surprised and dispersed by Tarleton ; and com- 
manded the Virginia brigade which formed the 
right wing in the battles of Guilford Court 
House, March 15, 1781, and Hobkirk's Hill, 
April 25, 1781. II. Francis Kinloek, an Amer- 
ican officer, nephew of the preceding, born in 
1764, died in Charleston, S. C., Feb. 15, 1855. 
His father, Major Benjamin Huger, was killed 
before the lines of Charleston in 1779. After 
being a pupil of Dr. John Hunter, and a fellow 
student of Dr. Physick in Philadelphia, he join- 
ed with Dr. Eric Bollmann in a daring but un- 
successful attempt to rescue Lafayette from Ol- 
mutz. (See BOLLMANN.) Huger was arrested 
and for eight months kept in severe confine- 
ment. He returned home, and in 1798 became 
a captain in the army, was a colonel in the war 
of 1812, and served in both branches of the 
legislature of his state. III. Benjamin, son of 
the preceding, born in Charleston in 1806. 
He graduated at "West Point in 1825, and was 
commander at Fortress Monroe from 1841 to 
1846. He served as chief of ordnance to Gen. 
Scott in the Mexican war, was successively bre- 
vetted as major, lieutenant colonel, and co'lonel, 
and from 1854 to 1860 was in command of 
the arsenal at Pikesville, Md. He resigned 



HUGH CAPET 

his commission in April, 1861, entered the con- 
federate service, and was soon made major 
general. His conduct during the campaign on 
the peninsula was severely censured, and he 
was removed from active service soon after. 

Ill (;<;i\S, William, an English astronomer, 
born in London, Feb. 7, 1824. He was edu- 
cated at the city of London school and by pri- 
vate tutors, and devoted himself successively 
to natural philosophy, astronomy, and micro- 
scopy, attaining great proficiency in each. In 
1855 he erected an observatory near his resi- 
dence at Upper Tulse hill, furnishing it with a 
transit instrument and an equatorial of 8 in. 
aperture manufactured in Cambridge, Mass. 
At first he was occupied with observations of 
double stars, and he also made drawings of 
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; but later he gave 
almost his entire attention to the application 
of spectrum analysis to the examination of 
comets and nebulae, and his most valuable 
achievements have been in this field. In 1862, 
as a preliminary task, he spent several months 
in mapping the spectra of 26 chemical ele- 
ments ; the results are published in the " Phi- 
losophical Transactions " for 1864. In his pris- 
matic observation of the stars he was assisted 
by Dr. "William A. Miller, and the gold medal 
of the royal astronomical society was awarded 
to them jointly in 1867, Mr. Huggins having 
received one of the royal medals in 1866. He 
has proved that the proper motion of a star in 
the line of sight can be determined by any 
small change of position in the lines of the 
spectrum, and thus he calculates that Sirius is 
moving away from the earth at the rate of 27 
m. a second. He has made valuable observa- 
tions on the solar prominences, showing how 
their forms may be seen, and has detected the 
heat received at the earth from some of the 
fixed stars. In 1869 he delivered the Rede 
lecture at Cambridge, in which he gave an ac- 
count of his discoveries. In 1871 the royal 
society placed at his disposal a telescope of 
15 in. aperture, which was placed in a new ob- 
servatory at Upper Tulse hill. For an account 
of his observations of the spectra of comets, 
see COMET, vol. v., p. 141. 

HUGH CAPET, king of France and the found- 
er of the Capetian dynasty, born about 940, 
died Oct. 24, 996. When still a child he in- 
herited from his father, Hugh the Great, the 
duchy of France and the county of Paris, thus 
taking rank among the most powerful princes 
of his country. On the death of Louis V., the 
last of the Carlovingian kings, a number of no- 
bles and bishops from all parts of the country 
assembled at Senlis to settle the succession, 
and selected Hugh Capet in preference to the 
Carlovingian duke Charles of Lorraine, the un- 
cle of the late king. Hugh was consequently 
crowned at Noyon, July 3, 987, by the arch- 
bishop of Rheims. Notwithstanding this elec- 
tion, Charles supported his claims to the crown 
of France by the sword, and after four years' 
hostilities was apparently on the point of sue- 



HUGHES 



33 



ceeding, when he was treacherously made 
prisoner by Adalberon, bishop of Laon, who 
delivered him to his rival. The unfortunate 
prince was sent to Orleans, where he soon 
breathed his last in a dungeon. Hugh, having 
thus secured possession of the crown, associa- 
ted his son Robert in the government, which 
he settled on the principle of hereditary suc- 
cession. (See CAPBTIASS.) 

llldllKS, Ball, an American sculptor, born in 
London, England, Jan. 19, 1804, died in Bos- 
ton, Mass., March 5, 1868. When only 12 
years old he made out of wax candle ends a 
bass-relief copy of a picture representing the 
wisdom of Solomon, which was afterward cast 
in silver. He spent seven years in the studio 
of Edward Hodges Bailey, and competed suc- 
cessfully for the prizes awarded by the royal 
academy and the society of arts and sciences. 
Among his works at this period, besides sev- 
eral ideal statues, were busts of George IV. 
and the dukes of Sussex, York, and Cambridge. 
In 1829 he emigrated to New York, where he 
executed a marble statue of Hamilton, which 
was destroyed in the merchants' exchange, in 
the great fire of 1835. He also made a monu- 
mental alto-relief, of life size, in memory of 
Bishop Hobart, which is now in Trinity church. 
Several of his casts are in the Boston athe- 
nseum, and his bronze statue of Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch is in Mt. Auburn cemetery, Cambridge, 
Mass. He also appeared as a lecturer on art. 

IIIUI l>, John, an American archbishop, born 
near Clogher, county Tyrone, Ireland, in 179V, 
died in New York, Jan. 3, 1864. He was, 
to use his own words in his well known letter 
to Mayor Harper, "the son of a farmer of 
moderate but comfortable means." Being the 
youngest of three sons, he was allowed to in- 
dulge an early passion for books, and was sent 
for a time to a Latin school. In 1816 his father 
came to the United States. John followed 
him in 1817, and in 1818 the whole family set- 
tled near Chambersburg, Pa. Toward the end 
of that year John obtained admission to the 
college of Mount St. Mary's, at Emmettsburg, 
Md. " I was to superintend the garden," he 
afterward wrote, "as a compensation for my 
expenses, until I might be appointed teacher, 
prosecuting meanwhile my studies under a pri- 
vate tutor." Toward the close of 1825 he was 
ordained priest, and placed in charge of a small 
mission at Bedford, Pa. A few weeks after- 
ward he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's 
church, Philadelphia, where he soon gained 
reputation as a pulpit orator. On May 31, 
1829, he preached a sermon on Catholic eman- 
cipation, which was published in pamphlet 
form and dedicated to O'Connell. In 1830 he 
accepted a challenge from the Rev. John Breck- 
enridge, D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian 
clergyman, to discuss through the press the 
question, " Is the Protestant religion the reli- 
gion of Christ? " In 1831-'2 he built St. John's 
church, Philadelphia, of which he was the rec- 
tor as long as he remained in that city. In 1834 



he accepted a second challenge from Dr. Breck- 
enridge to a public oral discussion of the ques- 
tion, "Is the Roman Catholic religion hostile 
to liberty ? " The debate created much inter- 
est, was brought to an unsatisfactory termina- 
tion, and afterward appeared in book form. 
Mr. Hughes was appointed coadjutor bishop of 
New York in 1837, received episcopal conse- 
cration Jan. 7, 1838, and in 1839 became ad- 
ministrator of the diocese, which then com- 
prised the entire state of New York and part 
of New Jersey, with a Catholic population of 
200,000, and only 40 clergymen. He forthwith 
set to work to remedy the evils springing from 
the "trustee system" of holding church prop- 
erty. The titles were vested in laymen, who 
frequently came into conflict with the episco- 
pal authority, and were sometimes supported 
in their opposition by priests suspended from 
their office. Several churches had in conse- 
quence been closed to divine worship; most of 
them had become deeply involved in debt, and 
of the eight churches in New York city, five 
were on the point of being sold. Bishop 
Hughes set about consolidating these debts, 
removing the lay trustees, and securing the 
titles in his own name. In spite of every ob- 
stacle he succeeded, and thus put an end to 
scandalous contentions. lie next purchased a 
large property at Fordham, Westchester co., 
with the intention of opening there a college 
and theological seminary. For the purpose of 
obtaining money and the aid of religious com- 
munities for the institutions which he planned, 
he went to Europe in 1839. During his ab- 
sence the Catholics of New York set up an or- 
ganized opposition to the public school system. 
To prevent this movement from becoming a 
purely political one, Bishop Hughes on his re- 
turn took himself the lead, and drew up a pe- 
tition to the common council praying, in the 
name of the Catholic citizens, that seven pa- 
rochial schools should be designated as "enti- 
tled to participate in the common-school fund, 
upon complying with the requirements of the 
law." Remonstrances to this petition were sent 
in by the public school society and the pastors 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, and on Oct. 
29 both parties appeared before the common 
council. Bishop Hughes met and answered, 
for several days in succession, the array of 
eminent counsel opposed to him, and support- 
ed his petition in an elaborate speech ; but his 
demands were rejected by the common coun- 
cil. The matter was then brought before the 
legislature ; but being baffled in his suit there, 
he recommended Catholics to nominate inde- 
pendent candidates in the ensuing elections ; a 
movement which developed such unexpected 
strength that a modification of the school sys- 
tem was soon afterward effected. In 1841 he 
was able to open regular courses of classical 
and theological instruction in St. John's col- 
lege, Fordham. In 1842, after the death of 
Bishop Dubois, Dr. Hughes succeeded him as 
titular bishop of New York. In August of 



3-i 



HUGHES 



that year was held the first diocesan synod 
of New York, whose decrees on secret soci- 
eties and the tenure of church property were 
published officially by the bishop in Septem- 
ber; and this legislation was further supple- 
mented by the publication in 1845 of " Rules 
for the Administration of Churches without 
Trustees." On March 10, 1844, he consecrated 
as his coadjutor the Rev. John McCloakey, D. D. 
During the spring and summer of this year 
fears were entertained of anti-Catholic riots in 
New York, such as had taken place in Phil- 
adelphia. Bishop Hughes thereupon address- 
ed a letter to Mayor Harper, which calmed 
the public excitement, and in a series of let- 
ters denounced the editor of the " New York 
Herald" for attacks on himself. A second 
visit to Europe in December, 1845, enabled 
him to secure the services of the Jesuits, Chris- 
tian brothers, and sisters of mercy. On his 
return he was solicited by President Polk to 
accept a peace mission to Mexico, which he 
declined. In 1847 he delivered in the hall of 
representatives at Washington, by request of 
both houses of congress, a discourse on " Chris- 
tianity, the only Source of Moral, Social, and 
Political Regeneration." During this year his 
diocese was divided by the creation of the sees 
of Albany and Buffalo. In 1850 the see of 
New York was raised to metropolitan rank, and 
Bishop Hughes received the pallium as arch- 
bishop in Rome at the hands of the pope. In 
1853 the sees of Brooklyn, Burlington, and 
Newark were erected, and the new bishops 
were consecrated by the nuncio, Archbishop 
(afterward Cardinal) Bedini, Oct. 30. Arch- 
bishop Hughes presided in 1854 over the first 
provincial council of New York ; was in Rome 
at the proclamation of the dogma of the im- 
maculate conception, Dec. 8 ; and on his return 
was involved in a controversy with Mr. Eras- 
tus Brooks, the letters on both sides being pub- 
lished in a volume entitled " Brooksiana." 
In August, 1858, he laid the corner stone of a 
new cathedral on Fifth avenue, New York, the 
largest yet planned in the United States. In 
the preceding autumn, while accompanying the 
nuncio to Canada, he was seized with lung fe- 
ver, from the effects of which he never wholly 
recovered. He persisted nevertheless in the 
discharge of his daily duties, causing himself 
toward the end of his life to be carried to the 
altar when conferring confirmation. At the 
breaking out of the civil war, and before ac- 
tive operations had begun in Virginia, Arch- 
bishop Hughes, though in very feeble health, 
went to Washington to proffer the aid of his 
priests, sisters of charity, and sisters of mer- 
cy. In November, 1861, at the solicitation of 
President Lincoln, he went to Europe in com- 
pany with Mr. Thurlow Weed, in order to se- 
cure the friendly neutrality of some govern- 
ments, particularly of the French court. Af- 
ter visiting France and Italy, he preached at 
the laying of the corner stone of the Catho- 
lic university of Dublin, June. 1862. He np- 



HUGO 

peared at the New York academy of music 
in April, 1863, to make an appeal in favor of 
the famishing Irish, and in July made his last 
public address to quell the draft riots. Thence- 
forward his strength steadily declined until 
his death. His works have been published by 
L. Kehoe (2 vols., New York, 1864-'5) ; and 
his life has been written by John R. G. Hassard 
(8vo, New York, 1866). 

HUGHES, Thomas, an English author, born 
near New bury, Berkshire, Oct. 20, 1823. He 
was educated at Rugby, and graduated at Oriel 
college, Oxford, in 1845. Ho studied law, was 
called to the bar in 1848, and became queen's 
counsel in 1869. From 1865 to 1868 he was a 
liberal member of parliament for the borough 
of Lambeth, and from 1868 to January, 1874, 
for the borough of Frome, which was not con- 
tested by the liberals in the election of Feb- 
ruary, 1874, and consequently a conservative 
took his place. While in parliament he sup- 
ported the bills for the disestablishment of the 
Irish church, and for secularizing the universi- 
ties, abolishing tests, and admitting dissenters 
to fellowship in Oxford and Cambridge. He 
took an active interest in educational and so- 
cial questions and in all measures for the im- 
provement of the laboring classes. In 1869 
and 1870 he visited the United States, lecturing 
in the principal cities, and was well received. 
He is the author of "Tom Brown's School 
Days," a graphic description of life at Rugby 
school under Dr. Arnold (1856) ; a sequel to it 
entitled "Tom Brown at Oxford" (1861); 
"The Scouring of the White Horse " (1858) ; 
" Religio Laici," a semi-theological essay (1862) ; 
"Alfred the Great" (1869); and "Memoirs 
of a Brother " (1873). He has also written 
critical prefaces to English editions of a work 
on "Trades Unions" by the count de Paris, 
Lowell's " Biglow Papers," and the poems of 
Walt Whitman. 

HUGHS, a S. county of Dakota, bounded S. 
W. by the Missouri, recently formed and not 
included in the census of 1870 ; area, about 
800 sq. m. It is intersected by East Medicine 
Knoll river, and watered by several small 
affluents of the Missouri. 

HUGO, Gnstav, a German jurist, born at Lor- 
rach, Baden, Nov. 23, 1764, died in Gottingen 
Sept. 16, 1844. He studied at Gottingen from 
1782 to 1785, and first became known by his 
edition of the " Fragments of Ulpian " (Gottin- 
gen, 1788). In 1788 he was appointed professor 
extraordinary and in 1792 regular professor of 
law at the university of Gottingen. He was 
one of the first to follow the example of Leib- 
nitz and of Putter, presenting the Roman law 
classified with reference to the principal eras 
of its history. His principal works are : Lehr- 
Tiuch der Geschichte des romiscJien Bechts (Ber- 
lin, 1790; 9th ed., 1824); Lehrbucli eines 
cmlittisehen Cursm (7 vols., 1799-1812) ; and 
Beitrage zur eivilutueJien HiicherJcenntnus der 
letzten vierzig Jahrc (2 vols., 1829). He edited 
the Civilistischc Magazin from 1814 to 1837. 



HUGO 



35 



HI GO, Vietor Marie, a French poet and novel- 
ist, born in Besancon, Feb. 26, 1802. The son 
of an officer whose military duties called him 
out of France, he was carried in childhood to 
Elba, Corsica, Switzerland, and Italy. In 
1809 ho was taken to Paris ; and here for two 
years, under the exclusive supervision of his 
mother and the care of an old priest, he com- 
menced his classical studies in company with 
an elder brother, Eugene, and a young girl 
who afterward became his wife. In 1811, 
his father having been made general and 
appointed major-domo of Joseph Bonaparte, 
the new king of Spain, Victor went to Madrid, 
and entered the seminary of nobles with a 
view of becoming one of the pages of Joseph ; 
but subsequent events defeated this design. 
In 1812 Mme. Hugo returned to Paris with her 
two sons, and had their classical education 
continued by the same clergyman who had 
already instructed them. On the fall of the 
empire a separation took place between the 
general and his wife ; and thenceforth the 
young man was placed entirely under the con- 
trol of the former. He entered a private 
academy to prepare himself for admission to 
the polytechnic school. Here he evinced some 
taste and ability for mathematics, but a much 
stronger inclination toward poetry; and his 
first poems gave promise of such talent that 
liis father was finally persuaded to allow him 
to follow literature as his vocation. In 1817 
he presented to the French academy a poem 
upon Lei avantages de Vitude. He afterward 
won three prizes in succession at the Toulouse 
academy of floral games. His first volume of 
Odes et ballades (1822) created a sensation. 
Two novels, Han d'Mande (1823) and Bug- 
Jargal (1825), exhibited him as an original 
and forcible prose writer, but already displayed 
that predilection for the horrible and mon- 
strous which characterizes most of his greater 
productions. His second volume of Odes et 
ballades appeared in 1826. About this pe- 
riod, in conjunction with Sainte-Beuve, An- 
toine and Emile Deschamps, A. de Vigny, Bou- 
langer the painter, and David the sculptor, 
he formed a kind of literary association, called 
the Cenacle, in the meetings of which new 
literary and artistic doctrines were debated. 
They also established a periodical, called La 
musefrancaiae, which attracted little attention. 
The drama of Cromwell (1827), although un- 
suitable for the stage, was presented as a spe- 
cimen of the literary reforms aimed at by the 
new school ; but it had much less importance 
than the preface, which was a treatise on ses- 
thetics. Thenceforth Victor Hugo was the 
acknowledged leader of the romanticists, who 
waged earnest war against their opponents, 
the classicists. His claims to this distinction 
were strengthened in 1828 by the publication 
of Leu orientalet. Le dernier jour d'un con- 
da?nne, which followed, fascinated the public 
by its vivid delineation of the mental tortures 
of a man doomed to execution. The contest 



between the two opposite schools reached its 
climax when, on Feb. 26, 1830, the drama of 
Hernani was produced at the Th6atre Fran- 
cais. In 1831 Hugo won another dramatic 
triumph with Marion Delorme, while his lyri- 
cal poems Les feuillet d'automne and his nov- 
el Notre Dame de Paris were received with 
enthusiasm. The performance of his dramas, 
Le roi s'amuse (1832), Lucrece Borgia and Ma- 
rie Tudor (1833), Angela, tyran de Padoue 
(1835), Ruy Bias (1838), and especially Le* 
burgraves (1843), drew forth marked appro- 
bation ; his political poems, Let chants du 
crepuscule (1835), Les voix interieures (1837), 
and Les rayons et les ombres (1840), were high- 
ly popular ; and his miscellaneous writings, 
Claude Gueux, fctude tur Mirabeau, Littera- 
ture et philoiophie melees (1834), and Le Rhin 
(1842), were scarcely less successful. His lite- 
rary reputation had secured his election to the 
French academy in 1841, notwithstanding the 
opposition of the members attached to the old 
classic school; and having thus reached the 
highest distinction in literature, he now in- 
dulged in political aspirations, which were 
partly gratified by his being created in 1845 a 
peer of France by King Louis Philippe. On 
the revolution of February, 1848, he was 
elected a deputy to the constituent assembly, 
where he generally voted with the conserva- 
tive party. On his reelection to the legislative 
assembly, he evinced more democratic and so- 
cialistic tendencies. In vehement speeches he 
denounced the reactionary tendencies of the 
majority, and the secret policy of President 
Louis Napoleon. On the coup d'etat of Dec. 
2, 1851, Hugo was among those deputies who 
vainly attempted to assert the rights of the as- 
sembly and to preserve tha constitution. His 
conduct led to his proscription ; he took refuge 
in the island of Jersey, where, while resuming 
his literary pursuits, he continued his opposi- 
tion to Louis Napoleon, publishing Napoleon 
le Petit (1852), and his bitter satires Les chd- 
timents (1853). Two years later he was com- 
pelled, on account of some hostile manifesta- 
tion to the French government, to remove to 
the island of Guernsey. He refused to accept 
the amnesty offered to political exiles in 1859. 
In 1856 he published Les contemplations, a 
collection of lyrical and personal poems, and 
in 1859 La legende del tiecles (2 vols. 8vo), a 
series of poems mainly of an epical character. 
Les miserables, a romance which had been an- 
nounced several years before, appeared in nine 
languages simultaneously at Paris, London, 
Brussels, Madrid, Berlin, St. Petersburg, Tu- 
rin, and Now York (April, 1862). Its success 
equalled that of any of his previous works. 
An illustrated edition, published in parts 
(Paris, 1863-'5), attained a sale of 150,000 cop- 
ies. In 1865 he published Chansons desrues et 
des l>ois, in which all the peculiarities of the 
author were exhibited in an exaggerated de- 
gree. Les tratsailleurs de la mer (1866) was 
also very popular ; but Uhomme qui rit (1869), 



36 



HUGO 



in which the author's fondness for monstrous 
caricature was carried to its height, did not 
attain so great a success. In 1869 he again 
refused to avail himself of the privilege of 
returning to France afforded him by the em- 
peror's proclamation of amnesty of Aug. 15. 
He published in the Bappel a protest against 
the plebiscite of May 8, 1870, ratifying the 
new reforms of the empire, the violence of 
which caused it to be officially condemned. 
After the fall of the emperor and the procla- 
mation of the republic lie returned to Paris, 
and soon after issued an address to the Ger- 
mans calling upon them to proclaim a Ger- 
man republic and extend the hand of friendship 
to France. On Feb. 8, 1871, he was elected 
one of the 43 representatives of the department 
of the Seine in the national assembly. He 
there vehemently opposed the parliamentary 
treaty of peace between France and Germany. 
This aroused against him the anger of the par- 
ty of "the right," and on March 8, when he 
attempted to address the assembly, the oppo- 
sition was so violent that he left the tribune 
and immediately resigned his seat. Returning 
to Paris when the insurrection of the commune 
broke out, he vainly protested in the Rappel 
against the destruction of the Vend&me col- 
umn, and soon after went to Brussels, where on 
May 26 ho wrote a letter protesting against 
the course of the Belgian government in re- 
gard to the insurgents of Paris, and offering 
an asylum to the soldiers of the commune. 
This excited the hostility of the Belgian gov- 
ernment and of the populace of Brussels; his 
house was surrounded in the night by a mob, 
and he escaped only by the intervention of the 
police. Being required by the government to 
quit Brnssels, he went to London, and after 
the condemnation of the leaders of the com- 
mune he returned to Paris and interceded 
with M. Thiers energetically, though vainly, 
in behalf of Rossel, Rochefort, and others of 
the communist leaders. At the election in 
Paris on Jan. 7, 1872, he was presented by all 
the radical newspapers as their candidate, but 
was defeated. During the siege of Paris a 
new edition of Leu chdtiments was published, 
and more than 100,000 copies were sold. In 
1872 he published a volume of poetry entitled 
V Annie terrible, depicting the misfortunes of 
France. On May 10 of that year he com- 
menced, in company with his son Francois and 
others, the publication of a democratic journal 
called Le Peuple Souverain. His latest novel, 
Quatre-vingt-treize (1874), relates to the war 
in the Vendee, and introduces Robespierre, 
Danton, and Marat. It was published simul- 
taneously in French, English, Russian, Italian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Hungarian, and 
other languages, Hugo deriving 80,000 francs 
from these translations alone. The latest edi- 
tion of Hugo's works, complete to the time of 
publication, was published in Paris in 1862-'3, 
in 20 vols. 12mo. Two of his sons, CHARLES 
VICTOR (born in 1826, died March 16, 1871), 



HUGUENOTS 

and FRAJJQOIS VICTOR (born in 1828, died Dec. 
26, 1873), distinguished themselves as pupils of 
the Charlemagne college, andjn 1848-'50 con- 
tributed to the newspaper L'Kvenement, which 
supported the politics of their father. The- 
elder, on account of an article on the death 
penalty, was sentenced to six months' impris- 
onment. Both accompanied their father in his 
exile, and devoted their leisure hours to litera- 
ture. Charles published several light novels, 
among which La Boheme doree was especially 
successful. Francois, after translating with 
considerable success the sonnets of Shake- 
speare into French, began in 1859 a translation 
of his dramatic works, which he completed in 
1865. The brothers returned to France in 
1869, and commenced the publication of the 
Rappel in company with Rochefort, who how- 
ever soon separated from them. Francois at 
the time of his death had nearly completed 
an edition of a posthumous work by his broth- 
er Charles, Let homines de Vexil. One of the 
two brothers of Victor Hugo, JULES ABEL 
(born in 1798, died in 1855), deserves mention 
as a literary man. Among his many publica- 
tions were : HMoire de la campagne cPEspagne 
en 1823 (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1824); France pit- 
toresyue, on Description des departements et 
colonies de la France, &c. (3 vols. 4to, 1833) ; 
France militnire, histoire de$ armees francaises 
de terre et de mer de 1792 a 1833 (5 vols. 4to, 
1834) ; and France historique et monumentale, 
histoire generale de France depuis let tempt les 
plus reculesjusqu''a nos jours (5 vols. 4to, with 
maps and plans, 1836-'43). 

HCGCENOTS, a name of uncertain origin, first 
applied by the Roman Catholics of France to 
all partisans of the reformation, but subse- 
quently restricted to the Calvinists. Some de- 
rive it from one of the gates of the city of 
Tours called Hugons, at which these Protestants 
held some of theirfiret assemblies ; others from 
the words Hue nos, with which their protest 
commenced ; others from aignos (Ger. Eidge- 
noss), a confederate. The Dictionnaire de Tre- 
voux suggests its derivation from the hiding in 
secret places and appearing at night like King 
Hugon, the great hobgoblin of France. Prof. 
Mahn, in his Etymologische Untersuchungen, 
who quotes'no fewer than 15 different deriva- 
tions, derives the word himself from Hugues, 
the name of some conspirator or heretic, from 
which it was formed by the addition of the 
French diminutive ending ot. The reformation 
in France was but little influenced by Luther, 
and before Calvin took the lead was almost 
entirely self-developing. " It was not," says 
D'Aubigne, "a foreign importation. It was 
horn on French soil ; it germinated in Paris ; 
it put forth its shoots in the university itself, 
that second authority in Romish Christendom." 
Anti-Catholic influences had been at work in 
France from an early age. Arianism had for 
several centuries been the prevailing religion 
of a part of southern France, and though it 
was finally rooted out by the victory of the 



HUGUENOTS 



37 



Catholic Franks, there remained a widespread 
dissatisfaction with the religion of the victors. 
Throughout the middle ages the national senti- 
ment of the race of Languedoc, as the history 
of the Albigenses and kindred sects amply 
proves, was prone to sympathize and to iden- 
tify itself with demands for religious reform, 
and even with open secession from the church 
of Eome. (See CATHAKISTS.) To these influ- 
ences was added during the reign of Francis I. 
the very important aid of courtly fashion, or 
rather the sympathy of those nobles and schol- 
ars who had become interested in the revival 
of letters, and who in France, as in Germany 
and other countries of Europe, were involved 
in animated conflicts with the monks and the 
prominent theologians of the churches. These 
elements of courtly, scholarly, or popular op- 
position to the church gave birth not merely 
to the humor of Rabelais, but to the poetry 
and philosophy which sprung up around the 
beautiful Marguerite of Valois, queen of Na- 
varre, from whom the spirit of the reforma- 
tion was transmitted to Jeanne d'Albret, the 
mother of Henry IV. At this court all poets, 
scholars, and clergymen more or less tinctured 
with the spirit of reform, such as Lefevre, 
Farel, and Roussel, were welcome ; and for a 
time it seemed as though the court and the 
government of France might be gained for the 
cause of the reformation. But at length Fran- 
cis I., like his opponent the emperor Charles 
V., decided in favor of the old church, as the 
papal nuncio succeeded in convincing him that 
" a new religion disseminated among the peo- 
ple must result in a change of kings." In the 
city of Meaux, around its bishop Briconnet, a 
large body of men inclined to the new faith 
began, without formally professing schism, to 
act as reformers. Among these were Gerard 
lioussel, Francois Vatablo, Martial Mazurier, 
Jossfi Clicthou, Michel d'Arando, and Guil- 
laume Farel. Their labors, joined to the po- 
litical and social agitations of the day, soon at- 
tracted persecution. It is remarkable that this 
persecution in France acted so effectually on 
the French reformation as to free it in a great 
measure from excesses such as those of the 
Anabaptists in Germany. Yet it would prob- 
ably have fallen away had not the strong hand 
of Calvin taken it up (1528). Hence we find 
the French reformers embodying Calvin's ideas 
of church government and discipline in a com- 
mon confession of faith, which was formally 
done at the celebrated general synod in May, 
1559. During the reign of Henry II. (1547-'59) 
the Huguenots gathered such strength as to 
entertain hopes of becoming the dominant po- 
litical party ; hopes which were confirmed by 
the fact that several of the royal family, such 
as the king of Navarre, his brother the prince 
de Cond6, and many of the nobility, including 
the Chatillons and Admiral Coligni, favored 
the reformation. From this blending of re- 
ligions reform with politics arose the conspira- 
cy of Amboise, whose object was to overthrow 



the power of Duke Francois of Guise and his 
brother the cardinal de Lorraine, who with 
Mary of Scotland ruled the kingdom through the 
feeble-minded boy-king Francis II. The king 
of Navarre and prince de Conde were deeply 
involved in this plot, and would have suffered 
death with their Calvinist friends had it not 
been for the unexpected demise of the king. 
This occasioned a pause in persecution, of which 
the queen mother, Catharine de' Medici, and 
the ruling party availed themselves for politi- 
cal purposes, becoming more moderate in their 
treatment of reformers. By extending tolera- 
tion to the Augsburg confession, the cardinal 
de Lorraine shrewdly fomented quarrels be- 
tween the Calvinists and Lutherans. This 
state of affairs, which led to terrible commo- 
tions, was again temporarily checked by the 
edict of January, 1562. At this time, during 
the reigns of two successive kings whose in- 
tellectual inferiority rendered a regency always 
necessary (after 1559), Catharine de' Medici 
held the reins of authority, while the dukes 
of Guise supported by the Catholics, and the 
princes of Bourbon by the Huguenots, contend- 
ed for the regency. Some liberal concessions, 
made for the sake of policy by Catharine and 
the Guises to the Huguenots, excited the anger 
of the Catholics, and to allay these feelings war 
was renewed and raged till the peace of St. 
Germain (1570), when full liberty was guaran- 
teed the Huguenots, and the king's sister given 
as wife to Henry of Navarre. The leading 
Protestants were invited to Paris to the nup- 
tials, where on the day of St. Bartholomew, 
1572, a general massacre of Protestants was at- 
tempted at the instigation of the queen mother. 
The Huguenots, with Henry of Navarre as lead- 
er, now battled against the holy league formed 
by the Guises and Philip II. of Spain. Charles 
IX. died a victim to nervous excitement (1574), 
and Henry III., disgusted with the tyranny of 
the league, had Henry, duke of Guise, and the 
cardinal put to death, and fled for safety to 
the Protestant camp. He was himself assassi- 
nated by the Dominican Clement (1589), and 
was succeeded by Henry of Nayarre, who, to 
pacify these terrible disorders in France, be- 
came a Catholic, but secured full freedom of 
conscience and all political and religious rights 
to the Huguenots by the edict of Nantes (1598). 
The murder of Henry IV. by Ravaillac (1610) 
left the Protestants without a protector. Under 
his young son and successor Louis XIII. their 
rights w r ere soon attacked. Cardinal Richelieu, 
determined to build up royal power and crush 
all jarring elements, at one time made war 
upon the Protestants, driving them into an un- 
lucky league with England, which resulted in 
the siege and capitulation of La Rochelle. But 
his treatment of them was on the whole toler- 
ant, though its ultimate result was to greatly di- 
minish their numbers and weaken their power. 
From 1629 to 1661, under Richelieu and espe- 
cially under his successor Mazarin, there was 
comparative rest. After the death of Mazarin 



38 



HUGUENOTS 



several edicts were again published in rapid 
succession which aimed at reducing and finally 
exterminating the Huguenots. Colbert, from 
considerations of national economy, made the 
utmost efforts to secure toleration for them, 
but they were of little avail. Two years after 
his death, in 1085, Louis XIV. published the 
celebrated revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
on which occasion at least 500,000 Protestants 
took refuge in foreign countries. From this 
time, for many years, their cause was com- 
pletely broken in France. In the wild moun- 
tains of the CeVennes, the religious peasants, 
under the name of Camisards, waged war 
against the royal troops for the defence of 
Protestant principles ; but they had finally to 
succumb. In 1705 there was not a single or- 
ganized congregation of Huguenots left in all 
France. Soon, however, the scattered rem- 
nants wore again collected and the church re- 
organized by the indefatigable Jean Court. 
Although under the reign of Louis XV. severe 
ordinances were again issued against them, 
they continued to increase, and in the middle 
of the century found a powerful aid in men 
like Montesquieu and Voltaire. Their position 
was greatly improved on the accession of Louis 
XVI. (1774), and finally the revolution restored 
to them their full rights, which have been sub- 
stantially respected by all the succeeding gov- 
ernments of France. The right of convening 
general synods of the church was, however, 
not recovered till 1872. The term Huguenot 
had long before ceased to be the common name 
of the church, which is now known as the Re- 
formed church of France. So early as 1555, 
Coligni attempted, but without success, to es- 
tablish a Huguenot colony in Brazil. In 1562 
he sent out two ships, under the command of 
Jean Ribault, on a voyage of exploration to 
Florida, but the attempt to establish a colony 
was unsuccessful. Many departed for North 
America even before the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. Some settled in and around 
New Amsterdam, now New York, where their 
family names are frequent. Others found homes 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Virginia. 
But South Carolina was their favorite resting 
place, and a large number of the foremost 
families in that state are of Huguenot origin. 
This class of emigrants has contributed, in 
proportion to its numbers, a vast share to the 
culture and prosperity of the United States. 
Wherever they settled they were noted for 
severe morality, great charity, and politeness 
and elegance of manners. Of seven presidents 
who directed the deliberations of the congress 
of Philadelphia during the revolution, three, 
Henry Laurens, John Jay, and Elias Boudinot, 
were of Huguenot parentage. Among the co- 
pious existing sources of Huguenot history, 
the principal are : Beza, Histoire ecclesiastique 
des Eglises reformees du royaume de France 
(Antwerp, 1580) ; "Weiss, Histoire des refugies 
protestants de France (Paris, 1843 ; translated 
by H. W. Herbert, New York, 1854) ; Gieseler, 



HULL 

Lehrbuch der KirchcngeschkUte (Bonn, 1845- 
'7) ; Berthold, Deutschland und die Hugenotten 
(Bremen, 1848) ; Felice, Histoire des protes- 
tants de France (Paris, 1851) ; the Bulletin 
de la sociite de Vhistoire du protestantisme 
francais ; La France protestante, by Eugene 
and Emile Ilaag (9 vols., Paris, 1859) ; Smiles, 
" The Huguenots : their Settlements, Churches, 
and Industries in England and Ireland" (Lon- 
don, 1867 ; American edition, New York, 1869, 
containing a valuable appendix on the Hugue- 
nots in the United States, by G. P. Disosway, 
a descendant of a Huguenot family) ; Hugues, 
Histoire de la restauration du protestantisme 
de France an XVIII' siecle (2 vols., Paris, 1872). 

HCLIN, or Iliilliii. Pierre Angnstin, count, a 
French general, born in Paris, Sept. 6, 1758, 
died Jan. 9, 1841. He enlisted in the army 
when scarcely 13 years old, entered the regi- 
ment of French guards, and was a sergeant 
when the revolution broke out. He sided with 
the people, distinguished himself by his valor 
and humanity at the taking of the Bastile, 
July 14, 1789, and was appointed captain in the 
national guards under Lafayette. During the 
reign of terror he was imprisoned, but was 
liberated after the fall of Robespierre. In 
1796 he joined the army of Italy under Bona- 
parte, who appointed him adjutant general ; 
he was governor of Milan in 1797-'8, and was 
in Paris on the 18th Brumaire, when he sup- 
ported his general. He followed Bonaparte in 
Italy during the campaign of Marengo ; was 
made brigadier general in 1803 ; presided over 
the court martial which sentenced the duke 
d'Enghien to death, March 21, 1804 ; received 
the rank of general of division and the com- 
mand of the first military division in 1807; 
and was the next year created count of the 
empire. He held the command of Paris until 
the first restoration ; and although, after the 
abdication of Napoleon, he had sent in his 
adhesion to the new government, he was dis- 
missed by the Bourbons. He resumed his post 
during the hundred days, was arrested on the 
second restoration, and compelled to leave 
France, but was allowed to return in 1819. 
Under the title of Explications offertes aux 
hommes impartiaux au iujet de la commission 
militaire institutes en Van XII pour juger le 
due d'Enghien (Paris, 1823), he published a 
plain account of his part in that tragedy. 

HULL, or Kingston-npon-Hnll, a municipal and 
parliamentary borough and seaport of Eng- 
land, in the East riding of Yorkshire, on the 
river Hull, at its mouth in the Humber, 34 m. 
S. E. of York, '154 m. N. of London, and 20 
m. from the sea ; pop. in 1871, 121,598. It is 
built on a low plain, protected against inunda- 
tion by artificial means, and extends more than 
2 m. along the W. bank of the Hull, and near- 
ly the same distance along the N. bank of the 
Humber. The streets are very irregular, but 
are mostly well paved, lighted, and drained. 
The residences of the wealthy inhabitants are 
principally in the parish of Sculcoates and the 



HULL 



39 



quarter called Myton. A part of the town 
built along the left bank of the Hull is con- 
nected with the remainder by a bridge of four 
arches. On the point of land formed by the 
junction of the two rivers there is a fort which 
commands the whole harbor. Adjoining it is 
the Victoria dock. The old dock, opened in 
1778 on the Hull, is nine acres in extent, and 
can accommodate 100 square-rigged ships. 
There is also a railway dock at the terminus 
of the Hull and Selby railway. Other docks 
have been built of late years, and the total 
area of all the docks of Hull in 1874 was 
about 87 acres. The principal public build- 
ings are the custom house, exchange, post 




Town Hall, Hull. 

office, mansion house, courts of law, jail and 
house of correction, assembly rooms and muse- 
um, concert rooms, two theatres, several banks, 
and corn exchange. The Holy Trinity church 
is a handsome cruciform edifice of several 
cltitus; the oldest portion was built in 1270. 
The town has several charitable schools, one 
of which educates 36 boys to be seamen, and 
is connected with the Trinity house founded in 
1366 for the relief of decayed seamen and the 
widows of seamen. There is a marine hos- 
pital attached to it. Hull college, founded in 
1838, occupies a fine Grecian building. There 
are also a lunatic asylum, a general infirmary, 
a school of medicine and anatomy, various lit- 
erary associations with libraries, and botanic 



and zoological gardens and a " People's Park " 
of 27 acres given by Sir Z. C. Pearson in 18(14. 
The manufactures include canvas, chains, ma- 
chinery, earthenware, chemicals, leather, su- 
gar, cotton and linen goods, &c. There are 
ship-building yards, rope walks, saw mills, 
grist mills, bone mills, and oil mills. Tho 
principal exports are hardware and manufac- 
tures of cotton and woollen ; the imports, 
timber, tar, pitch, rosin, grain, wool, flax, 
hemp, iron, hides, tallow, horns, bones, &c. 
The trade is chiefly along the coast, with the 
Baltic ports, and with Germany, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Denmark, and America. Hull is an im- 
portant station for steam packets which connect 
it with various ports of Great Britain and the 
continent, and also has railway communication 
with nearly all parts of the kingdom. The to- 
tal imports in 1871 were valued at 15,076,095, 
the exports at 27,387,071. The entrances 
were 3,417 vessels, of 1,186,841 tons; clear- 
ances, 2,911 vessels, of 1,044,158 tons. Hull 
ranks as the third port in the kingdom. 

HULL, Isaac, an American naval officer, born 
at Derby, Conn., March 9, 1775, died in Phila- 
delphia, Feb.. 3, 1843. He commenced his ca- 
reer in the merchant service, and was commis- 
sioned as lieutenant in the navy at the com- 
mencement of hostilities with France in 1798. 
In 1800 he was first lieutenant of the frigate Con- 
stitution, and performed a very gallant achieve- 
ment in cutting out a French letter of marquo 
from under the guns of a strong battery in the 
harbor of Port Platte, Santo Domingo. During 
the war with Tripoli, 1802-'5, Hull served with 
distinction in the several attacks on the city of 
Tripoli in July, August, and September, 1804, 
and subsequently cooperated with Gen. Eaton 
in the capture of 'Derne. In 1806 he was made 
captain. At the opening of the war of. 1812 
between the United States and Great Britain, 
he was in command of the frigate Constitu- 
tion, and in July of that year, while cruising 
off New York, he fell in with a British squad- 
ron consisting of a razee of 64 guns and four 
frigates, which chased the Constitution closely 
for nearly three days and nights. By the 
greatest efforts, and the exercise of a skill in 
handling his ship which excited the admiration 
of his pursuers, he succeeded in escaping. Af- 
ter this remarkable feat, Hull went into Boston 
for a few days, whence ho sailed Aug. 2, and 
on Aug. 19, in lat. 41 41' N., Ion. 55 48' W., 
discovered a ship to leeward, which was soon 
made out to be an English frigate. The course 
of the Constitution was shaped to close with 
this vessel, which hove to to await an engage- 
ment. At 5 P. M. the English frigate opened 
her fire at very long range, and at a little after 
6 the Constitution closed w r ith her. After a 
desperate fight of about half an hour the Eng- 
lish frigate was reduced to a wreck and sur- 
rendered. She proved to be the Guerriere, 
Capt. Dacres, one of the ships which had 
recently chased the Constitution. Possession 
was taken of her soon after 7 P. M. The next 



HULL 



HUMBOLDT 



day she was discovered to be in a sinking con- 
dition, and after the removal of the prisoners 
she was set on fire and soon afterward blew up. 
The Constitution suffered somewhat aloft in 
this action, though but little in her hull. Her 
loss in killed and wounded was 14, and that of 
the Guerriere 79. The Constitution was the 
larger and heavier ship, mounting 54 guns, 
long 24s and 32-pounder carronades, the Guer- 
riere mounting 49 guns, long 18s and 32-pound- 
er carronades. As this was th e first naval action 
of the war, it was regarded as very important. 
Capt. Hull carried his prisoners into Boston, 
where he was enthusiastically received. Con- 
gress at its next session presented a gold medal 
to him, and silver ones to each commissioned 
officer under his command in this engagement. 
After the war his principal services were in 
command of the navy yards at Boston and 
Washington, of the squadrons in the Pacific 
and Mediterranean, and in the board of navy 
commissioners. 

HELL, William, an American soldier, born in 
Derby, Conn., June 24, 1753, died in Newton, 
Mass., Nov. 29, 1825. He graduated at Yale 
college in 1772, studied law at Litchfield, 
Conn., and was admitted to the bar in 1775. 
He entered the army of the revolution at Cam- 
bridge in 1775 as captain of a Connecticut com- 
pany of volunteers ; was made major in the 
8th Massachusetts regiment in 1777, and lieu- 
tenant colonel in 1779, and was inspector of 
the army under Baron Steuben. He was in 
the battles at White Plains, Trenton, Prince- 
ton, Stillwater, Saratoga, Monmouth, and 
Stony Point. He commanded the expedition 
against Morrisania, for which he received the 
thanks of Washington and of congress. After 
the war he was major general'of the 3d division 
of Massachusetts militia, and a state senator, 
and was appointed by Jefferson governor of 
Michigan territory in 1805. He remained in 
this office till 1812, when he was appointed as 
brigadier general to the command of the north- 
western army. He marched his troops through 
the wilderness to Detroit, heard of the decla- 
ration of war, and of the fall of Michilimack- 
inac, which let loose the Indians of the north- 
west upon him, crossed into Canada, but found 
his communications cut off, recrossed, and on 
the arrival of Gen. Brock surrendered to that 
officer the post of Detroit and the territory. 
For this act he was tried two years after by a 
court martial, and sentenced to be shot. The 
execution of the sentence was remitted by the 
president in consideration of his age and revo- 
lutionary services. In 1824 Gen. Hull pub- 
lished a series of letters in defence of his con- 
duct in this campaign. In 1848 a volume was 
published in New York on his revolutionary 
services and the campaign of 1812, written by 
his daughter, Mrs. Maria Campbell of Georgia, 
and his grandson, the Rev. James F. Clarke of 
Massachusetts. 

Ill 1.1,111, John, an English composer and 
teacher of music, born in Worcester in 1812. 



His comic opera "The Village Coquettes," 
written in conjunction with Dickens, and pro- 
duced in 1836, first made him known to the 
public. After the production of two other 
operas, he turned his attention about 1838 to 
the establishment in England of popular sing- 
ing schools, similar to those which had proved 
so successful in Paris. In 1847 a spacious 
music hall was erected in London for his con- 
certs, which was burned down in I860. He is 
professor of vocal music and harmony in King's, 
Queen's, and Bedford colleges, London, organ- 
ist of the Charterhouse, conductor of the or- 
chestra and chorus in the royal academy of 
music, and musical inspector for the United 
Kingdom. He is the author of numerous 
works, essays, and lectures on the science and 
history of music. 

Ill Ll'sctl. Friedrieh Otto, a German philologist, 
born in Dresden, July 22, 1833. He became 
a teacher at Leipsic in 1857, subsequently at 
Zwickau, and afterward at Dresden, where in 
1868 he became rector of the Krenzschule. 
His principal works are Oriechiache -and ro- 
mische Metrologie (Berlin, 1862), and editions 
of the ScriptoregMetroloffiei(Leips\c, 1864-' 6), 
of Heron's Geometrici et Stereometrici (Berlin, 
1864), of Censorinus De Die Natali (Leipsic, 
1867), and of the " Histories " of Polybius 
(Berlin, 1867-'72). 

IiniliKK, a river or estuary of England, sep- 
arating the counties of York and Lincoln. It 
is principally formed by the junction of the 
Ouse and the Trent. Its course is nearly E. as 
far as Hull, and S. E. thence to where it falls 
into the North sea. It is about 40 m. in length, 
and varies in breadth from 2 to 7 m. The 
chief towns on its banks are Hull, Goole, and 
Great Grimsby. By means of its numerous 
tributaries it drains an area of 10,000 sq. m. 
It is navigable for the largest ships to Hull, 20 
m. from the sea, and throughout for vessels 
of considerable burden. 

liniBOLDT. I. A N. W. central county of 
Iowa, intersected by the Des Moines river and 
its W. branch ; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
2,596. It has an undulating surface and a fer- 
tile soil. There are quarries of good building 
stone. The chief productions in 1870 were 
59,101 bushels of wheat, 107,950 of Indian 
corn, 60,316 of oats, 12,416 of potatoes, 83,985 
Ibs. of butter, and 9,133 tons of hay. There 
were 999 horses, 1,021 milch cows, 1,614 
other cattle, and 1,393 swine ; 1 saw mill, and 
2 flour mills. Capital, Dakota City. II. A 
N. W. county of California, bordering on the 
Pacific, and drained by Eel, Mad, and Bear 
rivers, and other streams; area, 2,800 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 6,140. Humboldt bay lies near 
the N. W. corner, and Cape Mendocino, the 
westernmost point of the state, projects into 
the Pacific near the centre of the coast line. 
The surface is mountainous, and mostly cov- 
ered with forests of redwood, pine, spruce, &c., 
which attain an enormous size. The bottom 
lands are fertile, but lumber is the chief source 



HOMBOLDT 



41 



of wealth. Petroleum lias been found in the 
S. part. The streams swarm with salmon. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 32,284 
bushels of wheat, 137,022 of oats, 31,907 of 
barley, 54,316 of peas and beans, 372,924 of 
potatoes, 112,580 Ibs. of butter, 51,867 of wool, 
and 7,426 tons of hay. There were 4,329 
horses, 5,691 milch cows, 12,056 other cattle, 
12,660 sheep, and 10,050 swine ; 3 manufac- 
tories of carriages, 1 flour mill, and 8 saw 
mills. Capital, Eureka. III. A N. W. county 
of Nevada, bordering on Oregon; area, 19,000 
sq. in. ; pop. in 1870, 1,916, of whom 220 were 
Chinese. The surface is generally mountain- 
ous, the E. portion being occupied by the Hum- 
boldt range. Humboldt, Reese, and Quins 
rivers, and other streams that lose themselves 
in " sinks," or lakes without outlet, water por- 
tions of the county. There are several lakes in 
the W. part. On Hnmboldt river and in Para- 
dise and other valleys is some arable land, and 
the hills afford grazing ; but the chief wealth 
is in the silver mines, which are mostly 8. of 
the Humboldt river. Gold, copper, and lead 
are also found. By the census of 1870, 14 
mines were returned, of which 12 were of sil- 
ver, 1 of gold, and 1 of lead. There were 10 
quartz mills, all except one for the production 
of silver. It is traversed by the Central Pa- 
cific railroad. The chief productions were 
4,419 bushels of wheat, 30,209 of barley, 5,504 
of potatoes, and 2,219 tons of hay. There were 
365 horses, 2,186 cattle, 700 sheep, and 786 
swine. Capital, Unionville. 

HIMBOLDT, Frledrleh Ilciiirich Alexander TOD, 
baron, a German naturalist, born in Berlin, 
Sept. 14, 1769, died there, May 6, 1859. He 
was less than ten years old at the death of his 
father, who had been adjutant of Duke Ferdi- 
nand of Brunswick in the seven years' war, 
and afterward a Prussian royal councillor. 
He and his elder brother Wilhelm were edu- 
cated at home, with special care in the natural 
sciences. In 1787 he studied at the university 
of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, returned to Berlin 
in the following year, and applied himself to 
the technology of manufactures and to the 
Greek language. An acquaintance with the 
botanist Willclenow led him to study the cryp- 
togamous plants and the family of grasses. He 
passed a year (1789-'90) at the university of 
Gottingen, studying philology under Heyne, 
and extending his knowledge of natural history 
under the guidance of Blumenbach, Lichten- 
berg, and others. His first published work, 
the fruit of an excursion from the university, 
was Ueber die Basalte am Shein, ndist Unter- 
gvcJmngen utter Syenit und Basanit der Alten 
(Berlin, 1790). A rapid journey which he 
made in 1790, in company with George For- 
ster, through the Low Countries, England, and 
France, gave him a desire to visit the tropics. 
He returned to Germany with the purpose 
of devoting himself to finance, and repaired 
to a mercantile academy at Hamburg, where 
he learned bookkeeping, familiarized himself 



with counting-house affairs, and practised the 
modern languages. On a visit to his mother 
in the following year he obtained permission 
to engage in practical mining ; and he went 
to the mining academy at Freiberg, where 
for eight months he enjoyed the private in- 
struction of Werner and the friendship of 
Freiesleben, Von Bnch, and Del Rio, the last 
of whom 12 years later he found settled in 
Mexico. He wrote while there a description 
of the subterranean flora and an account of his 
experiments on the color of plants withdrawn 
from the light and surrounded by irrespirable 
gases, entitled Flora Subterranea Fribergentis, 
et Aphorismi ex Physiologia Cfiemiea Planta- 
rum, which first appeared in 1793. With Frei- 
esleben he made the first geognostic descrip- 
tion of one of the Bohemian mountain ranges. 
In 1792 he was appointed assessor in the mi- 
ning department, and subsequently became 
superior mining officer in the Fichtelgebirge. 
In 1793-'4 he explored the mining districts in 
Upper Bavaria, Galicia, and various parts of 
Prussia. In 1794 he accompanied the minister 
Hardcnberg to Frankfort, and was employed 
in his cabinet correspondence. On his return 
he experimented on the nature of fire-damp 
in mines. In 1795 he made a geognostic jour- 
ney through Tyrol, Lombardy, and Switzer- 
land. In 1796 he was sent on a mission to 
the headquarters of Gen. Moreau in Swabia. 
From the time when he first heard of Gal- 
vani's discovery he had accumulated materials 
for his work Ueber die gereizte Mialcel- und 
Nercenfaser, nebst Vermuthungen uber den 
chemischen Process de Lebens in der Thier- 
und Pflanaenwelt (2 vols., Berlin, l797-'9). 
He also familiarized himself with practical 
astronomy, especially with the use of the sex- 
tant for determining geographical positions. 
On the death of his mother he resolved to 
prosecute his purpose of a great scientific 
expedition. Leaving Baireuth in 1797, he 
passed three months at Jena,' and then be- 
gan a second journey to Italy, with a desire to 
see the volcanoes Vesuvius, Stromboli, and 
Etna. The disturbed condition of Italy made 
his purpose impracticable, and he passed the 
winter in Salzburg and Berchtesgaden, occu- 
pied with meteorological observations. There 
ho accepted the invitation of Lord Bristol to 
accompany him on an excursion to Upper 
Egypt, intending also to proceed to Syria and 
Palestine. He visited Paris to procure the 
requisite scientific instruments, but in May, 
1798, he learned that Lord Bristol had been 
arrested at Milan charged with having secret 
political designs in Egypt. Remaining in 
Paris, ho became intimate with the future 
companion of his travels, the young botanist 
Bonpland. At this time the public were inter- 
ested in the voyage of circumnavigation which 
the directory had decreed and put under the 
command of Capt. Baudin. The expedition 
was to explore the E. and W. coasts of South 
America from Buenos Ayres to Panama, to 



HUMBOLDT 



touch at many islands of the South sea, New 
Zealand, and Madagascar, and to return by the 
capo of Good Hope. Humboldt received per- 
mission to join the expedition, and to leave it 
when and where he wished. After several 
months of suspense, the necessities of war 
obliged the government to postpone the under- 
taking. Thus disappointed in his hopes of 
travel, Humboldt accepted an invitation to 
accompany the Swedish consul Skjoldebrand, 
who had been appointed to carry presents to 
the dey of Algiers, and he intended to proceed 
by way of Tunis to Egypt. The delay of the 
Swedish frigate, and the news from Barbary 
that during the war between the Turks and 
French every person arriving from a French 
port was thrown into prison, thwarted this 
purpose. He therefore, in company with Bon- 
pland, resolved to spend the winter in Spain; 
and passing through Perpignan, Barcelona, 
Montserrat, and Valencia, making botanical, 
astronomical, and magnetic observations by 
the way, they reached Madrid in February, 
1799. lie was received with distinguished fa- 
vor, and the Saxon minister at Madrid, Baron 
Forell, having overcome the scruples of the 
Spanish government and procured for him an 
interview with King Charles IV., all the Span- 
ish possessions in Europe, America, and the 
East Indies were opened to him, with free 
permission to use all instruments for astro- 
nomical and geodetic observations, the meas- 
urement of mountains, the collection of objects 
of natural history, and investigations of every 
kind that might lead to the advancement of 
science. Such extensive privileges had never 
before been granted to any traveller. He left 
Madrid, measuring the elevations on his way 
through Old Castile, Leon, and Galicia, and 
on June 5, 1799, embarked with Bonpland in 
the frigate Pizarro from Corunna. Avoid- 
ing the English cruisers, they reached Tene- 
riffe on June 19, where they tarried to ascend 
the peak and 'to make many observations on 
the natural features of the island, and arriv- 
ed at Cumana, in Venezuela, July 16, 1799. 
After exploring the Venezuelan provinces for 
18 months, residing the latter part of the time 
at Caracas, they set out for the interior from 
Puerto Cabello over the grassy plains of Cala- 
bozo to the river Apure, a branch of the Orino- 
co. In Indian canoes they made their way to 
the most southern post of the Spaniards, Fort 
San Carlos, on the Rio Negro, within two de- 
grees of the equator. They could have ad- 
vanced only by taking their boats over land, 
and therefore returned through the Cassiquiare 
to the Orinoco, which they followed to Angos- 
tura, proceeding thence to Cumana, This 
journey through wild and unfrequented re- 
gions was the first which furnished any posi- 
tive knowledge of the long disputed bifurcation 
of the Orinoco. They sailed to Havana, but 
after a few months hastened to seek some 
southern port, hearing a false report that Bau- 
din, whom they had promised to join, had ap- 



peared on the W. coast of South America. 
They embarked in March, 1801, from Batabano, 
on the S. coast of Cuba. The season of the 
year forbade the execution of their plan of 
going to Cartagena and Panama, and they 
sailed for 54 days up the river Magdalena to 
Honda, in order to reach the high plateau of 
Bogota. Thence they made excursions to the 
most remarkable natural features of the sur- 
rounding country. In September, 1801, in 
spite of the rainy season, they began to jour- 
ney southward, passed Ibngua, the Cordillera 
de Quindiu (at an altitude of 12,000 ft., their 
highest encampment by night), Cartago, Po- 
payan, Almaguer, and the lofty plain of Los 
Pastos, and reached Quito, after experiencing 
the greatest difficulties for four months, Jan. 
6, 1802. The next five months they passed in 
investigations of the elevated vale of Quito, 
and of the snow-capped volcanoes which sur- 
round it, ascending some of these to heights 
not before attained. On Chimborazo they 
reached (June 23, 1802) the altitude of 19,286 
ft., about 3,500 ft. higher than the point reached 
by La Condamine on the Corazon in 1738, and 
they were prevented only by a deep crevasse 
from advancing to the summit. They were 
joined at Quito by a young scholar, Carlos 
Montufar, son of the marquis of Selvalegre, 
who attended them throughout their wander- 
ings in Peru and Mexico and back to Paris. 
Over the pass of the Andes in the paramo of 
Asuay, by Cuenca and Loja, they descended 
into the vale of the upper Amazon at Jaen de 
Bracamoras, and traversing the plateau of Ca- 
jamarca, by the mountain city Micuipampa (up- 
ward of 11,000 ft. high, near the silver mines 
of Chota), they reached the western declivity 
of the Peruvian Andes. From the summit of 
Guangamarca (about 9,500 ft. high) they en- 
joyed for the first time the long-sought view 
of the Pacific. They reached the coast at Tru- 
jillo, and travelled through the sandy deserts 
of Lower Peru to Lima. After one of the prin- 
cipal designs of their Peruvian journey, the ob- 
servation of the transit of Mercury over the sun, 
was fulfilled, they embarked from Callao in De- 
cember, 1802, and reached Acapulco in Mexico, 
March 23, 1803. They arrived in the city of 
Mexico in April, remained there a few months, 
and then visited Guanajuato and Valladolid, 
the province of Michoacan near the Pacific 
coast, and the volcano of Jorullo, which had 
first broken out in 1759, and returned by way 
of Toluca to the capital, where they remained 
long enough to arrange their rich collections 
and to reduce their various observations to 
order. In January, 1804, after having mea- 
sured the volcano of Toluca and the Cofre de 
Perote, they descended through the oak forests 
of Jalapa to Vera Cruz, where they escaped 
from the then prevalent yellow fever. They 
compared their barometric measurement of the 
eastern declivity of the highland of Mexico 
with that which they had formerly completed 
of the western declivity, and made a profile 



HUMBOLDT 



43 



of the country from sea to sea, the first that 
was ever given of any entire country. On 
Marcli 7, 1804, Humboldt sailed from the coast 
of Mexico for Havana, where during a two 
months' residence he completed the materials 
for his Eftai politiq-ue eur Vile de Cula (Paris, 
1820). He embarked thence with Bonpland 
and Montufar for Philadelphia, enjoyed a 
friendly reception at Washington from Presi- 
dent Jefferson, and leaving the new world 
landed at Bordeaux, Aug. 3, 1804, having 
spent five years in America, and gained a 
larger store of observations and collections in 
all departments of natural science, in geog- 
raphy, statistics, and ethnography, than all 
previous travellers. He selected Paris for his 
residence, and remained there till March, 1805, 
arranging his numerous collections and manu- 
scripts, and experimenting with Gay-Lussac 
in the laboratory of the polytechnic school on 
the chemical elements of the atmosphere. He 
was accompanied by Gay-Lussac in a visit to 
Rome and Naples, and also by Von Bnch on 
his return through Switzerland to Berlin, 
where, after an absence of nine years, he ar- 
rived Nov. 16, 1805. In the hope of modify- 
ing the ignominious treaty of Tilsit by nego- 
tiation, the government resolved in 1808 to 
send the young brother of the king, Prince 
William of Prussia, to the emperor Napoleon 
at Paris. During the French occupation of 
Berlin Hnmboldt had been busy in his garden, 
making hourly observations of the magnetic 
declination, and he now received the command 
of the king to accompany Prince William on 
his mission. As the condition of Germany 
made it impracticable to publish there his large 
scientific works, he was permitted by Frederick 
William III., as one of the eight foreign mem- 
bers of the French academy of sciences, to 
remain in Paris, which was his residence, ex- 
cepting brief periods of absence, from 1808 to 
1827. There appeared his Voyage aux regions 
eguinoxialea du nouveau monde (3 vols. fol., 
with an atlas, Paris, 1809-'25 ; translated into 
German, 6 vols., Stuttgart, 1825-'32). When 
in 1810 his elder brother resigned the direc- 
tion of educational affairs in Prussia to be- 
come ambassador at Vienna, the former post 
was urged upon Alexander von Humboldt ; 
but he declined it, as the publication of his 
astronomical, zoological, and botanical works 
was not yet far advanced. He had also already 
decided upon a second scientific expedition 
through upper India, the region of the Hima- 
. laya, and Thibet, in preparation for which he 
was diligently learning the Persian language. 
He accepted from Count Rumiantzeff in 1812 
an invitation to accompany a Russian expe- 
dition over Kashgar and Yarkand to the high- 
lands of Thibet, but the outbreak of war be- 
tween Russia and France caused the abandon- 
ment of the plan. The political events be- 
tween the peace of Paris and the congress of 
Aix-la-Chapelle gave him occasion for several 
excursions. He went to England in the suite of 



the king of Prussia in 1814, again in company 
with Arago when his brother Wilhelm was ap- 
pointed ambassador to London, and again in 
1818 with Valenciennes from Paris to London 
and from London to Aix-la-Chapelle, where 
the king and Hardenberg wished to have him 
near them during the congress. He also ac- 
companied the king to the congress of Verona 
and thence to Rome and Naples, and in 1827, 
at the solicitation of the monarch, gave up his 
residence in Paris, and returned by way of 
London and Hamburg to Berlin, where in the 
following winter he delivered public lectures 
on the cosmos. In 1829 began a new era in 
his active career. He undertook, under the 
patronage of the czar Nicholas, an expedition 
to northern Asia, the Chinese Dzungaria, and 
the Caspian sea, which was magnificently fit- 
ted out by the influence of the minister, Count 
Cancrin. The exploration of mines of gold 
and platinum, the discovery of diamonds out- 
side of the tropics, astronomical and mag- 
netic observations, and geognostic and botan- 
ical collections, were the principal results of 
this undertaking, in which Humboldt was ac- 
companied by Ehrenberg and Gustav Rose. 
Their course lay through Moscow, Kazan, and 
the ruins of old Bulgari to Yekaterinburg, 
the gold mines of the Ural, the platinum mines 
at Nizhni Tagilsk, Bogoslovsk, Verkhoturye, 
and Tobolsk, to Barnaul, Schlangenberg, and 
Ustkamengorsk in the Altai region, and thence 
to the Chinese frontier. From the snow-cov- 
ered Altai mountains the travellers turned to- 
ward the southern part of the Ural range, and, 
attended by a body of armed Cossacks, trav- 
ersed the great steppe of Ishim, passed through 
Petropavlovsk, Omsk, Miyask, the salt lake of 
Ilmen, Zlatusk, Taganai, Orenburg, Uralsk (the 
principal seat of the Uralian Cossacks), Sara- 
tov, Dubovka, Tzaritzyn, and the Moravian set- 
tlement Sarepta, to Astrakhan and the Cas- 
pian sea. They visited the Calmuck chieftain 
Sered Jab, and returned by Voronezh, Tula, 
and Moscow. The entire journey of over 10,- 
000 miles was made in nine months ; its results 
are given in Rose's Mineralogisch-ffeognostische 
Seise naeh dem Ural, dem Altai und dem Ifaspi- 
schen Meer (2 vols., Berlin, 1837 '42), and Hum- 
boldt's Asie centrale, reeherches sur lea chaines 
de montagnes et la climatologie comparee (3 
vols., Paris, 1843 ; translated into German by 
Mahlmann, 2 vols., Berlin, 1843-'4). This ex- 
pedition extended the knowledge of telluric 
magnetism, since in consequence of it tho 
Russian imperial academy established a series 
of magnetic and meteorological stations from 
St. Petersburg to Peking, an example which 
was followed by the British government in 
the southern hemisphere. The convulsions of 
1830 gave a more political direction to Hum- 
boldt's activity for several years, without in- 
terrupting his scientific career. He had ac- 
companied the crown prince of Prussia in May, 
1830, to Warsaw, to the last constitutional 
diet opened by the emperor Nicholas in per- 



44: 



IIUMBOLDT 



son, and he attended the king to the baths 
of Teplitz. On the news of the French revo- 
lution and the accession of Louis Philippe, he 
was selected to convey to Paris the Prussian 
recognition of the new monarch, and to send 
political advices to Berlin. The latter office 
fell to him again in 1834-'5, and he was called 
upon to fulfil it five times in the following 
twelve years, residing four or five months in 
Paris on each mission. To this period belongs 
the publication of his Examen critique de la 
geographie du nouneau continent (5 vols., Paris, 
1835-*8; translated into German by Ideler, 5 
vols., Berlin, 1836 et seq.). He made a rapid 
journey with King Frederick William IV. to 
England in 1841, to attend ttie baptism of the 
prince of Wales, to Denmark in 1845, and re- 
sided in Paris several months m'1847-'8, from 
which time he lived in Prussia, usually in 
Berlin, pursuing his scientific labors in his 
advanced ago with undiminished zeal and en- 
ergy. Humboldt was distinguished, as a man 
of science, for the comprehensiveness of his 
researches, and especially for the skill and 
completeness with which he connected his own 
observations with all the stores of previous 
knowledge, and for the clearness with which 
he expounded facts in their relations. This 
tendency appeared in one of his earliest works 
on the contraction of the muscles and nerves, 
in which, after the progress of physiology for 
more than half a century, may still be seen 
the sagacity of his experiments on galvanism, 
and the truth of most of the inferences which 
he drew. In his travels he measured eleva- 
tions, and investigated the nature of the soil 
and the thermometrical relations, at the same 
time collecting herbariums, and founding, by a 
combination of the materials in his hands, the 
new science of the geography of plants. Linnaaus 
and some of his successors had observed some 
of the more palpable phenomena of the migra- 
tions of plants, without, however, considering 
elevation or temperature. It remained for Hum- 
boldt to bring together the vast series of facts 
collected from the most remote points, to com- 
bine them with his own observations, to show 
their connection with the laws of physics, and 
to develop the principles in accordance with 
which the infinitely numerous forms of the 
vegetable world have been spread over the 
earth. He was the first to see that this dis- 
tribution is connected with the temperature 
of the air, as well as with the altitudes of the 
surface on which they grow, and he systema- 
tized his researches into a general exposition 
of the laws by which the distribution of plants 
is regulated. Connected with this subject he 
iiuule those extensive investigations into the 
mean temperature of a large number of places 
on the surface of the globe which led to the 
drawing of the isothermal lines, so important 
in their influence in shaping physical geography 
and giving accuracy and simplicity to the mode 
of representing natural phenomena. By as- 
sociating many important questions with bot- 



any, he made it one of the most attractive 
of the natural sciences. He showed the pow- 
erful influence exercised by vegetable nature 
upon the soil, upon the character of a people, 
and upon the historical development of the 
human race. This view of the connection be- 
tween the physical sciences and human history 
opened a path which has been followed by a 
school of subsequent investigators with novel 
and important results. Though wholly free 
from mystical meanings and obscure phrase- 
ology, his works are marked by poetical con- 
ceptions of nature wherever it is his aim to 
present broad and complete pictures. His de- 
lineations of the tropical countries give delight 
to readers who have no special knowledge of 
or interest in natural history. At the beginning 
of this century even the coasts of the immense 
Spanish colonies in America were scarcely 
known, and but little confidence was placed 
in the best maps. More than 700 places of 
which he made astronomical measurements 
were calculated anew by Oltmanns, whose work 
(2 vols., Paris, 1808-'10) forms the fourth part 
of Humboldt's " Travels." He himself made 
the map of the Orinoco and the Magdalena, 
and the greater part of the atlas of Mexico. 
He travelled with the barometer in his hands 
from Bogota to Lima, ascended the peaks of 
Teneriife, Chimborazo, and numerous other 
mountains, and made 459 measurements of al- 
titude, which were often confirmed by trigo- 
nometrical calculations. His measurements in 
Germany and Siberia, combined with those 
made by other travellers, furnished valuable 
results to geography, and were the foundation 
of theories of the dispersion of plants and ani- 
mals. Climatology was intimately connected 
with his researches. By his daily record of the 
meteorological, thermometrical, and electrical 
phenomena of the countries through which he 
passed, he instituted the science of comparative 
climatology. He was the first to entertain the 
idea of estimating the average elevation of con- 
tinents above the sea, previous geographers and 
geologists having considered only the altitude of 
mountain chains and of the lower lands. His 
principal works in this department are : Phy- 
sique generate et geologic (Paris, 1807); Essai 
geognostique sur le gisement des rochet dans les 
deux hemispheres (1823-'6); and Fragments de 
geologie et climatologie asiatique (2 vols., 1831 ; 
translated into German by Lowenberg, Berlin, 
1832). The phenomena of the volcanoes of 
South America and Italy he keenly observed 
and explained. With Bonpland he made very 
important observations on the sites, uses, and 
structure of plants. His principal botanical 
works are Essai sur la geographie des plantes 
(Paris, 1805), and De Distribution e GeograpTii- 
ca Plantarum secundum Cceli Temperiem et 
Altitudinem Montium (1817). The rich her- 
barium collected by him and Bonpland con- 
tained more than 5,000 species of phaneroga- 
mous plants, of which 3,500 were new. They 
were arranged and illustrated by Humboldt, 



HUMBOLDT 



Bonplnnd, and Kunth, in the following works, 
which form the sixth part of his "Travels:" 
Plantes equinoxiales, recueillies an Mexique, 
dam Pile de Cuba, &c. (2 vpls., 1809 et seq., with 
144 plates) ; Monographic des melastomes et 
autres genres du meme ordre (2 vols., 1809-'23, 
with 120 colored plates); Nona Genera et Spe- 
cies Plantarum, &c. (7 vols., 1815-'25, with 700 
plates) ; Mimoset et autres plantes legumineu- 
ses du nouveau continent (1819-'24, with 60 
plates) ; Synopsis Plantarum, &c. (4 vols., 
1822-'6); Revision des graminees (2 vols., 
1829-'34, with 220 colored plates). The zo- 
ological results of his travels are contained in 
his Recueil d? observations de zoologie et d'ana- 
tomie comparee (2 vols., 1805-'32), in the pub- 
lication of which he was aided by Cuvier, 
Latreille, and Valenciennes. Another costly 
work, the Vues des CordilUres et monuments 
des peuples indigenes de VAmerique (1810, with 
69 plates), contains elaborate pictures of the 
scenery of the Andes and of the monuments of 
the ancient civilization of the aborigines. The 
study of the great architectural works of the 
ancient Mexicans and Peruvians led Humboldt 
to investigations of their languages, records, 
early culture, and migrations. In this de- 
partment his treatment was peculiar, for his 
Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nowcelle 
Espagne (2 vols., 1811) contained statistics 
united with the facts of natural history, and 
presented various doctrines of political econo- 
my from a new point of view. Especially ori- 
ginal and influential were his reflections on the 
culture of the soil under different climates and 
on its effects upon civilization, and on the cir- 
culation of the precious metals. Besides his 
general works, he made many special investi- 
gations, as his treatise on the geography of the 
middle ages, in which he appears at once as 
historian, astronomer, and savant, his chemical 
labors with Gay-Lussac, his system of isother- 
mal lines, his experiments on the gymnotus 
and on the respiration of fishes, and numerous 
contributions to physical geography. Soon 
after his return from America he gave a gen- 
eral sketch of the results of his inquiries in 
his Ansiehten der Natur (Stuttgart, 1808), in 
which he aimed to present a picture of the 
physical world, exclusive of everything that 
relates to the turmoil of human society and 
the ambitions of individual men; and in the 
evening of his life ho determined to give a sys- 
tematic view of the results of his investigation 
and thought in the whole domain of natural 
science. This was the design of his Kosmos (5 
vols., Stuttgart, 1845-'62), which explains the 
physical universe according to its dependen- 
cies and relations, grasps nature as a whole 
moved and animated by internal forces, and 
by a comprehensive description shows the 
unity which prevails amid its variety. He 
lived to complete this work, but the last 
volume was published after his death. It was 
translated into almost all the European lan- 
guages, and has been without an equal in giving 



an impulse to natural studies. To his personal 
influence is due nearly all that the Prussian 
government did for science in the latter part 
of his life. Agassiz says of him : " The per- 
sonal influence he exerted upon science is in- 
calculable. With him ends a great period in 
the history of science ; a period to which Cu- 
vier, Laplace, Arago, Gay-Lussac, De Candolle, 
and Kobert Brown belonged." His personal 
habits were peculiar. He slept but four hours, 
rose at 6 in the winter and 5 in the summer, 
studied two hours, drank a cup of coffee, and 
returned to his study to answer letters, of 
which he received hundreds every day. From 
12 to 2 he received visits, and then returned to 
study till the dinner hour. From 4 till 11 he 
passed at the table, generally in company with 
the king, but sometimes at the meeting of 
learned societies or in the company of friends. 
At 11 he retired to his study, and his best 
books are said to have been written at mid- 
night. Many of the works of Humboldt are 
now almost inaccessible on account of their 
great cost. A new edition of his select works 
was published in Stuttgart in 1874, in 36 num- 
bers, including Kosmos, with a biographical 
sketch by Bernhard von Cotta ; Ansiehten der 
Natur, with scientific explanations ; and Seue 
in die Aequinoctialgegenden des neuen Conti- 
nents, by Hermann Hauff, the only authorized 
German translation of this work. English 
translations of his " Travels," " Views of Na- 
ture," and " Kosmos " are contained in Bonn's 
"Scientific Library," of which they constitute 
nine volumes. The translation of "Kosmos" 
has been republished in New York in 5 vols. 
12mo. The centenary of Humboldt's birth, 
Sept. 14, 1869, was celebrated in Germany 
and the United States, and eulogies were pro- 
nounced by many of the foremost scientific 
men of the day, among whom were Bastian, 
Dove, Ehrenberg, Virchow, and Agassiz. 
Many biographies of him have been published, 
the best being Alexander von Humboldt, eine 
wissenschaftliche Diographie, edited by Karl 
Bruhns, a joint production of Ave-Lallemant, 
Oarus, A. and H. W. Dove, Ewald, Grisebach, 
Lowenberg, Peschel, Wiedemann, Wandt, and 
the editor, aided by the friends and relatives 
of Humboldt, and by the Prussian government 
(3 vols., Leipsic, 1872 ; English translation by 
Jane and Caroline Lassells, "Life of Alexan- 
der von Humboldt," 2 vols., London, 1872). 
See also his Brief e an Varnhagen von Eme avs 
den Jahren 1827-'68, published by Ludmille 
Assing, with extracts from Varnhagen's diaries 
(Leipsic, 1860) ; and Les 'barons de Forell, by 
Alexandre Daguet (Lausanne, 1873), containing 
many letters of Humboldt and an interesting 
account of his negotiations in Madrid for the 
exploration of the Spanish possessions in both 
hemispheres. 

HMIIIOMIT, Karl \\ilhcliii von, baron, a Ger- 
man scholar, brother of the preceding, born in 
Potsdam, June 22, 1767, died at Tegel, April 
8, 1835. In 1788 he went to the university of 



HUMBOLDT 



Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and thence to Gottin- 
gen, where he studied philology tinder the 
care of Heyne. He here became intimate with 
George Forster, and through him with Jacobi 
and Johannes von Milller. When the French 
revolution broke out, Wilhelm Humboldt, who 
had long been a reader of Rousseau, went to 
Paris (July, 1789), in company with Campe; 
and the result of his observations there was a 
great distrust of many theories and abstract 
ideas which he had previously held. Two 
years later he published his first work on the 
subject, a memoir in the Berliner MonaUchrift 
(1792), entitled Ideen uber Staatsverfassung 
durchdie neue framijsisehe Constitution neran- 
Insat, in which he combated the possibility of 
establishing a constitution on untried theories. 
He discussed the subject more fully at a later 
date in a separate book : Idees sur un essai de 
determiner lea limites de faction qiie doit ex- 
ercer Vetat. After completing this work he 
laid it aside, judging the time inopportune for 
its publication, and afterward lost the manu- 
script, which was not found or published until 
after his death ; bnt there is every reason to 
believe that he always entertained the opinions 
expressed in it. The keynote of the work is 
individual liberty. It presents a lofty ideal of 
the rights and duties of the individual, and of 
the dignity and nobleness to which human na- 
ture is able and ought to attain. The govern- 
ment which hinders individual development 
the least is to him the best. About this time 
philology and archiBology had become promi- 
nent objects of investigation, and Humboldt, 
under the guidance of Heyne and Wolf, entered 
upon the study of Greek literature and art. 
An early result of his studies appeared in his 
" Essay on the Greeks " (1792). In July, 1791, 
he had married Caroline Dacheroden, a brilliant 
woman, who shared with him his Greek studies. 
In 1793, at Jena, he contracted with Schiller 
an intimacy which had great influence on his 
studies, the poet inducing him to apply him- 
self more closely to philosophy and (esthetics. 
To this intimacy was added that of Goethe, 
who was then writing " Hermann and Doro- 
thea." This work owed much to the criti- 
cisms and care of Humboldt, who not only 
superintended its printing, but wrote a com- 
mentary on it which ranks as a masterpiece 
of German criticism. In 1797, having lost his 
mother, he began his travels. After remain- 
ing with his family some time at Dresden, he 
went to Vienna and thence to Paris, where 
he arrived in November. He resided a year 
and a half in Paris, and then went to Spain, 
where he travelled during six months. At 
this time he was occupied with his system of 
comparative anthropology, or a philosophical 
history of mental development, in which every 
phase of literature should be traced to a corre- 
sponding civilization. This ho based on phi- 
lology, and his first studies were directed to 
the old Spanish languages, and particularly the 
Basque. He returned to Germany in isoi, 



and was soon after appointed Prussian resident 
minister in Rome, where he distinguished him- 
self as much in diplomacy as in letters. His 
knowledge of art enabled him to cultivate 
friendly personal relations, and his residence 
became a point of union for the most intelli- 
gent men in Rome. His letters to Goethe and 
Schiller, his translations of Pindar and ^Eschy- 
lus, and the poems written during this period, 
indicate great activity and versatility. In 1800 
the defeat of Prussia at Jena rendered his 
political position a most trying one. He re- 
mained unwillingly at Rome during 1807, be- 
ing desirous of contributing his aid to his 
country while recovering from its disasters. 
In 1808 he was recalled by family affairs, and 
was immediately appointed minister of state 
for the departments of religion, public educa- 
tion, and medical establishments. He was 
called under very trying circumstances, in 
January, 1809, to reorganize public instruction 
in Prussia ; and the prominent position which 
that country at present holds in education is 
in a great measure due to him. In the midst 
of the apathy and despondency bordering on 
despair which at that time affected the peo- 
ple and government of Prussia, he succeeded 
in establishing the university of Berlin, and 
from its foundation until his death his contri- 
butions formed the chief glory of its trans- 
actions. All his reforms were effected during 
a period of general confusion, and in the face 
of opposition which demanded great firmness, 
and often severity. When they were fairly es- 
tablished, he reentered the diplomatic service, 
and on June 14, 1810, was appointed minister 
at the court of Vienna. At Prague he met 
with the minister Stein, who was then flying 
from the pursuit of Napoleon, and with him 
concerted the part he was to take in the po- 
litical struggles of the day. Stein had been 
greatly interested in the energetic reforms of 
Humboldt, and now gave him his full confi- 
dence. His task at the court of Vienna was to 
effect the reconciliation of Prussia and Austria, 
to consolidate the strength of Germany, and to 
excite it against Napoleon. The difficulty of 
the effort was greatly increased by the passive 
position assumed by Austria after the campaign 
of 1809, and the marriage of Maria Louisa 
to Napoleon in 1810. Finally in 1813, when 
Prussia rose against Napoleon, the conference 
of Prague was held. At this most critical pe- 
riod the perseverance of Humboldt succeeded 
in overcoming the hesitation of Metternich. 
Stein, at least, declared that the new course 
taken by Austria was entirely due to Hum- 
boldt, and Talleyrand said of him that there 
were not in all Europe three statesmen of 
his ability. He manifested the same shrewd- 
ness, reserve, and energy at the conferences 
of 1813-'15 at Frankfort, Chatillon, Paris, and 
the congress of Vienna. But with the forma- 
tion of the treaty known as the "holy alli- 
ance " Humboldt had nothing to do, the em- 
peror of Russia insisting that the king of Prus- 



HUMBOLDT RIVER 



HUME 



47 



sia should not permit Ilumboldt to know any- 
thing of the treaty until it was concluded. 
During his diplomatic career he showed great 
genius in debate, quickness of reply, and 
a most delicate, cutting irony. In 1816 he 
went to Frankfort as ambassador, and in 1818 
to London and Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1819 
he was called to the ministry. At this time 
the king of Prussia determined not to in- 
troduce the representative system which he 
had promised to the people. Other points 
of difficulty arose, and Ilumboldt disagreed 
with his colleagues. By a decree of Dec. 
31, 1819, he was dismissed from the minis- 
try and deprived of his state appointments. 
He now retired to private life, and devoted 
himself to literature. His contributions to phi- 
lology from this time were very extensive, 
and of such importance that it has been said 
that before him great minds, such as Herder, 
Adelung, and Friedrich Schlegel, had led the 
way, hut Humboldt was the first who made of 
philology a science. Having formed the inten- 
tion to follow all the languages of the Pacific in 
detail in order to establish the connection be- 
tween India and Europe, he began with his 
work Ueber die ITawigprache auf der hud 
Java (3 vols. 4to, Berlin, 1836-'40), in which 
he traces the languages, history, and literature 
of the Malay races. The most valuable portion 
of the work is its introduction, Ueber die Ver- 
schiedenheit des mentchlichen SpracJibauet und 
ihren Einflitss avf die geistige Entwickelung 
des Henschengeschlechts. This was published 
separately (4to, Berlin, 1836), and embodies 
the conclusions at which he had arrived in 
regard to the origin, development, and na- 
ture of language in general. Besides this, his 
principal works are a number of criticisms col- 
lected in the Aesthetuehe Versuche (Bruns- 
wick, 1799); a translation of the "Agamem- 
non" of ^Eschylus, a work containing also 
valuable researches into the Greek language 
and metres; the BericJitigungen und Zusatze 
zu Adelunffs Mithridates (Berlin, 1817); Pru- 
fung der Untersuchungen iiber die Urbewohner 
Spanient, &c. (1821) ; BhagavadgTiita (1826) ; 
and Ueber den Dualis (1828). His collected 
works were published by his brother Alexander 
(7 vols. 8vo, Berlin, 1841-'52). His Briefe an 
eine Freundin (2 vols., Leipsic, 1847; 6th ed., 
1856; and in 1 vol., 2d ed., 1863; English 
translation by Catharine M. A. Couper, 2 vols., 
London, 1849), containing his letters to Char- 
lotte Diede, whose acquaintance he had made 
in Pyrmont in 1788, are renowned for beauty 
of thought and feeling. Among other English 
translations of his writings is " The Sphere 
and Duties of Government," by J. Coulthard 
(1854). The best biography of Wilhelm von 
Humboldt is by Haym (Berlin, 1856). His col- 
lection of MSS. and books he bequeathed to 
the royal library of Berlin. 

Ill MBOLDT RIVER, a stream which rises in 
the N. E. part of Nevada in Elko county, flows 
first W. by S., then bends N., and afterward 
417 VOL. ix. 4 



flowing S. S. W. loses itself after a winding 
course of about 300 m. in the Humboldt " sink " 
or lake, on the border of Humboldt and Chur- 
chill counties, in the W. part of the state. It is 
in no part more than a few yards wide, and is 
not navigable. It flows through a treeless re- 
gion, the valley, except immediately along the 
stream, consisting of sandy land covered with 
sage brush, which, however, by irrigation might 
be rendered productive. Numerous streams 
on either side of the valley rush down the 
mountain gorges, but sink before reaching the 
Humboldt, except in the case of a few in sea- 
sons of more than usual snow and rain in the 
mountains. Of these streams the principal are 
the Little Humboldt on the north, and Reese 
river on the south. Near its source in Elko 
county, the Humboldt receives its N. and S. 
forks. As the only considerable stream flowing 
E. and W. through the Great Basin, its valley 
formed the ordinary emigrant route from the 
Great Salt lake to California ; the Central Pa- 
cific railroad now follows its banks through- 
out its whole course. The Humboldt "sink" 
has no outlet, and is merely a marshy spot in 
a sandy plain, 10 or 15 m. long and 30 or 40 m. 
in circumference ; the extent of water surface 
is variable, the capacity of the sands to absorb 
and of the atmosphere to evaporate being gen- 
erally in excess of the supply from the river. 

Ill Ml), David, a Scottish historian, born in 
Edinburgh, April 26, 1711, died there, Aug. 25, 
1776. His father, proprietor of the estate of 
Ninewells in Berwickshire, died during David's 
infancy, leaving three children. Hume was 
intended for the bar. He passed through the 
university of Edinburgh, but was drawn away 
from his legal studies by that love for literature 
which became the ruling passion of his life. 
At 16 he was a skeptic in matters of religion. 
His inheritance as a younger son being small, 
in 1734 he entered a counting room at Bristol, 
whence after a few months he passed over into 
France, and lived for three years with great 
economy while composing his " Treatise of 
Human Nature." In 1738 he printed his work 
in London, which, as he says, " fell dead born 
from the press." Returning to live at Nine- 
wells, he printed anonymously at Edinburgh, 
in 1742, the first volume of his "Essays." He 
next sought a professorship in the Edinburgh 
university, but his skeptical principles pre- 
vented his success. In 1745 he went to live 
as companion to the insane marquis of Annan- 
dale. In 1746 Gen. St. Clair invited him to 
become his private secretary, in an expedition 
designed for the invasion of Canada, but which 
was finally directed against the coast of France. 
Hume was also made judge advocate in the 
army, and was highly popular with his military 
associates. When St. Clair went as minister 
to Turin, he took Hume with him as his secre- 
tary. On his way to Italy he passed through 
Germany, sailed down the Danube, and at 
Vienna was presented to the empress Maria 
Theresa. While at Turin, his "Inquiry con- 



HUME 



cerning the Human Understanding," a new cast- 
ing of the unfortunate " Treatise," was printed 
at London. On his return from Italy in 1749, he 
lived with his brother and sister at Ninewells, 
his mother being now dead, and there wrote 
the " Inquiry concerning the Principles of 
Morals" and his " Political Discourses" (1752). 
In 1752, after strong opposition, he was chosen 
librarian of the advocates' library of Edinburgh, 
and now began his " History of England." 
The first volume of the " History of the House 
of Stuart," containing the reigns of James I. and 
Charles I., came out toward the end of 1754, 
and was unfavorably received. In 1756 he 
published a second volume, embracing the 
reigns of Charles II. and James II., which was 
better received. Hume had now formed a 
wide acquaintance among the professional and 
literary men of Scotland, his amiable manners 
and pure morals having conquered the preju- 
dices excited by his skeptical opinions. The 
general assembly of 1755, however, condemned 
his writings, and even threatened him with 
excommunication. In 1757 appeared his " Nat- 
ural History of Keligion," which Dr. Hurd 
attacked in a violent pamphlet. Hume mean- 
while became the patron of the rising litera- 
ture of Scotland. He aided the blind poet 
Blacklock, and encouraged Wilkie, author of 
the " Epigoniad." Toward the end of 1758 he 
went to London to publish the " History of the 
House of Tudor." It appeared in 1759, and 
was severely criticised. In 1761 he published 
two volumes containing the earlier portion of 
the English annals. He proposed to write two 
more volumes to embrace the reigns of William 
III. and Anne, but this design was not fulfilled. 
By the sale of his copyrights he had now gath- 
ered a moderate fortune, and lived in Edin- 
burgh in philosophic ease. But in 1763 the 
marquis of Hertford invited him to accompany 
him to Paris, where the marquis was appointed 
minister. Hume at first declined the invitation, 
but finally attended the marquis, and was re- 
ceived at Paris with signal distinction. The 
whole royal family, the French philosophers, 
the nobility, and particularly the ladies of high 
rank and fashion, overwhelmed him with their 
attentions ; and Hume wrote to his friends in 
Scotland that Louis XIV. had never suffered 
so much flattery in three weeks as he had done. 
When Lord Hertford left Paris Hume became 
charge d'affaires. In the beginning of 1766 he 
returned to England, bringing with him Eous- 
seau, who sought there a refuge from persecu- 
tion ; he provided him with retired lodgings 
in Derbyshire, and obtained for him a pension 
from the king. But Rousseau soon afterward 
wrote a letter to Hume, accusing him of desiring 
to destroy his fame. Their quarrel made a 
great sensation, and Hume in self-defence pub- 
lished the letters that had passed between 
them. In 17G6 Hume went to Edinburgh, but 
was invited by Gen. Conway the next year to 
become under secretary of state. He remained 
in London until Conway was superseded, and 



in 1769 returned to Edinburgh. His income 
being now 1,000 a year, he engaged in build- 
ing a house, and in the pleasures of society. 
In March, 1775, his health began to decline. 
The next spring he wrote a congratulatory let- 
ter to Gibbon, who had sent him the first vol- 
ume of the "Decline and Fall." In April, 
1776, he finished his "Own Life," a concise 
narrative of his literary career. After a jour- 
ney to Bath he returned to Edinburgh to die. 
Five days before his death he wrote to the 
countess de Boufflers : " I see death gradually 
approach without any anxiety or regret." He 
was buried in Calton hill graveyard, Edin- 
burgh, where a monument to him was erected. 
As a historian Hume holds a high rank among 
English writers. His narrative is interesting, 
his style clear, and with happy ease he blends 
profound thought, distinct portraiture, and 
skilful appeals to the feelings. He lacks, how- 
ever, accuracy and impartiality. His philo- 
sophical writings do not form a complete sys- 
tem. He discussed detached questions of meta- 
physics, and aimed at the refutation of what 
he considered erroneous opinions rather than 
at the attainment of positive results. He re- 
garded utility as the basis of morals, maintain- 
ing that the moral quality of actions was to 
he decided by their consequences. He asserts 
that the mind is conscious only of impressions 
and ideas, the latter following the former, and 
that there is no clearer proof of the existence 
of the mind than there is of matter. He traces 
the course of thought to the law of association, 
which he founds upon resemblance, contiguity, 
and cause and effect. But the doctrine of 
cause and effect is only a habit of the mind, 
resulting from experience. Thus all is uncer- 
tainty, and the mind reduced to skepticism. 
His history was continued by Smollett down 
to the death of George II., and after that by 
various authors. A new edition of his " Phil- 
osophical Works," edited by T. H. Green and 
T. H. Grose, has been commenced in London 
(4 vols., 1874 et seq.). See "Life and Corre- 
spondence of David Hume," edited by John 
Hill Burton (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1847). 

HUME, Joseph, a British statesman, born in 
Montrose, Scotland, in January, 1777, died in 
Burnley hall, Norfolk, Feb. 20, 1855. At about 
the age of nine he lost his father, the master 
of a small vessel, but was enabled by his moth- 
er, who established a crockery shop in Mont- 
rose, to receive a tolerable education. About 
1790 he was placed with an apothecary of 
Montrose, and three years later he became a 
student of medicine at the university of Edin- 
burgh, where he remained till 1796, when he 
was admitted a member of the college of sur- 
geons of Edinburgh. Being appointed surgeon 
to an East Indiaman, he made two voyages to 
India, and in 1799 joined the medical establish- 
ment in Bengal. Finding that few of the com- 
pany's servants had acquired the native lan- 
guages, he applied himself to the study of them, 
and was soon able to speak them with fluency. 



HUMMEL 



HUMMING BIRD 



49 



At the outbreak of the Mahratta war he was 
attached to the army, and upon a sudden 
emergency officiated as Persian interpreter 
with so much efficiency, that he was appointed 
to that office permanently. At the same time 
he was at the head of the medical staff 1 , and 
for long periods acted as paymaster, post- 
master, prize agent, and commissary general. 
These employments brought him reputation 
and emoluments; and in 1808 he was able to 
retire from professional life, and to return to 
England with a considerable fortune. For 
several years he devoted himself to travel and 
study. In January, 1812, he was for a valuable 
consideration returned to the house of com- 
mons for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, 
commencing his political career as a tory. 
Before the parliament was dissolved, in the 
succeeding July, he opposed a ministerial mea- 
sure for the relief of the Nottingham frame- 
work knitters, on the ground that the masters 
would be thereby so much injured that the 
workmen would be reduced to a worse state 
than before. This so alarmed the conservative 
patrons of his borough that at the next elec- 
tion they refused him a seat, although he had 
bargained for a second return. This proceeding 
probably opened the eyes of the new member 
to the evils of the borough system, for, although 
oifered seats from other boroughs, he refused 
to enter parliament again except as a perfectly 
free member, a contingency which did not oc- 
cur for several years. During this interval he 
busied himself with a variety of projects for 
the improvement of the laboring classes ; but 
his chief efforts were directed against the 
abuses of the East India direction. In Janu- 
ary, 1819, he reentered parliament as a radical 
member for the Aberdeen district of burghs, 
comprehending his native town, Montrose. He 
continued to represent the Scotch burghs till 
1830, when he was returned unopposed as one 
of the members for Middlesex. In 1837 he 
was defeated, but was immediately returned 
through the interest of Mr. O'Connell for Kil- 
kenny, which he represented till 1841, when 
he was an unsuccessful candidate for the town 
of Leeds. In the succeeding year he offered 
himself once more to the electors of Montrose, 
in whose service he died. His legislative zeal 
and labors were hardly equalled by those of 
the most eminent of his contemporaries. He 
urged reforms in every department of gov- 
ernment ; and he lived to see the adoption of 
almost every important measure which he had 
advocated. In 1859 a statue of him was erect- 
ed in his native town. 

HUMMEL, Johann IVepomnk, a German compo- 
ser, born in Presbnrg, Hungary, Nov. 17, 1778, 
died at Weimar, Oct. 17, 1837. At seven years 
of age he showed so much talent that Mozart 
assumed the direction of his musical studies. 
Later he received lessons in harmony, accom- 
paniment, and counterpoint from Albrechts- 
berger, and valuable suggestions from Salieri. 
In 1803 he entered the service of Prince Ester- 



hazy, and composed his first mass, which won 
the approval of Haydn. From 1811 to 1816 
he taught at Vienna, and after that was suc- 
cessively chapelmaster to the king of Wurtem- 
burg and the grand duke of Saxe-Weimar. He 
made many tours through Germany, France, 
Great Britain, and Russia, winning renown as 
a pianist. He excelled as a pianist, improvisa- 
tor, and composer. His improvisations were 
remarkable for their originality and brilliancy, 
and were so carefully worked out as to have 
all the character of finished compositions. He 
took high rank as a composer, but it was un- 
fortunate for his reputation that he was the 
contemporary of Beethoven, by whose genius 
he was overshadowed. He composed for the 
stage, the church, and the concert room. His 
compositions of the first class consist of ope- 
ras, pantomimes, and ballets ; of the second, of 
three masses for voice, organ, and orchestra. 
The third class is the most numerous, consist- 
ing of concerted pieces for various instruments, 
trios, quartets, quintets, and septets, with many 
works for the piano alone. He wrote also a 
complete pianoforte method, which in spite of 
its many merits has been superseded by later 
works in stricter relation to the requirements 
of modern art. 

Hl'MMIM BIRD, the common name of a large 
family (trochilidoe) of beautiful slender-billed 
birds, found in America and its adjacent islands. 
There are three subfamilies, grypina or wedge- 
tailed humming birds, lamporninas or curved- 
billed humming birds, and trochilince or 
straight-billed humming birds. The most bril- 
liant species live in the tropical forests, amid 
the rich drapery of the orchids, whose mag- 
nificent blossoms rival the beauty of the birds 
themselves. As we leave the tropics their 
numbers decrease, and but a few species are 
found within the limits of the United States, 
some however reaching as high as lat. 57 N. 
In whatever latitude, their manners are the 
same ; very quick and active, almost constantly 
on the wing, as they dart in the bright sun they 
display their brilliant colors. When hovering 
over a flower in which they are feeding, their 
wings are moved so rapidly that they become 
invisible, causing a humming sound, whence 
their common name, their bodies seeming sus- 
pended motionless in the air. They rarely 
alight on the ground, but perch readily on 
branches; bold and familiar, they frequent 
gardens in thickly settled localities, even en- 
tering rooms, and flitting without fear near 
passers by ; they are very pugnacious, and will 
attack any intruder coming near their nests. 
The nest is delicate but compact, and lined 
with the softest vegetable downs ; it is about 
an inch in diameter, and the same in depth, 
and placed on trees, shrubs, and reeds. The 
eggs, one or two in number, average about 
one half by one third of an inch, and are 
generally of a white color, and hatched in 10 
or 12 days. It is very difficult to keep these 
birds in cages; but they have been kept in 



50 



HUMMING BIRD 



rooms and conservatories for months, feeding 
on sugar or honey and water and the insects 
attracted by these, and have become so tame 
as to take their sweetened fluids from the end 
of the finger. They are incidentally honey eat- 
ers, but essentially insectivorous ; their barbed 
and viscid tongue is admirably adapted for 
drawing insects from the depths of tubular 
flowers, over which they delight to hover. The 
family of trochilidce may be recognized by their 
diminutive size, gorgeous plumage, long, slen- 
der, and acute bill, but little cleft at the base, 
and peculiar tongue ; the species are very nu- 
merous, probably as many as 400, some of 
which have a very limited range. The bill 
when closed forms a tube, through which the 
long, divided, and thread-like tongue may be 
protruded into deep flowers; there are no 
bristly feathers around its base, as in birds 
which catch insects on the wing ; the tongue 
has its cornua elongated backward, passing 
around the back to the top of the skull, as in 
woodpeckers; the wings are long and falci- 
form, with very strong shafts, the first quill of 
the ten the longest; the secondaries usually 
six ; the tail is of various forms, but always 
strong, and important in directing the flight ; 
the tarsi short and weak ; the toes long and 
slender, and capable of sustaining them in a 
hanging position, as is known from their be- 
ing not unfrequently found hanging dead from 
branches in the autumn after a sudden cold 
change in the weather. The subfamily gry- 
pina have the bill slightly curved, and the 
tail long, broad, and wedge-shaped; of these 




Ruff-necked Humming Bird (Selasphorus rnftisl 
1. Male. 2. Female. 

the genus phatornis (Swains.) is found in the 
warmer parts of South America, and is nu- 
merous in species; oreotrochihis (Gould) in- 
habits the mountains of the western side of 
South America immediately beneath the line 



of perpetual snow, feeding upon the small he- 
mipterous insects which resort to the flowers ; 
gryput (Spix) is found in the neighborhood of 
Rio de Janeiro. The ruff-necked humming bird 
(selatphorus riifui, Swains.), of the western 




Anna Humming Bird (Atthis Anna). 
1. Male. 2. Female. 

parts of North America, is about 3J in. long, 
with a wedge-shaped tail; in the male the 
upper parts, lower tail coverts, and tail are 
cinnamon-colored, the latter edged or streaked 
with purplish brown ; throat coppery red, with 
a ruff, and below it a white collar ; in the fe- 
male the back is greenish, and the metallic 
reflections are less brilliant. The Anna hum- 
ming bird (Atthis Anna, Reich.) is somewhat 
larger, also inhabiting California and Mexico; 




Mango Humming Bird (Lampoon's mango). 
1. Male. 2. Female. 

the tail is deeply forked ; top of head, throat, 
and ruff metallic red, with purple reflections ; 
rest of upper parts and band on breast green ; 
tail purplish brown ; in the female the tail 
is somewhat rounded, barred with black and 



HUMMING BIRD 



HUMPHREYS 



51 



tipped with white, and the general color above 
metallic green. A second species of the last 
two genera is described by Prof. Baird in vol. 
ix. of the Pacific railroad reports. The curved- 
hilled humming birds, more than 100 species, 
are not represented in the United States, un- 
less the mango humming bird (lampornis man- 
go, Swains.) be admitted ; this may be distin- 
guished from the common species by the ab- 
sence of metallic scale-like feathers on the 
throat, and by the serrations of the end of the 
bill ; the prevailing colors are metallic green 
and golden above, and velvety bluish black be- 
low, with a tuft of downy white feathers under 
the wings. The common species throughout 
the eastern states, extending to the high cen- 
tral plains, and south to Brazil, is the ruby- 
throated humming bird (trochilus coliibris, 
Linn.). The length of this "glittering frag- 
ment of the rainbow " (as Audubon calls it) 
is about 3J in. with an extent of wings of 4i 




Baby-throated Humming Bird (Trocbilua colubris). 

in. ; the upper parts are uniform metallic green, 
with a ruby red gorget in the male, a white 
collar on the throat, and the deeply forked tail 
brownish violet ; the female has not the red 
throat, and the tail is rounded, emarginate, and 
banded with black. The corresponding spe- 
cies on the Pacific coast is the black-chinned 
T. Alexandri (Bourc. and Mulsant). The last 
two belong to the subfamily of troehilinas or 
melluuyina, having straight bills ; their genus 
is given by Gray as mellisuga (Briss.), of which 
there are more than 100 species. The largest 
of the humming birds belongs to this subfam- 
ily, and is the hylncJiaris gigat (Vieill.); it is 
nearly 8 in. long, brownish green above and 
light reddish below ; the wings are longer than 
the deeply forked tail, and the general appear- 
ance is that of a brilliant swallow, with a long 
straight bill. Those wishing to study in detail 
the complicated arrangement of this beauti- 
ful family are referred to the illustrated works 
of Lesson, Temminck, Audobert, and Vieillot, 



and especially to Gould's monograph on the 
trocliilidce ; also to vote. xiv. and xv. of the 
"Naturalists' Library." 

HUMPHREY, Heman, an American clergyman, 
born in Simsbury, Conn., March 26, 1779, died 
in Pittsfield, Mass., April 3, 1861. From the 
age of 16 he was engaged for several succes- 
sive winters as a teacher in common schools. 
He graduated at Yale college in 1805, studied 
theology, and was pastor of the Congregational 
church in Fairfield, Conn., from 1807 to 1817, 
and in Pittsfield, Mass., from 1817 to Octo- 
ber, 1823, when he became president of Am- 
herst college, then unincorporated. Principally 
through his influence it obtained an act of in- 
corporation the next year, and he presided 
over it till 1845, when he resigned, and devoted 
himself to literary pursuits, residing in Hat- 
field, Mass., and afterward in Pittsfield. He 
was one of the earliest advocates of the tem- 
perance cause. In 1810 he preached six ser- 
mons on intemperance, and in 1813 drew up a 
report to the Fairfield consociation which is 
believed to have been the earliest tract on the 
subject. Among his writings are : a prize 
essay on "The Sabbath" (1830); "Tour in 
France, Great Britain, and Belgium " (2 vols. 
12mo, New York, 1838); "Domestic Educa- 
tion " (1840) ; " Letters to a Son in the Minis- 
try " (Amherst, 1845) ; " Life and Writings of 
N. W. Fiske" (1850); " Life and Writings of 
T. H. Gallaudet" (1857); "Sketches of the 
History of Revivals" (1859); and "Revival 
Sketches" (1860). A volume entitled "Me- 
morial Sketches of Heman and Sophia Hum- 
phrey," by Z..M. Humphrey and Henry Neill, 
was printed for the use of the family. 

HUMPHREYS, a N. W. county of Tennessee, 
bounded E. by Tennessee river, and intersected 
near its S. border by Duck river, a tributary 
of the former stream ; area, 375 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 9,326, of whom 1,295 were colored. 
The surface is moderately uneven, and the soil 
is fertile. The Nashville and Northwestern 
railroad passes through it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 27,783 bushels of wheat, 
491,355 of Indian corn, 29,967 of oats, 62,766 
of peas and beans, 18,502 of Irish and 17,829 
of sweet potatoes, 113,177 Ibs. of tobacco, 
and 107 bales of cotton. There were 1,971 
horses, 914 mules and asses, 2,355 milch cows, 
4,488 other cattle, 8,937 sheep, and 18,418 
swine; 1 manufactory of woollen goods, 1 of 
ground bark, 2 saw mills, 6 tanneries, and 6 
currying establishments. Capital, Waverley. 

HUMPHREYS, Andrew Atkinson, an American 
soldier, bora in Pennsylvania about 1812. He 
graduated at West Point in 1831, and served 
mainly in topographical duty till 1836, when 
he resigned his commission in the army, and 
became a civil engineer in the United States 
service. In 1838 he was reappointed in the 
army, serving generally in the topographical 
department, and from 1844 to 1849 hnd charge 
of the coast survey office at Washington. In 
1849-'50 he was engaged in making topographic 



52 



HUMPHREYS 



HTJNFALVY 



and hydrographic surveys of the delta of the 
Mississippi, continuing in general charge of the 
work till 1861, when he published a volumi- 
nous and very valuable "Report upon the 
Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi Riv- 
er." During the civil war he was on the staff 
of McClellan until his supersedure by Burnside, 
was made brevet colonel for his services in the 
battle of Fredericksburg, commanded a divi- 
sion at Chancellorsville and at Gettysburg, and 
after the last battle became chief of the staff 
of Gen. Meade, being appointed major general 
of volunteers, July 8, 1863. He took an ac- 
tive part in the campaigns of 1864 and 1865, 
succeeding Hancock in the command of the 
2d corps. He was brevetted brigadier gen- 
eral in the regular army for gallant conduct at 
Gettysburg, and major general for services at 
the battle of Sailor's Oreek, the closing battle 
of the war (April 7, 1865). From July to De- 
cember, 1865, he commanded the district of 
Pennsylvania, and thereafter he was in charge 
of the examination of the Mississippi levees till 
August, 1866, when he was appointed chief of 
engineers of the United States army, with the 
rank of brigadier general. 

HUMPHREYS, David, an American poet, born 
in Derby, Conn., in July, 1752, died in New 
Haven, Feb. 21, 1818. He was educated at 
Yale college, entered the army at the begin- 
ning of the revolutionary war, and in 1780 
became a colonel and aide-de-camp to Wash- 
ington. He resided more than a year with 
Washington after his retirement to Virginia, 
and again in 1788. He accompanied Jefferson 
to Europe as secretary of legation in 1784, 
was elected to the legislature of Connecticut 
in 1786, and was soon associated with Lemuel 
Hopkins, John Trumbull, and Joel Barlow in 
the composition of the " Anarchiad," a series 
of poems which appeared in the " New Haven 
Gazette " and the " Connecticut Magazine." 
These poems were satirized as being the pro- 
duction of "four bards with Scripture names." 
An edition of them, purporting to be "the 
first published in book form, edited, with notes 
and appendices, by Luther G. Riggs," was pub- 
lished at New Haven in 1861. Humphreys 
was minister to Lisbon from 1791 to 1797, and 
afterward minister to Spain till 1802, and on 
his return imported from Spain 100 merino 
sheep, and engaged in the manufacture of 
woollens. He held command of two Connec- 
ticut regiments in the war of 1812, after which 
he lived in retirement. His principal poems 
are : an " Address to the Armies of the United 
States" (1782); a "Poem on the Happiness 
of America ;" a tragedy, entitled " The Widow 
of Malabar," translated from the French of 
Le Mierre; and a "Poem on Agriculture." 
His " Miscellaneous Works " (New York, 1790 
and 1804) contain besides his poems a biogra- 
phy of Gen. Putnam and several orations and 
other prose compositions. 

HUMUS (Lat. humua, the soil), vegetable 
mould, or the product of the decay of vegeta- 



ble matter. When portions of a decayed stump 
or the decayed matter of peat is digested in 
a weak solution of caustic potash or soda, a 
brown liquid is formed, which on the addition 
of an acid deposits a dark brown precipitate. 
This is a mixture, according to Mulder, of three 
substances, which he considers as compounds 
of water, or of water and ammonia, with three 
different acids, viz. : 1, geic acid, CsolInCX ; 
2, humic acid, CjoIInOt ; 3, ulmic acid, Cjo 
Hi 4 O 6 . It has been doubted, however, wheth- 
er humus has so definite a composition. Mul- 
der also found that the brown substances form- 
ed by the prolonged action of boiling dilute 
acids upon sugar resemble ulmic and humic 
acids derived from mould, both in chemical 
composition and properties. Humus may be 
regarded as in a state of continuous decompo- 
sition or eremacausis, a species of slow com- 
bustion (see EREMAOAUSIS), in which the hy- 
drogen of the vegetable matter is more rapidly 
removed by oxidation than the carbon, so that 
it contains an excess of the latter element. 
The formation of water, carbonic acid, and 
ammonia, and the elimination of mineral con- 
stituents in the decay of woody fibre is one 
cause of the beneficial action of vegetable ma- 
nures in promoting the growth of plants. 

HUMUYA, a river of Honduras, rising at the 
S. extremity of the plain of Comayagua, and 
flowing due N. for a distance of about 100 m. 
to a point N. of the town of Yojoa, where it 
unites with the rivers Blanco and Santiago or 
Venta, forming the great river Ulua, which 
falls into the bay of Honduras, about 25 m. 
N. E. of the port of Omoa. For the greater 
part of its course it is a rapid stream, and only 
navigable for canoes. It is principally inter- 
esting in connection with the interoceanic rail- 
way through Honduras, in course of construc- 
tion (1874) through its valley. Comayagua, 
the capital of Honduras, stands on its E. bank. 

HUNDRED, the name given in some parts of 
England to the subdivision of a shire, which 
may have received the appellation from having 
comprised 100 families, 100 warriors, or 100 
manors. The existing divisions of this name 
differ greatly in area and population. The 
hundred is by some considered to have been 
a Danish institution, adopted by King Alfred 
about 897, each county being divided into 
tithings, of which 10 or 12 made a hundred, 
presided over by a decanus, head borough, or 
hundred man. The hundreds were represent- 
ed in the "shiremote," which, under the presi- 
dency of its earl and bishop or sheriff, regula- 
ted the affairs of the county. The jurisdiction 
of the hundred was vested in the sheriff, al- 
though it was sometimes a special grant from 
the crown to individuals, and lie or his deputy 
held a court baron, or court leet. The hun- 
dred was held responsible for felons until de- 
livered up. The townships of the state of 
Delaware are called hundreds. 

HUNFALVY. I. PSI, a Hungarian philologist, 
born at Nagy-Szalok, March 12, 1810. He 



HUNGARY 



53 



became in 1842 professor of jurisprudence at 
Kasmark, was a member of the Hungarian 
diet of 1848-'9, and has since lived in Pestb. 
He has written and edited a number of philo- 
logical and ethnological publications, inclu- 
ding Chrestomathia Fennica (Pesth, 1861), and 
"The Land of the Voguls" (3 vols., 1863), 
after the accounts of the Hungarian traveller 
Keguly. II. Janos, a Hungarian geographer, 
brother of the preceding, born at Gross-Schla- 
gendorf, June 8, 1820. He became in 1846 
professor of statistics and history at Kasmark, 
took part in the revolutionary movement of 
1848-'9, and was imprisoned, but in 1850 re- 
sumed his duties at Kasmark, and was sub- 
sequently suspended for advocating the in- 
dependence of Protestant education. He re- 
moved to Pesth in 1853, and became professor 
of statistics, geography, and history at the 
polytechnic institute of Buda. His works in- 
clude a " Universal History " (3 vols., Pesth, 
3d ed., 1862), "Physical Geography of Hun- 
gary " (3 vols., 1863-'6), the text to the pic- 
torial work "Hungary and Transylvania" (3 
vols., Darmstadt, 1859-'64), and a Hungarian 
edition of the " Travels " of Ladislas Magyar 
(Pesth, 1859). 

HUNGARY (Hung. Magyarorszdg, Magyar 
land ; Ger. Ungarn), a country of Europe, for- 
merly an independent kingdom, subsequently 
united with Austria, from 1849 to 1867 a crown- 
land or province of the latter, and since 1867 one 
of the two main divisions of the Austro-Hun- 
garian monarchy. Before 1849 it embraced 
in a constitutional sense, besides Hungary 
proper, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Hungarian 
Littorale (coast land on the Adriatic), and in 
its widest acceptation also Transylvania, the 
Military Frontier, and Dalmatia, with an ag- 
gregate population of about 15,000,000. All 
these dependencies were in 1849 detached, and 
besides them from Hungary proper the coun- 
ties of Middle Szolnok, Zarand, and Kraszna, 
and the district of Kovar, to be reunited with 
Transylvania, and the counties of Bacs, Toron- 
tal, Temes, and Krasso, to form the new crown- 
land of the Servian Waywodeship and Banat. 
In 1867 the changes made in 1849 were re- 
pealed; the Waywodeship was abolished, Tran- 
sylvania reunited with Hungary, and Croatia 
and Slavonia recognized as a dependency of 
the Hungarian crown, which has its own pro- 
vincial assembly, but also sends deputies to 
the Hungarian diet, and is subordinate to the 
Hungarian ministry. The Military Frontier, 
which formerly had its separate administration, 
was destined to gradual incorporation partly 
with Hungary proper and partly with Croatia. 
Dalmatia was united with Cisleithan Austria. 
Thus Hungary in the wider sense, also called 
Transleithania or Transleithan Austria, from 
the little river Leitha which constitutes part of 
the frontier between the two main divisions of 
the monarchy, now comprises (the reorgani- 
zation of the Military Frontier having become 
complete in 1873) Hungary proper, Transyl- 



vania, Croatia and Slavonia, and Fiume. The 
lands of the Hungarian crown have in common 
with Cisleithan Austria an imperial ministry, 
consisting of the departments of foreign afl'airs 
and the imperial house, of finances, and of war. 
In the article AUSTEIA we have treated of the 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy as a whole ; and 
the articles CROATIA, MILITARY FRONTIER, SLA- 
VONIA, and TRANSYLVANIA will contain what is 
or lately was peculiar to those sections. In 
this article we shall treat of the lands of the 
Hungarian crown with special reference to that 
section which is called Hungary proper. Hun- 
gary (in the wider sense) is situated between lat. 
44 11' and 49 35' N., and Ion. 14 25' and 26 
30' E., and is bounded N. E., N., and W. by Cis- 
leithan Austria, S. and E. by the Turkish prov- 
inces and dependencies Bosnia, Servia, and 
Roumania. The total area of the lands of the 
Hungarian crown is 125,045 sq. m., of which 
87,045 belong to Hungary proper. The popu- 
lation, according to the census of 1869, was 
15,509,455, of whom 11,530,397 lived in Hun- 
gary proper. Hungary in its chief parts forms 
a large basin surrounded almost entirely by 
mountain ranges, of which the principal are : 
the Carpathians, which encircle the north, with 
their various offshoots, the Hungarian Ore 
mountains between the Waag and the Eipel, 
the Matra E. of the preceding, and the wine- 
growing Hegyalja between the Theiss and the 
Hernad ; the Leitha range, the wooded Ba- 
kony, and the Vertes, mostly continuations of 
the Noric and Carnic Alps, in the S. W. divi- 
sion ; and the Transylvanian Alps on the S. E. 
frontier. The chief artery of the country is the 
Danube, which enters it between Vienna and 
Presburg, and on its course to the Black sea 
receives the waters of .all the other rivers, ex- 
cepting only the Poprad, which rises near the 
ST. boundary and flows to the Vistula. The 
principal of these affluents of the Danube are : 
on the right, the Leitha, Raab, Sarviz, and the 
Drave, which separates Hungary proper from 
Slavonia, with the Mur, its affluent ; on the left, 
the March, Waag, Neutra, Gran, Eipel, Theiss, 
and Temes. The Theiss rises in the northeast, 
in the county of Marmaros, and its chief afflu- 
ents are the Bodrog, Hernad, Saj6, and Zagyva 
on the right, and the Szamos, Koros, and Maro? 
on the left. Most of the rivers of Croatia and 
Transylvania are also tributaries of the Danube ; 
among others, the Save on the Turkish frontier 
and the Alt from Transylvania. The S. W. di- 
vision, which has the fewest rivers, includes 
the two principal lakes of the country, the 
Balaton and the Neusiedler. Various marshes, 
moors, soda lakes, and swamps extend near the 
banks of the great rivers, especially of the 
Theiss. There are also numerous mountain 
lakes called " eyes of the sea," and caverns, of 
which that of Agtelek in the county of Gomor 
is the most remarkable. Extensive islands are 
formed by the branches of the Danube ; among 
others, the Great Schutt and Csepel in its up- 
per course. The climate is in general mild, 



HUNGARY 



owing to the great northern barrier of the Car- 
pathians. Often, when snow covers the north- 
ern mountain regions, the heat is considerable 
on the lowlands of the south, especially near 
the Maros. The climate of the great central 
plain resembles that of northern Italy; its 
sandy wastes, however, greatly contribute to 
the aridity of the summer winds. Blasts of 
wind and hailstorms are not unfreqaent in the 
Carpathians. The spring is the most agreeable 
season, but the autumn often partakes of the 
character of the Indian summer in the United 
States. The fertility of the soil, with the ex- 
ception of several mountainous and sandy 
regions, is almost extraordinary. Among the 
vegetable productions are : the different species 
of grain, especially wheat, maize, hemp, flax, 
rapeseed, melons, often of immense size, apples, 
pears, apricots, and plums ; cherries, mulber- 
ries, chestnuts, filberts, and walnuts ; tobacco, 
which is now monopolized by the crown ; wine 
of the most various kinds, including the Tokay 
of the Hegyalja ; almonds, figs, and olives, on 
the southern border; anise, Turkish pepper, 
sweet wood, safflower, madder, and other dye 
plants; oaks, which yield large quantities of 
galls, the beech, fir, pine, ash, alder, and nu- 
merous other forest trees, often covering ex- 
tensive tracts of land in the mountainous re- 
gions. Among the animals are the bear, wolf, 
lynx, wild cat, boar, chamois, marmot, deer, 
fox, hare ; many fine breeds of horses and cat- 
tle (including buffaloes), dogs, sheep, and swine, 
the last of which are fattened in the forests 
on acorns. The birds comprise the golden and 
stone eagle, hawk, kite, bustard, heron, par- 
tridge, woodcock, nightingale, and lark. Fish, 
bees, and leeches abound. Of minerals, there 
are gold, iron, and copper in large quantities; 
silver, zinc, lead, coal, cobalt, nitre, antimony, 
arsenic, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, potas- 
sium, marble, crystal, chalk ; salt in immense 
mines, especially in M&rmaros ; jasper, chalce- 
dony, hyacinths, amethysts, agates, and beau- 
tiful varieties of opal (in Saros). There are 
more than 300 mineral springs, of which those 
of Buda, Trentschin, Post6ny, Bartfeld, Parad, 
and Szobrancz are among the most renown- 
ed. The chief articles of export are wheat, 
rapeseed, galls, honey, wax, wine, tobacco, 
copper, alum, potash, wood, cattle, sheep, 
swine, hides, wool, dried fruits, and brandies, 
especially Mvovitza or plum liquor. For im- 
ports and manufactures Hungary relies mainly 
on Austria, the chief home manufactures, be- 
sides metals, being linen and woollens, leather, 
paper, pottery and clay pipes, soap and can- 
dles, and tobacco. The means of communica- 
tion, formerly scanty, are now rapidly extend- 
ing. Steamers ply on the Danube and Theiss ; 
a network of railways connects the various 
parts of the country with each other and with 
the neighboring provinces. The principal seats 
of learning are at Pesth, which is also the lit- 
erary centre, Presburg, Kaschau, Debreczin, 
Patak, Papa, Erlau, Veszprem, Miskolcz, Sze- 



gedin, Stuhl-Weissenburg, and Grosswardein. 
The variety of nationalities and languages 
rivals that of productions. There are Magyars 
or Hungarians proper, the predominant race 
(according to the census of 1869, about 5,688,- 

000 in the lands of the Hungarian crown, in- 
cluding the Szeklers of Transylvania ; 5,024,000 
in Hungary proper), chiefly in the fertile re- 
gions of the centre and in the southwest; Slo- 
vaks (1,841,000) in the mountain regions of the 
northwest and north ; Ruthenians (448,000) in 
those of the northeast ; Croats and Serbs (Ras- 
cians) in the south and southwest (about 2,405,- 
700, of whom about 800,000 are in Hungary 
proper) ; Roumans in the southeast (about 
2,477,700, of whom about 1,270,000 are in 
Hungary proper) ; Germans(l, 894,800; in Hun- 
gary proper, 1,592,000) and Jews (552,000, 
mainly in Hungary proper), chiefly in the towns 
of all regions; gypsies (50,000), settled in towns 
and villages, or migratory ; besides Armenians, 
French, Bulgarians, &c. These various ele,- 
ments are distinguished not only by language, 
but also by peculiar costumes, manners, and 
moral characteristics. Of the inhabitants in 
1869, 7,558,000 (in Hungary proper, 5,933,000) 
were Roman Catholics, 1,599,000 (in Hungary 
proper, 981,000) united Greeks, 2,589,000 (in 
Hungary proper, 1,414,000) non-united Greeks, 
2,031,000 (in Hungary proper, 1,720,000) 
Calvinists (Reformed, popularly Hungarian 
church), 1,113,000 (in Hungary proper, 887,- 
000) Lutherans, and 552,000 Jews. Public edu- 
cation was reorganized in 1868. The common 
schools are of two grades : elementary schools 
with from one to three classes (14,685 in 1869), 
and schools of a higher grade with as many 
as six classes (569 in 1869). Education is com- 
pulsory, and children are hound to attend 
school from their 6th to their 12th year, and 
after that until their 15th year a " school of 
review." The actual attendance, however, is 
as yet unsatisfactory, and in 1869 amounted 
to only 50 per cent, of the children of school 
age, the number of attendants being 1,226,000. 
In 1869 there were 152 gymnasia, 25 Real- 
schulen, and a university at Pesth. In 1872 a 
second university was opened at Klausenburg. 
The Hungarian diet consists of two houses, 
the table of magnates and the table of depu- 
ties. The former in 1873 was composed of 
the 3 archdukes who had landed estates in 
Hungary, 31 Roman Catholic and Greek arch- 
bishops, bishops, and high church dignitaries, 
12 imperial banner bearers, 57 presidents of 
counties, 5 supreme royal judges, the count of 
the Saxons in Transylvania, the governor of 
Fiume, 3 princes, 218 counts, 80 barons, and 
3 " regalists " of Transylvania. The table of 
deputies had 444 members, of whom 334 be- 
longed to Hungary proper, 75 to Transylvania, 

1 to Fiume, and 34 to Croatia and Slavonia. 
The diet 'meets annually, and new elections 
must take place every three years. The right 
of voting belongs to all who have a regular 
business or pay a small amount of direct taxes, 



HUNGARY 



55 



as provided by law. The language of the diet 
is the Hungarian, but the representatives of 
Croatia and Slavonia are permitted to use the 
Croatian language. The Hungarian ministry 
consists of a president and the heads of nine 
departments, viz. : the ministry of national de- 
fence, the ministry near the king's person (ad 
latus), the ministry of finance, of the interior, 
of education and public worship, of justice, of 
public works, of agriculture, industry, and com- 
merce, and for Croatia and Slavonia. The ad- 
ministration of communes was regulated by 
law in 1871 ; that of municipia, which class 
comprises counties, districts, and the royal free 
cities, in 1870. The supreme court of the 
kingdom is the royal curia in Pesth, consist- 
ing of two divisions, the court of cassation 
and the supreme court. The royal tables of 
Pesth (for Hungary proper and Fiume) and of 
Maros-Viisarhely (for Transylvania) are courts 
of the second resort; 102 royal courts and 
306 district courts have original jurisdiction. 
The public revenue of Hungary for the year 
1872 amounted to $82,187,809, the expe'ndi- 
ture to $112,853,765. To meet the interest on 
the common debt of the monarchy contracted 
prior to 1868, Hungary pays an annual contri- 
bution of $13,630,000. It has also a special 
debt amounting to $219,000,000. Politically, 
Hungary proper, according to ancient custom, 
is divided into four natural divisions or circles, 
subdivided into counties, and called, from the 
standpoint of Pesth, the Cis-Danubian (N. and 
E. of the Danube), Trans-Danubian (S. and W. 
of the Danube), Cis-Tibiscan (N. and W. of the 
Theiss), and Trans-Tibiscan (S. and E. of the 
Theiss), and three districts : Jazygia (Jdszsdg), 
with Great and Little Cumania (Kunsag) ; the 
Hayduk towns (ffajdu-Vdrosok); and Kovar. 
The counties are as follows: Cis-Danubian 
circle Presburg (Pozsony), Neutra (Nyitra), 
Trentschin (Trencseny), Arva, Tur6cz, Bars, 
Lipto, Z61yom, Hont, N6grad, Pesth (Pest), 
Gran (Etztergom), Bacs. Trans-Danubian circle 
Wieselburg (Mosony), Oedenburg (Soprony), 
Vas, Zala, Somogy, Baranya, Tolna, Vesz- 
pr6m, Raab (Gyor), Comorn (Komdrom), Weis- 
senburg (Fejer). Cis-Tibiscan circle Heves, 
Borsod, Gomor, Zips (Szepes), Saros, Torna, 
Abauj, Zempl6n, Ung, Bereg. Trans-Tibiscan 
circle Ugocsa, Marmaros, Szatmar, Szabolcs, 
Bihar, B6kes, Arad, Csan&d, Csongrad, Toron- 
tal, Temes, Krasso, Middle Szolnok, Kraszna, 
Zarand. Among the nations who occupied 
parts of Hungary before its conquest by the 
Magyars or Hungarians, we find the Dacians, 
Illyrians, Pannonians, Bulgarians, Jazyges, 
Alans, Avars, Huns, Gepidee, Longobards, and 
Khazars. The Romans held the S. W. part 
of the country under the name of Pannonia, 
while the S. E. belonged to their province of 
Dacia. Various Slavic tribes, together with 
Wallachs, Bulgarians, and Germans, were the 
chief occupants at the time of the Magyar 
invasion. The Magyars, a warlike people of 
the Turanian race, had made various migra- 



tions, and long dwelt in the vicinity of the 
Caucasian mountains, and afterward in the re- 
gion between the Don and the Dniester, before 
they approached and crossed tlie Carpathians 
(about 887) under the lead of Almos, one of 
their seven chiefs (vezer), and elected head 
(fejedelem) or duke. They were divided into 
seven tribes and 108 families, bad a compact, 
consecrated by oaths, which guaranteed justice 
and equality among themselves, and a religion 
which in various features resembled the Aryan 
element worship of the Medo-Persians, but also 
included the notion of a supreme being (Isteri). 
Arpad, the son of Almos, conquered the whole 
of Hungary and Transylvania, organized the 
government, and also made various expeditions 
beyond the limits of these countries, among 
others against Svatopluk of Moravia, being in- 
vited by Arnulf of Germany. These expedi- 
tions were further extended under his son Zol- 
tan (907-946) and grandson Taksony (946-972), 
spreading terror and devastation as far as the 
North sea, the south of France and Italy, and 
the Euxine. But various bloody defeats, es- 
pecially near Merseburg (933) by the emperor 
Henry I., on the Lech (955) by Otho I., and in 
Greece (970), finally broke the desire of the 
Hungarians for booty and adventurous ex- 
ploits, and turned the attention of their princes 
to the consolidation of their power within the 
natural limits of the country. Gejza (972-997), 
the son of Taksony, who married a Christian 
princess, promoted the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, which was almost completed under his 
son Stephen I. (997-1038), whose religious zeal 
gained him a crown and the title of apostolic 
king from Pope Sylvester II. (1000), and after- 
ward the appellation of saint. Assisted by 
Roman priests and German knights, he pro- 
claimed the freedom of Christian slaves, intro- 
duced Latin schools, established bishoprics, 
built churches, chapels, and convents, elevated 
the bishops to the foremost rank in the state, 
compelled the people to pay tithes to the new 
clergy, and subdued the rebellious adherents 
of the national religion. The political and ad- 
ministrative institutions of the state were also 
organized. The original equality of the con- 
querors was limited by imitations of the west- 
ern feudal aristocracy. The higher clergy, the 
higher nobility, consisting of distinguished na- 
tional families and of foreign lords, and the 
common nobility, embracing the bulk of the 
national warriors, were the ruling classes ; the 
two former, together with the dignitaries of 
the state, the palatine (nddor), the court judge 
(afterward land judge), &c., formed the senate, 
or the higher division of the legislative body. 
Against this new and foreign order of things 
the national party more than once violently 
rose, both under Stephen and his successors, 
Peter (1038-'40), against whom Aba Samuel 
was elected king, and who twice lost his 
throne, Andrew I. (1046-'61), who perished 
after being defeated by his brother Bela, and 
B61a I. (1061-'63), under whom the resistance 



56 



HUNGARY 



of the defenders of the ancient religion was 
finally broken. The civil strifes were not only 
kept up by the undefined succession to the 
throne by the house of Arpad, but also foment- 
ed by the intervention of the popes and the 
emperors. The emperor Henry III. in the 
reign of Andrew repeatedly invaded the coun- 
try. The son of the latter, Solomon (1063- 
'74), lost his throne chiefly in consequence of 
his ill treatment of his gallant cousins and suc- 
cessors Gejza (1074-'77) and Ladislas (1077- 
'95), to whom he owed his elevation, and some 
splendid victories over invaders ; and he vainly 
applied for aid both to the emperor Henry IV. 
and his antagonist Pope Gregory VII., who 
each claimed the rights of suzerainty over 
Hungary. Solomon died in exile. Ladislas was 
equally brave and pious. He is a saint in the 
Roman calendar, and his victories over the 
Oumans, who invaded Transylvania and the 
neighboring districts, and the conquest of 
Croatia and Halicz (eastern Galicia), made 
him one of the favorite princes of his nation. 
His nephew Ooloman (1095-1114), surnamed 
the Scholar, was an enlightened and able ru- 
ler. He introduced various reforms, refused 
to accept the lead of the first crusade, closely 
watched the hosts which passed through his 
country, and routed or repulsed the more dis- 
orderly, though he received Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon as a friend. He annexed Dalmatia, but 
stained the close of his reign by cruelty to- 
ward his brother Almos, who conspired against 
him. His son, the profligate Stephen II. (1114 
-'31), waged war against almost all his neigh- 
bors. Bela II., the Blind (1131-'41), the son 
of Almos, and like his father the victim of 
Ooloman, took bloody revenge on his former 
enemies on the occasion of the diet at Arad. 
Under his son Gejza II. (1141-'61) numer- 
ous Saxon colonies were settled in Zips and 
Transylvania, while their countrymen who 
joined the second crusade desolated the re- 
gions through which they passed. The dis- 
puted rights to Galicia and Dalmatia, and the 
often changing relations with the Byzantine 
empire, were now sources of frequent wars in 
the north and south. Stephen III. (1161-'73), 
Gejza's youthful son, who overcame the in- 
trigues of Manuel Comnenus and the opposi- 
tion of two rivals, Ladislas II. and Stephen 
IV., but succumbed to poison, was succeeded 
by his brother Bela III. (1173-'96), who, hav- 
ing been educated at the Greek court, and 
supported by it, introduced various imitations 
of its administrative organization, and was 
successful in Galicia, as well as in Dalmatia 
against the republic of Venice. His connection 
with the West in consequence of his marriage 
with Margaret of France induced numerous 
noble youths to visit the chief cities and schools 
of Frarooe, England, and Italy. His son Emeric 
(1196-1205) was tormented by the revolts of 
his brother Andrew, and in vain had his son 
Ladislas III. crowned before his death. An- 
drew II. (1205-'35) was successively under 



the influence of his unscrupulous wife, who 
finally was assassinated; of the pope, who 
compelled him to undertake a crusade; of his 
financiers, Christian, Saracen, and Jewish, 
who monopolized the revenues of the impov- 
erished kingdom ; of the nobility, who in 1222 
extorted from him the " Golden Bull," a Hun- 
garian Magna Charta of freedom and privi- 
leges, including the right of armed resistance 
to tyranny ; and finally of a combined violent 
opposition, to which belonged his son and suc- 
cessor Bela (IV.). The long reign of the latter 
(123o-'70) commenced with salutary reforms, 
hut was afterward disturbed by the immigra- 
tion of the Cumans and the invasion of the 
Tartars, who annihilated the Hungarian army 
on the Saj6 (1241), and marked their way from 
the Carpathians to the Adriatic by sword and 
fire, famine and pestilence. Bela did his best 
to restore order and repeople the country by 
new immigrants, bestowed various rights on 
the cities, and promoted the culture of the 
vine ; but his wars with Austria, Styria, &c., 
and the revolts of his son Stephen, destroyed 
order, and promoted only the usurpations of 
the high nobility. Stephen V. (1270-'72) was 
successful against Ottokar of Bohemia. His 
son Ladislas IV. (1272-'90), who succeeded at 
the age of 10, caused violent commotions and 
endless misery by his Cumanian amours and 
predilections, and was murdered at the instiga- 
tion of one of his mistresses. A nephew of 
Bela IV., Andrew III. (1290-1301), was the 
last of the Arpads, and after a disturbed reign, 
which various diets held on the plain of Rakos 
near Pesth could not consolidate, died proba- 
bly by poison. The throne was now open for 
competition, and the royal dignity became 
purely elective. Charles Robert of Anjou, a 
nephew of the king of Naples, and by his 
mother a descendant of the extinct dynasty, 
being supported by the see of Rome, was the 
first elected ; while another party, the leader 
of which was the powerful count Matthias 
Csak, successively elected Wenceslas, son of 
the king of Bohemia (1301-'5), and Otho of 
Bavaria (1305-'8), both of whom were by 
a similar title descendants of the Arpads. 
Charles Robert's reign (1309-'42) was marked 
by great successes at home and abroad. The 
regal power was extended and consolidated, < 
chiefly by a new military and financial organi- 
zation ; western refinement and luxury made 
the Hungarian lords more docile, and the suc- 
cession to the thrones of Poland and Naples 
was secured to the two sons of the king, Louis 
and Andrew. Visegnid, however, which re- 
placed Stuhl-Weissenburg as the royal resi- 
dence, witnessed many a princely crime. Buda 
became a still more splendid residence under 
Louis, surnamed the Great (1342-'82), who 
further developed the regal power, but with it 
the oppressive feudal institutions ; and, except- 
ing his repeated expeditions to Italy to revenge 
the assassination of his brother Andrew by his 
own wife, Joanna, he was successful in all his 



HUNGARY 



57 



undertakings, conquering among other terri- 
tories Moldavia and Bulgaria. He also suc- 
ceeded his uncle Casimir the Great, the last of 
the Piasts, as king of Poland. He was chival- 
rous, luxurious, and higoted ; he promoted com- 
merce, but burdened the peasants, persecuted 
the Cuman pagans, and expelled the Jews, 
whom, however, his son-in-law Sigismund of 
Luxemburg brought back into the country. 
This prince having liberated his wife Mary, who 
had got rid of a rival, the Neapolitan Charles 
the Little, by assassination, but subsequently 
lost her throne and freedom, reigned together 
with her (1387-'95), and after her death alone 
(1395-1437), being also elected German em- 
peror, and succeeding to the throne of his 
house in Bohemia. His long reign was full of 
civil strife, including the Hussite war in Bo- 
hemia, a revolt in Hungary, which for a short 
time deprived him of his liberty, and a rising 
of the peasants in Transylvania, and of wars 
against Venice and the Turks, who under Ba- 
jazet routed him in the battle of Nicopolis ; 
but it was also marked by some salutary re- 
forms in favor of the lower classes. Sigismund 
was succeeded by his son-in-law the emperor 
Albert (II.) of Hapsburg (1437-'9). He died 
after an unsuccessful campaign against Sultan 
Amurath, leaving his thrones to his wife Eliza- 
beth, who offered her hand to Ladislas III. 
of Poland, a grandson of Louis the Great. The 
young Polish king after some struggle became 
also king of Hungary under the name of Ula- 
dislas I. (Hung. Uldszlo), but, after several vic- 
tories of his great general John Hunyady over 
the Turks, fell at Varna (1444), having broken 
his oath of peace to the infidels. Ladislas (V.), 
the posthumous child of Albert, whom his 
mother Elizabeth, shortly before her death, 
had carried together with the crown to her 
brother-in-law the emperor Frederick III., was 
now acknowledged as king (1445), Hunyady be- 
ing appointed governor or regent. Frederick 
of Hapsburg, however, had to be compelled to 
restore the prince ; powerful lords caused end- 
less disturbances, and the Turks menaced Hun- 
gary, while preparing to strike the last blow 
at the Byzantine empire. Hunyady himself 
was defeated, but made good his escape, and 
died victorious, having repulsed Mohammed 
II., the conqueror of Constantinople, from the 
walls of Belgrade (1456). Of his two sons, 
Ladislas was executed by command of the un- 
grateful king, but Matthias, surnamed Corvi- 
nus, ascended the throne after the death of the 
latter (1457) and a protracted election struggle. 
The ablest monarch of Hungary (1458-'90), he 
subdued the rebellious lords, and in numerous 
campaigns vanquished the emperor, Podiebrad 
of Bohemia, and the armies of Mohammed II. 
He restored order, law, and prosperity, pro- 
moted science and art more than any other 
prince of his age, and administered his king- 
dom with an impartiality the glory of which 
survived him in the popular adage, " King Mat- 
thias is dead, justice gone." But his works 



perished with him. The indolent Uladislas 
(II.) of Bohemia (1490-1516) was as poor as he 
was contemptible, and let his lords do as they 
chose. Of these John Zapolya, waywode of 
Transylvania, suppressed with dreadful blood- 
shed a great insurrection of the peasantry un- 
der Dozsa (1514). Under the young and weak 
son of Uladislas, Louis II. (1516-'26), the 
country gradually ripened for a catastrophe. 
While the nobles disputed, Belgrade fell, and 
finally the battle of Moh;ics was rashly fought 
against Sultan Solyman the Magnificent. The 
Hungarian army was destroyed, Louis perished 
on his flight, and his wife, the sister of Ferdi- 
nand of Austria, hastened to carry the crown 
to her brother. This prince inaugurated the 
still reigning dynasty of the Hapsburgs, being 
acknowledged as king (1527-'64) by the nobil- 
ity of the western counties, while the national 
party elected John Zapolya, who prevailed in 
Transylvania and the adjoining parts. The 
latter put himself under the protection of Soly- 
man, who took Buda and even besieged Vienna 
(1529). Long campaigns and negotiations and 
short-lived treaties now followed each other, 
the final result of which was that Hungary 
was for about 150 years divided into three parts 
with often changing limits, under the Haps- 
burgs as kings, the pashas of the sultans, and 
the princes of Transylvania. The greater part 
of Hungary proper, however, including the 
whole northwest, was in the hands of the royal 
or imperial armies, the monarchs holding also 
the crown of Germany after the abdication of 
Charles V., and finding many a hero among 
their Hungarian subjects. Maximilian (1564- 
'76) was saved by the self-sacrificing heroism 
of Zrinyi, who fell with his little fortress Szi- 
get and the last of his men only after the death 
of the besieger Solyman and the destruction 
of a part of his army (1566). All these ser- 
vices of the magnates, as well as of the nation, 
were ill repaid by the Austrian dynasty. The 
diets of Hungary, which for centuries remained 
the blood-covered bulwark of Christendom, 
more than once had to complain that the impe- 
rial soldiery did more to devastate the country 
and famish the people than the infidel con- 
querors. Rudolph I. (1576-1608) commenced 
the persecution of the Protestants. These, 
however, not only had a free home in Transyl- 
vania under the enlightened Stephen Bathori, 
afterward king of Poland (who had succeeded 
the younger Zapolya), but also a protector of 
their rights in Hungary in Bocskay, the Tran- 
sylvanian successor of Sigismund Bathori, who 
suddenly raised the banner of freedom, sweep- 
ing all over the north, crushing the generals of 
Rudolph, and finally compelling the latter to 
the humiliating peace of Vienna (1606). The 
old emperor finally resigned his Hungarian 
crown to his brother Matthias (II.), whose tol- 
erant reign, however, was too short for the 
pacification of the country (1608-'19). His 
successor Ferdinand II. (1619-'37), who com- 
menced his reign amid the first flames of tho 



58 



HUNGARY 



thirty years' war, was prevented from tearing 
the Hungarian charter of liberty, as he did the 
Bohemian, by the victories of the Transylva- 
nian prince Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel Bethlen), 
the successor of the profligate tyrant Gabriel 
Bathori, who extorted from him the treaty of 
Nikolsburg (1622), which again sanctioned the 
rights of the Protestants. A similar treaty 
was concluded at Linz by Ferdinand III. (1637- 
'57) with George I. Rakoczy of Transylvania 
(1645). Leopold I. (1657-1705), whose long 
reign in Hungary was but a series of wars, in- 
surrections, and executions, found a less able 
opponent in the ambitious George II. Rak6czy 
of Transylvania, and excellent generals against 
the Turks in Montecuculi, who gained the bat- 
tle of St. Gothard (1664), and Nicholas Zrinyi 
(the poet), but made an ignominious peace with 
the sultan, and sent against the insurgents of 
the northern counties the bloodthirsty Caraffa, 
Strasoldo, and others. The people rose again 
"for God and freedom " under Tokolyi (1678), 
who, being allied with Apafl of Transylvania, 
the Porte, and Louis XIV. of France, was near 
uniting the whole of Hungary under his ban- 
ner, when the reverses of the Turks before 
Vienna (1683), and the subsequent victories of 
the imperialists, sealed the fate of the insurrec- 
tion. Caraffa made the scaffold permanent in 
Eperies ; the diet of Presburg had to consent 
to the demands of the emperor in making the 
throne hereditary in the house of Austria and 
abrogating the clause of the golden bull which 
guaranteed the right of resistance to oppres- 
sion (1687) ; Prince Eugene completed the vic- 
tories over the Turks, and conquered the peace 
of Carlovitz (1699) ; Transylvania was occu- 
pied, and Tokolyi, who tried in vain to recov- 
er it, died in exile in Asia Minor. Hungary 
was now a province of Austria, and treated as 
such, when the noble-hearted Francis Rakoczy, 
who had long lived in exile, suddenly appeared 
on the N. E. borders (1703) and renewed the 
struggle for religious and civil liberty. Prot<- 
estants and Catholics flocked to his banners, 
which were triumphantly carried into the very 
vicinity of Vienna, when the emperor died. His 
son Joseph I. (1705-'ll) was inclined to ppace, 
and Rakoczy was not opposed to it, though as- 
sisted by Louis XIV. and the perplexities of the 
new emperor in the war of Spanish succession. 
Diets and negotiations followed each other, but 
without success, while the victories of Eugene 
and Marlborough and violent dissensions in the 
camp of the insurgents enabled the emperor to 
restore the fortunes of the war in Hungary. 
In the absence of Rakoczy, who had gone to 
Poland to procure the alliance of Peter the 
Great, a peace was finally concluded at Szat- 
mar (1711) with the representatives of the em- 
peror, toleration and a strict observance of the 
constitution being promised. Joseph's succes- 
sor Charles (VI. as emperor, III. as king, 
1711-'40) ratified the treaty, while Rak6czy 
absolved his followers from their oath of al- 
legiance to him. The new emperor's favorite 



scheme, the pragmatic sanction, which was to 
secure the succession of the female line to all 
his possessions, was agreed to by the diet of 
1722, which also enacted various other impor- 
tant laws. The peace of Passarovitz (1718), 
the result of Eugene's new victories, enlarged 
the kingdom with the Banat, the last prov- 
ince of the Turks in Hungary ; but after an- 
other war Belgrade was ceded to the Turks 
by the treaty concluded in that city in 1739. 
Charles's mild reign disposed the nation to de- 
fend the disputed rights of his daughter Maria 
Theresa (1740-'80), who appeared in person be- 
fore the diet of Presburg, and was greeted with 
lively acclamations by the chivalric nobles. 
Their Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa 
was no vain promise, for Hungarian blood was 
shed profusely in her wars against Frederick the 
Great and other enemies. She rewarded the 
fidelity of the people by mildness, and various 
ameliorations of the condition of the peasantry 
(the Urbarium) are among the merits of her 
reign ; but she too was far from strictly observ- 
ing the constitution, which her son Joseph II. 
(1780-'90), in his immoderate zeal for reforms 
and centralization, was eager to destroy. To 
avoid binding himself by the constitutional 
oath, he refused to be crowned in Hungary, 
autocratically dictated his liberal reforms, and 
imposed upon the country foreign officials, a 
foreign language, the German, and foreign 
official costumes. But his violent though well 
meant measures were opposed everywhere, 
and the rising in his Belgic provinces, the un- 
favorable issue of his war against Turkey, and 
finally the threatening events in France, com- 
pelled the philanthropic despot to revoke his 
decrees shortly before his death. His mild 
and dissolute brother Leopold II. (1790-'92), 
afraid of the growing storm in the West, has- 
tened to appease the Hungarian nation, which 
had been aroused by ignominious treatment 
and the spectacle of its perishing neighbor 
Poland to a general desire of national regen- 
eration. The diet of 1791 again sanctioned 
the most essential constitutional rights of the 
kingdom in general, and of the Protestants in 
particular, and for a series of years Francis, 
the son and successor of Leopold (1792-1835), 
was satisfied during his wars with France 
with the continual subsidies of Hungary in 
money and men. The rare manifestations of 
democratic convictions he stifled in the dun- 
geons of his fortresses, or, as in the case of the 
priest Martinovics (1795), in the blood of the 
offenders. The magnates were flattered and 
remained faithful. Thus Napoleon in vain 
called upon the Hungarians to rise for national 
independence (1809). Scarcely, however, was 
Napoleon fallen, when Francis's minister Met- 
ternich began to undermine the constitution of 
Hungary, the only check on the unlimited sway 
of the Austrian rulers. Every means, secret 
or open, was resorted to, but in vain. The 
progress of enlightenment, the warning exam- 
ple of Poland, and the spirit of nationality, re- 



HUNGARY 



59 



kindled by the activity of Francis Kazinczy 
and others, had prepared the nation for a 
struggle for constitutionalism and liberal re- 
forms, which Metternich, both under Francis 
and his imbecile son Ferdinand V. (I. as empe- 
ror of Austria, 1835-'48), was unable effectively 
to resist. The Hungarian constitution had du- 
ring the last few centuries undergone numerous 
modifications, without having at any period of 
its existence lost its vitality. As it was now, 
it was at the same time a charter of freedom, 
which shielded the people at large, and espe- 
cially the non-Catholics, against bureaucratic 
sway, and secured to the nobility the greatest 
degree of personal liberty and immunity en- 
joyed by any class in Europe, and on the other 
hand an instrument of oppression in the hands 
of the nobility against all plebeian inhabitants 
of the country, especially the peasantry, which 
was degraded by numerous feudal burdens. 
The nobles were free from every tax and per- 
sonal service, except in case of a hostile attack 
on the country itself, when they were obliged 
to rise in a body at their own expense ; they 
enjoyed all the privileges of the right of habeas 
corpus, governed the counties by their regular 
assemblies ("congregations"), elected magis- 
trates, and exercised the right of legislation by 
their deputies to the lower house of the diet. 
The higher nobility, or magnates, together with 
the chief dignitaries of the crown and the 
church, formed the upper house of the diet un- 
der the presidency of the palatine. The repre- 
sentation of the free royal towns was almost 
nominal. The diet was now regularly con- 
voked by the monarch at Presburg, at intervals 
not exceeding three years. Its duration was 
unlimited. The chief royal organs of general 
administration were the Hungarian aulic chan- 
cery at Vienna, and the royal council at Buda, 
whose decisions, however, very often met with 
opposition or delay in the county assemblies. 
This vis inertia of the latter was the principal 
check on all despotic or unconstitutional at- 
tempts of the Vienna ministry, while their pub- 
licity and jealously guarded freedom of debate 
were the chief elements of progress and politi- 
cal enlightenment. Gradually to abolish the im- 
munity of the nobles and the feudal burdens of 
the peasantry, to endow the great bulk of the 
people with political rights, and at the same 
time to fortify the old bulwarks of the consti- 
tution, now became the task of the patriots ; 
and the great movement offered the rare spec- 
tacle of an aristocracy contending for the abo- 
lition of privileges and the equality of the peo- 
ple. Paul Nagy and Count Stephen Szdchenyi 
were the champions of nationality at the diet of 
1825, which inaugurated a long period of mod- 
erate but gradual reforms, the most important 
of which were carried through at the diets of 
1832-'6, 1839-'40, and 1843-'4. The rights of 
the non-noble citizens, peasantry, and Jews, 
the equality of the Christian confessions, the 
official use of the Hungarian language, and the 
freedom of speech were extended, the majority 



of the educated lower nobility and a minority 
of the higher ardently contending against old 
abuses and aristocratic immunities, against 
bureaucratic despotism and religious intoler- 
ance. Among the leaders of the " liberal op- 
position " under Ferdinand were the members 
of the upper house Count Louis Batthyanyi 
and Baron Eotvos ; the deputies Deak, Beothy, 
Klauzal, Raday, Balogh, and Kubinyi ; the 
Transylvanian agitator Baron "Wesselenyi, and 
the publicist Kossuth. The cabinet of Vienna 
chose the last five as its victims, prosecuting 
them for treason, and imprisoning Wesselenyi 
and Kossuth for years. The old palatine Jo- 
seph, the uncle of the emperor, and the con- 
servatives under the lead of Szechenyi and oth- 
ers, in vain strove to check the agitation. It 
reached its culminating point when Kossuth, 
after a lively struggle, was elected as represen- 
tative of Pesth to the diet of 1847. A conflict 
with the government seemed imminent, when 
the general shock which followed the French 
revolution of February overthrew the rule of 
Metternich (March 13, 1848). Kossuth was 
greeted as liberator by the people of Vienna, 
and together with L. Batthyanyi intrusted with 
the formation of an independent Hungarian 
ministry by Ferdinand. Pesth had its revolu- 
tionary journee on March 15. Batthyanyi was 
president of the new ministry, Kossuth minis- 
ter of finance. Having enacted the abolition 
of feudality, a new election law, and various 
other radical changes in the constitution, the 
last diet of Presburg dissolved, the new na- 
tional assembly being appointed to meet in 
July at Pesth. The cabinet of Vienna com- 
menced its intrigues against the new order of 
things on the very day when it sanctioned it. 
Jellachich and others were sent openly or se- 
cretly to organize insurrections among the south- 
ern Slavic tribes and the Wallachs and Saxons 
in Transylvania, the diet of which proclaimed 
its reunion with Hungary. Every new mea- 
sure met with opposition or delay through the 
Vienna government or its tools. Negotiations 
had no result. The whole south of the coun- 
try was soon in a flame. Croatia and Slavo- 
nia proclaimed their independence of Hungary, 
and Ban Jellachich occupied the Littorale, and 
threatened to cross the Drave. Against all 
these contingencies the only resource of the 
government was its own zeal and the enthusi- 
asm of the people. Volunteer troops (honveds, 
defenders of the land) were raised in the coun- 
ties, contributions toward a national treasury 
were collected, and the militia was organ- 
ized. The diet assembled in July and voted 
extensive levies and ample means for defence, 
but Ferdinand refused to sanction its resolu- 
tions. The Austrian troops which were still 
sent against the insurgents were led by trai- 
tors. A serious attempt under Meszaros against 
the Rascians in Bacs (August) failed ; the 
new troops were slowly gathering. Jellachich 
finally crossed the Drave, and the Vienna gov- 
ernment, having reconquered Lombardy, threw 



60 



HUNGARY 



off its mask and sent Count Laraberg to dis- 
perse the diet by force. Tbe Batthyanyi min- 
istry now resigned, and .a committee of de- 
fence was formed under the presidency of Kos- 
suth. The revolution began. The old troops 
were transformed and blended with the new. 
Kossuth's eloquence brought the people of the 
central plain under arms. Single detachments 
of Hungarian troops returned with or without 
their officers from abroad. The fortress Co- 
morn was secured. The archduke Stephen, 
the new palatine, fled from the country. Lam- 
berg was massacred on the bridge of Pesth by 
a mob. Jellachich was defeated at Pakozd 
near Buda (Sept. 29) and fled toward Vienna, 
which rose in revolution (Oct. 6). The prin- 
cipal fortresses hoisted the national flag. On 
the other hand, Temesvar and Arad hoisted 
that of Austria. The war of races raged with 
terrible fury and varying success. Transylvania 
was entirely lost. The pursuit of Jellaohich 
was executed with hesitation by Moga, a late 
Austrian general, the frontier river Leitha was 
crossed too late, and the hastily collected vol- 
unteers fled after a short fight at Schwechat 
(Oct. 30) against Windischgratz and Jellachich, 
who thus became masters of Vienna. Katona, 
sent to reconquer Transylvania, was routed at 
Dees. Count Schlick entered Hungary from the 
north, and occupied Kaschau (Dec. 11). The 
Rascian Damjanics alone led the honveds to 
victory on the S. E. frontier, while Perczel suc- 
cessfully defended the line of the Drave on the 
S. W. Unable to defend the W. frontier against 
Windischgratz, Gorgey, the new commander of 
the army of the upper Danube, retreated on the 
right bank of that river, evacuating Presburg, 
Raab, and, afterthe rout of the equally retreating 
Perczel at Moor (Dec. 29) and an engagement 
at Teteny, the capital Buda-Pesth itself (Jan. 
5, 1849). The day before, Schlick dispersed 
the undisciplined army of the north under Me- 
szaros, the minister of war. Thus the govern- 
ment and diet, which transferred their seat to 
Debreczin, would have had little prospect of 
security if the Polish general Bern had not be- 
gun in the latter half of December a new Tran- 
sylvanian campaign, which cheered the patriots 
with a nearly unbroken series of successes over 
the imperialists. Gorgey, too, who according 
to anew plan of operations returned westward 
on the left bank of the Danube, leaving a part 
of his troops with Perczel on the middle Theiss, 
succeeded in diverting the Austrian main army 
under Windischgratz from a march on Debre- 
czin. Then turning northward, he skilfully 
fought his way through the rugged region of 
the Ore mountains, amid continual perils, and, 
after a signal victory of his vanguard under 
Guyon over Schlick's corps on Mount Brany- 
iszko (Feb. 5), finally effected a junction with 
the army of the upper Theiss, which under 
Klapka had been successful against that Aus- 
trian general. The activity of Kossuth and 
his associates in supplying all these bodies 
of troops with men, ammunition, money, and 



officers was admirable. The zeal of the com- 
mittee of defence was worthily responded to 
by the confidence of the people, who, even 
when two thirds of the country were in the 
hands of the enemy, almost as willingly accept- 
ed " Kossuth's bills " as specie, and by the gen- 
eral bravery of the troops. But new dangers 
arose with the invasion of the Russians from 
the Danubian principalities into Transylvania, 
where Bern, after a triumphant march (Janu- 
ary), was suddenly checked before Hermann- 
stadt, and could save his position at Piski (Feb. 
9, 10) only after the loss of a part of bis 
troops ; and within the national cam]) by the 
stubborn disobedience and intrigues of Gorgey, 
which caused the unfavorable issue of the great 
battle of Kapolna (Feb. 26, 27), the retreat of 
the united main army beyond the Theiss, the 
deposition of its commander, the Pole Dem- 
binski, and a considerable loss of time. An- 
other heavy loss was that of the isolated for- 
tress Eszek, which was surrendered with im- 
mense stores by its cowardly commanders. 
Elated by the despatches of Prince Windisch- 
gratz, the young emperor Francis Joseph, who 
had succeeded his uncle at Olmutz, Dec. 2, 
1848, now promulgated a new constitution 
(March 4), which with one stroke annihilated 
the constitution and national independence of 
Hungary, making it, with narrowed limits, a 
crownland of Austria. But the next few days 
brought a new series of Hungarian victories. 
Damjanics, who had been recalled from the 
south, routed the Austrians at Szolnok (March 
5). Bern took Hermannstadt and drove the 
Russians through the Red Tower pass into 
Wallachia. After the occupation of Cronstadt, 
all Transylvania, except Carlsburg, was in the 
hands of the Polish general. Perczel swept 
over the Rascian Vendee. The temporary 
chief commander of the main army, Vetter, 
having fallen ill, Gorgey finally received the 
command, and the offensive against Windisch- 
gratz was resumed. He crossed the Theiss at 
various points, and, advancing toward the cap- 
ital, defeated the enemy at Hatvan (April 2), 
Bicske, Izsaszeg, Waitzen, and Nagy Sarl6, res- 
cued Comorn, which had withstood a long siege 
and bombardment, crossed the Danube, and 
gained a victory at Acs (April 26). During 
this short campaign the diet at Debreczin pro- 
claimed the independence of the country (April 
14), appointing Kossuth its governor, and An- 
lich entered Pesth. Instead, however, of con- 
tinuing his victorious march to the capital of 
the enemy, Gorgey returned with the bulk of 
his army to the siege of Buda, while a new and 
extensive Russian invasion was approaching. 
Buda was stormed (May 21), the government 
and diet returned to the capital, and Gorgey 
again took the field, but injudiciously chose the 
N. bank of the Danube for his new campaign, 
and, without profiting by Kmetty's victory at 
Csorna, S. of that river (June 13), wasted the 
blood of his army on the Waag. The Russian 
armies and fresh Austrian troops under Hay- 



IIUNGAKY 



61 



nau were in the meanwhile pouring into the 
country from various quarters. Wysocki, the 
successor of Dembinski in command, retreated 
before Paskevitch ; Temesvar was unsuccess- 
fully besieged by Ve'csey ; Bern was paralyzed 
by a new and more terrible rising of the Wal- 
lachs, while his province, too, was invaded by 
the Russians. After various unsuccessful strug- 
gles on the line of the Waag, the loss of Raab, 
and a great battle at Szony (July 2), Gorgey, 
leaving Klapka in Comorn, finally retreated to- 
ward the middle Theiss; but after a bloody 
fight against Paskevitch at Waitzen (July 15), 
he turned northward, again and again repulsing 
the Russians, and crossed the Theiss at Tokay. 
The Russians crossed it at Fiired, while the 
central Hungarian forces under the chief com- 
mand of Dembinski retreated toward Szegedin. 
The government, leaving the former place, 
where the last session of the diet had been 
held, retired to Arad, which, having recently 
surrendered, was made the last point of general 
concentration, after the rout of Bern at Schas- 
burg by the Russians under Luders, of one of 
Gorgey's divisions under Nagy-Sandor before 
Debreczin by the army of Paskevitch, and of 
Dembinski at Szoreg by Haynau. Dembinski, 
however, retreated toward Temesvar, where 
his army suffered a terrible defeat (Ang. 9). 
Gorgey, who now arrived at Arad, summoned 
Kossuth to resign, and received from him the 
supreme civil and military command, Klapka's 
sally from Comorn and signal victory over the 
besieging Austrian army (Ang. 3) being un- 
known at Arad. Two days later Gorgey sur- 
rendered his army at discretion to the generals 
of the czar at Vilagos (Aug. 13). Damjanics 
followed his example, and surrendered Arad. 
Kossuth, the late ministers Szemere and Casi- 
mir Batthyanyi, the generals Bern, Dembinski, 
M6szaros, Vetter, Perczel, Guyon, Kmety, 
Wysocki, and others, fled into Turkey. Mun- 
k&cs, Peter wardein, and Comorn capitulated. 
But scarcely had the tricolor disappeared from 
the ramparts of the last named fortress, Oct. 
4, when the work of revenge commenced on 
the side of the victors. Count Louis Batthy- 
anyi, who had been made captive on a mission 
of peaceful mediation, was executed at Pesth, 
Oct. 6, and the commanders Kis, Aulich, 
Damjanics, Nagy-Sandor, Torok, Lahner, Ve'- 
csey, Kn6zich, Poltenberg, Leiningen, Schwei- 
del, Dessewffy, and Lazar, all of whom had sur- 
rendered at discretion, were executed on the 
same day at Arad. Other executions followed. 
The dungeons of the empire were filled with 
prisoners for life or long terms. Gorgey was 
confined at Klagenfurth. The remnants of the 
Hungarian troops were impressed into the Aus- 
trian army, and the estates of the rich patriots 
confiscated. The country remained under mar- 
tial law, receiving new divisions, authorities, 
and tax regulations, and foreign officials. The 
German was made the language of the reor- 
ganized higher courts, offices, and schools. 
New contributions, military levies, and so-called 



voluntary loans, followed each other. A con- 
spiracy and an attempt on the emperor's life 
led to the resumption of wholesale executions 
in 1853. The Protestants and Jews were sub- 
jected to particular restrictions. This state 
of affairs ended with Austria's defeat in Italy 
(1859). The dismissal of the centralizing min- 
ister Bach, the appointment of Goluchowski, 
and the diploma of Oct. 20, 1860, were fol- 
lowed by the convocation of a Hungarian diet. 
This was opened in April, when Schmerling 
had taken the place of Goluchowski, and the 
patent of Feb. 26, 1861, that of the October 
diploma. (See AUSTKIA, vol. ii., pp. 149, 150.) 
As no representatives from Transylvania had 
been summoned, the diet considered itself in- 
complete, and this was to be expressed, to- 
gether with other grievances, either by an ad- 
dress to Francis Joseph, as Deak proposed it, 
or merely by a resolution ignoring the royal 
rights of that emperor. When the debate 
was to open, May 8, the leading defender of 
the latter policy, Count Teleky, was found to 
have put an end to his career by a pistol shot. 
(See TELEKY.) Deak's address was carried, but 
as he emphatically demanded the restoration 
of the laws of 1848, the diet was dissolved in Au- 
gust. The country maintained its opposition to 
the Vienna schemes, and only the Saxons and 
Roumans of Transylvania were persuaded in 
1863 to send representatives to the imperial 
Reichsrath. The joint intervention with Prus- 
sia in the Schleswig-Holstein affairs proving 
detrimental to Austria, chiefly from want of 
ready support on the part of the Hungarian 
and Slavic nationalities, Francis Joseph re- 
paired to Pesth in June, 1865, dismissed Schmer- 
ling, replacing him by a federalist minister, 
Belcredi, suspended the imperial constitution, 
and convoked a new Hungarian diet. Deak 
ruled this as he did the preceding, and re- 
mained firm in his demands. Francis Joseph, 
on the eve of the great struggle with Prussia, 
prorogued the diet, but after the disastrous 
battle of Sadowa (July 3, 1866) was ready to 
submit to the demands of the Hungarians. 
His new leading minister Beust undertook the 
task of carrying through a compromise, and the 
result was the dualistic system of the Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy, as finally sanctioned in 
December, 1867. (See AUSTRIA, vol. ii., p. 141.) 
A national Hungarian ministry was appointed in 
February, 1867, of which Count Andrassy was 
the head. A general amnesty was proclaimed, 
and the emperor was crowned as king of Hun- 
gary (June 8) at Buda, with extraordinary 
pomp. The diet, having carried through va- 
rious reforms, including the emancipation of 
the Jews, and settled the relations of Croatia to 
the Hungarian crown on a basis analogous to 
the relation of Hungary to the monarchy, closed 
its sittings in December, 1868. Two principal 
parliamentary parties had been formed, the 
conservative or Deak party, which had a de- 
cided majority, and the opposition party of the 
left, under Ghyczy and Tisza, aiming at a mere 



62 



HUNGARY (LANGUAGE AND LITEEATUEE) 



personal union with Cisleithan Austria under 
the house of Hapsburg. The revolutionary 
extreme left numbered few adherents. The 
same was the position of affairs in the diet 
of 1809-72. Andrassy, who in the war of 
1870 restrained Beust from interfering against 
Prussia, succeeded that statesman in Novem- 
ber, 1871, as foreign minister of the monarchy, 
L6nyay taking his place in Hungary. A new 
agreement was entered into with Croatia, and 
the Military Frontier districts were gradually 
placed under civil jurisdiction. The finances 
of the country, however, became rapidly em- 
barrassed by state subsidies, and L6nyay fell 
under personal attacks, Szlavy becoming his 
successor (December, 1872). The new cabinet 
was even less successful, and in March, 1874, 
made room for a coalition ministry under Bitt6. 
HUNGARY, Language and Literature of. The 
Hungarian language (Hung. Magyar nyeh) is 
an isolated branch of the Uralo- Altaic family, 
constituting a peculiar group with the now ex- 
tinct idioms of the Uzes, Khazars, Petchenegs, 
and ancient Bulgarians. Leo Diaconus (10th 
century) called the Magyars Huns, and the peo- 
ple liked to consider themselves as such, being 
proud of Etele (Attila) and his brother Buda. 
The chronicle of the monastery of St. Wan- 
drill and Dankovszki connect them both with 
the Huns and Avars. Some connect them 
with both the Uigurs and the westerly Ogors 
or Yugri. There are also various fanciful 
derivations of the name Magyar from roots 
belonging to the Hungarian language. The 
Byzantine emperor Constantino Porphyrogeni- 
tus names the people Turkoi. The Magyars 
and the Osmanlis agree in the belief that they 
are kindred, and the former are called "bad 
brothers" by the latter for having resisted 
them. Klaproth deduces the Hungarian lan- 
guage from a mixture of Tartaric or Turk- 
ish with Finnic. Malte-Brun considers the 
Magyars as Finns who were subjected to the 
Turks and to an unknown Uralian people. 
Bese found that Balkar tribes in the Caucasus 
boasted of being Magyars, and that the ruins 
of a Magyar town were yet visible S. W. of 
Astrakhan. Csoma de Koros, who went in 
search of the cradle of his nation, found many 
words in the Thibetan and other tongues of 
middle Asia akin in sound and sense to the 
Magyar, but was unable to solve the mystery 
of the original home of the race. Many Hun- 
garian writers report that their ancestors 
brought from Asia works written in their na- 
tional 34 characters, which were suppressed 
at the command of Pope Sylvester II. and with 
the aid of Stephen I., but which were taught 
as late as the beginning of our century in 
remote places among the Szeklers, and may 
be seen in S. Gyarmathy's grammar as well as 
in George Hickes's Linguarum Veterum Sep- 
tentrionalium Thesaurus (3 vols. fol., Oxford, 
1703-'5), under the name of Hunnorum litterce. 
The language is now accommodated to the Lat- 
in alphabet, and consists of 26 simple and 6 



compound sounds, agreeing, unless otherwise 
noticed, with the Italian, viz. : 8 vowels : a 
(like English a in what, swallow), e, e (French), 
i (also y), o, u, 6 (Fr. en), u (Fr. ); 18 conso- 
nants : b, d, f, g hard, h (German), j (German), 
k, I, m, n, p, r, s (Eng. sh), t, v (also w), z 
(French), sz (Eng. s), zs (or 's, Fr. j) ; 4 com- 
pounds with y: gy (dy, as in gydr, factory, 
pron. dyar, in one syllable), ly (as in Fr.Jille), 
ny (Fr. gn), ty ; and 2 compound sibilants : 
cs (written also ch, U ; Eng. tch) and cz, c, or 
tz (Eng. ts). With the addition of the vowels 
marked as long with the acute accent, as for 
instance d (long Italian a), i, 6, S, u, u, there 
are 38 sounds in all, besides x, which is used 
only in foreign names, as in Xerxes. As in 
Turkish and other kindred tongues, the whole 
mass of words and grammatical forms is divi- 
ded into two groups, viz., into those of high 
and low sound. The former is determined by 
the presence of , d, ii, the latter by that of a, 
o, u, in the roots or stems ; those with e or i 
constitute a neutral ground. All formative and 
relative suffixes have therefore a double form, 
in harmony with the roots to which they are 
attached ; thus : vdll, shoulder, vdllal (shoul- 
ders), undertakes, vdllalat, enterprise ; but bees, 
worth, becsiil, (he) respects, becsulet, respect. 
Whatever changes the Magyar language may 
have undergone under adverse circumstances, 
amid hostile nations, it has yet retained its essen- 
tial peculiarities of phonetism, grammar, and 
construction. Although it contains many Slavic, 
Latin, German, Greek, and other foreign words, 
it has digested them in its own way, assimila- 
ting them otherwise than the western nations 
have done with the same element ; thus, schola, 
Slav, klas, Ger. Schnur, became iskola, kaldsz, 
sinor. The concurrence of harsh sounds and 
of consonants is as much avoided as in all the 
languages of central and eastern Asia. The 
roots remain unaltered, and most frequently 
bear the accent in all their derivatives. The 
most peculiar feature of Hungarian grammar 
is its system of suffixes. In the possessive 
forms of nouns they are varied according to 
the number and person of the possessor and 
the number of the object, giving 12 distinct 
terminations, as follows: hdzam, my house, 
hdzaim, my houses ; hdzad, thy house, hdzaid, 
thy houses ; hdza, his or her house, hdzai, his 
or her houses ; hdzunk, our house, hdzaink, 
our houses ; hdzatok, your house, hdzaitok, 
your houses ; hdzok, their house, hdzaik, their 
houses. In verbs they are made to indicate 
not only the voice, mood, and tense, and the 
person and number of the nominative, but the 
definiteness or indefiniteness of the object, 
and in one form (indicative present, first person 
singular) the person of the object, as vdrlak, I 
expect thee; Icerlele, I ask thee. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the suffixes of the indicative 
present, the root being always the third per- 
son singular of the indefinite form, and the 
vowels varying, as above stated, in consonance 
with that of the root : 



HUNGARY (LANGUAGE AND LITEEATUBE) 



63 





ACTIVE. 




PER- 






SON. 


Definite. 


IndeSnite. 




1 

f. 


1 
-' 

8 


-om, -em (-r>m) 
-od. -ed <-ud) 
-ia, -i 


-ok, -ek (-Ok) 

-SI 

(Koot) 


-atom, -etem 
-atol, -etel 
-atik, -etik 




1 


-ink, -juk 


-nnk, -fink 


-atunk. -etunk 


^ 


2 

1 


-jatok, -itek 
-jak -ik 


-tok, -tek(-tok) 
-Dak -nek 


-attok, -ettek 
-otnak, -etnek 



Examples : vdrom, I expect him, her, it, them, 
or the man ; vdrok, I expect, wait ; ndratom, I 
am expected ; kered, them askest him, &c. ; 
kerez, thou askest ; keretel, thou art asked ; 
Idtja, he or she sees it ; Idt, he or she sees ; 
Idtjuk, we see it; Idtunk, we see, &c. Other 
moods and tenses are formed by inserting new 
letters or syllables between the above suffixes 
and the root, or in a few cases by a change of 
the final vowel or consonant, and by auxilia- 
ries; thus: vdra, waited ; vdrdnk, we waited; 
vdrtunk, we have waited ; v&rndnk, we would 
wait; vdrandok, I shall wait; vdrjatok, that 
ye wait. The auxiliaries are : volt or vala, for 
the pluperfect ; legyen, for the conjunctive 
past ; volna, for the optative past. The infini- 
tive is formed by suffixing ni to the root, as 
vdrni, to expect. A combined future is formed 
by the infinitive with the auxiliary verb fog ; 
thus, tdrnifogok, I shall wait; vdrni fogom, I 
shall expect it. Possession is indicated by the 
irregular verb lenni, to be; van, is; vannak, 
are ; volt, was ; lesz, will be, &c. ; thus : anydm 
van (mother-my is), I have a mother ; also with 
the mark of the dative, nekem vannak kerteim 
(to-me are gardens-my, mihi iunt horti), I 
have gardens. Negation is expressed by nem, 
not; nines, is not, nincsenek, are not; sines, is 
neither. Various kinds of verbs are made by 
affixing certain syllables, thus : at or tat, cau- 
sative ; gal, gat, &c., frequentative ; dul, incep- 
tive; inserting n, diminutive; hat, potential; 
it, int, &c., transitive ; kodik, reciprocal ; odik, 
kozik, reflexive, &c. Examples : ver, he beats ; 
veret, he causes to beat ; tereget (verdes, verde- 
gel), he beats often; verint, beats softly; vere- 
keilik, fights with ; terodik, beats against ; 
vergodik, beats himself (breaks) through ; ver- 
het, can beat ; verethet, can cause to beat ; 
verinthet, can beat gently; verekedhetik, can 
fight with somebody; verodhetik, can knock 
against; vergodhetik, can break through, &c. 
All these and similar derivatives can be con- 
jugated throughout in the same way as the 
simple verb. There are besides these other 
compounds with prefixes: aid, down; Altai, 
through, by; be, in; bele, into; el, of, away; 
ellen, against ; fel, up ; ki, out ; iJssze, together, 
&c. ; and especially meg, which is an emphatic 
particle denoting attainment of the aim, ac- 
complishment (like the German er and lie in 
erlangen, bcgraben). There is no gender; he 
and she are expressed by the same word. The 
definite article az or ' is of recent use. The 
adjective precedes the substantive, and receives 
the marks of relations only when standing by 
itself. The relations called cases and those 



expressed by prepositions in Indo-European 
languages are denoted in all Altaic tongues by 
suffixes. The plural is formed by k. Cases: e, 
genitive; nak, genitive and dative; t,at, accu- 
sative; Ian, in; ba, into; bol, out of; ert, for; 
Jioz, to ; ig, till ; kent, like, instead, as ; kep, in 
manner of; kor, at the time of (about) ; ndl 
(Latin apud, German bei), at; on, upon; rol, 
down; ul, instead, as; vd, (changed) into ; val, 
with, by, &c. ; almost all the suffixes being har- 
monized with the stem. Examples : szemeink- 
ben, eyes-our-in; ebedeikkor, dinners-their-at- 
the-time-of. The separable postpositions are of 
three categories : 1, answering to three ques- 
tions, where? whither? whence? thus: eldtt, 
before (where?); ele, before (whither?); eUl, 
from before; such are alatt, below; koriitt, 
around ; Icozott, between, among ; megctt, be- 
hind ; mellett, near by ; 2, of two forms, as he- 
gyett, hegye, upon, &c. ; 3, of one form, aseUen, 
against; irdnt, regarding, &c. The compara- 
tive degree is formed by suffixing bb; the super- 
lative by prefixing leg to the comparative ; thus : 
nagy, great, nagyobb, greater, legnagyoVb, great- 
est. Pronouns: 1st person, en, I; enyem, mine ; 
nekem, to me ; engemet, me ; mi, we ; mienk, 
ours ; nekiink, to us ; minkct, us; 2d person, te, 
tied, neked, tegedet ; ti, tietek, nektek, titeket ; 
3d person, of both genders, 6, me, neki, ot ; 6k, 
uvele, nekik, dket. These are joined with relative 
prefixes, thus : bennem, in me ; belolcd, out of 
thee ; Tiozzujok, to them ; alattam, under me ; 
alattad, under thee, &c. In addressing a per- 
son we say on (self), plural ondlc, or kegyed (thy 
grace), plural kegyeteR, for both genders; or 
az ur, sir (the lord or gentleman) ; urasdgod, 
eirship-thy ; az asszony, lady ; asszomdgod, la- 
dyship-thy; formerly maga, self; to persons 
of lower standing, kend, you. Numerals : egy, 
1; ketto, ket, 2; Jidrom, 3; negy, 4; ot, 5; 
hat, 6; het, 7; nyolez, 8; kilencz, 9; tie, 10; 
tizenegy, 11, &c. ; ht'isz, 20; harmincz, 80; 
n egyven, 40, &c. ; szdz, 100; ezer, 1,000. Or- 
dinals: elso, 1st; mdtodili,td; the others are 
formed by suffixing dik, as negyedik, szdzadik, 
&c. All other varieties are formed by suita- 
ble suffixes. The formation of parts of speech, 
and of various categories of signification, is ex- 
tremely luxuriant by means of suffixed letters 
or syllables, so that an indefinite and yet ever 
intelligible mass of words may be made to 
suit all conceptions and shades of meaning. 
This plasticity of the Magyar, together with 
its free syntax, renders it capable of expressing 
the turns of other tongues and the Greek and 
Latin metres with more ease and fidelity than 
almost any other language. We subjoin an 
example of construction and of elegiac distichs : 

ferfiak ! tffy nsnlott Pnnnon rlK-Mne liaj/lan: 
Men 1 so spake Pannonia's war-god (its) of old : 

Baiting frihltt arjol; rijatok frte lift Ml, 
J'.l. s>c<l country give-I, fight-ye for-it if need, 

\S" r''ttfinak flsz<'m1n nagy ItAtor nemzelek Mt 
and fought decidedly great brave nations for-it 

'5 reresen n' iliadalt, rfgre l-ini/trtf magyar. 
and bloodily the victory lastly gained (the) Hungarian- 



418 



VOL. IX. 5 



HUNGARY (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 



Ah de risz&ly maradott a" nepek' Mkfin: a" fold 
Alas, but discord remained the nations' souls-in : the land 

linMoggA nan tud lennl as fitak alatt 

happy-made not knows (can) be the curse under. 

(Vorosmarty.) 

This language is spoken by more than one third 
of the population of Hungary in its wider 
sense, by more than one fourth of that of 
Transylvania, and in some places of Moldavia, 
Yv'allachia, and Bukowina. It consists of four 
tlialects, which do not differ so much as -those 
of other tongues, viz. : the Gyori, of Raab, or 
T rans-Danubian, and the Bihari on the Theiss, 
both represented in books ; the Palocz in the 
Matra mountains, in the contiguous districts 
of the counties of Heves, Borsod, Gomor, 
llont, and Nograd, with more genuine ancient 
Magyar words than the preceding ; and the 
SzGkely in Transylvania and the contiguous 
countries, with many Tartaric words, and of a 
drawling pronunciation. The language has 
varied very little in progress of time. HUN- 
GABIAN LITERATURE is comparatively of late 
date. The introduction of the religion of 
Rome under King Stephen I. (997-1038) made 
the Latin, the language of its priests and 
teachers, predominant in the court, the higher 
institutions for education, administration, and 
justice, and among the higher classes iu gen- 
eral, who found it the most convenient medium 
for communication with the representatives of 
the cultivated West and South in diplomacy, 
literature, or religion. Of the time of the 
Arpads and the next following period only 
Latin chronicles are preserved, of which those 
of the "Anonymous Secretary of King Bela" 
(II.) and Simon K6za, the Chronicon Sudense, 
and the Chronicon Serum Hungaricarum of 
John Tur6czy (Thurocius), are the most re- 
markable. The court of Matthias Corvinus 
(1458-'90) at Buda was adorned by distin- 
guished native and foreign scholars. Of the 
latter, Bonflnus wrote an interesting though 
often legendary history of Hungary in De- 
cades IV., which was published with a con- 
tinuation by Sambucus (Basel, 1568). Galeo- 
tus wrote on Matthias himself, whose libra- 
rian he was, and Callimachus on Attila and 
Uladislas I. Among the natives the poet Ja- 
nus Pannonius holds the foremost rank. The 
preserved remnants of Hungarian writings of 
that period are very scanty. The spread of 
the reformation in the following century, as 
in most countries of Europe, promoted' the 
culture of the native tongue. But the simul- 
taneous disasters of the country, the Turk- 
ish and civil wars, and chiefly the introduc- 
tion of the German eleinent with the dynasty 
of the Hapsburgs, checked the development 
of a flourishing national literature. Parts of 
the Scriptures were translated into Hunga- 
rian during the 16th century by Komjati, 
Erdosi, Heltai, Szekely, Jnhasz, Karolyi, 'and 
others. Gal, Juhiisz, Kulcsar, Telegdi, Decsi, 
and Karolyi distinguished themselves as ora- 
tors. Tinodi, Valkai, and Tc-mcsvari sang the 



warlike exploits of their times in light verses, 
Kakonyi the deeds of Cyrus, Csaktornyi the 
heroes of the siege of Troy; Balassa, Kirnai, 
and Erdosi composed lyrical poems of incom- 
parably higher merit. In the 17th century the 
Hungarian muse found votaries in Zrinyi, the 
grandson of the defender of Sziget, who cele- 
brated in rhymed alexandrines the deeds and 
death of that hero, in Liszti, Pasko, and Ko- 
hary, and especially in Gyongyosi, who sang the 
defence of Murany by Maria Szecsi. Molnar and 
Kaldi translated the Scriptures; the primate 
and cardinal Pazman and Kecskem6ti were 
distinguished as orators ; Csere even published 
a cyclopedia of sciences and a treatise on 
logic in Hungarian. This national movement 
in literature was paralyzed by the growing in- 
fluence of the German dynasty ; the bloody 
persecutions of the patriots under Leopold I. 
(1657-1705) suppressed it almost entirely. The 
Latin again became predominant, being cultiva- 
ted in the 18th century by a large number of 
scholars in every branch, who vied with each 
other in the purity of their dead idiom, and 
compared with whom the Magyar writers Fa- 
ludi and Bessenyei, the founders of a classical 
and a French school in poetry, Orczy, Count 
Teleky, Bar6czi, Revay, and others, formed 
but a feeble minority. A new and fertile pe- 
riod began about the close of the last century, 
chiefly in consequence of the Germanizing mea- 
sures of Joseph II. (1780-'90), which caused 
a lively and general reaction. Societies for 
the cultivation of the national tongue were 
formed, literary, political, and scientific peri- 
odicals started, national theatres established, 
and various linguistic theories developed. This 
movement, being identical with the general 
regeneration of the nation, triumphed over 
all foreign elements after the first quarter of 
the present century, about the beginning of 
which Francis Kazinczy, the great reformer 
of the language after Revay, and the popular 
poet Csokonai, appear as the foremost in liter- 
ature. The poets Dayka, Verseghy, and Vi- 
rag, and the novelist Dugonics, were their con- 
temporaries. The lyrical " Loves of Himfy " 
(Himfy sierelmei), by Alexander Kisfaludy 
(1801), were received with general admira- 
tion, and were followed by his " Tales " (Itec/ek) 
and other poems. Berzsenyi wrote glowing 
odes in Roman metre. The poets Andrew 
Horvath, Dobrentei, Vitkovics, Kis, and Paul 
Szemere, belong both to the period of regener- 
ation and to the golden age of Hungarian liter- 
ature, which embraces the 30 years preceding 
the revolution of 1848-'9. This period opens 
with the simultaneous activity of five classical 
writers, Charles Kisfaludy, the brother of Alex- 
ander, Kolcsey, Fay, Czuczor, and Vorosmarty, 
of whom only the last three survived it. Kis- 
faludy may be regarded as the creator of the 
Hungarian drama by his tragedies, and still 
more by his really national comedies, some of 
which are as yet unsurpassed. Kolcsey's lyri- 
cal poems, ballads, and prose writings, inclu- 



HUNGARY (LANGUAGE AND LITEKATUBE) 



65 



ding orations, are distinguished by a spirit of 
ardent patriotism. Fay's "Fables" (MeaeTc) 
are excellent specimens of that kind of poet- 
ry, in the manner of Leasing. Czuczor, dis- 
tinguished also as a grammarian and lexicog- 
rapher, is chiefly renowned for his popular 
songs and his historical epics in hexameter, the 
" Battle of Augsburg " (Augsburgi utKzet) and 
"Assembly of Arad 11 (Aradi gyiiles). The 
latter, however, were excelled by the more nu- 
merous epics of Vorosmarty, "Cserhalom," 
"The Flight of Zalan " (Zaldn futdsa), "Er- 
lau " (ger), &c., which, together with his 
tragedies, short novels, songs, and especially 
odes and ballads, gave him the foremost rank 
among the writers of his nation. In lyrical 
poetry, next to Vorosmarty and Kolcsey we 
find Bajza, who is also remarkable as an s- 
thetical critic and historical writer, Peter Vaj- 
da, John Erdelyi, Kunoss, Alexander Vachott, 
Csaszar, and Garay, whose ballads also rival 
those of Vorosmarty. Toward the close of the 
period appear the three youthful popular poets 
Tompa, Arany, and Petofi, of whom the first 
two excelled chiefly in tales and legends, and 
the last in light and playful songs, whose sub- 
jects are love, liberty, independence, nature, 
and all that can touch the heart or inspire the 
imagination. Fictitious literature was chiefly 
cultivated, if not created, by Josika, whose 
historical novels, "Abafi," "The Last of the 
Bathoris" (Utoho Bdthory), " The Bohemians 
in Hungary" {deJiek Magyaromdglan), &c., 
exercised the greatest influence upon the de- 
velopment of Hungarian prose after Kazinczy. 
Smaller though not inferior works were written 
by Peter Vajda. In many respects both were 
surpassed by Eotvos, whose " Carthusian " (A 
carthausi), a philosophical romance, "Village 
Notary " (A falu jegyzoje), an admirable pic- 
ture of recent political life in Hungary, and 
"Hungary in 1514" (Magyarorszdg 1514 6 " 1 ), a 
historical novel, place him among the most 
eminent writers of his age. Kuthy is often 
eminent in pictures of nature, and Ignatius 
Nagy in caricaturing characters ; both pro- 
duced imitations of Sue's "Mysteries," taken 
from Hungarian life, but disfigured by unnatu- 
ral exaggerations. Kemeny and Jokai belong 
also to a more recent period, both as novelists 
and publicists. The principal dramatic authors 
besides Kisfaludy and Vorosmarty were Katona 
(L'ankbdn), L. T6th, Garay, Szigligeti, who is 
eminent in popular plays, Gal ("The Notary 
of Peleske"), I. Nagy, Emeric Vahot, Paul 
Kovacs, and Czako. Travels were written by 
Belenyei (America), Csaszar (Italy), Bartholo- 
mew Szemere, Irinyi, L. Toth, and Gorove 
(western Europe), Mehes (Switzerland), Jerncy 
(southeastern Europe), and Reguly (northern 
Russia), the work of Szemere being one of the 
most remarkable productions of the period ; 
politic-id works by Szechenyi, Wesselenyi, Kos- 
snth, Eotvos, Szalay, B. Szemere, and others; 
the best histories by M. Horviith, Peczely, and 
J;iszy (Hungary), Bajza (the ancient world), 



and Toldy (national literature); philosophical 
treatises by Szontagh, Mdrki, Gregus, and oth- 
ers ; the best statistical works by Fenyes, Villas, 
and Kovary. Natural sciences, theology, lan- 
guages, and antiquities also found numerous 
representatives. The best grammatical and lex- 
icographical works on the national language 
were written by Czuczor, Fogarassy, and 
Bloch. The beautiful songs of the people 
were published in various collections, among 
others by Erdelyi; miscellaneous writings by 
Pulszky, Lukacs, Frankenburg, Gabriel Ka- 
zinczy, Gondol, Berecz, Pompery, Amelia 
Bezeredy, Theresa Karacs, and others. Of 
translators we will mention only Szabo, who 
published an admirable metrical version of 
Homer. During the revolution of 1848-'9 
the muses were silent, excepting only the 
stirring songs of war. The battle field closed 
many a glorious career, as in the case of Pe- 
tofi, and destroyed many an incipient genius, 
as in that-of the eloquent Vasvari. After the 
close of the war the dungeon, the scaffold, and 
exile doomed the most gifted of the nation 
to silence. The last quarter of a century is 
therefore in a literary respect inferior to the 
preceding period, though productive of a large 
number of publications of different degrees of 
merit. Some of them, mostly belonging to 
the surviving representatives of the preceding 
period, are worthy of their great popularity. 
In poetry the imitators of Petofi have been 
numerous. Among the most remarkable pro- 
ductions are the poems of Tompa, Arany, Sa- 
rossy, Lisznyai, Levai, Gyulai, Nicholas Sze- 
mere, Szasz, Jambor (Hiador), Silkei, Szeles- 
tei, Bozzai, Losonczy, Szekely, and others; 
the novels of Kemeny, Josika, Jokai, Palt'y, 
Gyulai, and Berczy ; the humorous writings 
of Berndt and Radakovics (Vas Gereben) ; the 
historical works of Szalay, Joseph Teleky, 
Jaszay, Toldy, Csengery, Palugyai, Meszaros, 
Fe.jer, J. Hunfalvy, &c. ; the political writings 
of Eotvos and Kemeny ; the translations of Ste- 
phen and Charles Szabo, P. Ilunfalvy, Csen- 
gery. Irinyi, Szasz, and Siikei ; the travels of 
Emanuel Andrassy (India), Nendtwich (Ameri- 
ca), Podmaniczky (northern Europe), Magyar 
(southern Africa), Emma Teleky (Greece), 
&c. ; and the dramas of Szigligeti and others. 
Journalism and oratory, both of which at- 
tained their highest development during the 
later period of Kossuth's agitation, have been 
revived by the restoration of the Hungarian 
constitution. This sketch, which includes va- 
rious Magyar productions of the Transylvanian 
press, excludes all more modern non-Magyar 
literary productions of Hungary belonging to 
the Slavic, German, or other literatures. 
Among the principal works on Hungarian his- 
tory (in various languages) are those of Bel, 
Pray, Gebhardi, Katona, Fesslcr, Engi-1, Maj^ 
lath, Horvath, Peczely, Toldy, A. de (Brando, 
Szalay, and Kerekgyarto. See also A. J. Pat- 
terson, "The Magyars: their Country and In- 
stitutions" (2 vols., London, 1869). 



HUNGARY (WINES OF) 



, Wines of. In respect to climate and 
soil Hungary may be considered a country un- 
usually well adapted to the culture of the grape ; 
but although wine is produced in almost every 
portion ot'it, only a comparatively small amount 
is available for the purposes of commerce. The 
total production may be estimated at nearly 
400,000,000 gallons, not more than 50,000,000 
of which are capable of being rendered fit for 
export. The amount annually leaving the 
country is in fact very much less than this, 
owing to the imperfect system of viticulture 
practised by the producers, and to defective 
and primitive treament of wine in the cellar. 
The wines are of three kinds : samorodny or 
" natural wine ;" muslas, which is made of 
dry and plump grape berries, used in certain 
proportions ; and ordinary wine, made from 
plump grapes only. It is a peculiarity of the 
Hungarian vines that the grapes ripening ear- 
liest often burst and discharge a portion of 
their juice, after which they dry tip and are 
converted into lumps of sugar, called aszu (Ger. 
Trocl-enbeereri) or dry berries. These very 
rarely comprise an entire bunch, but are inter- 
spersed with fully ripe and plump grapes. It is 
customary at the vintage to separate the dry 
berries from the others ; but when the clusters 
are put into the press without undergoing this 
process, the product is known as natural wine. 
The choice varieties are made from the ordina- 
ry wine, with the addition of dry berries. This 
is masliis. It is of four qualities, according 
to the quantity of dry berries added to each 
cask of wine. When reenforced beyond these 
proportions, it is called aszubor or Ausbruch, 
the choicest kind of which is that running spon- 
taneously from the musk-infused dry berries, 
known as " essence." These fortified wines are 
as a rule very alcoholic and sweet, and are the 
chief wines of commerce. The most famous 
product of the Hungarian vines is the Tokay 
wine, which is made in the vineyards covering 
the slopes of the Hegyalja range of hills, near 
the town of Tokay, in northern Hungary. 
Five qualities are classified : Essence, aus- 
brueh, masliis, samorodny, and ordinary. Of 
these the first is probably the most costly 
wine in the world, selling, when 60 years old 
and upward, at from $5 to $15 the small Tokay 
bottle. Dr. Druitt in his " Report on Cheap 
Wines," commending the use of Tokay by in- 
valids, describes the essence as "a wine of 
delicate pale tint, in which the sweetness and 
fragrance of the grape, though perceptible, 
are partly hidden by, or converted by age into, 
mi exceedingly rich, aromatic, mouth-filling 
wine flavor, so that, rich as it may be, it is not 
cloying nor sickly ; and in its admirable aroma 
there is a decided remembrance of green tea." 
This has long been considered peculiarly the 
wine of crowned heads and princes, and is 
rarely if ever for sale. The ausbruch and 
other qualities of Tokay also command high 
prices, and are usually found in limited quanti- 
ties wherever costly wines are in the market. 



| Among other Hungarian wines of the first 
class, but ranking below the Tokays, may be 
enumerated theMenes Magyarat, red and white 
ausbruch, and natural wines, yielding about 
3,000,000 gallons, and the wines of Rust, pro- 
duced in the country lying west of the river 
Raab, and yielding annually between 800,000 
and 900,000 gallons of white, strong, sweet 
ausbruch and natural wine. Wines of the 
second class comprise those of Somly6, Bada- 
csony, Neszm61y, Ermell6k, Szerednye, N6grad, 
and Krasso, which are white ; and Erlau, Vi- 
sonta (called also Schiller), Szegszard, Villany, 
Buda (Ofner), and Krasso, red wines. Those 
of the third and fourth class are scarcely known 
beyond the confines of the region in which 
they are produced. Hungarian wines, though 
comparatively new at the present time to 
Great Britain and the United States, were 
introduced into the former country as early as 
the reign of Jnmes I., and, on the authority of 
a German author of the last century, Helve-. 
tius, " were the favorite wines of the court 
and all over the kingdom." They were sub- 
sequently supplanted by port, sherry, and ma- 
deira. Fi'iedrich Hoffmann, professor of medi- 
cine at Halle, and a man of great mark in his 
profession, declared in 1(585, in an essay "On 
the Excellent Nature. Virtue, and Use of Hun- 
garian Wines," by which he means the sweeter 
wines of the Tokay order, that they excel all 
other wines, in that they are strong-, preserve 
their sweetness, have spirit, odor, and aroma ; 
are strengthening, and yet open the pores of 
the skin and other organs, so that they cause 
no headache nor languor; and that the better 
wines keep for an unlimited time. In connec- 
tion with the wines of Hungary may be con- 
sidered those of Austria, in many parts of 
which country the vine is largely cultivated. 
The average yield may be estimated at be- 
tween 200,000,000 and 300,000,000 gallons, in- 
cluding many wines of fair quality and good 
keeping properties. Most of this is consumed 
within the country. The finest varieties are 
those of Voslau, Goldeck, and Steinberg, of 
each of which there is a red and a white kind. 
The vines employed are those of Portugal, and 
their products are said to bear some resem- 
blance both to port and burgundy. They re- 
semble Madeira wines also in returning greatly 
improved from a sea voyage of several years. 
The sparkling Voslauer, an effervescent wine, 
has considerable flavor and a delicate aroma. 
The vineyards producing these wines lie S. of 
Vienna, between the Hungarian hills and the 
Styrian Alps, and enjoy a climate well adapted 
to the maturing of delicately flavored wines. 
Dr. Druitt sums up his opinion of them as 
follows: "The richness of the overripe white 
grapes destined to produce the cabinet wine ; 
the amplitude of the cellars excavated in the 
bowels of a hill ; the vicinity of sulphur springs 
and volcanic debris ; and the immense care, 
activity, and conscientiousness employed, be- 
speak a great future for these vines." 



HUNGER 



HUNS 



67 



HUNGER, the sensation by which the neces- 
sity for food is made known to the system, re- 
ferred to the stomach, but indicating the wants 
of the system at large ; impelling us to supply 
the waste of the tissues consequent on all vital 
acts, and in proportion to the activity of the 
animal functions from exercise, &c. If the 
desire cannot be gratified, or if absent from 
disease, the phenomena of inanition or of star- 
vation are induced, with a diminution of the 
bulk of nearly all the tissues and proportionate 
weakness. Hunger is greatest in the young 
and growing state, and least in old age, when 
the vital operations aro deficient in activity. 
It varies with the amount of heat to be gen- 
erated in tho body ; external cold increases 
hunger, while heat diminishes it; hence the 
voracious appetite of tho arctic regions, and 
the general use of stimulating condiments in 
the tropics ; it is also increased by any unusual 
drain upon tho system, when accompanied by 
febrile action, as in lactation and diabetes, in 
the last of which especially hunger is almost 
insatiable. In health, the feeling of hunger 
is a very good indication of the demands of 
the system for food, and it becomes the stimu- 
lant to mental operations, automatic in infancy, 
but directed by intelligence in the adult, which 
have for their object the gratification of the 
desire. Hunger depends rather upon the de- 
mand of the system for aliment than upon the 
state of emptiness of the stomach. The sense 
of hunger may be, however, immediately de- 
pendent on some condition of the stomach ; it 
is well known that the swallowing of indiges- 
tible and non-nutritious substances will tem- 
porarily relieve it. The demands of the stom- 
ach and of the general system in this respect 
are probably communicated to the sensorium 
by the pneumogastric nerves and by the sym- 
pathetic. On the other hand, mere emptiness 
of the stomach does not produce hunger, as is 
evident from the fact that an ample supply of 
food passes entirely from the stomach hours 
before this sensation is felt, and that in disease 
there may be no desire for food for many days 
with total abstinence from it. Moreover, hun- 
ger may be relieved by the injection of alimen- 
tary fluids into the large intestine, when the 
stomach cannot receive or retain food. 

Hl'SS (Lat. Hunni), a people of northern 
Asia who in the 5th century invaded and con- 
quered a great part of Europe. Of their ori- 
gin little is known with certainty. Under the 
name of Chuni they were known to the Greeks, 
and aro mentioned by Ptolemy as early as the 
2d century. According to the theory of De 
Guignes in his Hittoire des Huns, the Huns 
were a Tartar nation, tho Hiung-nu, whose 
original country was the region immediately 
north of tho great wall of China, which was 
built to protect that empire against their in- 
cursions. For several ages they carried on 
successful wars against the Chinese emperors, 
who were compelled to pay them tribute in 
order to purchase a precarious peace. Their 



power was at length broken by the arms of 
the emperor Vouti and by their own dissen- 
sions, and in the first century of the Christian 
era the unconquered remnant of the nation 
abandoned their country and marched west- 
ward in search of a new home. One division 
established themselves on the E. side of the 
Caspian sea, where they became known as 
White Huns. The main body of the nation 
established themselves for a while in Russia on 
the banks of the Volga. In the 3d century 
they crossed this river and invaded the terri- 
tory of the Alans, whom they conquered and 
amalgamated with themselves. The united na- 
tions pressed onward, and attacked the Goths 
in 375. The Goths were defeated, their king 
Ermanric put to death, and the Gothic nation' 
driven to seek an asylum within the bounds 
of tho Roman empire. The Huns established 
themselves on the banks of the Don and the 
Dnieper and in Pannonia. They soon became 
involved in war with the Romans, and in the 5th 
century under the leadership of Attila attained 
to a high degree of power and empire. (See 
ATTILA.) Their dominion fell to pieces after 
the death of Attila (about 453), and the peo- 
ple themselves were lost and swallowed up in 
fresh invasions of barbarians from the north 
and east. The Huns of the Byzantine authors 
included many distinct tribes which invaded Eu- 
rope in successive waves, including the Avars. 
Howorth identifies the Hunnic Avars with the 
louan-Iouan, who appear in Chinese history in 
the beginning of the 3d century A. D. Some 
time later they are found on the Jaxartes, and 
invading Transoxiana, where they intermarried 
with the Yethas or Ephtalitaj. They compelled 
these latter to emigrate to the south of the 
Oxus, and during the 4th and 5th centuries 
extended their power as far as India. The 
whole frontier of eastern Persia is then de- 
scribed by western writers as infested by ene- 
mies, to whom the name of White Huns is 
given. Cosmas Indicopleustes, who was in In- 
dia about 525, gives the name of Hunnia to 
the vast territory separating India from China. 
Thus, while Europe and the west were flood- 
ed by one wave of Huns, eastern Persia and 
the Indian border were flooded by another. 
Howorth has also attempted to prove that the 
Khazars or Akatzirs were the same race as the 
Ephtalitffi of the Persian frontier. According 
to some writers, the Huns were a tribe of Fin- 
nish stock, and the ancestors of tho Hungari- 
ans or Magyars. They are described by the 
Roman writers as hideous in appearance, with 
broad shoulders, flat noses, and small black 
eyes, deeply buried in the head. " A fabulous 
origin was assigned to them," says Gibbon, 
" worthy of their form and manners ; that the 
witches of Scythia, who for their foul and 
deadly practices had been driven from socie- 
ty, had copulated in the desert with infernal 
spirits ; and that the Huns were the offspring 
of this execrable conjunction. Tho tale was 
greedily embraced by tho credulous terror of 



63 



HUNT 



the Goths ; hut, while it gratified their hatred, 
it increased their fear, since the posterity of 
demons and witches might be supposed to in- 
herit some share of the preternatural powers as 
well as of the malignant temper of their pa- 
rents." See Histoire generale des Hum, Tares, 
Mogoh et mitres Tartares occulentaux, by Jo- 
seph de Guignes (6 vols. 4to, Paris, 1756-'8) ; 
and Histoire d'Attila et de ses successeurs, by 
A. Thierry (3d ed., Paris, 1865). 

HUNT, a N. E. county of Texas, drained by 
the head streams of the Sabine river and by the 
S. fork of the Sulphur ; area, 935 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 10,291, of whom 1,078 were colored. 
It has a rolling and in some places hilly sur- 
face, and is well wooded. The soil is fertile. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 342,411 
bushels of Indian corn, 31,480 of sweet pota- 
toes, 163,267 Ibs. of butter, and 4,272 bales of 
cotton. There were 9,941 horses, 977 mules 
and asses, 9,672 milch cows, 2,077 working 
oxen, 25,141 other cattle, 7,194 sheep, and 23,- 
347 swine ; 1 flour mill, and 1 wool-carding 
establishment. Capital, Greenville. 

HUNT, Henry, an English politician, born at 
TJpavon, Wiltshire, Nov. 6, 1773, died at Al- 
resford, Hants, Feb. 13, 1835. He was a 
wealthy farmer, and in early life was noted 
for extreme loyalty, having in 1801, during the 
alarm at the projected French invasion, offered 
to place his personal property, valued at 20,- 
000, at the disposal of government. He subse- 
quently retired in disgust from the Everly 
troop of yeomanry on account of their refusal 
to volunteer their services out of the county, 
and joined the Marlborough troop. Having 
challenged his commander, Lord Bruce, he 
was tried and sentenced to pay a fine of 100, 
and to be imprisoned for six weeks in the 
king's bench. During his confinement he was 
visited by several prominent reformers, under 
whose influence he became a champion of the 
most radical section of the party, and the po- 
litical associate of Sir Francis Burdett, Home 
Tooke, and William Oobbett. For many years 
he attempted without success to secure a seat 
in parliament, addressing popular meetings in 
the large manufacturing towns and in other 
parts of the kingdom. In August, 1819, he 
presided over the reform meeting in Manches- 
ter, which for alleged illegality was dispersed 
by the military, after 11 persons had been 
killed and upward of 600 wounded ; and an 
indictment for conspiracy was found against 
him. He was sentenced to 2 years' confine- 
ment in Ilchoster jail, and after his release 
made a public entry into London on Nov. 4, 
1822. In 1830 and 1831 he was returned to 
the house of commons from Preston ; but fail- 
ing of an election to the next parliament, he 
made the tour of England in a handsome 
equipage, speaking in the principal towns, and 
offering for sale, under the name of " radical 
coffee," roasted grains of wheat, as a substitute 
for the heavily taxed coffee of the West and 
East Indies. Subsequently he made his ap- 



pearance in London in a coach drawn by white 
horses, from which he sold a new kind of 
blacking invented by himself. He died of a 
stroke of paralysis while on a tour. 

HUNT. I. James Henry Leigh, an English au- 
thor, born in Southgate, Middlesex, Oct. 19, 
1784, died at Putney, Aug. 28, 1859. His father, 
a West Indian, married an American lady, and 
practised law in Philadelphia till the revolu- 
tion broke out, when he warmly espoused the 
cause of the crown and had to leave the coun- 
try. He went to England, took orders, and 
became tutor to Mr. Leigh, nephew of the 
duke of Chandos, after whom he named his 
son. Leigh Hunt was educated at Christ's 
hospital, which he left in his 15th year, spent 
some time in the office of his brother, an at- 
torney, and then obtained a place in the war 
office. He had written many verses while a 
boy, and in 1801 his father published for him 
"Juvenilia, or a Collection of Poems written 
between the Ages of Twelve and Sixteen." 
He now began to contribute to periodicals, and 
in 1805 became the dramatic critic of the 
"News," a Sunday paper established by his 
brother John, to which also he contributed lit- 
erary articles. A volume of his theatrical crit- 
icisms was published in 1807. In 1808 he left 
the war office, and with his brother established 
the "Examiner," a liberal journal, which he 
edited for many years and rendered exceed- 
ingly popular ; it was noted for the fearlessness 
of its criticism and the freedom of its political 
discussions. Three times the Hunts were pros- 
ecuted by the government : first, for the words, 
"Of all monarchs, indeed, since the revolu- 
tion, the successor of George III. will have 
the finest opportunity of becoming nobly pop- 
ular;" second, for denouncing flogging in the 
army ; third, when a fashionable newspaper 
had called the prince regent an Adonis, for 
adding " a fat Adonis of fifty." On the first 
the prosecution was abandoned, on the second 
the verdict was for acquittal, but on the third 
the brothers were sentenced to a fine of 500 
each, and two years' imprisonment. They re- 
jected offers to remit the penalties on condi- 
tion that the paper should change its tone, and 
underwent the full sentence ; but so much pop- 
ular sympathy was excited in their behalf that 
the cells were transformed into comfortable 
apartments, constantly supplied with books 
and flowers. Here Leigh was visited by By- 
ron, Moore, Lamb, Shelley, and Keats, and 
here he wrote "The Feast of the Poets" 
(1814), "The Descent of Liberty, a Mask" 
(1815), and "The Story of Rimini" (1816), 
which immediately gave him a place among 
the poets. Ho also continued to edit the "Ex- 
aminer " while in prison. In 1818 he pub- 
lished "Foliage, or Poems original and trans- 
lated," and in 1819 ho started the "Indica- 
tor," a small weekly on the model of the 
" Spectator." A selection of his best essays 
from this was published under the title of 
"The Indicator and Companion" (2 vols. 



HUNT 



69 



8vo, 1822). But his pecuniary affairs had be- 
come badly involved, and in June, 1822, on 
the invitation of Byron and Shelley, he went 
to Pisa, Italy, to assist them in editing the 
"Liberal," a journal intended to be ultra-lib- 
eral in both literature and politics. Shelley's 
death occurred in July, and Hunt resided with 
Byron for several months ; but the journal 
proving a failure and the association uncon- 
genial, the poets separated with decidedly un- 
pleasant impressions of each other. Hunt re- 
mained in Italy for some years, and after his 
return to England published "Recollections 
of Lord Byron and some of his Contempora- 
ries" (4to and 2 vols. 8vo, 1828). In this 
book the character of Byron was set forth in 
so unfavorable a light that his friends, espe- 
cially Moore, retorted upon its author in the 
severest manner. Years afterward Hunt con- 
fessed that he was ashamed of it. From this 
time his life was constantly devoted to the pro- 
duction of books. He had always been sneered 
at as a cockney by certain critics, and was fre- 
quently in great pecuniary straits, until in 1847 
he received a literary pension of 200, but 
plodded on with unceasing industry. He trans- 
lated Tasso's Aminta, Redi's Sacco in Toscana, 
Boileau's Lutrin, and numerous other works; 
edited the plays of Wycherly, Oongreve, Van- 
brugh, Farqnhar, and Sheridan, and an expur- 
gated edition of Beaumont and Fletcher ; and 
was a frequent contributor to the literary and 
political columns of newspapers and maga- 
zines. Among his other works are the follow- 
ing: "Sir Ralph Esher," a novel (1832; new 
ed., 1850) ; " Captain Sword and Captain Pen," 
a metrical satire against war (1835); "The 
Legend of Florence," a drama (1840); "The 
Seer," a collection of essays (1841) ; " The Pal- 
frey," a love story in rhyme (1842); "Stories 
from the Italian Poets, with Lives of the Wri- 
ters" (2 vols., 1840); "Men, Women, and 
Books " (2 vols., 1847) ; " The Town " (2 vols., 
1848); "Autobiography" (1850); "Table 
Talk, with Imaginary Conversations of Pope 
and Swift" (1851); "Religion of the Heart" 
(1853); and "The Old Court Suburb" (1855). 
Shortly before his death he collected and ar- 
ranged a complete final edition of his poems. 
A selection from his correspondence was pub- 
lished in 1802. II. Thornton, an English author 
and art critic, son of the preceding, born in 
London, Sept. 10, 1810, died June 24, 1873. 
He studied the art of painting, but soon aban- 
doned it for journalism, conducted the political 
department of the " Constitutional " until that 
journal ceased to exist, edited successively the 
" North Cheshire Reformer " and the " Glas- 
gow Argus," and from 1840 to 1860 was con- 
nected with the London "Spectator." He 
published "The Foster Brother," a romance 
(1845), and edited his father's "Autobiogra- 
phy" (1850) and "Correspondence" (18fi2). 

Hl'NT, Richard Morris, an American architect, 
born in Brattleboro, Vt., Oct. 28, 1828. In 
1843 he went to Europe, where he studied his 



profession at the school of fine arts in Paris, 
and under Hector Lefuel, and made a tour 
through various parts of Europe, Greece, Asia 
Minor, and Egypt. Returning to Paris, he was 
engaged as inspector under Lefuel, then archi- 
tect to the emperor, on the new building con- 
necting the Louvre and the Tuileries. On his 
return to America in 1855, he was employed 
upon the capitol extension at Washington. 
Since then he has executed many public and 
private works, of which the most important 
are the Presbyterian hospital, the Stevens 
apartment house, the Lenox library, and the 
Tribune building in New York ; the Yale di- 
vinity college in New Haven ; the Stuyvesant 
building, New York ; the Brimmer houses, 
Boston; the residence of J. Q. A. Ward, New 
York; and several villas at Newport, R. I. 

HCAT, Thomas St*rry, an American chemist, 
mineralogist, and geologist, born in Norwich, 
Conn., Sept. 5, 1826. He studied medicine for 
a time, but, devoting himself to chemistry, be- 
came in 1845 a private student with Prof. B. 
Silliman, jr., of New Haven, acting meanwhile 
as chemical assistant to Prof. Silliman, sr., in 
the laboratory of Yale college. After two years 
thus spent he was in 1847 made chemist and 
mineralogist to the geological survey of Canada, 
then just begun under the direction of Sir 
William Logan. He held this post fbr more 
than 25 years, but resigned it in 1872, and ac- 
cepted the chair of geology in the Massachu- 
setts institute of technology, where he succeed- 
ed Prof. William B. Rogers. His earlier studies 
were directed especially to theoretical chem- 
istry, then assuming shape from the labors of 
Liebig, Dumas, Laurent, and Gerhardt. It 
was as the reviewer, interpreter, and critic of 
these chemists that Mr. Hunt first became 
known, while he at the same time developed 
from some germs in the writings of Laurent 
a new system essentially his own, in which all 
chemical compounds are deduced from simple 
types represented by one or more molecules of 
water or of hydrogen. These views, maintained 
by him in a series of papers in the " American 
Journal of Science," beginning in 1848, have 
at length been universally adopted, and are 
now recognized as one of the foundations of 
modern chemical theory. His philosophy of 
the sciences has been influenced by the study ol' 
Kant, and still more of Hegel and Stallo, as may 
be seen in his essays on " Solution," " Chemical 
Changes," and "Atomic Volumes," which first 
appeared in the "Journal " (1853-'4), and were 
republished in England and Germany. In these 
he attacks the atomic hypothesis and all its 
consequences, and asserts that solution is chem- 
ical union, and chemical union identification. 
His researches on the equivalent volumes of 
liquids and solids were a remarkable anticipa- 
tion of those of Dumas, while in his inquiries 
into the polymerism of mineral species he has 
opened a new field for mineralogy, as set forth 
later in his essay on the " Objects and Meth- 
od of Mineralogy." His philosophical studies 



70 



HUNT 



have however been only incidental to his 
labors in chemical mineralogy and chemical 
geology. His researches into the chemical and 
mineral composition of rocks have probably 
been more extended than those of any other 
living chemist; and his investigations of the 
chemistry of mineral waters, which are not 
less so, have enabled him to frame a com- 
plete theory of their origin and formation, 
and their relations to the origin of rock masses 
both crystalline and uncrystalline, and to lay 
the basis of a rational system of chemical ge- 
ology. From his long series of studies of the 
salts of lime and magnesia he was enabled to 
explain for the first time the true relations of 
gypsums and dolomites, and to explain their 
origin by direct deposition. His views on this 
subject are now, after many years, finding rec- 
ognition among geologists. lie has also care- 
fully investigated petroleum both in its chem- 
ical and geological relations. The phenomena 
of -volcanoes and igneous rocks have been dis- 
cussed by him from a new point of view, and 
he has revived and enforced the almost for- 
gotten hypothesis of Keferstein that the source 
of these is to be sought in chemical reactions 
set up in the sedimentary deposits of the 
earth's crust through the agency of internal 
heat. In this discussion he was the first to 
point out and explain the relation between 
modern volcanic phenomena and great accu- 
mulations of comparatively recent sedimentary 
formations, as well as the nature of the rela- 
tions between these and folded and contorted 
strata. He has sought to harmonize the facts 
of dynamical geology with the notion of a solid 
globe, which he early adopted in opposition to 
the generally received one of a globe with a 
liquid interior, and has also developed a theory 
of cosmogony based upon the chemical and 
physical conditions of a world consolidating 
from a vaporous mass, and has endeavored to 
show how the earth, air, and ocean have as- 
sumed their present condition under the slow 
operation of natural causes. His views on 
these questions will be found in an essay on 
" The Chemistry of the Earth" in the report 
of the Smithsonian institution for 1869 ; while 
his conclusions on many points of geology are 
embodied in his address delivered as retiring 
president before the American association for 
the advancement of science at Indianapolis 
in 1871, on "The Geognosy of the Appa- 
lachians and the Origin of Crystalline Rocks," 
and in others of his recent papers, such as 
"JTotes on Granitic Rocks," "The Geognos- 
tical Relations of the Metals," and " The His- 
tory of the Names Cambrian and Silurian in 
Geology." Besides his papers in the " Amer- 
ican Journal of Science," which number more 
than 100, and numerous articles communicated 
to the French academy and the scientific jour- 
nals of France, England, and Canada, he has 
contributed largely to the reports of the goo- 
logical survey of Canada, and to the work 
entitled "Geology of Canada" (1863), the 



latter half of which is from his pen. He is 
also the author of a summary of organic chem- 
istry forming a part of Prof. Silliman's " First 
Principles of Chemistry " (1852). A volume 
of his collected scientific essays is now in 
press (1874). He is also known for his re- 
searches, both theoretical and practical, into 
the chemistry and metallurgy of iron and of 
copper, some of which will be found in tho 
"Proceedings of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers." Dr. Sterry Hunt received 
in 1854 the honorary degree of A. M. from 
Harvard college, and later the degrees of LL. D. 
and Sc. D. from the universities of Montreal 
and Quebec, in both of which he was for many 
years a professor, and in the latter of which ho 
lectured in the French language. He was a 
member of the international jury at the ex- 
hibitions of Paris in 1855 and 1867, and is a 
member of various academies and learned so- 
cieties both in Europe and America. He was 
made a fellow of tho royal society of London 
in 1859, and of the national academy of the 
United States in 1873. He is also an officer 
of the French order of the legion qf honor. 

HUNT, William Henry, an English water-color 
painter, born in London in 1790, died Feb. 10, 
1864. He became a member of the old society 
of painters in water colors in 1824, and from 
that time regularly contributed to their annual 
exhibitions. As a colorist he ranked among 
the first painters of the day. 

HUNT, William Holman, an English painter, 
born in London in 1827. He studied in the 
school of the royal academy, and in 1846 ex- 
hibited his first picture, entitled " Hark," 
which was followed by a scene from " Wood- 
stock " (1847), the " Flight of Madeline and 
Porphyro," from Keats's " Eve of St. Agnes " 
(1848), and "Rienzi vowing to obtain Justice 
for the Murder of his Brother," from Bulwer's 
novel (1849). In 1850 appeared his "Con- 
verted British Family sheltering a Christian 
Missionary from the Persecution of the Druids," 
the first fruits of the' new " pre-Raphaelite " 
movement in British art. He had in the pre- 
vious year associated himself with John Ever- 
ett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, for the 
purpose of restoring to the art the earnestness 
and conscientious accuracy that animated the 
painters who preceded Raphael. Mediasvalism 
in theology and architecture was the prevail- 
ing mode of the day, and the young artists 
showed tho influence which it had perhaps 
unconsciously exerted upon them, by styling 
themselves " pre-Raphaelites ;" although they 
distinctly avowed their object to be chiefly the 
study of nature, to which they looked for in- 
spiration, and the minutest details of which 
they proposed to copy with scrupulous accura- 
cy. By common consent Hunt was regarded 
as the leader of tho new school, which was 
shortly joined by Charles Collins and other 
young artists ; and notwithstanding much hos- 
tile criticism and ridicule, he continued year 
by year to develop the idea with which he 



HUNT 



HUNTER 



71 



started. In 1851 appeared his "Valentine 
rescuing Sylvia from Proteus," in 1852 " The 
Hireling Shepherd," and in 1853 " Claudio and 
Isabella " and " Our English Coasts," a pre- 
Raphaelite study of the downs at Hastings, 
all strongly imbued with the characteristics of 
the new style. In 1854: he produced two pow- 
erful pictures, "The Awakened Conscience" 
and " The Light of the World." The summer 
of 1855 was spent by Mr. Hunt on the shores 
of the Dead sea, where he took minute studies 
of the surrounding scenery, which were sub- 
'sequently embodied in his picture of the 
"Scape Goat," exhibited in the succeeding 
year. To the universal exposition of 1867 in 
Paris he sent " After Sunset in Egypt." Mr. 
Hunt resided for some years in Jerusalem en- 
gaged in painting a picture recently finished, 
" The Shadow of Death," for which he received 
10,000 guineas. 

HOT, William Morris, an American painter, 
born in Brattleboro, Vt., March 31, 1824. Ho 
entered Harvard college in 1840, but went to 
Europe on account of his health before the 
completion of his course, and in 184G entered 
the academy at Dusseldorf, with the intention 
of studying sculpture. At the expiration of 
nine months he went to Paris, and in 1848 be- 
came a pupil of Couture. In 1855 he returned 
to the United States, and has since resided at 
Newport, R. I. His paintings comprise por- 
traits, history, and genre, and among the most 
successful are several representing picturesque 
types of city life in Paris, of which the artist 
published a series of lithographs executed by 
himself in 1859. Among his later works are 
the "Morning Star," and the "Drummer 
Boy " and the " Bugle Call," illustrating inci- 
dents in the civil war. 

Ill MKR, John, a British surgeon and physiol- 
ogist, born at Long Calderwood, Lanarkshire, 
July 14, 1728, died in London, Oct. 16, 1793. 
Ho was the son of a farmer, and the young- 
est of ten children. At 17 years he went to 
Glasgow to assist his brother-in-law, a cabinet 
maker ; but soon returned home, and wrote to 
his brother William, who was already successful 
as a lecturer on surgery, offering to assist him 
in his anatomical labors. His brother's reply 
was favorable, and he went to London in Sep- 
tember, 1748. He soon gave evidence of his 
abilities in the dissecting room. In 1749-'50 he 
attended the practice at Chelsea hospital, and 
in 1751 became a pupil at St. Bartholomew's 
hospital, continuing at the same time his labors 
in the dissecting room of his brother. In 1754 
he became surgeon's pupil at St. George's hos- 
pital, of which he was appointed house surgeon 
two years later; and in the winter of 1755 he 
became a partner in the lectures of his brother. 
In the mean time he had succeeded in following 
more minutely than had before been done the 
ramifications of the olfactory nerve, in tracing 
the branches of the fifth pair of nerves, in dis- 
covering the system and functions of the lym- 
phatic vessels in birds, and the cause and mode 



of descent of the testis in the fetus. In 1759 
he obtained the appointment of staff surgeon 
in the army, accompanied the expedition to 
Belleislo in 1761, and after the siege of that 
place served in Portugal until the peace of 
1763. During this time he collected the ma- 
terials for his work on gun-shot wounds, which 
was published after his death. He returned to 
London, was put on half pay, and was obliged 
to receive pupils in anatomy and surgery as 
a means of subsistence. Purchasing a small 
piece of ground about two miles from London, 
he built a house, and carried on there his inves- 
tigations in comparative anatomy. He bar- 
gained with the keepers of menageries for the 
bodies of dead animals, spent all his available 
means in procuring rare species, and often ex- 
posed himself to personal danger in watching 
their habits and instincts and experimenting 
on their dispositions. His papers communi- 
cated to the royal society drew attention to 
his labors, and in 1767 he was elected a fellow 
of the society, and the following year surgeon 
of St. George's hospital and a member of the 
college of surgeons. In 1771 he married the 
sister of Sir Everard Home, his pupil and sub- 
sequently his biographer, and in the same year 
published his first original work, " Natural 
History of the Human Teeth " (4to), of which 
the second part appeared in 1778. In 1773 
he commenced his first regular course of lec- 
tures, a task which he seldom succeeded in 
discharging with satisfaction to himself or his 
pupils, and as a preparation for which he was 
accustomed to dose himself with laudanum. 
In 1776 he was appointed surgeon extraprdi- 
nary to the king, and at the request of the 
royal humane society drew up a paper on the 
best mode of restoring apparently drowned 
persons. He also published papers on the ac- 
tion of the gastric juice upon the stomach after 
death, the torpedo, electric eel, &c. Between 
1777 and 1785 appeared his papers on the heat 
of vegetables and animals, the structure of the 
placenta, the organs of hearing in fishes, &c., 
and the six Croonian lectures on muscular mo- 
tion. The paper on the placenta, claiming for 
the author the discovery of the union between 
the uterus and placenta, which William Hun- 
ter had claimed in 1775 in his " Gravid Ute- 
rus," caused an estrangement between the 
brothers which only terminated a short time 
before the death of William. In 1785 he re- 
moved his whole 'museum to a house erected 
for the purpose in Leicester square, to which 
he admitted the public in May and October of 
each year. It had now assumed enormous di- 
mensions, and such was his reputation as a 
naturalist that no new animal was brought 
to the country which was not shown to him. 
In the same year ho was prostrated by a se- 
vere spasmodic attack, and was obliged to re- 
linquish practice for a time; and thenceforth 
until his death he was a constant sufferer, his 
paroxysms occurring after any mental excite- 
ment. He nevertheless persevered in his ex- 



72 



HUNTER 



periments, and was constantly performing op- 
erations then now to the art of surgery. Soon 
after his attack in 1785 he practised the new 
method of tying the artery for popliteal aneu- 
rism, which has been called the most brilliant 
surgical discovery of the century. In 1786 
appeared his " Treatise on the Venereal Dis- 
ease" (4to, London; new ed. by Sir Everard 
Home, 1809, and by Joseph Adams, 1818), 
and "Observations on Certain Parts of the 
Animal Economy" (4to, London; new ed. 
by Prof. Owen, 1800, 1837), the latter a re- 
publication of papers from the " Philosophical 
Transactions," and of others on anatomical 
and physiological discoveries by the author. 
In the same year he was appointed surgeon 
general of the army, and in 1787 he received 
the Copley gold medal from the royal society 
for papers on the ovarinm, the specific identity 
of the wolf, jackal, and dog, and on the struc- 
ture and economy of whales. Soon after he 
published valuable papers on the treatment of 
inflamed veins, on introsusception, and on the 
mode of conveying food into the stomach in 
cases of paralysis of the oesophagus; and in 
1792 he contributed his last paper to the " Phi- 
losophical Transactions," entitled "Observa- 
tions on the Economy of Bees." In this year 
he resigned his lectureship at St. George's hos- 
pital, and devoted himself to the completion 
of his work on inflammation. On Oct. 16, 
1793, while attending a meeting of the board 
of directors of St. George's hospital, he became 
violently excited by a remark made to him by 
one of his colleagues, and leaving the room 
instantly expired. As a surgical operator John 
Hunter was undoubtedly one of the greatest 
men of his time. As an anatomist and phys- 
iologist, he displayed a keenness of intellect, 
a faculty of generalization, and a philosophic 
turn of uiind, which must rank him among the 
greatest of modern natural philosophers, and 
of which he has left an enduring monument in 
the celebrated museum named after him, and 
in 1799 purchased by the nation and placed 
in the keeping of the college of surgeons. At 
the time of his death it contained more than 
10,000 preparations illustrating human and 
comparative anatomy, physiology, pathology, 
and natural history, so arranged as to exhibit 
the gradations of nature from the simplest 
form of life up to man. The physiological se- 
ries, which comprised considerably more than 
half the collection, contained 1,000 skeletons, 
3,000 animals and plants illustrating natural 
history (the animals stuffed or preserved in 
spirits), and 1,200 fossils, besides monsters and 
other eccentric forms of animal life. He left 
in addition 19 MS. volumes of materials for a 
catalogue of his museum, the preparation of 
which occupied him during the last few years 
of his life. The completion of the work was 
assigned to Sir Everard Home, his executor, 
who was intrusted for that purpose with the 
ten most valuable volumes, which he subse- 
quently burned, in accordance, as he said, with 



Hunter's express desire ; although there is little 
doubt that ho destroyed them to conceal his 
own appropriation of their contents in the prep- 
aration of the anatomical papers which pass 
under his name. After his death appeared his 
'Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and 
Gun-shot Wounds," preceded by a biography 
by Sir Everard Home (4to, 1794); and in 
1835-'7 his surgical works; with notes by J. 
F. Palmer, were published in 4 vols. 4to, with 
an atlas of 60 plates. Biographies of him have- 
also been published by Jesse Foot (8vo, 1794) 
and Joseph Adams (8vo, 1816). His remains, 
after a repose of more than half a century 
under the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
were in March, 1859, disentombed by the royal 
college of surgeons, and on the 28tli of the 
month deposited with much ceremony in West- 
minster abbey, next to the remains of Ben 
Jonson. His wife, ANNE HOME HUNTEK (born 
in 1741, died in 1821), published in 1802 n 
volume of poems, several of which were set to 
music by Haydn. 

HOTTER, Robert Slereer Taliaferro, an Ameri- 
can statesman, born in Essex co., Va., April 
21, 1809. He graduated at the university of 
Virginia, studied law, and commenced practice 
in 1830. Having served in the Virginia house 
of delegates, he was in 1837 elected to congress, 
and in 1839 chosen speaker of the house of rep- 
resentatives. He was defeated in 1 843, but re- 
elected in 1845. In 1846 he was chosen sena- 
tor in congress, taking his seat in December, 
1847. In 1849 he was made chairman of the 
committee on finance, which post he held until 
the opening of the civil war. In the mean 
while he bore a large part in the political dis- 
cussions of the day. In 1860 he was a promi- 
nent candidate for the democratic nomination 
to the presidency, receiving upon several bal- 
lots in the convention at Charleston the next 
highest vote to that for Mr. Douglas. He took 
a leading part in the secession movement, and 
according to the original scheme was to have 
been president of the new government, Jetferson 
Davis to be commander-in-chief of the army. 
He was formally expelled from the United 
States senate in July, 1861. The confederate 
plan had been changed, Davis having been 
made president, and Robert Toombs secretary 
of state. Toombs was soon superseded by Hun- 
ter, and he in a short time by Judah P. Ben- 
jamin. Hunter, having been elected senator 
from Virginia, was classed in the opposition 
to the administration of Davis. In February, 
1865, Hunter, Stephens, and Campbell were 
appointed peace commissioners to meet Presi- 
dent Lincoln and Mr. Seward upon a vessel in 
Hampton Roads. The conference was futile, 
Lincoln refusing to treat upon the basis of rec- 
ognizing the independence of the confederacy. 
A war meeting was then held in Richmond, 
over which Hunter presided, and resolutions 
were passed to the effect that the confederates 
would never lay down their arms until they 
should have achieved their independence. 



HUNTER 



73 



About this time Gen. Lee urged upon the con- 
federate congress the passage of a law author- 
izing the employment of negroes as soldiers, 
those thus employed to be made freemen. A 
bill to this eft'ect was passed in the house of 
representatives, but was defeated in the senate 
by a single vote. Mr. Hunter at first voted 
against it, but having been instructed by the 
legislature of Virginia to vote for it, he did so, 
accompanying his vote with an emphatic pro- 
test against the passage of the bill, for which 
he was compelled to vote. He said: "When 
we left the old government, we thought we had 
got rid for ever of the slavery agitation. \Ve 
insisted that congress had no right to interfere 
with slavery. We contended that whenever 
the two races were thrown together, one must 
be master and the other slave. We insisted 
that slavery was the best and happiest condi- 
tion of the negro. Now, if we ofl'er slaves their 
freedom as a boon, we confess that we were 
insincere and hypocritical. If the negroes are 
made soldiejs, they must be made freemen. If 
we can mak~e them soldiers, we can make them 
officers, perhaps to command white men. If 
we are right in this measure, we were wrong 
in denying to the old government the right to 
interfere with the institution of slavery and 
to emancipate slaves." After the close of the 
civil war he was arrested, but was released 
upon parole, and was in 1867 pardoned by 
President Johnson. In 1874 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate before the legislature of Vir- 
ginia for the office of United States senator. 

HOTTER, William, a British physician and anat- 
omist, elder brother of John Hunter, born at 
Long Oalderwood, Lanarkshire, May 23, 1718, 
died in London, March 30, 1783. At the age 
of 14 he was sent to the university of Glasgow 
with the intention of studying for the minis- 
try.; but in 1737, not being inclined to the 
study of theology, he went to reside in Dr. 
William Cullen's family as a medical student. 
Three years after he formed a partnership 
with Cullen, by which he was to take charge 
of the surgical part of their practice. To pre- 
pare himself for this he studied in Edinburgh, 
and in 1741 went to London with letters of 
introduction to Dr. James Douglass. Douglass 
offered to employ him as tutor of his son and 
as dissector for a work on the anatomy of the 
bones which he was preparing. Hunter ac- 
cepted the offer. Douglass died the following 
year, but Hunter continued to reside with the 
family as tutor, and to pursue his studies in anat- 
omy and surgery. Concluding to remain in Lon- 
don, the partnership with Cullen was dissolved, 
but they remained warm friends through life. 
In the winter of 1746 he made his first ap- 
pearance as a lecturer on surgery before the 
society of navy surgeons, and such was the 
favor with which lie was received that he 
was invited to extend his course to anatomy. 
About the same time he began to acquire an 
extensive practice both as a snrgeon and an 
accouclieur; but having in 1748 received the 



appointment of surgeon accoucheur to the 
Middlesex hospital, and in 1749 to the British 
lying-in hospital, he abandoned surgery, and 
thenceforth devoted himself almost exclusively 
to obstetrics. About this time he established 
himself in a house in Jermyn street, where he 
commenced the formation of a large anatomi- 
cal museum. In 1754 he entered into a pro- 
fessional partnership with his brother John, 
whose industry was of great use in adding to 
the contents of the museum. In consequence 
of the illness of John, however, the partner- 
ship terminated in 1759. In 1762 he officiated 
as consulting physician to Queen Charlotte, 
and two years later was appointed her physi- 
cian extraordinary. In 1702-'4 appeared his 
"Medical Commentaries, Part I." (4to, Lon- 
don). In 1765 he applied to Mr. Grenville, 
then minister, for a piece of ground in the 
Mews for the site of an anatomical museum. 
Notwithstanding that he offered to expend 
7,000 on the building, and to endow a pro- 
fessorship of anatomy, the application was 

I unfavorably received, and he accordingly pur- 
chased a spot of ground in Great Windmill 
street, and erected the necessary buildings, 
into which he removed in 1770 with his whole 
collection. From time to time the collections 
of eminent practitioners were purchased and in- 
corporated with it, and the zeal of friends and 
pupils procured him a great number of mor- 
bid preparations. Not contented with his ana- 
tomical collection, he began to accumulate fos- 
sils, books, coins, and other objects of antiqua- 
rian research. His library was said to contain 
" the most magnificent treasure of Greek and 
Latin works accumulated since the days of 
Mead;" and his coins, of a portion of which a 
description was published under the title of 
Nummorvm Veterwn Populorum et Urbium, 
gni in Museo Ghiilielmi Hunteri assertantur, 
Descriptio^ Figurii Illustrata, cost upward of 
20,000. In 1781 Dr. Fothergill's collection 
of shells, corals, and other objects of natural 
history, was added to the museum at an ex- 

' pense of 1,200. The whole collection, with 
a fund of 8,000 for its support and augmenta- 
tion, was bequeathed to the university of Glas- 
gow, where, under the name of the Hunterian 
museum, it is now deposited. In 1774 appear- 
ed his Anatomia Humani Uteri Gravidi, in 
Latin and English (atlas fol., with 34 plates, 
Birmingham ; fol., London, 1828), on which 
he had been engaged since 1751. It has been 
called one of the most splendid medical works 
of the age. A work describing the engravings, 
entitled " An Anatomical Disquisition of the 
Human Gravid Uterus and its Contents" (4 to, 
London), was published in 1794 by his nephew 
Dr. Baillie. The subsequent claim of John 
Hunter to the discovery of the mode of union 
between the placenta and the uterus, as de- 
scribed by William in this work, caused .a 
bitter hostility between the brothers, which 
lasted until the elder was on his deathbed, 
when a reconciliation took place. In 1768 ho 



HUNTERDON 



HUNTINGDON 



was appointed By the king professor of anat- 
omy in the royal academy of arts. In 1767 he 
was elected a fellow of the royal society, and 
two years before his death he succeeded Dr. 
John Fothergill as president of the medical 
society. He contributed important papers to 
the medical and scientific periodicals of the 
day, and left several lectures and unfinished 
works in manuscript. He was esteemed one 
of the chief ornaments of the medical pro- 
fession in the 18th century, and by his anat- 
omy of the gravid uterus, and his description 
of varicose aneurism, materially advanced the 
sciences of anatomy and midwifery. 

HCNTERDON, a TV. county of New Jersey, 
separated from Pennsylvania on the TV. by 
Delaware river, bounded N. TV. by the Mus- 
conetcong, E. in part by the Lamington, and 
drained by branches of Karitan river ; area, 480 
sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,963. The surface is 
level in the centre and mountainous toward the 
N. and S. Limestone and freestone are abun- 
dant, and the hills are well timbered. The soil of 
the valleys is fertile. The New Jersey Central, 
the South Branch, the Belvidere Delaware, and 
Flemington branch, and the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna, and Western railroads traverse it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 340,393 bushels 
of wheat, 26,799 of rye, 1,021,251 of Indian 
corn, 902,737 of oats, 41,527 of buckwheat, 
86,807 of potatoes, 67,863 Ibs. of wool, 226,936 
of flax, 965,243 of butter, and 38,110 tons of 
hay. There were 9,520 horses, 12,983 milch 
cows, 7,588 other cattle, 22,790 sheep, and 15- 
311 swine; 33 manufactories of carriages, 23 
of clothing, 2 of cordage and twine, 1 of cot- 
ton goods, 2 of mirror and picture frames, 6 of 
hubs and wagon material, 1 of India-rubber 
goods, 5 of iron, 24 of masonry, 2 of wrapping 
paper, 19 of saddlery, 9 of sash, doors, and 
blinds, 48 flour mills, 24 saw mills, and 2 rail- 
road repair shops. Capital, Flemington. 

HUNTINGDON, a S. central county of Penn- 
sylvania, drained by the Juniata river and its 
tributaries; area, 730 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
31,251. It has a very diversified surface, oc- 
cupied in part by mountains, and noted for its 
fine scenery. Iron, lead, coal, salt, and alum 
are found, and timber is abundant. The val- 
leys are fertile. The Pennsylvania Central 
and the Huntingdon and Broad Top railroads 
traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 388,859 bushels of wheat, 78,480 of rye, 
503,807 of Indian corn, 410,479 of oats, 148,- 
679 of potatoes, 54,110 Ibs. of wool, 465,027 
of butter, and 27,815 tons of hay. There 
were 7,098 horses, 7,120 milch cows, 11,289 
other cattle, 17,780 sheep, and 12,909 swine; 
15 manufactories of carriages, 7 of clothing, 
12 of furniture, 3 of bricks, 2 of bread, 3 of 
pig iron, 8 of iron castings, 5 of blooms, 5 of 
plaster, 8 of saddlery and harness, 13 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 4 of woollen 
goods, 14 flour mills, 20 tanneries, 9 currying 
establishments, 1 distillery, 2 planing mills, 
and 7 saw mills. Capital, Huntingdon. 



HUNTINGDON, an extreme S. TV. county of 
Quebec, Canada, divided into two parts by the 
angle of Chateauguay co., bordering S. on New 
York, and N. TV. on the St. Lawrence river ; 
area, 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 16,304, of whom 
6,386 were of Irish, 4,924 of French, 3,184 of 
Scotch, and 1,033 of English origin or descent. 
It is drained by the Chateauguay river and 
other streams, and is traversed by the Province 
Lino division of the Grand Trunk railroad. 
The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. 
Capital, Huntingdon. 

HUNTINGDON, Selina, countess of, a patron 
of the English Calvinistic Methodists, born in 
1707, died June 17, 1791. She was the daugh- 
ter of Washington Shirley, earl of Ferrers, 
and was married to Theophilus Hastings, earl 
of Huntingdon. The Hastings family early be- 
came interested in the Methodists, and through 
their influence and from severe family afflic- 
tions the countess was led to cherish a strong 
sympathy with the methods and principles of 
the evangelists, especially Whitefield. She was 
accustomed to frequent the Moravian societies 
in London ; but at the withdrawal of Wesley 
she favored the Methodist party, and specially 
encouraged the leaders in the promotion of a 
lay ministry, which she considered an absolute 
necessity to the successful evangelization of the 
masses. Her house at Chelsea, near London, 
was the resort of fashionable and aristocratic 
persons, and after Whitefleld was appointed her 
chaplain many of the wits and scholars of the 
age became his hearers. Her house was like- 
wise the centre of a circle of women of noble 
rank, who were zealous in the cultivation of a 
high-toned piety in an irreligious age. Mean- 
while the rapid success of Wesley, Whitefield, 
and their coadjutors had created a demand 
throughout the kingdom for chapels and meet- 
ing houses for the poor. The countess under- 
took to supply this need, and promoted in every 
way the labors of the evangelists. She dis- 
pensed with her luxurious equipage, and even 
sold her jewels, to obtain the means for carry- 
ing out her plans. Halls and theatres were 
purchased in London, Bristol, and Dublin, and 
fitted up for chapels, and accommodations for 
the societies were provided in England, Ire- 
land, and Wales. She interested many of the 
noble and wealthy in her plans, met them in 
frequent conference, and often accompanied 
the preachers on their missionary tours. By 
her advice England was divided into six dis- 
tricts, and a scheme perfected for supplying 
destitute districts with religious instruction. 
The pressing need for a larger number of min- 
isters led her at length to found a theological 
seminary at Trevecca in Wales, where pious 
candidates for the ministry, irrespective of 
sectarian character, were provided with board, 
tuition, and other aid, at the countess's ex- 
pense. While strongly attached to the church 
of England, she was at length compelled to 
the avowal of dissent in order to protect the 
numerous chapels which she had founded from 



HUNTINGDONSHIRE 



HUNTINGTON 



75 



suppression or appropriation by the establish- 
ment. Hitherto, by her strong practical sense 
and moral power, ske had virtually controlled 
and directed the movements of Cal vinistic Meth- 
odism. After the " Lady Huntingdon Connec- 
tion " had taken their position among dissenters, 
the countess attempted to devise a plan for a 
closer and more organic union among the vari- 
ous societies. Its provisions were very similar 
to Wesley's model. In these attempts, however, 
she met with very little sympathy from her 
preachers, and after her death the chapels that 
she had founded became mostly Independent. 
At her decease she left 5,000 for charitable 
purposes, and the rest of her fortune for the 
support of 64 chapels which she had built. 

HlMOfGDOlVSHIRE, an inland county of 
England, bordering on Cambridgeshire, North- 
amptonshire, and Bedfordshire; area, 359 sq. 
m., being the smallest county of England except 
Rutland and Middlesex ; pop. in 1871, 63,072. 
The N. portion forms part of the fen district 
(see BEDFOBD LEVEL), and is devoted chiefly 
to grazing. In the W. and S. parts the surface 
is slightly varied by the swell of two low ridges 
of hills. In the S. E. is an extensive plain of 
fertile land, and along the banks of the Ouse 
and Nene are rich meadows overflowed at high 
tides. The general character of the soil is 
either gravelly or clayey loam. Although the 
greater part of the county was once a royal 
forest, it is now very bare of timber. Agri- 
culture is the only industry. The products are 
wheat, oats, and beans, with some barley, hops, 
hemp, turnips, and mustard seed. The chief 
rivers are the Ouse within the county, and the 
Nene along the border, with their tributaries. 
There were formerly several small meres or 
shallow lakes in the county, but these have all 
been drained and brought under cultivation. 
The principal towns are Huntingdon, St. Ives, 
St. Neots, and Ramsay. Huntingdon is on the 
Ouse, 59 m. N. of London ; pop. of the mu- 
nicipal borough in 1871, 4,243. It was the 
birthplace of Oliver Cromwell. 

HITVTINGT01V, a N. E. county of Indiana, 
drained by Wabash and Salamonie rivers ; area, 
384 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 19,036. The surface 
is slightly uneven and the soil fertile. The 
Wabash and Erie canal, and the Toledo, Wa- 
bash, and Western railroad, pass through it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 367,521 
bushels of wheat, 288,840 of Indian corn, 
81,425 of oats, 42,655 of potatoes, 66,257 Ibs. 
of wool, 320,098 of butter, and 12,079 tons of 
hay. There were 5,902 horses, 5,094 milch 
cows, 5,582 other cattle, 31,058 sheep, and 20,- 
5f>5 swine ; 7 manufactories of carriages, 1 of 
baskets, 1 of boots and shoes, 4 of furniture, 
8 of wagon material, 8 of lime, 5 of saddlery 
and harness, 2 of cigars, 3 of woollen goods, 3 
tanneries, 3 currying establishments, 6 flour 
mills, and 25 saw mills. Capital, Huntington. 

mnrrnraTOI, I. Daniel, an American paint- 
er, born in New York, Oct. 14, 1816. While 
pursuing his studies at Hamilton college, he 



made the acquaintance of Charles L. Elliott, 
the portrait painter, from whom he received a 
decided bias for art. In 1835 he entered the 
studio of S. F. B. Morse, then president of the 
national academy of design, and soon after pro- 
duced " The Bar-Room Politician," " A Toper 
Asleep," &c., besides some landscapes and por- 
traits. In 1836 he spent several months in the 
vicinity of the Hudson highlands, and execu- 
ted views near Verplanck's, the Dunderberg 
mountain, and Rondout creek at twilight and 
sunset. In 1839 he went to Europe, and in 
Florence painted "The Sibyl" and "The Flor- 
entine Girl." Removing to Rome soon after, 
he painted "The Shepherd Boy of the Cam- 
pagna " and " Early Christian Prisoners." 
Upon his return to New York he was em- 
ployed for a time almost exclusively upon 
portraits, his only historical pieces of impor- 
tance being "Mercy's Dream" and "Chris- 
tiana and her Children," from " Pilgrim's 
Progress." For two years he was compelled 
by an inflammation of the eyes to relinquish 
his labors, and in 1844 went again to Rome, 
where he passed the succeeding winter, and 
whence he sent back to America " The Roman 
Penitents," "Italy," "The Sacred Lesson," 
" The Communion of the Sick," and some land- 
scapes. After his return to New York in 184(5 
he again devoted himself chiefly to portraits. 
From 1862 to 1869 he was president of the 
national academy of design. Among his works 
are " Lady Jane Grey and Feckenham in the 
Tower," " Henry VIII. and Queen Catharine 
Parr," " The Marys at the Sepulchre," " Queen 
Mary signing the Death Warrant of Lady Jane 
Grey," and another picture of " Mercy's 
Dream," all of which have been made familiar 
by engravings. II. Jedldlah \ lucent, an Ameri- 
can clergyman, brother of the preceding, born 
in New York, Jan. 20, 1815, died in Pan, 
France, May 10, 1862. He studied medicine 
and practised for several years, but subsequent- 
ly took orders in the Episcopal church, officia- 
ting for a time as rector in Middlebury, Vt. 
He afterward went to Europe, where in 1849 
he became a Roman Catholic. Returning to 
America, he edited the "Metropolitan Maga- 
zine " in Baltimore, and subsequently the 
" Leader " in St. Louis. He afterward re- 
sided in New York, and finally again went to 
Europe. He published a volume of " Poems " 
(1843), and the novels "Lady Alice, or the 
New Una" (1849), "Alban" (1850), "The 
Forest " (1852), " Blonde and Brunette " (1859), 
and " Rosemary " (1860). 

( HEirnjfGTOJf, Frederick Dan, an American 
bishop, born in Hadley, Mass., May 28, 1819. 
He graduated at Amherst college in 1839, and 
spent the three following years in the Cam- 
bridge divinity school. In 1842 he was ordained 
pastor of the South Congregational church 
in Boston, and in September, 1855, became 
preacher to Harvard university and Plummer 
professor of Christian morals. Although edu- 
cated in the Unitarian belief, his views of 






76 



HUNTINGTON 



theology gradually underwent a change, and 
having become convinced that the doctrine of 
the Trinity is the true doctrine of the Scrip- 
tures, ho applied for orders in the Episcopal 
church, was admitted to the ministry in 1860, 
and resigned his office at Harvard in 1804. He 
became rector of Emmanuel church, Boston, 
was elected bishop of Central New York in 
January, 1869, and was consecrated April 8. 
His principal publications are: "Sermons for 
the People" (1856; 9th ed., 1869); "Sermons 
on Christian Living and Believing" (1860); a 
course of lectures on " Human Society as illus- 
trating the Power, "Wisdom, and Goodness of 
God " (1860) ; " Lessons on the Parables of 
our Saviour ;" " Elim," a collection of ancient 
and modern sacred poetry (1865) ; "Helps to 
n Holy Lent " (1872) ; and " Steps to a Living 
Faith (1873). He has also edited various works 
of the Rev. 'William Mountford (1846), Arch- 
bishop Whately's " Christian Morals" (1856), 
and " Memorials of a Quiet Life," that is, of 
the Hare family (1874). 

HUNTINGTON, Samuel, one of the signers of 
the American Declaration of Independence, 
born in Windham, Conn., July 3, 1732, died in 
Norwich, Jan. 5, 1796. He was educated to 
the law, and previous to 1775 held the offices of 
king's attorney and associate justice of the su- 
perior court of Connecticut. In January, 1776, 
he entered the continental congress as a delegate 
from his native state. In September, 1779, he 
succeeded John Jay as president of congress, 
and filled that office till 1781, when he re- 
sumed his seat on the Connecticut bench. He 
.s.-rved again in congress from May to June, 
1783, and in the succeeding year was appointed 
chief justice of the superior court of Connecti- 
cut. In 1785 he was elected lieutenant gover- 
nor of Connecticut, and in 1786 he succeeded 
lloger Griswold as governor, to which office 
he was annually reelected until his death. 

HliSTIXGTON, William, an English preacher, 
born in 1744, died at Tunbridge Wells in Au- 
gust, 1813. His early life was passed in menial 
service and dissipation ; but having been con- 
verted he came to be a zealous preacher among 
the Calvinistic Methodists, travelling through 
the country, and gaining many followers. He 
finally settled in London, and having married 
for his second wife the widow of a rich alder- 
man, his later years were spent in affluence. 
He published a great number of discourses and 
tracts, which were collected in 20 vols. (Lon- 
don, 1820). A selection from these was pub- 
lished by his son (6 vols., London, 1838; 2d 
ed., 1856). Tohisnamo.he appended the let- 
ters S. S., which he thus explained: "As I 
cannot get a D. D. for the want of cash, nei- 
ther can I get an M. A. for want of learning; 
therefore I am compelled to fly for refuge to 
S. S., by which I mean sinner saved." 

HIXTSVILLE. I. A city and the capital of 
Madison co., Alabama, on the Memphis and 
Charleston railroad, about 10 m. N. of the 
Tennessee river, and 105 m. N. of Montgom- 



HUPPAZOLI 

ery ; pop. in 1870, 4,907, of whom 2,375 were 
colored. It is noted for its magnificent scene- 
ry, is well built, and contains a handsome court 
house and other public buildings, a foundery, 
two planing mills, gas works, water works, a 
bank, a tri-weekly and two weekly newspa- 
pers, and 11 churches, of which 5 are for col- 
ored people. Huntsville female seminary, un- 
der the charge of the Presbyterians, organized 
in 1829, in 1872 had 7 instructors and 101 stu- 
dents. Ilnntsville female college, Methodist, 
organized in 1853, had 11 instructors and 132 
students. II. A town and the capital of Walk- 
er co., Texas, at the terminus of a branch (8 
m. long) of the International and Great North- 
ern railroad, about 12 m. S. W. of Trinity 
river and 135 m. E. by N. of Austin ; pop. in 
1870, 1,599, of whom 638 were colored. It is 
pleasantly situated on high ground, in the midst 
of a rich cotton region, has an active business, 
is well built, and is the seat of Austin college, 
a flourishing institution under the care of the 
Presbyterians, of the Andrew female institute 
( Methodist), and of the state penitentiary. The 
penitentiary was built in 1848-'9, and has a 
large tract of land connected with it, and fa- 
cilities for the manufacture of cotton and wool- 
len goods. A semi-weekly and a weekly news- 
paper are published. 

lll'.M AUY, JSnos (JonN HUNNIADES), a Hun- 
garian general and statesman, born toward tho 
close of the 14th century, died in 1450. His 
birth and youth are wrapped in legendary ob- 
scurity, as is the origin of his surname Corvinus 
(Hollosi). Under the reign of Albert (1437-'9) 
he became ban of a province south of the 
Danube, and under Uladislas I. (1439-'44) count 
of Temes and commander of Belgrade. Short- 
ly after the latter appointment he repulsed a 
Turkish army of invasion from his province, 
and soon after routed the same in Transylvania 
(1442). In the following year he made a vic- 
torious campaign through Servia and across 
the Balkan, which conquered peace from the 
Turks. Uladislas, however, was induced by 
the legate of Eugenius IV. to break it, and 
perished with the greater part of his army at 
the battle of Varna (1444). Hunyady, who 
escaped, was made governor of Hungary du- 
ring the minority and absence of Ladislas the 
Posthumous, son of Albert, who was detained 
by the emperor Frederick III. In 1448 Hun- 
yady was defeated by Sultan Amurath at Ko- 
sovo, on the confines of Servia and Bulgaria, 
but in 1454 he was again victorious over tho 
enemies' of his country and Christendom, whose 
expulsion from Europe he made the task of his 
life. The.heroic defence of Belgrade closed his 
career. Of his two sons, Ladislas died inno- 
cently on the scaffold, and Matthias (Corvi- 
nus) ascended the throne of Hungary. 

Ill 1TI/.OLI. Frantesto, a Piedmontese cente- 
narian, who lived in three centuries, born in 
Casale in March, 1587, died Jan. 27, 1702. 
His parents sent him to Rome to be educated, 
I and obliged him to enter holy orders. He 



IICRD 



HURLBUT 



77 



travelled in Greece and the Levant, and in 
1C25 was married at Scio and engaged in com- 
merce. At 82 years of age he was appointed 
consul of Venice at Smyrna. His habits were 
regular; he drank no fermented liquors, ate 
little, and chiefly of game and fruits, never 
smoked, and went to bed and rose early. He 
was sick for the first time in 1701, when he 
had a fever which lasted 15 days, and he re- 
mained deaf for three months after his re- 
covery. At the age of 100 years his hair, 
beard, and eyebrows, which were white, be- 
came again black. At the age of 112 years 
he had two new teeth, but lost all his teeth be- 
fore his death, and lived on soup. He suffered 
in the last year of his life from the gravel, and 
died of a cold. He was five times married, 
and had 24 legitimate and 25 illegitimate chil- 
dren. By his fifth marriage, which took place 
in his 99th year, ho had four children. He left 
a journal of the principal events of his life. 

Ill IU>, Richard, an English prelate, born at 
Congreve, Staffordshire, in 1720, died at Har- 
tlebury in 1808. He was the son of a farmer, 
and was educated at Cambridge, where lie be- 
came a fellow of Emmanuel college in 1742. 
He continued to reside at Cambridge till 1757, 
when ho became rector of Thurcaston. He 
was preacher to the society of Lincoln's Inn 
in 1765; archdeacon of Gloucester in 1767; 
bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1775 ; pre- 
ceptor to the prince of Wales and the duke 
of York in 1776 ; and bishop of Worcester in 
1781. In 1783 George III. offered him the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, but he declined 
it. His principal publications are : " Commen- 
tary on Horace's An Poettca" (1749); "Dia- 
logues" (1758); "Select Works of Abraham 
Cowley" (1769); " Introduction to the Study 
of the Prophecies " (1772) ; several volumes 
of " Sermons " (1776-'80) ; " Works of Bishop 
Warburton" (7 vols. 4to, 1788); "Life of 
Warburton " (1794) ; and " Addison's Works " 
(6 vols., 1810). There is a collection of his 
works, with an autobiography (8 vols., 1811). 

IHRinVAR, a town of British India, in the 
province and 100 m. N. N. E. of the city of 
Delhi ; pop. about 5,000, besides many fakirs 
or members of the mendicant order, who dwell 
in caves. It is a celebrated place of pilgrim- 
age, beautifully situated at the foot of the Him- 
alaya mountains, and on the right bank of the 
Ganges. Immense multitudes annually assem- 
ble here at the vernal equinox to bathe in the 
river, the religious ceremony consisting only in 
immersion ; but the desire of being among the 
first to plunge into the water is so strong that 
the crowding on the narrow passage leading to 
the bathing spot has often been attended with 
riotous disturbances. Every 12th year is re- 
garded as especially holy, and as many as 
2,000,000 pilgrims are said to assemble on such 
occasions. The fairs held at the time of the 
pilgrimage- are renowned. 

HI RLBKRT, William Henry, an American jour- 
nalist, born in Charleston, S. C., July 3, 1827. 



lie graduated at Harvard college in 1847, 
and at the Cambridge divinity school in 1849. 
After preaching for some time at Salem, he 
went to Europe in 1849 and attended the lec- 
tures of Bitter, Von Raumer, and Ranke at 
Berlin, and returning to Cambridge in 1851 
studied during the two following years in the 
law school. In 1855 he went to New York, 
joined the staff of "Putnam's Monthly" mag- 
azine, and was dramatic critic of the "Al- 
bion." From February, 1857, till after the 
presidential election of 1860, he was on the 
staff of the New York "Times." In 1861 he 
was a delegate to the peace convention at Al- 
bany. In June of that year, having gone on 
private business to Charleston, he was arrested 
as a suspected emissary from the north, and 
without trial was sent to Richmond, where he 
was imprisoned 14 months, but made his es- 
cape through the lines to Washington in Sep- 
tember, 1862. In October following he joined 
the editorial staff of the New York "World," 
and is still (1874) connected with that journal. 
He has been an indefatigable traveller, and in 
the discharge of his professional duties has 
visited at different times, nearly every part of 
Europe, has been three times to Mexico, and 
has made extended tours in Central and South 
America. In 1867 he attended and reported 
for the "World" the celebration of the 18th 
centenary of the martyrdom of St. Peter at 
Rome, and in the same year the meeting of the 
emperors of Austria and France at Salzburg ; 
in 1869 he was present at the opening of the 
Suez canal and the subsequent fetes at Con- 
stantinople ; in 1869-'70 he attended the open- 
ing and session of the oecumenical council 
at Rome; in 1871 he accompanied and re- 
ported the proceedings of the United States 
commission to Santo Domingo; and in 1873 
he described in a series of letters the first pas- 
sage by steam of the higher Andes of Bolivia, 
and wrote fully concerning the earthquakes of 
San Salvador. He has written numerous po- 
ems, including hymns that hold a place in 
Unitarian collections ; has published " Gan- 
Eden, or Pictures of Cuba," written during 
a health trip to that island in 1853 (Boston, 
1854, and London, 1855), and " General Mc- 
Clellan and the Conduct of the War " (New 
York, 1864); has contributed to numerous peri- 
odicals in the United States and Great Brit- 
ain; and is now (1874) preparing a work on 
the Pacific countries of South America. 

Ill KLIilT, Stephen Augustus, an American 
soldier, brother of W. 11. Hurlbert, born in 
Charleston, S. C., March 24, 1815. He served 
as adjutant of a South Carolina regiment in the 
Seminole war in 1835, and practised law in 
Charleston till 1845, when he removed to Belvi- 
dere, 111. He was a delegate to the state consti- 
tutional convention in 1847, and subsequently 
was repeatedly elected to the legislature. In 
May, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier gen- 
eral of volunteers, commanded at Fort Donelson 
after the capture, commanded the 4th division 



78 



HURON 



in Gen. Grant's army in the movement up the 
Tennessee river, took part in the battles of 
Shiloh and Corinth, held command at Mem- 
phis in 1863, commanded a corps in Gen. Sher- 
man's army in the movement to Meridian in 
1864, succeeded Gen. Banks in command of 
the department of the gulf in May, 1864, and 
was mustered out of the service at the close 
of the war. He was minister to the United 
States of Colombia from 1869 to 1873, when 
ho returned to Illinois, having been elected a 
member of congress. 

HURON. I. A N. county of Ohio, drained 
by Huron and Vermilion rivers ; area, 455 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 28,532. It has a nearly level 
surface, and an excellent sandy soil. The 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indian- 
apolis, the Lake Erie division of the Baltimore 
and Ohio, and the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern railroads pass through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 472,496 bushels of 
wheat, 777,083 of Indian corn, 519,905 of 
oats, 169,312 of potatoes, 445, 909 Ibs. of wool, 
809,801 of butter, 60,842 of cheese, and 43,- 
747 tons of hay. There were 8,550 horses, 
10,113 milch cows, 10,182 other cattle, 92,627 
sheep, and 15,244 swine; 5 manufactories of 
agricultural implements, 2 of boots and shoes, 
12 of carriages, 2 of cheese, 12 of cooperage, 
5 of iron castings, 2 of machinery, 1 of malt, 
12 of saddlery and harness, 1 of sewing ma- 
chines, 7 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 
5 tanning and currying establishments, 4 dis- 
tilleries, 1 brewery, 7 flour mills, 2 planing 
mills, and 15 saw mills. Capital, Norwalk. 
II. An E. county of Michigan, forming the ex- 
tremity of a point of land between Lake Hu- 
ron on the E. and N. E. and Saginaw bay on 
the N. W. ; area, 850 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
9,049. The surface is nearly level, watered by 
Pigeon, Willow, and Berry rivers, and in some 
places marshy. Most of the county is covered 
with forests, from which in 1872 were pro- 
duced 49,000,000 ft. of lumber. There are also 
salt wells, from which wore obtained 30,615 
barrels of salt. The chief productions in 1870 
were 58,251 bushels of wheat, 50,194 of oats, 
20,778 of peas and beans, 99,005 of potatoes, 
10,097 Ibs. of wool, 131,265 of butter, and 
7,597 tons of hay. There were 624 horses, 1,788 
milch cows, 1,197 working oxen, 1,596 other 
cattle, 2,576 sheep, and 1,933 swine; 4 manu- 
factories of barrels and casks, 2 of hones and 
whetstones, 1 of salt, and 29 saw mills. Cap- 
ital, Port Austin. 

HURON, a W. county of Ontario, Canada, 
bordering on Lake Huron, and watered by the 
Maitland and its tributaries ; area, 1,288 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871, 66,165, of whom 23,740 
wore of Irish, 19,388 of Scotch, 16,558 of 
English, and 5,220 of German origin or de- 
scent. It is an excellent farming region, and 
lias good facilities for lumbering and ship build- 
ing. Near Goderich are extensive salt wells. 
The county is traversed by the Grand Trunk 
railway. Capital, Goderich. 



HURON) Lake, one of the great lakes on the 
boundary between the United States and Brit- 
ish America, lying between lat. 43 and 46 15' 
N., and Ion. 80 and 84 40' W. It receives at 
its N. extremity the waters discharged from 
Lake Superior by St. Mary's river or strait, and 
also those of Lake Michigan through the strait 
of Mackinaw. Its outlet at the S. extremity 
is the St. Clair river. It is bounded W. and 
S. W. by the southern peninsula of Michigan, 
N. and E. by Ontario, Canada. Georgian bay, 
120 m. long and 50 m. wide, lies wholly within 
Ontario, and is shut in from the main body of 
the lake by the peninsula of Cabot's head on 
the south and the Manitoulin chain of islands 
on the north ; and N. of these islands is Mani- 
tou bay or the North channel. The whole 
width of Lake Huron, including Georgian bay, 
is about 190 m., and its length about 250 m. 
Its area is computed to be about 21,000 sq. m. 
Its elevation above the sea is rated by the 
state engineers of Michigan at 578 ft. ; the 
Canadians make it 3 ft. less. The level of its 
waters fluctuates several feet at irregular pe- 
riods, as is observed also of the other lakes. 
Various estimates ure made of its average 
depth, the least being 800 ft., and the highest, 
which is that of the Michigan state report of 
1838, 1,000 ft. In this report it is stated that 
soundings have been made in the lake of 1,800 
ft. without finding bottom. Few harbors are 
found along the W. shore of Lake Huron. 
About 70 m. N. of the outlet Saginaw bay 
sets back into the land a distance of 60 m. 
toward the S. W., and under its islands and 
shores vessels find shelter from, the storms 
which prevail from the N. E. or S. W. up and 
down its wide mouth and across the broadest 
expanse of the lake. Thunder bay is a much 
smaller extension of the lake into the land, 
about 140 m. from the outlet. Steamers 
usually stop here for supplies of wood, chiefly 
pine and birch, which, with the white pine 
lai-gely cut for lumber, and excellent grind- 
stones obtained from the sandstone rocks, con- 
stitute the only valuable products of these 
shores. At Presquo Isle, 28 m. further N., is 
another harbor, where the land turns round 
toward the N. W., and a straight course is 
thence made for Mackinaw, 70 m. distant. 
This island is famous as a trading post and fort 
in the history of the northwest and of the fur 
trade, and is still a point of importance on the 
lake. The harbor is deep and well sheltered, 
on the S. side of the island, under high hills, 
upon which stands the United States fort. The 
fishing business is extensively carried on, white- 
fish of excellent quality abounding in the lake 
near by, and those of the northern part of 
Lake Michigan also finding a market here. 
The shores on the Michigan side present few 
features of interest. The rock formations are 
sandstones and limestones of the several groups 
from the Helderberg to the coal measures, the 
latter being found in the upper portion of Sag- 
inaw bay, where, however, they are of little 



HURONS 



79 



importance. Beaches of sand alternate with 
others of limestone shingle, and the forests 
behind are often a tangled growth of cedar, 
fir, and spruce in impenetrable swamps, or a 
scrubby scattered growth upon a sandy soil. 
Calcareous strata of the upper Silurian stretch 
along the E. coast from the outlet nearly to 
Georgian bay, and are succeeded by the lower 
members of the same series down to the Hud- 
son river slates and the Trenton limestone, 
which last two stretch across from Lake On- 
tario to Georgian bay. In the metamorphic 
rocks found in the upper portions of Manitou- 
lin bay copper ores begin to appear, and have 
been worked at the Bruce mines. With the 
change in the rock formations the surface be- 
comes more broken and hilly, rising to eleva- 
tions 600 ft. or more above the lake. The 
rivers that flow into Lake Huron are mostly of 
small importance. The principal streams from 
Michigan are Thunder Bay river, the Au Sable, 
and the Saginaw; from Ontario, the French 
(outlet of Nipissing lake), the Muskoka, the 
Severn (outlet of Lake Simcoe), and the Notta- 
wasaga, all emptying into Georgian bay, and 
Saugeen, Maitland, and Aux Sables. The 
chief towns on its shores are Collingwood and 
Owen Sound (on Georgian bay), Goderich, and 
Sarnia (at the entrance of St. Clair river), in 
Ontario ; in Michigan, Bay City at the head of 
Saginaw bay, and Port Huron opposite Sarnia. 
The season of navigation in Lake Huron is 
usually from the last of April or early part of 
May into December; and the finest season, 
during which the waters often continue smooth 
and the air mild and hazy for two or three 
weeks, is the latter portion of November. 

HERONS, a once powerful tribe of American 
Indians, originally occupying a small territory 
near Georgian bay, a part of Lake Huron. 
They were the most northwesterly branch of 
the Huron-Iroquois family, the Hochelagas, oc- 
cupying Montreal island in Cartier's time, being 
the most easterly, and the Tnscaroras the most 
southerly. When the French under Champlain 
began to occupy the St. Lawrence in 1609, 
the Hnrons were allies of the Algonquins and 
Montagnais against the Iroquois or Five Na- 
tions, the most powerful tribe of the family to 
which the Hurons belonged. Champlain joined 
the alliance, and in 1609 accompanied a Huron- 
Algonquin party on an expedition, which de- 
feated an Iroqnois force on Lake Champlain. 
In 1615 he went up to the Huron country with 
the Franciscan missionary Joseph le Caron, 
and thence accompanied the Hnrons on an ex- 
pedition against a tribe in New York, belong- 
ing or allied to the Five Nations. The Fran- 
ciscans continued missions among the Hurons 
till 1629, and Frere Sagard in his Grand voy- 
age an payt des Huront (Paris, 1632), and Hi- 
toire du Canada (Paris, 1636), describes them 
fully and gives a dictionary of their language. 
They consisted of four divisions : Attigna- 
wantans, Attigneenonguahac, Arendahronon, 
and Tohonteenrat ; the first and second being 
419 VOL. ix. G 



primitive, and the others subsequently adopted. 
They called themselves, as the Iroquois did, 
Ontwaonwes, real men, and as a tribe Wendat. 
Their country was of very limited extent for 
an Indian tribe, being only about 75 m. by 25, 
lying, as was estimated, in lat. 45 30' N., near 
Lake Huron. In this space there were 30,000 
Hurons in 25 towns of various size, Ossossane 
being the chief one. Those on the frontiers 
were fortified by a triple palisade, and gallery 
within, while many of the others were unpro- 
tected. The houses were long, containing sev- 
eral families, two to each fire ; they were built 
of poles covered with bark. The Hurons raised 
corn, squashes, beans, and tobacco. When 
Canada was restored in 1632, the Jesuits be- 
gan their famous Huron missions, which lasted 
till the destruction of the nation. Diseases 
had greatly enfeebled them. Then the Iro- 
quois, supplied with firearms by the Dutch, took 
Ossossane in 1648, killing the missionary Dan- 
iel among his flock; the next year two other 
large towns were destroyed, Brebeuf and Lale- 
mant perishing at the stake. The Hurons then 
dispersed. The Tohonteenrat surrendered in 
a body and removed to the Seneca country. 
The rest fled to Charity island in Lake Huron 
and to Manitoulin, but famine swept many off. 
In 1650 Pere Ragueneau led a few hundred to 
Quebec, who were placed on Isle Orleans, and 
were soon joined by those left at Manitoulin. 
In 1656 the Mohawks carried off a number be- 
fore the eyes of the French garrison, and the 
Onondagas compelled others to join their can- 
ton. Under more vigorous French rule the 
Hurons began to thrive, and in 1667 they re- 
moved to Notre Dame de Foye, and in 1693 to 
Lorette, then after a time to Jeune Lorette, 
which has since been their abode. It is 8 or 
9 m. from Quebec, on the river St. Charles, on 
an eminence, and consists of 40 or 50 houses 
of stone and wood. Their number in 1736 
was reported at 60 or 70 men able to bear 
arms, and these by 1763 were reduced to 40. 
In 1815 the tribe numbered 250, and the offi- 
cial report of the Canadian government in 
1872 gives 264, although in 1670 there were 
329 reported. There are few of pure blood.. 
Their own language has been superseded by 
French, and they have long been practical 
Catholics. Their early Huron cosmogony was- 
curious. A woman, Ataensic, flying from heav- 
en, fell into an abyss of waters. Then the tor- 
toise and the beaver, after long consultation,, 
dived and brought up earth on which she 
rested and bore two sons, Tawescaron and 
louskeha, the latter of whom killed his broth- 
er. The son of louskeha, called Tharonhia- 
wagon or Aireskoi, was the great divinity 
worshipped by the Hurons and Iroquois. The 
tribe was divided into clans or families, and 
governed by sachems hereditary in the female 
line. The totem of the whole nation was the 
porcupine. The Tionontates, called by Eng- 
lish colonial writers Dinondadies, were neigh- 
bors of the Hurons, and were crushed soon. 



80 



HURRICANE 



after them. These iled to Wisconsin, and are 
also called Hurons, but after their removal to 
Sandusky they assumed the name Wyandot. 
(See WYANDOTS.) A grammar of the Huron lan- 
guage, compiled by Pere Chaumonot, founder 
of Lorette, was published at Quebec in 1831. 

HURRICANE (Span, huracan), a word of un- 
determined origin, signifying a violent storm 
of wind and rain, generally accompanied with 
intense displays of lightning and thunder. Al- 
though this term was originally special in its 
application, it is now frequently used to desig- 
nate not a peculiar class of storms, but in gen- 
eral the strength of the most violent winds 
known to mariners ; thus we may have storms 
in any part of the world whose severest winds 
may attain to the force either of a gale, a 
storm, or a hurricane, according to the circum- 
stances that attend their development. The 
hurricanes of the Pacific ocean, the China sea, 
and the northern portions of the Indian ocean 
are called typhoons, and are from a scientific 
as well as a practical point of view to be 
classed in the same category with the hurri- 
canes proper; but in what follows we shall 
give only such facts and theoretical views as 
belong specially to the hurricanes of the Atlan- 
tic and southern Indian oceans. The gen- 
eral subject of storms in their various aspects 
wall be' treated under that title. To a per- 
son occupying a stationary position toward 
which a hurricane is approaching, it is said 
that the storm is frequently heralded a day 
beforehand by a peculiar haziness of the at- 
mosphere, a cessation of the regular trade 
winds, a lassitude perhaps induced by the hy- 
grometric condition of the air, and an ominous 
stillness. Then follow a steady slow fall of 
the barometer, light breezes increasing to high 
winds from some new quarter of the compass, 
generally in the West Indies between S. E. and 
N. E., and the obscuration of the entire heavens 
by a uniform sheet of cloud of increasing den- 
sity. When the storm has, in the course of 
from 4 to 24 hours, finally arrived at ita great- 
est severity, the fury of the wind and the con- 
fusion of the scene become indescribable ; in 
the midst of a drenching rain and a steady wind 
that fills the air with a deafening roar, there 
occur prolonged gusts whose violence equals 
or excels the force of the strongest waves ; in 
such gusts the largest trees are uprooted, or 
have their trunks snapped in two, and few if 
any of the most massive buildings stand unin- 
jured. In the midst of the confusion incident 
to the general destruction of property and life, 
there occurs a mysterious calm, while a break 
in the clouds and the diminished rainfall seem 
to denote the end of the storm. But in the 
course of from five minutes to five hours the 
wind bursts with additional force from a direc- 
tion opposite to that which had before pre- 
vailed ; whatever had escaped the destructive 
force of the first half of the hurricane is likely 
to yield to its subsequent fury, and the ship- 
ping which before perhaps had been blown out 



to sea, is now driven back upon the shore. If 
now, instead of watching the storm from a 
fixed standpoint, we take a general survey of 
the ocean over which it rages, we shall observe 
that the interval of calm in the midst of the 
storm, as observed at the fixed station, corre- 
sponds to a central spot in a large region of 
violent winds and heavy rain ; these winds are 
found to blow in spiral lines toward and around 
the central region of calms, increasing in force 
as they approach that centre. It will also be 
seen that the whole system of winds moves 
bodily over the surface of the earth. It is thus 
easily understood why the stations over which 
the centre of the hurricane passes should ex- 
perience, after the central lull, a wind from 
the opposite quarter to that which prevailed 
immediately before. In the " Philosophical 
Transactions" for 1698 Langford represents 
the hurricanes of the West Indies as whirlwinds 
advancing in a direction opposite to that of the 
trade wind. Dampier (1701) says the West 
Indian hurricanes and the Chinese typhoons 
are of the same nature. In 1801 Capper pub- 
lished a work on winds and monsoons, in which 
he advanced the opinion that the hurricanes 
at Pondicherry (1760) and Madras (1773) were 
of the nature of whirlwinds whose diameter 
would not exceed 120 miles. In 1820 and 1826 
Brande broached the theory that the currents 
of air in great storms flow from all directions 
toward a central point. Dove (1828), in con- 
troverting the views of Brande, explained the 
observed directions of the winds on the as- 
sumption of general rotary currents or whirl- 
winds. In 1831 Mitchell expressed the opinion 
that the phenomena of storms are the result 
of a vortex or gyratory motion. The scanty 
observations accessible to the authors previous- 
ly mentioned were supplemented in 1831 by 
Mr. Redfield of New York, who then published 
the first of a series of remarkable papers on 
the phenomena of storms, in all which he main- 
tained that hurricanes were progressive vorti- 
cose whirlwinds. His views were for a long 
time controverted in America by Espy and 
Hare. Sir William Reid published his first 
papers on hurricanes in 1838, and subsequently 
other works, in which he developed views simi- 
lar to those of Mr. Redfield. Of the authors 
previously mentioned, some laid a special stress 
on the tangential, and others on the centripetal 
movements of the winds ; at present, however, 
following the studies of Redfield (18S9-'56), 
Espy (1840-'57), Thorn (1845), Piddington 
(1839-'54), Reid (1888-'50), Ferrel (1858), Mel- 
drum (1851-'73), Mohn (1870), Reye (1872), 
and many others, it is generally acknowledged 
that the combination of both these movements 
with an upward one is an essential feature of 
every hurricane, so that the movement of the 
surface wind is more correctly described as an 
ascending spiral. Concerning the direction of 
this movement, Dove, and independently of 
him Redfield, concluded that in the storms of 
Europe and the American coast the winds move 



HURRICANE 



81 



in a circuit abont the storm centre, contrary 
to the direction of the motion of the hands of 
a watch when the latter is laid on the ground 
with its face upward. Furthermore, Dove 
made the important remark that in the hurri- 
canes of the southern hemisphere the air re- 
volves in an opposite direction ; this general- 
ization, announced by him, apparently with 
some limitations, was by the labors of Reid 
(1838) converted into an accepted law. The 
law of the rotation of winds around the storm 
centre is considered to be of the highest im- 
portance in its practical bearings on the in- 
terests of navigation, and may be stated in 
other words as follows : If in the northern (or 
southern) hemisphere you stand with the cen- 
tre of the hurricane on your left (or right) 
hand, the wind will be on your back. The 
determining cause of this law of rotation, and 
of the distinction between the hurricanes of 
the northern and southern hemispheres, was 
imperfectly understood by early writers, as 
Taylor and Herschel, but was rigidly demon- 
strated in a remarkable mathematical memoir 
by Ferrel in 1858, who showed that the rota- 
tion of the earth on its axis affects the direc- 
tion not merely of north and south winds, but 
of every wind, in such a manner that in the 
northern hemisphere winds tend as they move 
forward to deflect to the right hand, but in the 
southern hemisphere to the left hand. This ten- 
dency, which is known either as Poisson's or 
as Ferrers law, is in large storms sufficient 
to determine the direction of rotation, while in 
storms of comparatively small dimensions acci- 
dental circumstances may conspire to annul or 
even reverse the direction of rotation. Thus 
we are provided with the means of harmoni- 
zing, at least in great part, the views of Hare, 
Espy, and others, with those of Redfleld and 
Reid. There are unfortunately but few actual 
measurements of the velocity of the stronger 
winds that occur within the limits of a hurri- 
cane. In general it appears that the velocity 
increases as we proceed from the outer limits 
toward the centre of the storm, but suddenly 
diminishes to feeble irregular winds and calms 
within the central space. From the observed 
destructive force of some gusts it has also been 
contended that a velocity of 10 m. per min- 
ute must have been momentarily attained, but 
such computations are not very satisfactory. 
The highest hurricane winds that have ever 
been actually observed have on the British 
coast attained a velocity of 130 m. per hour; 
in the comparatively small hurricane of August, 
1871, the observers in Florida of the United 
States army signal corps recorded a velocity 
of 85 m. per hour ; all these winds of course 
were interspersed with gusts of great violence. 
The diameter of the region of calms varies 
from 30 m. to a much smaller size, and prob- 
ably even to nothing. It would seem that in 
some hurricanes, as frequently in the smaller 
tornadoes on land, the so-called axis of the 
storm rises temporarily above the surface of 



the earth. The central space in general, -ac- 
cording to Redfleld, increases in diameter as 
the storm moves away from the equator north- 
ward or southward. A heavy rainfall extend- 
ing far beyond the region of most violent winds 
attends all hurricanes. The quantity of water 
that falls during the prevalence of these storms 
forms a large percentage of the total annual 
rainfall over the hurricane regions, and in this 
respect they perform an important service to 
mankind. At Mauritius in the Indian ocean a 
single storm has been known to be attended by 
a rainfall of more than 10 inches. The area of 
cloud and rain is especially extended on the 
N. and E. quadrant of the storms of the North 
Atlantic ; it is sometimes much contracted, 
though rarely wanting, on the west side of the 
hurricanes of both the northern and southern 
hemispheres. The movements of the clouds 
have been carefully observed, especially by 
Redfleld (1832-'42) and Ley (1866-'70), and 
the result is well expressed by Reye (1872): 
" While on the earth's surface the storm wind 
in spiral curves gradually flows inward, it 
forces the flying storm clouds in spiral curves 
outward, and removes them away from the 
axis of the cyclone." This generalization was 
fully explained from a theoretical mechanical 
point of view by Ferrel, and was shown by 
him to be a consequence of the rising or np- 
ward movement of the masses of air that are 
drawn into the whirlwind. The clouds then 
must move in spirals opposed to the move- 
ments of the lower winds. Redfleld estimates 
the angle between the winds below and the 
clouds above to be about 22'5. The baro- 
metric disturbance is one of the most remarka- 
ble features of a hurricane. The nearer one 
approaches the centre, the lower is the baro- 
metric pressure, and at the centre the depres- 
sion is frequently two or three inches. The 
first notice of an approaching hurricane, when 
it is yet 100 to 400 m. distant, is usually given 
by the steady fall of the barometer; as we 
approach the centre the fall is more rapid. 
The law by which the pressure diminishes, as 
well as the variations from it, may be illus- 
trated by two examples, the first showing a 
very regular depression, the second giving a 
great and rapidly increasing rate of fall. The 
first example is Redfield's Cuba hurricane of 
Oct. 4-7, 1844, for which we have the follow- 
ing pressures : at the centre, 27'7 in. ; at 100 
m. distance, 28-0 in. ; at 200 m. 29-0 in. ; at 
300 m., 29-5 in. ; at 400 m., 29-8 in. The 
second example is from Buchan (1871), and re- 
lates to the Bahama hurricane of October, 
1866. On the evening of the 1st of October 
we have the following pressures : at the cen- 
tre, 27'7 in. ; at 15 m. distance, or the radius 
of the central column, 27'8 in. ; at 300 m., 
29-7 in. ; at 500 m., 29-8 in. ; and at 800 m., 
30-0 in. The ratio at which at a fixed station 
the barometer falls on the approach of a hurri- 
cane differs from the preceding by reason of 
the progressive motion of the storm toward or 



82 



HURRICANE 



from the station ; on board a vessel, the baro- 
metric fall is further complicated by the move- 
ment of the observer. The best idea of the 
barometric disturbance is given by a chart of 
synchronous observations on which isobaro- 
metric lines are drawn, these isobars will 
be found to be crowded together on one side 
(generally the advancing half) of the storm 
more than on the other, and to enclose a small 
oval or circular region of lowest pressure, al- 
most if not quite identical with that of the 
area of calms, though sometimes apparently in 
advance of it. In a general way it may be 
stated that the velocity of the wind increases 
with the crowding of the isobarometric lines. 
The exact relation between the two is quite 
complicated, and may be deduced from the 
formulas of the above mentioned treatise by 
Ferrel, combined with the considerations in- 
troduced by Peslin in 1867 and Reye in 1872. 
It is evident that the law above given for the 
rotation of the wind may be converted into a 
rule for finding the centre of calms, which will 
also hold good for finding the centre of lowest 
barometer ; this latter is generally spoken of 
as the storm centre or axis. Buys-Ballot has 
expressed this generalization in the form known 
as Buys-Ballot's rule, viz. : in the northern 
hemisphere stand with your back to the wind, 
and the lowest pressure will be on your left 
hand and somewhat in front thereof; a rule 
that applies especially to, and was apparently 
suggested by, the behavior of the winds of 
hurricanes and similar storms. The dimen- 
sions of hurricanes generally increase from day 
to day until the dissipation of the entire storm, 
while the intensity of the winds is believed on 
the average to diminish somewhat ; this will 
however depend upon the atmospheric condi- 
tions favoring the development or the deca- 
dence of the disturbance. Given a proper sup- 
ply of warm moist air, and it can be shown that 
the central depression with the attendant wind 
and rain must steadily increase up to a certain 
limit. These favorable circumstances are gen- 
erally found combined in a remarkable degree 
in the region of the Gulf stream, the Kuro Siwo, 
and similar ocean currents; accordingly, on 
reaching these the area of cloud and rain ex- 
pands, as also do the diameters of the isobaric 
curves. The dimensions of the central depres- 
sions vary quite irregularly, hut appear on the 
average to increase as the storm continues; 
while the actual height of the barometer at 
the centre changes much less, but is believed 
to diminish gradually so long as the intensity 
of the wind increases. If a curve, enclosing 
a region in which the winds attain the force 
ordinarily described as a moderate gale, be as- 
sumed as the limit of the storm, it will be 
found that in the earliest stages of the hurri- 
cane it has a diameter of from 50 to 200 m., 
which increases in the course of 5 or 10 days 
to from 400 to 1,200 m. ; thus a disturbance 
that may have been originally designated as 
small or local, increases so as to involve half 



the surface of the North Atlantic ocean. The 
track of the centre of the hurricane is a fair 
indication of the progress of the storm over 
the earth, and much labor has been bestowed 
upon such collations of logs of vessels as would 
elucidate this important branch of the subject. 
But notwithstanding the labor expended, there 
have as yet been very few hurricanes traced 
back to what appears to be very near their 
origin, and in not a single instance has unmis- 
takable evidence of their origin been adduced. 
The general position of hurricane tracks in the 
earlier parts of their course therefore remains 
obscure, although the immense accumulation 
of material by the labors of the various na- 
tional government weather bureaus is rapidly 
dissolving our ignorance on this point. So far 
as the known hurricane tracks are concerned, 
it may be stated that in the North Atlantic 
ocean each uniformly appears to be a segment 
of a parabola having its axis coincident with 
the parallels of 25 to 35 N. latitude, and the 
longitudes of whose apices fall between the 
meridians 40 and 100 west of Greenwich, 
but mostly between 65 and 85. At the 
southern extremity of the parabolic track, the 
branch passes either to the north of or over the 
Windward islands, while the northern branch 
passes to the south of or over Newfoundland. 
In a few cases the first portion of the track 
has been traced southeastward nearly to the 
coast of Senegambia, and the latter portion 
of the track northeastward to the ocean be- 
tween Iceland and Scotland ; some tracks that 
curve northeastward before reaching Ion. 40 
may even strike England or France. The hur- 
ricanes of the southern hemisphere describe 
similar parabolic tracks, which lie at a corre- 
sponding distance south of the equatorial belt 
of calms, and are symmetrically disposed with 
reference thereto. Very few have been traced 
in the South Atlantic ocean, but in the south- 
ern Indian ocean the majority of the hurricanes 
pass from Sumatra and Java sonthwestward 
to within 500 m. of Madagascar, then south- 
ward and southeastward. In general, Mohn 
(1870) and Reye (1872) state that all cyclones 
(of which hurricanes are the grandest examples) 
move in the direction in which for the longest 
time the warmest and moistest air has been 
rising, and producing the heaviest cloud and 
rainfall. If we combine with this law the 
tendency of the whirlwind as a whole to move 
away from the equator, as proved by Ferrel, 
it seems to the writer that we have a very 
close approximation to the full statement of 
the reason for the parabolic form of their orbits. 
The rate of progression of the West Indian 
storm centres varies from 50 m. per hour in a 
few cases to 10 or 15 as the other extreme ; 
that of the storms of the southern Indian 
ocean varies from 1 to 20 m. The rate in gen- 
eral in the North Atlantic increases with the 
growth and northward movement of the hurri- 
cane, and, though sometimes quite variable, is 
not so much so as in the case of the similar 



HURRICANE 



83 



storms of the Indian ocean. The rate of 
progress must be carefully distinguished from 
the velocity of the wind, as the latter has no 
known relation to and far exceeds the former. 
The waves and swells produced by the hur- 
ricane winds are a most important feature; 
these waves are the largest and most formi- 
dable known to the mariner. They form with 
greatest regularity at points directly in advance 
of the approaching storm centre ; at other 
points they form a confused mass of crossed 
sea ; in the neighborhood of the land the con- 
fusion is increased by the waves reflected from 
the shores. Such is the equality of the con- 
test of opposing waves, that near the central 
region these sometimes lose their progressive 
movement and become stationary pyramidal 
waves, simply rising and falling. The smaller 
waves that are propagated in all directions 
from the region of severest winds, degenerate 
into long gentle swells that outrun the storm 
in its progress, and announce its presence sev- 
eral hours or a day in advance of its arrival. 
Besides these waves, it is believed that the 
extended region of low barometer allows the 
formation of a peculiar " cyclone wave," which 
is similar to the tidal wave of mid-ocean. The 
cyclone wave is coextensive with the area of 
low barometer; it is highest at the central 
lowest pressure, where its elevation above the 
ordinary sea level should be a foot or more for 
each inch of barometric depression. From 
the earliest times the months from July to Oc- 
tober have been known in the West Indies as 
the " hurricane season." A table published by 
Poey in 1855 gives the distribution by months 
of 355 hurricanes recorded on the Atlantic 
between 1493 and 1855. According to this 
work, there are recorded in this period in all 
in January 5, February 7, March 11, April 6, 
May 5, June 10, July 42, August 96, Septem- 
ber 80, October 69, November 17, December 
1 ; bnt the annual period is probably not very 
correctly shown by this list, because of the 
imperfections of the earlier records. More 
recently Poey has revised his list and added 
many later hurricanes, and has published in 
the Paris Comptet Rendv* for Nov. 24, 1873, 
and Jan. 5, 1874, the results of a comparison 
between hurricanes and the frequency of solar 
spots. His results seem to remarkably confirm 
those of Meldrum, who had previously stud- 
ied the hurricanes of the Indian ocean from 
the same point of view. Poey states that in 
the majority of cases the years of the great- 
est number of hurricanes are also the years 
of the greatest sun-spot frequency. The ex- 
tensive researches of Koppen (1873) have 
shown that the amount of heat received from 
the sun varies annually with the sun spots, 
whence we infer that the variations in solar 
heat produce a similar variation in the terres- 
trial evaporation, and an increased tendency 
to the formation of hurricanes. The actual 
number of hurricanes visiting any limited re- 
gion is of course very small. Since the year 



1700 the centres of about 25 have been known 
to pass quite near the coast of Georgia and 
South Carolina, which is by far the most fre- 
quently visited portion of the United States. 
Nearly all those of the Indian ocean pass near 
to the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, &c. 
Concerning the origin and cause of the hurri- 
canes of the Atlantic ocean comparatively 
little is positively known, but it seems by 
analogy that they may originate wherever 
the lower stratum of warm moist air is rapidly 
elevated above the sea level, whether (1) by 
being pushed up over an elevated plateau or 
mountain chain, or (2) by the under-running 
of a layer of cold dry air, or (3) by the conflict 
of two opposed and nearly balanced currents 
of warm moist air. In numerous instances one 
or the other of these cases seems to have oc- 
curred ; and as these, combined with (4) the 
radiation of heat into space, are the prevailing 
causes that determine the origin and growth 
of storms in general, there seerns no reason 
in the case of hurricanes to appeal to more 
forced theories. The immense mechanical 
power stored up in the heat and vapor of 
moist air has been abundantly demonstrated 
by Espy, Peslin, and Reye. Whenever, by the 
action of either of the four causes just men- 
tioned, the process of condensation of vapor 
into cloud, rain, or snow begins, there at once 
occurs an influx of air from all sides, and from 
below as well as from above, to fill up the par- 
tial vacuum thus created; this influx toward 
a central region is immediately followed, as 
shown by Ferrel, by the formation of a whirl 
whose subsequent development is entirely de- 
pendent on the supply of moist air. The hur- 
ricanes of the southern Indian ocean are thus 
generated in the region of calms between the 
N. W. monsoons and the S. E. trade winds of 
that ocean. Similarly hurricanes have been 
known to originate in the neighborhood of 
Florida when a cold north wind has swept 
under the warm moist air of the gulf and 
ocean. Another class originates in a similar 
manner in the western portion of the gulf of 
Mexico after a Texas norther has prevailed for 
a few days. A few begin in the interior qf 
Texas when a high barometric pressure on the 
gulf, or a low pressure in the western territo- 
ries, forces or draws the air of the gulf up over 
the plains of Texas. But by far the larger class 
of the Atlantic hurricanes, including those of 
greatest extent and violence, appear to origi- 
nate between the Windward islands and the 
African coast, and generally quite near to the 
latter; apparently these begin with heavy rains 
in the region of calms, such as are accompa- 
nied on the African mainland by the peculiar 
harmattan and tornadoes of that coast, which 
may be, so far as we know, either the conse- 
quence or the determining cause of the heavy 
rains. The storms that originate here may 
either move as far west as the American coast 
before recurving toward Iceland and Norway, 
or may describe a much shorter route, and 



84 



HURST 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



finally arrive at Great Britain, or possibly at 
Portugal. Rules for the Avoidance of Hurri- 
canes at Sea. The researches of Bedfield first 
led to the suggestion of certain rules for the 
direction of navigators. The erroneous theo- 
ries of the purely circular and of the radial 
movement of the hurricane winds early led 
their respective advocates to the suggestion of 
rules for avoiding the dangers of these storms, 
which later and more correct views as to the 
spiral or vorticose movement have somewhat 
modified. It may in general be said that a 
vessel's safety can only be assured by the pos- 
session of a reliable barometer, either aneroid 
or mercurial ; and having this, the navigator 
should proceed thus : First, as soon as the 
ocean swell, the falling barometer, the clouds, 
and the rain announce that a hurricane exists, 
though it may be 500 m. from him, he should 
at once lay to long enough to ascertain how 
rapidly the barometer is falling and the wind 
increasing, and in which direction the course 
of the wind is changing. If the wind increases 
without materially changing its direction, the 
storm centre is advancing directly toward him ; 
if, however, the wind veers or backs, the di- 
rection in which the centre is at any moment 
may be approximately determined by the rule 
above given, viz. : " in the northern or south- 
ern hemisphere, stand with your back to the 
wind, and the centre will be on your left or 
right hand, and in front." The mariner may 
then by due consideration of his own desired 
course, and the customary track of hurricanes 
in that part of the ocean, so alter his course as 
to avoid the storm centre on the one hand and 
a lee shore on the other, and may indeed, if 
there be plenty of sea room, take advantage 
of the strong wind to hasten his own course. 
Further details on this subject are given in all 
works on navigation. It is very rare that a 
navigator cannot by cautious manoeuvring thus 
avoid the dangerous portions of a hurricane; 
on the other hand, it is said that many ocean 
steamers, relying upon the power of their en- 
gines, the strength of their build, and their 
great speed, deliberately plough through the 
heart of the severest storms rather than incur 
a possible delay of a few hours in order to 
avoid them. The hurricane of August, 1873, 
which destroyed over 1,000 vessels on our At- 
lantic coast, and those of October, 1873, and 
February, 1874, afforded numerous instances 
of such bravado. 

Ill KST, John Fletcher, an American clergy- 
man, born near Salem, Md., Aug. 17, 1834. He 
graduated at Dickinson college in 1853, taught 
ancient languages two years at Ashland, N. 
Y., went to Germany and studied theology at 
Halle and Heidelberg, returned to the United 
States in 1858, and for eight years was pas- 
tor of Methodist Episcopal churches, chiefly in 
Passaic and Elizabeth, N. J. In the autumn of 
1866 he took charge of the theological depart- 
ment of the mission institute of the German 
Methodist church in Bremen, Germany, which 



was afterward removed to Frankfort under 
the name of the Martin mission institute, where 
he continued to be its director for three years, 
meantime visiting Russia, the Scandinavian 
countries, France, Switzerland, Italy, Great 
Britain, Greece, Syria, and Egypt. In 1871 
he returned to the United States to become 
professor of historical theology in the Drew 
theological seminary at Madison, N. J. In 
1873 he was elected president of that institu- 
tion, retaining his chair of historical theology. 
Dr. Hurst has published a " History of Ration- 
alism" (1865), "Outlines of Bible History" 
(1873), "Martyrs to the Tract Cause" (1873), 
and " Life in the Fatherland : the Story of a 
Five Years' Residence in Germany " (1874). 
He has translated portions of Hagenbach's 
"History of the Church in the 18th and 19th 
Centuries " (2 vols., 1869), Van Oosterzee's 
" Lectures in Defence of St. John's Gospel " 
(1869), and Lange's " Commentary on the Epis- 
tle to the Romans," with additions (1870). 

Ill It I KK, Fried rich Emannel von, a Swiss his- 
torian, born in Schaffhausen, March 19, 1787, 
died in Gratz, Aug. 27, 1865. lie studied the- 
ology at Gottingen, and was gradually pro- 
moted to high ecclesiastical offices ; but he was 
opposed on account of his high-church views, 
and his Geschichte Papst Innocem III. und 
seiner Zeitgenossen (4 vols., Hamburg, 1834- 
'42) resulted in 1841 in his withdrawal from 
the church over which he presided in Schaff- 
hausen, and he joined the church of Rome in 
1844. In 1846 he was appointed historiog- 
rapher of the emperor of Austria, who en- 
nobled him. Among his later publications is 
Geschichte des Kaisers Ferdinand II. und sei- 
ner Aeltern (11 vols., Schaffhausen, 1850-'G4). 

Ill S!I AMI AND WIFE. The laws which gov- 
ern the marital relation, and determine the 
mutual rights and obligations of the parties, are 
among the most important of all laws ; and it 
is to he regretted that in the United States 
they are less accurately determined and less 
ascertainable than any others of equal conse- 
quence. The reason is that we received from 
England this portion of the common law, and 
have only of late years perceived its repug- 
nance to reason and justice. We now know 
that the feudal system, upon which the com- 
mon law is founded, did not give to woman 
that place and those rights which she ought to 
have. It not only regarded husband and wife 
as one, but the husband as that one. The sen- 
timent that the law needs vast change in this 
respect is proved to be universal by the fact 
that there is no one of our states in which it 
has not undergone great modification ; and the 
difficulty in making the change in such a way 
that the essential character of the marriage re- 
lation may not lie impaired, is proved by the 
great diversity in the provisions recently in- 
troduced, in the frequent changes among them, 
and in the very frequent expression of opinion 
that much harm has already been done. In 
the East woman has always been regarded as 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



85 



a servant of her husband, as his property, and 
as his plaything; and man has always been 
held in absolute political subjection. In Greece 
there were republics and democracies, in name 
at least ; and certainly that political tyranny 
which had prevailed among eastern nations 
was greatly lessened, and the domestic tyran- 
ny of the husband over the wife was modified 
about equally. But the liberty of Greece was 
the liberty of comparatively few, who were 
masters of the many ; and the most conspicu- 
ous of the women of Greece were those who, 
like Sappho and Aspasia, had indeed escaped 
from the gynaceum, but had not found a home. 
In Rome there was a wider spread and bet- 
ter protection of personal right, for even un- 
der the most despotic emperors municipal 
rights and privileges were generally preserved 
throughout the Roman world ; and woman had 
also advanced so far, that the Roman matron 
has been since regarded as the type of female 
dignity and purity. But much was yet want- 
ed. The feudal system, built upon the ruins 
of western Rome by the Teutonic nations, a 
new race, acknowledging the new influence 
of Christianity, made an immense advance, be- 
cause it gave to every man, even the serf, a 
definite place and definite rights, and in theory 
at least knew nothing of unlimited power ; and 
to woman it gave the unspeakable advantage 
of Christian marriage. It introduced, proba- 
bly as a means of remedying or of mitigating 
social mischiefs which it could not otherwise 
restrain, the spirit of chivalry, whose control- 
ling principle was the sentiment of honor ; and 
while this newly developed sentiment exerted 
a very wide and beneficial influence upon all 
the relations and all the departments of socie- 
ty, in nothing was it more useful than in the 
profound respect and tender care which it 
sought at least to inspire toward woman. It 
was under this feudal system that the law grew 
up which forms the basis of the law under 
which we live. It was by the gradual eleva- 
tion of woman in social and domestic life, by 
the side of man as he rose toward the posses- 
sion of political rights, that so much good was 
attained as exists in that law. That the law 
of husband and wife in the United States is in 
advance of any that has existed or now exists 
elsewhere, we are confident. The tendency 
of the law, however incomplete it may yet be, 
is to respect and secure the rights of woman 
in such wise as to preserve her influence and 
her happiness; and to make the relation of 
husband and wife not a form of servitude or 
the means of oppression, but the central origin 
of blessings which could spring from no other 
source, and may pervade the whole life of both 
sexes. As much the greater part of the com- 
mon law is still in force with us, and whatever 
laws we have are but various modifications of 
that law, we purpose, first, to give a condensed 
view of the principles of the common law in 
its reference to the relation of husband and 
wife ; and then to present a brief statement of 



the principal variations from this law in all 
the states of this Union. Promises to marry, 
the contract of marriage, and settlements or 
contracts in view of marriage, will be consid- 
ered in the article MAREIAGE. Here we shall 
treat only of the effect of marriage on the 
property of a woman, and of the husband's 
liability for her debts contracted previous to 
marriage, and of her power to bind him by her 
contracts, and of his obligations for her, after 
marriage. 1. A woman's real estate remains 
her own after marriage ; hut her husband ac- 
quires a right to it (or, in law language, an es- 
tate in it) for her life, and an estate in it for 
his own life as soon as a living child is born 
to them, by what is called tenancy by cur- 
tesy. He has therefore a life estate in her 
land either for her life or for his own life ; 
but when this life estate ceases, her rights, 
or the rights of her heirs, revive absolute- 
ly. He cannot transfer her land by his deed, 
nor can she by her deed ; but in this coun- 
try it may be transferred by the joint deed 
of the two. In different states different pre- 
cautions are provided by law, to make it sure 
that she executes such a deed of her own free 
will. Thus, in many of the states, she must 
be examined apart from her husband, by some 
magistrate, as to her willingness and her mo- 
tives for thus disposing of her land. On the 
other hand, by her marriage, she acquires an 
indefeasible right of dower to the use of one 
third of his lands during her own life, of which 
she cannot be divested but by her own act. In 
this country she usually releases her right of 
dower, when she wishes to do so, by adding her 
release to her husband's deed of the premises ; 
but his creditors cannot generally get it in 
any way without her consent. (See DOWEK.) 
2. A woman's personal property in possession 
becomes absolutely the husband's property by 
marriage. By this is meant all the money in 
her hands, and all her chattels, as furniture, 
plate, pictures, books, jewels, &c. Nor can he 
by common law give to her either of these or 
chattels of his own during marriage, because 
transfer of possession is essential to a valid 
transfer by gift, and her possession is his pos- 
session in law. He however may give to her 
by his will what he chooses to, and may doubt- 
less make a valid transfer of anything in pos- 
session as a gift cauta mortis. (See GIFT.) The 
reason why the personal property of the wife 
is thus absolutely transferred to the husband 
may have been, in part, the lingering influence 
of the falsity which regarded the wife herself 
as only the property of the husband ; but it was 
much more, probably, the comparative worth- 
lessness of personal possessions in the feudal 
ages, when the common law began. What- 
ever were the reasons, they have little force or 
application at present. A single woman may, 
in general, make whatever contracts a man 
can. If by such a contract she acquires and 
receives into her own hands any property, it is 
property in possession, of which we have spo- 



86 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



ken. But if the thing which she purposes to 
obtain by the contract be money, or the right 
to dividends, or any other right, and it remains 
to be received or acquired after her marriage, 
she herself possesses not the thing, but a right 
to demand and receive the thing ; and this right 
is a thing in action (usually called by the Nor- 
man French phrase a chose in action), and not a 
thing in possession. This chose in action, be- 
longing to the wife, passes by marriage to the 
husband, but not absolutely. What he acquires 
is the right to reduce it to possession, and 
thereby make it absolutely his own. But he 
is not obliged to reduce it to possession ; and 
if he does not, and dies, the wife surviving him, 
all his right is gone, and the chose in action re- 
mains as absolutely the property of the widow 
as it would have been had she never married. 
The principal choses in action to which this 
rule applies are notes, bills of exchange, and 
evidences of debt generally, and scrip or stocks 
standing in her name. The principal ways of 
reducing it to his possession are four : by col- 
lecting and receiving the debt for his own use; 
making a new contract with the debtor in his 
own name, in substitution for ,her name ; hav- 
ing the scrip or certificates or other evidences 
of debt transferred to himself and his own 
name ; or suing the debt and recovering a judg- 
ment upon it. If she dies before him, and be- 
fore he has reduced them to his own posses- 
sion, he may now do so as her administrator, 
and then retain them for his own benefit. If 
he dies (having survived her) without having 
reduced them to possession, his next of kin 
may take out letters as her administrator, and 
reduce the choses in action to possession for 
his heirs. In regard to the debts she owes at 
the time of marriage, the general rule is that 
the husband is answerable for all of these. The 
creditor may demand payment of the husband, 
and may sue him. This is equally true of the 
debts which had matured and become due 
before marriage, and of those which were 
not payable until afterward ; and his liability 
for her debts is the same, whether he re- 
ceives much with her, or little, or nothing. 
But this liability is not absolute ; for if she 
dies before he pays the debt, and before a 
judgment is recovered against him, his lia- 
bility ceases. But if she leaves choses in ac- 
tion not reduced to the husband's possession, 
these are still liable for her debts, and the hus- 
band, or whoever becomes her administrator, 
must apply them to pay these debts, and retain 
only the surplus for the husband or his next 
of kin. If he dies before he pays her debts, 
and before judgment is rendered against him, 
his^estate is not liable, but the wife's liability, 
which was suspended during his life, revives 
at his death. This is true although he received 
a large property with her. But when a wife 
thus brings a considerable property to her hus- 
band, courts of equity sometimes interfere on her 
application and compel him and his assignees 
to make an equitable settlement out of it for the 



support of herself and of the children of the 
marriage, if any. 3. We will now consider the 
contracts or obligations of the wife made or en- 
tered into during marriage. In the first place, a 
married woman has at common law no power 
whatever to make a valid contract which shall 
bind herself or her husband. If money is due 
for her services, or for money lent by her, it 
is due not to her, but to him. Her time and 
her labor and her money are all his. But she 
may act as his agent in making a contract, and 
if authorized by him, he is bound. This au- 
thority may be express, or it may be implied 
from frequent acts of agency recognized by 
him, as when she acts as his clerk, accepting 
or paying bills, &c. ; and then it does not differ 
in law from a common agency. There is, how- 
ever, an important and peculiar agency of the 
wife, growing out of her duties ; and this is an 
implied agency for the husband in all domestic 
matters, as the hiring of servants, and the pur- 
chase of provisions and of clothing for the family. 
As this grows out of necessity, it is measured 
by it ; but the law means a reasonable neces- 
sity, and this is only an appropriateness. For 
any contract of this sort made by her, which 
is in due conformity with her husband's means, 
station, and manner of life, would bind him, 
and he would not be permitted to deny his 
authority. If they exceeded this necessity or 
appropriateness, the husband could be held 
only on some evidence of authority or assent, 
as that he knew the contract, or saw the things 
bought, and made no objection. The question 
then occurs, How far is the husband bound to 
supply the necessities of the wife ? The gen- 
eral rule on this subject is, that he is bound 
to supply her with all necessaries, which 
means in this case all her reasonable wants, 
while they live together. If they separate be- 
cause he drives her away without sufficient 
cause, the same liability continues; and then 
he is responsible for any debts she may con- 
tract for this purpose. Even Lord Eldon de- 
clared that " where a man turns his wife out 
of doors, he sends with her credit for her rea- 
sonable expenses." (3 Espinasse, 250.) There 
can hardly be a sufficient cause for thus casting 
her off without his liability for her subsistence, 
unless it be her adultery ; but this certainly is 
sufficient. If, however, she voluntarily leaves 
him, she cannot carry his credit with her, un- 
less she leaves with sufficient cause ; and while 
it is not easy to determine in all cases what 
would be sufficient cause, perhaps it would be 
safe to say that any cause which would be suf- 
ficient for divorce, either from the bonds of 
matrimony or from bed and board, would jus- 
tify her leaving. While the law is now pretty 
well settled, both in England and in this coun- 
try, as to when the husband is liable for neces- 
saries furnished to the wife, and when he is 
not, a question of much moment remains, and 
of late years has been much considered, viz. : 
On what ground does this liability rest? It 
must rest on his authority as proved, or as im- 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



87 



plied by law ; or else upon his marital duty as 
husband. If it stands upon the former foun- 
dation, it must follow that he may always pre- 
vent his liability by express refusal and prohi- 
bition; or, in other words, that he always has 
the power to limit or prevent his liability. If 
it stands on the foundation of his marital duty, 
this he is bound to discharge, and his prohibi- 
tions are of no effect. The former was the 
unquestionable rule in England and here until 
very recently, no other ground for the husband's 
liability being recognized in any way than his 
authority express or implied ; and therefore it 
was held that if a wife lived with her hus- 
band, no one could recover from him the price 
of any necessaries supplied to her, under any 
circumstances, against his prohibition. Thus, 
Chief Justice Hale said (1 Siderfin, 109): "The 
law will not presume so much ill, as that a 
husband should not provide for his wife's ne- 
cessities." At length, however, it began to be 
seen that there might be cases of incapacity, 
as where the husband was wholly insane, and 
could not be supposed to constitute an agent 
or confer authority upon any one ; and yet it 
could not be supposed that the wife was to be 
deprived of the necessaries of life which her 
husband's means were amply sufficient for, be- 
cause he could not authorize the purchase of 
them. Again, we have seen that the husband 
who drives his wife abroad sends his credit 
with her ; but the absurdity of supposing that 
he constitutes her his agent struck the court. 
Baron Alderson said (Read v. Legard, 6 Exch., 
636): "It is a monstrous proposition that a 
man who drives a woman out of doors, who 
hates, who abominates her, actually gives her 
authority to make contracts for him." In that 
case the principle was recognized that the 
right of a wife to a proper support grows out 
of the marital relation, and that the liability 
of the husband for necessaries supplied to her 
is a consequence of that right. This case was 
so decided in 1851 ; but like decisions had pre- 
viously been made in this country, and are now 
the settled law. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that there is an essential difference be- 
tween the case where husband and wife cohabit, 
and that where they live apart. In the first, 
the presumption of law is strong against the 
husband ; and he can resist payment for sup- 
plies furnished only by showing that they were 
not necessaries, either because they were un- 
reasonable and inappropriate in kind or in 
amount, or that the wife was sufficiently sup- 
plied elsewhere. But if she have separated 
from him, no such presumption exists. Who- 
ever supplies the wife now, takes upon himself 
the risk of being able to show that she needed 
what he gave her, and that there was no such 
sufficient cause for the husband's withdrawing 
his support of her as would destroy his liability 
for what was furnished to her. As to the sep- 
aration of husband and wife by mutual con- 
sent, the law has always regarded it as a kind 
of voluntary divorce, and formerly refused to 



admit or acknowledge it in any way. Of late 
years, however, it seems to be otherwise. It 
is still a rule of the common law that husband 
and wife cannot contract with each other, be- 
cause they are not two persons, but one. Hence 
no bargain which they can make directly with 
each other has any force or effect at law. But 
if they make their bargain through and by 
means of a third person, by way of trustee, and 
enter into certain covenants with him, a court 
of equity, and for some purposes a court of law, 
would permit this trustee to maintain such 
actions as might be necessary to give full effect 
to the bargain, although its only purpose were 
to provide for the separation of the parties. 
There are, however, two qualifications to tliis 
rule. One is, that if the court see that the 
terms of separation are catching, oppressive, 
or unreasonable, they will not carry them into 
effect. The other is, that the locus ptenitentice 
is always kept open. Although the bargain 
provides that the separation shall be perpetual, 
and all its terms are founded upon this suppo- 
sition, and are clothed for this purpose in the 
most stringent language, yet, as soon as either 
party wishes the separation to cease, it must 
cease. The husband cannot deprive himself 
of his right to recall his wife ; and she cannot 
deprive herself of her right to return. By 
the " custom of London," a married woman 
may be a sole trader there, but nowhere else 
in England. In the United States, partly by 
statute and partly by adjudication, a married 
woman would generally be permitted to carry 
on business on her own account, much as a 
single woman might, in case of continued aban- 
donment, or long imprisonment of the Iras- 
band, or alienage and non-residence, or with 
the knowledge and consent of the husband, 
which might be inferred from circumstances. 
It should be added that the husband is liable 
for the wife's wrong doings in many cases ; as 
for her libel, slander, fraud, cheating, and gen- 
erally for injurious misconduct. If she com- 
mit a crime in his presence, the law presumes 
that he ordered it; but he may remove this 
presumption by evidence of its falsity. Im- 
portant changes have been made in the com- 
mon law by statutes in the several states of 
the American Union. In Maine, the property 
owned by the woman at marriage or acquired 
afterward remains hers, and she has the same 
rights as any other owner in respect to it, ex- 
cept that if the property came from the husband 
she cannot dispose of it without his joining. 
In New Hampshire, after three months' deser- 
tion or any act of the husband entitling her to 
divorce, she may hold and dispose of the prop- 
erty by her acquired and the earnings of the 
minor children, and the judge of probate may 
order provision made for her from her hus- 
band's property in the state, and her property 
shall descend oh her death as if she were single. 
A married woman may will her property to 
any one except her husband, but not cut off 
his right by the curtesy. In Vermont, the sn- 



88 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



premo court may authorize a deserted wife to 
convey her estate and the personal estate 
which came to the hushand by the marriage, 
and require the debtors of the husband in her 
right to make payment to her ; and the pro- 
ceeds of the earnings of herself and the minor 
children are to be at her disposal. The rents 
and profits of the wife's real estate, and the in- 
terest of the husband in it, are exempt from 
execution for his debts, and can only be con- 
veyed by her joining in the deed. The wife 
may dispose of her property by will. In Mas- 
sachusetts, a married woman may be a sole 
trader, and may dispose of her real estate by 
will, leaving to the husband his estate by the 
curtesy, and also her personal estate, but not 
more than one half of it away from the husband 
without his consent. She holds as her own 
all property howsoever acquired except by 
gift from her husband, but she cannot convey 
real estate or shares in a corporation except 
with his consent, or the consent of a judge of 
the supreme, common pleas, or probate court. 
Her real estate and corporate shares are not 
liable for the husband's debts. In Rhode 
Island, a married woman may dispose of her 
real estate by will, saving to the husband his 
estate by the curtesy, and whatever deposits 
are made by her in savings banks are her own. 
In Connecticut, the personal property acquired 
by the husband in right of the wife he holds 
as trustee for her, except to the extent he may 
have paid ante-nuptial debts, and his interest 
in her real estate cannot be taken for his debts 
during her life or the life of children. The 
proceeds of her real estate are deemed hers in 
equity and not subject to his debts, and all ac- 
quired by her personal services is hers abso- 
lutely. Her savings deposits are also her own, 
and there are further provisions in case of 
abandonment or abuse by the husband. In 
New York, the wife's property, acquired be- 
fore or after marriage, is subject to her own 
control, and not liable for the husband's debts, 
but is liable for her own debts, while the hus- 
band is not liable except in case of neglect to 
take out administration on her estate on her 
death. In New Jersey, the real and personal 
estate of the wife, whenever acquired, remains 
hers, free from her husband's control and not 
liable for his debts. In case of his desertion 
she may have provision made for her from his 
estate. In Pennsylvania, the property of the 
married woman, acquired before or after mar- 
riage, remains hers, free from any control by 
the husband, and liable for her debts, but not 
for his. The husband is not liable for the 
wife's ante-nuptial debts. In case of desertion 
or neglect by the husband to provide for her, 
she has the rights of a feme sole. In North 
Carolina, the interest of the husband in the 
real estate of the wife cannot be taken on 
execution for his debts, nor can it be disposed 
of by the husband except with her consent. 
In Florida, the property of the wife remains 
hers, and the husband is not liable for her 



ante-nuptial debts. The same is true in Ala- 
bama, and substantially so in Mississippi. In 
Louisiana the laws are peculiar, but it is com- 
petent for the married woman to carry on 
business as a sole trader, and to have all her 
property secured to her own use, or the prop- 
erty of the two may be in common. In Texas 
the laws are also peculiar, but the property of 
the wife owned at the marriage, or acquired 
by gift, devise, or descent afterward, remains 
her own, though subject to the husband's 
management. In California, the property 
owned by either the husband or wife at the 
time of the marriage remains his or hers, as 
does also any that either may acquire by gift, 
bequest, devise, or descent afterward, with the 
rents, issues, and profits thereof; but all other 
property acquired by either afterward is com- 
munity property. Husband and wife may con- 
tract with each other or with third persons re- 
specting property, as they might if unmarried ; 
his separate property is not liable for her ante- 
nuptial debts, nor her separate property or 
earnings for his debts, and dower and curtesy 
are abolished. While the husband is liable for 
the wife's support, the wife is also liable for 
his support if he has DO separate property and 
they have no community property, and he from 
infirmity is incompetent to support himself. 
The husband has the management of commu- 
nity property, and may dispose of it otherwise 
than by will. In Kentucky, a married wo- 
man may dispose of her separate property by 
will, and the husband during her lifetime has 
only the use of it. In Ohio, a married woman 
may dispose of her separate property by will, 
and the interest of the husband in any of her 
property cannot be taken for his debts during 
her life or the life of children. In Indiana, the 
wife's property remains hers and may be dis- 
posed of by will, and is not liable for the hus- 
band's debts. In the other western states, it 
may be said generally, the real and personal 
estate owned by the wife before marriage or 
acquired by her afterward is at her absolute 
disposal, by contract, conveyance, or will, and 
not subject to her husband's debts ; while the 
husband is not liable for her debts contracted 
before marriage nor for those contracted after- 
ward, except where she may have acted as his 
agent and with the proper authority. The re- 
cent changes in the southern states have been 
in the same direction. It is not easy to say 
exactly how the estate by the curtesy stands 
in the states where it is not expressly saved by 
statute, but we should say any valid convey- 
ance of the wife's estate would cut it off, and 
in some states it has been decided that the 
broad terms in which statutes secure to mar- 
I ried women their property will preclude cur- 
i tesy attaching. In other respects statutes 
| have made important changes respecting the 
rights of women which do not depend on 
the status of marriage. Thus, in the territory 
of Wyoming the distinction of sex in the ex- 
ercise of the elective franchise has been abol- 



HUSBANDRY 



HUSBANDS 



89 



ished, and women of the requisite age are ad- 
mitted to vote and are eligible to office. In Il- 
linois, by statute, women passing the necessary 
examination may be admitted to the bar, and 
in some of the other states they have been ad- 
mitted by the courts without question. Wo- 
men who pay school taxes are voters at school 
meetings in a number of the states, and in re- 
cent elections in some, notably in Illinois and 
Iowa, women have been chosen county super- 
intendents of schools. In Michigan a woman 
has for several years been state librarian. 

HI SliAVDBV, Patrons of, an organization of 
agriculturists in the United States. Its origin 
is attributed to Mr. O. H. Kelley, a native of 
Boston, who in 1866, being then connected 
with the department of agriculture in Wash- 
ington, was commissioned by President John- 
son to travel through the southern states and 
report upon their agricultural and mineral re- 
sources. He found agriculture in a state of 
great depression consequent upon the radical 
changes wrought by the civil war and the 
abolition of slavery. At the same time there 
was much dissatisfaction among the farmers of 
the west and northwest in consequence of the 
alleged high charges and unjust discriminations 
made by railroad companies in the transporta- 
tion of their products. The farmers also com- 
plained of the exorbitant prices exacted by mid- 
dlemen for agricultural implements and stores. 
Mr. Kelley conceived the idea that a system of 
cooperation, or an association having some re- 
semblance to the order of odd fellows or ma- 
sons, might be formed with advantage among 
the dissatisfied agriculturists. For this purpose 
a plan of organization was determined upon 
by him and Mr. William Saunders, of the de- 
partment of agriculture. The name chosen for 
the order was "Patrons of Husbandry," and 
its branches were to be called granges (Fr. 
grange, a barn). The constitution of the or- 
der provides for a national grange and state 
and subordinate granges. There are ceremo- 
nies of initiation, rituals, and injunctions of 
secrecy, thougli in some respects the order is 
not secret. The officers of a grange, whether 
national, state, or subordinate, are elected by 
the members, and comprise a master, over- 
seer, lecturer, steward, assistant steward, chap- 
lain, treasurer, secretary, gate keeper, Ceres, 
Pomona, Flora, and lady assistant steward. 
Women are admitted to membership upon the 
same terms and with equal privileges as men, 
but only those persons interested in agricultural 
pursuits are eligible. Regular meetings of the 
national and state granges are held annually, 
while subordinate granges usually meet monthly 
or oftener. The constitution was adopted, and 
on Dec. 4, 1867, the national grange was or- 
ganized in Washington ; its headquarters are 
now in Georgetown, D. C. In the spring of 
1868 Mr. Kelley founded a grange in Harris- 
burg, Pa., one in Fredonia, N. Y., one in Co- 
lumbus, O., one in Chicago, 111., and six in 
Minnesota. The number of granges soon began 



to multiply rapidly, and in 1874 they had been 
organized in nearly every state and territory 
of the Union. In 1871, 125 granges were es- 
tablished ; in 1872, 1,160 ; in 1873, 8,667 ; and 
in the first two months of 1874, 4,618. At the 
beginning of 1874, the number of granges in 
the United States was 10,015, with a member- 
ship of 750,125. The total number of members 
in April, 1874, was estimated at about 1,500,- 
000. The order has its greatest strength in 
the northwestern and western states, and is 
well represented in the south. At the annual 
meeting of the national grange in St. Louis, 
Mo., in February, 1874, a declaration was 
adopted setting forth the purposes of the or- 
ganization as follows: "To develop a better 
and higher manhood and womanhood among 
ourselves ; to enhance the comforts and attrac- 
tions of our homes, and strengthen our attach; 
ment to our pursuits ; to foster mutual under- 
standing and cooperation ; to maintain invio- 
late our laws, and to emulate each other in 
labor ; to hasten the good time coming ; to re- 
duce our expenses, both individual and corpo- 
rate ; to buy less and produce more, in order 
to make our farms self-sustaining ; to diversify 
our crops, and crop no more than we can cul- 
tivate ; to condense the weight of our exports, 
selling less in the bushel, and more on hoof and 
in fleece ; to systematize our work, and calcu- 
late intelligently on probabilities ; to discoun- 
tenance the credit system, the mortgage sys- 
tem, the fashion system, and every other sys- 
tem tending to prodigality and bankruptcy. 
We propose meeting together, talking together, 
working together, buying together, selling to- 
gether, and in general acting together for our 
mutual protection and advancement as occasion 
may require. We shall avoid litigation as much 
as possible by arbitration in the grange. We 
shall constantly strive to secure entire harmony, 
good will, vital brotherhood among ourselves, 
and to make our order perpetual. We shall 
earnestly endeavor to suppress personal, local, 
sectional, and national prejudices, all unhealthy 
rivalry, all selfish ambition. Faithful adherence 
to these principles will insure our mental, moral, 
social, and ihaterial advancement." One of 
the chief aims of the organization is to bring 
producers and consumers, farmers and manu- 
facturers, into direct and friendly relations; 
for this purpose cooperation is encouraged 
among farmers in the purchase of agricultural 
implements and other necessaries direct from 
the manufacturer. The organization therefore 
is maintained for social and economic purposes, 
and no grange can assume any political or sec- 
tarian functions. 

Ill si;iMs, Herman, an American revolu- 
tionist, born in Pennsylvania, died near Phila- 
delphia about 1794. Removing to Orange co., 
N. C., he became a member of the legislature 
and leader of the " regulators," a party which 
was organized in 1768 for the forcible redress 
of public grievances. He published in 1770 a 
full account of the rise of the troubles. A 



90 



HUSH 



battle took place in 1771 between GOT. Tryon 
with 1,100 men and 2,000 of the insurgents on 
the banks of the Alamance, in which the latter 
were defeated. Husbands escaped to Penn- 
sylvania, where he was concerned in the whis- 
key insurrection in 1794, and was associated 
with Albert Gallatin, Breckenridge, and oth- 
ers, as a committee of safety. 

HUSU, a town of Roumania, in Moldavia, 
near the Pruth, 36 m. S. E. of Jassy ; pop. 
about 13,000. It is the seat of a Greek bishop, 
and has a normal school. Here, on July 25, 
1711, the peace was concluded between Rus- 
sia and Turkey which saved Peter the Great 
and his army on the Pruth from destruction 
or captivity. 

Ill skixso.\, William, an English statesman, 
born at Birch-Moreton, Worcestershire, March 
II, 1770, died at Eccles, Lancashire, Sept. 15, 
1830. lie was originally intended for the 
medical profession, and in his 14th year went 
to Paris to pursue his studies. Here he resi- 
ded for several years, and adopted the revolu- 
tionary doctrines of the day ; but he afterward 
abandoned them, and became private secre- 
tary to the British ambassador, Lord Gower, 
with whom he returned to England in 1792, 
and in 1795 was made undersecretary of state 
for war and the colonies. In 1796 he entered 
parliament, of which, with the exception of 
two years, from 1802 to 1804, he remained a 
member until his death. Following the for- 
tunes of Mr. Pitt, he retired from office with 
him in 1801, and became secretary of the 
treasury on the formation of the new Pitt 
ministry in 1804. He attached himself to Mr. 
Canning, taking office with him in 1807 and 
retiring in 1809. In 1814 he was appointed 
chief commissioner of woods and forests, and 
in 1823 entered the cabinet as president of 
the board of trade and treasurer of the navy, 
which offices he retained until the death of 
Canning. In the Goderich cabinet and in that 
of the duke of Wellington he held the office 
of secretary for the colonies till May, 1829, 
when the redemption of a pledge formerly 
given obliged him to vote against his col- 
leagues, and he resigned. As a public man he 
was chiefly known by his speeches on finan- 
cial and commercial subjects; and he is re- 
garded as the great pioneer in the free-trade 
movement. In 1823 he carried through par- 
liament an act for removing various restric- 
tions upon commerce. He was also active in 
procuring the repeal of the combination laws 
and the relaxation of the restrictions on the 
exportation of machinery. He was present at 
the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester 
railway, and at Parkside, while conversing 
with the duke of Wellington, was run over by 
a locomotive, and died the same evening. 

Hl'SS, John, a Bohemian religious reformer, 
born about 1373, burned at Constance, July 
6, 1415. His surname was derived from his 
place of birth, Hussinetz, near the border of 
Bavaria. He studied first in his own town, 



HUSS 

then in Prachatitz, and finally at the uni- 
versity of Prague, where he graduated in 1393. 
In 13U8 he began to give lectures in philosophy 
and theology ; in 1401 he became president of 
the university faculty of theology ; and in 1402 
he was installed preacher in the Bethlehem 
chapel, which had been established ten years 
earlier for the purpose of enabling the people to 
hear preaching and the Scriptures in the Bohe- 
mian tongue. He became the confessor of the 
queen, and the head of a party of priests and 
scholars who meditated reforms in discipline 
and in doctrine. His first polemical treatise, 
De Sanguine ChrMi Glorificato, was occa- 
sioned by the pilgrimages to Wilsnack to see 
and worship the miraculous blood of Christ 
there shown on the consecrated host. In suc- 
cessive sermons preached before the arch- 
bishop, Huss next arraigned the misconduct 
of the clergy even in high places ; demanded 
the despoiling of the churches of useless orna- 
ments, that the poor might be fed and clothed ; 
and called upon the secular officers to hinder 
and punish the open vices of ecclesiastics. 
This excited strong opposition, which was in- 
creased when the ordinance of Charles IV., 
giving special privileges to the native over 
the foreign students, was revived by Huss, 
and the Poles and Germans deserted the uni- 
versity, depriving the city of thousands of its 
population. Soon afterward he became rec- 
tor of the university. Other circumstances, 
connected with the papal schism, aided to em- 
broil Huss with the archbishop and his friends. 
It became a warfare between the university 
and the cathedral. The pope interfered for 
the latter ; and, fortified by his bull, at the 
close of the year 1409 the archbishop Sbinko 
burned 200 volumes of the works of Wycliffe, 
which had been deposited in his palace. 
Against this act Huss protested, in a spirited 
treatise addressed to the new pope, John 
XXIIL, with arguments of such weight that 
a commission of doctors condemned the arch- 
bishop for irregular action. The cry of heresy 
was now raised against Huss, and he was sum- 
moned to Rome to answer this charge. The 
court, the university, and even the archbishop 
sent a defence of his orthodoxy, and Hnss sent 
advocates to plead his cause before the cardi- 
nals, but they were not heard. He was con- 
demned as a heretic, and ordered to quit 
Prague; and the city was placed under ban so 
long as he should remain there. Finding it 
vain to resist, he left the city ; but his retire- 
ment only inflamed the zeal of his partisans. 
The books which he wrote at this period, half 
apologetic, half polemic, tended more and 
more to widen the breach and to arouse acts 
of violence. An outbreak in the city followed ; 
the partisans of Huss were victorious, the arch- 
bishop fled, and Huss came back to his chapel, 
emboldened to preach more and more vehe- 
mently against prevalent corruptions. He 
praised the king for upholding the cause of 
truth and purity against the mandates of eccle- 



HUSS 



91 



siastical power; and in his treatise Contra 
Occultum Adversarium, written at this time, 
he maintains the doctrine that kings have the 
right to rule the clergy not less than the laity. 
Soon more serious trouble arose. The po|>e 
had issued bulls of excommunication against 
King Ladislas of Naples. Political reasons in- 
duced the court and university to side with 
the pope ; but Huss immediately published two 
tracts against the papal bulls. A reaction fol- 
lowed. The partisans of the pope were insult- 
ed in the streets, and Huss had great difficulty 
in restraining the fury of his followers. This 
was followed by tracts which maintained that 
the clergy were only stewards of the wealth 
in their possession, which belonged to the 
people and not to the church. Huss contended 
that not the priest's word, but the power of 
God, wrought the change of transubstantiation ; 
claimed that any one moved by the Spirit had 
the right to preach ; and asserted the right of 
conscience as against the edicts of popes and 
councils. He was accused of denouncing the 
veneration of saints and the worship of the Vir- 
gin, but defended himself against these charges. 
He was again summoned to Rome, but took no 
heed of the order. Repeated attempts were 
made by the king to compose the difficulties, 
but without success. A decree was procured 
from Rome, putting Huss again under ban as 
an incorrigible heretic ; and at the earnest re- 
quest of the king, he left Prague for a time, 
and found shelter in his native town. In a 
long treatise upon "The Church," he holds that 
the papacy began to exist at the time of Con- 
stantine, and that its usurpations threatened to 
secularize and so to destroy the gospel. Fre- 
quent letters and occasional secret visits con- 
firmed the zeal of his partisans. He continued 
to preach in the cities to immense crowds; 
and after a time, to be nearer Prague, he re- 
moved his residence to the castle of Cracowitz, 
which had been offered him as a refuge. In 
1414, at the instigation of the emperor Sigis- 
mund, Pope John XXIII. summoned a general 
council at Constance, and Huss was cited to 
appear. Trusting to the safe-conduct which 
the emperor granted him, he resolved to obey. 
On his arrival at Constance he was welcomed 
by the pope with a fraternal greeting, and was 
promised that the former interdict should be 
suspended. For some time Huss was free to 
come and go, to discuss and preach. Expect- 
ing a special trial, he had prepared his defence. 
But on Nov. 28 he was arrested and imprisoned 
in the cathedral, and several days later trans- 
ferred to the Dominican convent, on an island 
in the lake. An accusation against Hnss had 
been drawn up, and three commissioners were 
appointed to visit him in prison, question him, 
take down his answers, and report to a council 
of doctors. Huss asked, hut was not allowed, 
the assistance of counsel. His private letters 
were opened, his appeals to the emperor disre- 
garded, and the kind treatment of his prison 
keepers could hardly compensate for the in- 



justice of his enemies. The flight of the pope 
only aggravated his suffering. He was trans- 
ferred to the strong castle of Gottleben, heav- 
ily chained. A new commission was appoint- 
ed to examine and decide in his affair, and 
at the beginning of June, 1415, he was re- 
moved to the Franciscan convent in Con- 
stance. On June 5 he had his first hearing 
before the council, which had already at a 
previous session condemned the heresy of Wyc- 
liffe. The attempt of Huss to answer the first 
article of accusation was met by such a storm 
of outcries that he was unable to proceed ; and 
the hearing was adjourned until the 7th, when 
it was renewed in presence of the emperor. 
He was accused of denying transubstantiation ; 
of treating St. Gregory as a buffoon ; of teach- 
ing the doctrines of Wycliffe ; of encouraging 
his friends to resist the mandates of the arch- 
bishop ; of exciting a schism of the state from 
the church ; of appealing from the pope to 
Christ ; of counselling the people to violent 
and aggressive measures ; and of boasting that 
he could not have been forced either by pope 
or emperor to come to Constance, unless he 
had chosen to come. Some of these charges 
he admitted ; some he denied. A third hear- 
ing was allowed him on the next day, when 
39 articles, extracted from three of his works, 
were read, touching various points of his 
teaching concerning the church, its officers and 
sacraments. Huss was then summoned to re- 
tract these heresies, which he declined to do, 
affirming that he could not retract what he had 
never said, nor ought he to retract what he had 
said until its falsity was shown. On June 24 
the books of Huss were condemned to be 
burned as heretical, and on July 6 he was 
brought before the council to receive sentence. 
After a discourse by the bishop of Lodi, from 
the text, " that the body of sin be destroyed," 
the 39 articles were read, together with the 
sentence of condemnation of the books of Huss, 
and finally the sentence of himself, to be de- 
graded from the priesthood as an incorrigible 
heretic, and given over to the secular arm. 
He was then conducted out of the city to an 
open field, in which a stake and a pile of wood 
had been erected. Here he was again sum- 
moned to abjure his heresies, but at the sum- 
mons he only knelt and prayed, using the words 
of the psalms of David. As the fire was 
kindled, he began to sing with a loud voice the 
Christe eleison, and only ceased when he was 
suffocated by the rising flame. The ashes of 
the pile were gathered and cast into the Rhine ; 
all traces of the event were carefully oblitera- 
ted, and to this day the exact spot remains un- 
certain. The writings of Huss, not including 
the minor pieces lately published by Palacky, 
are of four kinds, dogmatic and controversial, 
exegetical, sermons, and epistles. Of the first 
class, there are 27 separate treatises, besides 
fragments. Of the class of exegetical writings, 
there are five treatises, on the acts of Christ, 
the passion of Christ, a commentary on seven 



92 



HUSSARS 



chapters of the first epistle to the Corinthians, 
notes on other canonical epistles, and an ex- 
planation of ten of the Psalms. In the class 
of sermons there are 38, two of which were 
written at Constance, but never preached. 
There are two series of letters, the first of 
14, written before, and the second of 56, writ- 
ten after his departure from Prague to Con- 
stance. The complete works of Huss were 
published in quarto at Strasburg in 1525. 
For his biography, see Neander's "Church 
History" (vol. v., Torrey's translation), Gil- 
lett's " Life and Times of Huss " (2 vols., Bos- 
ton, 1863), and Palacky's Docv.rn.enta Magistri 
Joannii Vitam, Doctrinam, etc., illuitrantia 
(Prague, 1869). (See HUSSITES.) 

Ill SSARS (Hung, hugs, 20, and dr, rate), the 
national cavalry of Hungary and Croatia. The 
name is also applied to some bodies of light 
cavalry in the armies of other countries of Eu- 
rope. It is derived from the fact that in the 
15th century every 20 houses in Hungary were 
required to furnish a soldier with a horse and 
furniture. The arms of the hussars are a sabre, 
a carbine, and pistols. Their regimentals were 
originally a fur cap with a feather, a doublet, 
a pair of breeches to which the stockings were 
attached, and a pair of red or yellow boots. 
There were five regiments of hussars under 
Tilly at Leipsic in 1631. The name first be- 
came general in the 18th century, when regi- 
ments of hussars were organized in the princi- 
pal European armies. 

HCSSITES, the name of the followers of John 
Huss in Bohemia, who, on his death in 1415, 
organized as a sect, making the offering of the 
cup to the laity in the sacrament of the eucha- 
rist the badge of their covenant. Upon the 
death of Wenceslas (1419) they refused to rec- 
ognize the emperor Sigismund as king, where- i 
upon the Hussite civil war broke out. They 
were divided into two parties, the more mod- 
erate Calixtines and the more rigid Taborites. 
Ziska, the leader of the latter party, assembled 
them on a mountain which he fortified and 
called Mt. Tabor, captured Prague, pillaged the 
monasteries, and in several engagements de- 
feated Sigismund. (See ZISKA.) After the death 
of Ziska (1424) his place was filled by a monk 
named Procopius, who defeated the mercena- 
ries sent under the name of crusaders by the 
emperor and the papal legates in the battles 
of Mies (1427) and Tachau (1431), and whose 
troops ravaged Austria, Franconia, Saxony, 
Catholic Bohemia, Lusatia, and Silesia. A 
council held at Basel in 1433 made concessions 
which were accepted by the Calixtines. (See 
PROCOPIITS.) The Taborites, rejecting the com- 
promise, were vanquished near Bohemian Brod 
(1434), and by the treaty of Iglau (1436) the 
compromise of Basel was accepted by Bohe- 
mia, and Sigismund was recognized as king. 
On the death of Sigismund (1437) controver- 
sies again arose, and civil wars were prosecu- 
ted with no decisive results, till at the diet 
of Kuttenberg (1485) a peace was established 



IIUTCIIINSON 

by King Ladislas which secured Catholics and 
Calixtines in the possessions they then held. 
See Schubert, Geschichte des JIussitenkriegs 
(1825); Grunhagen, Geschichtsyuellen der Hus- 
sitenkrieffe (1871) ; Bezold, Konig Sigmund 
und die Reichskriege gegen die Husiiten (1872) ; 
and Palacky, Urkundliche Beitr&ge zur Ge- 
schichte des Hussitenkrieges (1872). 

Ill TCHKSOY Fronds, a Scottish philosopher, 
born in Ireland, Aug. 8, 1694, died in Glasgow 
in 1747. lie studied theology at Glasgow, and 
became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation 
in Ulster. His "Inquiry into the Original of 
our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue " (1720) gave 
him distinction among philosophers. In 1728 
he published a treatise on the "Nature and 
Conduct of the Passions and Affections," and 
in the following year was appointed professor 
of moral philosophy in the university of Glas- 
gow. His Synopsis Metaphysics Ontologiam 
et Pneumatologiam complectens, and his Phi- 
losophies Moralis Institutio, were written as 
text books for his classes. His most complete 
and elaborate work, the "System of Moral 
Philosophy," appeared after his death (2 vols., 
Glasgow, 1755), with a biography by Dr. Wil- 
liam Leechman. Truth he divides into logical, 
moral, and metaphysical. Logical truth is the 
agreement of a proposition with the object it 
relates to ; moral truth is the harmony of the 
outward act with the inward sentiment ; and 
metaphysical truth is that nature of a thing 
wherein it is known to God as that which ac- 
tually it is, or in other words it is its absolute 
reality. He maintained that besides the five 
external senses we possess also internal senses, 
one of which occasions the emotions of beauty 
and sublimity, and another gives rise to the 
moral feelings. He introduced the term moral 
sense, and maintained the existence of certain 
universal propositions, derived not from ex- 
perience, but from the connate power of the 
mind (menti congenita intelligendi ris). 

HFTCHINSOJF, a S. E. county of Dakota, in- 
tersected by the James or Dakota river ; area, 
432 sq. in. ; pop. in 1870, 37. The surface is 
diversified, the soil good. Capital, Maxwell. 

Ill T('1I1.\SO\, Anne, founder of a party of An- 
tinomians in New England, born at Alford, 
Lincolnshire, England, in 1591, died near 
New Amsterdam (now New York) in August, 
1643. She was the daughter of the Eev. 
Francis Marbury. Becoming interested in the 
preaching of John Cotton, and of her brother- 
in-law John Wheelwright, she followed the 
former to New England with her husband, 
arriving in Boston Sept. 18, 1634. She was 
admitted a member of the Boston church, and 
rapidly acquired influence. She instituted 
meetings of the women of the church to dis- 
cuss sermons and doctrines, in which she gave 
prominence to peculiar speculations which even 
on her voyage had attracted the attention and 
caused the displeasure of her fellow passengers. 
Such were the tenets that the person of the 
Holy Spirit dwells in every believer, and that 



HUTCHINSON . 



93 



the inward revelations of the Spirit, the con- 
scious judgments of the mind, are of paramount 
authority. Two years after her arrival the 
strife between her supporters and her oppo- 
nents broke out into public action. Among 
her partisans were Vane, Cotton, Wheelwright, 
and the whole Boston church with the excep- 
tion of five members, while the country clergy 
and churches were generally united against 
her. " The dispute," says Bancroft, " infused 
its spirit into everything; it interfered with 
the levy of troops for the Peqnot war ; it in- 
fluenced the respect shown to the magistrates, 
the distribution of town lots, the assessment 
of rates ; and at last the continued existence 
of the two opposing parties was considered in- 
consistent with the public peace." The pecu- 
liar tenets of Mrs. Hutchinson were among 
the 82 opinions condemned as erroneous by 
the ecclesiastical synod at Newtown, Aug. 30, 
1637; and in November she was summoned 
before the general court, and after a trial of 
two days was sentenced with some of her as- 
sociates to banishment from the territory of 
Massachusetts, but was allowed to remain du- 
ring the winter at a private house in Roxbury. 
It was her first intention to remove to the 
banks of the Piscataqua, but changing her 
plan she joined the larger number of her 
friends, who, led by John Clarke and "William 
Coddington, had been welcomed by Roger 
Williams to his vicinity, and had purchased 
by his recommendation from the chief of the 
Narragansetts the island of Aqnidneck, subse- 
quently called Rhode island. There a body 
politic was formed on democratic principles, in 
which no one was to be " accounted a delin- 
quent for doctrine." The church in Boston, 
from which she had been excommunicated, 
vainly sent a deputation to the island with the 
hope of reclaiming her. After the death of 
her husband in 1642, she removed with her 
surviving family into the territory of the Dutch. 
The Indians and the Dutch were then at war, 
and in an invasion of the settlement by the 
former her house was attacked and set on fire, 
and herself and all her family, excepting one 
child who was carried captive, perished either 
by the flames or by the weapons of the savages. 
IN TUinsov John, an English Puritan revo- 
lutionist, born in Nottinghamshire about 1616, 
died in Sandown castle, Kent, Sept. 11, 1664. 
He was a man of family and of good education, 
and was married at Richmond, July 3, 1638, to 
Lucy, daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, governor 
of the tower of London, with whom he sub- 
sequently settled on his estate at Owthorpe. 
After the commencement of the civil war he 
declared for the parliament and was appointed 
governor of Nottingham castle, which he held 
until the close of the war. He afterward rep- 
resented Nottingham in parliament, and, as a 
member of the high court of judiciary ap- 
pointed for the trial of the king, concurred in 
the sentence pronounced on him. The subse- 
quent course of Cromwell, however, met with 



the disapproval of Hntchinson. At the res- 
toration he was comprehended in the general 
act of amnesty, but was subsequently arrested 
on a suspicion of treasonable conspiracy, and 
after a detention of ten months in the tower 
was removed to Sandown castle, where he died 
of an aguish fever brought on by confinement 
in a damp cell. His wife survived him many 
years, and left a memoir of him, which is 
valuable as a record of events. It was first 
published from the original manuscript in 1806 
(4to, London), and several other editions have 
since appeared. 

HUTt'HIKSOJf, John, an English philosopher, 
born at Spennithorne, Yorkshire, in 1674, died 
Aug. 28, 1737. After receiving a careful pri- 
vate education, he served as steward in several 
noble families. As riding purveyor of the 
duke of Somerset, master of the horse, he 
made a large collection of fossils. In 1724 
appeared the first part of his " Moses's Prin- 
cipia," in which he disputed the Newtonian 
theory of gravitation. In the second part 
(1727) he continued his criticisms of Newton, 
and maintained on Biblical authority the doc- 
trine of a plenum in opposition to that of a 
vacuum. From this time one or more of his 
nncouthly written volumes, containing a sort 
of cabalistic interpretation of the Hebrew 
Scriptures, appeared annually. His leading 
idea is that the Scriptures contain the ele- 
ments of all rational philosophy as well as of 
general religion. The Hebrew language has 
not only its literal but its typical sense, every 
root of it being significant. His philosophical 
and theological works were published in Lon- 
don in 13 vols. (1749-'65). 

HIT ( IIIXSOS, Thomas, governor of the prov- 
ince of Massachusetts, born in Boston, Sept. 
9, 1711, died at Brompton, near London, in 
June, 1780. He was the son of a merchant of 
Boston who was long a member of the coun- 
cil, and graduated at Harvard college in 1727. 
After engaging without success in commerce, 
he began the study of law. He represented 
Boston for ten years in the general court, of 
which he was for three years speaker. He be- 
came judge of probate in 1752, was a council- 
lor from 1749 to 1766, lieutenant governor from 
1758 to 1771, and was appointed chief justice 
in 1760, thus holding four high offices at one 
time. In the disputes which led to the revo- 
lution he sided with the British government. 
The mansion of Hutchinson was twice attacked 
in consequence of a report that he had written 
letters in favor of the stamp act, and on the 
second occasion (Aug. 26, 1765) it was sacked, 
the furniture burned in bonfires in the street, 
and many manuscripts relating to the history 
of the province, which ho had been 30 years 
in collecting and which could not be replaced, 
were lost. He received compensation for 
his losses, but none of the assailants were 
punished, although the proceedings were de- 
nounced by resolution in a public meeting. 
In 1767 he took a seat in the council, claiming 



HFTTEK 



it ex offieio as lieutenant governor ; but both 
the house and council resisted his pretension, 
and he abandoned it. The legislature was 
inclined to restore him to the council in 1708, 
until it was announced by his opponent James 
Otis that he received an annual pension of 
200 from the crown. When in 1769 Gov. 
Bernard was transferred to Virginia, the gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts fell to Hutchinson. 
The popular excitement had already been in- 
creased by the arrival of British troops, and 
after the Boston massacre a committee of citi- 
zens, headed by Samuel Adams, forced him to 
consent to the removal of the regiments. He 
received his commission as governor in 1771, 
and his whole administration was characterized 
by duplicity and avarice. In 1772 Benjamin 
Franklin, then in London, procured some of 
the confidentfal letters of Hutchinson and his 
brother-in-law Andrew Oliver ; these were 
forwarded to Massachusetts, and proved that 
he had been for years opposing every part of 
the colonial constitution, and urging measures 
to enforce the supremacy of parliament ; and 
the result was a petition to the king from the 
assembly and the council praying for his re- 
moval from the government. The last of his 
public difficulties was when the people of Bos- 
ton and the neighboring towns determined to 
resist the taxation on teas consigned by the East 
India company, two of the consignees being 
sons of Gov. Hutchinson. The popular com- 
mittees were resolved that the tea should not 
be landed, but should be reshipped to Lon- 
don. A meeting of several thousand men, held 
in Boston Dec. 18, 1773, demanded the return 
of the ships, but the governor refused a pass. 
On that evening a number of men disguised 
as Indians repaired to the wharf, and emptied 
342 chests of tea, the whole quantity that had 
been imported, into the hay. In the following 
February the governor sent a message to the 
legislature that he had obtained his majesty's 
leave to return to England, and he sailed on 
June 1. The privy council investigated his 
official acts, and decided in favor of " his 
honor, integrity, and conduct." He was re- 
warded with a pension. He published the fol- 
lowing works: "The History of the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay, from the First Settle- 
ment thereof in 1628 until the Year 1750 " (2 
vols., London, 1765-'7) ; " A Brief State of 
the Claim of the Colonies" (1764); and a 
" Collection of Original Papers relative to the 
History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay " 
(1709). From his manuscripts a history of 
Massachusetts from 1749 to 1774 was prepared 
by his grandson, the Rev. John H. Hutchin- 
son, of Trentham, England (1828). 

HUTTEN, UlrUh \on, a German scholar and 
reformer, born in the castle of Steckelberg, 
near Fulda, April 20 or 22, 1488, died in Switz- 
erland, Aug. 29, 1523. When 11 years old he 
was placed in the monastery of Fulda, that he 
might there become a monk ; but at 15 he ran 
away from the cloister to the university of 



Erfurt, where he was supported by his friends 
and relatives. A disease then new to Europe 
raged in many places, and when it appeared in 
the summer of 1505 in Erfurt both students 
and teachers took to flight. Hutten went to 
Cologne, where he studied the writings of 
Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. This city 
was the stronghold of the old system, led by 
Ortwein, Hoogstraten, Tungern, Pfeff'erkorn, 
and all who were then termed Dunkelmanner 
or "Obscurants." Here, in the headquarters 
of monkish peculiarities, Hutten collected ma- 
terials for the sketches of the Epistolw Obseu- 
roruin Virorum. Even in Cologne, however, 
the new spirit of classic study had found a 
home under the care of Johannes lihagius, 
who endeavored to form a taste for the works 
of classical antiquity and what was then termed 
poetry, a word limited by the Obscurants to 
pure and ancient Greek and Latin metrical 
composition. Hutten became his friend and 
pupil, and, when he was driven away under 
the accusation of corrupting youth and theol- 
ogy, followed him to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 
where a new university was opened in 1506. 
At the inauguration Hutten published his first 
poem, Carmen in Laudem Marchia, in praise 
of the mark of Brandenburg. Here he re- 
ceived the degree of M. A., and remained till 
1508. The disease which had driven him from 
Erfurt again seized on him, and he sought 
health in travel. In northern Germany he was 
everywhere warmly received, but was wrecked 
on the Baltic and reduced to great poverty. 
In this condition he went to the university 
of Greifswald, and was kindly provided with 
clothing and hospitably entertained by the 
burgomaster Wedeg Lotz, and by his son, a 
professor in the university. An unexplained 
change in their treatment of him compelled 
him to leave the town ; and on the way, late 
in December, he was set upon by their ser- 
vants, lying in wait for him, beaten, stripped 
of the garments furnished him, and robbed 
of all his money and papers. In this condi- 
tion, diseased and wounded, he came to Ros- 
tock, where he wrote a famous satire on Lotz 
(Klagen gegen Lotz), calling on all the schol- 
ars of the new school in Germany to avenge 
him. In Rostock he lectured on the classics, 
established intimate relations with the profes- 
sors, and worked for the interests of the clas- 
sic school. In 1511 he went to Wittenberg, 
where he published his Ars Versificatoria, re- 
garded in its day as a masterpiece. Thence he 
wandered through Bohemia and Moravia to 
Vienna, where for a time he appears to have 
been prosperous and courted. Finally arriving 
at Pavia in April, 1512, Hutten resolved to 
study law. But three months later the city 
was besieged by the emperor Maximilian, and 
Hutten, who had taken part in the contest, be- 
lieved himself in danger of death, and wrote 
his famous epitaph. Plundered of all he pos- 
sessed, he fled to Bologna. Here his disease 
broke out again, and, repulsed by every one, 



HUTTEN 



BUTTON 



95 



badly treated, and starving, he enlisted as a 
soldier in the emperor's army. The results of 
his Italian studies were embodied in the satire 
of Oinj- (" Nobody "). He returned to Ger- 
many, suffering from his old disease, in 1514. 
He thought he had succeeded in effecting a 
cure by the use of gum guaiacum, and wrote a 
treatise, De Guaiaci Medicina et Morbo Gallico. 
An accident now brought him into note. 
Duke Ulrich of Wiirtemberg had fallen in 
love with the wife of his cousin Johann von 
Hutten, and murdered the husband. When 
Hutten heard of this he wrote his " Deplora- 
tions," in which he cried for vengeance. He 
availed himself of this deed to call on German 
towns to free themselves from ducal tyranny. 
His denunciations made the tyrant a byword. 
But a short time elapsed before Hutten found 
himself in a new quarrel, ardently defending 
Reuchlin, who as a scholar was protesting 
against the wholesale destruction of all He- 
brew books, for which the Cologne Obscurants 
were clamoring. With the aid of many friends 
he published the celebrated Epiitolas, Olism- 
rorum Virorum, a work which greatly aided 
the reformation, and previous to this his Tri- 
umphus Capnionis (" The Triumph of Reuch- 
lin "), the publication of which was long de- 
layed by the scruples of Erasmus. In 1515 he 
again went to Eome, ostensibly to study law ; 
but having become involved in a quarrel, he 
fled to Bologna, which he was obliged to quit 
for a like reason. After visiting Ferrara and 
Venice, he found it necessary to return to 
Germany. At Augsburg he was presented to 
the emperor, who gave him in public the 
spurs of knighthood. He was then sent by 
the elector of Mentz on a mission to Paris, 
where he established intimate relations with 
the learned. Retiring to his family castle of 
Steckelberg, Hutten, having written by way 
of introduction several epigrams on Pope Ju- 
lius II., edited the work of Laurentius Valla 
entitled De Falso Credita et Ementita Dona- 
time Cowtantini Magni (1517). In 1518 
he found a protector in Albert, margrave of 
Brandenburg, whom he invited in a glowing 
panegyric to place himself at the head of united 
Germany. In the same year he accompanied 
the margrave to the diet of Augsburg, where 
Luther was to reply to Cajetan. But " Hut- 
ten, now the brilliant knight, troubled himself 
but little as to the poor Augustinian monk ;" 
he was full of a project for uniting the princes 
of Europe against the Turks, and was fascinated 
with the idea of becoming an influential states- 
man. The work in which he preached this 
crusade he printed himself at Steckelberg in 
1519, entitling it Ad Principe* Germania, ut 
Helium Turcu invehant Exhortatoria. In it 
he upbraids the court of Rome and the German 
nobility. These latter had been previously 
more fiercely attacked in his " Dialogue of the 
Court Enemy," in which Hutten boldly as- 
sumes a tone like that of modern republican- 
ism. In 1519 he left the margrave to join 
420 VOL. ix. T 



Franz von Sickingen in the Swabian league 
against his old enemy Ulrich of Wiirtemberg. 
Yet during this war he wrote the "Triad," a 
most vehement diatribe against Rome, and 
edited two books of Livy hitherto unpublished. 
The war over, he retired to the castle of Sickin- 
gen, whence he sent forth the bitterest attacks 
on Rome. He discovered in the library of Ful- 
da a manifesto of Henry IV. against Gregory 
VII., and turned its German sentiment to such 
account that Leo X. demanded him as a pris- 
oner. Driven from his castle, he took refuge 
in Ebernburg, and now began to write in 
German prose and verse ; and these tracts are 
among his most daring productions. For a short 
time he fought in the army of Charles V. at 
the siege of Metz ; and at this time Francis I. 
offered him the place of councillor at his court. 
Hutten next wandered to Switzerland, and 
CEcolampadius led him to Basel, where he 
hoped for support from Erasmus, who however 
turned against him, and even took pains to set 
the council of Zurich against him. Finally 
Zwingli obtained for him an asylum on the 
island of Ufnau in the lake of Zurich, where, 
worn out by war and suffering, he ended his 
short and tumultuous life. Among his works 
not mentioned above are Dialogi, Fortuna, 
Ferris (including the Trias, Mentz, 1520), and 
his poems (Frankfort, 1538). His collected 
works were published by Munch (6 vols., Ber- 
lin, 1821-'7). An Index Bibliographieus Hut- 
tenianus was published by Booking at Leipsic 
in 1858, and a new edition of his works in 7 
vols. in 1859. Many biographies of Ilutten 
have been written ; one of the best and most 
recent is that by Strauss (2 vols., Leipsic, 1857 ; 
2d ed., 1871). 

HlTTOJf, Charles, an English mathematician, 
born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, Aug. 14, 1737, 
died Jan. 27, 1823. At the age of 18 he be- 
came an usher in the village of Jesmond, and 
some years later the master of the school. In 
1760 he removed to Newcastle, where he wrote 
his "Practical Treatise on Arithmetic and 
Book-Keeping" (1764). His "Treatise on 
Mensuration " (1771), and " Principles of Bridg- 
es, and the Mathematical Demonstration of the 
Laws of Arches" (1772), led to his being 
chosen in 1773 professor of mathematics in 
the military academy of Woolwich. He was 
elected fellow of the royal society in 1774, and 
was foreign secretary of that body from 1779 
to 1783, when he resigned. He published a 
large number of papers in its "Transactions," 
and made all the mathematical calculations for 
Maskelyne's experiments for determining the 
mean density of the earth. About 1795 he un- 
dertook, aided by Drs. Pearson and Shaw, the 
labor of abridging the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions." The work was completed in 1 809, Hut- 
ton receiving 6,000 for his share in it. Being 
compelled by bad health to resign his profes- 
sorship at Woolwich, he received a retiring 
pension of 500. His principal works, in ad- 
dition to those above mentioned, are : " Tables 



96 



HUTTON 



of the Product and Powers of Numbers " (Lon- 
don, 1781); "Mathematical Tables" (1785); 
"Course of Mathematics" (3 vols., 1793); and 
" Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary " 
(2 vols. 4to, 1795). He was also for many 
years editor of the "Ladies' Diary." 

BUTTON, James, a British natural philoso- 
pher, born in Edinburgh, June 3, 1726, died 
March 26, 1797. He entered the university of 
Edinburgh in 1740, and began the study of 
law, which he subsequently abandoned for 
medicine, taking the degree of M. D. at Ley- 
den in 1749. He engaged in the manufacture 
of sal ammoniac from coal soot, inherited from 
his father a small estate in Berwickshire, be- 
took himself to agriculture, finally removed to 
his native city in 1768, devoting himself es- 
pecially to the study of geology, and made sev- 
eral important discoveries. In 1795 he pub- 
lished the results of 30 years' study in his 
" Theory of the Earth," assuming that heat is 
the principal agent of nature. 

HUXLEY, Thomas Henry, an English natural- 
ist, bora in Baling, Middlesex, May 4, 1825. 
He spent two and a half years at Baling school, 
in which his father was one of the masters, but 
with this exception his education was carried 
on chiefly at home. In 1842 he entered the 
medical school of Charing Cross hospital, and 
in 1845 received the degree of M. B. from the 
university of London, being placed second in 
the list of honors for anatomy and physiology. 
He began his literary career while yet a student 
by contributing to the " Medical Times and 
Gazette" a paper on that layer in the root 
sheath of hair which has since borne his name. 
In 1846 he joined the medical service of the 
royal navy, and was stationed at Haslar hospi- 
tal, whence he was selected the same year to 
accompany Capt. Stanley, as assistant surgeon 
of the Rattlesnake, in his expedition to the 
South Pacific. After a four years' voyage of 
circumnavigation, during which surveys of the 
east coasts. of Australia and Papua were made, 
the ship returned to England in November, 
1850. While absent Mr. Huxley, who made 
extensive observations on the natural history 
of the seas traversed, sent home a number of 
communications, the first of which, read before 
the royal society in 1849, is " On the Anatomy 
and Affinities of the Family of the Medusae." 
On his return some of these papers were elab- 
orated by him and published in the "Philo- 
sophical Transactions" of the royal society, of 
which, in June, 1851, he was elected a fellow. 
In 1853 he resigned his position in the navy, 
and in the following year he succeeded Prof. 
Edward Forbes as professor of natural history 
in the royal school of mines, an office which 
he still holds (1874). He has since resided in 
London, where he has devoted himself to 
constant scientific labor and research. In ad- 
dition to his annual course of lectures on gen- 
eral natural history, he has delivered many 
lectures on kindred subjects to mixed audi- 
ences, and has done much to popularize sci- 



HUXLEY 



ence. He was Hunterian professor in the 
royal college of surgeons from 1863 to 1869, 
and was twice chosen Fullerian professor of 
physiology in the royal institution. In 1869 
and 1870 he was president both of the geologi- 
cal and the ethnological society ; in 1870 he 
was president of the British association for the 
advancement of science ; and in 1872 he be- 
came secretary of the royal society. Since 
1870 he has been a member of the royal com- 
mission on scientific instruction and the ad- 
vancement of science. From 1870 to 1872 he 
served on the London school board, where he 
was chairman of the committee which drew up 
the scheme of education adopted in the board 
schools. During this time he took an active 
part in its deliberations, and became conspicu- 
ous by his opposition to denominational teach- 
ing, and particularly by his denunciation of the 
doctrines of the Roman Catholic church. In 
1872 he was elected lord rector of the univer- 
sity of Aberdeen. Prof. Huxley has done as 
much probably as any living investigator to 
advance the science of zoology, and the world 
is indebted to him for many important discov- 
eries in each of the larger divisions of the ani- 
mal kingdom. His earlier labors were devoted 
chiefly to the lower marine animals, with which 
he formed a most thorough empirical acquaint- 
ance during his Pacific voyage, and he has 
described many which previously had been 
either unknown or very imperfectly studied. 
During the past ten years he has devoted him- 
self assiduously to the comparative anatomy 
and the classification of the vertebrata, and 
has embodied the results of his more important 
researches in numerous monographs. In his 
first published work, on the medusa?, he called 
attention to the fact that the body of these 
animals is formed of two cell layers, which may 
be compared to the two germinal layers of the 
higher animals ; an idea which has since found 
its complete expression in the gastraaa theory 
of Haeckel. To him also is due the vertebral 
theory of the skull, which has since been de- 
monstrated so clearly by Gegenbaur ; and he 
was the first to extend to man Darwin's theory 
of natural selection. In his three lectures on 
" Man's Place in Nature," delivered in 1863, 
he made an elaborate exposition of the doctrine 
of evolution as applied to man, asserting that 
the anatomical differences between man and 
the highest apes are of less value than those 
between the highest and the lowest apes. 
Among his many popular lectures, that " On 
the Physical Basis of Life," delivered in 1868, 
has attracted much attention. In it he ad- 
vances the idea that there is some one kind of 
matter common to all living beings ; that this 
matter, which he designates as protoplasm, 
depends on the preexistence of certain com- 
pounds, carbonic acid, water, and ammonia, 
which when brought together under certain 
conditions give rise to it ; that this protoplasm 
is the formal basis of all life, and therefore all 
living powers are cognate, and all living forms, 



HUY 



IIUYGENS 



97 



from the lowest plant or animalcule to the 
highest being, are fundamentally of one char- 
acter. Prof. Huxley is a corresponding mem- 
ber of the principal foreign scientific societies, 
and has received honorary degrees from the 
universities of Breslau and Edinburgh. His 
works are as follows : " The Oceanic Hydro- 
zoa" (1857); "Evidence as to Man's Place in 
Nature" (1863); "Lectures on the Elements 
of Comparative Anatomy" (1864); "Lessons 
in Elementary Physiology" (1866); "An In- 
troduction to the Classification of Animals" 
(1869) ; " Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Re- 
views" (1870); and "Critiques and Address- 
es" (1873). He is the author also of a large 
number of papers published in the journals 
of the royal, the Linnfflan, the geological, and 
the zoological societies, and in the memoirs of 
the geological survey of Great Britain. 

BUY, a town of Belgium, in the province and 
16 m. S. W. of the city of Liege, at the entrance 
of the Hoyoux into the Meuse ; pop. in 1866, 
11,055. It has a handsome Gothic church, a 
college, manufactories of paper, leather, and 
faience, distilleries, and an active trade. The 
former abbey of Neufmoutier contained the 
tomb of Peter the Hermit, by whom it had 
been founded ; in 1858 a statue was erected in 
his honor in the garden of the abbey. In the 
neighborhood there are mines of iron, zinc, 
and coal, and several mineral springs. 

HCYGENS (incorrectly HUYGHENB), Christian, a 
Dutch natural philosopher, born at the Hague, 
April 14, 1629, died there, July 8, 1695. He 
was the second son of Constantine Huygens, 
secretary and counsellor of the stadtholders 
Frederick Henry, William II., and William III. 
His father taught him the rudiments of educa- 
tion and the elements of mechanics. At the 
age of 15 he became the pupil of Stampion, 
and at 16 he was sent to Leyden to study law 
with Vinnius, who dedicated to him his first 
commentary on the Institutes of Justinian. He 
there also pursued mathematical studies, and 
afterward at Breda in the university, which 
was under the direction of his father. In 1650, 
after a journey to Denmark with Henry, count 
of Nassau, he began those mathematical and 
physical researches which afterward made him 
famous. In 1651 he published at Leyden his 
first work, on the quadrature of the hyperbola, 
the ellipse, and the circle, and in 1654 a paper 
entitled De Circuit Magnitudine irwenta nova. 
In 1655 Huygens went for the first time to 
France, and received the degree of doctor of 
laws from the faculty of the academy of An- 
gers. On his return to Holland he turned his 
attention to the construction of telescopes, in 
connection with his elder brother Constantine. 
With one of these instruments, having a focal 
length of 10 ft., and more powerful than any 
ever before made, he discovered the first (now 
called the fourth) satellite of Saturn, and pub- 
lished the discovery at the Hague in 1656. 
During the next year he wrote a paper on the 
calculus of probabilities. Pascal and Fermat 



had already written upon the subject, but the 
treatise of Huygens was more profound, and 
50 years afterward James Bernoulli employed 
it as an introduction to his Ars Conjectandi. 
It was also translated into Latin by his former 
tutor Schooten under the title He Ratioeiniis 
in Ludo Alece, by which it is also known in 
's Gravesande's edition of Huygens's works. 
Schooten published it in his Exercitationes 
Mathematics, to demonstrate, as he says, the 
utility of algebra. About this time Huygens 
sent a paper to Wallis on the area of the cis- 
soid, and to Pascal a calculation for hyperbolic 
conoids, and spheroids in general, and on the 
quadrature of a portion of a cycloid, in which 
papers he employed methods having the high- 
est characteristics of original thought. But 
his attention was not wholly devoted to mere- 
ly theoretical mathematics, for about this time 
he introduced one of the most practical and 
important of all inventions. Galileo had ob- 
served the isochronism of small vibrations of 
the pendulum, and had employed it as a mea- 
surer of time, but his method required an as- 
sistant to count the oscillations, and was of 
course far from being exact. To keep the 
pendulum in motion and cause it to register its 
successive vibrations was one of the problems 
which Huygens attempted, and which he suc- 
ceeded in solving by the invention of the pen- 
dulum clock, a description of which, under the 
title of Horologium, he dedicated to the states 
general of Holland in 1658. (See CLOCKS AND 
WATCHES.) In 1659 he constructed a tele- 
scope of 22 ft. focal length, in which he used 
a combination of two eye pieces, and again 
examined Saturn, making the discovery of the 
ring of the planet. The singular appearance 
which it sometimes presents of being accom- 
panied by two luminous bodies, one on either 
side, had been observed by Galileo, but his 
telescope had not sufficient power to permit 
him to discover its cause. Huygens's instru- 
ment enabled him to make out that the phe- 
nomenon in question, which at regular times 
appeared and disappeared, was produced by 
the oblique position of the ring with regard 
to the earth and to the sun. From an analysis 
of the phenomenon he predicted the disap- 
pearance of the ring in 1671, and the predic- 
tion was verified. He published an account 
of these observations at the Hague in 1659, 
in a volume also containing an account of sev- 
eral other discoveries, such as that of the great 
nebula in the sword of Orion, the bands upon 
the disks of Jupiter and Mars, and the fact that 
the fixed stars have no sensible magnitude. It 
was also accompanied by a description of a 
method for measuring the diameter of the 
planets. The micrometer used by him has been 
superseded by others, but it served the pur- 
pose of making correct measurements. In 
1660 he visited France and England, and soon 
after published his celebrated theorems on the 
laws of the impact of bodies, in which most 
of the principles of the laws of motion are es- 



98 



HUYGENS 



tablished. In 1665, at the invitation of Col- 
bert, he went to France and became a mem- 
ber of the academy of sciences, then recently 
formed. Apartments were assigned to him in 
the royal library, and he resided in Paris for the 
greater part of the next 15 years, during which 
time he presented many papers to the acade- 
my, some of which still remain unpublished 
in its archives. In 1670 he visited Holland to 
restore his health, which had become impaired 
by his great labors ; and on his return to Paris 
in the following year he completed his great 
work Horologium Oscillatorium (fol., Paris, 
1673). To this book are appended 13 theorems 
on centrifugal force, which will be noted fur- 
ther on. About this time he invented the 
spiral spring which is applied to the balance 
wheel of watches, a description of which was 
published in the journal of the academy of sci- 
ences in 1675. The invention was claimed by 
Hooke of England and Hautefeuille of France, 
but the evidence that it is the invention of Huy- 
gens is too strong to be any longer questioned. 
It is said that the first watch provided with a 
hair spring was made by Thuret under Huy- 
gens's direction, and was sent to England. In 
1675 he again went to Holland for the benefit 
of his health, and in 1676 he read before the 
academy of sciences his famous treatise on 
light, and also a treatise on the cause of grav- 
ity, in which he attempts to account for the 
force by supposing that ethereal matter revolves 
about the earth with a velocity greater than 
that of the planet, and compares it to the force 
which causes bodies a little heavier than wa- 
ter, and lying lightly upon the smooth bottom 
of a cylindrical vessel containing water, to 
move toward the centre when the circular mo- 
tion of the vessel by which its fluid contents 
have been caused to revolve is arrested. In 
1681 he returned to his native country, and 
immediately began the construction of an au- 
tomatic planitarium to represent the true mo- 
tion of the bodies of the solar system. This 
invention led to the important discovery of 
continued fractions, which he found it neces- 
sary to employ in order to establish the rela- 
tion between the number of teeth contained in 
two wheels which play into one another. 
After this he resumed for several years, in 
conjunction with his brother Constantine, the 
construction of telescopes. He made two ob- 
jectives, one of 170 and another of 210 ft. 
focal length, which he presented to the royal 
society of London. As a telescope of such di- 
mensions would be difficult to manage, Huy- 
gens proposed to dispense with the tube and 
place the object glass in an elevated position 
so that it could be adjusted to any angle, and 
then to place the eye piece at the focus. This 
arrangement continued to be used until the 
introduction of reflecting telescopes. While 
Huygens was absorbed in these occupations a 
great revolution was going on in the mathemat- 
ical world. Leibnitz had invented the differ- 
ential calculus, which he published in 1684, and 



had proposed as a test to the followers of the 
old methods the problem of finding the curve 
of equable approach, or that which a sus- 
pended body must follow in order to approach 
or recede from equal heights in equal times. 
Huygens accomplished the solution by the old 
methods, but he was the only one who suc- 
ceeded. Soon after this Newton published 
his Principia, and Huygens, with a desire of 
becoming acquainted with the author, visited 
England for the third time, and on his return 
published his treatise on light under the title 
Traite de la lumiere, oil sont expliquees les 
causes de ce qui lui arrive dans la reflexion, 
dans la refraction et particulierement dans 
Vetrange refraction du cristal d'Islande (Ley- 
den, 1G90). Soon after this he investigated 
the properties of the catenary curve, a problem 
which had just been proposed by James Ber- 
noulli, who had become proficient in the meth- 
ods of the differential calculus ; but Huygens 
solved the question by the old methods, which 
was considered a wonderful achievement. He 
nevertheless found the task so difficult that 
his opposition to the differential calculus was 
shaken, and he entered at once into corre- 
spondence with Leibnitz. He had previously, 
whenever meeting with difficulties, attributed 
them to himself and not to defects in the 
methods. After examining the differential 
calculus he admitted its superiority, imme- 
diately commenced its use, and soon gave a 
wider development to the invention than it 
had yet attained. At his death he left his 
manuscripts to the library of Leyden, intrust- 
ing their publication to two of his pupils, Voi- 
der and Fullen. Huygens was never married, 
and aside from his scientific pursuits his life 
was not eventful. He had a fine personal ap- 
pearance, and his character was eminently 
noble. Newton spoke of him as the summits 
ffugenius, and considered his style as an au- 
thor more classic than that of any other mathe- 
matician of that time. He was affable and 
kind, and was easily accessible to young stu- 
dents, whom he was always delighted to assist 
in their investigations. His labors were im- 
mense, and the practical value of their results 
is inestimable. -His discovery of the laws of 
the double refraction of light in Iceland spar, 
and of polarization, perhaps as much as any 
other cause, led to the reexamination of the 
undulatory theory, and, with the necessary 
adaptations, to its employment to account for 
all the phenomena of radiation of both heat 
and light. In accordance with this theory the 
most important researches in modern physics 
have been made, as those upon the diather- 
manons properties of bodies, and upon the ab- 
sorption of radiant heat by gases and vapors, 
by which great light has been thrown on the 
science of meteorology. Besides his invention 
of the pendulum clock and of the balance 
wheel to the watch, the first chronometers 
taken aboard ships were made under his direc- 
tion, and he was far in advance of all others 



HYACINTH 



99 



of Ms day in astronomical observations. His 
discovery of the isochronism of the cycloid was 
one of the most important in mathematics; 
and not inferior to it is the invention of the in- 
volution and evolution of cur.ves, and the es- 
tablishment of the proposition that the cycloid 
is its own evolute. He also, in his Horologium 
Oscillatorium, gives a method for finding the 
centre of oscillation, which was the first suc- 
cessful solution of a dynamical problem in 
which connected material points are supposed 
to act on one another. The difficulty of this 
subject is shown by the fact that Newton fell 
into an error in regard to it in attempting to 
solve the problem of the precession of the 
equinoxes. The question of the centre of os- 
cillation had been proposed by Mersenne in 
1016, and although some cases had been solved 
on the principle of the centre of percussion, it 
was beyond the reach of any methods th'en 
known. Huygens was only a boy of 17 when 
the question was proposed, and could then see 
no principle by which it could be solved ; but 
when he published his Horologium Oscillato- 
rium in 1673, the principles which he assumed 
led to correct results in all cases. The two 
first theorems appended to that work state : 1, 
that if two equal bodies move in unequal cir- 
cles in equal times, the centrifugal forces will 
be proportional to the diameters of the circles ; 
and 2, that if the velocities are equal, the cen- 
trifugal forces will be in the inverse ratio of 
the diameters. To arrive at these conclusions 
required the application of the second law of 
motion (i. e., that the motion which a force 
gives to a body is compounded with the motion 
which it previously had) to the limiting ele- 
ments of the curve, in the manner in which 
Newton afterward demonstrated the theorems 
of Huygens in his Principia. Huygens's own 
demonstrations of these theorems were found 
after his death among his papers. In his 
treatise on the impact of bodies (De Motu 
Corporum ex Percussione), Huygens must have 
assumed the third law of motion, which New- 
ton afterward expressed by saying that " action 
and reaction are equal and opposite," by which 
we understand that the quantity of motion in 
the impact of bodies remains unchanged, one 
of the first grand principles in the doctrine of 
the conservation of force. His works were 
edited by 's Gravesande under the titles of 
Opera taria (2 vols. 4to in 1, Leyden, 1724) and 
Opera Reliqua (2 vols. 4to, Amsterdam, 1728). 
HYACINTH, a genus of liliaeea, containing 
several species, the most important of which is 
hyacinthus oriental^, a native of the Levant. 
This has an onion-like bulb, which throws up 
long, narrow-channelled leaves, from among 
which arises a scape bearing a raceme of bell- 
shaped drooping flowers ; the parts of the pe- 
rianth are united to about the middle, and the 
free portions reflexed ; flowers often very fra- 
grant, appearing in early spring. This being 
one of the florists' flowers, great changes have 
been produced in it by cultivation ; the size of 



the flower cluster has been greatly increased, 
the flowers are semi-double and double, and 
there is a great variety of colors and tints, 
from pure white, through various shades of red 
and blue, to nearly black. The number of 
named varieties is very large, and includes not 
only self-colored ones, but double and single 
kinds, with flowers variously striped and sha- 
ded. The bulb growers near Haarlem in Hol- 
land supply the world with hyacinths, which - 
form a large share of what are imported under 
the name of "Dutch bulbs." The eminence 
of the Dutch florists in the culture of this and 
other bulbs is in part due to a favorable soil 
and climate, and in part to the patient care 
given to their cultivation ; these, with the low 
price of labor, have enabled them to hold a 
monopoly of bulb growing. Near Haarlem 
over 100 acres of land are annually devoted to 
hyacinths; the soil is a mixture of sand and 
alluvium, and permanently supplied with the 
requisite moisture. New varieties are obtained 
by sowing seed, and it is necessary to cultivate 
the seedlings for six years before their real 




Hyacinth Bulb and Section. 

merit can be decided upon. Established va- 
rieties are multiplied from the small bulbs 
which form at the base of the larger ones ; a 
bulb will naturally produce several of these, 
and the cultivators increase the number by 
wounding and cutting the bulb in various 
ways. The small bulbs are carefully cultiva- 
ted until of a proper size for market ; in or- 
der to increase its size as rapidly as possible, 
the bulb is not allowed to exhaust its strength 
in producing flowers, but the flower stem is 
cut away as soon as it appears. Millions of 
bulbs are annually imported into this country 
and England, and large quantities go to other 
countries. The best are imported by the deal- 
ers direct from the growers; it is only the 
poorer bulbs, from which the finer ones have 
been selected, that are usually offered at auc- 
tion. The diflferent varieties are put up in 
bags' of heavy paper, with an abundance of the 
hulls of buckwheat, and the bags are packed 
in cases. The heaviest bulbs, which show no 
signs of decay by being soft at the top, are 



100 



HYACINTH 



HYAENA 



to be preferred. Named sorts cost much more 
than assorted kinds, which for the general cul- 
tivator may be quite as satisfactory as those 
with names. The 
bulbs for outdoor 
culture are usually 
planted in October. 
A rich light soil is 
best, and well decom- 
posed cow manure 
is the best fertilizer ; 
the bulbs should be 
set 8 in. apart and 
covered to the depth 
of 4 in. ; when cold 
weather comes on, the 
bed is to be covered 
with litter, which is 
to be left on un- 
til spring; when the 
plants come into flow- 
er each spike will 
need the support of 
a small stick or wire, 
which may be so 
placed as not to be 
noticed ; when the 
flowers decay their 
stalks are cut away, 
and the bulbs allowed 
to remain until the 
fading of the leaves 
shows that they have 
nished their growth ; 
they are then taken 
up, dried in the sun, 
each wrapped in a paper with its label, and kept 
in a cool dry place until time to plant in autumn. 
They do not bloom in subsequent years so well 
as the first. In some gardens the bulbs are left 




Hyacinth (Hyacinthus 
oricutaiis). 




English Bluebell. 



from year to year; they increase and form 
large clumps, which produce small spikes of 
flowers. The hyacinth is an easy plant to force 



in the greenhouse or in an ordinary room ; the 
bulbs should be potted in October, and the 
pots placed in a cool dark cellar, or in a shady 
corner, and covered with coal ashes; when an 
inspection of the pots shows that the ball of 
earth is well tilled with roots, they may bo 
brought to a warm and light place, when 
growth of leaves and flowers will soon com- 
mence ; frequent failure is due to not first se- 
curing a good growth of roots by keeping the 
bulb cool and from the light. The bulbs are 
often forced in glasses made for the purpose, 
filled with water ; the base of the bulb should 
just touch the surface of the water, and the 
glass should be kept in the dark until the roots 
are well developed. Bulbs that have been 
forced are of little value; single varieties are 
preferred for forcing. The wild hyacinth, the 
bluebell of England, H. nonscriptus of the older 
botanists, has been successively placed in several 
different genera, and is probably nearer a squill 
(icilla) than a hvacinth. 

in ACINTHE, Per*. See LOYSOX, CHARLES. 

HYACINTHCS, in Greek mythology, son of the 
Spartan king Arayclas and Diomede, or of 
Pierus and Clio, or of (Ebalus and Eurotas. 
He was a boy of great beauty and the favorite 
of Apollo, but was also beloved by Zephyrus, 
who from jealousy caused his death as he was 
playing with Apollo, by blowing the quoit of 
the god against his head. Prom his blood 
sprang the flower hyacinth, upon whose leaves 
appears the Greek exclamation of woe AI, AI, 
or the letter T beginning his name ("ta.Ki.v6os). 

IIVIDKS. in Greek mythology, nymphs vari- 
ously described as being from two to seven in 
number, and bearing 18 names. According to 
some authorities, Jupiter placed them among 
the stars in honor of their care of the infant 
Bacchus ; while others say it was to reward 
them for their long mourning for their brother 
Hyas, who had been killed by a wild boar. 

HYJJNA, a digitigrade carnivorous mammal, 
most numerous in Africa, but found also in 
southern and middle Asia, where the genus has 
probably spread while following the track of 
armies and caravans. Zoologists are not agreed 
as to the position of this animal ; the older au- 
thors place it in the feline family, with which 
it agrees in the single true molar on each side 
of both jaws, and in the single tuberculate 
tooth on each side of the upper jaw only ; 
Waterhouse regarded it as a small divergent 
group of viverrina or civet cats ; Linnaaus 
ranked it in his genus eanis ; and Hamilton 
Smith puts it in juxtaposition to the dogs. It 
seems to be an osculant type, united on the 
one hand to the dogs by the genus lycaon, and 
on the other to the civets by the genus proteles 
(aard-wolf) ; its general aspect is decidedly ca- 
nine, as also are most of its habits. The dental 
formula, according to Owen, is : incisors , ca- 
nines |, premolars, |cf , and molars \~\ 34 in 
all. The disposition of the hysena is fierce and 
cowardly, and its habits are revolting; it is 
able to withstand any temperatures and priva- 



HY.ENA 



101 



tions, revels in the foulest air, and gorges on 
the filthiest substances when living prey fails ; 
of powerful form, thick skin, and strong jaws 
and teeth, the bands of hyaenas fear not the 
lion and tiger, and will attack even man in the 
night time. Its appearance is very repulsive ; 
the head is large and truncated, the neck short 
and stout, the body thick and short, high at 
the shoulders and declining rapidly toward the 
tail, a long stiff mane from the nape to the 
rump, and a short tail ; the gait is clumsy, the 
voice harsh and frightful, the expression of the 
face malignant, and its body offensive from its 
carrion food and the strong odor of its anal 
pouch. The feet are all four-toed, with strong 
non-retractile claws fitted for digging, the dor- 
sals and the pairs of ribs 15 or 10, and the 
lumbar vertebra 4 or 5 ; the tibia and fibula 
are much shorter than the radius and ulna ; 
the tongue is covered with horny papillae, the 
irides elliptical above and circular below, the 
erect ears long and pointed, and mammas four. 
The prevailing color is an ochrey gray, with 
dark stripes or spots. The hyaena is among 
mammals what the vulture is among birds, the 
scavenger of the wilderness, the woods, and 
the shore, and useful in this way in disposing 
of carcasses which otherwise would pollute 
the air; often it attacks cattle and disabled 
animals, prowls in the rear of the larger car- 
nivora, whose leavings it devours, and digs up 
when possible the dead bodies of man and 
beast; from this last undisputed habit, the 
hyaena has been regarded as a horrible and 
mysterious creature, and is the subject of many 
superstitious fears and beliefs among the Semi- 
tic races. Tts teeth are so powerful that they 
can crack the bones of an ox with ease, and 
their grip is tenacious to the last degree ; 
were its speed great and its courage equal to 
its strength, it would be among the most dan- 
gerous of the carnivora; it sometimes burrows 
in the earth or hides in caverns, but generally 




Spotted Hytena (Ilyn'oa ciocuta). 

passes the day in the desert, insensible to the 
scorching sun. The spotted hyeana (H. crociita, 
Erxl.) is the most dog-like of the genus ; it is 
about 44 ft. long from nose to base of tail, the 
latter measuring about 13 in. and the head 
about 12 ; the height at the shoulders is 2J 



ft. ; the general color is a dingy whitish gray, 
with small round brown spots, the muzzle as 
far as the eyes and lower limbs sooty, and the 
tail dark ; the mane is rather short. It is 
found in South Africa, and on the coasts of 
Senegal and Guinea, and with the next spe- 




Striped Hytena (Hyaena striota). 



cies is generally called wolf by the Dutch, 
colonists. It is fierce but cowardly, and will 
sometimes approach camps and make severe 
gashes on the limbs and faces of persons 
asleep; it is said sometimes to drag off chil- 
dren, which from its strength it could easily do ; 
from the resemblance of its voice to a human 
laugh, it has received the name of the laugh- 
ing hysena; it rarely burrows, but occupies the 
retreats of other animals, prowling about at 
night. The striped hysena (If. vulgaris, Desm., 
or H. striata, Zimm.), a rather larger animal, 
is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia, and Per- 
sia ; the head is wider, the muzzle fuller, and 
the eyes further from the nose, than in the 
preceding species ; the hair is coarse and thick, 
of a dirty gray color, with transverse dark 
stripes on the sides and limbs; there is a stiff 
mane along the back ; the habits are the same 
as those of the spotted hyaena. There are some 
varieties of smaller size, and one with a skin 
almost naked, in the Nubian deserts. The 
brown Lycena, or strand wolf of the Dutch 
colonists (H. brunnea, Thunb.), is only 4 ft. 
long to the end of the tail, and a little over 2 
ft. high at the shoulders ; the hair is long and 
shaggy, of a dirty yellow color, with tawny tints 
on the back and irregular stripes on the sides; 
it is less in size than the other species, and less 
destructive to cattle. The hyaenas act very 
much the part of the wolf of northern climates, 
being equally fierce, cowardly except at night 
and when in packs, and annoying to the herds- 
man by their destruction of sheep and oxen. 
There are in Africa certain dog-like animals, 
the wilde honden of the Dutch, constituting the 
genus lycaon (Brooks), which seem to connect 
the dogs with the hywnas, and which are be- 
lieved by Hamilton Smith to be partly the pro- 



102 



HYBRID 



genitors of the mastiff races. The head is 
short and truncated, the mouth broad, the 
teeth strong and dog-like ; the ears erect and 
large ; neck long, body short, the limbs slender 
and highest before ; tail short, hanging down, 
and inflexible ; four toes on all tlie feet ; pupils 
round ; mammae eight or ten. They hunt in 
packs, being swift, active, hardy, with excel- 
lent scent and acute sight ; they do not bur- 
row. They ar'e found in Africa south of the 
great desert, and in Arabia, and as far as the 
Indus in Asia. The hunting hyaena (lycaon 
venaticus, Burch.) of the Cape is about as tall 
as a large greyhound, with long legs; the color 
is ochrey, white on the breast, with spots of the 
same edged with black on the neck, shoulders, 
loins, and croup, with wavy black streaks on 
the sides; the muzzle and cheeks black, the 
color passing up on the nape and down on the 
throat. It hunts in packs both by day and 
night, frequently destroying sheep, and some- 
times surprising cattle, biting off their tails ; it 




Hunting Hvii-na (Lycaon venaticus). 

is considered untamable. The painted hyoena 
(L. pictus, Temm.) is by many thought to be a 
mere variety of the last ; it is about 3 ft. long, 
the tail 1 ft. more, and If ft. high at the shoul- 
ders ; the colors are much the same as in the 
preceding animal ; it hunts also in packs, sur- 
prising antelopes, and attacking when hard 
pressed for food cattle and even man ; Rilppell 
says it looks much less like a hyeena and more 
like a dog than the L. venaticus. In anterior 
geological epochs the hyasnas were not confined 
to tropical Africa and Asia, nor to the old 
world. They appeared in Europe toward the 
end of the tertiary age, but were most numer- 
ous during the diluvial period, and were found 
in England, Belgium, and Germany ; there 
were about half a dozen species, numerous in 
individuals, and of a size sometimes superior to 
the living animal. In the Kirkdale and other 
caverns of Europe three species are found, of 
which the best known is the H. spelaa (Goldf.). 
In Asia they were numerous in the Himalaya 



region, of which the most remarkable is the H. 
Smalemis (Cautl. and Falc.). In the caverns 
of Brazil Lund has found abundant remains of 
a hysena which he calls H. neogcea, mixed with 
the bones of rodents, peccaries, megalonyx, 
and other American types, seeming to show 
that the geographical distribution of animals in 
the modern fauna? is in no way connected with 
their ancient distribution. The bones of the 
caverns bear unmistakable marks of the teeth 
of hyaenas, even if the remains of the latter 
did not prove their existence; and this animal 
seems to have been the principal consumer of 
the great proboscidians and ruminants of the 
diluvial age. 

IM Id. I. the name of several cities of ancient 
Sicily, the most considerable of which were the 
following. I. Hybla Major, or 3Iagna, situated on 
the southern declivity of Mt. Etna, near the 
river Symrethus. It was founded by the Siculi, 
and was one of those which Ducetius, a chief 
of that people, sought to unite into a confeder- 
acy against the Greeks and Carthaginians. In 
the time of Cicero Hybla Major was an opu- 
lent municipium, but in that of Pausanias it 
was a poor decayed place. Its site was prob- 
ably at Paterno, where an altar has been dis- 
covered dedicated to Venus Victrix Hyblensis. 
II. Hybla Minor, which stood so near Megara 
on the E. coast, N. of Syracuse, that the two 
cities were often confounded, was likewise of 
Siculic origin. It was chiefly celebrated for 
the honey produced in its vicinity. 

HYBRID (Gr. i>pptf), an animal or plant pro- 
duced by the sexual union of individuals be- 
longing to two different species. As a rule, 
in nature sexual union takes place only be- 
tween individuals of the same species, and the 
offspring accordingly presents the specific char- 
acters common to both its parents. It is in 
this way that the species is indefinitely main- 
tained, with its distinctive characters, by the 
constant production of new individuals similar 
in appearance to the old and endowed with 
similar powers of reproduction. But union 
between a male and a female of different spe- 
cies, when fertile, produces an offspring which 
does not precisely resemble either of its pa- 
rents, but presents a mixture in nearly equal 
proportions of their separate characters. Thus 
a mule, which is the most commonly known 
example of a hybrid, is neither a horse nor an 
ass, but something intermediate between the 
two, and is without the complete distinctive 
marks of any recognized animal species. One 
of the most important questions relating to 
hybridity is that of the possible fertility of 
sexual union between different species, and 
that of hybrids of the same or different kinds 
between themselves. In nature, the occur- 
rence of hybridity is extremely rare. This 
may be due to the more or less complete in- 
aptitude of the male and female generative 
products to unite with each other in such a 
way as to produce a fertile result. Thus the 
germ and pollen of different flowers, or the 



HYBRID 



103 



ovum and spermatic fluid of different animals, 
may be incapable of fertilization, owing to pe- 
culiarities of their own internal constitution ; 
and consequently their physical contact would 
produce no result. But there are other rea- 
sons upon which the non-occurrence of hy- 
brids in nature may partly depend. Among 
animals there is an instinctive preference for | 
sexual union with their own species rather 
than with others, and a similarity of habits, of 
locality, and general disposition, corroborates 
this preference, and alone makes it much more 
likely that sexual union, as a matter of fact, 
will take place between animals of the same 
species. A certain degree of similarity in the 
physical structure of the parents is essential to 
the fertility of their sexual union. Thus all 
the most frequent and most useful forms of 
hybridity occur between different species be- 
longing to the same genus. The horse, for ex- 
ample, will breed with the ass, the zebra, and 
the quagga ; the dog has been certainly known 
to breed with the wolf, and probably with the 
fox ; the goat with the sheep, the ram with 
the roe; and it has been comparatively easy to 
obtain hybrids from the union of the rabbit 
and the hare. _But a cross union is not neces- 
sarily fertile, even between species of the same 
genus ; between those of different genera it 
is still more exceptional; and it is doubtful 
whether hybridity, either natural or artificial, 
has ever occurred beyond these limits. The 
second question of interest relating to hybrid- 
ity is that of the fertility of hybrids among 
themselves. As a rule it may be said that hy- 
brids are not fertile. Thus the mule does not 
reproduce itself, but is only obtained by a repe- 
tition of the union of the ass and the mare. The 
female mule will sometimes reproduce by union 
with either the horse or the ass; but in this 
case the offspring is no longer a mule, but re- 
verts to the type of the original stock in pre- 
cise proportion to the admixture of blood re- 
sulting from the union. Notwithstanding, 
therefore, that the mule and its mode of pro- 
duction have been known from time immemo- 
rial, and notwithstanding the recognized use- 
fulness of its qualities in some respects, we 
have never been able to obtain an indepen- 
dent and self- reproductive breed of mules; 
that is, the hybrid has never acquired the 
physiological characters of a natural species. 
The terms hybrid and hybridization are of- 
ten vaguely used as applied to plants, and many 
are called hybrids which are only crosses be- 
tween varieties. The name hybrid should be 
restricted to plants resulting from the seeds of 
one species fertilized by the pollen of another 
species ; those forms produced by cross breed- 
ing between varieties of the same species should 
never be called hybrids, but crosses. It is to 
be regretted that horticulturists generally ig- 
nore this distinction and use the terms hybrid 
and cross as synonymous. Hybrid plants some- 
times occur in nature, and are frequently pro- 
duced artificially. In hybridizing, it is neces- 



sary to prevent the flower used as the mother, 
or seed-bearer, from being fertilized by its own 
pollen both before and after the artificial appli- 
cation of the strange pollen ; the operator is 
favored by the fact that pollen retains its vital- 
ity for some time after it is removed from the 
flower which produced it. It is probable that 
with this, as with seeds, the duration of vitality 
varies in different species ; at all events, it is 
known that some pollen will keep for weeks 
and even months. The flower selected as the 
seed-bearer is taken just as it is about to open 
and before any insects can have visited it ; the 
envelopes are carefully opened or removed, and 
if a perfect flower its still unopened stamens 
are cut away with a delicate pair of scissors, 
the foreign pollen applied to the stigma with a 
small brush, and the flower or flowers enclosed 
in a bag of gauze to prevent the access of in- 
sects, which would probably bring pollen of the 
same kind to interfere with the action of the 
strange pollen. This is a brief outline of the pro- 
cess ; there are details which can be learned by 
practice. It is not possible to know beforehand 
whether two species will hybridize ; two species 
of a genus that seem to be the most nearly related 
will sometimes refuse to be hybridized, while 
other two that seem most unlike will readily 
form a union. It makes a difference also which 
plant is chosen as the seed-bearer and which 
as the pollen-bearer; for instance, the pistil 
of A will refuse to be fertilized by the pollen 
of B, while the pistil of B will readily accept 
the pollen of A. Seeds from the flowers thus 
fertilized may produce plants quite intermediate 
between the two parents, or may more strongly 
resemble the one or the other. Sometimes a hy- 
brid will have the leaves of one parent and the 
flowers and fruit of the other. By this means 
horticulturists have produced useful varieties 
of fruit, notably in grapes and strawberries, 
and some of the finest flowers are the result of 
hybridizing. Among hardy flowers, the rho- 
dodendrons and azaleas are striking examples 
of the improvement that may be effected in 
this manner; the fine rhododendrons are hy- 
brids between the hardy R. Catawbieme of 
the southern Alleghanies and Jf. Ponticum, a 
greenhouse species from Asia Minor. It is a 
singular fact that the English hybrids, in which 
B. Catawbiense is the mother plant, are gen- 
erally hardy, while the Belgian hybrids are 
very much less hardy for the reason that the 
Belgian florists use R. Ponticvm as the seed- 
bearer. When a desirable form is obtained by 
hybridizing, it can be continued and multiplied 
indefinitely by means of layers, cuttings, or 
grafts. Hybrid plants are sometimes fertile; 
the progeny from them shows a tendency to 
revert to the one or the other parent, and in a 
few generations all trace of the admixture is 
obliterated ; sometimes the progeny is too weak 
to bear seeds, and thus becomes extinct. More 
generally hybrid plants are wholly or partly 
sterile ; the degeneration shows itself most 
prominently in the anthers, which fail to pro- 



104 



HYDASPES 



HYDERABAD 



duce pollen; the pistil in this case will be fer- 
tilized, if at all, by pollen from either parent, 
and thus a reversion of its progeny to a normal 
form assured; sometimes the pistils are abor- 
tive also. It will be seen that while hybrids 
may be produced among plants in a wild state, 
and are often produced in cultivation, there is 
abundant provision against the perpetuation 
of a race of monsters. Another kind of hybrid 
in which fertilization plays no part has recent- 
ly received the attention of vegetable physiol- 
ogists. There are a number of well authenti- 
cated cases in which a graft or bud has so in- 
fluenced the stock in which it was inserted 
that the stock, even below the point of union, 
put out branches partaking of the characters 
of both stock and scion. Some of these graft 
hybrids, as they are called,, have been propa- 
gated. An account of this kind of hybrids, as 
well as a very full resume of the whole subject 
of hybrids, will be found in Darwin's "Varia- 
tion of Animals and Plants under Domestica- 
tion." See also his " Origin of Species," and 
E. A. Carriere's Production et fixation des 
varietes dans les vegetaux (Paris, 1865). 

HYDASPES, a river of ancient India. See 
JHTLUM, and PCNJAUB. 

HTDATIDS. See ENTOZOA, vol. vi., p. 666. 

HYDE. I. An E. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on Pamlico sound, and bounded W. 
by Pango river ; area, about 650 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 6,445, of whom 2,378 were colored. 
It has a level surface, a large part of which is 
occupied by pine, cypress, and cedar swamps. 
The products of the pine are the staples of ex- 
port. The chief productions in 1870 were 21,- 
319 bushels of wheat, 163,216 of Indian corn, 
11,633 of oats, 235 bales of cotton, and 171,- 
548 Ibs. of rice. There were 378 horses, 681 
milch cows, 1,484 other cattle, and 3,706 swine. 
Capital, Swan Quarter. II. A S. E. county 
of Dakota, recently formed, and not included 
in the census of 1870 ; area, about 1,000 sq. m. 
Its S. W. corner touches the Missouri river. 

HYDE, Edward. See CLARENDON. 

HYDE, Thomas, an English orientalist, born 
at Billingsley, Shropshire, June 29, 1636, died 
in Oxford, Jan. 18, 1703. He studied at Cam- 
bridge and Oxford, took orders, became libra- 
rian of the Bodleian library, succeeded Po- 
cocke in 1091 as Laudian professor of Arabic, 
nnd soon after was appointed regius professor 
of Hebrew. In 1678 he was made archdeacon 
of Gloucester. He understood Hebrew, Syri- 
ac, Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Malay, and 
Chinese, and was interpreter of oriental lan- 
guages to the court during the reigns of Charles 
II., James II., and William III. The most im- 
portant of his works is Veterum Persarum et 
Medorum Beligionis Historia (Oxford, 1700; 
best ed., 1760). A complete edition of his 
other writings appeared at Oxford in 1767. 

HYDE DE NEUVILLE, Jean Ciuillanme, baron, 
a French politician of Scottish descent, born 
at La Charite-sur-Loire, Jan. 24, 1776, died in 
Paris, May 28, 1857. He was one of the most 



active agents of the Bourbons after the death 
of Louis XVI., and mingled in nearly all the 
intrigues for the subversion of the revolutionary 
governments. After the 18th Brumaire, in an 
interview with Bonaparte, ho tried to persuade 
him to restore the Bourbons, lie was charged 
by Fouche with being an accomplice in the 
infernal machine plot, but cleared himself from 
the accusation. He subsequently removed to 
the United States, settled in the vicinity of 
New York, became acquainted there with Gen. 
Moreau, then an exile, and is said to have been 
instrumental in persuading him to return to 
Europe. Early in 1814 he returned to France, 
and was welcomed by the Bourbons, who had 
just been reinstated on the throne. He was 
engaged in all the negotiations and transactions 
which took place during 1814 and 1815, and 
on the second restoration was elected by his 
native department a deputy to the chambre in- 
trouvaMe, where he was an uncompromising 
advocate of the most reactionary measures. 
In 1816 he was appointed minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the United States, and held that office 
till 1821, when, after being created a baron, 
lie was recalled to France. Being ambassador 
at Lisbon in 1824, he cooperated in restoring 
to power the old king John VI., whom his son 
Dom Miguel had imprisoned. Thenceforth ho 
gradually estranged himself from the ultra- 
royalist party. In 1828 he entered the Mar- 
tignac cabinet as minister of the navy, made 
several improvements in the colonial system, 
enforced measures against the African slave 
trade, and favored the independence of Greece. 
On the breaking out of the revolution of 1830, 
he asserted the claims of the duke of Bordeaux 
to the throne, in the chamber of deputies, and 
resigned his seat on Louis Philippe being se- 
lected. From that period he devoted himself 
mainly to agriculture. 

HYDERABAD. I. A native state of the Dec- 
can, India, called also the Nizam's Dominions, 
lying between lat. 15 and 21 30' N., and Ion. 
74 40' and 81 30' E., bounded N. by Berar, 
N. E. by the Central Provinces, N. W. and W. 
by the presidency of Bombay, and S. and S. E. 
by that of Madras ; area, 95,337 sq. m. ; pop. 
about 11,000,000. The surface consists chiefly 
of a high table land 1,800 to 2,000 ft. above the 
sea, several granite masses rising to an eleva- 
tion of 2,500 ft. The geological formation of 
this region is simple. Resting on a base of 
granite, gneiss, and talc slate are clay, horn- 
blende, feldspar, limestone, and sandstone ; and 
in some parts columnar basalt is conspicuous. 
The principal rivers are the Godavery, flowing 
through the middle of the country, the Kistnah, 
which winds along its southern limits, and the 
Wurda and Paingunga in the north, all flowing 
in an easterly direction. The minerals com- 
prise iron (the iron ore in the Nirmal hills 
being magnetic) and coal, which is found near 
the junction of the Godavery and Wurda. 
Near the Godavery are also mines of garnet, 
and at Parteal near Condapilly are diamond 



HYDERABAD 



HYDER ALI 



105 



mines, from which the treasury of Golconda 
was formerly supplied. The soil of the coun- 
try is fertile, hut not well cultivated. There is 
a considerable area of waste and forest lands. 
Wheat and cotton are the principal agricultu- 
ral products ; other productions are barley, 
rice, oil plants, cucumbers, gourds, hemp, su- 
gar cane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, aromatic 
seeds, jowary (Indian millet), and bajree, a spe- 
cies of grain which forms the chief sustenance 
of the laboring classes. The principal manu- 
factures are silks, brocades, and carpets, and 
in the southeast calico printing by means of 
wooden blocks is carried on to some extent. 
The chief exports are steel, cotton, and teak. 
The climate, owing to the elevated position of 
the country, is colder than is usual in this lati- 
tude. The territory is crossed by several good 
military roads, and the Great Indian Peninsula 
railway traverses the eastern and southern 
parts of the country. Branch lines are pro- 
jected from this main line to the city of Hy- 
derabad, and from Hy- 
derabad to Masulipatam 
on the Madras coast. 
The government is Mo- 
hammedan, but nearly 
nine tenths of the peo- 
ple are Hindoos. Hy- 
derabad was anciently 
subject to the rajahs of 
Telingana and Bijana- 
gnr. It was erected 
into a separate kingdom 
in 1512 by a Turkish 
adventurer, and in 1687 
became a province of 
the Mogul empire. Azof 
Jah, an officer of the 
court of Delhi, who in 
1719 governed this and 
the five other provin- 
ces of the Deccan with 
the title of Nizam ul- 
Mulk(" regulator of the 
state "), made himself 
independent. On his death in 1748 the suc- 
cession was disputed by his son Nazir Jung, 
whose cause was espoused by the English, and 
his grandson Mirzapha Jung, who was favored 
by the French. The latter finally triumphed, 
and governed under the direction of the French 
commander Dupleix until he was put to death 
by some Patan chiefs. During a period of 
anarchy which followed, the French and Eng- 
lish supported rival claimants for the sover- 
eignty. Nizam Ali, who came to the throne 
in 1761, ravaged the Oarnatic, but was over- 
powered by a British force, and induced to 
sign a treaty in 1766 which gave to the East 
India company the Northern Circars. The 
English bound themselves to maintain a mili- 
tary force for the nizam's protection. In the 
war between the British and Hyder Ali, how- 
ever, the nizam sided with the sultan of My- 
sore, but in that with Tippoo Saib he formed 



an alliance with the company and thopeishwa, 
and received a share of the spoils of victory. 
The accession of territory which he then ob- 
tained he subsequently ceded to the British in 
lieu of payment for the support of the British 
contingent. On the conclusion of the first 
Mahratta war in 1804 his dominions were 
again enlarged. The misgovernment of the 
country under the successors of Nizam AH 
plunged Hyderabad deeply in debt. The East 
India company was at one time creditor to the 
amount of 500,000 or 600,000, and in liqui- 
dation they accepted a cession of the province 
of Berar, part of the revenues of which were to 
be devoted to the support of the subsidiary na- 
tive force known as the nizam's contingent. 
The nizam remained true to the British du- 
ring the mutiny of 1857-'8, and his dominions 
were little disturbed except by marauders. II. 
A town, capital of the Nizam's Dominions, 
situated on the river Mussi, about 300 m. N. 
N. W. of Madras ; pop. variously estimated at 




British residency In Hyderabad. 

80,000, 120,000, and 200,000, a large majority 
of whom are Mohammedans. It is a weakly 
fortified town, crowded with buildings, some 
of which are large and imposing, having nu- 
merous mosques, and surrounded by gardens 
of remarkable beauty. The British residency 
is a magnificent edifice on the opposite side 
of the river, connected with the town by a 
stone bridge. In the neighborhood there are 
large water tanks, one of which is 20 m. in 
circuit. A large British garrison is maintained 
at Hyderabad, and there is an extensive mili- 
tary cantonment at Secunderabad, a few miles 
N. E. of the town. The celebrated city of 
Golconda is 7 m. distant to the northwest. 

HYDER AH, sultan of Mysore, born in Dina- 
velli, Mysore, about 1718, died Dec. 7, 1782. Ho 
was of Arabian descent, and son of a petty chief. 
Entering the service of the rajah of Mysore in 
1749, he rose in the course of ten years to bo 



106 



HYDRA 



HYDRANGEA 



commander of the forces, and, having thus the 
power in his own hands, set aside the rajah 
with a pension of three lacs of rupees, and 
took possession of the sovereignty. The East 
India company, becoming alarmed at his in- 
creasing power, formed an alliance with the 
Mahrattas and the nizam of the Deccan against 
him ; but Hyder not only gained over the ni- 
zam to his side, but for two years waged ve- 
hement war on the British. By a series of 
skilful manoeuvres he managed to draw their 
force to a distance from Madras, and then at 
the head of 6,000 horsemen rode 120 m. in 
three days and appeared before the city. The 
outlying country being at his mercy, the gov- 
ernment of the presidency was compelled to 
come to terms, and Hyder agreed to a treaty 
of which the principal feature was that the 
British should form an alliance with him in 
his defensive wars. In 1770, the Mahrattas 
having invaded his dominions, he applied to 
the British for their promised aid, but could 
obtain from them nothing more than neutrality. 
By the year 1778 he had recovered from the 
disadvantages their defection had caused him. 
Being once more threatened by the same war- 
like people, he again invited British assistance, 
but with a like result. Incensed by this con- 
duct, he formed an alliance with the Mahrattas 
and the nizam, and in 1780 invaded the Brit- 
ish territory of the Oarnatic, which he ravaged 
with fire and sword, capturing many of the 
strong places, but avoiding battle in the open 
field. The desolation he brought on the coun- 
try during the two years' war was such that 
the British force, and even the city of Madras, 
were in danger from famine. This war elicited 
a remarkable display of military talent by the 
British general Sir Eyre Coote on the one 
side, and by Hyder and the French officers, of 
whom he had many in his service, on the other. 
The Mysore leader had already rejected terms 
of adjustment offered by Lord Macartney, the 
governor of Madras, when he died, and was 
succeeded by his son Tippoo Saib. 

HYDRA. See HERCULES. 

HYDRA. I. An island in the Grecian archi- 
pelago, off the E. coast of the Morea, belong- 
ing to the nomarchy of Argolis and Corinth ; 
greatest length N. E. to S. W. about 12 m., 
greatest breadth 3 m. ; pop. about 20,000. Its 
surface is rocky, sterile, and mountainous. The 
inhabitants are esteemed the best sailors of 
Greece. II. A town, capital of the island, situ- 
ated on a barren rugged height on the N. W. 
shore; pop. in 1870, 7,428. The streets are 
steep and uneven, and the houses substantially 
built. The manufactures are silk and cotton 
stuffs, soap, and leather. The harbor is formed 
by a deep bay, but is neither spacious nor well 
sheltered. During the war of the revolution 
Hydra was a place of general refuge for peo- 
ple from all parts of Greece. 

HYDRABAD, a town of British India, in the 
province of Sinde, situated on an eminence 
belonging to the Gunjah hills, 4 m. E. of the 



E. bank of the Indus ; pop. about 20,000. Part 
of it is built on an island ,15 m. long, which 
is formed by the Indus and an offset of that 
stream called the Fulailee. It is defended by 
a fortress of imposing appearance but no great 
strength, and has manufactures of matchlocks, 
swords, spears, and shields, and of ornamental 
silks and cottons. The town is connected with 
Kurracheo on the Arabian sea by a railway 
120 m. long. Hydrabad was formerly the resi- 
dence of the chief amirs of Sinde, who governed 
the southern and principal part of the coun- 
try. A victory was gained over a Sindian 
force near here by Sir C. Napier, Feb. 24, 1843. 
HYDRAA'CEA (Gr. vdap, water, and ayyof, a 
vase), a genus of shrubby plants, to which the 
name was applied for no obvious reason, be- 
longing to the natural order srixifrayacece, and 
natives of Asia and of North America. The 
species best known (H. Sortensia\ the com- 
mon hydrangea, was introduced into England 
from China in the year 1790 by Sir Joseph 




Garden Hydrangea (n. Hortensia). 

Banks. Commerson, wishing to honor his 
friend Mme. Hortense Lapeaute, called the 
plant Lapeautia; but thinking the compliment 
not sufficiently pointed, he changed the name 
to Hortensia, by which it is still known in 
France; when it was found to belong to the 
old genus hydrangea, Commerson's generic 
name was retained for the species ; it is often 
incorrectly written Tiortensis. It is a smooth, 
dwarf, vigorous shrub, with opposite, coarsely 
toothed, oval leaves, and bears immense globu- 
lar clusters of sterile flowers, which are white, 
pink, or blue, according to the nature of the 
soil. Cuttings of the wood or of the growing 
stems will root without difficulty. The hydran- 
gea delights in an unlimited supply of water, 
fading at once on its being withheld. There is 
a variety with variegated foliage, nearly all sil- 
very white, which is fine in the greenhouse, but 
does not endure our hot sun. Specimens are 
mentioned in England of 30 ft. circumference,. 



HYDRASTIS 



HYDRAULIC RAM 



107 



and producing on a single clump more than 
1.000 heads or corymbs of flowers. In the 
linked States, even so far north as Boston, it 
will survive the winter if slightly protected by 
the stems being covered. Tho wild hydran- 
gea (H. arborescent, Linn.) is a shrub 4 to 6 




Oak-leaved Hydrangea (II. quercifoUa). 

ft. high ; its flowers, which are borne on flat 
cymes, are white or yellowish, and usually all 
fertile, but sometimes with a row of sterile 
ones around the margin; the species ranges 
from Pennsylvania southward. The oak-leaved 
hydrangea (H. quercifoUa) was first discovered 
by Bartram in Georgia ; it was carried to Eng- 
land in 1803, and is the finest North American 
species; it has deeply lobed, oak-like leaves, 
and fine large corymbs of nearly white flowers, 
which change afterward to purple. In the gar- 
dens at the north is often seen the snowy-leaved 
hydrangea (ff. rivea, MX.), a shrub from f> to 
8 ft. high, with large leaves of a silvery white- 
ness beneath, and flowers in terminal cymes, 
having a few showy, white, sterile florets en- 
closing many small, green, fertile ones ; it grows 
in the upper part of Georgia and the Caroli- 
nas. Within a few years several fine hydran- 
geas have been introduced from Japan, some 
of which, though they have received specific 
names, are varieties of ff. ffortensia-, while 
others are distinct; preeminent among these 
is ff. paniculata grandiflora (sometimes called 
H. deutzifolia), which is one of the finest hardy 
shrubs in cultivation ; it produces an oblong 
panicle, often a foot long, of sterile flowers, 
which are at first white, then gradually turn 
pink, and by the time frost comes they are 
brownish red. 

in DRASTIS. See PUCCOON. 

HYDRATES (Gr. Map, water), compounds con- 
taining water, or its elements in the proportion 
to form water. Thus lime (oxide of calcium) 
slaked with water forms a chemical combina- 
tion with a portion of this, and falls to a white 



powder, which is a hydrate of lime. Hydrate 
of potassa is a combination of potassa and 
water, and is permanent even when exposed to 
high temperature. Common oil of vitriol is 
also a chemical combination of water and sul- 
phuric anhydride. 

HYDRAULIC RAM, a machine for raising water 
by employing its own momentum, acquired by 
a fall, a portion of the water only being raised. 
The accompanying diagram, fig. 1, will serve 
to explain its action. An impulse pipe, H, 
leads from a cistern or reservoir, C, and has a 
fall depending on the amount of impulse re- 
quired, and corresponding with the other parts 
of the machine, and on the height the water is 
required to be raised. The lower end of this 
impulse pipe turns up at A, where there is a 
large valve, usually conical and opening down- 
ward. This valve is of such a weight that the 
simple pressure of the water in the cistern and 
pipe, or the head, will not raise it, a certain 
degree of momentum being required for that 
purpose. When the valve is open the water 
rushes through it and soon attains this required 
momentum, and the valve rises and shuts 
against its seat. The motion of the water in 
the end at A is arrested, but not entirely so in 
that portion of the pipe between H and the 
cistern, for the impulse opens the valve B and 
forces water into the bell-shaped chamber D, 
and eventually into the delivery pipe E. When 
the impulse of the water flowing through the 
valve B becomes less than the pressure upon 
it, the valve closes and prevents the water 
which has passed through from returning. The 
time of this flow is very short, because the ar- 
rest of motion of the water in the end of the 
impulse pipe so reduces the force exerted 
against the impulse valve that it falls after a 
brief interval, when the water again rushes out 
and relieves the pressure at B. But it soon 
acquires sufficient momentum to again raise 
the impulse valve, when the shock is repeated, 
and the acquired momentum again expends it- 
self principally against the valve B, and the 




Fio. 1. Hydraulic Earn. 

water ascends into the air chamber and deliv- 
ery pipe. The use of the air chamber is obvi- 
ously to produce a constant pressure in the 
pipe E, as nearly as practicable, and to relieve 
it from the sudden shock which would other- 
wise be caused by the shutting of the valve B. 



108 



HYDRAULIC RAM 



The expenditure of force in this machine is 
obtained by multiplying the amount of water 
discharged at A into the head, or height of 
water in the cistern above the valve A. The 
economy of force is found by multiplying the 
amount of water delivered by the pipe E into 
the height to which it is raised. The proportion 
in good rams is from GO to 70 per cent. The 
head of water should be from 4 to 6 ft. for rais- 
ing water vertically 30 ft. There is a differ- 
ence of opinion in regard to the proportional 
increase of head to increase in height of the 
delivery pipe, and machines of different modes 
of construction will require variation in this 
particular. The height of head is, however, 
practically restricted in consequence of the 
wear and strain produced by the shock when 
the head is great. A practical difficulty in the 
machine is to preserve the necessary quantity 
of air in the air chamber. This is constantly 
being absorbed by the water, so that in time 
its volume becomes too small to yield sufficient 
elasticity. The difficulty is obviated to a great 
degree by the application of what is called a 
shifting valve, opening inward at G. There is 
a moment of time after the shutting of the im- 
pulse valve when there is in certain parts of 
the machine a diminution of internal pressure 
to a degree below that of the pressure of the 
atmosphere. During this moment a bubble of 
air will enter at G and ascend into the air 
chamber, but it is difficult so to regulate the 
supply that it will not be necessary to remove 
the air chamber and introduce a fresh supply 
of air. In large European machines there is 
often placed at B an inner air chamber with 
two valves at its base, suspended by hinges 
and opening laterally. The impulse pipe may 
be straight, and inclined as shown in the fig- 
ure, or have a vertical and a horizontal limb ; 
or it may be curved. There are several prac- 
tical points in regard to its size and length 
which should be observed in the erection -of 
the ram. In general, it may be stated that if 
the impulse pipe is very wide and short, it will 
not maintain a sufficient impulse to lift the 
water against great pressure in a long delivery 




Fio. 2. Wlitehurst's Machine. 

pipe, because of the tendency to a reactionary 
movement of its contents, which is prevent- 
ed by the resistance offered by a longer and 
smaller pipe. The invention of the hydraulic 
ram is ascribed to the elder Montgolfier, and 
its improvements to his son. The principle, 



HYDROCHLORIC ACID 

however, was previously employed by John 
Whitehurst of Cheapside in a machine con- 
structed by him in 1772, an account of which 
was published in the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions " in 1775. Fig. 2 is a representation of 
Whitehurst's machine, and it will be seen that 
the principal difference between it and Mont- 
golfler's ram is that it has a stopcock in place 
of the automatic impulse valve. Leading from 
the cistern H is a long pipe, A E, much longer 
in proportion than is represented in the figure, 
which is the impulse pipe. Its contents re- 
ceive momentum from the opening of the cock 
B, which is several feet below E. When suf- 
ficient force has been obtained the cock is shut, 
and the column of water in A B is urged by its 
momentum along the direct branch of the pipe 
G, through its depressed extremity D, into the 
bottom of the air chamber C. This part of 
the pipe contains a valve opening toward the 
air chamber, corresponding to the one in Mont- 
golfier's machine. F is the lower section of 
the delivery pipe. The principle of action is 
precisely the same in the two machines, and 
the explanation of the ram will answer for 
that of Whitehurst's machine. 

HYDRAULICS. See HYDROMECHANICS. 

HYDROCEPHALUS. See BKAIN, DISEASES OF 
THE, vol. Hi., p. 197. 

HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or Chlorohydrie Acid, a 
gaseous compound of one equivalent of chlo- 
rine and one of hydrogen (HC1), of combining 
proportion 36'5, long known in its aqueous 
solution by the names of muriatic acid, ma- 
rine salt, and spirit of salt, in reference to its 
being prepared from sea salt (murias). Priest- 
ley first obtained it as a gas in 1772, and Gay- 
Lussac, Thenard, and Davy long afterward 
showed that it consists of equal volumes of 
chlorine and hydrogen, and occupies the same 
space as the gases which produce it. Its ele- 
ments mixed together slowly combine by the 
action of the light, but instantly with explo- 
sion if exposed to the direct rays of the sun, 
or if an electric spark is passed through the 
mixture, or a lighted taper is brought in con- 
tact with it. The gas is obtained by adding 
concentrated sulphuric acid to common salt 
placed in a retort, and collecting over mer- 
cury. The chlorine of the salt (chloride of 
sodium) unites with the hydrogen of the sul- 
phuric acid, producing hydrochloric acid and 
acid sulphate of soda; or, by symbols, NaCl 
+ H 3 SO4 = HCl + NaHSO,. The gas is col- 
orless, but escaping in the air it instantly 
unites with moisture present, and forms a 
white cloud. It has a strongly acid taste and 
a pungent odor. Taken into the lungs it is 
irrespirable, but when diluted with air is not 
so irritating as chlorine. It neither supports 
combustion nor is itself inflammable. Under 
a pressure of 40 atmospheres, at 50 F., it is 
condensed into a liquid of specific gravity T27, 
which dissolves bitumen. The density of the 
gas is 12fi9'5,'air being 1000. Its affinity for 
water is such that it can be kept only in jars 



HYDROCHLORIC ACID 



109 



over mercury. If a piece of ice be introduced 
into a jar containing the gas, the ice is in- 
stantly liquefied, and the gas disappears. If 
the jar be opened under water, the water 
rushes up as into a vacuum. Water at 40 F. 
absorbs newly its own weight, or about 480 
times its bulk of hydrochloric acid gas, in- 
creasing in volume about one third, and ac- 
quiring a density of 1-2109; at this strength it 
contains nearly 43 per cent, of acid. The 
aqueous solution is the form in which the acid 
is commonly known. It is of various degrees 
of strength, the strongest readily obtained 
having 6 equivalents of water to 1 of acid, 
40'66 per cent, of real acid, and being of spe- 
cific gravity 1-203. This loses acid by evapo- 
ration, coming, according to Prof. Graham, to 
12 equivalents of water to 1 of acid, this con- 
taining 25-52 of real acid, and being of spe- 
cific gravity 1-1197. When reduced by dis- 
tillation till it changes no more, it contains 16'4 
equivalents of water and 20 per cent, of real 
acid, and is of specific gravity 1-0947. The fol- 
lowing table by Mr. E. Davy gives its strength 
at different densities : 



Sp.gr. 

1-21... 
1-20... 

1-18... 
1-18... 
1-17... 
1-16... 
1-15... 
114.. 
1-18... 
1-12... 
1-11... 



Quantity of 
acid per cent. 
.... 42-43 
.... 40-40 



86-86 
8484 
82-82 
80-30 
20-28 
26-26 
24-24 
22-22 



Quantity of 
8p. gr. acid per cent. 

1-10 20-20 

1-09 18-18 

1-08 16-16 

1-OT 14-14 

1-06 12-12 

1-05 10-18 

1-04 8-08 

1-08 6-06 

1-02 4-04 

1-01 2-02 



An approximate result is obtained by multiply- 
ing the decimal of the specific gravity by 200. 
The pure concentrated acid is colorless, and 
fuming when exposed to the air. It is conve- 
niently used for most purposes diluted to a spe- 
cific gravity of about 1-1, at which it does not 
fume. Though powerfully arid, it is not so 
corrosive as sulphuric acid. It is decomposed 
by substances which yield oxygen freely, as 
the manganese dioxide, and is thus made to 
furnish chlorine gas, its hydrogen combining 
with the oxygen of the metallic oxide. Ni- 
trate of silver, AgNO, (old AgO,NO 6 ), detects 
its presence by the formation of a white curdy 
precipitate of chloride of silver, AgCl, which 
is soluble in ammonia, but not in nitric acid. 
Ingredients used for preparing hydrochloric acid 
either upon a large or small scale are common 
salt, sulphuric acid, and water. Different pro- 
portions are adopted, the most usual being 
equal weights of concentrated acid and of salt, 
or in the large way 6 parts of salt to 5 of acid, 
being an equivalent of each, to which 5 parts 
of water are usually added. The acid mixed 
with about half water is poured when cool 
upon the salt contained in a large retort, and 
the remainder of the water is placed in the 
vessel serving as a condenser to receive the 
gas. Heat is applied to the retort, and the acid 
gas distils over ; the water in the condenser 



allows none of it to escape, so long as it is kept 
cool and is not saturated. The aqueous solu- 
tion obtained is of specific gravity about 1'17, 
and contains 34 per cent, of dry acid. The 
residuum is common sulphate of soda or Glau- 
ber's salt. The acid is so cheaply prepared in 
large chemical works, that it is seldom made in 
the laboratory. It is an incidental product in 
the manufacture of carbonate of soda, and was 
formerly allowed to go to waste. The com- 
mercial article is often contaminated with iron, 
which gives it a yellow color, though this is 
sometimes owing to organic matter, as cork or 
wood. Sulphuric acid is almost always present 
in it, and sometimes free chlorine and nitrous 
acid. Sulphurous acid, H s SOs, has also been 
found, to the amount of 7 to nearly 11 pel- 
cent. Sulphuric acid is detected by the forma- 
tion of a white precipitate of sulphate of bary- 
ta, produced when chloride of barium, BaClj, 
is added to a diluted portion of acid. Traces 
of sulphurous acid are detected by a mixture 
of perchlorideof iron and ferrocyanide of potas- 
sium, Prussian blue being formed by the re- 
ducing action of the acid on the mixture. Arse- 
nic and chloride of lead, PbCU, may sometimes 
be detected by a current of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, H 2 S (PbCl, + HS 3 = 2HC1 + PbS). The 
common method of purifying is to dilute, add 
chloride of barium, and distil. Hydrochloric 
acid is largely employed in the arts, especially 
as a solvent for mineral substances. In combi- 
nation with nitric acid it makes the aquaregia, 
used for dissolving gold and platinum. It is used 
to furnish chlorine in the preparation of bleach- 
ing and disinfectant salts, and in the production 
of sal ammoniac ; and is employed to extract 
gelatine from bones. When neutralized with 
basic oxides, it does not combine as an acid 
with these, but gives its hydrogen to their oxy- 
gen, and its chlorine unites with the metallic 
base of the oxide. In medicine hydrochloric 
acid may V employed with advantage, largely 
diluted, to assist the process of digestion, which 
it does by replacing the deficient portion of the 
normal acid and of the gastric juice. When 
administered with pepsine it forms a sort of ar- 
tificial gastricjuice. It has also been employed 
as a tonic in various diseases, and as an in- 
gredient of gargles, when sufficiently diluted. 
The strong acid may be used as an escharotic. 
It is much less corrosive than sulphuric acid. 
When poisoning has occurred from swallowing 
the strong acid, it should be neutralized by 
magnesia or soap, and the case then treated as 
other kinds of corrosive poisoning are. The 
principal indications for the therapeutic admin- 
istration of hydrochloric acid are to be found 
in calculous affections, in certain forms of dys- 
pepsia, in typhus and typhoid fevers, and in 
aphthous affections of the mouth and stomach. 
It may be given in the dose of from 10 to 30 
drops three or four times a day, freely diluted 
with water. Its local application in cases of ul- 
cerated, putrid, and diphtheritic sore throat has 
often been attended with the happiest results. 



110 



HYDROCYANIC ACID 



HYDROCYANIC ACID, or Prnssie Acid (HCN = 
HCy; chemical equivalent 27), was first ob- 
tained in its aqueous solution by Scheele in 
1782, who described it correctly as consisting 
of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen ; but the 
true nature of the compound was determined ' 
by Gay-Lussac 30 years later, who first ob- 
tained the anhydrous acid. This is a colorless, 
inflammable liquid, possessing a strong odor, 
which is recognized in peach blossoms ; but 
when exhaled from the pure acid it is so pow- 
erful as to cause immediate headache and gid- 
diness, involving the most serious consequen- 
ces to life itself. The vapor is so remarkably 
volatile, that a drop of the acid congeals upon 
a piece of glass by the rapid evaporation of 
a portion of the liquid. It boils at 80, and 
freezes at 5 into a fibrous mass. At 45 F. its 
specific gravity is 0'7058. Its taste (a hazard- 
ous test) is acrid and bitter like that of bitter 
almonds. Its acid properties are feeble ; the 
faint red tinge it imparts to litmus paper soon 
disappears ; and it fails to decompose salts of 
carbonic acid. It exists in parts of many plants, 
as the kernels of peaches, almonds, plums, &c., 
and in the leaves of the peach, laurel, &c. It 
is also generated in the processes contrived for 
extracting it from various vegetable matters. 
The chief source of the acid, however, is the 
blood, hoofs, horns, and tissues of animals, 
which are made to furnish cyanogen to potas- 
sium on being ignited with carbonate of pot- 
ash, and the cyanide thus obtained and other 
cyanides of the same derivation are employed 
to furnish the cyanogen for the acid. Its col- 
oration in Prussian blue gave it the name of 
Prussia acid. Many methods have been de- 
vised for preparing the anhydrous acid. The 
cyanide of mercury has been decomposed to- 
gether with hydrochloric acid, thus producing 
chloride of mercury and hydrocyanic acid ; 
and sulphuretted hydrogen and also diluted 
sulphuric acid have by suitable processes been 
substituted for the hydrochloric acid. But the 
aqueous solution or medicinal acid is common- 
ly prepared direct by some one of the numer- 
ous processes of the pharmacopoeias. The fol- 
lowing, adopted in the United States, is rec- 
ommended for its simplicity and convenience : 
Of cyanide of silver 50J grains are dissolved 
in 41 grains of hydrochloric acid diluted with 
a fluid ounce of distilled water ; the mixture 
is shaken in a well stopped phial, and the clear 
liquor, poured off from the insoluble matter 
which subsides, is kept in tight bottles exclu- 
ded from the light. Single equivalents of the 
acid and cyanide salt are employed ; and by 
their mutual decomposition hydrocyanic acid 
is obtained in solution, and chloride of silver 
falls as a precipitate. By this method the acid 
may always be prepared as wanted ; a matter 
of no little importance in its medicinal applica- 
tions, in consideration of its liability to decom- 
pose spontaneously, and its consequent uncer- 
tain composition and strength. The aqueous 
solutions prepared by the different processes 



adopted are not uniform in their proportions 
of anhydrous acid; but their strength ought 
not to exceed 3 per cent, of pure acid. Vari- 
ous methods are given in the chemical books 
of ascertaining this strength and the degree 
of purity. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids 
are the most common foreign bodies present. 
The quantity of real acid is usually determined 
by the weight of cyanide of silver precipita- 
ted on adding nitrate of silver. By the Uni- 
ted States formula 100 grains of pure acid 
must accurately saturate 12'7 grains of nitrate 
of silver dissolved in distilled water, and pro- 
duce a precipitate of cyanide of silver, which, 
washed and dried at a temperature not exceed- 
ing 212, shall weigh 10 grains and be wholly 
soluble in boiling nitric acid. If a residue re- 
main, it is chloride of silver, indicating the 
presence of hydrochloric acid in the original. 
Sulphuric acid would be indicated by a pre- 
cipitate formed on adding chloride of barium 
to a portion of the acid. Hydrocyanic acid is 
well known as one of the most powerful of 
poisons, destructive to vegetable as well as ani- 
mal life. Seeds immersed in it lose their ger- 
minating power, and the stems of sensitive 
plants lose their peculiar property by its appli- 
cation. Small doses of hydrocyanic acid give 
rise to a bitter taste, a tingling in the throat, a 
feeling of warmth in the stomach, and an in- 
creased secretion of saliva. If the dose is in- 
creased, there are in addition headache, dizzi- 
ness, confusion, drowsiness, and sometimes 
nausea and labored breathing. After the long 
continued use of small doses the pulse becomes 
less frequent. As the dose is increased the 
symptoms above mentioned increase in inten- 
sity, especially the dyspnoea, while the pulse be- 
comes frequent and small. Consciousness may 
be completely lost, the pupil dilated, and con- 
vulsions occur, and yet recovery take place. 
Fatal cases occur with aggravation of these 
symptoms, except when death takes place so 
rapidly that no symptoms are developed be- 
yond sudden loss of consciousness, a short pe- 
riod of labored breathing, disappearance of the 
pulse, and collapse. When continuously ap- 
plied externally, hydrocyanic acid lessens the 
irritability of the sensitive nerves. It is used 
in medicine to diminish pain and irritation ; in 
some affections of the stomach to check vom- 
iting; and in chest affections to allay cough, 
especially of a spasmodic character. Oil of 
bitter almonds has been used to produce the 
effect of hydrocyanic acid, but the amount of 
acid contained therein is so variable that it 
is an uncertain preparation. When poisoning 
takes place, death often approaches so rapidly 
as to preclude the employment of any efficient 
treatment. But if the heart is still beating, 
stimulants, especially ammonia, should be very 
cautiously applied. Cold affusion may also act 
as an excitant, and artificial respiration may 
sustain life long enough for a portion of the 
poison to be eliminated, and life saved. The 
subcutaneous injection of atropia has also been 



HYDRODYNAMICS 



HYDROGEN 



111 



proposed, but has not been proved to be of 
much value as an antidote. After death and 
before decomposition has taken place, the pres- 
ence of hydrocyanic acid is rendered apparent 
in the blood vessels and also in the brain by 
its peculiar odor. To obtain the acid, the con- 
tents of the stomach should be washed with 
distilled water and filtered, and the filtrate dis- 
tilled in a water bath. The product may then 
be subjected to the various tests given in the 
chemical works. The therapeutic value of 
hydrocyanic acid is limited chiefly to a few 
nervous affections of the stomach, to the vom- 
iting of pregnancy, and to whooping cough 
and spasmodic derangements of the respiratory 
organs. Only the dilute form is used medi- 
cinally, of which the dose varies from two to 
five or six drops. 

llMil'.ni) VMilU s. See HYDROMECHANICS. 

HYDKOFLIOKIC ACID. See FLUORINE. 

HYDROGEN (Gr. Map, water, and yewdetv, to 
produce), an elementary gaseous body, named 
from its property of forming water by com- 
bining with oxygen. Its symbol is H ; chemi- 
cal equivalent 1 ; weight compared with air 
0'06926 ; 100 cubic inches weigh under ordinary 
pressure and temperature 2'14 grains, being 16 
times less than an equal volume of oxygen, and 
14-4 times less than air. One litre of hydro- 
gen gas at C. and 760 mm. pressure weighs 
0'08936 gramme. It was known near the 
close of the 17th century, and was termed in- 
flammable air from its burning with a flame ; 
it was also called phlogiston, from the suppo- 
sition of its being the matter of heat. Its real 
nature was first described by Cavendish in 
1766. The gas is not found uncombined, but 
is readily obtained by decomposing water, of 
which it constitutes about one ninth by weight, 
the remainder being oxygen. This process is 
effected very much as metallic oxides are de- 
composed, some substance being presented to 
the compound which has a strong affinity for 
the oxygen, and combining with it liberates 
the hydrogen or other element. The vapor of 
water passed through an iron tube filled with 
iron shavings and kept at a red heat is thus 
decomposed, the oxygen uniting with the iron, 
and the hydrogen escaping. The common 
method of preparing the gas is to place some 
bits of zinc in oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid di- 
luted with five or six times its bulk of water. 
Chemical action immediately takes place, and 
the zinc is dissolved with effervescence, owing 
to the bubbles of hydrogen separating from 
the liquid. The reaction is represented by 
the formula Zn + HjSOj = ZnSO 4 + H. With 
an ounce of zinc there may be obtained 615 
cubic inches of hydrogen. A common flask 
answers very well for the apparatus, by in- 
serting a bent tube through the cork for the 
exit of the gas, and ,1 straight tube, termi- 
nating above in a small funnel, and reaching 
below the cork nearly to the bottom of the 
flask, at least so as to be covered by the 
liquid. Through this tube the acid is poured 
421 VOL. ix. 8 



in as required, the zinc and water being first 
introduced. The sulphur and carbon which 
are present in almost all zinc appear in the hy- 
drogen as traces of sulphuretted hydrogen and 
carbonic acid. They may be separated by agi- 
tating the gas with lime water. When pure, hy- 
drogen has neither taste, smell, nor color. It 
is destructive to animal life when inhaled for a 
short time, and extinguishes a burning taper 
plunged into it. Yet it is itself highly com- 
bustible, burning with a faint bluish yellow 
flame at its contact with atmospheric air or 
oxygen ; and when mixed witli proper propor- 
tions of ether and ignited by flame, an electric 
spark, or a glass rod heated hardly to redness, 
its combustion is instantaneous and explosive. 
A piece of spongy platinum introduced into the 
mixture also causes combustion to take place. 
The most violent effects are produced by a mix- 
ture of two volumes of hydrogen and one of 
oxygen. The only product of the combustion 
of hydrogen is water. The gas is made to en- 
ter into combination with the oxygen of the 
air, producing heat sufficient to cause its igni- 
tion, by directing a jet of it upon a piece of 
spongy platinum, or even upon a perfectly clean 
surface of sheet platinum. The metal becomes 
red hot, the gas ignites, and thus a light may be 
instantaneously obtained. A little apparatus 
was devised for this purpose by Prof. Dobe- 
reiner, which would be an excellent means of 
obtaining a flame in the absence of the cheap 
matches in common use. Though the flame of 
hydrogen is very slightly luminous, a bright 
light is emitted from the heated platinum ; and 
an apparatus based on this principle has been 
applied to purposes of illumination in the place 
of ordinary gas lights. Such lights were at one 
time in practical use in France and England. 
The hydrogen was produced by the decompo- 
sition of water, effected by passing its vapor 
over incandescent charcoal contained in a tube ; 
some carbonic oxide and carburetted hydrogen 
were generated, which burned with the hy- 
drogen, the jet of mixed gases being direct- 
ed against a basket constructed of fine gauze 
of platinum, which became intensely hot and 
highly luminous. Hydrogen produces intense 
heat by its combustion, taking up more oxygen 
than is required by the same weight of any 
other combustible. It is this property that has 
led to its application in the oxyhydrogen blow- 
pipe for melting the most refractory substances. 
(See BLOWPIPE.) The levity of hydrogen early 
suggested its use for filling balloons. The quan- 
tity required to fill one of the capacity of 2,000 
cubic feet would weigh only 10'57 Ibs., while 
the same volume of air would weigh 153-26 Ibs., 
giving an ascensional power of 142'69 Ibs. Illu- 
minating gas is heavier, but is commonly used 
instead of hydrogen only on account of its 
greater cheapness. Hydrogen is so subtle and 
penetrating a gas that it passes with facility 
through paper and also through gold and silver 
leaves. A stream of the gas directed against 
one side of the leaf may be ignited on the 



112 



HYDROGRAPHY 



other. Hydrogen combines with one equiva- 
lent of oxygen to form hydrogen monoxide or 
water; with two equivalents to form the di- 
oxide or oxygenated water, a liquid discovered 
by Thenard in 1818, and now prepared by 
chemists for medicinal purposes ; also with one 
equivalent of nitrogen to form ammonia ; and 
with one of chlorine to form hydrochloric acid. 
From his researches on the occlusion of hydro- 
gen by palladium, Prof. Graham was led to in- 
fer the existence of an alloy of palladium and 
hydrogen gas condensed to a solid form, to 
which he gave the name of hydrogenium. As- 
suming that the hydrogen enters into the com- 
bination with the density which it would ex- 
hibit if solidified in the free state, he calculates, 
from the observed density of this so-called alloy 
of palladium and hydrogenium, and of similar 
alloys containing in addition gold, silver, or 
nickel, that the density of this hypothetically 
solidified hydrogen varies between the limits 
0-711 and 0-7545 ; mean, 0-733. The presence 
of hydrogen in the atmosphere of the sun and 
in the planets has been shown by spectrum 
analysis. On the sun four lines are attributed 
to hydrogen. 

HYDROGRAPHY is the science which, by rep- 
resentation of the figure of the bottom of the 
ocean and its tributaries by means of soundings, 
by observations of tides and currents, and by 
investigations of the winds and their action 
and of the law of storms, aims to diminish the 
risk attending the navigation of dangerous 
waters. The results of these investigations 
are shown upon charts, which give the out- 
lines of the coasts and harbors, the depths of 
water in the navigable channels, the rocks and 
shoals with the soundings upon them, and 
various tidal and magnetic information. In 
the course of the investigations specimens of 
the bottom are also obtained by apparatus at- 
tached to the sounding lead ; and the tempera- 
ture of the water is frequently taken as an 
additional guide to determine the mariner's po- 
sition. By such sea charts as are now pre- 
pared and published by the English and French 
hydrographic offices and by the coast survey 
of the United States, the risks attending nav- 
igation have been greatly diminished. (See 
COAST SURVEY.) Hydrography, as it now ex- 
ists, belongs to modern times, although various 
rude attempts at hydrographic examinations 
and the construction of sea charts were made 
in early times. The invention of charts for 
mariners is commonly ascribed to Henry the 
Navigator (1394-1460), although earlier ones 
exist. Of necessity such were rude and im- 
perfect, the size and even the true shape of 
the earth being then unknown, the log for 
measuring nautical miles not in use, the only 
instrument for determining latitude being the 
sea astrolabe, and none existing for determin- 
ing the longitude. Little was accomplished 
through national instrumentality toward the 
improvement of our knowledge of the sea and 
its tributaries until the middle of the 18th cen- 



tury; what little was known being the result 
of the enterprise of individuals, such as Co- 
lumbus, Cabot, Drake, and other navigators. 
The researches of Capt. James Cook of the 
English navy, which were begun fit Quebec 
in 1759, when he was master of the frigate 
Mercury, and were continued for about 20 
years, may be considered as the commence- 
ment of a new era in hydrography. (See COOK, 
JAMES, and DBS BAREES.) The success of the 
English captain excited the rivalry of the 
French ; and in 1785 La Perouse was placed 
in command of an expedition consisting of 
two frigates, with a corps of scientists, and 
sent to continue the work which Cook's un- 
timely fate had left unfinished. They were 
never heard from after their departure from 
Botany bay ; but La Perouse had sent home 
from there duplicates of the journals and charts 
of his discoveries up to the date of his arrival. 
D'Entrecasteaux's unsuccessful expedition in 
search of him in 1791 gave rise to a text book 
on marine surveying by his navigating officer, 
Beautemps-Beaupre, published as an appendix 
to the narrative of D'Entrecasteaux's voyage 
(1808). This, with the exception of Alexander 
Dalrymple's "Essay on the most Commodious 
Method of Marine Surveying" (1771), was the 
first treatise published in a practical shape. 
About the time of its publication Beautemps- 
Beaupre took charge of the survey of the French 
coast, and trained a corps of hydrographers, 
who formed the nucleus of a body of scientific 
engineers to be furnished to future expeditions 
for surveying and exploration. Spain has also 
done a great deal for hydrography, although in 
a more indirect way. The legal provision for 
the examination of officers of the mercantile 
marine as to their competency to navigate a 
vessel, before promoting them, has given a 
high reputation to its merchant service ; and 
the nautical information obtained from that 
source has been found exceedingly valuable. 
Her example has of late years been followed 
by almost every nation having much commerce. 
But in our own times, with improved instru- 
ments, trained professional hydrographers, and 
liberal appropriations of money and men, hy- 
drography has become a recognized branch of 
public works, and the knowledge of it an ab- 
solute necessity to the complete seaman. Re- 
connoissances of large extents of coast have 
been made by men trained to the practice of 
the science, with such success as to be scarcely 
capable of correction by the results of detailed 
surveys. In the latter the aid of geodesy (by 
which the positions of points on shore are 
accurately determined) is called in; and no 
such examination is considered complete or ac- 
curate unless it depends upon triangulation. 
(See COAST SURVEY, vol. iv., p. 757.) Great 
Britain, France, Spain, the United States, and 
other nations have now their hydrographic 
offices as established branches of government ; 
and under the direction of these departments 
close and accurate surveys are made of the 



HYDROGRAPHY 



113 



home coasts, and their surveying vessels fre- 
quent all parts of the globe, and penetrate 
seas hitherto almost unknown, mapping the 
limits of harbors, determining with precision 
the geographical position of headlands and en- 
trances, and of rocks, shoals, and sands, many 
of them hitherto unknown. In this science 
England is far in advance of all other nations. 
Not content with a most complete and admira- 
ble survey of her own coasts, she has extended 
her work to all of her possessions and to the 
coasts of foreign nations. Many eminent sur- 
veyors are numbered among her naval officers ; 
but it is probable that few have done so much 
or displayed so much zeal and devotion to the 
science as the late Admiral Beaufort, so long 
at the head of the hydrographic office of the 
admiralty. His surveys were sometimes ac- 
tually carried on at his own expense. Much 
importance is attached to the results expected 
from the scientific cruise of the British ship 
Challenger, which at the present time (1874) 
is engaged in a voyage around the world, 
probably the most important of its kind ever 
undertaken. She carries a large number of 
men familiar with almost all the branches of 
science and art, whose labors, it is hoped, will 
be productive of much information in natural 
science and in marine surveying and deep-sea 
dredging. Although surpassed by England in 
the number and completeness of her foreign 
surveys, the hydrographic work on our own 
coasts is unequalled for accuracy and rapidity 
of execution. Under the charge of the coast 
survey of the United States it has progressed 
in company with the trigonometrical and topo- 
graphical work of that service ; and it is safe 
to assert that the completed charts of the coast 
and the various harbors stand alone in the an- 
nals of surveying for beauty of execution, ac- 
curacy, and completeness of detail. A large 
corps of skilled professional hydrographers are 
constantly employed prosecuting the survey* 
of the numerous harbors on the Atlantic, Pa- 
cific, and gulf coasts; and others are engaged 
in deep-sea explorations along the course of 
the Gulf stream, in the gulf of Mexico, and 
on the coasts of California and Oregon. These 
deep-sea expeditions have been especially use- 
ful in determining the routes suitable for sub- 
marine cables, several of which have been laid 
over lines previously sounded and surveyed by 
officers belonging to the coast survey. One 
of the most successful hydrographic expeditions 
of modern times was that undertaken between 
1851 and 1853 under the auspices of the coast 
survey of the United States, by Lieut, (now 
Rear Admiral) James Alden of the navy, in the 
schooner Ewing and steamer Active. More 
than 1,300 m. of the Pacific coast was ex- 
plored, from lat. 32 30' to 48 20' N., and 
the geographical positions of all the prominent 
headlands and of the entrances to the har- 
bors were determined by astronomical observa- 
tions, from the southern boundary of the Uni- 
ted States to the strait of Fuca; lines of 



soundings were carried along the coast through- 
out its entire length, and hydrographic recon- 
noissances made of most of the harbors, with ac- 
curate views of the different entrances and of 
prominent points on the coast ; and subsequent 
careful detailed surveys, based upon accurate 
geodetic determinations, have failed to change 
the results of this work in any important par- 
ticular. The immediate result of this recon- 
noissance was the publication of a chart of the 
Pacific coast for the use of mariners, and sub- 
sequently of a marine directory, which has 
since been elaborated and published as a 
" Coast Pilot of the Pacific Coast of the United 
States." The method of hydrographic survey- 
ing, as now practised both in this country and 
in Europe, is as follows : 1. Reconnaissance, as, 
for instance, the hydrographic survey of a har- 
bor on a foreign coast, or any place where ac- 
curate geodetic information cannot be obtained. 
The hydrographer, obliged himself to make all 
the determinations of points on shore and the 
outlines of the coast, applies the principles of 
geodesy and topography, but of course in a com- 
paratively rude manner. A base line may be 
measured, if on land, in the ordinary way ; but 
if the working ground is so far from shore as to 
render points on shore useless (as is sometimes 
the case in surveys of shoals off a low and 
flat coast), or if the coast is occupied by an 
enemy, a base line is sometimes measured by 
anchoring a boat at each end of it, and noting 
the interval between the flash of a gun fired 
from one boat and the report as heard at the 
other. But this very rude method is only ad- 
missible where no other is possible. Where 
the surface to be surveyed is small, good re- 
sults have been obtained from a base line mea- 
sured by a cord, the two ends being marked 
either by boats or buoys. Signals are erected 
at each end of the base line and on prominent 
points along the shore, the latter being deter- 
mined by horizontal angles measured from each 
end of the base line. Not only the angle be- 
tween each end of the base and each signal is 
measured, but the angles between the differ- 
ent signals themselves ; and the triangles thus 
formed are either computed by trigonometry 
or platted by intersections upon the chart. 
The latitude and longitude of some prominent 
points are also determined. The outlines of 
the coast or harbor are drawn between inter- 
mediate points determined by horizontal angles, 
and the chart is then ready for platting the 
sounding lines. Next, a tide gauge is erected. 
This is generally a plain staff, graduated to 
half feet; and by continuous observations of 
the rise and fall of the tides, and of the times 
of high and low water, the hydrographer ob- 
tains an approximate establishment for the 
port, and also the means of correcting his 
soundings for the rise of the tide, which is 
called "reducing them to the level of low 
water." The shore line having been rudely 
determined, and such natural and artificial 
features mapped as may be considered neces- 



114 



HYDROGRAPHY 



HYDRO IDS 



sary, a boat is started from any point in the 
harbor to run the lines of soundings. The 
boat is steered on a certain course, and sound- 
ings are taken at intervals as nearly regular as 
possible. These soundings, together with the 
time at which they are taken and the horizon- 
tal angles for position, are recorded. The end 
of the line is also determined by angles ; and 
the boat is then started on a new line. Thus 
the harbor or bay is crossed and recrossed by 
lines of soundings intersecting each other in 
numerous places; and these soundings, re- 
duced to low-water level and laid down upon 
the chart, show the depth at low water not 
only in the channel but on the various shoals. 
2. Deep-Sea Soundings. In this kind of hydro- 
graphy the position of the vessel is determined 
from time to time by careful and numerous ob- 
servations of the sun and stars, and by dead reck- 
oning. The line used has recently been success- 
fully replaced by a wire, and the lead or shot at 
the end of it is so arranged as to bo detached 
on striking the bottom. An instrument called 
an indicator is attached to the sounding line, 
which, by means of revolving disks put in mo- 
tion by a screw-propeller wheel, registers the 
depths to which it descends; when relieved 
of the weight of the lead, it is thrown out of 
gear and drawn up. The line is drawn in by 
a reel worked by a small steam engine ; and by 
means of all these appliances soundings are 
taken at great depths with a rapidity and ac- 
curacy utterly unknown until of late years. 
Specimens of the bottom are obtained by means 
of specimen cups attached to the sounding line, 
or by the dredge. The best indicators now in 
use are those of Tro wbridge and Brooke, the lat- 
ter gentleman's having given thus far the best 
results. 3. Hydrographic Surveys. The pro- 
cess in a detailed survey is similar to that in a 
reconnoissance, but more elaborate. The hy- 
drographer is furnished with the positions of 
numerous points on shore and with a map 
of the shores of the harbor in detail, on a scale 
.to suit his own work. Upon this map are 
platted the points furnished him from the geo- 
detic survey ; and upon it he also constructs his 
lines of soundings. Usually two, and sometimes 
three officers are employed in each boat in run- 
ning the lines, the advantage of this arrange- 
ment being that the two angles necessary to 
determine the position of the boat can be taken 
at the same moment by two observers without 
stopping the boat. Sometimes, especially where 
the work lies at a distance from the shore, two 
observers are placed on prominent points on 
shore, each with a theodolite. At stated in- 
tervals the surveying boat or vessel hoists a 
ball or flag, when both observers direct their 
instruments to her, and upon the instant of its 
being lowered measure the angle between the 
boat and some fixed point. The intersection 
of their two lines of sight when platted upon 
the chart gives the position of the boat. The 
lines of soundings are run more closely than 
in reconnoissance, and as far as possible are 



made to cross each other at right angles. Tidal 
observations are made to tenths of a foot ; and 
the box gauge, and at certain central points 
the self-registering gauge, are used. (See 
COAST SURVEY, vol. iv., p. 762.) The survey- 
ing parties, from the chief to the leadsman, 
are specially trained for the work, and the re- 
sulting accuracy of such a survey is corre- 
spondingly great. Physical hydrography inves- 
tigates the laws of the formation of shoals, the 
effect upon harbors and channels of the tidal 
currents, of the extension of wharves, and of 
the dumping of earth and ballast; and endea- 
vors to provide remedies for the changes which 
injure a harbor, and to suggest means for im- 
proving the channels. This branch of the sci- 
ence has of late years attained to great impor- 
tance both in Europe and the United States, 
and the researches of those who have devo- 
ted themselves to its study have resulted in in- 
calculable benefits to commerce. (See COAST 
SURVEY, vol. iv., p. 761.) In regard to cur- 
rents, and other hydrographic details, see AT- 
LANTIC OCEAN, and DREDOING (DEEP-SEA). 

HYDROIDS, the lowest order of acalephs or 
jelly fishes, including, according to Agassiz, 
two distinct forms, one resembling polyps, the 
other like the jelly fishes, there being every 
possible gradation between the two. It is in 
this order that the phenomena of alternate 
generation have been specially studied by Sara 
and others. (See JELLY FISH.) There are many 
plant-like forms which give a mossy cover- 
ering to seaweeds and stones, producing buds, 
developing in some cases into free medusa?, 
and in others remaining attached to the parent 
stalk, both discharging ova which swim off by 
ciliary processes to establish new fixed hydroid 
communities. In the tubularians the hydroid 
is pedunculated, and the bell-shaped medusse 
are either free as in coryne or persistent as 
in tubularia. In the sertularians the hydroid 
is always pedunculated and attached, protected 
by a horny sheath, forming a cup around the 
head, with free rnedusaa as in campanularia, 
or free generative buds as in sertularia; their 
medusas are flatter than in tubularians. The 
siphonophora, like the Portuguese man-of-war, 
are also hydroid communities. The common 
green hydra of fresh water (Jiydra viridis) is 
easily seen by the naked eye ; the body is a 
cylindrical tube, with thread cells, and a green 
coloring matter believed to be the same as the 
chlorophyl of plants ; at the base is a disk -like 
sucker for its attachment to foreign bodies ; 
it is usually suspended, head downward, from 
some aquatic plant, changing its position at 
will. The mouth is at the opposite end, sur- 
rounded by 5 to 15 very contractile tentacles, 
armed with lasso cells, hollow, and communi- 
cating with the general and stomachal cavity 
of the body ; by these they obtain their food, 
which consists of minute aquatic animals. 
There are no internal organs of any kind, 
and they are therefore very little higher than 
the protozoa. They resist without destruc- 



HYDROMECHANICS 



115 



t'ion a very great degree of mutilation, each 
fragment into which they may be divided be- 
ing capable, according to Trembley, of be- 
coming a complete individual. Reproduction 
is either non-sexual, by gemmation in summer, 
or sexual, by ova and sperm cells in autumn ; 




Hydra. 

the buds develop a mouth and tentacles at the 
free end, and are soon detached, each in its 
turn producing similar buds ; both ova and 
sperm cells are produced in the same individu- 
al, coming in contact in the water ; the em- 
bryo is at first ciliated and free swimming, 
afterward becoming fixed, losing the cilia, and 
developing a mouth and tentacles. 

HYDROMECHANICS, that branch of natural 
philosophy which treats of the mechanics of 
liquids, or of their laws of equilibrium and of 
motion. It includes the consideration of those 
molecular properties of liquids which affect 
their mechanical applications, such as fluidity 
and slight compressibility. The science which 
is here termed hydromechanics has been some- 
times treated under the title of hydrodynam- 
ics, this being made to include hydrostatics 
and hydraulics, which is the nomenclature 
adopted by Sir David Brewster ; while others 
treat of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics as 
two independent subjects, hydraulics being 
embraced by hydrodynamics ; but the title 
hydromechanics which was adopted in the first 
edition of this Cyclopaedia seems to be the 
most comprehensive and exact, and will be re- 
tained. Hydromechanics is comparatively a 
modern science, having received its greatest 
development in the 16th, 17th, and 18th cen- 
turies. The ancient mathematicians and hy- 
draulic engineers, who constructed the aque- 
ducts of Egypt and Assyria, must have been 
acquainted with many of the more obvious 
principles of hydraulics and hydrostatics ; and 
at the time of the construction of the Roman 
aqueducts hydromechanics may be considered 
as having become entitled to be called a sci- 
ence ; but the more purely mathematical prin- 
ciples by which its laws can be well under- 
stood were not discovered till centuries after. 



Some of the general principles which lie at 
the foundation of the science, and are suscep- 
tible of analytical and experimental demonstra- 
tion, were first given by Archimedes in the 
latter part of the 3d century B. C. ; and it is 
to him that we owe the demonstration of the 
fundamental principle of the equilibrium of 
liquids, that each particle in a liquid at rest 
receives equal pressure in every direction, and 
also that a solid immersed in a liquid loses an 
amount of weight equal to that of the water 
displaced, from which he deduced the method 
of obtaining the specific gravity of bodies. We 
also owe to him the method of raising water 
by means of the screw known by his name. 
Other advances in the construction of hydrau- 
lic machinery were made about the same time 
in the Greek school at Alexandria by Ctesibius 
and Hero, who invented the syphon and forc- 
ing pump, and also the fountain known as 
Hero's; hut their limited knowledge of pneu- 
matics, and the imperfection in the machinery 
of those times, prevented them from bringing 
the force pump to anything like its present 
degree of efficiency. The first attempt at a 
scientific investigation of the motions of liquids 
was made by the consul Frontinus, who was 
inspector of the public fountains at Rome un- 
der the reigns of Nerva and Trajan, and whose 
book De Aquaductibus Urbis Romm Commen- 
tarius, describing the nine great aqueducts of 
Rome, to which he afterward added five, con- 
tains all the knowledge of hydromechanics pos- 
sessed by the ancients. From the statement 
of Pliny that water will rise to a level with its 
source, and that it should be elevated in leaden 
pipes, it appears that this metal was used by the 
ancient Romans for small conduits. Frontinus 
was the last of the ancients who paid much at- 
tention to the subject, the next investigator 
of importance being Stevinus, born about 1550, 
who was engineer of dikes for the government 
of Holland. He published a work in Dutch in 
1586 on the " Principles of Statics and Hydro- 
statics," in which he restates the principle of 
Archimedes, and deduces from it the " hydro- 
static paradox," that the pressure of a liquid 
on the bottom of a vessel may be much great- 
er than its weight. By a method approaching 
the infinitesimal calculus, he found the pres- 
sure on the oblique bottom of a vessel ; and 
AVhewell remarks that his treatment of the 
subject embraces most of the elementary sci- 
ence of hydrostatics of the present day. Ga- 
lileo, in his " Discourse on Floating Bodies " 
(1612), shows a clear knowledge of the fun- 
damental laws of the science ; and it is to his 
discovery of the uniform acceleration in fall- 
ing bodies that we owe one of the chief foun- 
dations of hydromechanics. This law was 
afterward more fully applied by Torricelli in 
his celebrated theorem that the velocities of 
liquid jets are proportional to the square roots 
of the depths at which they issue below the 
surface, which he published at the end of his 
treatise De Motu Graviwm naturaliter accel- 



116 



HYDROMECHANICS 



rato (1643). Pascal's work, written ten years 
later and published after his death, Sur Vequi- 
libre des liqueurs, in which he treats the sub- 
ject in a more systematic manner than any 
previous writer, contains complete and elegant 
demonstrations of most of the principles of hy- 
drostatics, but does not treat of the motions 
of liquids. The next great student of hydro- 
mechanics was Sir Isaac Newton, who investi- 
gated the subject of friction and viscosity in 
diminishing the velocity of flowing water, and 
also of the velocity of jets; but upon the latter 
point he fell into an error by supposing that 
the velocity with which water issues from an 
orifice is equal to that which a body would at- 
tain by falling through half the vertical dis- 
tance between the surface of the liquid and 
the orifice. His subsequent discovery of the 
tena contraeta modified his conclusions, but 
his theory of efflux is open to objections. He, 
however, investigated the subject of waves, 
one of the most difficult in the science of hy- 
drodynamics, in a manner worthy of his ge- 
nius. In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hy- 
drodynamica, sen de. Viribus et Motibus Flu- 
idorum Commentaria, in which he founds his 
theory of the velocity of the motion of fluids 
through orifices upon the supposition that the 
surface of a fluid which is discharging itself by 
an orifice preserves a level, and that if the 
liquid is divided into an infinite number of 
horizontal strata, all the points in these strata 
will descend with velocities inversely propor- 
tioned to their breadth, or to the horizontal 
section of the reservoir. To determine the 
motion of each stratum, he employed the prin- 
ciple of "conservation of living forces;" and 
from the elegance of his solutions his work is 
pronounced by the abbe Bossut one of the 
finest productions of mathemati cal genius. But 
the uncertainty of the principle which he em- 
ployed rendered the results of his work of less 
value than their mathematical excellence. The 
science afterward received the attention of 
D'Alembert and of Euler, who enriched it by 
the application of special mathematical meth- 
ods of great acuteness and originality. The 
abbe Bossut also experimentally investigated 
the discharge of liquids by orifices, and added 
much to the stock of knowledge on the sub- 
ject. To the experiments of Venturi, Eytel- 
wein, and others, the science is indebted for 
many facts in regard to the flow of water 
from conically diverging tubes. The flow of 
water over barrages has been from time to 
time investigated experimentally by the che- 
valier Dubuat, D'Aubuisson, Castel, and M. 
Prony, and also by Smeaton, Brindley, Robin- 
son, Evans, Blackwell, and others. Before 
considering the separate branches of the sub- 
ject, we will notice two important physical 
properties of liquids, as upon them the action 
of hydrostatic and hydraulic forces depends. 
The first important property of a liquid is the 
perfect mobility of its particles over each other, 
and one which results from their slight cohe- 



sion. That there is a certain degree of cohe- 
sion is shown by the fact that liquids will form 
drops. There is no active repulsion between 
the particles until they have been heated to a 
certain degree; or the repulsion, if there is 
any, on the hypothesis that both forces are 
always in action, is less than the cohesion. 
A certain degree of cold, varying with the 
liquid, will cause an increase of the cohesive 
force, so that the liquid will become viscous 
and then solid; and it is found that the flu- 
idity of a liquid is promoted by heat, and 
that water when cold will not flow through 
pipes as rapidly as when warm. The second 
important physical property of liquids is their 
great resistance to compression, so that for a 
long time it was doubted whether water was 
compressible. The experiment of Bacon, who 
hammered a leaden vessel filled with water 
till it was forced through the pores of the 
metal, was cited as a proof of the incompressi- 
bility of water; but a remark of Bacon's to 
the effect that he estimated the diminished 
space into which the water was driven, indi- 
cates that he drew a different conclusion. The 
experiment of the Florentine academicians in 
forcing water in a similar manner through the 
pores of a silver vessel was for some time re- 
garded as indisputably establishing the incom- 
pressibility of water; but the apparatus de- 
vised by Oersted proves in a conclusive man- 
ner that water and all 
other liquids are slight- 
ly compressible. Canton 
had previously shown 
that liquids were com- 
pressible, but the degree 
could not be ascertained 
with any accuracy in 
consequence of the dif- 
ficulty of determining 
the amount of expansion 
which had been pro- 
duced in the containing 
vessel. This was obvi- 
ated by Oersted in pla- 
cing it within another, 
so that it would re- 
ceive equal pressure up- 
on equal surfaces with- 
out and within, and thus 
preserve a uniform ca- 
pacity. His apparatus 
is shown in fig. 1. The 
liquid to be subjected 
to pressure is placed in 
the inner glass vessel a, 
from the top of which 
a capillary tube turns 
downward, its open extremity dipping beneath 
the surface of a layer of mercury contained in 
the bottom of the outer vessel. Another tube, 
6, graduated and used as a manometer, also 
open at the lower end and dipping in the mer- 
cury, is placed along with the vessel a in a 
strong glass cylinder, which is provided at the 




FIG. 1. Oersted's Appa- 
ratus. 



HYDROMECHANICS 



117 



top with a smaller metallic cylinder which ad- 
mits the compressing screw c, and also a funnel, 
d, for introducing the liquid. The vessel a with 
its capillary stem, having been filled with the 
liquid, is placed in position, together with the 
manometer; the outer cylinder is filled with 
water, the stopcock of the funnel closed, and 
pressure produced by turning the screw with 
a lever. Mercury will be seen to rise in the 
capillary tube connected with the vessel a, 
showing that its contents are diminished in 
volume. The air contained within the ma- 
nometer, being reduced in bulk in proportion to 
the force exerted, according to the law of Boyle 
and Mariotte, will therefore be a measure of 
that force. Oersted at first assumed that the 
external and internal pressure on the vessel 
was precisely the same ; but the external pres- 
sure is slightly the greater, because the exter- 
nal surface is greater than the internal, so that 
the capacity of the vessel is diminished, instead 
of being increased as in all preceding experi- 
ments. Colladon and Sturm with the use of 
this apparatus made very exact experiments, 
in which they calculated the change of capa- 
city of the vessel a, and estimated that an 
additional atmospheric pressure would reduce 
the volume of water -00005, mercury -000005, 
and sulphuric ether -000133. For water and 
mercury it was found that within certain limits 
the decrease in volume is proportional to the 
pressure. I. HYDROSTATICS. In consequence 
of the mobility of the particles of a liquid over 
each other, they yield to the force of gravity, 
and consequently when at rest present a level 
surface ; and for the same reason each particle, 
and therefore each portion of the liquid, must 
exert and receive equal pressures in all direc- 
tions. If this were not true, the particles of a 
liquid could not come to a state of rest. From 
this principle it follows that equal surfaces 
of the sides of a vessel containing a liquid re- 
ceive equal pressures at equal depths below the 
surface ; and also that if a close vessel is filled 
with a liquid which we will suppose to have 
no weight, and if an aperture of the size of 
one square inch be made in one side of it and 
fitted with a piston upon which there is exert- 
ed a pressure of 10 Ibs., there will also be ex- 
erted the same pressure of 10 Ibs. upon every 
square inch of the internal surface of the ves- 
sel. Consequently, if another aperture of 100 
square inches area is made in the side of the 
vessel, and a cylinder of the same size is fitted 
to it, a piston fitted to this will receive a pres- 
sure of 1,000 Ibs. Upon this principle (which 
has been ascribed to Pascal, but which, as w 
have seen, was before his time explained by 
Stevinus) the hydraulic press is constructed, 
as represented in fig. 2. A suction and force 
pump, a, supplied from the cistern B, forces 
water through the tube C into the strong cylin- 
der V, which communicates pressure to the 
piston A. The power gained is the proportion 
which the cross section of the large piston or 
plunger bears to the small one. It will be ob- 



served that the pistons do not fit the cylinders 
in the usual manner, but only fit tightly at the 
collar. This mode of construction greatly in- 
creases the efficiency of the machine, which, 
though described by Stevinus and by Pascal, 
remained practically useless in consequence of 




Fio. 2 Hydraulic Press. 

the escape of water between the cylinder and 
the piston, until Bramah invented the cupped 
leather collar, which makes the apparatus 
equally water-tight under all pressures. This 
engine is a good illustration of the law in 
mechanics that " what is lost in velocity is 
gained in power." If the cross section of 
the large piston is equal to 100 square inches, 
and that of the small piston to 1 square inch, 
the latter must be moved through a space of 
100 inches to cause the large piston to move 
through one inch, but it will move with 100 
times as much power as the small one. The 
hydrostatic bellows, shown in fig. 8, acts upon 
the same principle as the hydrostatic press, 
the cover of the bellows, upon which the 
weight is placed, performing the office of the 
large piston, while the column 
of water in the tall vertical pipe 
acts the part of the small pis- 
ton of the press. The hydro- 
static bellows also illustrates the 
principle of the hydrostatic par- 
adox, for the vertical pipe and 
the bellows are virtually one 
vessel, whose base is the bottom 
of the bellows. Now the pres- 
sure exerted by the liquid in the 
pipe upon the upper plate of 
the bellows is received by the 
lower plate, which also has an 
additional pressure equal to its 
distance below the upper plate ; 
and if the water in the pipe is 
ten times as high as that in the bellows, it 
follows that the pressure on the bottom plate 
will be ten times as great as that which would 
be produced by the liquid contained within 
the bellows itself, for that only is equal to 
its own weight. If a barrel of water there- 
fore have a tall tube inserted in one head 




FIG. 8. 

Hydrostatic 
Bellows. 



118 



HYDROMECHANICS 




FIG. 4. 



and standing vertically, a pressure may be 
produced on its bottom several thousand times 
that due to the weight of the water alone. 
In accordance with this law of hydrostatic 
pressure, a liquid will rise to the same height 
in different branches of the same vessel, wheth- 
er these branches 
be great or small. 
Thus, water con- 
tained in the U- 
shaped vessel, fig. 4, 
will rise to the same 
height in both 
branches, which is 
an illustration of the 
principle that the 
pressure of a column 
of liquid is in pro- 
portion to its height 
and not to its quantity. This principle, how- 
ever, if it is entitled to such a name, proceeds 
directly from the principle of Archimedes that 
each particle in a liquid at the same depth 
receives an equal pressure in all directions. 
If however one leg of 
a U-shaped tube con- 
tain mercury and the 
other water, the col- 
umn of water will 
stand 13^ times as 
high as that of mer- 
cury. It follows from 
the fact that a liquid 
presses equally upon 
equal areas of a con- FIG. 5. 

taining vessel at the 

same depth, that if a hole is made in one side 
of a vessel, less pressure will be exerted in 
the direction of that side ; and therefore if the 
vessel is floated on water, as in fig. 5, it will 
be propelled in the direction of the arrow. 
Barker's centrifugal 
mill, a small model of 
which is shown in fig. 
6, acts upon the same 
principle of inequality 
of pressure on opposite 
sides. The propelling 
force has been ascribed 
to the action of the 
escaping liquid press- 
ing against the atmos- 
phere, by which a cor- 
responding reaction is 
obtained ; but if the 
machine is placed in 
a vacuum, it will ro- 
tate with greater ve- 
locity than in the open 
air, which proves that the propelling force is 
the preponderance of pressure in one direction. 
The two following are important laws of hy- 
drostatics : 1. The hydrostatic pressure against 
equal areas of the lateral surfaces of cylindri- 
cal or prismoid vessels, commencing from the 
surface of the liquid, varies as the odd num- 





Fta. 6. 
Barker's Mill. 



-3 



3 



4- 



-..- 



7 



----- 9- - 



bers 1, 3, 5, 7, &c. 2. The hydrostatic pres- 
sure against the entire lateral surfaces of cylin- 
drical or prismoidal vessels is proportional to 
the square of the depth. The first law is de- 
monstrated as follows : Hydrostatic pressure 
in any direction at any point in a liquid is in 
proportion to the depth, a result due to the 
action of gravity ; therefore the mean pressure 
against any rectangular lateral area will bo 
on a horizontal line midway between the up- 
per and lower sides of such area. The depth 
of this line, proceeding from the surface of the 
liquid downward, varies as the odd numbers 
1, 3, 5, 7, &c., as will be seen by an inspection 
of the adjoining diagram, fig. 7. The figures 
placed upon the dotted lines in the centre of 
the areas indicate the pressures upon those 
lines, and also the propor- 
tional pressures against those 
areas. The figures on the 
right side of the diagram in- 
dicate the pressures at points 
of equal vertical distances, 
while those upon the left in- 
dicate the total lateral pres- 
sures, which it will be ob- 
served are the squares of the 
number of areas included ; 
by which is demonstrated 
the second law, that the 
total lateral pressure against 
rectangular areas is in pro- 
portion to the square of the 
depth. The weight of a 
cubic foot of water is 62-5 
Ibs. ; therefore the lateral 
pressure against a surface 
of a square foot, whose upper side is in the 
surface of the liquid, is 31-25 Ibs. From this 
it is easy to ascertain the pressure against a 
square foot, or any area, at any depth below 
the surface. Simply multiplying the number 
of feet below the surface by 2 and subtracting 
1, multiplying the remainder by 31-25 and this 
product by the number of horizontal feet, will 
give the pressure of a stratum of water a foot 
deep, at any depth below the surface and of 
any length. To ascertain the entire pressure 
against the sides of a vertical cylindrical or 
prismoidal vessel, square the depth of the liquid 
in feet or inches, and multiply this by the lat- 
eral pressure against an upper vertical square 
foot or inch, as the case may be, remembering 
that the weight of a cubic inch of water is 
5792 of an ounce, and therefore that the pres- 
sure against an upper lateral side is -2896 of an 
ounce. The total pressure exerted against the 
sides of a cylindrical pipe 60 ft. high and 2 in. 
in diameter is found as follows: 60" x 31-25 = 
112,300. The diameter of the pipe being 2 
in., the circumference of the inner surface is 2 
x 3-141592 (the constant ratio) = 6-283184 in., 
or A- t yK of a foot. Therefore, 1 12,500 x 
A-i^L&A 58,904-92 Ibs. or 29-95 tons. The 
lateral pressure on the lower foot would be 
(60 x 2)- 1 = 119 x 31-25 x 'lAfyjiA = 1,959-64 







1C 



25 



-7 
8 
-9 

10 



FIG. 7. 



HYDROMECHANICS 



119 



Ibs., or a little less than one ton. In the con- 
struction of walls for resisting only the hydro- 
static pressure of water, as that pressure is in 
proportion to the depth, the strength of the 
wall should be in the same proportion. If 
strength were not given to the lower layers by 
superincumbent pressure, the inclination of the 
slope should he 45 ; but in consequence of this 
pressure it may be less, varying with the mate- 
rials and their manner of being put together. 
In the construction of dams or barrages the 
varying circumstances of cases allow of the dis- 
play of a good deal of engineering skill. A 
barrage suitable for restraining a body of water 
which is never strongly moved in a lateral di- 
rection against it, as at the outlet of a canal 
or a reservoir fed by an insignificant stream, 
would not be adapted to a mountain torrent, 
where the surface of the reservoir can scarcely 
ever be large enough to prevent, by the inertia 
offered by a large mass of water, the walls from 
being subjected to a strong lateral force from 
the action of the current. Under such circum- 
stances it is usual to give a curved surface 
to the facings, in a vertical as well as in a hori- 
zontal direction ; the curves in both directions 
being calculated from the following elements : 
1, the ascertained hydrostatic pressure; 2, the 
nature of the materials, such as the weight 
of stone and tenacity of the hydraulic cement 
used ; and 3, an estimate of the maximum 
force of flowing water which may at any time 
be brought against the structure during a 
freshet. This force, it will readily be seen, 
will have a different direction and a differ- 
ent point of application in different cases, 
depending upon the depth and extent of the 
reservoir. The top of the dam is therefore 
given a greater horizontal section than would 
be called for if hydrostatic pressure alone had 
to be opposed. The hydrostatic pressure at 
any point against the surface of a contain- 
ing vessel is the resultant of all the forces 
collected at that point, and is therefore at 
right angles to that surface. In a cylindrical 
or spherical vessel these resultants are in the 
direction of the radii, 
and in the sphere vary 
in direction at every 
point. Centre of Pres- 
sure. The centre of 
pressure is that point in 
a surface about which 
all the resultant pres- 
sures are balanced. 
The cases are innumer- 
able, and often require 
elaborate mathemati- 

r,G.s.-Centre of Pressure, cal investigation. The 
simplest case and its 

general application only will be considered 
here, viz., that of the centre of pressure 
against a side of a rectangular vessel. Let 
any base in the triangle ABC, fig. 8, rep- 
resent the pressure at B ; then will D E rep- 
resent the pressure at E, and all lines paral- 




lel to it will represent the pressures at corre- 
sponding heights. The finding of the centre of 
pressure now consists in finding the centre of 
gravity of the triangle ABC, which will be 
at H, the intersection of the bisecting lines 
E and D B, and at one third the height of 
the side A B ; consequently the centre of hy- 
drostatic pressure against the rectangular side 
A B is at G, one third 
the distance from the 
bottom to the surface 
of the liquid. The ave- 
rage intensity of pres- 
sure against A B being 
atE, one half the depth 




FIG. 9. Principle of 
Archimedes. 



of A B, therefore the 
total pressure on the 
rectangular side A B 
will be the same as if it formed the bottom of 
the vessel and was pressed upon by a column of 
water of half the depth of A B. In general, 
the total pressure on any surface, plain or 
curved, is equal to the weight of a liquid col- 
umn whose base is equal to that surface, and 
whose height is the distance of the centre of 
gravity of the surface from the surface of the 
liquid. Principle of Archimedes. A solid im- 
mersed in liquid loses an amount of weight 
equal to that of the liquid it displaces. This 
is called the principle of Archimedes, and is 
demonstrated as follows : Let a J, fig. 9, be a 
solid immersed in a liquid. The vertical sec- 
tion c d will be pressed downward by a force 
equal to the weight of the column of water 
e c, and it will be pressed upward by a force 
equal to that exerted by a column of water 
equal to e d ; therefore the upward or buoyant 
pressure exceeds the downward pressure by 
the weight of a column of water equal to the 
section c d. Now, this section also exerts a 
downward pressure ; and if the body is denser 
than the liquid, the downward pressure will 
be greater than the excess of the upward pres- 
sure of the liquid, and the body will sink if not 
supported ; but if the body is less dense than 
the liquid, the downward pressure of the col- 
umn e d will be less than the upward pressure 
exerted against it, 
and the body will 
float. This principle 
may be experimen- 
tally demonstrated 
by the hydrostatic 
balance, fig. 10. From 
a balance, 5, is sus- 
pended a cylindri- 
cal vessel, a, from 
which again is sus- 
FIG. 10. Experimental Vcrifl- ponded a solid cylin- 
cation of the principle of der, c,which isof such 

Archimedes. 

bulk and dimensions 

as just to fill the vessel a when introduced. 
The whole system is first balanced by weights 
at the other end of the beam, and then e is 
immersed in water. The equilibrium will be 
destroyed, and that the body c loses a portion 




120 



HYDROMECHANICS 




Fio. 11. 

Cartesian Diver. 



of it8 weight equal to that of an equal bulk 
of water is proved by filling the vessel a with 
water, when the equilibrium of the balance 
will be restored. It is by means of a similar 
apparatus that the specific gravities of solids 
is ascertained (see GRAVITY, SPECIFIC); and 
upon the principles already laid down hy- 
drometers, or instruments for ascertaining the 
specific gravity of liquids, are constructed. 
(See HYDROMETEK.) It is thus also shown 
why it is easier to raise weights in water 
than in air, and why fat persons sustain them- 
selves in water more easily 
than those who are lean. The 
air bladder in fishes is for the 
purpose of enabling them to 
rise or descend in the element 
in which they live. This rise 
and fall by varying the specific 
gravity is beautifully illustrated 
by means of the little toy called 
the bottle imp or Cartesian 
diver, fig. 11. A bottle is near- 
ly filled with water, and a hol- 
low image of glass or metal and 
lighter than water, or several 
little balloons of glass, each of 
them having an opening below 
through which water may flow 
in and out, are introduced into 
the bottle or jar, which then has its mouth cov- 
ered with a sheet of caoutchouc, or some elastic 
membrane. Pressure upon this will compress 
the air beneath it, and to the same degree the 
air which is contained in the upper part of 
the image or the balloons, so that their specific 
gravity is increased enough to make them sink. 
Removal of pressure will allow the confined 
air to resume its former bulk, by which the 
specific gravity will again become less than that 
of the water, and they will again ascend. If 
their surfaces have oblique or spiral directions, 
and the air is properly distributed, the images 
may be made to perform various curious evo- 
lutions. Stability of Floating Bodies. There 
are certain points to be observed in determining 
the stability of floating bodies; these are: 1, 
the centre of gravity of the floating body ; 2, 
the centre of buoyancy ; and 3, the metacentre. 
When a body floats upon water it is acted on 
by two forces : 1, its own weight, acting verti- 
cally downward through its centre of gravity ; 
2, the resultant force produced by the upward 
pressure of the liquid, which acts through the 
centre of gravity of the fluid that is displaced, 
which point is called the centre of buoyancy 
of the body. It follows, therefore, that these 
t vro points, the centre of gravity and the centre 
of buoyancy, must be in the same vertical line 
for the body to be in a state of equilibrium ; for 
otherwise the two forces, one acting downward 
and the other upward, would form a couple 
which would cause the body to turn. When 
these two centres are in the same vertical lino, 
but the centre of gravity is above, the body, 
except in some cases to be noted presently, is 



in a state of unstable equilibrium ; but when 
the centre of gravity is beneath, the body is in 
a state of stable equilibrium. If a body is 
floating in a liquid and is entirely immersed, it 
will not come to a state of stable equilibrium 
until the centre of gravity is vertically below 
the centre of buoy- 
ancy. This is shown 
in fig. 12, in the case 
of bodies which are 
less dense at one end 
than at the other, 
where B and B' are 
the centres of buoy- 
ancy and G and 
G' those of gravity. 
But in many cases, when a body is only partially 
immersed, the centre of gravity may be above 
that of buoyancy, and yet the action of turn- 
ing cannot take place, so that a condition of 
stable equilibrium will be attained under these 
circumstances. If a flat body, such as a light 
wooden plank, is placed in water, it will float, 
and a portion will be above the surface, as 




Flo . 




Fio. 13. 



FIG. 14. 



shown in fig. 13 ; and therefore, if the cen- 
tre of gravity is not below the centre of vol- 
ume, it will be above the centre of buoyancy, 
and yet the body will be in a state of stable 
equilibrium. For if it be tipped as represent- 
ed in fig. 14, the centre of buoyancy will be 
brought to the position B', on the depressed 
side of the vertical passing through the centre 
of gravity, and this will cause the body to re- 
turn to its former position. But if the body 
has such a shape that when it is displaced the 
centre of buoyancy is brought to that side of 
the vertical passing through the centre of 
gravity, which is elevated as represented in fig. 
15, then the body will turn over. When the 
body is in the new position, a vertical drawn 
through the changed position of the centre of 
buoyancy will intersect the line which in the 
first position passed vertically through the cen- 
tre of gravity, and this point of intersection is 
called the metacentre, represented at M in figs. 
15 and 16. When the metacentre is above the 
centre of gravity, as in fig. 1 0, the body will 
tend, by the action of the centre of buoyancy, 
to return to its former position ; but when it is 
below, as in fig. 15, the action of the centre of 
buoyancy, being upward on the elevated side, 
will tend to turn the body over. Its proper 
place therefore, as its name would indicate, is 
above the centre of gravity, but it cannot be a 
fixed point. In all well built ships, however, 
its position is pretty nearly constant for all 
inclinations. For example, in fig. 16, as long 
as increase of inclination of the vessel carried 



HYDROMECHANICS 



121 



the centre of buoyancy B to the left, the point 
M might remain at nearly the same distance 
from G, because it would also move to the 
left. But if the inclination of the vessel in the 
same direction carried the centre of buoyancy 




FIG. 15. 



Fio. 16. 



to the right, the height of the metacentre M 
would dimmish until it would be in G, when 
the equilibrium would be indifferent, and at 
last below G, when the ship would turn over. 
It is desirable to have the metacentre as far 
as possible above the centre of gravity, and 
this condition is secured by bringing the cen- 
tre of gravity to the lowest practicable point, 
by loading the ship with the heaviest part of 
the cargo nearest to the keel, or by employing 
ballast. II. HYDRODYNAMICS, although it em- 
braces many of the principles of hydrostatics, 
treats more particularly of the laws of liquids 
in motion. One of the most important prin- 
ciples of hydrodynamics is that which deter- 
mines the velocity of jets which issue from 
orifices at various depths in the sides of ves- 
sels containing liquids, and depends upon the 
laws of hydrostatic pressure. If an orifice is 
made in the side of a vessel containing a liquid, 
the liquid will issue from it with a velocity 
equal to that which a heavy body would ac- 
quire in falling through the vertical distance 
between the surface of the liquid and the ori- 
fice. If the jet is directed upward, it will as- 
cend, theoretically, to a level with the surface 
of the liquid ; but practically it will fall short 
of this in consequence of friction at the orifice, 
and of the resistance offered by the air. At 
first sight it would appear that the velocity of 
efflux would be proportional to the pressure, 
but an analysis of the case, aside from the test 
of experiment, will show that this cannot be, 
for in no instance can the jet be projected 
higher than the surface of the liquid. If, in 
general terms, the velocity of a jet were in pro- 
portion to the pressure at the point of issue, a 
column of mercury would throw a jet with 13 
times the velocity that an equal column of wa- 
ter would ; but it must be perceived that a 
column of mercury can only propel a jet as 
high (theoretically) as the surface, and there- 
fore to the same height as an equal column of 
water can. Now, there can be no doubt that 
the pressure of mercury at the same depth is 
13 times that of water ; but mercury, being 
also 13 times as heavy as water, has 13| 
times as much inertia, and therefore requires 
so many times as much force to give it the 
same initial velocity. The velocity with which 
a liquid escapes from an orifice varies as the 



square root of the depth below the surface ; so 
that when the points of escape are 1, 4, 9, and 
1C ft. in depth, the initial velocities will be as 
1, 2, 3, and 4. This is the celebrated theorem 
of Torricelli, which he deduced from the laws 
of falling bodies. As the velocity of a falling 
body is in proportion to the time of its fall, it 
will be in proportion to the square root of the 
height fallen through, and is represented by 
the formula V = v'tyh, in which g is the ac- 
celerating force of gravity (= 32-2), and h the 
height. (See MECHANICS.) A jet issuing from 
the side of a vessel describes, theoretically, a 
parabola, precisely as in the case of a solid 
projectile ; for the impelling force and the 
force of gravity act upon the jet in the same 
manner, and the resultant force gives it the 
same direction. The range, or distance to 
which the jet is projected, is greatest when the 
angle of elevation is 45, and is the same for 
elevations which are equally above or below 
45, as 60 and 30. The resistance of the air 
however alters the results, and the statement 
is only true when the jet is projected into a 
vacuum. If a vessel filled with water have 
orifices made in its side at equal distances in a 
vertical line from the top to the bottom, a 
stream issuing from an orifice midway between 
the surface and the bottom will be projected 
further than any of the streams issuing from 
the orifices above or below. This may be de- 
monstrated by the adjoining diagram, fig. 17. 
Let a semicircle A F E be described on the 
side of a vessel of water, its diameter being 
equal to the height of the liquid. The range 
of a jet issuing from either of the orifices B, 
C, or D will be equal to twice the length of 
the ordinates B F, C I, or D K respectively ; 
and therefore jets issuing from B and D will 
meet at a point H on a level with the bottom, 
and twice the length of the ordinates B F and 
D K. Now, as the ordinate C I is the great- 




FIG. IT. 



est, the range of the jet issuing from C will 
he greater than that of any other jet. The 
amount of water escaping in one second from 
an orifice would, theoretically, be equal to a 
cylinder having a diameter equal to that of the 
orifice, and a length equal to the distance 



122 



HYDROMECHANICS 




FIG. 18. Vena Contracts. 



through which a body will move with a uni- 
form velocity after it has fallen through a 
height equal to the vertical distance between 
the surface of the liquid and the orifice. If 
this distance is 16'1 ft., the velocity acquired 
will be 32'2 ft. per second, and therefore the 
theoretical quantity discharged from an ori- 
fice 4 in. in diameter, whose centre is IG'l ft. 
below the surface, would he equal to a cylin- 
der 4 in. in diameter and 32 '2 ft. long, and 
containing 4,828-5 cubic inches, or about 21-83 
gallons. The actual discharge from a thin ori- 
fice not furnished with an ajutage is however 
much less, being only 
about two thirds 
of the theoretical 
amount. The loss is 
owing partly to fric- 
tion, but mainly to 
the interference of 
converging currents 
moving within the 
vessel toward the ori- 
fice. This interfer- 
ence may be shown 
by employing a glass 
vessel having a per- 
foration in its bottom, as represented in fig. 
18. If particles of some opaque substance 
having nearly the same specific gravity as wa- 
ter, so that they will remain suspended in it 
for a space of time, be mingled with the wa- 
ter, they will be seen to move in the direc- 
tion indicated by the lines in the figure, which 
are nearly direct. If the jet is carefully ob- 
served, it will be seen that it is not cylin- 
drical, and that for a distance from the orifice 
of about half its diameter it resembles a trun- 
cated cone with the base at the orifice. This 
contraction of the stream is 
called the vena contracta, and 
its smallest diameter is stated 
to be from 0-6 to 0-8 of that of 
the orifice. When the stream 
has a direction downward near- 
ly vertical, it continues to dimi- 
nish beyond the vena contracta, 
in consequence of the increased 
velocity caused by the force of 
gravity, the size being in the 
inverse proportion to the velo- 
city. The increased velocity at 
the vena contracta is due to the 
pressure which forces the par- 
ticles of water into a narrower 
channel. As the jet continues to 
fall, it forms a series of ventral 
and nodal segments, as shown in 
fig. 19. The ventral segments 
are composed of drops elon- 
gated horizontally, as shown at a a, while the 
nodal segments are elongated vertically, as 
seen at J &; and as the segments have fixed 
positions, it follows that the drops in falling 
are alternately elongated vertically and hori- 
zontally. If the orifice is in the side of the 



FIG. 19. 




FIG. 20. 



vessel and discharges horizontally, the size of 
the stream does not diminish in the same man- 
ner as when falling vertically, and it is sooner 
broken. If a cylindrical tube or ajutage whose 
length is from two to three times its diameter 
is fitted to the orifice, the rate of efflux may be 
increased to 80 per cent, of the theoretical 
amount. The velocity will be somewhat di- 
minished, but the vena contracta will be larger 
in proportion. If the inner end of the ajutage 
has a conical shape with the base toward the 
interior, the efflux may be further increased to 
95 per cent. ; and it has been found that if 
the outer end of the tube is also enlarged, the 
efflux may be still further increased to very 
nearly the theoretical amount, say 98 per cent. 
When a cylindrical ajutage is used, there will be 
a partial vacuum formed between the sides of 
the tube and the 
contracted vein, as 
shown in fig. 20. 
If a pipe ascending 
from a reservoir of 
water is let into this 
part of the ajutage, 
the water will rise 
in the pipe; and if 
the height is not too 
great, the vessel may 
be emptied. The re- 
sistance offered by 
conduits is a sub- 
ject of great importance in practical hydro- 
mechanics, upon which extended experiments 
have been made. When the length of the aju- 
tage bears more than a certain proportion to 
its diameter, the efflux is reduced to about the 
same amount as when the stream issues through 
a thin orifice, that is, about 62 per cent, of the 
theoretical amount. With a pipe of 1J in. in 
diameter and 30 ft. long, the efflux will he only 
about half that from a thin orifice, or 31 per 
cent, of the theoretical amount. This reduc- 
tion is caused by friction between the liquid and 
the tube, as well as between its particles, and 
.is greater with cold than with warm liquids. 
This resistance to motion, or approach to rigid- 
ity, which as conferred by cold, is called vis- 
cosity, and is a principle which has to be taken 
into account in nearly all very careful hydrau- 
lic calculations. Resistance of Liquids to the 
Motion of Solid Bodies. This will depend upon 
the form and size of the body. The following 
are two important laws : 1. With the same ve- 
locity, the resistance is proportional to the ex- 
tent of surface applied by the solid to the li- 
quid in the direction of motion. 2. With the 
same extent of surface, the resistance is pro- 
portional to the square of the velocity. These 
laws may be demonstrated experimentally, but 
their truth will also be apparent from the fol- 
lowing considerations. In regard to the fir^t 
law, it will be easily understood that with the 
same velocity the amount of water displaced 
will be the measure of resistance, and that a 
surface of two square feet will displace twice 



HYDROMECHANICS 



123 



as much as one of one square foot. The sec- 
ond law is not so evident, but will be made 
clear by considering that with a given surface, 
when the velocity is doubled, twice the quan- 
tity of liquid will move through twice the 
space in the same time, and will therefore, ac- 
cording to the principles of mechanics, have 
a fourfold momentum. The resistance, there- 
fore, offered to a plane surface moving at 
right angles against a liquid, is measured by 
the area of the surface multiplied into the 
square of the velocity. It has been found 
that a square foot surface, moved through 
water with a velocity of 32 ft. per second, 
meets with a resistance equal to a weight of 
1,000 Ibs. When the motion of a body in a 
liquid is very slow, say less than 4 in. per sec- 
ond, depending on the size of the body, the 
larger body requiring to move more slowly, 
the above laws are not rigidly followed, but 
the resistance is divided into two components, 
one of which is proportional to the simple ve- 
locity, and the other to the square of the ve- 
locity. The most accurate results in experi- 
menting with slow motions were obtained by 
Coulomb, who used his torsion balance. One 
of the most interesting problems in mathemat- 
ics has been to determine the form of a solid 
which will meet with the least resistance in 
moving through water. This form is called the 
" solid of least resistance," and is approached 
as near as practicable in the construction of 
ships. Theory of Waiie in Liquids. "When 
a pebble is dropped into still water, a series 
of circular waves is formed upon its surface, 
which extend themselves from the centre in 
all directions. These waves consist of alter- 
nate elevations and depressions, which have 
the appearance of following one another in the 
direction of the radii of the circle. It is how- 
ever only an appearance, as may be readily 
proved by throwing a cork upon the undu- 
lating surface, when it will be observed only 
to rise and fall, and the undulations will ap- 
pear to glide beneath it. The wave then is an 
oscillation of the liquid upward and down- 
ward, and the force which causes it is gravity. 
The pebble when it strikes the water displaces 
a portion, which rises on every side to a cer- 
tain height, and then, its momentum being 
lost, and being higher than any portion of 
liquid around it, it falls ; but the momentum it 
has acquired carries it below the level, and 
an exterior ring is forced upward, which in 
descending also produces a successor; and 
thus a series of circular waves is formed of 
gradually diminished height but of increased 
diameter, until, at a very great distance in 
calm water, the force of the primary impulse is 
lost. When two waves proceeding from dif- 
ferent centres meet one another in such a way 
that the elevations coincide, a united wave will 
be produced having a height equal to that of 
its two components, and a depression equal to 
that of the other two; but if the elevation of 
one corresponds to the depression of the other, 




Fifl. 21. 



the resulting elevation and depression will be 
equal to the difference of elevation and depres- 
sion respectively of the original waves. If 
they are equal, the result will be the oblitera- 
tion of both. This phenomenon is called the 
interference of waves. It is susceptible of de- 
monstration that the undulations of waves are 
performed in the same time as the oscillations of 
a pendulum whose length is equal to the dis- 
tance between two eminences, or the technical 
breadth of the wave. Form of Surface of Rota- 
ting Liquid. From the principle of the equilib- 
rium of fluids, that the surface of the liquid at 
rest must be a level which is 
perpendicular to the direction 
of the force of gravity, it fol- 
lows that when two or more 
forces act upon a liquid to 
change the position of its sur- 
face, the resultant of these 
forces will be perpendicular to 
the surface. Therefore, if a 
cylindrical or conical vessel, 
fig. 21, containing a liquid, 
is rotated on its axis A B, 
all the particles on the sur- 
face will be acted upon by two forces, that of 
gravity, in a vertical direction represented by 
A C or C E, and the centrifugal force, repre- 
sented by C D or E F, which is horizontal, 
and varies in intensity with the distance of the 
particles from the axis or centre of motion. 
The surface of the liquid will therefore be de- 
pressed in the middle, and will be at every 
point perpendicular to the resultants A D, C 
F, &c., which will therefore be normals; and 
it may be demonstrated that the subnormals 
A C, C E, &c., are equal, and therefore that 
the surface of the liquid is a paraboloid. 
A Level Surface. Let it be assumed that if 
the earth were entirely covered with water, 
and at rest, with no force acting upon the 
water except gravity, it would have the fqrm 
of a perfect sphere. But it has been found 
to have the form of an oblate spheroid, the 
ratio of its polar to its equatorial diameter 
being about 299 to 300. Its oblate form is 
caused by its rotation on its axis. Let abed, 
fig. 22, be the section of a liquid sphere, pass- 
ing through its axis 
of rotation a o, and 
let / he any point 
on its surface. The 
revolution of the 
sphere on its axis 
will generate a cen- 
trifugal force in the 
direction of/e, par- 
allel to the plane of 
the equator c d, and 
perpendicular to the axis a J. Now, if/ h repre- 
sent the force of gravity andfe the centrifugal 
force, fg will represent the resultant of these 
two forces, and the surface of the liquid, being 
free to move, must become perpendicular to 
this resultant at every point. The surface of a 




Fiu. 22. 



124 



HYDROMETER 



revolving body, like the earth, if covered with 
a liquid, would have a form like that repre- 
sented in section by the dotted line, and it may 
be demonstrated that this form is that of a 
spheroid formed by an ellipse revolving about 
its minor axis. Its surface, to which that of 
the earth approaches, is called a level surface. 
HYDROMETER, or Areometer, an instrument 
for determining the specific gravity of liquids. 
It generally consists of some buoyant body, as 
hollow glass or copper, weighted at the bot- 
tom and supporting a graduated stem, or one 
having a definite mark. There are two kinds, 
those of constant and those of variable im- 
mersion. Those of constant immersion are 
made to sink in the tested liquid, whether 
dense or light, to 
the same depth, 
by balancing with 
weights. Those 
of variable immer- 
sion have no mov- 
able weights, but 
rise or fall accord- 
ing to the den- 
sity of the liquid. 
Nicholson's hy- 
drometer, fig. 1, is 
of the first kind. 
As usually con- 
structed, when 
this instrument is 
immersed in wa- 
ter it requires a 
weight of 1,000 
grains to make it 
sink to a certain 
mark on the stem. 
According to the 
principle of Archi- 

Fio. 1. Nicholson's Hydrometer, medes (see HYDRO- 
MECHANICS), the 

weight of the instrument, together with the 
1,000 grains which it sustains, is equal to the 
weight of the volume of water displaced. If the 
instrument is placed in a liquid lighter or heavi- 
er than water, and the weight changed until it 
sinks to the same depth, the specific gravity 
of the liquid will be indicated by the formula 

g = ^rj^, where W is the weight of the in- 




strument, and w that of the weights placed 
upon the pan. If w is less than 1,000 grains it 
will show that the liquid is lighter, and if it is 
more than 1,000 grains it will show that it is 
heavier than water. This instrument may also 
be used to find the specific gravity of solids, 
or as a delicate balance. For these purposes 
it has a small cup or wire cage suspended at 
the bottom to hold the body, which may be 
either heavier or lighter than water. To find 
the specific gravity of a solid, let it be first 
weighed in air, by placing upon the pan a piece 
of the substance which weighs less than 1,000 
grains. Suppose the substance to be sulphur, 
and that 440 grains are required to be added 



to make the instrument sink to the mark on 
the stem, the weight of the sulphur is, evi- 
dently, 1,000440 = 560 grains. Now, what 
it loses if weighed in water will be the weight 
of an equal bulk of water, and this will be 
found by placing it in the cup or cage at the 
bottom, and adding sufficient weights to those 
in the pan at the top to bring the mark to the 
level of the water. If it requires the addi- 
tion of 275-2 grains, that amount will represent 
the weight of a volume of water equal to the 
sulphur; consequently the specific gravity of 
the sulphur will be $?.? = 2-03. If the body 
is lighter than water, it will of course require 
the addition of more than its weight to the 
pan, and for immersion it will require to be 
placed in the wire cage. Fahrenheit's hydro- 
meter differs from Nicholson's in being con- 
structed of glass, and having a constant weight 
of mercury in a bulb at the lower end. Its 
use is therefore restricted to the weighing of 
fluids. Of hydrometers of variable immersion, 
Baume's is the one most frequently used, and 
furnishes a good example of the class. Two 
instruments, of different forms, are represent- 
ed in figs. 2 and 3. They are made of glass ; 
their stems are hollow and lighter than the 
fluid in which they are immersed. Fig. 2 is 
called a salimeter, and is used for estimating 
the proportion of a salt or other substance in 
solution. It is graduated in the following 
manner : Being immersed in water at a tem- 
perature of 12 0., the point to which it sinks 
is marked ; it is then placed in a solution 
containing 15 parts of common salt to 85 of 
water, the density of which is about 1-116, 
and the point to which it sinks is marked 15, 
and the interval divided into 15 equal parts ; 
the graduation is then 
extended downward, 
generally terminating 
at 66, which corre- 
sponds to the density of 
sulphuric acid. When 
the instrument is to be 
used for liquids lighter 
than water, the zero is 
not placed at the point 
to which it sinks in 
pure water, but at a 
point to which it sinks 
in a solution contain- 
ing 10 parts of com- 
mon salt to 90 of wa- 
ter. The point to which 
it sinks in pure water 
was marked by Bau- 
m6 10, and the grad- 
uation was continued 
upward to the high- 
est point to which the stem might be immersed 
in the lightest liquid. Fig. 3 represents the in- 
strument for liquids lighter than water. The 
graduation of these hydrometers is arbitrary, 
and is an indication of the strength of the li- 
quid only after trial. Hare's hydrometer, a 




FIG. 2. Fio. 8. 

Salimeter. Alcoholimeter. 

Baume's Hydrometers. 



HYDEOPATHY 



125 




Fio. 4. Hare's 
HydroinettT. 



very valuable instrument, but one which has not 
been much employed, acts upon the principle 
of the barometer, and yields directly results of 
definite comparison ; it is represented in fig. 
4. A n -shaped tube has its legs, of equal 
length, placed in shallow ves- 
sels, one containing the liquid 
to be tested, and the other a 
liquid taken as a standard, as 
water. A partial vacuum is 
then produced in the tube by 
exhausting the air by means of 
an air pump, the mouth, or oth- 
erwise, making use of the stop- 
cock to facilitate the opera- 
tion. It is evident that the 
height of the liquid column will 
be in the exact inverse propor- 
tion to the specific gravity of 
the liquids. Hydrometers have 
various names, according to 
the purpose for which they 
are used: as lactometers, for estimating the 
amount of cream in milk, or the quantity of 
sugar of milk in the whey; vinometers, for 
estimating the percentage of alcohol in wine 
or cider ; and there are acidometers and sac- 
charometers. 

HYDROPATHY (Gr. Map, water, and nadof, 
affection or disease), a system of treatment of 
diseases mainly or exclusively by the use of 
water and of the known hygienic agencies. 
Hygienic management in some form, as a re- 
sort to exercise, or, in diseases induced by 
luxurious living, to abstemiousness, dates from 
the earliest conception of a healing art ; and it 
has kept pace with the growth of physiological 
science, until within the present century the 
laws and claims of hygiene have become ap- 
preciated as never before. The physicians of 
very early times seem also to have employed 
water as a remedy in certain febrile, inflamma- 
tory, and surgical maladies; a usage recom- 
mended, among other early medical writers, 
by Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna. In the 
18th century Sir John Floyer and Dr. Bay- 
nard, in England, resorted to bathing almost 
exclusively in chronic diseases ; as did F. Hoff- 
mann and Hahn on the continent. Dr. James 
Currie in 1797 published highly favorable re- 
ports of the effects of water, chiefly by affusion, 
in many diseases. But the distinctive " water 
cure," or hydropathy, owes its origin to the 
fertility of invention of a Silesian peasant, 
Vincenz Priessnitz. Having at the age of 13 
sprained his wrist, young Priessnitz intuitively 
applied it to the pump ; and afterward, to con- 
tinue the relief thus obtained, he bound upon 
it an Umschlag, or wet bandage. Rewetting 
this as it became dry, he reduced the inflam- 
mation, but excited a rash on the surface of 
the part. Soon after, having crushed his 
thumb, he again applied the bandage, and the 
pain once more subsided, but the rash reap- 
peared, lie inferred that the rash indicated 
an impure blood ; and this conclusion was 



strengthened by the result of experiments 
which he was induced to try upon injuries 
and ulcers in the case of some of his neigh- 
bors, since the rash in some instances appeared 
after the treatment, and in others did not. 
Thus he was led to frame for himself a hu- 
moral pathology of all diseases, and a doctrine 
of the elimination of morbific matters by 
" crisis." According to this view, the cure of 
disease is to be effected by favoring the activity 
of those organs through which the purification 
of the system is carried on, and, through a 
regulated and pure dietary and correct regi- 
men, preventing further morbid accumulations. 
In his 19th year, being run over by a cart, 
Priessnitz had some ribs broken and received 
severe bruises ; on learning that the physicians 
pronounced his case hopeless, he tore off their 
bandages, and recovered under the renewed 
application of the Umschlay, and replaced his 
ribs by inflating the lungs while pressing the 
abdomen against a window sill. This incident 
confirmed the idea and initiated the practice 
of the water cure. In the new practice, its au- 
thor discovered in rapid succession the means 
of securing either cooling, heating, or sooth- 
ing effects by compresses; then, the sponge 
bath, the wet-sheet packing, the sitz, foot, 
arm, and other partial baths, the douche, the 
stream bath, the dripping sheet, the plunge, the 
tepid shallow bath, dry-blanket packing, &c. 
The pail douche of Dr. E. Johnson is one of 
the very few additions since made to this list 
of measures. Unquestionably, Priessnitz's ear- 
lier treatment, especially after the opening in 
1826 of the famous Grafenberg cure, was too 
incessant and severe, and often borne only 
through the vital tenacity, whatever their mal- 
adies, of the class of invalids with whom he 
had to deal. Along with this was introduced 
a rigorous, but in some respects mistaken hy- 
giene, including the very free use of a plain 
and peculiar diet, much walking in the open 
air, and the disuse of flannel undergarments 
and of soft beds. The water appliances have 
since been rendered more mild, and in the 
United States necessarily so. The number of 
instances, however, of decided restoration to 
health among the invalids who flocked from all 
parts of Europe and of the United States to 
the Grafenberg cure, sufficiently explains the 
rapid spread of the new system. This wns 
first distinctly brought to the notice of the 
English public about the year 1840, by a book 
put forth by a former patient of Priessnitz, 
Capt. Claridge, and entitled " Hydropathy, or 
the Cold Water Cure." In Germany, under 
Francke, Weiss, Munde, and others, the enthu- 
siastic treatise of the first of whom did much 
to spread the system, several new establish- 
ments had already sprung up. On March 17, 
1842, the hydropathic society was organized in 
London, for the purpose, among others, of cir- 
culating information in regard to Priessnitz, 
and the authenticity of the reported cures. Drs. 
Wilson, Johnson, and Gully were first to em- 



126 



HYDROPHOBIA 



brace the practice, the first two early lecturing 
before the new society, and all soon establish- 
ing institutions of their own. The writings of 
Drs. Gnlly and Johnson contributed much to 
spread the system in England, and at a later 
day they were ably seconded by Bulwer's 
" Confessions of a Water Patient," detailing 
incidents of his restoration to health at the 
Malvern establishment. The earliest popular 
information concerning water treatment in the 
United States was through a letter published 
about 1843, from H. 0. Wright, himself at the 
time a patient under Priessnitz ; and this was 
soon followed by the earnest statements and 
appeals, through a like channel, of J. H. Gray 
of Boston and A. J. Colvin of Albany. Drs. 
Schieferdecker, Wesselhoeft, and Shew seem 
to have been the first to enter upon the new 
practice in the United States ; while the first 
establishment appears to have been that opened 
in 1844 at No. 63 Barclay street, New York. 
Of this, David Cambell, also the originator of 
the " Water-Cure Journal," was proprietor, 
and Joel Shew physician. In May, 1845, an 
establishment was opened at New Lebanon 
Springs, N. Y., under the management of Dr. 
Shew, and another at Brattleboro, Vt., under 
the management of Dr. Wesselhoeft, who, hav- 
ing explored the country from Florida to Maine, 
selected Brattleboro on account of the supe- 
rior purity of the water of a spring there. At 
the present time there are in this country 
and Europe several hundred establishments in 
which the application of water in one form or 
another is the chief remedial agent relied upon 
in the treatment of diseases, but medicines in 
many cases are used to a greater or less ex- 
tent. The name hydropathy is not in general 
use among its practitioners, that of " hygienic 
medicine " being adopted instead. Of books 
upon the subject may be mentioned, besides 
those above referred to, " Hydropathic En- 
cyclopedia," by R. T. Trail, M. D. (New York, 
1852); "The Bath," by S. R. Wells (New 
York) ; and " Water Cure in Chronic Diseases," 
by J. M. Gully, M. D. (London). 

HYDROPHOBIA (Gr. vSup, water, and 0<5/3of, 
fear ; Lat. rabies canina, canine madness), a 
rare but well marked disease in the human 
subject, characterized by excessive nervous 
excitement, the secretion of an unusually viscid 
saliva, a difficulty and sometimes a dread of 
swallowing liquids, and a rapidly fatal termi- 
nation. It is caused by inoculation from the 
bite of a dog, already in a similar rabid condi- 
tion. Although hydrophobia in the human 
subject is so infrequent that many practition- 
ers of considerable experience have never met 
with a case, it is still of sufficient importance 
to merit serious attention, and to demand every 
possible precaution for its prevention ; particu- 
larly since, when once developed, it is inva- 
riably fatal, no single well authenticated case 
of recovery having yet been recorded, and be- 
cause the affection itself is so terrible in the 
distress suffered by the patient, and the horror 



which it excites in the minds of the spectators. 
In France, with a population of 86,000,000, 
during the six years from 1853 to 1858 inclu- 
sive, there were 107 cases of hydrophobia, or 
one case annually for every 2,000,000 inhabi- 
tants. In the department of the Seine, with an 
average population of upward of 1,000,000, du- 
ring the 40 years from 1822 to 1862, there were 
94 cases, or a little more than 2J per annum. 
The greater proportional frequency of the dis- 
ease in the metropolis and its immediate vicin- 
ity is no doubt due to the greater concentration 
of the population, both human and canine, 
which would of course be favorable to its com- 
munication from one animal to another and 
from animals to man. In the city of New 
York, with a population of 1,000,000, during 
the six years from 1866 to 1871 inclusive, there 
were 22 cases, or an average of 3f per annum. 
When a man is bitten by a rabid dog, the 
wound does not differ in any visible character 
from that inflicted by a healthy animal. It is 
seldom severe and often slight, the animal fre- 
quently making only a single momentary at- 
tack. The wound thus made heals without 
difficulty, and is not especially painful or other- 
wise troublesome. In a majority of instances 
no further trouble comes of it. The danger 
from the bite of a rabid dog consists in the 
inoculation of the animal's saliva, which, owing 
to the disease under which he is suffering, 
contains a subtle hut communicable organic 
poison. But there are various circumstances 
which may interfere with the poison's taking 
effect. First, the individual may be, habitually 
or at the time, insusceptible to its action. There 
is reason to believe that the human species 
as a whole are decidedly less susceptible to the 
poison of hydrophobia than dogs ; and accord- 
ing to the experiments of M. Renault, at the 
veterinary school of Alfort, the proportion of 
dogs themselves, bitten by a rabid animal, who 
afterward become rabid, is not more than 33 
per cent. Secondly, when the bite is inflicted 
upon parts of the body covered with clothing, 
the saliva, which is the only vehicle of the 
poison, may have been arrested by the gar- 
ments and may not have come in contact with 
the wound at all. Thirdly, the poison may 
have been extracted from the wound imme- 
diately afterward by the free discharge of blood, 
or by the instinctive manipulations of the 
wounded person, or may have been neutralized 
by surgical appliances. At all events, statis- 
tics seem to show conclusively that the bite 
of a rabid animal by no means invariably causes 
hydrophobia. M. Bouley, professor in the vet- 
erinary school at Alfort, estimates that in the 
department of the Seine no fewer than 100 
dogs annually become rabid. In 25 cases of 
hydrophobia recorded at Alfort in the year 
1861, 10 of these animals were known to have 
bitten 15 persons; that is, 15 bites had been 
inflicted by 25 rabid dogs. This would give, 
for 100 dogs annually affected by hydrophobia, 
60 persons bitten during the same time. But 



HYDROPHOBIA 



127 



there are only from two to three cases of death 
from this disease annually in the department 
of the Seine; and, according to these results, 
not more than 3 in 60, or 5 per cent, of the 
persons bitten by rabid dogs, afterward become 
hydrophobic. But even this proportion of cases 
constitutes a terrible danger, considering the 
nature of the disease with which the individual 
is threatened. For some time after the inflic- 
tion of the wound no symptom manifests itself. 
The poison may have found its way into the 
tissues, but it is quiescent, and it remains so 
usually for several weeks. The exact period 
during which it may thus lie dormant, and 
afterward become fully developed, undoubtedly 
varies in different cases. Instances have been 
related in which hydrophobia has declared 
itself after an interval of several years, but 
these statements are evidently wanting in au- 
thenticity, and are almost universally regarded 
as extremely doubtful. It seems positive, how- 
ever, that the period of quiescence may be ex- 
tended to one year, and possibly to 17 or 18 
months. Nevertheless these instances, if they 
exist, are very rare exceptions ; and in the im- 
mense majority of cases the disease shows itself, 
if at all, between the end of the first and the 
end of the third month ; so that after the lapse 
of three months from the date of the injury, 
the chances of escape increase rapidly with 
every succeeding week. By the end of six 
months the patient may be pronounced prac- 
tically safe. When, however, the disease is to 
show itself, usually during the second or third 
month, its first manifestation is a sense of itch- 
ing or discomfort at the seat of the wound. 
The cicatrix may become swollen and reddened, 
and a red line, following the course of the lym- 
phatic vessels, is said to appear upon the limb, 
between the cicatrix and the trunk. This is 
the preliminary period of the disease, and may 
last for two or three days, rarely more than 
six, during which the patient is only slightly 
uncomfortable. Then the unmistakable signs 
of hydrophobia come on with great rapidity, 
and are aggravated from hour to hour. There 
is a feeling of stiffness about the neck, extend- 
ing to the jaw and the base of the tongue. An 
indescribable anxiety and agitation of mind 
takes possession of the patient, often accom- 
panied with paroxysms of momentary delirium 
and hallucinations. The breathing is hurried 
and irregular. There is great thirst ; but there 
is also a difficulty of deglutition, apparently 
consisting in an irresistible spasm of the pha- 
rynx or glottis, which is so distressing that the 
patient sometimes rejects fluids after vainly 
attempting to swallow them, with violent de- 
monstrations of irritation and despair. This 
is what has given rise to the idea that the pa- 
tient dreads the liquid itself, and has unfortu- 
nately attached the name hydrophobia to the 
disease in question. The saliva becomes re- 
markably viscid and tenacious, and appears to 
odd much to the distress of the patient, who 
endeavors constantly to detach it and expel it 
422 VOL. ix. 9 



from his mouth. This condition of nervous 
irritation rapidly exhausts the strength of the 
system, and death takes place, usually on the 
second or third day. Such are the symptoms 
and course of hydrophobia in man. The treat- 
ment includes only a single measure, but this 
must bo adopted at once on the receipt of the 
injury, and must be carried out in the most 
thorough manner. It consists in neutralizing 
the poison by cauterization of the wound. Some 
authorities recommend first cutting out the 
wound by an incision passing all round it 
through the sound flesh, and subsequently cau- 
terizing the fresh surface. The objection to 
the procedure is that it requires some time and 
skill to perform it thoroughly, particularly as 
the wound is generally narrow and deep ; and 
also that if the knife or the blood happen to 
penetrate the wound itself, they may become 
themselves contaminated with the virus and 
thus bring it in contact with a new and larger 
surface. It seems desirable to cauterize thor- 
oughly the original wound without delay. Then, 
if thought proper, the eschar :nay be cut out, 
and the caustic again applied to the fresh sur- 
face of the new wound. On the whole, the 
particular caustic which is recommended by 
the highest authorities for this purpose is a solid 
stick of nitrate of silver. Its advantages are : 
1, that it can almost always be readily pro- 
cured ; 2, that it can easily be cut into a form 
adapted to penetrate to the bottom of a deep 
and narrow wound ; 3, that it readily dissolves 
in the animal fluids, and, when held for a few 
minutes in contact with the tissues, forms a 
tolerably deep and firm eschar, and coagulates 
thoroughly all the organic matters which may 
be present. It has been thought that during 
the period of quiescence the virus remains lo- 
calized in the original cicatrix, and does not 
begin to disseminate itself through the sys- 
tem until the appearance of signs of irritation 
in the part. If this be so, it would of course 
be highly proper to cut out the cicatrix 
and cauterize the wound, in cases where this 
operation had not already been performed 
at any time between the receipt of the in- 
jury and the first manifestations of the dis- 
ease. But for the protection of the communi- 
ty from hydrophobia, the prevention of the bite 
of a rabid animal is much more important than 
its treatment. Any well educated surgeon, if 
within reach and called in time, will apply the 
proper remedies after the wound is inflicted. 
But he may not be applied to in season. The 
animal may not be suspected of rabies at the 
time of the injury ; and even if everything be 
done for the sufferer which circumstances per- 
mit, he must still pass through several weeks 
or months of anxious uncertainty, until the 
extreme limit of possible incubation has been 
reached. The most important thing, in every 
point of view, is to diminish as far as possible 
the chance of a bite being inflicted at all ; and 
by far the best means of accomplishing this 
object is to put the public on their guard by 



128 



HYDROPHOBIA 



an accurate knowledge of the symptoms of 
hydrophobia in the dog. The great danger at 
present consists in the fact that these symp- 
toms are not usually recognized until after a 
wound has heen inflicted; and animals may 
thus propagate the disease among their own 
species and communicate it to man at a time 
when they are not themselves known to be 
hydrophobic. There are three capital errors, 
commonly entertained by the public in this 
respect, which add very much to the danger 
spoken of: 1, that the mad dog has a horror 
of water and will not drink ; 2, that ho is lia- 
ble to the disease more especially or exclusive- 
ly in hot weather ; and 3, that he always man- 
ifests a ferocious and aggressive disposition. 
Neither of these things is true ; and the conse- 
quence is that a dog in cool weather, who is 
seen to drink freely, and is not especially fero- 
cious, is looked upon without suspicion and 
treated with familiarity; and yet he may be 
hydrophobic and capable of inflicting a mortal 
wound, or of communicating a fatal disease by 
licking an abraded spot upon the hand of his 
master. It is evident, therefore, that it is of 
the greatest consequence that the true signs of 
canine hydrophobia should be recognized at an 
early period ; for as soon as a dog is known to 
be rabid, there is but little danger of his being 
allowed to bite. Babies in the dog may occur 
at any season, and is not more likely to show 
itself in warm than in cool weather. Conse- 
quently all police regulations intended to sup- 
press or exterminate hydrophobia, which are 
enforced in the summer months and suspended 
at other times, fail of their object, and may 
even do harm by inducing a fancied security 
during the cool season. According to the ob- 
servations made by Prof. Key at the veterinary 
si'nool of Lyons, in France, the number of ca- 
ses in that district was greater during the rainy 
than during the dry months. Of 190 cases 
recorded at the veterinary school of Alfort, 
during the ten years from 1853 to 1863, the 
following list shows the aggregate numbers in 
each month of the year, arranged in the or- 
der of their frequency : In April, 25 ; March, 
21; January, 20; June, 18; May, 16; August, 
16; September, 16; November, 14; July, 12; 
December, 12 ; February, 10 ; October, 10 ; 
total, 190. The first symptoms of hydrophobia 
in the dog, as described by Youatt and Bouley, 
consist in a gloomy and sombre disposition, 
together with a nervous agitation and disqui- 
etude, which is betrayed by frequent changes 
of position. The animal, usually cheerful and 
desirous of companionship, seeks to avoid his 
master or his playmates. He skulks into his 
kennel, into a closet, into the corners of the 
enclosure, underneath pieces of furniture, and 
endeavors to escape notice. If called out, he 
obeys, but slowly and unwillingly, and as soon 
as possible again betakes himself to his retreat. 
In a few minutes he is dissatisfied with it, and 
leaves it for another. Then he goes back to 
his litter, and takes it apart or arranges it in a 



variety of ways, without being able to suit him- 
self with any. The expression of his eye is 
suspicious and uneasy ; and in a few minutes 
he is again wandering from place to place. 
Now these signs, when taken singly, are not 
decisive indications of rabies. It is natural to 
the dog, when suffering under almost any tem- 
porary illness, to withdraw himself from ob- 
servation, and seek a retreat in some dark cor- 
ner ; but he generally remains there quiet un- 
til he begins to recover. It is this desire to 
avoid observation, combined with an incessant 
restlessness, which is peculiar to commencing 
hydrophobia ; and whenever an animal shows 
these two symptoms together, moving constant- 
ly from place to place, and searching in every 
corner as if looking for something which he 
never finds, he should at once be an object of 
suspicion, and properly watched until his mal- 
ady either disappears or becomes distinctly 
pronounced. The next sign of hydrophobia 
is that the animal has slight and temporary 
attacks of hallucination. He thinks he hears 
a sound or sees an object which does not exist. 
This condition is fully recognized by veteri- 
nary experts, although its signs are often over- 
looked by others. The dog suddenly pricks 
up his ears and runs to a particular spot, as if 
he had heard a noise on the other side of a 
door or partition. Sometimes he will snap at 
the empty air, as if he were catching a fly. 
Sometimes he will stand immovable and atten- 
tive for a few moments, as if he were listening 
or watching for something which is only an illu- 
sion. These signs are exceedingly important, 
and should redouble the vigilance of those 
having charge of the animal, who should from 
this moment be kept in a position to prevent 
his doing an injury. All this time the animal 
may show no disposition to bite. A rabid dog 
often varies in this tendency according to his 
individual character. The evidence of all the 
best observers shows that a dog, naturally 
good-tempered and mild in disposition, will 
sometimes refrain from biting until very late 
in the disease. Furthermore, the same dog 
will often show no tendency to bite his master, 
for whom he still retains his natural affection, 
but may at the same time be easily provoked 
by a stranger. This circumstance forms one 
of the most insidious sources of danger in the 
case of a rabid dog not yet known to be such. 
Even the master may be misled by finding the 
animal submissive as usual to his word, and 
even to a slight correction, while a second 
blow or a threatening gesture may be followed 
by a sudden and ungovernable attack on the 
part of the animal, and the infliction of a fatal 
wound. During all this period, furthermore, 
and also during the entire course of the dis- 
ease, there is no hydrophobia in the strict 
sense of the word. The rabid dog has no hor- 
ror of water, and he does not refuse to drink. 
On the contrary, he drinks frequently, and 
when, the disease being fully established, the 
constriction of the fauces renders deglutition 



HYDROPHOBIA 



HYDROSTATICS 



129 



difficult, lie no less endeavors to satisfy his 
thirst, sometimes by plunging his muzzle deep- 
ly under the surface of the water. No sin- 
gle error in regard to the disease is more un- 
fortunate than this; for when a dog drinks, 
the bystanders conclude that he is not hydro- 
phobic, and consequently overlook the other 
symptoms which might indicate the nature 
of the malady. The rabid dog does not at 
first refuse his natural food, but soon ceases 
to take it with his accustomed relish. An 
important sign, however, is an unnatural or 
depraved appetite. The animal gnaws and 
even swallows all kinds of indigestible sub- 
stances. Pieces of wood, bits of stone, furni- 
ture, clothing, the stuffing of cushions, leather, 
horse dung, and even his own excrements, are 
torn, gnawed, and swallowed. This is always 
a very suspicious circumstance. Some dogs 
are habitually mischievous in this respect, but 
even they only injure or destroy these sub- 
stances; they do not swallow them. And 
particularly the disposition in question, mani- 
festing itself in an animal to whom it is not 
habitual, and who is also evidently sick from 
some cause or other, should always put his 
owners upon their guard. Another symptom 
is now to be spoken of which is decisive and 
pathoguomonic, namely, the rabid bark. It is 
difficult to give an accurate idea of this sound 
by mere verbal description; but the best au- 
thorities all agree that, when once recognized, 
it is entirely conclusive. The natural voice of 
the animal is altered. Instead of the usual 
, succession of explosive sounds, equal in in- 
tensity and duration, it is hoarse, veiled, lower 
in tone, and begins with a single open bark, 
followed immediately by three or four dimin- 
ishing howls from the bottom of the throat, 
during which the jaws, instead of closing com- 
pletely at each bark, are only partly approxi- 
mated to each other. Prof. Bouley says that 
both he and his pupils have been able to recog- 
nize distinctly the rabid dog by his bark alone, 
when the animal was not yet in sight, and was 
still at the other extremity of the courtyard 
of the Alfort veterinary school. The saliva is 
at first increased in abundance ; but this symp- 
tom is of short duration, lasting, according to 
Youatt, not more than 12 hours, and is never 
so abundant as in the profuse salivation which 
attends an attack of epilepsy, a malady very 
common in dogs, but perfectly harmless. The 
true salivation of hydrophobia consists in a 
secretion of saliva which is scanty, but viscid 
and ropy, and which the animal endeavors to 
clear away from the mouth by the aid of his 
paws. This often gives the idea that he is an- 
noyed by a bone accidentally lodged in his 
teeth ; and fatal accidents have happened from 
attempting to aid the animal to get rid of the 
supposed annoyance. This preliminary period 
of the disease may last for one or two days. 
Now, however, comes the second and fully 
developed stage of the disorder, characterized 
by sudden paroxysms of fury, the true rabies 



or canine madness. A very characteristic and 
important fact is that an animal in this condi- 
tion is especially excited by the appearance of 
one of his own species. The sight of another 
dog drives him into an excess of sudden and 
immeasurable fury, followed by an immediate 
and aggressive attack. This often happens 
while he is still inoffensive toward other ani- 
mals, and particularly toward his master. But 
it is a sign that the full development of his dis- 
order is at hand, and in an hour or two after- 
ward he may snap at every bystander indis- 
criminately, in the blind insanity of his excite- 
ment. At this time, or even at an earlier pe- 
riod, he often disappears from home, probably 
with the instinct of finding some more solitary 
place in which to hide. But meeting constant- 
ly with new sources of irritation, and his ner- 
vous excitability increasing at the same time, 
he becomes more furious, haggard, and threat- 
ening with every hour. He is now at the 
height of the disease. Wandering along the 
streets or open highways, with head and tail 
drooping, his hide disordered and dusty, the 
ropy saliva hanging in strings from his open 
jaws, every man and animal that he encounters 
provokes him to a fresh attack. After 24 or 
36 hours of this continuous excitement, with- 
out food or rest, and incessantly upon his feet, 
exhaustion begins to come on ; his motions are 
less vigorous, his steps grow vacillating and 
irregular, and he no longer leaves the direct 
path, and offers violence only to those whom 
he unavoidably meets. At last, if not pursued 
and killed, a general paralysis takes posses- 
sion of his system, and he dies exhausted by 
the intensity and continuance of the nervous 
agitation. The entire duration of the malady 
in the dog, from the first signs of disordered 
health until its fatal termination, is from two 
to six days. No distinct morbid change in 
any of the internal organs has ever been found 
after death, either in the dog or in man, which 
could be regarded as the pathological cause of 
this singular disease. Finally, the important 
symptoms of commencing hydrophobia in the 
dog, which should always be borne in mind, 
may be summed up as follows : 1, an unac- 
customed gloomy and suspicious disposition, 
with nervous agitation and restlessness; 2, 
momentary attacks of hallucination both as to 
sights and sounds ; 3, an unnatural and de- 
praved appetite for indigestible or innutritions 
substances ; 4, a peculiar and unnatural bark ; 

5, a ropy and viscid condition of the saliva, 
with dryness of the mouth and fauces; and 

6, an insane and aggressive irritability of 
temper, most easily excited by the sight of 
other dogs, and at first manifested only toward 
them. The best accounts of hydrophobia are 
to be found in the chapter on " Hydropho- 
bia" in Gross's "System of Surgery" (Phila- 
delphia, 1866); the chapter on "Rabies" in 
Youatt " On the Dog " (London, 1859) ; and 
Bouley, Rapport sur la rage (Paris, 1863). 

HYDROSTATICS. See HYDROMECHANICS. 



130 HYDROSULPHURIC ACID 



HYGIENE 



HYDROSULPHURIC ACID, Solphydrle Aeid, or 
Sulphuretted Hydrogen, a gaseous compound first 
examined by Scheele in 1777; symbol, H 2 S; 
chemical equivalent, 34. It consists of two 
volumes of hydrogen and one of sulphur vapor 
condensed into two volumes, which form its 
combining measure. Its density is 1191-2, air 
being 1000. It is a colorless gas, has a slight 
acid reaction, and a most offensive odor, rec- 
ognized in rotten eggs, dock mud, cesspools, 
many mineral waters, and putrefying organic 
' matters containing sulphur. It extinguishes 
flame, but burns itself in contact with air 
with a blue flame, depositing sulphur. It is 
condensed by a pressure of 17 atmospheres at 
80 into a colorless liquid, and was solidified 
by Faraday by cooling to 122 into a white 
crystalline translucent substance. Water ab- 
sorbs 2 times its volume of the gas ; alcohol 
6 volumes. It blackens the salts of lead and 
of many other metals, forming sulphides of 
the metals. These being insoluble and made 
readily visible by their peculiar colors, even in 
minute quantity, the acid is a convenient test 
for determining the presence of the metals in 
solutions, and distinguishing them by the color 
of the precipitate and its other properties. Its 
aqueous solution and its solution in ammonia 
(hydrosulphide of ammonium) are among the 
useful chemical reagents. The gas is exceed- 
ingly noxious to inhale. Thenard found that 
a small bird would die in air containing ;-$-$ 
part of it, and a horse in air that contained 
yj-j of it. The gas is neutralized and de- 
composed by chlorine and iodine, which unite 
with its hydrogen ; and the former, furnished 
by chloride of lime wet with strong vinegar, is 
a convenient antidote and disinfectant of the 
gas. Nitrate of lead, chloride of zinc, sulphate 
of iron, and sulphate of manganese are also 
efficacious in this respect. The presence of 
the gas is detected by its odor, and by its black- 
ening a paper wet with a solution of acetate 
of lead. It is the cause of the discoloration 
of white lead paint in the apartments of houses, 
also of the blackening of silver spoons when 
these are used with boiled eggs, the albumen 
of the white of the egg furnishing the sulphur 
for the production of the gas. To prepare 
hydrosulphuric acid, the ingredients employed 
are a ferrous sulphide, made by exposing to a 
low red heat 4 parts of coarse sulphur and 7 
of iron filings, and diluted sulphuric acid. By 
pouring the acid upon broken lumps of the 
compound in a gas bottle, the gas is evolved, 
and may be collected in a bell glass over water 
at 80 or 90, or over brine. It is absorbed 
by cold water. It may also be obtained by 
the action of hydrochloric acid upon antimo- 
nious sulphide. The reactions in each case are 
thus expressed : FeS + H a SO, = FeSO + H 2 8. 
Sb 2 S 3 + (HOI), = (SbCl,), + (11,8),. 

HYDBCIVTUM. See OTRANTO. 

HYEBES, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Var, on the S. declivity of a hill, 9 m. 
E. of Toulon, and 3 m. from the Mediterranean : 



pop. in 1866, 10,878. The principal edifices 
are the old church, one of the most singular 
structures in France, and an ancient chateau, 
now used as a town hall. In the principal 
square is a column, surmounted by a white 
marble bust of the celebrated Massillon, who 
was a native of the town. Hyeres is consid- 
ered one of the healthiest winter residences in 
the south of France, and is much resorted to 
by invalids. Remains of an ancient Roman 
city exist in its vicinity. In the roadstead op- 
posite the town, and belonging to it, is a group 
of small islands called the isles of Hyeres (an- 
cient Stcechades), two of which are fortified. 
During the middle ages the place was called 
Hiedera, and was a favorite port of the pilgrims 
to Jerusalem. 

HYGIEA, or Hygea, in Greek mythology, the 
goddess of health, a daughter of ./Esculapius. 
She was represented by artists as a virgin in 
flowing garments feeding a serpent from a cup ; 
the poets speak of her as a smiling goddess 
with bright glances, and a favorite of Apollo. 
By the Romans she was in time identified with 
the old Sabine goddess Sains. 

HYGIENE (Gr. v-yteivdf, healthy), the science 
and art of preserving health, by the appro- 
priate nourishment of the body and the proper 
regulation of its surrounding conditions. The 
first subject of importance in a hygienic point 
of view is always the location or residence 
of the individual, family, or community whose 
interests are involved. Other conditions may 
be altered or modified with comparative readi- 
ness, but the place and character of the habi- 
tation, when once fixed, usually remain so for 
a considerable time, and thus exert a con- 
tinued influence for good or evil. The habi- 
tation, when in the country, should always 
be placed upon such an elevation as to secure 
a thorough natural drainage. This is the first 
requisite; for there is no other single cause of 
disease so hurtful and insidious as the slow ac- 
cumulation and stagnation of the refuse mat- 
ters, in however small quantity, which are 
daily produced in and about an occupied habi- 
tation. Even standing pools, or hollow basins 
without an outlet, the result of a depression 
in the surface of the ground, should not be 
allowed in the immediate neighborhood of the 
house ; for although it is only the rain water 
which at first collects in them, yet there is 
always more or less accumulation of organic 
matter from vegetable growth and from the 
aquatic animals and birds which make such 
places their resort ; and as a pool of this kind 
is alternately filled and dried up, sometimes 
several times a year, the effluvia exhaled during 
this process will always become more or less 
injurious, and may be even dangerous to life. 
When a large number of inhabitants are col- 
lected within a small space, as in towns and 
cities, the question of drainage becomes of 
course still more important. The production 
of refuse inaterials is here exceedingly rapid, 
and corresponding provision should be made 



HYGIENE 



HYGROMETKY 



131 



for their immediate and complete removal. 
Besides the necessary provisions for drainage, 
the house and apartments should also be fully 
and completely ventilated. Effluvia and or- 
ganic vapors of various kinds necessarily be- 
come developed in every occupied dwelling, 
from the daily culinary operations and the or- 
ganic matters of the food and their remains. 
These effluvia are harmless when fresh ; but 
they are subject to early decomposition, and 
at once become noxious if allowed to accumu- 
late and stagnate. Every house, accordingly, 
should be swept throughout each day by a cur- 
rent of fresh air, sufficient to renovate its at- 
mosphere and remove all vestiges of impurity. 
A free opening of the windows on opposite 
sides, early in the morning, is the best way of 
accomplishing this. In addition, each inhabited 
apartment should be constantly ventilated in 
such a manner as to remove the carbonic acid 
and other products of respiration, by open fires 
or other effectual means. Proper clothing, 
adapted to the season and the degree of indi- 
vidual exposure, is also an important element 
of hygiene. There are few causes of disease 
more prolific than undue exposure to cold and 
dampness, and particularly to sudden changes 
of weather or draughts of cold air upon un- 
protected parts. The clothing should be so 
regulated, as a general thing, that the ordina- 
ry vicissitudes of the weather shall not be felt 
by the individual in such a way as to make a 
permanent impression upon the system. A 
sufficient suit of woollen underclothing is the 
best protection in this respect. It is important 
to remember, however, that for a person in 
health exposure to cold and dampness is sel- 
dom injurious so long as the body is in a state 
of muscular activity. It is remaining in a cold 
apartment in an inactive condition, or keeping 
on the wet or damp clothing after muscular ex- 
ertion has ceased, that gives rise to dangerous 
consequences. The quality and quantity of 
the food, and the regularity with which it is 
taken, are of the next importance in a hygienic 
point of view. The food, as a rule, should be 
simple in character, but nutritious, and each 
article of the best possible quality and proper- 
ly cooked. An imperfect or careless mode of 
cooking may often injure materially the nutri- 
tious and digestible qualities of an article of 
food, originally of the best kind. Individual 
peculiarities are to be consulted in regard to 
the kind of food used by each person ; certain 
articles being sometimes more or less indiges- 
tible for one person, which are quite harmless 
for another. The natural and healthy appe- 
tite is the best general criterion in regard to 
the quantity of food to be used, provided it be 
simple and nutritious in character. It is of 
great importance, finally, that the food be 
taken with regularity at the accustomed time, 
that it be properly masticated, and that its 
digestion be not interfered with by hurry, 
anxiety, or any unusual mental or physical dis- 
turbance at and immediately after the time of 



meals. A regular and sufficient bodily exer- 
cise should be taken every day to keep all the 
organs in a healthy state of activity. The ex- 
ercise should be neither deficient nor excessive 
in amount; for bodily exertion which is so 
violent or so prolonged as to produce a sense 
of exhaustion and fatigue, instead of being 
beneficial to the system, is positively injurious 
to it. Neither can a deficiency of muscular 
exertion during one period be compensated by 
an excessive amount taken at another. It is 
the necessary and appropriate quantity of ex- 
ercise, taken regularly day by day, which pre- 
serves the vigor of the system, and keeps it 
in a condition to resist the attacks of disease. 
The periods of exertion, furthermore, should 
alternate daily with periods of repose ; and 
especially the natural amount of sleep should 
always be taken with regularity, and in apart- 
ments which are not too confined and the ven- 
tilation of which is properly provided for. It 
is during sleep that the main process of the 
nutrition and restoration of the nervous and 
muscular systems takes place ; and if an indi- 
vidual deprive himself of sleep, wholly or even 
partially, for one or two nights in succession, 
he will invariably experience its damaging ef- 
fects in the consequent temporary failure of 
the vital powers. An imprudence or neglect, 
like either of those mentioned above, may he 
counteracted in a strong and healthy person 
by subsequent care, so that he may recover 
from its immediate and . more perceptible ef- 
fects ; but it is a principle which lies at the basis 
of hygiene, that causes of disease, however 
slight, by constant repetition day after day, or 
even at longer intervals, will certainly at last 
undermine the health, and produce a perma- 
nent and often irremediable injury. The easi- 
est as well as the surest way of avoiding such 
a result is a constant and regular attention 
to all the necessary hygienic conditions. (See 
ALIMENT, BATH, DIETETICS, and GYMNASTICS.) 
H1GROMETRY (Gr. i-yp6f, moist, and ftirpov, 
measure), the method of determining the 
amount of moisture in bodies, more especially 
in atmospheric air. A hygrometer is an in- 
strument used for this purpose ; and a hygro- 
scope is any substance that absorbs moisture 
from the air, and is in consequence changed in 
form or weight. Various salts absorb moisture 
and deliquesce, and are consequently called 
hygroscopic. These serve as hygrometers in 
chemical analysis; thus chloride of calcium 
placed in a glass tube absorbs the moisture 
from the air passed through the tube, and its 
increase of weight determines the quantity. 
The property is exhibited in hemp and cotton 
ropes, and in small fibres, as those of whale- 
bone, and in hairs. Paper by absorption of 
moisture expands to such a degree that it is 
an imperfect material for preserving accurate 
plans. Its variation in length in extremely 
dry and in moist air sometimes exceeds 1 in 
40. If a substance could be found which ab- 
sorbed moisture in proportion to the quantity 



132 



HYGROMETRY 



in the air, and its form was proportionally af- 
fected thereby, this change could be readily 
indicated upon a dial, the extreme points of 
which are determined, the one by the least 
length produced by the greatest dryness, and 
the other by the greatest elongation caused by 
the most humid air that could be produced, the 
intermediate space being divided into 100 or 
other convenient number of degrees. Such an 
instrument would be a perfect hygrometer ; but 
no such substance is known, and the properties 
of the same body in this respect are not con- 
stant at all times. The best instrument of this 
sort, which is after all only a hygroscope, was 
contrived by De Saussure. It is a human hair, 
cleansed by boiling in alkaline water. The 
zero point of the scale to which it is attached 
is fixed by drying the hair in air rendered by 
chemical absorbents as dry as possible; and 
then, by exposing it in a receiver to air satu- 
rated with moisture, the other extreme of the 
scale is found. The equal divisions between 
these are assumed to indicate proportional de- 
grees of moisture or dryness. One end of the 
hair is fixed, and to the other is suspended a 
small weight. A grooved wheel or pulley car- 
rying an index is placed so as to be moved by 
the hair as it contracts or expands. Various 
other hygrometers of this class have been de- 
vised, some on the principle of determining 
the moisture by the increased weight imparted 
to bodies by its absorption, and others by the 
torsion thereby induced in cords and in vege- 
table fibres ; but all these methods have proved 
very imperfect. Two other methods are to be 
noticed by which the humidity of the air is 
ascertained. The first depends on the deter- 
mination of the dew point, or the degree of 
temperature to which the air must be reduced 
that its moisture shall begin to separate and 
condense upon cold surfaces. This difference 
alone is sometimes used to express the dryness 
of the air, as affording an indication of how 
near it is to its point of saturation. In tem- 
perate regions this sometimes amounts to 80 ; 
but in a dry and hot climate, under the lee of 
cold mountains which first strip the air of its 
moisture, it amounts to 60 or more ; such is 
the case upon the hot plains of the Deccan, to 
which the air is brought from the other side of 
the Ghauts. Cooled down upon these to a low 
temperature, its moisture is precipitated in rain 
and snow, and when immediately after this it 
is raised to a temperature of 90, it is found 
that no deposition of moisture again takes 
place until the temperature is reduced to 29. 
The observation, however, is used to furnish 
more exact results. Tables have been prepared 
with the utmost care which give the elastic 
force of aqueous vapor at different degrees and 
even tenths of degrees of temperature, ex- 
pressed in the height of a column of mercury 
sustained by the vapor. The temperature of 
the dew point of the air being ascertained, the 
elastic force corresponding to this temperature 
in the table represents the absolute humidity 



of the air, and may be converted into the ac- 
tual weight of moisture to the cubic foot under 
a given barometric pressure by the formulas 
prepared for this purpose, or directly by the 
tables constructed to reduce the labor of the 
calculation. By comparing the elastic force 
obtained from the table with that correspond- 
ing to the temperature of the air itself, the 
ratio between the two expresses the relative 
humidity of the air. This also is ascertained 
at sight by the tables specially constructed for 
this object. The most highly approved hygro- 
metrical tables are those derived from the ex- 
periments of Regnault, made by direction of 
the French government to determine the ex- 
pansive force of steam at different tempera- 
tures, which is also that of the vapor suspended 
in the air at the same temperatures. These 
tables are published in Regnault's fitudes sur 
I'hygrometrie, in the Annales de chimie et de 
physique (1845) ; and formulas also are given 
from which other tables, besides that of the 
elastic forces, have been prepared by others. 
The most complete series of these is furnished 
in the volume of " Tables, Meteorological and 
Physical," prepared for the Smithsonian insti- 
tution by Arnold Guyot, and published in the 
" Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections," 1858. 
In the same series is also 'presented the table 
of elastic forces of vapor deduced from the ex- 
periments of Dalton, together with others bnsed 
upon it, and in general use in England. These 
are also found in Glaisher's " Hygrometricnl 
Tables " (London, 1847), and in the " Green- 
wich Observations." Various forms of the 
dew-point instrument or hygrometer have been 
devised. That of Prof. Daniell, which has been 
much used, is of the following construction : A 
bent tube, blown out at each end to a bulb, is 
laid across the top of a pillar, which serves as 
a stand, the two bulbs hanging down one on 
each side. One arm of the tube is long enough 
to contain a delicate thermometer, the bulb of 
which terminates in some ether contained in 
the external- bulb. By boiling the ether be- 
fore closing the tube the air is nearly ex- 
pelled. When in use the empty bulb is cov- 
ered with a piece of muslin, which is kept 
wet with ether. The evaporation of this con- 
denses the vapor within, causing the liquid in 
the other bulb to evaporate and grow cool. 
The bulb becomes at last sufficiently cool for 
the moisture to condense upon it, and the in- 
stant this makes its appearance in the form 
of a ring of dew encircling the bulb at the 
level of the surface of the ether, the temper- 
ature is to be noted by the thermometer with- 
in, while that of the air is observed upon 
another thermometer attached to the stand. 
Another observation of the enclosed thermom- 
eter is made as the dew disappears by the bulb 
returning to its former temperature ; and the 
mean of the two observations will give a close 
approximation to the dew point. A better in- 
strument is that of Regnault. Two glass tubes 
are suspended by a small tubular arm near the 



HYGROMETRY 



HYL^EOSAURUS 



133 



top of each, both opening into the hollow stand 
that supports the tubes. A pipe for exhausting 
the air by means of a sort of bellows or the 
flow of water connects with the hollow in the 
stand by an opening near its base. The two 
tubes are closed, each with a cork through 
which a thermometer tube is fitted, the bulb in 
one reaching nearly to the bottom. Over the 
lower end of this one a very thin and highly 
polished thimble of silver nearly two inches 
long is fitted, and a fine tube open at each end 
is passed through the cork, reaching from the 
external air nearly to the bottom of the tube. 
Ether is poured into this bulb, covering the 
lower end of the thermometer, and rising an 
inch or two higher than the upper edge of the 
silver thimble. To determine the dew point, 
the apparatus for exhausting the air from the 
hollow stand is set in action. This causes the 
air to pass through the fine tube, and bubble 
through the ether, keeping it in motion and 
taking up its vapor. The liquid, the thermom- 
eter bulb, and the silver coating of the tube 
equally feel the reduced temperature, and the 
instant this readies the dew point, the whole 
surface of the silver is covered with moisture. 
The temperature of the thermometer placed in 
the ether is then observed, while the other 
marks the temperature of the air. By stopping 
the current of air the temperature rises, and the 
moisture disappears from the silver. The ther- 
mometer is to be noted again, and the mean of 
the two observations taken for the dew point ; 
or several trials may he made in rapid succes- 
sion. To avoid affecting the result by the 
warmth radiated from the body, a small tele- 
scope may be used in reading the thermometer. 
The instrument has been modified by Prof. 
Connell in substituting for the tube a small flask 
of highly polished brass or silver, into the neck 
of which is secured an exhausting syringe. The 
second of the two methods above referred to, 
by which the humidity of the air is ascertained, 
involves the determination of the temperature 
of evaporation ; and the instrument used is the 
wet-bulb thermometer or psychrometer invent- 
ed by Prof. August of Berlin, and described 
in his work Ueber die Fortscliritte der Ilygro- 
metrie (Berlin, 1830). It consists of two deli- 
cate thermometers placed near together. The 
bulb of one is covered with muslin, which is 
kept wet by water supplied from a vessel close 
by through capillary conduction. The instru- 
ment is placed in a light draught of air, and as 
evaporation goes on the mercury in the wet- 
bulb thermometer sinks to a certain point ; the 
temperature of both is then noticed. If the air 
was nearly saturated with moisture, the differ- 
ence will be found to bo very slight. The baro- 
metric pressure is observed at the same time, 
and data are thus afforded for calculating the 
elastic force of aqueous vapor in the air. The 
formula for this calculation, modified by Re- 
gnault, and the psychrometrical tables deduced 
from it, are given in the volume of tables re- 
ferred to above, and are equally applicable to 



the estimation whether the dew-point instru- 
ment or wet-bulb thermometer is used. To 
render them more convenient, they have been 
converted by Prof. Guyot into English measures. 
Tiie series also contains tables of the weight of 
vapors in a given space at different tempera- 
tures. The method by the wet bulb, though 
regarded as decidedly the most convenient 
means of determining the elastic forces of the 
vapor, and thence the humidity of the air, is 
still rendered somewhat uncertain in its results 
from the impossibility of keeping the wet bulb 
uniformly moist, and from other causes also. 
The uncertainty of its results is indeed in some 
cases so great that Regnault in 1872 recom- 
mended that, for accurate meteorological pur- 
poses, resort should be uniformly had to the 
chemical methods of extracting and weighing 
the aqueous vapor in a given volume of air. 
To this end he has devised a simple arrange- 
ment by which concentrated sulphuric acid may 
be exposed to the atmosphere and absorb its 
aqueous vapor; a method that is specially ap- 
plicable at very low temperatures. The ulti- 
mate object of these hygronietrical investiga- 
tions is, by enabling the meteorologist to ascer- 
tain at all times, in all localities, and at all ac- 
cessible elevations, the true condition of the 
atmosphere as to moisture, to furnish him with 
accurate data for studying the laws which con- 
trol its variations. The following table of rela- 
tive humidity is prepared for every 5 F. from 
5 to 95 above zero, and for a difference of 
temperature between the air and the dew 
point, technically called the complement of the 
dew point, ranging from to 18. (See DEW 
POINT, in article DEW.) 

TABLE OF EELATIVE HUMIDITY OF THE AIE. 



TEMP. OF 
AIR. 



DIFFERENCE OF TEMPEKATURE OF THE AIR 
AND OF TIIE DEW POINT. 



2- 3 4 5;6789 10 12 



6 1009691 878880,76726966 

10 10096918768807678,7066' 

15 100'96;91 878880,7678 70 66' 

20 100l96!91 87 88 80;76 78 69 66 

25 1009619187848076787067 

80 IlOO 96J92 88 84 8l!7T 74 70 67 

85 100 96i92 88 84 82 77 74 71 68 

40 IlOO 96,92 89 86 82 78 75 72 69 

45 IlOO 96'98 89 85 83'79 75 73 70 

50 IlOO 96 98 89 S6 68 'SO 76 74 71 

65 10096:9890868880777472 

60 100 96:98 90 86 84 81 77 75 72 

65 100 97 98 90 87 84 I 81 78 75 72 

70 Il0097l93 90878481 787673 

75 1009719491 878482797673 

60 100 97|94 91 886682 797774 

85 IlOO 97!94 91, 88 85 88 8n 77 74 

90 10097194918886888077,75 

9.") 10097,949188858880:78,75: 



52 47 48 

63 47 48 

! 4S 44 

68 , 48 44 



61 

:,- 
:.s 

5S 

;-,-, 

59 
go 

68 I 57 I 63 



53 48 
64 '49 



52 



64 59 , 55 1 51 
64 ' 60 56 



, 

70 ' 65 ' 61 i 66 

71 65 j 61 ] 57 
71166 62 5S 

72 ; 67 I 62 68 
72 ; 67 ! 63 69 
78 j 68 , 63 59 
78 68 ' 64 60 



IIYRSOS, or Shepherd Kings. See EGYPT, 
vol. vi., p. 460. 

Hl'LJCOSAURCS (Gr. i^aZof, belonging to wood, 
and aaipof, lizard), the name given by Dr. Man- 
tell to an extinct dinosaurian reptile, from the 
Jurassic strata of Tilgate forest, having the 
usual mammalian characters of its tribe, viz. : 
long bones with a medullary cavity, pachy 7 



134: 



HYLAS 



HYPERBOLA 



derm-like feet, and sacrum of five united verte- 
bra). It attained a size of 20 to 25 ft., and was 
believed by Mantcll and Buckland to have had 
an enormous dorsal dermal fringe like the 




Hylteosaurus. 



horny spines on the back of the iguana ; its skin 
was covered with circular or elliptical plates. 

1IYLAS, in Greek mythology, son of Theoda- 
mas, king of the Dryopes, and the nymph Me- 
nodice. Hercules, after slaying Theodamas, 
adopted Hylas, and took him on the Argonau- 
tic expedition. When they arrived at Mysia, 
Hylas went to a neighboring well for water, 
but the maids of that fountain became so fas- 
cinated with his beauty that they drew him 
into the water, and he was never seen again. 
When Hercules shouted for him, the youth's 
voice was heard from the well like a faint echo ; 
and he was so enraged at his loss that he 
threatened to ravage the country of the My- 
sians if they did not produce Ilylas dead or 
alive. They sought him in vain, and ultimate- 
ly instituted an annual festival, during which 
they roamed over the mountains calling ont 
the name of Hylas. 

1IYMKY, in Greek mythology, the god of mar- 
riage. According to some, he was a son of 
Apollo and one of the muses; but according 
to others, he was originally a mortal, who, 
having rescued some Attic maidens from Pe- 
lasgic pirates or other robbers, had his praises 
celebrated in token of gratitude in their bridal 
songs, which after him were called hymeneal 
songs. The practice of singing such songs at 
the nuptial season became in time universal, 
and the heroic youth was gradually elevated to 
the rank of a divinity. Hymen is represented 
in works of art as a tall handsome youth, car- 
rying in his right hand a bridal torch. 

IIYMENOPTERA (Gr. v/tijv, membrane, and 
KTep6v, wing), a suborder of insects, so named 
from their four membranous, transparent 
wings. They have upper horny jaws for biting, 
and softer and longer lower jaws with the tip 
adapted for collecting honey ; the females and 
neuters have a sting or piercer. All undergo 
complete metamorphosis ; the larva) of the 
stingers are soft, without legs, resembling 
maggots ; most of the larval piercers resemble 
grubs and caterpillars. They are diurnal, swift 
fliers, and surpass all other insects in the num- 



ber and variety of their instincts ; of the very 
numerous species none are aquatic. They in- 
clude the bees, wasps, ants, ichneumon flies, 
saw flies, &c., which are described under their 
respective titles. 

HYMETTUS, a mountain range of Attica, form- 
ing the S. E. boundary of the Athenian plain. 
It consists of two summits, the northern or 
greater Ilymettus, the apex of which is about 
3,500 ft. above the sea, and the southern or 
lesser Ilymettus, denominated Anhydrus, "the 
waterless," by the ancients. The honey of 
Ilymettus was considered by the ancient Greeks 
as inferior only to that of Hybla in Sicily ; but 
at present, though still abundant, it is said to 
be of very poor quality. The excellence of 
its marble is a favorite theme with classic 
authors. The greater Ilymettus is now called 
Trelo-Vuno, and the lesser Mavro-Vuno. 

HYOSCYAMS. See HENBANE. 

HYPATIA, a Neo-Platonic philosopher, born 
in Alexandria about 370, killed in 415. She 
was the daughter of Theon, a distinguished 
mathematician and astronomer. She went to 
Athens near the close of the 4th century, and 
studied under the Neo-Platonist Plutarch, who 
expounded to a small circle of disciples the 
Chaldean oracles and the secrets of theurgy. 
On her return to Alexandria, her talents, beau- 
ty, eloquence, and modesty made her an object 
of admiration. She revived the school of Ploti- 
nus, and became its head. But both as a pa- 
gan and as a philosopher she provoked the hos- 
tility of Cyril, bishop of Alexandria. Not only 
was her lecture room thronged, but she was 
consulted by the most considerable persons of 
the city, among others by the prefect Orestes, 
who was at constant feud with the bishop. 
The city was a prey to the violence of parties, 
and it was to the influence of Hypatia that Cy- 
ril attributed the refusal of Orestes to come to 
a reconciliation. " Certain persons, therefore," 
says the ecclesiastical historian Socrates, " of 
fierce and over-hot minds, who were headed 
by one Peter, a reader, conspired against the 
woman, and observed her returning home from 
some place ; and having pulled her out of her 
chariot, they dragged her to the church named 
Csesareum, where they stripped her and mur- 
dered her. And when they had torn her piece- 
meal, they carried all her members to a place 
called Cinaron, and consumed them with fire." 
Hypatia was the author of two mathematical 
treatises, which are lost, and there remains 
from her only an astronomical table inserted 
in the manual tables of Theon. She is the 
heroine of Charles Kingsley's " Hypatia." 

HYPERBOLA (Gr. imeppdMitw, to transcend), 
one of the conic sections, produced when the 
cutting plane makes a smaller angle with the 
axis of a right cone than is made by the side. 
The shadow of a globe on a flat wall, when 
part of the globe is further than the luminous 
point is from the wall, gives a hyperbola. Hy- 
perboloids are surfaces generated by moving 
hyperbolas. 



HYPERBOREANS 



HYPERTROPHY 



135 



HYPERBOREANS (from Gr. fatp, beyond, and 
,3op&zf, the north wind), a legendary race, 
placed by the Greeks in the remote regions of 
the north. They first appear in Hesiod and in 
the traditions connected with the temples at 
Delphi and Delos. The poets conceived of 
them as dwelling in perpetual sunshine, pos- 
sessing abundant fruits, abstaining from the 
flosh of animals, and living for a thousand 
years. The supposed location of tho Hyperbo- 
reans changed with the progress of geographi- 
cal knowledge. At first placed in the north 
at the sources of the Ister (Danube), they were 
transferred by some to the west when this river 
was supposed to proceed from the western ex- 
tremity of Europe; while others transferred 
them to the extreme north of Europe, beyond 
the mythical Gryps and Arimaspi, who them- 
selves dwelt beyond the Scythians. The latter 
view at length prevailed ; the character of the 
Hyperboreans as a sacred nation was lost sight 
of; and their name became only a geographi- 
cal expression for the extreme north. Modern 
ethnologists designate as Hyperboreans a sub- 
division of the arctic races, inhabiting N. N". 
E. Asia. (See ETHNOLOGY.) 

HYPERIDES, one of the ten famous Attic 
orators, born probably about 395 B. C., died in 
^Egina in 322. He was a pupil of Plato in 
philosophy, of Isocrates in oratory, began his 
career as an advocate, and was an associate of 
Demosthenes as leader of the anti-Macedonian 
party. In 358 he and his son equipped two 
triremes at their own expense to join the 
expedition against Euboea. Ho displayed an 
equal interest in the patriotic cause on an em- 
bassy to Rhodes (346), in the expedition against 
Byzantium (340), as ambassador with Demos- 
thenes to Thebes after the capture of Elatea 
by Philip (338), and after the battle of Cheero- 
nea, when he proposed, by a union of tho citi- 
zens, resident aliens, and slaves, to organize a 
desperate resistance to Philip. For his efforts 
on the last occasion he was prosecuted on an 
indictment for illegal proposition, but was ac- 
quitted. Of his defence there remain only the 
words : " The Macedonian army darkened my 
vision ; it was not I that moved the decree, but 
the battle of Chaoronea." The affair of Harpa- 
lus (324) for the first time broke his friendly 
relations with Demosthenes, against whom he 
appeared as public prosecutor. On the report 
of Alexander's death (323), it was chiefly by 
his exertions that the confederacy was formed 
which brought about the Lamian war. He 
fled after the battle of Crannon to ^Eginn, and 
was pursued and put to death by the emissaries 
of Antipater. The number of orations attrib- 
uted to him was 77, but the ancient writers 
rejected 25 of them as spurious. They agree 
in extolling his genius, and commend him for 
almost every excellence of style. Until late- 
ly only unimportant fragments of his orations 
were known to have been preserved. In 1847 
A. 0. Harris, an English resident of Alexan- 
dria, purchased near the ruins of Thebes some 



fragments of papyrus written over with Greek, 
which were parts of the oration of Hyperides 
against Demosthenes on the charge of having 
been bribed by Harpalus. He published a fac- 
simile of them in 1848. They were edited by 
Churchill Babington, with an introduction and 
commentary, in 1850. Another Englishman, 
Joseph Arden, procured at the same place and 
nearly at the same time other fragments of 
papyrus, which were found to contain a largo 
part of his speech for Lycophron, prosecuted 
for adultery, and his complete oration for Eux- 
enippus, charged with making a false report 
of the oracle of Amphiaraus. These were 
edited by Mr. Babington in 1853. Another 
traveller, Mr. Stodart, brought from Egypt in 
1850 another collection of papyrus fragments, 
among which were a large part of the funeral 
oration on Leosthenes and the Athenian soldiers 
who perished in the Lamian war. This was 
published by the same editor in 1858. His 
orations have been republisbed in Germany by 
Bockh, Kayser, and others, and in Paris in 
Didot's Jiibliotheca Grteca. The funeral ora- 
tion has been edited by Cobet (Leyden, 1858). 
HYPERTROPHY (Gr. imtp, over, and rpo<$, 
nourishment), an excess of growth of a part 
without degeneration or alteration in the struc- 
ture ; the exact opposite to atrophy. Hyper- 
trophy may depend on the excess of the mate- 
rials of certain tissues in the blood ; when this 
fluid contains habitually too much fat, there 
may bo an abnormal increase of the adipose 
tissue; similar hypertrophy may thus be in- 
duced in other tissues, but there is no evidence 
that tho muscles or nerves increase in bulk 
from the mere excess of their formative ma- 
terials. Though an increased supply of blood 
is generally rather the consequence than the 
cause of excessive nutrition in a part, hyper- 
trophy may arise from a mere increased circu- 
lation, and when one kidney cannot perform 
its functions, the other has been known to in- 
crease in size, owing to its increased activity 
as an excreting organ. This must be distin- 
guished from the augmented bulk of long con- 
gested parts, in which there is not normal 
hypertrophy, but an addition of altered and 
inferior tissue. Hypertrophy is in most cases 
dependent on a preternatural formative capa- 
city in the part, sometimes congenital (as in 
the abnormal growths of fingers and toes, and 
even entire limbs), but generally acquired. 
The most striking instances of acquired nutri- 
tive activity are seen in the muscular system, 
consequent upon the excessive exercise of its 
functional powers. Muscular hypertrophy is 
most often seen in the involuntary muscles, 
whose action is in some way impeded; thus 
stricture of the urethra or stone in the bladder, 
obstructing the exit of the urine and calling 
for extra exertion to expel it, causes hypertro- 
phy of the muscular coat of the bladder ; so it 
happens with the gall bladder when its ducts 
are stopped by calculi, and with the intestines 
when a stricture exists in any portion. Hyper- 



130 



HYPHASIS 



HYPOCHONDBIASIS 



trophy of the ventricles of the heart is often 
dependent on narrowing of the cardiac orifices 
by disease of the valves, giving the organ dou- 
ble work to do, and increasing its activity, as 
in other muscles. (See HEART, DISEASES OF 
THE.) When any of the voluntary muscles are 
specially exercised, hypertrophy is observed in 
them, as in the arm of the blacksmith or the 
legs of a professional dancer; and such hyper- 
trophied muscles generally cause an increased 
nutrition of the bones to which they are at- 
tached, and an enlargement of the points of 
origin and insertion. There are certain en- 
largements of glands, in which their proper 
tissue is increased without structural change, 
which unite physiological hypertrophy with 
pathological tumors, as in the case of the mam- 
mary, thyroid, and prostate glands. Certain 
tumors of the uterus contain only an excess 
of the normal muscular and fibrous tissues of 
the organ, and yet cannot be regarded as ex- 
amples of hypertrophy, as they observe no 
regular growth, subserve no physiological pur- 
pose, and constitute a positive deformity and 
disease; such abnormal growths may exist 
upon a uterus itself hypertrophied from in- 
creased functional activity, and must not be 
confounded with the latter. Supernumerary 
parts, as additional fingers and toes and vari- 
ous outgrowths developed during fatal life, 
must in like manner be referred to local hy- 
pertrophy from excess of formative activity. 
Dr. Carpenter sees in this whole series of ab- 
normal production the operation of a similar 
power; that which in simple hypertrophy is 
confined to increasing the size of an organ by 
the development of new tissue according to 
the morphological type of the part, in the for- 
mation of supernumerary tissues also imparts 
to them an independent existence; on the 
other hand, while in ordinary hypertrophy the 
tissues in excess are incorporated in the affect- 
ed organ, in the structure of a tumor the per- 
fectly formed and independently growing tis- 
sues constitute a mass whose shape is deter- 
mined more by surrounding conditions than 
by any tendency of their own the formative 
power undirected by the normal morphological 
nisui. In malignant growths, the development 
of tissues stops short of the limit by which 
formative power produces the normal tissues, 
and their vital endowments are not sufficient 
to resist the tendency to degeneration. 

HYPHASIS, a river of ancient India. See 
PUNJAUB. 

im'OUIOMHiltsiS (Gr. ford, under, and 
x6vSpof, cartilage), a disease generally classed 
r.mong neuroses, characterized by derangement 
of various organic functions, and accompanied 
by an habitual sadness, often bordering on de- 
spair, and a disposition to exaggerate every 
trifling symptom into a sign of dangerous 
malady ; probably so called because it was 
formerly attributed to disorder of the spleen, 
an organ situated in the left hypochondrimn. 
It occurs principally in persons of melancholic 



temperament, and in those whose moral and 
intellectual faculties have received high and 
unnatural development ; it is said to be com- 
mon in proportion to the elevation of the hu- 
man mind and to the progress of civilization. 
Men of letters, overtasked students and men 
of business, and those whose naturally delicate 
constitutions and ardent imaginative minds 
have been abnormally stimulated, are the most 
frequent subjects of hypochondria ; but it may 
arise at any ago and in the strongest persons 
after profound grief or other moral emotion, 
whether of love, hope, jealousy, or fear, de- 
bilitating excesses of any kind, the suppression 
of any habitual discharge, a sudden change of 
habits of life, or unceasing devotion to any 
philanthropic, political, or intellectual pursuit. 
The symptoms are as various as its causes and 
the constitutions of men ; there is not a part 
of the body which may not be the subject of 
the hypochondriac's complaint ; the senses are 
ordinarily very acute, and the sight, hearing, 
smell, taste, and touch are preternaturally ex- 
citable, and the sources of great real or ima- 
ginary suffering from the slightest causes ; 
there is almost always digestive disturbance, 
which enters largely into the explanation of 
the causes ; without fever or local lesion, the 
sensibility is exalted, with flatulence, nausea, 
spasms, palpitations, illusions of the senses, 
aches and pains simulating most diseases, fear 
of trifling dangers, exaggeration of all the 
moral sentiments, extreme instability of con- 
duct, and anxiety in regard to the health. 
The head is full of painful sensations, as fugi- 
tive as passing clouds, agonizing at one moment 
and forgotten the next; sleep is disturbed and 
unrefreshing, and the waking hours rendered 
miserable by imaginary troubles. Expressing 
complete disgust with life, the sufferers yet 
run to the physician with an account of every 
fugitive pain, and consider themselves neg- 
lected if not listened to, and insulted if their 
ailments be called imaginary. Both sexes 
suffer from hypochondria, and the female 
specially in the reproductive system. Though 
in the beginning the disorder may have been 
wholly in the digestive organs, and that only 
of a functional and curable character, by con- 
stant and morbid attention to these and other 
fancied ailments real and organic disease may 
be produced, and a return to health be im- 
possible. It is generally slow in coming on 
and of long duration, and is not incompatible 
with long life; if the digestion be tolerably 
good, the prognosis is favorable, as such per- 
sons are apt to observe most rigidly the or- 
dinary rules of hygiene; in some impression- 
able but resolute natures, it degenerates into a 
settled melancholy, which a slight cause may 
convert into temporary insanity and suicidal 
mania. It cannot be said to have any special 
organic lesions, though in severe and fatal cases 
there have been found various alterations of 
the digestive, circulating, and nervous systems. 
There are two opinions as to the nature and 



HYPOPIIOSPHITES 



HYPOSULPHATES 



137 



seat of hypochondria: one is that it is an 
irritation of the nervous system which presides 
over the digestive organs, with or without gas- 
tro-intestinal inflammation ; and the other that 
it is a cerebral neurosis, a kind of melancholy, 
as proved by the constancy of the cerebral 
symptoms and the efficacy of moral methods 
of treatment. Some modify the latter opinion 
by tracing it to a disturbance of the intellectual 
powers, which acts upon and impedes the func- 
tions of all the organs by concentrating the 
whole nervous energy in turn upon each sys- 
tem, organic lesions following upon the neurosis 
and displaying the morbid symptoms peculiar 
to each. As a general rule the disease is of far 
less moment than the formidable array of symp- 
toms, the complaints of the patient, and the 
expression of suffering would indicate ; some- 
times deceitful, and tlieir feelings misinterpret- 
ed both by themselves and the physician, irrita- 
ble, suspicions, and versatile, hypochondriacs 
are exceedingly troublesome and unsatisfactory 
patients. Children of hypochondriac parents, 
if they show any signs of uncommon nervous 
susceptibility, should be educated in a manner 
calculated to diminish the preponderance of 
the nervous element, and to increase the physi- 
cal strength, as by avoiding excess of study 
and all excitement, cultivating the generous 
sentiments, and by gymnastic exercises; in 
this way the ranks of hypochondriacs would 
be much lessened. Attention to the causes, 
when these can be ascertained, and their re- 
moval as far as possible, the observance of 
hygienic rules adapted to circumstances and 
constitutions, avoidance of excess in eating and 
drinking, and perhaps an occasional laxative 
or a tonic course, are probably all that can be 
done in the way of treatment. But in order 
to be of any benefit to his patient, the physi- 
cian must secure his confidence, and accustom 
him to the belief that his affection is under- 
stood, his feelings appreciated, his sufferings 
commiserated, and his complaints attentively 
listened to ; having inspired this confidence, it 
is not difficult to lead even the most confirmed 
hypochondriac to change his stereotyped way 
of regarding men and things, to interest him 
in new enterprises and modes of thought, and 
by judicious management to put him in the 
way of a return to health by following the 
dictates of his own feelings and common sense. 
HYPOPHOSPHITES. The salts formed by hy- 
pophosphorons acid with lime, soda, potash, 
and ammonia were proposed, mainly on theo- 
retical grounds, as remedies for phthisis, by Dr. 
Churchill of Paris. They have been extensively 
used, and are so still to a much less degree. 
Although possibly useful as tonics in some cases, 
they are as far as all other drugs from being 
specifics for consumption. Their chief thera- 
peutic value is to be found in cases where the 
phosphates of the system are morbidly deficient. 
This occasionally occurs in the debility that 
sometimes follows prolonged lactation, in some 
forms of dyspepsia and anasmia, and now and 



then in the disturbance or fever of dentition. 
The hypophosphites of soda and lime are the 
most useful agents, medicinally, of this class. 
They are best given in combination with a 
bitter or aromatic tincture or infusion. The 
dose of each of them is from 2 to 12 grains, 
according to age and other circumstances. 

HYPOSULPHITES, and Hyposulphites, com- 
pounds, the one of hyposulphuric and the 
other of hyposulphurous acid, with bases. Of 
these salts the only one of much interest is 
the hyposulphite of soda, which possesses the 
property of readily dissolving the chloride, 
bromide, and iodide of silver. It has been of 
great service in the preparation of daguerreo- 
types and photographs, being used to dissolve 
the sensitive salt of silver which remains un- 
changed after its exposure in the dark cham- 
ber of the camera. In chemical analysis also 
it is employed to distinguish between the 
earths strontia and baryta, precipitating the 
latter from its solutions, but not the former. 
It has moreover been adopted as a medicine, 
and been found beneficial in cutaneous affec- 
tions, in visceral obstructions, and in disease of 
the stomach attended with yeasty vomiting. 
The salt is prepared as follows: A pound of 
dry carbonate of soda, finely pulverized, is 
mixed with five ounces of flowers of sulphur, 
and the mixture is slowly heated until the sul- 
phur melts. By constant stirring exposed to 
the air the sulphide of sodium, which first forms, 
is converted into sulphite of soda. This is dis- 
solved in water and filtered. The hot solution, 
concentrated by boiling, is then saturated with 
sulphur and allowed to cool, when it deposits 
large transparent crystals, which are the hy- 
posulphite of soda, of composition represented 
by the formula NanS 2 Os+5HjO. These are 
soluble in water, but not in alcohol. The 
hyposulphite of soda is the anti-chlor employed 
by paper makers for removing the last traces 
of chlorine from the bleached pulp. A deli- 
cate test for the presence of hyposulphurons 
acid is the brown red color produced by a few 
drops of perchloride of iron. The hyposul- 
phites, and especially the hyposulphite of soda, 
have been used in medicine for the destruc- 
tion of animal and vegetable parasites and 
the arrest of fermentation. The diseases to 
which they have been applied are not only 
those which are demonstrably connected with 
parasitic growth or fermentation, as yeasty 
vomiting and parasitic affections of the mouth 
and skin, but also those where similar process- 
es may be supposed to be essential factors; 
such are intermittent and other forms of ma- 
larial fevers, typhoid, purulent infection, glan- 
ders, cholera, and the contagions exanthemata. 
Although favorable reports have been made of 
their action, general experience does not as yet 
appear to justify the hopes founded on theory, 
or the confident expectations of the physician 
most widely known as the originator of the 
treatment, Dr. Polli of Milan. No harm, how- 
ever, has resulted from them, and the presump- 



138 



HYPOTHECATION 



IIYRCANUS 



tion in their favor is strong enough to justify 
their employment in connection with other 
treatment. The hyposulphite of soda may be 
given in doses of 10 or 20 grains, or more, 
three times a day, dissolved in water. The 
action of the sulphite is identical with or anal- 
ogous to that of the hyposulphite, and it has 
been used for the same purposes. 

HYPOTHECATION (Gr. v-6, under, and %*?, a 
chest), a word which, in the Roman civil law, 
from which it is taken, signifies more nearly 
what \vo understand by mortgage than by 
pledge, for which they had a separate word, 
pignus; but it is not precisely the same as 
either. It was generally used whenever the 
title to property was transferred by the owner 
to his creditor, by way of security for the debt, 
but without that delivery of actual possession 
which was necessary to constitute a pledge. 
In English and American law, the word is 
most frequently used in the law of shipping. 

IIVKAV, a small pachyderm, coming nearest 
to the rhinoceros family, but looking much 
like a diminutive hare, and in some respects 
seeming to form one of the connecting links 
with the rodents, constituting the family lam- 
nungia of Illiger. The old naturalists had 
always placed it among the rodents, but Cu- 
vier, from its anatomical structure, ranked it 
with the pachyderms, of which Swainson calls 
it the gliriform type. The number of ribs is 
21 pairs, greater by G than in any rodent, of 
which 7 are true; the sternum consists of 6 
pieces; there are no clavicles; the suborbital 
foramen is small ; the dental formula is : inci- 
sors f, canines none, molars \Z\ or -$~f, with 
distinct roots; the extinct pachyderm toxodon 
has long and curved molars, without roots, and 
incisors with arched sockets, forming another 
link in the chain of rodent affinities in this order. 
The toes are four before and three behind, as 
in the tapir ; the hoofs are small and flat, but 
the inner toe of the hind foot has a curved 
claw. The genus Jiyrax (Hermann) is the only 
one in the family, and contains four or five spe- 
cies. The body is covered with short, thick 
fur, with a few long bristles scattered among 
the shorter hair, and others around the nos- 
trils and orbits ; a tubercle in the place of the 
tail. The common name of the species is da- 
man ; it seems to bear the same relation to the 
rhinoceros as the existing sloths to the extinct 
megatherium ; it lives among rocks, and is 
sometimes called rock rabbit and Cape badger. 
The Syrian hyrax (//. Syriacus, Schreb.) is 
about 11 in. long and 10 in. high; the upper 
parts are brownish gray, the sides yellowish, 
and the lower parts white. Its movements 
are quick, and its habits much like those of 
rodents; it delights in heat, in cold weather 
rolling itself up ; it searches for narrow open- 
ings in which to hide itself, as its soft feet are 
not adapted for digging burrows like many ro- 
dents; its sense of smell is acute, and by it the 
food, which is wholly vegetable, is obtained ; 
it is of mild disposition, with little intelligence 



and little fear. It is found on the mountains 
near the Red sea, and in Ethiopia and Abys- 
sinia in caverns in the rocks, dozens being 
seen at a time warming themselves in the sun. 
This animal, according to Bruce, is called in 
Arabia and Syria Israel's sheep, and is the 




Hyrax Capensis. 

shaphan of the Hebrews, generally translated 
rabbit or cony. The Cape hyrax (//. Capen- 
sz's, Pall.) is about the size of the rabbit, but 
with shorter legs, more clumsy form, thick 
head, and obtuse muzzle ; the color is uniform 
grayish brown, darkest along the back; it 
lives in the rocky regions of the south of Af- 
rica; its flesh is delicate and savory. Other 
species are described in the woods of Africa. 

II VKCAMA, an ancient country of Asia, com- 
prising the western portion of the mountain 
region between the S. E. shores of the Caspi- 
an (sometimes called the Hyrcanian sea) and 
the river Arius (now Heri-rud). It consisted 
mainly of the valleys of the Nika, Gurgan, 
and Atrek. It was a most productive coun- 
try, capable of sustaining a dense population, 
and deserving Strabo's description of being 
" highly favored of heaven." The Hyrcanians 
seem to have been a people of Turanian race, 
'intermixed with Aryans. After a short re- 
sistance they submitted to Cyrus. When the 
Persian empire was organized by Darius Hys- 
taspis into satrapies, Hyrcania was added to 
the satrapy of Parthia. After the Macedonian 
conquest, Hyrcania became a part of the em- 
pire of the Seleucidro. The Parthian king 
Arsaces II., or Tiridates, detached it from the 
Syrian empire and added it to his own terri- 
tories. Shortly afterward it was invaded and 
devastated by Scythians. It was also invaded 
by Antiochus the Great, in his Parthian war, 
but seems to have remained unsubdued. A 
subsequent revolt against the Parthian rule 
was unsuccessful. 

HYRCANDS. I. John, a Jewish high priest, 
died in 106 (or according to some in 105) B. C. 
He succeeded his father Simon Maccabseus 
in the high priesthood as one of the Asmo- 
nean rulers of Judea, 135 B. C. In that yi-nr 
Antiochus Sidetes besieged Jerusalem, and 
obliged the inhabitants to dismantle its forti- 
fications and pay a tribute; but after the de- 
feat and death of Antiochus in 130, Hyrcanus 
reestablished his independence and extended 
his dominion. lie razed the city of Samaria, 



IIYRTL 



HYSTERIA 



139 



took several other cities from the Syrian king- 
dom, and not only conquered the Idumoeans, 
but compelled them to submit to the Mosaic 
ritual. He also formed an alliance with the 
Romans. In the latter part of his reign he 
abandoned the sect of the Pharisees for that 
of the Saddueees, thereby incurring much 
odium. He was succeeded by his son Aristo- 
bulus, who took the title of king of Judea. II. 
Hyrcanns II., grandson of the preceding, born 
about 109 B. C., beheaded in 30. He was the 
eldest son of Alexander Jannreus and his wife 
Alexandra, daughter of John Hyrcanus. On 
his mother's death (71) he succeeded to the 
kingdom, but the power was soon wrested 
from him by his younger brother Aristobulus. 
When Pompey made himself master of Jeru- 
salem in 63, he reinstated Hyrcanus in the gov- 
ernment as a tributary prince. Dissensions 
again deprived him of power, but when Cajsar 
reconstructed the state he was once more re- 
stored as high priest, Antipater having civil 
authority as procurator. Herod, the younger 
son of Antipater, succeeded his father as pro- 
curator, and betrothed himself to Mariamne, 
the granddaughter of Hyrcanus. In a new 
attack by Antigonus, the only surviving son of 
Aristobulus, who was aided by the Parthians, 
Hyrcanus was taken prisoner; his ears were 
cut off to render him incapable of holding the 
office of high priest, and he was banished to 
Babylonia, where the Parthian monarch and 
oriental Jews treated him with distinction. 
After some years he returned to Jerusalem, 
where Herod had now established himself in 
the sovereignty and had married Mariamne. 
Becoming jealous of his claims to the throne, 
Herod caused him to bo put to death. 

HYRTL, Joseph, an Austrian anatomist, born 
at Eisenstadt, Hungary, Dec. 7, 1811. He stud- 
ied at Vienna, became in 1837 professor of anat- 
omy at Prague, and was recalled to Vienna in 
1845 in the same capacity, became rector of 
the university, and retired March 1 6, 1 874. He 
is distinguished for his labors in comparative 
anatomy, his investigations on the organ of 
hearing, and the invention of many anatomical 
instruments. He was the first to introduce 
a knowledge of topographical anatomy into 
Germany, and published a manual relating to 
this branch of science (2 vols., 1847 ; 5th ed., 
1865). His Lehrbuch der Anatomic des Men- 
schen (1847; llth ed., 1870) is a text book in 
German universities, and has been translated 
into many foreign languages. Among his other 
principal works are ffandbuch der praktischen 
Zergliederunfiskumt (1860), an elaborate de- 
scription (1865) of the museum of comparative 
anatomy, which he had founded, and Das Nie- 
reribecken der Saugefhiere und des Menschen 
(Vienna, 1870). His preparations, famous for 
many years, demonstrate by colored material 
injected through some of the principal arteries 
the presence of the microscopic arteries and 
veins accompanying the lacteal vessels in the 
minute intestinal papilla?. By the same means 



he demonstrated in 1874 the presence of a 
vascular net in the cornea of the eye, and after 
many ineffectual attempts he succeeded in fill- 
ing the arteries and veins of an infant eight 
days old from the umbilical vein with coloring 
matter so perfectly as to reach and penetrate 
the minute arteries and veins of both cornese. 

HYSSOP (hyssopus ojficinalis, Linn.), a per- 
ennial aromatic plant, of the natural order 
labiates, a native of Europe, and cultivated 
there and in the United States in gardens. Its 
flowers, violet-colored or blue, and its leaves, 
are used in medicine, though but little by reg- 
ular practitioners. It is a warm and gentle 
stimulant, promotes expectoration of the mu- 
cus, and is used in chronic catarrhs, especially 
by old people. The hyssop of Scripture is the 
caper tree, capparia tpinosa (Linn.), which 
abounds in the south of Europe, in lower 
Egypt, and in Syria. 

HYSTERIA (Gr. vortpa, womb), a disease char- 
acterized by great excitability of the nervous 
system, especially of the sensory ganglia, with- 
out necessary structural lesion, and manifest- 
ed by disordered states of the emotional na- 
ture, with loss of the power of controlling 
the thoughts and feelings, by spasmodic symp- 
toms, and occasionally by perversion or sus- 
pension of the intellectual faculties. It re- 
ceived its name from the idea that it is peculiar 
to the female sex, originating in some disturb- 
ance of the uterine functions ; but, though by 
far the most common in females, and generally 
connected with disorder in the generative sys- 
tem, it may also occur in males ; a common 
name for it is " the vapors." The nervous 
symptoms predominate, varying in character 
and intensity according to the temperament 
of the individual, the nature of the causes, and 
the persistence of the disease. In the beginning 
it generally manifests itself by an exaggeration 
of the ordinary signs of emotional excitement, 
such as smiles and tears, irrepressible laugh- 
ter and convulsive sobs, brought on by trifling 
causes ; the nervous excitability increases, un- 
til violent convulsions of an epileptic or tetanic 
character arise from slight stimuli, with coma, 
opisthotonos, trismus, paralysis, cramps, end- 
ing often in monomania or moral insanity. The 
paroxysms are sometimes of frightful intensity, 
requiring the strength of several persons to 
restrain a delicate female and prevent self- 
injury ; after an attack the patient may be ex- 
hausted and almost insensible, and in a state of 
double consciousness, or much agitated, laugh- 
ing or crying at the strangest fancies ; at times 
the person falls insensible, breathing at long 
intervals, recovering with a sense of fatigue 
and coldness, or with involuntary emission of 
limpid urine. In cases where the nervous 
symptoms are less prominent, there are pain 
and a sense of heat and fulness in the region 
of the uterus, constriction of the throat with 
difficulty and increased desire of swallowing, a 
feeling as if a ball were rolling from the abdo- 
men up to the epigastrium and throat with a 



140 



HYSTERIA 



sensation of pressure and suffocation, flatulence 
and tympanitic distention, Lurried respiration, 
palpitations, occasional cramps, and great de- 
pression or exaltation of spirits. An attack of 
hysteria may last for several hours, the violent 
symptoms recurring every few minutes, with 
intervals of partial rest ; or it may consist of 
but a single paroxysm of 20 minutes or half 
an hour in duration. After the paroxysm has 
ceased, tolerable health may be enjoyed for 
some time, though the nervous excitability per- 
sists. In cases of long duration, the intellect 
and memory become enfeebled, the strength 
fails, and hypochondriasis and various chronic 
irritations of the vital organs supervene. Hys- 
teria is very irregular in its march ; it is the 
most protean of diseases, simulating almost 
every morbid condition ; its duration is varia- 
ble, sometimes terminating in health after a 
few attacks without medical treatment, and at 
others lasting a lifetime in spite of the best 
directed efforts to arrest it ; its most dangerous 
consequences are convulsions, spasmodic con- 
tractions, partial paralysis, epilepsy, and ten- 
dency to insanity. The predisposing causes of 
hysteria are the female sex and a hereditary 
or acquired nervous irritability ; the exciting 
causes are vivid moral emotions, anything 
which excites the imagination, especially dis- 
appointed love, jealousy, and various excesses 
of body or mind ; it is often brought on by the 
mere force of imitation ; some irregular action 
of the sexual functions is found in nearly if not 
quite all cases between the ages of 15 and 50. 
There has been great diversity of opinion on 
the nature and seat of the disease ; its cause 
has been located in the uterus, in the brain, 
in the spinal cord, and in the stomach and 
other abdominal organs. Whatever be its ori- 
gin, a disordered state of the emotional nature is 
an essential character of hysteria, and the con- 
trol of the feelings rather than of muscular 
action is lessened or lost ; it is partly a disease 
of the mind, from improper education or self- 
abandonment to the power of the emotions. 
The habitual indulgence of feelings of a pain- 
ful character or of sexual tendency affects the 
nutrition of the nervous and genital systems, 
giving rise to the peculiar phenomena of this 
affection. Though hysteria may simulate the 
phenomena of epilepsy, tetanus, chorea, hydro- 
phobia, and other nervous diseases presented 
to its imitative disposition, it is dependent on 
a state of much less abnormal character ; there 
is generally no structural lesion, nor any seri- 
ous disturbance of the nutritive functions, as is 



evident from the long duration of the disease, 
and the suddenness with which different forms 
pass into each other or disappear entirely ; the 
strangeness of these combinations and sudden 
changes is sufficient to distinguish hysteria 
from the more grave diseases which it imitates. 
According to Carpenter, this excitability of the 
nervous system, which is only an exaggeration 
of that characteristic of the female sex, is caused 
by some defect of nutrition, the particular phe- 
nomena arising either from some morbid con- 
dition of the blood acting upon the nervous 
centre most susceptible to its influence, or from 
irritation of the peripheral nerves ; he believes 
a gouty diathesis is one of the most frequent 
sources of this imperfect nutrition. The prin- 
ciples of treatment are threefold : 1, to improve 
the nutrition of the nervous system by bring- 
ing the blood up to its healthy standard by 
strengthening diet, hygienic means, and the 
judicious employment of tonics ; 2, to remove 
all irregularities in the menstrual or other func- 
tions, when they are evident exciting causes; 
3, to act upon the mind, by leading the patient 
to repress the first emotional excitement by 
the force of the will, and to direct the atten- 
tion to a different class of objects, substituting 
a pleasant for a disagreeable train of thought. 
The attack itself requires that the patient should 
be kept from injuring herself, and the removal 
of all constricting garments, fresh air, sprin- 
kling with cold water, inspiration of ammonia 
or other strong or disagreeable odors, irritating 
the nostrils with a feather, and other similar 
domestic remedies. To prevent a return, tran- 
quillity of mind and habits of self-control are 
the best remedies ; any disappointment, whe- 
ther in love, business, or other affairs of life, 
should if possible be removed by the realiza- 
tion of the hopes ; if marriage be unadvisable, 
the tendency to hysteric attacks will often 
be removed by the change of air, scene, and 
habits resulting from a distant journey ; and 
a similar course is useful to distract the atten- 
tion from other consuming cares and passions. 
Ih I'HH. a town and parliamentary borough 
of Kent, England, on the British channel, 11 
m. W. S. W. of Dover; pop. of the municipal 
borough in 1871, 3,363. It is one of the cinque 
ports, and was formerly a place of considerable 
importance ; but its harbor has been destroyed 
by accumulations of matter thrown up by the 
waves, and it is now a fashionable resort for 
sea bathing. It has a military school and a 
theatre. The parliamentary borough includes 
Folkestone and several smaller places. 



I 



I THE 9th letter of the Latin and of most 
? other European alphabets, derived from 
the 10th Phoenician, Hebrew, &c., where it is 
named yod (Heb. yad, hand), and considered 



as a consonant. A dot under other consonants 
denotes its vocality in the Hebrew, and other 
marks in the other Semitic languages. It is 
the llth letter in Armenian, the 28th and last 



IAMBLICHUS 



IBERIA 



141 



in Arabic, and the 32d and last in Persian and 
Turkish. The Greek 'I<5ra is the 9th letter, but 
10th numeral sign, and is sometimes subscribed 
to three vowels, thus, (z, 5, tj. The sound of this 
letter ia the highest in the vocal scale, the coun- 
terpart of that of D (00). This sound (not as 
pronounced in mine, but as in pique or pin) is 
symbolic, in many words of all languages, of 
what is little, thin, slim, swift, shrill, light, flit- 
ting ; this property is mentioned by Plato. It 
is uttered through a broad but very thin inter- 
stice, which the tongue leaves between itself 
and the hard palate by being closely raised to- 
ward it and pressed against the molar teeth, 
while the larynx is raised higher than in the 
formation of any other vocal. Hence it is con- 
sidered as a palatal by John "VVallis, and as a 
dental by 0. Amman. Modern Greeks pro- 
nounce t/, u, 01, v, and m like i ; whereas the 
ancients made at, , 01, and vt diphthongal, giv- 
ing to the v a sound like that of the German u, 
and to the ? that of German a. The Romans 
used I both as a vowel and as a consonant; 
since they, as well as the Egyptians, Hebrews, 
and Greeks, knew no such sounds as the French 
and English give to J (zh and dzK). The Ital- 
ian language is impaired in its beauty by the 
frequency of I in its grammatic formations. 
In Italian it is also .used for softening the pro- 
nunciation of e, g, and c. In Spanish manu- 
scripts an initial I is always written Y, for 
which I is substituted in printing except where 
it has the consonant sound, as in yerbo,. In 
English the diphthongal sound in mine (Ger. 
mein) is taken for the long sound of I, and its 
genuine long sound is transferred to E, as in 
mete. The latter sound, long and short, is 
written in many different ways, some only in 
single words ; as in be, lee, sea, people, key, ccecal, 
fcetus, seize, mien, marine; pin, sieve, forfeit, 
build, lynx, women, busy, tortoise. Its English 
long sound is written in 10 ways, as in mile, 
aisle, lie, height, guide, my, ay, eye, buy, rye. 
In many words, like bird, stir, I has the sound 
of U in fur. The consonantal sound of I is 
represented by J in Italian and in German and 
other Teutonic languages, and by Y in French, 
Spanish, Portuguese, English, &c. (See J, and 
Y.) It was formerly the practice to class words 
in I and J together in dictionaries and other al- 
phabetical works ; but this is now nearly aban- 
doned in all languages. In Latin abbreviations, 
I stands for invwtus, in, inferi, lulius, lunius, 
&c. ; I. 0. for iuris consultus, &c. During the 
lethargy of literature I was used to denote 100 ; 
but in the Roman numeration it stands for 1. 
When placed before another numeral it is sub- 
tracted, and when following is added ; as IV, 
4; VI, 6. On French coins it denotes Li- 
moges as the place of coinage. In music, I 
is the name of the 9th tie on the neck of the 
lute and of various old musical instruments. 
Kirnberger, Fasch, and other organists deno- 
ted by it a by-tone between a sharp and J flat. 
lAMBUOIIlS, a Neo-Platonic philosopher, 
born in Chalcis, Coele-Syria, flourished in the 



first half of the 4th century A. D. lie was a 
pupil of Anatolius and Porphyry, and after the 
death of the latter became the head of the 
school in Syria. His pupils and contempora- 
ries styled him the "most divine teacher," and 
declared him the equal of Plato. Little is 
known of his life, except that ho made an ex- 
cursion annually to the hot springs of Gadara, 
and that miraculous acts were ascribed to him, 
which reveal the tendency of the Neo-Platonic 
school at this time to combine the thaumaturge 
with the philosopher. He had thoroughly 
studied the systems of Plato and Pythagoras, 
and the theology and philosophy of the Chal- 
deans and Egyptians, and his speculations pre- 
sent a confusion of Hellenic and oriental ideas. 
The extant books of his work on the Pytha- 
gorean philosophy have been published under 
different titles ; the last edition of the 1st 
(which contains the life of Pythagoras) and 
2d is by Kiessling (Leipsic, 1813-'15), of the 
3d by Fries (Copenhagen, 1790), of the 4th 
by Tennulius, &c. (Arnhem, 1668), and of the 
7th by Ast (Leipsic, 1817). His work on 
Egyptian mysteries was published by Thomas 
Gale (Oxford, 1678). It was translated into 
English by Taylor the Platonist (Chiswick, 
1821), who also translated the "Life of Py- 
thagoras" (London, 1818). 

IBARRA, an inland town of Ecuador, capital 
of the province of Imbabura, 55 m. N. by E. 
of Quito ; pop. about 14,000. It is delightfully 
situated in the fertile plain of Imbabura, a short 
distance N. of the volcano of that name. The 
streets are wide and regular, and many of the 
houses well built, generally of adobes. The 
chief buildings are the governor's residence, 
the parish church in the public square, the hos- 
pital, and a beautiful pantheon. There are a 
college or Latin school and a number of pri- 
mary and grammar schools in buildings for- 
merly used as convents. Sugar of excellent 
quality is manufactured; also cotton and wool- 
len stuffs, very fine laces, hats, brandy, cordials 
or liqueurs, and sweetmeats ; and there are 
extensive salt works. The city was almost 
totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1868. 

IBERIA. I. The ancient Greek name of Spain. 
The aboriginal Iberi, from whom the name was 
derived, seem to have occupied the entire pen- 
insula from the strait of Gibraltar to the Py- 
renees, until the date of the Carthaginian in- 
vasion. They are also said to have occupied 
southern Gaul as far as the Rh6ne, where they 
bordered upon the Ligurians. Ticknor in his 
"History of Spanish Literature " says : "The 
Iberians are the oldest of the occupants of the 
Spanish soil, and the people who, since we can 
go back no further, must be by us regarded as 
the original inhabitants of the peninsula. They 
appear, at the remotest period of which tradi- 
tion affords us any notice, to have been spread 
over the whole territory, and to have given to 
its mountains, rivers, and cities most of the 
names they still bear ; a fierce race, whose 
power has never been entirely broken by any 



112 



IBERIA 



IBEX 



of the long line of invaders who at different 
times have occupied the rest of the country." 
The Iberians maintained an active commercial 
intercourse with the Carthaginians, and dis- 
played great activity in mining and much ar- 
tistic skill in the use of the precious metals. 
P. A. Boudard has published a work on the 
Iberian alphabet and language and Iberian 
coins (4to, with 40 plates, Beziers, 1859). (See 
OELTIBERI, and BASQUES.) II. The ancient 
name of the Caucasian country now known as 
Georgia. This country was bounded by the 
Caucasus, Albania, Armenia, and Colchis. The 
Asiatic Iberians were divided into four castes. 

IBERIA, a S. parish of Louisiana, intersected 
by Bayou Teche, and partly occupied by Lake 
Chetimaches and Vermillion bay ; area, about 
600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,042, of whom 4.510 
were colored. Part of the parish consists of 
an island lying between Vermillion and Cote 
Blanche bays and the gulf of Mexico. The 
surface is level, and the soil alluvial and fer- 
tile. Salt is manufactured. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 115,843 bushels of In- 
dian corn, 12,414 of sweet potatoes, 1,297 
bales of cotton, 12,500 Ibs. of rice, 1,854 hogs- 
heads of sugar, and 102,495 gallons of molas- 
ses. There were 1,271 horses, 834 mules and 
asses, 6,543 cattle, 3,511 sheep, and 1,569 swine. 
Capital, New Iberia. 

Ii:i:itl s. See EURO. 

IBERVILLE, a S. parish of Louisiana, bound- 
ed TV. 'by Atchafalaya bayou and S. E. by the 
Mississippi ; area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
12,347, of whom 8,675 were colored. It has 
a flat surface, and is frequently inundated. 
The lands lying near the rivers are fertile ; the 
rest of the parish is mostly uncultivated. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 168,645 bush- 
els of Indian corn, 1,178 bales of cotton, 4,907 
hogsheads of sugar, and 823,600 gallons of 
molasses. There were 377 horses, 1,938 mules 
and asses, 1,602 cattle, 1,483 sheep, and 656 
swine. Capital, Plaquemines. 

IBERVILLE, a S. TV. county of Quebec, Cana- 
da, bounded TV. by Richelieu river ; area, 189 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 15,413, of whom 13,971 
were of French descent. It is traversed by 
the Vermont Central and the Stanstead, Shef- 
ford, and Chambly railroads. Capital, St. 
Athanase. 

IBERVILLE, Pierre le Moyne, sieur d', a Cana- 
dian naval and military commander, founder 
of Louisiana, born in Montreal, July 16, 1661, 
died in Havana, July 9, 1706. He was one of 
eleven brothers, most of whom were distin- 
guished in French colonial affairs, three being 
killed in the service. (See LE MOYNE.) Iber- 
ville entered the French navy as a midshipman 
at 14, became captain of a frigate in 1692, and 
captain of a line-of-battle ship in 1702. In 
1686 ho served under De Troye in the overland 
expedition from Canada against the English 
forts in Hudson bay, was at the taking of Fort 
Monsipi, and, having with his brother cap- 
tured two vessels, reduced Fort Qmtchitchon- 



en. He was there again in 1088-'9, capturing 
two English vessels. In 1690 he was one of 
the leaders in the retaliatory expedition against 
Schenectady, where he saved the life of John 
Sanders Glen. In October, 1694, he took Fort 
Nelson on Hudson bay, losing his brother 
Chftteanguay in the assault. In May, 1696, he 
was operating on the bay of Fundy with three 
vessels ; he defeated three English ships, cap- 
turing the .Newport near the mouth of the St. 
John's, then besieged, took, and demolished 
Fort Pemaquid, and ravaged Newfoundland, 
taking almost all the English posts. Proceed- 
ing to Hudson bay in 1697, with the Pelican 
he engaged three English vessels, defeated them, 
and reduced Fort Bourbon. He was then se- 
lected to occupy the mouth of the Mississippi, 
a point which France had neglected after the 
death of La Salle. Iberville sailed from Brest 
with two frigates, Oct. 24, 1698, stopped at San- 
to Domingo and at Pensacola, which he found 
occupied by the Spaniards, and on Jan. 31, 
1099, anchored at the mouth of the Mobile near 
Massacre island. He then, with his brother 
Bienville, Pere Anastase Douay, who had been 
with La Salle on his last voyage, and about 50 
men, went in two barges to seek the Missis- 
sippi, and on March 2 reached its mouth. He 
ascended to the Bayagoulas and Oumas, and 
became assured that he was really on the Mis- 
sissippi by receiving from the Indians a letter 
left by Tonty in 1686 for La Salle. Returning 
to his ships, Iberville built old Fort Biloxi, the 
first post on the Mississippi, placed Sauvolle 
in command, and made his brother Bienville 
king's lieutenant. Early in May, 1699, he sailed 
for France, but again appeared off Biloxi in 
the Renommee, Jan. 5, 1700. He then began 
a new fort on the Mississippi, over which he 
placed Bienville. He also sent Lesueur with 
a party to establish a post at the copper mines 
on the Mankato. He was again in Louisiana 
in December, 1701, and finding the colony re- 
duced by disease he transferred the settlement 
to Mobile, beginning the colonization of Ala- 
bama. He also occupied Dauphin or Massacre 
island. His health was seriously undermined 
by fevers, and he was called away from his 
Louisiana projects by government. In 1706, 
with three vessels, he reduced the island of 
Nevis, and was about to operate on the coast 
of Carolina, when he was seized with a fatal 
malady and died in Havana. 

IBEX, a species of wild goat, inhabiting- the 
mountainous regions of Switzerland, the Py- 
renees, the Caucasus, and Abyssinia. The ge- 
neric characters are given in the article GOAT. 
The common ibex or steinbock (capra ibex, 
Linn.), the liouquetin of the Swiss hunters, is 
about 5 ft. long and 2f ft. high at the shoulders ; 
the horns are large, flat, with two longitudinal 
ridges at the sides and numerous transverse 
knobs; at first nearly vertical, they curve back- 
ward and outward to a length of about 30 in. ; 
they are dark colored and very stout. The 
color of the adult is brownish, with a gray tint 



IBICTJI 



IBIS 



143 



in winter and reddish in summer ; the hair is 
short and thick ; the under parts are whitish, 
and the dorsal stripe blackish brown. The 
period of gestation is about 160 days, and the 
young are usually born in April. They prefer 
the highest and most inaccessible mountains, 




Ibex (Capra ibex). 

near the line of perpetual snow, and are ac- 
cordingly hunted with great difficulty and dan- 
ger. The Abyssinian ibex ( C. jaela, H. Smith), 
known to the Greek and Hebrew writers, is 
rather higher than the preceding species, with 
longer horns, more circular and less divergent, 
rounded in front and marked with numerous 
transverse ridges; the color of the hair is 
brownish fawn, with a dark dorsal line ; under 
the throat and neck the hair is lengthened. The 
Caucasian ibex (C. Caucasica, Guld.) is broader 
and shorter than the European species; the 
horns are triangular with distant ridges, very 
solid, dark brown, and about 28 in. long. The 
color is dark brown above, head grayish, breast 
and dorsal line blackish, and throat whitish 
gray ; the hair is coarse, having at the roots a 
grayish wool. All these animals are remark- 
able for strength and agility, making immense 
bounds among the most dangerous precipices ; 
they are said to fall from considerable heights 
upon the horns, when pressed by the hunter, 
and apparently receive no injury from the 
shock. They are all probably more or less 
mixed with the common wild goat (C. cegagrwt) 
of Europe, and have contributed largely to the 
production of the numerous varieties of the 
domestic goat. (See GOAT.) 

I Itll'l I. a river of Brazil which rises in the 
Serra de Santa Anna, province of Rio Grande 
do Sul, about lat. 31 20' S. and Ion. 54 30' W., 
and flows first due N., under the name of San- 
ta Anna, then N. W. and joins the Uruguay 
between La Cruz and Restoracion, lat. 29 S., 
after a course of some 400 m. It receives on 
both sides the waters of numerous tributaries, 
423 VOL. ix. 10 



and is navigable for 300 m. by barges and ca- 
noes. The upper branch is called Ituzaingo. 

IBIS, a wading bird of the family tantalida, 
including the genera ibis (Moehr.) and geronti- 
cus (Wagl.) ; the genus tantalvs (Linn.) will bo 
noticed under WOOD IBIS. The genus ibis is 
characterized by a lengthened, slender bill, 
curved for its whole length, with the sides com- 
pressed and tip obtuse ; the nostrils are in a 
groove which extends to the tip of the upper 
mandible ; forehead and base of bill, to behind 
the eyes and on the chin, in most species bare ; 
wings long and pointed, the first and second 
quills equal and longest ; tail rather short and 
nearly even ; tibia bare for half its length, cov- 
ered with hexagonal scales ; tarsi slender, longer 
than the middle toe, with broad transverse 
scales in front ; toes long and slender, the late- 
ral ones united to the middle by a small web ; 
hind toe long and slender, claws curved and 
rather weak. There are about half a dozen 
species, of which three are found in the United 
States. The red or scarlet ibis (/. ruJn-a, Linn.) 
is about 28 in. long, the extent of wings a little 
over 3 ft., and the bill 6J in. The color is a uni- 
form bright scarlet, with the tips of the outer 
primaries black ; in the young the color is ashy, 
darkest above, with the under parts and rump 
white. Its natural habitat is South America 
and the West Indies, but it has been seen in 
the southern states by Audubon ; it is some- 
times called, from the length and shape of the 




Scarlet Ibis (Ibis rubra). 

bill, the pink curlew. The white ibis, Spanish 
or white curlew (/. alba, Linn.), is 25 in. long, 
with an extent of wings of 40 in., and the bill 
7 in. The color of the plumage is pure white, 
with the tips of the outer five primaries shining 
greenish black ; the bill is red, entirely so in the 
young birds, but with the terminal half black 
in the adult; the head in front of the eye is 
bare ; the young birds are of a dull brown color, 
with the under parts and rump white. This 
species is very common in the southern Atlan- 
tic and gulf states, occasionally straggling as 



IBIS 



IBRAHIM PASHA 



far north as New Jersey. They breed in large 
companies on the Florida keys on trees; the 
nest ia about 15 in. in diameter, formed of twigs 
and roots, flat on the inside ; the eggs are three, 
and are laid only once a year, 2J by 1& in., dull 
white, with pale yellow blotches and reddish 
brown spots ; incubation generally takes place 
between the 10th of April and the 10th of May ; 
the eggs afford excellent eating, though the 
yolk is of a reddish orange color when boiled, 
and the white a liver-colored jelly. When 
breeding, they fly in flocks of several hundreds 
to the mud flats, sometimes to great distances, 
where they feed on crabs, crawfish, and other 
crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic animals, until 
the tide begins to come in, whether by day or 
night. The flight is rapid and well sustained, 
effected by alternate flappings and sailings; 
they often rise very high, performing beautiful 
evolutions. They are fond of resorting to 
ponds or lakes in the woods, and often breed 
in such localities more than 300 m. from the 
sea; though not taking naturally to the water, 
they can swim tolerably well when forced to it ; 
the walk is light and graceful. The flesh has a 
very fishy taste, and is rarely eaten except by 
the Indians. The glossy ibis (/. Ordi, Bonap.) 
is a smaller species, being about 21 in. long, 
with a bill of 4J in. ; the general color is chest- 
nut brown, with the back and top of head me- 
tallic green glossed with purple ; the feathers 
continue almost to the bill, which is of a dusky 
black color. It exists in great numbers in Mex- 
ico, and it has been procured as far north as 
Massachusetts. The green ibis (7. falcinelhts, 
Linn.) is a native of southern Europe and 
northern Africa; it much resembles the glossy 
ibis, being purplish brown, with a deep green 
mantle ; in the young birds the head and neck 
are pointed with whitish. These ibises all live 
in warm climates, performing their annual mi- 
grations, and are generally seen on lands re- 
cently inundated, and on river banks, seeking 
for worms, snails, crustaceans, insects, and the 
roots of bulbous plants, or on the sea coast as 
above mentioned. The genus geronticus has a 
stronger bill, a longer and broader tail (the 
third and fourth quills the longest), the tarsi 
and toes stouter, and the head and neck more 
denuded of feathers than in the preceding ge- 
nus; in some of the species the scapulars are 
long, and consist of decomposed plumes. There 
are about 20 species, found in the warmer parts 
of Africa, Asia, and South America, of which 
only one will be mentioned here, the sacred 
ibis of the ancient Egyptians (O. Mihwpicm, 
Lath.). It is about as large as a domestic fowl ; 
the plumage is white, with the ends of the 
quills, the elongated barbs of some of the wing 
coverts extending over the wings and tail, bill, 
feet, and naked part of the head and neck, 
black ; it is found throughout northern Africa. 
This bird was reared in the temples of ancient 
Egypt with the greatest care, and was em- 
balmed ; it was forbidden to kill one on pain 
of death. This superstitious people reverenced 



the ibis, not because they supposed that it de- 
stroyed noxious reptiles, or that there was any 
relation between the changes of its plumage 
and the phases of the moon, but because they 
associated its annual appearance with the pe- 
riod of the inundation of the Nile, the source 




Sacred Ibis (Gcronticus J2tMopicu3). 

of the fertility and healthfulness of the land ; 
the crafty priests led the people to believe that 
the increase of the river, which brought the 
birds there in search of food, was the conse- 
quence instead of the cause of their visit ; the 
educated class regarded the ibis as the harbin- 
ger of the fruitful epoch of their year, as we 
look upon the coming of the bluebird and the 
swallow as the signs of spring. A black ibis 
was also honored and embalmed. The flight 
of these birds is powerful and high, with the 
neck and feet extended horizontally, and ac- 
companied by occasional harsh cries. They 
probe the mud with their bills in search of in- 
sects, worms, mollusks, &c., advancing by slow 
steps ; they arrive in Egypt when the Nile be- 
gins to increase, and migrate about the end of 
June, not nesting in that country; they are 
caught in great nvimbers by the modern Egyp- 
tians in nets, and their bodies are frequently 
exposed for sale in the markets. Both species 
usually go in small flocks. All the species 
have the same habits, frequenting both over- 
flowed lands and dry open plains; they some- 
times devour frogs and small aquatic lizards, 
but do not destroy serpents as Herodotus and 
many writers since have maintained; when 
satiated with food they perch on high trees, 
and are very watchful ; the nest is either on a 
decayed tree or on the ground, and the eggs 
are two or three in number. For full details 
on the sacred ibis, see Savigny's Histoire natu- 
relle de Vibit (8vo, Paris, 1805). 

IBN BATt'TA. See BATUTA. 

IBRAHIM PASHA, an Egyptian viceroy, the 
son, or according to some the adopted son, of 



IBRAHIM PASHA 



IOA 



145 



Mehemet All, born at Kavala, a village of Ron- 
melia, in 1789, died in Cairo, Nov. 9, 1848. 
His youth, from his 16th year, was spent in 
command of the troops in Upper Egypt, and 
in fighting the wild tribes of that region. In 
1812 he reduced by famine the fortress of Ibrim 
in Nubia, the refuge of the last remnants of 
the Mamelukes. In September, 1816, he in- 
vaded Arabia at the head of the third army 
sent to reduce the Wahabees, and displayed 
equal skill, courage, perseverance, and cruelty 
in organizing his heterogeneous forces, and 
creating victory out of defeat. After taking 
many strongholds, he laid siege to the Wahabee 
capital, which he compelled to surrender. He 
returned to Cairo in 1819, and, tinder the gui- 
dance of a French officer, created an army dis- 
ciplined and equipped after the European 
fashion. In August, 1824, he set sail with a 
formidable fleet and 17,000 troops for Greece, 
to aid in suppressing the insurrection there. 
His army gained many successes, and devasta- 
ted the Peloponnesus with great cruelty. The 
European powers intervened, and his fleet was 
destroyed at Navarino, Oct. 20, 1827, by the 
combined squadrons of Russia, France, and 
England ; and in 1828 he was recalled to Egypt 
by the peremptory order of Mehemet All. 
There again he busied himself in organizing an 
army, and in creating, with the aid of French 
engineers, a fleet superior to that which he had 
lost at Navarino. Both were ready in 1831, 
when the disobedience of the pasha of Acre 
furnished Mehemet Ali the desired opportunity 
of invading Syria. Ibrahim, to whom the ex- 
pedition was intrusted, lost 5,000 men by chol- 
era before he could leave Egypt. On Nov. 29 
he laid siege to Acre, having terrified into sur- 
render Gaza, Jaffa, and Kaiffa, A Turkish 
army came to the relief of Acre, and was sur- 
prised and routed by Ibrahim near Tripoli, and 
on May 27, 1832, he carried Acre by storm. 
He pushed on immediately for Aleppo. Da- 
mascus opened its gates to him. The Turks 
were again defeated at Horns, and afterward at 
Hamah, and finally the fall of Aleppo left him 
master of Syria. Pursuing the Turks, he over- 
took and routed them at Adana. Meanwhile 
his fleet had driven that of the Turks to seek 
refuge beneath the forts of Constantinople. 
Having obtained another brilliant victory at 
Ulu Kislak, he marched to Konieh, where on 
Dec. 20 he found himself confronting 60,000 
Turks commanded by Reshid Pasha. Though 
the Egyptians were not half as numerous, they 
routed the Turks completely, and the grand 
vizier himself was taken prisoner with im- 
mense booty. His father's commands obliged 
him to wait for reenforcements, instead of 
marching on Constantinople. This delay ena- 
bled the sultan to invoke the aid of the czar ; 
and on Feb. 20, 1833, a Russian fleet cast an- 
chor in the Bosporus. The western powers 
interfered, and a peace was concluded, leaving 
to Mehemet Ali the government of Syria and 
the pashalic of Adana. Ibrahim governed these 



provinces with firmness, repressed disorders, 
and encouraged agriculture, industry, and com- 
merce. The resentment of the sultan led in 
1839 to a renewal of hostilities, which resulted 
in another crushing defeat by Ibrahim of the 
Turkish forces, at Nizib, on June 24. Here 
again, obedient to his father's order, and in 
compliance with the request of the French 
government, he stopped short in his course of 
victory. A treaty concluded July 15, 1840, 
between the Porte and the western powers 
(without the knowledge of France), stipulated 
that Mehemet Ali should either consent to limit 
his authority to Palestine, or be compelled to 
do so by the united forces of England and 
Austria. An insurrection broke out among 
the mountain tribes of the Lebanon and spread 
rapidly on every side. Beyrout, after a bom- 
bardment of nine days, was evacuated by the 
Egyptian garrison, Sidon yielded without re- 
sistance, St. Jean d'Acre surrendered after 
three hours' fire ; the whole coast of Syria was 
in possession of the English, and Commodore 
Napier, anchoring in the bay of Alexandria, 
sent an ultimatum which Mehemet Ali accept- 
ed. Ibrahim, who had fallen back to Damas- 
cus, and found his position extremely difficult, 
was now commanded to evacuate Syria. This 
retreat, conducted with consummate ability, 
but with great losses, closed his military career. 
Thereafter he devoted his whole time to the 
culture of his immense estates on the plain of 
Heliopolis, until he was placed in charge of the 
government on the retirement of his father in 
1844. His own infirmities, however, compelled 
him to seek a more temperate climate and the 
medical skill of western Europe. Returning 
to Egypt, he began several reforms suggested 
by what he had observed during his travels; 
but a violent attack of dysentery again forced 
him to a change of climate, and he spent the 
winter of 1847-'8 in Italy. He went to Con- 
stantinople in July, 1848, where he was con- 
firmed in his rank of viceroy. 

IBRAILA. See BRAILA. 

IBYCCS, a Greek lyric poet who lived in 
the middle of the 6th century B. C. He was 
a native of Rhegium in Italy, and lived at the 
court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. It is 
narrated that while travelling near Corinth 
he was mortally wounded by robbers, and in- 
voked a flock of cranes, then passing over- 
head, to avenge his death. The cranes directed 
their flight to Corinth, and hovered over the 
people in the theatre. The murderers were 
present, and one of them on seeing the cranes 
exclaimed involuntarily, " Behold the avengers 
of Ibycus." This led to an inquiry, and to the 
punishment of the assassins. The poetry of 
Ibycus was mostly erotic, but sometimes myth- 
ical and heroic. But a few fragments of his 
works are in existence, the best edition of which 
is that of Schneidewin (Gottingen, 1835). 

ICA, an inland town of Peru, capital of a dis- 
trict of the same name, in the department and 
170 m. S. S. E. of the city of Lima ; pop. about 



146 



ICARUS 



ICE 



7,000. It is situated in a sandy plain, and the 
heat is excessive ; nevertheless, lea exports im- 
mense quantities of wheat and other grains, 
exquisite olive oil, and superior wines and 
brandies, through its port, Pisco, 48 m. N. N.W., 
to which place a railway has been in operation 
since 1872. The cost of the line was $1,364,- 
062 50. An extensive trade is also carried on 
in fish taken on the Pacific coast. There are 
several schools, which are well attended. In 
the adjacent district are found species of stones 
called dentritis, which when polished present 
curious views of trees, plants, edifices, &c. 

H'lKl s. See DJJDALUS. 

ICE, water or other fluid solidified by freez- 
ing. Various liquids become partially solid at 
low temperatures, but this is commonly owing 
to the water of which they are in part com- 
posed ; and none of them produce a clear uni- 
form solid like that of frozen water. At 32 
F. under ordinary circumstances water begins 
to crystallize. Slender prisms, usually of six 
sides, and terminated by six-sided pyramids, 
form in it, and arrange themselves in lines 
crossing each other at angles of 60' and 120. 
The presence of salts in solution impedes this 
process, and when at last it takes place at a 
temperature below 32, the greater portion of 
the foreign matter is excluded from the ice, 
which consequently is nearer the composition 
of pure water. Advantage is taken of this in 
some operations designed to concentrate the 
strength of liquors, as of vinegar, the portion 
that first crystallizes by cold being removed, 
and leaving the residue less diluted. Pure 
water contained in a polished vessel and kept 
perfectly quiet may be reduced to several de- 
grees below the freezing point without freez- 
ing; but agitation or the introduction of for- 
eign bodies will cause congelation to take place 
suddenly, and as the ice is formed latent heat 
is liberated, and the temperature rises to 32. 
Saline solutions sometimes exhibit a similar 
reluctance to deposit their salts in crystalline 
form even when reduced by evaporation below 
their point of saturation ; and in these cases 
crystallization is often suddenly induced by 
the same methods that cause the water to con- 
geal. From about 39 water expands as its tem- 
perature is reduced, with the exertion of pro- 
digious force. A hollow globe of brass with a 
cavity only an inch in diameter, filled with wa- 
ter, has been burst by the freezing of this, ex- 
erting a force, as estimated, of 27,720 Ibs. The 
effect of this property is seen in the tenden- 
cy of ice to plough up the banks of ponds, to 
split off masses of rock from mountain cliffs, 
and to loosen and pulverize the soil through 
which it is diffused. The effect last named is 
not perceived till the thaws of spring, when 
the frost is said to come out of the ground. 
This force has been artificially applied to split- 
ting rocks and trunks of trees by allowing 
water to freeze in their fissures. This expan- 
sion, estimated by Boyle at one ninth the ori- 
ginal volume, gives to ice less density than that 



of water, so that it floats. Its specific gravity 
by this estimate should be 0'9 ; M. Brunner in 
his series of experiments found it to vary from 
0-918 at C. to 0-92025 at 20 0. But for 
this exception, which is however not a singu- 
lar one, to the usual law of increase of density 
by reduction of temperature, ice as it forms 
would sink to the bottom, and there accumu- 
late beyond the reach of atmospheric heat; 
great collections of water would be chilled 
throughout, and their fitness for sustaining life 
in cold regions be entirely destroyed. But as 
the ice, a bad conductor of heat, covers the 
water, it serves as a protecting sheet to retain 
the warmth below, and preserve the water 
from the extreme temperature that prevails 
above. As the cold increases, the solid ice is 
found to be subject to the usual law, contract- 
ing as found by Brunner more than other 
solids ; and upon ponds in excessively cold 
weather it contracts, and in shrinking parts 
asunder in the weakest places with loud re- 
ports. A form of ice called anchor ice is often 
seen in cold weather attached to objects at the 
bottom of streams. Its character is explained 
by Prof. Dewey on the supposition that the 
whole body of water is cooled below the freez- 
ing point, but under conditions of quietness 
opposed to the formation of ice. The sub- 
stances at the bottom serve as points of con- 
gelation, like those introduced into saline solu- 
tions to cause crystallization to take place, and 
ice forms upon them. It is observed to gather 
in a clear cold night, when the surface of the 
water is not frozen, and its temperature is at 
the freezing point, that of the air being still 
lower. The layers of ice are sometimes 3 in. 
thick ; and as soon as they are detached from 
the bodies which hold them down they rise to 
the surface. In some of the crevasses of the 
Alpine glaciers immense icicles from 20 to 30 
ft. long were found by Tyndall, hanging from 
the coping of snow which lines the edges of 
the chasms. Near the poles, and on moun- 
tains at a certain height in all latitudes, there 
are immense masses of what may be considered 
permanent ice ; and there are said to be places 
in Siberia, even where there is a limited cul- 
ture of the ground, where ice is always found 
at a certain depth below the surface. In a 
well which was sunk at Yakutsk the earth was 
found firmly frozen to the depth of 382 ft., 
some of the strata being entirely of ice. From 
the exposed polar ice fields and glaciers great 
masses become detached and form icebergs. 
(See ICEBERGS.) The regelation of ice, a phe- 
nomenon first distinctly observed by Faraday, 
has recently attracted much attention, espe- 
cially in regard to a controversy on the subject 
of glaciers. Regelation takes place between 
blocks of ice where they are strongly pressed 
together, even in warm water, and in cold 
water it will take place when the masses only 
touch each other. When fragments of ice are 
subjected to pressure in a mould, they may be 
formed into a solid block. When but little 



ICE 



147 



pressure is used, it is necessary that the ice 
should be but little below the freezing point. 
This is the explanation of snow-ball making. 
As the freezing point of water is lowered by 
pressure, it is easy to understand how this for- 
mation of solid blocks from fragments may 
take place. A certain degree of viscosity, ap- 
proaching liquefaction, is produced, by which 
the particles are reunited, and are firmly held 
as soon as the pressure is removed or lessened. 
The motions of glaciers, attended as they are 
by alterations in the form of immense masses 
of ice, is explained by this property that ice 
has of liquefying under enormous pressure. 
Mountains of ice squeezed into crevasses must 
oxert a force which we probably cannot pro- 
duce by any artificial means, and as a conse- 
quence the ice may be made viscous when at 
a temperature considerably below the freezing 
point. For other properties of ice, see GLA- 
CIER, SNOW, and FREEZING, ARTIFICIAL. ICE 
TRADE. Ice was little known as an article of 
commerce until the early part of the present 
century. In the 17th century its use was so 
common in France that many dealt in it and in 
snow, gathering these in winter and packing 
them closely in pits surrounded with straw or 
other non-conducting substances and protected 
from the air. The Italian peasants also have 
long found a profitable business in collecting 
the snow upon the Apennines and storing it 
in the caves of these mountains to supply the 
large demand at Naples. The bodies of ice 
found in the recesses of Mount Etna, and ex- 
cavated sometimes from beneath beds of lava 
which have flowed over them, are noticed in 
the article ETNA. In the last century the 
gathering and storing of ice for summer use is 
known to have been practised in some of the 
middle states of the American Union, the re- 
ceptacles for preserving it being deep cellars, 
placed so as to be readily drained, or from 
which the water was pumped out as it collect- 
ed ; but though most wanted in countries 
where it is not naturally produced, no attempts 
had been made to transport it by sea. This 
was first done by Mr. Frederick Tudor of Bos- 
ton, who sailed with a cargo of 130 tons in 
his own brig to Martinique in. 1805. He perse- 
vered in the business, though making little or no 
profit, till after the close of the war of 1812. In 
1815 he obtained the monopoly of the Havana 
business and important privileges from the 
Cuban government. In 1817 he introduced 
the trade into Charleston, S. C., the next year 
into Savannah, and in 1820 into New Orleans. 
Frequent disasters attended his enterprises, and 
in 1832 his entire shipments amounted to only 
4,352 tons, the whole of which came from 
Fresh pond in Cambridge. In May, 1833, he 
sent the first cargo of ice to the East Indies, 
which was delivered at Calcutta in the autumn 
of that year. Of 180 tons, one third was wast- 
ed on the voyage, and 20 tons more in going 
up the Ganges. It was packed in large blocks 
closely fitted together between a double plank 



casing filled in with dry tan. The ice was sold 
immediately at half the cost of that prepared 
by the natives. At the present time a waste 
of about one half is generally expected on this 
voyage. In 1834 the first cargo was shipped 
by Mr. Tudor to Brazil. Until 1836 he conduct- 
ed the whole trade ; but as it became profitable 
others began to enter into it, and from other 
ports besides Boston. That port, however, still 
has the great bulk of the trade, the shipments 
having been as follows, according to the incom- 
plete returns that have been preserved : 



In 1805 180 tons. 

' 1816 1,200 " 

" 1826 4,000 " 

" 1836 12,000 " 

" 1646 65,000 " 

" 1856 146,000 " 



In 1866 124,751 tons. 

" 1668 105,818 " 

" 1870 78,808 " 

" 1871 109,298 " 

" 1872 98,859 " 

" 1878 81,266 " 



Of the amount shipped in 1873, 30,333 tons 
went to coastwise and 50,933 tons to foreign 
ports. The total exports from the United States 
to foreign ports for the year ending June 30, 
1873, were 53,553 tons, valued at $188,095, of 
which 48,890 tons, valued at $175,848, were 
from Boston ; 14,449 tons were shipped to 
Cuba, 13,342 to the East Indies, 10,186 to the 
British West Indies and British Honduras, 4,392 
to British Guiana, and the rest to other por- 
tions of the West Indies, South America, &c. 
Into the interior ice has been carried by rail- 
road in considerable quantity as far as Knox- 
ville, Tenn. Some ice was formerly shipped 
to England, but the British market is now en- 
tirely supplied from Norway, the Norwegian 
ice being cheaper than the American, though of 
inferior quality. The imports into the United 
Kingdom in 1872 amounted to 139,421 tons, 
valued at 128,251. The chief difficulty in es- 
tablishing the ice business in warm countries 
has been the necessity of constructing houses 
especially adapted for preserving the ice ; and 
these to be profitable must be upon a large 
scale. One of these erected in 1845 at Cal- 
cutta, by Mr. Wyeth of Cambridge, covered 
more than three fourths of an acre, and was 
capable of holding 30,000 tons of ice. Its walls 
of brick were triple, with flues or air spaces 
between ; their length was 198 by 178 ft., and 
their height 40 ft. The building was covered 
by five roofs, and between every two contigu- 
ous ones were air spaces. New York city is 
supplied with ice chiefly from small lakes near 
the Hudson river, or from the river itself above 
Newburgh. The whole amount gathered when 
the season is favorable is about 1,160,000 tons, 
of which 200,000 tons are from the lakes (Rock- 
land lake in Orange co. supplying 80,000 tons), 
and the rest from the river. Deducting one 
third for wastage, we have 774,000 tons, the 
amount required to supply the present demand 
of New York and Brooklyn. The demand in- 
creases at the rate of about 70,000 tons a year. 
With the growth of the business upon the coast 
it has also spread in the interior, where, espe- 
cially near the large towns, the gathering of 
ice is now an important business. The great 



148 



ICE 



ICEBERGS 



lakes furnish supplies which are carried by rail- 
road to the cities lying south, and through 
the Illinois river ice is sent down the Missis- 
sippi. In the autumn the ice boats come up 
to the vicinity of Peru, 111., where they are 
allowed to he frozen in. In the winter they 
are filled, and in the spring when the ice breaks 
up they float down with their freight. The ice 
produced in deep ponds by the severe cold 
weather of New England is particularly adapt- 
ed by its hardness and compactness to keep 
well, while the purity of the water gives it 
clearness and renders it especially agreeable. 
The ice obtained from the Kennebec river is 
most celebrated. That formed upon the shal- 
low waters of Great Britain is found to be 
porous and very inferior in durability to that 
from the United States of the same thickness. 
The methods of gathering and storing ice are 
entirely American. When the ice is 9 in. to a 
foot thick, or if for exportation 20 in. thick, 
the snow, if there he any, is cleared ofi the 
surface with wooden scrapers, each drawn -by 
one horse. Another scraper armed with a 
steel blade planes off the porous upper layer to 
the depth of 3 in. or more if necessary. The 
surface is then marked off in large squares by 
a sort of plough drawn by a horse, which cuts 
a groove about 3 in. deep. A machine some- 
what like a harrow, with three or more paral- 
lel rows of teeth, which may be 22 in. apart, is 
next drawn along the lines already made, one 
row of teeth running in the grooves as a guide ; 
and as many more cuts are made as there are 
more rows of teeth. This is repeated upon the 
cross lines, and the whole area is thus cut into 
small squares. If necessary, a deeper plough 
is afterward run through all the grooves to in- 
crease their depth. A row of blocks is then 
sawn out by hand, and being taken out or 
thrust under the others, room is made for 
splitting off the adjoining squares, which is 
done by an ice spade dropped into the grooves. 
In very cold weather the ice yields readily to a 
slight wedging force. The blocks are some- 
times floated through the canals opened in the 
ice to the shore, where they are hoisted out ; 
and they are also sometimes jerked with a 
hook at the end of a pole up a slide upon a 
platform placed at the edge of the opening, 
and from this platform they are slid along on 
the sleds which convey them away. At the 
ice houses the blocks are raised often by steam 
power up an inclined plane to the top of the 
building, and thence let down another plane to 
any part within where it is required for pack- 
ing. The storehouses, huge wooden buildings 
without windows standing around the edges 
of the ponds or along the banks of the rivers, 
present a very singular appearance. They are 
from 100 to 200 ft. long and very broad, with 
a capacity sometimes exceeding 20,000 tons. 
One at Athens on the Hudson holds 58,000 
tons, and two at Rockland lake in Orange 
co., N. Y., hold 40,000 tons each. Around 
Fresh pond at Cambridge, Mass., there is a 



largo number of these buildings. Between 
their walls they are filled in with saw dust. As 
the season of the ice harvest is short and uncer- 
tain, the gathering of the crop is conducted 
with the greatest activity at favorable times. 

ICEBERGS, and lee Islands, floating masses of 
ice gathered on the coast of polar regions, and 
set adrift by force of winds and currents. 
Many icebergs are produced from glaciers, 
which, thrust down from the elevated snowy 
lands in the interior, are moved onward into 
the deep waters, where the fragments broken 
off from the advance border are floated away. 
The edges of glaciers extending many miles 
along a precipitous coast have been seen to fall 
with terrific violence into the sea beneath, and 
at once be transformed into floating islands of 
ice. These carry with them the masses of rock 
gathered up by the ice in its progress as a gla- 
cier, and transport them to new localities in 
warmer latitudes. (See DILUVIUM, and GLA- 
CIER.) Ice islands of vast extent are also pro- 
duced by the breaking up of the great fields 
of sea-made ice which accumulate along the 
shores of the frigid waters. In 1817 the ice 
covering several thousand square miles of the 
sea N. of Iceland, and chiefly on the E. coast 
of Greenland, most of which, it is believed, had 
not been moved for nearly 400 years, was sud- 
denly broken up and dispersed over the waters 
of the North Atlantic. Portions of it were 
carried far to the eastward of the usual range 
of icebergs from the north, and approached 
within 800 m. of Ireland, or to Ion. 32 W. 
The breaking up of this ice led to the expedi- 
tion of Capt. Ross, the second of the present 
century in search of a northwest passage, the 
opinion prevailing that the climate had essen- 
tially changed, and that the northern seas 
would continue open. The drift of the north- 
ern icebergs is with the great polar currents, 
one of which sets in a S. S. W. direction between 
Iceland and Greenland, and another along the 
W. side of Baffin bay, meeting the former near 
the coast of Labrador. They are brought 
against the American continent and the W. 
shores of its bays in consequence of not catch- 
ing at once the more rapid rotating motion of 
the earth as they pass upon larger parallels, 
and so allowing this to slip from under them. 
The greatest numbers are produced on the W. 
side of Greenland; and, as observed by Dr. 
Kane, " perhaps the most remarkable place for 
the genesis of icebergs on the face of the globe " 
is at Jacob's bight, an inlet a little N. of Disco 
island, in about lat. 71 and Ion. 56. From 
Labrador the ice is floated with the current 
past Newfoundland, and meeting near the 
Great Bank the warming influences of the 
Gulf stream, it usually disappears about lat. 
42. The extreme limit is in lat. 40. Some- 
times the ice is carried as far to the eastward as 
the Azores. In the southern hemisphere ice- 
bergs drift still nearer to the equator, being 
occasionally seen off the cape of Good Hope. 
As they reach their southern limit.in the north- 



ICEBERGS 



ICELAND 



149 



ern hemisphere their influence is felt in sensibly 
cooling the waters of the Gulf stream for 40 to 
60 m. around, and on approaching them the 
thermometer has heen known to fall 17 or 18. 
When driven, as they sometimes are, in large 
numbers into Hudson bay, they diffuse intense 
cold over the northern portion of the conti- 
nent. The floating masses assume a variety of 
forms. Some spread out into sheets, which 
cover hundreds of square miles and rise only a 
few feet above the water. These are called 
fields, or, when their whole area can be de- 
fined from the mast head, floes. A number of 
sheets succeeding each other in one direction 
constitute a stream, or lying together in great 
collections, a pack. The surface of the sheets 
is often diversified by projections above the 
general level, which are called hummocks; 
they are forced up by the floes pressing against 
each other, and are sometimes in the form of 
great slabs supported by one edge. Dr. Kane 
noticed that these become bent by their own 
weight, even when the thermometer continues 
far below the freezing point. The most solid 
clear ice exhibits this yielding property of its 
particles. The surface of the ice fields is 
usually covered with snow, and when the ice 
is no more than 2 ft. thick it gives no trace of 
salt on the surface. The thicker ice contains 
open pools of fresh water. The bergs are real 
floating mountains of ice, rugged and pictu- 
resque, with peaks jutting high into the air, 
and strange forms in the glittering hard blue 
ice, which one easily converts into imaginary 
castles and grotesque architectural designs. 
They are occasionally seen in great numbers 
moving on together. Dr. Kane in his first 
cruise counted 280 in sight at one time, most 
of which exceeded 250 ft. in height, and some 
even exceeded 300 ft. The dimensions of the 
largest are measured by miles. Lieut. Parry 
in the first expedition of Ross encountered one 
in Baffin bay, 7 leagues from land, the length 
of which was 4,169 yards, its breadth 3,869, 
and its height 51 ft. It was aground in 61 
fathoms. Its cliffs recalled those of the chalk 
on the coast of England W. of Dover. Dr. 
Kane saw one aground in soundings of 520 ft. 
which with every change of tide swung round 
upon its axis ; and Capt. Ross describes several 
he saw aground together in Baffin. bay in water 
1,500 ft. deep. The officers of the French ex- 
ploring expedition in the Southern ocean mea- 
sured several bergs from 2 to 5 m. each in 
length, and from 100 to 225 ft. high. Capt. 
Dumont d'Urville reports one in the Southern 
ocean 13 m. long, with vertical walls 100 ft. 
high. The portion of these masses of ice seen 
above the water is only about an eighth part 
of their entire bulk. Such bodies, weighing 
hundreds of millions of tons, moved on by a 
broad current of water, exert a power against 
obstacles of which we can form little idea. In 
their action upon the bottom of the sea, as ex- 
plained in the article DILUVIUM, many geolo- 
gists recognize a repetition of the phenomena 



accompanying the distribution of the drift 
formation, and the production of its sands and 
gravel and rounded bowlders. Dr. Kane re- 
marks of the display of power exhibited by the 
movements of these huge bodies as follows:' 
"Nothing can be more imposing than the ro- 
tation of a berg. I have often watched one, 
rocking its earth-stained sides in steadily deep- 
ening curves, as if to gather energy for some 
desperate gymnastic feat; and then turning 
itself slowly over in a monster somerset, and 
vibrating as its head rose into the new element, 
like a leviathan shaking the water from its 
crest. It was impossible not to have sugges- 
tions thrust upon me of their agency in modi- 
fying the geological disposition of the earth's 
surface." Icebergs occur in great numbers in 
the North Atlantic in the latter part of the 
summer, and form the chief danger which then 
besets the navigation between Europe and 
North America. These mountains and fields 
of ice, however, have sometimes served as a 
means of safety to persons who have taken 
refuge on them, or floated off with them acci- 
dentally. Several members of Hall's exploring 
expedition were in 1872 rescued from a floe on 
which they had drifted 196 days and a distance 
of 2,000 miles. (See ARCTIC DISCOVERY.) 

ICELAND, a large island in the North Atlantic 
ocean, subject to the Danish crown, geograph- 
ically belonging to the western hemisphere, 
about 160 m. E. of Greenland, 600 m. W. of 
Norway, 500 m. N. W. of the Shetlands, and 
250 m. N. W. of the Faroe islands. It is situa- 
ted between lat. 63 24' and 66 33' N., and Ion. 
13 31' and 24 17' W.; greatest length 325 m., 
greatest breadth 200 m. ; < area, including ad- 
jacent islands, 39,758 sq. m., of which 16,243 
are habitable. The population of Iceland in its 
most flourishing period exceeded 100,000; re- 
cent censuses give it as follows: 1864, 68,084; 
1869, 69,506 ; 1870, 69,763. Reykiavik, the 
capital, has a population of about 1,400. In 
shape Iceland somewhat resembles a heart with 
its apex to the south. The coast line on the 
south is but little broken, several of its open- 
ings having been filled up during eruptions of 
the neighboring volcanoes ; but in all other di- 
rections it is deeply indented with bays, fiords, 
and jutting promontories. The fiords extend 
far inland between lofty mountains, whose 
sides are carved into gigantic terraces. The 
principal of these is Isafiord in the N. W. pen- 
insula. The western fiords are studded with 
rocky islets, and open, like those of the north 
and northeast, to enormous ice drifts. The 
chief islands on the coast are the Vestmanna 
isles in the south, which form a county by 
themselves. The best harbors are those of 
Reykiavik, in a bight of Faxafiord, in the 
southwest, Hafnarfiord in the west, Akureyri 
on the Eyjafiord in the north, and Vopna- 
fiord in the east. Iceland is apparently of vol- 
canic origin ; its surface in the interior is com- 
posed of an elevated band of palagonite tufa 
pierced by trachyte, and having basalt on either 



150 



ICELAND 



side. This basalt, the oldest formation, under- 
lies the other two, the palagonite, which is 
next in age, and the lava, comprising all the 
strata due to recent volcanic action. Although 
the N". W. peninsula is composed of lofty ridges 
with here and there an extinct volcano, the 
chief mountain system is in the south. It 
forms a triangular mass, with its apex at 
Thrandar Jokull in the east, and its base ex- 
tending from Ok in the west to Eyjafjalla in 
the south. Toward the apex the great Vatna 
Jokull group covers an area of 3,500 sq. m. 
with its gigantic glaciers and snow fields. The 
mountains are distinguished into fells, which 
are generally free from snow in summer, and 
jokulls or ice mountains, which are shrouded 
in perpetual snow. The name of skal is given 
to perfectly symmetrical mountains. The prin- 
cipal jokulls are the Oreefa, 6,405 ft., the east- 
ern Snsefell, 5,958 ft., and the western Snasfell, 
4,699 ft. The volcanoes belong to all three 
classes. Beyond the mountain masses lies the 
great central table land, from 1,500 to 2,000 
ft. above the sea, and forming a wilderness 
covered with vast lava beds, barren heights or 
rolling rocky uplands, tracts of black volcanic 
sand, hillsides and valleys dotted with hot 
springs and sulfataras, and bottom lands filled 
with bog and mud. Over this desert three 
main roads, or rather tracks, connect the set- 
tlements near the fiords and the rare low plains 
and valleys extending inland along the water- 
courses. The most remarkable and fertile val- 
leys are those clustering around Eyjafiord in 
the north, that of Lagarfljot in the east, and 
those of the Hvita and Thjorsa in the south. 
Volcanic action has manifested itself over a 
broad belt of country, extending from Cape 
Reykjanes in the southwest to Krafla in the 
north. Within this belt are the principal vol- 
canoes, including Hecla. (See HEOLA.) From 
27 different spots, counting volcanic craters 
in the sea off Cape Reykjanes, 86 eruptions 
have occurred since 874, the last being those 
of Skapta in 1861 and of Trolladyn-gja in 1862. 
The lava has been thrown out from grassy 
plains in the north as well as from the enor- 
mous double chasm of Katla in the south- 
ern uplands. Of the lava beds, the Odatha 
Ilraun covers 1,160 sq. m., a second extends 
73 m. from Skjaldbreith and Klothufell to 
Reykjanes, and a third, around Hecla, is 25 
m. long and 10 m. broad. Another peculiarity 
is what is called the gjd or rifts in the deep 
lava beds, which are zigzag rents running from 
northeast to southwest. The most remarkable 
are the Almanna-gja and Hrafna-gja at Thing- 
vellir, and the rift into which pours the Joknlsa 
at Dettifoss. The principal lakes in Iceland 
are the Myvatn (Midge lake) in the north, much 
diminished in depth and extent by the lava 
streams from Krafla in 1724-'30, and Thing- 
vallavatn in the southwest, 10 m. long by 4 
wide. There are besides two principal groups 
of lakes, those of the Arnarvatn (Eagle tarns) 
dotting a large district N. and W. of Eyriks 



Jokull, and Fiskivatn (Fish tarns) at the foot 
of Skapta, which are the remains of a large 
lake that existed previous to the eruption of 
1783. The larger rivers take their rise in the 
southern mountains. The Jokulsa, reputed the 
largest, rises at the foot of Vatna, and flows N. 
to the Axafiord. About 30 m. from the sea it 
falls over a perpendicular wall in its lava bed, 
forming a magnificent waterfall. The Skjal- 
fandafljot has its source between Vatna and Ar- 
nasfell, and flows N. into Skjalfandi bay. The 
Jokuldalsa and the Lagarfljot flow N. E. from 
the snow fields of Vatna. The most impor- 
tant rivers in the west and south are the Hvita 
(or, as it is called near its mouth, the Olfusa), 
Thjorsa, and Kudafljot. The most celebrated 
feature of Iceland scenery is the great number 
of intermittent hot springs, chiefly in the S. W. 
division, which have given the name of geysers 
to similar springs elsewhere. (See GEYSERS.) 
The climate of Iceland seems to have changed 
greatly since its first settlement. The ice drifts 
from Greenland, which formerly visited its 
shores only every other year, have of late come 
for 15 years in succession, surrounding two 
thirds of the island with a compact mass, and 
remaining from three to five months. When it 
comes in January or February, it goes away in 
March or April ; then it affects the ensuing vege- 
tation but little, while it brings a welcome sup- 
ply of whales. If it comes in April or May, it 
remains until the end of July, stopping vegeta- 
tion and destroying all the crops. The average 
winter temperature at Reykiavik, 29'3 F., is 
higher than at Aberdeen, 26 F. ; the average 
summer temperature is 53'6, and that of the 
whole year 39-4, being about the same as that 
of Moscow the whole year round. At Aku- 
reyri, in the north, the average summer heat 
is 45'5, that of winter 20'7, and the mean for 
the year is 32. The difference of climate be- 
tween the north and south of the island is at- 
tributed to the Gulf stream, which sweeps 
round the 8. and S. W. coasts. In the south 
great quantities of rain fall in winter and sum- 
mer, and sharp winds are frequent; thunder, 
except in winter, is very seldom heard. The 
climate of the north is much more dry and 
regular. The lowlands and protected valleys 
afford excellent pasturage, where the soil con- 
tains all the elements of fertility. " The moun- 
tains," says Baring-Gould, "are generally des- 
titute of herbage, and the valleys are filled 
with cold morasses. Grass springs on the 
slight elevations above the swamps, in the 
dells, and around the lakes. By drainage a 
large percentage of marsh might be reclaimed ; 
but some must always remain hopeless bog. 
The extraordinary amount of swamp is due to 
the fact that the ground is frozen at the depth 
of 6 or 8 ft., so that when there is a thaw the 
valleys are flooded, and the water, unable to 
drain through, rots the soil." Many bottoms 
are filled with an amazing depth of rich soil, 
yet the prevalent ignorance of agricultural 
methods prevents their being turned to any ad- 



ICELAND 



151 



vantage. The luxuriant herbage on the sloping 
sides of the fields consists of several kinds of 
grasses mingled with the leaves of stunted 
willow, which is greedily devoured hy the 
sheep, and with dwarf mountain birch. On the 
marshes grow several kinds of sedge, and the 
tun or home field is overstrewn with the yel- 
low ranunculus. Iceland is almost a treeless 
country ; in certain spots are low coppices of 
birch, the trees being mere shrubs 10 or 12 ft. 
high, and in one or two protected places only 
a few mountain ashes about 30 ft. high excite 
the admiration of the natives. Hay raised in 
the lowlands is the chief crop ; a few patches 
of oats are occasionally seen in sheltered situ- 
ations, but even these do not always ripen. No 
other kind of grain is raised ; but a species of 
wild corn (elymvs arenarivs) growing on the 
sand flats by the sea affords a much prized har- 
vest ; the straw is used for thatching and fod- 
der, and the meal, flavored with cinnamon, is 
made into very palatable thin cakes. Pota- 
toes, carrots, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, pars- 
ley, cresses, and radishes are cultivated in small 
patches. The only other valuable vegetable 
production is the Iceland moss of commerce. 
Agriculture has greatly improved of late years. 
Among the wild animals are several kinds 
of foxes which are hunted for their skins, the 
blue fox especially. Bears are frequent visi- 
tors, borne to the island on the ice drifts from 
Greenland. Reindeer were imported from 
Denmark about 1770, and now roam in large 
herds in the solitudes of the interior ; though 
so valuable for locomotion, their utility is al- 
together overlooked. The seal breeds every- 
where on the coast and its numerous islands ; 
the whale is also seen, sometimes in flocks, in 
the fiords and bays, as well as a shark indi- 
genous to these waters (scymnus microcepha- 
lus). The cod, herring, haddock, halibut, 
trout, salmon, and eels abound in the fiords 
and the fresh-water lakes and rivers. Shell 
fish, the mussel especially, are present in enor- 
mous quantities. There are in Iceland 7 fam- 
ilies and 34 species of mammals, of which 24 
live in the water, and 13 varieties of cetacea. 
Birds swarm everywhere; among the indige- 
nous ones are the Iceland falcon, ptarmigan, 
goldeneye, harlequin duck, and northern wren. 
The eider duck is jealously protected by the 
inhabitants. There are 6 families and about 90 
species of birds, of which 54 are water fowl. 
No reptiles have ever been discovered. Of 
fish, which are as yet but little known, Faber 
mentions 49 varieties, of which 7 are fresh- 
water fish. Domestic animals constitute the 
great wealth of the Icelander ; these are cows, 
horses, and sheep, and goats in the north. In 
1B70 there were in the island 352,443 sheep, 
30,078 horses, and 18,189 cattle. The early 
colonists introduced geese and swine ; but the 
geese are now all wild, and the hog has dis- 
appeared. The dog is of the Esquimaux type, 
and of great use to the farmer. Mineral de- 
posits, showing the presence of copper, iron, 



lead, and silver, are found in many places; 
but, from their poorness and the absence of 
fuel, no attempt has been made to work them. 
Plumbago was discovered near Krafla by Ba- 
ring-Gould, and magnetic iron abounds among 
the volcanic rocks. The chief sulphur depos- 
its are at the vapor springs of Hengill near 
Thingvalla lake, at Krisuvik, and in the neigh- 
borhood of Myvatn. In the latter region is 
"Obsidian mountain," a ridge in many places 
composed of pure obsidian, which might be 
a source of public wealth. There are feld- 
spar, chalcedonies, zeolites, amethysts, topaz, 
opal, porpyhry, and malachite. One of the 
most singular formations of Iceland is a kind 
of brown coal called surtitrbrandr, which lies 
in beds between clinkstone and trap ; it con- 
sists partly of carbonized stems of trees, partly 
of a more coherent layer of coal mixed with 
schist, and is of no importance as a source of 
national wealth. The modern Icelanders are 
the descendants of the Norwegians who settled 
in that country in 874 and the following years ; 
a few colonists from Ireland and Scotland had 
also settled in the country previous to the Nor- 
wegian discovery, or came thither afterward. 
The language spoken by all is the purest Norse. 
The men are tall, fair-complexioned, and blue- 
eyed, with frames hardened by constant expo- 
sure to the weather. Recent travellers com- 
plain of their tendency to idleness and intem- 
perance ; but they are strictly upright, truth- 
ful, generous, and hospitable. The women are 
industrious and chaste. Religious faith and 
the domestic virtues are traditional in every 
household. Education is universal ; it is al- 
most impossible to find an adult unable to read 
and write. The settlements are chiefly scat- 
tered along the coast, and in certain sheltered 
valleys and lowlands, the most populous dis- 
trict being in the neighborhood of Skagafiord 
in the north. Social as well as commercial 
intercourse is extremely limited. There is 
nothing in the whole island that can be called 
a road ; no vehicle of any kind is used on land ; 
locomotion both for man and merchandise is 
only practicable on horseback and at certain 
seasons. A very few houses are of stone, a 
few of wood, but the greater number are part- 
ly of turf and partly of lava blocks pointed 
with moss and thatched with sod. Coal is 
only to be had in the towns ; elsewhere the 
only fuel consists of sheep dung mixed with 
fish bones. No fire is made save in the small 
kitchen even in winter, and that only to pre- 
pare food, the other rooms in the farm house 
remaining damp and foul. In the Vestmanna 
islands and in many places on the mainland, 
portions of the sea parrot and petrel are dried, 
mixed with manure, and used for fuel. The 
main staple of food is stock fish, which is eaten 
with sour butter. The only meat is mutton, 
which is boiled, then pressed dry, cut into 
lumps, and laid by without salt; sometimes 
it is also stewed in milk. The first necessaries 
of life are imported. The least mortality (128) 



152 



ICELAND 



is in February, the coldest month, and the 
highest (205) in July, the warmest. Cutaneous 
diseases, occasioned by want of cleanliness and 
proper nourishment, are most prevalent ; diar- 
rhoea is frequent in spring; typhus and small- 
pox have often swept away multitudes ; lep- 
rosy is not uncommon, especially on the isl- 
ands, where it takes the form of elephantiasis. 
Consumption is unknown, owing probably to 
the purity of the air and its being charged with 
ozone. There are no manufactures of any kind, 
only the simplest articles of consumption being 
woven in the homestead. Several of these, 
such as guernseys and mittens, are exported. 
The commerce of Iceland had been quite flour- 
ishing during the period of its independence; 
active commercial relations were kept up with 
Norway, England, and Germany till the union 
of Norway with Denmark in 1387, when the 
Danish crown began usurping a complete mo- 
nopoly, and finally (in 1602) farmed out the 
trade with Iceland to a Copenhagen company. 
This monopoly was abolished in 1853, and at 
present the only restriction to free intercourse 
is the taking out a trade license amounting to 
about 50 cents per ton of the ship's burden. 
Foreigners enjoy the same rights of residence, 
holding property, and trading, which belong 
to the natives. The fisheries of Iceland, if car- 
ried on with a proper degree of intelligence, 
would prove an exhaustless source of wealth ; 
but only 10 per cent, of the population are 
fishermen, and the methods used are inefficient. 
Along the coast are 34 authorized trading posts, 
of which only 27 are used ; of these, 6 are in 
the south, 11 in the west, and 10 in the north- 
east; 62 merchants reside in these, 26 being 
Icelanders, the others Danes or representatives 
of Danish houses. There are no banks. The 
trade is by barter ; the Icelander is entirely in 
the merchant's power and must accept his 
prices. Attempts to break up this monopoly 
have recently been made by a Norwegian com- 
pany of Bergen, which has an establishment 
at Reykjavik, and branches in Hafnarfiord and 
other places. There is but one native ship in 
the foreign trade. In 1869 the number of for- 
eign vessels which visited the trading stations 
was 99 from Denmark, with a tonnage of 9,358, 
and 50 from other countries, with a tonnage 
of 4,555. The principal imports are cereals, 
wheaten bread, coffee, sugar, spirits, snuff, and 
tobacco. A decrease is perceptible of late in 
the quantity of brandy imported, although 
even now it amounts to 24 quarts annually for 
every adult male, besides rum, punch extracts, 
and other spirituous drinks. The principal ex- 
ports are fish, both salted and dried, salt roe, 
liver oil, salt meat, tallow, sheepskins, wool, 
guernseys, stockings, mittens, coarse woollen 
stuff called vadmel, eider down, feathers, and 
horses; the whole valued for 1869 at about 
700,000. Formerly considerable -quantities of 
sulphur were exported; but owing to the ab- 
sence of fuel and the inaccessibility of the mines, 
as well as the want of remunerative demand, 



they have not been worked for many years. An 
Englishman has lately obtained a 50 years' lease 
of the sulphur mines near Myvatn, which may 
acquire commercial importance when those of 
Sicily are exhausted. There are but few pri- 
mary schools in the island, but parents, besides 
teaching their children all they know them- 
selves, are careful to send them for further in- 
struction to better informed neighbors. All 
the books and manuscripts in the house, as well 
as those to be found within a radius of 50 miles, 
are read aloud over and over again to the family 
and discussed by them. Moreover, there is a 
law enabling the pastor or overseer of the 
parish to remove the children of careless pa- 
rents, and board them with others who will 
teach them. This is done at the expense of the 
parish when the parents are too poor to pay. 
At Reykjavik there is a college with six pro- 
fessors, embracing a complete classical, literary, 
and scientific course ; there is also a school of 
theology with three professors, and a school 
of medicine with two. Students in law and 
philology go to Copenhagen. Recently a library 
has been formed in Reykiavik, which com- 
prised 10,000 volumes in 1866. Two political 
journals were .published in Reykiavik in 1866: 
the Thjotholfr or "National," weekly, and 
the Islendingur, fortnightly. The Northanfari, 
a weekly, was published at Akureyri. The new 
royal charter granted on Jan. 5, 1874, which 
went into operation on Aug. 1 of that year, 
gives to Iceland a minister residing in Copen- 
hagen and responsible to the althing for the 
acts of the administration in Iceland. The ex- 
ecutive government of the island is vested in 
the stiftamtmand or governor general, resi- 
ding at Reykiavik, and having under him three 
deputy governors, residing respectively in the 
northern, western, and eastern amts, while 
the stiftiimtmand himself has immediate charge 
of the southern. The amts are divided into 
counties or sysla, each having its own chief 
officer or syselman. All these officials are ap- 
pointed by the crown. In each county there 
is a court presided over by the syselman and 
two assessors ; and from its decisions there is 
an appeal to the supreme court and the chief 
justice at Reykiavik. For the revenue there 
is a landfoged, who is both collector general for 
the whole country and town collector for the 
capital. Akureyri, recently created a commer- 
cial town, has also its local collector or fogcd. 
The legislative authority, in everything that 
does not relate to the general interests of the 
monarchy, is vested in the althing,' composed 
of 36 members, 30 of whom are elected by 
popular suffrage and 6 nominated by the crown. 
The ecclesiastical establishment, which is ex- 
clusively of the Lutheran faith, consists of the 
bishop of Reykiavik, who with the governor 
general forms the spiritual court, and 20 arch- 
deaconries, subdivided into 196 livings. At- 
tached to this is the pastoral seminary at Reyk- 
iavik. The clergy are appointed by the crown, 
subject to the consent of the bishop. Their 



ICELAND 



153 



parishes for the most part embrace very large 
districts, and their revenues being utterly in- 
sufficient for their support, they have recourse 
to farming ; they have the reputation of being 
the best blacksmiths in Iceland. There are 
six medical districts, with medical officers sta- 
tioned at Reykiavik, Vatnsdalr, and Akureyri, 
a fourth in the west, a fifth in the south, and a 
sixth in the Vestmanna islands. Quite recently 
three missionary stations have been established 
by the Roman Catholic church. Christianity 
was voted the national religion in 1000 by the 
althing. The island was afterward divided 
into the two bishoprics of Holar and Skalholt. 
" The bishops," says Baring-Gould, " were elect- 
ed by the althing, and even the saints were 
canonized by popular acclamation." With the 
introduction of the church came the knowl- 
edge of Latin letters. In the year 1057, 
Isleif, bishop of Skalholt, introduced the art 
of writing with the Latin alphabet. Monas- 
teries, hospitals, and schools were established. 
Several monks, especially the Benedictines of 
Thingeyra monastery, contributed largely to 
the literature of Iceland's golden era. In 1551 
the Lutheran form of worship was introduced 
by Christian III., and after much bloodshed 
became the only established religion ; but much 
of the old ceremonial still remains. There is 
no evening service, and the morning service 
is still known as "the mass;" the minister 
retains the old chasuble and cope, and over 
the altar can be seen triptychs, crucifixes, and 
pictures of saints. Iceland was discovered in 
860 by Naddoddr, a Norwegian viking, who 
called it Snjaland (Snowland). In 864 it 
was visited by Garthar Svafarsson, a Swede, 
who sailed around it and wintered on the east 
shore of Skjalfandi bay, and called his discov- 
ery Garthaskolmr. Enticed by the description 
which he gave of it, Floki, another viking, 
sailed into Vatnsfiord in the west, and took 
possession of a portion of land. But the loss 
of his cattle during the winter compelled him 
to break up his settlement. After spending 
another winter at Hafnarf jorthr, he returned 
to Norway in the summer. The island received 
its present name from him ; and the glowing 
account given of it by some of his companions 
induced two Norwegian chieftains, Hjorleifr 
and Ingolfr, to visit it. They formed the first 
permanent settlement, in 874 at Reykiavik, 
and other chiefs with their retainers and thralls 
soon followed them. The Islendinga 16k, the 
earliest monument of Icelandic literature, says 
that the first colonists, who were all pagans, 
found that they had been preceded by Culdee 
anchorites and Irish settlers, who abandoned 
the island on the arrival of the pagan Norse- 
men. The report of an Irish monk had first 
led several of his brethren to sail for the north, 
touching at the Faroe islands, nnd reaching 
Iceland in 725, where they settled on the islet 
of Papoen on the E. coast, and at Papyle in 
the south. They were called Papar by the 
Norsemen, and left behind them bells, crosiers, 



and Irish books. The oppression of Harold 
Ilarfagr drove a large number of Norwegian 
chiefs and their families to Iceland, and this 
was further increased under the reign of St. 
Olaf. About 928 Iceland became a republic, 
and so remained for 300 years. In 030 a code of 
laws was adopted, and an annual meeting of 
the bonders was fixed for midsummer on the 
plains of Thingvalla ; this gathering was called 
althing. In 1262 the majority of the people 
took an oath of allegiance to Haco, king of 
Norway, Iceland remaining independent, with 
her own laws and constitution, and the althing 
continuing to be the supreme legislative au- 
thority. After the union of the Danish and 
Norwegian monarchies in 1387 the king of 
Denmark was acknowledged sovereign of Ice- 
land. A provision in the act of union of 1262 
stipulated that the king should annually sup- 
ply the inhabitants with six ship loads of goods. 
This gradually made the commerce of Iceland 
a royal monopoly, and in 1602 it was farmed 
out to a Copenhagen company, in whose hands 
it remained till 1787. As Iceland only raises 
cattle and chiefly exports dried fish and wool, 
its people were thus placed at the mercy of 
the traders for the bare necessaries of life. The 
price of goods rose four fold during the next 
three years, while the price of fish fell, the 
domestic industries dwindled away, poverty 
increased, and the population decreased in the 
same ratio. During these three years 800 per- 
sons died of starvation in one district, and 
9,000 perished in the whole island. Notwith- 
standing these facts, the Danish government 
continued to enforce its own trade laws, and 
in 1684 a royal proclamation enacted that all 
traffic must pass through the Copenhagen com- 
pany, and that on no conditions should the 
Icelanders trade with others, " neither on land, 
nor on sea, nor in the harbors or fiords, or 
in any other place whatsoever." In the 18th 
century volcanic eruptions repeatedly desolated 
the land, converting some of the most fertile 
and populous districts into hideous wastes, and 
followed by famine and disease. In 1762 an 
epidemic broke out among the sheep, and 280,- 
000 died or had to be slaughtered. In 1783, 
the year of the most fearful eruption, 11,000 
cows, 27,000 horses, and 186,000 sheep died. 
The population, which had steadily decreased 
since 1602, had sunk in 1785 to 39,000, and 
was further diminished by 9,000 deaths from 
starvation. In 1786 the project was seriously 
entertained of removing the remnant of tho 
population from the country, but the royal 
commissioners demanded instead a relaxation 
of the trade laws. Commercial freedom came 
by slow degrees, prosperity returned, and the 
population increased. In the 16th and 17th 
centuries, when absolute monarchy was intro- 
duced, it was expressly stipulated by the Ice- 
landers that, while acknowledging the sover- 
eignty of tho Danish crown, they should retain 
their own national laws, rights, and freedom. 
By degrees, however, the legislative powers of 



154 



ICELAND (LANGUAGE AND LITEBATUBE) 



the Icelandic althing were allowed to fall into 
desuetude. It was formally abolished in 1800, 
but restored in 1843. Subsequent attempts 
to supersede it by giving Iceland representa- 
tives in the Danish rigsdag, and to make Ice- 
landic taxes flow directly into the Danish ex- 
chequer, met with unconquerable resistance. 
At present, under the royal charter of Jan. 5, 
1874, the constitution of Iceland is closely 
modelled on that of Denmark, and its national 
independence under the Danish crown is ac- 
knowledged. It enjoys an independent judi- 
cial as well as legislative system, individual and 
religious freedom, municipal self-government, 
and equality of all citizens before the law. 
Interesting events in the history of Iceland 
were the discovery of Greenland by Eric the 
Red, and the establishment there of flourishing 
but short-lived colonies, and that of America 
by Leif and others, without any practical re- 
sults. The one thousandth anniversary of the 
first permanent settlement of Iceland was cel- 
ebrated in August, 1874. The Landndmdbok 
records the colonization of Iceland from 870 
to 930 ; the Sturlunga saga contains its histo- 
ry from 1100 to 1264; its church history is 
found in the Kristin saga and in the Bisku- 
pa sijgur, or lives of the bishops of Iceland. 
See " An Historical and Descriptive Account 
of Iceland " (Edinburgh " Cabinet Library ") ; 
S. Baring-Gould's " Iceland, its Scenes and Sa- 
gas" (London, 1863); and C. W. Pajkull's "A 
Summer in Iceland" (London, 1869). 

ICELAND, Langaage and Literature of. Islemlca, 
or Jslenzk tnnga, the Icelandic tongue, is the 
language of the Scandinavians who settled in 
Iceland in the 9th century. The earliest name 
given to it in the old writings of the north, in 
the llth and 12th centuries, was either the 
" Danish tongue " (Donsk tunga) or " Northern 
language " (Jforrama, or Norrcent mdl). While 
the language became much altered in Denmark 
and Scandinavia, it remained essentially the 
same in Iceland, and the names of Danish, 
Norwegian, and Northern being no longer ap- 
plicable to it, the term Icelandic came into 
use. By Norwegian philologists it is called 
old Norse or old Norwegian (gammel Norsk), 
while the Danish and German philologists fre- 
quently style it old Northern (old nordisk, alt- 
nordisch). Icelandic is a daughter of the old 
Norse proper, the dialect spoken as late as the 
llth century in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
and the adjacent islands, and a sister of the 
old Norse dialect which is the parent of mod- 
ern Swedisli and Danish. It still preserves, 
with very slight inflectional and orthographi- 
cal changes, its earliest known form, and is the 
oldest living language of the Teutonic family. 
(See GERMANIC RACES AND LANGUAGES.) Al- 
though its literary monuments, in their exist- 
ing shape, do not date quite as far back as the 
Gothic version of the Bible, it has yet kept 
many old Teutonic forms which the Gothic 
had lost even in the days of Ulfilas. Hence its 
importance in Teutonic philology. In conse- 



quence of the invasions of the Northmen, it 
influenced to a considerable extent the devel- 
opment of the English, and has furnished to 
the English vocabulary such words as are, tale, 
call, law, till, to the exclusion of Anglo-Saxon 
forms. The stationary character of the lan- 
guage is partly explained by its secluded posi- 
tion in an island, and partly by the zealous 
study by the Icelanders of the ancient songs 
and sagas. The first characters in which Ice- 
landic was written were the runes (runir), 
which are supposed to be adaptations from 
the Phoenician alphabet. Each letter consisted 
of an upright stroke, to which various cross 
strokes were added. The letters were at first 
only 16 in number. It cannot be ascertained 
when these characters were introduced. They 
were chiefly used for inscriptions on stones, 
wooden sticks, weapons, and household uten- 
sils, and hardly for literary purposes proper. 
At the time of the introduction of Christianity 
they were superseded by the Roman alphabet, 
in the form then used by the Anglo-Saxons 
and Germans. The alphabet, including ac- 
cented vowels, consists of 36 letters, and differs 
from the English in not using c, g, and w, and 
in having the letters 6 and ]>, the former with 
the sound of th in this, the latter with that of 
th in thin; the double letter a, sounded like 
English i in pine ; and lastly the letter 6. Un- 
til recently also c and g formed part of the Ice- 
landic alphabet, but they were dropped, as 
their sounds are fully represented by s and k. 
Vowels are either accented or unaccented, and 
are accordingly either long or short. Mascu- 
line and feminine nouns have four declensions 
each, of which the first two have three varia- 
tions and the last two only two. The neuters 
have three declensions, with four variations 
for the first and two for the second and third. 
There are two numbers and four cases, nomi- 
native, accusative, dative, and genitive. Ad- 
jectives have a definite and an indefinite de- 
clension, which resemble the old and new de- 
clensions of the substantives. Icelandic has 
only a definite article, which is suffixed to 
nouns and precedes adjectives, and is inflected 
in all cases and genders. The first and second 
personal pronouns have also a dual form. 
Verbs have active and passive forms ; the in- 
dicative, infinitive, subjunctive, and imperative 
moods ; an active and a passive participle ; and 
a supine. They have only two simple tenses, 
past and present ; the other tenses are formed 
with auxiliary verbs. The language has a 
great facility for forming new words. It does 
not adopt the common foreign names of sci- 
ence and new inventions, but a telegraph is 
called either frettafieygir, bearer of news, or 
rqfiegulthrddr, electric thread, and a telegram 
hradfrett, quick news. The foreign words for- 
merly introduced into Icelandic, chiefly by the 
clergy, are now so transformed that their ori- 
gin can hardly be recognized. The dialect of 
the old Norse spoken in the Faroes, which 
has been illustrated in collections of ballads 



ICELAND (LANGUAGE AND LITEKATUKE) 



155 



and folk-lore made by Hammershaimb and 
others, differs from the Icelandic chiefly in or- 
thography and in the admixture of Danish 
words. The best Icelandic grammar is the 
German edition of Wimmer's Altnorduche 
Grammatik (Halle, 1871); the best lexicons 
are Cleasby and Vigfiisson's " Icelandic-Eng- 
lish Dictionary " (Oxford, 1868-'74), to which 
an excellent grammar is prefixed, and for the 
early skaldic and eddaic poetry Sveinbjorn 
Egilsson's Lexicon Poeticum, antiques Linguce 
Septentrionalis (Copenhagen, 1860); the best 
chrestomathy is Dietrich's Altnordisches Lese- 
buch (Leipsic, 1864). The Icelandic literature, 
which, with the exception of a few unimpor- 
tant Norwegian productions, was written whol- 
ly in Iceland or by Icelanders, may be divided 
into two very marked periods, the ancient and 
the modern. The first terminated a century 
after the fall of the republic ; the other com- 
prises the period intervening between that date 
and the present time. Soon after the settle- 
ment of the island the genial influence of free 
government caused a marked development of 
the national spirit, which was early exhibited 
in the field of letters. The climate, as well as 
the isolated position of the island, had also 
much to do with it. In the long evenings of 
a long winter, an intelligent people would nat- 
urally have recourse to literature ; and as soon 
as the introduction of Christianity brought 
with it the knowledge and use of the Latin 
alphabet, the earliest employment of the new 
gift was in writing out the pagan songs which 
had been orally transmitted from one genera- 
tion to another. In such a manner the priest 
SiBinund Sigfusson, called " the learned " (1056 
-1 133), or some other early scholar, compiled 
the elder or poetic Edda. (See EDDA.) Be- 
sides these, the poetry that has come down to 
us from the days of the republic consists gen- 
erally of songs of victory or of praise, elegies, 
and epigrams, in which latter the old skalds 
especially excelled. The most noted skalds of 
the 10th century are Bersi Torf usson, Egill Skal- 
lagrimsson (904-990), Eyvind Finsson, Glum 
Geirason, Kormak Oegmundarson (died 967), 
Gunnlaug Hromundarson (983-1012), Hallfred 
.Ottarson (died 1014), Thord Sigvaldaskald, and 
Thorleif Hakonarskald. The llth century was 
very prolific of poets; we have Arnor Thor- 
darson, Einar Helgason, Eirik, Gisli Illuga- 
son, Odd, Ottar, Sighvat, Skuli Thorsteinsson, 
Sneglu-Halli, Hallar-Steinn, Stein Skaptason, 
Stiifur Blindi, Thjodolf Arn6rsson, Thorarin, 
and Thord Kolbeinsson. The 12th century 
presents the names of Bodvar, Einar Skulason, 
Hall, Hallbjorn, Ivar Ingimundarson, and a host 
of others. In the 13th century we find scarce- 
ly any names but those of Einar Gilsson, Gud- 
mund Oddsson, Ingjald Geirmundarson, and 
Olaf Thordarson, showing that the loss of lib- 
erty had begun to affect the labors of the 
muse. The 14th century has little of value to 
show except the singular poem Lilja ("The 
Lily "), a song in honor of the Virgin by Ey- 



steinn Asgrimsson. Nor were the historians 
and romancers less numerous. The sagas 
properly fall into two classes, fictitious and 
historical. Among the former are the Vol- 
sunga saga, Nornargests saga, the Vilkina 
saga (narrating the exploits of Diederich of 
Bern, and thus belonging to the same heroic 
cycle as the Ileldenbuch and Nibelungenlied), 
Hdlfs saga, " Saga of King Hrolf Kraka and 
his Champions," " Saga of King Ragnar Lod- 
brok " (which contains the celebrated Lod- 
brokarkvida, or " Death Song of Lodbrok "), 
Frithiofs saga, Henarar saga, Oenar Odds 
saga, the sagas connected with the Arthurian 
and Carlovingian cycles of romance, and 
Snorri Sturlason's "Younger or Prose Edda." 
Some of these are in part historical, but it is 
difficult to distinguish the true from the false. 
Far more valuable as well as more numerous 
are the sagas of the historical class. They con- 
sist of histories in the largest sense of the 
word, of local and family histories, and of bi- 
ographies. Of those which relate to Iceland, 
the most noted are the Islendingabok, by Ari 
Thorgilsson (1068-1148) ; the LandndmaUk, a 
detailed account of the settlement of the 
island; the Kristin saga, a narrative of the 
introduction of Christianity into Iceland ; 
Njdls saga, a classic composition ; Gunnlavgs 
Ormstunga saga; Viga Glums saga; Egils 
saga, the biography of a renowned poet and 
chieftain ; Kormaks saga ; Eyrbygtija saga, an 
abstract of which has been published by Sir 
Walter Scott; Laxdcela saga ; Sturlunga saga, 
a history of the race of the Sturlungar, so 
important in Icelandic history, by one of its 
members, Sturla Thordarson; and Grettis saga. 
The chief sagas relating to other countries are : 
the Orkneyinga saga, a history of the Ork- 
neian jarls ; the Fmreyinga saga, relating to the 
Faroes; the Jommikinga saga, an account of 
the sea rovers, whose seat was at Jomsburg 
near the mouth of the Oder; the Knytlinga, 
saga, a history of the Danish kings from Ilar- 
ald Blaatand to Canute VI. ; the sagas of Olaf 
Tryggvason, one by Odd (died 1200), and the 
other by Gunnlaug ; the saga of St. Olaf ; the 
Heimskringla, or " Chronicle of the Norwegian 
Kings," by the celebrated statesman and histo- 
rian Snorri Sturlason ; and various minor sagas 
relating to Scandinavia, Russia, Great Britain, 
and Greenland. The most elaborate codes of law 
were the Grdgds, Jdrnsida, Jonsbok, and Kris- 
tinrettur. Many of the works enumerated in 
this list are masterpieces of style, and are still 
read with delight by modern Icelanders. This 
list (and it contains but a few of the published 
sagas) shows the attention paid to the culture 
of letters in a remote corner of the world, at a 
time when the whole continent of Europe was 
sunk in barbarism and ignorance. The second 
or modern period of Icelandic literature by no 
means commences with the termination of the 
old literature ; a long time of utter mental in- 
activity followed, and the 15th and 16th cen- 
turies produced scarcely anything but a few 



156 ICELAND (LANGUAGE, &o.) 



ICELAND MOSS 



unimportant religious books. In the 17th 
century the knowledge of the ancient litera- 
ture and glory of the island began to re- 
vive. Foremost in the movement were Arn- 
grim J6nsson (Jonas, 1568-1648), Gudmund 
Andne (died 1654), Run61f Jonsson (died 
1654), Arni Magniisson (Magnaaus, died 1730), 
and Thorm6d Torfason (1636-1719). The 
last named, better known under his Latin- 
ized name of Torfeeus, was especially zealous 
in his efforts to disseminate a knowledge of the 
early history of Iceland. In theology, Gud- 
brand Thorlaksson (died 1627), under whose 
direction the lirst complete edition of the Ice- 
landic Bible was issued, Bishop Thorlak Skul- 
son, and Jon Vidalin (1666-1720), the author 
of a popular collection of homilies, were the 
eminent names ; while jurisprudence was rep- 
resented by Pal Vidalin (1667-1727). But 
the true revival of letters dates from the mid- 
dle of the 18th century, and was coincident 
with the commencement of an increase in pop- 
ulation. During the last hundred years no 
other nation can show so large a proportion 
of literary men. Finn Jonsson (1704-'89), 
author of an elaborate ecclesiastical history of 
the island, which has been continued by Petiir 
Petursson (born 1808), Hannes Finsson (1739- 
'96), J6n Jonsson (1759-1846), and Arni Hel- 
gason (born 1777), were eminent theologians. 
Antiquities, philology, and the old literature 
have been largely illustrated by Hiilfdan Einar- 
son (died 1785), the author of an Icelandic lit- 
erary history, Bjorn Haldorsson (died 1794), 
the compiler of a large Icelandic-Latin lexicon, 
which was edited by Rask, Jon Olafsson (1731- 
1811), S. T. Thorlacius (1741-1815), G. J. Thor- 
kelin (1752-1829), Hallgrim Schfiving (1781- 
1861), Finn Magnusson (1781-1847), Konrad 
Gislason-(born 1808), H. K. Fridriksson (born 
1819), Jon Thorkelsson (born 1822), Gunnlaug 
Thordarson (died 1861), and by Gudbrand Vig- 
fiisson, now (1874) the foremost Icelandic 
philologist. An elaborate history of the island, 
in continuation of the Sturlunga saga, has 
been written by J6n Esp61in (1769-1836), 
while an extensive collection of folk lore has 
been made by Jon Arnason. The poetical 
literature of the period has been rendered re- 
markable by the names of Hallgrim Petursson 
(1714-'74), the author of the popular passion 
hymns, Jon Thorlaksson (1744-1819), transla- 
tor of "Paradise Lost," Bjarni Thorarensen 
(1786-1841), Jonas Hallgrimsson (1807-'45), 
Sveinbjorn Egilsson (1791-1852), translator of 
the Odyssey, Benedikt Grondal (born 1826), 
translator of the Iliad, and many others. But 
the attention of the Icelanders has been large- 
ly given to political economy, and the result 
has been a rapid and marked improvement in 
the economical condition of the country. Par- 
ticularly active in this respect have been J6n 
Eyriksson (1728-'87), Stephan Th6rarinsson 
(1754-1823), Magnus Stephensen (1762-1833), 
Bjarni Thorsteinsson, Thord Sveinbjarnarson, 
Baldvin Einarsson (1801-'33), Jon J6nsson 



(born 1806), Pal Melsted (1791-1861), and J6 
Sigurdsson (born 1811), equally noteworthy as 
an archaeologist and statesman. In natural his- 
tory we find recorded the names of Eggert 
Olafsson (1726-'68), whose tour through ice- 
land in company with Bjarni Palsson is still 
one of the most interesting works on the sub- 
ject, O. J. Hjaltalin (1782-1840), Jon Thor- 
steinsson (1794-1855), and J. J. Hjaltalin (born 
1807). Among the younger writers, most of 
whose political opinions are liberal, are Gisli 
Brynjiilfsson (born 1827), Jon Th&rdarson 
(born 1819), Magnus Grimsson, Steingrim 
Thorsteinsson, Sveinn Skulason, and E. Mag- 
nusson, who has published English transla- 
tions of several old Icelandic works. The 
series of transactions published by the Lair- 
doms-lista Felag in the latter part of the 18th 
century, and the numerous volumes issued 
within the past 25 years by the Islenzka, B6k- 
menntqfelag, or society of literature, are of 
great value. The best sources of information 
in regard to the old literature are Petersen's 
Bidrag til den oldnordiske literaturs historic 
(Copenhagen, 1866); Gudbrand Vigfusson's Urn 
timatal i Islendinga si'igum ("On the Chro- 
nology of the Sagas of Icelanders," Kaupman- 
nahofn, 1855); the introductions to Keyser's 
" Religion of the Northmen," translated by 
Pennock (New York, 1854), to Laing's version 
of Snorri Sturlason's HeimsTcringla (London, 
1844), and in Dasent's translation of " The Sto- 
ry of Burnt Njal" (London, 1861). The best 
saga texts are those edited by Munch, Keyser, 
Unger, and Bugge in Christiania, and by the 
Arni-Magnasan commission in Copenhagen. 
A few valuable texts have been published by 
MSbius and Maurer in Germany, and by the 
professors in the college at Reykjavik. 

ICELAND MOSS (cetraria Mandica, Acha- 
rius), a lichen common in the north of Europe 
and America. It consists of a tuft of deeply 
divided and dentate-ciliate margined, leaf-like, 
cartilaginous fronds, flattened out and of a 
lighter color at their base, but above incurved 
at their edges, so as to render them channelled ; 
in general color they are of a dark olive brown. 
The fruit (apothecia) is borne upon the extrem- 
ities and sides of the broadest branches, and 
is very .broad and flat with elevated borders! 
This fruitful condition is only to be met with 
in the alpine regions of our northern moun- 
tains; when the plants occur upon the lower 
hills, and more especially in dry exposed pas- 
tures, they are uniformly infertile. It is pos- 
sible that these last mentioned forms may yet 
prove to be distinct species ; to settle this 
point, the occurrence of the apothecia is very 
'desirable. A very bitter principle is resident 
in the alpine forms as well as in the Iceland 
moss of the shops ; but this is almost wanting 
in the campestral sorts. As an alleviative to 
pulmonary complaints the Iceland moss is well 
known ; the principal part of the stock used in 
medicine is brought from Iceland and Norway. 
After the intense bitterness, which readily 



ICE PLANT 



ICHNEUMON 



157 



yields to cold water, has been extracted, boil- 
ing water is to be poured upon the mass, 
when, by keeping up a considerable heat and 
by several hours' steeping, an abundant and 
soothing mucilage is given out, and can be 
used with freedom, the drink being made pala- 




Iccland Moss (Cctraria Islandica). 

table with a little sugar. Hooker says that 
after being purged of its bitterness the lichen 
" is dried, reduced to powder, and made into a 
cake or boiled and eaten with milk, and eaten 
with thankfulness too, by the poor natives" 
of those countries where it grows abundantly, 
" who consider that the very stones yield them 
bread." The mucilaginous character is owing 
to a great abundance of lichen starch. Even 
the bitter principle is tonic and useful in the 
treatment of disease. Similar alimentary sub- 
stances are found in other lichens, resulting 
from the presence of this kind of starch. 

ICE PLANT (mesembryanthemum crystalli- 
num, Linn.), the common name of a plant origi- 
nally brought from the Canary islands and 
Greece. In the Canaries it used to be largely 
cultivated in order to procure alkali for making 
glass. Each plant spreads over the ground 
from a small annual root, and has numerous 
succulent branches covered with large heart- 
shaped or ovate, tender, and succulent leaves, 
the cuticle of both being elevated into many 
crystalline vesicles which contain a gummy prin- 
ciple insoluble in water ; they give the plant the 
appearance of being covered with hoar frost, 
and suggested the specific and common name. 
Cowper calls it the " spangled beau." The ses- 
sile flowers are about half an inch across, and 
have numerous linear, white or purplish petals, 
but are of little beauty, and only produced in 
the middle of bright days. It is raised from 
seed which should be started in a pot or hot- 
bed, and the young plants set out in a dry 
warm place. It was formerly much more cul- 
tivated than at present. In southern Califor- 
nia the ice plant is naturalized, and grows in 
great quantities ; the Spanish inhabitants burn 
the stems for the sake of the ashes to use in 



soap making. Under the name of glaciate the 
ice plant is cultivated in the French kitchen gar- 
dens, and is used as an ingredient of soups, as 
a garnishing for salads, and as a substitute for 
spinach. (See MESEMBRYANTHEMUM.) 

ICHNEUMON (Gr. IXVMUV, to track), a viver- 
rine carnivorous animal, of the genus herpestes 
(Illiger). The cheek teeth are f l| ; the body 
is long and the legs short; head small and 
pointed; ears short and rounded; feet five- 
toed, with sharp semi-retractile claws ; a large 
anal pouch, in which the vent opens. Of the 
several species described, the best known is 
the ichneumon of Egypt (H. ichneumon, Linn.), 
known also as Pharaoh's rat. It is a little 
larger than a cat, with a gait more like a mar- 
ten, and the long tail ending in a divergent 
tuft ; the muzzle and paws are black, and the 
fur of the body has each hair alternately 
ringed with brown and dirty yellow. It is an 
inhabitant of N. E. Africa, especially Egypt. 
It was adored by the ancient Egyptians for its 
antipathy to the crocodile, whose eggs it de- 
stroys in great numbers; they saw in it the 




Egyptian Ichneumon (Herpestes ichneumon). 

representative of a benign power engaged in 
the destruction of one of their most trouble- 
some enemies. Its natural food consists of 
rats, reptiles, birds, and eggs, but it has no 
special antipathy to the crocodile. It is itself 
destroyed by foxes and jackals. The ichneu- 
mon is frequently domesticated in Egypt, 
where it is used like the cat in ridding houses 
of rats and smaller pests ; it forms attach- 
ments to persons and places, and recognizes 
with signs of pleasure the caresses of its mas- 
ter. The mongous of India (H. mungos, Linn.) 
is a little smaller than the ichneumon, paler 
and more grayish, and with a pointed tail ; it 
has a singular antipathy to serpents, which it 
destroys whenever it can, not hesitating to at- 
tack even the deadly cobra de capello ; against 
the bite of the latter it is said to find an anti- 
dote in the ophiorrhiza mungos, a root which 
is considered in Ceylon as a specific against 
the cobra's bite in man. It is as mischievous, 
and in the same way, as the polecat and wea- 
sels. The garangan of Java (H. Javanicus, 
Geoffr.) is chestnut brown, with yellowish 



158 



ICHNEUMON FLY 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



white spots; its habits are the same as in the 
other species, and it is expert in burrowing; 
it is easily domesticated, and is used for de- 
stroying rats. 

ICHNEUMON FLY, an extensive tribe of the 
pupivorous family of hymenopterous insects, of 
great importance in the economy of nature on 
account of their destruction of insects injurious 
to vegetation, and very interesting from the 
peculiar manner in which this purpose is ef- 
fected. They are perfect parasites, depositing 
their eggs within the body of living insects, 
whicli are devoured by the larvse hatched with- 
in them. Their forms are various, but they 
generally have an elongated body, with a ter- 
minal, long, divided, bristle-like appendage, 
and filiform antennse which have a constant vi- 
bratory motion ; the prevailing colors are black, 
rufous, and yellow, with lines and spots of 
white. The head is prominent; the mandibles 
corneous; the wings four, of thin membrane 
and horny ribs or nervures, the anterior long- 
est, narrow at the base and dilated at the ex- 




Ichneumon Fly. 

tremity ; the abdomen begins between the two 
posterior legs ; the feet are long and slender. 
It is difficult to detect the sexes except by the 
ovipositor ; this instrument is short or long ac- 
cording as the eggs are to be deposited in the 
bodies of caterpillars on the surface of the 
ground or to be thrust down into their living 
nidus through a nest or deep crevice ; in the 
former it is retractile and lodged in a groove 
on the under side of the body, in the latter of- 
ten longer than the body, consisting of a cen- 
tral oviduct and two lateral protecting appen- 
dages coming from the last abdominal segment. 
The eggs are hatched in the body of the larva, 
and the young consume the fatty matters in 
the interior of the victim, without injuring the 
vital organs; many eggs are often deposited 
within the same larva ; the young undergo 
transformation within the living insect, or eat 
their way through the skin and spin their 
pupa cases on the outside, from which after a 
time they come out perfect insects. The lar- 
vaa selected for this deposition are so enfeebled 
by the parasites that they perish without going 



into the pupa state. A common example is 
met with in the large green caterpillar, with a 
horn on the last segment, generally called the 
potato worm ; this is a favorite nidus for the 
eggs of a minute black ichneumon fly; the 
young, hatched within its body and devouring 
its substance, eat through the skin, and spin 
their pupa cases so thick upon the outside as 
almost to cover the back and sides of this four- 
inch caterpillar; each case is attached to the 
skin by a short delicate filament, and the place 
of exit of each larva is indicated by a black 
dot; this caterpillar is often seen crawling 
about and eating, almost covered with a colony 
of these tiny silvery white pupa cases, from 
which in about a week the shining ichneumon 
flies appear ; the caterpillar does not enter the 
pupa state, but dies exhausted. These flies are 
generally rapid in their movements, and are 
taken with difficulty except when depositing 
their eggs ; they occur in flowers, on trees and 
walls, in houses, and wherever the desired lar- 
vse are found. The perfect insects live upon 
the pollen and honey of flowers, and do not 
attack other insects except to make a deposit 
of eggs ; they are of all sizes, from a fraction 
of a line to more than an inch long; the spe- 
cies are exceedingly numerous, there being 
about 1,500 in Europe alone. The larva) are 
without feet, parasitical and carnivorous. The 
chalcidians, allied to the ichneumon flies, are 
extremely small; they puncture the eggs of 
other insects and deposit their own tiny ones 
in them. We can hardly estimate the benefits 
conferred upon man by these apparently insig- 
nificant insects ; their instincts lead them to do 
for man's advantage what all his contrivances 
could not effect; the best known destructive 
insects kept in check by them are the pine 
weevils, the lackey caterpillars, the grubs of 
many wood eaters of their own order, the gall 
insects, the Hessian fly, and hosts of others 
which would overrun the forests and fields 
were it not for these diminutive creatures. 

ICHNOLOGY (Gr Z^f of, a footprint, and Ao>of, 
discourse), the name applied to the modern sci- 
ence of fossil footprints, or ichnolites. See 
FOSSIL FOOTPRINTS, and HITCHCOCK, EDWARD. 

ICHTHYOLOGY (Gr. I x 0i, f , a fish, and Uyo f , 
discourse), the branch of zoology which treats 
of fishes, the lowest of the great divisions of 
the vertebrate animals. The class of fishes can- 
not be said to have been arranged in a strictly 
natural manner by any systematist, and such an 
arrangement is impossible until their external 
and internal structure and embryonic develop- 
ment are better understood; and until zoolo- 
gists are better agreed as to what constitutes 
family, ordinal, generic, and specific characters, 
little harmony of arrangement can be expect- 
ed. Most classifications of fishes up to the time 
of Cuvier (including his) were based on the or- 
gans of locomotion and the external integu- 
ment; after him appeared the anatomical ar- 
rangement by J. Miiller. The older systems 
were very imperfect from the ignorance of fos- 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



159 



sil forms, which supply many links otherwise 
wanting in the chain of ichthyological charac- 
ters. Aristotle, in the 4th century B. C., first 
reduced ichthyology, as he did the other branch- 
es of zoology, to scientific form ; he was well 
acquainted with the structure and external char- 
acters of fishes, which he distinguishes from 
cetaceans, laying special stress upon the organs 
of respiration and locomotion and the scaly 
covering; he gives the names of 117 species, 
entering into interesting details on their habits. 
The system of compilation without observa- 
tion prevailed until the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, when Belon, Rondelet, and Snlviani laid 
the foundations of modern ichthyology. Be- 
lon gives rude figures of 110 species, Salviani 
excellent engravings on .copper of 99, and Ron- 
delet woodcuts of 234 species, in all three 
mostly fishes of the Mediterranean. Gesner in 
the same century borrowed the descriptions of 
the last mentioned authors, and added some of 
his own,.in his Hwtoria Animalium (1551-'6), 
all arranged in alphabetical order without any 
attempt at method, embracing however many 
foreign fishes. Ray and his pupil Willughby, 
English naturalists of the 17th century, in their 
Historia Piscium (1686), gave the first attempt 
at a natural classification of fishes, founded 
upon the consistence of the skeleton, the form, 
the teeth, presence or absence of ventral fins, 
number of dorsals, and character of the fin 
rays. They divided fishes into cartilaginous 
and osseous ; though their genera are not well 
defined, the species are so well described that 
it is generally easy to refer them to their prop- 
er place in subsequent systems; the whole 
number of species is 420. The second volume 
consists of well executed, tolerably accurate 
plates. This work forms an epoch in the his- 
tory of ichthyology, which from this time be- 
gan to assume a methodical arrangement. Pass- 
ing over Plumier, Ruysch, Kampfer, Sloane, 
Catesby, and many scientific voyagers of this 
period, we come to Artedi in the first third 
of the 18th century. This Swedish naturalist 
completed the scientific classification of fishes 
commenced by Willughby and Ray, defining 
genera and giving them appropriate names. In 
his Philoiophia he divides the class into four 
orders, founded on the consistence of the skel- 
eton, the branchial coverings, and the nature of 
the fin rays, as follows : 1, malacopterygians ; 
2, acanthopterygians ; 3, branchiostegous fish- 
es ; and 4, chondropterygians (sharks, rays, and 
sturgeons). He made a fifth, including cetaceans, 
which is inadmissible, and the third is badly 
characterized ; the three others are to a certain 
degree natural. In his Genera Piscium he 
gives names and distinctive characters of 45 
genera, founded on the number of branchioste- 
gous rays (of which he was the first to see the 
value), on the position and number of the fins, 
on the parts supplied with teeth, on the form 
of the scales, and on the shape of the stomach 
and cascal appendages; most of these genera 
stand at the present day. In his Synonymia Pit- 
424 VOL. ix. 11 



eium he gives the synonymy of 274 species; his 
works were published after his deatji by Lin- 
nreus, his early friend, at Leyden, in 1738. Lin- 
nasus, in the first edition of the Systema Natitrce 
(1735), followed Artedi; but in the next (1740) 
he began to give the number of the fin rays, a 
method of distinguishing since found of great 
value. In his 10th edition (1758) he trusted to 
his own knowledge, creating a new system, de- 
fining genera more clearly, and using a scientific 
nomenclature ; the most important change was 
in removing cetaceans from the class of fishes, 
in which since the time of Aristotle they had 
been placed, and in uniting them with viviparous 
quadrupeds in the class mammalia. Brisson, 
in 1756, had already separated them from fishes. 
Linnasus, however, committed the error of 
placing the chondropterygians among reptiles, 
under the title of amphibia nantes, to which 
in the 12th edition (1766) he added the Iran- 
chiostegi of Artedi (ostracion, lophius, tetro- 
dom, &c.). He also suppressed the division 
of fishes according to the nature of the fin 
rays, and substituted one founded on the pres- 
ence or absence of the ventral fins and their 
position in reference to the pectorals, a method 
which violates many of the true relations of 
these animals. Though Linnrous neglected 
some of the genera of his contemporaries, and 
distributed his orders in an unnatural manner, 
describing only 480 species, his precision of 
definition and the excellence of his binary no- 
menclature were of great advantage to the 
progress of ichthyology, and his division into 
apode, jvgulares, thoracici, and aldominales 
for a long time held its place in the science. 
Linnreus gave an impetus to the study of natu- 
ral history, which resulted in making it in- 
teresting to all classes, and in inspiring princes 
with a desire to extend its domain ; national 
expeditions were fitted out by England, France, 
Denmark, and Russia, which came back laden 
with treasures of the deep for naturalists; 
among the workers in this great field we can 
only mention the names of Commerson, Son- 
nerat, Pennant, Banks, Solander, the Forsters, 
Forskal, Steller, Otho Fabricius, O. F. Miiller, 
and Thunberg; the scientific journals teemed 
with descriptions of new species of fishes from 
all parts of the globe. The next great con- 
tributor to ichthyology was the German natu- 
ralist Bloch, whose celebrated work on the 
"Natural History of Fishes " consists of two 
parts essentially distinct ; the first, the " Eco- 
nomic History of the Fishes of Germany," ap- 
peared at Berlin in 1782-'4, in 3 vols. 4to, with 
108 folio plates; the second, the "History of 
Foreign Fishes," in 1785-'95, in 9 vols. 4to, 
with 324 folio plates; both were translated 
into French in a few years after each volume 
appeared. Of German fishes he describes 115 
species, mostly observed by himself. As he 
was little conversant with the anatomy of 
fishes, some of his genera are based on purely 
artificial characters, while others are remark- 
ably correct. He follows the method of Lin- 



160 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



nffius, bringing back the amphibia nantes, how- 
ever, into the class of fishes, and dividing them, 
with Artedi, into branchiostegi and chondropte- 
rygii. Comparative anatomy had made con- 
siderable progress toward the end of the 18th 
century, when Lac6pede began his researches 
(1798-1803). He divides the class into cartila- 
ginous and osseous fishes, in each of which 
subclasses he makes four divisions: 1, with 
neither opercula nor branchial membrane; 2, 
without opercula, and with a branchial mem- 
brane ; 3, with opercula and without branchial 
membrane; and 4, with both opercula and 
branchial membrane. In each of the eight di- 
visions he adopts the orders of apodes, jtigu- 
lares, thoraciei, and abdominales, according to 
the absence of ventrals, or their position on 
the throat, thorax, or abdomen. The natural 
history of fishes in Sonnini's Buff on (1803-'4) 
is essentially a copy of Lac6p6de without ac- 
knowledgment. These works of Bloch and 
LacSpe'de supplied the principal foundation 
for most subsequent systems. The classifica- 
tion of M. Dum6ril, in his Zoologie analytique 
(1806), resembles that of LacdpSde, inasmuch 
as it lays stress upon the supposed absence of 
opercula and branchial rays and the position of 
the ventrals. Pallas, in the third volume of the 
Zoographia Busso-Asiatica (1811), gives a list 
of 240 species, distributed into 38 genera, with 
the exception of three taken from Linnteus; 
he makes two orders, spiraculata or chondro- 
pterygians, and branchiata, forming with rep- 
tiles (pulmonata) the class monocardia (single- 
hearted or cold-blooded animals). In 1815 
Rafinesque published a second ichthyological 
system in his " Analysis of Nature, or Tableau 
of the Universe " (1 vol. 8vo, Palermo) ; though 
containing many errors, this system is valuable 
for several true affinities between fishes before 
and since regarded as widely separated, as for 
instance that of the polypterus with the stur- 
geon family. De Blainville in 1816 (Journal 
de Physique, vol. Ixxxiii.) published a classifi- 
cation in which fishes are divided into gnatho- 
dontes or osseous and dermodontes or cartilagi- 
nous, the latter distinguished by having teeth 
adherent only to the skin ; the former include 
the heterodermes or branchiostegi, and the 
squammodermes or common fishes; in the 
subdivisions the Linncean character of the posi- 
tion of the ventrals is adopted, and the families 
are established principally on the form of the 
body; it does not employ the Lacdpedean 
characters taken from the opercula and bran- 
chial rays. Cuvier in 1817, in his Begne ani- 
mal, divides fishes into chondropterygian and 
osseous. The former contain the families of 
suckers (lampreys), selachians (sharks and 
rays), with fixed branchiaa, and the sturionians 
(sturgeons), with free branchise. In the osse- 
ous fishes he suppresses the branchiostegi, form- 
ing of a portion of them the order plectognathi, 
from a peculiar mode of articulation of the 
jaws, including the families gymnodonts, scle- 
roderms, and lophobranchs. The remaining 



osseous fishes he separates into the orders maja- 
copterygians and acanthopterygians, after Ar- 
tedi, according as the rays of the dorsal fin are 
soft or spiny. The soft-rayed order he dis- 
tributes into families according to the Linnrean 
method of the position of the ventrals, disre- 
garding entirely characters drawn from the 
opercula and branchial rays. The spiny-rayed 
fishes form a single order, with the families 
tsenioids (ribbon fishes), gobioids (blennies and 
gobies), labroids (bass), percoids (perches, a 
very extensive family), scomberoids (mackerel- 
like, also numerous), squammipennes (chreto- 
dons, &c.), and the flute-mouths (fistularia, 
&c.). lie thus makes in all 22 families, found- 
ed on direct observation and comparison, and 
not simply compiled from previous authorities. 
Goldfuss ("Manual of Zoology"), in 1820, 
adopted the four orders of Gmelin, giving to 
them Greek names, and subdividing them into 
four families, each according to the shape of 
the head, mouth, or body, or other external 
character. Thus far the systems have been 
little more than repetitions of the combinations 
of Artedi, Linnseus, and Lacdpede. Compara- 
tive and philosophical anatomy began to be 
studied with zeal from the beginning of the 
19th century. Oken, Cams, Geoffrey Saint- 
Ililaire, Spix, Weber, Van der Hoeven, Meckel, 
Everard Home, Hunter, Tiedemann, and others, 
wrote upon different portions of the structure 
of fishes, and the results of their studies began 
to modify ichthyological classifications. Be- 
fore mentioning the anatomical and embryo- 
logical systems, the classification adopted in 
the Histoire naturelle dei poissons, by Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, beginning in 1828 and com- 
ing down to 1868, may be alluded to. In this, 
fishes are divided into osseous and cartilagi- 
nous, the latter (or chondropterygians) inclu- 
ding the families sturionians, plagiostomes, 
and cyclostomes. The osseous fishes have the 
branchiae pectinated or laminated, with the 
exception of the lophobranchs, which have 
them in the form of tufts ; all the acanthopte- 
rygians have the upper jaw free, including 13 
families, and all themalacopterygians except the 
scleroderms, gymnodonts, and lophobranchs; 
the malac'opterygians are divided into abdomi- 
nals, subbrachians, and apodes. Cuvier had 
very abundant materials at his command, em- 
bracing the collections of P6ron, and those of 
the expeditions under Baudin, Freycinet, Du- 
perrey, Dumont d'Urville, and other French 
naval officers. Oken, in his " Physiophiloso- 
phy " (Ray society edition), calls the class glos- 
sozoa, as those animals in which a true tongue 
makes its appearance for the first time, and os- 
teozoa, because in them also the bony system 
first appears. He makes four divisions, the 
cartilaginous and apodal jugulares, thoraciei, 
and abdominales, the first two having an irregu- 
lar and the last two a regular body. Among 
the systems based upon that of Cuvier are 
those of Bonaparte, Swainson, Straus-Durck- 
heim, and Rymer Jones. The classification of 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



161 



C. L. Bonaparte (Rome, 1831) comprised the or- 
ders: L, acanthopterygii, with 17 families; II., 
malacopterygii, with 12 families; III., plecto- 
gnathi, with 2 families ; and IV., cartilaginei, 
with 5 families; including in all nearly 3,600 
species. The principal improvement on the 
system of Cuvier is in the series in which the 
genera are placed. Swainson (" Monocardian 
Animals," in Lardner's " Cyclopaedia," 1838-'9), 
true to his quinary system, divides fishes into 
the five orders acantkopteryges, malacopteryges, 
cartilagines, plectognathes, and apod.es. Straus- 
Durckheim (Traite (K anatomic comparative, 
Paris, 1843) adopts the eight orders of Cuvier, 
but subdivides the chondropterygians with fixed 
branchiae into three orders, and separates the 
sharks as the order seloxiens, the rays as the 
order batoides, and the cyclostomes as the order 
galexien* (from Gr. ya/U<if, lamprey), the term 
cycloatoma having been used for a gasteropod 
mollusk; he thus makes ten orders. Rymer 
Jones (in the article "Pisces" in the "Cyclo- 
pjedia of Anatomy and Physiology," 1847) 
adopts a modification of Cuvier's system. He 
makes three divisions: I., chondropterygii or 
cartilaginous fishes ; II., osteopterygii or bony 
fishes; III., dermapterygii, with skeleton car- 
tilaginous or membranous, and with orders 
cyclostomata (lampreys) and Iranchiostomata. 
About 1830 Prof. Agassiz, principally from 
the study of fossil fishes, established a classifi- 
cation based on the characters of the scales, 
as follows: order 1, placoids, corresponding 
to the cartilaginous fishes of authors, but ex- 
cluding the sturgeons; 2, ganoids, including 
the sturgeons, and especially the fossil genera 
with enamelled scales; 3, ctenoids, comprising 
bony fishes with scales pectinated on the pos- 
terior border, and corresponding generally to 
the acanthopterygians of Artedi, exclusive of 
the scomberoids, labroids, and pleuronectes ; 4, 
cycloids, including the malacopterygians with 
the above exceptions, and exclusive of the 
blennioids and lophioids. This system, soon 
abandoned as an exclusive one by its author 
from its placing too much stress on external 
characters, was valuable as connecting in a 
continuous series living and fossil fishes, and 
led to the discovery of many important rela- 
tions between the scales and the internal or- 
gans. The system of Johannes Muller, as 
given in -the Berlin "Transactions" for 1844, 
derives its characters from anatomical struc- 
ture, leading often to combinations without re- 
gard to zoological differences. He makes six 
subclasses: I., dipnoi; II., teleostei ; III., ga- 
noidei ; IV., elasmo-branehii or selachii; V., 
marsipobranchii or cyclostomi; VI., lepto- 
cardii. Siebold and Stannius adopt this clas- 
sification in their "Comparative Anatomy;" 
and a slight modification of it may be found 
in the third volume of the " Organic Nature " 
in Orr's "Circle of Sciences," 1855. Owen's 
classification, mentioned below, and adopted 
by Sir John Richardson in the article "Ich- 
thyology" of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," 



is based partly on that of Muller. Vogt, in 
his Zoologische Briefe (1851), divides fishes into 
the orders leptocardia, cyclostomata, selachia, 
ganoidea, and teleostia. Van Beneden's em- 
bryological system (1855) is nearly the same ; 
his orders are plagiostomi, ganoidei, teleostei, 
cyclostomi, and leptocardii. Van der Hoeven's 
classification (as given in the English transla- 
tion of his "Handbook of Zoology," 1858) 
makes fishes the 14th class of the animal king- 
dom, and divides them into 5 sections, with 11 
orders and 46 families. The sections are der- 
mopterygii, chondropterygii, ganolepidoti, os- 
teopterygii, and protopteri. Milne-Edwards, 
in his Cours elementaire d'hiitoire naturelle 
(1855), divides fishes into osseous and cartila- 
ginous; the former includes the orders acan- 
thopterygii, abdominales, subbrachii, apodes, 
lophobranchii, and plectognathi ; and the lat- 
ter, the orders sturiones, selachii, and cycloito- 
mi. Owen's classification in his " Lectures on 
Comparative Anatomy" (1855) made the or- 
ders dermopteri, malacopteri, pharyngognathi, 
anacanthini, acanthopteri, plectognathi, lopho- 
branchii, ganoidei, protopteri, holocephali, and 
plagiostomi (sharks and rays). His classifica- 
tion of 1866 is somewhat different, as follows : 
In the division hcematocrya, or cold-blooded 
animals, including fishes, batrachians, and rep- 
tiles, in the fishes he makes subclasses: 1, der- 
mopteri, with orders cirrostomi (lancelet) and 
cyclostomi (lampreys) ; 2, teleostomi, with or- 
ders malacopteri (soft-rayed fishes), anacan- 
thini (cod), acanthopteri (spiny-rayed fishes), 
plectognathi (ostraceans), lophobranchii (pipe 
fish), and ganoidei; 3, plagiostomi, with or- 
ders holocephali (chimsera), plagiostomi (sharks 
and rays), and protopteri (lepidosiren). Prof. 
Huxley places fishes in the lowest of his three 
great divisions of vertebrates, the ichthyopsi- 
da, including also the batrachians, from the 
possession of gills, either permanent or tempo- 
rary ; hence he calls them also branchiate ver- 
tebrates. He divides the class pieces into six 
orders : 1, pharyngobranchii (amphioxus) ; 2, 
marsipobranchii (lampreys and hags) ; 3, tele- 
ostei, ordinary fishes ; 4, ganoidei ; 5, elasmo- 
branchii, sharks and rays; 6, dipnoi (lepido- 
siren). A new classification was published 
by Prof. Agassiz in his " Essay on Classifica- 
tion," p. 187 (1857), the result of the systems 
of Cuvier and Muller and of his own scale 
method, with additional light from his exten- 
sive anatomical and embryological researches. 
He divides the old. class of fishes into four; 
his 1st and lowest class is myzonts, with two 
orders, myxinoids and cyclostomes ; 2d, fishes 
proper, with two orders, ctenoids and cycloids ; 
3d, ganoids, with three orders, ccelacanths, 
acipenseroids, and sauroids, and doubtful, the 
siluroids, plectognaths, and lophobranchs ; he 
was then doubtful whether this class should be 
separated from ordinary fishes ; and 4th, sela- 
chians, with three orders, chimarai, galeodes, 
and batides. These classes he regards as equiv- 
alent to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mam- 



162 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



raals. The following have been the principal 
cultivators of this science in America : Dr. 
Samuel L. Mitchill published in vol. i. of the 
" Transactions of the Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society of New York" (1815) a history of 
149 species of New York fishes, with many il- 
lustrations ; he adopts the Linnsean system ; 
other descriptions of his species are in the 
"Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy" 
and in the " Annals of the Lyceum of Natu- 
ral History of New York." Lesueur has de- 
scribed and exactly figured many species in 
the Philadelphia academy's "Proceedings." 
Rafinesque published in the same work, and 
in his Ichthyologia Ohiensis (1820), descrip- 
tions of many species which had escaped his 
predecessors. Dr. Kirtland (1838) described 
the fishes of the Ohio river, and Dr. Holbrpok 
several years later those of South Carolina. 
Dr. De Kay in 1842, in his "Zoology of New 
York," divides fishes into bony and cartilagi- 
nous, the former having the sections: 1, pee- 
tinibrancMi, with spiny-rayed and soft-rayed 
abdominal, subbrachial, and apodal orders ; 2, 
lophobrancJM, and 3, plectognathi ; the latter 
include the sections eleutheropomi, plaglosto- 
mi, and eyolostomi. Dr. D. H. Storer, in his 
"Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts" 
(1839), and in the illustrated edition of the 
same in the " Memoirs of the American Acad- 
emy" (1855-'60), and also in his "Synopsis of 
the Fishes of North America" ("Memoirs of 
the American Academy," vol. ii., 1846), fol- 
lows the arrangement of Cuvier. These works 
are of great value to the student of North 
American ichthyology. The Wilkes, North 
Pacific, and Japan expeditions sent out by the 
United States government, and the various ex- 
plorations by land for the survey of the Mex- 
ican boundary, the Pacific railroad route, and 
military and civil roads, have added largely to 
the materials, both foreign and native, at the 
disposition of American ichthyologists; these 
have been worked up principally by Messrs. 
Baird and Girard of the Smithsonian institu- 
tion, where the collections are deposited. The 
results are published in the government re- 
ports on the naval expeditions, in vol. x. of 
the " Pacific Railroad Reports," in vol. ii. of 
the "Mexican Boundary Survey," and in the 
publications of the Philadelphia academy. 
The disposition to make new genera and subdi- 
vide old ones is carried to a puzzling extreme 
in ichthyology as well as in other departments 
of zoology ; and the prevalent system of placing 
the name of the genus maker after the species, 
by whomsoever and whenever described, offers 
a premium for naturalists to make the greatest 
number possible of new genera. In getting 
rid of the too great condensation of Linnaeus, 
naturalists have fallen into the worse extreme 
of too extensive subdivision. For details on 
the structure and physiology of fishes, see 
FISHES. FOSSIL ICHTHYOLOGY. Fishes are by 
far the most numerous of the vertebrates 
found in the strata of the earth, extending 



ICHTHYOSAURUS 

from the Silurian epoch to the tertiary ; their 
number, excellent state of preservation, and 
remarkable forms, render fossil fishes of great 
interest in explaining the changes of our plan- 
et's surface, and in completing the chain of 
ichthyic relations. The classic work on fossil 
fishes is the Recherches sur les poissonsfosgiles, 
by Prof. Agassiz (1833-'43) ; in this magnifi- 
cent work about 1,000 species are described, 
with accurate and elegant illustrations, the re- 
sult of his examinations of more than 20,000 
specimens in the cabinets of Europe. lie di- 
vides fossil fishes into the four orders of ga- 
noids, placoids, ctenoids, and cycloids, accord- 
ing to the structure and form of the scales, 
these portions of the external skeleton being 
generally well preserved ; the orders he divides 
into families according to the structure and po- 
sition of the fins, the form of the bones of the 
head and of the teeth, and the structure of the 
gill covers and of the spinous fin rays. His 
classification is as follows : order I., ganoidei, 
characterized by osseous plates covered with 
enamel (see GANOIDS) ; order II., placoidei, 
with tabular scales, like sharks and rays ; or- 
der III., ctenoidei, having many living repre- 
sentatives, with scales serrated on their poste- 
rior margins ; order IV., cycloidei, with ellip- 
tical or circular scales without serrations. The 
first order is most abundant from the old red 
sandstone to the chalk formation ; the second 
extends from the Silurian through the tertiary 
epochs ; the last two are not found anterior to 
the chalk, from which they extend through the 
tertiary strata. For details on fossil fishes, see 
the geological works of Hugh Miller. 

ICHTHYOSAURUS (Gr. !*%, fish, and aavpo?, 
lizard), a gigantic fossil marine reptile, belong- 
ing to the order enaliosaurians of Conybeare. 
The body was fish-like in form, with a large 
head, neck of equal width with occiput and 
thorax; the vertebras had biconcave articular 
surfaces, as in fishes and the perennibranchiate 
reptiles; the paddles, four in number, were 
comparatively small, resembling in form those 
of cetaceans, but in the number of digits and 
of their constituent bones and appended bifur- 
cated rays they came near the structure of the 
fins of fishes ; the tail was long, the vertebra 
gradually becoming smaller and flatter toward 
the end, and probably margined with a tegu- 
mentary fin expanded or in a vertical direc- 
tion ; the tail was doubtless the principal organ 
of locomotion, and presented the saurian char- 
acter of length and gradual diminution, being 
cetacean in its partially tegumentary nature, 
and fish-like in its vertical position. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Buckland, the skin was scaleless and 
finely wrinkled, as in cetaceans. The skull is 
like that of the dolphin, with a smaller cere- 
bral cavity and an unanchylosed condition of 
the cranial bones ; the intermaxillaries are 
greatly developed, and the orbits immense, sur- 
rounded by numerous large sclerotic plates ; in 
the convex articulating surface of the occiput, 
the solid structure of the back part of the skull, 



ICHTHYOSAURUS 



ICONOCLASTS 



163 



and the massive proportions of the jaws and 
the bones with which they are articulated, we 
see crocodilian affinities. The nostrils are a 
short distance in front of the orbits ; the teeth 
are situated in an alveolar groove with their 
bases free, and separated by partial ridges, the 
roots being implanted much as in the croco- 
dile; hence this reptile is placed by Prof. 
Agassiz in the order of rhizodonts. The struc- 
ture of the hyoid apparatus indicates that it 
was an air breather, with a slightly developed 
tongue, and that it obtained its food in the 
water, having an apparatus, as in the crocodile, 
to shut off the cavity of the mouth from the 
larynx. The ribs are well developed, extend- 
ing from near the head to the tail, and attached 
to a large sternum ; the clavicles and shoulder 
blades are strong ; the resulting pectoral arch 
resembles much that of the mammalian orni- 
thorhynchus, and is very different from that of 
the cetaceans, indicating that the anterior limbs 
were used not only in swimming but in crawl- 
ing up the shores of the ocean for the purpose 
of depositing their eggs, &c. The arm and 
forearm are very short and broad; after these 
come the bones of the wrist and fingers, ar- 
ranged as flattened ossicles in series of from 
three to six, so dovetailed together at the sides 




Skeleton of Ichthyosaurus. 

as to form one powerful framework. The 
pelvic arch is not articulated to the spine, but 
was merely suspended in the muscles, as in 
fishes; the posterior limbs or paddles are gen- 
erally considerably smaller than the anterior, 
and would seem to have been more serviceable 
in terrestrial progression than in swimming. 
The best known species, /. communit (Cony- 
beare), grew to a length of 20 ft. ; the large 
conical, longitudinally furrowed teeth are from 
40 to 50 above on each side, and 25 to 30 be- 
low ; the jaws are prolonged and compressed, 
the vertebrae about 140, with the anterior pad- 
dles three times as large as the posterior ; like 
all the species, this is found in the secondary 
formations, principally in the lias and oolite of 
England. The /. intermedium (Conyb.), the most 
common and generally distributed of the spe- 
cies, does not much exceed 7 ft. in length ; the 
teeth are more acutely conical, and about j-ylfy ; 
the vertebrae are about 130, and the fore pad- 
dles are much the larger. The /. platyodon 
(Conyb.), so called from the greater smooth- 
ness and flatness of the crowns of the teeth, 
must have attained a length of more than 
30 ft. ; the head is longer than in the prece- 
ding species, and the jaws broader and more 
powerful ; the teeth are about $r fj, and are 
frequently found broken as if from its own 



violence; the vertebra} are about 120; the 
most remarkable character is the equality in 
size of the fore and hind paddles, and the com- 
parative simplicity of their structure. The 7. 
tenuirostris (Conyb.) is characterized by the 
length and slenderness of the jaws, as in the 
gavial ; this, with the flat head and large orbits, 
gives to the skull, as Owen says, the appear- 
ance of that of a gigantic snipe with its bill 
armed with teeth; the teeth are slender and 
very numerous, about Iglj^, and directed ob- 
liquely backward ; it attained a length of about 
15 ft., and was rather slender in its propor- 
tions. Six other species, and details on all, 
will be found in Prof. Owen's " Report on 
British Fossil Reptiles to the British Associa- 
tion," in 1839. Their remains extend through 
the whole of the oolitic period, including the 
lias and odlite proper to the Wealden and chalk 
formations, in Great Britain and central Eu- 
rope. For fuller details the reader is referred 
to the writings of Conybeare, Cuvier, and 
Buckland. These reptiles, of gigantic size and 
marine habits, must have been very active and 
destructive; their food, as indicated by the 
bones and scales found with their remains, con- 
sisted principally of fishes. From the great 
size of the eyes, they could probably see well 
by nigh't ; being air 
breathers, like the 
crocodiles, they no 
doubt seized their 
prey near the sur- 
face ; the immense 
cuttle fishes of the 
secondary epoch 
probably furnished 
a portion of their food. These strange crea- 
tures formed the connecting link between rep- 
tiles and fishes, as do the perennibranchiate 
amphibia in the actual creation ; and by some 
they have been considered, like the latter, as 
possessors of both gills and lungs, at least in 
some stage of their existence, and therefore to 
a certain extent amphibious. This reptile, 
with the muzzle of a dolphin, the teeth of a 
crocodile, the head of a lizard, the paddles of 
a whale, and the vertebrfe of a fish, buried for 
myriads of years, was introduced to the sci- 
entific world by Sir Everard Home, in the 
" Philosophical Transactions " for 1814. 
l< OUIhlLL. See ION A. 
HOMO!. See KONIEH. 
ICONOCLASTS (Gr. emovoMoTW, from lut&v, 
an image, and /c/l?v, to break), in ecclesiastical 
history, the violent opponents of the venera- 
tion of images in the 8th and 9th centuries. 
The use of images which led to the iconoclas- 
tic troubles dates from very remote antiquity. 
The paintings which adorn the Roman cata- 
combs are now attributed by such arehseolo- 
gists as Lenormant and March! to the first 
three centuries of the Christian era ; and those 
recently discovered in the cemetery of St. Cal- 
listus are thought by De' Rossi to belong to the 
1st century. But it is still a matter of dispute 



164 



ICONOCLASTS 



when images were first introduced by Chris- 
tians into public worship. The prevailing 
opinion is that they passed from the family 
into the temple at the end of the 3d century, 
and that their public use became general at the 
close of the 4th. The visible representation of 
the cross found its way earlier both into eccle- 
siastical and domestic life. This custom and 
the feeling out of which it grew varied widely 
among different nations. In Egypt and through- 
out Africa the use of images met with but lit- 
tle favor. Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, 
and Augustine discountenanced it. Both the 
Greeks and Romans favored the fine arts, but 
there always existed among Christians an aver- 
sion toward anything which resembled the old 
pagan union of art and religion. The first note 
of the iconoclastic warfare came from Mar- 
seilles, where the bishop, Serenus, caused all 
images to be demolished and cast out of church- 
es. For this he was twice censured by Pope 
Gregory the Great, who, while blaming the 
superstitious use of images, advised their em- 
ployment as a means of instruction for the un- 
lettered who could not read the Holy Scrip- 
tures. In the East, Constantino had embel- 
lished the public monuments and churches 
erected by himself in his new imperial city 
with representations of religious objects taken 
from the circle of the Old and New Testa- 
ments. Very soon this use became interwoven 
with the whole domestic and public life of the 
Greek and Asiatic Christians. Churches, to- 
gether with their books, furniture, and vest- 
ments, private houses and public edifices, 
household utensils and wearing apparel, were 
profusely ornamented with images of Christ, 
the martyrs, and Biblical personages. Statues 
of costly materials adorned the public squares 
and the approaches to the imperial palaces. 
The people were not slow in going to extrava- 
gant lengths. Reports of miraculous effects 
produced by some images attracted crowds of 
pilgrims. In the course of the 6th century it 
became a custom in the Greek church to make 
prostrations before images as a token of rever- 
ence to the persons whom they represented. 
The Manichanshad already characterized these 
practices as idolatry, and the Jews denounced 
them as an apostasy from the divine -law. 
About the year 600 Leontius, a Cyprian bish- 
op, wrote a treatise against the Jews and in 
vindication of the lawfulness of the custom. 
In the next century the Mohammedans wher- 
ever they prevailed forbade the worship of 
images. Moved by these circumstances, the 
Byzantine emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a 
first ordinance in 726, directed not against the 
images themselves, but against such signs of 
an idolatrous homage as prostration and kneel- 
ing down before them. This measure, coun- 
selled by Constantino, bishop of Nacolia in 
Phrygia, and countenanced by a large number 
of other eastern prelates, met with resistance 
from Germanus, patriarch of Constantinople, 
and from the mass of the people. Besides se- 



rious disturbances in many places, the inhabi- 
tants of the Cyclades rebelled against the em- 
peror and equipped a fleet. This was destroy- 
ed by means of Greek fire, and a new impe- 
rial edict was issued in 730, forbidding the 
use of all images for religious purposes. Ger- 
manus now resigned his office and retired into 
solitude. Leo caused the statues in churches 
to be burned and the paintings on the walls to 
be effaced, and fearful riots and massacres oc- 
curred in consequence. Pope Gregory II. re- 
monstrated in vain with the emperor, and the 
Romans refused to comply with the imperial 
edict. In 732 a council assembled in Rome by 
Gregory III., condemned Leo and his abettors, 
and decreed the validity of the relative honor 
paid to images. The emperor pursued his pur- 
pose with relentless severity until his death in 
741, when it was taken up with no less zeal by 
his son Constantine Copronymus. He was op- 
posed by his brother-in-law Artavasdes, who 
possessed himself of the throne and restored 
the worship of images. His death in Novem- 
ber, 743, restored Constantine to power, which 
he used to exterminate images and finish the 
work begun by his father. He assembled at 
Constantinople in 754 a council of 338 bishops, 
who after a deliberation of six months pro- 
nounced all visible symbols of Christ, except in 
the eucharist, to be either blasphemous or he- 
retical, and the use of images in churches to be 
a revival of paganism. This decision was car- 
ried out by Constantine, one of whose last acts 
was to compel every inhabitant of Constanti- 
nople to take an oath never again to worship 
an image. Leo IV., who succeeded him in 
775, was no less energetic in putting down im- 
age worship ; but at his death in 780 the em- 
press regent Irene concerted measures with 
Pope Adrian I. for the restoration of images. 
In 787 the second oecumenical council of Nice 
decreed that " bowing to an image, which is 
simply the token of love and reverence, ought 
by no means to be confounded with the adora- 
tion which is due to God alone." The same 
was also true of the cross, the books of the 
evangelists, and other sacred objects. The con- 
test was prolonged in the East under successive 
emperors till Theodora assembled a council at 
Constantinople (842), which confirmed the de- 
cisions of the Nicene council, and established 
the veneration of images among the Greeks, 
though subsequently the Greek church took 
the position which it holds to this day that no 
carved, sculptured, or molten images of holy 
persons or things are allowable, but only pic- 
tures, which are held to be not images but rep- 
resentations. Rome and Italy had already ac- 
cepted the decree of the Nicene council, which 
the Latin church accounts the seventh of the 
general councils. The term iconoclasts is also 
applied in history to those Protestants of the 
Netherlands who at the commencement of the 
troubles in the reign of Philip II. tumultuous- 
ly assembled and destroyed the images in many 
Roman Catholic churches. These tumults he- 



ICONOCLASTS 



IDAHO 



165 



gan Aug. 14, 1566, at St. Omer in Flanders, 
where several churches were desecrated, the 
images overturned and broken, and the pictures 
ruined. The insurgents next attacked the ca- 
thedral at Ypres, which they also stripped. 
The excitement speedily spread all over Flan- 
ders, Hainaut, and Brabant, and the churches, 
chapels, and convents of Valenciennes, Tour- 
nay, Menin, Comines, and many other cities 
and towns were sacked. At Antwerp shortly 
afterward a mob ravaged the cathedral, de- 
stroyed the statues, cut into pieces the paint- 
ings, the pride of Flemish art, demolished the 
great organ, the most perfect in the world, 
overthrew the 70 altars, and carried off the 
vestments and sacred vessels. The devastation 
of the cathedral occupied them till midnight, 
when they sallied forth to deal in the same 
way with the other churches of the city and its 
suburbs. For three days these scenes contin- 
ued at Antwerp, when they were stopped by a 
few knights of the golden fleece, who with 
their retainers attacked and dispersed the riot- 
ers. From Antwerp the excitement against 
images spread over the northern provinces, 
and throughout Holland, Utrecht, and Fries- 
land the churches were ravaged. At Rotter- 
dam, Dort, Haarlem, and some other places, 
the magistrates averted the storm by quietly 
removing the images from the buildings. "The 
amount of injury inflicted during this dismal 
period," says Prescott, "it is not possible to 
estimate. Four hundred churches were sacked 
by the insurgents in Flanders alone. The dam- 
age to the cathedral of Antwerp, including its 
precious contents, was said to amount to not 
less than 400,000 ducats. The loss occasioned 
by the plunder of gold and silver plate might 
be computed ; the structures so cruelly defaced 
might be repaired by the skill of the architect; 
but who can estimate the irreparable loss occa- 
sioned by the destruction of manuscripts, stat- 
uary, and paintings?" Motley, in his "His- 
tory of the Rise of the Dutch Republic," main- 
tains that the iconoclasts committed no act of 
plunder nor of outrage on persons. He says : 
" Catholic and Protestant writers agree that no 
deeds of violence were committed against man 
or woman. It would be also very easy to accu- 
mulate a vast weight of testimony as to their for- 
bearance from robbery. They destroyed for de- 
struction's sake, not for purposes of plunder. 
Although belonging to the lowest classes of so- 
ciety, they left heaps of jewelry, of gold and sil- 
ver plate, of costly embroidery, lying unheeded 
upon the ground. They felt instinctively that 
a great passion would be contaminated by ad- 
mixture with paltry motives. In Flanders a 
company of rioters hanged one of their own 
number for stealing articles to the value of five 
shillings. In Valenciennes the iconoclasts were 
offered largo sums if they would refrain from 
desecrating the churches of that city, but they 
rejected the proposal with disdain. The hon- 
est Catholic burgher who recorded the fact, ob- 
served that he did so because of the many mis- 



representations on the subject, not because he 
wished to flatter heresy and rebellion." The 
whole time occupied by this remarkable out- 
break was less than a fortnight. It was warm- 
ly disapproved of at the time by William of 
Orange, Egmont, and the other statesmen of 
the patriotic party in the Netherlands. Its 
immediate effect was to detach the Catholics 
from the national cause, and it was probably 
the principal means of preventing the southern 
provinces of the Netherlands from becoming 
independent of Spain in concert with the seven 
northern provinces. 

ICTOTS, a Greek architect, contemporary 
with Pericles. He was chief architect of the 
Parthenon, and built the temple of Apollo Epi- 
curius near Phigalia in Arcadia. The former 
was completed in 438 B. 0., and the latter prob- 
ably about 431. He also built the fane at Eleu- 
sis in which the mysteries were celebrated. 
All these edifices were in the Doric style. No 
details of his life remain. 

IDA, a W. county of Iowa, drained by 
branches of Little Sioux river; area, 432 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 226. Grain, potatoes, and 
sorghum are the principal crops ; cattle raising 
is carried on to a considerable extent. The 
productions in 1870 were 9,239 bushels of 
wheat, 8,510 of Indian corn, 6,058 of oats, 2,511 
of potatoes, and 1,887 tons of hay. The value 
of live stock was $34,867. Capital, New Ida. 
IDA. I. A mountain range (now Kas Dagh) 
of Mysia, forming the S. boundary of the 
Troad. Its highest peak was Mt. Gargarus, about 
5,750 ft. above the sea. The principal rivers 
flowing from Mt. Ida were the Simo'is, Sca- 
mander, and Granicus. From Mt. Ida Gany- 
mede was stolen ; here Paris pronounced judg- 
ment on the beauty of the rival goddesses ; and 
here the celestials stationed themselves to be- 
hold the battles for Troy on the plain below. 
II. A mountain (now Psiloriti) of Crete, the 
loftiest of the range which traverses that isl- 
and, of which it occupies the centre, termi- 
nating in three peaks crowned with snow for 
eight months of the year. Its highest summit 
is said to be about 8,000 ft. Of the legends with 
which its name is connected, those relating to 
the infancy of Zeus are the most celebrated. 

IDAHO, a territory of the United States, 
situated between lat. 42 and 49 N., and Ion. 
111 and 117 10' W., 'bounded N. by British 
Columbia, E. by Montana and Wyoming, S. by 
Utah and Nevada, and W. by Oregon and Wash- 
ington. The extreme length N. and S. on the 
W. boundary is 485 m. and along the Wyo- 
ming border 140 m., and the breadth varies 
from less than 50 m. on the north to nearly 
300 m. on the south; area, 86,294 sq. m. 
The eastern boundary line is irregular. Com- 
mencing at the north, it runs S. along the 
116th meridian to the crest of the Bitter Root 
mountains (about lat. 47 45') ; thence it fol- 
lows S. E. and E. the crest of those and of 
the Rocky mountains to the lllth meridian 
on the Wyoming border, and thence runs S. 



166 



IDAHO 



to the Utah border. The territory is divided ' 
into nine counties : Ada, Alturas, Boise, Idaho, 
Lemhi, Nez Perce, Oneida, Owyhee, and Slio- 
shone. The principal towns are Boise City 
(the capital), Idaho City, Maladc City, and Sil- 
ver City in the S. part, each having in 1870 
less than 1,000 inhabitants, and Lewiston at 
the junction of the Snake and Clear water rivers. 
The population of the territory in 1870, exclu- 
sive of tribal Indians, was 14,990, including 
4,274 Chinese, 60 colored, and 47 Indians ; 12,- 
184 were male and 2,815 female; 7,114 native 
and 7,885 foreign born ; 897 males and 798 fe- 
males were between 5 and 18 years of age, 9,431 
males (3,288 native and 6,143 foreign) from 18 
to 45, and 10,313 (3,680 native and 6,633 for- 
eign) 21 years old and upward. Of the natives, 
94o were born in the territory, 804 in New 
York, 550 in Ohio, 536 in Missouri, 479 in 
Utah, 416 in Pennsylvania, 400 in Illinois, 
348 in Oregon, and 312 in Iowa. Of the for- 
eigners, 1,984 were natives of Great Britain, 
of whom 986 were Irish, 599 of Germany, and 
334 of British America. There were 553 per- 
sons born in Idaho living in other parts of the 
Union ; 5,557 male citizens of the United States, 
21 years old and over, in the territory ; 3,293 
persons, 10 years old and upward, unable to 
read, and 3,388 unable to write, including 2,872 
Chinese; 4,104 families and 4,622 dwellings; 
10,879 persons, 10 years old and over, engaged 
in occupations, of whom 1,462 were employed 
in agriculture, 1,423 in professional and per- 
sonal services, 721 in trade and transportation, 
and 7,273 in manufactures and mechanical and 
mining industries. The tribal Indians in 1872 
numbered about 5,800. The Nez Perces, 2,807 
in number, occupy a reservation of 1,344,000 
acres in the N. part of the territory ; they are 
well advanced in civilization, extensively en- 
gaged in agriculture, and had two schools in 
operation, attended by 124 pupils. The Bois6 
and Bruneau Shoshones, numbering 516, and 
the Bannacks, 521, have a reservation of 1,568,- 
000 acres in the S. E. part of the territory, near 
the Snake river. These reservations receive 
limited annuities from the United States, and 
are in charge of the Presbyterians. The Coeur 
d'Alenes, Spokanes, Kootenays, and Pond 
d'Oreilles, about 2,000 in the aggregate, oc- 
cupy a reservation of 256,000 acres, 30 or 40 m. 
N. of the Nez Perces. They receive no annui- 
ties, and are largely under the influence of the 
Catholic missionaries of the Cceur d'Alene mis- 
sion. The general surface of the territory is 
a table land, with an elevation of from 2,000 
to 5,000 ft. above the sea, but containing nu- 
merous depressed valleys, each watered by a 
considerable stream, and crossed by mountain 
ranges or spurs, with peaks rising above the 
line of perpetual snow. These spurs, branch- 
ing from the Bitter Root and main chain of 
the Rocky mountains, and traversing the whole 
width of the territory, are mostly named from 
the streams that rise in them or flow along the 
valleys at their base. In the north, near the ! 



international boundary, are the Kootenay moun- 
tains ; S. of these is the Cceur d'Alene range, 
and further S. and along the Clearwater river 
and its tributaries are the Clearwater moun- 
tains. Along the upper Salmon river and at its 
head waters is the lofty and rugged Salmon 
River range, and further up the Snake from the 
mouth of Salmon river are successively found 
the Weiser, Payette, Boise, Owyhee (in the 8. 
W. portion of the territory), and Saw Tooth 
mountains. The Bear River mountains are in 
the S. E. corner, and along the N. portion of 
the Wyoming border is the Teton range. The 
Three Buttes are isolated peaks in the S. part, 
N. and W. of the Snake. The Snake river or 
Lewis fork of the Columbia and its branches 
drain the entire territory, except a portion 
about 120 m. long in the extreme north, which 
is watered by Clarke's fork, the Spokane, and 
the Kootenay, and a small tract in the S. E. 
corner, which is intersected by Bear river. The 
Snake river, rising in the W. part of Wyoming, 
after entering Idaho, flows N. W., then bends 
S. W., and again N. W., making an immense 
curve through the S. part of the territory, 
and strikes the Oregon boundary in about 
lat. 43 40', after which it flows N. forming the 
W. boundary of Idaho to about lat. 46 30', 
where it turns W. and enters Washington ter- 
ritory. Steamers ascend to Lewiston in Nez 
Perc6 co., just above the point where it as- 
sumes a W. course. For more than 100 m. 
above Lewiston the river is shallow and rapid, 
and navigation is difficult and dangerous; but 
above the mouth of Powder river it is again 
navigable for 150 or 200 m. The principal 
tributaries are the Bruneau from the south, the 
Malade from the north, and from the east the 
Bois6, the Payette, the Weiser, the Salmon, the 
Clearwater, and the Palouse. The Boise' enters 
the Snake just below the point where it as- 
sumes a N. course ; the Payette and Weiser lie 
between it and the Salmon. The Salmon river 
rises in the Salmon River mountains near the 
centre of the S. portion of the territory, and 
flows N. along the base of the Rocky moun- 
tains, turns abruptly W., and after traversing 
the entire width of the territory joins the Snake 
near the middle of the W. boundary. The 
Clearwater rises by several forks in the Bitter 
Root mountains, and flows W., joining the Snake 
at Lewiston. The Palouse rises N. of the 
Clearwater, and empties into the Snake in 
Washington territory. The Spokane, flowing 
W. and joining the Columbia in Washington 
territory, forms the outlet of Cceur d'Alfene 
lake, a navigable body of water of irregular 
shape, about 24 m. long by 2 or 3 m. wide, 
which receives the Cosur d'Alene and St. Jo- 
seph's rivers from the Bitter Root mountains. 
Further N. Clarke's fork crosses the territory 
from E. to W., expanding into a lake about 
30 m. long and 5 m. wide near the E. bound- 
ary, called Pend d'Oreille. The river and lake 
are navigable by steamers through Idaho. The 
N. E. corner is crossed by the Kootenay, a trib- 



IDAHO 



167 



utary of the Columbia. Lake Kanisku, about 
30 m. long and 6 m. wide, which occupies the 
N. W. corner of the territory, empties into 
Clarke's fork. Bear river enters the S. E. cor- 
ner from Utah, flows N., and bending sharply 
S. reenters Utah, and empties into Great Salt 
lake. The S. W. corner is watered by Jordan 
creek and other affluents of the Owyhee, an 
Oregon tributary of the Snake. Three falls in 
the Snake deserve mention. The American 
falls are in about Ion. 112 45', and have a per- 
pendicular descent of 60 or 70 ft. The Sho- 
shone falls further down the stream, and just 
below the Malade, are surpassed only by those 
of Niagara and the Yosemite. The river, here 
200 or 300 yards wide, is divided about 400 
yards above the main fall into six nearly equal 
parts by five islands, and in the passage be- 
tween them is precipitated 25 or 30 ft. Uni- 
ting below the islands, the water passes in an 
unbroken sheet over the great fall, a descent 
of about 200 ft. The Salmon falls, about 45 m. 
below the Shoshone, are 20 ft. high. Idaho is 
rich in the precious metals. The principal 
quartz mines are in the S. W. part, in Owyhee, 
Idaho, Bois6, and Alturas counties. In the 
Owyhee mines, which are the richest, situated 
S. of the Snake and chiefly on Jordan creek, 
silver predominates. The other mines, the 
most productive of which are in Boise basin, 
an elliptical depression in Bois6 co., 25 m. 
long from N. to S. and 18 m. from E. to W., 
produce gold. Placer diggings occur in va- 
rious parts of the territory ; the most im- 
portant are those of Boise basin and along 
the head waters of the Salmon and Clearwater 
rivers. Gold was first discovered in paying 
quantities in Idaho on Oro Fino creek, a N. 
tributary of the Clearwater, in 1800. The Boise 
basin mines were discovered in 1862, and 
the Owyhee mines in 1863. The product of 
the territory prior to 1868 is stated in J. Ross 
Browne's " Resources of the Pacific Slope " at 
$45,000,000. The subsequent yield, according 
to R. W. Raymond, United States commis- 
sioner of mining statistics, has been as fol- 
lows: 1868, $7,000,000; 1869, $7,000,000; 
1870, $6,000,000; 1871, $5,000,000; 1872, 
$2,695,870; 1873, $2,500,000; making the to- 
tal product more than $75,000,000. Of the 
yield in 1872, $2,272,261 was gold and $423,- 
609 silver; in 1873, $1,571,733 gold and $928,- 
267 silver. The gold from Idaho deposited at 
the United States mint, branches, and assay 
offices to June 30, 1873, amounted to $18,389,- 
785 84; silver, $300,401 74. The census of 
1870 returns 254 mines, having 5 steam engines 
of 82 horse power and 2 water wheels of 52 
horse power; hands employed, 1,692; capital 
invested, $1,088,640; wages paid, $503,266; 
value of materials, $231,763 ; of products, 
$1,989,341. Of these mines 244 were for the 
production of gold, of which 7 were hydraulic, 
232 placer, and 5 quartz ; 10 were quartz mines, 
producing gold and silver. The returns, how- 
ever, are admitted to be imperfect. A United 



States assay office was established at Bois6 
City in 1872. There are extensive deposits of 
salt, coal, and iron ore. In spring, summer, 
and autumn the climate is delightful ; the days 
are never sultry and the nights are cool. The 
winters on the high mountains are accompa- 
nied with extreme cold and heavy snow ; on 
the plains and lower mountains they are gen- 
erally less severe than in N. Iowa, Wisconsin, 
or central Minnesota. The valleys are mild, 
visited with little snow, and cattle winter in 
them without shelter. The average tempera- 
ture in the W. part of the territory is about 
the same as in central Illinois, Indiana, and 
Ohio, and S. Pennsylvania, while in the east 
it is more nearly that of N. Massachusetts and 
S. Vermont and New Hampshire. About the 
sources of the rivers in the Bitter Root and 
Rocky mountains the fall of rain and snow is 
considerable, but in the lower valleys in the 
west it is much less, and agriculture is not gen- 
erally successful without irrigation. In the 
extreme north the climate, though less dry, is 
colder and not well adapted to agriculture ; 
but the temperature does not vary in propor- 
tion to the difference of latitude. The lower 
slopes of the mountains are furrowed with 
numerous streams, and alternately covered 
with forests (mostly pine, fir, and cedar) and 
nutritious grasses. The plains generally pro- 
duce good pasturage, and the valleys contain 
broad stretches of meadow land, extending on 
both sides of the streams by which they .are 
watered to the first rise of table land or moun- 
tain, and with irrigation producing good crops 
of wheat, oats, barley, and the common fruits 
and vegetables. The climate is not well adapt- 
ed to Indian corn. The valleys of the Clear- 
water, Salmon, Payette, and Bois6 rivers are 
large, and generally have good facilities for 
irrigation ; and there are well sheltered and 
fertile bottom lands on the Weiser, St. Jo- 
seph, and Cceur d'Alene, and fertile tracts on 
the shores of Lakes Coeur d'Alene and Pend 
d'Oreille. Other important valleys are those 
of the Bruneau in the southwest, of Wood 
river in the south, and of Bear river, which 
contains thriving Mormon settlements. The 
extreme north is well timbered and has much 
fertile land. The basin of the Snake is of 
volcanic origin, and through it the river has 
cut a vast canon, varying in depth from 100 to 
1,000 ft. The streams that empty into the 
Snake for some distance below the Shoshone 
foils sink, and, passing under the strata of lava, 
fall from the sides of the cafion into the main 
stream. The greater portion of the basin, 
though much of it might be rendered produc- 
tive by irrigation, is a barren waste, producing 
only sage brush, but along the streams are val- 
leys containing arable land, and the surround- 
ing foot hills are generally covered with bunch 
grass, affording excellent pasturage. Of the 
total area of 55,228,160 acres, 16,925,000, ac- 
cording to the estimate of the commissioner 
of the United States general land office, are 



168 



IDAHO 



suited to agriculture; 5,000.000 to grazing; 
14,328,160 are sterile, producing only wild sage 
and occasional tufts of buffalo grass, but most- 
ly recluimable into pasture and agricultural 
land by irrigation ; 18,400,000, mountains, in- 
cluding 7,500,000 acres of timber land and 
8,000,000 of mineral land ; and 575,000 acres 
are covered by lakes. In 1870 there were 
77,139 acres in farms, of which 26,603 were 
improved. The cash value of farms was $492,- 
860 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$59,295 ; amount of wages paid during the 
year, including the value of board, $153,007 ; 
estimated value of all farm productions, in- 
cluding betterments and additions to stock, 
$637,797; value of orchard products, $725 ; of 
produce of market gardens, $24,577 ; of home 
manufactures, $34,730 ; of animals slaughtered 
or sold for slaughter, $57,932 ; of live stock, 
$520,580. There were 2,151 horses, 371 mules 
and asses, 4,171 milch cows, 522 working oxen, 
5,763 other cattle, 1,021 sheep, and 2,316 swine, 
besides 624 horses and 49,540 cattle not on 
farms. The productions were 73,725 bushels 
of winter and 1,925 of spring wheat, 1,756 of 
rye, 5,750 of Indian corn, 100,119 of oats, 72,- 
316 of barley, 64,534 of Irish potatoes, 610 of 
peas and beans, 14 of grass seed, 3,415 Ibs. of 
wool, 111,480 of butter, 4,464 of cheese, 21 of 
hops, 11,250 gallons of milk sold, and 6,985 
tons of hay. The number of manufacturing 
establishments was 101, having 11 steam en- 
gines of 311 horse power and 16 water wheels 
of 295 horse power ; number of hands em- 
ployed, 265 ; capital invested, $742,300 ; wages 
paid during the year, $112,372 ; value of ma- 
terials used, $691,785 ; of products, $1,047,- 
624. The only important establishments were 
8 quartz mills (value of products, $523,100), 3 
flouring and grist mills, 10 saw mills, 7 brew- 
eries, and 2 distilleries. The United States 
commissioner of mining statistics in 1871 states 
the number of quartz mills, including those 
not in operation, at 30, having 344 stamps and 
4 arastras, and mostly run by steam ; 9 were 
for the production of gold alone, and 21 for 
the production of gold and silver. There is 
a national bank at Bois6 City, with a capital of 
$100,000. No railroads are in operation in 
the territory, but the Northern Pacific is to 
cross the N. part. The government is similar 
to that of other territories. The executive 
officers are a governor and a secretary, ap- 
pointed by the president, with the advice and 
consent of the senate, for four years ; also a 
treasurer, comptroller, prison commissioner, 
and superintendent of public instruction crea- 
ted by local law. Legislative authority is vest- 
ed in a council of 13 members and a house of 
representatives of 26, elected biennially by the 
people. The judicial power is vested in a su- 
preme court, district courts, probate courts, 
and justices of the peace. The supreme court 
consists of three judges appointed by the presi- 
dent with the consent of the senate for four 
years, and has appellate jurisdiction. A dis- 



trict court, with general original jurisdiction, 
is held in each of the three judicial districts 
into which the territory is divided, by a judge 
of the supreme court. There is a probate 
court for each county, with the ordinary pow- 
ers of such courts. Justices of the peace have 
jurisdiction of inferior cases. The assessed 
value of real estate in 1870 was $1,926,565 ; 
of personal property, $3,365,640; total as- 
sessed value, $5,292,205 ; true value of real 
and personal, $6,552,681 ; taxation not nation- 
al, $174,711, of which $40,594 was territorial, 
$132,171 county, and $1,946 town, city, &c. ; 
public debt, $222,621, of which $218,522 ($33,- 
739 bonded) was county and $4,099 ($2,542 
bonded) town, city, &c. The receipts into the 
territorial treasury for the two years ending 
Nov. 30, 1872, according to the treasurer's re- 
port, were $101,102, including $16,607 24 on 
hand at the beginning of the period ; expen- 
ditures, $89,817 18; balance, $11,284 82. The 
receipts are derived from taxes on property 
and polls and from licenses. The floating debt 
at the above date, less cash in the treasury, 
was $58,239 73; bonded debt in coin, $65,- 
058 51, payable Dec. 1, 1875 and 1870, upon 
which interest to the amount of $4,471 31 was 
unpaid. In 1870 there were 25 schools, of 
which 21 were public, with 33 teachers, 1,208 
pupils, and an annual income of $19,938. In 
1872 the number of school districts was 87; 
public schools, 32 ; school houses, 26 ; teachers, 
60, of whom 26 were males and 34 females; 
children of school age, 1,898 ; number enrolled, 
1,416; total expenditures, $17,219 56. The 
census of 1870 returns 43 libraries, containing 
10,625 volumes,, of which 11 with 2,860 volumes 
were not private ; 6 newspapers (1 tri-weekly, 
1 semi-weekly, and 4 weekly), issuing 200,- 
200 copies annually and having an average 
circulation of 2,750 ; and 15 church organiza- 
tions (2 Baptist, 6 Episcopal, 2 Mormon, 1 
Presbyterian, and 4 Roman Catholic), having 
12 edifices with 2,150 sittings, and property to 
the value of $18,200. Idaho was created a 
territory by the act of congress of March 3, 
1863, from portions of Dakota, Nebraska, and 
Washington territories, comprising an area of 
326,373 sq. m., and embracing the present ter- 
ritory of Montana and nearly all of Wyoming. 
The region within its present limits is a portion 
of the Louisiana purchase of 1803, and was 
included first in Oregon and subsequently in 
Washington territory. The Co3iir d'Alene mis- 
sion was established in 1842, and is situated 
about 15 in. E. of the lake of the same name. 
The permanent settlement of the territory did 
not begin'until the discovery of gold in 1860. 

IDAHO, a W. central county of Idaho territo- 
ry, bounded N. by Salmon river, W. by Oregon, 
and watered by the Little Salmon and other 
streams ; area, 8,500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 849, 
of whom 425 were Chinese. A large portion 
of the surface is covered with forests of pine. 
There are several fertile valleys containing 
good land. On the tributaries of the Salmon 



IDELER 



IDIOCY 



169 



are rich placer mines of gold. The produc- 
tions in 1870 were 1,111 bushels of wheat, 
1,580 of Indian corn, 1,675 of oats, 6,310 of 
potatoes, and 63 tons of hay. There were 285 
horses and 663 cattle. Capital, Washington. 

IDELER, Christian Lndwlg, a German mathe- 
matician, born at Gross-Brese, in Brandenburg, 
Sept. 21, 1766, died Aug. 10, 1846. His earliest 
work was the editing in 1794 of an astronomi- 
cal almanac for the Prussian government. He 
taught mathematics and mechanics in the school 
of woods and forests, and also in the military 
school, and in 1821 became professor in the 
university of Berlin. His works include Ilis- 
toruche Untersuchungen uber die astronomi- 
schen Beobachtungen der Alien (Leipsic, 1806) ; 
JIandbuchdermathematischen und technischen 
Chronologic (Berlin, 1825-'6); and Die Zeit- 
rechnung der Chinesen (Berlin, 1839). 

IDES, in the Roman calendar, the 15th day 
of March, May, July, and October, and the 
13th day of the other months. The eight days 
preceding the ides were named from it, and 
styled the 1st, 2d, 3d, &c., day before the ides. 
Under the empire the senate sat regularly on 
the ides and on the calends, with the exception 
of the ides of March, the anniversary of Caesar's 
death, which was regarded as a dies ater. 

IDIOCY, or Idiotcy, a term now used to ex- 
press a condition of mental imbecility, though 
this idea was not originally contained in the 
root from which it is derived. The idiot 
(J.SIUTIK) among the Greeks was primarily the 
private individual, in distinction from the man 
who participated in public affairs ; next, as the 
educated classes, especially in Sparta, where 
the word is believed to have originated, alone 
took part in public life, IStCirtif came to mean 
an ignorant or unlettered man ; and finally, as 
ignorance tended to mental degradation, it was 
applied to one who did not possess the capa- 
city to learn. Numerous attempts have been 
made to define idiocy, but none of them have 
been perfectly satisfactory. Dr. H. P. Ayres 
defines it as " that state of human existence 
which continuously manifests no signs of in- 
telligence nor instinct." " The type of an 
idiot," says Dr. Seguin, "is one who knows 
nothing, can do nothing, wishes for nothing; 
and each idiot approaches in a greater or less 
degree this standard of idiocy." In a later 
work he writes more definitely : " Idiocy is a 
specific infirmity of the cranio-spinal axis, pro- 
duced by deficiency of nutrition in utero and 
in neo-nati. It incapacitates mostly the func- 
tions which give rise to the reflex, instinctive, 
and conscious phenomena of life ; consequent- 
ly, the idiot moves, feels, understands, wills, 
but imperfectly; does nothing, thinks of noth- 
ing, cares for nothing (extreme cases)." This 
deficiency of nutrition, occurring before birth, 
arrests the foetal progress, and gives perma- 
nence to the transitory type through which 
the foetus was passing ; a similar arrest of de- 
velopment takes place after birth. The whole 
being may be affected, or more commonly one 



set of organs, as those of speech, &c. In this 
aspect idiocy may be considered as a prolonged 
infancy, in which, the infantile grace and in- 
telligence having passed away, the feeble mus- 
cular development and mental weakness of that 
earliest stage of growth alone remain. Dr. 
Sagert of Berlin, a high authority on the sub- 
ject, on the other hand, regards it as depend- 
ing upon a faulty organization of the brain; 
and Dr. S. G. Howe considers "the pure type 
of idiocy to be a person whose lack of under- 
standing arises from the smallness of his brain," 
though acknowledging that for one person in 
whom idiocy is caused by this circumstance 
there are many in whom it is occasioned by 
other causes. It occurs in various degrees, 
separated by no definite line of demarkation, 
from the typical condition to a state scarcely 
distinguishable from normal humanity. Idiocy 
has been variously classified, according to the 
point of view or object aimed at. Dr. Seguin 
recognizes, in different aspects, eight classes, 
viz. : endemic, when connected with some form 
of cretinism (see CRETINISM) ; hereditary, when 
ancestors or collateral relatives have been af- 
fected by idiocy or insanity; parental, when 
referred to certain conditions of the father or 
mother; accidental, when occasioned by va- 
rious post-natal causes; profound, when the 
ganglia are altered ; superficial, when only the 
peripheral termini of contractility and sensa- 
tion appear to be affected ; organic, when the 
organs are sensibly altered; and functional, 
when no organic lesion is observable. The 
terms " profound " and " superficial " are by 
others used simply to indicate the degree of 
idiocy. No particular physical trait is a crite- 
rion of this infirmity. It is accompanied by 
no special shape of the body, though a certain 
want of proportion is generally observable. 
The size of the head, except in extreme cases 
of hydrocephaly or microcephaly, is commonly 
quite normal, though appearing in infancy too 
large and later in life too small; nor is its 
shape a test, though generally somewhat de- 
formed. But any deviation in the relative de- 
velopment of the segments of the brain from 
the type of a race, or any imperfection in the 
mode of union of the segments of the skull, 
indicates a priori some anomaly or imperfec- 
tion of the faculties. Idiocy in infancy is dif- 
ficult to detect, and can generally be determined 
only by comparison with a healthy child in the 
advance toward certain powers that mark the 
progress of ordinary infancy, as the ability to 
hold up the head, to sit erect, to use the hands, 
to take notice, &c. ; the lapse of time leaving 
the idiot further and further behind in the 
race. In many cases premature senility is ex- 
hibited, which is believed to be peculiar to 
idiots. The symptoms of this condition are 
various. The body is generally feeble, the cir- 
culation particularly in the extremities imper- 
fect, the respiration not deep, and the appetite 
sometimes abnormal. The gait is accompanied 
by a sidewise swinging or by forward plunges, 



170 



IDIOCY 



or there is an inability to walk at all. The 
power of prehension is wanting or imperfect, 
while spasmodic, mechanical, or automatic mo- 
tions are common. The touch is dull, less fre- 
quently over-sensitive. The taste and smell 
are oftener indifferent than abnormal. The 
hearing is passive and limited, sometimes only 
certain sounds or classes of sounds being hee/1- 
ed, while at others, though the organs are per- 
fect, no sounds are attended to, and the patient 
becomes practically deaf and consequently 
mute, from inattention of the will or absence 
of any desire to hear. The sight is sometimes 
fixed and vacant, sometimes wandering, and 
the child may be practically blind from ina- 
bility of the will to control the vision or from 
indifference of the mind to the image on the 
retina. Speech is sometimes wholly wanting ; 
otherwise, more or less imperfect. Idiocy is 
most frequently complicated with epilepsy and 
chorea, less frequently with paralysis and 
contractures, and less frequently still with 
deafness and blindness ; the degree of men- 
tal infirmity diminishing in the same order. 
Perhaps the great feature of idiocy is the in- 
action or absence of the will, though there is 
a vis inertia, by some called a negative will, 
which opposes itself to every attempt to draw 
the idiot from his indifference and isolation, 
or from the external trifles upon which he ex- 
pends the little energy he has. When the dis- 
ease is not complicated with epilepsy, &c., the 
idiot is harmless and mild ; he has no hallu- 
cinations or delusions; he does not perceive 
wrongly, but only imperfectly or not at all. 
In some cases, even when the general condition 
is very low, an extraordinary power in a par- 
ticular direction, as in music or calculation, is 
manifested. Idiocy, which is congenital or has 
its origin in the earlier years, is to be distin- 
guished from dementia, or the loss of the men- 
tal powers resulting from disease or the disor- 
ganization of the brain in adults. The latter, 
though resembling idiocy in its apparent re- 
sults, is incapable of amelioration. The term 
imbecility is commonly employed to denote a 
mild form of idiocy, but by Dr. Seguin it is 
used to designate an arrest of the mental 
development in youth (which may result in 
dementia), when vices, habits, and tendencies 
have been formed to complicate the disease. 
The causes assigned for idiocy are numerous, 
and not all of them well ascertained. Inter- 
marriage of near relatives, intemperance in 
eating or drinking, and especially sexual con- 
gress leading to conception while one or both 
parties are intoxicated, excess of sexual in- 
dulgence or solitary vice, grief, fright, or sud- 
den and alarming sickness on the part of the 
mother during gestation, the habitual use of 
water impregnated with magnesian salts, bad 
and insufficient food, impure air, hereditary 
insanity, and scrofulous or syphilitic taint, are 
the most commonly alleged causes of congenital 
idiocy. The effect on women of the excite- 
ments and anxieties of modern life, and of a 



false system of education, is stated as the cause 
of a progressive increase of idiocy noticed by 
most persons engaged in the treatment of idiots. 
Convulsions, epileptic fits, hydrocephalus, and 
other diseases of the brain, smallpox, scarlatina, 
and measles, blows on the head, or the transla- 
tion of scrofulous or other eruptive diseases to 
the brain, are the usual influences which arrest 
mental development in children. The condi- 
tion of the mother during lactation likewise 
has an important bearing on this question. 
While among some nations idiots have been 
regarded with a certain awe as under the 
special protection of the Deity, until a com- 
paratively recent period they were not deemed 
capable of improvement, and their condition 
was generally forlorn. They were suffered to 
grow up in neglect at home, or were thrown 
into the almshouses, insane asylums, or houses 
of correction, and often treated with cruelty. 
No attempt is known to have been made to im- 
prove their condition till the 17th century. 
When St. Vincent de Paul took charge of the 
priory of St. Lazarus, he gathered a few idiots, 
and, fitting up a room in the priory for their 
accommodation, took charge of them in per- 
son, and attempted to instruct them. His la- 
bors, though continued for many years, seem 
not to have been very successful. The next 
effort was made by the eminent philosopher 
and surgeon Itard, the friend and disciple of 
Condillac. In 1799 a wild boy (" the sav- 
age of Aveyron "), found in the forests of 
Aveyron, was brought to Itard, who hoped to 
find in his instruction the means of solving 
" the metaphysical problem of determining 
what might be the degree of intelligence and 
the nature of the ideas in a lad who, deprived 
from birth of all education, should have lived 
entirely separated from the individuals of his 
kind." For more than a year he followed a 
psychological method, but subsequently adopted 
a system founded on physiology, and labored 
to develop the intellectual faculties of his sub- 
ject by .means of sensations. The young savage 
proved to be an idiot of low grade, and hence 
unfit for the philosophical experiment ; but the 
attempt to instruct him had satisfied Itard that 
it was possible to elevate the mental condi- 
tion of idiots. His immense practice, and the 
severe suffering induced by the malady which 
finally caused his death, prevented him from 
devoting much time to the subject ; but he had 
gathered many facts, and these he committed 
to his pupil, Dr. Seguin, who entered upon the 
work as a labor of love, and devoted several 
years to a thorough research into the causes 
and philosophy of idiocy, and the best methods 
of treating it. Meantime others had become 
interested in the subject. In 1818, and for 
several years subsequently, the effort was made 
to instruct idiot children at the American asy- 
lum for the deaf and dumb in Hartford, Conn. ; 
the measure of success was not large, but their 
physical condition was improved, and some of 
them were taught to converse in the sign Ian- 



IDIOCY 



171 



guage. In 1819 Dr. Richard Pool of Edin- 
burgh, in an essay on education, advocated the 
establishment of an institution for imbeciles. 
In 1824 Dr. Belhomme of Paris published an 
essay on the possibility of improving the con- 
dition of idiots ; and in 1828 a few were in- 
structed for a short time at the Bicetre, one of 
the large insane hospitals of Paris. In 1831 
M. Falret attempted the same work at the 
Salpetriere, another hospital for the insane in 
the same city. Neither of these efforts met 
with sufficient success to be continued. In 
1833 Dr. Voisin, a French physiologist and 
phrenologist, organized a school for idiots in 
Paris, but it was not of long duration. In 
1838 Dr. Seguin opened a school in the hospi- 
tal for incurables of the rue du Faubourg St. 
Martin, and was soon so successful that the 
idiots in the Bicetre were placed under his 
charge; and within three years he received 
from the French academy, whose committee 
had carefully tested his system of instruction, 
a testimonial of their approval. The previous 
efforts for the instruction of idiots had been 
made upon no definite plan, or with a view of 
testing some philosophical theory of the nature 
of mind or the original constitution of man. 
Dr. Seguin, starting with the postulate that 
idiocy is only a prolonged infancy, consulted 
nature as to the mode by which the physical 

Eowers are cultivated and the mind educated 
i the infant, and ended by adopting the 
physiological system of education. This sys- 
tem, considering all the manifestations of life 
as expressions of functions, and all functions 
as resultant from a certain organism, assumes 
that if we could take hold of an organ we 
should be able to make it perform its function ; 
and teaches that as the organs of sensation are 
within our reach and those of thought beyond 
it, the physiological education of the senses 
must precede the psychical education of the 
mind. Applying this method to the varying 
phases of idiocy, each function is to be trained 
with especial reference to the peculiarities and 
deficiencies of the individual, and also in its 
relation to all other functions, with a view to 
a harmonious whole. Important agencies are 
pure air and good food, to strengthen and in- 
vigorate the system ; gymnastic appliances, to 
exercise the various functions and correct ab- 
normal manifestations ; music, imitation, anal- 
ogy, contrast; the play ground, the workshop, 
and the farm, which furnish a definite object 
and lend reality to the exercises, while they 
initiate the pupil into the actual operations of 
life. The legs, if they do not bend, may be 
made to yield by placing the child in a baby- 
jumper; if the feet refuse to step, they may 
be taught by making them encounter, with the 
regularity of a walk, a spring board which 
alternately receives and throws them back; 
the gait is regulated by the use of dumb-bells 
and by conducting the child between the 
rounds of a horizontal ladder or over planes 
of various inclinations and conditions of sur- 



face, representing the principal difficulties 
likely to be encountered in nature. The hands 
are taught to grasp by clasping them about the 
rounds of an inclined ladder and requiring 
them to support the weight of the body, or by 
the use of the balancing pole, which is thrown 
back and forth between the child and the 
teacher. The sense of hearing, when wanting, 
is aroused by music, by surprise sounds, or by 
sounds connected with some natural desire, as 
the dripping of water when the pupil is thirsty; 
the vacant or wandering sight is fixed and 
awakened by the steadfast gaze of the teacher, 
by the admission of light at intervals into a 
dark room, or by the use of the kaleidoscope ; 
the touch, the taste, the smell are trained by 
appropriate exercises, and the refractory or- 
gans of speech are moulded and manipulated 
until they can utter the desired sounds. The 
operations are at first passive and in obedience 
to the will of the teacher ; an active perform- 
ance of the functions is gained by the presen- 
tation of motives within the understanding of 
the pupil. As each sense or organ is carried 
progressively toward the normal performance 
of its function, new avenues from without are 
opened by which ideas, at first concrete, but 
afterward more abstract, are instilled into the 
mind. Finding in idiots the infantile fondness 
for bright colors, teachers avail themselves of 
it to teach them the distinctions of color and 
form ; noticing their liking for playthings, 
they furnish them with builders' blocks, cups 
and balls, and other toys, by which they are 
instructed in number, form, and size; words, 
not letters (these, except as a training for the 
eye, come later), and the meaning of words are 
taught by pictures and objects. Throughout 
these processes individual training is alternated 
with instruction in groups. Simultaneously 
with the physical and mental training, the 
idiots are instructed as far as practicable in the 
social and moral relations and duties by practice 
and example. The system thus briefly sum- 
marized is the one now followed or aimed at 
in the principal institutions both in the United 
States and Europe. The enthusiasm of phi- 
lanthropists has perhaps in some cases led to 
the expectation of higher results than have 
been or are likely to be realized. A consider- 
able proportion of those under instruction will 
make little or no intellectual progress; the mind 
is too thickly shrouded for the light to reach 
it. The condition of those suffering from ep- 
ilepsy is still more hopeless. The training 
school may slightly improve their physical con- 
dition, but that is all. There is however a 
large number, and those often apparently the 
worst cases when admitted, who will attain to 
a considerable degree of intelligence under ju- 
dicious instruction, and will develop sufficient 
ability to be capable, under the direction of 
others, of acquiring a livelihood. A consid- 
erable number learn to add, subtract, multiply, 
and divide, in numbers below 100; but in 
most cases they grasp the idea of numbers 



172 



IDIOCY 



with great difficulty. In geography they make 
more progress. In penmanship and drawing 
many of them are very expert, and most of 
the girls and some of the boys exhibit consid- 
erable skill in needle work. In moral training 
they have generally exhibited a remarkable sus- 
ceptibility for improvement. It is estimated 
that of idiots not affected by epilepsy, who 
are brought under instruction in childhood, 
from one third to one fourth may be made 
capable of performing the ordinary duties of 
life with tolerable ability. They may learn to 
read and write, to understand the elementary 
facts of geography, history, and arithmetic, to 
labor in the mechanic arts under proper super- 
vision, and to attain sufficient knowledge of 
government and morals to fulfil many of the 
duties of a citizen. A larger class, probably 
one half of the whole, will become cleanly, 
quiet, able perhaps to read and write imper- 
fectly, and to perform under the direction of 
others many kinds of work requiring little 
thought. This class, if neglected after leaving 
school, will be likely to relapse into many of 
their early habits. A small number, perhaps the 
most promising at entering, will make little or 
no progress. Nor can the result in any par- 
ticular case be predicted beforehand, and no 
methods of instruction yet adopted will in- 
variably develop the slumbering intellect, and 
confirm and correct the enfeebled or depraved 
will. According to Dr. Seguin, " not one in a 
thousand has been entirely refractory to treat- 
ment ; not one in a hundred who has not been 
made more happy and healthy; more than 
30 per cent, have been taught to conform to 
social and moral law, and rendered capable of 
order, of good feeling, and of working like the 
third of a man ; more than 40 per cent, have be- 
come capable of the ordinary transactions of 
life under friendly control, of understanding 
moral and social abstractions, of working like 
two thirds of a man ; and 25 to 30 per cent, 
come nearer and nearer to the standard of 
manhood, till some of them will defy the 
scrutiny of good judges when compared with 
ordinary young women and inen." The insti- 
tutions generally, under the pressure of appli- 
cations, do not receive those afflicted with epi- 
lepsy, congenital insanity, paralysis, &c., and 
retain only those that promise improvement. 
The age of admission in most instances is from 
6 to 14, and the term of instruction from 5 to 
1 years. Dr. Seguin continued the instruction 
of idiots in Paris till 1848, a part of the time 
in a private establishment. In 1839 he pub- 
lished with Esquirol his first pamphlet, and in 
1846 his treatise on the treatment of idiocy, 
which placed him at once in the front rank of 
living psychologists. In 1848 he visited the 
United States, and assisted in the organization 
and improvement of several institutions for 
idiot instruction ; and he now resides in New 
York. (See SEGCIN.) In 1839 Dr. Guggen- 
. buhl began the study of cretinism in Switz- 
erland, and in 1842 opened his school on 



the Abendberg. In the latter year Sagert, a 
teacher of deaf mutes at Berlin (now im- 
perial councillor and general inspector of the 
department of instruction of unfortunates in 
Prussia), began to receive idiotic pupils, and 
devoted himself to the study of medicine in 
order the better to understand their physiolo- 
gical condition. The school of Dr. Guggen- 
buhl was discontinued at his death in 1863. 
It is generally considered that his system was 
a. failure. At present (1874) there are three 
schools in France : that at the Bicetre, under 
the supervision of M. De Laporte, with about 
20 inmates; that in the Salpetriere, under Dr. 
Delasiauve and Mile. Nichol, with 50 inmates ; 
and that in the insane asylum at Clermont 
in the department of Oise, superintended by 
Dr. Labitte, and having 15 inmates. In Bel- 
gium there are separate departments for idiots 
in the insane asylums at Gheel and at Ghent ; 
the former, under the superintendence of Dr. 
Bulckens, having 15 idiotic youth, and the lat- 
ter, under Dr. Inghels, about 40. In Switzer- 
land there are two private training schools for 
idiots : one in the canton of Bern, under the 
superintendence of Dr. Appenzeller, opened in 
1868, and having 12 pupils in 1874 ; the other 
near Basel, under the charge of Dr. Iselin, 
opened in 1850, and having 15 pupils. In 
1863 there were 15 institutions in Germany, 
mostly private, viz. : at Bendorf, Berlin (two), 
Hasserode, Neinstedt, and Scnreiberhau, in 
Prussia; Ecksberg and Neudettelsau, in Ba- 
varia ; Buschhad, Hubertsburg (two), and 
Mackern, in Saxony ; Mariaberg and Winter- 
bach, in Wurtemberg; and Langenhagen, in 
Hanover. At present there are 10 schools 
for idiots in Prussia, some of which are main- 
tained by the state and others by the prov- 
inces. The only asylum for idiots in the 
Netherlands is the medical asylum for idiotic 
youth at the Hague, opened in 1858, which 
took its origin from the day school for idiots, 
opened in 1855. The number of inmates March 
23, 1874, was 48 (25 boys and 23 girls), while 
the day school, which is continued in con- 
nection with the asylum, and only receives 
children residing at the Hague, has 85 pu- 
pils. These institutions are supported by sub- 
sidies, by contributions, and by fees of pupils. 
They are under the charge of A. S. Moesveld 
as director or superintendent, who with his 
wife has 12 assistants, and of Dr. 0. W. Eiken- 
dal as physician. The number of teachers is 
12, including one instructor in gymnastics and 
two in handicraft. In Sweden there are three 
schools for idiots in operation, viz. : at Skofde 
in the province of West Gothland, under the 
superintendence of Miss E. Carlbeck, opened 
in 1868, and in 1874 having 32 pupils; at 
Stockholm, under the superintendence of Miss 
W. Lundell, opened in 1870, and having 20 pu- 
pils ; at Stromsholm, in the province of West- 
manland, under the superintendence of Mr. R. 
Bruce, opened in 1871, and having 10 pupils. 
These schools receive only congenital idiots. 



IDIOCY 



173 



who give hope of improvement. Two oth- 
ers are about to be opened, at Strengnas 
and Gefle. There is a training school in St. 
Petersburg, and also one at Newcastle, New 
South Wales, which in 1872 had 132 pupils. 
The first schools in England were small, and 
were sustained by some benevolent ladies, in 
the towns of Lancaster, Bath, Ipswich, and 
Brighton. In 1847 an effort was made to es- 
tablish an institution in some degree commen- 
surate with the wants of the class for whom it 
was intended. In this movement Dr. John 
Conolly, the Rev. Dr. Andrew Eeed, the Rev. 
Edwin Sidney, and Sir S. Morton Peto distin- 
guished themselves by their zeal and liberality. 
They first rented a nobleman's residence, called 
Park house, at Highgate, near London, in 1848, 
and two years subsequently Essex hall at Col- 
chester. In 1853 the foundation stone of the 
present capacious and admirably appointed in- 
stitution at Earlswood, near Redhill, Surrey, 
was laid, and it was opened in 1855. It now 
has about 700 inmates, and is under the super- 
intendence of Dr. G. W. Grabham. "With it is 
connected a farm of about 100 acres, and many 
of the pupils are instructed in farming and 
gardening, while others are taught mat making, 
basket making, tailoring, carpentering, and sim- 
ilar employments. Upon its opening the in- 
mates of Park house were removed to it, and 
ultimately those of Essex hall, which was 
closed in 1858. The latter was reopened in 
1859 as the eastern counties asylum for idiots 
and imbeciles, and now has about 70 inmates. 
The western counties asylum was established 
in 1864 at Stareross, near Exeter; and the 
Dorridge Grove idiot asylum at Knowle, now 
known as the midland counties asylum, was 
opened in 1866. More recently the Royal Al- 
bert asylum (northern counties) has been es- 
tablished near Lancaster, occupying a fine build- 
ing surrounded with ample grounds, and capa- 
ble of accommodating 500 inmates; it is un- 
der the superintendence of Dr. Shuttleworth. 
These institutions are supported chiefly by sub- 
scriptions and donations ; pupils are admitted 
upon payment, and may enjoy the benefits of 
instruction gratuitously by the nomination of 
the boards of directors or the election of the 
subscribers. The private institution of Dr. 
Langdon Down, formerly superintendent of 
Earlswood, at Normansfield, near London, has 
about 50 inmates, and is designed only for the 
wealthy. Besides these training schools, there 
are two large asylums near London maintained 
by the poor-law boards for keeping and feed- 
ing idiots and dements. In Scotland, besides 
the institution established in 1853 on the estate 
of Sir John and Lady Ogilvie at Baldovan, near 
Dundee, there is the " Scottish national insti- 
tution for the education of imbecile children," 
founded by a society organized for that pur- 
pose, and opened in 1862 at Larbert, Stirling- 
shire, under the superintendence of Dr. David 
Brodie, who for several years previously had 
.been in charge of a school for idiots in Edin- 



burgh. The present superintendent is Dr. W. 
W. Ireland, and the number of pupils is about 
90. In Ireland an establishment has recently 
been endowed by Dr. Stewart, to which it was 
intended to remove the inmates of the asylum 
for lunatics and idiots at Lucan, near Dublin. 
The only idiot asylum in Canada was opened 
in July, 1872, at London, Ontario. It occupies 
a separate building, accommodating 40 patients, 
in the grounds of the asylum for the insane, 
and is under the charge of Dr. Henry Landon, 
the superintendent of that institution. It is as 
yet merely a house of refuge, but the present 
building is to be enlarged, and another provi- 
ded elsewhere for a training school. In the 
United States, where there are now 10 insti- 
tutions, the movement for the instruction of 
idiots commenced almost simultaneously in 
New York and Massachusetts. Efforts had 
been made, in isolated cases (apart from the 
attempts at the American asylum already re- 
ferred to), to instruct idiot children in the Per- 
kins institution for the blind in Boston, and in 
the New York deaf and dumb institution, as 
early as 1838 or 1839 ; but the feasibility of or- 
ganizing an institution for their treatment and 
training does not seem to have been thought of 
till the attention of philanthropists was drawn 
to it by the eloquent letters of Mr. George 
Sumner, describing his visits to the schools in 
Paris. These letters were published in 1845, 
and Dr. S. B. Woodward, long known as the 
superintendent of the hospital for the insane at 
Worcester, Mass., and Dr. Frederick F. Backus 
of Rochester, N. Y., soon after corresponded 
upon the subject. Dr. Backus was elected a 
member of the New York state senate in the au- 
tumn of 1845, and in January, 1846, read a re- 
port which he had drawn up on the subject of 
idiot instruction, and the necessity of an insti- 
tution for the purpose. A few weeks later he 
reported a bill for such an institution. During 
the same month a bill passed the Massachusetts 
legislature, appointing a commission to inves- 
tigate the condition of the idiots of Massachu- 
setts, and report on the necessity of measures 
for their instruction. The result was the es- 
tablishment of an experimental school in Octo- 
ber, 1848, in a wing of the institution for the 
blind at South Boston. Dr. Hervey B. Wil- 
bur, a young physician of Barre, Mass., open- 
ed a school for idiot children there in July, 
1848. The school at South Boston was incor- 
porated in 1850 as the "Massachusetts school 
for idiotic and feeble-minded youth," and has 
remained under the supervision of Dr. S. G. 
Howe. The state makes an annual appropria- 
tion of $16,500, and poor children are admitted 
without charge upon the recommendation of 
the governor, besides which there are some pay- 
ing pupils and a few supported by the states of 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Rhode 
Island. Facilities are afforded here for employ- 
ing the inmates in the simpler branches of man- 
ufacture. The number under instruction in 1873 
was 122 ; number remaining at the close of the 



174 



IDIOCY 



year, 119; expenditures, 17,560 38. In 1851 
the institution whose organization Dr. Backus 
had sought in 1846 was finally established, first 
as an experimental school at Albany, and sub- 
sequently as a permanent state institution, the 
" New York asylum for idiots," at Syracuse. 
The state in 1855 erected a fine edifice for it in 
the latter city, at a cost of between $80,000 and 
$90,000, with accommodations for 150 pupils. 
It has been from the first under the charge of 
Dr. Ilervey B. Wilbur, who was called from 
Barre to organize the experimental school. It 
has an extensive farm, and has been enlarged 
to accommodate 225 inmates. The number of 
pupils in 1871 was 155, of whom 90 were males 
and 65 females. The number under instruc- 
tion in 1872 was 164, of whom 132 were whol- 
ly supported by the state, the rest paying whol- 
ly or in part for their maintenance; number 
remaining at the close of the year, 163 ; num- 
ber of teachers, 5 ; other officers, &c., 6 ; ex- 
penditures, $34,049 59. In 1852 a private 
school was established at Germantown, Pa., 
by Mr. J. B. Richards, which resulted in the 
incorporation in the following year of the 
" Pennsylvania training school for feeble- 
minded children." In 1857, having received 
a grant from the state, and liberal subscrip- 
tions from individuals, its trustees purchased a 
tract of land about a mile from Media, Dela- 
ware co., and 12 m. from Philadelphia, and 
commenced the erection of the building which 
is now occupied. This institution has a farm 
of more than 100 acres, and was at first under 
the supervision of Dr. J. Parish, who was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Isaac N. Kerlin, the present su- 
perintendent. The number under instruction 
in 1873 was 249 ; remaining at the close of the 
year, 222, of whom 123 were males and 99 
females ; 84 were supported wholly and 24 
partly by the state, 27 by New Jersey, 3 by 
Delaware, 12 by the city of Philadelphia, 58 
by parents or guardians, and 14 by the institu- 
tion ; expenditures, $53,985 40. There are 
four departments. The asylum embraces a dis- 
tinct portion of the building and grounds, ac- 
commodating about 25 male inmates, who are 
only susceptible of habit-training, and only a 
small proportion of whom can be advantage- 
ously employed at work of any kind. A fund 
has been started to erect a separate building 
for an asylum. The nursery, also distinct from 
the other departments, accommodates 32 chil- 
dren of helpless condition, who are attended 
by experienced nurses. The school depart- 
ment is divided into five classes, and at the 
close of 1873 included 117 children, who re- 
ceive from three to five hours' instruction 
daily. The exercises, while having especial 
reference to training in articulation, move- 
ments, and ideas, differ little from those in 
schools of the primary and secondary grade 
for intelligent children. The industrial depart- 
ment embraced 29 boys and 20 girls, who 
either were only capable of being taught man- 
ual labor, or had been through the school 



training and could with advantage to them- 
selves be instructed and kept in usefulness. 
Of the whole number (701) admitted to the 
close of 1873, there were mutes, 138 ; semi- 
mutes, 176; defective in articulation, 204 ; de- 
fective in sight, 142 ; defective in hearing, 
139; unable to walk, 19; of imperfect gait, 
344 ; unable to feed themselves, 74 ; unable to 
dress themselves, 158; uncleanly in habits, 
269 ; of destructive habits, 374 ; epileptic, 
157; malformed, 90; scrofulous, 575. Up to 
July 1, 1872, the improvement had been as fol- 
lows : taught to speak, 53 ; articulation im- 
proved, 253 ; taught to read, 254 ; to write, 
146 ; to feed themselves, 61 ; to dress them- 
selves, 94 ; to walk, 5 ; gait improved, 286 ; 
reformed from bad habits, 164; from destruc- 
tive habits, 302 ; accustomed to some employ- 
ment, 241 ; epilepsy cured, 23 ; epilepsy im- 
proved, 78. From the report for 1870 it ap- 
pears that of 500 who had enjoyed the bene- 
fits of the institution, 81 became capable of 
earning their own support in domestic service, 
farming, or certain shop employments, under 
the guidance of friends ; 140 were able to earn 
a half support; 118 could perform small ser- 
vices of no great value; while 161 were whol- 
ly dependent, earning nothing, and evincing an 
improvement only in their personal habits, in 
delicacy, language, or movement; 267 proved 
to be adapted to schools, and 233 were not sus- 
ceptible of scholastic improvement. In 1857 
the " Ohio state asylum for the education of 
idiotic and imbecile youth " was organized at 
Columbus as an experimental school, under the 
superintendence of Dr. R. J. Patterson, who 
was succeeded in 1860 by Dr. G. A. Doren, 
the present superintendent. It was perma- 
nently established in 1864, when a farm of 130 
acres, about 2 m. W. of the city, was pur- 
chased, and the erection of a building to accom- 
modate 250 inmates (since somewhat enlarged) 
commenced, which was occupied in 1868. The 
number under instruction in 1872 was 312 ; 
remaining at the close of the year, 288 ; teach- 
ers, 11; other officers, &c., 4; expenditures, 
$84,425 58. This institution is entirely sup- 
ported by the state, and all pupils are main- 
tained and educated free of charge, except for 
clothing. The " Connecticut school for im- 
beciles " was established at Lakeville in 1858, 
and incorporated by the legislature in 1861 ; 
it is under the supervision of Dr. H. M. 
Knight. The number under instruction during 
the year ending May 1, 1872, was 55; remain- 
ing on that date, 48, of whom 20 were bene- 
ficiaries of the state to the amount of $3 a 
week. The state has also appropriated money 
for the erection and enlargement of buildings. 
The " Kentucky institution for the education 
of feeble-minded children and idiots " was es- 
tablished at Frankfort in 1860, and is under 
the superintendence of Dr. E. II. Black. The 
number of inmates in 1874 was 104. The 
"Illinois institution for the education of fee- 
ble-minded children " was established at Jack- 



IDIOCY 



175 



Bonville in 1865 as an experimental school, 
under the charge of the hoard of directors of 
the institution for the deaf and dumb, and was 
incorporated under its own board of trustees 
in 1871. It has been from the first under 
the superintendence of Dr. Charles T. Wilbur, 
brother of the superintendent of the New 
York institution. The number under instruc- 
tion in 1873 was 126; remaining at the close 
of the year, 100, of whom 66 were males and 
34 females; teachers, 4; other officers, &c., 
3 ; expenditures, $25,777 49. The pupils are 
divided into seven classes. The expenses of 
the institution, except for clothing of pupils, 
are defrayed by the state. The idiot asylum 
on Randall's island, supported by the city of 
New York, is under the charge of Mrs. Her- 
bert, matron, and in 1874 had 167 inmates, of 
whom 91 were males and 76 females ; 44 were 
unimprovable cases; the remaining 123 were 
receiving instruction in a school opened in Oc- 
tober, 1867, and conducted by Miss Mary 0. 
Dunphy (who has been principal from the first), 
with three assistants. The private institution 
at Barre, Mass., has since 1851 been carried 
on by Dr. George Brown. It embraces ample 
grounds, handsomely laid out, with several 
buildings, in which the patients are classified 
according to their condition and the pecunia- 
ry ability or inclination of the parents. The 
number of inmates is about 60, of whom part, 
as epileptics, &c., are received for medical 
treatment, part for custody, and part for in- 
struction. A private school was opened in 
1871 at Fayville, Worcester co., Mass., by 
Mrs. O. H. Knight and Mrs. M. A. F. Green, 
formerly teachers at South Boston. The num- 
ber of pupils is limited to 12. The num- 
ber of idiots in the United States, according 
to the census of 1870, was 24,527, of whom 
14,485 were males and 10,042 females; 3,188 
were colored, and 1,645 foreign-born ; 140 
were also deaf and dumb, 105 blind, and 11 
both deaf and dumb and blind. There were 
437 under 5 years of age, 1,616 from 5 to 10, 
3,088 from 10 to 15, 3,706 from 15 to 20, 6,476 
from 20 to 30, 3,938 from 30 to 40, 2,571 from 
40 to 50, 2,676 of 50 and upward, and 19 of 
unknown age. The number in each state is 
shown in the following table : 



Alabama 721 

Arkansas 289 

California 8T 

Connecticut 841 

Delaware 69 

Florida 100 

Georgia 8T1 

Illinois 1,244 

Indiana 1,860 

Iowa 633 

Kansas 109 

Kentucky 1,141 

Louisiana 286 

Maine 628 

Maryland 862 

Massachusetts 778 

Michigan 618 

Minnesota 184 

Mississippi 485 

Missouri 779 

Nebraska. .. 25 



New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Bhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

District of Columbia... 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Other territories and 
Nevada 



825 
436 

2,486 
976 

2,883 
65 

2,250 
128 
465 

1,091 

IM 

825 
1,180 
427 
560 
BO 
46 



ir. 



425 



VOL. IX. 12 



The number of idiots and their proportion to 
the population cannot, however, be ascertained 
with any satisfactory degree of accuracy. The 
census statistics are untrustworthy, both from 
the different standards adopted by enumera- 
tors, and from the difficulty of persuading 
parents, from whom the returns are usually 
obtained, that their children are idiots. Some 
of the worst cases in idiot asylums were 
brought there by their friends, not as idiots, 
but as being a little peculiar in their habits. 
The effort has been made in several states to 
obtain returns from physicians, clergymen, and 
town officers, but with very moderate success. 
So far as these returns go, however, they show 
a much greater prevalence of idiocy than has 
been commonly supposed ; and it is now gen- 
erally conceded by competent judges that the 
number of idiots is greater than that of the 
deaf and dumb or of the blind, and as great as 
that of the insane, the proportion being not 
less than 1 in 1,000 of the population. As- 
suming this ratio, the number of idiots in the 
United States would be more than 38,000. Ac- 
cording to the census of 1871, the number of 
idiots and imbeciles in England and Wales in 
that year was 29,452, of whom 14,728 were 
males and 14,724 females ; but the actual num- 
ber in those two countries has been estima- 
ted as high as 50,000. The number in Scot- 
land is stated at 3,000; in Ireland as high as 
7,000. The number of idiots in the Nether- 
lands, according to Dutch authorities, is be- 
tween 3,000 and 4,000 ; the census of Norway 
in 1865 enumerated 2,039. The number of 
idiots and cretins in Switzerland was estimated 
in 1868 at 3,800. Under the common law, " an 
idiot or natural fool," according to Blackstone, 
" is one that hath had no understanding from 
his nativity, and therefore is by law presumed 
never likely to attain any." " A man is not 
an idiot if he hath any glimmering of reason, 
so that he can tell his parents, his age, or the 
like common matters." His custody and the 
care of his lands were at first vested in the 
lord of the fee, but subsequently in the crown, 
and exercised through the lord chancellor. 
The sovereign took the profits, supplied the 
idiot with necessaries, and upon his death re- 
stored the estate to his heirs. There was a 
writ de idiota inquirendo, to inquire whether 
a man was an idiot. The jury, however, rare- 
ly found a person an idiot from nativity, but 
in most cases only non compos mentis, in which 
case a different rule applied. For the present 
legal status of idiots see LUNACY. See " Essay 
on Education," by Dr. Richard Poole (first 
published in the " Edinburgh Encyclopedia," 
1819, afterward in a separate volume, 1825); 
Traitement moral, hygiene et education de 
idiots, by Dr. E. Seguin (Paris, 1846) ; " Re- 
ports of Commissioners on Idiocy in Massachu- 
setts " (Boston, 1848-'9) ; " Statistical Studies 
on Idiocy," by M. Hubertz (Copenhagen, 
1851); "Mental Alienation and Idiocy in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland," by Dr. Stark 



176 



IDOCRASE 



(vol. xiv. of statistical society's "Journal," 
1851); Traite du goitre et du cretinisme, by 
Dr. Niepce (2 vols., Grenoble, 1852) ; " Essay 
on Idiocy," by Dr. Coldstream (Edinburgh, 
1852) ; Die Heilung und VerMtung des Cre- 
tinismus und ihre neuesten Fortschritte, by 
Dr. Guggenbuhl (Bern and St. Gall, 1853) ; 
" Report of Commissioners on Idiocy in Con- 
necticut" (New Haven, 1856); "Essay on 
Idiot Instruction," by Dr. Ferd. Kern (Allge- 
meine Zeitichrift far Psychiatric, 1857); Lie 
gegenwartige Lage der Gretinen, Blodsinnigen 
und Idioten in den eTirMlicJien Landern, by 
Julius Desselhoff (Bonn, 1857); "Report on 
the Education of Imbecile and Idiotic Chil- 
dren," by Dr. H. P. Ayres (vol. xiii. of the 
" Transactions " of the American medical asso- 
ciation, 1862) ; Uebersicht der offentlichen und 
privaten Irren und Idioten- Anstalten oiler 
europaischen Staaten, by Dr. Albrecht Erlen- 
meyer (Neuwied, 1863) ; " Lunacy and Law, 
together with Hints on the Treatment of Idi- 
ots," by F. E. D. Byrne (London, 1864) ; " The 
Training of Idiotic and Feeble-minded Chil- 
dren," by Dr. Cheyne Brady (Dublin, 1864); 
" Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological 
Method," with bibliography, by Dr. Seguin 
(New York, 1866) ; " New Facts and Remarks 
concerning Idiocy," by the same (New York, 
1870) ; " On Idiocy, especially in its Physical 
Aspects," by Dr. W. W. Ireland (Edinburgh, 
reprinted from the " Edinburgh Medical Jour- 
nal " for January and February, 1874) ; and 
the annual reports of the various institutions. 

IDOCRASE (Gr. elSeiv, to resemble, and npiiaif, 
a mixture), a mineral species of the garnet sec- 
tion of the silicates, resembling other species 
in its crystalline forms. It occurs variously 
colored, as brown, sulphur yellow, green, and 
blue ; and of vitreous, frequently somewhat 
resinous lustre. Its hardness is 6-5; specific 
gravity, 3'35-3'45. It was first observed in 
the lavas of Vesuvius, and was called Vesu- 
vian. Numerous localities of it are known in 
gneiss rocks, serpentine, and granular lime- 
stone. It is particularly abundant at Parsons- 
field and Phippsburg, Me., occurring in mas- 
sive forms as well as in crystals. 

I1HUA, a mining town of Austria, in the 
duchy of Carniola, 28 m. N. N. E. of Trieste ; 
pop. in 1869, 3,960. . The town is in a deep, 
narrow Alpine valley, on a small river of the 
same name. Its quicksilver mines are the 
second in importance in Europe, and in 1871 
produced 6,700 cwt., besides about 1,100 cwt. 
of artificial cinnabar. The rich hepatic mer- 
curial ore is found in a formation of clay slate 
forming a bed in compact limestone. The ex- 
cavations are horizontal galleries diverging 
from a shaft which has been sunk to a depth 
of more than 1,000 ft. The entrance is from 
the Schloss, a building within the town. De- 
scent is accomplished partly by about 800 steps 
cut in the rock, and partly by ladders. The 
miners are a uniformed corps, 500 in number, 
and the service is eagerly sought for, the high- 



IGLESIAS DE LA CASA 

or rate of wages and contingent advantages 
being balanced against the unhealthiness of 
the occupation. The mines were discovered 
in 1497, and are the property of the crown. 

I Illll KA. See EDOM. 

IESI. See JESI. 

IFFLAND, August Wllkelm, a German drama- 
tist, born in Hanover, April 19, 1759, died in 
Berlin, Sept. 22, 1814. At the age of 18 he 
made his debut upon the stage at Gotha, in 
one of Engel's comedies, in which he took the 
part of an old Jew. In 1779 he joined the 
theatrical company at Mannheim, and was the 
leading actor there when in the latter part of 
1781 Schiller put into his hands the manuscript 
of the "Robbers." The play was produced in 
the succeeding January, with Iffland in the 
part of Franz Moor, and the success which at- 
tended the representation at once brought 
Schiller into notice, and confirmed the reputa- 
tion of Iffland. The latter remained in Mann- 
heim till 1796, when he assumed the direction 
of the national theatre of Berlin. In 1811 he 
was appointed general director of all the royal 
plays, and about the same time made an ex- 
tended professional tour through Germany. 
His plays, chiefly of the class known as the do- 
mestic drama, were very successful in their day, 
and are still occasionally performed. Among 
the best of his works are Lie Jdger, Der Spie- 
ler, and Die Hagestolzen. A collection of 47 
of them was published in 16 vols. in Leipsic in 
1798-1802, including a memoir of his theatrical 
career. Volumes containing other pieces were 
published in 1807-9 and in 1827; and in 1844 
his select works appeared. 

IGLAU, a town of Austria, in Moravia, on 
the Iglawa, 46 m. W. N. W. of Brunn ; pop. in 
1869, 20,112. It consists of the town proper, 
which is walled, and three suburbs, and con- 
tains a military school, a gymnasium, and sev- 
eral charitable institutions. It has manufac- 
tories of woollen goods, tobacco, glass, and 
paper, and spinning and dyeing works. On 
July 5, 1436, the convention was concluded 
here, by which the emperor Sigismund was ac- 
knowledged king of Bohemia. 

IGLESIAS, a town of Sardinia, in the prov- 
ince and 32 m. W. N. "W. of the city of Cagliari ; 
pop. about 6,500. It derives its name from its 
great number of churches. So many gardens 
adjoin it that the Sardinians call it jiore di 
mundu (flower of the world). The finest of 
these gardens is at the Dominican convent. 
The richest lead mine of the island is on Monte 
Pone, 1,100 ft. high, 1 m. S. W. of the town. 

IGLESIAS DE LA CASA, Josef, a Spanish poet, 
born in Salamanca in 1753, died in 1791. He 
early published ballads and satirical effusions 
which made him famous, but his didactic po- 
ems subsequent to his joining the priesthood 
were less popular. The best editions of hia 
works are those of Barcelona (1820) and Paris 
(1821), and among the later editions there is 
one in 4 small vols. (1840), which includes a 
number of poems by other authors. 



IGNATIUS 



IGNIS FATUUS 



177 



IGNATIFS, Saint, of Antioch, surnamed Theo- 
phorus, one of the primitive fathers of the 
church, died Dec. 20, 107 or 115, at Rome ac- 
cording to some, but most probably at Antioch, 
as others have it. He is reckoned one of the 
apostolic fathers. Eusebius says that he was 
appointed bishop of Antioch in 69. Baronius 
and Natalis Alexander make him bishop of the 
gentile Christians residing in that city, Evo- 
dius being at the same time bishop of the Jew- 
ish converts. The Martyrium Ignatii, which 
professes to have been written by an eye-wit- 
ness of his martyrdom, affirms that he was a 
disciple of St. John, and ordained by the apos- 
tles themselves. After having watched over 
the steadfastness of his flock during the per- 
secution of Domitian, he was condemned by 
Trajan to be thrown to the wild beasts in the 
Koman amphitheatre, where, according to the 
Martyrium, he suffered. The Greeks celebrate 
his feast on Dec. 20, and the Latins on Feb. 1. 
During his journey to Eome Ignatius wrote 
seven epistles enumerated by Ensebius and Je- 
rome. They are addressed to the Romans, to 
Polycarp, and to various Asiatic churches. At 
present there are fifteen letters extant ascribed 
to Ignatius. The seven mentioned by Eusebius, 
according to the shorter Greek recension, are 
generally accepted as genuine by Roman Cath- 
olic theologians; the others are considered 
spurious. But a warm controversy has long 
existed between the learned of various Protes- 
tant denominations regarding the genuineness 
of all or some of the first seven. A Syriac 
version of the epistles to the Ephesians, Ro- 
mans, and Polycarp was brought from a con- 
vent in the Nitrian desert to the British mu- 
seum in 1843, and edited in 1845 by Cureton. 
It was maintained by the editor that these are 
the only genuine epistles of Ignatius ; and this 
conclusion was adopted by Dr. R. A. Lipsius, 
Bnnsen, and some eminent Presbyterian au- 
thorities. Episcopal writers for the most part 
contend that all of the seven epistles are genu- 
ine. The best editions of the Ignatian writings 



are in Cautelier's Patres jEm Apostolici (2 
vols., Paris, 1672; 2d and more complete ed., 
Amsterdam, 1724), those by Jacobson (Oxford, 
1838) and Petermann (Leipsic, 1849), and Cure- 
ton's Corpus Ignatianum (London, 1849). 

IGNATIl'S, Saint, patriarch of Constantinople, 
born about 798, died Oct. 23, 878. He was the 
youngest son of the emperor Michael I., and 
his original name was Nicetas ; but on the de- 
position of his father by Leo the Armenian, he 
was made a eunuch by Leo and entered a mon- 
astery, assuming the name of Ignatius. He 
was raised to the patriarchate in 846. He was 
an enemy of the iconoclasts, and would not 
suffer Gregorius Asbestus, bishop of Syracuse, 
to be present at his consecration, because of 
his heterodoxy. In 857 he refused to admit 
Bardas, brother of the empress Theodora, as a 
communicant, on account of his reported im- 
morality, whereupon the offender caused him 
to be deposed, and Photius to be elected patri- 



arch in his place. After his deposition he was 
treated with the greatest cruelty, and banished 
to Mitylene ; but when Basil the Macedonian 
ascended the throne in 867, he was recalled. 

IGNATIUS BEAN. See STRYCHNIA. 

IGNIS FATCUS, a flickering light seen at night 
over the surface of marshy grounds or grave- 
yards. Sometimes it moves quietly along, re- 
sembling the light of a lantern carried in the 
hand ; and again it appears not alone, but two 
or three together dancing merrily together up 
and down. In the night mists it seems like 
the light from some neighboring house; and 
many a traveller has been led by it into dan- 
gerous bogs, from which he found no escape 
till the appearance of the morning light. It is 
not strange that a character of mystery should 
have attached to this luminous appearance, and 
that the ignorant should have ascribed it to 
some evil spirit. They called it " Will o' the 
wisp" and "Jack with a lantern," and this 
imaginary person is often alluded to by the old 
English poets. It is commonly believed that 
the light retires before one who pursues it ; 
this notion is confirmed by the statement8 - of 
some observers, and disproved by those of 
others. In Milner's "Gallery of Nature," p. 
544, is recorded a statement of Mr. Blesson, 
who carefully investigated the phenomena in 
the forest of Gorbitz, in Brandenburg. On a 
marshy spot he observed bluish purple flames 
at night, where bubbles of air issued during 
the day. These flames retired as he approach- 
ed, in consequence, he supposed, of the air be- 
ing agitated by his movement. When he stood 
perfectly still they soon appeared within reach ; 
and then, carefully guarding against disturbing 
the air by his breath, he succeeded in singeing 
a piece of paper, which became covered with a 
viscous moisture. At last a narrow slip of pa- 
per took fire. By disturbing the air over the 
spot he caused the flames to disappear entirely, 
but in a few minutes after quiet was restored 
they appeared again over the air bubbles, ap- 
parently without having communication with 
any known source of flame. On suddenly in- 
troducing a torch after extinguishing the flame, 
a kind of explosion was heard, and a red light 
was seen over 8 or 9 sq. ft. of the marsh, which 
diminished to a small blue flame from 2 to 3 
ft. high. He concluded that the cause of the 
ignis fatuus was the evolution of inflammable 
gas from the marsh, and that the flames existed 
by day as well as at night, though not then visi- 
ble. The lights seen occasionally over church- 
yards are of similar appearance to those de- 
scribed. These meteors are supposed to be the 
result of the spontaneous combustion of in- 
flammable gases generated by the decomposi- 
tion of vegetable or animal bodies. Phosphu- 
retted hydrogen, it is well known, bursts into 
flame as it is allowed to escape into the air 
from the vessels in which it is prepared. It is 
produced by the decay of animal matters, and, 
if thinly diffused here and there over the sur- 
face of a marsh, may present the changing, 



178 



IGUALADA 



flickering light of the ignis fatuus, as difficult 
to locate as the illumination of the fireflies, 
for which it has been mistaken by several em- 
inent naturalists. What is known as marsh 
gas is a highly inflammable carburetted hy- 
drogen, which bubbles up through the water 
that covers boggy places, and may be inflamed 
on the surface. This may be ignited by phos- 
phuretted hydrogen, and add to the extent and 
permanence of the flames. The small quantity 
of these combustible matters present in the air 
will account for the feebleness of the flames, 
which have rarely been known to set fire to 
other substances ; and the varying quantity and 
purity of that exhaled would explain the con- 
stantly shifting brightness of the light. Ac- 
cording to the account in the " Gallery of Na- 
ture" referred to, in the middle of the last 
century the snow on the summit of the Apen- 
nines appeared enveloped in flame ; and in the 
winter of 1693 hay ricks in Wales were set on 
fire by burning gaseous exhalations. 

IGUALADA, a town of Spain, in the province 
and 33 m. N. W. of the city of Barcelona; pop. 
about 11,500. It stands on high ground, on 
the left bank of the river Noya. The streets 
are narrow, and the buildings packed closely 
together, with little regard to elegance, com- 
fort, or cleanliness. Woollen and cotton goods, 
paper, and firearms are manufactured, and 
there are fairs in January and August. 

IGUANA, a lizard constituting the type of the 
family iguanidce. The family characters are : 
a body covered with horny scales, without 
bony plates or tubercles, not disposed in circu- 
lar imbricated series, and without large square 
plates on the abdomen; there is generally 
a crest along the back or the tail; no large 
polygonal scutes on- the head; the teeth some- 
times in a common alveolus, and sometimes 
united to the free edge of the jaws ; tongue 
thick, free only at the point, and without 
sheath ; eyes with movable lids ; toes distinct, 
free, and all unguiculated. The very numerous 
genera of this family have been conveniently 
divided into two subfamilies by Dumeril and 
Bibron, according to the manner in which the 
teeth are implanted. In the pleurodonts, all 
but one American, the teeth are arranged in a 
groove of the jaws, are attached to their inner 
surface, and are often curiously flattened and 
serrated on the free edge ; in the acrodonts, all 
of the eastern hemisphere, there is no such 
groove, and the teeth grow upon the edge of 
the jaws. For the characters of the second 
subfamily, having 15 genera and about 60 spe- 
cies, see DRAGON, STELLIO, and the genus agama, 
below. The pleurodonts comprise 31 genera 
and more than 100 species ; anolis and basiliicus 
have been already noticed under those titles, 
and the only genus here described will be iguana 
(Laurenti). The characters of this genus are : 
a very large thin dewlap under the throat ; 
cephalic plates flat, unequal, and irregular; a 
double row of small palate teeth ; a crest on 
the back and tail ; fingers and toes five, long, 



IGUANA 

of unequal lengths, the fourth of the hind foot 
very long ; a single row of femoral pores ; tail 
very long, slender, compressed, and covered 
with small, regular, imbricated, ridged scales. 
The common iguana (/. tubcrculata, Laur.) at- 
tains a length of 4 or 5 ft., of which the tail is 
about two thirds ; it is found in tropical South 
America and the West Indies. The nasal open- 
ings are at the end of the obtuse muzzle ; the 
teeth are about 50 in each jaw, with card-like 
ones on the palate in two series ; the dewlap 
is about as deep as the head, triangular, having 
about a dozen serrations on its anterior border ; 
along the neck and back is a comb-like crest of 
about 55 scales, highest in this species, extend- 
ing on to the tail, where it becomes a simple 
serrated ridge ; the femoral pores are 14 or 15, 
widest and opening in a single scale in the 
males. The color above is greenish, with blu- 
ish and slaty tints, and greenish yellow below ; 
on the sides are generally brown zigzag bands 




Iguana tuberculata. 

with a yellow border, with a yellowish band 
on the front of the shoulder ; some are dotted 
with brown, with yellow spots on the limbs ; 
the tail is ringed broadly with alternate brown 
and yellowish green. The flesh of the iguana 
is considered a great delicacy, though it is not 
peculiarly wholesome. It passes most of its 
time in trees, in which it is caught by slip 
nooses ; it is said to be a good swimmer, and 
some of the subfamily, as amblyrhynchus, pass 
most of their time in the water, and even in 
the sea. The iguanas of the eastern hemis- 
phere, of the acrodont subfamily, are often 
called agamas, from one of the principal genera. 
The genus agama (Daudin) has a flat triangular 
head, neck, and sometimes the ears spiny, body 
covered with small imbricated scales, no dorsal 
crest, tail long, slender, and rounded, anal but 
no femoral pores, a longitudinal fold along the 
throat, and sometimes a transverse one ; the 
teeth are united to the edge of the jaw, and 
may be distinguished into posterior or molars 



IGUANODON 



ILINIZA 



179 






and anterior or canines and incisors ; no teeth on 
the palate. None of this subfamily are found 
in America. The common agama (A. colono- 
rum, Daudin) is the largest of the genus, being 
from 12 to 16 in. long, of which the tail is 
more than half ; it is found on the Guinea and 




Agama cokmorum. 

Senegal coasts. The spiny agama (A. apinosa, 
Seba) is short and thick, with short tail and 
spiny scales ; it ia about 7 in. long, and inhabits 
the Cape of Good Hope. Some of the acro- 
donts in Asia and Australia are of very strange 
forms ; the habits and general appearance are 
like those of the American iguanas. 

IGUANODON, a gigantic fossil saurian reptile, 
discovered by Dr. Mantell in the Wealden for- 
mation of Great Britain in 1822, and so named 
from the teeth resembling in shape those of 
the iguana. The teeth of the iguanodon re- 
semble those of the iguana also in the elonga- 
tion and contraction of the base, the expansion 




Iguanodon. 

of the crown, the serration of the edges, and 
the thin coating of enamel ; but the crown is 
relatively thicker, with a more complicated ex- 
ternal and internal structure, and the roots are 
placed in separate sockets as in the crocodile. 
The vertebra have slightly concave articular 



surfaces on the body, with nearly flat sides; 
the neural arch of the dorsals is high and ex- 
panded, as in other dinosaurians ; the antero- 
posterior diameter is from 4 to 4J in. ; the 
spinal canal is completely enclosed by. the neu- 
ral arches ; the sacral region is of considerable 
extent, and widely embraced by the iliac bones ; 
in the tail the spinous processes increase for 
some distance below the sacrum and then di- 
minish, and this organ was probably relatively 
shorter than in the iguana; the ribs are largely 
developed in the thoracic and abdominal re- 
gions, and connected both with the body and 
the transverse process of each vertebra, as in 
other dinosaurians and in crocodiles, and unlike 
the iguana and other lizards ; the scapular arch 
is intermediate between the crocodilian and 
lizard type, the clavicle being more than 3 ft. 
long; the pelvic arch has rather a lacertian 
character ; the thigh bones are stout, and about 
3 ft. long, with the head rounded and produced, 
as in mammals, over the inner side of the shaft, 
and a singularly flattened trochanter, and must 
have supported the heavy body in a manner 
like that of the large pachyderms ; the bones 
of the leg are robust and about 2J ft. long, and 
the whole extremity bears little resemblance to 
that of the iguana ; the feet resemble those of 
saurians. This reptile has been estimated by 
Owen as about 28 ft. in length, of which the 
head was 3 and the tail 13 ft. ; it stood higher 
on the legs than any existing saurian, and was 
terrestrial in its habits ; the worn condition of 
the teeth indicates that it was a herbivorous 
animal. It belongs to the family of dinosau- 
rians with meyalosaurvs, hylaosaurus, and 
pelorosaurvs, and is found in the Wealden and 
cretaceous f ormations. The /. Mantelli (Cuv.), 
from the characters of the worn dental surfaces, 
must have performed a true process of masti- 
cation, and the glenoid cavity must have per- 
mitted a lateral movement of the lower jaw ; 
the large facial foramina indicate more fleshy 
cheeks and lips than in any existing saurians. 
Dr. Mantell was of opinion that it had a nasal 
integumental horn. 

HIRE, Johan, a Swedish philologist, born in 
Lund, March 3, 1707, died Dec. 1, 1780. His 
father, of Scotch descent, was for a time pro- 
fessor of theology at Upsal. He graduated at 
the university in 1730, and in 1738 became 
professor of belles-lettres and political science. 
His Olossarium Sueco-Gothicum (2 vols., Upsal, 
1769) was prepared under the patronage of the 
government, which allowed him in 1756 a grant 
of 10,000 Swedish dollars. His dissertations 
on the Eddas and on Ulfilas are important. 

ILI, or Eelee, a river of central Asia, which 
rises on the northern slope of the mountains 
of Thian-shan-nan-lu, traverses a part of east- 
ern Turkistan, and flows into Lake Tengiz or 
Balkash, near the borders of Siberia. Its 
le