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549 AND 551 BEOADWAY. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Among the Contributors to the Tenth Volume of the Revised Edition are the 

following : 

Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 

PAUL AEPIN, late Editor of the " Oourrier des 
Etats-Unis," New York. 




Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Uni- 




MACMAHON, Marshal, President of France, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 







and other articles in biography and history. 


Louis XIV., XV., and XVI., 


and other articles in biography and history. 

Jonx D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 




and articles in biography and history. 

Prof. E. H. CLAEKE^, M. D., Harvard University. 




and other articles in materia medica. 

JOHN ESTEN COOKE, Richmond, Va. 


Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 

LEX Loci, 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. 0. DALTON, M. D. 




and other medical and physiological articles. 






and articles in American geography. 

Prof. THOMAS M. DEOWN, M. D., Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pa. 




ROBEET T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

Louis ELSBEBG, M. D. 




Gen. W. B. FEANKLIN, Hartford, Conn. 






and other articles in biography and history. 

J. W. HA WES. 

LOWELL (city), 

and other articles in American geography. 

Hon. CHAELES C. HAZEWELL, Boston, Mass. 





Prof. F. M. HUBBAED, D. D., University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 


Prof. T. STEEEY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 




and other articles in biography and geography. 

R. M. KELLY, Louisville, Ky. 


Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., 
Technology, Boston. 


and other articles in zoOlogy. 

, Inst. of 


Rev. 0. PORTERFIELD KRAUTS, D. D., Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 



Rev. SAMUEL LOOKWOOD, Freehold, N. J. 

JAMES MOCARROLL, Montreal, Canada. 

Capt. J. H. MERRYMAN, U. S, R. M., Inspector 
of Life-Saving Stations. 


McCosn, JAMES, 

and other articles in biography and geography, 


LEO, Popes, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

Count L. F. DE POTJRTALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 





J. L. ROSENGARTEN, Philadelphia. 



Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 




and other articles in biography and history. 

Hon. FRANCIS SCHROEDER, late U. S. Minister 
Resident at Stockholm. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 




Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 


Rev. WILLIAM L. SYMONDS, Portland, Me. 









and other botanical articles. 


LAFAYETTE, Marquis de. 

W. A. VAN BENTHUYSEN, Editor of the " Shoe 
and Leather Chronicle," New York. 


Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 




and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 



KINGSTON, Jamaica, 



and other Spanish and Spanish American articles. 

Major W. T. WALTHALL, Mobile, Ala. 




Prof. W. D. WILSON, D. D., Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Prof. J. H. WOEMAN, A. M., Assistant Editor 
of "Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, 
and Ecclesiastical Literature." 


Hon. ELIZUR WRIGHT, Boston. 





KINGLET (regulus cristatus, Kay), a well 
known European bird, often called gold- 
en-crowned warbler and wren. It is 3 in. long, 
yellowish olive-green above and yellowish gray 
below, with an orange-yellow crest bordered 
on each side with black. Though a permanent 
resident in Great Britain, considerable num- 
bers come from the north in winter; they 
are fond of fir woods, very sociable with the 
titmice and creepers, hopping actively from 

1. Golden-crowned Kinglet (Kegulus cristatus). 2. Ruby- 
crowned Kinglet (Kegulus calendula). 

branch to branch and clinging in various posi- 
tions to the twigs in search of small insects. 
The nest is neat and cup-shaped, made of moss 
and lined with feathers, so suspended from 
three or four twigs that the branch shelters 
the opening ; the eggs are six to ten ; the fe- 
male is very bold when hatching, and both sex- 
es are very attentive to the young ; the song 
is soft and pleasing. There are two nearly 
allied species of this genus in North America : 


the ruby-crowned and golden-crested king- 
let or wren, the R. calendula and satrapa of 
Lichtenstein, the former with a concealed crim- 
son and the latter with an orange-red crown. 

KINGMAN, a S. county of Kansas, recently 
formed, and not included in the census of 
1870 ; area, 540 sq. m. It is intersected by 
the Ne-ne Squaw river. 

KINGS, a S. E. county of New York, form- 
ing the W. extremity of Long Island ; area, 72 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 419,921. It lies between 
the East river and New York harbor and the 
Atlantic ocean, embracing several small islands 
adjacent to the coast. A range of drift hills, 
from 50 to 300 ft. above tide water, crosses it 
from S. W. to N. E. The soil is a light sandy 
loam, capable of varied cultivation. The South 
Side railroad of Long Island, the Brooklyn, 
Bath, and Coney Island railroad, and the 
Brooklyn Central branch of the Long Island 
railroad pass through it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 44,600 bushels of Indian 
corn, 547,375 of potatoes, and 2,057 tons of 
hay. There were on farms 1,241 horses, 16 
mules and asses, 1,148 milch cows, 67 other 
cattle, and 750 swine. There are numerous 
manufacturing establishments, chiefly in Brook- 
lyn, the county seat. In 1873 a proposition 
for the incorporation of the county towns with 
the city of Brooklyn was submitted to a popu- 
lar vote, which resulted adversely. 

KING'S. I. A S. central county of New Bruns- 
wick, Canada, drained by the St. John river ; 
area, 1,408 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 24,593, of whom 
10,841 were of Irish, 8,279 of English, 2,705 
of Scotch, and 1,136 of German descent. It is 
traversed by the European and North Ameri- 
can and the Intercolonial railways. The sur- 
face is diversified by a succession of hills, some 
of which, as the Pisgah, Piccadilla, and Moose 
hills, rise to a considerable height. The whole 
county, with its large tracts of intervals and 
meadow, bays, and rivers, presents a varied 



and somewhat romantic landscape, and it is 
one of the best agricultural counties of the 
province. Iron ore of fine quality is abun- 
dant. Coal exists, but has not yet been mined. 
Limestone and gypsum are plentiful, and there 
are many mineral springs. Capital, Hampton. 
II. A S. "W. county of Nova Scotia, Canada, 
situated on the bay of Fundy and Minas basin ; 
area, 812 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 21,610, of 
whom 14,392 were of English, 3,755 of Irish, 
and 1,841 of Scotch descent. It is traversed 
by the Windsor and Annapolis railway. The 
coast line is broken and picturesque, but the 
borders of the rivers Annapolis, Gaspereaux, 
Cornwallis, Cunard, Habitant, and Pereau are 
flat, with large tracts of the richest alluvial 
deposits. The principal settlements are on 
those streams and on the route from Halifax to 
Annapolis. The Cornwallis river will admit 
steamers of light draft for upward of 20 miles. 
The soil is fertile, and the county contains iron 
ore, copper, silver, and slate. Capital, Kent- 
ville. III. The E. county of Prince Edward 
Island, Canada ; area, 644 sq. m. ; ^ pop. in 
1871, 23,068. It is traversed by the Prince 
Edward Island railway. Its coasts are deeply 
indented by bays and inlets, and lined with 
settlements. There are also many villages in 
the interior. Capital, Georgetown. 

KING'S, an inland county of Ireland, in the 
province of Leinster, bordering on Westmeath, 
Meath, Kildare, Queen's, Tipperary, Galway, 
and Koscommon counties ; area, 770 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 75,781. On the south it is some- 
what broken by ramifications of the Slieve- 
bloom mountains, among the principal sum- 
mits of which are Arderin, 1,733 ft. high, and 
Carrol hill, 1,584 ft. The principal lakes are 
Loughs Fin, Boara, Annaghmore, and Pallas. 
The Shannon, Boyne, Barrow, and Brosna are 
the largest rivers. The soil is of average fer- 
tility, and agriculture is devoted to the usual 
corn crops. There are few minerals and no 
important manufactures. The chief towns are 
Parsonstown and Tullamore. 

KINGS, Books of, one of the chief divisions of 
the historical series of the canonical Scriptures. 
In their contents, if not entirely in style and 
arrangement, they are a continuation of the 
books of Samuel, as the latter are of that of 
Judges. The Hebrew Bible originally had only 
one book of Kings, which in the Septuagint, 
the Vulgate, and modern Hebrew editions is 
divided into two. Both versions give the title 
books of Kings also to the books of Samuel, 
and thus have four books of Kings. Com- 
mencing with the conclusion of the history of 
David, to which the second book of Samuel 
and much of the first are devoted, the books of 
Kings proper relate the history of the Hebrew 
state under Solomon and Rehoboam, of the 
divided state under the rival dynasties of Israel 
and Judah, and of the latter alone, after the 
captivity of the ten tribes, down to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. They 
thus cover altogether a period of about 430 


years beginning with about 1015 B. C. Some 
chapters dwell with special interest on the acts 
of the prophets Elijah and Elisha. Excepting 
these, the work seems to be an extract from 
annals of the Hebrew kings, to which reference 
is frequently made. The name of the author 
is unknown. Some suppose him to be identi- 
cal with the author of Samuel, which others 
regard as improbable on critical grounds. He 
was probably a contemporary of Jeremiah, if 
not that prophet himself. The division of the 
work into two books is not founded on any in- 
trinsic reasons. Among the best commenta- 
ries upon the book are those by Keil (1848; 
revised ed., 1865), Thenius (1849), and George 
Rawlinson (in the collection known as the 

Speaker's Commentary," 1873). 

KINGSBOROUGH, Edward King, viscount, an 
English archaeologist, born Nov. 16, 1795, died 
in Dublin, Feb. 27, 1837. He is distinguished 
for his great work entitled "Antiquities of 
Mexico, comprising Facsimiles of Ancient 
Mexican Paintings and Hieroglyphics, together 
with the Monuments of New Spain by M. Du- 
paix, with their respective Scales of Measure- 
ment, and accompanying Descriptions; the 
whole illustrated by many valuable inedited 
MSS." (9 vols. fol., London, 1831-'48). The 
eighth and ninth volumes were published after 
his death, which took place from a fever caught 
in a debtor's prison, where he had been tem- 
porarily confined for a resistance to an at- 
tempted imposition. The first seven volumes 
are estimated to have cost upward of $300,000. 
The work is chiefly valuable for its generally 
faithful reproduction, in facsimile, of such Mex- 
ican hieroglyphical or painted records and ritu- 
als as were known to exist in the libraries and 
private collections of Europe. These, however, 
are often carelessly arranged, and the pages so 
confused as to be utterly unintelligible except 
to advanced students in American archaeology. 
Most of the original speculations of Lord Kings- 
borough are exceedingly loose and crude, and 
mainly directed to the establishment of the hy- 
pothesis of the Jewish origin of the American 
Indians, or at least of the semi-civilized nations 
of Mexico and Central America. The ninth 
volume, containing the relation of Don Alva 
Ixtlilxochitl, is imperfect, closing abruptly 
without finishing the relation. Since the pub- 
lication of the work of Lord Kingsborough a 
large number of additional Mexican MSS. or 
paintings have come to light, including a con- 
siderable part of those collected by Boturini, and 
supposed to have been lost. It has also been 
found, by careful collation, that the facsimiles 
of the work are not always critically correct. 

KINGSBURY, a S. E. county of Dakota, re- 
cently formed and not included in the census 
of 1870 ; area, about 750 sq. m. It is inter- 
sected in the W. part by the Dakota or James 

KINGSLEY, Calvin, an American clergyman, 
born at Annsville, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1812, died in 
Beyrout, Syria, April 6, 1870. He was licensed 


to preach in 1837. In 1841 he graduated at 
Alleghany college, Meadville, Pa., united with 
the Erie conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and was elected professor of 
mathematics in his college. The withdrawal 
of public funds from colleges by Pennsylva- 
nia in 1843 induced the trustees of the col- 
lege to employ him to secure its endow- 
ment. After a year spent in this labor, and 
two years in the pastorate at Erie, Pa., he was 
in 1846 recalled to the college, where he re- 
mained until his election as editor of the 
"Western Christian Advocate" in 1856. He 
continued in this office till 1864, when he was 
elected bishop. In 1867 he visited the mis- 
sion conferences of Germany and Scandinavia, 
which had been placed under his superinten- 
dence. In May, 1869, he started on an episco- 
pal tour around the world. He visited the 
conferences on the Pacific slope, the China 
conference at Foochow, and the India confer- 
ence at Bareily, and had passed by way of 
Egypt through Palestine into Syria, when he 
died. Besides numerous controversial treatises 
on slavery and other topics, he published " Re- 
surrection of the Human Body," "The Her- 
mits" (12mo, Philadelphia, 1868), "Round the 
World, a Series of Letters" (2 vols. 16mo, Cin- 
cinnati, 1870), and two volumes of sermons. 

KINGSLEY. I. Charles, an English clergyman, 
born at Holne, Devonshire, June 12, 1819. He 
is the son of the Rev. Dr. Kingsley, rector 
of St. Luke's, Chelsea, and formerly vicar of 
Holne. In his 14th year he was placed under 
the care of the Rev. Derwent Coleridge, at 
Ottley St. John, and at the age of 20 was sent 
to King's college, London, whence in 1840 he 
removed to Magdalen college, Cambridge. He 
took his bachelor's degree in 1842. After a 
few months' study of the law he entered the 
church, and in 1844 was presented to the liv- 
ing of Eversley in Hampshire, of which par- 
ish he had previously been curate. From the 
commencement of his labors in the ministry 
he has taken part in various efforts to amelio- 
rate the condition of the working classes, and 
his " Twenty-five Village Sermons " (1844), ad- 
dressed to the rustic people who formed the 
bulk of his parishioners, won the sympathies 
of those for whose benefit they were intended. 
His "Saint's Tragedy" (1848), a dramatic 
poem founded on the history of Elizabeth of 
Hungary, attracted attention not less from its 
literary merits than from its supposed enuncia- 
tion of the doctrines of what was known as 
"Christian socialism." The revelations sub- 
sequently made by Mr. Henry Mayhew in his 
series of papers on " London Labor and the 
London Poor" caused him to join the Rev. 
Mr. Maurice and others in a series of interviews 
with artisans and laborers, the result of which 
was the establishment among them of cooper- 
ative associations, for the purpose of underta- 
king work in common and sharing the pro- 
ceeds. Under the influence of these investiga- 
tions he published in 1850 " Alton Locke, Tai- 

lor and Poet," a novel dealing with the social 
and political abuses of the day with a vigor and 
earnestness which gained for the author the title 
of the " chartist parson," and fully identified 
him with the theories of the " Christian social- 
ists." In a pamphlet entitled " Cheap Clothes 
and Nasty," published just before " Alton 
Locke" appeared, he had urged that public hy- 
giene and political economy demanded that no 
individual man should be condemned from 
his birth to physical disease and moral de- 
spair. The story of "Alton Locke" was an 
elaboration of this plea. In like manner his ro- 
mance, "Westward Ho! or the Voyages and 
Adventures of Sir A. Leigh, Knt." (3 vols. 8vo, 
1855), is an expression of his belief that a re- 
ligious soul can be truly developed only in a 
healthy body. His prose publications, in ad- 
dition to those mentioned, include "Yeast, a 
Problem" (1851); "Hypatia, or New Foes 
with an Old Face " (2 vols., 1853) ; " Sermons 
on National Subjects preached in a Village 
Church " (2 vols., 1852) ; " Phaethon, or Loose 
Thoughts for Loose Thinkers " (1852) ; " Al- 
exandria and her Schools " (1854) ; " Sermons 
for the Times " (1855) ; " Glaucus, or the Won- 
ders of the Shore," a little treatise on marine 
zoology and botany ; " The Heroes, or Greek 
Fairy Tales" (1856); "Two Years Ago" 
(1856) ; " Sir Walter Raleigh and his Times; " 
"Good News of God" (1859); "The Water 
Babies," a fairy story (1863); "The Roman 
and the Teuton," lectures delivered at Cam- 
bridge (1864); "Hereward, the Last of the 
English" (1866); "The Hermits" (1867); 
"How and Why?" (1869); "At Last: a 
Christmas in the West Indies " (1871) ; " Plays 
and Puritans," and "Prose Idyls" (1873); 
" Westminster Sermons," and " Health and 
Education " (1874) ; and a variety of miscella- 
neous sermons and magazine articles. As a 
lyric poet he has attained a high rank by a 
number of pieces scattered through his prose 
writings and contributed to various periodicals. 
A collection of them, including "The Saint's 
Tragedy." was published in Boston in 1856, 
and republished in London in 1857, followed 
in 1858 by a volume containing "Andromeda," 
a hexameter poem, and other pieces. He 
was appointed professor of modern history 
at Cambridge in 1859, and after resigning his 
chair was made canon of Chester in 1869, and 
subsequently of Westminster, and chaplain to 
the queen. In 1872 he became editor of " Good 
Words." In 1873-'4 he visited and lectured in 
the United States. II. Henry, an English au- 
thor, brother of the preceding, born at Holne 
in 1824. He studied at Oriel college, Ox- 
ford, and passed many years in Australia. Re- 
turning to England in 1858, he published a 
novel of Australian life entitled "The Recol- 
lections of Geoffrey Hamlyn." Since then he 
has written " Ravenshoe " (1861) ; " Austin El- 
liot " (1863) ; " The Hillyars and the Burtons " 
(1865); "Leighton Court" (1866); "Made- 
moiselle Mathilde;" " Stretton, Hetty, and 


other Stories;" Old Margaret " (1871); and 
" Reginald Hetheridge" (1874). He was for a 
time editor of the "Daily Review," and its 
correspondent in the Franco-German war. 

KINGSLEY, James Luce, an American scholar, 
born in Windham, Conn., Aug. 28, 1778, died 
in New Haven, Aug. 31, 1852. He graduated 
at Yale college in 1799, and engaged in teach- 
ing, first in Wethersfield, and afterward in his 
native town. In 1801 he was appointed a tu- 
tor in Yale college, and in 1805 received the 
newly established professorship of the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin languages in the same insti- 
tution. He was relieved of a portion of his 
duties in 1831, when a separate professorship 
of Greek was instituted, and of another por- 
tion in 1835, when a professorship of sacred 
literature was founded. In Latin he continued 
to instruct until his resignation in 1851. He 
published a few Latin text books, a discourse 
on the 200th anniversary of the founding of 
New Haven, a history of Yale college in the 
"American Quarterly Register," and a life of 
Ezra Stiles in Sparks's " American Biography." 

KING'S MOUNTAIN, a post village in'Gaston 
co., N. 0., in the vicinity of which is an emi- 
nence jof the same name, situated in York co., 
S. 0., about 80 m. N. by W. of Columbia, 
which was the scene of a memorable conflict 
in the revolutionary war, Oct. 7, 1780. Im- 
mediately after the battle of Camden (August, 
1780), Lord Cornwallis despatched Major Pat- 
rick Ferguson to scour the western part of 
South Carolina, and rejoin him at Charlotte, 
in Mecklenburg co., N. C. Ferguson's force 
was gradually increased by enlistments to 1,200 
men, and the new recruits, mostly tory despe- 
radoes of the worst stamp, committed frightful 
excesses upon the inhabitants of the country. 
In the latter part of September, when within 
a few days' march of Charlotte, he turned 
aside toward the mountains to disperse a small 
American force under Col. Clarke ; but upon 
arriving at Gilbert Town, in what is now Ruth- 
erford co., N. 0., he learned that a large body 
of "mountain men," as the frontiersmen of 
Georgia and the Carolinas were called, had as- 
sembled to oppose his progress. Breaking up 
his quarters, he pushed forward to join Corn- 
wallis, sending expresses to inform the latter 
of his danger, all of whom, however, were in- 
tercepted. The patriot forces started immedi- 
ately in pursuit. The main body, about 900 
mounted men, marching all night, came up 
with Ferguson at 3 P. M. on the 7th, posted on 
King's mountain, a narrow stony ridge eleva- 
ted about 100 ft. from the neighboring ravines, 
and upward of a mile in length. The Amer- 
icans were formed into three bodies, the cen- 
tre commanded by Cols. Campbell and Shelby, 
the right by Cols. Sevier and McDowell, and 
the left by Cols. Cleveland and Williams, which 
moved simultaneously from different points 
upon the enemy. Ferguson immediately charged 
Sevier and McDowell, and pushed them down 
the hill with the bayonet, the tories using rifles 


and fowling pieces armed at the end with large 
knives. A flank fire from Cleveland and Wil- 
liams caused him to turn against his new as- 
sailants; but the latter had scarcely been re- 
pulsed when he was confronted by the centre 
under Campbell and Shelby and the rallied 
troops of Sevier. In this manner the fight 
continued for upward of an hour, until the en- 
emy, harassed on all sides by the fire of the 
riflemen, which was rapidly thinning their 
ranks, were thrown into confusion, and began 
to retreat along the ridge. Ferguson prepared 
for one final charge, and fell at the head of his 
regulars pierced by seven bullets, dying, ac- 
cording to tradition, by the hand of Col. Wil- 
liams, who was also slain. His men, disheart- 
ened by his fall, surrendered to the number of 
nearly 800, 240 having fallen. Only 200 es- 
caped. The Americans lost only 20 men killed, 
although a large number were wounded. This 
action did much to precipitate the downfall of 
British power in the south. 

KINGSTON, a city and the county seat of Ul- 
ster co., New York, on the W. bank of the Hud- 
son river, about 90 m. N. of New York and 55 
m. S. of Albany, and on the N. bank of Ron- 
dout creek, which is navigable for 3 m. and 
is its harbor; pop. in 1874, about 22,000. 
It is the terminus of the Delaware and Hud- 
son canal, and of the New York, Kingston, 
and Syracuse, and the Wallkill Valley rail- 
roads, which communicate by ferry with Rhine- 
beck, a station on the Hudson River railroad 
on the opposite bank of the river. Steamboats 
connect it with New York, Albany, and inter- 
mediate places. It has a wharfage front of 4 
m. Forty-three steamboats owned in the city 
are employed in transporting freight and pas- 
sengers, and in towing. The shipment of coal, 
blue stone, brick, ice, cement, lime, lumber, &c., 
exceed 2,500,000 tons per annum. Kingston 
is the centre of the blue-stone or flagging trade. 
The quarries are scattered through a region 
nearly 100 m. in length, reaching from the 
Delaware river to the Hudson, and the stone 
is brought to the city by wagon, rail, and ca- 
nal. Hydraulic cement, for which Ulster co. is 
celebrated, is mainly shipped from Kingston, 
amounting to a yearly aggregate of 1,500,000 
barrels. The largest cement manufactory in 
the country, that of the Newark lime and ce- 
ment manufacturing company, situated in the 
city, turns out 225,000 barrels yearly. The 
stone is obtained by tunnelling the hills which 
face the creek and river, and by running gal- 
leries in the layers of rock. These galleries 
are nearly two miles in length, and are often 
sunk to a depth of 200 ft. The average thick- 
ness of the layers is 30 ft., and they incline 
at all angles from vertical to horizontal. The 
city also contains four founder! es and machine 
shops, a planing mill, a manufactory of malt, 
four of cigars, one of glue, a tanning and cur- 
rying establishment, nine breweries, 13 car- 
riage factories, several boat and ship-building 
establishments, five brick yards, five national 


banks with an aggregate capital of $1,125,000, 
and three savings banks. It is divided into 
nine wards, and is governed by a mayor and 
18 aldermen. The recorder holds a police 
court, and there is a volunteer fire depart- 
ment. The streets are lighted partly with 
gas and partly with kerosene. The disburse- 
ments for the year ending March 9, 1874, were 
$90,518 29. The bonded debt at that date 
amounted to $650,660, of which $600,660 was 
contracted to pay for stock in railroads. Be- 
sides the county buildings, there are the music 
hall, the almshouse, the city hall (in progress), 
and several hotels. The educational institu- 
tions, besides several large private schools, 
embrace a number of graded and ungraded 
public schools, having in 1873 46 teachers ; pu- 
pils enrolled, 3,291 ; average attendance, 1,951. 
The number of children of school age (5 to 21) 
was 7,235 ; expenditures for school purposes, 
$55,380, of which $32,248 were for teachers' 
wages. There are one 
daily and five weekly 
newspapers, and 21 
churches, viz. : Baptist, 
2; Episcopal, 2; Ger- 
man Evangelical Lu- 
theran, 2; Jewish, 2; 
Methodist, 4; Presby- 
terian, 2 ; Reformed, 3 ; 
Roman Catholic, 3 ; 
children's church, 1. 
Kingston was incor- 
porated as a city by 
act of March 29, 1872. 
It was formed from a 
portion of the town of 
the same name, and in 
eludes the greater part 
of the former villages 
of Kingston (pop. in 
1870, 6,315), incorpo- 
rated in 1805, and Ron- 
dout (pop. in 1870, 10,- 
114), incorporated in 

1849, and the unincorporated village of Wil- 
bur. The first permanent settlement was made 
soon after 1665. The first state convention of 
New York adjourned from Fishkill to Kingston 
in February, 1777, and here framed the first con- 
stitution of the state. In September following 
the state legislature met here, but dispersed on 
the approach of a British force under Sir Hen- 
ry Clinton, which on Oct. 17 plundered the 
village and burned every house but one. ' 

KINGSTON, a city, port of entry, and the 
capital of Frontenac co., Ontario, Canada, situ- 
ated at the head of the St. Lawrence river, 
. where it issues from Lake Ontario, and at the 
mouth of Cataraqui creek, 175 m. W. S. W. 
of Montreal, and 150 m. E. by N. of Toronto ; 
pop. in 1844, 6,840 ; in 1861, 13,743 ; in 1871, 
12,407. The apparent decrease is due to the 
removal of the garrison. The city is regularly 
laid out, the streets crossing each other at 
right angles. Most of the houses are built of 

blue limestone, which is quarried in the vicin- 
ity. Water is supplied partly from the river 
and partly from wells, some of which are im- 
pregnated with mineral substances, and the 
city is lighted with gas. There are many fine 
public buildings, among which are the city 
hall and market, the custom house, the court 
house and jail, the post office, and the me- 
chanics' institute. The Grand Trunk railway 
passes within 2 m. of the city, and a freight 
branch extends to the harbor. A railway is 
in course of construction to Pembroke, 120 m. 
N. The harbor is deep and commodious, and 
is protected by Wolfe and Garden islands, 
which lie opposite the city at a distance of 3 
m. On the west is the entrance to the bay of 
Quinte, and on the east the terminus of the 
Rideau canal, which connects the port with 
Ottawa. Haldimand cove, E. of the city, be- 
tween Point Frederick or Navy Point and 
Point Henry, forms a deep and well sheltered 

Kingston, Canada 

haven. On both these promontories there are 
fortifications which command the whole har- 
bor. Fort Henry is the principal work of de- 
fence ; there are several rnartello towers near 
it, and as a military post Kingston is the strong- 
est place in Canada after Quebec and Halifax. 
Steamers ply to Cape Vincent, N. Y., on the 
opposite bank of the St. Lawrence. The num- 
ber of vessels entered from the United States 
for the year ending June 30, 1873, was 2,009, 
with an aggregate tonnage of 380,665 ; cleared 
for the United States, 1,655 vessels of 269,299 
tons. The value of imports was $8,978,459 ; 
of exports, $1,358,202, making Kingston the 
second port of the province in the value of 
foreign commerce. Ship building and boat 
building are largely carried on, and there is a 
marine railway for repairing vessels. The 
other principal manufactures are of iron cast- 
ings, mill machinery, steam engines, locomo- 
tives, leather, soap and candles, boots and 



shoes, wooden ware, brooms, pianos, ale and 
beer, &c. There are three branch banks, and 
a loan and trust company. Kingston is divi- 
ded into seven wards, is governed by a mayor, 
board of aldermen, and common council, and 
has a fire department and a police force. 
Among the charitable institutions are the house 
of industry, orphans' home, general hospital, 
IIotel-Dieu hospital and orphan asylum, and 
house of refuge. The provincial penitentiary 
is about a mile W. of the city, and beyond the 
penitentiary is the Rockwood lunatic asylum. 
It is the seat of Queen's university and college 
(Presbyterian), with seven professors, and hav- 
ing an observatory connected with it ; of Regi- 
opolis college (Roman Catholic) ; and of a med- 
ical college, with 11 professors. There are 10 
academies and schools, a diocesan library, two 
daily and two weekly newspapers, ^and IT 
churches, including the Roman Catholic cathe- 
dral. Kingston is one of the oldest places in 
Ontario. A settlement 
was begun here by the 
French as early as 1672, 
under the name of Fort 
Cataraqui, which was 
subsequently changed 
to Fort Frontenac. The 
fort was destroyed by 
an expedition under 
and in 1762 the place 
fell into the hands of 
the British, from whom 
it received its present 
name. It became a city 
in 1838, and from 1841 
to 1844 was the capital 
of Canada. 

KINGSTON, a mari- 
time city and the capital 
of the island of Jamai- 
ca, in the county of Sur- 
rey, on the S. coast, 12 
m. E. N. E. of Spanish 
Town, the former capital ; lat. 18 

possess any architectural beauty. The bay or 
roadstead has a mean depth of six fathoms, 
and affords good mooring ground for 1,000 ves- 
sels of any size. It is bounded S. by a long 
and narrow strip of land named the Palisades, 
on the extreme point of which stands Port 
Royal, the naval station ; but the entrance is 
considerably narrowed by a sand bank stretch- 
ing in front of Fort Augusta, and the shelter 
is imperfect, owing to the lowness of the coast. 
The environs are covered with fine sugar plan- 
tations, interspersed with picturesque villas. 
The region to the west is extremely marshy, 
and to the east rises Long mountain. The 
climate is hot, and generally unhealthy for Eu- 
ropeans ; the thermometer ranges from 70 to 
95 ; but alternate sea and land breezes in the 
morning and evening temper in a measure the 
almost suffocating atmosphere. The situation 
of Kingston, between Europe and the centre 
of the American continent, has rendered it an 

50' W. ; pop. about 35,000. It is situated on 
the gentle slope of a branch of the Blue moun- 
tains, and stands on the N. shore of a magnifi- 
cent bay defended by two forts. It is built in 
the form of an amphitheatre, with wide and 
regular streets; the houses, mostly of two sto- 
ries, are solidly constructed of brick or wood, 
and painted green and white. The houses in 
the centre of the city form blocks or squares, 
and in the principal streets are furnished with 
verandas below and covered galleries above; 
while those in the outskirts are detached, and 
surrounded by delightful gardens. Besides 
the English church, the handsomest in the 
town, there are a Scottish, some Methodist, 
and several Roman Catholic churches, and two 
synagogues ; but neither these nor the other 
public edifices, such as the theatre, hospital, 
courthouse, new penitentiary, workhouse, com- 
mercial subscription rooms, barracks, and jail, 

Kingston, Jamaica. 

N., Ion. 76 ! important commercial entrepot. The chief 

exports are coffee, sugar, tobacco, dyewood, 
and its highly esteemed rum ; and the imports 
mainly consist of manufactured goods, flour, 
wine, ale, and salted meat. The total value 
of the exports for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1870, was $6,315,813 ; of the imports, $6,600,- 
146. It is connected by rail with Spanish 
Town. Kingston was founded in 1693, after 
the destruction by earthquake of Port Royal ; 
it was made a bishopric in 1856. In Febru- 
ary, 1782, the town was almost completely 
destroyed by fire ; and another disastrous fire 
which commenced on March 29, 1862, and in 
which a few persons perished, destroyed prop- 
erty to the value of $1,250,000. Yellow fever 
has at times committed fearful ravages here ; 
and about one eighth of the population was 
carried off by cholera in 1850. 

KINGSTON, a town of England. See KINGS- 




KINGSTON, Elizabeth Chudleigh, duchess of, 
born in 1720, died near Paris, Aug. 28, 1788. 
Her father, Col. Chudleigh, governor of Chel- 
sea college, died when she was very young, leav- 
ing his family in narrow circumstances. As 
she grew up, her heauty and vivacity attracted 
much attention ; and in her 18th year, by the 
influence of Mr. Pulteney, afterward earl of 
Bath, she was appointed a maid of honor to 
the princess of Wales, the mother of George 
III. At the princess's court in Leicester house 
she became one of the reigning toasts of the 
day, and among her numerous admirers was 
the duke of Hamilton, whose proposals of mar- 
riage she accepted, with the understanding 
that the nuptials should be celebrated on his 
return from a visit to the continent. During 
his absence Capt. Hervey, grandson of the earl 
of Bristol, became enamored of her, and with 
the assistance of her aunt, Mrs. Hanmer, who 
intercepted the letters addressed by the duke 
to Miss Chudleigh, succeeded in alienating her 
affections from his rival and in persuading 
her to be secretly married to himself. The day 
after the marriage, which took place Aug. 5, 
1744, she conceived so violent a dislike for her 
husband that she resolved never to see him 
again. The duke of Hamilton soon after re- 
turned to England, and was naturally astonished 
that his claim to her hand should be rejected. 
To escape his reproaches, and those of her 
mother, who was a stranger to her marriage, 
at her apparently unreasonable rejection of 
this and other advantageous offers, she visited 
the continent, where she pursued a career of 
scandalous dissipation. During a residence at 
Berlin Frederick the Great paid her marked 
attentions, and at Dresden the electress loaded 
her with presents. Keturning to England, she 
resumed her duties at the court, and became 
one of the leaders in the fashionable profligacy 
of the age. The marriage with Capt. Hervey, 
however, perpetually annoyed her, and in order 
to destroy all evidences of it she contrived to 
tear the leaf out of the parish register in which 
it was recorded. The death of her husband's 
grandfather, the earl of Bristol, having im- 
proved his prospects of succeeding to the earl- 
dom, she obtained the restoration of the leaf. 
Meanwhile the duke of Kingston, ignorant of 
her marriage, solicited her hand ; and having 
prevailed on her husband to allow a divorce by 
mutual consent to be pronounced at doctors',, 
commons, she was married a second time, 
March 8, 1769. The duke died four years af- 
terward, leaving her in possession of a prince- 
ly fortune on the condition that she should 
not again marry. Forthwith she plunged into 
a course of licentiousness, the censure excited 
by which constrained her to leave the coun- 
try for a time. She sailed for Italy in her 
own yacht, and while living in Rome in great 
magnificence learned that the family of the 
duke of Kingston were about to establish 
against her a charge of bigamy on the ground 
that her first marriage had been declared void 

by an incompetent tribunal. Her banker, who 
was in the interest of her adversaries, refused 
to advance her money to leave the country, 
whereupon she proceeded to his residence, 
pistol in hand, -and extorted it from him. Upon 
arriving in England she found public opinion 
strongly against her. Foote satirized her in 
his " Trip to Calais," under the name of "Kitty 
Crocodile," which however she found means 
to have prohibited ; but, with a vindictiveness 
which nothing could appease, she caused some 
outrageous charges to be trumped up against 
him, the mortification attending which so af- 
fected him that he died soon after. On April 
15, 1776, the trial of the duchess came on in 
Westminster hall, which had been fitted up 
with great state for the purpose, and during 
the five days that it lasted attracted members 
of the royal family and throngs of distinguished 
persons. The duchess, attended by numerous 
counsel, addressed the peers with great energy, 
but was declared guilty. Thereupon she plead- 
ed the privilege of the peerage, having now 
virtually become the countess of Bristol, to 
which title her first husband had succeeded, 
and thus escaped the punishment of burning 
on the hand, with which Dunning had threat- 
ened her. She retained her fortune, however, 
and the utmost efforts of her opponents were 
powerless to affect the validity of the late 
duke's will. Thenceforth she became a volun- 
tary exile, visiting various European courts, 
and among others that of Catharine II. of 
Russia, who received her with great kindness. 
She ended her days at her chateau in the 
neighborhood of Paris. 

KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES, a municipal bor- 
ough, town, and parish of Surrey, England, on 
the E. bank of the Thames, at the mouth of 
the Ewell, 8 m. W. S. W. of London ; pop. of 
the borough in 1871, 15,257. It extends about 
1 m. along the river, is irregularly built, and 
contains several interesting edifices, among 
which are an ancient cruciform church and a 
handsome town hall. In 1872 there were 18 
places of worship, of which 8 belonged to the 
church of England. There are several endowed 
schools. A Roman town or station was built 
on the site now occupied by Kingston, and va- 
rious traces of it, such as coins and other an- 
tiquities, have been brought to light. A great 
ecclesiastical council was held here by Egbert in 
838, and many Saxon kings were crowned here. 

KINGSTOWN, a seaport and watering place 
of Ireland, in the county and 7 m. by railway 
S. E. of the city of Dublin, on Dublin bay ; 
pop. in 1871, 16,387. It possesses, in the 
words of the tidal commissioners' official re- 
port, " one of the most splendid artificial ports 
in the United Kingdom." The harbor of ref- 
uge, begun in 1816, from designs by Rennie, 
consists of two piers and a breakwater, the E. 
pier being 3,500 ft. long, and the W. 4,950 ft., 
with an entrance 850 ft. wide, and enclosing 
an area of 250 acres, with a depth of water of 
from 15 to 27 ft. ; it cost 750,000. A revolv- 



ine light marks the entrance, lat. 53 18 N., 
Ion 6 8' W. Kingstown is the mail packet 
station for communication with Dublin and 
Holyhead. Over 2,000 ships enter and leave 
the harbor annually. 

RINGTECHIff, a town of China, in the prov- 
ince of Kiangsi, 100 m. N. E. of Nantchang ; pop. 
upward of 500,000. It is an open town, con- 
tcaining thousands of furnaces and hundreds ot 
factories of porcelain, the manufacture of which 
centres here. These works have enjoyed the 
special patronage of the emperors of China tor 
more than 800 years. Stanislas Juhen trans- 
lated from the Chinese a history of the Kmg- 
techin manufacture of porcelain (Paris, 1856). 
RING WILLIAM, an E. county of Virginia, 
bounded N. E. by Mattapony river and S. W. 
by the Pamunkey ; area, 270 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 7,515, of whom 4,455 were colored. It 
has a rolling surface and a good soil. The 
Richmond and York River railroad passes 
through the S. E. part. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 68,256 bushels of wheat, 236,530 
of Indian corn, 33,030 of oats, 17,045 jpf Irish 
and 8,309 of sweet potatoes, 28,850 Ibs. of to- 
bacco, and 37,095 of butter. There were 805 
horses', 2,679 cattle, 1,083 sheep, and 3,856 
swine ; 6 flour mills, and 2 saw mills. Capital, 
King William Court House. 

KINIC ACID, also called cinchonic and quinic 
acid, a substance obtained in combination with 
lime in evaporating the infusion of Peruvian 
bark to a solid consistence, and treating the 
extract with alcohol. If an aqueous decoction 
of cinchona bark be mixed with milk of lime 
until it assumes a feebly alkaline reaction, the 
vegetable bases and the tannic acid are precip- 
itated, and calcic quinate remains in the liquid ; 
this salt may be crystallized from the mother 
liquor by evaporation, and decomposed by the 
cautious addition of oxalic or of sulphuric acid. 
The kinic acid may then be obtained in crys- 
tals from the solution in the form of transpa- 
rent, colorless, rhomboidal plates. These have 
a sour taste, and readily dissolve in water or 
alcohol. Their composition is expressed by 
the formula HjCrHnOs. By combining the 
acid with cinchonia or quinine it is restored to 
the saline condition in which it existed in the 
bark, and may thus be applied in medicine in 
concentrated form more nearly representing 
the peculiar character of the bark than in the 
ordinary combinations of the alkaloid with 
sulphuric or other mineral acid, although the 
therapeutic advantage of such a combination is 
by no means proved. Kinic acid by its pres- 
ence serves to distinguish genuine barks. The 
method of testing is to boil oz. of bark with 
a little lime, and, after pouring off and con 
centrating the liquor, to commence distilling i 
in a retort with a mixture of half its weight o 
sulphuric acid and peroxide of manganese. I 
kinic acid is present, a volatile substance callec 
kinone or chinone, of yellow color and peculia 
odor, the vapor of which is very irritating tc 
the eyes, comes over with the first portions 


nd is instantly recognized. The spurious barks 
L aving no kinic acid do not afford kinone. ^ It 
as bfen ascertained that caffeic acid also yields 
dnone when treated in the manner above de- 
cribed. Kinic acid is said to have been found 
n the leaves of vaccinium myrtillus. It i& 
onverted in the system into hippuric acid. 

RINREL. Johann Gottfried, a German poet and 
patriot, born at Oberkassel, Aug .11, 1815. 
The son of a clergyman, he studied theology 
Hid afterward philosophy, and particularly 
he history of art, holding professorships m 
jach branch at the university of Bonn (1837- 
48) Implicated in the revolutionary move- 
ments of 1848 and 1849, he was sentenced 
o 20 years' imprisonment in the fortress of 
Spandau. In 1850 he effected his escape with 
he assistance of Karl Schurz and some other 
devoted friends, fled to England, spent some 
ime in the United States, and returned to 
London, where he engaged in teaching, lee- 
uring, and journalism. In 1866 he was ap- 
>ointed professor of the history of art at Zu- 
rich. He has written lyrical poems, books on 
the fine arts, especially on Christian art, and 
miscellaneous works. New editions of his 
>oems, in two collections, and of a number of 
lis stories, were published at Stuttgart in 1874. 
He married the divorced wife of the publisher 
tfathieux of Cologne, who was the daughter of 
Prof. Mockel, and was an accomplished musi- 
cian and writer on music and other subjects. 
She lost her life Nov. 17, 1858, by falling or 
throwing herself out of a window. Her post- 
lumous works include Hans Ibeles in London 
(2vols., 1860; 2d ed., 1874). 


RIMEY, a S. W. county of Texas, separated 
:rom Mexico by the Rio Grande, and drained 
[>y numerous small tributaries of that river ; 
area, 1,400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,204, of 
whom 418 were colored. There is little good 
land, which is confined to the valleys of the 
Rio Grande and a few small creeks. In 1870 
it produced 17,320 bushels of Indian corn. 
There were 15,935 cattle and 6,518 sheep. 

RING (sometimes incorrectly called gum 
kino), a name applied to various astringent 
vegetable extracts. These are obtained from 
several distinct regions, and from trees not only 
of different genera but of different orders, 
agreeing, however, in the essential character- 
istic of containing a large proportion of tannic 
acid, with more or less resin, gum, and extrac- 
tive. It occurs in small fragments, or even 
powder, and is usually of a reddish color, with 
little or no odor and a bitterish astringent taste. 
The tannic acid which it contains is of the 
variety which precipitates the salts of iron a 
greenish black or olive color. By some chemists 
this kino-tannic acid is supposed to be not a 
distinct variety, but a combination of ordinary 
or gallo-tannic acid with a red coloring matter 
called kinoic acid. Among the principal varie- 
ties are the East India kino, from the ptero- 
carpus marsupium, a lofty leguminous tree 




growing upon the mountains of India. This 
contains 95 per cent, of tannin and extractive, 
and 24 of red gum. West India or Jamaica 
kino is believed to be the product of coccoloba 
umfera, or seaside grape, a small tree of the 
order polygonacece. It is possible that the 
same plant is the source of the South American 
kino. The African kino, although it is the 
variety to which the name was first applied, 
is no longer in the market. The butea gum 
from the dhah tree of India has been mistaken 
for it, and has a similar composition. Botany 
Bay kino is the concrete juice of eucalyptus 
resinifera, the brown gum tree of Australia, 
a large and lofty tree of the order myrtacece. 
It is said that a single tree is capable of fur- 
nishing 500 Ibs. of kino in one year. Kino is 
used in medicine as a powerful astringent, 
both internally and externally. It may be em- 
ployed in the form of powder, infusion, or 
tincture. The last named preparation is apt 
to gelatinize and lose its astringency when 
too long kept and exposed to the air. The 
dose of the powder is from 10 to 30 grains; 
of the tincture, a teaspoonf ul ; of the infusion, 
2 or 3 oz. It is chiefly used medicinally in the 
treatment of diarrhoea. Passive hsemorrhages 
are sometimes controlled by it. 

KINROSS-SHIRE, a S. E. county of Scot- 
land, bordering on Fifeshire and Perthshire; 
area. 77 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 7,208. Loch 
Leven, covering an area of 3,300 acres, and 
abounding in fish, occupies the centre of the 
county. The remainder of the surface is level 
and well cultivated. Its minerals are coal, lime- 
stone, and iron. The chief towns are Kinross 
and Milnathort, which with some manufactu- 
ring villages produce plaids, shawls, &c. 

RINSALE, a maritime town and parliamentary 
borough of Ireland, in the county and 12 m. 
S. by W. of the city of Cork, on the estuary of 
the Bandon ; pop. in 1871, 5,248. It has an 
Episcopal and a Roman Catholic church, a con- 
vent, a Carmelite friary, two Methodist meet- 
ing houses, a town hall, prison, workhouse, and 
barracks. It is chiefly supported by the resort 
of summer visitors and the fisheries. A rail- 
way connects it with Cork. 

RINSRY, the name of a noble family of Bo- 
hemia, dating from the 14th century. Count 
FRANZ ULRIOH (1634-'99), his brother WENZEL 
NORBERT OCT AVIAN (1642-1719), and the son 
of the latter, FRANZ FERDINAND (1678-1741), 
were prominent statesmen and diplomatists in 
the Austrian empire. Count FRANZ JOSEPH 
(1739-1805) distinguished himself in the seven 
years' war, in the war against Turkey (1788), 
and against France (1793-'6), and rose to the 
highest rank in the Austrian army. A new 
edition of his writings on military science was 
published in 1806-'25 (6 vols., Vienna). The 
present head of the junior and princely branch 
Wehinitz and Tettau, born Oct. 22, 1834. 

RIOTO (often called Miako, the native equiv- 
alent of the Chinese Kioto, capital, the real 

name being HEIAN or HEIANJO), a city and 
long the capital of Japan, in the S. W. part 
of the main island, on the Kamogawa, 235 
m. S. W. of Tokio (Yedo), and 25 m. N. E. 
of Ozaka; pop. in 1872, 567,334. It is one 
of the three fu or imperial cities of Japan. 
It is in a broad plain encircled by moun- 
tains which are covered with groves, gardens, 
temples, and pagodas. The Kamo, which flows 
through the city, is a stream of pure water 
crossed by numerous wooden bridges and a 
magnificent one of iron erected in 1873. The 
river bed is in a large extent dry in summer, 
and the people use it as a pleasure ground. 
The houses, mostly of one story, are very neat; 
the streets, which run at right angles, are ex- 
ceedingly clean, and through many of them 
flow streams of pure water. It is especially 
famous for its temples. There are numerous 
monasteries and nunneries in the city, which 
in 1872 contained 2,413 Shinto shrines and 
3,514 Buddhist temples. The now deserted 
palace of the mikado and the dwellings of the 
kuge or court nobles lie in a space enclosed by 
a wall of tiles and plaster, painted in longitu- 
dinal stripes of buff and white. The castle of 
Nijo, formerly belonging to the shogun (ty- 
coon), is in the central part of the W. side of 
the city, and is now used as the town hall. 
Kioto is famous for its manufactures of lac- 
1 quered articles, silk stuffs, porcelain, metal 
vases and ornaments, and decorated weapons. 
It contains a school of foreign languages and 
sciences, besides many native schools. It is 
connected with Tokio and Nagasaki by tele- 
graph. The railway to Ozaka is not yet fin- 
ished. Its importance as a literary centre has 
passed away. From the earliest period, the 
capital of Japan has been fixed near or in Kioto, 
though it was not made the permanent capital 
till A. D. 794. So universally was it looked 
upon as the political as well as the literary and 
ecclesiastical centre of the empire, that the five 
adjacent provinces were named the Kinai, or 
home provinces, and the other portions of the 
empire were divided and named with reference 
to their direction from it, and the methods of 
communication by road and canal were ar- 
ranged with regard to it. In 1864 a conflict, 
which lasted for several days, took place in and 
around the mikado's palace, during which near- 
ly the whole city was burned. In 1868 the mi- 
kado took up his permanent residence in Yedo, 
which was thereupon called Tokio (eastern cap- 
ital), while Kioto was named Saikio (western 
capital), a name which it now popularly retains. 
RIOWA, a S. W. county of Kansas, recently 
formed, and not included in the census of 
1870 ; area, 900 sq. m. Its N. W. corner is in- 
tersected by the Arkansas river, and it is 
watered by several streams. 

RIOWAS, or Rioways, a tribe of North Ameri- 
can Indians belonging to the Shoshonee family. 
They were first brought to notice by Lewis and 
Clark. Their skin lodges and hunting grounds 
were then on the Paducah, and with the Kas- 


kaias they occupied the head waters of the 
Platte and Arkansas. They raised horses and 
traded with the Ricarees, Mandans, &c. They 
had obtained horses at an early period from the 
Spaniards, and committed frequent depreda- 
tions, being great warriors and fine horsemen, 
though awkward on foot. They were at war 
with many northern tribes, especially the Paw- 
nees, Tetans, and Sioux. They were noted for 
the long hair of the men, often reaching to the 
knees, but done up in three or four plaits, while 
the women were cropped short. They long 
hunted on the Platte, and in summer pursued 
the buffalo between the North fork of the 
Canadian and the Arkansas, but in autumn and 
winter pastured their immense herds on the 
rich grassy bottoms of the Red river. As late 
as 1819 they used the bow and arrow, lance 
and war club, and carried shields. They lived 
in leathern lodges, transported as they moved. 
The early estimates of their numbers were low, 
but about 1840 they were 1,800 strong. In 
1839 a delegation visited St. Louis. In 1843 
government made several attempts to^negotiate 
with them, especially to liberate the. white 
captives in their hands. There was, however, 
littlelntercourse with them till the treaty of Fort 
Atkinson, July 27, 1853, when for a ten years' 
annual payment of $18,000 they agreed to re- 
frain from all hostilities. They, however, re- 
sumed their depredations, and in 1858 Tohan- 
son, or Little Mountain, defied the whites to 
punish them. In 1859 the Texans drove them 
out, and they retired between the Canadian and 
Arkansas rivers. The government withheld the 
annual payments in 185 9-' 60, but they made 
raids on Texas in retaliation. In October, 
1865, a new treaty was made with the Co- 
manches and Kiowas, Tahanson, Santanta or 
Sitting Bear, Black Eagle, and Lone Wolf 
being the principal chiefs. They claimed all 
the territory from the North fork of the Platte 
to Texas. The object was to induce them to 
give up their lands and take a reservation on 
receiving an annual payment proportioned to 
their numbers. The treaty of August, 1869, 
assigned to them and some Comanches and 
Apaches 3,549,440 acres in the southwest of 
Indian territory, on lands leased from the 
Chickasaws. They numbered at this time 
1,928, but were restive, complained of being 
fed on Indian corn, and took no interest in 
agriculture, trampling down their own corn 
fields. In 1870 they killed several whites near 
the agency, and invaded Texas. The next 
year, in May, Santanta led a war party to 
Texas, which captured a train, killing many. 
Government then acted decisively. Santanta 
and Big Tree were arrested, and sent to Jacks- 
borough, Texas, where they were convicted of 
murder and sentenced to death. This was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life. The tribe, 
humbled at first, gave up horses and mules; 
but recovering somewhat, they threatened new 
raids if Santanta was not restored. At the 
request of the federal government Texas par- 


doned the chiefs, but their hostility continued 
unabated. Under the treaty of 1867 they have 
25 instalments of $30,000 and $7,500 for cloth- 
ing, seeds, blacksmith, &c. ; but they are very 
turbulent and unsettled. Their number was 
reported in 1873 as 2,000, and their property 
was estimated at $200,000. 

KIP, William Ingraham, an American bishop, 
born in New York city, Oct. 3, 1811. He stud- 
ied at Rutgers college, N. J., and graduated at 
Yale in 1831. He first studied law, and then 
theology at the general theological seminary 
of the Episcopal church in New York, and was 
ordained a deacon in 1835. After some minis- 
terial work in Morristown, N. J., and New York 
city, he became in 1838 rector of St. Peter's 
church in Albany, N. Y. In October, 1853, 
he was consecrated missionary bishop of the 
Pacific coast, and soon after bishop of the 
diocese of California, which post he still re- 
tains (1874). Besides numerous contributions 
to church periodicals, he has published " The 
Lenten Fast" (1843); "The Double Witness 
of the Church " (1844) ; " Christmas Holidays 
in Rome" (1845); "Early Jesuit Missions in 
North America" (1846); "Early Conflicts of 
Christianity " (1850) ; " The Catacombs of 
Rome" (1854); and "Unnoticed Things of 
Scripture" (1868). Most of these works have 
passed through several editions and been re- 
published in England. 

KIPPIS, Andrew, an English clergyman, born 
in Nottingham in 1725, died in London in 
1795. He was educated at Northampton, in 
the theological seminary of Dr. Doddridge, 
and, after being a Unitarian pastor for some 
years at Boston in Lincolnshire and Dorking in 
Surrey, he removed in 1753 to London, where 
he became minister of the Unitarian chapel of 
Prince street, Westminster. In 1763 he became 
classical and philological master of Coward's 
theological academy, and he held a similar chair 
in the Unitarian institution at Hackney. His 
most important works are his edition of the 
" Biographia Britannica," which he commenced 
in 1777, and of which he published 5 vols. ; 
and a " Life of Captain James Cook " (2 vols. 
8vo, 1788). He also edited the works of Dr. 
Nathaniel Lardner and Dr. Doddridge. 

KIPTCHAK, or Kaptchak, the name of one of the 
oldest Mongolian or Tartar races, and also that 
of the lands of S. E. Russia and W. Asia which 
they inhabited. Oriental authors, as Rashid 
ed-Din and Abulghazi Bahadur Khan, relate 
that while Oghuz Khan, a descendant of Turk, 
a son of Japhet, was fighting a bloody battle 
with the Kara Khatia, the wife of a general of 
the latter hid in a hollow tree (kiptchak} and 
gave birth to a child, who became the fore- 
father of the horde, and the founder of the 
empire called Kiptchak. The Deshti Kiptchak, 
or desert of Kiptchak of the eastern writers, 
the home of many roaming tribes in the middle 
ages, comprised the vast steppes on the lower 
courses of the Dnieper, Don, Volga, and Yaik 
or Ural, and between the Black and Caspian 




seas. In the first half of the 13th century the 
Mongolians founded the khanate of Kiptchak, 
which was synonymous with the empire of the 
Golden Horde, and reached from the interior 
of European Russia to the sources of the Sir 
Darya or Jaxartes. About the middle of the 
loth century, after Tamerlane's invasion, Ka- 
zan, Astrakhan, and Krim or Crimea fell off 
from Kiptchak, and formed independent khan- 
ates. Of these the first two were soon after 
absorbed by Russia, but the Crimea first be- 
came subject to the Ottomans, and was not 
annexed by Russia till the end of the 18th 
century. (See MONGOLIANS.) 

KIRBY, William, an English naturalist, born 
at Witnesham, Suffolk, Sept. 19, 1759, died at 
Barham, July 4, 1850. He graduated at Caius 
college, Cambridge, in 1781, took orders, and 
was appointed to the curacy of Barham. At 
the end of 14 years he became the rector of 
the parish. In 1802 appeared his Monographic 
Apium AnglicB (2 vols., Ipswich), the first sci- 
entific English work of its class. Several years 
later he joined Mr. Spence of Hull in a project 
for preparing a popular treatise on entomolo- 
gy, the result of which was the publication in 
1815 of the first volume of " Kirby and Spence's 
Introduction to Entomology;" the second 
volume appeared in 1817, and the third and 
fourth in 1826. In 1830 he produced a Bridge- 
water treatise on the " Habits and Instincts of 
Animals with reference to Natural Theology," 
and he subsequently wrote the description of 
insects in Sir John Richardson's Fauna Bore- 
ali-Americana, besides several minor works. 
His biography was written by the Rev. John 
Freeman (London, 1852). 

KIRCIIER, Athanasius, a German scholar, born 
near Fulda, Hesse-Cassel, May 2, 1602, died in 
Rome, Nov. 28, 1680. He was educated at 
the university of Wiirzburg, where he after- 
ward taught philosophy and the oriental lan- 
guages. After the invasion of Franconia by 
the Swedes in the thirty years' war he retired 
to France, and passed two years in the Jesuits' 
college at Avignon. He then went to Rome, 
where he was for eight years professor of 
mathematics. His most important works are : 
Prodromus Coptus sive ^Egyptiacus (Rome, 
1636); Lingua JEgyptiaca Restituta (1644); 
and Latium (Amsterdam, 1671), with valuable 
maps and plans. He was a voluminous writer 
on mathematical and physical science, and his 
Mundus Subterraneus (2 vols., 1664-'8) com- 
prises all the geological knowledge of the day. 
He made many philosophical inventions, and 
collected a celebrated museum of instruments, 
lodels, natural objects, and antiquities, for the 
Fesuit college at Rome. This was described 
by Sepi (Amsterdam, 1679), and by Buonanni 
under the title Museum Kircherianum (fol., 
Rome, 1709; new ed. by Battara, 1773). 

KIRCHHEDI, or Kirchlieim-unter-Teek, a town 

of Wurtemberg, on the Lauter, and not far 

from the Teck, 18 m. S. W. of Ulm; pop. in 

1871, 5,863. It has a royal castle, a large hos- 

469 VOL. x. 2 

pital, a house of refuge, iron works, and a sul- 
phur spring. Linen, cotton goods, musical in- 
struments, and other articles are manufac- 
tured; and there are important wool, sheep, 
and cattle markets. 

KIRCHHOFF, Gnstay Robert, a German physi- 
cist, born in Konigsberg, March 12, 1824. In 
1845 he published an essay on the passage of 
the electric current through planes. He gradu- 
ated at Konigsberg in 1846, and in 1848 began 
lecturing in Berlin on mathematical physics, 
and published several elaborate articles on elec- 
trology. In 1850 he was appointed lecturer 
on experimental physics at Breslau, and in 
1854 professor of natural philosophy at Hei- 
delberg, which chair he still occupies (1874). 
Between 1850 and 1858 he published numerous 
articles on magnetism, electricity, heat, and 
the tension of vapors; and in 1859 he made 
the discovery which has rendered him famous, 
the cause of Fraunhofer's lines in the solar 
spectrum. Euler a century ago, and in later 
years Talbot, Miller, Wheatstone, Foucault, 
Angstrom, Balfour Stewart, and Tyndall, had 
all been very close upon the discovery; but 
Kirchhoff (in Poggendorff 's Annalen, vol. cix., 
p. 275), was the first to propound and demon- 
strate the law: "The relation between the 
power of emission and the power of absorption 
of one and the same class of rays is the same 
for all bodies at the same temperature." This 
was the basis of his invention in 1860, in con- 
junction with R. W. Bunsen, of the new method 
of qualitative chemical analysis called spectrum 
analysis. (See SPECTRUM ANALYSIS.) He pub- 
lished Untersuchungen uber das Sonnenspec- 
trum und die Spectren der chemischen Ele- 
mente, which contains his views of the physi- 
cal constitution of the sun (Berlin, 1861 ; 3d 
ed., 1866) ; and with Bunsen, Chemisclie Ana- 
lyse durch Spectralbeobaclitung (Vienna, 1861). 
He and Bunsen together, by means of spectrum 
analysis, discovered two new metals, caesium 
and rubidium. In 1870 Kirchhoff became a 
foreign member of the Berlin academy of sci- 
ences; and subsequently the Prussian order 
pour le merite, the highest honor of its kind 
in Germany, was conferred upon him. Re- 
cently he has begun the publication of what is 
designed to be an elaborate work on mathemat- 
ical physics. The first part bears the title, 
Vorlesungen uber analytiscne Mechanilc, mit 
EinscJiluss der Hydrodynamilc und der Theorie 
der Elastizitdt fester Korper (Leipsic, 1874). 

KIRCHHOFF, Johann Wilhclm Adolf, a German 
philologist, born in Berlin, Jan. 6, 1826. He 
is a son of the historical painter Johann 
Jakob Kirchhoff. After teaching in a gym- 
nasium, he became in 1865 a professor in the 
university of Berlin, and in 1867 succeeded 
Bockh as a director of the philological semi- 
nary. His works include editions of Plotinus 
(2 vols., Leipsic, 1854) and Euripides (2 vols., 
1855, and 3 vols., 1867-'8), Die homerische 
Odyssee und iJire Entstehung (1859), and Die 
Composition der Odyssee (1869). He is a high 



authority on the old Italic languages and on 
palaeography. For the academy of sciences he 
edited part of the Corpus Inscriptionum Grw- 
carum (1859), containing the Christian inscrip- 
tions, and Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum 
(1872 et seq.\ 

KIRGHIZ, Kirghises, or Kirghiz-Kaizaks, a no- 
madic people of Asiatic Russia, occupying a 
region called the Kirghiz steppes, which ex- 
tends from the Caspian sea to the Russian- 
Chinese frontier at the Altai mountains, and 
from the sea of Aral to the Tobol and the Ir- 
tish. Their former abodes were further east. 
Since the recent political reconstruction of Si- 
beria and central Asia there are three divisions 
of Kirghiz steppes : those of Orenburg, of West 
Siberia, and of Turkistan. The Russian gov- 
ernment estimates all the Kirghiz at 1,286,000, 
occupying an area of 856,000 sq. m. The 
Kirghiz are divided into the Little, Great, and 
Middle hordes, which are politically indepen- 
dent of each other. They are subject to Rus- 
sia, and the dignity of khan has been disallowed 
among them as a title of authority. They be- 
long to the Turco-Tartaric race, but their physi- 
ognomy betrays a large admixture of more 
eastern blood. They resemble the Uzbecks, 
speak the same language, and profess to be re- 
lated to them. Their stature is under the mid- 
dle size, their countenance disagreeable, their 
eyes deep set and elongated, and their cheeks 
large and bloated; the women are, however, 
rather pretty and delicately formed. The men, 
though not muscular, are hardy and vigorous. 
Their chief occupation is tending sheep, goats, 
horses, and camels. They have a few domestic 
manufactures, but on the whole are one of the 
most barbarous races of Asia, and the efforts 
of the Russian government to gather them into 
towns and teach them the arts of civilization 
have met with no success. A large share of 
the outdoor as well as domestic labor is left to 
the women. The dress of the men consists of 
one or more loose frocks, wide trousers, colored 
boots, a girdle, and a conical felt hat in summer 
or a furred cap in winter. That of the women 
is nearly the same. The more wealthy wear 
silks, sometimes finely embroidered. Their 
dwellings, called yurts, consist of huts made 
of willow trellis work covered with a kind of 
sheeting of wool and camels' hair. Mutton, 
horse flesh, tea, and sour mares' milk are the 
principal articles of diet. The Kirghiz were for- 
merly the chief slave catchers of the steppes, 
and a brother sometimes sold his sisters into 
servitude in order to avoid the expense of their 
support. The slaves were sent to Khiva, Bo- 
khara, and other Turkoman states ; but recently 
the influence of Russia has caused the abolition 
of slavery in these states. The religion of the 
hordes is a corrupt form of Mohammedanism. 
There are kindred tribes in East Turkistan, 
sometimes designated as the eastern Kirghiz. 
See Atkinson's "Oriental and Western Si- 
beria." Nicholas Ilminski, professor at the 
university of Kazan, published in 1861 in 


Kirghiz, a manual of the Russian language, 
and in 1862 the Kirghiz text of the legend of 
the popular hero Targun, and a grammar and 
dictionary in one volume, under the title of 
"Materials for the Study of Kirghiz." 

KIRK, Edward Jtorris, an American clergy- 
man, born in New York, Aug. 14, 1802, died 
in Boston, March 27, 1874. He graduated at 
the college of New Jersey in 1820, and studied 
law for 18 months, but afterward entered and 
graduated at the theological school in Prince- 
ton. He was for a time agent in the southern 
states for the American board of foreign mis- 
sions, and in 1828 became pastor of a Presby- 
terian church organized for him in Albany, 
N. Y. In 1837 he resigned on account of ill 
health, and visited Europe, preaching in Lon- 
don, and for several months in Paris. Being 
appointed secretary of the foreign evangelical 
society, he returned to the United States in 
1839, to present the claims of Roman Catholic 
countries as a field for missionary effort. In 
1842 he became pastor of the Mount Vernon 
church in Boston, which was organized for 
him, and where he preached till 1871, when 
his failing health compelled the transfer of 
active labor to -a colleague. In 1856 he visit- 
ed Paris, at the request of the American and 
foreign Christian union, for the purpose of 
establishing American Protestant worship in 
that city. While assiduous in the duties of his 
own parish, he was a frequent and most ac- 
ceptable preacher in other parishes, particularly 
in times of special religious interest. During 
his last years he became almost entirely blind ; 
he was active, however, in ministerial meet- 
ings, and led an interesting discussion on re- 
vivals only four days before his death. He 
received the degree of D. D. from Amherst 
college. At the time of his death he was pres- 
ident of the American missionary association. 
Besides about 30 occasional sermons and ad- 
dresses, he published two volumes of sermons 
and a volume of "Lectures on the Parables." 
He also wrote some short works which were 
published by the American tract society in 
Boston, and translated Gaussen's Theopneustie, 
a treatise on the inspiration of the Scriptures. 
KIRK, John Foster, an American author, born 
in Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1824. He 
was educated in Nova Scotia, and took up his 
residence in the United States about 1842. In 
1847 he became secretary to William H. Pres- 
cott, whom he continued to assist until the 
historian's death in 1859. In 1863 he publish- 
ed in London and Philadelphia the first two 
volumes of his " History of Charles the Bold," 
the third and concluding volume appearing in 
1868. He has contributed several historical and 
other articles to leading periodicals, and since 
1871 has been editor of " Lippincott's Maga- 
zine " in Philadelphia. He has prepared a new 
edition of Prescott's works, embodying emen- 
dations left by the author, with original notes. 
< KIRKBRIDE, Thomas S., an American phy- 
sician, born near Morrisville, Bucks co., Pa., 




July 31, 1809. His ancestors were members 
of the society of Friends (to which he also 
belongs), and came to America with William 
Penn. He received the degree of M. D. from 
the university of Pennsylvania in March, 1832, 
and was appointed resident physician of the 
Friends' lunatic asylum at Frankford, Pa. A 
year later he was elected resident physician of 
the Pennsylvania hospital, in which' post he 
continued two years. In October, 1840, he was 
elected superintendent of the Pennsylvania hos- 
pital for the insane, which was opened in Jan- 
uary, 1841. He has published " Rules and 
Regulations of the Pennsylvania Hospital for 
the Insane" (1850), which has been a text book 
and guide in the regulations of new hospitals ; 
" On the Construction, Organization, and Gen- 
eral Management of Hospitals for the Insane," 
and " Appeal for the Insane " (1854). He has 
also been a frequent contributor to the " Amer- 
ican Journal of Medical Sciences," and the 
"American Journal of Insanity." In 1853 he 
proposed the erection of a new hospital, and 
the separation of the sexes in two distinct 
buildings. To carry put his plan he raised 
$355,000 in Philadelphia and vicinity ; the new 
hospital was finished in 1859, and Dr. Kirk- 
bride has since given his personal supervision 
to the female department. 

KIRKCALDY, a parliamentary burgh and sea- 
port of Fifeshire, Scotland, 13 m. N. of Edin- 
burgh, on the N. shore of the frith of Forth ; 
pop. in 1871, 12,422. It extends E. and W. 
along the shore for nearly 2 m. There are 
bleach fields, jute and linen factories, flour 
mills, breweries, distilleries, and machine 
shops. The trade of the port is quite large. 
The imports are principally from Germany and 
Egypt, and consist of flax, timber, and corn ; 
the exports are linen, jute, yarn, herrings, and 
coal. Several free schools have been founded 
in the towns of this part of Fifeshire through 
the munificence of Mr. Robert Philp, a mer- 
chant of Kirkcaldy, who died in 1829, and left 
over 70,000 for this purpose. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT, a S. W. county of Scot- 
land, bordering on Solway frith, which sepa- 
rates it from the English county of Cumber- 
land; area, 954 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 41,852. 
With the county of Wigtown, which adjoins it 
on the west, and part of Ayr and Lanark, it 
forms the district of Galloway. Most of the 
district is hilly, and the N. W. part is moun- 
tainous; there are also several high peaks in 
the south. The principal summits are Black- 
larg in the north (2,890 ft. high), Cairnsmoor 
in the southwest (2,329), and Criffel in the 
southeast (1,831). The principal rivers are. 
the Dee, Fleet, Ken, and Urr. Small lakes 
are numerous. About one third of the soil 
is capable of cultivation, and when properly 
manured is very fertile. Cattle of the famous 
Galloway breed are largely exported. The 
small Galloway horses were formerly reared 
here, but have been almost wholly replaced 
by a larger breed. The county is noted for 

excellent honey. Kirkcudbright is commonly 
called a stewartry instead of a shire, and has 
an officer termed a steward, whose duties cor- 
respond to those of a sheriff in other counties. 
KIRKCUDBRIGHT, the capital, is a seaport on 
the Dee, 6 m. from its confluence with the Sol- 
way frith, and 25 m. S. W. of Dumfries ; pop. 
in 1871, 2,470. It has few manufactures, but 
considerable trade in agricultural produce. 

KIRKE, Sir David, an English colonial ad- 
venturer, born in Dieppe, France, in 1596, 
died at Ferryland, Newfoundland, in the winter 
of 1655-'6. He was the oldest son of Gervase 
Kirke, an English merchant who carried on 
business for many years at Dieppe, and mar- 
ried there. David went into business as a 
wine merchant at Bordeaux and Cognac, but 
during the Huguenot troubles retired to Eng- 
land. His father became interested in Sir 
William Alexander's American projects, and 
sent out three vessels under royal letters of 
marque in 1627 to break up the French settle- 
ments in Canada and Nova Scotia. David 
Kirke, accompanied by his two brothers, com- 
manded the expedition ; he ran up to Tadous- 
sac, and sent parties to burn the houses and 
kill the cattle at Cape Tourmente, and also sum- 
moned Chaniplain to surrender Quebec. Hear- 
ing of the approach o'f a French squadron un- 
der De Roquemont, he prepared to meet it. De 
Roquemont engaged him near Gaspe, July 18, 
1628, but was soon compelled to strike. Kirke 
thus captured all the stores, ammunition, and 
arms intended for Quebec. He sailed again 
with his brothers from England in March, 1629, 
and in July Champlain was compelled to sur- 
render. Nova Scotia, too, was reduced. These 
conquests were given up by England in 1632 ; 
but Kirke was knighted by Charles I. in 1633, 
and with others obtained a grant of Newfound- 
land. He devoted himself to its colonization, 
and held it till dispossessed by Cromwell, hav- 
ing been governor for nearly 20 years. He 
recovered part of his property by bribing 
Cromwell's son-in-law Claypole, and returned 
to Ferryland in 1653. 

KIRKES, William Senhonse, an English physi- 
cian, born about 1820, died in December, 1864 
He was physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital 
in London, and lecturer to the medical college 
attached to that institution. He is best known 
as the author of a " Handbook of Physiol- 
ogy," first published in 1848, which passed 
through several editions in England and was 
republished in the United States. Among his 
other most important contributions to medical 
literature were a series of papers on the "De- 
tachment of Fibriiious Deposits from the In- 
terior of the Heart." His name is in this Avay 
closely connected with the subject of embolism, 
one of the most remarkable and important 
features of recent pathological science. (See 
BRAIN, DISEASES OF THE, vol. iii., p. 198.) 

KIRKLAND, Caroline Matilda (STANSBURY), an 
American authoress, born in New York in 
January, 1801, died there, April 6, 1864. She 



was married to Prof. William Kirkland of 
Hamilton college, who established a seminary 
in Goshen, on Seneca lake, and afterward emi- 
grated with his family to Michigan, whence 
after a residence of 2 years they removed in 
1843 to New York. Her works include "A 
New Home: Who'll follow?" (Boston, 1839) ; 
"Forest Life" (1842); "Western Clearings" 
(1846); "Holidays Abroad, or Europe from 
the West " (2 vols., 1849) ; " The Evening Book, 
or Fireside Talk on Morals and Manners, with 
Sketches of Western Life" (1852); "A Book 
for the Home Circle " (1853) ; the letterpress 
to "The Book of Home Beauty;" and "Per- 
sonal Memoirs of George Washington " (1858). 

KIRKLAND, John Thornton, an American cler- 
gyman, born at Little Falls, N. Y., in 1770, 
died in Boston, April 26, 1840. He was the 
son of Samuel Kirkland, a famous missionary 
among the Indians, graduated at Harvard col- 
lege in 1789, and was ordained pastor of the 
Congregational church in Summer street, Bos- 
ton, in 1794. He was elected president of 
Harvard college in 1810, and heldr this office 
till 1828, when he was enfeebled by a severe 
attack of paralysis. Although a writer of great 
and acknowledged excellence, he could never be 
induced to undertake an extensive work, but 
published a number of occasional pamphlets and 
some biographies. Of these, his life of Fisher 
Ames (1809) was perhaps the most valuable. 
He exerted a very great influence during his 
life, by the force of his intellect and character. 
He impressed himself strongly upon all with 
whom he came in contact ; and during his 
presidency the college flourished, both in its 
internal condition and in its external relations. 

KIRKWOOD, Daniel, an American mathema- 
tician, born in Harford co., Md., Sept. 27, 
1814. He was mathematical tutor in the 
academy of York co., Pa., from 1838 to 1843, 
when he became principal of the Lancaster 
high school, and resigned in 1848 to accept a 
position in the Pottsville academy. In 1849 
he communicated to the American philosoph- 
ical society, at Philadelphia, and to the Amer- 
ican association for the advancement of science, 
at Cambridge, Mass., his then recently dis- 
covered analogy between the periods of rota- 
tion of the primary planets. In 1851 he be- 
came professor of mathematics, and in 1854 
president, of Delaware college, resigning in 
1856 to take the chair of mathematics in 
Indiana university at Bloomington. He has 
been an earnest advocate of the nebular hy- 
pothesis. His paper in the monthly notices of 
the royal astronomical society, vol. xxix., " On 
the Nebular Hypothesis, and the Approximate 
Commensurability of the Planetary Periods," 
applies the theory of Laplace to explain the 
existence of gaps and chasms in the zone of 
minor planets between Mars and Jupiter, and 
assigns a physical cause for the hiatus in 
Saturn's ring. Noticing this paper, Mr. R. A. 
Proctor says of Prof. Kirkwood's researches : 
" I believe they will inaugurate new and im- 


portant processes of thought, by means of 
which the noble and hitherto intractable prob- 
lems connected with the formation of the 
solar system may be found capable of solu- 
tion." Prof. Kirkwood has also published 
" Comets and Meteors : their Phenomena in 
all Ages, and their Mutual Relations, and the 
Theory of their Origin " (Philadelphia, 1873). 
He received the degree of LL. D. from the 
university of Pennsylvania in 1852. 

KIRSCHWASSER (Ger. Kirsche, cherry, and 
Wasser, water), an alcoholic liquor distilled 
from the fermented mash of small and sweet 
black cherries. In the ordinary rude way of 
preparing it, it is a rank liquor containing hy- 
drocyanic acid derived from the cherry stones. 
A superior kind is made in the Black Forest 
from fruit more carefully selected and treated. 

KIRWA.V, Richard, an Irish chemist, born in 
county Galway about the middle of the 18th 
century, died in Dublin in 1812. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity college, and at the Jesuits' 
college of St. Omer in France. In 1779 he 
went to England, and settled near London, 
where he devoted himself to the study of 
chemistry and geology. Having been admitted 
a member of the royal society, he read several 
valuable papers before that body, for which 
the Copley medal was awarded to him in 1782. 
Returning to Ireland in 1789, he was chosen 
president of the royal Irish academy, and of 
the Dublin society, and afterward became a 
member of the principal learned societies of 
Europe. He was a frequent contributor to the 
"Transactions" of the various scientific soci- 
eties of Dublin and London. His most impor- 
tant works are "An Essay on Phlogiston and 
the Composition of Acids," in which he labors 
to reconcile the chemistry of the alchemists 
with that of modern times ; " Elements of Min- 
eralogy;" and "Essay on the Analysis of Min- 
eral Waters." Lavoisier translated the first, 
and appended a refutation of the theory. 

KISFALUDY. I. Karoly, a Hungarian drama- 
tist, born at Tete, in the county of Raab, Feb. 
6, 1788, died in Pesth, Nov. 21, 1830. At an 
early age he entered the Austrian army, served 
in Italy and in the campaign of 1809 in Ger- 
many, and acquired great popularity by a series 
of national dramas and comedies, such as: A 
tatarok Magyar or szagban (" The Tartars in 
Hungary"), Zach KUra ("Clara Zach"), A 
Tcerok ("The Suitors"), A pdrtutok ("The 
Rebels"), and an excellent comedy, Maty as 
dedJc ("The Student Matthias"). II. Sandor, 
elder brother of the preceding, born at Siimeg, 
Sept. 22, 1772, died there, Oct. 28, 1844. He 
studied at Raab and Presburg, entered the 
Austrian army in 1793, served in the wars of 
Italy and in the campaign of Switzerland, and 
fought in the battle of Zurich (1799). In 1800 
he returned to Hungary, and for about 25 
years continued to write poetry, including Him.- 
fy szerelmei (" The Love of Himfy "), and Ee- 
gek ("Ballads"). Some of his poems have 
been translated into English by John Bowring. 




The complete works of both brothers have 
been edited by Schedel (Toldy). 

KISHENEV, a town of European Russia, cap- 
ital of the government of Bessarabia, on the 
Byk, a tributary of the Dniester, 86 m. N. W. 
of Odessa; pop. in 1867, 103,998. The in- 
habitants are a motley mixture of Jews, Rus- 
sians, Roumans, Poles, Greeks, Bulgarians, Ar- 
menians, and others. The town occupies a 
wide extent, and is pleasantly situated. It is 
the seat of a Greek archbishop, and contains 
a number of churches, an ecclesiastical college, 
gymnasium, and library, and manufactories of 
wool, leather, and soap. 

KISS, Angnst, a German sculptor, born near 
Pless, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 11, 1802, died 
March 24, 1865. He received his early educa- 
tion in Gleiwitz, and at the age of 20 became 
a pupil of Rauch at the academy of Berlin. 
His earliest productions were bass-reliefs for 
churches and other public buildings, groups of 
nymphs and tritons for fountains or gardens, 
and the ordinary classical subjects, executed 
partly from Ranch's designs and partly from 
his own. The "Amazon and the Tiger," fin- 
ished in 1839, first brought him into notice. 
His colossal group of "St. George and the 
Dragon," exhibited in the French exposition 
of 1855, was severely criticised. Among his 
other works are a statue of Frederick the Great 
at Breslau, two of Frederick William III., " St. 
Michael overthrowing the Dragon," and a co- 
lossal tiger's head in bronze killing a serpent, 

KISSINGEN, a watering place of Bavaria, in 
the district of Lower Franconia, on the Saale, 
32 m. K by E. of Wiirzburg ; pop. in 1871, 
2,591. It is walled, and has very extensive 
baths with five mineral springs. Of these the 
Pandur spring, discovered in the 16th century, 
has a temperature of 50, and is chiefly used 
for bathing; the Ragoczy, discovered in 1737, 
has 52, and is a drinking water; the Max 
has 50 ; the Theresa the same ; and the Soo- 
lensprudel, 68, is chiefly used for bathing. 
The first two springs contain iron, and the 
others salt. There were 11,000 visitors in 
1871. The waters are 'exported to a consid- 
erable extent. A little N". of the town are 
rich saline springs, from which 1,500 tons of 
salt are annually made. There is an artesian 
well, 2,000 ft. deep, which throws up, by the 
action of a subjacent stratum of carbonic acid 
gas, a column of water 5 inches in diameter, 
76 ft. above the surface, and discharges 96 to 
100 cubic ft. per minute. This water is forced 
down a tube sunk into a stratum of rock salt, 
and is again thrown 80 ft. above the surface 
into a reservoir, whence it feeds the salt pans 
in the boiling house, and yields pure white 
crystalline salt. The Prussians here gained a 
victory over the Bavarians, July 10, 1866. An 
attempt on the life of Prince Bismarck was 
made here, July 13, 1874, by Kullmann, a cooper. 

KISTNAH, or Krishna, a large river of S. India, 
which rises in the Western Ghauts, at Maha- 
bulishwar, about 40 m. from the Malabar coast, 

and after a S. E. course of about 800 m. dis- 
charges its waters by many mouths into the 
bay of Bengal, near Masulipatam. Its principal 
tributaries are the Wurna, Malpurba, Gutpurba, 
Beemah, Toongabudra, and Mussy. It is sub- 
ject to two periodical risings annually. The 
first and greatest is caused by the heavy rains 
of the S. W. monsoon, the other by those of the 
N. E. monsoon. The Kistnah is connected with 
the Godavery by a canal 90 m. long, and irri- 
gates the adjacent country by numerous arti- 
ficial channels. At Boburlanka, in lat. 16 5' 
N"., Ion. 80 56' E., it divides into two main 
branches, which diverge from each other in 
their progress to the sea, and form an extensive 
delta, intersected by less considerable branches. 
On account of the rapid declivity and rocky 
nature of its waterway, the Kistnah can hard- 
ly be anywhere navigated even by small craft ; 
but in the lower part it has been made navi- 
gable by the government. In its upper course 
it is usually crossed in large circular bamboo 
baskets covered with hides. It is richer in 
gems than any other Indian river. 

KIT CAT CLUB, a convivial association es- 
tablished in London about the time of the 
revolution. As its leading members were 
mostly whigs, it quickly assumed a political 
character, and came to be regarded as the 
headquarters of the friends of the Hanoverian 
succession. It was held in Shire lane, at the 
house of Christopher (alias Kit) Cat, who sup- 
plied its votaries with mutton pies. Addison, 
Steele, Walpole, Sir Godfrey Kneller, and 
Marlborough belonged to it. The club was 
dissolved about 1720. The memoirs of the 
celebrated members of the Kit Cat club, il- 
lustrated with 48 portraits three quarters in 
length (whence the term Kit Cat portraits) 
from the original paintings by Sir G. Kneller, 
were published in London in 1821. 

K1TCHINER, William, an English physician 
and author, born in London about 1775, died 
therein 1827. He was educated at Eton. His 
literary works are of a very miscellaneous char- 
acter.* They embrace treatises on gastronomy, 
health, the eye, telescopes, and music, together 
with a collection of the " Loyal and National 
Songs of England." The " Cook's Oracle" is 
perhaps the most important of his productions. 

KITE, the common name of many birds of 
prey belonging to the subfamily milmnce, char- 
acterized by moderate size, slender figure, short 
and weak bill with hooked and acute tip and 
sinuated margins, nostrils basal and lateral, 
wings long and pointed, tail long, tarsi slender 
and rather short, toes moderate, broad, and pad- 
ded. Many of the genera need only be men- 
tioned here ; among them, according to Gray, 
are baza (Hodgs.), from India, its archipela- 
go, and Australia; amcida (Swains.), from W. 
Africa; pernis (Cuv.), including the old world 
honey buzzards (see BUZZARD), of which P. 
apivorus (Selb.) is a well known European rep- 
resentative; cymindis (Cuv.) and gampsonyx 
(Vigors), from tropical America. Among the 



American kites belongs the genus nauclerus 
(Vig.), with long pointed wings and deeply 
forked tail. The swallow-tailed kite (N.fur- 
catus, Linn.) is about 2 ft. long, with an extent 
of wings of 4 ft. ; the back, wings, and tail 
are black, with a metallic lustre, purple on the 
wing coverts ; head, neck, under wing coverts, 
base of secondaries, and lower parts white ; 
tarsi and toes greenish blue ; bill horn color. 
This species is found in the southern Atlantic 
states, and in the interior from Texas to Wis- 
consin ; it is accidental in Europe. The flight 
of this bird is exceedingly graceful and rapid. 
Flocks of 15 or 20 are often seen ; they arrive 
in the gulf states early in April, probably from 
Mexico and Central America, and disappear in 
September ; they are shy, on the wing during 
most of the day, and at night resting on the 
highest trees ; they feed during flight, and in 
calm weather soar to an immense height in 
pursuit of large insects ; the gait on the ground 
is very awkward. The nest resembles that of 
the crow, and is usually placed in the top of a 
tall tree ; the eggs, four to six, are greenish 
white, with irregular brown blotcbtes at the 
larger end. In the genus elanus (Sav.), found 
in the warmer parts of the globe, belongs the 
white-tailed or black-shouldered kite {E. leucu- 
rus, Vieill.) ; the length is about 16 in. and the 
extent of wings about 3 ft., in the female ; the 
wings are long and pointed, but the tail is 
moderate and emarginated ; the head, tail, and 
under parts are white ; above light ashy, with 
an oblong black patch on the shoulder formed 
by the lesser wing coverts; inferior wing 
coverts white, with a smaller black patch; 
the middle tail feathers are light ashy; bill 
dark; tarsi and toes yellow. It is found in 

Mississippi Kite (Ictinia Mississipiensis). 

the southern and western states, and in South 
America ; rarely seen north of South Carolina 
on the Atlantic coast, it occurs considerably 
further north on the Pacific. It flies very high 
and is not easily approached in its favorite 
marshy retreats ; it feeds on small birds and 


large insects, especially orthoptera, and is very 
bold in their pursuit. The Mississippi kite (ic- 
tinia Nississipiensis, Wilson), of the southern 
states, Texas, and New Mexico, a smaller spe- 
cies, approaches nearest to the true falcon. A 
species of the genus rostrhamus (Lesson), gen- 
erally South American, has been found breed- 
ing in Florida ; this is the black kite ( R. soci- 
abilis, Vieill.), remarkable for its slender and 
much hooked bill; it is about 16 in. long, of 
a black color, with base of tail and its under 
coverts white; the young birds are more 
brownish and yellow ; it preys principally on 
reptiles, and perches on the loftiest trees. Of 
the kites of the old world, the best known is 
the common milvus regalis (Briss.) of Europe, 
of a reddish brown color above, with blackish 
longitudinal streaks, and the lower parts light 
brownish red with narrower streaks ; the fe- 
male is about 26 in. long, with an extent of 
wings of 5J ft. The flight is remarkably 
powerful and elegant; the food consists of 
small quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, insects, car- 
rion, and even fish. It is found in Europe, N. 
Africa, and W. Asia, in almost all regions, both 
wild and inhabited ; it sometimes steals a young 
chicken when the hen is off her guard, but 
dares not make a direct attack in her presence. 

RITSAP, a N. W. county of Washington terri- 
tory; area, 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 866. It 
is a peninsula, having Hood's canal on the west 
and Admiralty inlet on the east and north. 
It includes Bainbridge and Blane islands. The 
production of lumber is the principal indus- 
try. In 1870 there were three planing mills, 
with an annual production valued at $588,000, 
and three saw mills, producing $520,000 worth 
of lumber. Capital, Port Madison. 

RITTAMING, a borough and the capital of 
Armstrong co., Pennsylvania, situated on a 
broad alluvial plain on the E. bank of the 
Alleghany river, and on the Alleghany Valley 
railroad, 38 m. N. E. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 
1870, 1,889. In the hills skirting and opposite 
the borough are found, nearly horizontal, one 
stratum of cannel and five of bituminous coal, 
and two each of iron ore and limestone ; also 
pure fire clay and good building stone. It 
has gas and water works, and contains three 
iron founderies, a rolling mill, two flouring 
mills, a planing mill, a brewery, a tannery, two 
banks, two schools, three weekly newspapers, 
and eight churches. 

RITTATIMY, or Bine Mountains, a chain which 
commences in Ulster co., N. Y., and crossing 
the N". W. part of New Jersey passes into Penn- 
sylvania, where it forms one of the principal 
mountain ridges of the state. It is broken by 
the Delaware river at the Water Gap, by the 
Lehigh at Wind Gap, by the Schuylkill above 
Hamburg, and by the Susquehanna about 5 m. 
above Harrisburg. Between it and the N. 
branch of the Susquehanna, a distance of about 
35 m., is the great anthracite region. Passing 
out of Pennsylvania, its course is less marked 
as it approaches the South mountains and the 




Potomac, but it may be traced into Alabama, 
a total length of more than 800 m. Its eleva- 
tion varies from 800 to 2,500 ft. above the sea. 
KITTERY, a town of York co., Maine, on 
the Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth railroad, 
42 m. S. W. of Portland, and at the mouth of 
the Piscataqua river, opposite Portsmouth, N. 
II., with which it is connected by a bridge and 
by ferry; pop. in 1870, 3,333. It forms the 

*S. W. extremity of the state, and is chiefly 
noted as the seat of a United States navy yard. 
This establishment is situated on an island in 
the river within the limits of the town, and 
contains extensive ship houses, machine shops, 
rigging lofts, wharves, barracks, and a dry 
dock which cost $800,000. The town is the 
birthplace of Sir William Pepperell. It was 
settled in 1623, and incorporated in 1647. 


RITTO, John, an English Biblical scholar, 
born in Plymouth, Dec. 4, 1804, died in Cann- 
statt, Germany, Nov. 25, 1854. He was the 
son of a mason, and when about 12 years old 
was rendered incurably deaf by a fall from 
the roof of a house. Poverty compelled him 
to enter the workhouse of Plymouth. He 
was apprenticed to a shoemaker, who treated 
him so cruelly that his indentures were can- 
celled and he returned to the workhouse. His 
love of study procured him admission to a col- 
lege in Islington, and he soon after published 
by subscription a small volume of miscella- 
neous writings. Next he went to Exeter to 
learn the profession of a dentist ; and thence 
to London, where he was employed in the 
printing office of the church missionary society. 
Two years later he went to the society's estab- 
lishment at Malta, and subsequently he visited 
Bagdad as a private tutor. There he resided 
three years, and acquired an intimate acquain- 
tance with oriental life. Soon after returning 
to London Charles Knight engaged him first as 
assistant in preparing serials for the "Library 
of Useful Knowledge," and afterward in the 
compilation of other works. Having been 
seized with paralysis, he retired in 1854 to 
Cannstatt. In 1844 he received the degree of 
D. D. from the university of Giessen ; and the 
British government granted him in 1850 an an- 
nuity of 100. His principal works are: the 
"Pictorial Bible" (1835-'8; 2d ed. enlarged, 
4 vols. royal 8vo, 1847-'9) ; " Uncle Oliver's 
Travels " (2 vols. 12mo, 1838) ; " Pictorial His- 
tory of Palestine" (2 vols. royal 8vo, 1839- 
'40) ; " Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature " (2 
vols. 8vo, 1845-'50) ; " The Lost Senses : Deaf- 
ness and Blindness" (1845); "Physical Geog- 
raphy of the Holy Land " (2 vols. 18mo, 1848) ; 
"Daily Bible Illustrations" (8 vols., 1849-'53). 
In 1848 he established the "Journal of Sacred 
Literature," which he edited till 1858. His 
memoirs have been written by J. E. Ryland 
(Edinburgh, 1856). 

KITTLITZ, F. H. yon, baron, a German nat- 
uralist, born in 1798, died in Mentz, April 10, 
1874. He was an officer in the Prussian army, 

and a nephew of the Russian field marshal 
Diebitsch, and made with the Russian captain 
Ltitke a circumnavigation of the globe (1826-'9). 
He was also a painter and engraver, and pub- 
lished ornithological and other essays, illus- 
trated by himself. In 1870, though then in his 
72d year, he took charge of a military hospital. 
His works include Vierundzwanzig Vegetations- 
ansichten von den Ifusten und Inseln des Stillen 
Oceans (Wiesbaden, 1850-'52; new ed., Ber- 
lin, 1862 etseq.} ; Derikwurdiglceiten einer Reise 
nacli dem russischen America, nacTi MiTcrone- 
sien und durch KamtscJiatJca (2 vols., Gotha, 
1858) ; and Psychologisclie Grundlage fur eine 
neue PMlosophie der Kunst (Berlin, 1863). 


RIU8HIU, Rinsiu, or Ximo, a large island of 
Japan, separated on the north from the main 
island by a strait 1|- m. wide, and N. E. from 
Shikoku or Sikok by a channel 9 m. wide ; 
length 210 m., greatest width about 150 m. ; 
area, about 15,000 sq. m. It is surrounded by 
inaccessible rocks and shallows, dangerous to 
navigation, and is traversed by many moun- 
tains, chiefly active volcanoes liable to formi- 
dable eruptions; one in 1826 caused great loss 
of life and property. The E. coast is sterile, 
but most other parts are fertile and well culti- 
vated, owing to the abundance of rivers, the 
principal of which is the Kusnayara. Cotton 
cloth, silk goods, and paper are manufactured. 
Capital, Nagasaki. 


RLADNO, a town of Bohemia, 13 m. N. N. 
W. of Prague, with which it is connected by 
railway; pop. in 1870, 11,199. It has a castle 
and several iron works. In the neighborhood 
are important coal and iron mines. 

RLAGENFURTH, a town of Austria, capital 
of the duchy of Carinthia, 40 m. N. K W. of 
Laybach; pop. in 1870, 15,200. It is the seat 
of the bishop of Gurk, and has a theological 
faculty, an episcopal seminary, a gymnasium, 
a RealscJiule, a deaf and dumb institution, a 
society of natural history, which has founded 
a national museum, and a historical society. It 
has manufactories of woollens, silks, and mus- 
lins. It is supposed to occupy nearly the site of 
the Roman Tiburnia, but it first became a place 
of interest and importance early in the 16th 
century, when it was fortified by the emperor 
Maximilian I. Gorgey, after his surrender, 
was for many years confined at Klagenfurth. 

RLAMATH, a N. W ; county of California, 
bordering on the Pacific, bounded N. by Kla- 
math river, which also intersects it, and trav- 
ersed by Trinity river ; area, about 2,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,686, of whom 542 were 
Chinese. The surface is mostly mountainous, 
and in some places is covered with dense forests 
of redwood, cedar, spruce, and fir. The val- 
leys are fertile, and the hilly districts afford 
good pasturage. Gold mining is prosecuted to 
a large extent near Klamath, Trinity, and Sal- 
mon rivers, at Gold Bluff, and in the vicinity 
of the beach. The Klamath Indian reserve, 



25,000 acres in extent, is situated partly in tins 
and partly in Del Norte co. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 2,360 bushels of wheat, 
2,375 of oats, 9,548 of potatoes, and 693 
tons of hay. There were 284 horses, 368 
mules and asses, 372 milch cows, 1,587 other 
cattle, and 1,057 sheep ; 2 saw mills, and 2 
quartz mills. Capital, Orleans Bar. 

KLAMATH, a river of California. It rises in 
Lower Klamath lake in the S. part of Oregon, 
and flows W. and S. across the California fron- 
tier. Its course thence is W. S. W., and after- 
ward S. W., until it is joined by Trinity river 
on its left bank, when it makes a sharp bend 
and flows K K W. to the Pacific, about lat. 
41 30' N. There is a bar at its mouth which 
can be crossed at high water by ships of the 
line, and at low water by small boats only. 
The river itself is navigable by small steamers 
for about 40 m. Its waters abound in salmon 
and other fish, and there are valuable gold dig- 
gings on its banks. Its length is about 250 m. 
The town of Klamath is situated on its right 
bank, a few miles above its mouth. 

KLAMATHS, the comprehensive name given 
to two or three distinct tribes on the Klamath 
river, living partly in Oregon and partly in 
California. They seem to have had no recog- 
nized tribal name. Those toward the mouth 
of the river and on the coast were called Euroc 
or Pohlik, meaning down ; those on the upper 
river were termed Cahroc or Pehtsik. The 
Quoratem, considered by some as Eurocs, lay in 
the middle, from Bluff to Clear creek. Above 
the Cahrocs were the Moadocs or Modocs 
("head of the river"), not usually included 
under the term Klamath. These tribes differed 
in language and type. The Cahrocs are said 
to be the finest California Indians, lively, en- 
terprising, and energetic, cleanly in their per- 
sons, and great bathers. The Eurocs were 
darker and inferior. These tribes lived mainly 
by salmon and other fisheries, and on roots, 
acorns, &c. The men wear a buckskin girdle, 
the women a petticoat of the same material. 
Their houses, 20 ft. square, consisted of a kind 
of flagged cellar, with a rim around it, beyond 
which rose the redwood boards forming the 
sides. A pitched redwood roof covered it. 
There were no chiefs of the tribes, but only of 
each village or hamlet. The women tattooed 
the chin. For money they used the scalp of 
the red woodpecker or allicochick shells. The 
influx of whites led to acts of violence, and 
some of their villages were burned in 1851 ; 
but a treaty was made in October of that year. 
They then had about 18 villages, and numbered 
about 3,000. An attempt was early made to 
put them on a reservation, but they declined 
in numbers. Failure of the crops which they 
attempted to raise disheartened them. By a 
treaty of Oct. 15, 1864, the Klamaths and Mo- 
docs ceded all the lands from the Cascade 
mountains, reserving a small tract on Klamath 
lake, to which they were to remove after the 
ratification of the treaty, the United States to 


pay $80,000 in 15 years, as well as a large sum 
for advances, subsistence, &c. This reservation 
embraces 1,200 sq. m., much of it mountainous, 
and only a small part fit for cultivation. The 
Klamaths did not like the introduction of the 
Modocs into what had been their territory, 
and this eventually led to the Modoc war. 
The Klamaths have adapted themselves to their 
new position, cultivate some ground, have 
many horses and some cattle, but have become 
lumberers, turning out in 1873 200,000 ft. of 
sawed logs. Their district was assigned to the 
Methodist Episcopal church, but down to 1874 
there was no school, church, or missionary. 
The tribe is fast vanishing, the population being 
returned in 1873 as only 572, a loss of more 
than three fourths in 25 years. 

KLAPKA, GyBrgy, a Hungarian soldier, born 
in Temesvar, April 7, 1820. He was educated 
in the school of artillery in Vienna, entered 
the noble life guards of the emperor, and in 
1847 was appointed officer in a border regi- 
ment. In 1848 he offered his services to the 
new government of his country, and at the be- 
ginning of 1849 he was placed at the head of 
the army of the north. He gained decisive ad- 
vantages over the Austrians under Schlick in 
the engagements of Tarczal (Jan. 22), Keresz- 
tur-on-the-Bodrog (23), and Tokaj (31), and 
commanded the right wing of the Hungarian 
army at Kapolna (Feb. 26, 27). He was pro- 
moted to the rank of general, and subsequent- 
ly took part, under Gorgey, in the five princi- 
pal battles of the April campaign (at Bicske, 
Izsaszeg, Waitzen, Nagy-Sarl6, and Acs), all of 
which ended in the defeat of the Austrians. 
His sortie out of the fortress of Comorn, Aug. 
3, was one of the most signal deeds of the 
revolutionary war, and almost annihilated the 
Austrian army of observation. When the news 
from the Theiss suddenly destroyed all hope of 
further advantages, he retired to Comorn and 
surrendered on Oct. 4. Leaving Hungary, he 
lived for some time in Hamburg, London, Paris, 
and Switzerland. On the outbreak of the war 
against Eussia he went to Constantinople, but 
failed to obtain an appointment. He became 
a citizen of Geneva in 1855. During the wars 
of 1859 and 1866 he entered into communica- 
tion with the enemies of Austria, organizing 
Hungarian legions against her, and after the 
battle of Sadowa even entered Hungary ; but 
the attempts failed. After the reconstruction 
in 1867, he returned to Hungary, and took part 
in the reorganization of the military forces 
of the country. In 1873 he was employed by 
the Porte in reorganizing the Turkish army, 
and in January, 1874, he accompanied Duke 
William of Wurtemberg in a journey to Egypt. 
He is the author of "Memoirs of the War 
of Independence in Hungary " (Leipsic, 1850 ; 
English translation, 2 vols., London, 1850) ; a 
history of "The National War in Hungary 
and Transylvania " (2 vols., Leipsic, 1851) ; and 
of "The War in the East" (Geneva, 1855; 
English ed., London, 1855). 



KLAPROTH. I. Martin Heinrich, a German 
chemist, born at Wernigerode, Dec. 1, 1743, 
died in Berlin, Jan. 1, 1817. After being en- 
gaged for some years in Berlin as a practical 
chemist, he became an apothecary in 1780, and 
in 1787 was appointed professor of chemistry 
in the school of artillery. He was among the 
first who labored industriously in the classifi- 
cation of minerals by means of scientific anal- 
ysis. He is the discoverer of zirconium, tita- 
nium, uranium, a*hd tellurium. He first proved 
that potassium was found in volcanic products 
and in white garnets, and made known molyb- 
date of lead and sulphate of strontium. II. 
Heinrieh Julius von, a German traveller and ori- 
entalist, son of the preceding, born in Berlin, 
Oct. 11, 1783, died in Paris in August, 1835. 
Until the age of 15 he applied himself to chem- 
istry and natural science, and from that time 
to oriental languages. After two years spent 
at the university of Halle, he went in 1802 to 
Dresden, where he devoted eight months to 
the oriental MSS. of its library. Here he be- 
gan the publication of the AsiatiscJies Magazin. 
The Russian government sent him in 1805 with 
an embassy to Peking ; but being recalled be- 
fore crossing the frontier, he remained six 
months at Irkutsk and studied several Asiatic 
tongues. From this place he explored alone, 
in 1806, a wide range of the northern Chinese 
frontier. He returned to St. Petersburg in 
1807, and was sent on a mission to the then 
almost unknown mountain regions of the Cau- 
casus. The results of his researches were so 
little favorable to the hope that Russia could 
readily acquire dominion over the country, 
that it was with the greatest difficulty that 
Klaproth obtained in 1810 permission to pub- 
lish an account of his expedition. The annoy- 
ances which he experienced on this occasion 
determined him to quit Russia, and two years 
later (1812) he obtained leave to depart. In 
1814 he visited Italy, and finally went with the 
allied army to Paris, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his life. He remained for a long 
time the chief authority on various branches 
of Asiatic geography and philology; but of 
late the itineraries of his travels in central Asia 
have been subjected to most serious accusa- 
tions, and Sir H. C. Rawlinson, in a " Mono- 
graph on the Oxus " read before the royal geo- 
graphical society of London in 1872, declares 
the exposure of imposture in regard to three 
incriminated memoirs to have been fully es- 
tablished by Lord Strangf ord. His publications 
are : Seise in den Kaukasus, &c. (2 vols., Ber- 
lin, 1812-'14) ; Supplement au Dictionnaire 
chinois-latin du Pere Basile de Glemona (Paris, 
1819) ; Asia Polyglotta ou classification des 
peuplesde VAsie, &c. (1823-'9) ; Tableaux Jiis- 
toriques de VAsie, &c. (1824-'6); Memoires 
relatifs a VAsie (3 vols., 1824-'8) ; Tableau 
historique, &c., du Caucase (1827) ; Vocabulaire 
latin, persan et careen (1828) ; Examen critique 
des tramux de M. Cnampollion jeune (1832). 
He left in MS. an extensive work, Nouteau 

Mithridate, ou Classification systematique de 
toutes les langues connues, which contains a 
grammatical sketch of most known languages, 
with a polyglot vocabulary of the five grand 
divisions of the world. An English transla- 
tion by F. Shoberl of his "Travels in the Cau- 
casus and Georgia, performed in 1807-'8," ap- 
peared in London in 1814. 

KLAUSENBIJRG (Hun. Kolosvdr), a town of 
Transylvania, capital of the county of the same 
name, and before 1848 of the whole country, 
on the Szamos, near its source, 225 m. E. by 
S. of Pesth, with which it is connected by rail- 
way; pop. in 1870, 26,382, chiefly Magyars. 
It has a fortified but partly decayed castle, 
and consists of two towns, the old and new, 
and six suburbs. It has Roman Catholic, Greek 
Catholic, and Protestant churches, a Roman 
Catholic gymnasium and seminary, a Protes- 
tant gymnasium, a Unitarian college, a Greek 
Catholic school, a Franciscan convent, two 
museums, a Hungarian theatre, and several be- 
nevolent institutions. Among the prominent 
buildings are several palaces belonging to the 
Transylvanian nobility. Klausenburg contains 
the only Unitarian college on the continent of 
Europe. In October, 1872, a university was 
opened here, the second in the lands of the 
Hungarian crown. It is an important centre of 
the trade between Transylvania and the neigh- 
boring counties of Hungary. It has also manu- 
factories of porcelain. It was a colony of the 
Romans, belonging to the province of Dacia, 
and ancient coins and relics are frequently 
found in the vicinity. Matthias Corvinus was 
born here, and it has often figured in Hunga- 
rian history. During the Hungarian revolution 
it was taken by Gen. Bern, Dec. 25, 1848. 


KLEBER, Jean Baptiste, a French soldier, born 
in Strasburg in 1753 or 1754, assassinated in 
Cairo, Egypt, June 14, 1800. His father, a 
mason, died when he was a child, and he was 
educated by a country clergyman, his relative, 
who sent him to Paris to study architecture ; 
but at the end of two years he returned to his 
native city. Two Bavarian gentlemen, whom 
he had protected from insult at a caf6, took 
him to Germany and placed him in the military 
school at Munich. After serving a few years 
as sub-lieutenant in the Austrian army, he re- 
signed in 1783, returned to Alsace, and ob- 
tained the office of inspector of public build- 
ings in the town of Belfort. In 1792 he en- 
listed as a private, soon became adjutant, dis- 
tinguished himself during the siege of Mentz, 
and was raised to the rank of adjutant general. 
He was put under arrest on the surrender of 
that city, and taken to Paris, where he fully 
vindicated his conduct and that of the whole 
garrison. He was then made a brigadier gen- 
eral, sent to La Vendee with the first division 
of the "army of Mentz," fought heroically 
against the royalists, defeated them at Chollet, 
Oct. 17, 1793, and in concert with Marceau 
gained a victory at Savenay, Dec. 22. The in- 



dignation he then manifested at the cruelties 
ordered by the commissioners of the conven- 
tion caused him to be cashiered ; but he was 
recalled in 1794, raised to the rank of general 
of division, and sent to the army of the north 
under Jourdan. He shared in the victory at 
Fleurus, June 26, 1794, and in the conquest of 
the Austrian Netherlands. In 1795 he block- 
aded Mentz, and directed several bold opera- 
tions on the banks of the Ehine. In the follow- 
ing campaign he defeated the Austrian division 
under the prince of Wiirtemberg at the crossing 
of the Sieg, June 1, 1796, and nearly destroyed 
the same, three days later, at the battle of Alten- 
kirchen. Nevertheless, he was dismissed, and 
retired to Ohaillot, in the vicinity of Paris, 
where he devoted his leisure to preparing his 
Memoires. In 1798 he joined Bonaparte in his 
expedition to Egypt, and received a wound on 
the head at the storming of Alexandria, where 
he remained in the capacity of governor. He 
accompanied the expedition to Syria, led the 
advance division, crossed the desert, took Gaza 
and Jaffa, won the victory of Moujit Tabor, 
and on the raising of the siege of Acre covered 
the retreat of the exhausted army. "When Bona- 
parte returned to France, he confided to Kleber 
the command of the army. The latter, who 
had never believed that Egypt could be held, 
listened to proposals of peace, and signed the 
treaty of El-Arish with Sir Sidney Smith, by 
which the French were allowed to leave Egypt 
with their arms and baggage. Kleber hastened 
to deliver some of the fortresses he held to the 
Turks, but was informed by Lord Keith that 
the treaty had not been ratified by the English 
government, and that the French army must 
lay down their arms and give themselves up 
as prisoners of war. On the reception of this 
news, Kleber attacked the Turkish army, won 
the brilliant victory of Heliopolis (March 20, 
1800), retook Cairo and several other cities, 
and found himself again the undisputed master 
of Egypt. He now succeeded in conciliating 
Murad Bey, and was about to conclude peace 
with ^ the Turks when he was murdered while 
walking in his garden at Cairo, by a young 
fanatic named Solyman. Kleber's remains 
were brought to Marseilles on the evacuation 
of Egypt by the French army, and placed in 
the chateau d'If. In 1818 they were removed 
to his native city, and a bronze statue was in- 
augurated over them, June 14, 1840. 

KLEIST, Ewald Christian von, a German poet, 
born at Zeblin, Pomerania, March 3, 1715, 
died in Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Aug. 24, 1759. 
After studying at Konigsberg, he entered suc- 
cessively the Danish and the Prussian military 
service, was appointed lieutenant under Prince 
Henry by Frederick the Great, and after distin- 
guishing himself for valor was fatally wounded 
in the battle of Kunersdorf. His greatest pro- 
duction is Der Fruhling (1749). An edition of 
his complete works was published at Berlin in 
1803 (2 vols.; 2d ed., 1825). A new edition, 
revised by Julian Schmidt, appeared in 1859. 

KLEIST, Heinrich von, a German poet, born 
in Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Oct. 10, 1776, died 
near Potsdam, Nov. 21, 1811. He made the 
campaign of the Rhine against France, and 
afterward studied law. After the battle of 
Jena he lamented in his poems the misfortunes 
of his country and his own imprisonment du- 
ring the French occupation of Berlin. Du- 
ring the Austrian war against France in 1809, 
he hastened full of hope toward Vienna, but 
heard of the conclusion of peace on his way. 
Two years later he committed suicide in com- 
pany with a friend, the wife of a Berlin mer- 
chant. He was one of the most able of the 
German romantic school of poets, and Gervinus 
calls him " the political "Werther of his age." 

KLEMM, Friedrich Gnstay, a German historian, 
born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Nov. 12, 1802, died 
in Dresden, Aug. 26, 1869. He graduated at 
Jena in 1825, became in 1834 assistant, and in 
1852 chief librarian at Dresden, and resigned 
in 1863. He pursued his historical studies 
with particular regard to the progress of civili- 
zation and humanity. His ethnographical, his- 
torical, and antiquarian collection was taken to 
Leipsic in 1871, for the central anthropological 
museum of that city. His principal works are : 
Die Geschichte von Baiern (3 vols., Dresden, 
1828) ; A llgemeine CulturgescJiicJite der MenscTi- 
Tieit (10 vols., Leipsic, 1843-'52) ; Allgemeine 
Culturwissenschaft (2 vols., 1854-'5) ; Die 
Frauen (6 vols., Dresden, 1854-'8) ; and Vor 
fanfzig Jahren (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1865). 

KLENGEL, Johann Christian, a German painter, 
born near Dresden, May 5, 1751, died Dec. 19, 
1824. The son of a peasant, he was learning 
bookbinding when he was provided with means 
to study at the academy of Dresden, and after- 
ward in Italy. In 1802 he became professor 
in the Dresden academy, and was at the head 
of a school of landscape painters. He excelled 
in pictures of harvests, and many of his land- 
scapes are remarkable for fine coloring, though 
mostly ultra - realistic imitations of nature. 
Many of his works found purchasers in Eussia, 
and he made engravings from a great number 
of his paintings. 


KLENZE, Leo YOU, a German architect, born 
in Hildesheim, Feb. 29, 1784, died in Munich, 
Jan. 27, 1864. He studied in Paris and Italy, 
became the friend and adviser of the crown 
prince of Bavaria, and after the elevation of 
the latter to the throne as Louis I. in 1825, was 
the architect of the Walhalla, as well as of the 
Glyptothek, Pinakothek, and other public build- 
ings in Munich. He published a number of 
essays on art, including a treatise in which he 
endeavored to prove that the Grecian style of 
architecture is alone adapted to churches. 

KLIEFOTH, Theodor Friedrich Dethlef, a Ger- 
man theologian, born at Korchow, Mecklen- 
burg, Jan. 18, 1810. He has been for the last 
25 years the principal ecclesiastical dignitary at 
Schwerin, and is a leader of the Old Lutherans. 
His principal works are : Die ursprungliche 


Oottesdienstordnung in der deutschen KircJie 
lutherischen Bekenntnisses (Rostock, 1847) ; 
Liturgische Abhandlungen (4 vols., 1854-'8) ; 
Das Buch Ezechiel (2 vols., Wismar, 1864-'5) ; 
and Das Buch Daniel (Schwerin, 1868). 

KLIKITAT, a S. county of Washington ter- 
ritory, separated from Oregon by the Colum- 
bia river ; area, 3,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
329. The W. part is occupied by the Cascade 
range, and in the extreme N. W. is Mount 
Adams, 9,570 ft. high. In the S. E. is Kliki- 
tat prairie, watered by the Pattaha, a branch 
of the Yakima. In the W. part are the Kliki- 
tat, Womumchee, and White Salmon rivers. 
The best portion of the county is occupied by 
the reservation of the Yakima Indians, and it 
also contains the Simcoe agency. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 1,818 bushels of 
wheat, 2,635 of oats, 3,263 of barley, 1,373 of 
potatoes, and 455 tons of hay. There were 
390 horses, 879 milch cows, 2,480 other cattle, 
and 753 swine. Capital, Rockland. 

RLIRITATS, a roving tribe of Indians, north 
of the Columbia river and east of the Cascade 
mountains, composed of five bands, and num- 
bering between 2,000 and 3,000. They are 
great gamblers for hyaqua, or shell money, 
and are restless and troublesome. They join- 
ed the Yakimas, with whom they are closely 
united, in the war of 1855, killed the agent 
Bolen, and took part in the surprise of Step- 
toe, but were defeated by Wright. They were 
soon after placed on White Salmon reservation, 
and are now on the Yakima reservation near 
Fort Simcoe, Washington territory, and are 
regarded as part of the Yakima nation. 

KLIN, a town of European Russia, on the 
Sestra, in the government and 46 m. N. W. of 
Moscow ; pop. in 1867, 6,580. It has an im- 
perial palace, and was formerly the hereditary 
seat of the Romanoff family. 

KLINGER, Friedrich Maximilian von, a German 
poet, born in Frankfort, Feb. 19, 1753, died in 
St. Petersburg, Feb. 25, 1831. He was edu- 
cated at Giessen, began to write for the stage 
at Weimar and Leipsic, was sub-lieutenant in 
the volunteer corps of Walter in the war of the 
Bavarian succession, and went from Weimar 
to St. Petersburg in 1780, where Under Catha- 
rine II. he became colonel, under Paul major 
general and director of the corps of cadets, and 
under Alexander in 1811 lieutenant general. 
He was in active service nearly 40 years. He 
was the most conspicuous representative of 
that excited period of German literature called 
the "storm and pressure period," which in fact 
took its name from his drama Sturm und Drang 
(1775). An edition of his select works was 
published at Stuttgart (12 vols., 1842). 

KLIPSPRINGER (Dutch, cliff springer), a 
South African field antelope, oreotragua salta- 
trix (Bodd.). The male is about 3$ ft. long and 
22 in. high at the shoulder; the head is short 
and broad, with a tapering nose and large bald 
muffle; the horns, which exist only in the 
males, are about 5 in. long, slender, vertical, 



nearly parallel, acute, with a few rings at the 
base ; the tear bag is arched and transverse ; 
the ears are pointed, nearly as high as the 
horns ; the eyes are full, lively, and dark hazel ; 
the hoofs are small, square, and compressed, 
with large and blunt false hoofs ; the tail very 
short. The body and limbs are robust ; the 
hair is thick, wavy, erect, and quill-like, form- 
ing a natural pad to protect the body from 
bruises and falls in their dangerous retreats; 
the mammse are two. The color of the hair 
is grayish, brown at the end, with a short yel- 
low tip, giving the general hue as a brown 
grizzled with yellow ; the lower parts are whi- 
tish, and the edge of the ears and feet above 
the hoofs black; the color varies in intensi- 
ty according to season. The females resemble 
the males, except in the absence of horns. 
These animals live in pairs. They possess the 
climbing propensities and sure-footedness of 
the goats, living among rocks inaccessible to 

Klipspringer (Oreotragus saltatrix). 

man and dogs, and springing like the cha- 
mois from one precipice to another with great 
agility and rarely failing accuracy. They used 
to be abundant in the colony of the Cape of 
Good Hope, but have been so hunted that they 
are now driven to the mountainous regions of 
the interior; their venison is considered the 
best in the country, and their elastic hair is in 
great demand for stuffing saddles. 

KLOPP, Onno, a German historian, born in 
Leer, East Friesland, Oct. 9, 1822. He studied 
at Bonn, Berlin, and Gottingen, and from 1845 
to 1858 was a teacher at the gymnasium of 
Osnabruck. He was employed in 1866 by 
King George of Hanover in various missions, 
and followed him into exile. His works in- 
clude Geschichte Ostfrieslands (3 vols., Han- 
over, 1854-'8), Konig Friedrich II. von Preus- 
sen und die deutsche Nation (Schaffhausen, 
1860), and Tilly im Dreissigjahrigen Kriege 
(2 vols., Stuttgart. 1861). He edited, under 



the auspices of the king, the works of Leib- 
nitz relating to history and politics (5 vols., 
Hanover, 1864-'6), which is to be continued, 
though interrupted by the overthrow of the 
king of Hanover. 

KLOPSTOCK., Friedrich Gottlieb, a German poet, 
born in Quedlinburg, July 2, 1724, died in 
Hamburg, March 14, 1803. He was born m a 
small house at the foot of the castle hill in the 
Schlossplatz, recognizable by the two pillars 
which support its porch. His father was a 
public functionary in comfortable circumstances 
and his mother a woman of great piety. In 
1740 he entered the seminary of Schulpforte. 
At that early age he was already possessed by 
the ambition of producing a great epic. The 
stirring incidents of the life of Henry the Fow- 
ler captivated for a time his imagination, as 
shown by some odes written by him in honor 
of that prince ; but after his attendance at the 
university of Jena (1745), religious enthusiasm 
led to the conception of his Messias (" Messiah"). 
In 1746 he went to Leipsic, then the resort of 
many literary men, who, after their secession 
from the pedantic school of Gottsclied, had 
formed in 1740 a poetical union and established 
an independent literary journal published in 
Bremen. Klopstock, in his ode entitled Win- 
golf, distinguishes Gellert, Rabener, Hagedorn, 
Gleim, and many others of his literary associ- 
ates of Leipsic, who as early as 1747 had rec- 
ognized him as able to inaugurate a new era 
in German poetry. The first three cantos of 
his "Messiah" were published in 1748, in the 
Bremen Literarische Zeitung, and the poem 
was eventually regarded as equal to the epics 
of Dante and Milton, especially by the reli- 
gious and female portion of the community. 
Gottsched, however, ridiculed what he called 
Klopstock's "seraphic spirit of fanaticism;" 
and his strictures on his dogmatism, his effem- 
inate and morbid tenderness, and his religious 
sentimentality were afterward confirmed by 
Lessing, although in a milder and more digni- 
fied spirit. Foremost among his admirers was 
Bodmer of Zurich, the opponent of Gottsched, 
the translator of Milton, and the head of a 
school of poets and religionists. From 1748 to 
1750 Klopstock was employed as a teacher in 
the family of his relative Weiss in Langensalza, 
where he met the sister of his friend Schmidt, 
whom he celebrates in his odes as his beloved 
Fanny, but who did not reciprocate his affec- 
tion. In the summer of 1750 he went with 
his friend Sulzer to Zurich, which he left in 
the following year, in compliance with an in- 
vitation from the Danish prime minister Bern- 
storff, who offered him a pension of $300, in 
order to enable him to devote himself exclu- 
sively to the completion of his epic. On his 
way to Copenhagen he fell in love with Mar- 
garetha (Meta) Moller, the daughter of a Ham- 
burg merchant, whom he celebrates under the 
name of Cidli. In the Danish capital he was 
received with marked distinction, and intro- 
duced to the king, whom he accompanied on 

a journey to Holstein, on which occasion he 
spent some time with Meta, who became his 
wife in 1754. She died in 1758, in her 31st 
year. The loveliness of her character is appa- 
rent in her correspondence with Richardson, 
the English novelist, with Cramer, an intimate 
friend of Klopstock, and with her husband. 
(See "Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret 
Klopstock," English translation, by Elizabeth 
Smith, London, 1808 ; and her correspondence 
with Richardson, 1818.) Klopstock resided 
now alternately in Brunswick, Quedlinburg, 
and Blankenburg, till 1763, when he returned 
to Copenhagen. In 1771, on Bernstorff's with- 
drawal from the ministry, he went to Hamburg 
with the rank of a councillor of the Danish 
In 1792 he contracted a second mar- 

riage with Johanna Elisabeth von Dimpfel, 
whose first husband had been a nobleman named 
Windhem. He lived in Hamburg until his death, 
occasionally visiting literary friends in various 
parts of Germany. A pension was conferred 
upon him by the prince of Baden, and honor- 
ary citizenship by the French revolutionists. 
His death was looked upon in Germany as a 
national calamity, and his funeral was cele- 
brated with the pomp and solemnity generally 
accorded only to royal personages. The last 
two volumes of his "Messiah" and the greater 
portion of his odes appeared from 1769 to 1773. 
He wrote various grammatical and philological 
works and sacred dramas, or rather dramatic 
poems, chiefly turning upon characters of the 
Old Testament, as "The Death of Adam," 
" Solomon," and " David; " also several patri- 
otic dramas (Bardiete), in commemoration of 
the national hero Hermann. Novalis (Harden- 
berg) says Klopstock's works resemble trans- 
lations from some unknown poet, prepared by 
a skilful but unpoetical philologist. Goethe 
remarked in his conversations with Eckermann 
that German literature was greatly indebted 
to Klopstock, who was in advance of his times, 
but that the times had since advanced beyond 
Klopstock. Goethe in his autobiography also 
records his personal impression of Klopstock : 
" He was of small stature, but well built. His 
manners were grave and decorous, but free 
from pedantry. His address was intelligent 
and pleasing. On the whole, one might have 
taken him for a diplomatist. He carried him- 
self with the self-conscious dignity of a person 
who has a great moral mission to fulfil. He 
conversed with facility on various subjects, but 
rather avoided speaking of poetry and literary 
matters." His works have gone through many 
editions. Among the English translations of 
the " Messiah " is one into prose by Mrs. and 
Mr. Collyer, and a metrical translation appear- 
ed in London in 1825-'6. The "Death of 
Adam " and " Solomon " have also been trans- 
lated into English, as well as his " Odes," the 
latter by W. Nind (London, 1848). See also 
Miss Benger, "Klopstock and his Friends" 
(London, 1814) ; Morikofer, Klopstock in Zfa 
rich (Zurich, 1851) ; and a French essay on 



Mm by Dietz (Paris, 1859). D. F. Strauss has 
an essay on Klopstock in his Kleine Scliriften 
(Berlin, 1866). 

KNABL, Joseph, a Tyrolese sculptor, born at 
Fliess in 1821. He is the son of a farmer, and 
studied first under a local artist, and subsequent- 
ly in Munich, where he became in 1863 profes- 
sor in the academy. He excels in mediaeval 
statuary. His principal works represent reli- 
gious subjects, as his " St. Anne and Mary," 
for the Eichstadt cathedral, which obtained a 
prize in 1858 and his admission to the acad- 
emy, and his masterpiece, the " Coronation of 
Mary," for the high altar of the church of Our 
Lady in Munich. 

KNAPP, Albert, a German poet, born in Tu- 
bingen, July 25, 1798, died in Stuttgart, June 
18, 1864. After becoming pastor at Stutt- 
gart, he applied himself to poetry, especially 
to the composition of hymns, and published a 
small volume of them annually between 1833 
and 1853, under the title of Christoterpe. 
Among his other publications are three collec- 
tions of poems (Stuttgart, 1829, 1834, and 
1843), and Evangelischer Liederschatz fur 
Kirche und Ham (1837 ; 3d ed., 1865), taken 
from the liturgies and hymns of every Chris- 
tian century. 

KNAPP, Georg Christian, a German theologian, 
born in Halle, Sept. 17, 1753, died there, Oct. 
14, 1825. He was educated in the orphan 
school at Halle, founded by Francke, of which 
his father was director, and in the universities 
of Halle and Gottingen. In 1777 he became 
extraordinary, and in 1782 ordinary professor 
of theology at Halle, maintaining a system of 
rational supernaturalism, seeking to harmonize 
revelation with the theoretical and the practi- 
cal reason. His Vorlesungen uber die Ghrist- 
licJie GlaulensleJire has been translated into 
English, with additions, by Leonard Woods, 

KNAPP, Jacob, an American clergyman, born 
in Otsego co., 1ST. Y., Dec. 7, 1799, died in 
Eockford, 111., March 2, 1874. He entered the 
theological institution at Hamilton, N. Y., in 
1821, and began active work as pastor of the 
Baptist church in Springfield, N. Y., where he 
also managed a farm. From there he moved 
to Watertown, N. Y., where also he was at 
the same time pastor of a church and manager 
of a large farm, displaying a full degree of 
energy and capacity in each occupation. In 
1832 he experienced deeper religious impres- 
sions, which he himself was accustomed to call 
his second conversion ; and from that time he 
gave up his secular employment, and undertook 
a wider work as an evangelist. He applied 
to the New York state Baptist convention for 
appointment as their missionary ; but as they 
hesitated to appoint him, he began preaching 
as an evangelist on his own responsibility. He 
preached at first in school houses and obscure 
churches, but was soon sought by the largest 
churches and most distinguished pastors. In 
Baltimore, Boston, and New York vast num- 

bers attended his preaching, and such excite- 
ment prevailed that mobs threatened him and 
his hearers, and the protection of the civil au- 
thorities was necessary. His preaching was 
stern and terrible, yet cultivated and able men 
were moved by it, as well as the populace. 
Thousands believed themselves converted under 
his ministry. A few years before his death he 
visited California. In his old age he had ac- 
quired, by several judicious business invest- 
ments, a comfortable competency, which he 
proposed shortly before his death to distribute 
among the benevolent societies of his church. 

KNAPP, Lndwig Friedrich, a German chemist, 
born at Michelstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt, Feb. 22, 
1814. He studied under Liebig, graduated at 
Giessen as a chemist, and at the mint in Paris 
as an assayer. He was professor at Giessen 
from 1841 till the close of 1853, and subse- 
quently in the economical institution of Mu- 
nich. In 1856 he became inspector of the 
royal porcelain works, and in 1863 he went to 
Brunswick to teach chemistry at the polytech- 
nic school. He has published Lehrbuch der 
chemischen Technologic (2 vols., Brunswick, 
1847 ; translated into English by Ronalds and 
Richardson, 3 vols., London, 1848-'51, and by 
W. R. Johnson, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1848-'9), 
and translated Percy's "Metallurgy" (1862). 
He has made some remarkable investigations 
relative to tanning. 

KNAPP, Samuel Lorenzo, an American author, 
born in Newburyport, Mass., in 1784, died in 
Hopkinton, Mass., July 8, 1838. He graduated 
at Dartmouth college in 1804, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar of Massachusetts. He 
made his first appearance as an author in 
"Travels of All Bey " (18mo, Boston, 1818), a 
work purporting to give an eastern traveller's 
experiences of society in Boston and Cam- 
bridge. It was followed in 1821 by "Bio- 
fraphical Sketches of Eminent Lawyers and 
tatesmen and Men of Letters." In 1828, hav- 
ing previously been connected as editor or con- 
tributor ,with several literary journals, he es- 
tablished himself in New York in the practice 
of his profession. Among his remaining 
works are: "Lectures on American Litera- 
ture " (New York, 1829) ; " Sketches of Public 
Characters" (1830); "American Biography" 
(1833); "Life of Aaron Burr "(1835); "The 
Bachelor and other Tales " (1836) ; and " Fe- 
male Biography of different Ages and Nations." 
He was the author of a variety of occasional 
public addresses. 

KNAUS, Lndwig, a German painter, born at 
Wiesbaden, Oct. 5, 1829. He studied in^Dus- 
seldorf, and became famous in 1850 by his ad- 
mirable genre pictures of humble life. He re- 
sided in Paris from 1853 to 1861, in Berlin 
from 1861 to 1866, and in Dusseldorf from 
1866 to 1874, when he was appointed minister 
of art at Berlin. Besides many portraits, his 
works include "The Gamblers," "Peasants' 
Dance," " The Funeral," " A Fair, with a Chief 
hunted by the Police," " The Gypsies," "The 


Golden Wedding," "After Baptism," "The 
Juggler in the Barn," and more recently " The 
Coffee Hour" and "Mud Pies." Engravings 
of his works are especially popular among the 
German peasantry. 

KNEBEL, Karl Ludwlg TOD, a German author, 
born at Wallerstein, Bavaria, Nov. 30, 1744, 
died in Jena, Feb. 23, 1834. His family were 
Protestant refugees from the Netherlands. He 
became an officer in the regiment of the Prus- 
sian crown prince, and was subsequently con- 
nected with the court at Weimar, and with 
Goethe, whose confidence he enjoyed. He 
made excellent translations, especially of Al- 
fieri's "Saul," and wrote poetry. Varnhagen 
von Ense and Mundt edited his literary remains 
and correspondence (3 vols., Leipsic, 1835), the 
latter furnishing a biographical notice, and 
Guhrauer published Knebel's Briefwechsel mit 
Goethe (2 vols., 1851). 

KNEELAND, Samuel, an American naturalist, 
born in Boston, Aug. 1, 1821. He graduated 
at Harvard college in 1840, and at the medical 
school of the same institution in 1843, and 
studied in Paris till 1845. Subsequently he 
practised medicine in Boston, taught anatomy 
in the- Harvard school, was connected for two 
years with the Boston dispensary, was for five 
years secretary of the Boston natural history 
society, and for two years of the American 
academy of arts and sciences. He also ex- 
plored Brazil, the copper region of Lake Su- 
perior, and the Hawaiian islands. From 1862 
to 1866 he was surgeon in the army, first under 
Gen. Burnside, but for most of the time serving 
in New Orleans and Mobile. In August, 1866, 
he was appointed secretary of the Massachusetts 
institute of technology, and professor of zoology 
and physiology in that institution, which posts 
he still holds (1875). In the summer of 1874 
he visited Iceland, at the time of its millennial 
celebration, for the purpose of studying the 
volcanic phenomena of that island. He edited 
the " Annual of Scientific Discovery " from 
1866 to 1869, wrote most of the zoological and 
many medical articles in the " New American 
Cyclopaedia " and the "American Cyclopaedia," 
and has contributed largely to scientific period- 
icals. Besides a translation of Andry's "Dis- 
eases of the Heart " and an edition of Smith's 
"History of the Human Species," he has pub- 
lished " The Wonders of the Yosemite Valley 
and of California" (Boston, 1871). 

KNELLER, Sir Godfrey, an English portrait 
painter, born in Liibeck, Germany, in 1648, 
died in London in October, 1723. He was in- 
structed in painting by Rembrandt and Ferdi- 
nand Bol in Amsterdam, and afterward in Rome 
by Carlo Maratti and Bernini, and gained some 
reputation in Italy, particularly in Venice, for 
historical compositions. He arrived in London 
in 1674, and, having obtained an introduction 
to the king through the duke of Monmouth, 
was permitted to paint the royal likeness. The 
manner in which this was executed procured 
him abundant employment. Upon the death 


of Sir Peter Lely he was appointed court paint- 
er to Charles II., an honor confirmed by each 
successive sovereign during the life of the artist. 
He was knighted by William III., and painted 
the beauties of his court (which are considered 
much inferior to Sir Peter Lely's beauties of 
the court of Charles II.), and was made a baro- 
net by George I. He painted no fewer than 
ten sovereigns, and an immense number of 
lesser celebrities. So numerous were his com- 
missions that he was frequently only able to 
finish the faces of his portraits, leaving the 
draperies and accessories to be painted by 
others. He was a covetous man, and acquired 
considerable wealth. His portraits possess 
greater value as likenesses of historical person- 
ages than as works of art. He is said to have 
left at his death 500 unfinished portraits on 
which he had received half the price in advance. 

KNIAZNIN, Franciszek Dyonizy, a Polish poet, 
born in Vitebsk, Oct. 4, 1750, died at Kon- 
skawola, near Pulawy, Aug. 25, 1807. He stud- 
ied at the Jesuits' college in Vitebsk, entered 
that order, and after its suppression repaired 
to Warsaw, where he eventually became secre- 
tary to Prince Adam Czartoryski. An unfor- 
tunate passion for the eldest daughter of his 
patron, and the tragic events which brought 
about the fall of his country, plunged him into 
melancholy, passing into derangement. His 
works, of which there are various collections, 
comprise songs, idyls, fables, several larger 
poems, and translations. 

KNIEBIS MOUNTAINS, a principal range of 
the N. or Lower Black Forest, traversing the 
borders of Wiirtemberg and Baden, opposite 
Alsace. They are regarded as a bulwark against 
France, have been the scene of engagements 
during the thirty years' and other wars, and con- 
tain the watering places of Freiersbach, Peters- 
thai, Griesbach, Antogast, and Rippoldsau, all 
belonging to the grand duchy of Baden. These 
have annually about 4,000 visitors. A railway 
was projected in 1874 across these mountains. 

KNIGHT, Charles, an English publisher and 
author, born at Windsor, March 15, 1791, died 
at Addlestone, Surrey, March 9, 1873. His 
father was a bookseller at Windsor, and he suc- 
ceeded to the business. His first publication, 
which he edited in conjunction with Mr. E. H. 
Locker, was "The Plain Englishman," a pe- 
riodical (3 vols., 1820-'22). At Windsor, in 
1823, he commenced " Knight's Quarterly 
Magazine," and continued it in 1824 in London, 
whither he then removed. This work, in 3 
vols. 8vo, contains the earliest literary produc- 
tions of Macaulay, Praed, Moultrie, and others. 
In 1827-' 8 he published a continuation of the 
"London Magazine," in which a few years 
earlier had appeared Carlyle's " Life of Schil- 
ler " and De Quincey's " Confessions of an 
English Opium-Eater." Soon afterward he 
became connected with the society for the dif- 
fusion of useful knowledge, as their publisher 
and agent, and immediately undertook a series 
of valuable works, under the sanction of the 



society, but generally at his own risk and ex- 
pense. Foremost were the "Penny Magazine," 
in three series (1832-'45), which at one time 
had a circulation of nearly 200,000 copies week- 
ly; the " British Almanac " and "Companion 
to the Almanac," begun in 1828 and still con- 
tinued ; the "Penny Cyclopaedia" (30 vols. 
small fol., 1833-'56), since condensed as the 
" National Cyclopaedia ;" the " Library of En- 
tertaining Knowledge," to which he contrib- 
uted a volume on "The Elephant" (1831); 
the "Pictorial History of England," by Craik 
and Macfarlane, with its continuation entitled 
" History of the Thirty Years' Peace," by Mr. 
Knight and Miss Martineau (1840-'50) ; and 
the " Gallery of Portraits of Distinguished 
Men." Several of the above works were edited 
by Mr. Knight, and all enjoyed much of his 
supervision. He also edited the " Pictorial 
Bible " (4 vols. 4to, 1838) ; the " Pictorial Book 
of Common Prayer" (1838); the "Store of 
Knowledge" (1841); "London Pictorially Il- 
lustrated" (6 vols., 1841-'4; abridged into the 
"Cyclopaedia of London," 1851); "Old Eng- 
land, a Pictorial Museum of National Antiqui- 
ties" (2 vols. fol., 1845); the " Weekly Vol- 
ume," a series extending to 126 vols. (18mo, 
1843-'5); "Half Hours with the Best Au- 
thors " (4 vols., 1847-'8) ; " The Land we Live 
in" (4 vols., 1848); " Cyclopedia of the In- 
dustry of All Nations" (1851); "Half Hours 
of English History " (2 vols., 1853) ; " Geog- 
raphy of the British Empire" (2 vols., 1853), 
&c. He won a position as a Shakespearian 
scholar by his "Pictorial Shakspere," in- 
cluding a biography and a " History of Opin- 
ion, with Doubtful Plays and Index " (8 vols. 
8vo, 1839-'41 ; library edition, 12 vols. 18mo, 
1842-'4; national edition, with biography and 
"Studies," 8 vols. 8vo, 1851 -'3); "Plays and 
Poems, with Glossarial Notes " (7th ed., 1 vol. 
8vo, 1857); "Companion Shakspere" (8 vols. 
12mo, 1855-'7), &c. In 1854, having purchased 
the plates of the "Penny Cyclopedia," Mr. 
Knight began the " English Cyclopedia," based 
upon that work, but. greatly enlarged and modi- 
fied (22 vols. 4to, usually bound in 11, with a 
separate volume of indexes). His own writings 
more especially are : "Results, of Machinery" 
(1830), and " Rights of Industry, Capital, and 
Labor" (1831), amalgamated and enlarged un- 
der the title of " Knowledge is Power" (1855) ; 
"Life of Caxton" (1844), enlarged under the 
title of "The Old Printer and the Modern 
Press" (1854); "Varieties" (1844); "New 
Lamps for Old : Remarks on Mr. Collier's Dis- 
covery of the Annotations on Shakspere" 
(1851); "Once upon a Time" (1854), a col- 
lection of his miscellaneous works ; and " The 
Struggles of a Book against Excessive Taxa- 
tion," and "The Case of the Authors as re- 
gards the Paper Duty, "pamphlets which large- 
ly contributed to the repeal of the English duty 
upon paper, as proposed in Mr. Gladstone's 
budget of 1860. In 1856 appeared the first 
volume of " The Popular History of England, 

an Illustrated History of Society and Govern- 
ment from the Earliest Period to our own 
Times." This work, the most important of 
Mr. Knight's writings, was completed in 1862 
in 8 vols. 8vo, bringing the British annals down 
to the final extinction of the corn laws in 1849. 
The new editions of this work contain an ap- 
pendix, giving a chronological account of pub- 
lic events, legislation, and statistics until the 
time of publication. He also wrote an auto- 
biography, " Passages of a Working Life during 
Half a Century" (3 vols., 1863-'5; abridged 
American ed., 1 vol., New York, 1874) ; " School 
History of England" (1865); " Begg'd at 
Court" (1867); "Questions on School His- 
tory" (1868) ; and " Half Hours with the best 
Letter Writers " (2 vols., 1866-'8). Mr. Knight's 
whole life was one of useful and intellectual 
labor, and it is not too much to say that he 
was the founder of that description of litera- 
ture, cheap yet good, which has exercised a 
very beneficial influence on the minds of his 
countrymen during the last 50 years. His suc- 
cess as a man of business was not equal to his 
enterprise. About the year 1860 he received 
the appointment, through the influence of Lord 
Brougham, of publisher of the " London Ga- 
zette," almost a sinecure, at 1,200 'a year. 
His statue was erected at Windsor in 1874. 

KNIGHT. I. Richard Payne, an English au- 
thor, born at Wormsley Grange, Herefordshire, 
in 1750, died in London, April 24, 1824. Being 
a sickly child, he was not put to school, nor 
allowed to study either Latin or Greek at 
home. In 1764, however, upon the death of 
his father, he was sent to a grammar school, 
and in the course of a few years obtained 
a thorough knowledge of Latin and Greek. 
In 1771 he came into possession of a large 
property, and from 1780 to 1806 held a seat 
in parliament, during the last 22 years as 
member for the borough of Ludlow, in which 
he owned a large estate. In 1814 he was ap- 
pointed a trustee of the British museum, to 
which institution his unique collection of an- 
tiquities, consisting chiefly of ancient bronzes 
and Greek coins, and valued at 50,000, was be- 
queathed. His admiration of Greek art having 
directed his attention to those subjects which 
illustrate it, he published in 1786 " An Account 
of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus 
lately existing at Isernia, in the Kingdom of 
Naples, to which is added a Discourse on the 
Worship of Priapus, and its connection with 
the Mystic Theology of the Ancients " (4to). 
This work was privately printed, and was at- 
tacked on the score of its indelicacy, notwith- 
standing the author's object was simply to elu- 
cidate an obscure point in Greek mythology. 
In 1791 appeared his " Analytical Essay on the 
Greek Alphabet " (4to), in which he broached 
some opinions of questionable value on the use 
of the digamma, and also exposed the forgery 
of certain inscriptions claimed to have been 
found by Fourmont in Laconia, and which had 
deceived Winckelmann, Heyne, and some of the 



best scholars of the age. He next attempted 
poetry, and published in 1794 a didactic poem 
entitled "Landscape," followed by "The Pro- 
gress of Civil Society" (4to, 1796), "A Mono- 
dy on the Death of the Right Honorable 0. 
J. Fox " (1806-'7), and " Alfred, a Romance in 
Rhyme " (1823). In 1805 appeared his " Ana- 
lytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste," 
a work characterized by refinement and acute- 
ness of thought, and which proved the most 
popular of all his publications. His edition of 
the Iliad and Odyssey, with prolegomena, in 
which he attempted to restore the digamma, 
and to relieve the text of the interpolations of 
later rhapsodists and poets, is now considered 
of little authority. The prefaces and descrip- 
tions of " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture se- 
lected from different Collections of Great Brit- 
ain by the Society of Dilettanti " (fol., 1809- 
'35) were also written by him. II. Thomas 
Andrew, brother of the preceding, a vegeta- 
ble physiologist, born Oct. 10, 1758, died in 
London, May 11, 1838. He graduated at Bal- 
liol college, Oxford, and subsequently devoted 
much time to experiments in vegetable and 
animal physiology. Some suggestions as to 
the means of propagating fruit trees, commu- 
nicated 'to the royal society in 1795, brought 
him into great repute. In 1797 he published 
"A Treatise on the Culture of the Apple and 
Pear, and on the Manufacture of Cider and 
Perry," in which the same subject is further 
developed; and in 1811, "Pomona Herefordi- 
ensis, or Natural History of the Old Cider 
and Perry Fruits of the County of Hereford." 
After his death appeared a collection of his 

papers (8vo, 

ndon, 1841). 


KNIPPERDOLLING, Bernhard, a German Ana- 
baptist, born in Miinster near the end of the 
15th century, executed Jan. 23, 1536. Exiled 
for several years from his native town, he 
adopted in Sweden the doctrines of the Ana- 
baptists. On his return to Miinster, he united 
with Rothmann, John Matthias or Matthiesen, 
John Boccold of Leyden, and others, and be- 
ing wealthy was able by the favors which he 
granted to unite the poorer inhabitants against 
the rich. He was imprisoned, but released by 
his partisans, and succeeded in banishing the 
nobility, clergy, and many of the most influ- 
ential citizens from the city. A council was 
chosen in 1534, in which the Anabaptists were 
predominant, and they immediately filled all 
public offices with their adherents, made Knip- 
perdolling first burgomaster, and proclaimed an 
equality of estates, polygamy, and community 
of goods. All who refused to cooperate with 
them were driven from the city or slain. Knip- 
perdolling was subsequently proclaimed stadt- 
holder, and John of Leyden king, it being 
prophesied that the latter should be victorious 
over all the princes and princedoms of the 
earth. On the capture of the city by a Cath- 
olic army in 1535, Knipperdolling was taken 


prisoner, and put to death with fearful torture, 
which he endured with extreme inflexibility. 
KNOBELSDORFF, Hans Georg Wenzeslans Ton, 

baron, a German architect, born near Kros- 
sen, Brandenburg, Feb. 17, 1697, died in Ber- 
lin, Sept. 16, 1753. He gave up a colonelcy in 
1730 to study painting and architecture, be- 
came chief director of royal buildings in Ber- 
lin, and designed the Thiergarten, the opera 
house, and the new wings of the palaces at 
Charlottenburg and Dessau. His masterpiece 
is the palace of Sans Souci at Potsdam. 

KNOBLECHER, Ignaz, a German traveller, 
born in Carniola, July 6, 1819, died at Gon- 
dokoro, Africa, April 13, 1858. He was edu- 
cated at the Propaganda in Rome with a view 
to devoting himself to the African mission, 
and after having been ordained went to Syria, 
where he passed a year in the study of Arabic. 
Thence he removed to Khartoom on the Nile, 
and in 1849 was ordered to ascend that river 
and establish a mission among some negro 
tribes near the equator. Accompanied by an- 
other priest, Angelo Vinco, he set out, Nov. 
13, with the trading party which annually goes 
up the Nile, and on Jan. 14, 1850, reached the 
rapids in lat. 4 49' N., the furthest point till 
then reached by any expedition. Knoblecher, 
however, succeeded in stemming the rapids, 
and on the 16th reached the village of Logwek, 
in lat. 4 10'. He examined the Bahr el-Gha- 
zal or Gazelle river, and returning to Germany 
published an account of his explorations. He 
afterward fixed his residence at Khartoom, 
having received the appointment of vicar gen- 
eral apostolic of central Africa. 

KNOT, the European name of a sandpiper of 
the genus tringa (Linn.), one of the few birds 


common to the old and new worlds; other 
names are the ash-colored, red-breasted, gray- 
backed, and robin snipe ; it is the T. canutus 
(Linn.). The length is about 10 in., the extent 
of wings 20, the bill 1, and the weight 6 oz. ; 
it is the largest of the genus in the United 




States. The color of the summer plumage is 
light gray above, with black and pale reddish 
spots; rump and upper tail coverts white, with 
narrow bands and crescents of black ; below 
light brownish red, with under tail coverts, 
thighs, sides, and under wing coverts white, 
spotted and barred with brownish black ; 
quills brownish black, with white shafts ; tail 
brownish cinereous, each feather white-edged. 
In winter the upper parts are darker, with 
brownish black edgings ; below dull ashy white, 
lightest on abdomen, with numerous longitudi- 
nal dark brown lines and spots on the breast 
and neck. The knot is found throughout east- 
ern North America and Europe. It is a very 
active bird, nimbly running and wading along 
the edge of the waves on sandy beaches, search- 
ing for minute shell fish and marine worms ; 
the flight is swift, and large flocks perform 
very beautiful and rapid aerial evolutions. 
The flesh of the young and fat birds is con- 
sidered a delicacy. 

RJfOUT (properly KNTJT), the Russian word 
for whip, and the name of an instrument of 
punishment formerly in use in Russia. The 
culprit was bound to two stakes, and received 
on his bare back the specified number of lash- 
es from a whip of plaited thongs interwoven 
with wire ; 100 to 120 lashes were considered 
equivalent to a sentence of death. The whip- 
ping was inflicted by the hands of a convict 
respited from Siberia and kept in prison for 
that purpose. If a culprit survived this pun- 
ishment, he was banished for life to Siberia. 
In earlier times the nose was slit, the ears 
were cut off, and the letter V, for vor (rogue), 
was branded on the forehead ; but this aggra- 
vation was abolished by Alexander I. The 
nobility were legally exempt from the knout, 
but the privilege was not always respected. 
The punishment was inflicted on the worst 
class of criminals, but now and then also on 
political offenders. The knout was abolished 
by the emperor Nicholas, who substituted the 
pleti, a kind of lash. 

KNOWLES, James Davis, an American clergy- 
man, born in Providence, R. I., in July, 1798, 
died in Newton, Mass., May 9, 1838. His 
father, a respectable mechanic of Providence, 
apprenticed him at the age of 12 to a printer. 
He studied French and Latin without a teacher, 
and on becoming co-editor in 1819 with Prof. 
Goddard of the " Rhode Island American," 
he studied Greek, and at a later period made 
respectable progress in Hebrew. At the age 
of 22 he joined the Baptist church, and enter- 
ed the sophomore class of Columbian college, 
Washington, D. 0. He graduated in 1824, and 
was immediately appointed tutor, but in De- 
cember, 1825, was ordained pastor of a church 
in Boston. In 1832 he was called to the chair 
of pastoral duties and sacred rhetoric in the 
Newton theological institution. In 1836 he 
founded the " Christian Review," a quarterly 
journal of the Baptist denomination. Visiting 
New York in the latter part of April, 1838, to 
470 VOL. x. 3 

attend the anniversaries of his denomination, 
he took the smallpox, of which he died. His 
principal works are a " Memoir of Mrs. Ann 
H. Judson " (1827), which went through nu- 
merous editions, and a "Memoir of Roger 
Williams, Founder of Rhode Island " (1834). 

KNOWLES, James Sheridan, a British dra- 
matist, born in Cork, Ireland, in 1784, died 
at Torquay, England, Nov. 30, 1862. He was 
the son of James Knowles, a teacher of elocu- 
tion, and author of a " Pronouncing English 
Dictionary." In 1792 the family removed to 
London, and four years later young Knowles 
produced his first play, a juvenile performance 
in which he and a number of young amateurs 
took part. At the age of 22 he made his de- 
but as an actor in the Crow street theatre, 
Dublin. For about ten years he led an un- 
settled life, sometimes as an actor, sometimes 
as a teacher of elocution, and with but mod- 
erate success in either occupation. He wrote 
nothing for the stage worthy of mention till 
1815, when his "Caius Gracchus" was pro- 
duced in Belfast with great success. His next 
play, " Virginius," in which Macready sustain- 
ed the leading part at Drury Lane, first made 
him generally known to the dramatic public ; 
and thenceforth for many years he was one 
of the leading playwrights in England. His 
"Beggar of Bethnal Green," "Hunchback," 
and "Wife" followed; and in the two lat- 
ter, which are still popular on the stage, the 
author appeared in leading characters. Af- 
ter engagements in various parts of the Uni- 
ted Kingdom he made a successful tour in 
the United States. On his return to England 
he produced "The Love Chase," "Woman's 
Wit," "The Maid of Mariendorpt," "Love," 
" Old Maids," " John of Procida," " The Rose 
of Aragon," and " The Secretary," all of which 
enjoyed a fair degree of success, while some 
are still standard acting plays. His health be- 
gan to fail after this, and in 1849 a pension of 
200 was procured for him, it being repre- 
sented that the profits of his dramatic writings 
had never equalled this sum per annum. In 
1845 he abandoned the stage, and subsequently 
became known as an eloquent preacher of the 
Baptist denomination. Two polemical works, 
"The Rock of Rome" and "The Idol De- 
molished by its own Priest," testify to the 
energy with which he employed his pen in 
this new calling. He also wrote two novels, 
" George Lovel " and " Henry Fortescue." A 
collective edition of his plays was published 
in 1841-'3 (3 vols., London). He published a 
collection of his minor writings under the title 
of "The Elocutionist" (19th ed., 1853). His 
last years were spent in total retirement on 
account of sickness. 

KNOX, the name of nine counties in the 
United States. I. A S. county of Maine, bor- 
dering on the Atlantic, bounded E. by Penob- 
scot bay, and intersected by the Medomac and 
St. George's rivers ; area, 330 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 30,823. It has a productive soil, and 


contains a number of small lakes. A portion 
of the inhabitants are engaged in navigation 
and fishing. The Knox and Lincoln railroad 
terminates at the county seat. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 3,721 bushels of wheat, 
15,445 of Indian corn, 12,276 of oats, 25,259 of 
barley, 190,676 of potatoes, 45,859 Ibs. of wool, 
395,960 of butter, and 28,014 tons of hay. 
There were 1,785 horses, 4,608 milch cows, 
1,653 working oxen, 3,790 other cattle, 10,- 
600 sheep, and 1,291 swine ; 9 manufactories of 
carriages, 18 of cooperage, 9 of cured and packed 
fish, 1 of gunpowder, 5 of iron, 39 of lime, 9 of 
marble and stone work, 9 of saddlery and har- 
ness, 6 of sails, 2 of woollen goods, 13 ship- 
building and repairing establishments, 4 tan- 
neries, 3 currying establishments, 2 flour mills, 
and 9 saw mills. Capital, Rockland. II. A 
N. W. county of Texas, near the head of the 
Brazos river, by which and the Big "Wichita it 
is drained; area, 1,275 sq. m. There were no 
inhabitants enumerated in 1870. Most of the 
surface is hilly and broken, but in the S. part 
there is an undulating mezquite prairie. Gyp- 
sum is so abundant as to render th water of 
most of the streams unfit for drinking, and the 
Wichita and Brazos are contaminated by de- 
posits of salt near their sources. Timber is 
not abundant ; the principal varieties are mez- 
quite and cedar. The soil is a red loam suit- 
able for pasturage and grain. III. An E. 
county of Tennessee, watered by Clinch, Hol- 
ston, and French Broad rivers; area, 575 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 28,990, of whom 4,840 were 

colored. The surface is mountainous, being 
crossed by Copper ridge, Chestnut ridge, and 
Bay's mountain. Iron ore, limestone, and 
marble are abundant, and the soil of the low- 
lands is fertile. It is traversed by the East 
Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia, the Knox- 
ville and Charleston, and the Knoxville and 
Kentucky railroads. The chief productions in 
1870 were 151, 232 bushels of wheat, 548,546 of 
Indian corn, 259,047 of oats, 25,702 of Irish and 
24,243 of sweet potatoes, 26,532 Ibs. of tobacco, 
26,328 of wool, 222,078 of butter, and 5,766 
tons of hay. There were 4,907 horses, 4,543 
milch cows, 6,795 other cattle, 13,441 sheep, 
and 22,519 swine ; 2 manufactories of saddlery 
and harness, 1 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 of 
machinery, 1 of printing paper, 6 of iron, 2 
tanneries, 1 flour mill, and 4 saw mills. Capi- 
tal, Knoxville. IV. A S. E. county of Ken- 
tucky, traversed by Cumberland river ; area, 
600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,294, of whom 557 
were colored. It has a mountainous surface, 
and abounds in iron ore, coal, and limestone. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 13,670 
bushels of wheat, 214,369 of Indian corn, 36,- 
670 of oats, 11,290 of potatoes, 14,348 Ibs. of 
wool, 78,427 of butter, and 992 tons of hay. 
There were 1,212 horses, 1,534 milch cows, 
3,399 other cattle, 8,372 sheep, and 12,761 
swine. Capital, Barboursville. Y. A central 
county of Ohio, drained by Yernon and Wal- 
honding rivers and the N. fork of Licking 

river; area, 525 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 26,333. 
The surface is undulating, and the soil, particu- 
larly in the W. part, is remarkably fertile. 
The Lake Erie division of the Baltimore and 
Ohio, and the Cleveland, Mount ^Vernon, and 
Delaware railroads pass through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 386,176 bushels of 
wheat, 20,389 of rye, 1,223,270 of Indian corn, 
440,130 of oats, 97,301 of potatoes, 24,887 Ibs. 
of tobacco, 676,603 of wool, 57,988 of maple 
sugar, 799,366 of butter, and 40,770 tons of 
hay. There were 9,429 horses, 8,542 milch 
cows, 12,141 other cattle, 145,613 sheep, and 
27,872 swine; 24 manufactories of carriages, 4 
of iron castings, 2 of engines and boilers, 1 of 
linseed oil, 4 of sash, doors, and blinds, 7 of 
tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 of woollen 
goods, 6 tanneries, 2 currying establishments, 
13 saw mills, and 8 flour mills. Capital, Mount 
Yernon. VI. A S. W. county of Indiana, bor- 
dering on Illinois, bounded W. by the Wabash 
river, S. by White river, and E. by the W. 
fork of the White; area, 513 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 21,562. It has a level surface, occupied 
in the W. part by prairies, and contains beds 
of coal. The soil is very fertile. The Evans- 
ville and Crawfordsville, the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi, and the Indianapolis and Yincennes rail- 
roads pass through it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 376,950 bushels of wheat, 959,- 
209 of Indian corn, 55,767 of oats, 46,235 of 
potatoes, 56,237 Ibs. of wool, 137,185 of but- 
ter, and 7,331 tons of hay. There were 6,415 
horses, 4,632 milch cows, 7,571 other cattle, 
18,907 sheep, and 33,110 swine; 4 manufac- 
tories of carriages, 5 of cooperage, 1 of ma- 
chinery, 4 of saddlery and harness, 4 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 breweries, 8 saw 
mills, and 6 flour mills. Capital, Yincennes. 
VII. A N. W. county of Illinois, drained by 
Spoon river; area, 729 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
39,522. It has an undulating surface, diversi- 
fied with prairies and woodlands, a fertile soil, 
well watered by creeks, and extensive beds of 
coal. The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy 
railroad and the Peoria branch pass through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 275,- 
418 bushels of wheat, 113,547 of rye, 2,708,- 
319 of Indian corn, 787,952 of oats, 12,723 of 
barley, 147,909 of potatoes, 53,885 Ibs. of wool, 
668,074 of butter, and 53,014 tons of hay. 
There were 18,247 horses, 10,997 milch cows, 
23,738 other cattle, 16,137 sheep, and 61,768 
swine ; 8 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 9 of brick, 3 of brooms and wisp 
brushes, 35 of carriages, 1 of cars, 1 of dressed 
furs, 2 of iron castings, 4 of machinery, 1 of 
marble and stone work, 10 of masonry, 2 of 
pumps, 16 of saddlery and harness, 14 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of woollen 
goods, 2 wool-carding and cloth-dressing es- 
tablishments, 5 planing mills, 6 saw mills, and 
16 flour mills. Capital Galesburg. VIII. A 
N". E. county of Missouri, drained by the North, 
South, and Middle Fabius, and the N. fork of 
Salt river; area, 512 sq.m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,- 



974, of whom 200 were colored. It has a 
nearly level surface, diversified with woods' 
and prairies, and a fertile soil. The Quincy, 
Missouri, and Pacific railroad passes through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 63,-. 
745 bushels of wheat, 573,003 of Indian corn, 
257,812 of oats, 10,600 Ibs. of tobacco, 62,890 
of wool, and 19,065 tons of hay. There were 
7,215 horses, 5,417 milch cows, 14,968 other 
cattle, 24,758 sheep, and 30,765 swine; 10 
manufactories of carriages, 10 of brick, 8 of 
saddlery and harness, 5 of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 1 of woollen goods, 4 saw 
mills, and 3 flour mills. Capital, Edina. IX. 
A N. E. county of Nebraska (formerly called 
L'Eau Qui Court), separated from Dakota by 
the Missouri and Niobrara rivers ; area, about 
1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 261. The chief 
productions were 1,309 bushels of wheat, 3,610 
of Indian corn, 3,210 of potatoes, and 1,012 
tons of hay; value of live stock, $20,610. 
Capital, Niobrara. 

KNOX, Henry, an American general, born in 
Boston, July 25, 1750, died in Thomaston, Me., 
Oct. 25, 1806. He was of Scotch and Irish 
Presbyterian stock, and his father came from 
St. Eustatius, one of the Dutch West India 
islands. He received the common school edu- 
cation of his time in Boston, where he became 
a thriving bookseller, his shop being a favorite 
resort of cultivated persons. He was an officer 
in Major Dawes's corps of grenadiers, and by 
practice and study became an adept in military 
science. He married Miss Lucy Fluker, a 
daughter of the provincial secretary. Shortly 
before the battle of Bunker Hill he managed 
to escape the guards of Gen. Gage with his 
wife, and to make his way to Cambridge with 
his sword carefully concealed in the folds of 
her dress. He was actively engaged in that 
battle as a volunteer aid to Gen. Ward, recon- 
noitring the movements between the heights 
and the headquarters; and upon his reports 
Ward issued his orders. He soon attracted 
Washington's attention by his skill as an engi- 
neer in planning and constructing fortifications, 
and as an artillerist. Attached to the regiment 
of artillery which had been formed under the 
veteran Gridley, he was soon raised to its com- 
mand. He was sent in quest of cannon and 
ordnance stores, and succeeded in bringing to 
camp early in 1776 a long train of sledges bear- 
ing more than 50 cannon, mortars, and howit- 
zers, which proved of great service in the siege 
and bombardment of Boston. He subsequent- 
ly took the management of all the artillery in 
New York. He was almost the last officer to 
leave the city, remaining so late that he escaped 
capture only by seizing a boat and making his 
way by water. He distinguished himself in 
the New Jersey campaign, and on Jan. 2, 1777, 
his^well directed cannonade repulsed Cornwal- 
lis in repeated attempts to pass the Assumpink. 
He shared in the brilliant action at Princeton 
on the following day. Having been made by 
congress brigadier general of the artillery, he 

was sent to Massachusetts to expedite the rais- 
ing of a battalion of artillery, and became the 
organ of communication with the executive 
council of the state concerning the military 
events of that year. At the battle of Brandy- 
wine the fire of the artillery against Knyphau- 
sen at Chad's ford was maintained by Knox with 
vigor from morning till evening. The failure 
at Germantown was partly attributed to his 
tenacious adherence to the military maxim 
never to leave an enemy's fort in the rear, 
causing the pursuit to be abandoned at Chew's 
garrisoned house. After the fall of Fort Mifflin, 
Nov. 15, 1777, he was sent with De Kalb and 
St. Clair to provide for the security of Red 
Bank. He passed the winter at Valley Forge, 
laboring to improve the discipline and efficiency 
of the army, and was prominently engaged in 
the hot battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778. In 
the general order after the battle Washington 
had " the satisfaction to inform Gen. Knox and 
his officers that the enemy had done them the 
justice to acknowledge that no artillery could 
be better served than theirs." Knox accom- 
panied Washington and Lafayette to Hartford 
to mark out their future plans of cooperation, 
and returned by way of West Point, where he 
sat on the court martial for the trial of Andre". 
In the ensuing winter he was again sent to 
New England to gather men and means for the 
next campaign. During the heaviest part of 
the cannonade at Yorktown, Knox was in the 
grand battery by the side of Washington. He 
was now advanced by congress to the rank 
of major general, and was commissioned with 
Gouverneur Morris to arrange the exchange of 
prisoners and settlement of expenses. He was 
placed in command at West Point after the an- 
nouncement of the cessation of hostilities, and 
on him devolved the delicate task of disband- 
ment. He was appointed to arrange the sur- 
render of New York with Sir Guy Carleton. 
After the peace he was a candidate with Greene 
and Lincoln for the secretaryship of war, in 
which office he succeeded the latter in March, 
1785. There* was no separate department for 
the navy, and its duties therefore devolved 
chiefly on him. He retained his department 
after the organization of the new government. 
In December, 1795, following the example of 
Hamilton, he retired from the cabinet, and re- 
moved to St. Georges in Maine for the im- 
provement of an estate, acquired partly in the 
right of his wife and partly by purchase, upon 
which he expended large amounts. When in 
1798 the army was reorganized at the prospect 
of war with France, his feelings were deeply 
wounded by the cabinet's reversal of President 
Adams's order of appointments, and the prece- 
dence assigned to Hamilton in the new military 
arrangements. His proposal was to serve as 
aide-de-camp to Washington. See "Life and 
Correspondence of Henry Knox," by Francis 
S. Drake (Boston, 1874). 

KNOX, John, a Scottish religious reformer, 
born at Gifford, Haddingtonshire, or at Gifford- 


gate, a suburb of Haddington, in 1505, died 
in Edinburgh, Nov. 24, 1572. After receiving 
his preliminary education at the grammar 
school of Haddington, he was sent about 1524 
to the university of St. Andrews, was ordain- 
ed, and prior to 1530 became a teacher of phi- 
losophy there. The study of the fathers, es- 
pecially of Jerome and Augustine, had shaken 
his religious opinions as early as 1535, but it 
was not till 1542 that he became an avowed 
and marked reformer. His reprehension of 
certain practices of the church caused him to 
retire from St. Andrews to the south of Scot- 
land, where he was declared a heretic, degraded 
from his office, and threatened by assassins. 
In default of more definite occupation, he be- 
came tutor to the sons of two noble families, 
listened to the reformed teachers, and occa- 
sionally preached to the inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding country. After the death of his 
friend George Wishart he remained in retire- 
ment till, nearly a year after the murder of 
Cardinal Beaton, he took refuge with many 
other Protestants (1547) in the castle of St. 
Andrews, which the regent was vainly* attempt- 
ing to reduce. There for the first time he ad- 
ministered publicly both elements of the eu- 
charist, and became known as a powerful 
preacher against the papacy. The regent, re- 
enforced by a French squadron, obliged the 
garrison to surrender. The terms of the ca- 
pitulation were violated, and Knox with his 
comrades was transported to France, where he 
was imprisoned in the galleys for 19 months. 
He experienced extreme hardships, and on his 
release (1549) directed his course to England, 
where he was appointed to preach at Berwick 
and at Newcastle, and became one of the chap- 
lains of Edward VI. For the boldness of his 
discourses he was several times called to ac- 
count, but he was able to vindicate himself. A 
bishopric was offered to him, but he declined 
it from scruples as to the divine authority of 
the episcopal order. On the accession of Queen 
Mary he fled to Dieppe, and passed thence to 
Geneva. In November, 1554, he took charge 
of the chapel of the English emigrants in Frank- 
fort, but resigned soon after because his con- 
gregation was in favor of retaining the liturgy. 
He returned to Geneva and thence to Scotland, 
where he labored for the spread of the refor- 
mation. Dissatisfied with the slow progress of 
the movement in his native land, he return- 
ed to Geneva in 1556, where he became pas- 
tor of a small English congregation. The 30 
months of his residence in Geneva, in the so- 
ciety of Calvin, Beza, and other learned men, 
were among the happiest of his life. While in 
Scotland he had been cited to appear before an 
assembly of the clergy to be held at Edinburgh, 
but his opponents avoided the discussion when 
they found him ready to meet it, supported by 
persons of influence. But after his return to 
Geneva the citation was renewed, and he was 
condemned to be burned as a heretic, and the 
sentence was executed on his effigy. Against 

this condemnation he published the "Appella- 
tion of John Knoxe." He also wrote " A Let- 
ter to Queen Mary, Regent of Scotland," and 
a tract entitled " The First Blast of the Trum- 
pet against the Monstrous Regiment of Wo- 
men" (1558), a vehement attack on political 
government by women, at a time when Mary 
of Guise was regent of Scotland and Mary 
Tudor queen of England, and the nearest in 
succession to both thrones were females. In- 
vited by the Scottish Protestants to resume his 
labors in his native country, he landed at Leith 
in 1559, and rejoiced that he had come " even 
in the brunt of the battle." The queen regent, 
throwing off all disguise, had laid her plans 
for the forcible overthrow of the reformation. 
At a convention of the nobility and clergy in 
Edinburgh all the demands of the Protestants 
were refused. Several of the reforming preach- 
ers were summoned to appear at Stirling for 
trial, but by the dissimulation of the regent 
were prevented from attending and then out- 
lawed for their failure. Knox hastened to meet 
them at Perth, where the Protestant preach- 
ers had assembled at the summons of the queen. 
Soon after his arrival he preached against the 
idolatry of the mass and the veneration of 
images. At the conclusion of the service a 
priest ventured to make preparations for cele- 
brating mass, which roused the people to im- 
mediate action. The images in the churches 
were demolished, the pictures torn from the 
walls and trampled under foot, the holy re- 
cesses invaded, and the "rascal multitude," as 
Knox calls them, did not stop till they had 
sacked and laid in ruins the houses of the Do- 
minican and Franciscan friars and the Carthu- 
sian monastery. The queen regent advanced 
upon Perth with a considerable army, but, 
finding the Protestants well prepared for resist- 
ance, proposed terms of accommodation which 
were accepted. The Protestants, in order to 
consolidate their strength, formed a religious 
bond or covenant, and began to be distin- 
guished as the congregation, and their leaders 
as the lords of the congregation. Iconoclasm 
was a prominent feature in the Scottish refor- 
mation. Events similar to those at Perth fol- 
lowed at Stirling, Lindores, Cupar, St. An- 
drews, and other places. Knox had preached in 
the cathedral of St. Andrews against the advice 
of his friends and the threats of the archbish- 
op, and with such success that the magistrates 
united with the inhabitants in desolating the 
churches and monasteries, and in establishing 
the reformed worship. Meantime civil war 
raged throughout the kingdom between the 
regent, assisted by French troops, and the lords 
of the congregation, who implored the succor 
of Elizabeth. In political as well as ecclesias- 
tical affairs Knox was a conspicuous adviser, 
and took up his residence in Edinburgh after 
an extensive circuit through the southern and 
eastern counties. After a contest of 12 months, 
marked by many atrocities, the vigorous assist- 
ance rendered by Elizabeth, and the death of 




the queen regent while the English troops 
were investing Edinburgh, led to a truce and 
to the summons of the parliament to settle 
differences. Parliament assembled in August, 
1560, and the reformed religion was establish- 
ed, and Roman Catholicism interdicted by law 
in Scotland. Knox retained the office of min- 
ister in the metropolis, and soon after the arri- 
val of the young Queen Mary (Aug. 21, 1561) 
he was summoned to her presence. Six in- 
terviews are recorded between him and the 
queen, and the questions which she raised were 
discussed by him with a freedom and rigor 
which once drove her to tears. She caused 
his arrest on a charge of treason in 1563, but 
all the councillors except the immediate de- 
pendants of the court voted for his acquittal. 
The vehemence of his public discourses led him 
into frequent difficulties. In 1562 he disputed 
publicly for three days with Abbot Quentin 
Kennedy at Maybole; in 1565 he quoted cer- 
tain texts which gave offence to the queen's 
consort (Darnley), and was for a short time 
prohibited from preaching ; he fled from Edin- 
burgh when Mary returned from Dunbar after 
the death of Rizzio ; and he preached a sermon 
at the coronation of the infant James VI. at 
Stirling, July 29, 1567. Under the brief re- 
gency of Moray the work of Knox seemed to 
be completed, and he thought of retiring to 
Geneva to end his days in peace. After the 
assassination of Moray, civil and religious con- 
fusion returned under the regency successively 
of Lennox and Mar. Weakened by a stroke 
of apoplexy in 1570, Knox yet reappeared in 
the pulpit, while Kirkaldy of Grange and 
others of his friends were forsaking the cause 
of the reformation, and while he differed from 
his brethren in the assembly about praying for 
the queen. So violent was the enmity excited 
by his animadversions, that, following the ad- 
vice of his friends, he left Edinburgh for St. 
Andrews, May 5, 1571. He returned in the 
following year, and his last energies were put 
forth in denunciations of the perpetrators of 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew's. The doc- 
trines of Knox embraced a Oalvinistic creed 
and a Presbyterian polity. The " Order of 
Geneva," a liturgy which he shared in prepar- 
ing for the use of the church at Frankfort, and 
subsequently employed in his congregation at 
Geneva, was introduced into Scottish Protes- 
tant churches in 1565. He introduced the 
Puritan element into those churches. The 
office of bishop he declined, disapproving what 
he regarded as unscriptural ceremonials. Chief- 
ly through his influence the adoration of the 
sacrament was abolished in the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, which, by desire of the govern- 
ment, he aided in preparing under Edward VI. 
His character was marked by a stern realism, 
which could be beguiled by no social preten- 
sions, no conventional dignities, no pompous 
traditions. From this sprang his scornfyl bit- 
terness and his insensibility to the social graces 
and refinements which Mary exhibited person- 

ally, and sought to transplant from Paris to her 
native land. His preaching was distinguished 
for a headlong and vehement energy, which, 
as the English ambassador said, " put more life 
into him than 600 trumpets." Earnest and in- 
tense in every practical direction, his mind was 
not at all of a reflective or speculative cast, and 
as a thinker, save perhaps on political subjects, 
he takes no rank; his political views rather 
sprang from an instinctive sense than from the 
development of fundamental principles. The 
best known of his writings is the " Historie of 
the Reformation of Religion within the Realm 
of Scotland" (1584; mutilated ed. by David 
Buchanan, London and Edinburgh, 1644; com- 
plete ed., Edinburgh, 1732; after the most 
trustworthy manuscript, with other writings 
of Knox, by MacGavin, Glasgow, 1831). The 
collected edition of his works edited by David 
Laing is probably the most correct (6 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1846-'56). The principal biography 
of Knox is that by Thomas McCrie (1812 ; 6th 
ed., 1839). His biography in the 10th volume 
of Brandes's Leben und ausgewdhlte Schriften 
der Vdter und Begrunder der reformirfen 
Kirche (Elberfeld, 1862) is a valuable study. 

KNOX, Vicesimus, an English clergyman, born 
at Newington Green, Middlesex, Dec. 8, 1752, 
died in Tunbridge, Kent, Sept. 6, 1821. He 
was educated at St. John's college, Oxford. In 
1778 he was elected master of Tunbridge school, 
and continued there for 33 years, and then 
settled in London. He is best known as the 
editor of the compilation entitled "Elegant Ex- 
tracts." His " Christian Philosophy " has passed 
through numerous editions. His works, with 
a biographical preface, were published in Lon- 
don in 1824 (7 vols. 8vo), including "Essays, 
Moral and Literary." 

KNOXVILLE, a city and the county seat of 
Knox co., Tennessee, situated at the head of 
steamboat navigation on the right or N. bank 
of the Holston river. 4 m. below the mouth of 
the French Broad, and 165 m. E. of Nashville; 
pop. in 1870, 8,682, of whom 2,609 were col- 
ored; in 1874, including suburbs, about 12,- 
000. It is built on a healthy and elevated 
site, commanding a beautiful view of the river 
and surrounding country, and is the point of 
intersection of the East Tennessee, Virginia, 
and Georgia railroad with the Knoxville and 
Ohio and Knoxville and Charleston lines. It 
is the principal commercial place of East Ten- 
nessee, and has a large wholesale trade in dry 
goods, hardware, boots and shoes, drugs, gro- 
ceries, <fec., with that part of the state and 
with the neighboring portions of the adjoining 
states. The chief manufactures are of iron, 
embracing nails, bar iron, car wheels, &c. 
There are also sash and blind factories, flour- 
ing and saw mills, and four banks with an ag- 
gregate capital of $270,000. It is the seat of 
East Tennessee university, with which is con- 
nected the state agricultural college, and which 
in 1873 had 14 professors and instructors, 325 
students (125 collegiate), and a library of 1,200 



volumes, and of the state institution for the 
deaf and dumb. It has recently been selected 
as the site of the Knoxville university (Meth- 
odist), and of the freedmen's normal school 
to be established by the Presbyterians. There 
are several public and private schools, two 
daily and four weekly newspapers, a monthly 
periodical, and 20 churches. Knoxville was 
settled in 1789, and received its name two years 
later in honor of Gen. Henry Knox. From 
1794 to 1817 it was the territorial and state 
capital. For a brief period during the civil war 
Knoxville was a point of considerable strate- 
gical importance. It had been held by the 
confederates, who abandoned it early in Sep- 
tember, 1863, upon the approach of the Union 
force under Gen. Burnside. Soon after the 
federal reverse at Ohickamauga, Sept. 19, 20, 
Longstreet was sent to operate against Burn- 
side, who was strongly intrenched at Knox- 
ville. Longstreet made a vigorous and partial- 
ly successful assault, Nov. 18, and as Burnside 
had provisions for only three weeks, the con- 
federates hoped to reduce him by famine. But 
Bragg was signally defeated at Cftattanooga, 
Nov. 24, 25, and a strong federal force under 
Sherman moved toward Knoxville. Longstreet 
thereupon ventured (Nov. 29) upon an assault 
on Fort Sanders, the key to the federal posi- 
tion. It was repulsed, the confederates losing 
about 500 men, the federals less than 50 ; and 
the siege was virtually raised, although Long- 
street did not finally retire till Dec. 5. 

KNYPHAUSEN, Baron, a German soldier, born 
in Alsace about 1725, died in Berlin in June, 
1789. His father commanded a regiment un- 
der the duke of Marlborougli, and his own 
military career commenced in the service of 
Frederick William I. of Prussia. Subsequently 
he served in the several wars waged by Fred- 
erick the Great against Austria. In 1776 he 
received from the British government the com- 
mand of 12,000 Waldeckers and Hessians hired 
to aid in repressing the insurrection in the 
American colonies, and arrived in New York 
in time to participate in the battle of Long 
Island in August. He was present at White 
Plains, and aided in the capture of Fort Wash- 
ington in November, and in the defeat of the 
American forces at Brandy wine in 1777. In 
June, 1780, being then in temporary command 
of the British troops in New York, during the 
absence of Sir Henry Clinton, he made a de- 
scent into the Jerseys with 5,000 men, in the 
hope of rallying the disaffected Americans to 
the royal standard; but he accomplished lit- 
tle beyond sacking the village of -Connecticut 
Farms. On the 23d he reentered the Jerseys 
with reinforcements, and after an indecisive 
conflict with Gen. Greene, and burning the vil- 
lage of Springfield, he returned to Staten Island. 

KOALA, or Kangaroo Bear, a marsupial animal 
of the phalanger family and genus phaseolarctos 
(De Blainville). the P. cinereus (Fisch.). The 
dental formula is: incisors -fif, canines ^z^, 
premolars \~%, molars |z|=30 ; the posterior 


upper incisors and canines are small, and the 
crowns of the molars have four tubercles. 
The body is stout ; the head moderate, with a 
very short facial portion and naked muffle ; 
ears moderate and clothed with long hairs; 
eyes large and not protected by lashes ; mous- 
taches small and scanty. The toes of the fore 
feet are in two sets, one composed of the two 
inner (which are the shortest), and the other 
of the three outer, of which the central is the 
longest, and all have long, curved, and com- 
pressed claws; the two portions of the feet 
are slightly opposable ; the first toe of the hind 
feet is very far back, large, and without a nail. 
The stomach is provided with a cardiac glandu- 
lar apparatus, and the caecum is three times as 
long as the animal ; the pouch is well devel- 
oped ; the tail .is wanting. The koala is about 
2 ft. long, 10 or 11 in. high, with a girth of 18 
in. ; the limbs are powerful, and the large 
hands and feet admirably adapted for climbing 
trees ; the fur is dense, soft, and woolly, of a 

Koala (Phaseolarctos cinereus). 

general ashy gray color, inclining to brown ; 
hinder part of back dirty yellowish white, 
under parts dirty white, and inside of hind 
limbs rusty brown. It inhabits New South 
Wales, where the natives hunt it for the flesh, 
pursuing it into the tops of the highest gum 
trees, in which it passes the day feeding on the 
tender shoots or sleeping ; it descends the trees 
at night in search of roots, which it digs up 
with its powerful claws. On the ground it 
creeps slowly, and when climbing looks like a 
small bear; when angry it assumes a fierce 
look and utters a shrill cry. Koalas are found 
in pairs, and the mother carries her young one 
on her back when it has outgrown her pouch; 
they are very tenacious of life. The skull is 
remarkable for its oblong quadrate form, great 
width of nasal bones, length of zygoinatio 
arches, auditory protuberances, and depth of 
rami of lower jaw. 

KOBELL, Franz von, a German mineralogist, 
born in Munich, July 19, 1803. He is professor 
of mineralogy at Munich, and has popularized 



that science by a series of publications which 
have passed through many editions, including 
a complete history of mineralogy from 1650 to 
1860, to form part of the Qeschichte der Wis- 
senchaften in Deutschland (1864), an elaborate 
work which was undertaken under the auspices 
of the late kin*g Maximilian of Bavaria. He 
has also published several volumes of dialect 
poems, which have acquired great popularity. 
- Several of his ancestors and relatives in Ger- 
many and Holland were distinguished artists. 

KOCH, Karl Heinrieh Emannel, a German trav- 
eller, born in Weimar in 1809. He studied the 
natural sciences and medicine at Wiirzburg and 
Jena, and undertook in 1836 a scientific jour- 
ney through the southern provinces of Russia 
and the Caucasus, of which he published a 
narrative (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1842-'3). In a 
second journey in 1843-'4 he extended his re- 
searches through Turkey and Armenia to the 
Caspian sea, obtaining the materials for a new 
work, Wanderungen im Orient (3 vols., Wei- 
mar, 1846-'7). On the outbreak of the eastern 
war, vol. iii. of the latter work was published 
separately under the title of Die Krim und 
Odessa (Leipsic, 1854; translated by Korner, 
London, 1855). He has also published Hortus 
Dendrologicus (Berlin, 1853-'4), Gartnerkunst 
und PflanzenpJiysiognomie (1859), and Der 
lotanische Garten (1860). 

ROCHANOWSRI, Jan, a Polish poet, born in 
the palatinate of Sandomir in 1532, died in 
Lublin in 1584. He studied in Germany, 
France, and Italy, and after his return to Po- 
land was employed by King Sigismund Augus- 
tus in various missions. His lyrical produc- 
tions in both Polish and Latin gained him the 
appellation of the Polish Pindar. Among his 
writings are a translation of the Psalms in Po- 
lish verse, various satires, and a drama. The 
editions of his works are numerous. 

ROCR. I. Charles Paul de, a French novelist 
and dramatist, born at Passy, near Paris, May 
21, 1794, died in Paris, Aug. 29, 1871. The son 
of a Dutch banker, who had removed to France, 
and who died on the scaffold during the revo- 
lution, he was carelessly educated under his 
mother's supervision, and entered a banking 
house in the capacity of a clerk. In 1812 he 
printed at his own risk his first novel, IS En- 
fant de mafemme, which was unsuccessful. He 
then produced a number of melodramas, vaude- 
villes, and comic operas, which brought him 
into notice. In the mean time he published sev- 
eral lively but not very decent tales and novels, 
which increased his popularity until he became 
the great favorite of a large class of readers, 
both in France and abroad, his publications 
being rapidly translated. His dramatic works 
number over 100. Many of his novels and 
vaudevilles were written in part by others, and 
several bear his name without being his work. 
Prominent among his literary assistants were 
Boyer, Varin, Labie, and his own son. See 
his Memoires inedits (Paris, 1873). II. Henri 
de, a novelist and dramatist, son of the prece- 

ding, born in Paris in 1821. He writes with 
the same fecundity and in nearly the same 
style as his father. His works now number 
about 100, and many of them were written 
with the assistance of Barriere, Fournier, and 
Gonzalez, and of his father. 

ROERROER, Bernard Cornells, a Dutch land- 
scape painter, born in Middelburg, Oct. 11, 
1803, died in Cleves, April 5, 1862. He was 
the son of the celebrated marine painter Jo- 
hannes Herman Koekkoek. At the great ex- 
position in Paris in 1855 he received a medal 
of the first class. For many years previous to 
his death he resided in Cleves, where he estab- 
lished a school of design. His brothers MARI- 
ANUS, ADRIAN, and HERMAN also enjoy a high 
reputation as painters. 

ROENIG, Heinrieh Joseph, a German novelist, 
born in Fulda, March 19, 1790, died in Wies- 
baden, Sept. 23, 1869. He was connected with 
the civil service and the diet of Hesse-Cassel 
till 1850. In 1860 he removed from Hanau 
to Wiesbaden. His principal historical novels 
are Die JioJie Braut (Leipsic, 1833), Die Club- 
listen m Mainz (1847), Die Waldenser (2d ed., 
1857, under the title Hedwig die Waldenseriri), 
and William Shalcspeare (3d ed., 1850-'59). 
His works were published in 20 vols., 1854-'69. 

KOH-I-NOOR. See DIAMOND, vol. vi., p. 75. 

KOHL, Johann Oeorg, a German traveller and 
author, born in Bremen, April 28, 1808. He 
was educated at Gottingen, Heidelberg, and 
Munich, and after serving five years as a pri- 
vate tutor in Courland, a visit to St. Peters- 
burg and the interior of Russia afforded mate- 
rials for publications which were so favorably 
received that he decided to devote his life to 
travel. He visited England, Holland, Den- 
mark, France, Austria, Hungary, and other 
parts of Europe ; was in the United States and 
Canada in 1854-'8 ; and published volumes of 
travel respecting every country he visited. He 
also wrote some scientific treatises, as Der 
Verkefir der Menschen in seiner Abhangigkeit 
zu der Erdoberflache (1841), Der JS^m(1851), 
Die Donau (1853), Skizzen aus Natur- und 
Volkerleben (1851), and a series of essays en- 
titled Aus meinen Eutten (1852). Several of 
his works have been translated into English, 
among which are " Kitchi-Gami : Wanderings 
round Lake Superior" (London, 1857), "Trav- 
els in Canada and through the States of New 
York and Pennsylvania "{1861), and "A Pop- 
ular History of the Discovery of America, from 
Columbus to Franklin" (1862). In 1857 he 
contributed to the Smithsonian institution two 
papers on the maps and charts of America at 
different periods, and wrote a supplemental 
volume to Hakluyt's work, giving a descriptive 
catalogue of all the maps, charts, and surveys 
relating to America. Some years later he^ sent 
to the Maine historical society a paper giving 
new and important information respecting 
the early coast lines and the patents of the 
first proprietors of the Maine settlements. 
Among his later publications are : Geschichte 



der Entdeclcung von America (1861 ; translated 
into English, London, 1862) ; Die ~beiden dltes- 
ten Karten von America (1861) ; Vom MarU 
und aus der Zelle (2 vols., 1868); and Die 
geographiscke Lage der Nauptstddte Europas 
(1874). His sister, IDA KOHL (born July 25, 
1814, and married in 1846 to Count Hermann 
von Baudissin), wrote in connection with him 
the Englische SUzzen (1845) and separately 
Paris und die Franzosen (1845). 

KOHLRAUSCH, Helnrieh Friedrieh Theodor, a 
German author, born near Gottingen, Nov. 15, 
1780, died in Hanover, Jan. 31, 1867. He 
w;as from 1830 a teacher in Hanover. His 
most popular books were Die deutsche Ge- 
scMchte (Elberfeld, 1816 ; 15th ed., Hanover, 
1866; abridged, 10th ed., Gtitersloh, 1867; 
translated into English, 1847), and Chronolo- 
gischer Abriss der WeltgeschicJite (15th ed., 
Leipsic, 1861). In 1863 appeared his autobi- 
ography (Erinnerungen aus meinem Leberi). 

KOKOMO, a town and the county seat of How- 
ard co., Indiana, situated on Wild Cat creek, 
an affluent of the Wabash, and at the inter- 
section of the Indianapolis, Peru, and Chicago 
with the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis 
railroad, 50 m. N. of Indianapolis; pop. in 
1870,' 2,177. It contains a number of manu- 
factories, a national bank, and three weekly 
newspapers. It is the seat of Howard college, 
organized in 1869, which in 1872 had 5 pro- 
fessors and instructors, and 69 students. 

KOLA, a town of Russia, capital of the circle 
of Kem, in the government and about 360 m. 
N. W. of the city of Archangel, in the N. "W. 
part of the peninsula of Kola, and at the con- 
fluence of the rivers Kola and Tuloma, 36 m. 
from the Arctic ocean; lat. 68 50' INT., Ion. 
33 15' E. ; pop. in 1867, 1,062, including 
Lapps and a few Finns. It is noticeable as 
the most northern town of European Russia, 
and the former capital of the old Russian Lap- 
landish territory. It has a good harbor, and 
contains three churches and a school. It was 
bombarded by the allies during the eastern 
war, Aug. 23, 1854. 

KOLAPOOR, a native state of the Deccan, 
India, under the political management of the 
presidency of Bombay, bounded N. and N. E. 
by Sattara, E. and S. by Belgaum, and W. by 
Sawunt Warree and Rutnagherry ; area, 3,500 
sq. m. ; pop. about 500,000. It is traversed by 
the Ghaut mountains, and by the Kistnah and 
other rivers. The soil is exceedingly fertile, 
despite the ruggedness of the country. The 

le rajahs of Kolapoor boast of their descent 
from the founder of the Mahratta empire ; but 
their authority has become within the last 
30 years only nominal, the English being the 
actual rulers. KOLAPOOR, the capital, 185 m. 
S. E. of Bombay, long notorious for its un- 
healthy condition, has been lately improved. 

KOLB, Georg Friedrieh, a German journalist 
and author, born at Spire, Sept. 14, 1808. He 
published a journal in Spire in 1830, which he 


edited for more than 20 years in the liberal in- 
terest, and was a member of the Frankfort 
parliament in 1848. As member of the Bava- 
rian chamber he prepared a report on the so- 
called Greek loan, which required the ex-king 
Louis I. to replace from his private means the 
entire amount which had been 1 paid to his son 
King Otho of Greece. To escape from perse- 
cutions, he remained in Zurich from 1853 to 
1860. Subsequently he edited the Frankfurter 
Zeitung, and in 1863 he resumed his seat in 
the Bavarian chamber. He opposed the Franco- 
German war of 1870-'71, and advocated the 
right of suffrage for the people of Alsace-Lor- 
raine. His principal works are: Handbuch 
der vergleichenden Statistic (1858; 6th ed., 
1871) ; Grundriss der Statistilc (1862 ; 4th ed., 
1871) ; and CulturgeschicJite der MenscMeit 
(2 vols., 1869-'70 ; 2d ed., 1874). 

KOLBE, Adolf Wilhelm Hermann, a German 
chemist, born near Gottingen, Sept. 27, 1818. 
He studied under Wdhler, and became in 1842 
assistant to Bunsen, whom he succeeded in 
1851 as professor in the university of Marburg, 
after having been in the interval employed by 
Playfair in London, and edited Liebig and 
Wohler'sHandwdrterfiuchder Chemie. In 1865 
he became professor at Leipsic. His principal 
works are: Das ausfunrlicJie LehrbucJi der 
organiscJien Chemie (vols. i. and ii., Brunswick, 
1854 and 1863), Das chemische Laboratorium 
der Universitdt Marburg (Marburg, 1865), and 
Die Entwickelung der GJiemie in der neuesten 
Zeit (Munich, 1871 etseq.\ 

KOLBE, Karl Wiihelm, a German painter, born 
in Berlin in 1781, died there, April 8, 1853. 
He was the nephew of an engraver and author 
of the same name (1757-1835), and became 
known in 1806 by his " Albert Achilles vic- 
torious in Nuremberg," and subsequently by 
many other works for Prussian churches and 
palaces, including " The Princess off for the 
Falcon Chase," " The Battle of Otho the Great 
against the Huns," and " A Vintage Festival 
in the Middle Ages." 


KOLCSEY, Ferenez, a Hungarian author, born 
in the county of Middle Szolnok, Aug. 8, 1790, 
died in Pesth, Aug. 24, 1838. He studied at 
the Protestant college of Debreczin, and, 
though deprived by an accident of one of his 
eyes, early distinguished himself. In 1809 he 
was appointed notary of the royal court at 
Pesth, and in 1826, with Paul Szemere, started 
a literary periodical under the title of Met 
es literatura ("Life and Literature"). In 
the diet of Presburg of 1832-' 6 he acquired 
new fame, and when Wesselenyi was arraigned 
for treason by the Austrian government, Kol- 
csey undertook his defence, but died suddenly 
soon after. His " Works," embracing songs, 
ballads, satires, short novels, critical writings, 
and some of his orations, were collected after 
his death, to which was added after the out- 
break of the revolution of 1848 his "Diary 
during the Diet of 1832-'6." 




KOLDEWEY, Karl, a German explorer, born 
at Bticken, Hanover, Oct. 26, 1837. He quali- 
fied himself for maritime life in the Bremen 
commercial navy, at the polytechnic school of 
Hanover, and at the university of Gottingen. 
He commanded in 1868 the first, and in 1869 
the second arctic expedition sent out by Dr. 
Petermann, and published accounts of them in 
that geographer's Mittheilungen. In 1871 he 
became first assistant in the observatory at 
Hamburg, and prepared under Dove's direction 
the meteorological and hydrographical results 
of the arctic voyage (Berlin, 1871-'2). 

KOLDING, a town of Jutland, Denmark, on 
the Koldingfiord (a large bay of the Little 
Belt), and on the railway from Flensburg to Fri- 
dericia, about 10 m. W. S. W. of the latter town ; 
pop. in 1870, 5,400. It contains the fine re- 
mains of Koldinghuus, a castle built in the 13th 
century as a royal residence, and burned in 
1808. Here the Schleswig-Holstein troops de- 
feated the Danes, and stormed the town, April 
23, 1849. About 7 m. from Kolding is the hill 
of Samlingsbanke, formerly included in Schles- 
wig, where immense meetings were held prior 
to 1848 to protest against the separation from 
Denmark. The obelisk on this spot was pulled 
down by the Germans in 1864; but it was 
restored by the Danes, who by the boundary 
treaty retained possession of the locality. 

KOLIX, or Kollin, a town of Bohemia, on the 
Elbe, 35 m. E. of Prague, on the railway from 
Vienna; pop. in 1870, 9,460. It consists of 
the city proper, which is surrounded by a wall, 
and four suburbs. It has a Gothic church, an 
old castle with fine grounds, a convent founded 
in 1666, a council house, and several factories. 
An obelisk was erected here in 1842 in hon- 
or of a victory gained June 18, 1757, by the 
Austrians over Frederick the Great. An inn 
is still in existence which was in the centre of 
Frederick's position, and from the windows of 
which he commanded his army. 

KOLLAR, Jan, a Slavic scholar and poet, born 
in N. W. Hungary in 1793, died in Vienna, 
Jan. 29, 1852. He studied at Presburg and 
Jena, took orders, and in 1819 became preach- 
er to an evangelical congregation at Pesth. In 
1849 he was made professor of archaeology in 
the university of Vienna. Being a Slovak by 
birth, he became a champion of the national 
Deration of his race, and the most zealous, 
if not the first, advocate of Panslavism, or 
of a union, literary and political, of all Slavic 
tribes. He developed this tendency in poetical 
works, written mostly in the Czech language, 
as well as in disquisitions on the antiquities of 
the Slavs. Among the former are his Edsne 
(" Poems," 1821), Slawy dcera (" The Daughter 
of Glory"), his most celebrated work, and 
Narodnie spiewanky (a collection of Slovak 
" Popular Songs") ; among the latter, Rozpra- 
wy o imenach (" Treatises on the Names " 
of the ancient Slavs), Slawa ~bohyni ("God- 
dess Slava "), " On the Literary Kelation of the 
Slavic Tribes and Dialects " (in German), Cesto- 

pis ("A Journey" for antiquarian purposes 
to northern Italy), and " Ancient Slavic Italy," 
a work in German, which was published after 
his death (Vienna, 1853). A complete edi- 
tion of his Spisy (" Writings ") was published 
in Prague (4 vols., 1860-'65). 

KOLLIKKK, Rudolf Albert, a German physi- 
ologist and inicroscopist, born in Zurich, July 
6, 1817. He studied at the gymnasium and 
university of his native town till 1839, when 
he went to Rome and soon after to Berlin. In 
the last named place he began the important 
microscopic investigations that first gave him 
his fame as a physiologist. His attention had 
first been directed to this branch of study while 
on a visit to the island of Fohr, off the coast 
of Schleswig, in 1840, and from that time he 
devoted himself almost exclusively to it. In 
1842 he was appointed assistant to Henle at 
Zurich, and in 1845 adjunct professor of physi- 
ology and comparative anatomy. In 1847 he 
became professor of the same branches at 
Wurzburg, and in 1849 of anatomy there. He 
has published Verzeichniss der Phanerogamen 
des Cantons Zurich (Zurich, 1839); Beitrdge 
zur Kenntniss der Geschlechtsverhaltnisse und 
der Samenflmsiglceit wirlelloser Thiere (Berlin, 
1841) ; De prima Insectorum Genesi (Zurich, 
1842) ; Entwickelung der Cephalopoden (1844) ; 
Microscopische Anatomie (2 vols., Leipsic, 1850- 
'54); Handbuch der Gewebelehre (1852; 5th 
ed., 1867); Die Entwiclcelung des MenscJien 
(1861); and Icones Histologicw (1864). He has 
been a frequent contributor to scientific peri- 
odicals, and was one of the founders of the 
medico-physical society of Wurzburg. He 
ranks among the greatest histologists ; and his 
works, the chief of which have been translated 
into English, belong to the highest authorities 
in anatomical science. 

KOLOMNA, a town of Eussia, in the govern- 
ment and 63 m. S. E. of the city of Moscow, 
near the confluence of the Moskva with the 
Oka, and on the great central railway; pop. 
in 1867, 19,890. It has an old citadel, a 
flourishing industry, and an important trade in 
provisions. In 1237 the Russians suffered here 
a crushing defeat by the Mongolians under 
Batu Khan. 

KOLOSHES, a name applied by the Russians 
to a family of Indian tribes on the N. W. coast 
of America, extending from lat. 54 40' to the 
Atna or Copper river, and comprising the 
Hydas, Hennegas, Tongas, Stikeens, Kakes, 
Koas, Kutznus, Awks, Sundowns, Takos, Chil- 
kahts, Hoodsuahoos, Hunnas, and Sitkas. Each 
tribe is divided into clans, like those in some 
of the eastern nations, and named the Bear, 
Eagle, Crow, Whale, and Wolf; and none can 
intermarry in his own clan. Descent is in 
the female line. They are a shrewd, bold, per- 
fidious people, evincing considerable ingenuity 
and skill. They are unprepossessing in ap- 
pearance, paint their faces, and wear a pin 
thrust through the lower lip. Their houses are 
of planks, set upright and roofed with bark, 



often 40 ft. wide, 60 deep, and 20 high, with 
sleeping apartments arranged at the sides. 
Their canoes are dugouts, 45 ft. long, orna- 
mented with carvings, and there are generally 
curiously carved posts in front of the houses. 
Their 'baidarkas, or skin boats, are inferior to 
those of the Esquimaux. They burn the dead, 
preserving their ashes in wooden boxes or 
tombs, curiously decorated. The Koloshes were 
visited by Behring in 1741, but they captured 
and destroyed two of his boats with their 
crews. During the absence of Baranov, the 
founder of Sitka, from that post in 1800, the 
Koloshes attacked it and murdered most of the 
garrison ; but Baranov, aided by Krusenstern's 
fleet, punished them. They continued hostile, 
and Sitka required a palisade. Their numbers 
are estimated at about 12,000. 


KONG, a mountain range of TV. Africa, run- 
ning E. and W. nearly parallel with the coast, 
on the N. frontier of Upper Guinea, and ter- 
minating on the Atlantic in a number of prom- 
ontories, the principal of which are Capes 
Verga and Sierra Leone. Its E. termination is 
not defined. Du Chaillu extends the name to 
the mountains which, connecting with those 
just described near the . river Niger, extend 
southward, in a direction generally parallel to 
the coast of Lower Guinea, and send off sev- 
eral branches toward the sea. One of these 
ramifications, the Serra do Cristal, extends from 

near Fernando Po island to the river Muni in 
lat. 1 N., and then returning inland rejoins the 
main range. Further inland, according to Du 
Chaillu, another offset called the Nkoomoo- 
Nabooalee mountains runs E. and W. The 
Kong mountains are very imperfectly known. 
The W. division does not exceed 2,500 ft. in 
average height, but in some places is believed to 
reach the limit of perpetual snow. Granite, 
marble, and limestone are the prevailing rocks. 
KONGSBERG, a town of Norway, in the prov- 
ince and 45 m. S. W. of the city of Christiania, 
at the foot of the Jonsknuden mountain, and 
near the Larbrofos waterfall, on the Laagen 
river; pop. about 5,000. It contains a hand- 
some church, and is renowned for its silver 
mines, the only ones in Norway. They were 
discovered in 1623, and are worked by the gov- 
ernment, which has established here the mint 
and mining department, powder mills, and 
smelting works for manufacturing cobalt and 
reducing and refining the silver ore. The an- 
nual yield of silver exceeds 30,000 Ibs. A 
specimen of native silver found in the principal 
mine, which is 180 fathoms deep, measuring 
6 ft. long, 2 ft. broad, and 8 in. thick, is in 
the Copenhagen museum ; and other enormous 
masses have been found at various times. 

KOMEII, or koniali (anc. Iconium), a city of 
Asia Minor, capital of the vilayet of its name, 
about 280 m. S. E. of Constantinople; pop. 
about 40,000. The stout walls which surround 


it were built from the ruins of ancient Iconium 
by the Seljuk sovereigns, and display some in- 
teresting Greek inscriptions and other relics 
which were so arranged in the mason work as 
to remain visible. Of more than 100 mosques 
which the city contains, 12 are large, and two 
are much admired for their magnificence. It 
has also several medreses or colleges, and the 
tomb of Mevlevi Jelal ed-Din, a Mussulman 
saint much revered throughout Turkey and 

the founder of the Mevlevi or whirling der- 
vishes. This tomb is surmounted by a dome 
resting upon a cylindrical tower of a bright 
green color, and is an object of pilgrimage. 
-Beyond the walls are suburbs as populous as 
the town itself. There are extensive gardens, 
and the surrounding country is in a high state 
ol cultivation, supplying grain and flax in 
abundance. Like all Turkish towns renowned 
tor superior sanctity, Konieh is full of der- 



vishes, who subsist on alms. The inhabitants 

are principally engaged in the manufacture of 

carpets, and of blue and yellow leather. They 

carry on a lively trade with Smyrna. The an- 

cient Iconium, which is mentioned by Xeno- 

phon, Cicero, and Strabo, and in the history 

of the apostles, was the 

capital of Lycaonia, 

but rose to importance 

only after the taking 

of Mcasa by the crusa- 

ders. The Seljuk sov- 

ereigns of Roum made 

the town their capital 

in the latter part of the 

llth century; Freder- 

ick Barbarossa assault- 

ed it in 1190 ; the sons 

of Genghis Khan sub- 

sequently became mas- 

ters of it ; and Bajazet 

II. made it the capital 

of Caramania in 1486. 

Ibrahim Pasha won 

here a decisive victory 

over the Turks, Dec. 

30, 1832. 

Hradec Krdlove), a for- 
tified town of Bohe- 
mia, at the junction of the Adler and the up- 
per Elbe, 65 m. E. by N. of Prague ; pop. in 
1870, 5,515. It is the capital of a large cir- 
cle, has four suburbs, and is the seat of a bish- 
opric. It contains an old palace and a fine 
cathedral, and musical instruments, gloves, 
rax candles, and other articles are manufac- 
tured. It is famous for the victory achieved 
in its vicinity, July 3, 1866, by the Prussians 
over the Austrians, generally known as the 
">attle of Sadowa. (See SADOWA.) 

RONIGINHOF (Boh. Kralodvor), a town of 
Bohemia, on the Elbe, 62 m. N". E. of Prague ; 
pop. in 1870, 6,222. In the spire of the parish 
church the Eulcopis Kralodvorsky ("Manu- 
script of Koniginhof "), a collection of epic 
and lyric Bohemian poems, was discovered in 
1817 by Hanka. Many critics doubt its genu- 
ineness, while others, including Palacky, assign 
its origin to the end of the 13th or the begin- 
mng^of the 14th century. 

ROMGSBEKG, a fortified city of Prussia, cap- 

ital of an administrative district and circle of 

the same name, in the province of East Prus- 

sia, on the river Pregel, about 5 m. from its 

mtrance into the Frisches Haff, an inlet of the 

altic, 335 m. N. E. of Berlin, and 75 m. E. K 

5. of Dantzic; pop. in 1871, 112,123. The 

ity is subdivided into the Altstadt on the west, 

the Lobenicht on the east, both lying high, 

and the Kneiphof, a low island on the Pregel, 

which is crossed by seven stone bridges and 

an iron railway bridge. There are also four 

suburbs. A railway connects Konigsberg with 

Berlin on the one hand and with St. Peters- 

burg on the other. Its port is Pillau, 20 m. 

W., on the Baltic, at the entrance of the Frisches 
Haff. There is a considerable trade, mostly 
with Great Britain ; the exports are bread- 
stuffs, flax, hemp, oil seeds, bones, timber, &c. ; 
the imports, colonial produce, iron, coal, cot- 
ton, and raw sugars. The chief manufactures 

KOnigsberg Cathedral. 

are textile fabrics, soap, leather, and starch. 
Sugar and silver refining, brewing, and distill- 
ing are carried on. Much amber was formerly 
found here, but the production has fallen off. 
The sturgeon fishery is important. The en- 
trances and clearances in 1871 amounted to 
3,276 vessels of 563,046 tons. The navigation 
of the river averages an annual entrance and 
clearance of 8,900 vessels. The city has 21 
churches, a synagogue, an exchange, a city 
hall, a theatre, two theological seminaries, three 
gymnasia, schools of all branches of fine arts, 
science, industry, and commerce, six hospitals, 
deaf and dumb and blind asylums, and many 
other charitable institutions. The most im- 
posing public btiilding is the cathedral, a Gothic 
structure, in which the religious service of the 
Reformed church was introduced in 1523. In 
a porch outside of the cathedral rest the re- 
mains of Kant, who was a native of Konigs- 
berg. The Schloss, or palace, now used for 
government offices, was once the residence of 
the grand masters of the Teutonic order, by 
whom the city was founded in 1255-'7, and 
also of the first dukes of Prussia. The uni- 
versity, founded in 1544 by Duke Albert, and 
hence called the Albertine university, was in 
a prosperous condition in the 16th century, 
when the attendance of students, now only 
600, was nearly 2,000. Since the castle and 
city libraries were placed in the university, 
it has a library of 220,000 volumes, numerous 
manuscripts, and valuable collections of incu- 
nabula and engravings. It also contains five 
clinical schools, a botanic garden, and a cele- 
brated observatory, which was under the di- 


rection of Bessel until his death in 1846, and 
contains one of the finest meridian globes in 
the world, prepared by Reichenbach. The first 
rector of the university was Georg Sabinus, 
the son-in-law of Melanchthon. It ^ became 
celebrated as the place where the philosophy 
of Kant was first propounded. Besides Kant, 
the names of Hamann, Hippel, Herder, Fichte, 
Herbart, and Jacobi are associated with the in- 
stitution. The new university buildings were 
completed in 1862. Konigsberg, which had 
been fortified by detached forts since 1843, has 
now been made one of the strongest fortresses 
of Prussia. 

KONIGSHCTTE, a town of Prussia, in the 
province of Silesia, formed in 1869 by the 
consolidation of the former domain of Konigs- 
hutte, which in 1864 had only 1,1 44 inhabitants, 
and several adjacent domains, 100 m. S. E. of 
Breslau; pop. in 1871, 19,546. It is one of 
the chief centres of the mining industry in the 
eastern portion of Prussia, and is the seat of a 
mining board which is subordinate to the su- 
preme mining board of Breslau. The produce 
of raw iron amounted in 1870 to about 1,000,- 
000 cwt. About 3,000 workmen are employed 
in the government coal mines, which produce 
about 16,000,000 cwt. annually. 

KONIGSMARK. I. Philip Christopher, count of , 
a Swedish adventurer, born about 1650, killed 
July 1, 1694. While a colonel in the Swedish 
service he went to the court of Hanover in 
1692. The prince elector (subsequently George 
I. of England) had married his cousin Sophia 
Dorothea, daughter of the duke of Celle, a 
princess celebrated for her beauty. Alienated 
from her husband by his gloomy and jealous 
character, Sophia was attracted by Konigs- 
mark, whom she had known when young, and 
availed herself of his offer to aid her to fly 
from the court of Hanover, where she was most 
unkindly treated, to France. Their interviews 
were watched, and one evening on quitting 
her he was assassinated by order of the elector. 
Dr. Doran, in his "Lives of the Queens of 
the House of Hanover," endeavors to exon- 
erate the princess from a guilty love for the 
gallant Swede ; but the fact of its existence is 
established by the letters which she exchanged 
with him, published by Palmblad (Leipsic, 
1847). II. Maria Aurora, sister of the preceding, 
born probably in Stade about 1670, died in 
Quedlinburg, Feb. 16, 1728. She was an or- 
phan, and went while yet a young girl to Dres- 
den, hoping to recover by royal intervention 
' her property, which was kept from her by 
Hamburg bankers. Augustus the Strong, the 
elector of Saxony and future king of Poland, 
made her his mistress, and by him she became 
mother of the celebrated Maurice of Saxony 
(Marshal Saxe). She was considered one of 
the most beautiful and accomplished women 
of her age. The last years of her life she spent 
in retirement as prioress of Quedlinburg. She 
left in manuscript a number of dramatic pieces 
and poems. The memorable incidents of her 


life were published by Cramer, DenTcwurdiglcei- 
ten der G-rafin Konigsmark (2 vols., Leipsic, 
1836), and a biography was written by Palm- 
blad (6 vols., Leipsic, 1848-'53). 

KONIGSTEIN, a town of Saxony, at the con- 
fluence of the Biela with the Elbe, 18 m. S. E. 
of Dresden ; pop. about 3,000. It is noted for 
its picturesque situation opposite the fortress 
of Konigstein, a formidable stronghold upon 
a mass of rock 800 ft. high, on the left bank 
of the Elbe. The fortress is accessible only 
through a strongly defended passage on the 
northwest. A well, cut in the solid rock to a 
depth of 600 ft., supplies the garrison with 
water, and casemates, likewise excavated, con- 
tain storehouses for provisions. By virtue of 
the military convention of Feb. 7, 1867, it was 
partly garrisoned by Prussians. According to 
the German constitution of 1871 the commander 
is appointed by the emperor, though the garri- 
son now consists exclusively of Saxon soldiers. 


KOOMASSIE, or Coomassie, a town of W. Af- 
rica, capital of Ashantee, about 105 m. N. by 
W. of Cape Coast Castle ; pop. (previous to its 
destruction in 1874) about 15,000. Its site is 
on the declivity of a hill of ironstone, around 
whose base flows the Suabin, a sluggish stream, 
which in the rainy season transforms the 
neighborhood into a swamp. Beyond it a 
dense forest extends to the coast on the south 
and several days' journey to the north. The 
town occupied a parallelogram about a mile in 
length by half a mile in breadth, and was laid 
out in squares, with broad, straight, and well 
kept streets. The principal ones, which were 
shaded with fine banian trees, were bordered 
with picturesque houses and verandas in front 
and projecting roofs, each having a large pub- 
lic room opening directly on the street, and 
smaller private rooms behind. The walls were 
of wattle work plastered with clay, the lower 
part colored with red ochre, the upper with 
white clay and ornamented with arabesque de- 
signs. In the rear of these houses, which were 
the residences of the chief men, were other 
buildings arranged in quadrangles, the homes 
of the slaves and retainers. N. of the road 
leading to Juabin was the king's palace, a col- 
lection of buildings and courtyards covering an 
area of five acres and surrounded by a palisade 
of bamboo 8 ft. high. It served at once as the 
royal abode, harem, mausoleum, and military 
magazine. The king's private residence was a 
strongly built edifice of two stories, of quarried 
stone plastered with lime mortar, enclosing a 
quadrangle 24 by 20 ft. It had a flat roof, and 
was fitted with battlements and loopholes for 
musketry. Within the town and extending 
nearly into its centre was the grove into which 
were thrown the bodies of the victims of the 
annual sacrifices, numbering frequently hun- 
dreds at a time. Koomassie had little trade 
and no manufactures of consequence, it being 
chiefly the place of residence of the sovereign 
and the nobles. It was founded about 1720. 



On Feb. 4, 1874, it was captured by the British 
under Gen. Sir Garnet Wolseley, and on the 
morning of the 6th the town was destroyed by 
fire, and the palace blown up ; but it was soon 
after reoccupied by the natives, who immediate- 
ly began to rebuild it. Within a few months 

The King's Palace in Koomassie. 

after its capture several volumes were pub- 
lished in London descriptive of the campaign, 
chiefly by newspaper correspondents: "The 
March to Coomassie," by G. A. Henty of the 
London "Standard;" "Coomassie and Mag- 
dala," by Henry M. Stanley of the " New York 
Herald," &c. (See GOLD COAST.) 




KOOSSO, Kosso, or Cnsso, the Abyssinian name 
of the flowers and tops of Bray era anihelmin- 
tica, a small tree of the order rosacecs, growing 
on the high table land of Abyssinia. These are 
brought to Europe in a dry, compressed, green- 
ish yellow mass. This drug has been long used 
by the natives of the country whence it comes 
as a remedy for tapeworm, and it has been in- 
troduced into European practice. It appears 
to act principally as a poison to the parasite, 
though it sometimes produces nausea or even 
vomiting and diarrhoea. It is given in the form 
of powder mixed with warm water in the dose 
of half an ounce for an adult. The active 
principle has not been determined with cer- 
tainty, though the drug contains among other 
substances a resin, a volatile oil, a crystalliza- 
ble acid, and extractive matter. 

KOOTEMIS, a tribe of Indians in the north- 
west of the United States, with some bands in 
British Columbia. They form a distinct family, 
as shown by their language, from the Flatheads, 
with whom they have long been allied. They 
comprise the Kootenays and the Flatbows, and 
are known through the country as the Skalzi. 
They are gentle, amiable, honest, but cowardly, 

indolent, and indisposed to labor or to adopt 
civilized ideas. They live on fish, camash and 
other roots, grain, fruit, and berries, and are 
very poor. They roamed chiefly on the head 
waters of the Clark and McGilvray rivers, 
seldom hunted buffalo, but took elk, deer, 
Rocky mountain sheep, 
birds, and fish. They 
welcomed Father De 
Smet, and built a large 
chapel on the Tobacco 
Plain, but from their 
thriftless life have made 
little progress, except 
a few under Eneas, who 
reside somewhat per- 
manently on Flathead 
lake. In 1872 there 
were 320 Kootenays in 
Montana, with the Flat- 
heads and Pend d'Oreil- 
les, sharing their vicis- 
situdes and removal to 
Jocko; 400 in Idaho, 
400 in British Colum- 
bia, and some in Wash- 
ington territory. Those 
in Idaho, by executive 
order of June 14, 1867, 
were removed to a res- 
ervation of 250,000 acres set apart for them. 

KOPISCH, August, a German poet and painter, 
born in Breslau, May 26, 1799, died in Berlin, 
Feb. 3, 1853. While in Italy, in his early life, 
he was one of the discoverers of the blue grotto 
in the island of Capri. Among his most popu- 
lar poems are the " Song of Noah " and other 
witty and humorous pieces. He also translated 
Dante. His Gesammelte Werke, edited by K. 
Botticher, appeared in Berlin in 1856, in 5 vols. 
ROPITAR, Bartholomans, a Slavic philologist, 
born at Repnje, Carniola, Aug. 23, 1780, died 
in Vienna, Aug. 11, 1844. He studied at 
Laybach, and became a private tutor. In 1807 
he went to Vienna, where he found employ- 
ment in the imperial library, of which he be- 
came first director shortly before his death, 
with the title of councillor. He was prom- 
inent among the scholars who have brought 
light into the more obscure parts of Slavic eth- 
nology, philology, and literature. His works 
include Grammatik der slawiscJien Sprache in 
Krain, &c. (Laybach, 1808) ; Glagolita Clozi- 
anus (Vienna, 1836); and posthumous minor 
essays on Slavic philology, ethnology, history, 
and jurisprudence, edited by Miklosich (Vien- 
na, 1857). 

KOPP, Joseph Entyeh, a Swiss historian, born 
at Beromunster, Lucerne, in 1793, died Oct. 25, 
1866. He was professor of Greek at Lucerne 
from 1819 to 1841, and afterward a member of 
the council of state and president of the board 
of education till 1845, when he was removed 
on account of his opposition to the restora- 
tion of the Jesuits. He has been called the Nie- 
buhr of Switzerland. In his Urlcunden zur 



Beleuchtung der Geschichte der eidgenossischen 
Bllnde (2 vols., Lucerne, 1835-'51), he dis- 
proves the authenticity of the story of William 
Tell, and questions the propriety of the Swiss 
rising against the emperor Albert. His princi- 
pal work, Geschichte der eidgenossischen Bilnde 
(5 vols., Leipsic, 1845-'62), was continued after 
his death by Alois Ltitolf and Arnold Busson 
(Berlin, 1872). 

KOPPARBERG (formerly FAHLUN), a Ian or 
district of Sweden, in the province of Svea- 
land, bounded N. by Jemtland, E. by. Gefle- 
borg, S. and S. W. by Westmanland, Orebro, 
and Wermland, and W. by Norway; area, 11,- 
230 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 178,890. It is very 
mountainous, and contains several valleys and 
branches of the river Dal and its tributaries. 
Rye, barley, and oats thrive chiefly in the 
southeast. Cattle are extensively reared, and 
the lakes and rivers abound in fish. But the 
prosperity of the district is mainly derived 
from its great wealth of timber and minerals. 
The copper mines are the largest in Sweden, 
and porphyry is converted here into many fine 
articles, and ironware is made in large quan- 
tities. The inhabitants are Dalecarlians, and 
their district was long known as a province un- 
der the name of Dalecarlia. Capital, Fahlun. 

KOPPEN, Friedrich, a German philosopher, 
born in Lubeck, April 21, 1775, died in Er- 
langen, Sept. 5, 1858. He studied theology in 
Jena, but he attended also the lectures of Rein- 
hold and Fichte, and after spending a year in 
Gottingen he published his first work, Abhand- 
lung liber Offenbarung, in Bezug auf Kanfsche 
und Fichtc'sche Philosophic (Lubeck, 1797), 
which passed through several editions. Next 
appeared his polemical disquisition on Schel- 
ling's philosophical system, entitled Schelling^s 
Lehre, oder das Ganze der Philosophic des abso- 
luten Niclits (Hamburg, 1803). He adopted in 
general the opinions of Jacobi, and his subse- 
quent works, Darstellung des Wesens der Phi- 
losophic (1810), Philosophic des Christenthums 
(1813-'15), Politik nach Platonischen Grund- 
sdtzen (1818), and Rechtslehre nach Plato- 
nischen Grundsdtzen (1819), attempt to demon- 
strate the compatibility of critical philosophy 
and Christianity, basing faith and morality on 
personal consciousness. He preached in Bre- 
men from 1804 to 1807, and was afterward pro- 
fessor in the university of Landshut until its 
dissolution in 1826, when he accepted a chair 
in Erlangen. In 1840 he published anony- 
mously a Philosophic der Philosophic. 

KOPPM, Peter von, a Russian archaeologist, 
born in Kharkov, Feb. 19, 1793, died at Kara- 
bagh, Crimea, June 4, 1864. 'He studied in the 
university of Kharkov, and devoted himself at 
' once to researches on the history, ethnology, 
and material condition of the Russian empire. 
The first fruit of his labors was the Uebersicht 
der Quellen einer Literdrgeschichte Russlands 
(St. Petersburg, 1818), which was followed in 
1822 by a collection of Slavo-Russian antiqui- 
ties and facsimiles of manuscripts. His Nord- 


gestade des Pontus (Vienna, 1823), Die dreige- 
staltete Hekate und ihre Rolle in den Mysterien 
(1823), and his articles in German periodicals 
on the antiquities and arts of Russia, furnished 
valuable materials for archaeological researches. 
In 1827 appeared 'his Materialien zur Cultur- 
geschichte Russlands. At this time he entered 
the service of the government, investigated the 
productiveness and hydrography of the prov- 
inces of southern Russia, and published several 
works on the results of his researches. His nu- 
merous travels through the empire gave him a 
thorough acquaintance with the various ele- 
ments of the population, and he published in 
the following years several highly esteemed 
ethnological works, among them Ueber die Na- 
tionalitat der Bewohner verschiedener Gouverne- 
ments, Ueber die Vertheilung einzelner Volker- 
stamme, and Ueber die Deutschen im Peters- 
burger Gouvernement. The final result of these 
labors was a large ethnological chart of Euro- 
pean Russia, published in 1851. His last im- 
portant work is an exhaustive treatise on the 
ninth census, Deviataya reviza (St. Petersburg, 
1857). He spent his last years on the estate 
of Karabagh, presented to him by the emperor. 
KORAN, or Alkoran (Arab, qurdn, the read- 
ing, or that which ought to be read ; hence, 
" the book "), the sacred book of the Moham- 
medans. It is their chief authority not only 
in matters of faith, but in all others, whether 
political, military, or ethical. Among its nu- 
merous designations, Furqdn, that which dis- 
tinguishes (between good and evil), Al-Kitdb, 
the book, Al-Moshaf, the volume, and Al-Wilcr, 
the admonisher, are of most frequent occur- 
rence. It consists of 114 surds or chapters, 
each bearing a title which either affords a key 
to the contents, or is merely a word contained 
in it used as a heading. Thus the second sura 
is headed " Cow," which word occurs only in 
the 63d verse, where it is said that Moses 
commanded the Israelites to sacrifice a cow. 
Twenty-nine suras commence with letters of 
the alphabet believed to bear a mystical signi- 
fication. With the exception of the ninth, each 
sura begins with the formula Bism-illahi er- 
rahmani er-rahimi, "In the name of the God 
of pity and mercy." The first sura, or the 
sentences that open the Koran, is the model 
prayer of the Mohammedans, and bears several 
titles, such as the Fatihat (exordium), " The 
Mother of the Koran," " The Pearl," " The 
All-sufficient." The words are these: " Praise 
be to God, the lord of the world, the pitying 
and merciful, the sovereign judge in the day 
of retribution ! Thou art he whom we adore ! 
Thou art he whom we implore to help us ! 
Lead us in the straight way ; in the way which 
thou hast strewn with benefits, and which lead- 
eth not into error ! " The other suras are ar- 
ranged almost entirely according to the number 
of verses they contain, the longest being the 
second, and the shortest the last. The suras 
are divided into uyats or verses. For the pur- 
pose of recitation in the mosques, the Koran is 


divided into 30 adjzds or parts, and 60 amis 
or sections, each of four portions. As Mo- 
hammed continued his revelations during 23 
years amid many vicissitudes, there is often 
but little connection between the suras, or the 
verses of each sura. According to the various 
occasions on which they were delivered, some 
portions contain dogmas, others conversations 
with God, rules of conduct, arguments in de- 
fence of doctrines, threats and promises, &c. 
It is generally believed that Mohammed was 
wholly unacquainted with writing, and dicta- 
ted the passages of the Koran to amanuenses. 
The arrangement of the chapters and verses 
was made, according to the tradition of Ibn 
Abbas, during the lifetime of the prophet, and 
many Mohammedans believe that the other 
divisions were also made under his supervision. 
The style of the Koran is rather rhetorical than 
poetic, and its contents are to a large ex- 
tent drawn from the ancient traditions of the 
Arabs, the Hebrew Bible, the Christian New 
Testament, the Talmud and Midrash of the 
later Jews, the tenets of the Magi, and many 
apocryphal writings, the so-called protevange- 
lia. These materials, of course, suffered many 
changes and perversions. The Mohammedans 
believe that the revelations delivered to Mo- 
hammed from time to time were of two kinds : 
first, those wherein were given the words de- 
livered by the prophet ; and secondly, those 
in which was given the sense of what he after- 
ward communicated in his own words. Mo- 
hammed's revelation, according to the Koran, 
resulted from his being transported in a vis- 
ion from Mecca to Jerusalem, and* thence to 
heaven, where he " really beheld some of the 
greatest signs of his Lord." This is all that 
the Mohammedan is bound to believe concern- 
ing the revelation of the Koran ; but the Jiadi- 
ses, or traditions, which contain long and won- 
drous details of this vision, are also believed 
in by many ; and these consider Mohammed's 
journey to heaven as real, or as having been 
performed by the prophet in the body. These 
traditions are known as "the splitting or 
opening of the chest," and the "night jour- 
ney." Leaving the minor variations of the 
story unnoticed, the liadises narrate that on 
the night of the celestial journey the roof of Mo- 
hammed's house in the city of Mecca was sud- 
denly removed; the angel Gabriel descended 
and touched the heels of the prophet, who was 
lying on his back ; when he awoke, the angel 
cut open his breast to below his navel ; then a 
white animal, somewhat between a mule and 
an ass, called borak, was brought, and they 
rode to Jerusalem, where they performed cer- 
tain rites; they ascended thereupon through 
the heavens, meeting Adam in the first, Jesus 
and John in the second, Joseph in the third, 
Aaron in the fourth, Edres in the fifth, Moses 
in the sixth, and Abraham in the seventh; 
then they were taken up to the "boundary 
tree," and then to God, who "revealed to me 
what he revealed." After they had passed 

from that place a heavenly herald proclaimed 
aloud, " I have established my commandments 
and made them easy to my servants." The tra- 
dition related by Omar represents Mohammed 
as declaring that when he returned from the 
heavens he alighted in the house of Khadijah, 
his wife, so soon that she had not even turned 
herself from one side to the other. The tra- 
ditions that the Koran was brought down from 
heaven by the angel Gabriel, that it was writ- 
ten on the skin of the ram which Abraham 
sacrificed instead of his son Isaac, that it was 
bound in silk and ornamented with gold and 
pearls, and similar ones, are believed in by very 
few, and form no part of the Mohammedan 
religion. The compilation of the fragments of 
the Koran was not undertaken until after the 
death of Mohammed. Portions of it were scat- 
tered among his disciples, either written on 
parchment, bones, stones, and palm leaves, or 
merely committed to memory; and when in 
the ensuing contests with the rebellious people 
of Yemainah many of the Moslems were slain 
who knew large portions of the Koran by heart, 
it was feared that much of it might be lost, and 
Omar caused the caliph Abu Bekr to collect all 
he could. Said ibn Said was intrusted with 
this work, and the copy of his compilation re- 
mained in the possession of Abu Be"kr. At 
the death of the latter the Koran was handed 
to Omar, who bequeathed it to his daughter 
Hafsah, a widow of the prophet. The Mos- 
lems continued to read and recite their Koran 
as they could until about ten years later, when 
the caliph Othman employed the same Said ibn 
Said and several other Koreishites to write a 
number of copies of Hafsah's Koran, revising 
it, and making additions to it wherever need- 
ed. These copies were to constitute the final 
authority for the reading of the text, and in 
order to avoid all further disputes Othman 
ordered the destruction of all other copies ex- 
cept Hafsah's ; but hers was subsequently also 
destroyed by the caliph of Medina. While 
thus a great injury was inflicted upon theo- 
logical criticism* it was, politically speaking, a 
wise procedure to reduce the Koran, which 
had to serve also as a civil and criminal code, 
to a single reading. This revised text is the 
Koran which has descended to our day. Criti- 
cism has been greatly concerned in discovering 
wherein this last revision consisted. A care- 
ful reading of the present Koran shows that 
many passages are mere fragments, which were 
added without careful selection to other por- 
tions of it. It is not believed that the revisers 
excluded anything that belonged to the Koran 
except what was not sufficiently authenticated 
as forming a part of it. It is also not likely 
that they attempted a systematic arrangement 
of the suras, because each of them treats of a 
great number of subjects. A chronological or- 
der was also impossible, because accurate ac- 
counts of the older pieces were already want- 
ing, and also because fragments of different 
periods had already been placed in permanent 


connection with other portions of the Koran. 
For a proper understanding of the Koran a 
restoration to chronological order would be 
necessary, and this is apparently impossible. 
The Moslem traditions in regard to the time 
when Mohammed revealed a particular sura 
have to be admitted with great caution ; and 
besides being frequently contradictory among 
themselves, they throw but little light on the 
suras which were given out before Moham- 
med's flight to Medina. The difference of the 
position which the prophet held before and 
after this event could not fail to become ap- 
parent in the general character of his sayings. 
The suras of the earlier epoch may be recog- 
nized by their intense enthusiasm; they are 
generally short: Mohammed has visions of 
angels, of the day of retribution, and of God, 
and his animadversions on his enemies are 
replete with passion and anger. The later 
suras still contain some of the old fire, but 
their general tenor is calm and prosaic, and 
most of them seem to be little else than general 
army orders and portions of a civil and crim- 
inal code. A necessary consequence of the 
fragmentary composition of the Koran was fre- 
quent contradictions. Mohammedan divines 
have, however, surmounted the difficulties ari- 
sing from these. When there are two con- 
tradictory laws on one and the same subject, 
they explain the one as being munsulch, and 
the other as nasikh. They say that such com- 
mandments were given under different circum- 
stances, and that when one of the circumstan- 
ces was wanting the commandment relating 
thereto was void, or munsulch ; and that then 
"the commandment became in force, or nasilch, 
which was intended to meet the altered cir- 
cumstances. (For theological and sectarian in- 
terpretations of the text, see MOHAMMEDAN- 
ISM. For the dialect in which the Koran is 
written, and the native literature to which it 
has given rise, see AEABIO LANGUAGE AND LIT- 
EEATUEE.) It is common in the Orient to 
ascribe every ancient manuscript of the Koran 
to the time and even the hand of one of the 
first caliphs, and several libraries boast of pos- 
sessing the earliest copy written by Othman 
himself, while it is very doubtful whether he 
was personally engaged in the revision of the 
text. Thus it is said that there are manuscript 
Korans of the age of Othman and Ali at Con- 
stantinople, Damascus, and Cairo. It is be- 
lieved that some portions of it now preserved 
at Copenhagen date from the first century of 
the hegira. Printed editions have been pre- 
pared by Pagninus Brixiensis (Venice, 1509 
or 1518, burnt by order of Clement VIII.); 
Hinkelmann (Hamburg, 1694), the oldest now 
known; Mollah Usman Isinael (St. Peters- 
burg, 1787), with valuable marginal notes; 
and G. Fliigel (Leipsic, 1834), revised by Red- 
slob (1837, 1842, and 1858). The following 
are editions of the original with versions: 
Muzih-i Koran, with a Hindustani interlinear 
version and notes, by Maulana Shah Abdel Ka- 


der, Calcutta, 1829-'32 ; with an English ver- 
sion, Serampore, 1833, and Persian commenta- 
ries, Calcutta, 1837. There are English trans- 
lations by Alexander Ross (London, 1649 ; new 
ed., 1871), G. Sale (2 vols., London, 1734), and 
Rodwell (London, 1861). The history of the 
Koran is given by Noldeke, Geschichte des 
Qordns (Gottingen, 1860), and by Sprenger in 
his valuable work, Das Leben und die Lehre 
des Mohammed (3 vols., Berlin, 1868). The es- 
says " On the Holy Koran," " On the Moham- 
medan Traditions," and "On the Mohamme- 
dan Theological Literature," by Syed Ahmed 
Khan Bahadoor (London, 1870), are interest- 
ing as the opinions of a learned Mussulman. 

KOKAT, a neutral territory of Asia, governed 
by an independent prince, on the boundaries 
of Siam and Cambodia; pop. about 60,000. 
The people are chiefly engaged in making sugar 
and in copper mining. The capital, of the 
same name, 138 m. N. E. of Bangkok, has 
about 7,000 inhabitants. It is on an elevated 
plateau, accessible only by ascending a thickly 
wooded steep, called Dorg Phaja Fai, " forest 
of the king of fire," on account of its gloomy 
aspect and foul atmosphere. 

KORDOFAN, a country of E. Africa, subject 
to the khedive of Egypt, lying between lat. 12 
30' and 15 30' N., and Ion. 29 and 32 E., 
bounded N". by Nubia and S. by the Deir moun- 
tains, and separated by strips of mostly des- 
ert land from the White Nile on the E. and 
Darfoor on the W. ; pop. estimated at 400,000. 
The surface is in general level, but in the south- 
west and extreme north it is rather mountain- 
ous. There are no permanent rivers, but sev- 
eral small lakes exist in different parts of the 
country. The climate is very unhealthy in the 
rainy season, and in the dry intolerably hot ; 
hurricanes are frequent. The soil is naturally 
fertile. In the wet season the earth is covered 
with a luxuriant vegetation, but during the 
drought everything is burned up. The popu- 
lation consists of negroes, Arabs, and emigrants 
from Dongola. This country was for a long 
period tributary to the empire of Sennaar ; it 
was taken in the latter half of the 18th century 
by the king of Darfoor, and was conquered by 
Mehemet Ali about 1820, who was confirmed in 
the possession of it by a firman issued by the 
sultan, Feb. 13, 1841. Slavery was abolished 
there in 1857. Capital, Obeid, or El Obeid. 

KORNEGALLE, a town of Ceylon, 55 m. N. E. 
of Colombo, noted for its beautiful situation 
within the shade of a stupendous rock, for 
the remains of a city, once one of the capitals 
of Ceylon, and for an ancient temple where 
the footprint of Buddha is hollowed in the 
rock, in the same manner as on Adam's Peak, 
and to which pilgrims resort from the most 
distant part of the island. The place is sur- 
rounded by dense forests, and every cottage of 
the modern town has a garden. 

E.ORNER, Karl Theodor, a German poet, born 
in Dresden, Sept. 23, 1791, killed near Rosen- 
berg, Mecklenburg, Aug. 26, 1813. His father 



intended him for scientific pursuits, and sent 
liim to the mining academy of Freiberg ; but 
he early displayed a strong taste for poetry, 
inspired by Schiller, who was an intimate 
friend of his father, and in 1810 published his 
first volume of poems under the title of Knos- 
pen, or " Buds." Having studied for a short 
time at the university of Leipsic, he went to 
Berlin, and soon after to Vienna, where he 
wrote his dramas Toni and Hedwig, and the 
tragedies Zriny and Rosamunda, and was ap- 
pointed poet to the Burgtheater. During the 
German "war of freedom" against Napoleon 
Korner joined the "black huntsmen" of Ltit- 
zow (March, 1813), with whom he entered 
Saxony. His bravery soon gave him a reputa- 
tion and the rank of lieutenant. It was during 
this exciting life that he wrote those patriotic 
songs which, set to music by Weber, have since 
become so well known. During the night of 
Aug. 25, 1813, while waiting in a wood to at- 
tack a small detachment of French troops, he 
wrote his celebrated ScJiwertlied, or " Sword 
Song." At 7 o'clock on the morning of the 
26th Liitzow attacked the French, who took 
refuge in the wood while Korner pursued 
them. Between the fires of his own men and 
the enemy he was mortally wounded. His 
corpse was crowned with oak leaves and buried 
beneath an old oak, near the village of Wob- 
belin. Near the spot is now placed a fine 
monument of iron, designed by the architect 
Thormayer, which has become a place of great 
resort for visitors. A selection of his battle 
songs was prepared by his father and published 
under the title of Leier und ScJiwert (Berlin, 
1814). His complete works were published by 
the direction of his mother, and edited by 
Streckfuss (1 vol., Berlin, 1834; 4 vols., 1838). 
His " Life, written by his Father, with his Se- 
lections from his Poems, Tales, and Dramas," 
translated from the German by G. F. Rich- 
ardson^ appeared in London in 1845. 

KOROS, or Nagy-Koros, a town of Hungary, 
in the county and 42 m. S. E. of the city of 
Pesth, on the railway to Szegedin ; pop. in 
1870, 20,091. It has a gymnasium. The in- 
habitants are mostly Magyars, and chiefly en- 
gaged in raising stock and in cultivating wine 
and corn. 

KORTETZ, or Cortitz, an island of Russia, in 
the Dnieper river, 165 ft. above its level, in 
the government and about 40 m. south of the 
town of Yekaterinoslav. It is surrounded by 
masses of granite, and was a stronghold of the 
Cossacks until their removal in 1784, when the 
island, with its 16 villages, of which the prin- 
cipal one is named Kortetz, was selected by 
Catharine II. for a settlement of German Men- 
nonites, who are chiefly agriculturists. It has 
manufactures of cotton and woollen goods. 

KORTiJM, Johann Friedrich Christoph, a Ger- 
man historian, born at Eichhorst, Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz, Feb. 24, 1788, died in Heidelberg, June 
4, 1858. He was successively a teacher in 
Fellenberg's school at Hofwyl and in other 
471 VOL. x. 4 

places, and professor of history at Basel, Bern, 
and Heidelberg. His principal works are Ge- 
schichte des Mittelalters (2 vols., Bern, 1836-'7), 
GescJiichte Griechenlands (3 vols., Heidelberg, 
1854), and GescTiicJite Europas im Uebergange 
vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit, edited by Reich- 
lin-Meldegg (2 vols.,. Leipsic, 1861). 

KORTlhi, Karl Arnold, a German poet, born at 
Muhlheim on the Ruhr, July 5, 1745, died in 
Bochum, Aug. 15, 1824. He was a physician, 
and is known for his humorous and satirical 
poetry, including De Jobsiade, an epic (3 parts, 
Minister, 1784; llth ed., Leipsic, 1865; Eng- 
lish translation by the Rev. C. T. Brooks, Phila- 
delphia, 1863). 

KORVEI, or Corrcy, a village of Westphalia, 
Prussia, in the district and 42 m. S. E. of Min- 
den, on the left bank of the Weser ; pop. about 
600. It is beautifully situated, and has a har- 
bor and an annual fair. It is the residence 
of Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst, 
upon whom the title of duke of Ratibor and 
prince of Korvei was conferred in 1840. The 
church is a fine Gothic building, and the palace 
contains a large library and a collection of rare 
illustrated works. Korvei acquired celebrity 
through a Benedictine abbey, founded early in 
the 9th century by the emperor Louis le D6- 
bonnaire as a branch of that of Corbie in Pi- 
cardy, whence the name (Gorbeia Nova). It 
was directly under the authority of the pope, 
and became next to Fulda the greatest mission- 
ary centre for the diffusion of Christianity. 
Among its members were Anscarius, the apos- 
tle of the north, Bruno, who became pope as 
Gregory V., Wittekind, Wibald, and other re- 
nowned personages. A copy of Tacitus, with 
the only manuscript extant of the first six books 
of the " Annals," was discovered in the exten- 
sive library of the abbey in 1514, but was taken 
away, and is said to have passed into the hands 
of Pope Leo X., and to have been transferred 
to Florence. The abbey had a vote in the 
German diet, and claimed possession of the 
island of Riigen, which according to tradition 
had been given to" it by the emperor Lothaire. 
At the end of the 18th century Pius VI. pro- 
moted the abbey to a see; and after having 
belonged to the duchy of Nassau (1803) and 
the kingdom of Westphalia (1807), it was 
allotted to Prussia in 1815. The abbey was 
suppressed by the pope in 1816, while the king 
of Prussia in 1821 raised the territory belong- 
ing to it to a principality, which was bestowed 
on the landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rothen- 
burg, and subsequently inherited by Prince 
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst. Among the most 
renowned intellectual treasures of the former 
abbey was the Chronicon Corbeiense, long re- 
garded as a high authority on medieval history. 
It was first edited in 1824, but its genuineness 
has been impugned by Ranke and others. The 
Annales Corbeienses, however, included in vol. 
iii. of Pertz's Monumenta Germanim Historica, 
are regarded as authentic. (See Wigand, Die 
Korveischen Geschichtsquellen, Leipsic, 18410 


KOSCIUSKO, a K county of Indiana, drained 
by Tippecanoe river ; area, 567 sq. in. ; pop. in 
1870, 23,531. The surface is undulating and 
the soil mostly productive. It is diversified 
with several lakes and prairies. The Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago, and the Cin- 
cinnati, Wabash, and Michigan railroads pass 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 528,502 bushels of wheat, 276,820 of In- 
dian corn, 73,591 of oats, 75,755 of potatoes, 
86,430 Ibs. of wool, 448,364 of butter, and 
18,005 tons of hay. There were 7,964 horses, 
6,504 milch cows, 7,740 other cattle, 29,909 
sheep, and 19,443 swine; 6 manufactories of 
carriages, 2 of woollen goods, 7 flour mills, and 
37 saw mills. Capital, Warsaw. 

KOSCIUSKO, Mount. See AUSTRALIA, vol. ii., 
p. 129. 

KOSCIUSZKO, Tadensz (THADDEUS), a Polish 
patriot, born near Novogrudek, Lithuania, Feb. 
12, 1746, died in Solothurn, Switzerland, Oct. 
15, 1817. He was descended from a noble Lith- 
uanian family, studied at the military academy 
of Warsaw, and was sent to the military school 
at Versailles to complete his studies* at the ex- 
pense of the state. On his return to Poland he 
rose, to the rank of captain, but an unrequited 
passion for the daughter of the marshal of 
Lithuania induced him to leave his country. 
He embarked for America, where he received 
a commission as an officer of engineers, Oct. 18, 
1776, and repaired to his post with the troops 
under Gates. He planned the encampment and 
post of the army on the range of hills called 
Bemis heights, near Saratoga, from which, after 
two well fought actions, Burgoyne found it im- 
possible to dislodge the Americans. Kosciusz- 
ko was subsequently the principal engineer in 
executing the works at West Point, and became 
one of the adjutants of Washington, under whom 
he served with distinction. From Franklin he 
received the most marked expressions of es- 
teem and commendation. Finally he was made 
a brigadier general, and was honored with the 
public thanks of congress, and with the badge 
of the Cincinnati. At the end of the war he 
returned to Poland, where he lived several 
years in retirement. In 1789, when the Polish 
army was reorganized, he was appointed a ma- 
jor general. He fought gallantly in defence of 
the constitution of May 3, 1791, under Prince 
Poniatowski against the Russians, and partic- 
ularly in the battle of Zielence (June 18, 1792), 
and in that of Dubienka (July 17), where with 
but 4,000 men he kept at bay 15,000 Russians, 
and finally made his retreat without great loss. 
When King Stanislas submitted to the second 
partition of Poland, Kosciuszko resigned his 
commission and retired to Leipsic, .where he 
received from the national assembly the citi- 
zenship of France, He was bent, however, on 
another effort for Poland. A rising of his coun- 
trymen was secretly planned, and Kosciuszko 
elected dictator and general-in-chief . Sudden- 
ly appearing at Cracow, March 24, 1794, he 
issued a manifesto against the Bussians, and, 


with a hastily collected host, armed -mostly 
with scythes, advanced to meet the enemy. 
At Raclawice (April 4) he routed with 5,000 
men a Russian corps almost doubly strong, and 
returned in triumph to Cracow. He received 
reinforcements from some former Polish de- 
tachments, and, committing the conduct of 
government affairs to a national council organ- 
ized by himself, moved forward in quest of 
the Russian army. His march was opposed 
by the king of Prussia at the head of 40,000 
men, and Kosciuszko, whose force amounted 
to but 13,000, was defeated, June 6, 1794, at 
Szczekociny. Being unable to check the an- 
archy that existed everywhere in the land, 
Kosciuszko had laid do ton the dictatorship and 
now retired with his army to Warsaw, which 
city he defended with great success against the 
beleaguering Prussians and Russians. When 
the siege was raised, he reorganized his army, 
and went out to check the progress of the. 
Russian forces under Suvaroff and Fersen, 
but was routed by their overwhelming num. 
bers at Maciejowice, Oct. 10. Kosciuszko, 
falling covered with wounds from his horse, 
was captured by the Russians, and consigned 
to a prison in St. Petersburg. His imprison- 
ment was rigorously continued during two 
years, until the death of Catharine, when the 
emperor Paul gave him his liberty, with many 
marks of esteem. The czar, on releasing his 
prisoner, offered him his own sword. "I 
have no need of a sword," said Kosciuszko; 
" I have no country to defend." No sooner 
had he crossed the Russian frontier than he 
sent back to the czar the patent of his pension, 
and every testimonial of Russian favor. Hence- 
forth his life was passed in retirement. In 
1797 he visited the United States, where he 
was received with great honor and distinction, 
and obtained from congress a grant of land, in 
addition to a pension which he had received 
since the close of the war. Taking up his 
abode thereafter in France, he lived chiefly 
at a country place near Fontainebleau, pass- 
ing his time in agricultural pursuits. In 1806 
Napoleon, about to invade Poland, desired 
to make use of the patriot; but Kosciuszko, 
under parole not to fight against Russia, re- 
fused to lend himself to his purpose. When 
the allies approached Paris in 1814, Kosciusz- 
ko observed a Polish regiment committing acts 
of pillage. Rushing forward, he upbraided 
the officers for their conduct "Who is he 
who dares to speak thus?" they exclaimed. 
"I am Kosciuszko," he replied. The effect 
of his name upon the soldiers was electric. 
Throwing down their arms, they prostrated 
themselves at his feet, and supplicated his par- 
don. The emperor Alexander, who, in an au- 
dience subsequently, held him long in conver- 
sation, made him the most flattering promises. 
Kosciuszko repaired to Vienna, but after the 
battle of Waterloo he was strangely neglected, 
and soon left the seat of the great European 
congress. In 1816 he went to live in Switzer- 




land, making his home at Solothurn, whence in 
the following year he sent a deed of manumis- 
sion to all the serfs upon his Polish estate. 
His death was caused by a fall from his horse 
over a precipice. His remains were removed 
by the emperor Alexander to the cathedral 
church of Cracow, where they repose by the 
side of Poniatowski and Sobieski. Near Cra- 
cow there is a mound of earth 150 ft. high, 
which was raised to his memory by the people, 
earth being brought from every great battle 
field of Poland. From a fancied resemblance 
in shape to this tumulus, the loftiest known 
mountain in Australia has received the name 
of Mount Kosciusko. 

KOSEGARTEN, Johann Gottfried Ludwig, a Ger- 
man orientalist, son of the poet Ludwig Theo- 
bul Kosegarten, born in Altenkirchen, Sept. 
10, 1792, died in Greifswald, Aug. 18, 1860. 
He went to Paris in 1812 to study the oriental 
languages under Chezy and Sylvestre de Sacy. 
On his return to Germany in 1815 he was ap- 
pointed to the chair of oriental literature at 
Greifswald, and in 1817 he accepted the same 
professorship at Jena, but returned in 1824 to 
Greifswald. Among his works are an edition 
of the Moallaka of the Arabian poet Amru ben 
Kelthum (Jena, 1819) ; German translations of 
the Indian poem Nala (1820), and of Tuti na- 
meh, a collection of Persian tales, made in col- 
laboration with Iken (Stuttgart, 1822) ; editions 
of the Arabian annals of Tabari (1831), of the 
collection of songs entitled Kitab al-Aghdni 
(1840), and of Indian fables entitled Pantscha- 
tantra (Bonn, 1848); Die Geschichte der Uni- 
versitdt Greifswald (Greifswald, 1856-'7) ; and 
several works on the history of Pomerania. . 

ROSEL, a fortified town of Prussia, in the 
province of Silesia, on the Oder, and at the 
mouth of the Plodnitz, 25 m. S. S. E. of 
Oppeln; pop. in 1871, 4,517. It has a cas- 
tle, two churches, a synagogue, and consider- 
able trade. From 1306 to 1359 it was the cap- 
ital of a duchy. 

KOSLIJV, a town of Prussia, in the province 
of Pomerania, 85 m. N. E. of Stettin ; pop. in 
1871, 13,360. It is the seat of a court of ap- 
peal, and has four churches, a gymnasium, and 
a normal school. On the public place is the 
statue of Frederick William I., who in 1718 
rebuilt the town when the larger portion of it 
had been destroyed by a conflagration. A 
railway connects it with Stettin. 


KOSSUTH, a N. county of Iowa, drained by 
a branch of Des Moines river; area, 576 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 3,351. It has an undulating 
surface and a fertile soil. The Iowa and Da- 
kota division of the Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
St. Paul railroad is in operation to the county 
seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 
52,288 bushels of wheat, 65,137 of Indian corn, 
67,825 of oats, 10,449 of potatoes, 86,131 Ibs. 
of butter, and 7,442 tons of hay. There were 
891 horses, 874 milch cows, 1,784 other cattle, 
424 sheep, and 1,198 swine. Capital, Algona. 

KOSSUTH, Lajos (Louis), a Hungarian patriot, 
born at Monok, county of Zemplen, April 27, 
1802. His family, of Slavic descent, were Lu- 
therans and noble. His father, a lawyer, gave 
his children a liberal education. Lajos, the 
only son, received his first classical instruction 
in the gymnasium of the Piarists at Ujhely, 
studied at Eperies, and passed through a legal 
and philosophical course at the college of Pa- 
tak. The spirit which animated this last insti- 
tution has almost always been one of opposi- 
tion to the rule of Austria. Kossuth was well 
read in history, and spoke with almost equal 
fluency Magyar, Slovak, German, French, and 
Latin, the last of which was still in part the 
legal language of his country. Shortly after 
leaving college, he was appointed an assessor 
in the assembly of his native county, and soon 
became noted as a liberal, exceedingly popular 
with the lower classes, and was for some time 
manager of the estates of the countess Szapary 
in Zemplen. In the diet of 1832-'6 he was 
proxy of a magnate or member of the upper 
house, in which capacity he had a deliberative 
voice, but no vote, in the lower. This diet 
ranks among the more important assemblies of 
modern Hungary. Its debates, closely follow- 
ing the Polish tragedy of 1831, were watched 
with lively anxiety by the patriots, but their 
publication was hindered by severe restrictions. 
The opposition, at the suggestion of Kossuth, 
resorted to the extraordinary means of a writ- 
ten newspaper, the Orszdggyulesi tudositdsok 
(" Parliamentary Communications "). Extracts 
and comments were dictated by Kossuth to a 
large number of copyists, and widely circu- 
lated. After the close of the diet Kossuth 
endeavored to continue his activity by a lith- 
ographic paper, Tdrvenyhatosdgi tiidositdsole 
(" Municipal Communications "), edited in 
Pesth ; but the government prohibited its pub- 
lication. Kossuth resisted, putting himself un- 
der the protection of the county of Pesth. 
The government sent its prohibition to the lat- 
ter. The assembly^ refused to obey, declaring 
all censorship unconstitutional. Numerous 
other counties supported Kossuth with equal 
zeal. He, with several other advocates of the 
popular cause, was seized in the night (May 2, 
1837), tried for treason, and condemned to four 
years' imprisonment. A general outburst of 
indignation and an unprecedented agitation 
followed. The liberals carried the elections 
for the diet of 1839-'40, and answered the gov- 
ernment propositions, the principal of which 
were demands for subsidies in money and men, 
with a demand for the liberation of the pris- 
oners. The Thiers ministry in France threat- 
ened a general movement in Europe, which was 
then agitated by the Egyptian question, and 
the cabinet of Vienna was compelled to yield. 
Kossuth's liberation was hailed with loud de- 
monstrations. The laws of 1840, enacted un- 
der the leadership of Deak, gave new vigor to 
the opposition. At this juncture Landerer, a 
publisher of Pesth, having received a license 



for the publication of a semi-weekly journal, 
invited Kossuth to assume its direction. The 
Pesti hirlap (" Pesth Journal ") started on Jan. 
1, 1841, with fewer than 100 subscribers, but 
in a month they were numbered by thousands. 
The national, moral, and material regeneration 
of the whole people was its avowed aim ; the 
existing constitution was to serve as a means, 
the aristocracy to have the lead. Count Ste- 
phen Szechenyi, in a book entitled Kelet nepe 
(" People of the East "), denounced Kossuth as 
a dangerous agrarian and demagogue. Sze- 
chenyi was ready to bestow freedom on the 
people as a gift; Kossuth demanded it as a 
right, and threatened to extort it. Baron 
Eotvos declared in his favor in the pamphlet 
Pesti hirlap es Kelet nepe. Public opinion 
was decidedly in favor of Kossuth, and the 
Pesti Mrlap not only became the regular organ 
of the opposition, which again carried the elec- 
tions in 1843, but also the oracle of the younger 
portion of the nation. A difficulty with the 
publisher, which was not believed to be acci- 
dental, removed Kossuth from the editorship, 
which was transferred to Szalay (July 1, 1844). 
Kossuth received no license for another jour- 
nal, and as the new editor of his former organ 
belonged to a branch of the opposition to 
which he was most heartily opposed, he found 
no better medium for the occasional publica- 
tion of his views than the Hetilap (" Week- 
ly Paper "), a small industrial sheet. Hungary 
was exhausted by a tariff calculated to keep it 
for ever in a state of colonial dependence on 
the German provinces, which by another tariff 
were protected against the competition of 
England, France, and Belgium. This system 
formed one of the chief grievances of the na- 
tion. Assisted by the most influential members 
of the opposition, among others by Counts 
Louis and Casimir Batthyanyi, Kossuth now 
founded the Vedegylet (protective union), 
whose members, men and women, bound 
themselves for five years to use exclusively 
home-made productions, whenever these could 
be had. Other societies, agricultural, commer- 
cial, and industrial, were practically to assist 
the protective union. The latter soon count- 
ed its members by hundreds of thousands. 
Kossuth was the animating spirit of the whole 
organization, which proved less effective for 
its direct purpose, the development of home 
industry, than for keeping alive the national 
agitation, and most of the practical projects 
failed. The elections of 1847, coinciding with 
the movements in Switzerland, Italy, and else- 
where, gave a new turn to affairs. Kossuth 
was elected for Pesth ; and Count Szechenyi, 
though entitled to a seat in the upper house, 
had himself elected to the lower for Wiesel- 
burg, in order to oppose him personally. A 
few sessions sufficed to establish Kossuth as a 
recognized leader of the house. The uncom- 
promising spirit of the two parties seemed to 
condemn the diet to inaction, when the news 
of the Paris revolution of February, 1848, 

reached Presburg. In a speech delivered on 
March 3, Kossuth proposed an address to the 
emperor Ferdinand, urging the restoration 
of Hungary to its former independence as a 
state, and the granting of a charter of liberty 
for the whole Austrian empire. The house of 
deputies accepted the propositions ; the upper 
house wavered, but the people of Vienna, ta- 
king the matter into their own hands, decided 
the question on March 13. Metternich fled. 
Kossuth was received in the capital of the em- 
pire, whither he now carried his address, with 
the honors of a liberator, and Louis Batthyanyi 
was intrusted by Ferdinand with the forma- 
tion of an independent Hungarian ministry, 
in which Kossuth received the department 
of finance. The long urged measures of lib- 
eral reform were now carried in an amplified 
shape, and on April 11, 1848, the last diet of 
Presburg closed its sessions, to make room for 
a national assembly in Pesth. Foreseeing the 
coming struggle, Kossuth devoted all his ener- 
gies, as the leading spirit of the new govern- 
ment, to the organization and consolidation of 
its powers. He created a treasury, organized 
the militia, formed new battalions of national 
soldiery (honveds), established armories, and 
roused the spirit of the nation by proclama- 
tions, speeches, and articles in his new organ, 
Kossuth hirlapja (edited by Bajza), at the 
same time neglecting no means of bringing 
about a peaceful solution of the difficulties. 
The south of Hungary and Transylvania were 
already engaged in an internecine struggle of 
races, in which the Rascians, old enemies of the 
Magyars, were particularly conspicuous. Re- 
action was triumphant everywhere, the cama- 
rilla was flushed by the victories of Radetzky 
in Italy, and Jellachich crossed the Drave with 
a large army to subdue Hungary. Batthyanyi 
resigned, the palatine Stephen fled, and Jella- 
chich was approaching the capital. Kossuth 
in the mean time had begun his armaments and 
issued treasury notes without the sanction of 
the king, and in a proclamation he called upon 
the people to rise and vindicate their rights. 
He repaired to the people of the Theiss, who 
flocked around his banners, and on his return 
entered upon a new course of activity, as head 
of the " committee of defence." The war of 
revolution was thus begun. (See HUNGAKY.) 
It was from beginning to end a struggle for 
life or death under inauspicious circumstances, 
and the overwhelming power of Russia, the 
obstinate disobedience of Gorgey, the want 
and the indifference of the governments of 
Europe, or rather their connivance with Rus- 
sia and Austria, finally decided against Hun- 
gary, which had been declared independent, 
and Kossuth its governor. On Aug. 11, 1849, 
he resigned his powers in favor of Gorgey, 
who two days later surrendered to the Russians. 
Kossuth sought refuge in Turkey, where he and 
his followers were confined in Widin, Shumla, 
and subsequently in Kutaieh in Asia Minor. His 
extradition was demanded by Austria and Rus- 




sia, but though he refused the proposed means 
of evading all danger by an adoption of the 
Mohammedan religion, the Porte, encouraged 
by England and France, resisted all threats; 
and finally, at the intervention of the United 
States and England, he was allowed to depart 
with his family and friends. His wife had se- 
cretly escaped from Hungary, and his children, 
two sons and a daughter, had been allowed 
by Haynau to join him in Asia. On Sept. 1, 
1851, he was liberated and set out to embark 
on the war steamer Mississippi, which had been 
despatched by the United States government, 
in accordance with a resolution of the senate, 
to convey him to America as the nation's 
guest. He had employed the days of his con- 
finement in Asia in the study of military sci- 
ence, and in perfecting his knowledge of living 
languages. He was able to address the people 
of the West in French, English, German, and 
Italian ; and when, after visiting Gibraltar and 
Lisbon, where he was treated with distinction, 
he finally reached Southampton, he was lis- 
tened to with no less admiration than sym- 
pathy by the English. The same enthusiastic 
feeling followed him on his tour through the 
most populous cities of the kingdom, and sub- 
sequently through the United States, where 
he arrived Dec. 5, 1851, accompanied by his 
wife and Mr. and Mrs. Pulszky. He addressed 
deputations and meetings in New York, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Washington, and numerous 
other places, urging the acknowledgment of 
the claims of Hungary to independence, and 
the interference of the United States jointly 
with England in behalf of the principle of non- 
intervention, which would allow the nations of 
Europe fair play in a new struggle for liberty. 
His agitation received a fatal blow by the coup 
d'etat of Louis Napoleon, the news of which 
reached America a fortnight after his arrival, 
and his call for contributions for a reopening of 
the struggle in Hungary had therefore a very 
small result, in spite of the general sympathy 
with the exile and his cause. At Washington he 
was received with distinctions which had never 
been bestowed on any foreigner except Lafay- 
ette. He returned to Europe in July, 1852, 
where for some time he acted in concert with 
Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin. Preparations for 
a rising in the spring of 1853, which rapidly 
consumed the contributions received in the 
United States, ended with the execution of Ju- 
bal, Noszlopi, and others in Hungary, and with 
the banishment of Kossuth's mother and sis- 
ters. His mother died soon after in Brussels ; 
one of his sisters, Mme. Meszlenyi, died some 
time after her arrival in the United States, 
and another, Mme. Zulyavsky, in 1860 ; and the 
only surviving one, Mme. Ruttkay, still resides 
there. After some participation in newspa- 
per discussions, Kossuth delivered lectures on 
various topics, but especially on the history 
and affairs of Hungary, in England and Scot- 
land. The preparations of Napoleon and Vic- 
tor Emanuel for a war against Austria at the 

beginning of 1859 once more rekindled his 
hope for the liberation of Hungary. He went 
to Paris, and subsequently to Italy, where he 
was received with great enthusiasm by the 
people, and introduced by Prince Napoleon 
to the emperor of the French, with whom he 
concerted a common plan of attacking Aus- 
tria in its Hungarian possessions in case the 
war should be carried into the interior of 
Venetia. This was prevented by the peace 
of Villafranca. Kossuth, bitterly disappoint- 
ed, returned to England, and the Hungarian 
legion, formed under Klapka in Sardinia, was 
dissolved. In 1862 he removed to Turin, 
where he has since resided, and where he suc- 
cessively lost his daughter and wife. During 
the war of 1866 he issued an address to the 
Hungarians, trying to rouse them to action, 
and subsequently repeatedly and strongly con- 
demned the arrangement with Austria carried 
through under the lead of Deak. Declining 
several elections to the diet of Pesth, he has 
since remained in voluntary exile, occupied 
with scientific studies, and has published sev- 
eral papers, among them Farbenveranderung 
der Sterne (1871). His collected writings have 
been published in the Europdische Bibliothelc 
(Wurzen, 1860-"TO). Of his speeches various 
collections have appeared in England, the Uni- 
ted States, and Germany. See W. J. Wyatt, 
" Hungarian Celebrities " (London, 1872). 

KOSTROMA. I. A central government of Eu- 
ropean Russia, bordering on the governments 
of Vologda, Viatka, Nizhegorod, Vladimir, and 

Interior of Church of the Holy Trinity at Kostroma. 



Yaroslav ; area, 30,812 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 
1,101,099. It is traversed by the Volga, which 
here receives the Kostroma and the Unzha. 
It consists of wide plains, little varied by gen- 
tle acclivities or river banks. There are nu- 
merous lakes, of which the largest, the Galitch 
and the Tchukhloma, measure about 5 m. across. 
The northern part is comparatively swampy 
and cold. Extensive woods abound. The soil 
is generally fertile. Agriculture, the rearing 
of cattle and sheep, hunting, and fishing are 
the chief pursuits of the inhabitants. Cloth, 
leather, and iron are manufactured to some 
extent. II. A city, capital of the government, 
on the Volga, 190 m. N. E. of Moscow ; pop. in 
1867, 23,453. It is one of the most interesting 
cities of E. Russia, is the seat of a Greek bish- 
op, and has about 40 churches, a number of 
convents, a gymnasium, a seminary, and a 
monument of the czar Michael Fedorovitch, 
the founder of the Romanoff dynasty. 

KOTAH. ! A native state of India, in Raj- 
pootana, bordering on Boondee, Gwalior, and 
Indore, and bounded N. W. and W. by the 
Ohumbul ; area, about 5,000 sq. m*; pop. about 
433,000. The surface is for the most part a 
plain, sloping gently northward from the high 
table land of Malwah. The soil is generally 
fertile and well cultivated, but the climate is 
very unfavorable, being intensely hot during 
the prevalence of the warm winds of summer, 
and extremely unhealthy during the rainy sea- 
son. The rajah of Kotah is in subsidiary alli- 
ance with the British, pays a tribute of 184,- 
720 rupees, and maintains an irregular force 
commanded by British officers. These troops 
rose against the British, July 4, 1857, and two 
regiments of the rajah's native army did the 
same on Oct. 15. The rajah kept faith with his 
allies. II. A city, capital of the state, on the 
Chumbul, 195 m. S. W. of Agra. It is a town 
of considerable size, with several temples, 
mosques, and palaces, and carries on an im- 
portant domestic and transit trade. It was the 
scene of the murder of Major Burton and his 
two sons, and of the burning and plunder of 
the British residency, during the mutiny in 
1857 ; The town was captured March 30, 1858. 

ROTHEN, a town of Germany, in the duchy 
of Anhalt, 33 m. N. W. of Leipsic ; pop. in 
1871, 13,563. It has two Protestant churches, 
a Catholic church, a synagogue, a palace with 
a library and collection of natural history and 
coins, a gymnasium, a normal school, and a 
school of landscape gardening. The trade in 
grain, wool, and other products is active, but 
the principal branch of industry consists in 
sugar refineries, which surround the town in 
almost every direction. It is at the junction 
of the Berlin and Anhalt, Magdeburg and Leip- 
sic, and Kothen and Halberstadt railways. The 
gambling table which formerly existed at the 
depot has been abolished. Kothen was for- 
merly the capital of the duchy of Anhalt-Ko- 
then, long associated with German history as 
an important branch of the Anhalt dynasty. 


Duke Augustus Christian Frederick, who died 
in 1812, produced by his reckless administra- 
tion a great financial crisis, which under Duke 
Henry culminated in 1845 in bankruptcy ; and 
an arrangement had to be made with the cred- 
itors, whose claims amounted to upward of 
4,000,000 thalers. In 1853 Kothen was uni- 
ted with Dessau, and in 1863 the Anhalt ter- 
ritories were united into one duchy. 

ROTSCHY, Theodor, a German botanist, born 
at Ustron, Austrian Silesia, in 1813, died in 
1866. He accompanied Russegger to Africa, 
and subsequently explored Asia Minor, and 
made another journey to Egypt and Persia; 
and he was the first to give a complete account 
of the flora of the Nile. He edited the botan- 
ical department of Russegger's description of 
his travels (7 vols., Stuttgart, 1841 -'50), and 
among his numerous other botanical works are 
Die Sicken Europas und des Ostens (Olmiitz, 
1858-'62), and the posthumous Plantce Tin- 
neance, a description of Miss Tinne's collection 
on the Upper Nile. 

ROTTBUS, or Cottbus, a town of Prussia, in 
the province of Brandenburg, on the Spree, 43 
m. S. S. W. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder ; pop. in 
1871, 18,916, including many Wends, who have 
a separate church. It contains two other 
churches, a gymnasium, and a quaint old royal 
palace. Cloth and wool are extensively manu- 
factured, besides other articles, and there is a 
considerable traffic. It is the capital of a large 
circle which formerly belonged to Lower Lu- 
satia as part of the territory acquired in 1445 
by the elector Frederick II. of Brandenburg. 
The treaty of Tilsit allotted the circle in 1807 
to Napoleon, who ceded it to Saxony. In 
1813 it was reoccupied by Prussia. 

ROTZEBUE. I. August Friedrich Ferdinand yon, 
a German dramatist, born in Weimar, May 3, 
1761, assassinated in Mannheim, March 23, 
1819. He studied at the gymnasium of Wei- 
mar and the university of Jena, was admitted 
an advocate in 1780, made himself known by 
the publication of two books in 1781, and ac- 
companied the Prussian ambassador to St. Pe- 
tersburg. Here he was employed as secretary 
of the governor general, and after his marriage 
in 1785 with a daughter of Lieut. Gen. Von Es- 
sen, he was appointed to a high judicial office 
in the province of Esthonia, and was ennobled, 
which afterward led him to write a fulsome 
work on nobility. His literary reputation was 
established by several successful novels and 
dramas, but injured by the publication of Doc- 
tor BaJirdt mit der eisernen Stirn, in which 
he attacked the celebrated poets of Weimar 
(Goethe, Schiller, &c.), who had declined to 
admit him into their society. After the death 
of his wife he visited Paris, on which oc- 
casion he wrote another ill-mannered book, 
Meine Flucht nacJi Paris (1790). After his 
return to Russia, he devoted several years to 
writing a series of plays till 1798, when he 
succeeded Alxinger as poet to the court thea j 
tre at Vienna. In 1800 he returned to Russia, 




where he was arrested on suspicion of having 
written pamphlets against the emperor Paul, 
and banished to Siberia. He was indebted for 
his liberation to one of his plays, Der Leib- 
Icutscher Peters des Grossen, which presented 
the emperor in a flattering light, and published 
Das merkwurdigste Jahr meines Lebens (1801), 
a rather romantic description of his year of 
exile. He received an estate in Livonia, and 
was made director of the German theatre in 
St. Petersburg and imperial councillor. In 
1802 he took up his abode in Berlin, where he 
became a member of the academy of sciences, 
and one of the editors of Der Freimuthige, a 
literary journal. In 1805 he published an ac- 
count of travels made in the preceding years in 
France and Italy ; and in 1808-'9 appeared his 
Preussens alter e GescJiichte, esteemed only for 
its collection of authentic historical documents. 
After 1806 he lived again in Russia, but returned 
to Germany in 1817 to report to the Russian 
government on the state of public opinion. 
He resided alternately at Weimar and Mann- 
heim, and at the same time conducted a weekly 
'journal. When it became known that he was 
the author of letters to the czar, and of articles 
in which the secret political associations of 
the German students (Burschenschafteri) were 
held up to scorn and ridicule, a student named 
Sand went to Mannheim and stabbed Kotze- 
bue in the breast with a dagger, exclaiming, 
" This is for you, traitor to your country." 
Kotzebue was the most fertile writer of plays 
whom Germany ever produced. Many of them 
have been translated into English, French, and 
other languages. Among those best known 
on the American and English stage are " The 
Stranger" and "Pizarro," both adapted by 
Sheridan, the former from Kotzebue's Men- 
schenhass und Reue, and the latter from Die 
Incas in Peru. He wrote in all 211 tragedies, 
comedies, and farces, and some of them retain 
their popularity. Complete editions of his 
dramatic works appeared in Leipsic in 1797- 
1823, in 28 vols., and in 1827-'9, in 44 vols. 
His most successful novel, written in early life, 
is Leiden der OrtenbergiscJien Familie. His 
posthumous writings were published in Leipsic 
in 1821. An English translation of his autobi- 
ography appeared in London in 1800. His Ger- 
man biographers are Cramer (Leipsic, 1819) and 
Boring (Weimar, 1829). II. Otto TOD, a Russian 
traveller, son of the preceding, born in Revel 
in December, 1787, died there in February, 
1846. He was educated at the academy of St. 
Petersburg, and joined Krusenstern as midship- 
man in a voyage round the world, from which 
he returned in 1806. He was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant, and intrusted in 1815 with 
the command of the Rurik, a vessel equipped 
at the expense of Count Rumiantzeff. He was 
joined in this expedition by the poet Chamisso, 
and by the naturalists Eschscholtz and Choris. 
After the discovery of various islands, bays, 
and a sound N. E. of Behring strait since called 
after him, he returned to Russia, Aug. 3, 1818, 

and published an account of his journey, which 
has been translated into French and English 
("A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea 
and Behring's Strait in the Years 1815-'18," 3 
vols., London, 1821). In 1823 he undertook a 
third voyage around the world as captain of 
an imperial man-of-war. Touching at Rio de 
Janeiro, he doubled Cape Horn, discovered 
several islands, collected much valuable infor- 
mation on ethnography, natural history, and 
geography, visited Lower California and the 
Sandwich islands, and on his way home touched 
at the Philippine islands, reaching Cronstadt 
July 10, 1826. In 1829 he retired from active 
service, and spent the rest of his life with his 
family in Esthonia. He published a narrative 
of his voyage, of which an English translation 
appeared in London in 1830 ("A New Voyage 
round the World in the Years 1823-' 6 "). The 
romantic character of the narrative led several 
critics to impugn its veracity, although there 
is no evidence by which the charge can be sup- 
ported. Eschscholtz enriched the volume with 
full zoological information. III. Moritz TOD, a 
Russian soldier, brother of the preceding, born 
May 11, 1789, died in Warsaw in February, 
1861. He sailed with Krusenstern and his 
brother Otto round the world, entered the Rus- 
sian army in 1806, was captured by the French 
in 1812, liberated in 1814, and published in 
1815 Der russische Kriegsgefangene unter den 
Franzosen, an account of his adventures. At- 
tached to the Russian embassy, he made a 
journey to Persia in 1817, of which his father 
published a description in Weimar in 1819 
(English translation, " Narrative of a Journey 
into Persia in 1817," London, 1819), He 
served subsequently in the Caucasus, com- 
manded the fortress Ivangorod in Poland, and 
was made a general in 1846. At the time of 
his death he was a member of the Polish di- 
vision of the Russian senate. IV. Paul, a Rus- 
sian soldier, brother of the preceding, born 
about 1790. He fought with distinction in the 
Caucasus and in Poland, and was rapidly pro- 
moted. In 1862 he became governor general 
of Bessarabia and South Russia, and command- 
er of Odessa, offices which he still held in 1874, 
when he was made a count. V. Alexander Ton, 
a painter, brother of the preceding, born in 
Konigsberg, June 9, 1815. After graduating 
as an officer in 1834, he studied painting at the 
academy of St. Petersburg. In Paris (1847-'8) 
he associated much with Horace Vernet. He 
afterward lived in Stuttgart, visited Rome, and 
settled in Munich. He has executed many 
brilliant pictures of Russian victories for the 
Winter palace and other galleries. 


KOYAR, a district of eastern Hungary, bor- 
dering on the counties of Marmaros, Szathmar, 
and Middle Szolnok, and on Transylvania; 
area, 423 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 51,744. From 
1849 to 1860 the district belonged to the Tran- 
sylvanian circle of Dees; but in 1860 it was 
again constituted an independent Hungarian 



district. The principal places are Nagy-Som- 
kut, the capital, and Kapnik-Banya. 

KOVNO (Pol. Kowno). I. A W. government 
of European Russia, bordering on Prussia 
and on the governments of Courland, Wilna, 
and Suwalki, and nearly touching the Bal- 
tic; area, 15,687 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 1,131,- 
248, chiefly Lithuanians, Samogitians, Poles, 
Germans, and Jews, with but few Russians 
proper. It is traversed by the Niemen and its 
affluents, and contains many dense forests. 
The principal products are flax and timber, 
the latter being rafted down the streams to 
Tilsit. It was formed in 1843 from the N. 
part of Wilna, to the military division of 
which it still belongs. Kovno is nearly iden- 
tical with the ancient maritime Lithuanian 
province of Samogitia (Lith. and Pol. Zmudz\ 
which was a separate duchy under the Po- 
lish crown, and which was renowned for its 
commerce and navigation, and for the pure 
Lithuanian type of the inhabitants, who were 
not fully converted to Christianity till the 16th 
century. The capital, Rossieny on the Du- 
bisa, the chief town of a circle of Jovno and 
Polangen, is now as then the principal port 
connecting with the Baltic. II. A city, capital 
of the government, at the junction of the Vilia 
with the Niemen, 420 m. S. S. W. of St. Pe- 
tersburg; pop. in 1867, 34,612, including about 
18,000 Jews and many Germans. It contains 
numerous Catholic churches and convents, be- 
sides places of worship for the national reli- 
gion, and for Lutherans and Jews, a gymna- 
sium and district school for the nobility, and 
a pyramid commemorating the deliverance 
from French invasion in 1812. Commerce and 
navigation are exceedingly active, and new 
railways increase the traffic. About 3 m. from 
the town is the magnificent Camaldulensian 
convent Pozayscie or Peace Mountain, with 
the tomb of the Lithuanian great chancellor 
Pac, who built it in 1674 at an enormous cost. 
The French crossed the Niemen at Kovno, 
June 23-25, 1812; and the Poles were defeat- 
ed here on June 26, 1831. 

KOZLOV, a town of Russia, in the govern- 
ment and 40 m. N. N. W. of the city of Tambov, 
on the Lesnoi Voronezh ; pop. in 1867, 24,616. 
It has nine churches, and large tanneries and 
tallow-smelting establishments. It is a great 
centre of trade in grain, cattle, salted meat, tal- 
low, and other articles ; and there are in the dis- 
trict about 40 breeding stables of famous horses. 
For Kozlov in the Crimea, see EUPATOEIA 




KRASICKI, Ignacy, a Polish prelate, surnamed 
the Voltaire of Poland, born at Dubiecko, Ga- 
licia, Feb. 3, 1734, died in Berlin, March 14, 
1801. His ancestors had been renowned as 
scholars and warriors. He completed his ec- 
clesiastical studies in Rome, and after having 
been a canon and curate he was promoted in 
1767 to the see of Ermeland ; this was annexed 

to Prussia in 1772, and he became a favorite 
of Frederick the Great. The Roman Catholic 
Hedwigskirche was built in Berlin under his in- 
fluence, and he consecrated it in 1780. In 1795 
he was made archbishop of Gnesen, to which 
town his remains were removed in 1829 from 
their first burial place in the Hedwigskirche. 
His Myszeis ("Mousiad "), a comic poem illus- 
trating the story in Kadlubek's chronicle of 
King Popiel devoured by rats and mice ("War- 
saw, 1775 ; Leipsic, 1790), and his "Adventures 
of Doswiadczynski " (1775), suggesting edu- 
cational reforms, have been translated into 
French. His Monomachia (" War of Monks," 
1778) has been compared to the writings of 
Boileau, and was at the request of Frederick 
composed in the room which Voltaire had oc- 
cupied at Sans-Souci. His Anti- Monomachia 
is a vindication and not a refutation of the 
previous work. Among his most admired pro- 
ductions are his " Satires " (1778) and his " Fa- 
bles," which latter are unique, though not all 
original, and have been repeatedly translated 
into French. His Woyna chociinslca ("War of 
Khotin," 1780) is a historical epic; and his 
Pan Podstoli ("Mr. Sub-Chamberlain") sati- 
rizes the follies and vagaries of his country- 
men. He also made an exquisite free trans- 
lation into Polish of Ossian (1780). His com- 
plete works were edited by D6mchowski (10 
vols., Warsaw, 1803-'4; new eds., Paris, 1830, 
and Berlin, 1845). 

KRASINSKI. I. Waleryan, count, a Polish au- 
thor, born in the Polish province of White 
Russia about 1780, died in Edinburgh, Dec. 22, 
1855. He entered the Polish civil service at 
an early age, and while still a young man be- 
came head of the ministry of public instruc- 
tion. In this post he effected many useful 
reforms. Through his influence the Jews were 
aided in founding a rabbinical college at War- 
saw. He paid special attention to the diffusion 
of useful literature among the people, and in- 
troduced stereotype printing into Poland. On 
the breaking out of the revolution of 1830 he 
was sent as one of an embassy to England to 
advance the Polish cause. Driven into exile, 
and losing his fortune by the result of the war, 
he went to London, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted himself to literature. He pub- 
lished " The Rise, Progress, and Decline of the 
Reformation in Poland" (2 vols., London, 1839 
-'40) ; " Panslavism and Germanism" (1848) ; 
"Lectures on the Religious History of the 
Slavonian Nations" (Edinburgh, 1851); and 
" Montenegro and the Slavonians in Turkey " 
(1853). II. Zygmunt Napoleon, count, a Polish 
author, descended from a branch of the same 
family with the preceding, born in Paris, Feb. 
19, 1812, died there, Feb. 24, 1859. He was 
the son of Count Wyncenty Krasinski, who suc- 
ceeded Poniatowski in the command of Na- 
poleon's Polish cavalry, and afterward entered ' 
the service of Russia. Here the favor which 
the court extended to him would have been 
continued to his son, had not young Krasinski, 




indignant at the treatment of his Polish coun- 
trymen, and warmly espousing their cause, 
refused all offers of advancement in the Rus- 
sian service, and left the country soon after 
attaining his majority. From this time he led 
a somewhat wandering life, residing succes- 
sively in several European capitals, and de- 
voting himself to literary pursuits, at first pub- 
lishing anonymously, and afterward under his 
own name. His principal works, nearly all 
of which were inspired by strong patriotic 
feeling, and were undertaken in the interest 
of the Polish cause, are: Nieboska Icomedya 
(" The Undivine Comedy," in three parts, 
Paris, 1837-'48) ; Irydion, an imaginative poem 
in German on the sufferings and future of the 
Slavic race (Berlin, 1845) ; Noc letnia (" The 
Summer Night "), Polcusa (" The Temptation "), 
a collection of lyrics under the title Przedswit 
("Before Dawn"), and Psalmy przysetosci 
("Psalms of the Future," 5th ed., Paris, 1861). 
An edition of Krasinski's collected works 
appeared at Leipsic (3 vols., 1863), as one of 
the series called Biblioteka pisarzy polsMch 
(" Library of Polish Authors "). Owen Mere- 
dith's "Fool of Time" is confessedly founded 
upon Krasinski's Nieboska Icomedya; and the 
question whether the English poet was entire- 
ly justified in the use made of the material 
has given rise to some discussion. Besides 
French and German translations, an English 
rendering of the Komedya, made through a 
German version, was published by Mrs. Martha 
Walker Cook in the " Continental Magazine " 
(New York, 1864). 

KRASSO, a S. county of Hungary, in the cir- 
cle beyond the Theiss, bounded N. by the Ma- 
ros, and E. by Transylvania; area, 2,019 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 259,079, the majority of 
whom were Roumans and the remainder Ger- 
mans, Croats, and Magyars. It abounds in 
rich pasturage, forests, and mines. The prin- 
cipal places are the county town Lugos, and 
the market town Krasso or Krassova, from 
which the county has its name. 

KRASZEWSKI, Jozef Ignacy, a Polish author, 
of Lithuanian origin, born in Warsaw in 
1812. He studied at the university of Wilna, 
and was under arrest from 1831 to 1834 
on account of his revolutionary sympathies. 
In 1837 he married a daughter of the arch- 
bishop and author Woronicz, and settled in 
Volhynia, where he was honorary curator of 
schools from 1853 to 1858, when he went 
abroad. In 1860 he established himself in 
Warsaw as editor of the Gazeta polsTca, and in 
1863 he removed to Dresden, where he subse- 
quently delivered lectures. He edited the 
"Polish Athenaeum," a literary periodical (18 
vols., 1842-'8), and his Studya literacUe ("Lit- 
erary Essays," 1842), and Nowe study a literac- 
Me (2 vols., 1843), throw much light on let- 
ters and science. His principal historical 
works are Wilno (4 vols., 1840-'42), and Litwa 
(2 vols., 1847-'50), relating to Lithuanian man- 
ners and social life. Conspicuous among his 

poetical writings is Anafielas (3 vols., 1840- 
'43), taking its theme from the most impressive 
events in the early history of Lithuania. He 
has also published books of travel, miscella- 
neous writings, and sketches of the insurrec- 
tion of 1863. His complete works comprise 
more than 300 volumes, including many novels 
and stories descriptive of Polish life, which are 
his most popular productions. 

KRASZNA. I. An E. county of Hungary, in 
the circle beyond the Theiss, bounded S. E. by 
Transylvania ; area, 444 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
62,714, most of whom are Roumans. It is 
mostly mountainous, and only in the valleys 
suited for agriculture. Before 1860 this coun- 
ty belonged to Transylvania. Capital, Szilagy- 
Somly6. II* A market town, on the Kraszna, 
5 m. S. E. of Szilagy-Somly6 ; pop. in 1870, 
3,128. The inhabitants, partly Magyars and 
partly Roumans, trade in cattle. 

KRAUSE, Karl Christian Friedrich, a German 
philosopher, born in Eisenberg, May 6, 1781, 
died in Munich, Sept. 27, 1832. He was edu- 
cated at Jena, where he was tutor from 1802 
to 1804. He then renounced teaching to de- 
vote himself to his philosophical studies, and 
resided successively in Rudolstadt, Dresden, 
and Berlin, made several journeys through 
Germany, France, and Italy, and lectured at 
Gottingen from 1824 to 1831, when he retired 
to Munich. The aim of his speculations was 
to represent humanity as an organic and har- 
monious unity ; and he conceived the scheme 
of an association of all mankind, which should 
labor for a uniform and universal develop- 
ment. The germ of such a union he thought 
he found in freemasonry. His works include 
Vorlesungen uber das System der Philosophic 
(Gottingen, 1828 ; new ed., Leipsic, 1874), and 
Vorlesungen i/iber die Grundwahrheiten der 
Wissenschaft (Gottingen, 1829). 

KRAUTH, Charles Porterfield, an American 
theologian, born in Martinsburg, Va., March 
17, 1823. He is the son of the Rev. Charles 
Philip Krauth, former president of Pennsylva- 
nia college, Gettysburg. He graduated there 
in 1839, entered the Lutheran ministry in 
1841, and was pastor successively of churches 
in Baltimore, Md., Winchester, Va., and Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. In 1852-'3 he visited the Danish 
West Indies, and for three months of that 
time, during the severe prevalence of the yel- 
low fever, preached in the Dutch Reformed 
church in St. Thomas. A sketch of his tropi- 
cal experiences was published afterward un- 
der the title " A Winter and Spring in the Da- 
nish West Indies." He was pastor of St. Mark's 
Lutheran church in Philadelphia from 1859 
to 1864, and in 1861 became editor of the 
" Lutheran and Missionary." In 1864 he was 
elected professor of systematic theology and 
church polity in the Lutheran theological 
seminary in Philadelphia, and in 1868 of in- 
tellectual and moral philosophy in the univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, of which he was elected 
vice provost in 1873. He has been for three 



successive terms president of the general 
council of the Lutheran church in America. 
He has been among the most active laborers 
in the liturgical movements of his church, ed- 
ited " The Jubilee Service," and bore a promi- 
nent part in the preparation of the " Church 
Book," set forth by authority of the general 
council in 1869. He has gathered a large and 
valuable library, and has become distinguish- 
ed as a Biblical and historical writer. He is 
a member of the oriental and philosophical 
societies, the historical society of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the American committee coopera- 
ting with the British committee in revising 
the authorized version of the Scriptures. His 
chief distinction as an author is due to a work 
entitled "The Conservative Reformation and 
its Theology " (8vo., Philadelphia, 1871). He 
has also published " Three Essays on Poverty," 
and a number of special discourses and of 
dissertations in explanation and defence of 
the Augsburg confession, and has contributed 
largely to theological and literary periodicals, 
especially upon the internal history and re- 
lations of the authorized version of the 
Scriptures. He has translated Tholuck's com- 
mentary on John (1859), and Ulricas review 
of Strauss (1874); and has edited Fleming's 
"Vocabulary of Philosophy," with an intro- 
duction and synthetical and bibliographical 
indexes (2d ed., 1860), and Berkeley's " Prin- 
ciples of Knowledge," with extended prole- 
gomena, Ueberweg's notes, and a large amount 
of original annotation (1874). 

KRAYOVA, or Krajova, a town of Roumania, 
capital of Little Wallachia, near the river Shyl, 
113 m. W. of Bucharest; pop. in 1867, 21,521. 
It is a fine town, containing several churches, 
a court of appeal, a gymnasium, a normal and 
a Lancasterian school, and a public park. It 
has a considerable commerce, and in the vicin- 
ity are salt works. Sultan Bajazet was defeat- 
ed here in 1397 by the Wallachian waywode 
Mirxa. The Russians occupied the town in 
1853, and had several skirmishes with the 
Turks, who regained possession in May, 1854. 

KREMENTCHUG, a town of European Russia, 
in the government and 60 m. S. S. W. of the 
city of Poltava, at the entrance of the Kagam- 
lyk into the Dnieper, over which a long bridge 
has been built; pop. in 1867, 20,251. It has 
seven churches, numerous factories of gold and 
silver ware, and is the most important com- 
mercial town of the government. 

KREMLIN. See Moscow. 

KREMNITZ (Han. Kormocz-Bdnya, the latter 
word meaning mine), the principal mining 
town and a free royal city of Hungary, in the 
connty of Bars, 82 m. N. of Pesth; pop. in 
1870, 8,442. It is situated in a deep valley, 
surrounded by rugged hills and mountains, has 
several suburbs, a mint, various mining estab- 
lishments, smelting and washing works, a vit- 
riol factory, paper mills, and other manufacto- 
ries, and contains the principal offices of the 
surrounding gold and silver mining region. 


An aqueduct supplies it with water. Its mines 
consist of about a dozen principal and various 
minor shafts, the produce of which has greatly 
decreased in recent times. The Austrian ducats 
are coined in Kremnitz. The town was found- 
ed in the 12th century by German emigrants, 
whose descendants form the present population. 
It has a castle, a Catholic gymnasium, six 
churches, and a hospital for miners. 

KREMS, a town of Austria, in the crown- 
land of Lower Austria, at the entrance of the 
river Krems into the Danube, 38 m. W. N. W. 
of Vienna; pop. in 1870, 6,114. It has four 
churches, a college of the Piarists, a gymna- 
sium, a military school, and manufactories of 
silk, velvet, and steel ware. 

KREMSIER, a town of Moravia, 20 m. S. S. 
E. of Olmiitz, on the March or Morawa, over 
which there is a chain bridge 70 ft. long ; pop. 
in 1870, 9,823. It is the summer residence of 
the archbishop of Olmtitz, has three churches, 
a castle with a picture gallery, library, and mu- 
seum of natural history, a monastery of the 
Piarists, a gymnasium, and a military institu- 
tion. From Nov. 15, 1848, to March 7, 1849, 
the Austrian Reichstag was assembled here. 




KRISHNA, a river of India. See KISTNAH. 

KRONSTADT, a seaport of Russia. See CRON- 


KRONSTADT (Hun. Brasso), a city in the Saxon 
division of Transylvania, Transleithan Austria, 
near the frontier of "Wallachia, 65 m. E. S. E. of 
Hermannstadt ; pop. in 1870, 27,766, of whom 
about 10,000 were Germans, 9,000 Roumans, 
4,000 Magyars, and the remainder chiefly Jews 
and gypsies. It is the largest and most flourish- 
ing town in Transylvania, situated in a narrow 
valley enclosed by mountains. Charming villas 
on the slopes, with here and there an old castle 
on the heights, give a varied and picturesque 
aspect to the surrounding scenery. It consists 
of an inner town, which is encircled by a wall 
and entered by five gates, and three suburbs, of 
which one, called the upper town or Bolgar, 
extends into the mountain passes, winds up the 
slopes, covering them with beautiful country 
mansions and well kept gardens and orchards, 
and is the favorite residence of the wealthy 
Roumans. The principal streets of the in- 
ner town are well paved and clean, and the 
houses generally well built. It has a large mar- 
ket place, with two fountains, and at the main 
gate an esplanade covered with avenues of 
shady trees. There are three gymnasia, sev- 
eral other schools, a chamber of commerce, 
and military hospital. Kronstadt has iron and 
copper works, paper mills, manufactures of 
woollen, linen, and leather, and carries on a 
brisk trade in the products of th'e region. The 
foundation of Kronstadt is traced back to the 
early part of the 13th century. In the 16th it 
was the starting point of the reformation in 

supposed to be ethnologically closely rela- 
to them. They are the so-called Kroomen, 


Transylvania, which was promoted by Hpnte- 
rus, a disciple of Melanchthon, who is said to 
have been in intimate correspondence with 
Luther, and to have also established the earliest 
printing press here (1533), its first productions 
being the Augsburg Confession and Luther's 
writings. Here, too, the first paper mill was 
erected. Kronstadt was formerly surrounded 
by strong fortifications, which are now in ruins. 
Northeast of the town is a small citadel, situa- 
ted on the summit of an isolated hill, which 
was not without importance in the Hungarian 
war of 1848- '9. 

KROO, or Km, a negro race on the W. coast 
of Africa, whose territory extends from Cape 
Mesurado, on the right shore of the river St. 
Paul, to St. Andreas, a district generally known 
as the Pepper coast. According to a legend 
current among the Mandingos and Foolahs, the 
Kroos were driven by them out of the interior 
of central Africa. Their neighbors, the Avek- 
vom, who extend as far as the river Assinie, 

who are employed as sailors, boatmen, store- 
men, and sometimes as mechanics, and in whom 
a traffic is carried on by the factors and ship- 
masters on the coast. (See LIBERIA.) 

KROTOSCHm (Pol. Krotoszyri), a town of 
Prussia, capital of a circle, in the province 
and 52 m. S. E. of the city of Posen ; pop. in 
1871, 7,866, including over 2,000 Jews. It 
contains places of worship for Roman Cath- 
olics, Protestants, and Jews, and gives title to 
a mediatized principality which was conferred 
in 1819 upon Prince Thurn and Taxis, on the 
relinquishment of a portion of his postal mo- 
nopoly. The trade in wool is considerable, and 
cloth, chiccory, tobacco, and other articles are 
manufactured here. 

KROZET, or Crozet, a group of four small 
islands in the Indian ocean, between Kerguelen 
and Prince Edward islands, of volcanic origin, 
and composed chiefly of large rocks. Posses- 
sion island, the largest of the four, is 20 m. 
long and 10 m. broad, with three bays, of 
which America bay is most frequented by 
sealers, who subsist on albatross eggs and the 
flesh of the young albatross, on wild ducks, 
goats' flesh, and the tongue and flippers of 
the sea elephant. It contains some patches 
of land, and as the temperature is rarely very 
low, it is believed that potatoes and vege- 
tables would thrive. Penguin or Inaccessible 
island, a mere rock, derives its names from 
its inaccessibility, and from the abundance of 
penguins. Pigs' island, the most western of 
the group, which is less desolate, was so named 
from the pigs left there in 1834, which have 
increased to such an extent that they overrun 
the whole island, and afford abundant food for 
the sailors. The most eastern, in lat. 47 S., Ion. 
48 E., is known as East island, and is about 
l^m. in diameter and 4,000 ft. high, with pre- 
cipices rising in some places perpendicularly 
from its shores. The Krozet islands were select- 



ed in 1874 as an American and British station 
for the observation of the transit of Venus. 

KRiJDENER, Juliane de Vietinghoff, baroness, 
a Russian novelist and mystic, born in Riga, 
Nov. 21, 1764, died in Karasu-Bazar, Crimea, 
Dec. 25,. 1824. She was carefully educated in 
the house of her father, Baron Vietinghoff, 
one of the wealthiest proprietors in Livonia, 
and was early remarkable for intelligence and 
for a tendency to revery and melancholy. In 
1777 she visited Paris with her parents, and on 
her return at the age of 18 was married to a 
Russian diplomatist, Baron Kriidener, whom 
in 1784 she accompanied to Venice and other 
cities of Italy, and afterward to Copenhagen 
and Paris; and in 1791 she made a journey 
through the south of France. Of a singularly 
naive and romantic character, she was guilty 
of numerous indiscretions, which led to a sep- 
aration from her husband in 1791. After an 
adventurous life, with a reputation for beau- 
ty and wit, in various cities of Europe, she 
went to Paris in 1803 with literary schemes. 
Her romance Valerie appeared in that year, 
marked by a vague melancholy and light and 
graceful style, which, with the support of her 
friends, secured it a brilliant success. Return- 
ing to Riga, and remaining for a time in retire- 
ment, she resolved to change her manner of 
life, and to devote herself solely to the con- 
version of sinners and the consolation of the 
wretched. In this pious design she was con- 
firmed by travelling in Germany, by correspon- 
dence with the Moravian Brethren, and by an 
acquaintance with the theosophist Jung-Stil- 
ling. Her correspondence for several years 
abounds in mystical effusions, more elegant 
though less profound than those of Mme. 
Guyon, and reveals her double tendency to 
illuminism and to worldly frivolity. At Paris 
in 1814 she held religious assemblies in her 
house, which were frequented by the most im- 
portant personages. Her spiritual exaltation 
assumed the character of prevision, and in a 
letter she foretold in vague terms the escape of 
Napoleon from Elba, his triumphant return to 
Paris, and the second exile of the Bourbons. 
This letter was communicated to the emperor 
Alexander of Russia, in whom it awakened 
great interest toward her, and whom she met 
at Heilbronn in May, 1815, and accompanied 
to Heidelberg, the headquarters of the allies, 
and after the battle of Waterloo to Paris. She 
was present at the grand review of the Russian 
army in the plain of Chalons, which she de- 
scribed under the title of the Camp des vertus 
(1815). The articles of the holy alliance are 
said to have been submitted to her revision. 
Her doctrines, agreeing with the forms of no 
Christian communion, caused several of the 
German states to forbid her residence in them. 
She passed the latter part of her life among the 
poor and the sick, manifesting an unwearied 
ardor, and joyously sacrificing herself for the 
solace of the wretched. In 1818 she returned 
to Russia, where the emperor continued his 



interest in her romantic views, but forbade her 
to preach publicly. She lost his favor, and 
was ordered to leave St. Petersburg, when, in 
her enthusiasm for the cause of the Greeks, she 
divulged some of his communications on the 
policy of the czars in the East. Her health 
was suffering from ascetic rigors, when Dearly 
in 1824 she joined the princess Gallitzin in the 
scheme of founding a colony in the Crimea, 
which was to consist of her disciples. She 
arrived at Karasu-Bazar, the site selected, in 
September of that year, and was busy in preach- 
ing in French and German to the astonished 
inhabitants, till after a few months the malady 
which had afflicted her before her arrival caused 
her death. The sincerity of Mme. de Kriidener 
in her mysticism and her apostolic labors has 
not been questioned. See Eynard, Vie de Mme. 
de Kriidener (Paris, 1849), and Frau von Kru- 
dener, ein Zeitgemdlde (Bern, 1868). 

Kill G, Wilhelm Traugott, a German philoso- 
pher, born at Radis, June 22, 1770, died in 
Leipsic, Jan. 13, 1842. He was educated at 
the university of Wittenberg, where in 1794 he 
became adjunct of the philosophical faculty. 
His Ueber die Perfectibilitdt der geoffenbarten 
Religion (Jena and Leipsic, 1795) was the 
cause of his not receiving a professorship, and 
was followed by other works, chiefly in de- 
velopment of the Kantian philosophy, of which 
he was one of the most efficient promulgators. 
He was appointed professor of philosophy at 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1801, and published 
in 1803 his principal work, Fundamentalphi- 
losophie, in which he proposed a system un- 
der the name of "transcendental synthetism," 
which, as he maintained, reconciled idealism 
and realism. In 1804 he succeeded Kant as 
professor of logic and metaphysics at Konigs- 
berg, and in 1807 also Kraus as professor of 
practical philosophy. In 1809 he accepted a 
professorship of philosophy at Leipsic, which 
he held till 1834, when he received a pension 
from the state. He was one of the presidents 
of the democratic society founded at Konigs- 
berg after the peace of Tilsit under the name 
of the Tugendbund; joined in 1813 the Saxon 
corps of chasseurs d cheval ; and was after- 
ward a leading champion of German liberal- 
ism against Ancillon, Kotzebue, and others. 
Among his more important works are Allge- 
meines Handworterbuch der philosopJiischen 
Wissenschaften (4 vols., Leipsic, 1827-'8), and 
an autobiography entitled Heine Lebensreise 
in seeks Stationery von Urceus (Leipsic, 1826), 
to which he added a supplementary volume 
entitled Leipziger Freuden und Leiden im 
Jahre 1830 (Leipsic, 1831). 

KRUMMACHER. I. Friedrich Adolf, a German 
theologian, born at Tecklenburg, Westphalia, 
July 13, 1768, died in Bremen, April 14, 1845. 
His first appointment was to the professorship 
of theology in the university of Duisburg. He 
next became pastor of the Reformed church at 
Crefeld, and afterward exchanged that cure 
for the rural living of Kettwich. In 1819 he 


was called to Bernburg, where he became 
councillor of the consistory and chief pastor, 
and in 1824 became pastor of St. Anschaire in 
Bremen. He was a voluminous writer, both 
in prose and poetry. His principal works are : 
" Cornelius the Centurion," " Life of St. John " 
(both translated into English, Edinburgh, 
1840) ; " The Sufferings, Death, and Resurrec- 
tion of Christ;" Die Kinderwelt, a series of 
sacred poems for the young ; and " On the 
Spirit and Form of Evangelical History in its 
Historical and ^Esthetical Relations." He is 
best known, however, by his fables or Para- 
leln, which appeared in 1805, and passed 
through many editions. They have been trans- 
lated into English, and added in 1858 to Bohn's 
"Illustrated Library," with 40 illustrations. 
His life has been written by Moller (Friedrich 
Adolf Krummacher und seine Freunde, 2 vols., 
Bonn, 1849). II. Gottfried Daniel, brother of the 
preceding, born in Tecklenburg, April 1, 1774, 
died in Elberfeld, Jan. 30, 1837. He was ed- 
ucated at Duisburg, and afterward became a 
popular preacher at Barth and Wolfrath. In 
1816 he was made pastor of the Reformed 
church at Elberfeld, arid was recognized as the 
head of the pietists in that district. Among 
his most important works are Die evangelische 
Heiligung (Elberfeld, 1832), and Tagliches 
Manna, or " Daily Manna " (1838). III. Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, son of Friedrich Adolf, born in 
Duisburg in 1796, died in Potsdam, Dec. 10, 
1868. He was a minister of the Reformed 
church, but a strenuous opponent of the ra- 
tionalistic school of theologians. In 1843 he 
declined an invitation to a theological profes- 
sorship at Mercersburg, Pa. In 1853 he was 
appointed chaplain of the Prussian court at 
Potsdam. He was regarded as one of the 
most eloquent preachers in Germany. Among 
his numerous works, most of which have been 
translated into English, are " Elijah the Tish- 
bite," "The Last Days of Elisha," "Solomon 
and the Shulamite," "Sermons on the Can- 
ticles," and "Glimpses into the Kingdom of 
Grace." In 1856 appeared in Berlin his Bunsen 
und Stahl. Among his later devotional works 
are Oottes Wort (Berlin, 1865), and David der 
Konig von Israel (1866; English translation, 
1870). His sermons were collected and pub- 
lished in Berlin in 1868. Soon after his 
death his daughter edited and published his 
autobiography, which has been translated into 
English (2ded., London, 1871). 

KRUPP, Alfred, a German manufacturer, born 
at Essen, Rhenish Prussia, early in the present 
century. He succeeded his father, Friedrich 
Krupp, as proprietor of the cast-steel works 
at Essen, and sent to the London exhibition 
of 1851 a crucible block weighing 2 tons, 
and to the Paris exhibition of 1867 one of 
40 tons. He gradually developed the Es- 
sen works, which were originally established 
in 1810, to an enormous extent. They cov- 
ered in 1873 an area of 965 acres, and pro- 
duced more than 125,000 tons of cast steel, be- 




sides great quantities of finished articles. The 
works are connected with the main Rhenish 
railway lines, and contain more than 30 m. of 
rail tracks to facilitate the traffic, and there 
are 30 telegraph stations in the establishment. 
About 12,000 men are employed here, besides 
5,000 in the mines and smelting works, and 
others in other departments, making a total 
of about 20,000. Krupp has built for his offi- 
cers and men good dwelling houses and hospi- 
tals. A sick, burial, and pension fund had an in- 
come in 1873 of $80,000, and the expenditures 
amounted to about $60,000. Another fund 
secures free medical attendance upon an an- 
nual payment of 75 cents. The works at Es- 
sen in 1874 included 1,100 smelting and other 
furnaces, 275 coke ovens, 264 smiths' forges, 
300 steam boilers, 71 steam hammers, including 
a monster hammer similar to Nasmyth's, 286 
steam engines with an aggregate of 10,000 
horse power, 1,056 machine tools, a chemical 
laboratory, and photographic, lithographic, and 
printing and bookbinding establishments. A 
fire brigade of 70 men acts also as a police 
force, besides 166 watchmen. The consumption 
of coal in 1872 was 500,000 tons; coke, 125,000 
tons; gas, 155,000,000 cubic feet, for 16,500 
burners. The articles manufactured include 
guns, gun carriages, shot, boiler plates, rolls, 
spring steel, machinery, axles, wheels, rails, 
and springs for railways and mines, and shafts 
for steamers. Krupp was the first to introduce 
unwelded cast-steel tires for use on railways. 
He owns extensive coal and iron mines in vari- 
ous parts of Germany, besides having conces- 
sions of iron mines in Spain. His smelting 
works, chiefly on the Rhine, contain nearly 300 
coke ovens, and annually produce 120,000 tons 
of pig iron. He accepted the title of privy 
commercial councillor, but in 1864 declined 
patents of nobility. To the Vienna exhibition 
of 1873 he sent remarkable specimens, com- 
prising siege guns and other pieces of artil- 
lery, and ammunition. In 1874 he received so 
many orders from various governments that 
he negotiated a loan of 12,000,000 thalers for 
the extension of his works. 

KRUSMSTERN, Adam Johann von, a Russian 
navigator, born at Haggud, Esthonia, Nov. 19, 
1770, died in Esthonia, Aug. 24, 1846. From 
1793 to 1799 he was in the English service. 
During the reign of Alexander I. he was made 
a captain in the Russian navy, and placed in 
command of a scientific and commercial ex- 
pedition planned by himself, which sailed from 
Cronstadt in the summer of 1803, to explore 
the north Pacific coasts of America and Asia. 
It was described by Espenburg, Lisianskoi, 
Langsdorff, Tilesius, and in part by Krusenstern 
himself, in his Seise um die Welt in den JaJir- 
en 1803-'6 (3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1810-'! 2), 
which has been translated into many languages 
(English translation by Hoppner, London, 1813 ; 
French, 1821). He was made curator of the 
university of Dor pat in 1824, vice admiral in 
1829, and admiral in 1841. 

KRYLOFF, or Kriloff, Iran, a Russian author, 
born in Moscow, Feb. 13, 1768, died in St. Pe- 
tersburg, Nov. 21, 1844. While a boy he wrote 
several comedies, and having obtained a place as 
clerk in one of the public offices, he devoted his 
leisure to study. In 1801, having been recom- 
mended to the empress Maria, he became secre- 
tary to Prince Gallitzin. This office, however, 
was purely honorary, and he spent several years 
at the country house of the prince, engaged in 
literary labors. In 1812 he received an ap- 
pointment in the imperial library, and in 1830 
he was made councillor of state. He wrote 
plays, and contributed to various journals and 
periodicals, but was most successful in writing 
fables in imitation of those of La Fontaine. 
They were collected and published in numerous 
editions of various styles, cheap and expensive, 
and are as common in Russian households as 
the " Pilgrim's Progress" is in England. They 
were translated into French by several of his 
friends (Paris, 1825), and have been transla- 
ted repeatedly into several modern languages. 
The best translation in French is by Einerling 
(Paris, 1845) ; in English, by Ralston (London, 
1871) ; and in German, by Lowe (Leipsic, 1874). 

KIBAN, a territory of European Russia, in 
Ciscaucasia, and in the lieutenancy of Cauca- 
sia; area, 36,251 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 672,- 
224, including nearly 100,000 Mohammedans, 
the rest being chiefly members of the national 
church. It is the most populous and exten- 
sive region of Ciscaucasia, comprising the ter- 
ritories of the Cossacks in the district (oblast) 
of Kuban (pop. over 300,000) and in their 
Transkubanian districts (pop. over 100,000), be- 
sides various tracts of land inhabited by differ- 
ent tribes and some almost desert regions on 
the Black sea. It is divided into several circles, 
and contains small towns. The Cossacks are 
under the authority of a lieutenant general. 
Capital, Yekaterinodar. (See CAUCASUS.) The 
principal river is the Kuban, which rises in 
Circassia at the foot of Mount Elbruz, and 
after a N., N. W., and W. course of about 500 
m. falls into a bay of the Black sea. It has a 
number of small tributaries, and is navigable 
only for the smallest craft. 

KUBLAI KHAN, called in Chinese SHE-TSU 
and HU-PE-LI, the founder of the 20th or Mon- 
gol dynasty of Chinese emperors, born in the 
earlier part of the 13th century, died in Peking 
in 1294. He was the grandson of Genghis 
Khan, under whom the conquest of China 
had been commenced. A branch of the great 
Tartar family, known in Chinese history as the 
oriental Tartars, had harassed the feeble and 
debauched princes of the Sung dynasty, then 
governing the principal provinces of China, to 
such an extent that Li-sung, the reigning em- 
peror about 1250, called in the western Tartars, 
of whom Kublai Khan was sovereign, to drive 
out the oriental invaders. This effected, Ku- 
blai Khan established himself in China, and 
in 1260 assumed the title of emperor of that 
country. The Sung dynasty, though unable to 



make any effective resistance, continued to 
maintain a nominal existence till 1279, when 
it was extinguished. Kublai Khan now en- 
tered vigorously upon the administration of 
his empire. Assisted by three wise ministers, 
Yao-tchu, Hing-heng, and Teou-mo, he re- 
formed the army and the administration of 
civil affairs, reorganized the tribunals of math- 
ematics and astronomy, and called to his court 
men of letters from all countries, among them 
the Venetian merchant Marco Polo. He organ- 
ized an expedition for the conquest of Japan, 
but a part of his fleet was overwhelmed by a 
violent tempest, and the remainder destroyed 
by the Japanese. The discontent of the nobles 
and the people at this untoward result admon- 
ished the emperor to seek conquests in direc- 
tions where they might be more easily won, 
and' he subjected to his sway Tonquin and 
Cochin China, and reigned as emperor from 
the Arctic sea to the straits of Malacca, and 
from the Yellow sea to the Euxine. He seems 
to have been, for his time and his country, a 
ruler of extraordinary ability and integrity. 

KUE1VLUN, or Knlknn, a mountain -range of 
central Asia, forming the N. boundary of 
Thibet, and separating it from East Turkistan, 
the desert of Gobi, and the Koko-nor terri- 
tory. It runs from "W. to E. on or near the par- 
allel of 36 K, until near Ion. 92 E. it is bro- 
ken by the irregular mountain groups around 
Lake Koko-nor. The Nan-shan and Kilian-shan 
ranges may be considered as its eastern prolon- 
gations. At the W. end it is connected with the 
Hindoo Koosh, near its union with which it is 
attached on the north lo the Belur Tagh, a 
great chain running N". and S. along the E. 
frontier of Independent Tartary. The Kara- 
korum range, with which the Kuenlun is often 
said to be linked, is really a distinct branch of 
the Himalaya. The loftiest summits attain a 
height of '22,000 ft. The mountain of Shin- 
khieu in the Kuenlun chain is remarkable for 
a cavern emitting continual flames which dif- 
fuse for some distance an agreeable odor, prob- 
ably from naphtha ; it is not a volcano, but a 
fire spring. The highest watershed, according 
to the brothers Schlagintweit, who crossed 
the Kuenlun in 1856, is near the Karakorum 
pass, the elevation of which is 18,345 ft. The 
rivers Yarkand and Karakash take their rise 
near this pass. 

KUGLER, Franz Theodor, a German author, 
born in Stettin, Jan. 19, 1808, died in Berlin, 
March 18, 1858. His SUzzenbuch (1830) con- 
tained original compositions in poetry, music, 
and linear design, and in 1833 he published 
with Reinick a Liederbuch far deutsche Kunst- 
ler. The history of mediaeval art, however, 
occupied him chiefly, and after a visit to 
Italy for the purpose of collecting materials, 
he published in 1837 his Hdndbueh der Ge- 
scUcJite der Malerei von Konstantin dem Gros- 
sen bis auf die neuere Zeit (2 vols.), the most 
comprehensive treatise on the subject which 
lias yet appeared. The approbation with which 


the work was received caused it to be almost 
immediately translated into the leading lan- 
guages of Europe. In England it appeared in 
three separate parts, of which that relating 
to the Italian schools was translated by Lady 
Eastlake, with notes by Sir Charles Eastlake ; 
and those comprehending the German, Dutch, 
and Flemish schools, and the French and Span- 
ish schools, were edited by Sir E. W. Head. 
Kugler also published works on "The Poly- 
chromy of Greek Architecture and Sculpture, 
and its Limits," the " Art Treasures in Berlin 
and Potsdam," "History of Architecture," 
"Schinkel, the Influence of his Theories of 
Art," &c. He was almost equally industrious 
in other walks of literature, having published a 
"History of Frederick the Great," illustrated 
by Menzel, a "Modern History of Prussia," a 
volume of poems, and several successful dramas. 
From the year 1833 he was professor of the 
history of art in the royal academy of Berlin, 
and for 20 years lectured in the university of 
Frederick William. 

Rl H\, Adalbert, a German philologist, born at 
Konigsberg, Brandenburg, Nov. 19, 1812. He 
studied in Berlin under Bopp, Bockh, and 
Lachmann, and became in 1841 teacher and in 
1856 professor at the gymnasium of Cologne. 
He acquired celebrity in comparative philology 
and as the founder of the science of compara- 
tive Indo-Germanic mythology. His princi- 
pal works are : Zur altesten GeschicJite der in- 
dogermaniscJien Volker (Berlin, 1845; enlarged 
in Weber's Indische Studien, Berlin, 1850); 
Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gotter- 
tranks (1859) ; and Sagen, Gebrauclie und 
Mdrchenaus Westphalen (2 vols., Leipsic, 1859). 
He is the editor of a periodical devoted to the 
comparative philology of the French, Greek, 
and Latin, and edits with Schleicher a similar 
publication relating to the East- Aryan, Celtic, 
and Slavic languages. He has written numerous 
essays for these periodicals, and many on Ger- 
manjnythology and legends in other regions. 

KUHNE, Gustav, a German novelist, born in 
Magdeburg, Dec. 27, 1806. He graduated as 
doctor of philosophy in Berlin, and has pub- 
lished several novels, of which his Kloster- 
novellen (Leipsic, 1838) and Die Rebellen von 
Irland (1840) are the best. His Deutsche Man- 
ner und Frauen (Leipsic, 1851) is one of his 
most popular works. He has since published 
SMzzen deutscher Stadte und Landschaften, 
and a novel entitled Missiondr und Proselyt: 
He belongs to the " Young Germany " school 
of politicians and writers, and has done much 
to promote the establishment of kindergartens 
after the plan of Froebel, and published on 
the subject FroleVs Tod und der Forfbestand 
seiner Lehre (Liebenstein, 1852). He pur- 
chased from Lewald the magazine Europa in 
1846, and continued it till 1859. In 1852 he 
removed to Dresden. His recent publications 
comprise Mein Tagebuch in bewegter Zeit 
(Leipsic, 1863), and a collection of his works 
(7 vols., 1862-'6). 


R1JHNER, Raphael, a German philologist, born 
in Gotha, March 22, 1802. He studied in Got- 
tingen, and became in 1824 teacher of Latin 
and Greek at the lyceum of Hanover. His 
Greek and Latin grammars and translations 
have become text books in German, English, 
American, and Scandinavian schools. The prin- 
cipal of them are : Ausfuhrliche Grammatik 
der griechischen SpracJie (2 vols., Hanover, 
1834-'5; latest ed., 1869-'71) ; Kurzgefasste 
Schulgrammatilc (1836 ; 25th ed., 1869) ; Ele- 
mentargrammatilc (1837; 29th ed., 1868); and 
similar works relating to Latin. 

Rl KOLMK, Nestor, a Russian author, born in 
1808. He was employed in the civil service, 
and retired with the title of actual councillor 
of state. He became known in 1833 by his 
drama "Torquato Tasso," and in 1840 by a 
tragedy with choruses for which Glinka com- 
posed the music. His tragedy " Patkul " was 
favorably received in 1846, and the Crimean 
war suggested to him two plays, the "Naval 
Festival of Sebastopol" and the "Siege of 
Azov." He has also written many historical 
novels and stories, one of the most recent of 
which, "The Two Sisters" (St. Petersburg, 
1865), relates to the Polish insurrection. 

Kl'LJA* ! A province of the Russian gov- 
ernment general of Turkistan, in central Asia ; 
area, 27,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 114,337. 
After the expulsion of the Chinese from the 
basin of the Hi, this region was for a time ruled 
by the sultan of the Taranji, who resided in 
the town of Kulja. Hostile demonstrations 
of the sultan against the Russian frontier led, 
in May, 1871, to a Russian expedition, which 
on July 3 ended with the submission of the 
sultan. The country was organized as a Rus- 
sian province, and provisionally divided into 
four circles. II. A town, also called Hi, cap- 
ital of the province, formerly the capital of 
Dzungaria, the northwesternmost dependency 
of China, but since 1871 occupied by and an- 
nexed to Russia; pop. about 30,000. It is situ- 
ated on the Hi, about 350 m. E. of its mouth 
in Lake Balkash, and has long been one of the 
centres of the transit trade of central Asia. 

RULM (Boh. Chlumec), a village of Bohe- 
mia, in the circle of Leitmeritz, 8 m. N. E. of 
Teplitz, noted for a battle between the allies 
and the French, Aug. 29-30, 1813. After his 
victory at Dresden (Aug. 27) Napoleon was 
marching upon Silesia, when Schwarzenberg's 
advance from Bohemia made him retrace his 
steps, and he despatched Yandamme with 30,000 
men to frustrate the enemy's design. Schwar- 
zenberg was obliged to fall back upon Teplitz, 
and the allies were only extricated from a 
dangerous dilemma through the valor of the 
Russian general, Duke Eugene of "Wiirtemberg ; 
but the latter would have been overwhelmed 
on Aug. 29 in the valley of Kulm, if his di- 
vision had not made a most desperate resist- 
ance, and if the king of Prussia, on hearing 
of the emperor Alexander being on the battle 
field, had not sent reinforcements. These en- 



abled the allies to maintain their position at 
Arbesau near Kulm. As the night approached 
Vandamme encamped in the vicinity of Kulm, 
anticipating the arrival of Napoleon, or at least 
of Marshal Mortier ; but the former had al- 
ready left for Pirna, and both were soon 
obliged after the defeat at Grossbeeren to re- 
turn to Dresden. The French were on the 
following day surrounded by the allies, who 
had been placed by Schwarzenberg under the 
command of the Russian general Barclay de 
Tolly. The left wing, which occupied the 
heights of Kulm, was turned early in the day, 
while Kleist attacked the French in the rear 
from the direction of Nollendorf. After a 
futile attempt to cut his way through to the 
latter place, Vandamme was obliged to sur- 
render with three other generals and 10,000 
men as prisoners of war, after having lost 5,000 
men and over 80 pieces of artillery. 

RULM, a town of Prussia. See CULM. 

RUM, or Room, a town of Persia, capital of a 
district of the same name in the province of 
Irak-Ajemi, 78 m. S. by W. of Teheran. It is 
important from its situation on the high road 
between the N. and S. portions of the country. 
Anciently it was a place of great magnificence, 
and had a population of 100,000; the number 
is now only about 8,000. Portions of the town 
are in ruins, it having been destroyed by the 
Afghans when they invaded Persia in 1722. 
Within its walls is the tomb of Fatima, a near 
descendant of the prophet, who is believed to 
have an intercessory influence. Her tomb is 
covered with plates of gold, and the city is on 
her account one of the most favorite burial 
grounds in the country. The bazaars are nu- 
merous and extensive. There are manufactures 
of chinaware of inferior quality, of pottery, 
and of jars for cooling water, which are much 
esteemed. The town is supposed to occupy 
the site of the ancient Choana, and to have 
been built early in the 9th century, from the 
ruins of seven towns, which composed a small 
sovereignty under an Arabic prince. 


RUMAON, a district of the Northwest Prov- 
inces in Brit'sh India, bordering on the Hima- 
laya mountains, Nepaul, Rohilcund, the Dehra 
Doon, and the district of Gurwhal ; area, 
about 7,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 430,300. 
The surface is very diversified. The southern 
portion is either forest-clad plain almost desti- 
tute of water, or marsh land, while toward 
the north the surface is broken by numerous 
mountains, some of which are among the 
highest in the world. The climate in the low 
region is sultry and deadly ; in the alpine dis- 
tricts, temperate, invigorating, and healthful. 
Earthquakes are common. The principal rivers 
are the Kalee, Goonka, Aluknunda, Surju, and 
Gorigunga. The valleys and low lands are fer- 
tile, and in the warmer districts yield two 
crops annually. The tea shrub has been suc- 
cessfully introduced. The chief mineral pro- 
ductions are gold, lead, copper, and iron. The 


gold is chiefly found in the sands of the Aluk- 
nunda. The principal manufactures are blan- 
kets, coarse linens and cottons, and bamboo 
mats and baskets. A large portion of the in- 
habitants are engaged in the transit trade be- 
tween East Turkistan and India. A corrupt 
form of Brahmanism is the dominant faith. 
Kumaon is famous for the number of its 
shrines and temples, mostly situated at the 
confluence of its rivers. Those most celebrated 
as places of pilgrimage are Kedarnath, Badri- 
nath, Deoprayag, Rudraprayag, and Vishnupra- 
yag. Kumaon was never conquered by the Mo- 
guls, but was subdued by the Gorkas in the 
latter part of the 18th century. It became a 
British province in 1815. Capital, Almorah. 

KUMISS, an alcoholic liquor distilled by the 
Calmuck Tartars from mares' milk as it is un- 
dergoing fermentation. It is said that 21 oz. 
of milk yield 14 oz. of low wines, which by 
rectification give 6 oz. of pretty strong alco- 
hol. Cows' milk, probably from its containing 
less saccharine matter, yields much less spirit. 

KUNERSDORF, a village of Prussia, near 
Frankfort - on - the - Oder, noted for a battle 
fought Aug. 12, 1759. After the failure of 
Gen.. Wedel (July 23) to prevent the junction 
of the Russians and Austrians on the Oder, 
Frederick instructed Prince Henry to replace 
him in watching the main Austrian army un- 
der Daun, while he crossed the Oder and gave 
battle to the allies. Despite a furious fire, he 
stormed the Muhlberg, turning the Russian left 
wing, and considered the day his, when, owing 
both to the difficulties of the ground and the 
wearied condition of his troops, with whom he 
now assailed the strongly posted right wing, 
the tide turned in favor of the allies. The lat- 
ter, out of an army variously estimated at from 
60,000 to 90,000, lost 18,000, and according to 
some authorities 24,000; while the Prussians, 
out of an army of 40,000 to 50,000 men, lost 
in killed and wounded 19,000, or according to 
others 26,000, and almost all their batteries. 
Gen. Puttkammer and the poet Chr. Ewald 
von Kleist fell. Frederick had two horses shot 
under him, and escaped capture only through 
one of his officers. The principal Russian com- 
mander was Soltikoff, and the victory was 
chiefly decided by the panic created among 
the Prussians by the Austrian general Laudon's 
impetuous cavalry attack on their flank. 

KUNG, Prince (KUNG-CHIEN-WANQ), a Chinese 
statesman, born in 1835. He is the brother 
of Hien-fung, emperor of China from 1850 
to 1861, and the uncle of Tung-che, the present 
ruler. ^ On the death of Hien-fung, almost 
immediately after the close of the war against 
England and France, the heir to the throne 
was a child seven years old. In the regency 
which was at once established, Prince Kung, 
who had previously occupied a high official 
position at court, but had not been an active 
member of the executive government, received 
a power nominally equal to that of the young 
emperor's mother and aunt, who were asso- 


ciated with him ; but he immediately became 
recognized as the actual head of affairs, and, 
though frequently hampered in his action by 
the opposition of his two companions in pow- 
er, he continued to be de facto ruler until the 
emperor attained his majority, Feb. 23, 1873. 
His policy was throughout this period enlight- 
ened and progressive, and whatever advance 
was made in the political improvement of 
China and her relations with foreign powers is 
undoubtedly chiefly due to him ; while he con- 
sistently opposed all conservative action and 
the policy of seclusion previously practised. 
Many of the more liberal treaty stipulations, 
the establishment of a college at Peking, and 
the sending of an embassy to foreign powers in 
1868, were largely owing to his efforts. After 
the accession of the emperor, Prince Kung re- 
mained at the head of the foreign office. 

KUNTH, Karl Sigismnnd, a German botanist, 
born in Leipsic, June 18, 1788, died in Berlin, 
March 22, 1850. Alexander von Humboldt 
enabled him to study in Berlin, and he joined 
him in Paris in 1813 to continue, after Will- 
denow's death, the editing of Humboldt and 
Bonpland's botanical collection. He return- 
ed to Berlin in 1819, and became professor 
of botany and vice director of the botanical 
garden. His works include Nova Genera et 
Species Plantarum (7 vols., Paris, 1815-'25), 
and Enumeratio Plantarum omnium hucusque 
cognitarum (5 vols., Stuttgart, 1833-'50) ; and 
he continued Bonpland's monographs of me- 
lastomse and equinoctial plants, altogether in- 
cluding 6,000 specimens. 

KUOPIO. I. A S. Ian or government of 
Finland, Russia; area, about 17,000 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 222,321, mostly Lutherans. A 
large part of the surface is occupied by lakes, 
and the rest consists generally of large sandy 
plains, diversified by hills and forests. The 
Vuoxen traverses the Ian, flowing southward 
into Lake Saima and thence eastward into 
Lake Ladoga. The principal occupations are 
rearing of cattle and horses, agriculture, and 
fishing. II. A town, capital of the Ian, pleas- 
antly situated on a W. promontory of Lake 
Kalla, 225 m. N. W. of St. Petersburg; pop. 
about 5,000. It contains a church and a gym- 
nasium, and exports resin and timber. The 
periodical fairs are numerously attended. 

KIR, Koor, or Knra (anc. Cyrus), a river of 
Russian Georgia, which rises in the moun- 
tains W. of Kars, in the Turkish vilayet of 
Erzerum. It flows N". E. into Transcaucasia 
until it approaches the S. base of the Caucasus, 
when it turns E. S. E. and runs nearly par- 
allel with that range to the Caspian sea, which 
it enters by three mouths 80 m. S. S. W. of 
Baku. It is about 800 m. long, and navigable 
66 m. from its mouth by small vessels. Its 
banks are high, and well wooded except near its 
mouth. Its waters are yellowish and turbid, 
and the current, though smooth, is rapid. Its 
principal affluents are the Aras and Alazan, 
Gori and Tiflis are on its banks. 


KURDISTAN, or Koordistan (" the country of 
the Kurds"), an extensive region of western 
Asia, comprised chiefly within the basin of the 
Tigris, between lat. 34 and 39 K, and Ion. 
39 and 47 E., and belonging partly to Tur- 
key, partly to Persia; area, about 40,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. estimated by Eitter at 800,000, by 
others as high as 3,000,000. Its limits are not 
well defined. Persian Kurdistan is comprised 
chiefly in the province of Irak-Ajemi, and the 
Turkish in the vilayet of Diarbekr. Moun- 
tain ranges from 3,000 to 13,000 ft. in height, 
of which many peaks are covered with snow 
during six months in the year, occupy the 
north, breaking the surface into deep, narrow 
valleys, and rugged table lands,, of which the 
most extensive are on the confines of Armenia. 
With the exception of three ranges of hills of 
no great altitude, the southern portion of the 
territory is low and level. The principal riv- 
ers are the Tigris, the Great Zab (the Zabatus 
or Lycus of ancient Assyria), the Little Zab 
(the ancient Oaprus), the Diyalah, and the 
Adhem. There are several lakes, of which 
the most considerable are Van and Urumiah. 
The soil is very fertile. The climate ranges 
from extreme heat to extreme cold ; the win- 
ters in the north are very severe, and the sum- 
mers in the south are attended by an equally 
intense heat. The country has but little min- 
eral wealth, but alum, sulphur, and iron are 
found, and there are a number of salt springs. 
Forests of oak, pine, and plane trees clothe 
the mountains; grains of all kinds, rice, to- 
bacco, flax, and hemp, excellent wines, and the 
usual fruits of temperate climates, thrive on 
the hills and plains. Mulberry trees, for silk- 
worms, are cultivated. Cotton is found to 
succeed in certain localities. A remarkable 
vegetable production is found here, answering 
in most respects to the manna which fed the 
children of Israel in the wilderness ; it is col- 
lected from leaves of trees and occasionally 
from the ground, and is dried, pounded, and 
eaten as a sweetmeat. The gigantic rose is 
a floral production peculiar to the country. 
Vegetables of all kinds, especially melons and 
cucumbers, grow to extraordinary size. Honey 
is produced largely. Medicinal plants, espe- 
cially gall nuts of superior quality, are largely 
exported, by way of Alexandretta and Smyrna. 
Agriculture employs little attention or skill. 
Flocks and herds constitute the wealth of the 
inhabitants. The horses are small, but capable 
of great endurance, and are much in demand 
for the Turkish and Persian cavalry. They 
are worked under the saddle only, oxen being 
the beasts of draught. Camels are little used, 
owing to the broken nature of the ground. The 
live stock chiefly consists of long-tailed sheep, 
with wool of the most delicate fibre. The 
principal wild animals are the panther, bear, 
lynx, jackal, hysena, and fox. Many varieties 
of game abound. The Kurds are supposed to 
be descendants of the ancient Carduchi. (See 
CABDUOHI.) Their complexion is light, and 
472 VOL. x. 5 

their physiognomy animated. Sharp but deli- 
cate features, an ample and open forehead, 
deep-set, dark, and intelligent eyes, a finely 
cut mouth shaded by a moustache, good teeth, 
small and handsomely shaped hands and feet, 
and a well proportioned frame, give to them a 
remarkable elegance of person; while their 
active habits impart a strength of body which 
renders them physically one of the finest peo- 
ple of Asia. They are good horsemen, expert 
in the use of arms, adventurous and daring, in- 
clined somewhat to brigandage, but hospitable. 
The young women are very beautiful, but the 
shrivelled look of age comes upon them very 
early. The national costume resembles that of 
the Turks. The men wear a cloak of black 
goats' hair, and a red cap around which is 
wound a silk shawl falling down upon the 
shoulders. Only the aged wear beards. The 
women, except a few of the highest rank, do 
not veil; they are treated with more respect 
than in most eastern countries. The Kurds 
lead partly a stationary and partly a nomadic 
life. They occupy stone dwellings, of which 
those of the wealthy are crowned with a tower. 
The beys or chiefs retire in time of danger with 
their tribes into a kind of fortifications con- 
structed in the crevices of steep mountains. 
The chiefs have a despotic control over their 
tribes, and are almost constantly at war with 
each other. The recently perfected political 
division of the" countries of Asiatic Turkey 
have resulted in a more complete recognition 
of the authority of the sultan, though the 
chieftainships of the emirs, khans, beys, .and 
aghas still continue among them. The Persian 
tribes are considered the wildest of all, and 
maintain their independence with better suc- 
cess than those in the territory of Turkey. 
They are divided into three totally distinct 
classes or castes : warriors (sipaJis), cultivators 
(rayahs), and villagers (Icoilu). The language 
of the Kurds belongs to the Iranian section of 
the Indo-European family. It is closely related 
to the Neo-Persian, and may be considered a 
dialect of it. But though the grammatical 
structure is Iranic, the vocabulary is strongly 
mixed with Turkish, especially in the eastern 
Kurd dialects, and is also full of Arabic words, 
owing in a measure to their adoption of the 
Mohammedan religion. It is written with the 
Persian-Arabic alphabet, but as few Kurds 
learn to write, it has no literature except 
songs. As the Kurds appear to be one of the 
earliest Indo-European tribes which migrated 
to S. W. Asia, the language is particularly 
deserving of study. The numerals from 1 to 
10 are: yeTc, du, sell, tchar, ~bensli, shesh, heft, 
hasht, nah, dah. Some of the pronouns are : 
me, meh ; they, tcih; my, men; our, mah. 
These pronouns are added to the words by 
means of connecting vowels, as laJil, father; 
'baKbehmen, my father; laJibehtah, thy father; 
bahbehmah, our father. The literature of the 
Kurds is as well represented as it can be by 
a rich collection of manuscripts at Erzerum. 



Sheikh Ahmedi is a celebrated poet of the 16th 
century, and his best production seems to be a 
love story entitled Nem-u-Zine. The names 
of Mollah Hezir, also called Neali Effendi, and 
of Ahmed Effendi, are those of the most learned 
Kurds of modern times. A grammar and vo- 
cabulary of the Kurdish language was prepared 
by Garzoni (Rome, 1787). Rodiger and Pott 
have written Kurdische Studien, in vols. iii. 
and iv. of the Zeitschrift des Morgenlandes ; the 
structure of the language has been described by 
Dorn and Schafy, Beitrage zur Kenntniss der 
iranischen Sprachen (St. Petersburg, 1866). 
In religion the majority of the people profess 
to be Mohammedans of the sect of Omar, but 
their creed is tinctured with remnants of the old 
Manichaean and Magian systems, and they have 
many superstitious practices not sanctioned by 
the Koran. About 100,000 are Nestorian Chris- 
tians, locally known as Kaldani. (See NESTO- 
RIANS.) These Christians inhabit the valley 
of the Tigris and the mountains which skirt it 
on the east. There is a church and priest in 
almost every one of their villages. 

KURILE ISLANDS, a chain of smali islands in 
the Pacific ocean, extending from the S. ex- 
tremity of Kamtchatka to Yezo, the northern- 
most of the Japanese islands. They lie be- 
tween lat. 42 and 51 K, and Ion. 145 and 
157 E., are 26 in number, and reach over a 
space of more than 700 m. in length. They 
are divided into the Great Kuriles, which be- 
long to Japan, and the Little Kuriles, which 
are subject to Russia. The largest of the for- 
mer are Kunashir and Iturup ; of the latter, 
Sumshu, Poromushir, Onekotan, and since 1856 
also Urup. The surface of these islands is 
very irregular. There are eight or ten vol- 
canoes, still for the most part in a state of 
ignition. The height of the northernmost of 
them, on the island of Alaid, known for its 
great eruptions in the years 1770 and 1793, is 
calculated at from 12,000 to 15,000 ft. The 
shores are in general rocky and precipitous, 
and, in consequence of the violent currents 
which prevail around them, very difficult of 
access. Several of the Kuriles are uninhabited, 
and several uninhabitable for want of water ; 
but many are fertile, well wooded, and pro- 
duce game and fish in abundance. The cli- 
mate is tempestuous, severe, and foggy. The 
vegetable productions are few and unimpor- 
tant. The principal animals are bears, wolves, 
foxes, sables, otters, seals, and fowl. The 
chief commerce is carried on with Russia, 
China, and Japan. The minerals are iron, sul- 
phur, and copper. The people, very few in 
number, are in general of low stature, dark 
complexion, and more hairy than the other 
races of E. Asia. Their habits are excessively 
filthy, but their disposition is honest and 
gentle. In manners and customs the northern 
islanders resemble the Kamtchatdales ; the 
southern, who are termed Ainos, to some ex- 
tent the Japanese. (See AINOS.) The islands 
were first discovered by the Russians in 1713 ; 


five of them were known in 1720, and the 
whole archipelago in 1778. 

KURRACHEE, or Karachi, a seaport town of 
Sinde, India, in the presidency of Bombay, 
capital of a district of the same name, 91 m. 
S. W. of Hydrabad ; pop. about 30,000. It is 
situated on a bay of its own name in the In- 
dian ocean, W. of the delta of the Indus, and 
near the frontier of Beloochistan. It is built 
on a plain between the sea and a range of 
mountains, and has a spacious harbor, ob- 
structed however by a bar which cannot be 
safely crossed by vessels drawing more than 16 
ft. of water. A mole has been built by the 
British, and a road constructed from it to the 
town, which is about 3 m. distant. The point 
of Munorah, at the extremity of a promontory 
S. of the harbor, is fortified. As the only safe 
port in Sinde, Kurrachee is an important com- 
mercial centre, and it is the terminus of the 
Sinde railway, which connects it with Kotree, 
opposite Hydrabad on the Indus. A submarine 
telegraph gives it communication with Muscat 
and Alexandria. Kurrachee has warehouses, 
banks, and other requisites of a large trade, and 
maintains regular steam communication with 
several towns in India, Persia, Africa, and Eu- 
rope. The annual imports and exports are es- 
timated at $30,000,000. It exports camels, fish, 
hides, tallow, ghee, oil, oil seeds, bark, saltpe- 
tre, salt, indigo, cotton, and grain, and imports 
metals, hardware, cotton, silks, twist, and yarn, 
'besides having an active transit trade with 
Cashmere, Afghanistan, Thibet, and Turkistan. 
It contains an English church and school. 

KURSK. I. A S. government of Russia, bor- 
dering on the governments of Orel, Voronezh, 
Kharkov, Poltava, and Tchernigov ; area, 18,- 
890 sq. m. ; pop. in 1867, 1,866,859. The sur- 
face is in general undulating, the climate mild 
and dry, and the soil fertile. The principal 
rivers are the Seim, Vorskla, and Oskol. The 
most valuable minerals are iron, limestone, and 
nitre. The manufactures consist of coarse 
cloths, leather, soap, spirits, and earthenware. 
The most important cities are Kursk, Rylsk, 
Belgorod, Stary-Oskol, Mikhailovka, and Miro- 
polie. II. A city, capital of the government, 
on the Tuskar, a tributary of the Seim, 280 m. 
S. by W. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 28,921. It 
is a large town, with narrow, ill-paved streets, 
numerous churches, and a magnificent edifice 
occupied by the government. It carries on 
a considerable trade with St. Petersburg and 
Moscow, and is the seat of the civil and mili- 
tary governors of the province, and of the arch- 
bishop of Kursk and Belgorod. 

KURZ, Heinrich, a German author, born in 
Paris, April 28, 1805, died in Aarau, Switzer- 
land, Feb. 24, 1873. He graduated at Leipsic, 
and after the revolution of 1830 became a jour- 
nalist at Munich, where he was imprisoned 
during two years for political offences. From 
1834 to 1839 he was professor at St. Gall, 
Switzerland, and after losing this post on ac- 
count of being a Protestant and alien, he re- 




ceived a professorship at Aarau. He pub- 
lished popular manuals of German poetry (3 
vols., Zurich, 1840-'43) and prose (3 vols., 
1845-'6). Among his works are Geschichte 
der deutschen Literatur (4 vols., Leipsic, 1851- 
'72), Leitfaden zur Geschichte der deutschen 
Literatur (1860; 4th ed., 1872), Deutsche 
Bibliothek (10 vols., 1862-'8), and Bibliothelc 
der deutschen Nationalliteratur (125 numbers, 
Hildburghausen, 1867-'72). 


RUSSNACHT, a village of the canton of 
Schwyz, Switzerland, at the foot of the Rigi, 
on a N. arm of the lake and 8 m. N. E. of the 
city of Lucerne, at the bottom of the bay of 
Kussnacht; pop. in 1870, 2,853. It is cele- 
brated for its association with William Tell. 
Near it is the ruined wall called Gessler's castle, 
although it has been discovered that it never 
belonged to him ; also the hollow way, referred 
to in Schiller's drama of " Tell," through which 
the Swiss patriot shot Gessler with his unerr- 
ing arrow. The hollow way has almost dis- 
appeared through the building of a new road. 
At the end of the lane stands Tell's chapel, 
which was originally dedicated to the "Four- 
teen Helpers in Need " (the Saviour, the Vir- 
gin, and the apostles). There is another vil- 
lage of the same name on the lake and 4 m. S. 
S. E. of the city of Zurich ; pop. about 2,500. 

RUSTENDJI, or Risten^jeh, a town of Euro- 
pean Turkey, in the Dobrudja, the N. E. part 
of the vilayet of the Tuna (Danube), 70 m. E. 
by N. of Silistria, on the Black sea ; pop. about 
5,000. It stands upon a level but elevated 
point of land, which almost assumes the form 
of a peninsula, near the termination of Trajan's 
wall, of which traces still exist. The port of 
Kustendji is shallow, but affords safe anchorage 
during the summer. The town was called Con- 

stantia in ancient times, after a sister of Con- 
stantine the Great, who built it, and is still 
called Kostantza by the modern Greeks. A 
railway, about 35 m. long, here connects the 
Danube with the Black sea, and has greatly 
increased the prosperity of the town. Inscrip- 
tions and other remains of the ancient city of 
Tomi, where Ovid died, have recently been 
found in the vicinity of Kustendji. 

RUSTRIN, or (list i in, a town of Prussia, in the 
province of Brandenburg, near the junction of 
the Warthe with the Oder, which is spanned 
by a bridge about 900 ft. long, on the railway 
from Berlin to Dantzic, 48 m. E. of the former 
city; pop. in 1871, 10,122, exclusive of the 
garrison. It is a fortress of the third rank, 
and contains three suburbs, a royal palace, two 
churches, a gymnasium, and several other 
schools. In the vicinity are many sugar refi- 
neries, and the local and coasting trade is ac- 
tive. It was founded early in the 16th cen- 
tury, and became the capital of the Neumark 
and of the margrave John, known as John of 
Kiistrin and as John the Wise, a zealous re- 
former, who built the fortress and the palace, 
covering the latter with copper. Frederick the 
Great, while crown prince, was confined here 
for a time by his father ; and Lieut. Katt, his 
intimate friend and alleged accomplice in his 
proposed flight to England, was beheaded here, 
Nov. 6, 1730. The fortress was bombarded by 
the Russians, Aug. 15-22, 1758, and saved only 
from utter destruction by Frederick the Great. 
Soon after the battle of Jena (1806) the Prus- 
sian commander hastily surrendered it, though 
it had sufficient provisions to hold out for a 
long time; and the French occupied it till 
early in 1814, when they capitulated. 

RUTAIEH, or Rutaya, a town of Asiatic Tur- 
key, capital of a district of the same name in 


the vilayet of Khodavendighiar, 170 m. N. E. 
of Smyrna, on the Kutaieh-su, the principal 

upper branch of the Pursak; pop. about 60,- 
000. It is the centre of the district where 



the famous Turkish carpets are manufactured, 
and of a considerable trade and industry, the 
surrounding country being extremely produc- 
tive in grain, cotton, gall nuts, fruits, goats' 
hair, and wool. The town possesses about 30 
mosques, three Armenian and Greek church- 
es, fountains, baths, bazaars, and fine private 
residences with gardens attached to them. A 
treaty of peace was concluded here in 1833 
between Mehemet Ali and the Porte. Kos- 
suth was confined here by the Turkish gov- 
ernment in 1850-'51. In the town is an old 
castle built on the site of the ancient Cotyseum, 
a town of Phrygia. 

KUTAIS. I. A government of Asiatic Rus- 
sia, in Caucasia, bordering on the Black sea 
and Asiatic Turkey, and embracing the terri- 
tories of Mingrelia and Imerethia; area, 8,039 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 605,691. Most of the 
surface is mountainous. The principal rivers 
are the Ingur and the Rion, the ancient Phasis. 
About one sixth of the inhabitants are Moslems. 
II. A town, capital of the government, on the 
Rion, 115 m. W. N. W. of Tiflis ; pop. in 1867, 
8,263, mostly Armenians and Jews.. It has a 
gymnasium, several bazaars, and an important 
trade in corn, wine, silk, and cattle. Near it, 
on a hill, are the ruins of the ancient fortress, 
which in 1770 was destroyed by the Russians. 
Kutais is built on the site of the ancient Cuta- 
tisium or Cytsea, the capital of Colchis and the 
birthplace of ^Eetes and Medea. It was for- 
merly the capital of the province of Imerethia, 
which belonged to Georgia. 

KUTTENBERG (Boh. Kutnakora), a town of 
Bohemia, 38 m. E. S. E. of Prague ; pop. in 
1870, 12,747. It has several churches and 
monasteries, an Oberrealschule, manufactories 
of beet sugar, and important lead mines. For- 
merly the mines also yielded a considerable 
amount of silver ore, and in 1300 the first silver 
groschens were coined here. On Jan. 6, 1422, 
the town was burned down by the Hussites. 

KFTUZOFF, Mikhail, prince of Smolensk, a 
Russian general, born in 1745, died in Bun- 
zlau, Prussian Silesia, April 28, 1813. He com- 
menced his military career at the age of 16, 
and distinguished himself in the campaigns in 
the Crimea, in which he was several times 
severely wounded. In 1783 he became a gen- 
eral of brigade, in 1784 a major general, and in 
1790 he led under Suvaroff the assault against 
Ismail, at the taking of which 30,000 Turks 
were put to the sword. In 1791 he was made 
lieutenant general, and shared in the victory 
over the Turks at Matchin, which led to the 
treaty of Jassy. He was ambassador to Con- 
stantinople in 1793, and subsequently filled 
important military and diplomatic stations un- 
der Catharine II., Paul, and Alexander. In 
1805 he entered Germany with 50,000 men to 
form a junction with the Austrians, and gave 
the corps of Mortier a decided check at Diir- 
renstein, thereby temporarily deranging Napo- 
leon's plans, for which he received from the 
emperor of Austria the grand cordon of Maria 


Theresa. He was present at Austerlitz in com- 
mand of the allied forces, but was not responsi- 
ble for the disaster of the day, having dis- 
sented entirely from the plan of the cross march 
to outflank the French. In the subsequent 
war with Turkey he gained fresh laurels, and 
concluded an advantageous peace at Bucharest 
in May, 1812. In August of the same year 
he was appointed to supersede Barclay de 
Tolly in command of the Russian forces op- 
posed to the grand army led by Napoleon 
against Moscow. On Sept. 7 he hazarded a 
battle at Borodino against the whole French 
army led by Napoleon in person. Although 
the issue of that conflict was in favor of the 
French, the Russians losing 52,000 men, and 
being obliged to resign Moscow, the national 
pride of the latter was gratified by this obsti- 
nate stand against their enemy, who lost 30,000 
men, and Kutuzoff received in recompense a 
field marshal's baton. He subsequently concen- 
trated his forces at Tarutino, midway between 
Moscow and Kaluga, and watching his oppor- 
tunity routed the French advanced guard un- 
der Murat and Poniatowski at Vinkovo, Oct. 
18. On the 24th was fought the battle of Ma- 
lo-Yaroslavetz, by which, although the French 
remained masters of the field, Napoleon was 
checked in his line of march, and compelled to 
retreat along the wasted line of the Smolensk 
road. Following the enemy, Kutuzoff defeated 
the corps of Eugene Beauharnais at Smolensk, 
Nov. 16, and on the two succeeding days Da- 
voust and Ney at Krasnoi, capturing 26,000 
prisoners and over 200 pieces of cannon, and 
inflicting a loss of 10,000 men upon the enemy, 
his own troops losing but 2,000. As a reward 
for the skilful manoeuvres which had brought 
about these successes, he was created prince 
of Smolensk. After the passage of the Bere- 
sina he pursued the French more leisurely, and 
upon entering Wilna in December he found 
the campaign virtually ended, although the 
pursuit was continued as far as Kalisz, where 
the Russians paused, in the latter part of Jan- 
uary. Having issued from this place a procla- 
matiqn announcing the dissolution of the con- 
federacy of the Rhine, and calling upon its 
members to join in the league formed for 
the deliverance of Germany, he crossed the 
Oder, and following on the traces of the enemy 
reached Bunzlau, where his constitution, en- 
feebled by the rigors of the campaign, yielded 
to an attack of malignant typhus fever. 

KIJTZING, Friedrich Traugott, a German nat- 
uralist, born at Ritteburg, Thuringia, Dec. 8, 
1807. He studied in Halle, explored southern 
Europe, and became professor at Nordhausen. 
His principal works relate to the algae, including 
Tabula Phycologica (Nordhausen, 1845-'71);- 
and in his Grundzuge der pJiilosopJiischen Bo- 
tanik (2 yols., Leipsic, 1851-'2), he anticipated 
the doctrines of Darwin. 

KUTZMER, Johann Gottlieb, a German author, 
born at Pohlschildern, Feb. 27, 1822, died at 
Hirschberg, Jan. 5, 1872. He was a teacher 




in the latter city from 1848, and published, 
besides other works, Die Lehre vom Menschen 
(Glogau, 1854) ; Die Reise seiner Icdniglichen 
Hoheit des Prinzen Waldemar von Preussen 
nach Indien, 1844-'6 (Berlin, 1857) ; Geogra- 
phische Bilder (2 vols., 1858); Populare Erd- 
lildungskunde (Langensalza, 1858) ; Die Welt- 
geschichte in zusammenhangenden Einzelbildern 
(3 vols., Berlin, 1858-'9) ; Der illustrirte Eu- 
lezahl (Hirschberg, 1859) ; DerWeltfahrer Dr. 
Kane (Leipsic, 1860) ; and Der deutsch-franzd- 
sische Krieg (2 vols., Leipsic, 1870-'T1). He left 
in manuscript two volumes of Naturlehre. 

KUYP, Albert. See CUTP. 

KWANGSI, or Qnangsi, a S. province of China, 
bordering on the provinces of Yunnan, Kwei- 
chow, Hunan, and Kwangtung, and the terri- 
tory of Tonquin ; area, 78,250 sq. m. ; pop. 
about 7,000,000. It is watered by branches of 
the Tao or Si-kiang. Kice is largely produced 
along the river banks. Gold, silver, and quick- 
silver are mined. The mountainous character 
of the province is unfavorable to agriculture, 
and the. population is less dense than in most 
other parts of China. Principal town, Wu- 
chow; capital, Kwelin. 

KWAMTUNG, the most southerly province of 
China, bordering on the gulf of Tonquin and 
the China sea, and the provinces of Fokien, 
Kiangsi, Hunan, and Kwangsi ; area, 79,456 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 19,000,000. It is mountainous 
in the north, but the region near the Tonglong 
river, the Pe-kiang, and Si-kiang and the sea- 
coast is among the most fertile in China. The 
province is the centre of the production of 
sugar, and among the other products are tea, 
rice, silk, tobacco, and fruits. Lacquered 
wares, cotton and silk goods, and other articles 
are largely manufactured. The numerous bays 
and rivers facilitate commerce, and along the 
coast are a large number of islands, including 
that of Hainan. Capital, Canton. 

KWEICHOW, a S. W. province of China, bor- 
dering on the provinces of Szechuen, Hunan, 
Kwangsi, and Yunnan ; area, 64,554 sq. m. ; 
pop. about 5,000,000. It is rough and moun- 
tainous, and is one of the poorest parts of 
China. Cereals, rice, tobacco, cassia, and tim- 
ber are produced ; also copper, iron, lead, and 
quicksilver. The largest river is the Wu, a 
tributary of the Yangtse. Capital, Kweiyang. 


LTHE 12th letter of the Phoenician and 
. other Semitic graphic systems (lamed) 
and of most modern European alphabets, the 
23d in Arabic, the 27th in Persian and Turkish, 
and the llth in Greek (Mppda, the 12th before 
the dropping of the digamma) and Latin. It 
is one of the four liquids of grammarians (7, m, 
n, r), and of the four akshara yavarga (ya, ra, 
la, va) or semi- vowels in the Devanagari. The 
sound is produced by placing the tip of the 
tongue against the upper incisor teeth, while 
the breath issues at its sides and the larynx 
vibrates ; and it is hence called a lingui-dental. 
Priscian attributes to the Latin L three sounds, 
one full, one middle, and one slender. In Eng- 
lish, German, and other languages, it has but 
one sound. The French I mouille (ly uttered 
with one breath, as in million) is generally ex- 
pressed by II following i, as in tilleul, but 
sometimes by I, as in ail, and Ih, as in gentil- 
homme. The Spanish II always has the mouille 
sound, even as an initial, and is reckoned as a 
separate character in the alphabet. It is ex- 
pressed in Portuguese by Ih, in Italian by gl 
before i, and in Magyar by ly, in all positions. 
The Polish, Ruthenic, and Lusato-Vendic barred 
f is pronounced by pushing and swelling the 
tongue to the palate, as in Pol. pta8M(Ger.platf), 
flat. The Welsh II is pronounced with a hissing, 
as in lldn or IMn (temple), Lloyd, &c., almost as 
if written fl. Some nations and persons can- 
not pronounce I, as for instance the Japanese, 
who use r in its stead, as in Sagarien for Sa- 
ghalien. The Chinese, on the contrary, unable 

to .utter r, always substitute I, as in Kilisit for 
Christ. There was no L in Zend. It is often 
mute in English before consonants, as in could, 
calm, half, psalm, &c. (although pronounced 
in similar positions in all other languages), and 
when final in some French words, as in baril, 
outil, sourcil, infils, &c. In words transferred 
from one language to another, I is often inter- 
changed with r, n, d, i, or u ; as Eng. pilgrim 
(Lat. peregrinus), Fr. orme (Lat. ulmus, elm), 
Lat. lympha (Gr. vv^rj), Ulysses ('Orfwaeff), 
ltd. fiore, lianco (Lat. flora, Nancus), Dutch 
goud (gold), &c. As a numeral sign, L denotes 
30 in the Semitic (except Ethiopian, where it 
marks 2), Greek, Russian, Armenian, Cyrillic, 
and Georgian ; 50 in Latin and Glagolitic (in 
the former as being a half of the ancient E or 
0, centum). A dash above it raises these 
values to as many thousands. In rubrication 
it marks 11. In abbreviations it stands for 
Lucius, Lalius, Lares, libens, libertus, locus, 
latus, libra (, pound sterling), &c. L. S. 
stands for locus sigilli, place of the seal ; LL. D. 
for legum doctor, doctor of laws. On old 
French coins L stands for Bayonne. 

LA ALAND, an island in the Baltic belonging 
to Denmark, lying between lat. 54 38' and 
54 58' K, and Ion. 10 58' and 11 53' E.; 
greatest length 37 m., greatest breadth 17 m. ; 
area, 460 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 62,000. To- 
gether with Falster and several small islands, 
it forms the district of Maribo (area, 640 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 90,706). The surface of 
Laaland is low, level, and mostly marshy. The 



water is bad, and the climate unhealthy ; but 
the soil is fertile, and yields good crops of 
corn, beans, hops, and hemp. There is a lake 
called Maribo near the centre of the island, 
which is almost 5 m. in length. There are 
five towns: Maribo, the capital, Nakskov, 
Nysted, Rodby, and Saxkiobing. 

LABADIE, Jean de, a French mystic, born at 
Bourg-en-Guienne in February, 1610, died in 
Altona, Holstein, Feb. 13, 1674. He was edu- 
cated at the Jesuits' college of Bordeaux, and 
was for some time a member of that society ; 
but in 1650 he became a Protestant, settled at 
Montauban, was elected pastor of the church, 
and remained there eight years, during which 
he founded a mystical sect, resembling the 
quietists of his old communion, and called La- 
badists. Being at length banished from Mon- 
tauban for sedition, he went first to Orange, 
and afterward to Geneva, whence in 1666 he 
was invited to Middelburg, Holland. Here his 
followers increased in number, and included 
many persons of rank and education, among 
whom were Anna Maria von Schurmann and 
the princess palatine Elizabeth. The hetero- 
doxy and contumacy of Labadie, however, led 
to his deposition by the synod of Naarden, and 
to his banishment from the province. He 
formed a church in a small village near Am- 
sterdam, and established a press for the publi- 
cation of his works, but was ultimately com- 
pelled to remove to Altona. The Labadists do 
not now exist. 

LABANOFF DE ROSTOV, Alexander, prince, a 
Russian author, born in 1788. He was aide-de- 
camp to Alexander I. and Nicholas from 1813 
to 1828, when he retired with the rank of major 
general. He published numerous works based 
on official documents relating to Mary Stuart, 
the principal being Lettres, instructions et me- 
moirea de Marie Stuart, reine cPEcosse (7 vols., 
Paris, 1844, and a supplementary volume), 
which are regarded as the most authentic au- 
thority on the subject. He presented his valu- 
able library to the government. 
^ LABARUM, the military standard of Constan- 
tine the Great, adopted by him in commemo- 
ration of the appearance of the 
cross in the sky when he was on 
the march against Maxentius. It 
consisted of a pole or pike with 
a horizontal bar forming a cross, 
from which depended a square 
purple ^ banderole, ornamented 
with fringes and precious stones. 
The staff was surmounted by a 
golden crown set with jewels, in 
the midst of which was the mon- 
ogram of Christ, with the occa- 
sional addition in later times of 
the Greek letters alpha and ome- 
ga. On medals of Valentinian I. 
it is represented without the crown and with 
the monogram on the banderole; and some- 
times the figure of Christ was displayed on the 
latter. Prudentius says that " Christ, woven 


Labarum, from 
a Medal of 
Valentinian I. 


in jewelled gold, marked the purple labarum." 
Julian the Apostate removed the sacred sym- 
bols and substituted for them the ancient S. 
P. Q. R., but Jovian restored them. The ori- 
gin of the word is involved in obscurity, and 
scholars are undecided when it was first ap- 
plied to the Roman standard ; but it is found 
on coins and medals of the first emperors, espe- 
cially on those connected with the Germanic 
and Armenian wars. Under the pagan empe- 
rors the ensign usually bore the image of the 
emperor or that of Jupiter, Mars, or Mercury. 

LABAT, Jean Baptiste, a French missionary 
and historian, born in Paris in 1663, died 
there, Jan. 6, 1738. He entered the order of 
the Dominicans, taught philosophy at Nancy, 
afterward devoted himself to preaching, and 
became a missionary to the Antilles. After 
remaining two years at Martinique, he passed 
in 1696 to Guadeloupe, where he established a 
station of his order, and also distinguished him- 
self as an engineer and agriculturist. On his 
return to Martinique he was appointed procu- 
reur general of the mission, and for his diplo- 
matic and scientific services was held in esteem 
by successive governors. He explored the 
archipelago of the Antilles, founded in 1703 
the city of Basse-Terre, and in that year took 
an active part in the defence of the island 
against the English. He organized a company 
of 60 negroes, who, as he said, destroyed more 
of the enemy than all the French troops. By 
the decease of his associates, he gradually uni- 
ted in his own person nearly all the higher 
offices of his order in the Antilles, and in 1705 
returned to Europe to obtain recruits. He was 
detained by his superiors at Rome till 1709, 
and at Civita Vecchia till 1716, after which 
he went to Paris, where he passed the rest of 
his life. His principal works are : Nouveau 
voyage aux iles de VAmerique (6 vols. 12mo, 
1722) ; Nouvelle relation de VAfrique occiden- 
tale (5 vols., 1728) ; and Voyage en Espagne 
et en Italic (8 vols., 1730). 


LA BEDOLL1ERE, Kinilc Giganlt de, a French 
author, born in Paris, May 24, 1814. He has 
been extensively connected with journalism, 
was one of the founders of the Univers illustre, 
and from 1850 one of the editors of the Siecle, 
and in 1869 assisted in founding the new Na- 
tional. He has written histories of the French 
campaigns from 1792 to 1815, the Crimean 
war, the British war in India, the Italian war 
of 1859, the Mexican war, and the German and 
Italian war of 1866. His miscellaneous wri- 
tings comprise almost every variety of litera- 
ture, including Histoire des mceurs et de la me 
privee des Francais (3 vols., 1847-'9), La France 
et la Prusse (1867), and translations of " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," Hildreth's " White Slave," and 
various novels of Scott, Cooper, Dickens, Mar- 
ryat, and Mayne Reid, and other works. 

LABED01 ERE, Charles Angeliqne Francois Hnchet 
de, count, a French soldier, born in Paris, 
April 17, 1786, shot at Grenelle, Aug. 19, 1815. 




He was aide-de-camp to Lannes and Prince 
Eugene, and was severely wounded at the bat- 
tle of Lutzen in 1813. In the same year he 
married a lady of the legitimist Chastellux 
family, and after Napoleon's first abdication he 
entered the service of the Bourbons, but was 
the first to join the emperor after his return 
from Elba, who made him general and peer. 
He was one of the last to leave the battle field 
at Waterloo. Supporting Napoleon II., and ex- 
cepted from the amnesty, he left Paris, but im- 
prudently returned, and Louis XVIII. had him 
shot despite the efforts of Benjamin Constant. 
Napoleon left 150,000 francs to his heirs. 

L1BETTE, a S. E. county of Kansas, border- 
ing on Indian territory ; area, 624 sq. in. ; pop. 
in 1870, 9,973. It is drained by the Neosho 
river and affluents of the Verdigris. The Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and Texas railroad passes through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 28,- 
514 bushels of wheat, 128,543 of Indian corn, 
32,489 of oats, 13,484 of potatoes, 69,218 Ibs. 
of butter, and 5,956 tons of hay. There were 
2,644 horses, 2,538 milch cows, 1,990 working 
oxen, 5,413 other cattle, 2,910 sheep, and 2,540 
swine ; 3 manufactories of furniture, 4 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, and 8 saw mills. 
Capital, Oswego. 

LABIENIIS, Titus, a Roman general, died in 
45 B. C. He was tribune in 63, the year of 
Cicero's consulship, and carried some measures 
in the interest of Csesar, who in 58 took him 
as his lieutenant into Transalpine Gaul, and 
made him pro-prsetor. He served with ability, 
and commanded the troops during Caesar's ab- 
sence. In 54 he twice defeated the Treviri, 
and reduced them to submission. He took a 
distinguished part in the great campaign against 
Vercingetorix in 52, and thought himself not 
inferior in military ability to Caesar. On the 
outbreak of the civil war in 49 he went over 
to Pompey, but distinguished himself little, ex- 
cept for boastfulness and cruelty. He mur- 
dered the soldiers of Caesar who fell into his 
hands at Dyrrhachium. After the defeat at 
Pharsalia he fled, through Corcyra and Cyrene, 
to the remnant of Pompey's army in Africa. 
In 46 he commanded an army which was re- 
pulsed by Caesar near Ruspina, after which he 
served as lieutenant of Scipio. After the de- 
feat at Thapsus he fled to Spain. In 45 he 
again fought against Caesar at Munda ; his cau- 
tious attempt to cover his camp, being mis- 
taken for a retreat, produced a panic, and 
turned the undecided battle into a rout, in 
which he fell. He was an able lieutenant, but 
too vain and headstrong to command. 

Li BILLARD1ERE, Jacques Julien Honton de, 
a French naturalist, born in Alencon, Oct. 2;3, fc 
1755, died in Paris, Jan. 8, 1834. In 1786 he 
was sent on a scientific mission to Syria and 
Palestine, explored the mountains of Lebanon, 
and brought back a valuable collection of 
plants. The results of his journey were pub- 
lished in his Icones Plantarum Syria rario- 
rum Descriptionibus et Obsemationibus illut- 

tratce (4to, Paris, 1791-1812), with elegant 
drawings by Redoute. When the expedition 
under D'Entrecasteaux was sent in search of 
La* Perouse in 1791, La Billardiere sailed on 
board the Recherche as naturalist, spent a few 
months at the Cape, visited many of the large 
islands and archipelagos in the Pacific ocean, 
and was finally taken prisoner at Java by the 
Dutch in October, 1793. His botanical collec- 
tions, consisting of 4,000 plants, three fourths 
of which were of species previously unknown, 
were carried to England; but when, after a 
captivity of nearly two years, he returned to 
his native country, they were returned to him. 
In 1800 he was elected a member of the acad- 
emy of sciences, and thenceforth devoted his 
whole time to arranging his botanical treasures 
and publishing the results of his observations. 

LABLACHE, Lnigi, an Italian singer, born in 
Naples, Dec. 6, 1794, died there, Jan. 23, 1858. 
He was the son of a French merchant, and 
studied vocal and instrumental music in one of 
the conservatories of Naples. He was idle and 
unruly, but was compelled to finish his studies, 
and made his debut in 1812 at the little theatre 
of San Carlino as a buffo singer. In 1817 he 
appeared at the Scala theatre in Milan in Ros- 
sini's Cenerentola, with such success that Mer- 
cadante wrote for him the opera of Elisa e 
Claudia, and for several seasons he filled the 
leading basso parts in that city. In 1824 he 
sang for the first time before the Viennese, 
who in their enthusiasm caused a medal to be 
struck in his honor. After an absence of 12 
years Lablache returned to Naples to assume 
the duties of royal chapelmaster and fill an 
engagement at the San Carlo theatre, and ap- 
peared in the works of Rossini and Bellini. 
In 1830 he went to Paris and London, where, 
in the maturity of his powers, he made his 
debut at the Italian opera in the character of 
Geronimo in II matrimonio segreto. Thence- 
forth until within a short time of his death, 
with the exception of the year 1834, when he 
returned to Naples to sing in the Elisir d'amore, 
he appeared chiefly in Paris and London. Du- 
ring the last 25 years of his life he was the 
leading basso of his own and perhaps of any 
other time. His voice, a base of the purest 
quality, unsurpassed in resonance, in flexibility 
and compass, was not less remarkable than his 
artistic skill in the management of it, and his 
dramatic versatility. Originally of an imposing 
and graceful presence, he became exceedingly 
corpulent in middle life, although this never 
detracted from the impressiveness of his per- 
formance in serious parts. He was at one time 
singing master of the queen of England. His 
only daughter was married to Thalberg. 

LA BLANCHERE, Pierre Rene Marie Henri Monl- 
lin de, a French naturalist and photographer, 
born at La Fleche, Sarthe, May 2, 1821. After 
studying the natural sciences, he established 
himself in Paris in 1855 as a photographer, 
with a view of applying that art to scientific 
purposes. He was president during five years 



of the societe du progres de Vart indmtriel, and 
superintended its semi-annual exhibitions in 
the Champs Elysees. At a later period he 
was commissioned by the government to _ ex- 
ecute photographic illustrations of the various 
types of French fishes and of the management 
of the piscicultural establishments at Huningen 
,and Ooncarneau; and these he collected in an 
album, which attracted much attention at the 
exhibition of 1867. His principal works are: 
Repertoire encyclopedique de photographic (a 
periodical, 6 vols., 1862-7) ; Nouveau diction- 
naire general des peches (4to, illustrated) ; Les 
ravageurs desforets (1865) ; Lapeche aux bains 
de mer, and Voyage au fond de la mer (1868). 

LABOKDE, Henri, viscount de, a French paint- 
er, born in Rennes, May 2, 1811. He is a son 
of Gen. Count Henri Frangois de Laborde 
(1764-1833). He studied under Delaroche, and 
produced in 1836 " Hagar in the Wilderness," 
which is at the museum of Dijon, and in 1837 
"The Confession of St. Augustine," one of 
his best works, which has been purchased by 
the government. His " Capture of Damietta" 
(1841) and "Knights of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem " (1845) are at Versailles. His ' r Dante at 
La Verna" (1847), a historical landscape, for 
which he received a first medal, was burned 
in 1870, during the bombardment of Saint 
Cloud. He has published JStudes sur les beaux- 
arts en France et a Vetranger (2 vols., Paris, 
1864), and Ingres, sa me et sa doctrine (1870). 

LABORDE, Jean Benjamin de, a French com- 
poser, born in Paris, Sept. 5, 1734, guillotined 
July 22, 1794. While young he became a 
favorite of Louis XV., and dissipated nearly 
the whole of his fortune; but he cultivated 
his taste for music, and during the life of his 
patron produced several successful operas. He 
published Essai sur la musique ancienne et 
moderne (4 vols., 1780), and several works on 
history, chronology, and geography. At the 
breaking out of the revolution he became ob- 
noxious in consequence of being one of the 
farmers general, and retired to Rouen, but 
was brought back to Paris, and executed. 

LABORDE. I. Jean Joseph, marquis de, a 
French financier, born at Jaca, Aragon, in 
1724, guillotined in Paris, April 18, 1794. He 
amassed a large fortune in mercantile opera- 
tions, and rendered important financial assis- 
tance to the government, for which he was 
made court banker and a marquis. When the 
French took part in the American war, he 
furnished the king with the money for des- 
patching the troops. He was a friend of Vol- 
taire, whose affairs he managed gratuitously. 
Toward the end of 1793 he was arrested, and, 
after a few months' imprisonment, sentenced 
to death by the revolutionary tribunal, as 
having participated in the royalist plots for 
the subversion of the republic. II. Alexandre 
Lonis Joseph, count de, son of the preceding, 
a French archaeologist and politician, born in 
Paris, Sept. 15, 1774, died there, Oct. 24, 1842. 
He was sent to Vienna at the beginning of the 


revolution, entered the Austrian army, reached 
the rank of major, and returned to France after 
the treaty of Campo Formio (1797). He then 
devoted himself to travels and artistic pursuits. 
In 1800 he accompanied Lucien Bonaparte, am- 
bassador to Spain, and during nearly two years 
explored the provinces of the peninsula, in 
company with several artists, whose expenses 
he paid. On his return to France he under- 
took the publication of his great work, Voyage 
pittoresque et historique de VEspagne (4 vols. 
large fol., 1807-' 18), which cost him the better 
part of his fortune. He afterward held several 
offices, and was a member of the chamber of 
deputies for most of the time from 1822 to 
1840. He took an active part in the revolution 
of 1830, and was for some time prefect of the 
Seine, and afterward aide-de-camp to Louis 
Philippe. Besides the Voyage de VEspagne, 
he published Itineraire descriptif de VEspagne 
(5 vols. 8vo, with an atlas, 1809) ; Les monu- 
ments de la France, classes chronologiquement, 
&c. (fol., 1816-'26); Voyage pittoresque en 
Autriche, avec un precis de la guerre entre la 
France et VAutriche, 1809 (3 vols. fol., 1821- 
'3), &c. III. Leon Emmanuel Simon Joseph, count 
de, a French archaeologist, son of the preceding, 
born in Paris in June, 1807, died there, March 
30, 1869. He studied at Gottingen, travelled 
in the East, and on his return published, in 
conjunction with M. Linant, Voyage de V Arable 
Peiree (Paris, 1830-'33), and Flore de VAralie 
Petree (4to, 1833). In 1837 he began a large 
and splendid publication, Voyage en Orient, 
consisting of travels in Asia Minor and Syria, 
which was published in parts and finished in 
1862. In 1842 his Commentaire geographique 
sur VExode et les Nombres secured his election 
to the academy of inscriptions. In 1841 he 
entered the chamber of deputies, where he 
showed little interest in political questions. 
In 1845 -'7 he published a series of letters on 
public libraries, the fourth of which, on the 
Mazarin palace, is full of historical interest. 
This led him to a larger illustrated publication, 
Les anciens monuments de Paris ; the first part 
was published in 4to in 1846, but it was not 
continued. He was also the author of the fol- 
lowing unfinished works: Les dues de Bour- 
gogne, etudes sur les lettres, les arts et Vin- 
dmtrie pendant le 15 e siecle (2 vols. 8vo, 
1849-'51) ; La renaissance des arts a la cour 
de France (vol. i., Peinture, 1855); and De 
Vunion des arts et de Vindustrie (2 vols. 8vo, 
1856). He was for several years curator of tho 
antiquities in the Louvre, but resigned in 1854, 
and in 1857 was appointed director of the 
archives of the empire. In 1867 he founded 
the museum of archives in the hotel de Soubise. 
LABOUCHERE. I. Henry, Baron Taunton, an 
English statesman, born in London, Aug. 15, 
1798, died July 13, 1869. His father, Peter 
Caesar Labouchere, whose ancestors left France 
at the period of the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes and became established in Holland, 
was a partner in the banking house of Hopo 




and co. of Amsterdam, and settled in England, 
where lie married a daughter of Sir Francis 
Baring. The son was educated at Oxford, 
and in 1826 entered parliament as member for 
St. Michael's. About the same time he visited 
America, to study the operation of republican 
institutions, which confirmed his liberal opin- 
ions, and he was long recognized as one of the 
most prominent leaders of the British liberal 
party. He sat for St. Michael's till 1830, when 
he was returned for Taunton, retaining this 
seat by successive reflections till 1859, when 
he was raised to the peerage. From 1832 to 
1834 he was one of the lords of the admiralty, 
and from 1835 to 1839 vice president of the 
board of trade, master of the mint, and privy 
councillor. He was chief secretary for Ire- 
land from 1846 to 1847, president of the board 
of trade from 1847 to 1852, and from 1855 
to 1858 secretary of state for the colonies. 
As he had no male heir, his title became ex- 
tinct at his death. II. Henry Du Pre, an Eng- 
lish politician, nephew of the preceding, born 
in London in 1831. He was in the diplomatic 
service from 1854 to 1864, and was a liberal 
member of parliament from July, 1865, to 
April, 1866, and from April, 1867^ to Novem- 
ber, 18G8. During the siege of Paris he was 
correspondent of the London "Daily News," 
and his letters were published as the " Diary of 
a Besieged Resident in Paris" (London, 1871). 

LABOl ( HERE, Pierre Antoine, a French paint- 
er, born in Nantes about 1818. He comple- 
ted his studies under Delaroche, and became 
known as a historical painter, most of his 
works relating to Luther, Ulrich von Hutten, 
Melanchthon, and Erasmus. Among the more 
recent ones are " The Death of Luther " and 
"Charles V." (1866). 

LA BOUERE, Antoine Xavier Gabriel de Ga- 
zean, count de, a French painter, born at La 
Bouere, department of Maine-et-Loire, Oct. 1, 
1801. He is a son of a Vendean general of the 
same name, and was aide-de-camp in Spain 
in 1823, and in Algeria in 1830. Subsequent- 
ly he studied painting, and exhibited many 
pictures under the name of Tancrede de La 
Bouere, including "Views of Algiers," "Ruins 
of Thebes," "The Desert of Suez," "The 
Valley of Tombs in Nubia," " Ruins of Kar- 
nak," "The Pontine Marshes," and others, 
which are in the Luxembourg and some pro- 
vincial galleries, and the museum at Copenha- 
gen. His "Views of the Alhambra" have 
been purchased by the government. 

LABOULA1E. I. Edonard Rene Lefebvre, a 
French author, born in Paris, Jan. 18, 1811. 
He studied law, and became known first by his 
Histoire du droit de propriete fonciere en Eu- 
rope depuis Constantin jusqu 1 a nos jours (8vo, 
Paris, 1839). In 1842 he published Essai sur 
la vie et les doctrines de Frederic Charles de 
Savigny, and the same year he became an ad- 
vocate of the royal court of Paris. Two other 
elaborate works followed, RechercTies sur la 
condition civile et politique des femmes, de- 

les Romains jusqii'd nos jours (1843), 
and Essai sur les lois criminelles des Romains 
concernant la responsaMlite des magistrats 
(1845). In 1845 he was elected a member of 
the academy of inscriptions, and in 1849 he 
became professor of comparative legislation 
in the college de France. Under the empire 
Laboulaye took part in various attempts of the 
liberal party to direct public opinion, and was 
several times an unsuccessful candidate for the 
corps ISgislatif. A firm friend of the United 
States and of republican institutions, he took 
a deep interest in our civil war, and publicly 
expressed his sympathy, both in his writings 
and his speeches, with the federal government. 
In 1870 he was a member of the commission 
of inquiry into the administrative organization 
of the city of Paris and of the department of 
the Seine, and some weeks before the plebiscite 
of Napoleon he publicly advocated the neces- 
sity of an affirmative vote. In July, 1871, he 
was elected to the national assembly, and was 
made president of the commission for the reor- 
ganization of superior instruction. In March, 
1873, he was appointed director of the college 
de France. Among his works not already 
mentioned are : Histoire politique des Etats- 
Unis, 1620-1789 (3 vols. 8vo, 1855-'66); Les 
Etats- Unis et la France (1862) ; I?fitat et ses li- 
mites (1863) ; Paris en Amerique (18mo, 1863) ; 
Les memoires et la correspondance de Frank- 
lin (1866) ; and Lettres politiques (1872). He 
has published also a number of tales and trans- 
lations, and contributed numerous articles to 
the leading periodicals. II. Charles Pierre Le- 
febvre, a French industrialist, brother of the 
preceding, born in Paris in 1813. He entered 
the army as lieutenant of artillery, but resigned 
in 1836 and devoted himself to the industrial 
arts. He turned his attention specially to the 
founding of metallic type, and he is the in- 
ventor of many ingenious and valuable pro- 
cesses and machines for type making. He was 
also the editor and principal writer of the Dic- 
tionnaire des arts et manufactures (2 vols. 8vo, 
1847; 3d ed., 1867), and the author of a num- 
ber of valuable treatises on mechanics, indus- 
trial art, the mechanical equivalent of heat, &c. 
LABOURDOMAIS, or Labonrdonnaie, Bertrand 
Francois Mane de, a French naval officer, born 
in St. Malo, Feb. 11, 1699, died about 1755. 
He entered the service of the French East In- 
dia company as a lieutenant in 1718, and be- 
came a captain in 1724. In 1734 he was ap- 
pointed director general of the isles of Franco 
and Bourbon. These colonies, which he found 
in a state of anarchy, grew rapidly in pros- 
i perity under his government, and became the 
' depots of commerce between Europe and the 
Indies. He built fortifications, aqueducts, quays, 
canals, hospitals, and ship yards, and introduced 
the culture of manioc, sugar, indigo, and cot- 
ton. In 1746, during the war between Eng- 
land and France, he improvised a fleet, dis- 
persed the squadron of Admiral Barnet before 
Madras, and bombarded the city, which sur- 


rendered on Sept. 21. The French ministry 
had given orders that no attempt should be 
made to hold any of the English possessions 
that were captured, and the victor agreed to 
accept a ransom for the city of 1,100,000 pa- 
godas (about 9,500,000 francs) ; but Dupleix, 
governor general of the French Indies, jealous 
of Labourdonnais, refused to ratify his act. 
Labourdonnais was obliged by a storm to put 
to sea, and Dupleix, declaring void the articles 
of capitulation signed by him, removed all 
English property to Pondicherry, and burned 
the city. Labourdonnais, on his return to the 
isle of France, found a successor installed in 
his place by Dupleix. Returning home, he 
hoped there to receive justice ; but three days 
after his arrival in Paris, on the night of March 
2, 1748, he was seized and thrown into the 
Bastile, where he lay for three years and a 
half, ignorant of his accusation and not per- 
mitted to communicate even with his family. 
In 1751 a commission appointed by the coun- 
cil of state pronounced him innocent of all the 
charges brought against him, and gave him his 
liberty ; but his spirit was broken^ and his ex- 
istence during his last years was embittered 
by poverty and suffering. The government 
afterward, recognizing the injustice done him, 
gave his widow a pension of 2,400 livres. In 
1859 a statue was erected to him in the isle of 
Bourbon (now Reunion). His life was writ- 
ten by his grandson, the actor Bertrand Fran- 
cois Mahe (8vo, Paris, 1827). 

LABRADOR, a peninsula of British North 
America, on the Atlantic coast, between lat. 
49 and 63 N., and Ion. 56 and 79 W., com- 
prising in its fullest sense all that territory 
bounded N. E. and E. by Hudson strait and 
the Atlantic ocean, S. E. and S. by the strait 
of Belle Isle (separating it from Newfound- 
land), the gulf of St. Lawrence, and the riv- 
er St. Lawrence, S. W. by the Betsiamites or 
Bersimis river, Lake Mistassini, and Rupert's 
river, and W. by Hudson bay ; extreme length 
E. and W. from the E. entrance of the strait 
of Belle Isle, 950 m. ; extreme breadth on 
the 75th meridian, 750 m. ; area, about 450,- 
000 sq. m. The E. portion (area about 125,- 
000 sq. m.), from Cape Chudleigh (lat. 60 
37', Ion. 65) at the E. entrance of Hudson 
strait to the harbor of Blanc Sablon (lat. 51 
25', Ion. 57 9') at the W. entrance of the 
strait of Belle Isle, embracing the region drain- 
ing into the Atlantic, belongs to Newfound- 
land; the remainder forms part of the Do- 
minion of Canada. The portion (area 53,500 
sq. m.) immediately W. of a line drawn N. and 
S. from Blanc Sablon to the 52d parallel, em- 
bracing the region draining into the river and 
gulf of St. Lawrence, forms part of Saguenay 
co., Quebec ; the residue (much the larger part 
of the peninsula), comprising the N. and W. 
portions, which drain into Hudson bay and 
strait, is included in the Northwest territories. 
In a restricted sense, Labrador includes only 
the coast washed by the Atlantic. The set- 

tled population of the portion belonging to 
Newfoundland in 1869 was 2,479, of whom 
1,803 belonged to the church of England, 483 
were Roman Catholics, 165 Wesleyans, and 28 
belonged to the Kirk of Scotland. The Que- 
bec portion in 1871 had 3,597 permanent resi- 
dents, of whom 1,779 were of French origin 
or descent, and 1,309 Indians (Montagnais). 
The settlements are scattered along the shore 
of the St. Lawrence E. through the strait of 
Belle Isle to Cape Webuck, just N. of Hamilton 
inlet. W. of the St. Augustine river French 
is commonly spoken ; E. of that point, inclu- 
ding the Newfoundland settlements, English is 
the ordinary language. The chief occupations 
are fishing in summer, and hunting and trap- 
ping fur-bearing animals in winter. There are 
a few widely separated posts of the Hudson 
bay company, chiefly near the shores of Hud- 
son bay and strait. In the interior are wan- 
dering bands of Nasquapee, Mistassini, and 
Montagnais Indians, numbering 4,000 or 5,000. 
The coast N. of Hamilton inlet is occupied by 
Esquimaux to the number of about 1,500, of 
whom 1,200 are under the control of the Mo- 
ravian missionaries, who have four stations 
here, viz. : Nain (about lat. 56 30'), founded 
in 1771; Okkak (lat. 57 30'), 1776; Hopeclale 
(lat. 55 40'), 1782; and Hebron (lat. 58), 
1830. Each has a church, store, dwelling for 
the missionaries, and workshops for the na- 
tives. A vessel annually visits Nain from Eu- 
rope, to bring supplies and carry back the furs 
and other products collected by the natives. 
The English church has missions in the settle- 
ments subject to Newfoundland, and in 1853 a 
church was consecrated at St. Francis harbor. 
Roman Catholic missions have long existed 
W. of the strait of Belle Isle. The coasts of 
Labrador are rugged and forbidding. The 
chief indentation on the Atlantic is Esquimaux 
bay or Hamilton inlet (about lat. 54), into the 
head of which falls the Ashwanipi or Hamil- 
ton, the largest river of Labrador, and the out- 
let of a lake of the same name. The princi- 
pal streams emptying into Hudson bay, com- 
mencing at the south, are Rupert's river, the 
outlet of Lake Mistassini, the East Main or 
Slude river, and the Great and Little Whale. 
Into Ungava bay, an inlet of Hudson strait, 
flow the Koksoak or Koniapuscaw and Whale 
rivers, while the Nasquapee or Northwest riv- 
er and the Kenamou fall into Hamilton inlet 
on either side of the Ashwanipi, the former 
from the north and the latter from the south. 
Proceeding up the St. Lawrence, the chief 
rivers that empty into the gulf and river are 
the St. Augustine, Natashquan, Mingan, St. 
John, Magpie, Trout, Moisie, and Betsiamites. 
There are many lakes, formed chiefly by ex- 
pansions of the rivers. The interior of the 
country, according to Prof. Hind, is a lofty 
table land, in many parts thickly strewn with 
bowlders, and everywhere bleak and sterile. 
Where the surface is not burned, caribou moss 
covers the rocks, and stunted spruces, birches, 




and aspens grow in the hollows. The highest 
mountains extend along the E. coast from lat. 
54 to 59. Mount Thoresby near the coast is 
2,730 ft. high. The prevailing geological for- 
mation on the seaboard is granite, gneiss, or 
mica slate, above which in some places are 
beds of old red sandstone about 200 ft. thick, 
and a stratum of secondary limestone. Toward 
the interior the secondary rocks disappear. At 
Cape Chateau a series of basaltic columns pre- 
sents a remarkable resemblance to an ancient 
castle. Very little is known of the mineral 
resources, but iron ore, limestone, granite, 
hornblende, lapis olaris, hematite, and the 
beautiful shining spar called labradorite are 
found, the last being collected by the Esqui- 
maux on the seacoast and the shores of the 
lakes. In the south a stunted growth of 
poplars, pines, birch, and willow is found, and 
grass clothes the valleys for a few weeks 
in summer. Little vegetation exists in the 
north excepting mosses and lichens, though in 
some few favored spots the aspect is better. 
No kind of grain will ripen, but potatoes, 
Dutch turnips, cabbages, and other hardy vege- 
tables come to perfection. Much rain falls in 
summer near the sea. Sometimes on the coast 
the thermometer in July indicates 86, but a 
short distance inland it is at all times more 
temperate. The winters are extremely cold. 
From December to June the sea is frozen, 
while on land travelling becomes almost im- 
possible. The mean temperature of the re- 
spective months at the missionary stations of 
Okkak and Nam is : in January, 1*55 ; Febru- 
ary, 2-73 ; March, 7'88 ; April, 29-48 ; May, 
27-24; June, 42-59; July, 50-91; August, 
51-99; September, 44'7l; October, 32-56; 
November, 24-45; December, 27'84. The 
mean annual temperature at Nain is stated 
at 22-52; at Okkak, 27;86; at Hopedale, 
27*82. The prevailing winds on the E. coast 
vary between W. S. W. and N. W. There is 
less fog than on the island of Newfoundland, 
and the strait of Belle Isle is never frozen. 
The aurora borealis is frequent and of extreme 
brilliancy. The rivers abound with salmon, 
and the lakes with pike, barbel, eels, and trout ; 
the wilds with reindeer, black and white bears, 
wolves, foxes, hares, mountain cats, martens, 
and otters, with a few ermines, porcupines, and 
beaver ; the birds are white grouse, ptarmigan, 
spruce game, gray plover, a great variety of 
water fowl, the white-tailed eagle, and several 
varieties of hawks. Mosquitoes are as abun- 
dant as in more southern climates. Dogs and 
reindeer are the only domesticated animals, 
both being used as beasts of draught. The 
main wealth of Labrador is in its fisheries, in 
which, besides the settlers on the coast, a large 
number of schooners from Newfoundland, the 
Canadian provinces, and the United States (citi- 
zens of which by treaty have the right to take 
and cure fish on the shore E. of Mount Joly, 
Ion. 61 40', near the mouth of the St. Lawrence 
river) are engaged, employing during the fish- 

ing season probably 30,000 men. According 
to official reports, the exports from the Labra- 
dor coast subject to Newfoundland in 1873 
were valued at $1,132,935, the chief items 
being 303,208 quintals of codfish, 4,536 gal- 
lons of seal oil, 31,004 of cod oil, 1,467 tierces 
of salmon, and 43,413 barrels of herring. The 
value of the fisheries of the Quebec portion for 
the year ending June 30, 1873, was $518,140, 
the chief items of catch being 92,800 quintals 
of codfish, 8,146 barrels of herring, salmon to 
the value of $41,135, 7,225 seals, 26,975 gal- 
lons of seal oil, 400 of whale oil, and 23,283 
of cod oil. These figures do not include large 
quantities of fish taken to St. John's, Harbor 
Grace, and other Newfoundland ports, and 
thence exported to foreign countries, nor the 
catch of American and Nova Scotian fishermen. 
It is estimated that the total annual value of 
the fisheries on the Labrador coast is more 
than $5,000,000. The shores and adjacent 
islets are also resorted to for sea-fowl eggs. 
Labrador was discovered by John Cabot in 
1497. His son, Sebastian Cabot, who accom- 
panied him in that voyage, subsequently again 
visited the coast, and entered and partly survey- 
ed Hudson bay, giving names to several places. 
Henry Hudson explored the coast in 1610, 
after his discovery of the river which bears 
his name, passed through the strait now called 
Hudson strait, and entered the great bay, to 
which also he gave his name. The Portuguese 
called the country Terra Laborador, or culti- 
vable land, a misnomer equal to that of Green- 
land. About the middle of the last century a 
settlement was formed on the coast by Mr. 
Darby, an American, for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a whaling station and civilizing the Es- 
quimaux ; but the Indians made a descent on 
it, murdered many of his men, and broke it up. 
See "A Journal of Transactions and Events 
during a Eesidence of nearly Sixteen Years on 
the Coast of Labrador," by G. Cartwright (3 
vols., Newark, Eng., 1792) ; and " Explorations 
in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula," by 
Henry Youle Hind (2 vols., London, 1863). 


LABRADOR TEA (ledum latifotiuni), an in- 
teresting low evergreen shrub belonging to the 
heath family, and to the same suborder with 
the kalmia, the rhododendron, and the azalea. 
It is found in moist places, from Pennsylva- 
nia northward, especially in cold sphagnum 
swamps, its much-branching stems spreading 
in every direction through the damp moss. Its 
alternate short-petioled leaves are light green 
above, revolute at the margin, and the under 
surface is clothed with a dense down or rather 
wool, which in the older leaves is of a rusty 
brown color, a character by which the plant 
may be readily recognized; the leaves when 
crushed are fragrant. The flowers are in 
crowded terminal corymbs, white with distinct 
petals, forming an exception to the rule in this 
family, in which the flowers are mostly mono- 
petalous. The common name has reference to 


the use made of the leaves as a substitute for 
tea by the inhabitants of Labrador. It is found 
in the northern parts of Europe also, and the 
leaves are said to be used in Russia for tanning 
leather, and as a substitute for hops in brew- 
ing. The leaves of this and the only other spe- 
cies, L. palustre, are said to possess narcotic 
properties. The writer has found the plant to 
succeed in cultivation in a soil largely com- 
posed of peat. 

LABROUSTE, Pierre Francois Henri, a French 
architect, born in Paris, May 11, 1801. He 
studied at the college Ste. Barbe and afterward 
under Leon Vaudoyer and Hippolyte Lebas, 
entered the school of fine arts in 1819, and 
took the grand prize in 1824. In 1843 he be- 
gan the construction of the new library of 
Ste. Genevieve, his most noted work and the 
best existing example of the romantic or neo- 
Greek style, of which he was one of the found- 
ers and the most distinguished master. Among 
his other works are the hospital of Lausanne, 
the prison of Alexandria, and the school of 
Ste. Barbe des Champs. 

LA BRUIERE, Jean de, a French moralist, 
born in Paris about 1644, died in Versailles, 
May 11, 1696. At the recommendation of 
Bossuet he was appointed teacher of history 
to the grandson of the great Conde, in whose 
service he remained for the rest of his life in 
a literary capacity, with a pension of 1,000 
crowns. He was admitted a member of the 
French academy in 1693, and left the reputa- 
tion of a genial philosopher, whose happiness 
consisted in cultivating the best society and 
in reading the choicest books. His power of 
observation and his literary attainments are 
attested by his celebrated Caracteres, ou les 
Mo&urs de ce siecle, founded upon the " Char- 
acters" of Theophrastus, which he translated 
into French and prefixed to his own. Hallam 
says that he incomparably surpassed his Greek 
model. The first edition appeared in the be- 
ginning of 1688. Three editions were ex- 
hausted in the first year of its publication, and 
six more before the author's death. La Bru- 
yere left also an unfinished work, published in 
1699 under the title of Dialogues posthumes 
sur le quietisme, and contained in an edition of 
the works of La Bruyere, La Rochefoucauld, 
and Vauvenargues (Paris, 1820). Many edi- 
tions of La Bruyere's " Characters " were pub- 
lished after his death in Holland and France. 
The first complete edition based upon the 
original work was prepared by Walckenaer 
(Paris, 1845), followed by an improved edi- 
tion by Destailleur (1855), and an edition by 
Gennequin the elder with illustrations (1858). 
Many have since appeared, the latest being 
that by Alphonse Lemerre (1872). The English 
translation by the poet Rowe (London, 1709) 
has been often reprinted. In 1861 a new 
edition of his works was published (12mo, 
Caen), with notes by Georges Mancel. See La 
comedie de La Bruyere, by Edouard Fournier 
(Paris, 1866), and Caracteres de La Bruyere, in 


Lemerre's edition of French classics, with a 
sketch and notes by Oh. Asselineau (1872). 

LABUAJV, a British island in the Malay archi- 
pelago, off the N. W. coast of Borneo, in lat. 
5 22' K, Ion. 115 10' E. ; area, 45 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 4,893. The chief settlement is 
at Victoria at the S. E. end, where there is a 
government establishment and a fair harbor. 
In the interior are swampy tracts of jungle. 
The island is well supplied with water, and 
good coal is found near the N". E. end. In 
1866 about 12,000 tons were mined. Petro- 
leum also is found, and ironstone and freestone 
are quarried. A railway has been built from 
the mines to the place of shipment, 5 m. dis- 
tant, and several new roads have been opened. 
The chief exports are coal, sago, birds' nests, 
pearls, and camphor. The exports in 1872 
amounted to 134,984 (including 65,890 re- 
exports); imports, 129,198; total tonnage 
(exclusive of numerous native craft) entered, 
7,708 tons ; cleared, 7,808 tons. The colony 
was created an episcopal see in 1855. The 
island was ceded to Great Britain in 1846 by 
the sultan of Brunai, through the influence of 
Sir James Brooke, the rajah of Sarawak. 

LABURNUM, the ancient Latin name as well 
as the popular one for a small, hardy, deciduous 
tree of the family leguminosce. It was formerly 
placed in the genus cytisus, and is found in 
most works as C. laburnum ; but some impor- 
tant characters separate it from cytisus, and 
it stands in recent works as laburnum vulgare. 
The common laburnum was introduced from 
Switzerland into Great Britain near the close 
of the 16th century, and is now largely culti- 
vated as an ornamental tree. It has a smooth 


green bark, pale green three-foliolate leaves, 
and in May and June presents a beautiful ap- 
pearance, every twig and small branch being 
hung with racemes of brilliant yellow flowers, 
which are long and pendulous, and suggested 
one of its common names, golden chain; in 




Europe it is also called bean trefoil. Its hard 
and heavy wood is largely used for ornamental 
work, and for handles to knives and other in- 
struments ; it takes a high polish, and has a 
greenish color ; the French call it the ebony of 
the Alps. Rabbits are so fond of its bark, that 
they eat it in preference to that of any other 
tree. The seeds are highly emetic, and may 
be regarded as poisonous, and their great pro- 
fusion and brilliant appearance render it some- 
what objectionable to cultivate the tree, from 
the danger of children or cattle being tempted 
to eat them. A hybrid (probably a graft hy- 
brid) between this and a purple-flowered spe- 
cies obtained by a French horticulturist, M. 
Adam, is known as Adam's laburnum. Its 
flowers, which are of a dull purple color, fre- 
quently revert to one or the other parent; and 
the same branch, and even the same cluster, 
bears pure yellow and purple flowers of the 
parent species, as well as the dull purple ones 
of the hybrid. The alpine or Scotch laburnum 
(L. alpinum) attains a greater size than the one 
already described; it is a native of southern 
Europe, and cultivated forms of the two are 
so much alike that it is probable they are not 
specifically distinct. 

LABYRINTH, a structure of intricate passage- 
ways which it is impossible to traverse with- 
out a clue. Three labyrinths are mentioned in 
ancient story. The best authenticated is the 
labyrinth of Egypt, situated at Arsinoe, near 
Lake Moeris. Herodotus visited and describes 
it. It consisted of 3,000 chambers, half of 
them below ground, the subterranean apart- 
ments being sacred burial places. It was ex- 
tant in Pliny's time. Ruins at the modern vil- 
lage of Howara in Fayoom have been identi- 
fied by Lepsius with those of the labyrinth. 
Another structure, on a smaller scale but on 
the model of that of Egypt, was reported to 
have been built near Onossus in Crete, by Dao- 
dalus, as a place of confinement for the fabled 
monster the Minotaur ; but antiquaries discover 
nothing more labyrinthine in that locality than 
the caves and quarries of Mt. Ida. A third 
labyrinth was in the isle of Lemnos; remains 
of it were extant in the time of Pliny, but 
none can now be traced. A similar structure 
was said to exist on the island of Samos, .and 
another, called the labyrinthine tomb of Lars 
Porsena, near Clusium, in Etruria; but no 
particulars are known of either, and their ex- 
istence at any time is doubted. 

LABYRINTHODON (Gr. ^ipivdo^ labyrinth, 
and odovf, a tooth), a gigantic fossil reptile, so 
named by Prof. Owen from the complex laby- 
rinthic structure of the teeth ; the same animal 
had been previously called cheirotherium by 
Kaup, from the resemblance of its tracks to 
impressions of the human hand. This animal, 
which possesses both saurian and batrachian 
characters, probably most nearly resembled a 
gigantic frog about 10 or 12 ft. long. A his- 
torical sketch of the discoveries in connection 
with this reptile may be found in the " Pro- 

ceedings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory " (vol. v., 1856, p. 298), and full details on 
its affinities in the " Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History " (vol. viii., London, 1852, pp. 
305-313). Footprints and bones of the laby- 
rinthodon have been found in the trias of Eng- 
land and Germany; from an examination of 
the head and teeth, vertebras, pelvis, and bones 
of the extremities, Prof. Owen constructed an 
animal intermediate between the crocodile and 
the frog. Pictet (Traite de paleontologie, 
1853) calls it mastodonsaurus, and considers it 
a saurian from the presence of scutes on the 
skin and the form of the teeth. The general 
shape of the head is frog-like, as also are the 
double occipital condyles, narrow palatal pro- 
cesses of the maxillary, the roof of the mouth, 
the row of small teeth across the anterior part 
of the palate and a longitudinal row on the 
palate concentric with the maxillary teeth, the 
lower jaw and the vertebrae, and bones of the 
fore limbs ; on the other hand, the facial and 
nasal parts of the skull are crocodilian, as are 
the maxillary tusks, the strong transverse pro- 

Labyrmthodon (restored). 

cesses for ribs, bony dermal plates, &c. In 
some of the dental characters it resembles 
fishes. The size of the tracks varies from 4 to 
12 in. in length, with five toes on each, one 
turned in like the human thumb; the hind 
foot was three or four times as large as the 
fore foot; there is no positive evidence that 
the animal had a tail ; its progression seems to 
have been slow and awkward, the legs having 
been swung outward like the course of a 
scythe. Near each large step, and l^in. before 
it, is a smaller one of the fore foot, the distance 
from pair to pair being about 14 in. The 
American cheirotherium made a double series 
of tracks, and evidently belonged to a different 
genus from that of Europe. 

LAC, a resinous exudation from the twigs 
and branches of various kinds of trees in the 
East Indies, caused by the punctures of the 
insect coccus ficus^ which swarms upon trees 
yielding a milky juice. The exuding juice forms 
an incrustation around the twigs, and in this 
the insects make the cells for containing their 



eggs. Upon the outside the concrete resinous 
lumps are marked with numerous pores as if 
perforated with a needle; within are seen 
many oblong cells, which often contain dead 
insects. The substance is of a deep reddish 
brown, of shining fracture, astringent, and 
bitterish. It colors the saliva red, and pro- 
duces a dye of this color but little inferior to 
the real cochineal. Indeed, before the discovery 
of the latter it was the material of the fine rich 
crimson dye of the ancients, and of the durable 
reds of the dyers of Brussels and Holland. The 
coloring matter is readily extracted by warm 
water ; the lac itself is for the most part solu- 
ble in alcohol, also in an aqueous solution of 
borax, by which it may be distinguished from 
most common resins with which it is some- 
times adulterated ; when burned it diffuses a 
strong agreeable odor. The crude article broken 
off with the twigs is known as stick lac, and is 
sold by those who gather it at from 2 to 4 Ibs. 
for a penny. When the stick lac is broken up 
and its coloring matter is partially removed by 
water, it is called from its granular appearance 
seed lac. This is sometimes melted^into masses 
and called lump lac. The more familiar va- 
riety known as shell lac is prepared by melting 
the" seed lac and straining it through fine linen 
bags, upon a flat, smooth surface of wood, to 
harden. It dries in thin sheets, which break 
up into small fragments. Their color is from 
orange to dark reddish brown ; they are more 
or less transparent, hard, brittle, and shining. 
The substance is soluble in alcohol, but not in 
water, and possesses neither taste nor smell. 
It softens readily by heat, so that it has run 
together in masses when stowed in the hold of 
a ship. It contains, as found by Hatchett, 90'9 
per cent, of resin and 0*5 of coloring matter ; 
the remainder is wax, gluten, and foreign mat- 
ter. Stick lac contains about 10 per cent, of 
coloring matter and 68 per cent, of resin. The 
coloring matter is separated by treatment with 
warm water and evaporation, and, made into 
square cakes, is known as lac dye, lac lake, or 
cake lake. When scraped they yield a bright 
red powder like carmine. A varnish and pig- 
ment combined is prepared from stick lac for 
the process of japanning. The natives of India 
employ the substance in various ways. They 
color it with yellow orpiment and make it into 
bracelets, chains, and other ornaments in imi- 
tation of gold. They prepare with it a good 
varnish, which they color with cinnabar or 
some other pigment. The wheels of their lap- 
idaries are covered with a preparation of lac, 
which by its adhesive nature retains the pol- 
ishing powders. The chief uses of shell lac are 
for manufacturing sealing wax, and as the basis 
for spirit varnishes and the French polish. The 
best red sealing wax contains 48 parts in 100 
of it, together with 19 parts of Venice turpen- 
tine, 1 of balsam of Peru, and 32 of finely pow- 
dered cinnabar. It forms 60 per cent, of the 
best black sealing wax, the other ingredients 
being 10 parts of turpentine and 30 of levigated 


bone black. The coloring matter and some 
insoluble ingredients, which are never wholly 
removed from shell lac, injure it for a varnish 
for light-colored works; but recent methods 
of bleaching, one of which by chlorine was 
introduced by Dr. Hare, have in a great mea- 
sure removed this difficulty. (See VAKNISH.) 
The adhesive quality of lac adapts it for ce- 
ments for broken porcelain, and united with 
caoutchouc it makes the famous marine glue. 
A weak solution of it in alcohol is recommended 
in surgery to be spread on bandages for dress- 
ing wounds and ulcers. Formerly it was used 
in medicine, but it has no specific action. The 
best stick lac is brought from Siam, and next 
to this ranks that from Assam. In the best 
articles the sticks are frequently incrusted en- 
tirely around with the lac to the thickness of 
a quarter of an inch ; and the substance also 
forms large oblong bunches of much greater 
thickness. The Bengal stick lac is commonly 
in very scanty and irregular incrustations. The 
capacity of production is said to be many times 
greater than the demand, though the annual 
exportations amount to several million pounds 
of lac dye and shell lac. 

LA CAILLE, Mcolas Lonis de, a French as- 
tronomer, born at Rumigny, near Rheims, 
March 15, 1713, died in Paris, March 21, 1762. 
He was a pupil of Cassini in the observatory 
of Paris, assisted Maraldi in the survey of the 
coast between Nantes and Bayonne, and after- 
ward (1739-'40) took part in the measurement 
of the arc of the meridian, correcting the results 
of Picard, and proving the flattening of the 
earth toward the poles. Being appointed pro- 
fessor of mathematics in the Mazarin college, 
he published (1741-'50) lectures on mathema- 
tics, mechanics, astronomy, and optics, which 
have passed through many editions. He next 
devoted himself to astronomical observations, 
both at his observatory and at the Cape of Good 
Hope. His catalogue of stars made at the lat- 
ter station excited especial surprise from the 
quickness and accuracy of its formation. By 
simultaneous observations made by himself at 
the Cape and by Lalande at Berlin, he estab- 
lished the distance of the moon and of the 
planets Mars and Yenus. While there he re- 
ceived orders to survey the island of Bourbon 
and the isle of France (Mauritius). On his 
return he investigated anew the problem of 
finding the longitude at sea, and proposed the 
modern plan of a nautical almanac. In 1757 
he published his Astronomic^ Fundamenta ; in 
1758, Tables solaires ; and soon after, Bou- 
guer's treatise De la gradation de la lumiere, 
and a new edition of the Nouveau traite de 
navigation by the same author. After his 
death his friend Maraldi published his treatise 
on the "Southern Starry Heavens," and his 
" Voyage to the Cape." La Caille was the au- 
thor of a large number of other treatises, chief- 
ly on astronomical subjects. 

LACANDOXES, an Indian tribe of Central 
America, whose territory, formerly embracing 


a large proportion of N". W. Guatemala, Chia- 
pas, and perhaps Tabasco, along the banks of 
the river of their own name and of the Usu- 
masinta, seems at present to be confined to the 
fastnesses of the Chiche mountains. Little is 
known, however, of the precise limits of their 
country, as it is comprised in an extensive region 
hitherto unexplored, extending from lat. 16 
to 17 K, and from Ion. 90 to 93 W., accord- 
ing to M. Morelet, who visited the region, and 
describes it in Voyage dans VAmerique Centrale 
(Paris, 1869). The Lacandones, now inter- 
mingled with the once indomitable Oholes and 
Manches, were formerly aggressive and cruel, 
and not only successfully resisted the Spanish 
arms, but by their frequent incursions mate- 
rially retarded the prosperity of the surround- 
ing European colonies. They are now shy and 
timid in their limited intercourse with the Span- 
ish population, and even with the civilized abo- 
riginal tribes, to whom they occasionally bring 
tobacco and sarsaparilla in exchange for manu- 
factured goods and rude instruments of agri- 
culture or warfare. They speak a dialect of 
the language of the Mayas of Yucatan, in all 
likelihood the parent stock from which their 
separation was coeval with and determined by 
the same causes as that of the Itzaes. (See 
ITZAES.) Although now subject to the laws 
of the republic of Guatemala, they preserve 
the habits and religion of their forefathers, and 
their territory remains in its primitive condi- 
tion. There is no reason for believing that 
they possess large cities and towns, with great 
temples glistening like silver in the sun, such 
as the cura of Quiche" affirmed to Mr. Stephens 
that he had seen with his own eyes from the 
tops of the mountains of Quezaltenango. 

LACCADIVE ISLES (Sanskrit, laMe, hundred 
thousand, and dive, island), a group of small 
islands in the Indian ocean, consisting of 20 
clusters, 100 m. off the Malabar coast, be- 
tween lat. 10 and 12 40' K, and Ion. 72 and 
74 E. ; area, 744 sq. m. ; pop. 6,800. They 
are dependencies of British India. The prin- 
cipal are Underoot, Oabarita Akhalu, Kalpeni, 
Kaltair, Cheltac, Kerdmut, Ameni, Corrittee, 
and Minicoy. They are all of coral formation. 
The largest is but 7 m. long, and many of them 
are barren uninhabited rocks. From the dan- 
gerous reefs around them they are seldom vis- 
ited by navigators, and during the S. W. mon- 
soon all intercourse with the mainland is cut 
off. The harbor most frequently called at for 
supplies is Kan-Eattea, lat. 10 34' N., Ion. 72 
56 ; E. The islands are not fertile, excepting 
in cocoa 'palms, the fruit of which forms the 
principal food of the inhabitants, and its fibre 
or coir one of the chief articles of commerce. 
The other products are rice, in small quantities, 
sweet potatoes, plantains, and betel nuts. Cows 
are the only quadrupeds on the islands, and 
they are few and of small size. The sea 
abounds in fish and turtles. The natives are 
an inoffensive race, of Arabian origin, who 
profess a kind of Mohammedanism, and are 



called Moplays. Their dwellings are of stone, 
thatched. The Laccadives were discovered by 
Vasco da Gam a in 1499. 

LACE, a fabric of threads of cotton, linen, 
flax, silk, gold, or silver, interwoven to form 
a delicate plain or ornamental network. Ac- 
cording to some authorities, lace was in use 
among the Egyptians and the Greeks and Eo- 
mans. Mrs. Palliser and others suppose the 
articles referred to as lace in the Old Testa- 
ment, and other early works, to have been 
elaborate needlework or embroidery, and that 
lace was not made until a later period. The in- 
vention of lace is claimed both by Italy and 
Flandersi While it is difficult to determine in 
which country the manufacture had its origin, 
it appears that lace was made in both as early 
as the 15th century. Italian lace is supposed 
to be referred to in an account dated 1469, and 
preserved in the municipal archives of Ferrara, 
while bone and bobbin lace are unmistakably 
mentioned in a document dated 1493. At a 
very early period the laces of Venice, Milan, 
and Genoa were the best known in the com- 
mercial world. The " Venice point " lace, 
wonderful for delicate texture and elaborate 
design, became specially famous. In England 
it was highly prized and in general use in the 
reign of Elizabeth, and it found its way into 
France about the same period. Toward the 
latter part of the 18th century the manufacture 
began to decline, and it has since become ex- 
tinct. Flemish pictures of the 15th century 
represent persons adorned with lace, and a 
Belgian writer asserts that lace cornettes or 
caps were worn in that country as early as the 
14th century. The invention of pillow lace 
has been claimed for Barbara Uttmann, who 
in 1561, having obtained aid from Flanders, 
began to make laces of various patterns at An- 
naberg, Saxony ; but it is asserted by other au- 
thorities that she only introduced the manu- 
facture into Germany at that date, as contem- 
poraneous paintings bear evidence to the ex- 
istence of the art in Flanders more than half a 
century before. The lace manufacture of the 
Netherlands increased with remarkable rapid- 
ity, and in the 16th century was a source of 
great wealth to the country. The article pro- 
duced was of great beauty; the old Flemish 
laces, the Brussels point and the Mechlin, 
rivalled the best of the Italian. Every coun- 
try of northern Europe, France (excepting 
Alencon), Germany, and England learned the 
art of lace making from Flanders. Prior to 
1665 this industry seems to have been of little 
importance in France. The lace made was of 
coarse and inferior quality, and was in little 
demand compared with the artistic productions 
of Italy and Flanders, for which enormous 
sums were annually spent. IsTor did the pro- 
hibitions against these foreign luxuries develop 
the native manufacture. In 1666 the manu- 
facture of lace was established at Alencon by 
Colbert, who had secured from Venice 30 wo- 
men skilled in the art. Through the aid of 


Louis XIV. a great demand was created for 
this lace, which became known as the point de 
France and afterward as the point d'AlenQon. 
But its high price limited its use to . the rich, 
who now bought this' instead of the Venetian 
laces. After the success of this enterprise, 
lace fabrics were established in various parts 
of France, and the number of lace-workers in- 
creased with great rapidity. At the beginning 
of the 18th century the annual production 
of lace in France was estimated at 8,000,000 
francs. The celebrity of Spanish point lace in 
early times was scarcely less than that of the 
Flemish or Italian; but the manufacture has 
declined. Little is known concerning the ori- 
gin of the manufacture of lace in Great Britain ; 
but as the importation of this article was pro- 
hibited in 1483, it is presumed that the manu- 
facture existed at that time. In 1640 lace 
making was a nourishing industry in Bucking- 
hamshire, and in the 17th and 18th centuries it 
extended over a larger area than at present. 
Lace consists of two parts, the ground and the 
flower pattern, or " gimp." In some cases, how- 
ever, the design is not worked upqn a ground, 
but the different parts are connected with 
threads. The flower or other ornamental 
pattern may be made together with the ground, 
as in Valenciennes or Mechlin, or separately, 
and then worked in or sewn on (applique). 
Lace made by hand is divided into point and 
pillow. The former, termed needle point, 
point d Vaiguille, &c., is made with the needle 
on a parchment pattern. Point is also applied 
to lace produced by a particular stitch. Pillow 
lace is so termed from the pillow or cushion 
which for more than three centuries has been 
used in making lace. On this pillow is fixed a 
stiff piece of parchment, upon which the pat- 
tern is marked by means of small holes pricked 
in it, through which pins are stuck into the 
cushion. The threads for the lace are wound 
upon bobbins formerly bones, whence the 
term bone lace. By the twisting and crossing 
of these threads around the pins, the ground 
of the lace is made ; while the pattern or figure 
is formed by interweaving a thread thicker 
than that forming the groundwork, according 
to the design indicated on the parchment. 
The designs are prepared by persons who de- 
vote themselves to this branch, while their 
execution is intrusted generally to women. 
Sometimes as many as 12 of these are em- 
ployed upon the same design or figure, each 
having a different portion to produce. Gui- 
pure ^ is _ a term so extensively applied to lace 
that it is difficult to limit its meaning. It is, 
however, a lace without ground, the designs be- 
ing joined by " brides," or large coarse stitches. 
The names of the different varieties of lace 
have been derived from the places where the 
manufacture originated or has been carried on 
with the greatest success. The most noted 
products are now those of Belgium, France, 
and England. In Belgium 150,000 women are 
said to be employed in lace making, the ma- 

jority of whom work at home. Throughout 
the country there are nearly 900 lace schools, 
many of which are in the convents. One of 
the most important centres of this industry is 
Brussels. The thread used, which is made at 
Hal and Rebecq-Rognon, of flax grown in 
Brabant, is of extraordinary fineness. The 
finest quality is spun in dark underground 
rooms, to avoid the dry air, which causes the 
thread to break, and to secure the best light, 
which is done by admitting a single beam and 
directing it upon the work. It is the fine- 
ness of the thread, as well as the delicacy of 
the workmanship, which has given to the best 
Brussels lace such celebrity and rendered it so 
costly. It is often sold at $1,200 a pound, and 
has been mentioned as high as $2,500. In the 
old Brussels lace the design was worked in 
with the ground. The applique lace is now 
extensively produced, the designs being made 
on the pillow and afterward attached to the 
ground with the needle. Mechlin lace, which 
has been made at Mechlin, Antwerp, Lierre, 
and Turnhout, formerly had a wide celebrity ; 
but the manufacture has long been on the de- 
cline, though it appears to have partially re- 
vived. This has been called the prettiest of 
laces. It is fine and transparent, and is best 
adapted to summer use, being most effective 
when worn over color. It is made in one piece 
on the pillow, with various fancy stitches intro- 
duced. Its distinguishing feature is the flat 
thread which forms the flower, and gives to 
this lace the character of embroidery ; it is 
hence sometimes called Iroderie de Malines. 
The most important branch of the pillow-lace 
trade in Belgium is the manufacture of Valen- 
ciennes, which, having become extinct in its 
native city, has attained great prosperity in 
Flanders. This lace is now chiefly made at 
Ypres, Bruges, Courtrai, Menin, Ghent, and 
Alost. The productions of Ypres are of the 
finest quality and most elaborate workmanship. 
Valenciennes lace is made upon the pillow, the 
same kind of thread being used for the pattern 
and the ground. It is remarkable for the 
beauty of its ground, richness of design, and 
evenness of tissue. It is said that more Va- 
lenciennes lace is used than any other kind ; 
but the productions of this century are not 
equal in quality to those of the last. Gram- 
mont, Enghien, and Binche are also important 
centres of the lace industry. The last few 
years have witnessed a marked development 
of the manufacture throughout Belgium, and 
now white and black point and pillow lace is 
made in every province of the kingdom. It is 
estimated that there are 500,000 lace makers 
in Europe, of whom nearly one half are em- 
ployed in France. Almost all of the latter 
work at home. Of the French laces, the most 
noted is the point d'Alencon, which has had 
a wide celebrity for more than two centuries, 
and has been styled the queen of lace. It is 
made entirely by hand with a fine needle upon 
a parchment pattern, in small pieces which are 



afterward united by invisible seams. The firm- 
ness and solidity of the texture are remark- 
able. Horsehair is often introduced along the 
edge to give firmness. Although the work- 
manship of this lace has always been of great 
beauty, the designs in the older specimens were 
seldom copied from nature. This circumstance 
gave a marked advantage to the laces of Brus- 
sels, which represented flowers and other nat- 
ural designs with a high degree of accuracy. 
The defect, however, has disappeared in the 
point d'AlenQon of recent manufacture ; at the 
Paris exposition of 1867" were specimens con- 
taining admirable copies of natural flowers in- 
termixed with grasses and ferns. Owing to 
its elaborate construction, this lace is seldom 
seen in large pieces. A dress made of point 
d'Alencon, the production of Bayeux, consist- 
ing of two flounces and trimmings, was ex- 
hibited at the exposition of 1867, the price of 
which was 85,000 francs. It required 40 wo- 
men seven years to complete it. Lace made at 
Chantilly formerly held a high rank, but the 
manufacture has greatly declined ; but Chan- 
tilly lace is produced at Bayeux and other 
places. Bayeux and Caen are important cen- 
tres of the lace industry, and are specially 
noted for black laces. The productions of 
Lille and Arras are well known, though that 
of the former place is greatly diminished. The 
Lille lace is noted for the beauty of its ground, 
"the finest, lightest, most transparent, and best 
made of all grounds." The work is simple, 
consisting of the ground and the pattern 
marked by a thick thread. The lace of Bailleul 
is strong and cheap, and is extensively used for 
trimming ; much of it is sent to America and 
India. The lace manufacture of Auvergne, of 
which Le Puy is the centre, is considered the 
most ancient and extensive in France ; the es- 
timated number of women employed is about 
130,000. Nearly every kind of lace is pro- 
duced here. In England the manufacture of 
lace is carried on chiefly in the counties of 
Buckingham, Devon, and Bedford. The work 
is mostly done by women and girls at home. 
The best known of the English hand-made 
laces is the Honiton, so called from the town 
of this name in Devonshire, where it was first 
made. The high rank held by Honiton lace in 
recent years is attributed to the fact that Queen 
Victoria, commiserating the condition of the 
lace-workers of Devonshire, and wishing to 
bring their manufactures into notice, ordered 
her wedding dress, which cost 1,000, to be 
made of this material. Her example was fol- 
lowed by two of her daughters and the prin- 
cess of Wales, and Honiton lace has continued 
to be fashionable and expensive. In making 
it, the designs, which often consist of simple 
sprigs, are formed separately and then attached 
to the ground. The Honiton guipure has an 
original character almost unique, and is said to 
surpass in richness and perfection any lace of 
the same kind made in Belgium. British point 
is an imitation lace made near London. Lace 
473 VOL. x. 6 

is made to some extent in Ireland, of which 
the Limerick is the best known, and in Scot- 
land ; also in most of the countries on the 
continent. Machine-made Lace. Nearly every 
kind of lace is now made by machinery, and such 
excellence is attained that it is often difficult 
even for a practised eye to distinguish between 
the two kinds. According to Mrs. Palliser, 
however, "the most finished productions of 
the frame never possess the touch, the finish, 
or the beauty of the laces made by hand." 
"While the invention of this machinery has 
brought lace within the means of a large num- 
ber who were formerly unable to buy it, the 
demand for the finer products of the pillow 
and the needle has not been diminished. The 
manufacture of lace by machinery is carried on 
chiefly in England and France, the great cen- 
tre of this industry in the former country 
being Nottingham, and in the latter Calais. 
The first attempts to apply machinery to the 
work were made in 1758 by a stocking weaver 
of Nottingham, and his machine, which was 
called a pin machine, making single press point 
net in imitation of Brussels ground, is said to 
be still in use in France for making the variety 
known as tulle. The stocking weavers of 
Nottingham invented other machines, the first 
for bobbinet in 1799 ; and though they were 
all inferior, they made lace more cheaply 
than by the old methods, and caused Notting- 
ham to become the centre of the trade. But 
the first really successful machine for bobbi- 
net (so named from the threads crossing the 
warp being supplied from bobbins) was that of ' 
Heathcoat, invented in 1809, and suggested by 
the machinery employed in making fishing 
nets. The principle of the invention was in 
the use of fixed parallel warp threads, round 
which the bobbin threads were worked as the 
weft of the fabric, one set going obliquely 
across from right to left and the second set 
obliquely across from left to right. Heathcoat 
was compelled by the opposition his machine 
excited to remove from Nottingham to Devon- 
shire, and it was not until the expiration of 
his patent in 1823 that the machine was intro- 
duced in the former place. In the machine 
the warp threads, to the number of 700 to 
1,200 in a yard of width, are stretched from a 
roller, which extends the whole length of the 
thread beam, and the weft threads are wound 
each upon a bobbin formed of two thin brass 
disks riveted together, leaving a narrow space 
between them for the thread. Each bobbin 
holds about 100 yards of thread, and there 
are as many as 1,200 of them to a machine. 
The arrangement and movement of these in 
the machine can be understood only by care- 
ful inspection and study of the machine itself. 
The pieces of bobbinet measure from 20 to 30 
yards each ; the width is variable. The nar- 
rowest strips, even the narrow quillings used 
for cap borders, are made on the same ma- 
chine, many breadths together, which are tem- 
porarily united by threads that are finally 



drawn out. There are special machines called 
warp machines, of great variety, for making 
the sorts of lace known as' warp lace ; and 
there are others called point net for making 
this quality. A Jacquard apparatus is attached 
to some of the machines for working in the 
thick thread of gimp for the ornamental fig- 
ures. Where the thread passes from one figure 
to another, it is clipped off by children, who 
use the scissors for this purpose with great 
dexterity. The patterns at many of the fac- 
tories are worked in by hand. The govern- 
ment school of design established at Notting- 
ham has served to educate many skilful de- 
signers, who prepare the patterns upon wood 
or stone as for engraving or printing, those 
parts intended to leave a mark being in relief. 
The block, being moistened with some colored 
pigment, is repeatedly impressed upon the net, 
until the pattern is transferred 'to the whole 
surface designed for it ; and the figure is then 
worked with the needle, the web being ex- 
tended horizontally in a frame. Before being 
embroidered the net is carefully examined, and 
the defective parts are skilfully repaired by a 
class of workwomen called lace menders. It 
is also singed by drawing it rapidly over the 
flame of gas lights. Bleaching and dyeing are 
final processes, preceding those belonging to 
calendering: "The labor of washing lace is 
almost an art ; and only the most skilful are 
engaged in it. After washing, lace is spread 
out to dry on a cushioned table, and pins of a 
peculiar sort are run through each hole to pre- 
vent it from shrinking. When very fine, or 
the pattern intricate, an entire day will be 
spent upon one yard of lace." By means of 
the application of machinery to lace making, 
the price of the fabric has been wonderfully 
reduced ; so that a rack of lace, equal to 240 
meshes in the length, which in the early part 
of the present century cost to manufacture 
3s. 6(Z., now costs not more than one penny ; 
and a 24-rack piece, 5 quarters broad, formerly 
worth 17, is now sold for 7*. Full informa- 
tion on this subject is given in the "History 
of Lace," by Mrs. Bury Palliser (London, 1865 ; 
2d ed., 1869). See also the "History of Ma- 
chine-wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufacture," 
by W. Felkin (London, 1867). 

LACE-BARK TREE (lagetta lintearia), a tree 
25 to 30 ft. high, which is found in the island 
of Jamaica in the most inaccessible rocky 
places. It belongs to the family thymelacew, 
which includes the daphnes, our leatherwood or 
wicopy (dircd), and other plants noted for the 
great tenacity and sometimes poisonous quality 
of their inner bark. In lagetta (from the in- 
sular name lagetto) the inner bark consists of 
numerous layers, composed of fibres which in- 
terlace in all directions, so that when it is 
stretched transversely a layer of it has much 
the appearance of lace. Persons who visit 
Jamaica nearly always bring away a piece of 
this vegetable lace as one of the curious prod- 
ucts of theasland ; and it is said to be still in 

use there for articles of apparel. In the days 
of slavery in the island the lace-bark furnished 
thongs for the taskmaster's whips. 


LACEPEDE, Bernard Germain Etienne de La Ville, 
count de, a French naturalist, born in Agen, 
Dec. 26, 1756, died at his country seat near St. 
Denis, Oct. 6, 1825. He early evinced a taste 
for natural philosophy and musical composi- 
tion, and going to Paris when 20 years old, 
was welcomed by Buffon and by the composer 
Gluck. He gave to music the time not de- 
voted to natural philosophy, composed several 
operas, and in 1785 published his Poetique de 
la musique (2 vols. 8vo), in which Gluck's prin- 
ciples are expounded. He had previously 
written an Essai sur V electricite naturelle et 
artiftcielle (2 vols. 8vo, 1781), and Physique 
generale et particuliere (2 vols. 12mo, 1782-'4), 
which, although not well received by men of 
science, had such merits of style that Buffon 
engaged him as an assistant in continuing his 
"Natural History," and appointed him keeper 
and assistant demonstrator at the museum. 
His Histoire des quadrupedes ompares et des 
serpents (2 vols. 4to, 1788-'9) and Histoire 
naturelle des reptiles (4to, 1789) have been fre- 
quently reprinted as sequels to Buffon's work. 
He favored the revolution, received several 
offices of trust, and was elected in 1791 to the 
legislative assembly, over which he presided 
toward the end of the same year. On the 
massacres of September, he so energetically 
expostulated with Danton that his friends re- 
moved him from Paris, and persuaded him to 
resign his office at the museum. He did not 
return till after the 9th Thermidor. Being 
regarded as the legitimate heir of Buffon, he 
took his seat among the original members of 
the institute on its foundation, and was ap- 
pointed to the newly created professorship of 
herpetology in the jardin des plantes. His 
Histoire naturelle des poissons (6 vols. 4to and 
11 vols. 12mo, 1798-1803) and Histoire des 
cetaces (4to and 2 vols. 12mo, 1804) display 
great descriptive talent. On the organization 
of the consular government, he was made a 
member of the senate, in 1801 president of 
that body, in 1803 grand chancellor of the le- 
gion of honor, and soon afterward minister 
of state. As president of the senate he pre- 
sented in 1809 the report upon the divorce 
of Napoleon and Josephine. He submitted to 
the Bourbons on their first return, joined Na- 
poleon during the hundred days, and, though 
coldly treated on the second restoration, reen- 
tered the chamber of peers in 1819. He died 
of smallpox. Besides the works mentioned, 
he was the author of several papers printed 
in the Memoires of the institute, and, jointly 
with George Ouvier and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 
of La menagerie du mweum national d'histoire 
naturelle (1801), a descriptive history of the 
animals in the jardin des plantes. He devoted 
the last months of his life to correcting the 
notes of the Histoire generale, physique et 




timlt de V Europe, depuis les demises annees 
du 5 e sticle jusque vers le milieu du 18 , which 
appeared after his death (18 vols. 8vo, 1826), 
and attracted very little attention. To this 
must be added two other posthumous works : 
Histoire naturelle de Vhomme (8vo, 1827), and 
Les ages de la nature et Vhistoire de Vespece 
humaine (2 vols. 8vo, 1830). Under the title 
of (Euvres de M. le comte de Lacepede, his dis- 
courses and natural histories of cetaceous and 
oviparous animals, snakes, and fishes were col- 
lected in 11 vols. 8vo, 1826, and reprinted in 
1831-'3, 1836, 1840, and in 3 vols. 8vo, 1862. 

LA CERDA, the name of an ancient Spanish 
family, which traced its origin to Fernando, the 
eldest son of Alfonso X. of Castile, called La 
Cerda, or the horse's mane, from a large tuft of 
hair which grew upon his shoulders. In 1269, 
at the age of 15, this prince married Blanche, 
daughter of St. Louis of France. Fernando 
died in 1275, leaving two sons, Alfonso and 
Fernando, heirs to the crown. But Sancho, 
second son of Alfonso X., claimed the succes- 
sion, and caused himself to be proclaimed in 
his father's lifetime. Yolande, the wife of 
Alfonso, fled from Castile with her grand- 
children, to find a protector for them in her 
brother Don Pedro, king of Aragon, or in their 
uncle Philip the Bold of France. These kings 
resolved that the young princes should remain 
prisoners in Aragon, and Yolande returned to 
Castile alone. Blanche, the mother of the 
princes, wandered through France and Aragon, 
vainly exclaiming against the injustice of this 
decision. Alfonso X. died in 1284, and in his 
will made Alfonso and Fernando de la Cerda his 
heirs, and even in their default excluded from 
the throne that son by whom the latter years 
of his life had been embittered. So sweeping 
a disinheritance was of little force, and caused 
slight hesitation between the unfortunate chil- 
dren and Sancho, already in possession of the 
throne, whose victories over the Moors had 
just given him the surnames of the Strong and 
the Valiant. At length, when it became the 
interest of the king of Aragon to embarrass 
the king of Castile, he set the princes of La 
Cerda at liberty. They were proclaimed at 
Badajoz and Talavera; but being unable to 
maintain themselves in Castile, they passed 
into France in the reign of Philip the Fair. 
They received from him but slight assistance, 
and their military operations were unfortunate. 
Sancho had died and had been succeeded by 
his own son. The kings of Portugal and 
Aragon, being invited to act as mediators be- 
tween the ruling and the proscribed branches 
of the family, gave a decisive sentence in favor 
of the former, stipulating only that three cities 
should be ceded to Alfonso to aid him in main- 
taining the dignity of his birth. Alfonso, de- 
serted by ah 1 his defenders, accepted the terms, 
and received the surname of the Disinherited. 
He died in 1325, leaving two sons. One of 
these, Carlos de la Cerda, known also as Charles 
of Spain, was appointed by King John in 

1350 constable of France. But the French 
court was soon disturbed by a rivalry between 
Charles of Spain and Charles the Bad, king of 
Navarre ; and in 1354, while on a visit to his 
young wife in the castle of L'Aigle in Nor- 
mandy, the former was poniarded by assassins 
in the pay of the king of Navarre. In 1425 
the house of La Cerda became extinct, but it 
is still represented in the female line by the 
dukes of Medina-Coeli. 

LA CHAISE (or Laehaise) D'AIX, Francois de, a 
French Jesuit, confessor of Louis XIV., born 
at the chateau of Aix, in Forez, Aug. 25, 1624, 
died Jan. 20, 1709. He taught philosophy and 
theology with brilliant success at Lyons, was 
afterward rector at Grenoble and provincial of 
his order at Lyons, and in 1675 succeeded Fer- 
rier as confessor of the king. He maintained 
his position amid the difficulties between Mme. 
de Montespan and the queen, Mme. de Monte- 
span and Mme. de Maintenon, the Jesuits and 
the Jansenists, Bossuet and Fenelon, and the 
courts of Rome and of France. He promoted 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685), 
but exerted a conciliatory influence with re- 
spect to Fenelon, Quesnel, and the Jansenists. 
Louis XIV. built for him a country seat on an 
estate called Mont Louis, which belonged to 
the Jesuits, the gardens of which are now 
transformed into the cemetery named Pdre La- 
chaise. (See CEMETERY.) 

LACHES (law Fr. lachesse, idleness). The law 
shows no favor to either tardy or negligent 
suitors. Vigilantibus non dormientibw jura 
subveniunt (the laws assist those who are vigi- 
lant, not those who sleep upon their rights). 
In this spirit are framed statutes of limitation. 
respect to the production of evidence: testi- 
mony discovered after a trial may be heard by 
the court, if material to the case ; but if, by 
the exercise of a proper diligence, the evidence 
might have been offered at the trial, its non- 
production is attributed to the party's neglect 
or laches, and from the consequence of that the 
court will not willingly relieve him. The word 
laches remains familiar in the law of negotiable 
paper. The same principles of diligence and 
laches are found in equity practice. The 
negligence of a party in bringing suit or doing 
some other act required of him in order to be- 
come entitled to redress is laches, which the 
court of equity will discountenance. In the 
language of Baron Alderson: "Nothing will 
call the court's jurisdiction into exercise but 
conscience, good faith, and reasonable diligence. 
When these fail, the court will remain passive." 
For example, one who claims specific perform- 
ance of an agreement must show that he has 
been in no default in the premises, but that he 
has taken all proper measures to secure per- 
formance ; for if he has been guilty of laches 
his bill for relief will be dismissed. But, nul- 
lum tempus occurrit regi, lapse of time does 
not bar the rights of the crown; in other 
words, no laches can be imputed to the sover- 



eign, whether crown or state. Not unfre- 
quently, however, statute8 of limitation are 
made applicable to demands on hehalf of the 
sovereign, and also to criminal charges. 

LACHMANN, Karl, a German philologist and 
critic, born in Brunswick, March 4, 1793, died 
in Berlin, March 13, 1851. He was educated 
at Leipsic and Gottingen, and in 1811 founded 
in the latter city, in conjunction with Dissen, 
Schulze, and Bunsen, a critical and philological 
society. He was successively preceptor at the 
gymnasium and professor in the university of 
Konigsberg, and from 1827 till his death was a 
professor in that of Berlin. Among his nu- 
merous publications are critical editions of Pro- 
pertius, Catullus, Tibullus, Lucretius, Gaius, the 
Nibelungenlied, Walther von der Vogelweide, 
and Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Betrach- 
tungen uber die Ilias (Berlin, 1847). 

LACHNER. I. Franz, a German composer, 
born at Rain, Bavaria, April 2, 1804. He 
studied under the abbe Stadler, and in 1834 
became chapelmaster at Mannheim. In 1835 
he received the first prize for symphonic com- 
position at Vienna with his Sinfonidpassionata, 
and became royal chapelmaster at Munich. His 
compositions include symphonies, overtures, 
organ pieces, masses, oratorios, operas, and 
chamber, pianoforte, and vocal music. II. Ig- 
naz, brother of the preceding, born at Rain, 
Sept. 11, 1807. He was first violinist at the 
opera and organist of a church in Vienna, and 
in 1831 became chapelmaster to the king of 
Wiirtemberg. He has written for both voice 
and instruments, and his works comprise ope- 
ras, symphonies, ballets, and overtures ; but he 
is best known from his songs. III. Yincenz, 
brother of the preceding, born at Rain in 1811. 
He succeeded Ignaz as organist and violinist 
in Vienna, and has written many admirable 
compositions for orchestra and stringed instru- 
ments, and also concerted vocal music. 


LACKAWAMA, the name of a river and coal 
basin in Luzerne co., Pa. The stream rises in 
the N. E. corner of the state, enters the N. E. 
extremity of the northern anthracite coal field, 
along which it continues for 30 m. past Car- 
bondale, Archbald, Providence, and Scranton, 
to the N. branch of the Susquehanna, which it 
enters at Pittston. The continuation of the 
Lackawanna valley S. W. of Pittston is the 
Wyoming valley, and they are shut in by the 
Shawnee mountain on the N. W. and the Wyo- 
ming or Moosic mountain on the S. W., the 
only gaps being where the Susquehanna enters 
at Pittston and passes out at Nanticoke. These 
mountains are steep rocky ridges, with a gen- 
eral elevation of from 1,500 to 2,000 ft. above 
the valley, which at Wilkesbarre is 525 ft. 
above the sea. The valley has an irregular 
trough-like form and an undulating surface, 
corresponding to that of the rock strata and 
coal beds beneath ; and it is studded with thri- 
ving cities and towns, collieries, rolling mills, 
and blast furnaces. The entire area is 198 sq. 


m., of which the Lackawanna valley has 100 
sq. m. The coal field, the largest and finest of 
the anthracite basins, fills both valleys, and is 
of a narrow ellipsoidal form, slightly crescent- 
shaped, stretching in a N". E. and S. W. direc- 
tion about 50 m., and not attaining in its wi- 
dest central portion a greater width than 5 m. 
(See map in article ANTHRACITE.) The coal is 
mined from beds 5 to 14 ft. thick, at depths of 
100 to 400 ft. from the surface; and in the 
Wyoming region the maximum depth of the 
basin is estimated at 1,800 ft., though none of 
the mines as yet exceed 550 ft. At Scranton 
there are four beds, 6, 7, 12, and 6 ft. thick, at 
the depth of 125, 160, 300, and 400 ft. This 
coal field, being the nearest to New York, sup- 
plies a large portion of the anthracite consumed 
in that state and further east. Nine tenths of 
the coal is carried over the mountains. Around 
Carbondale coal is mined by the Delaware and 
Hudson canal company, and carried by their 
railroads over the Moosic mountain to Hones- 
dale, 28 m., and thence by canal to Rondout on 
the Hudson river, 108 m. Since 1828 they have 
transported 27,227,471 tons of Lackawanna 
coal, of which 2,472,449 tons were mined in 
1873. The Delaware, Lackawanna, and West- 
ern railroad company, whose chief operations 
are at Scranton, have 618 m. of railroad. 
Since 1851, when they forwarded their first 
coal to market, they have sold 26,404,867 tons, 
including 3,136,306 tons mined in 1873. The 
operations of the Pennsylvania coal company 
near Pittston, which has a railroad worked en- 
tirely by gravity and stationary engines, cover 
16,424,322 tons mined since 1850, of which 
1,239,214 tons were produced in 1873. There 
are other smaller proprietors, and a large iron 
manufacturing company at Scranton owning 
five blast furnaces and two rolling mills, which 
consume 300,000 tons of coal per annum. The 
avenues to market for coal from the Lacka- 
wanna valley are : the Jefferson branch of the 
Erie railway, from Carbondale N. ; the Dela- 
ware and Hudson canal company's railroad, 
E. ; the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western 
railroad, 145 m., to New York; the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna, and Western railroad, N. 
into New York state ; the Pennsylvania coal 
company's railroad, E. to Hawley, 47 m., and 
thence by the Erie railway to New York, 126 
m. From Wyoming valley : the Lehigh Valley 
railroad, 187 m., from Pittston to New York ; 
the Pennsylvania and New York canal and 
railroad, N. into New York state ; the Central 
New Jersey railroad, 194 m., from Scranton to 
New York ; the Delaware, Lackawanna, and 
Western railroad and the Pennsylvania canal, 
S. to Baltimore. Several of these roads have 
branches into different parts of both valleys. 
The total amount of coal sent to market from 
both valleys since 1829 is 97,780,855 tons, in- 
cluding 10,047,241 tons in 1873. 

LA CLEDE, a S. county of Missouri, drained 
by Gasconade river ; area, 710 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 9,380, of whom 162 were colored. It 




has a rolling surface, in some places well tim- 
bered, in others occupied by prairies. The 
Atlantic and Pacific railroad crosses the county. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 66,993 
bushels of wheat, 317,154 of Indian corn, 57,- 
855 of oats, 27,872 of potatoes, 31,750 Ibs. of 
tobacco, 16,773 of wool, 86,940 of butter, and 
1,851 tons of hay. There were 2,854 horses, 
2,065 milch cows, 4,005 other cattle, 7,980 
sheep, and 12,362 swine ; 5 flour mills, and 2 
saw mills. Capital, Lebanon. 

LACLOS, Pierre Ambroise Francois Choderlos de, 
a French writer and soldier, born in Amiens 
in 1741, died in Taranto in 1803. He en- 
tered the army at the age of 18, and reached 
the rank of captain in the corps of engineers 
in 1778. In 1782 he published a licentious 
novel, Les liaisons dangereuses, which nearly 
vied in point of popularity with Louvet's 
Faublas. After 30 years of military service 
he became secretary of the duke of Orleans, 
and thenceforth mingled in all the intrigues 
which aimed at the overthrow of Louis XVI. 
with the view of placing his own master on 
the throne. He became an ardent revolution- 
ist, a prominent member of the Jacobin club, 
conducted their journal, and was the first to 
call for the deposition of the king after his 
flight to the frontier. With Brissot, he wrote 
the petition for the same object which was 
to be signed at the Champ de Mars, July 17, 
1791, and brought about the massacre with 
which Lafayette and Bailly were so bitterly 
reproached. For a time he served in Marshal 
Luckner's army in the north, and was made 
brigadier general, Sept. 22, 1792. The next 
year he was incarcerated, but was liberated on 
the 9th Thermidor. After commanding the 
artillery in the army of the Rhine, he was sent 
in the capacity of inspector general to the army 
in southern Italy, where he died. He was 
the author also of Poesies fugitives (1783), 
of a continuation of Vilate's Causes secretes de 
la revolution du 9 thermidor, and of several 
works on military tactics and fortifications. 

LACOMBE, Francis, a French author, born in 
Toulouse in 1817, died at Arcachon, Sept. 5, 
1867. He was in 1848 politico-economical 
editor of the Assemblee nationale, and fought 
a duel with Charles Blanc, who had challenged 
him for writing against his brother Louis. A 
five-franc piece in his pocket saved his life. 
His principal works are : De ^organisation 
generate du travail (1848, and many new edi- 
tions) ; Histoire de la bourgeoisie de Paris (4 
vols., 1851-'2) ; Histoire de la monarchic en 
Europe (4 vols., 1853-'5); and Histoire de la 
papaute (2 vols., 1867, unfinished). 


LACONIA, Laeonica, or Lacedsemon, the south- 
easterly division of the ancient Peloponnesus, 
bordering on Messenia, Arcadia, and Argolis. 
The country comprised within its boundaries 
is a long valley shut in on three sides by 
mountain ranges, and open only on the south 
to the sea. On the north are the Arcadian 

mountains, from which stretch two parallel 
ranges, Taygetus on the west and Parnon on 
the east, the former terminating on the S. 
coast in the promontory of Tsenarum (now 
Cape Matapan), the most southerly point of the 
continent of Europe, the latter in the promon- 
tory of Malea. The principal summit of Tay- 
getus, Taletum (now St. Elias), is 7,900 ft. 
high; the highest point of Parnon is about 
6,350 ft. Taygetus is covered with forests of 
green pine, which, abounding in ancient times 
with game, was reputed one of the favorite 
haunts of Diana. In the southern part are 
rich quarries of marble and iron. The Eurotas, 
the chief river (now called Iris or Vasilopota- 
mos), flows through the entire valley, is fed by 
several smaller streams, and empties into the 
gulf of Laconia. Lacedsemon or Sparta, the 
ancient capital, stood on its banks. There 
were no other towns of much importance. 
Amyclse, in the plain S. of Sparta, was the 
ancient residence of the Achasan kings, but 
had lost its consequence in the time of Pau- 
sanias. Helos, on the Laconian gulf, is sup- 
posed to have given the name to the Helots. 
Gythium, also on the gulf, was the naval station 
of the Spartans, but there are no very good 
iarbors on the coast. Laconia has much ara- 
ble land, but the soil in general is poor and 
difficult to plough. According to Pausanias, 
the Leleges were the earliest inhabitants. In 
the time of the Trojan war the Acha3an kings 
possessed the country. They were conquered 
by the Dorians, who became masters of all 
Laconia by the middle of the 8th century B. C. 
(See SPAKTA.) The modern Laconia, a nom- 
archy of the kingdom of Greece, occupies very 
nearly the same territory ; area, 1,678 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 105,851. It is divided into four ep- 
archies. Capital, Sparta, built since the revolu- 
tion on one of the five hills of the ancient city. 
LACORDAIRE. I. Jean Baptiste Henri, a French 
Roman Catholic divine, born at Recey-sur- 
Ource, C6te d'Or, May 12, 1802, died in So- 
reze, Nov. 22, 1861. He was the son of a 
physician who had served in America under 
Rochambeau, was educated at Dijon, followed 
the prevailing impulse that was animating 
young men against the tendencies of the res- 
toration, distinguished himself alike by the 
earnestness of his liberal opinions and by a 
peculiar obstinacy of character, and graduated 
in 1819 with the highest university honors. 
While studying the law at Dijon, he continued 
to attract notice by his intellectual power and 
anti-Catholic enthusiasm, especially as an ora- 
tor in the literary societies. In 1821 he went 
to Paris to practise as a stagiaire, and for 18 
months was employed as assistant to an advo- 
cate at the court of cassation. He also pleaded 
several cases with great success. But suddenly 
he abandoned the bar to enter the seminary of 
Saint Sulpice as a student of theology. He 
explains this change by saying that the soul of 
a young man " demands only a great cause to 
serve with great devotion." His social theories, 


doubtless, prepared his return to the Catholic 
faith, his aim being to revive society by the 
instrumentality of religion and the church. 
While in the seminary his ardent piety was 
alike dissatisfied with the Cartesian philosophy 
and the Gallican liberties, the former granting 
too much to human reason, the latter verging 
to schism, neither being absolute enough. Yet 
he preserved in his new calling all the love of 
liberty which had animated his youth, linking 
it with the vital idea of Christianity, and his 
peculiar tendencies attracted the notice of his 
superiors both before and soon after he was 
ordained to the priesthood in 1827. He was 
appointed successively chaplain in a convent, 
in the college of Juilly, and in that of Henry 
IV. At Juilly he formed the acquaintance of 
Lamennais, who then advocated extreme ultra- 
montanism in religion and radicalism in poli- 
tics ; and his doctrines had such an influence 
on Lacordaire, that he has been called " one of 
Lamennais's best works." In 1830 Lacordaire 
and Montalembert associated themselves with 
Lamennais in founding ISAvenir, a journal 
whose motto was Lieu et la liberte, and which 
was devoted to the maintenance of the abso- 
lute authority both of the pope and the people. 
The -bold theories and violent tone of this jour- 
nal caused the editors to be brought before the 
civil courts, where Lacordaire's eloquence ob- 
tained a verdict of acquittal. He thereupon 
demanded that his name should be placed on 
the list of advocates ; but the court decided 
that this was not consistent with his priestly 
functions. With Montalembert and De Coux 
he immediately opened a free school without the 
authorization of the government. The school 
was closed by the police, and Montalembert, 
happening just then to become by his father's 
death a peer of France, was summoned togeth- 
er with his associates before the chamber of 
peers, to answer for their infraction of the law. 
They spoke each in his own defence, and were 
sentenced to pay a fine. The political and re- 
ligious reforms advocated by L'Avenir were 
condemned by Gregory XVI. in September, 
1832. Lamennais, who had gone to Rome 
with the other editors for the purpose of 
averting this blow, replied to it shortly after- 
ward by publishing his Paroles d'un croyant. 
But the others submitted to the papal sentence, 
and Lacordaire, separating himself for ever 
from Lamennais, wrote a pamphlet declaring 
his unqualified obedience to the Roman see. 
In 1834 he began his first course of lectures 
(conferences) in the chapel attached to the col- 
lege Stanislas. Though severely censured by 
many, their impression on young men par- 
ticularly was so great that Archbishop De 
Qu61en invited the preacher to deliver the 
Lenten course in the cathedral of Notre Dame 
in 1835. His sermons were admired not less 
for their literary excellence and a sort of ro- 
mantic tone, than for their religious fervor. 
"He knows more of literature," said a se- 
vere critic, "than of history, more of history 

than of philosophy, and more of philosophy 
or even politics than of religion;" and in his 
conferences all the social questions which had 
recently agitated France were discussed with 
an ability and splendor of style that attracted 
the most eminent men of letters. After two 
years of success, he again went to Rome in 
1836, for the purpose, as was said, of study- 
ing theology, and there wrote his Lettre sur 
le mint siege, a solemn argument and protest 

r'nst the doctrines of ISAvenir. He had 
ady conceived the plan of reviving or 
founding 'a religious order in France, and after 
preaching in 1838 in Notre Dame he returned 
again to Rome, entered the order of the Do- 
minicans and the convent of the Minerva, 
passed his novitiate in the convent of Quer- 
cia, wrote his Vie de Saint Dominique (Paris, 
1840 ; new ed., 1858 ; translated into Span- 
ish, Polish, and German), and in 1841 resumed 
his chair at Notre Dame, a friar preacher with 
shaved head and white robe. He preached 
afterward in the principal cities of France, 
reestablishing the order of Dominicans, and 
displaying a new style of eloquence, which 
excited at once surprise and enthusiasm. On 
the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, be- 
ing elected to the constituent assembly, he ap- 
peared there in his Dominican habit, and took 
his place on "the mountain," two benches 
from Lamennais, but soon gave in his resig- 
nation when he found that his reconstruc- 
tive theories would have little chance in the 
conflicts of partisan politics. On Feb. 10, 
1853, he preached a charity sermon in the 
church of St. Roch in behalf of the city poor 
schools. His theme was the formation of 
true manhood by education. He said toward 
the conclusion: "He who uses base means 
even for a good purpose, even for the salva- 
tion of his country, is still a scoundrel. There 
is no need of an army to stop my speech ; a 
single armed man is sufficient. But God has 
given me, for defending my words and the 
truth that is in *hem, a something which can 
withstand all the empires of earth." He was 
commanded forthwith to quit Paris. He re- 
signed shortly afterward his office of pro- 
vincial of the Dominicans in France, ceased to 
preach in public, and devoted himself ex- 
clusively to the direction of the college of So- 
reze, which belonged to himself. He wrote in 
1858 that the new provincial and the general 
of his order had completely set him aside, and 
were laboring to ruin his influence among the 
French Dominicans. After the death of Alexis 
de Tocqueville, Lacordaire was elected his suc- 
cessor by the French academy ; and in his in- 
augural discourse, Feb. 2, 1860, he made a 
glowing panegyric of American free institu- 
tions. Till the end of his life he united with 
Montalembert and Bishop Dupanloup in de- 
nouncing Louis Veuillot's manner of defend^ 
ing the interests of the Roman Catholic church. 
Among his works are : Considerations philoso- 
pUques sur le systeme de M. de Lamennais 




(1834) ; a Memoir e pour le retablissement en 
France de Vordre des freres precJieurs (1840); 
Conferences de Notre Dame de Paris, 1835- 
'50 (4 vols., 1844-'5.1 ; those on "God" and 
"Christ" translated into English by Henry 
Langdon, New York, 1871) ; Lettre d unjeune 
homme sur la vie cJiretienne (1858) ; De la li- 
berte de Vltalie et de VEglise (1861) ; and Let- 
tres d des jeunes gens (1862). His complete 
works have appeared in 6 vols. (Paris, 1858). 
Count de Falloux has published Correspondance 
du pere Lacordaire et de Madame Swetchine 
(1865). See Montalembert, Lepere Lacordaire 
(8vo, Paris, 1862); Chocarne, "Inner Life of 
Pere Lacordaire " (8vo, London and New 
York, 1867) ; Villard, Correspondance inedite 
et MograpJiie dupere Lacordaire (Paris, 1870) ; 
De Lomenie, Galerie des contemporains illus- 
tres; and Sainte-Beuve, Lacordaire orateur, 
in Causeries du Lundi. II. Jean Theodore, a 
French naturalist, brother of the preceding, 
born at Recey-sur-Ource, Feb. 1, 1801, died in 
Liege, Aug. 31, 1870. He studied law in Dijon, 
but from his love of natural science made four 
different voyages to South America between 
1825 and 1832. He visited the Argentine re- 
public, Chili, the Brazilian provinces of Per- 
nambuco and Rio de Janeiro, and French 
Guiana, and afterward travelled through the 
interior of Senegal. Toward the close of 1832 
he was attached to the editorial staff of the 
Temps in Paris, and wrote for several scientific 
periodicals. In 1835 the Belgian government 
appointed him professor of zoology in the uni- 
versity of Liege; in 1838 he became profes- 
sor of comparative anatomy, and in 1850 dean 
of the faculty of sciences. Among his numer- 
ous publications are: Introduction d Vento- 
mologie (2 vols., Paris, 1834-'7) ; Faune ento- 
mologique des environs de Paris (1835) ; and 
Histoire naturelle des insectes : genera des 
coleopttres (8 vols., 1854-'68). 

LACQUER, a transparent or colored varnish 
for covering articles of brass or wood, either 
for ornament or to preserve them from be- 
coming tarnished. Shell lac is the basis of the 
varnish commonly employed, whence the coat- 
ing is termed lacquer, and the process lacquer- 
ing. Holtzapffel gives the following recipes 
for " hard-wood lacquer " : 2 Ibs. of shell lac 
to 1 gallon of alcohol, but without turpentine ; 
or 1 Ib. of seed lac and 1 Ib. of white rosin, 
dissolved in 1 gallon of alcohol. Various reci- 
pes are given for the lacquer for brass ; the 
simplest and best pale lacquer is made by dis- 
solving, without applying heat and by agitating 
together for five or six hours, half a pound 
of best pale shell lac and a gallon of alcohol. 
After standing for some time the clearer portion 
may be decanted, or the whole filtered through 
paper, and afterward kept in a close bottle 
excluded from the light. To give a yellow 
tint, gamboge, turmeric, or Cape aloes may be 
added to the shell lac ; and for a red, drag- 
on's blood and annotto. The most convenient 
method of employing the colors is to make 

saturated solutions of them in alcohol, and to 
add suitable quantities of these to the pale lac- 
quer. Solutions of turmeric, gamboge, and 
dragon's blood will be the most useful. The 
turmeric gives a greenish yellow tint, and with 
the addition of a little gamboge gives the green 
color to the lacquer used for bronzed works. 

LAC QUI PARLE, a S. W. county of Minne- 
sota, bordering on Dakota ; area, 1,450 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 145. It is bounded N. E. by the 
Minnesota river, which here receives the Lac 
Qui Parle river. The surface consists of roll- 
ing prairies. 

LACRETELLE. I. Pierre Louis, a French jurist, 
born in Metz in 1751, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 
1824. He had gained distinction both as an 
advocate and litterateur, when in 1778 he went 
to Paris, and was for several years one of the 
editors of the Grand Repertoire de Jurispru- 
dence. His Discours sur le prejuge des peines 
infamantes was crowned by the French acade- 
my in 1786, and in 1787 he was one of a com- 
mission named by the king for the reform of 
penal legislation. In 1791 he was elected deputy 
for Paris in the legislative assembly, where he 
voted with the minority which defended the 
constitution of that year, supported the consti- 
tution in the club of the Feuillants, opposed the 
accusation of Lafayette in 1792, and afterward 
retired from Paris till the 9th Thermidor. He 
was a member of the legislative body in 1801, 
and succeeded La Harpe in the French acad- 
emy in 1803. He accepted no office under the 
empire or the restoration, and wrote against 
the latter in the Minerve Francaise, founded 
in 1817 by Benjamin Constant, Etienne, Jouy, 
and others, of which he was one of the edi- 
tors. His complete works, which treat various 
questions in philosophy, literature, and politics, 
were published in 1824, in 6 vols. II. Jean 
Charles Dominique de, a French historian, brother 
of the preceding, born in Metz, Sept. 3, 1766, 
died near M^con, March 26, 1855. He went to 
Paris in 1787, and was attached for a time to 
the Journal des Debats, for which he reported 
the speeches made in the constituent assembly 
and wrote many articles. In 1790 he became 
secretary to the duke de La Rochefoucauld- 
Liancourt ; and he was associated with him in 
the project of securing the escape of the royal 
family, which was defeated by the king's inde- 
cision. After the execution of Louis XVI., of 
which he composed the narrative that was 
generally copied and translated, he occupied 
himself in lecturing on history and in writing 
for the Journal de Paris and the Eepublicain 
Francais against the Jacobin party. On the 
13th Vendemiaire (year IV.) he was proscribed 
as one of the leaders of the royalist movement 
against the convention, and retired to Epinay, 
where he began (1795) his Histoire de France 
pendant le dix-huitieme siecle (6 vols. 8vo, 
1808). Returning to Paris, he was arrested on 
the 18th Fructidor, and imprisoned for 23 
months (1797-'9). Under the empire he was a 
member of the bureau of the press, editing at 



the same time Le Publiciste, became imperial 
censor in 1810, successor of Esmenard in the 
academy in 1811, and professor of history in 
the faculty of letters in 1812, where for 36 
years his course was numerously attended. 
He was among the first to rally around the 
Bourbons in 1814, and in 1822 he received 
letters of nobility from Louis XVIII. When 
in 1827 Peyronnet proposed a law restricting 
the press, Lacretelle delivered before the acad- 
emy an eloquent harangue against it, which led 
that body to address the king in opposition 
to it. For this speech he lost his office of 
royal censor, which he had held since 1814. 
He retired to Macon in 1848. His historical 
works, nine in number, comprise the period 
from the commencement of the religious wars 
to the accession of Louis Philippe, but most 
fully that of the first revolution. Most of 
them are the first that were written on the 
period of which they treat, and the judgments 
are often those of a contemporary partisan. 
III. Henri de, a French author, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris in 1816. He has pub- 
lished a number of works, includin^Zes cloches 
(poems, 1841), Dona Carmen (1844), Valence 
de Simian (1845), Nocturnes (1846), Gontes de 
la meridienne (1859), Les noces de Pierrette 
(1859), Les nuits sans etoiles (1861), Le colonel 
Jean (1865), and Sous la hache (1872). The 
last, a philosophical romance, is a plea for the 
abolition of the death penalty. In 1871 he 
was elected to represent Saone-et-Loire in the 
national assembly. 

LACROIX. I. Paul, a French novelist and 
historical and philological writer, born in Pa- 
ris, Feb. 27, 1806. Under the pseudonyme of 
Le bibliophile Jacob, he wrote a number of his- 
torical tales and novels, in which he displayed 
much curious erudition. In 1834-'5 he pub- 
lished Histoire du 16* siecle en France, d'apres 
les originaux manuscrits et imprimes (4 vols. 
8vo). He then produced in rapid succession 
an extragrdinary number of novels, transla- 
tions, and historical, philological, bibliographi- 
cal, and polemical works. He has also been the 
editor of or a contributor to many periodicals. 
Since 1854 he has edited the Revue universelle 
des Arts, published simultaneously at Paris and 
at Brussels. He was appointed in 1855 keeper 
of the arsenal library, and is a member of his- 
torical committees connected with the ministry 
of public instruction. Among his later works 
are: Dissertations UUiographiques(l&)', Un 
moUlwr historigue des XVII* et XV IIP sie- 
cles (1865); L* Histoire de la me et du regne 
de Nicolas I 67 ", empereur de Russie (4 vols., 
1864-'8) ; Arts au moyen dge et d Vepoque de 
la Renaissance (1868 ; translated and illustra- 
ted, London, 1873 ; supplement, 1870) ; Mceurs, 
usages et costumes au moyen dge et a Vepoque de 
la Renaissance, with 440 plates (1871) ; and La 
me militaire et la me religieuse au moyen dge 
(1872). His wife, APOLLINE BIFFE, who was 
once an actress under the name of Pauline 
Derf euille, gained some reputation as a novelist. 


Among her works are Fleur de serre et fleur 
des champs (1854:), Falcone (1856), and Madame 
Berihe (1857). II. Jules* a French poet and 
novelist, brother of the preceding, born in 
Paris, May 7, 1809. In 1830 he published a 
translation of Shakespeare's "Macbeth," which 
was highly praised by literary critics. He sub- 
sequently applied himself to novel writing, in 
which line of composition he is more remarka- 
ble for bitterness of sentiment, satirical power, 
and intricacy of plot, than morality and chaste- 
ness of style. His five-act tragedy, Le testa- 
ment de Cesar, was performed with success in 
1849, at the Theatre Francais. In his Valeria 
(1851), another five-act play, written in con- 
junction with Auguste Maquet, Rachel filled 
two different parts. His literal version of 
Sophocles's (Edipus Rex was performed with 
marked success, Sept. 18, 1858, and obtained 
in 1862 from the French academy the grand 
prize of 10,000 francs. In 1868 his Le roi 
Lear, in five acts, in verse from Shakespeare, 
was successfully presented at the Od6on. 

LACROIX, Paul Joseph Eugene, a French archi- 
tect, born in Paris, March 19, 1814, died there 
in February, 1873. He was a foster brother 
of Napoleon III., studied in Paris and in Italy, 
was employed in restoring the town hall of St. 
Quentin, and as architect of the lyse~e (1852) 
he designed the enlargement of this palace and 
also that of the Tuileries. He designed the 
tomb of Pope Adrian V. at Viterbo, a monu- 
ment to Ney, and many other works. 

LACROIX, Sylvestre Francois, a French mathe- 
matician, born in Paris in 1765, died there, 
May 25, 1843. He belonged to a poor family, 
but by his own exertions acquired an education, 
and became such a proficient in mathematics, 
that when scarcely 17 he was appointed pro- 
fessor in the marine school at Rochefort. In 
1786 he went to Paris, and in 1787 became a 
professor in the military school. While he. 
occupied this chair, the academy of sciences 
awarded him a prize of 6,000 livres for a trea- 
tise on maritime insurance. He held professor- 
ships consecutively in the artillery school, the 
normal school, the polytechnic school, the 
Sorbonne, and the college de France. He was 
among the original members of the institute. 
In 1796 he began the publication of his ele- 
mentary Cours de mathematiques, comprising 
arithmetic, algebra (English translation, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1818), geometry, and trigonome- 
try, which was for years the best text book of 
its kind. Among his works are Traite du 
calcul differentiel et integral (2 vols. 4to, 1797), 
and treatises on mathematical and physical 
geography and the teaching of mathematics. 

LA CROSSE, a S. W. county of Wisconsin, 
separated from Minnesota by the Mississippi 
river, bounded N. W. by Black river, and 
drained by the La Crosse ; area, 450 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 20,297. The surface is undula- 
ting and generally well timbered, and the soil 
is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 
581,485 bushels of wheat, 21,789 of rye, 192,503 




of Indian corn, 286,126 of oats, 25,985 of bar- 
ley, 66,526 of potatoes, 27,179 Ibs. of wool, 
182,501 of hops, 248,638 of butter, and 15,297 
tons of hay. There were 3,486 horses, 4,438 
milch cows, 5,231 other cattle, 9,288 sheep, 
and 4,408 swine; 2 manufactories of agricul- 
tural implements, 1 of boats, 3 of carriages, 1 
of iron castings, 1 of machinery, 4 of saddlery 
and harness, 1 of sash, doors, and blinds, 5 of 
tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of woollen 
goods, 4 breweries, 7 saw mills, and 1 bridge- 
building establishment. Capital, La Crosse. 

LA CROSSE, a city and the capital of La 
Crosse co., Wisconsin, on the E. bank of the 
Mississippi river, at the mouth of the Black 
and La Crosse rivers, 105 m. W. N. W. of 
Madison and 175 m. W. N. W. of Milwaukee ; 
pop. in 1860, 3,860; in 1870, 7,785; in 1874, 
including the village of North La Crosse an- 
nexed in 1871, estimated by local authorities 
at 13,000. It is finely situated on a level 
prairie, and has many handsome buildings, 
including the court house, which cost $40,000, 
the post office, an opera house, and the high 
school building. It has ample railroad commu- 
nication by means of the Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul, the Chicago and Northwestern, 
the La Crosse, Trempealeau, and Prescott, the 
Southern Minnesota, and the Chicago, Dubuque, 
and Minnesota lines. The city has an extensive 
trade in lumber, and contains a large manufac- 
tory of saddlery and harness, a plough factory, 
three founderies and machine shops, a grist 
mill, a large sash, door, and blind factory, sev- 
eral breweries, nine saw mills, and three bank- 
ing houses. The United States courts for the 
W. district of Wisconsin hold one session here 
annually. There are flourishing graded schools, 
a young men's library of 2,400 volumes, two 
daily and five weekly (one German and one 
Norwegian) newspapers, a semi-monthly peri- 
odical, and 17 churches. La Crosse was first 
laid out in 1851, though an establishment for 
trading with the Indians existed as early as 
1841. It was incorporated as a city in 1856. 

LACTANTIUS, Firmianus, one of the fathers of 
the Latin church, born, according to some, in 
Firmium, Italy, according to others, in Africa, 
about 260, died in Treves about 325. The 
names Lucius Ccelius or Caecilius, sometimes 
bestowed on him, are not mentioned by Je- 
rome and Augustine, or found in any ancient 
manuscript. According to his own account, 
he was born of heathen parents, and became a 
Christian at a mature age. Jerome calls him a 
pupil of the African Arnobius, under whom he 
studied rhetoric at Sicca, near Carthage. In 
early life he published in hexameters a work 
entitled Symposion, being a collection of rid- 
dles for convivial amusement. This work 
gained him such a reputation that he was in- 
vited by Diocletian in 301 to open a school of 
eloquence in Nicomedia, where he remained 
till 312. As this city was almost exclusively 
inhabited or visited by Greeks, Lactantius 
found but few pupils. During his stay there 

the Christians were persecuted, and their 
religion assailed by the heathen philosophers. 
Having, it is surmised, become himself a Chris- 
tian about this epoch, he wrote in defence of 
the persecuted creed his great work Institu- 
tiones Divince, of which, while still in Nico- 
media, he composed an epitome addressed to 
his brother Pentadius. This was followed by 
another entitled De Opificio Dei. In the for- 
mer work Lactantius proposes to demonstrate 
the right of the Christian religion to exist le- 
gally, and to communicate its doctrines by 
public teaching ; in the latter he grounds the 
belief in the existence of a God on the adapta- 
tions seen in every known form of organic life. 
In 312 Lactantius was called to Treves by the 
emperor Constantine, to superintend the edu- 
cation of his son Crispus. He appears to have 
lived in great poverty while in Nicomedia, and 
to have distinguished himself by his modesty 
and disinterestedness while at court. Before 
his conversion to Christianity, Lactantius had 
been a diligent student of the great Eoman 
orator, whose harmonious and eloquent style 
he had labored so successfully to imitate that 
he acquired from posterity the appellation of 
the " Christian Cicero," and St. Jerome says 
that he was by far the most learned man of his 
age. Besides the works mentioned, he wrote 
a treatise De Ira Dei, which is still extant, two 
books to Asclepiades, and eight books of let- 
ters, which are lost. The work De Mortibus 
Persecutorum is thought by many of the best 
critics to belong to Lactantius, and to be iden- 
tical with the work De Persecutione Liber 
unus mentioned as his by St. Jerome. The 
first edition of his works was printed at Subi- 
aco in 1465 ; later editions are byLe Brun and 
Lenglet du Fresnoy (2 vols. 4to, Paris, 1748), 
Pere Edouard de St. Francois Xavier (14 vols. 
8vo, Rome, 1754-'9, considered the best), and 
in Gersdorf's Biblioiheca Patrum Ecclesim se- 
lecta (vols. x., xi., Leipsic, 1842). See "A 
Summary of the Writings of Lactantius," by 
the Rev. J. H. B. Mountain (London, 1839). 

LACTIC ACID, a product of the decomposi- 
tion of any kind of sugar in solution, induced 
by the presence of certain albuminous fer- 
ments, as diastase exposed for some time in so- 
lution to the air. Milk contains both the ele- 
ments for the production of this acid, sugar of 
milk and albuminous caseine. Its change to 
sour milk is called the lactic fermentation, and 
lactic acid is a product of this change. It was 
in sour milk that the acid was originally dis- 
covered by Scheele, whence he named it lactic ; 
but it has since been obtained from the juices 
of many vegetables, and from the fluids of the 
stomach and flesh of animals. As milk turns, 
the coagulum which is formed is a combination 
of lactic acid and caseine. If the lactic acid 
be taken up by bicarbonate of soda, the ca- 
seine set free induces further fermentation, and 
more lactic acid is formed from the sugar of 
milk ; and so by adding more soda the process 
may be kept up until all the sugar of milk is 



concerted into lactic acid. If a succeeding 
fermentation be allowed to take place, butyric 
acid is produced. The composition of lactic 
acid is expressed by the formula CsHeOs, and it 
has the same centesimal composition as sugar 
of milk. When concentrated in vacua over 
sulphuric acid, lactic acid is obtained in the 
form of a sirupy colorless fluid, of specific 
gravity T215 and very sour. At a temperature 
of 266 F. it yields water and becomes an an- 
hydrous solid (dilactic acid), which dissolves 
sparingly in water, but readily in alcohol and 
ether. Lactide is a crystalline substance^ of 
composition C 3 H 4 2 , produced by subjecting 
the acid to a temperature of 482 ; it is now 
called lactic anhydride. In the animal econo- 
my lactic acid is thought to play an important 
part from its property of dissolving large quan- 
tities of freshly precipitated phosphate of lime ; 
and this has led to its prescription in medicine 
with the view of its removing phosphatic de- 
posits in the urine, as well as to hold in solu- 
tion phosphate of lime when given as a medi- 
cine. It has also been recommended in certain 
forms of dyspepsia. It has been proposed as 
a local application to dissolve the false mem- 
branes of croup, being applied in liquid form, 
or as a spray from an "atomizer;" but the 
success obtained with this treatment by other 
observers has not equalled that claimed by the 
original proposer. The acid may be conve- 
niently prepared by evaporating sour milk to 
one eighth its bulk, filtering, adding lime, again 
filtering, separating the crystals of lactate of 
lime which form, purifying these by redissolv- 
ing and recrystallizing, and finally decomposing 
the salt by means of oxalic acid and recovering 
the lactic acid by filtering. But it is best ob- 
tained by dissolving 8 parts of cane sugar in 
about 50 parts of water, and fermenting by 1 
part caseine and 3 parts chalk, and decompo- 
sing the lime salt by sulphuric acid. The salts 
formed by this acid with bases are called lac- 
tates. The only important one is the lactate 
of iron, which is much employed in medicine 
as a stimulant and tonic. It is prepared by 
digesting lactic acid and iron filings at a gentle 
heat on a sand bath for five or six hours, and 
then allowing the liquor to boil. It is then 
filtered, concentrated, and allowed to cool and 
crystallize. The crystals are drained in a fun- 
nel, washed with alcohol, dried rapidly, and 
transferred to a bottle, which must be well 
stopped. Lactate of iron when pure is in 
white crystalline plates. It has an acid reac- 
tion, is soluble in 12 parts of boiling water, and 
the solution soon becomes yellow from the iron 
passing to a higher degree of oxidation. When 
sold in a powdered state, it is apt to be adul- 
terated ; for this reason it should be purchased 
in the crystals. The medicinal applications 
may be in the form of lozenges or sirup. In 
one of the Paris hospitals it has been intro- 
duced into bread, hence known as chalybeate 
bread, a grain of lactate of iron in each ounce, 
which does not injuriously affect the taste or 


quality of the bread. This is given to patients 
suffering from chlorosis, and in other forms 
the medicine has proved beneficial in this dis- 
ease. It is observed that it decidedly increases 
the appetite. Sarcolactic acid is the variety 
which is obtained from the juice of flesh; 
paralactic acid also exists. 



LADAKII, or Middle Thibet, a state of central 
Asia, subject to Cashmere, bounded N. by East 
Turkistan, E. by Great Thibet, S. and S. W. 
by the Punjaub and Cashmere proper, and W. 
by Cashmere and Bulti ; area, about 30,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. about 150,000. The country is ele- 
vated and rugged, lying mostly between the 
Karakorum range and the western Himalayas. 
The river Indus flows N". W. between these 
ridges, its elevation here being nearly 11,000 ' 
ft. above the sea. The climate is cold and arid. 
The soil is sterile, but the slopes, being in- 
dustriously cultivated, produce wheat, barley, 
buckwheat, apples, and apricots. The domes- 
tic animals are horses, yaks, cows, the zho 
(cross of the yak and the cow), asses, sheep, 
and goats. The sheep attain great size, and 
are used as beasts of burden in some parts of 
the country. Iron, lead, copper, and sulphur 
are found in considerable quantities. The 
people of Ladakh are mostly Thibetans. They 
are mild, good-humored, peaceable, and hon- 
est, but indolent, given to intoxication, and 
very sensual. Polyandry prevails among the 
lower classes. They carry on a trade in wool, 
used for the manufacture of Cashmere shawls. 
The country was formerly governed by inde- 
pendent despots, from whom it was wrested 
by Gholab Sing, the late rajah of Cashmere, in 
1835. Capital, Leh. 

LADANUM, or Labdanum, a resinous exudation 
of various evergreen shrubs of the genus cis- 
tus, principally of the C. Creticus, found in 
the islands of the Grecian archipelago and 
the neighboring countries. The purer variety 
sometimes found in commerce is put up in 
bladders in masses of several pounds each. The 
substance readily softens and becomes adhe- 
sive in the hand. Externally it is dark red, 
almost black, and internally grayish. It diffu- 
ses an agreeable balsamic odor, and has a bit- 
ter and somewhat acrid taste. The common 
quality is very largely mixed with sand and 
other foreign matters; it is in spiral-shaped 
pieces of dark gray color, and hard and brittle. 
It contains only about 20 per cent, of resin, 
while in the purer quality 86 per cent, has been 
found ; the other ingredients are gum and wax, 
with malate of lime, and in the common quality 
72 per cent, of foreign substances. Ladanum, 
like many other similar drugs, has fallen into 
disuse ; it was formerly employed in fumiga- 
tion, and as a stimulant expectorant, and also 
as an ingredient of plasters. 

LADD, William, an American philanthropist, 
born in Exeter, N. H., May 10, 1778, died in 
Portsmouth, April 9, 1841. He graduated at 




Harvard college in 1797, and took an active 
part in organizing the American peace society, 
of which he was for many years president. In 
its interests he edited the " Friend of Peace," 
commenced by Dr. Noah Worcester, and the 
"Harbinger of Peace," and published a num- 
ber of essays and occasional addresses on the 
subject of peace, including " An Essay on a 
Congress of Nations " (8vo, Boston, 1840). He 
carried his views to the extent of denying the 
right to maintain defensive war, and caused 
this principle to be incorporated into the con- 
stitution of the American peace society. 

LAD1NO, a term applied throughout Central 
America, and particularly in Nicaragua and 
Guatemala, to the mestizo or half-breed de- 
scendants of whites and Indians. It was some- 
times, though rarely, used by the royal gover- 
nors and officers very nearly in the sense of 
criollo or Creole, to distinguish Spaniards born 
in the country from those who had emigrated 
from the Peninsula. In the production of the 
ladino the white element has almost always 
been represented by the father, inasmuch as 
few women accompanied the first settlers on 
their voyage to America. The ladinos are for 
the most part of a yellowish orange tinge ; the 
males more nearly approach to the European 
in form and feature than the females, in whom 
the Indian element predominates, but who may 
be said to be the handsomest women in Central 
America. The ladinos disdain all manual labor, 
and seek to adopt the same pursuits as the 
whites, with whom they desire to be confound- 
ed as much as possible ; hence a multitude of 
candidates for a very limited number of gov- 
ernment offices, the result of which is that 
the ladinos form a restless, turbulent class, to 
whom may be attributed in a great measure 
the civil wars and general insecurity of the 
Central American republics. 

LADISLAS (Hun. LdszU}, Saint, king of Hun- 
gary (1077-'95). See HUNGARY. 

LADISLAS jTol. Wladystaw) II., king of Po- 
land, born in Lithuania about 1350, died in 
Grodek, near Lemberg, Galicia, May 31, 1434. 
He was the son of Olgerd and grandson of 
Gedimin, grand dukes of Lithuania, and as a 
pagan prince, though the son of a Christian 
mother, received the name of Jagello or Ja- 
giello. He succeeded his father in Lithuania, 
and in 1386, having married Hedvig, the beau- 
tiful and pious young daughter of Louis the 
Great, king of Hungary and Poland, became a 
Christian and received the Polish crown. He 
converted Lithuania to Christianity, and finally 
united it with Poland. He was successful in 
his wars against the Teutonic knights, whom 
he routed in the battle of Grtinwald (1410). 
He greatly contributed to the development of 
the power of his kingdom, which was ruled by 
his dynasty down to 1572, when it became an 
elective state. His son and successor, LADIS- 
LAS III., having been elected king of Hungary 
(as Uladislas I.), waged war with the Turks, 
made peace with them, broke his oath, and fell 

in the battle of Varna (1444). He was suc- 
ceeded in Poland by his brother Casimir IV. 

LADMIRAULT, Louis Rene Paul de, a French 
soldier, born in 1808. He graduated at Saint- 
Cyr in 1829, and rose in Algeria to the rank of 
brigadier general in 1848. He was wounded 
at the battle of Solferino in 1859. In 1866 he 
became senator, and in 1867 was put in com- 
mand of the second army corps and of the 
camp of Chalons. During the Franco-German 
war he was at the head of the fourth corps, 
and took part in the battles around Metz. 
On the capitulation of that fortress he became 
a prisoner in Germany, and returned to France 
after the conclusion of peace in May, 1871. 
He took a conspicuous part as commander of 
the first corps under MacMahon in the opera- 
tions against the commune, and on July 1, 
1871, was appointed military governor of Pa- 
ris, which post he still holds (1874). He has 
published Bases (Tun projet pour le recrutement 
de Varmee de terre (1871). 

LADOGA, a lake of Russia, the largest in Eu- 
rope, surrounded by the governments of Vi- 
borg, Olonetz, and St. Petersburg, and lying 
between lat. 59 58' and 61 46' N., and Ion. 29 
50' and 32 55' E. ; length 124 m., greatest 
breadth 87 m. ; area, about 7,000 sq. m. It is 
59 ft. above the sea. Its depth is very varia- 
ble, being in some places upward of 150 fath- 
oms, and in others too shallow for navigation. 
Its coast is generally low, much indented, and 
dangerous from hidden reefs. Its waters 
abound with fish. Storms are frequent and 
sudden, and the influx of 70 streams causes 
strong and uncertain currents. It is connected 
with Lake Onega by the river Svir, with Lake 
Ilmen by the Volkhov, and with the gulf of 
Finland by the Neva. It contains several isl- 
ands, some of them inhabited ; the largest are 
Valaam on the north and Konevetz on the 
south. The principal towns on its coasts are 
Kexholm, Schltisselburg, Serdobol, and Novaia 
(New) Ladoga. The Ladoga, Sias, and Svir 
canals form a continuous line around the S. 
and S. E. sides of the lafce ; and by the arti- 
ficial union of several rivers and lakes vessels 
pass from the Baltic to the Volga and thence 
to the Caspian sea. There is communication 
also with the White sea. 

LADRONE, Marianne, or Mariana Islands, a 
group of about 20 islands belonging to Spain, 
in the north Pacific ocean, N. of the Caroline 
islands, between lat. 13 and 21 N., and Ion. 
144 and 146 E. ; area, 416 sq. m. ; pop. 
about 10,000. When the Spanish missionaries 
sent by Queen Mariana, widow of Philip IV. 
of Spain, established themselves on the islands 
toward the end of the 17th century, the na- 
tives numbered 40,000. The present inhab- 
itants are mostly descendants of settlers from 
Mexico and the Philippines. The islands are 
of volcanic formation, mountainous, well wa- 
tered, and well wooded. The breadfruit, bana- 
na, and cocoanut grow to perfection, and the 
soil is productive in sugar, rice, corn, tobacco, 



cotton, and indigo. The climate is salubrious, 
the heat being tempered by the trade winds. 
Horses, cattle, and llamas were early intro- 
duced by the Spaniards ; wild hogs are numer- 
ous and very large. The principal islands are 
Guahan, Rota, Aguijan, Saypan or Seypan, and 
Tinian. Lord Anson visited Tinian in 1742, 
and found there cyclopean ruins. The seat of 
government is at San Ignacio de Agafta, on the 
island of Guahan, the most southerly of the 
group, where there is also a good fortified har- 
bor. Asuncion and Pagon, in the north, are 
noted for their volcanoes. The general navi- 
gation is rendered dangerous by shoals and cur- 
rents. A pearl fishery exists on^the coast of 
Saypan. Magellan discovered the islands short- 
ly before his death in 1521, and named them 
the Ladrones from the thievish disposition of 
the natives. They were afterward called the 
Lazarus islands, and in 1667, when the Jesuits 
settled there, they were renamed Marianne or 
Mariana in honor of the Spanish queen. 
There are two other small groups called La- 
drones: one in China, situated at the mouth 
of the bay of Canton, which is resort of 
pirates ; the other in the Pacific, 10 m. off the 
coast of Colombia. 

LADY (Anglo-Saxon, Jildfdige ; Old Eng., 
levedy), a title used as the correlative of lord 
(A. S. hldford), or, in common speech, as the 
correlative of gentleman. It is supposed to 
have signified originally " bread-giver " (Goth. 
hlaif, loaf, and dian, to distribute), or "she 
who takes care of the bread " (A. S. hldf, loaf, 
and weard, to look after, to care for, to 
ward). The primary notion entertained of a 
chief or lord was that he was the provider of 
the food consumed by his family, and his lady 
had the care or distribution of it. Home 
Tooke's derivation of the word from hlifian, 
to lift, i. e., one raised to the rank of her lord, 
is untenable. As a title of honor in England, 
it belongs to peeresses, and to the wives of 
peers and of peers by courtesy, being prefixed 
in such cases to the peerage title. The daugh- 
ters of dukes, marquises, and earls are desig- 
nated by courtesy by the title, prefixed to their 
Christian and their surname. The wives of 
baronets receive it by courtesy, their legal 
designation being dame, and it is generally 
extended, also by courtesy, to the wives of 
knights of every degree. In Saxon times the 
queen was occasionally termed ses hldf dig, the 
lady, which is still preserved in the phrase 
" our sovereign lady the queen." In common 
usage the term is applied to any woman of the 
better class, and in the United tates it has so 
lost its significance as to be given indiscrimi- 
nately to almost any well dressed woman. 
"Our Lady" is a title frequently applied to 
the Virgin Mary, generally in connection with 
some attribute, as " Our Lady of Mercy." 
Lady chapel, in cathedrals, is a chapel dedi- 
cated to the Virgin, and is usually placed east 
of the altar. Lady day, in the calendar, is the 
25th of March, being the Annunciation of the 


Virgin Mary. In England and Ireland it is 
one of the regular quarter days, on which rent 
is made payable. 

LADY-BIRD (sometimes called LADY-BUG), a 
small beetle of the trimerous division, and of 
the genus coccinella (Frisch). In this exten- 
sive and well known genus the body is hemi- 
spherical, the thorax very short, the antennas 
composed of 11 joints and the tarsi of 3, the 
elytra convex, the under surface 
flat, and the legs short ; the diges- 
tive canal is nearly straight, and 
as long as the body. The general 
-.,., colors are red, yellow, or orange 
with black spots, or black with 
white, red, or yellow spots. Many species 
have been described. The larvse are small, 
bluish, flattened grubs, spotted with red or 
yellow, and with six legs on the anterior part 
of the body ; they are hatched from yellowish 
eggs, of a disagreeable odor, laid usually in the 
spring in clusters among the aphides or plant 
lice. Both the larvae and the perfect insects 
destroy immense numbers of these lice, and 
are therefore among the best friends of the 
agriculturist; when found upon plants they 
are in quest of their insect prey, and deprive 
vegetation of none of its juices, and they are 
entirely guiltless of producing the potato rot 
or any other similar disease. There are some 
very small lady-birds of a blackish color, and 
with a few short hairs, of the genus scymnus, 
whose larvae are as savage among the plant 
lice as the lion among the smaller mammals. 

LADY'S SLIPPER, the common name, corre- 
sponding to the generic one, of orchidaceous 
plants of the genus cypripedium (Gr. Ki^pi?, a 
name of Venus, and 7r66iov, a sock), also some- 
times called moccason flower. The genus and 
two other allied ones differ from other orchids 
in having two anthers instead of one ; the se- 
pals are three, two of them frequently united ; 
petals three, of which the lower one, or lip as 
it is termed in orchids, is inflated to form a 
large sac, which in some species bears a re- 
semblance to a slipper. To add to the ordi- 
narily strange appearance of the flower, the 
lateral petals are in some of the exotics pro- 
longed to form tails, which hang down for 
several inches below the lip. The genus has a 
wide range, from the tropics, where they have 
leathery and persistent leaves, to Canada and 
Siberia ; the leaves of the northern ones are 
thin, and perish with the stem after flowering. 
Our commonest native lady's slipper is the 
stemless (C. dcaule), which is found in woods, 
especially under evergreens, from the Caroli- 
nas to Canada, but is much more frequent 
northward; it has two large oblong leaves, 
from between which arises a stem, sometimes 
a foot high, bearing at its summit a single large 
flower, the lip of which, about 2 in. long, is 
beautifully veined with rose purple on a lighter 
or white ground. Two yellow-flowered spe- 
cies (C. parmflorum and C. pubescens), which 
differ but little except in size, are not rare in 




bogs and woods ; these have leafy stems 1 to 2 
ft. high, and one to three flowers. The roots 
of these are used by herb doctors as antispas- 
modics under the name of nervine, nerve-root, 
&c. The ram's-head and small white lady's 
slipper ( C. arietinum and C. ca?ididum) are the 

Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium spectabile). 

rarest of our native species, and highly prized 
by botanists. The most beautiful of the Amer- 
ican, and in some respects the finest of all cy- 
pripediums, is the showy lady's slipper (C. spec- 
tabile)-, though not very common, it grows in 
abundance in cold bogs in some localities upon 
the northern border, and extends along the 
mountains as far south as North Carolina. The 
stems, about 2 ft. high, as well as the numer- 
ous ovate leaves, are downy, and bear at the 

Nepaul Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium insigne). 

summit one to three large flowers, of which the 
much inflated lip is white, and marked in front 
with pinkish purple, the color shading off much 
after the manner of the cheek of a well ripened 
peach. This species, so highly prized abroad, 
is seldom seen in cultivation in its native coun- 

try; there is nothing in the whole range of 
hardy herbaceous plants that equals it in beau- 
ty, and it may be cultivated by any one who 
will imitate its natural locality by preparing a 
deep peaty soil for it. The same remark as to 
cultivation applies to all our species. Europe 
has but a single species, C. calceolus, which has 
a yellow lip netted with purple veins. The 
tropical and sub-tropical species and varieties 
of the greenhouse and stove are numerous ; the 
best known of these is C. insigne, from Nepaul, 
which has thick dark green leaves, and flowers 
spotted and mottled with yellow, green, and pur- 
ple. An old plant of this forms a large clump 
with numerous flowers, which keep in perfec- 
tion for several weeks ; it is well suited to the 
greenhouse or conservatory, as is the some- 
what similar C. venustum, which has broader 
and spotted leaves. 

LAEKEN, a village of Belgium, a suburb of 
Brussels, with a royal palace built in 1782 
by the Austrian princess Maria Christina. 
After the invasion of the French in 1792 it 
was to be converted into a hospital; but the 
archduke Charles acquired the property from 
his aunt, and sold it about 1794 to a surgeon. 
Napoleon bought it in 1806 for 500,000 francs, 
for Josephine, and in 1811 he resided here for 
some time with Maria Louisa. In 1812 he ex- 
changed it for the Elysee Bourbon. Subse- 
quently it became the property of Belgium, 
and the royal family reside here occasionally. 
Malibran is buried in the cemetery of Laeken, 
where her husband De Be>iot had a monument 
erected to her by the sculptor Geefs. In the 
parish church are the tombs of Queen Louise 
and King Leopold I., and an extensive Gothic 
building is in course of erection as a vault 
for the royal family. The allee verte extends 
nearly all the way from Laeken to Brussels. 

UELIIS. I. Cains, a Roman general, born 
about 235 B. C. He commanded the fleet 
which captured New Carthage, in Spain, 210 
B. C. He was the friend of Scipio, and com- 
manded the left wing of his army at the battle 
of Baacula, 208, and afterward with a detach- 
ment of the fleet defeated Adherbal in the 
straits. He was sent twice to the court of 
Syphax. Near the close of the second Punic 
war he sailed with a portion of the fleet to the 
African coast, landed at Hippo Regius, and be- 
gan to plunder the country, but soon returned 
to Messana, from an apprehension that the Car- 
thaginians were cutting off his retreat. In 204, 
with Masinissa, he burned the Punic and Nu- 
midian camps and pursued Hasdrubal and Sy- 
phax, and in 203 captured the latter and his 
capital Cirta. He commanded the Italian caval- 
ry at the battle of Zama, and his charge deter- 
mined the victory. He was chosen praetor in 
196, and consul in 190. Afterward he obtained 
the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which he held 
for two years, and was sent on several impor- 
tant missions by the senate. The date of his 
death is unknown. II. Cains Sapiens, a Roman 
statesman, son of the preceding, born about 186 



B. C., died about 115. He was tribune of the 
people in 151, prsetor in 145, and consul in 140. 
Before his consulship he was assigned the 
province of Lusitania, and conducted a success- 
ful campaign against the formidable guerilla 
chief Viriathus. At the beginning of his po- 
litical career Laelius inclined to that party which 
sought to raise the masses to the condition of 
landed proprietors ; but the excitement and 
violence occasioned by the measures of the 
elder Gracchus so alarmed him that he with- 
drew from the popular side, and supported the 
aristocracy. In 132 he aided the consuls against 
the partisans of Tiberius Gracchus, and in 130 
he opposed the passing of the Papirian roga- 
tion. For his course in that period, his friends 
and faction honored him with the cognomen 
of Sapiens, or the Wise. In common with the 
younger Scipio, he had early applied himself 
to the language and learning of Greece, and 
had imbibed the doctrines of the Stoics from 
Diogenes of Babylon and Pansetius. He is the 
Laelius of Cicero's De Amicitia, De Senectute, 
and De Eepublica. 

LAEMLEIN, Alexandra, a French paititer, born 
at Hohenfeld, Bavaria, Dec. 9, 1813. He went 
to Paris in his 10th year, to live with his uncle 
Alexandre Laemlein, the author of a cyclopae- 
dia of chess, and became a naturalized French 
citizen in 1848, and professor of drawing at 
the special school of design in 1855. His works 
include many historical portraits at Versailles, 
and many large paintings, as " The Chastity of 
Joseph," "The Awakening of Adam," and 
" Tabitha resuscitated by St. Peter." The last 
was purchased by the government for the 
church of Saint Pierre de Gobert near Agen, 
where it has become a shrine for pilgrims. 
His " Charity," " Jacob's Ladder," and " Vision 
of Zacharias" are all powerful paintings, which 
were much admired at the exhibition of 1855. 
Among his later works are "Music" (1852), 
" Diana and Endymion" (1857), "Job " (185V), 
"The Love of Angels" (1863), "Orpheus" 
(1866), and "Hope "(1868). 

LAEMEC, Rene Theodore Hyacinthe, a French 
physician, born in Quimper, Brittany, Feb. 17, 
1781, died there, Aug. 13, 1826. In 1800 he 
went to Paris, and attached himself to the clini- 
cal school of the charity hospital, then directed 
by Corvisart. He obtained the degree of M. D. 
in 1814, and became principal editor of the 
Journal de Medecine. In 1816 he was appoint- 
ed chief physician of the Necker hospital, where 
he soon after discovered mediate auscultation ; 
and in 1819 he published his Traite de V aus- 
cultation mediate et des maladies des poumons 
et du co&ur (translated by Dr. Forbes of Chi- 
chester). In 1821 he was appointed professor 
of medicine in the college de France, but ill 
health soon compelled him to resign. 

LAER, or Laar, Pieter Tan. See BAMBOCCIO. 

LAFARGE, Marie Cappelle, a French woman 
notorious for her condemnation as a poisoner 
born at Villers-Hellon, Aisne, in 1816, died at 
Ussat, a watering place in the Pyrenees, Nov. 


7, 1852. She belonged to a good family, and 
was accustomed to all the refinements of Pari- 
sian life. In 1838 she married Pouch-Lafarge, 
an owner of iron works at Glandier, in the 
department of Correze, who represented him- 
self as a wealthy country gentleman ; but being 
disappointed in her expectations, she quarrelled 
with him and exhibited the utmost rancor to- 
ward him. After about 16 months her husband 
was seized with a strange illness, and within a 
fortnight he died. Strong suspicion fixed upon 
Madame Lafarge, who, it was proved, had twice 
purchased arsenic under pretence of killing 
rats. She was arrested, and when in confine- 
ment was charged by one of her relations with 
having stolen a set of diamonds; and these 
having been found in her possession, she was 
sentenced to two years' imprisonment (April, 
1840). Not daunted by this, she represented 
herself as the victim of a deep-laid conspiracy, 
and declared her innocence of both robbery 
and poisoning. The public at home and abroad 
became interested in her case. She secured 
the services of three eminent advocates; and 
the evidence against her was so slight that a 
verdict of acquittal was cpnfidently expected, 
when the celebrated Orfila, who had made a 
chemical examination of the body of the de- 
ceased, reported evidences of poison. Madame 
Lafarge was found guilty and sentenced to 
hard labor for life (September, 1840). Public 
opinion was still divided. The chemist Raspail 
impugned the report of Orfila, and a bitter 
controversy ensued. The convict, incarcera- 
ted at Montpellier, published her Memoires (4 
vols. 8vo, 1841-'2), and continued to receive 
marks of sympathy. After five years of im- 
prisonment she was permitted to remove to the 
convent of St. Re"my, and the interest mani- 
fested in her behalf on account of her failing 
health contributed to procure her liberation 
in June, 1852. She removed to Ussat, where 
she soon died protesting her innocence. Her 
Heures de prison, containing her thoughts du- 
ring her confinement, was published after her 
death (3 vols. 8vo, 1853). 

LA FARINA, Giuseppe, an Italian author, born 
in Messina in 1815, died in September, 1863. 
He early wrote in the liberal interest, and fled 
from Sicily in 1837; being again molested af- 
ter his return there in 1839, he resided in Flor- 
ence till 1848, when he became a member of 
the Sicilian parliament and cabinet under the 
republican government, retiring to Turin in 
1849. In 1861 he was elected to the Italian 
parliament as a representative of Palermo, and 
Kattazzi appointed him president of the na- 
tional Italian society. His works include illus- 
trated books of travel, "Souvenirs of Eome 
and Tuscany," several dramas, and histories of 
the Sicilian revolution of 1848-'9 (2 vols.) and 
of Italy from 1815 to 1850 (6 vols.), the latter 
being his most important publication. 

LAFAYE, or Lafaist, Prosper, a French painter, 
born at Mont Saint-Sulpice, Yonne, in 1806. 
He was at first a landscape and subsequently 



a historical painter. Many of his works are at 
Versailles, including "The Masked Ball," one 
of his best. At the exhibition of 1855 he 
showed two paintings illustrating the maxims 
of La Bruyere. For more than 20 years he 
has been almost exclusively occupied in the 
decoration of windows. His brother, PIEERE 
BENJAMIN (1808-'67), published Synonymes 
franpais (1841), for which he received a prize, 
and Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue 
fran$aise (1858 ; supplement, 1865). 

LAFAYETTE, the name of six counties in the 
United States. I. A N. county of Florida, 
bordering on the gulf of Mexico, and bounded 
E. and N. E. by the Suwannee rive'r; area, 
900 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,783, of whom 197 
were colored. The surface is level. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 28,455 bushels of In- 
dian corn, 10,180 of sweet potatoes, 192 bales 
of cotton, 12 hogsheads of sugar, and 3,269 
gallons of molasses. There were 200 horses, 
2,020 milch cows, 4,198 other cattle, and 5,619 
swine. Capital, Mclntosh. II* A N. county 
of Mississippi, drained by Tallahatchee river 
and its tributary the Yocknapatalfa ; area, 790 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 18,802, of whom 7,983 
were colored. It has a rolling surface, covered 
in places with small tracts of timber. The soil 
is fertile. The Mississippi Central railroad pass- 
es through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 17,864 bushels of wheat, 470,305 of In- 
dian corn, 23,772 of sweet potatoes, and 9,007 
bales of cotton. There were 2,334 horses, 
2,322 mules and asses, 4,515 milch cows, 1,016 
working oxen, 6,832 other cattle, 6,281 sheep, 
and 31,514 swine; 2 tanneries, 2 currying es- 
tablishments, 7 saw mills, and 1 wool-carding 
establishment. Capital, Oxford. III. A S. par- 
ish of Louisiana, traversed by Vermilion river, 
which is navigable by steamboats; area, 350 
sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,388, of whom 4,755 
were colored. The surface is level and the soil 
rich and alluvial. The principal productions 
in 1870 were 238,020 bushels of Indian corn, 
47,043 of sweet potatoes, 14,385 Ibs. of wool, 
40,166 of butter, 221,600 of rice, 6,234 bales 
of cotton, 128 hogsheads of sugar, and 6,715 
gallons of molasses. There were 4,322 horses, 
944 mules and asses, 4,804 milch cows, 1,883 
working. oxen, 10,171 other cattle, 6,881 sheep, 
and 6,814 swine ; 9 manufactories of carriages, 
6 of molasses and sugar, and 2 saw mills. 
Capital, Vermilionville. IV. A S. W. county 
of Arkansas, bordering on Louisiana and Texas, 
and traversed by Eed river and its Sulphur 
fork; area, 1,260 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,139, 
of whom 5,158 were colored. It has a good 
soil and a level surface, consisting partly of 
prairie. The chief productions in 1870 were 
247,004 bushels of Indian corn, 22,303 of sweet 
potatoes, and 9,572 bales of cotton. There 
were 1,406 horses, 1,476 mules and asses, 2,779 
milch cows, 3,494 other cattle, 1,392 sheep, 
and 11,466 swine. Capital, Lewisville. V. A 
S. W. county of Wisconsin, bordering on Illi- 
nois and drained by Fevre and Pekatonica 

rivers; area, 630 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870,22,659. 
It has an undulating surface, thinly timbered. 
In the N. W. part are several regular hills 
called the Platte mounds. Lead, copper, and 
limestone are abundant. The soil is fertile. 
The Mineral Point railroad crosses the county, 
and the northern division of the Illinois Cen- 
tral skirts the southern border. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 516,900 bushels of 
wheat, 1,294,453 of Indian corn, 1,519,202 of 
oats, 75,802 of barley, 198,327 of potatoes, 33,- 
538 of flax seed, 65,089 Ibs. of wool, 689,335 
of butter, 22,760 of cheese, and 38,749 tons of 
hay. There were 10,353 horses, 10,461 milch 
cows, 18,412 other cattle, 18,770 sheep, and 
35,482 swine ; 14 manufactories of carriages, 
2 of pig lead, 5 of saddlery and harness, and 6 
flour mills. Capital, Darlington. VI. A W. 
county of Missouri, bounded N. by the Mis- 
souri river and drained by a number of small 
streams; area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 22,- 
623, of whom 4,039 were colored. The Lex- 
ington branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad 
passes through it. The surface is undulating 
and well timbered. Limestone, sandstone, and 
coal are abundant, and the soil is remarkably 
fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 
421,567 bushels of wheat, 1,576,126 of Indian 
corn, 268,881 of oats, 91,345 of potatoes, 113,- 
735 Ibs. of tobacco, 33,100 of wool, 154,045 of 
butter, and 7,292 tons of hay. There were 
6,983 horses, 2,760 mules and asses, 5,541 milch 
cows, 11,237 other cattle, 12,244 sheep, 33,334 
swine, and a number of manufactories. Cap- 
ital, Lexington. 

LAFAYETTE, a city and the county seat of 
Tippecanoe co., Indiana, at the head of naviga- 
tion on the E. bank of the Wabash river, 60 
m. K W. of Indianapolis; pop. in 1850, 6,129; 
in 1860, 9,387; in 1870, 13,506, of whom 3,639 
were foreigners ; in 1874 estimated by local au- 
thorities at 22,000. It is built on rising ground, 
enclosed in the rear by hills of easy ascent, com- 
manding a fine view of the river valley. It 
contains many handsome buildings, and has 
paved streets lighted with gas. Near the cen- 
tre of the city is a public square containing an 
artesian well 230 ft. deep, from which issues 
sulphur water possessing curative properties. 
To the north and northeast are Greenbush and 
Springvale cemeteries, handsomely situated and 
adorned with trees. The battle ground of Tip- 
pecanoe, where Gen. Harrison defeated the 
Indians, Nov. 7, 1811, is 7 m. N. of the city; 
and just S. of the limits are the agricultural 
fair grounds of the county. Lafayette is on 
the line of the Wabash and Erie canal, and at 
the intersection of the Lafayette, Muncie, and 
Bloomington, the Cincinnati, Lafayette, and 
Chicago, the Louisville, New Albany, and Chi- 
cago, the Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafay- 
ette, and the Toledo, Wabash, and Western 
railroads, by means of which and the river it 
commands the trade of a rich and extensive 
country. There are a number of important 
manufactories, embracing founderies and ma- 


chine shops, ornamental iron works, breweries, 
marble works, flouring mills, plough works, 
reaper works, woollen mills, pump factories, 
cooperages, &c. Pork packing is extensively 
carried on. There are five national banks, 
with an aggregate capital of $2,505,000, and 
two savings banks. The city is divided into 
six wards, is governed by a mayor and council 
of 12 members, and has a police force and^a 
fire department. The county jail, erected in 
1869 at a cost of $95,000, is a substantial struc- 
ture. The city contains several hotels, a home 
for the friendless, and an opera house which 
cost $62,000. Lafayette is the seat of Purdue 
university, named in honor of John Purdue, 
who gave it $150,000 and 100 acres of land. 
It also received the proceeds ($212,238) of the 
congressional land grant for a state college of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts, and the 
state and county have aided it by donations 
amounting to $110,000. The buildings already 

Purdue University Building. 

erected, at a cost of $110,000, are the dormi- 
tory, boarding house, laboratory, gymnasium, 
military hall, manufacturing shop, power and 
gas house, and janitor's residence. The univer- 
sity building proper is in process of construc- 
tion, and will cost $75,000. The institution 
has 184 acres of land connected with it. St. 
Mary's academy (Roman Catholic) has about 
300 pupils, and there are several other Catholic 
schools. There are five public school buildings, 
the Ford school house, erected in 1869 at a cost 
of $85,000, being the finest. The young men's 
Christian association has a free reading room 
and library. Three daily, one semi-weekly 
(German), and four weekly newspapers are 
published, and there are 24 churches. La- 
fayette was laid out in 1825, and received a 
city charter in 1857. It is becoming a favorite 
place of resort for invalids and tourists. 

LAFAYETTE, or La Fayette, Marie Jean Paul 
Boch Yves Gilbert Metier, marquis de, a general 

of the American revolution and a French 
statesman, born at the chateau of Chavagnac, 
near Brioude, Sept. 6, 1757, died in Paris, May 
20, 1834. His family was one of the most an- 
cient and eminent in the French nobility. His 
father, the marquis de Lafayette, was an offi- 
cer of the army, and fell in battle in Germany 
at the age of 25. His mother died soon after- 
ward, and he was thus left in infancy heir to a 
large estate. At an early age he was sent to 
the college of Plessis at Paris, and when only 
16 married a lady still younger, a daughter of 
the count d'Ayen, son of the duke de Noailles. 
He entered the army as an officer of the guards, 
and in 1776 was stationed at Metz with his re- 
giment, in which he was a captain of dragoons. 
At a dinner given by the commandant of the 
garrison to the duke of Gloucester, brother of 
the king of England, who was then on a visit 
to Metz, Lafayette heard that the American 
colonies had declared their independence. Be- 
fore he left the table he 
had mentally resolved 
to draw his sword in 
the cause of American 
liberty, and he imme- 
diately went to Paris 
to make arrangements 
for the execution of 
his plan. He became 
acquainted with the 
American agents in 
Paris, Franklin, Deane, 
and Arthur Lee, and 
communicated to them 
his intention of pro- 
ceeding to America. 
This was at the darkest 
period of the revolu- 
tionary war, and the 
news had just reached 
France of the occupa- 
tion of New York, the 
loss of Fort Washing- 
ton, and the disastrous 

retreat of the Americans through New Jersey. 
The cause of America looked desperate, and 
the few friends whom Lafayette had apprised 
of his design urged him to abandon it. Even 
the American commissioners told him they 
could not in conscience urge him to go ; they 
had not the means even to give him a passage 
across the Atlantic. But he replied that the 
more desperate were the affairs of the Ameri- 
cans, the more necessity was there for giving 
them assistance ; and as for passage, he would 
purchase a vessel for himself and his compan- 
ions. He accordingly caused a vessel to be 
secretly fitted or.t at Bordeaux. While his 
preparations were going on, to avert suspicion 
from himself, he made a visit to his kinsman 
the marquis de JSToailles, then French ambas- 
sador in London ; but while in Great Britain 
he scrupulously abstained from using the op- 
portunity afforded of obtaining military infor- 
mation that might be of service to the Ameri- 



cans. At the end of three weeks he returned 
to France, and without passing through Paris 
hastened to Bordeaux. Here he learned that 
the British ambassador at Paris had penetrated 
his design, and that the government had given 
orders for his arrest. Though his ship was 
not quite ready,' he instantly made sail for 
Pasages, the nearest port in Spain, where he 
had scarcely arrived when he was waited upon 
by two French officers with an order from 
the king of France directing him to go to Mar- 
seilles. They also brought letters from his rel- 
atives censuring his conduct, and requesting 
him to return home; but his wife, who was 
devotedly attached to him, and who shared his 
enthusiasm for American liberty, wrote urging 
him to stand firm and to proceed on his enter- 
prise. He returned with the officers to Bor- 
deaux by land, leaving his vessel at Pasages, 
and in apparent obedience to the royal com- 
mand set out for Marseilles; but soon after 
leaving Bordeaux he took the road to Spain, 
and, though closely pursued, reached Pasages, 
where he instantly put to sea. He was accom- 
panied by 11 officers, among them the German 
veteran Baron de Kalb. His departure created 
a great sensation not only in France but in 
England. The passage to America was long 
and stormy, and there was much danger from 
the English cruisers on the coast. Lafayette 
and his companions, however, landed in the 
night near Georgetown, S. 0., and, though at 
first taken for a party of the enemy, were at 
length received and hospitably entertained in 
the house of Major Huger, who conveyed them 
the next day, April 25, 1777, to Charleston, 
where they were received with enthusiasm. 
" The sensation produced by his appearance 
in this country," says Mr. Ticknor, "was, of 
course, much greater than that produced in 
Europe by his departure. It still stands 
forth as one of the most prominent and 
important circumstances in our revolutionary 
contest; and, as has often been said by one 
who bore no small part in its trials and success, 
none but those who were then alive can believe 
what an impulse it gave to the hopes of a pop- 
ulation almost disheartened by a long series 
of disasters," Lafayette proceeded by land to 
Philadelphia, where congress was then in ses- 
sion, and on his arrival addressed a letter to 
the president of that body, asking leave to 
enter the army as a volunteer and to serve 
without pay. Congress expressed its high 
sense of the value of his example and of his 
personal worth by the following resolution" : 
"Whereas the marquis de Lafayette, out of 
his great zeal to the cause of liberty, in which 
the United States are engaged, has left his 
family and connections, and at his own ex- 
pense come over to offer his services to the 
United States, without pension or particular 
allowance, and is anxious to risk his life in our 
cause : Resolved, that his services be accepted, 
and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious 
family and connections, he have the rank and 
474 VOL. x. 7 

commission of major general in the army of 
the United States." His commission was dated 
July 31, 1777, while he yet lacked more than a 
month of being 20 years old. Congress consid- 
ered the appointment merely honorary ; but it 
speedily became apparent that Lafayette was 
bent on serious service, and was well qualified 
to command. Washington and Lafayette met 
for the first time at a dinner party in Phila- 
delphia. Lafayette made a highly favorable 
impression, and at the close of the entertain- 
ment Washington took him aside, thanked him 
warmly for the sacrifices he had made in the 
American cause, and invited him to regard 
himself at all times as a member of his military 
family. The personal acquaintance thus com- 
menced soon ripened into an intimacy that was 
never for a moment interrupted. The private 
correspondence of Washington shows that he 
not only felt for Lafayette the warmest affec- 
tion, but entertained the highest opinion of his 
military talent, personal probity, and general 
prudence and energy. The youthful major 
general was first in active service at the bat- 
tle of Brandy wine, Sept. 11, where he had no 
separate command, but was attached to the 
staff of Washington as a volunteer. He plunged 
into the hottest of the fight, and when the de- 
feated Americans began to retreat, threw him- 
self from his horse, entered the ranks, and ex- 
erted himself to rally them. He was shot by a 
musket ball through the leg, but was uncon- 
scious of the wound till his aide told him that 
the blood was running from his boot. He 
rode with a surgeon to Chester, but would not 
suffer his wound to be dressed till he had re- 
stored order among the troops who were re- 
treating in confusion through the village. It 
was two months before his hurt was sufficiently 
healed to enable him to join the army. On 
Dec. 1 congress resolved " that Gen. Washing- 
ton be informed that it is highly agreeable to 
congress that the marquis de Lafayette be ap- 
pointed to the command of a division in the 
continental army." This resolve was passed at 
the request of Washington himself, who three 
days afterward directed Lafayette to take com- 
mand of the division of Gen. Stephen, who had 
been dismissed. About this period the board 
of war, of which Gates was the head and which 
had been created and was controlled by the 
faction hostile to Washington, planned an ex- 
pedition to Canada which was approved by 
congress ; and Lafayette was appointed to the 
command in the expectation that so flattering 
a distinction would attach him to the party by 
whom it was conferred. The first intimation 
that Washington had of the project was from 
the letter to Lafayette announcing his appoint- 
ment. The young Frenchman, indignant at 
the slight offered to his chief in not consulting 
him, carried the letter immediately to Washing- 
ton, told him he saw through the artifice, and 
would be governed by his advice. Washington 
advised him to accept the appointment, but told 
him he did not know where the means could 


be found to carry out such an expedition. La- 
fayette accordingly accepted the command, and 
proceeded to Albany, the designated head- 
quarters of the expedition ; but after waiting 
three months for the promised force and sup- 
plies, during which period he took measures 
for putting the Mohawk valley in a state of de- 
fence, he at length received orders from con- 
gress to join the army at Valley Forge, and 
to suspend the invasion of Canada. He re- 
turned to the camp in April, 1778, and on May 
18 was despatched by Washington from Valley 
Forge to Barren Hill, 12 m. distant, where he 
took post with 2,100 men and five pieces of 
cannon. Sir Henry Clinton, the British com- 
mander at Philadelphia, on the night of May 19 
sent Gen. Grant with 5,000 men to surprise 
Lafayette. The negligence of the militia out- 
posts permitted the British to approach within 
a mile before they were discovered, and early 
in the morning Lafayette found himself nearly 
surrounded. But a dexterous stratagem and a 
skilful movement, promptly conceived and exe- 
cuted, baffled the British general, and conveyed 
the Americans with their artillery saTely across 
the Schuylkill and back to Valley Forge. His 
conduct in this affair called out the warmest 
expressions of approbation from Washington. 
At the battle of Monmouth, June 28, Gen. Lee, 
to whom as next in rank to the commander-in- 
chief the command of the advanced forces be- 
longed, refused at first to take it, and Washing- 
ton gave it to Lafayette ; but Lee subsequently 
changed his mind and applied to be reinstated, 
to which Lafayette assented with his accustomed 
grace and disinterestedness, and served under 
Lee during the battle, in which he displayed 
great gallantry. Seeing at one point of the 
engagement a good opportunity to attack the 
enemy with his division, he rode up to Lee and 
asked permission to make the attempt. " Sir," 
replied Lee, " you do not know British soldiers ; 
we cannot stand against them." Lafayette re- 
plied : " It may be so, general; but British sol- 
diers have been beaten, and they may be again ; 
at any rate I am disposed to make the trial." 
Lee gave him permission to attack, which he 
did with vigor and success until Lee, on begin- 
ning the " unnecessary, disorderly, and shame- 
ful retreat " for which he was afterward punish- 
ed by court martial, ordered him to fall back. 
A few weeks later Lafayette was sent with two 
brigades of infantry to assist Gens. Greene and 
Sullivan in the attempt to drive the British 
from Rhode Island, in which they had at first 
the assistance of a French fleet under Count 
d'Estaing, France having now declared war 
against England and formed an alliance with 
the United States. D'Estaing, however, before 
anything of importance was effected, withdrew 
with his fleet to Boston harbor for repairs, in 
spite of the remonstrances of the American 
generals. Lafayette was despatched to Boston 
to persuade him to return to Newport, but 
could only get a promise from him that if re- 
quired he would march his marines by land to 

the aid of the Americans. During Lafayette's 
absence an engagement took place, Aug. 29 ; 
and though he rode from Boston to Rhode 
Island, 70 m., in 6 hours, he arrived only in 
time to assist in conducting the retreat from 
the island, which the American commanders 
had decided upon, on learning of the approach 
of the British fleet with a fresh army on board. 
The good understanding between the French 
and American troops had been somewhat 
impaired by the conduct of D'Estaing, and 
Lafayette was of essential service in restoring 
harmony. His own country being now at war, 
Lafayette, who still retained his commission in 
the French army, deemed it his duty at the 
end of the campaign of 1778 to return to 
France and place himself at the disposal of his 
government, and at the same time to exert 
himself in behalf of America by personal con- 
ferences with the French ministry. At the 
request of Washington, congress granted him 
leave of absence, accompanied 'by complimen- 
tary resolutions, and by a letter recommending 
him to the good offices of the American minis- 
ter in Paris. Congress also voted him a sword. 
After a detention at Fishkill by severe illness, 
he embarked for France at Boston in January, 
1779. He was received with extraordinary 
demonstrations of popular enthusiasm by all 
classes of society. His name, introduced into 
dramatic performances, called out acclamations 
at the theatres; he was followed by crowds 
in the streets wherever he went ; he made a 
journey to one of his estates in the south of 
France, and all the towns through which he 
passed received him with processions and civic 
honors ; and in the city of Orleans he was de- 
tained nearly a week by prolonged festivities 
in honor of his return. Amid the admiration 
and flattery with which he was surrounded he 
did not neglect the interests of America. It 
was mainly his personal efforts that caused the 
army of Rochambeau to be sent to America. 
"It is fortunate for the king," said the old 
count de Maurepas, the head of the ministry, 
" that Lafayette did not take it into his head 
to strip Versailles of its furniture to send to 
his dear America, as his majesty would have 
been unable to refuse it." Having procured 
for the United States assistance both with men 
and money, Lafayette, on May 11, 1780, re- 
joined Washington at the headquarters of the 
army, bringing himself the first intelligence of 
his success. He brought also a commission 
from Louis XVI. appointing Washington a 
lieutenant general of the army of France and 
vice admiral of its navy, a measure intended, 
as it afterward operated, to prevent difficulties 
respecting official etiquette between the French 
and American commanders. A French fleet 
bringing Rochambeau and 6,000 soldiers ar- 
rived at Newport July 10, and Washington 
despatched Lafayette to concert measures with 
Rochambeau for future operations. Soon after 
his return he was stationed at Tappan on tl 
Hudson in command of six battalions of ligl 



infantry, watching the movements of the Brit- 
ish under Sir Henry Clinton, with whom Ar- 
nold, then in command at West Point, was se- 
cretly negotiating for the betrayal of that im- 
portant fortress. Arnold made an attempt to 
obtain from Lafayette the names of the spies 
he maintained in New York city, on pretence 
that intelligence from them might often be 
conveyed more expeditiously by way of West 
Point ; but Lafayette declined to communicate 
them. Lafayette was one of the court of 14 
general officers, convened at Tappan, Sept. 29, 
by whom Major Andre was tried as a spy 
and condemned to death. During Arnold's in- 
vasion of Virginia in the beginning of 1781, 
Washington sent Lafayette, Feb. 20, with 
1,200 men of the New England and New Jer- 
sey lines, to assist in the defence of that state. 
They arrived at Annapolis in a state of great 
destitution, without shoes, hats, or tents. The 
United States having neither money nor credit, 
he purchased for them a full supply with his 
own funds. His presence inspired the militia 
of Virginia with fresh hope, and his force was 
soon doubled in numbers. Toward the end 
of May Lord Cornwallis took command of the 
British in Virginia, and, with his usual en- 
ergy, on the fourth day after his arrival he 
marched to attack Lafayette, who with about 
3,000 troops was then encamped in the neigh- 
borhood of Richmond. Confident in his su- 
periority of numbers, Cornwallis was so sure 
of success that he wrote home, " The boy can- 
not escape me." Lafayette, however, made a 
skilful retreat to the northward, and, though 
pursued with unusual activity, made his way 
safely to the Raccoon ford on the Rappa- 
hannock in Culpeper county, where he was 
joined by Gen. Wayne, who had marched from 
Maryland to his assistance with 800 men. La- 
fayette then advanced, and interposed himself 
in a strong position near Charlottesville be- 
tween the British army and some large quan- 
tities of stores removed from that town on the 
enemy^ approach. Cornwallis marched off 
toward Williamsburg, pursued by Lafayette, a 
portion of whose troops overtook the British, 
July 6, at the Jamestown ford, where a sharp 
action was fought. Continuing his retreat, 
Cornwallis at last took post at Yorktown. 
Lafayette stationed his army so as to cut off 
their retreat into the Carolinas, and awaited 
the reinforcements from the north, which 
came a few weeks later under the command of 
Washington and Rochambeau. For his ser- 
vices during the siege of Yorktown, where in 
conjunction with Hamilton he commanded one 
of the assailing parties, he was publicly thanked 
by Washington on the day after the surrender 
of Cornwallis. At the close of the campaign 
he returned to France. In granting him leave 
of absence, congress passed resolutions ac- 
knowledging his eminent services, and direct- 
ing all the ministers of the United States in 
Europe to confer and correspond with him. 
He was received with the highest enthusiasm 

in France, and his request for additional men 
and money for service in America was readily 
complied with. The enthusiasm spread from 
France to Spain, and an expedition of 60 ves- 
sels of the line and 24,000 troops was organized 
to sail from Cadiz under the command of La- 
fayette, who led 8,000 men from Brest to Ca- 
diz. Soon after his arrival he heard of the 
conclusion of peace at Paris ; and from a letter 
which he sent from Cadiz, Feb. 5, 1783, con- 
gress first learned the news of the treaty. In 
1784, at the invitation of Washington, he re- 
visited the United States, landing at New York 
Aug. 4, and proceeded almost immediately to 
Mount Vernon. He subsequently visited An- 
napolis, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, 
Albany, and Boston, receiving everywhere the 
warmest testimonials of affection and respect. 
On his departure in December, congress ap- 
pointed a solemn deputation of one member 
from each state to take leave of him on behalf 
of the whole country. In the year after his 
return to France he visited Germany, where 
he was received with much distinction. Fred- 
erick the Great paid him marked attention, and 
took him with him on a military tour of in- 
spection and review. For some years he now 
occupied himself with efforts to ameliorate the 
political condition of the French Protestants, 
and in promoting the abolition of slavery 
in the colonies. He purchased a plantation 
in Cayenne, emancipated the slaves, and ex- 
pended a large sum in their education. The 
assembly of the notables at Paris, Feb. 22, 
1787, was the first step in the French revolu- 
tion. Of that assembly Lafayette was a mem- 
ber, and contributed essentially to give char- 
acter to its deliberations. He stepped forth at 
once the champion of the people, denounced 
the abuses of the government, proposed the 
abolition of private arrests and of the prisons 
of state, the restoration of Protestants to equal 
privileges of citizenship, and the convocation 
of the states general. "What!" said the 
count d'Artois, the brother of the king, and 
afterward king himself as Charles X., "do 
you demand the states general ? " " Yes," re- 
plied Lafayette, " and something better than 
that." The states general, which soon became 
the constituent assembly, met May 5, 1789. Ac- 
cording to Jefferson, its initiatory movements 
were concerted by Lafayette and a small circle 
of friends at the hotel of Jefferson himself. 
He proposed in this body a declaration of pop- 
ular rights not unlike that of the American dec- 
laration of independence ; and by his influence 
on the night of July 13, while the Bastile was 
falling before the people, the decree providing 
for the responsibility of the royal ministers 
was carried through. Two days afterward he 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the na- 
tional guards of Paris, an organization which 
rapidly extended throughout the kingdom un- 
til it embraced 3,000,000 men. It was at his 
suggestion that the tricolor was adopted, July 
26; an emblem destined, as he said, to make 



the tour of the world. His influence was now 
at its height, and while he retained it, it was 
always exercised on the side of moderation, 
humanity, and constitutional liberty. A loyal 
subject, though in principle a firm republican, 
he defended the freedom of the king as sincere- 
ly as he had ever defended that of the people. 
His courage and coolness during the tumults of 
Oct. 5 and 6 saved the lives of the king and 
queen from a ferocious mob that had taken 
possession of the palace of Versailles. When 
the national assembly decreed the abolition of 
feudal titles, Lafayette was among the first to 
lay down that of marquis, which he never re- 
sumed ; and the only title which he bore till 
his death was that of general, which he ^ de- 
rived from his commission in the American 
army. After the splendid and imposing cere- 
mony of the'adoption of the constitution, July 
14, 1790, in the Champ de Mars, where, in the 
presence of half a million of people, he took the 
oath to its support in the name of the nation, 
he resigned his command of the national guards 
in an able and patriotic letter, and retired to 
his estates in the country. When wa*r was de- 
clared against Austria, March 20, 1792, he was 
appointed to the command of one of the ar- 
mies sent to guard the frontier. He estab- 
lished discipline, and won victories at Phi- 
lippeville, Maubeuge, and Florennes. But the 
Jacobins, who were now becoming predomi- 
nant in France, hated and feared him, and or- 
ders were sent to the camp from the ministry 
of war designedly to embarrass and annoy 
him. In return he addressed a letter to the 
assembly denouncing the Jacobins as enemies 
of the constitution and the people. A major- 
ity of the assembly and the local assemblies of 
75 of the departments gave their formal sanc- 
tion to his views. But violence at length pre- 
vailed, and on Aug. 8 he was denounced in the 
assembly as an enemy of the nation, and a mo- 
tion was made for his arrest and trial. After 
vehement debates it was lost by a majority of 
406 to 224. But the terrible events of Aug. 
10 soon followed, and the reign of terror was 
established. Commissioners were sent to the 
army with orders to arrest Lafayette. Arrest 
at that period was certain death. He saved 
himself by flight, after placing the army in 
such a position that his departure could not 
expose it to danger. He crossed the frontier 
Aug. 17, intending to take refuge in Holland. 
But he was seized the same night by an Aus- 
trian patrol, and being soon recognized was 
treated^as a criminal and exposed to disgrace- 
ful indignities. He was handed over to the 
Prussians because their prisons were near at 
hand, and was at first confined at Wesel and 
afterward at Magdeburg. But the Prussians, 
unwilling to bear the odium of holding La- 
fayette a prisoner, soon transferred him again 
to the Austrians, who consigned him to damp 
and dark dungeons in the citadel of Olmtitz. 
Here he was told that he would never again 
see anything but the four walls of his prison ; 

that he would never receive news of events or 
of persons ; that his name would be unknown 
in the citadel, and that in all accounts of him 
sent to court he would be designated only by 
a number; that he would never receive any 
notice of his family, or of the existence of his 
fellow prisoners. At the same time knives 
and forks were kept from him, as he was offi- 
cially informed that his situation was one 
which would naturally lead to suicide. The 
want of air and of proper food, and the damp- 
ness and filth of his dungeon, brought on dan- 
gerous diseases, of which his jailer& took no 
notice ; and at one time all his hair came off. 
His friends for a long time could get no intel- 
ligence of his fate ; but at length Dr. Eric Boll- 
mann, who was employed by Count Lally-Tol- 
lendal, and who had established himself for the 
purpose as a physician at Vienna, ascertained 
that he was confined at Olmutz. The military 
physician at Olmutz by this 'time had thrice 
made a formal representation to the Austrian 
government that Lafayette would die unless he 
was allowed to breathe a purer air. To the 
first application the reply was made that " he 
was not sick enough yet ;" but at length the 
outcry of public indignation in Europe com- 
pelled the authorities to grant him permission 
to ride out occasionally in a carriage accompa- 
nied by two soldiers. Dr. Bollmann and a young 
American travelling in Austria, Francis K. Hu- 
ger, then planned a rescue, which proved so- 
far successful that Lafayette escaped from the 
prison, but through a misunderstanding rode in- 
the wrong direction, was rearrested, and con- 
fined with redoubled severity. (See BOLLMANN.) 
Meantime his wife, who had been imprisoned 
at Paris during the reign of terror, obtained 
her liberty on the downfall of Kobespierre. 
She then went to Vienna, obtained with diffi- 
culty a personal interview with the emperor 
Francis, and gained permission to share her 
husband's captivity, under the hardship of 
which her health soon became so impaired that 
she never fully recovered from its effects. 
Great exertions were now made both in Europe 
and America to obtain the release of Lafayette, 
In the house of commons Gen. Fitzpatrick y 
Dec. 16, 1796, made a motion in his behalf, 
which was supported by Col. Tarleton, who 
had fought against Lafayette in America, by 
Wilberforce, and by Fox. President Washing- 
ton wrote a letter to the emperor, asking for 
the liberation of his old companion in arms. 
The Austrian government was deaf to all en- 
treaties. But an advocate now appeared whose 
plea was irresistible. Bonaparte at the head 
of his victorious army demanded the release 
of Lafayette in the preliminary conferences 
held at Leoben before the treaty of Campo 
Formio. He was often afterward heard to 
say that in all his negotiations with foreign 
powers he had never experienced so perti- 
nacious a resistance as that which was made 
to this demand. The Austrian negotiators 
attempted to compel Lafayette to receive 



his freedom clogged with conditions; but he 
firmly replied that he would never accept his 
liberation in any way that should .compro- 
mise his rights and duties, either as a French- 
man or as an American citizen. He was set 
free at last, Sept. 19, 1797, after five years of 
imprisonment, 22 months of which had been 
shared by his wife. The unsettled condition 
of France still precluded his return to his na- 
tive country, and he took up his residence in 
Holstein, where he lived in retirement, occu- 
pying himself with agriculture, until toward 
the end of 1799, when he removed to his es- 
tate of La Grange, a fine old chateau about 40 
m. from Paris. Here he lived quietly, still oc- 
cupied with agriculture and holding steadfastly 
to his republican convictions. Napoleon in a 
personal interview endeavored in vain to per- 
suade him to take the post of senator. He also 
offered him the cross of the legion of honor, but 
Lafayette rejected it with disdain, calling it an 
absurdity. When the question was submitted 
to the people whether Napoleon should be first 
consul for life, Lafayette voted in the negative, 
and informed Napoleon of the fact in a letter, 
which put an end to their intercourse. Noth- 
ing could tempt him from his retirement. Presi- 
dent Jefferson offered to appoint him gover- 
nor of Louisiana, then just become a territory 
of the United States ; but he was unwilling by 
quitting France to appear to abandon the cause 
of constitutional freedom on the continent of 
Europe. During the hundred days after the 
return from Elba, when Napoleon granted to 
the people an elective house of representatives, 
Lafayette again appeared in public. He was 
chosen a representative and took his seat in 
the chamber, refusing a peerage which the 
emperor offered him. On the first ballot for 
president of the house he had the highest num- 
ber of votes ; but he declined the honor, and 
exerted himself for the election of Lanjuinais. 
He took little part in the debates till after Na- 
poleon's return from Waterloo, when he took 
the lead in demanding the emperor's abdica- 
tion. Lucien, the brother of Napoleon, opposed 
the motion to this effect in a speech of great 
power and eloquence. He denounced the 
proposition as a signal instance of inconstancy 
and national ingratitude. Lafayette arose, and, 
contrary to rule and custom, spoke from his 
place and not from the tribune. "The asser- 
tion which has just been uttered," he said, " is 
a calumny. Who shall dare to accuse the 
French nation of inconstancy to the emperor 
Napoleon? That nation has followed his 
bloody footsteps through the sands of Egypt 
and through the snows of Russia; over fifty 
fields of battle ; in disaster as faithfully as in 
victory; and it is for having thus devotedly 
followed him that we now mourn the blood 
of three millions of Frenchmen." These few 
words made an impression on the assembly 
which could not be resisted ; and as Lafayette 
ended, Lucien himself bowed respectfully to 
him and without resuming his speech sat down. 

After the entry of the allies into Paris, Lafay- 
ette returned to La Grange. Touched with a 
sympathy for Napoleon in his adversity which 
he had not felt at the height of his power, he 
offered to procure him the means of escaping 
to America ; but Napoleon could not forgive 
his former opposition, and refused to accept 
his assistance. In 1818 Lafayette was elected 
to the chamber of deputies, where he voted 
constantly for all liberal measures, and opposed 
the censorship of the press and everything 
that tended to infringe the constitutional rights 
of the people. In 1824 the congress of the 
United States passed unanimously a resolution 
requesting President Monroe to invite Lafay- 
ette to visit the United States. He accepted 
the invitation, but declined the offer of a ship 
of the line for his conveyance, and with his 
son and secretary took passage on a packet 
ship from Havre to New York, where he land- 
ed on Aug. 15, 1824. His progress through 
the country resembled a continuous triumphal 
procession. He visited in succession each of 
the 24 states and all the principal cities. In 
December congress voted him a grant of $200,- 
000 and a township of land, "in consideration 
of his important services and expenditures 
during the American revolution." His hered- 
itary fortune had been mostly lost by con- 
fiscation during the reign of terror. On Sept. 
7, 1825, he sailed from Washington in a frig- 
ate named in compliment to him the Brandy- 
wine. On his arrival at Havre the people as- 
sembled to make a demonstration in his honor, 
but were dispersed by the police. In August, 
1827, he pronounced a funeral oration over the 
body of Manuel, a distinguished member of the 
chamber of deputies. In November of the 
same year the chamber was dissolved, and 
Lafayette was reflected. During the revolu- 
tion of July, 1830, he was appointed comman- 
der-in-chief of the national guards of Paris, 
and, though not personally engaged in the 
fight, his name and his experience and energy 
were of the greatest service to the liberal 
cause. His influence was successfully exerted 
to prevent the revolution from assuming a 
sanguinary character, and from proceeding to 
extremes which would have brought France 
into perilous collision with all the powers of 
Europe. He sacrificed his own republican 
preferences for the sake of peace and order, 
and placed Louis Philippe on the throne, " a 
monarchy surrounded by republican institu- 
tions." He soon resigned his commission as 
commander of the national guards, and con- 
fined himself to his duties as a representative 
of the people, and to the exercise of his moral 
influence as the acknowledged chief of the con- 
stitutional party on the continent of Europe. 
In attending in the winter and on foot the ob- 
sequies of a colleague in the chamber of depu- 
ties, he contracted a cold which settled on hie 
lungs and caused his death. He received a 
magnificent funeral, and his body was buried, 
by his own direction, in the cemetery of Pic- 



pus in the faubourg St. Antoine. See "Eu- 
logy on Lafayette, delivered in Faneuil Hall, 
Sept. 6, 1834," by Edward Everett ; and Me- 
moires et manuscrits de Lafayette, published 
by his family (6 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1837-'8). 
There are numerous biographies of him, both 
in French and English. 

LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, an institution of learn- 
ing at Easton, Pa., chartered in 1826. Situated 
in the great mining and manufacturing region 
of Pennsylvania, the college has special facili- 
ties for affording a scientific and industrial 
education. Besides the usual classical course, 
there is a general course in science, and the 
following special courses of four years each : 
1, engineering, civil, topographical, and me- 
chanical; 2, mining engineering and metal- 
lurgy; 3, chemistry. The "working sec- 
tions " afford opportunities for combining 
theoretical instruction with practical opera- 
tions in road and mining engineering, metal- 
lurgy and mineralogy, and chemistry. Post- 
graduate courses are also provided. Of the 
several college buildings, the most imposing is 
Pardee hall, completed in 1873, for $he use of 
the Pardee scientific department, through the 
munificence of Mr. Ario Pardee of Hazleton, 
Pa., whose gifts to the college amount to near- 
ly $500,000. It is constructed of Trenton 
brown stone, with trimmings of light Ohio 
sandstone, and consists of a central building 
five stories high, 53 ft. front and 86 ft. deep, 
and a wing on each side 61 by 31 ft., four 
stories high; the whole terminating in two 
cross wings 42 ft. front and 84 ft. deep, ma- 
king the front of the entire structure 256 ft. 
In 1874 there were 280 students and 28 in- 
structors, of whom 16 were professors and 3 
assistant professors. The college has valu- 
able collections and apparatus, and a library 
of 8,200 volumes. 

LA FERE, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Aisne, at the confluence of the Serre 
and the Oise, 13 m. N. W. of Laon ; pop. in 
1866, 3,122. It is strongly fortified, and has a 
school and bureau of artillery, an arsenal, and 
fine barracks. It was bombarded for two days 
by the Germans in 1870, and capitulated on 
Nov. 27, after an unsuccessful sortie, with 
2,000 soldiers and 70 pieces of artillery. 

LAFFITTE, Jacques, a French banker, born in 
Bayonne, Oct. 24, 1767, died in Paris, May 26, 
1844. He was the son of a poor carpenter, 
but received a fair education. In 1 788 he went 
to Paris, was admitted a clerk in the banking 
house of Perregaux, and at the end of a few 
years was made a partner. He at once became 
the leading spirit of the firm, and successfully 
extended the range of its operations. He was 
chosen one of the regents of the bank of France 
in 1809, member of the tribunal of commerce 
in 1813, and governor of the bank in 1814, 
holding the last post for five years. During 
the events of the two restorations his liberality 
was equally conspicuous with his integrity. In 
1814 he advanced 2,000,000 francs to the pro- 


visional government to relieve its embarrass- 
ment and secure the pay of the French army. 
In 1815 he made himself responsible for 600,- 
000 francs, exacted by Bliicher as a war con- 
tribution from the city of Paris. Meanwhile 
he was banker of both Louis XVIII. and Na- 
poleon, and faithfully discharged his confi- 
dential duties toward them. "When the latter 
finally left the capital, he placed in trust with 
Laffitte about 5,000,000 francs, which was 
afterward distributed according to his will. In 

1816 he was elected to the chamber of dep- 
uties ; and although he took his seat among 
the opposition, he was appointed member of a 
government committee on finance, and was in- 
strumental in persuading the king to resist the 
imprudent tendencies of his adherents. In 

1817 he was reflected ; and in 1818, when the 
public credit was in danger, he prevented a 
commercial crisis by purchasing government 
stocks to the amount of several millions. He 
participated in the establishment of institutions 
for bettering the condition of the common 
people, among others of the savings bank of 
Paris ; he opened his purse to old officers in 
reduced circumstances, relieved merchants on 
the verge of bankruptcy, and readily assisted 
even his political opponents. His political im- 
portance was increasing daily; his house be- 
came the rendezvous of the most eminent 
members of the opposition, either in the le- 
gislative chambers or in the public press ; he 
was the friend of B6ranger and the patron of 
Thiers. He embraced with ardor the cause of 
Louis Philippe, and pointed him out before- 
hand as the only man who could save the coun- 
try in the event of a revolution. On the publi- 
cation of the famous ordinances of July, 1830, 
he first tried to bring back Charles X. to a 
wiser line of policy ; but his efforts being fruit- 
less, he moved the organization of a provision- 
al government, issued a proclamation in behalf 
of the duke of Orleans, proposed his. appoint- 
ment as lieutenant general of the kingdom, and 
brought about a reconciliation between him 
and Lafayette, thus preventing the latter from 
proclaiming the republic ; and finally he had 
the duke chosen king of the French by 219 dep- 
uties, out of 252 present (Aug. 7). He was ap- 
pointed minister of state, and, assuming the 
ministry of finance, was intrusted with the pre- 
miership, Nov. 3 ; but his sentiments were too 
liberal to suit the king, and he resigned in the 
following March. His banking business had 
suffered from his absence and the commercial 
difficulties consequent upon the revolution, 
his credit became impaired, and his exertions 
to prevent the fall of his firm were unavailing. 
He sold his property, and established a new 
banking house under the appellation of 1>anqu4 
sociale, of which he was the manager ; but hia 
anticipations of success were not realized. He 
was elected again to the chamber of deputies 
in 1837 by one of the districts of Paris, re- 
elected in 1839 and 1842 by the city of Kouen, 
and at the opening of the session of 1843-'4 




presided over the chamber as its oldest mem- 
ber. His only daughter married the eldest son 
of Marshal Ney. Besides some financial and 
political essays which have been printed, Laf- 
fitte left memoires which are still unpublished. 
Les souvenirs de M. Lqffitte, racontes par lui- 
meme (3 vols., 1844), written by Oh. Marchal, 
deserves little credit. There is an elegant 
biographical sketch of him, by Lom6nie, in 
the Galerie des contemporains illustres. 

LAFITAU, Joseph Francois, a French mission- 
ary, born at Bordeaux in 1670, died there, 
July 3, 1746. He entered the society of Jesus 
at an early age, and, after distinguishing him- 
self by his taste for literature and historical 
pursuits, was sent as a missionary to Canada in 
1712. He was placed at the Iroquois mission 
at Sault St. Louis, where his room is still 
shown. Here he devoted himself to the study 
of the Indian type and character. In 1716 he 
discovered and identified the ginseng, the Chi- 
nese estimation of which was known. He re- 
turned to France the next year, and issued a 
Memoire presente d son altesse royale Mgr. le 
due d 1 Orleans, regent de France, sur laprecieuse 
plante du ging-seng de Tartarie, decounerte 
en Amerique (Paris, 1718; Montreal, 1858), 
which led to a trade in ginseng between Amer- 
ica and China. His studies of Indian life com- 
pared with that of ancient nations appeared 
after a visit to Kome in Mceurs des sauvages 
ameriquains comparees aux maurs des pre- 
miers temps (2 vols. 4to, 1724). He also wrote 
Histoire des decouvertes des Portugais dans le 
nouveau monde (2 vols. 4to, 1733). 

LAFITTE, Jean, a corsair, privateer, or smug- 
gler of Louisiana and the gulf of Mexico, born 
in France, either at St. Malo, Marseilles, or 
Bordeaux, about 1780, died, according to some 
accounts, at sea in 1817, according to others, 
at Silan, Yucatan, in 1826. There is a singular 
uncertainty with regard to the events of his 
career. It has been stated that he never was at 
sea but twice once when he came to America, 
and again in the voyage on which he was 
drowned ; and that he fitted out privateers to 
cruise against Spanish commerce under the flag 
of Cartagena. Other authorities assert that he 
began life as mate of a French East Indiaman, 
but, quarrelling with the captain, left his ship 
at Mauritius and entered upon a course of dar- 
ing and successful piracy in the Indian ocean, 
varied by occasional ventures in the slave trade. 
After several years he returned to France, dis- 
posed of his prizes, sailed for the West Indies, 
and took out a commission as privateer from 
the newly organized government of Cartagena 
(afterward New Granada), continuing his dep- 
redations, not only upon Spanish, but upon Brit- 
ish commerce. Another account represents 
him as having begun his career as lieutenant of 
a French privateer, which was captured by a 
British man-of-war and taken into an English 
port, where the officers and crew of the priva- 
teer were thrown into prison. Here Lafitte 
was confined for several years under circum- 

stances of peculiar hardship, after all his com- 
rades had obtained their release. The resent- 
ment toward Great Britain engendered by this 
real or supposed severity is said to have been 
the motive that inspired his subsequent career. 
Unable to gratify this resentment in the service 
of his native country, on account of the suspen- 
sion of hostilities at the time of his release, he 
found means of doing so under cover of a pri- 
vateer's commission (against Spain) obtained 
from the Cartagenian government. Accord- 
ing to this account which bears some indica- 
tions of authenticity in its general features 
the only acts of Lafitte that could properly be 
designated as piratical were committed against 
British vessels. He is said to have gone to New 
Orleans in 1807; and whatever may have been 
the facts with regard to his early history, there 
is no doubt that in 1813-'14 he was at the 
head of an organized and formidable band of 
desperadoes, whose headquarters were on the 
island of Grande Terre, in Barataria bay, some 
30 or 40 miles west of the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi. It is generally admitted that the op- 
erations of these adventurers were not restrict- 
ed within the limits to which their commis- 
sion would have confined them. Barataria bay 
afforded a secure retreat for their fleet of small 
vessels; and their goods were smuggled into 
New Orleans by being conveyed in boats 
through an intricate labyrinth of lakes, bayous, 
and swamps, to a point near the Mississippi 
river a little above the city. After various 
ineffectual presentments and prosecutions be- 
fore the civil tribunals, an expedition was des- 
patched against the Baratarians in 1814, under 
the command of Commodore Patterson. The 
settlement on Grande Terre was captured, with 
all the vessels that happened to be in port at 
the time ; but Lafitte and his comrades made 
their escape among the swamps and bayous of 
the interior, from which they returned to the 
same rendezvous and resumed operations, as 
soon as Com. Patterson's forces had retired. 
About the same time the British, then matur- 
ing their plans for a descent upon the southern 
coast of the United States, made overtures to 
Lafitte for the purpose of securing his coopera- 
tion in that enterprise. A brig of war was 
despatched to Barataria, her commander bear- 
ing a letter from Commodore Percy, command- 
ing the British naval forces in the gulf, and 
one from Col. Nichols, then in command of 
the land forces on the coast of Florida, offering 
Lafitte $30,000 and the command of a fine 
ship, on condition of obtaining his services in 
conducting the contemplated expedition to 
New Orleans and in distributing a certain 
proclamation to the inhabitants of Louisiana. 
Lafitte dissembled with the British officer 
(Capt. Lockyer, of the Sophia) who was the 
bearer of these tempting proposals, and asked 
for time to consider them. Meantime he im- 
mediately wrote to Gov. Claiborne of Loui- 
siana, enclosing the documents that had been 
handed him by Capt. Lockyer, informing the 



governor of the impending invasion, pointing 
out the importance of the position that he 
occupied, and offering his services in defence 
of Louisiana, on the sole condition of pardon 
to himself and followers for the offences with 
which they stood charged. This amnesty 
would, of course, include in its provisions a 
brother of Jean Lafitte, who was then in prison 
in New Orleans under an indictment for piracy. 
After some hesitation on the part of the Amer- 
ican authorities, Lafitte's offer was accepted. In 
connection with an officer of the army Lafitte 
was employed in fortifying the passes of Ba- 
rataria bay, and rendered efficient service, in 
command of a party of his followers, in the 
battle of Jan. 8, 1815. The subsequent career 
of Lafitte is involved in as much obscurity as 
his earlier life. President Madison confirmed 
the amnesty which had been granted to all the 
Baratarians who had enlisted in the American 
service, though it does not appear that their 
chief ever received any further reward from 
the government. It is generally understood 
that he returned to his old pursuits and formed 
a settlement on the site of the present city of 
Galveston, which was broken up in 1821 by a 
naval force under the orders of Lieut, (after- 
ward- Commodore) Kearny ; but it is possible 
that his brother Pierre, who commanded one 
of his vessels, has been confounded with him. 
Other authorities say that he was for a time 
after the war commander of a packet between 
Philadelphia and New Orleans. In person La- 
fitte is represented to have been well formed 
and handsome, about 6 ft. 2 in. high, with large 
hazel eyes and black hair. His manners were 
polished and easy, though retiring ; his address 
was winning and affable; and his influence 
over his followers almost absolute. There is 
every reason for believing that he was of a 
respectable family, and that his early opportu- 
nities for education had been good. See "De 
Bow's Review," vols. xi., xii., xiii., xix., and 
xxiii. ; Marbois's " Louisiana ;" Gayarre's 
"Louisiana;" Latour's "War in Louisiana;" 
Walker's "Jackson and New Orleans;" Yoak- 
um's "History of Texas;" and Parton's "Life 
of Jackson." 

LA FLECHE, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Sarthe, on the left bank of the Loir, 
in a beautiful valley, 25 m. S. W. of Le Mans ; 
pop. in 1866, 9,292. It has a tribunal of pri- 
mary jurisdiction, a chamber of agriculture, a 
theatre, an aqueduct, and a statue of Henry IV. 
which was unveiled in 1857. The large castle 
built by Henry IV., which is surrounded by a 
magnificent park and contains a picture gallery 
and a library of about 20,000 volumes, now 
serves as a military school. The town has an 
active trade in grain, wine, leather, cattle, and 
fowls. In December, 1793, the royalists were 
defeated here by the republican troops under 
Westermann. The Jesuit college of La Fleche 
was long celebrated, and among its students 
were some very eminent men. The town suf- 
fered much during the war of La Vendee. 


LAFONT, Pierre Che*ri, a French actor, born 
in Bordeaux in 1801, died in Paris, April 19, 
1873. He began life as a surgeon in the navy, 
went to Paris in 1822, and made his debut at 
the Vaudeville in 1823. From 1839 to 1849 
he achieved brilliant successes at the Varietes 
as the chevalier de St. Georges and in other 
plays. In 1855 he resumed his connection 
with the Vaudeville, and in 1859 appeared at 
the Gymnase, when his personation of the 
marquis in Les Ganaches (1862) and of Raoul 
in Montjoye (1863) increased his reputation. 
His more recent successes were won in Baba- 
gas and Le centenaire. He was a comic actor 
of singular elegance and grace, and was as pop- 
ular in London as in Paris. 

LA FONTAINE, Jean de, a French fabulist, 
born in Chateau-Thierry, July 8, 1621, died in 
Paris, April 13, 1695. He received an irregular 
education, partly at home, partly at the college 
of Rheims, and in 1641 entered the seminary 
of the Oratorians with the design of becoming 
a priest; but at the end of 18 months he re- 
turned home, and led an idle and dissipated 
life, which gave little promise of his future 
celebrity. He showed however considerable 
poetical talent, and this was fully awakened on 
his hearing the recitation of one of Malherbe's 
odes. He began eagerly to read the ancient 
and modern poets and prose writers. In or- 
der to reclaim him from his loose habits and 
apparent idleness, his father induced him to 
marry in 1647, and resigned to him his own 
office of master of waters and forests; but 
Jean was ill fitted for either a husband or a 
functionary, and was equally neglectful of his 
matrimonial and official duties. In 1654 he 
published at Rheims a translation in verse, or , 
rather an adaptation, of Terence's " Eunuch," 
which gave no indication of his future powers. 
He soon went to Paris, and was introduced to 
Fouquet, the great patron of literature and art 
at that time, who appointed him his poet, and 
bestowed upon him a yearly income of 1,000 
livres. La Fontaine was thus enabled to live at 
his ease for seven years, during which he pro- 
duced only occasional poems of no great merit. 
On the fall of his protector he wrote in 1661 
his admirable filegie aux nymplies de Vaux, an 
eloquent but fruitless appeal to the magnanimity 
of Louis XIV. in behalf of the superintendent. 
Two years later he renewed his entreaties in 
his Ode au roi, but with no better success. 
He would now have been at a loss for means 
of livelihood, had it not been for the generosity 
of two noble ladies, the duchess of Bouillon, 
Cardinal Mazarin's youngest niece, who wel- 
comed him at her chateau, and the duchess 
dowager of Orleans, from whom he received a 
pension as her gentleman servant; but he was 
always neglected by the king, who could not 
overlook his irregular mode of life, the char- 
acter of some of his writings, and above all his 
fidelity to Fouquet. In 1665 he brought out the 
first series of his Contes ; a second part appear- 
ed in 1666, and they were completed in 1671 




and 1675. Notwithstanding their licentious 
turn, they were eagerly read even by the most 
respectable ladies. Meanwhile he had already 
published part of the work upon which his 
fame especially rests ; the first six books of his 
Fables had appeared in 1668 with a dedication 
to the dauphin, the son of Louis XIV. and 
pupil of Bossuet. The following five books 
were published in 1678 and 1679, with a dedi- 
catory epistle to Mme. de Montespan ; the 12th 
and last, written under encouragement from 
the young duke of Burgundy, grandson of the 
king, through his preceptor Fenelon, was print- 
ed 15 years later, when the poet had reached 
the age of 73. His life had undergone several 
changes during that period of increasing fame ; 
the death of the duchess of Orleans and the 
exile of the duchess of Bouillon left him un- 
provided for, but he received the most gener- 
ous hospitality from Mme. de la Sabliere, a lady 
celebrated for her literary taste, who for 20 
years secured him all the comforts of a home. 
When she died, he was fortunate enough to find 
at M. d'Hervart's another home, where he was 
cared for with equal kindness, and where he 
died. During the last two years of his life the 
religious sentiments of his youth revived ; he 
performed severe penances for such of his 
works as strict morality could not approve of, 
and it may be said that his end was the sage's 
death as depicted by himself: Rien ne trouble 
sa fin ; c'est le soir cTun beau jour. He had 
been elected to the French academy in 1683, 
but was not admitted till 1684 in conjunction 
with Boileau the satirist. His character pre- 
sented a strange mixture of childish simplicity 
and finesse, which is perceptible in his poems. 
His freedom from all restraint and his dreamy 
disposition have given birth to innumerable 
anecdotes of his absence of mind. Besides the 
works mentioned above, he left Psyche, a 
mythological novel, and Adonis, a charming 
narrative poem, both of which were published 
in 1669 under the patronage of the duchess of 
Bouillon ; Philemon et Baucis and Lesfilles de 
Minee, which, although intended as mere imita- 
tions of Ovid, are stamped with true originality ; 
four or five light comedies, and two operas. 
There are several recent editions of La Fon- 
taine's complete works ; and his select works, 
his fables in particular, are constantly reprinted 
in every form. Many translations into English 
have been made, including the " Fables " in 
verse by Robert Thompson (4 vols. 8vo, Paris, 
1806), and by Elizur Wright (French and Eng- 
lish, illustrated, 2 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1841 ; 2 
vols. in 1, 12mo, 1856). There is an excellent 
Histoire de la vie et des outrages de La Fon- 
taine, by Walckenaer (4th ed., Paris, 1858). 

LA FORGE, Anatole de, a French author, born 
in Paris, April 1, 1821. He was for several 
years in the diplomatic service, and from 1848 
to 1863 was a prominent editor of Le Siecle 
and a warm advocate of the independence of 
Italy and Poland. In September, 1870, the 
government of the national defence appointed 

him prefect of the department of Aisne ; and 
although the Germans had invaded the greater 
part of that department, he successfully de- 
fended Saint Quentin (Oct. 8), where he was 
wounded, and afterward resigned because he 
was not allowed to resist a new attack against 
that town. He joined Gambetta at Tours, and 
for a short time at the beginning of 1871 he 
was prefect of Basses- Alpes. He has published 
a great variety of writings, including Histoire 
de la republique de Venise sous Manin (2 vols., 
Paris, 1850), and Des vicissitudes politiques 
de Vltalie dans ses rapports avec la France (2 
vols., 1850) ; and he is now engaged (1874) in 
finishing his Histoire du cardinal Richelieu. 

LA FOURCHE, a S. E. parish of Louisiana, 
bordering on Barataria bay and intersected by 
Bayou La Fourche; area, 1,100 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 17,719, of whom 6,659 were colored. 
The surface is level, and the soil, except where 
too marshy for cultivation, is very fertile. 
Morgan's Louisiana and Texas railroad passes 
through the parish. The chief productions in 
1870 "were 181,095 bushels of Indian corn, 
11,624 of sweet potatoes, 1,691,410 Ibs. of rice, 
7,128 hogsheads of sugar, and 366,685 'gallons 
of molasses. There were 334 horses, 1,812 
mules and asses, 1,241 cattle, and 521 swine ; 1 
iron foundery, 1 saw mill, and 69 manufactories 
of molasses and sugar. Capital, Thibodeaux. 

LA FUENTE, or Lafnente, Modesto, a Spanish 
historian, born in 1806. He was for some 
time professor at Astorga, and became known 
at Leon and subsequently in Madrid as a sa- 
tirical journalist. His periodical writings, chief- 
ly published under the name of Fray Gerundio 
(1844-'50), acquired great popularity ; his prin- 
cipal work is a Historia general de Espana (26 
vols., Madrid, 1850-'62). 

LA FUENTE Y ALCANTARA, Miguel, a Spanish 
historian, born in the province of Malaga, July 
10, 1817, died in Havana in August, 1850. He 
studied law, devoted himself to historical in- 
vestigations, became secretary of the cortes, 
and was appointed attorney general (fiscal) in 
the island of Cuba. He had barely arrived in 
Havana when he was attacked by the local 
fever and died. His vast researches into the 
history of his country, and his appreciation 
of its different political phases as well as its 
romance, are exhibited in his Historia de 
Granada (4 vols., Granada, 1843-'8 ; 2 vols., 
Paris, 1851). He also wrote a work on hunt- 
ing, and one on the characters and revolutions 
of the different races in Spain at different 
periods, and especially of the Moors during the 
middle ages. 

LAGO MAGGIORE (anc. Lacus Verlanus), a 
lake of N". Italy and Switzerland, enclosed by 
Lombardy, Piedmont, and the canton of Ticino ; 
length 40 m. ; average breadth 2m., greatest 
breadth 5 m. ; greatest depth 2,625 ft. ; eleva- 
tion of surface above the sea, about 683 ft. 
The principal affluents are the Ticino, flow- 
ing from the St. Gothard range, the Toce or 
Toccia, entering on the west, and the Tresa, 



which drains the lake of Lugano; its great 
outlet is the Ticino, which issues from its S. 
extremity at the town of Sesto. Near the 
entrance of the gulf of Tosa, on the W. side, 
lie the Borromean islands, remarkable for their 
picturesque beauty. The Swiss portion of this 
lake is termed lake of Locarno. The surround- 
ing mountains are covered with forests, the 
timber of which gives rise to a considerable 
traffic, and employs numerous vessels. Steam- 
ers ply regularly between Magadino, near the 
N extremity, and Sesto. The lake abounds in 
fish, particularly trout. There _are valuable 
quarries of fine white marble on its shores. 

LAGOS, a seaport town of Portugal, m the 
province of Algarve, 110 m. S. S. E. of Lisbon, 
on the N. W. shore of Lagos bay ; pop. about 
8,000. It is well built, and contains three 
churches, three convents, a civil and military 
hospital, an almshouse, a grammar school, and 
a handsome aqueduct. Its inhabitants are chief- 
ly engaged in the tunny and sardine fishery. 
The harbor, which is only navigable for small 
vessels, is defended by four forts. In the bay 
of Lagos, Aug. 17, 1759, a British fleet un- 
der Boscawen obtained a decisive victory over 
a French squadron under De la Clue. 

LAGOS, a British settlement on the coast of 
Dahomey, W. Africa, comprising the island of 
Lagos, called Eko by the natives, and the coast 
from the river Yerewa, near Badagry, to Ode, 
about Ion. 4 10' E. ; pop. in 1871, 60,221, of 
whom only 92 were whites. Within these 
bounds are the fortified trading posts of Ba- 
dagry, Lagos, Palma, a'nd Leckie, and a few 
native villages. The station at Ode is now 
abandoned. A strip of country back of these 
forts, from 5 to 12 m. wide, is considered to be 
under the protection of Great Britain. The 
coast is low and sandy, with outlying bars and 
lagoons inland. The island of Lagos is at the 
mouth of Ikorodu lagoon, which opens into 
the sea through a narrow channel. Large 
vessels do not pass in, but land their cargoes 
on the outer beach, whence they are carried 
by canoes to the inner lagoon. A narrow 
arm of this lagoon stretches westward parallel 
to the coast about 60 m. to Denham lagoon. 
Badagry is on the inner side of this strait. 
Palma and Leckie are on the outer coast, 70 
or 80 m. further E. The chief rivers which 
empty into the lagoon are the Yerewa, the 
Ogun or Lagos, and the Ona. The trade at 
these settlements was once flourishing, and 
previous to the troubles on the Gold coast the 
revenue amounted to 45,000. The principal 
exports are palm oil and kernels, shea butter, 
ground nuts, cotton, and indigo. In 1872 the 
value of the imports was 366,256 ; exports, 
444,848. The revenue for the same year was 
41,346; expenditure, 41,346; public debt, 
18,628. The town of Lagos had in 1871 a 
population of 36,005, of whom 82 were white. 
The church (of England) missionary society, 
the Wesleyan society, and the Eoman Catholics 


have churches and schools there. The hospital, 
built originally as a barrack for troops, is the 
principal public building. Lagos was formerly 
the capital of a small territory tributary to Da- 
homey. It was one of the chief slave-trading 
stations on the coast, and was strongly fortified. 
In November, 1851, a British consul was fired 
on while negotiating a treaty for the abolition 
of the slave trade, and a small force from 
the steamer Bloodhound, which attempted to 
avenge the insult, was driven off. In December 
following an organized attack was made, and 
it was captured, although defended by 5,000 
men and more than 50 guns. It was formally 
ceded to Great Britain in 1861. 

LAGOSTOMl S, a genus of mammals of the chin- 
ihilla family, inhabiting the vast plains east of 
the Andes. There is but one species, L. tricho- 
dactylus, the viscacha or biscacho. The anterior 
feet are four-toed, with small falcular nails for 
digging ; the posterior three-toed, with strong 

Lagostomus (L. trichodactylus). 

straight nails ; ears and tail moderate. Tl 
dwell in burrows, which are near the surfg 
and so numerous that in many places it is 
gerous to ride rapidly over the plains or 
pas inhabited by them. Like the prairie d< 
of North America, this animal has companion 
burrowing owls, which sit at the mouth of the 
holes during the daytime ; as in the case of the 
American rodent, it is not likely that the owl 
lives in the same hole, but it makes use of 
these burrows which it finds ready dug, dri- 
ving out the viscacha, and perhaps occasional- 
ly making a meal on the unprotected young ; 
from the absence of shrubs and trees on the 
great prairies and pampas, the owls, unable to 
burrow themselves, occupy the holes of the 
rodents as habitations and breeding places. 

LAGOTIS (Bennett), or Lagidinm, a genus of 
the chinchilla family, having the following 
dental formula : incisors f ; molars if- = 20. 
The incisors are sharpened, and each molar con- 




sists of three complete oblique plates. Skull 
arched posteriorly and above; the superior 
cellules of the tympanum are inconspicuous. 
All the feet are four-toed, the great toe being 
entirely absent; nails long and subfalcular; 
ears very long ; tail long ; fur soft but cadu- 
cous. Of this genus there are two species, 
the L. Cuvieri and the Z. pallipes, being, it 
is supposed, the viscacha of all the writers 
from Pedro de Cieca downward, who have 
declared that animal to be an inhabitant of the 
western or Peruvian slope of the Andes. It 
is about the size and color of the hare, which 
is wanting to the fauna of Peru, Chili, and 
Ecuador, and appears to be equivalent in those 
countries to that creature and to the rabbit, 
among which it has been classed by some 
writers, especially Lesson, in his Manuel, who 
has apparently confounded the eastern and west- 
ern species, lagotis and lagostomus, and who 
gives it as the lepus viscaccia of Ginelin. This 

Lagotis Cuvieri. 

animal breeds among rocks and stony places, 
burrows in the ground, and is famous, if mor- 
tally wounded and not killed at once, for taking 
refuge in its burrow and dying within it, so as 
to be lost to its pursuers. Its fur, which is 
longer and softer than that of the rabbit, has 
the peculiarity of falling out as soon as the 
animal is dead. This animal and the chin- 
chilla are evidently connecting links between 
the hares and the squirrels, the first coming 
nearer to the hares, the latter to the squirrels. 
LA GRANGE, a N. E. county of Indiana, bor- 
dering on Michigan, and drained by Pigeon 
river; area, 384 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 14,148. 
It has a nearly level surface, much of which is 
occupied by timber. The soil is fertile. The 
Grand Rapids and Indiana railroad passes 
through the county. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 445,731 bushels of wheat, 344,882 
of Indian corn, 58,488 of oats, 119,563 of po- 
tatoes, 120,461 Ibs. of wool, 243,649 of butter, 

and 18,139 tons of hay. There were 5,217 
horses, 4,211 milch cows, 5,072 other cattle, 
31,958 sheep, and 12,004 swine; 4 manufac- 
tories of carriages, 1 of woollen goods, 6 flour 
mills, 17 saw mills, and 3 currying establish- 
ments. Capital, La Grange. 

LAG RANGE, Joseph Louis, count de, a French 
geometrician, born in Turin, of French parents, 
Jan. 25, 1736, died in Paris, April 10, 1813. 
His first publication was a letter to C. J. Fagna- 
no, June 23, 1754, which contained a series of 
fluxions and fluents of different orders, some- 
what resembling the binomial theorem of New- 
ton. In 1755 he was made professor of geometry 
in the royal school of artillery at Turin, where 
many of his pupils were his seniors. In con- 
junction with several of them, he established 
a scientific society, whose memoirs, owing 
particularly to his contributions, afterward 
acquired a high reputation, his essays on the 
propagation of sound being especially noticed. 
He meanwhile corresponded with Euler, to 
whom he communicated his first ideas of the 
solution of the isoperimetrical problems. In 
1764 he won a prize from the French academy 
of sciences for a memoir on the libration of 
the moon. In 1766 a second prize, on the sub- 
ject of the satellites of Jupiter, was awarded 
him by the French academy ; and he was in- 
vited to become a mathematical director of the 
Prussian academy. In Berlin he was treated 
with great distinction by Frederick the Great, 
and spent there 20 years, during which he 
prepared his great work, the Mecanique analy- 
tique. On the death of Frederick, yielding to a 
secret desire and to the entreaties of Mirabeau, 
notwithstanding liberal offers from the courts 
of Naples, Sardinia, and Tuscany, he went to 
France, where he was welcomed by Queen 
Marie Antoinette, received as a veteran pen- 
sioner of the academy an income equal to that 
which he had enjoyed at Berlin, and was pro- 
vided with apartments in the Louvre. His 
Mecanique analytique appeared a few months 
after his arrival in Paris in 1787, and com- 
manded general admiration. Though now in 
the zenith of his fame, he was seized with fits 
of morbid melancholy, during which he lost 
all taste for his wonted pursuits. His spirits 
revived about the beginning of the revolution, 
and his treatment by the revolutionists was 
perhaps still more flattering than that which 
he had obtained from kings and princes. His 
pension was unanimously confirmed by the na- 
tional assembly, and he was appointed mem- 
ber of a committee for examining useful in- 
ventions, and director of the mint in conjunc- 
tion with Monge and Berth ollet. In 1793, 
when a decree of the convention ordered all 
persons not born in France to leave the country, 
an exception was made in favor of Lagrange. 
On the establishment of the normal school and 
of the polytechnic school he was appointed 
professor in those institutions. For his pupils 
he wrote his Theorie des f auctions analytiques 
(4to, 1797; new ed., 1813), and his Lecons sur 



le calcul des fonctions (last ed., 1806) ; but the 
ideas in these books are far from being as per- 
fect as the method of fluxions and its kindred 
doctrines. On the foundation of the institute 
and the board of longitude, he was placed 
among the members of the former, and at the 
head of the latter. On the entrance of the 
French army into Turin, the generals and many 
high functionaries, headed by the civil com- 
missary, went in procession, by order of the di- 
rectory, to congratulate Lagrange's father, then 
90 years of age, on the merits of his son. Napo- 
leon made him a senator and a count of the em- 
pire, and styled him the " high pyramid of math- 
ematical sciences." His last years were devoted 
to preparing new editions of his Mecanique 
analytique (2 vols. 4to, 1811-'15), and Theorie 
des fonctions analytiques (4to, 1813). An edi- 
tion of his complete works was published in 
1867-'70, at the cost of the government. 

LA GRANJA, or San Ildefonso, a small town of 
Spain, in the province of Segovia, 34 in. N. N.W. 
of Madrid, renowned for its romantic situation 
on the N. declivity of the Sierra Guadarrama, 
and for a fine palace built by Philip V. (1724-7) 
at an elevation of nearly 4,000 ft., with plea- 
sure grounds, in imitation of Versailles. One 
of the fountains (fuente de lafama) rises 150 
ft. The royal family resided here in summer, 
and here Maria Christina was surprised in the 
night of Aug. 13, 1836, by a number of exalta- 
dos, who had bribed her guards, and who obliged 
her to agree to restore the constitution of 1812, 
whence the name of "revolution of La Gran- 
ja." Philip V. and his queen are buried in 
the church of the town. A manufactory after 
the model of Sevres has been established here, 
but with little success. In the vicinity are 
various villas and parks which belong to the 
royal family. 

LA GUAYRA, or Lagnaira, a seaport of Vene- 
zuela, on the Caribbean sea, 5m. N. E. of Cara- 
cas, of which it is the port; lat. 10 36' K, 
Ion. 66 57' W. ; pop. about 6,000. It com- 
prises only two streets running E. and W., and 
occupies a narrow strip of land between the 
mountains and the sea; the houses are well 
built, and there are one or two good public 
edifices. The port is a deep bay with several 
creeks, the principal of which is that of Ma- 
cuto to the east. The bottom is regular, and 
there is 15 ft. of water at a cable's length from 
the shore ; but there being no shelter against 
the prevailing easterly winds, the anchorage 
is unsafe, and landing is often attended with 
great danger. Although La Guayra is the 
most extensively frequented port on the coast, 
ships after discharging their cargo commonly 
go to Puerto Cabello in search of safer anchor- 
age and for repairs. The fort of Cerro Colo- 
rado commands the town; and the coast is 
lined at intervals with numerous batteries, 
most of which are, however, without arma- 
ment. The principal commercial houses are 
branches of establishments in Caracas. The 
shipping averages about 200 vessels annually, 


with an aggregate of 40,000 tons. The chief 
articles of export are coffee, cacao, indigo, hides, 
and sarsaparilla ; the imports include machi- 
nery, manufactured goods, flour, and wine ; and 
the total annual value of both exports and im- 
ports is estimated at $8,000,000. There is be- 
sides an extensive coasting trade in the various 
productions of the country for Caracas, with 
which communication is carried on by a car- 
riage road 12 m. long. The climate is healthy, 
although the heat, the greatest on the Caribbean 
shores, except that of Maracaibo, is excessive, 
ranging from 100 to. 110 F. 

LA HARPE, Frederic Cesar, a Swiss statesman, 
born at Rolle in 1754, died in Lausanne, March 
30, 1838. He was educated in democratic 
opinions, and began the practice of law, but, 
disliking the profession, was on the eve of go- 
ing to the United States to enlist in the conti- 
nental army, when he became preceptor of a 
young Russian nobleman, whom he accompa- 
nied to Italy. His success attracted the atten- 
tion of the empress Catharine II., who called 
him to St. Petersburg, confided to his care her 
two grandsons, Alexander and Constantine, and 
gave him the grade of colonel. The republican 
preceptor subjected the young princes to severe 
training, and taught them principles and ideas 
which seldom find their way into courts. On 
the breaking out of the French revolution, he 
actively participated by his writings in the 
plans for reorganizing the Helvetian confeder- 
ation so as to make it a single and undivided 
republic. The government at Bern having 
made this known to the empress, she dismissed 
him, with a pension for life. Leaving Russia 
in 1793, he went to Geneva, and then to Paris, 
where he secured the intervention of the direc- 
tory, thus accomplishing the revolution of 1798 
by which Switzerland was to become a dem- 
ocratic republic. He became the controlling 
member of the Helvetic executive directory, 
and wielded with energy, and even violence, the 
power he had acquired through foreign arms ; 
but his hopes were dispelled by the change in 
French policy after the 1 8th Brumaire. The Hel- 
vetian directory was dissolved, and La Harpe, 
suspected of conspiring against the new order 
of things, was arrested ; but he escaped to Paris, 
and was told by Bonaparte that he had better 
leave .Switzerland alone. He then retired to 
Plessis-Piquet, near Paris, where he devoted 
himself to agricultural pursuits, until the fall 
of the empire revived his hopes of his country's 
emancipation. In 1814 he received a visit from 
the emperor Alexander, who gave him the rank 
of general in the Russian army and bestowed 
upon him many distinguished favors. La 
Harpe resumed his influence over the mind of 
his former pupil ; and if he could not prevail 
upon him to favor his democratic plans in re- 
gard to Switzerland, he at least contributed to 
the preservation of that confederation, and to 
the liberation of his own canton of Vaud from 
the rule of Bern. After the treaty of Vienna 
he resided in Lausanne. He published a num- 




ber of pamphlets expounding his plans for the 
reorganization of his country, and denouncing 
the misdeeds of its old governments. 

LA HARPE, Jean Francois de, a French critic, 
born in Paris, Nov. 20, 1739, died there, Feb. 
11, 1803. His father died when he was nine 
years old, and he was admitted as a free schol- 
ar to the Harcourt college, where he gave early 
evidence of literary talent. On leaving this 
institution, he wrote with several of his com- 
rades some satirical verses on certain members 
of the college, for which he was imprisoned 
by the police for several months. This severe 
punishment, together with his narrow circum- 
stances, increased the natural bitterness of his 
disposition. His first attempts at poetry were 
heroic epistles, a kind of poem, then much in 
vogue. In 1763 he produced his tragedy of 
Warwick^ which was successful. Three simi- 
lar plays, Timoleon (1764), Pharamond (1765), 
and Gustave Wasa (1766), failed; and, disap- 
pointed in his anticipations of fortune, he went 
to Ferney, where he remained for nearly two 
years the guest of Voltaire. On his return 
to Paris in 1768, he became a contributor 
to the Mercure de France, and was noted for 
the bitterness of his criticism. He won 11 of 
the academical prizes within 10 years, 8 being 
at the French academy. These successes, as 
well as the reputation which he won by his 
Melanie, ou la Religieuse, a play flattering 
the liberal ideas of the time, procured in 
1776 his election to the academy. The trage- 
dies he produced after this were mercilessly 
criticised, and, with the exception of Philoc- 
tete (1780) and Coriolan (1784), were coldly 
received by the public. He was meanwhile 
the correspondent of the grand duke Paul of 
Russia, the son of Catharine II., and under- 
took several publications, especially an Abrege 
de Vhistoire generate des voyages, from which 
he realized some profit. He adopted the 'rev- 
olutionary principles, showed himself an ar- 
dent Jacobin, and became an occasional flatter- 
er of Robespierre. Yet he was incarcerated 
during the reign of terror, which made such 
an impression on his mind that he became a 
devout Christian and an uncompromising en- 
emy of all that was called philosophy. On his 
liberation after the 9th Thermidor, he resumed 
with great success a course of public lectures 
which he had begun a few years before. These 
lectures, collected under the title of Lycee, ou 
Cours de litterature ancienne et moderne (12 
vols. 8vo, 1799-1805), were long regarded as a 
standard of literary criticism. His Correspon- 
dance litteraire with the grand duke Paul was 
printed in 1801 (4 vols. 8vo) ; and the severity 
of its judgments rekindled the hatred against 
him, and embittered the last years of his life. 


LA HONTAN, Armand Louis de Delondaree de, 
baron de la Hontan et Herleche, a French trav- 
eller, born near Mont de Marsan, Gascony, 
about 1667, died in Hanover in 1715. His trav- 
els, which were widely read in French and 

translated into English and other languages, 
make him play an important part in Canadian 
affairs, but he evidently came out merely as a 
private soldier. The voluminous Canadian 
documents are utterly silent as to him and his 
services. He came over in 1683 in one of the 
three companies of marines sent to enable Gov. 
de la Barre to invade the Iroquois cantons. He 
was in that governor's fruitless expedition, and 
in Denonville's against the Senecas. In 1688 
he was sent to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. 
Marie with a detachment, and pretended to 
have discovered and explored Long river, a 
branch of the Mississippi, which he peopled 
with fictitious tribes, misleading geographers 
for many years. He soon after descended to 
Quebec, and in November, 1690, sailed for 
France. He was sent back to Canada in 1691, 
and while he was returning to France soon af- 
ter with despatches from Frontenac, the vessel 
put in to Placentia, Newfoundland, and La 
Hontan rendered signal service in defending it 
against the English. He was accordingly made 
king's lieutenant in Newfoundland and Acadia, 
with a company of 100 men. On arriving 
there in 1693 he got into difficulties with Gov. 
de Brouillon, and made his escape to Portugal. 
He then visited Spain, Denmark, and England. 
After vainly soliciting redress and advancement 
from the French court, he published his Nou- 
veaux voyages de M. le laron de Lahontan dans 
VAmerique Septentrionale (2 vols. 12mo, the 
Hague, 1703 ; the second volume relating chief- 
ly to the Indians). A third volume, Dialogue 
de M. le laron de Lahontan et d'un sauvage 
dans VAmerique, awe les voyages du meme en 
Portugal, appeared at Amsterdam in 1704. The 
dialogue is fictitious and merely a vehicle for 
anti-Christian ideas. The voyages are dedica- 
ted to the king of Denmark, and are said to 
have been rewritten by Gueudeville. La Hon- 
tan also wrote Reponse d la lettre d'un parti- 
culier opposee au manifeste de S. M. le roi de la 
Grande Bretagne contre la Suede, published 
by Leibnitz after the baron's death. Truth 
and fiction are so blended in his work that 
it has long ceased to be of any authority. 

LAHORE, a city of India, capital of the Pun- 
jaub, about 1 m. from the E. bank of the Ra- 
vee, in lat. 31 36' N., Ion. 74 21' E., 265 m. N. 
W. of Delhi ; pop. in 1871, 98,924. It is walled 
with brick and defended by a citadel and out- 
works. The moat which formerly encircled it 
is now filled up, and is laid out in gardens and 
planted with trees. There are several fine 
mosques, including one of red sandstone, with 
lofty minarets and cupolas, said to have been 
built by Aurungzebe. The Hindoos have a 
number of temples, and in the neighborhood 
are some handsome tombs, one of the most at- 
tractive of which is that of the emperor Je- 
hanghir, built of red sandstone and adorned 
with marble mosaics representing flowers and 
texts of the Koran. The city has narrow 
streets, tall gloomy houses, small but well fur- 
nished bazaars, and a vernacular college sup- 



ported partly by the British government, hav- 
ing several hundred pupils. Lahore has little 
commercial activity, but has some manufac- 
tures, chiefly lacquered wares, mirrors, and 
silks, especially shawls, flowered with gold and 
silver threads. The surrounding country is 

Tomb of Kunjeet Singh, Lahore, 

covered with vast ruins, attesting the magnifi- 
cence of the ancient city, which was the capi- 
tal of the Ghuznevide dynasty in the 12th cen- 
tury, and the favorite residence of the descen- 
dants of Baber. It is said to have been founded 
by Lava or Lo, the son of Rama, whose wife 
Leeta is still worshipped here. Runjeet Singh 
was invested with the rajahship of Lahore by 
Zeman Shah in 1799, and after his death the 
territory was seized by the British (1849) and 
consolidated with the rest of the Punjaub. 

LAHR, a town of Germany, in Baden, on the 
Schutter, 24 m. N. of Freiburg; pop. in 1871, 
7,710. It has a gymnasium, a Protestant and 
a Catholic church, a female high school, an in- 
dustrial and a commercial school, and manufac- 
tories of tobacco, leather, vinegar, and snuff- 
boxes. A branch line connects the town with 
the Baden railway. Since 1800 the most popu- 
lar almanac of Germany, Der Lahrer Hinlcende 
Bote, has been published here; it reached in 
1873 a circulation of over 800,000, more than 
50,000 being among the Germans of America. 



LAING, Alexander Gordon, a British traveller, 
born in Edinburgh, Dec. 27, 1794, murdered 
near Timbuctoo, Africa, in September, 1826. 
He was educated for a schoolmaster, but joined 
the army, went to the West Indies in 1811, and 
served there several years in various positions, 
a part of the time with his uncle, afterward 
Lieut. Gen. Gordon. In 1820 he went to Sierra 
Leone, and became aide-de-camp to the gov- 
ernor, Sir Charles McCarthy. He took an ac- 
tive part in the efforts made by the English 


government to stop the slave trade, opened ne- 
gotiations with the king of the Foolahs at Tim- 
bo, the capital of Foota Jallon, and contributed 
much to the knowledge of that country and of 
the upper course of the Niger. The war with 
the Ashantees, in which Governor McCarthy 
lost his life, compelled 
him to return to Sierra 
Leone. On returning to 
England he was made 
major, and placed at 
the head of an African 
exploring expedition. 
He sailed for Tripoli in 

1825, and on July 26, 

1826, joined a caravan 
for Timbuctoo, which 
he reached on Aug. 18. 
He left there on Sept. 
22 for Sego, where he 
expected to arrive in 
15 days, but was killed 
on the journey by the 
Arabs of the country, 
acting under instruc- 
tions, it was afterward 
discovered, of the son 
of the prime minister of 
the bashaw of Tripoli. 
He published an ac- 
count of his first journey under the title of 
"Travels through the Timannee, Kooranko, 
and Soolima Countries, to the Sources of the 
Rokelle and Niger, in the year 1822 " (8vo, 
London, 1825). 

LAINO, Malcolm, a Scottish historian, born on 
the island of Mainland, Orkneys, in 1762, died 
there in November, 1818. He was educated at 
the university of Edinburgh, studied law, and 
was called to the bar in 1785 ; but not succeed- 
ing in his profession, he turned his attention 
to literature. His first work was a continuation 
of Dr. Henry's "History of Great Britain," 
which was followed in 1800 by a " History of 
Scotland, from the Union of the Crowns to the 
Union of the Kingdoms." To this were ap- 
pended two dissertations, historical and criti- 
cal, one on the Gowry conspiracy, tfie other on 
the authenticity of Ossian's poems. His argu- 
ments against the latter brought considerable 
obloquy upon him at the time, but led to the 
investigation and report of the Highland socie- 
ty. To the second edition of his history (1804) 
he appended an essay " On the Participation of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Murder of Darn- 
ley," in which he strongly argued her guilt. 
In 1807 he was a member of parliament for 
the Orkneys, but ill health soon compelled him 
to withdraw to private life. Besides the works 
already mentioned, he published an edition of 
the " History and Life of King James VI.," 
from the original manuscript, which had served 
as the foundation of the forgeries of Crawfurd 
in his "Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland."- 
His brother, SAMUEL LAIXG, is known as the 
author of books of travel, and of works on so- 




cial and political subjects. A new edition of 
his book on Norway appeared in 1854. 

LAIRESSE, Gerard de, a Flemish painter, born 
in Liege in 1640, died in Amsterdam, July 28, 
1711. At the age of 16 he was a successful 
painter, and received large prices for his pic- 
tures ; but dissipation kept him in poverty un- 
til he removed to Amsterdam, where he rose to 
fortune and reputation. At the age of 50 he 
became blind, but he dictated his discourses on 
the theory and practice of painting, which 
were published under the title of Groot schil- 
derboek (Amsterdam, 1707). He excelled in 
subjects drawn from mythology, particularly 
bacchanalian scenes. 

LAIS, the name of two celebrated courtesans 
of ancient Greece. I. The elder Lai's lived in 
the time of the Peloponnesian war, and is gen- 
erally supposed to have been a native of Cor- 
inth. She was considered the most beautiful 
woman of her age, but was also remarkable for 
her avarice and caprice. Among her lovers was 
the philosopher Aristippus, who dedicated two 
of his works to her. She grew enamored of Eu- 
botas of Gyrene, who promised to take her to 
his native city if he should prove victor in the 
Olympic games. He succeeded, and fulfilled 
his promise by taking thither her portrait. In 
her old age she became intemperate, and died 
at Corinth, where a monument was erected to 
her memory in the grove called the Cranion. 
II. The younger Lais was a native of Hyccara 
in Sicily, and lived in the age of Philip and 
Alexander the Great. She removed to Athens 
in her youth, and is said to have been induced 
by the painter Apelles to adopt the profession 
of a courtesan. She became the rival of the 
famous Athenian hetsera Phryne ; but falling 
in love with a handsome Thessalian youth 
named Hippolocus, she accompanied him to 
his native country, where her beauty exciting 
the jealousy and envy of some of her sex, they 
allured her into a temple of Venus, and there 
stoned her to death. She was buried on the 
banks of the Peneus ; the inscription engraven 
on her monument is given by Athenseus. 

LAKE (It. lacca), a pigment prepared from 
infusions of vegetable dyes or of cochineal, by 
causing the coloring matter to unite and form a 
precipitate with some earthy or metallic oxide. 
This is usually alumina, but the oxides of tin 
and zinc sometimes serve as the basis. A solu- 
tion of alum is employed to furnish the alumi- 
na, and potash is commonly added to it always 
if the infusions are acid. If the infusions are 
made with alkaline liquors, the alum solution 
may be added alone. A decoction of turmeric 
yields an orange lake ; of cochineal, a brilliant 
red lake (see CARMINE) ; of Brazil wood, also a 
red, made violet by excess of potash, and brown- 
ish by cream of tartar. Madder also gives a 
red lake. Persian or French berries produce 
yellow lakes ; and green lakes may be obtained 
from these mixed with blue pigments. The 
varieties of blue pigments in use render it 
needless to prepare blue lakes. 

LAKE, the name of nine counties in the Uni- 
ted States. I. The N. W. county of Tennes- 
see, bounded K by Kentucky, W. by the Mis- 
sissippi river, which separates it from Mis- 
souri, and S. E. by Redf oot river ; area, about 
250 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,428, of whom 393 
were colored. The surface is level, and the 
soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 
were 414,570 bushels of Indian corn and 52 
bales of cotton. There were 511 horses, 615 
milch cows, 1,304 other cattle, 816 sheep, and 
5,853 swine. Capital, Tiptonville. II. A. K E. 
county of Ohio, bordering on Lake Erie and 
drained by Grand and Chagrin rivers; area, 
220 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,935. The surface 
is undulating, and the soil a fertile clayey 
loam, with occasional ridges of sand. Iron 
ore is found. The Lake Shore and the Paines- 
ville and Youngstown railroads pass through 
it. The chief productions in 1870 were 84,164 
bushels of wheat, 236,771 of rye, 202,948 of 
oats, 700,910 of potatoes, 99,058 Ibs. of wool, 
20,650 of hops, 409,550 of butter, and 22,009 
tons of hay. There were 3,598 horses, 5,409 
milch cows, 4,267 other cattle, 22,906 sheep, 
and 2,936 swine; 15 manufactories of car- 
riages, 1 of drugs and chemicals, 1 of explosives 
and fireworks, 4 of iron castings, 3 of machine- 
ry, 3 of sash, doors, and blinds, 7 of tin, copper, 
and sheet-iron ware, 3 of tobacco and cigars, 2 
of woollen goods, 3 planing mills, 13 sawmills, 
and 7 flour mills. Capital, Painesville. III. A 
N. W. county of Indiana, bordering on Lake 
Michigan and Illinois, bounded S. by the Kan- 
kakee river and drained by the Calumick and 
Deep; area, 468 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,339. 
The surface is level and diversified by wood- 
lands and prairies, with large marshes near the 
Kankakee ; the soil is generally fertile. It is 
traversed by several railroads. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 63,398 bushels of wheat, 
189,947 of Indian corn, 364,008 of oats, 73,516 
of potatoes, 49,989 Ibs. of wool, 557,820 of 
butter, 40,650 of cheese, and 40,994 tons of 
hay. There were 5,560 horses, 7,694 milch 
cows, 9,489 other cattle, 11,637 sheep, and 
8,526 swine ; 4 manufactories of carriages, 4 
of brick, 1 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 brew- 
ery, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Crown Point. 
IV. A N". E. county of Illinois, bordering on 
Lake Michigan and Wisconsin, and drained by 
Fox and Des Plaines rivers ; area, 425 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 21,014. The surface is chiefly an 
undulating prairie, diversified by tracts of tim- 
ber and many small lakes. The soil is a rich, 
deep, black loam. The Chicago and North- 
western railroad passes through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 169,135 bushels of 
wheat, 517,353 of Indian corn, 699,069 of oats, 
222,234 of potatoes, 318,042 Ibs. of wool, 927,- 
533 of butter, 128,207 of cheese, and 76,337 
tons of hay. There were 8,087 horses, 12,167 
milch cows, 10,787 other cattle, 67,763 sheep, 
and 13,385 swine; 8 manufactories of car- 
riages, 2 of brick, 3 of cheese, 1 of pumps, 1 
brewery, 1 planing mill, 3 tanneries, 3 curry- 



ing establishments, 1 flour mill, and 1 saw 
mill. Capital, Waukegan. V. A W. county 
of the lower peninsula of Michigan, drained 
by the Notipeskago river and affluents of the 
Manistee ; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 548. 
Capital, Chase. VI. A N. E. county of Min- 
nesota, bordering on British America and Lake 
Superior ; area, 4,500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
135. A chain of lakes extends along the IS". 
border, and the S. E. portion is watered by 
numerous streams that empty into Lake Supe- 
rior. The surface is broken by rugged ranges of 
drift hills. Copper and iron are found. Capi- 
tal, Beaver Bay. VII. A K W, county of Cali- 
fornia, bounded E. by the Coast range ; area, 
972 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,969, of whom 119 
were Chinese. It contains Clear lake, which re- 
ceives numerous streams, and empties through 
Cache creek into the Sacramento. The val- 
leys of the lake and streams are productive, 
and the hills afford pasturage. Borax lake, 
covering 300 acres, near Clear lake, yields 
that commodity abundantly. In the S. E. part 
are valuable quicksilver mines. Sulphur is 
found on the E. side of Clear lake, find copper 
and other minerals in various localities. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 87,016 bushels 
of wheat, 11,615 of Indian corn, 3,894 of oats, 
67,946 of barley, 5,154 of potatoes, 58,046 Ibs. 
of wool, 84,268 of butter, 63,340 of cheese, 
and 5,296 tons of hay. There were 1,984 
horses, 1,827 milch cows, 2,408 other cattle, 
16,307 sheep, and 11,547 swine; 4 saw mills, 
and 1 establishment for smelting quicksilver. 
Capital, Lakeport. V1IL A W. county of Colo- 
rado, bounded E. by the Rocky mountains, 
and W. by Utah; area, about 12,500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 522. . It is watered by the Gun- 
nison and other tributaries of Grand river. 
The Arkansas rises in this county, and flows S. 
E. near the E. border. Along this river and 
near the head waters of the Gunnison gold 
mining is carried on to some extent. The sur- 
face is broken by a continuous series of spurs 
and ranges, extending from the Rocky moun- 
tains to the It. and W. borders, but there are 
numerous fertile valleys and small parks, and 
much of the county is adapted to grazing. 
Timber is abundant. In 1870 there were 13 
placer and 2 quartz gold mines. The chief 
productions were 2,173 bushels of wheat, 5,338 
of oats, 6,530 of potatoes, and 111 tons of hay. 
The value of live stock was $47,673. There 
were 1 flour mill and 3 saw mills. In 1874 the 
S. portion was set off to form Hinsdale and 
La Platte cos. Capital, Dayton. IX. A S. E. 
county of Dakota territory, recently formed 
and not included in the census of 1870 ; area, 
720 sq. m. It is drained by affluents of Yer- 
milion river and of the Big Sioux. 

LAKE, Gerard, viscount, an English general, 
born July 27, 1744, died Feb. 20, 1808. He 
successively served in the seven years' and the 
American war, and under the duke of York in 
Holland, became general, and was Commander- 
in-chief during the Irish rebellion of 1797-'8. 


In 1800 he went to India in the same capacity, 
and achieved victory after victory during the 
Mahratta war (1803), storming Alighur, occu- 
pying Delhi and making the old and blind 
Mogul emperor Shah Allum the vassal of Eng- 
land, capturing Agra, and winning a decisive 
battle near Laswaree (Nov. 1), which brought 
the districts N". of the Chumbul into British 
possession, and for which he was made a baron 
(Sept. 1, 1804). Subsequently he was engaged 
in warfare against Holkar (1804-'5), and after 
his return to England he was made a viscount, 
Oct. 31, 1807. The third viscount, Warwick 
Lake, dying June 24, 1848, without male issue, 
the title became extinct. 

LAKE, Henry Atwell, an English soldier, born 
about 1809. He is a younger son of Sir James 
Samuel William Lalce, and rose in the engineer 
service in India (1826-'55) to the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel. In the Crimean war he ren- 
dered Kars almost impregnable, and was called 
by the Russians the English Todleben, and was 
not held responsible for the surrender of that 
stronghold (1855). With Gen. Williams he was 
a prisoner of war in Russia till the restoration 
of peace, and after his return to England he 
published " Kars and our Captivity in Russia " 
(London, 1857). Subsequently he was made 
colonel, aide-de-camp to the queen, and chief 
commissioner of the Dublin police. 

LAKE DWELLINGS, a class of prehistoric habi- 
tations existing in some form in various parts 
of the world, but found in greatest perfection 
and most thoroughly explored in Switzerland. 
In Scotland and Ireland they are called cran- 
noges. They are of two kinds, fascine dwell- 
ings and pile dwellings. The former were 
built on a foundation of reeds or tree stems, 
woven together in horizontal layers alternated 
with layers of clay or gravel, the whole mass 
sunk in the water and kept in place by a few 
stakes or piles. The pile dwellings were built 
on platforms supported by piles driven deeply 
into the lake bottom, but projecting above the 
water. Though the fascine dwellings were the 
simpler, they were not necessarily the more 
ancient ; the explorations in Switzerland show 
that they were commonly used in the smaller 
lakes, and where the bottom was too soft to 
hold a mass of piles firmly, while the pile 
dwellings were invariably constructed in the 
large lakes, where the waves would have swept 
away a foundation of fascines. Lake dwell- 
ings date back to the stone age, and are still 
in use in some parts of Russia, in Borneo and 
other islands of the Malay archipelago, and in 
central Africa. Herodotus relates (book v., 
16) that certain tribes of Pawnians lived in pile 
dwellings on Lake Prasias in Thrace, and as 
these were connected with the shore by a sin- 
gle narrow bridge, they defied the troops of 
Darius when their kindred tribes were led 
away into Asia. Each family had its own hut, 
with a trap-door beneath, through which they 
fished by letting down a basket. The infant 
children were tied by the foot with a cord, to 



prevent their falling into the water. Hippo- 
crates records that the colonists of the Phasis 
lived in reed huts in the middle of the river. 
Certain Assyrian bass reliefs represent inhabit- 
ed artificial islands formed of woven rushes. 
Venezuela received its name (little Venice) 
from the Spanish discoverers because of the 
houses built on piles in the lagoon of Mara- 
caibo. The lake dwellings of extinct peoples 
represent all stages of civilization from the age 
of stone to the dawn of the iron age. Those 
of Lake Moosseedorf, Switzerland, are sup- 
posed to be the oldest, and those of Ireland the 
most recent. In 1829 an excavation on the 
shore of Lake Zurich at Obermeilen revealed 
the existence of ancient piles and other anti- 
quities, but no extended examination was 
made. The winter of 1853-'4 in Switzerland 
was one of extraordinary drought and cold ; 
the rivers shrank to their smallest dimensions, 
and the level of the lakes was lower than had 
ever before been known. The inhabitants on 
the shore of a little bay between Obermeilen 
and Dallikon took advantage of the low water 
to extend their gardens by building a wall and 
filling the space back of it with mud dredged 
from in front. The dredging brought to light 
the heads of a system of piles, great quantities 
of stags' horns, and several ancient imple- 
ments. Dr. Ferdinard Keller followed up this 
discovery, and similar remains of prehistoric 
villages were found in Lakes Zurich, Constance, 
Geneva, Bienne, Neufchatel, Morat, and several 
of the smaller lakes of Switzerland. From 20 
to 50 settlements have been explored in each 
of the larger lakes ; and immense numbers of 
implements of horn, bone, stone, bronze, and 
pottery have been found, with a few of gold, 
wood, and iron, mingled with bones of animals, 
and in a very few cases human remains. The 
most perfect example of a lake dwelling of the 
stone age was in the little lake of Moosseedorf, 
near Bern. The water was artificially lowered 
8 ft. in the winter of 1855-'6, which revealed 
a settlement at each extremity of the lake ; the 
one at the eastern end was most thoroughly 
examined. The piles had been driven irreg- 
ularly, the mass forming a parallelogram 55 by 
TO ft. They were stems of oak, birch, fir, and 
aspen, from 5 to V in. in diameter, some being 
split and some still retaining the bark. The 
remains of a bridge which had connected the 
settlement with the shore were found. The 
superstructure had apparently been destroyed 
by fire, only portions of the charred wood re- 
maining. The implements were found, not in 
the mud of the ancient lake bottom, but in a 
stratum next above it, now called the relic bed, 
consisting of loose peat, gravel, clay, wood, 
and charcoal, from 5 in. to 2 ft. thick. Many 
of the heaviest implements were near the top 
of the bed, and many of the lightest near the 
bottom. Among them were a harpoon of 
stag's horn, a flint saw fastened with asphalt 
in a handle of fir wood, needles made of boars' 
teeth, awls, knives, pincers, chisels, and arrow 
475 VOL. x. 8 

heads of bone, fish hooks of boar's tusk, and 
a comb of yew wood. There were also nume- 
rous bones of animals, some of which bore the 
marks of stone axes and saws; a few frag- 
ments of pottery, some incrusted with soot; 
linseed, and burnt wheat and barley. Every 

Bone, Flint, and Wooden Implements from Moosseedorf. 
1. Knife of boar's tooth. 2. Bone chisel. 8. Bone knife. 
4. Bone awl. 5. Flint saw, in handle of fir wood. 6. 
Harpoon of stag's horn. 7. Comb of yew wood. 8. Wedge 
of fir wood. 9. Fish hook of boar's tusk. 10, 11. Needles 
of boar's tusk. 

hillock in the marsh land around this settle- 
ment is full of chips and flakes and unfinished 
instruments of flint. The lake dwellings situ- 
ated in what are now peat moors offer in some 
respects a better opportunity for investigation 
than those which are still under water. The 
best specimen of this kind was discovered in 
1858 at Robenhausen near Lake PfaflSkon, in 
the canton of Zurich. The space covered with 
piles is an irregular quadrangle containing 
nearly three acres, which must have been about 
2,000 paces from the ancient western shore of 
the lake in which it stood, and about 3,000 
from the eastern ; the piles of a bridge con- 
necting it w r ith the latter still remain. The 
piles of this village, numbering about 100,000, 
were of oak, beech, and fir, some of them 
being split, were 10 or 11 ft. long, sharpened 
with stone hatchets, and driven in from 2 to 3 
ft. apart. The platform was made of cross 
timbers and boards, fastened to the piles with 
wooden pins. The outermost piles were bound 
together with hurdle work. Investigation re- 
vealed three systems of piles, one above the 
other, indicating different periods of habita- 
tion. The piles of the two lower systems are 
round stems of soft wood, those of the upper- 
most split trunks of oak. Here were found 
mealing stones, hearth stones, wheat and bar- 
ley, 8 Ibs. of bread, burnt apples and pears, 
beech nuts, acorns, cherry stones, flax, cords, 
nets, mats, and woven cloth of bast and of 
flax, an abundance of broken pottery, many 



flint weapons, tools of horn and bone, several 
implements of maple wood, two or three long 
bows such as are still used by the South sea 
islanders, and a canoe 12 ft. long, 1 ft- broad, 
and 5 in. deep. The relic bed is 3 ft. thick. 
It is conjectured that the settlement was in- 
habited for many centuries, and that the first 
two structures were destroyed by fire, as the 
heads of the piles are charred and quantities 
of charcoal are found in the relic bed. The 
direction and arrangement of the masses of 
charcoal suggest that at least one of the fires 
occurred during the strong south wind (Fori) 
by which at some time nearly every town 
in Switzerland has suffered. Almost the 
entire shore of the Untersee was lined with 
lake dwellings; those at Wangen have been 
most carefully explored and have yielded a 
greater abundance of articles than any other. 
Here were found numerous spindle whorls of 
clay, charred flax in all stages of manufacture, 
baked bread, and nearly 100 bushels of grain. 
Fascine structures are found at Niederwyl 
and Wauwyl. In the former split stems and 
boards were largely used, and some of the 
beams were mortised. There is no trace of 
burning. At Nidau- Steinberg, on the lake of 
Bienne, is a lake settlement in which have been 
found manufactured articles of wood, horn, 
bone, clay, flint, bronze, iron, and gold. It is 
especially rich in bronze relics, consisting of 
hatchets, knives, sickles, spear heads, chisels, 
pins, needles, fish hooks, rings, and wire. The 
articles of iron include spear heads and two 
curved plates riveted to a piece of wood be- 

Bronze Implements from Unter Uhldingen.-l. Sickle. 
2. Pm. 3. Fish hook. 4. Socketed celt. 5. Knife 6 
JLance point. 7. Pin. 

tween them ; the articles of gold are a corru- 
gated plate and a spiral of square wire. Some 
of the piles in this settlement are 10 in. in di- 
ameter, and were sharpened by the action of 
hre. Much of the pottery found here was un- 
broken, and some of the vessels were very 

large. At Morges the moulds for casting 
bronze hatchets were found. But in none of 
the lake dwellings is there any evidence of the 
use of the potter's wheel. The only one of 
the Swiss lake dwellings which bears the dis- 
tinctive characters of the iron age is at Marin, 
on the lake of Neufchatel. Here were also 
found rings, balls, and beads of glass, colored 
blue and yellow, and portions of eight human 
skeletons, including one skull. The number 
of iron weapons and implements found here is 
very large, and many of them are ornamented. 
Dr. Keller declares that "these ornamenta- 
tions do not show the least relation to the Cel- 
tic implements which have come to light, and 
quite as little to those of Roman origin." He 
believes that the swords and lance points came 
from the workshops of Gaul. Various at- 
tempts have been made to estimate the age of 
these lake dwellings, the form and size of the 
superstructures, and the number of inhabitants ; 
but the figures obtained are largely the result 
of conjecture, and have very little value. Nor 
is it certain what was the exact reason for 
building on the water instead of on land. Pro- 
tection from hostile tribes, safety from wild 
beasts, and convenience for fishing have been 
suggested, but are far from satisfactory. It 
seems pretty clear that they were not merely 
temporary abodes, that domestic animals as 
well as human beings were housed in them, 
and that some of them were abandoned with- 
out being burned. The scarcity of human re- 
mains is an enigma to archaeologists, and not 
the slightest clue appears as to the manner in 
which the lacustrians disposed of their dead. 
Dr. Oswald Heer, in his work on the plants of 
the lake dwellings, says they show connection 
with the countries of the Mediterranean, but 
none with eastern Europe. The cereals were 
identical with those of the ancient Egyptians. 
The fauna of the lake dwellings includes a 
large number of fishes and birds still common 
to the country (but with no trace of any do- 
mestic fowl), and the bear, the dog, the ass, 
the ibex, the sheep, the cow, the hog, and other 
large animals, many of them belonging to ex- 
tinct species. Since the discovery of the lake 
dwellings of Switzerland, similar structures 
have been found in Italy, Bavaria, Saxony, the 
French Jura, and other parts of Germany and 
France, and in Denmark. The first discovery 
of crannoges in Ireland was made by William 
R. Wilde in 1839, near Dunshaughlin, county 
Meath. The lake of Lagore being drained, a 
circular mound 520 ft. in circumference, which 
had been known as an island, was seen to be 
of artificial construction. Oak piles had been 
used, mortised into planks laid flat on the bot- 
tom of the lake, and strengthened with cross 
beams. Some of the piles were grooved to 
hold panels which were driven down between 
them. The space within was filled with peat 
intermingled with bones of horses, asses, deer, 
sheep, goats, dogs, and foxes, and contained a 
large number of ornaments, weapons, and 


utensils of wood, bone, stone, bronze, and 
iron ; 150 cart loads of bones were taken out. 
The ancient annals of Ireland relate that the 
island in Lake Lagore was plundered and 
burned by a hostile chief in 848, and that the 
buildings were pulled down by Norse pirates 
in 933. More than .50 crannoges have since 
been discovered in Ireland, and as many in 
Scotland. The latest discovery in Scotland 
(1871) is in Loch Etive, a platform 60 ft. in 
diameter, with a dwelling 50 by 28 ft. No 
essential difference of construction has been 
noted between those of the two countries. 
See Keller, Die Pfahlbauten in den Schweizer- 
%een (3 vols., Zurich, 1854-'60 ; English trans- 
lation, London, 1866) ; Troyon, Habitations 
lacustres (Lausanne, 1860) ; Kutimeyer, Die 
Fauna der Pfahlbauten (Basel, 1861) ; Schaub, 
Die Pfahlbauten in den Schweizerseen (Zurich, 
1864); Heer, Die Urwelt der Schweiz (Zurich, 
1864-'5; English translation, "Primeval Life 
in Switzerland," London, 1874), and Die Pflan- 
zen der Pfahlbauten (Zurich, 1865) ; Lyell, 
"Antiquity of Man" (London, 1863); Lub- 
bock, " Pre-Historic Times" (London, 1869); 
and "Palafittes of the Lake of Neufchatel," by 
E. Desor, in the Smithsonian report for 1865. 

LAKE OF THE WOODS (Fr. Lac des Bois\ a 
body of water in the Northwest territories of 
Canada, on the frontier of Minnesota, about 
lat. 49 N., Ion. 95 W. It is 300 m. in cir- 
cumference, and has an irregular outline in- 
dented with bays. A vast number of small 
islands dot its surface. The Winnipeg river 
flows from it on the north, and it receives 
Rainy river on the south. Wild rice grows 
plentifully along its shores. 

LALANDE, Joseph Jerome Le Francis de, a 
French astronomer, born in Bourg-en-Bresse, 
July 11, 1732, died in Paris, April 4, 1807. 
His family name was Le Francais, but he as- 
sumed that of Lalande at the outset of his 
scientific career. He was educated in the col- 
lege of the Jesuits at Lyons, and was sent to 
Paris to study law ; but making the acquaint- 
ance of De Lisle, he devoted himself to astron- 
omy under him and Le Monnier. The latter in 
1751 procured him a scientific mission to Ber- 
lin, where he was to ascertain, through astro- 
nomical observations, the distance between the 
earth and the moon, while La Oaille was ma- 
king similar observations at the Cape of Good 
Hope. He was presented to Frederick the 
Great, and, although but 19 years old, was 
made a member of the Berlin academy of 
sciences. On his return in 1753, he was elected 
to the French academy of sciences, assisted 
Clairaut in his researches on comets, especially 
that of Halley, and in 1760 became the editor 
of the Connaissance des Temps, which he con- 
ducted till 1775, and subsequently from 1794 
till his death. In 1762 he succeeded De Lisle 
in the chair of astronomy at the college de 
France, and during 45 years delivered lectures 
I on that science. He reached the height of his 
fame when he published a map illustrating the 



two transits of Venus which were to take place 
in 1761 and 1769, and showing the exact time 
of those transits for all countries on the globe. 
About the same time he announced to the 
world the results of the calculations through 
which the distance between the sun and the 
earth had been definitely ascertained. He gave 
much attention to navigation, and delivered 
lectures and published works on this subject, 
which are highly valued. But the popularity 
acquired by his scientific labors did not satisfy 
his thirst for fame ; and in order to keep public 
curiosity constantly alive, he stationed himself 
on the Pont-Neuf to give astronomical ex- 
planations to passers by; announced that he 
would travel in a balloon from Paris to Gotha, 
where a scientific congress was to be held ; had 
it reported that he ate spiders, caterpillars, 
worms, and other insects; and professed the 
boldest atheism. Lalande's principal work is 
the Traite d" 1 astronomic (2 vols. 4to, Paris, 
1764), which exceeded in utility all previous 
treatises of the kind. 

LALEMANT, a Parisian family, of which several 
members were prominent in the early French 
missions in Canada. I* Charles, born Nov. 17, 
1587, died in Paris, Nov. 18, 1674. He became 
a Jesuit in 1607, and in 1625 went to Canada, 
where he was superior of the missions. While 
going with ships to the relief of Quebec in 
1629, he was wrecked near the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence, and narrowly escaped, some of 
his associates being drowned. He returned to 
Canada in 1634, after its restoration by England, 
when he took charge of the church of Notre 
Dame de Recouvrance in the lower town of 
Quebec, and opened the first school. After 
attending Champlain on his deathbed he re- 
turned to Europe in 1638, was rector of col- 
leges at Rouen, La Fleche, and Paris, superior 
of the professed house, and vice provincial. 
Several of his letters have been printed : Copie 
de trois lettres escrittes es annee 1625 et 1626 
(Albany, 1870, reprinted from Sagard and 
Martin) ; Lettre envoyee au P. Hierosme VAl- 
lemant, ou sont contenus les mceurs, &c., des 
sauvages (Paris, 1627, and in the Mercure Fran- 
cais, 1626 ; both, Albany, 1870) ; Lettre envoyee 
de Bordeaux, describing his shipwreck, pub- 
lished in Champlain (Paris, 1632; Albany, 
1870). II. Jerome, brother of the preceding, 
born in 1593, died in Quebec, Jan. 26, 1673. 
He entered the Jesuit order in 1609, and went 
to Canada in June, 1638, having been rector of 
several colleges in France. He was on the 
Huron mission till 1645, and was superior of 
all the missions in Canada from 1644 to 1650; 
made two voyages to France, where for a time 
he was rector of the college of La Fleche, but 
returned again in 1659 with Bishop Laval as 
superior of the missions, having been recom- 
mended to the king by the Canada company 
for the bishopric. He is the author of five 
of the " Jesuit Relations " of the Huron mis- 
sions, and of six of the general volumes, for 
the years 1645-'8 and 1661-'4. III. Gabriel, 



nephew of the preceding, born Oct. 30, 1610, 
killed March 17, 1649. He also entered the 
society of Jesus (1630), went to Canada in 
September, 1646, and was sent to the Huron 
mission. In the overthrow of that nation by 
the Iroquois he fell into the hands of the 
savages, and with Father Breboeuf was put to 
death with exquisite torture, prolonged for 
many hours. 

LALLEMAND, Claude Francois, a French phy- 
sician, born in Metz, Jan. 26, 1790, died in 
Marseilles, Aug. 25, 1854. After serving as as- 
sistant surgeon in the armies of the empire, he 
studied in Paris at the Hotel-Dieu under Du- 
puytren, and from 1819 to 1845. was professor 
of clinical surgery at Montpellier, with the ex- 
ception of three years during which he was 
suspended for his liberal political expressions. 
His most important work, the EechercJies ana- 
tomico-pathologiques sur Vencephale et ses de- 
pendances (Paris, 1820-'36), established his 
reputation, and was translated into many Jan- 
guages. In 1845 he was elected to the academy 
of sciences, and removed to Paris, and was con- 
sulted by patients from every part of Europe. 
He bequeathed 50,000 francs to the institute. 

LALLY, Thomas Arthur, count, baron of Tul- 
lendally or Tollendal, in Ireland, a French sol- 
dier, born in Romans, Dauphiny, in January, 
1702, beheaded in Paris, May 9, 1766. He was 
the son of Sir Gerard Lally, an Irish loyalist, 
who accompanied James II. in his exile to 
France. He was educated to the profession 
of arms, and when scarcely 12 years old per- 
formed his first military service at the siege of 
Barcelona. For his gallantry at the sieges of 
Kehl in 1733 and Philippsburg in 1734, where 
he saved his father's life, he was promoted to 
the rank of major. In 1737 he visited England, 
Ireland, and Scotland, with a view to promote 
the interests of the pretender; and in 1738 he 
was sent on a secret mission to St. Petersburg. 
In 1745 he distinguished himself at the battle 
of Fontenoy, where he led the Irish brigade 
whose gallantry secured victory to the French. 
Louis XV. made him brigadier general on the 
field. The same year, at the head of a body of 
volunteers, he landed in Scotland,, joined the 
young pretender Charles Edward, and served 
as his aide-de-camp at the battle of Falkirk. 
In 1755, being consulted by the French ministry 
upon the best mode of impairing the power of 
England, he strongly urged an attack upon her 
East Indian possessions. He was offered the 
command of an expedition to carry out his 
plan, received the appointment of governor 
general of the French establishments in the 
East, and sailed for his destination, May 2, 
1757. But the means which had been placed 
at his disposal were wholly inadequate. He 
landed at Pondicherry, April 28, 1758, and 
found that the agents of the French East India 
company were secretly against him. Never- 
theless, the Coromandel coast was conquered 
in a few weeks. He overcame all the obsta- 
cles thrown in his way, laid siege to Madras in 


the month of December, carried the Black 
Town, and had some prospect of success ; but 
being unsupported by D'Ache, the command- 
er of the French fleet, and having no money 
to pay his mutinous soldiers, he was finally 
obliged to retire on the arrival of an English 
fleet. Soon after he found himself besieged in 
Pondicherry by an enemy ten times his superior 
in numbers. He held out for ten months ; but 
deserted by his fleet, betrayed by the agents of 
the French company, having exhausted his re- 
sources, and the garrison being reduced to 700 
men, he was finally compelled to surrender at 
discretion, Jan. 14, 1761, to Gen. Coote, who 
had 22,000 troops under his command and was 
supported by 14 ships. He was carried as a 
prisoner to London ; but having heard that he 
was charged by his personal enemies with 
various crimes, he obtained his release on 
parole, went to Paris, and voluntarily entered 
the Bastile, in order to hasten his trial, but 
was left there for 19 months without examina- 
tion. Finally he was accused as a traitor and 
a defaulter by the men who had been the cause 
of his ruin, and a mock trial took place; 
witnesses of the worst character, some of 
whom were his own servants, were admitted 
to testify against him ; he was refused counsel, 
and was not even allowed to present his de- 
fence ; and at last, after a protracted secret de- 
liberation, he was sentenced to death and exe- 
cuted. Several years afterward the whole of 
these proceedings were revised, and the sentence 
was finally reversed in 1778. 

LALLY-TOLLENDAL, Trophimc Gerard, marquis 
de, a French politician, son of the preceding, 
born in Paris, March 5, 1751, died March 11, 
1830. Although of legitimate birth, he was 
brought up, under the name of Trophime, in 
ignorance of his parentage until the eve of his 
father's execution. He first made himself 
known by his untiring efforts, during 12 years, 
to procure the reversal of his father's sentence, 
in which he secured the assistance of Voltaire, 
who wrote in his behalf. In 1789 he was one 
of the deputies of the nobles to the states gen- 
eral; he supported moderate reforms, and 
favored the establishment of a constitutional 
monarchy with two chambers and an absolute 
power of veto vested in the king; but after 
the events of Oct. 5 and 6 he was so alarmed 
at the course of the revolutionists that he re- 
tired with Mounier to Coppet in Switzerland. 
There, under the title of Quintus Capitolinus 
aux Romains, he published in 1790 a pamphlet 
censuring the proceedings of the constituent 
assembly. He returned to Paris in 1792 to 
oppose the Jacobins, and was imprisoned, but 
escaped to England a few days previous to the 
September massacre. In 1793 he asked to be 
appointed one of the counsel of King Louis 
XVI., but was not answered. He returned to 
France after the 18th Brumaire, and lived in 
retirement until the return of the Bourbons, 
when he was made a peer. 



LAMAISM (Thibetan, ILama* lord, master, 
teacher), the prevailing religion of Thibet and 
some other parts of Asia. It is a form of 
Buddhism modified by the adoption of some of 
the doctrines and practices of Sivaism, one of 
the religions of India, and Shamanism or spirit 
worship, a Mongolian superstition. The most 
essential features of Lamaism are described in 
the article BUDDHISM, vol. iii., pp. 399 et seq. 
Of the religion of Thibet previous to the 
introduction of Buddhism nothing certain is 
known. According to the Thibetan and Chi- 
nese annals, a king of Thibet named Ssrong- 
bTsan-sGam-po (the upright wise prince), who 
reigned in the early part of the 7th century, 
was the introducer of Buddhism into that 
country. He had two wives, one from China, 
the other from Nepaul, in both which coun- 
tries Buddhism had been established for sev- 
eral hundred years. These princesses brought 
with them Buddhistic books and idols. For 
the preservation of the latter, temples were 
built at Lassa (Lha-ssa, god-land), which af- 
terward became and still remains the great 
metropolis of Lamaism. In 632 Ssrong- 
bTsan sent his prime minister Thumi-Ssam- 
bho-ta to Nepaul to study Buddhism, and to 
adapt the Devanagari or Sanskrit alphabet, to 
the Thibetan language. This king also intro- 
duced the wonderful mystic formula of six 
syllables, Aum ma-ni pad-me hum, which is 
supposed to mean, "God! jewel in the lotus, 
Amen." It is a kind of universal prayer or 
invocation, and great spiritual and corporeal 
benefits are attributed to its utterance. Du- 
ring the century following the death of Ssrong- 
bTsan, Buddhism made but little progress in 
Thibet; but it received a new impulse from 
Thi-Ssrong-de-bTsan, who reigned from 740 
to 786. He built many monasteries, invi- 
ted to his court learned men from India, and 
completed the translation of the ~bKa> JiGyur 
(pronounced Kanjur, versio verM), the great 
canon in three sections, and containing, in 100 
volumes, 1,083 different works, treating of 
everything connected with the doctrines and 
discipline of Buddhism. The third king who is 
regarded as sacred by the Lamaists was Khri- 
IDe-Ssrong-bTsan, who increased the power 
of the priesthood until it became unendura- 
ble, and he was murdered by the support- 
ers of his brother gLang-dar-ma, between 821 
and 840. The latter immediately commenced 
a bloody persecution of Buddhism, in conse- 
quence of which the priests called him a Ichu- 
Wghcm of Shisnus, or incarnation of the devil, 
and finally murdered him ; but for a long time 
afterward the religion made little progress. 
In the llth century a learned Buddhist, Jo- 
bp-Atisha, introduced several reforms, and by 
his efforts and those of his Thibetan disciples, 
especially Brom-bakshi, a new impulse was 

* Throughout this article a small letter unaccompanied by 
a vowel and immediately followed by a capital, is not pro- 
nounced; thus bLama is pronounced Lama. Such is the 
Thibetan spelling and pronunciation. 

given to the religion. New monasteries were 
established, and Kun-dGa-ssRing-po, abbot of 
the monastery of Ssa-skya, about 1070, is said 
to have been the first grand lama of Thibet ; 
but it is not certain that his authority was uni- 
versally recognized. In the 13th century the 
greater part of Thibet was subject to China, 
and in 1279 it passed with the rest of the 
empire under the dominion of Kublai Khan, 

f'andson of the Mongol conqueror Genghis 
han. Kublai Khan was a patron of learning 
and became a Buddhist. He took the lama of 
Ssa-skya under his protection, and subject- 
ed the whole country to his authority. This 
lama, who among his numerous titles bore 
that of Ti-s'su, emperor's teacher, is said to 
have contrived letters for the Mongolic lan- 
guage. Kublai and Ti-ssu, with the aid of Thi- 
betan, Uiguric, Chinese, and Sanskrit scholars, 
revised the Kanjur, and it was printed at the 
sNar-thang monastery in 1285-1306. He also 
sent an embassy to Ceylon, which brought 
back the bhikshu bowl, two molar teeth, and 
a miraculous image of Sakyamuni. The suc- 
cessors of Kublai were equally zealous. Tem- 
ples were restored, convents were erected in 
China as well as Thibet, and so many Chinese 
pretended to be monks in order to escape pay- 
ment of taxes and the performance of other 
duties, that it is said 500,000 of these impostors 
were expelled from the cloisters of a single 
province. After a rule of 89 years the Mon- 
gol dynasty called by the Chinese the dynasty 
of Yu-en was expelled, and in 1368 the -Ming 
dynasty was established. In 1373 Tai-tsu, the 
Chinese emperor, desirous of lessening the 
power of the lama of Ssa-skya and of increasing 
the influence of China, conferred equal digni- 
ties and titles upon four lamas. This policy of 
dividing and thus weakening the power of the 
lamas was followed by the succeeding em- 
perors, though the lama of Ssa-skya was still 
regarded as the highest in dignity. In 1403 
a lama named bTsong-Kha-pa commenced a 
great reform. Many wonderful legends of his 
miraculous conception and birth are preserved, 
and he is regarded in Thibet, Mongolia, and 
among the Calmucks with almost as much 
reverence as Buddha himself. He proclaimed 
the duty of celibacy on the part of the priest- 
hood, originated the sect or order of dGe-lugss 
(of virtue), wrote many works, and founded 
many monasteries. Previous to his time one 
of the distinguishing marks of the priesthood 
had been a red cap. He and his followers 
adopted a yellow cap, as being more in accor- 
dance with the original custom of the Buddhists. 
The Lamaists thus became separated into two 
sects, which to this day are called red-caps and 
yellow-caps, but at present the sect of red-caps 
in Thibet is very small and of little importance. 
Some time between 1417 and 1429 bTsong- 
Kha-pa died, or, as his followers believe, was 
translated to heaven. The organization of the 
lamaistic hierarchy as it exists at the present 
day is essentially the same as it was left by 



bTsong-Kha-pa. At the head are two lamas of 
equal sanctity, who consecrate each other. 
The one is called dalai lama, dalai being a 
Mongol word signifying " ocean." In the Thi- 
betan language dalai is rGya-mThso, but the 
Mongol word is generally used. He resides at 
Potala near Lassa. The other is called pan- 
tchhen lama, pan-tchhen signifying great-teach- 
er-jewel, but used very much as our words 
"right reverend." He is also called tesho 
lama and bogdo lama, especially in Europe. 
He resides at bKra-Shiss-Lhun-po, near gShiss 
Ka rTse or Dzigartchi. Both lamas have many 
other titles, the chief of which are rin-po- 
tchhe, precious jewel, and rGyal-po, king. Al- 
though in theory the two lamas are in all re- 
spects equal, yet the dalai lama presides over a 
far greater territory and his influence is much 
greater than that of the bogdo lama. Their 
followers believe that these two lamas never 
really die. When the body of one of them 
perishes, he immediately becomes incarnate in 
some boy of four or five years, who must be 
found by the lamas next in dignity to the two 
highest, under the direction of the surviving 
grand lama, and taken under their care to be 
educated for his high office. Many solemn 
forms' are gone through with, and the child 
when found is subjected to many tests to de- 
termine whether he is the real incarnation of 
the departed lama. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, at the present day the choice always falls 
upon some one satisfactory to the emperor of 
China. The dalai lamas are supposed to be 
the successive incarnations of Avalokitesvara, 
a boddhisattva, and the patron saint of Thibet, 
while the bogdo lamas are regarded as incarna- 
tions of the great reformer bTsong-Kha-pa, 
himself, according to the prevailing opinion, 
an incarnation of the boddhisattva Amitabha. 
Jo-bo-Atisha and Brom-bakshi are considered 
the prototypes of the double lama papacy. 
The next in rank to the two grand lamas are 
the khutuktus or vicars, who may be compared 
to the cardinals and archbishops of the Catho- 
lic church. Of these there are from seven to 
ten, though some authorities place the number 
much higher. They represent the authority of 
the dalai lama in the different provinces, and 
almost all the civil power is also in t/heir hands. 
They are khubilghans, or incarnations of for- 
mer saints, and share with the grand lamas the 
right to the title rin-po-tchhe or precious jewel. 
Women sometimes attain to this rank. The 
third class is composed of those who are called 
simply khubilghans or incarnates. This is a 
Mongol word, but much more generally used 
than byangtchhab, the corresponding Thibetan 
name, and a translation of the Sanskrit loddU- 
sattoa. Their number is very great. They are 
at the head of a large proportion of the mon- 
asteries, and fill other important offices. The 
two grand lamas, the khutuktus, and the khu- 
bilghans constitute that portion of the hier- 
archy to whom, as being the incarnations of 
former existing saints, a peculiar sanctity is 

attached. They are principally taken from 
privileged families, and political considerations 
have more or less influence in their selection. 
The second great division of the hierarchy is 
composed of four classes, which in ascending 
order are as follows: 1, the genyen (virtue- 
nourished) or novice, who is generally from 7 
to 15 years old ; 2, the getml, or deacon, gen- 
erally from 15 to 20 years old ; 3, the gelong 
(virtue-beggar), or fully consecrated monk or 
priest, who must be over 20 years old ; 4, the 
khanpo or teacher, master. The last are the 
abbots of the great monasteries, and often one 
khanpo has several smaller monasteries under 
his supervision. The third and last great di- 
vision constitutes what may be called the 
academical or theological order. It is com- 
posed of : 1, the kabtehee, master, those who 
have given evidence in a public examination 
of their acquaintance with the ten most im- 
portant books of the lamaistic religion ; 2, the 
rabjampa, the overflowing, those who in a 
public discussion have shown their knowledge 
of the whole body of religious learning, and 
who are authorized to give instruction in the 
law, and are connected with those monasteries 
to which high schools are attached. There 
are two other learned degrees, which are con- 
ferred by the grand lamas only on persons 
who have distinguished themselves by extra- 
ordinary learning : the tchoiji or law -prince, 
and the pandita, which, as denoting the high- 
est possible attainments, is very rare. In no 
part of the world do the religious orders con- 
stitute so large a proportion of the population 
as in those countries where Lamaism is the 
prevailing faith. There are many vagabond 
or begging lamas, and a few hermits who live 
in caves. With these exceptions all lamas are 
monks or nuns, and are vowed to celibacy. 
The female lamas are called sisters-in-law, 
venerable aunts, &c., and are divided into 
classes corresponding to those of the male la- 
mas. In Mongolia the lamas are estimated at 
one eighth of the whole population. The chief 
lama, or gegen khutuktu, is considered equal in 
rank to the two grand lamas of Thibet. He 
resides at TJrga, on the road from Peking to 
Kiakhta, with about 20,000 monks and 30,000 
families of slaves. In Thibet the great me- 
tropolis of Lamaism is Lassa, in which city 
and its neighborhood are 30 great lamaseries. 
The chief of these are Potala (Buddha's mount), 
the residence of the dalai lama and occupied 
by about 10,000 lamas ; Sse-ra (golden), with 
15,000 lamas; 'Brass-ssPungss (branch-heap), 
with a Mongolic school, 300 ' sorcerers, and 
15,000 lamas ; and dGa' IDan (joy of heaven), 
with 8,000 lamas. The two last named were 
founded by the great reformer bTsong-Kha-pa. 
These are not exceptional cases, but are speci^ 
mens of hundreds of others which are scafc 
tered throughout central Asia. To several of 
them printing offices are attached. This vast 
horde of priests and monks are supported part- 
ly by their own labor, partly by the revenues 




derived from their immense landed estates, and 
partly from the practice of arts founded on the 
superstitious reverence in which they are held 
by the rest of the population. They are phy- 
sicians, astrologers, fortune-tellers, and ma- 
gicians. Children are baptized on the third or 
tenth day after birth, and are confirmed as soon 
as they can speak and walk. These ceremonies 
must be performed by the lama. Marriage is 
a civil and not a religious rite, but the auspicious 
day for its performance can only be learned 
from the lama, and it is considered highly im- 
portant that it should be accompanied by his 
prayers. The interment of the dead is for- 
bidden, and there are no funeral ceremonies 
requiring the presence of the lama. After 
death the bodies of distinguished persons and 
of wealthy laymen are burned. The bodies of 
the common people are exposed to be devoured 
by beasts and birds of prey, or by sacred dogs 
kept 'for the purpose ; but the auspicious day 
and hour when and the place where the body 
must be exposed must be determined by the 
lama. When rich persons are about to die, the 
lama must be present to assist the departure of 
the soul by making a small hole in the scalp. 
He also says masses for the departed soul until 
it is released from Yama, the infernal judge, 
and is ready to enter upon its new existence. 
For these and numberless other services the 
lama must be rewarded according to the means 
of the person for whose benefit they are ren- 
dered. The lamas also make and sell idols, 
amulets, relics, consecrated pills, and other 
things of this kind. They print all the books, 
and to them literary education is almost exclu- 
sively confined. There are three great festi- 
vals, and innumerable smaller ones. The first 
great festival, in commemoration of the victory 
of Sakyamuni over the six heretic teachers, is 
celebrated at the time of new moon in Febru- 
ary. It also marks the commencement of the 
new year and of spring, and hence the victory 
of warmth and life over darkness and cold. It 
is the Thibetan carnival, and lasts for 15 days, 
during which the population abandon them- 
selves to every kind of pleasure. The second 
is held in commemoration of the incarnation 
of Sakyamuni, and is the oldest festival of 
Buddhism. It marks the commencement of 
summer, and is characterized by the procession 
of idols. The third is the water festival at the 
commencement of autumn. Of the other fes- 
tivals, the most important is the lamp festival, 
in commemoration of the translation to heaven 
of bTsong-Kha-pa. There are also a great num- 
ber of fasts, the objects and characteristics of 
which it would be tedious to enumerate. Small 
chapels, prayer wheels, the turning of which is 
considered equivalent to the utterance of the 
prayers inscribed upon them, sacred inscrip- 
tions on walls and columns, and silken flags 
inscribed with prayers and hoisted upon con- 
secrated poles, abound in the streets and along 
the highways. The lamas assemble three times 
each day for worship, at sunrise, noon, and sun- 

set. The worship consists principally in the 
recitation of prayers and sacred texts, accom- 
panied by a chaotic clamor of horns, trumpets, 
and drums. When the grand lama appears in 
public he sits cross-legged, is clothed in splen- 
did robes of fine woollen or silk richly wrought 
with gold, and distributes his blessings in si- 
lence by the motion of his hands. The archi- 
tecture of the lamaic temples is a mixture of 
the Chinese and Indian styles. They are square, 
and in Thibet always face the east, in Mongolia 
the south. They are divided into three apart- 
ments, the entrance hall, the main hall with 
two parallel rows of columns, and the sanctu- 
ary in which are the chief idol, the altar, and 
the throne of the chief lama. The walls are 
generally painted in lively colors, and the halls 
adorned with carpets, statues, and various orna- 
ments. The temple is surrounded by the build- 
ings necessary to supply the temporal and spirit- 
ual wants of the lamas, the whole forming the 
dGon-pa, monastery or lamasery. The great 
body of lamaic literature is contained in two 
immense collections : the bKa 1 hGyur or Kan- 
jur mentioned above, a copy of which is in the 
national library at Paris, and the fa Tan hGyur 
(pronounced Tanjur), in 225 volumes, which 
consists mostly of translations from Sanskrit 
and Prakrit of treatises on dogmas, philosophy, 
ethics, medicine, grammar, and other sciences, 
of fragments of epic poems, vocabularies, and 
various other matters. The imperial library 
of St. Petersburg possesses both these collec- 
tions. The KanjuT is regarded as sacred, the 
Tanjur merely as high authority. Only a very 
small number of lamas possess any real knowl- 
edge of either collection. Like other Buddh- 
ists, the Lamaists recognize no worship of 
gods. The essence of all that is holy is com- 
prised in an ideal trinity designated by the name 
dKon-mTchhog-gSsum, three precious jewels, 
viz., the Buddha, the doctrine, and the priest- 
hood. Far beneath these are many good and 
evil beings, partly gods borrowed from the In- 
dian pantheon, partly spirits from the ancient 
religions of the Mongol nations. The inter- 
vention of the lamas is necessary to propitiate 
these and ward off their evil influence, but 
they are not properly objects of worship. See 
Csoma de Koros, "Asiatic Researches," &c. ; 
Hue, Souvenirs (Pun voyage dans la Tartarie, 
le Thibet et la Chine (Paris, 1852; English 
translation by W. Hazlitt, 2 vols. 12mo, 1852) ; 
Karl Ritter, Erdlcunde von Asien ; K. Fr. Kop- 
pen, Lamaische Hierarchie, &c. (Berlin, 1859). 


LAMAR, a N. E. county of Texas, separated 
from the Indian territory by Red river, and 
bounded S. by the N. fork of Sulphur river ; 
area, about 950 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,790, 
of whom 4,410 were colored. It has an un- 
even surface, diversified by woodlands and fer- 
tile prairies, and suitable for grazing. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 5,390 bushels 
of wheat, 474,361 of Indian corn, 9,104 of 
oats, 16,347 of sweet potatoes, and 6,753 bales 




of cotton. There were 5,037 horses, 1,090 
mules and asses, 5,196 milch cows, 1,061 work- 
ing oxen, 14,249 other cattle, 3,986 sheep, and 
22,030 swine ; 3 manufactories of furniture, 5 
of saddlery and harness, and 2 flour mills. 
Capital, Paris. 

LAMARCK, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet 
de, a French naturalist, born at Bazentin, 
Picardy, Aug. 1, 1744, died in Paris, Dec. 18, 
1829. He was a younger son of a noble family, 
formerly of Beam, and being destined for the 
church was sent to the Jesuits' college at 
Amiens ; but his father dying when he was 17 
years old, he left his studies and joined the 
army under the duke de Broglie. He served 
until the close of the seven years' war, when 
he became incapacitated for military duty by 
an accident, returned to Paris, and studied 
medicine and the physical sciences. In 1776 
he began his career as an author by the publi- 
cation of his Memoire sur les vapeurs de Vat- 
mosphere. In 1778 he published his Flore 
francaise, containing a new arrangement of 
plants which was commended by Buffon and 
the academy of sciences. About* the same 
time he accompanied the younger Buffon on a 
tour through Germany and Holland to procure 
botanical specimens; and he became also a 
companion in the botanical excursions of J. J. 
Rousseau. Being appointed editor of the bo- 
tanical department of Panckoucke's Ency dope- 
die methodique, the results of his researches 
were embodied in that work. The outbreak 
of the French revolution interrupted it and 
terminated Lamarck's botanical labors. In 
1793, although he had given comparatively 
little attention to zoology, he was intrusted 
with the department of invertebrata in the 
museum of natural history in Paris. This 
branch of natural history became thenceforth 
the absorbing study of his life, and his lec- 
tures upon it, begun in 1794, were continued 
until the failure of his eyesight in 1818 incapa- 
citated him for the duty. His first important 
work on this subject, Systeme des animaux 
sans vertelres (1801), was the forerunner of a 
more elaborate treatise published many years 
later. In 1809 appeared his Philosophic zoo- 
logique (2 vols. 8vo), in which his theory of 
the development of animal functions, previous- 
ly hinted at in an early work, is set forth at 
considerable length. It was his opinion that 
new organs could be produced in animals by 
the simple exertion of the will, called into ac- 
tion by the creation of new wants ; and that 
the organs thus acquired could be transmitted 
by generation. In support of this doctrine, 
which is called appetency, he cited the exis- 
tence of tentacula on the head of the snail, 
which ^ derive their origin from the desire of 
the animal, united with endeavor perpetuated 
and imperceptibly working its effect through a 
series of generations, to possess organs capa- 
ble of examining the bodies it encounters ; and 
the same thing, he asserted, had happened " to 
all races of gasteropods, in which necessity 

has induced the habit of touching bodies with 
some part of their head." He was an advo- 
cate also of spontaneous generation, and he 
believed that all organized beings, from the 
lowest to the highest forms, were developed 
progressively from similar living microscopic 
particles. He is considered the foremost mod- 
ern originator of the theory of the variation 
of species, which Darwin has revived and 
developed. In 1815-'22 appeared Lamarck's 
chief work, Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertebres (7 vols. 8vo), by far the most 
comprehensive treatise on the invertebrata 
which had appeared, and of which the edition 
of 1834-'45, with notes by Deshayes and Milne- 
Edwards, is a standard manual on the subject. 
His division of the animal kingdom includes 
three groups, the apathetic, the sensible, and 
the intelligent. The first comprises infusoria, 
polyparia, radiaria, and vermes ; the second, 
insecta, arachnida, Crustacea, annelida, cirri- 
peda, and mollusca ; and the third, pisces, rep- 
tilia, aves, and mammifera. Some of his state- 
ments respecting the habits and functions of 
the apathetic animals have been disproved by 
the researches of Ehrenberg and other natural- 
ists. His last work was his Memoires sur les 
coquilles, published in the Annales du museum, 
in which he was assisted by Valenciennes, and 
by his daughter. 

LAMARMORA, Alfonso di, marquis, an Italian 
general, born Nov. 17, 1804. He was admitted 
to the military academy of Turin in 1816, and 
left it in 1823 with the rank of lieutenant of ar- 
tillery. He took an active part in introducing 
reforms into the organization of the army, in 
the war against Austria in 1848, and in resto- 
ring order after the defeat at Novara in 1849. 
In 1855 he was commander of the Sardinian 
forces in the Crimean campaign, and in that 
of 1859 was the principal military adviser of 
Victor Emanuel. He also officiated on several 
occasions as minister of war and marine. Af- 
ter the peace of Villafranca and the retirement 
of Cavour, he was for a time chief of the cabi- 
net, a position which he again held in 1864-'6, 
after having served on missions to Berlin and 
St. Petersburg, and as commander in Milan 
and Naples. In 1866 he concluded through 
Gen. Govone the alliance with Prussia, and re- 
signed his premiership in order to take as chief 
of staff the virtual command of the army in the 
field. The defeat at Custozza (June 24), which 
was attributed to his mismanagement of the 
campaign, caused his retirement, and involved 
him in disagreeable controversies. In 1867 he 
was sent to Paris, subsequently became mem- 
ber of the Italian parliament, and in 1870-'71 
was governor of Rome. In 1873 he published 
a volume of diplomatic memoirs, which made 
an immense sensation by the assertion that Bis- 
marck in his negotiations with Gen. Govone 
in 1866 declared himself willing to cede a por 
tion of Transrhenan Germany to France, in 
order to ^secure the friendly attitude of Napo- 
leon III. in the impending war with Austria ; 



statement which the German chancellor vehe- 
mently denied. 

LAMARQUE, Maximilien, count, a French gen- 
eral, born in St. Sever, July 22, 1770, died in 
Paris, June 1, 1832. He enlisted in the army 
in 1791, was sent to Spain, reached the rank of 
captain, and joined the corps styled the colonne 
infernale, under the command of Latour d'Au- 
vergne. In 1794, at the head of 200 soldiers, 
he stormed Fuenterrabia, for which he was 
rewarded with the rank of adjutant general, 
and a decree of the convention declared that 
he had "merited well of his country." After 
the peace with Spain, he served under Dessolles 
and Moreau on the Rhine, distinguished him- 
self at Hohenlinden, and was made a brigadier 
general in 1801. He afterward joined the 
army under Napoleon, and participated in the 
battle of Austerlitz. He shared in the inva- 
sion of Naples, was present at the taking of 
Gaeta, smothered the insurrection in Calabria, 
and worsted some British detachments in 1807. 
In the same year he was made general of di- 
vision, and in 1808, under Joachim Murat, who 
had succeeded Joseph Bonaparte as king of 
Naples, he captured the island and fortress of 
Capri, which was defended by the English 
garrison under Sir Hudson Lowe. He sub- 
sequently distinguished himself at "Wagram, 
where he had four horses killed under him ; 
and in Spain, where he led the rear guard 
when the French evacuated the Peninsula. 
On the return from Elba, Napoleon appointed 
him to the command of Paris, and sent him 
to the west against the royalists. On the 
second restoration he was exiled and retired 
to Brussels, where he devoted his time to lit- 
erature, art, and the education of his son. In 
1818 he was allowed to return to France, and 
settled in his native town. In 1828 he was 
elected to the chamber of deputies by the de- 
partment of Landes, and took his seat among 
the opposition. He was one of the 221 mem- 
bers who boldly declared against the policy of 
Charles X. in 1830, but after the accession of 
Louis Philippe opposed the ministry, and bit- 
terly denounced the system known as that of 
peace at any price. His honesty of purpose, 
sincerity, and martial eloquence gained him 
great popularity. His funeral, which took 
place June 5, 1832, was attended by a large 
concourse of citizens ; and the republicans took 
advantage of it to raise a formidable insurrec- 
tion in the most populous districts of Parts. 
The whole army in Paris and the national guard 
marched against the insurgents, who yielded 
after nearly 48 hours of bloodshed. 

LAMARTIffE, Alphonse Marie Louis de, a French 
poet, born in Macon, Oct. 21, 1790, died in 
Paris, March 1, 1869. His early education was 
superintended by his mother at the village of 
Milly, near Macon, where his father, who had 
passed the reign of terror in prison, had re- 
tired on the fall of Robespierre. In his 12th 
year he was sent to study Latin under a neigh- 
boring priest, who, a sportsman as well as an 



ecclesiastic, afterward furnished the subject of 
Jocelyn. He was soon transferred to the col- 
lege of Lyons, and again to the school of the 
Jesuits at Belley, whence he returned in 1809 
to Milly and devoted himself to the reading 
of the poets. In 1811 he accompanied a rela- 
tive to Italy. Near the close of the empire he 
returned to France, entered the royal body 
guards in 1814, and on the escape of Napoleon 
from Elba retired to Switzerland, returning to 
Paris after the second restoration. In 1817 he 
wrote his elegy of the Lac, in which he first 
displayed the ability of a great poet. His ear- 
liest published collection appeared in 1820 un- 
der the title of Meditations poetiques, and won 
a remarkable success, 45,000 copies being sold 
within four years. Soon afterward he was 
appointed secretary to the embassy at Naples. 
On his way thither he married at Geneva Miss 
Birch, a wealthy young English lady, who had 
received a brilliant literary and artistic educa- 
tion. In 1823 he published his Nouvelles medi- 
tations, which, though it contained many of 
his finest poems, was less popular than the 
preceding volume. In 1824 he became secre- 
tary of legation at Florence, and in 1825 ap- 
peared his Dernier chant de Childe Harold, 
an imitation of Byron, containing a severe ti- 
rade on Italy, which resulted in a duel with 
Col. Pepe, an Italian revolutionist, in which 
Lamartine was wounded. After a residence 
of five years in Florence, he returned to Paris, 
was received into the academy, and published 
Harmonies poetiques et religieuses (1830). In 
1832 he set sail from Marseilles, with his wife 
and daughter, in a vessel chartered and fur- 
nished by himself, on a journey to the East, 
which had been the religious and romantic 
dream of his life. The French emir, as the 
Arabs called him, travelled like a sovereign, 
making princely presents, buying houses for 
his convenience, and having whole caravans of 
horses in his service. Leaving his family at 
Beyrout, he went alone to Jerusalem, where 
he heard of the death of his daughter. He 
returned to Paris after 16 months' absence, by 
way of Constantinople and the Danube, and 
published Voyage en Orient, souvenirs, impres- 
sions, pensees et pay sages (4 vols., 1835), a work 
splendid in design, but in parts carelessly com- 
posed, and inexact in facts. During his absence 
the electors of Bergues, Le Nord, had chosen him 
to represent them in the chamber of deputies, 
in which he took his seat two months after his 
arrival in France. Though he acted with no 
political party, his eloquence gave him distinc- 
tion, and many who doubted his aptitude for 
practical questions admired in his discourses 
the language of poetry applied to political 
affairs. In 1836 appeared Jocelyn, a poem of 
love and duty, announced as a journal fcrund 
in a village curacy. It is one of his finest 
productions, combining dramatic movement 
with lyric fervor. Two years later followed 
La chute d'un ange, a poem whose negligences 
and extravagances justified the coldness of iti 



reception. Similar defects characterized his 
Recueillements poetiques (1839). As an orator 
he made remarkable progress in the chamber. 
At once conservative and progressive, he stood 
between the ministry and the opposition, as- 
sailing the inflexibility of the one and the vio- 
lence of the other. In 1842 he foreshadowed 
his ultimate adherence to the liberal side, by 
contending that the regency should be con- 
ferred on the duchess of Orleans by a vote of 
the chamber, thus asserting the principle of 
the national sovereignty ; and in 1843 he broke 
definitely with the conservatives. He antici- 
pated the subversion of the throne, and con- 
tributed powerfully to it in his brilliant His- 
toire des G-irondins (8 vols., Paris, 1847). Af- 
ter the escape of the royal family, when the 
duchess of Orleans appeared in the last assem- 
bly of the chamber (Feb. 24, 1848) with her 
eldest son, the count of Paris, and an attempt 
was made to declare the latter king by accla- 
mation, the eloquence of Lamartine decided 
the establishment of a provisional govern- 
ment, which he was among the first to pro- 
pose. This included Dupont de UEure, who 
presided, Arago, Lamartine, Ledru - Rollin, 
Cremieux, Gamier-Pages, Marie, Marrast, Flo- 
con', Louis Blanc, and Albert. On the morn- 
ing of the 25th, when the insurgent and fam- 
ishing crowds appeared before the hotel de 
ville, demanding bread and work, and the rais- 
ing of the red flag, Lamartine advanced alone 
among them and gained his greatest triumph 
of eloquence. To his intrepid stand on this 
occasion it is mainly due that the republic did 
not pass immediately into a new reign of ter- 
ror. He took the department of foreign affairs 
in the new government, and one of his first acts 
was to address a pacific circular to the minis- 
ters of foreign states, in which the design of 
forcible revolutionary propagandism was dis- 
avowed. His popularity was proved by his 
election to the national assembly (April 23) 
from 10 departments ; but he fatally compro- 
mised himself by a coalition with Ledru-Rol- 
lin, and instead of receiving the first place in 
the executive commission which was to succeed 
the provisional government till the formation 
of a constitution, he was the fourth on the 
list, the others being Arago, who became pres- 
ident, Ledru-Rollin, Gamier-Pages, and Marie. 
Cre"mieux, Carnot, Goudchaux, and others were 
attached as ministers. The "red" movement 
of May 15, under Blanqui, Barbes, Raspail, and 
others, having been subdued, Lamartine strove 
to prevent the insurrection of June, which the 
unsettled condition of labor and the socialist 
propaganda matured ; but perceiving that the 
time demanded not reason but the sword, he 
favored the dictatorship of Gen. Oavaignac, 
and resigned his own executive office. He was 
supported for the presidency by Pelletan and 
La Gue"ronniere in the Pays newspaper, but 
received only 17,910 votes, and he was returned 
to the assembly in 1849 by but one obscure 
department. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 


1851, he retired from public life. For several 
years his private affairs had demanded much 
of his attention. From the time of his oriental 
tour, the income of his writings and diminished 
fortune, and the illusive wealth of large terri- 
torial grants by the sultan, had been unequal to 
the expenditures incident to his elegant mode 
of life. He condemned himself therefore to 
indefatigable literary labors in the production 
of numerous works, often of ephemeral im- 
portance. His friends opened a subscription 
for him in 1858, but with unsatisfactory results. 
The municipality of Paris presented him in 
1860 with a country seat near the Bois de Bou- 
logne, and in 1867 the government of Napoleon 
III. gave him for life the income from a capi- 
tal of 500,000 francs. His principal later pub- 
lications are : Trois mois au pouvoir (1848) ; 
Histoire de la revolution de 1848 (2 vols., 1849) ; 
Confidences and Raphael (1849), memoirs of his 
youth ; Toussaint I" 1 Ouverture, a drama (1850) ; 
Genevieve (1851); Le tailleur^de pierre de 
Saint-Point (1851) ; Histoire de la restauration 
(6 vols., 1851-'3) ; Visions (1852), a poetic frag- 
ment ; Nouveau voyage en Orient (1853) ; His- 
toire des constituants (4 vols., 1854) ; Histoire 
de la Turquie (6 vols., 1854); Histoire de la 
Russie (2 vols., 1855) ; Regina (1862) ; Esprit 
de Mme. de Girardin (1862) ; a series of literary 
portraits, Bossuet, Antar, Ciceron, Christophe 
Colomb, Homere et Socrate, Nelson (1863), He~ 
lo'ise et Abailard, Mme. de Semgne, Shalcspeare 
et son ceuvre (1864) ; Cimlisateurs et conquerants 
(2 vols., 1865) ; Les grands homines de V Orient, 
Vie de Cesar, Les hommes de la revolution 
(1865) ; J. J. Rousseau, son faux contrat social 
et le vrai contrat social (1866) ; Vie du Tasse 
(1866); and Antoniella (1867). He conducted 
at various times the periodicals Le conseiller 
dupeuple (1849-'52), Le civilisateur (1852-'6), 
and the Cours familier de litterature (1856 et 
seq.}. His Correspondance (4 vols., Paris, 1873 
et seq.} was edited by his niece. See Lacre- 
telle's Lamartine et ses amis (Paris, 1872), Ma- 
zade's Lamartine, sa vie litteraire et politique 
(Paris, 1872), and Vingt-cinq ans de ma vie, 
translated into English by Lady Herbert (1872). 

LAMB, Lady Caroline. See MELBOURNE. 

LAMB. I. Charles, an English author, born 
in London, Feb. 18, 1775, died in Edmonton, 
Dec. 27, 1834. His father was servant and 
friend to one of the benchers of the Inner 
Temple, and published a volume of occasional 
verses which evince his humor and taste. His 
character is happily drawn under the name of 
Lovel in the essay of Elia on " The 014 Benchers 
of the Inner Temple." In the Inner Temple 
Charles passed the first seven years of his life, 
and was then sent to the school of Christ's 
hospital, where he remained till his 15th year. 
Coleridge was his schoolfellow, and one of his 
earliest and most esteemed friends. But for a 
slight impediment in his speech he would have 
acquired a university education and taken or- 
ders. He was employed in the South sea house 
from 1789 to 1792, when he obtained an ap- 



pointment in the accountant's office of the 
East India company, which he held until his 
retirement with a pension in 1825. To meet- 
ings with Coleridge on his visits to London, 
when they used to sup together at an inn, and 
sit in conversation nearly through the night, he 
attributed the first quickening of his intellect 
to literary activity; saying in a letter to him : 
" You first kindled in me, if not the power, 
yet the love of poetry, and beauty, and kindli- 
ness." There was a tendency to insanity in 
his family. He himself at the age of 20 was 
confined six weeks in a madhouse. He was 
not again affected, but the tendency was more 
strongly marked in his sister Mary. On Sept. 
22, 1796, she killed her mother in a paroxysm 
of madness, and from this time she was subject 
to attacks of insanity. She always had pre- 
monition of them, and would indicate the mo- 
ment when her brother should take her to the 
asylum. He devoted himself only to her, and 
admitted no connection which could interfere 
with his single care to sustain and comfort 
her. His first compositions were in verse, 
written slowly and at long intervals. His 
earliest printed poems are contained in a vol- 
ume published conjointly with Coleridge and 
Charles Lloyd in 1797, and republished only in 
conjunction with Lloyd in 1798. In that year 
he produced also his prose tale of " Rosamund 
Gray," was associated with Coleridge and 
Southey in preparing a volume of fugitive po- 
etry under the title of the " Annual Anthol- 
ogy," and was engaged in writing the tragedy 
of "John Woodvil," which was rejected by 
the managers, but was published in 1801. He 
made one other dramatic attempt, " Mr. H.," 
a pleasant farce, which was produced at Drury 
Lane theatre in 1806, with Mr. Elliston in the 
principal character. It was damned on the 
first night, and Lamb, who sat with his sister 
in the front of the pit, gave way to the com- 
mon feeling, hissed and hooted as loudly as 
any one, and henceforth made a jest of the 
wreck of his dramatic hopes. He had already 
begun his studies of the old English authors, 
whom he always preferred to later writers with 
one or two exceptions, and published in 1808 
his " Specimens of English Dramatic Poets 
who lived about the Time of Shakespeare," 
with appreciative and suggestive notes, which 
was more favorably received than his pre- 
ceding works. To the " Reflector," a short- 
lived quarterly magazine edited by Leigh Hunt 
in 1810, he contributed some of his finest 
pieces, as the essay " On Garrick and Acting," 
which contains his character of Lear, the "Es- 
says on Hogarth," and the " Farewell to To- 
bacco." His celebrity as an author and the 
circle of his literary friends had greatly in- 
creased when the establishment of the " London 
Magazine" in 1820 occasioned the composi- 
tions by which he acquired his most brilliant 
reputation, the "Essays of Elia," first collected 
in 1823, to which the " Last Essays of Elia " 
were added in 1833. In 1825 occurred one of 

the principal events of his uneventful life, his 
retirement from his clerkship, which is de- 
scribed in his essay " The Superannuated Man." 
His salary had then become 700 a year, and 
he was allowed a life annuity of 450. Great 
consideration had uniformly been shown him 
by his superiors. So highly did he value the 
independence thus obtained by drudgery, that 
he advised one of his friends rather to seek five 
consolatory minutes between the desk and the 
bed, or even to throw himself " from the steep 
Tarpeian rock, slapdash, headlong upon iron 
spikes," than to rely solely upon literary labor 
for support. His exultation on his release ap- 
pears in his letters: "I came home for ever 
on Tuesday in last week. The incomprehen- 
sibleness of my condition overwhelmed me. 
It was like passing from life into eternity." 
Coleridge, Lloyd, Southey, Godwin, Manning, 
Wordsworth, George Dyer, Hazlitt, Talfourd, 
Bernard Barton, Leigh Hunt, Gary, Procter, 
De Quincey, and Hood were among those who 
shared his intimacy. Many of these were wont 
to meet at the Wednesday evening parties of 
Charles and Mary Lamb in his chambers in 
Inner Temple lane, which would occupy a large 
space in a literary history of his epoch, and 
which his biographer elaborately compares 
with the evenings of Holland house. Lamb 
presided over the motley group, stammering 
out puns, witticisms, and fine remarks, while 
his countenance is described as presenting a 
sort of quivering sweetness, "deep thought 
striving with humor, the lines of suffering 
wreathed into cordial mirth;" and his whole 
appearance resembled his own characterization 
of another person, " a compound of the Jew, 
the gentleman, and the angel." Though many 
of his curious sayings have been recorded, it is 
affirmed that they give no idea of the singular 
traits, the verbal felicities, and happy thoughts 
of his conversation. His single frailty was 
the eagerness with which from an early period 
of life he would quaff exciting liquors, snatch- 
ing a fearful pleasure "between the acts of 
his distressful drama." He made a final aban- 
donment of tobacco, though he had learned 
to smoke the strongest preparations of the 
weed, saying to Dr. Parr that he had toiled 
after this power as some men toil after virtue. 
His large intellectual tolerance, cherishing 
among his intimate associates men of every 
variety of philosophical, religious, and political 
opinions, has rarely been equalled. He de- 
lighted especially in individual peculiarities and 
oddities, and in all striking displays of human 
nature. During the last six years of his life 
he resided with his sister successively at Is- 
lington, Enfield, and Edmonton, often visiting 
his old associates in London, heavily afflicted 
by the deaths of Coleridge and Hazlitt, and 
with little disposition to write anything but 
verses and essays that were given to his friends. 
While taking his daily morning walk he ac- 
cidentally fell, slightly wounding his face, and 
erysipelas ensued, which terminated fatally. 



In Ms last moments, when nearly insensible 
to things around him, his mind seemed in- 
tent on hospitable purposes, and he proposed in 
broken sentences some meeting of his friends. 
Beneath all his inconsistencies, his fantastic 
ideas, subtle perceptions, absurd fancies, and 
mingling of jest with seriousness, the most 
constant and prominent feature of his char- 
acter was amiability. The " Essays of Elia " 
hold a peculiar place in English literature. 
The style is a model of quaint and graceful 
elaboration, showing both his original genius 
and his familiarity with the fine sayings of the 
Elizabethan age ; and they abound as well in 
profound thoughts as in the rarest fancies and 
felicities of expression. His works were edited, 
with a biography consisting largely of his let- 
ters, which are among the most delightful in 
the language, by Thomas Noon Talf ourd (1 vol. 
8vo, London, 1840; 4 vols., 1850; with addi- 
tion of the " Final Memorials," 1 vol., 1852 ; 
4 vols., 1855). The " Specimens of English 
Dramatic Poets," and other writings of his, 
are not included. The " Essays of Elia" have 
been published separately (Boston? 1860), and 
a volume of the uncollected writings of Charles 
Lamb, edited by J. E. Babson (Boston, 1864), 
since incorporated with several complete edi- 
tions. II. Mary Anne, an English authoress, 
sister of the preceding, born in London in 1765, 
died in St. John's Wood, May 20, 1847. She 
resided constantly with her brother until his 
death, except when fits of insanity obliged her 
removal to the asylum. She wrote a few slight 
poems, and in conjunction with him the " Tales 
from Shakespeare" (1807) and a collection of 
juvenile tales entitled " Mrs. Leicester's School " 
(1808). The stories by her are, as Charles de- 
lighted to insist, the best of the collection. 
When well, she was remarkable for the sweet- 
ness and placidity of her disposition. On 
Charles Lamb's death the East India company 
granted to her the pension to which a widow 
was entitled, and her brother had besides made 
her comfort secure by his own savings. A 
volume of poems, letters, and remains of Mary 
and Charles Lamb, with reminiscences and 
notes, edited by W. Carew Hazlitt, was pub- 
lished in 1874. 

LAMBALLE, Marie Therese Lonise de Savoic-Ca- 
rignan, princess of, born in Turin, Sept. 8, 1749, 
murdered at the prison of La Force in Paris, 
Sept. 3, 1792. She was early remarked for 
her intelligence, sweetness of temper, and per- 
sonal beauty. In 1767 she was married to the 
prince of Lamballe, son of the duke of Bour- 
bon-Penthievre. This union was not happy, 
and the princess was about to seek a separa- 
tion when her husband died, May 7, 1768. 
On the death of Marie Leszczynska, a marriage 
was proposed between her and Louis XV.; 
but the project was defeated by Choiseul and 
his adherents. Marie Antoinette conceived 
a strong attachment for the princess, and on 
her accession to the throne appointed her 
superintendent of the royal household. The 


princess proved a devoted friend. She saw 
without jealousy the growing favor of the 
duchess of Polignac, and silently kept aloof ; 
but when the latter, on the breaking out of the 
revolution, deserted her mistress, she returned 
to her post. She was at the queen's side on 
the dreadful days of June 20 and Aug. 10, 1792, 
and accompanied her to the legislative assem- 
bly and afterward to the Temple. On Aug. 19 
she was separated from her mistress and con- 
fined in the prison of La Force, where, despite 
the most energetic measures to save her, she 
fell a victim to the September massacre. When 
she appeared before the tribunal which passed 
sentence upon the prisoners, she answered with 
firmness and dignity. She refused to take the 
oath against the king, the queen, and mon- 
archy ; and scarcely had the verdict, " Out 
with her," been uttered, when she was struck 
down with a billet by a drummer boy and de- 
spatched with a sword ; her body was mutilated 
and exposed, and her head placed on a pike, 
and carried first to the Palais Royal, where the 
duke of Orleans, her brother-in-law, was forced 
to salute it, and then to the Temple, where it 
was paraded under the windows of the queen. 
The Memoires relatifs d la famille royale de 
France (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1826), gathered from 
her conversations and memoranda, and pub- 
lished by Mrs. 0. Hyde, the marchioness Solari, 
are not considered authentic. Her biography 
has been written by M. de Lescure (Paris, 1864). 
LAMBERT, Daniel, an English giant, born in 
Leicester, March 13, 1769, died in Stamford, 
June 21, 1809. Neither his parents, brother, 
nor sisters were of unusual size, but an uncle 
and an aunt were remarkable for corpulence. 
In his youth he excelled in strength, and was 
fond of field sports and other athletic exercises, 
but gave no indications that he was to attain 
excessive bulk till his 19th year. He soon after 
succeeded his father as keeper of the prison in 
Leicester, and his rapid increase in size from 
that time he attributed to his confinement and 
sedentary life. In 1793, when he weighed 448 
Ibs., he walked from Woolwich to London with 
less fatigue than several other men in his party. 
He was noted as a swimmer, and could float 
with two men of ordinary size on his back. 
Being incommoded by the curiosity of numerous 
visitors from the adjacent country, he decided 
in 1806 to exhibit himself in London. His 
apartments in Piccadilly became almost a place 
of fashionable resort, and his visitors were re- 
ceived with politeness, and treated him in the 
most respectful manner. He remained five 
months in the metropolis, and afterward ex- 
hibited himself in the principal towns of Eng- 
land. He was 5 ft. 11 in. high, and at his 
death he weighed 739 Ibs. He measured 9 ft. 
4 in. round the body, and 3 ft. 1 in. round the 
leg. He never drank any beverage but water, 
slept regularly less than eight hours a day, 
was healthy, active, and vivacious through 
life, and took part in all the sports of the field 
till within a few years of his death. 


LAMBERT, Johann Heinrk-h, a German phi- 
losopher, born in Mtihlhausen, Alsace, Aug. 29, 
1728, died in Berlin, Sept. 25, 1777. He was 
the son of a poor tailor, and was chiefly self- 
educated. He was at first a copying clerk, 
afterward secretary to the editor of a news- 
paper at Basel. In 1748 he went to Coire in 
Switzerland, and became private tutor in the 
family of Count Peter de Salis, then president 
of the confederation. In 1756-'8 he visited 
Holland, France, and Italy with his pupils. In 
1759 he removed to Augsburg, but, having 
been appointed to determine the boundaries 
between the country of the Grisons and the 
Milanese, he returned to Coire in 1761, and so- 
journed there till 1763. In 1764 he went to 
Berlin, and was made a member of the royal 
academy of sciences ; in 1770 he was appointed 
superior councillor of the board of works ; and 
in 1774 was intrusted with the superintendence 
of the " Astronomical Almanac." He was re- 
garded as the most analytical writer on scien- 
tific subjects of his day. The measurement of 
the intensity of light was first reduced to a 
science in his PJiotometria (Augsburg, 1760), 
and the theory of refraction was developed in 
Les proprietes remarquables de la route de la 
lumiere par les airs (the Hague, 1759; Ger. 
translation, Berlin, 1773). Among his other 
works are : Die freie Perspective (Zurich, 
1759); Kosmologische Brief e uber die Einrich- 
tung des Weltbaues (Augsburg, 1761); Insig- 
niores Orbitcs Cometarum Proprietates (1761); 
Neues Organon (Leipsic, 1764) ; Beitrage zum 
Gebrauch der Maihematik (Berlin, 1765-'72) ; 
and Anlage zur ArchiteJctonik (Riga, 1771). 
His correspondence with Kant appears in the 
minor miscellaneous works of the latter. 

LAMBERT, John, an English general, born in 
Kirkby-Malhamdale, in the West riding of 
Yorkshire, Sept. 7, 1619, died in the island of 
Guernsey in 1692. He was educated for the 
bar, but at the outbreak of the civil war en- 
tered the parliamentary army as a captain un- 
der Fairfax, and at the battle of Worcester, 
Sept. 3, 1651, was a major general. He was 
instrumental in procuring the recognition of 
Cromwell as protector, and was a member of 
the first parliament called by him. But upon 
the assumption by Cromwell in 1657 of sov- 
ereign power, and his inauguration with the 
solemnities applicable to monarchs, he refused 
to take the required oath of allegiance and re- 
tired from public life. After the death of 
Cromwell he associated himself with the gen- 
eral council of officers of the army, and aided 
in deposing Richard Cromwell, even ventur- 
ing, on the credit of his military reputation, to 
aspire to the position of protector. As ~a 
leader of the fifth monarchy men and extreme 
republicans, he was prominent in procuring 
the return in May, 1659, of the remnant of the 
long parliament called the "rump;" and upon 
the rising of the royalists in Chester in August 
of the same year he promptly marched thither 
and defeated them. This success excited the 



jealousy of parliament, and on a flimsy pretext 
Lambert with other officers was cashiered; 
whereupon with a body of soldiers he dis- 
persed the members, Oct. 13, and a committee 
of safety appointed by the army, of which 
Lambert was the controlling spirit, began to 
exercise the functions of government. His 
position at this time was so important that it 
was considered not unlikely, in the event of 
his own schemes of sovereignty proving im- 
practicable, that he might make terms with 
Charles II. ; and some of the adherents of the 
latter went so far as to recommend him to se- 
cure the services of Lambert by marrying his 
daughter. Meanwhile Monk commenced his 
march from Scotland for the purpose of re- 
storing parliament. Lambert at the head of 
7,000 men started to oppose him; but his 
troops deserted in great numbers, and in Jan- 
uary, 1660, he was seized by order of parlia- 
ment, which had reassembled during his ab- 
sence, and committed to the tower. Monk's 
design to restore the monarchy being now 
manifest, the hopes of the republicans began 
again to centre in Lambert, who, escaping 
from the tower in April, put himself at the 
head of a body of troops in Warwickshire. 
His men again deserted him, and he was re- 
captured by Col. Ingoldsby and conveyed to 
the tower. Having been excepted from the 
bill of indemnity after the restoration, he was 
tried in 1662 in the court of king's bench with 
Sir Harry Vane, and convicted, but was re- 
prieved at the bar and banished to Guernsey, 
where he devoted the rest of his life to botany 
and flower painting. He is said to have died 
a Roman Catholic. 

LAMBESSA, or Lambese, a French penal colony 
of Algeria, in the province and 55 m. S. by W. 
of the city of Constantine, founded in 1848-'50 ; 
pop. of the town about 400, of whom half are 
Europeans. A French commander resides in 
the place, and is supported by a body of officers 
and soldiers. Lambessa contains a church, a 
hospital, a post office, and various other public 
buildings, the principal of which is the prison, 
built at a cost of $350,000. The prisoners are 
permitted to work at their former trades ; half 
of the proceeds of their labor is given to them 
at once, and the remainder when they are set 
free. The neighboring country is well adapted 
for agriculture and fruit growing, but is not 
yet much cultivated. Lambessa occupies the 
site of the ancient Lambese or Lambaasa, which 
was one of the most important cities in the in- 
terior of Numidia, belonging to the Massylii. 
Under the Romans an entire legion was sta- 
tioned here, and among its interesting ruins 
are the remains of an amphitheatre, a temple 
of ^Esculapius, a triumphal arch, and other 
buildings, enclosed by a wall in which 40 gates 
have been traced, 15 of them still in a good 
state of preservation. Statues of Jupiter, 
^Esculapius, and Hygiea, and busts of' Roman 
emperors and empresses have been found, be- 
sides a number of tombs and inscriptions. The 



population could not have been much less than 
50,000. A synod was held there in A. D. 240, 
attended by 100 prelates. The city was de- 
stroyed by the Vandals in the 5th century, and 
its site was lost; it was discovered in 1844 by 
the French commandant Delamarre. 

LAMBETH, a parish and suburb of London, 
If m. S. W. of St. Paul's cathedral, on the S. 
side of the Thames, here crossed by the Water- 
loo, Charing Cross railway, Westminster, and 
Vauxhall bridges ; pop. in 1871, 379,112. 
Lambeth palace, the town residence of the 
archbishop of Canterbury, is situated between 
Vauxhall and Westminster bridges, opposite 
the new houses of parliament. This property 
was acquired by the see in 1197, and has been 
improved by successive incumbents. The pal- 
ace stands on a low site close to the river, 
surrounded by gardens 12 acres in extent. Its 
objects of interest are the Lollards' tower, 
founded about 1440 ; the banqueting hall ; 

Lambeth Palace. 

the chapel, with a fine roof of carved oak; 
and the library. Among its many literary 
treasures and curiosities is a superb Arabic Ko- 
ran, presented by the governor general of India 
through Claudius Buchanan in 1805, who calls 
it "the most valuable Koran of Asia." The 
library also contains the archiepiscopal regis- 
ters of the see of Canterbury in regular succes- 
sion from the year 1278, and the parliamentary 
surveys of ecclesiastical benefices in the time 
of the commonwealth, now used as legal evi- 
dence. The parish contains many churches, 
charitable institutions, and other public build- 
ings, some of them elegant and ornamental. 
Near Vauxhall bridge is the terminus of the 
Southampton railway. There are many manu- 
factories, and several places of amusement, 
among them Astley's amphitheatre. In Sep- 
tember, 1867, a pan- Anglican synod was held 
in Lambeth palace, in which several American 
Protestant Episcopal bishops participated. 

LAMBRFSCHIXI, Lnigi, an Italian prelate, born 
in Genoa, May 16, 1776, died in Rome, May 
12, 1854. He entered in youth the order of 
Barnabites, and became successively bishop of 
Sabina, archbishop of Genoa, papal nuncio to 
France, and in 1831 cardinal. Gregory XVI. 
appointed him secretary of state for foreign 
affairs, librarian of the Vatican, grand prior of 
the order of Malta, and minister of public in- 
struction. On the death of Gregory in 1846, 
he received on the first ballot for the successor 
the largest number of votes. Under Pius IX. 
he became member of the state council, bishop 
of Porto, and chancellor of the pontifical or- 
ders. On the outbreak of the political com- 
motions he fled to Civita Vecchia, subsequently 
returned to Rome, fled again in November, 
1848, to Naples, and soon after joined the pope 
at Gaeta. He returned with him to Rome in 
1850, and counselled, it is said, milder mea- 
sures than those adopted by Cardinal Anto- 
nelli. He wrote some 
devotional works and 
a polemical disserta- 
tion on the immaculate . 
conception, all trans- 
lated and published in 

LAMBTOff, a S. W. 
county of Ontario, 
Canada, bounded N. 
by Lake Huron and 
W. by the St. Clair 
river, and drained by 
the Sydenham river 
and other streams ; 
area, 1,083 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 38,897, 
of whom 12,673 were 
of Irish, 11, 538 of Eng- 
lish, 9,800 of Scotch, 
and 1,624 of German 
origin or descent. It 
contains extensive pe- 
troleum wells, and is 
traversed by the Grand Trunk and Gi 
Western railways. Capital, Sarnia. 

LAMEGO, a town of Portugal, in the province 
of Beira, 71 m. E. N. E. of Coimbra, at the 
foot of the Sierra Penude, and 3 m. S. of the 
Douro ; pop. about 9,000. It is surrounded by 
walls, defended by an old castle, and has a fine 
cathedral, but is otherwise uninteresting and 
excessively dirty. It contains an episcopal 
palace, a college, a diocesan seminary, three 
monasteries, two hospitals, and a nunnery. It 
has been the seat of a bishop since the 4th 
century. Its chief celebrity is due to the story 
that a cortes was held here in 1143, at which 
the constitution of the newly created kingdom 
of Portugal was drawn up ; but this is now 
said to be fictitious. Lamego was the residence 
of the Moorish kings till "it was taken from 
them by Ferdinand the Great in 1038. 

LAMELLIBRAffCHIATES, a name properly giv- 
en to the acephalous mollusks, having the gills 



in lamellae on the sides, protected by a right 
and left shell. Excluding the molluscoids (bra- 
chiopods, tunicates, and bryozoans), now be- 
lieved by many to be articulates, coming near 
the worms, the term would be synonymous 
with the bivalve mollusks. 

LAMEMAIS, Hngnes Felicite Robert de, a French 
author, born in St. Malo, June 19, 1782, died 
in Paris, Feb. 27, 1854. His father, a wealthy 
ship owner engaged in commerce, had been 
ennobled by Louis XVI. He was early aban- 
doned to himself in consequence of the death 
of his mother and the pecuniary difficulties of 
his father. He lived almost in solitude, some- 
times obtaining assistance in his studies from 
his elder brother Jean, till about his 12th year, 
when he was intrusted to the care of his uncle, 
who confined him day after day in his library. 
He read Plutarch and Livy, admired Rous- 
seau, and disputed with the parish priest about 
religion. In his 16th year he retired with 
his brother to La Chnaie, a residence two 
leagues from Dinan, where he reduced his 
studies and various reading to order, mastered 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and several modern 
languages, and acquainted himself with the 
church fathers, doctors, historians, and con- 
troversialists. He was 22 years old before he 
made his first communion, and he adopted the 
ecclesiastical profession only after long hesita- 
tion. He made a translation of an ascetic work 
by Louis de Blois (published in 1809), and pub- 
lished in 1808 Reflexions sur Vetat de V Eglise, 
his first protest against the reigning philosophi- 
cal materialism, which was immediately seized 
and destroyed by the imperial police. He 
engaged with his brother on the Tradition 
de I Eglise sur I 1 institution des eveques (3 vols., 
Paris, 1814), in which he confuted the Gallican 
tenet that the election of bishops is valid with- 
out the sanction of the holy see. After being 
teacher of mathematics in the seminary of St. 
Malo, founded by his brother, he went in 1814 
to Paris, where he lived modestly and unknown. 
On the return of the Bourbons he published 
a violent attack upon Napoleon. Judging it 
prudent to leave France during the hundred 
days, he took refuge in the island of Guernsey, 
where he passed several months under the 
name of Patrick Robertson. He engaged in 
teaching in London, and for several years after 
1815 in Paris. In 1816, at the age of 34, he 
received sacerdotal ordination, having received 
the tonsure in 1811 ; and in 1817 he published 
the first volume of his Essai sur V indifference en 
matiere de religion. This was the fruit of con- 
stant labor during many years of trial and ob- 
scurity, and had an immediate effect through- 
put Europe. It aimed to oppose to Protestant- 
ism and philosophy the principle of ecclesi- 
astical authority and the absolutism of faith. 
It was received by Catholics with admiration 
and enthusiasm, and the author became a prin- 
cipal collaborator in the Conservateur, a jour- 
nal founded by Chateaubriand, Villele, De Bo- 
nald, Frayssinous, and others, which was chief- 

ly directed against the ministry of Decazes. 
Though thus ranged among the defenders of 
the monarchy, he was more earnestly a Catho- 
lic than a royalist, and sought in the mainte- 
nance of the throne to secure guarantees for 
the stability of the church. The political 
hopes cherished concerning him were thus dis- 
appointed, and in 1820 he separated from his 
party with a portion of his colleagues called 
the " incorruptibles," and vehemently assailed 
the ministry of Villele in the Drapeau Blanc, 
and afterward in the monthly Memorial Catlio- 
lique. The first volume of his Essai was sus- 
pected of innovating tendencies before the ap- 
pearance of the second (1820), in which he re- 
jected the Cartesian system, which gives au- 
thority to the individual reason, and developed 
a new theory of intellectual authority founded 
on the universal agreement of mankind. He 
maintained that there is a preestablished har- 
mony between the doctrines of the church and 
the ideas of the race, that truth is attainable 
not only from revelation but from universal 
tradition, and thus sought to make the general 
consent of men the basis of an alliance between 
reason and faith. In the last two volumes 
(1824) he traced the transmission of truth 
through the ages, collected the scattered tradi- 
tions of various peoples, and sought to demon- 
strate that Christianity alone possesses the 
double character of universality and perpetu- 
ity. This work was unanimously and strongly 
opposed by the Sorbonne and the prelates, and 
was applauded only by a small body of dis- 
ciples. He wrote a short defence, and in 1824 
went to Rome to present it to the pope. He 
was coldly received by the cardinals, and Leo 
XII., who had at one time thought of creating 
him a ca'rdinal, after conversing with him, de- 
clared to his assistants that Lamennais would 
cause much trouble in the church. On his re- 
turn, after publishing a translation of the " Imi- 
tation of Christ," he produced De la religion 
consideree dans ses rapports avec Vordre civil 
et catJiolique (2 vols., Paris, 1825-'6), in which 
he strove to establish the absolute spiritual 
supremacy of the holy see as the solution of 
the social problem. For this publication he 
was arraigned before the civil tribunal, and 
condemned. From this time war was waged 
between Lamennais and the bishops of France. 
In his treatise Des progres de la revolution et 
de la guerre centre V Eglise (1829) he first in- 
dicated his tendency toward political liberty 
while laying stress on theocratic absolutism. 
To combine democracy with the papal su- 
premacy, liberal with Catholic ideas, became 
his avowed aim immediately after the revolu- 
tion of 1830. He founded the journal ISAve- 
nir, having the motto Dieu et liberte le pape 
et le peuple, and was assisted by a corps of 
young and ardent disciples, among whom were 
Gerbet, De Salinis, Lacordaire, Rohrbacher, 
De Coux, and Montalembert. It demanded 
administrative decentralization, extension of 
the electoral right, freedom of worship, uni- 



versal and equal freedom of conscience, free- 
dom of instruction, and the liberty of the press. 
Encouraged by a portion of the people and of the 
lower clergy, it was violently opposed by most 
of the prelates and Jesuits, who denounced it 
at Eome. While the contest was going on, 
the editors decided (Nov. 15, 1831) to suspend 
it for a time, and three of them, Lamennais, 
Lacordaire, and Montalembert, repaired to 
Eome to seek the papal approbation. No no- 
tice was taken of them on their arrival ; La- 
mennais in vain sought a conference with the 
pope on the subject of his mission, and after 
waiting several months decided to return to 
France. He had gone as far as Munich when 
he received the encyclical letter, dated Aug. 
15, 1832, in which Gregory XVI. formally 
condemned the doctrines of L'Avenir. His 
principal collaborators yielded at once to the 
decision ; he himself announced that the jour- 
nal would not again appear. A dogmatic sub- 
mission was demanded from him, which he 
finally signed, reserving to himself full liberty 
in regard to whatever he should believe for 
the interest of his country and oi humanity. 
He then retired to his patrimonial villa of La 
Chenaie, and composed, it is said within a 
week, his Paroles d'un croyant, which was not 
published till 1834, after a year of meditation. 
From its appearance dates his final and definite 
rupture with the Roman Catholic church. It 
was immediately translated into the different 
European languages, passed through more than 
100 editions in a few years, and received the 
papal condemnation as a book " small in size, 
but immense in its perversity." In 1836 he 
published his Affaires de Home, in which he 
seems to cast a last melancholy look upon the 
belief which he had abandoned. In the fol- 
lowing year he began a journal, Le Monde, in 
the interest of extreme democracy, which sur- 
vived but a few months. He subsequently 
produced various political pamphlets, one of 
which, Le pays et le gouvernement (1840), 
caused his imprisonment for a year in Ste. 
Pelagie, where he was daily visited by numer- 
ous friends. As one of the chiefs and the ablest 
writer of the republican party, he took part in 
the revolution of 1848, and after editing the 
Peuple Constituant, a daily newspaper, for 
four months, was elected by an unusually large 
vote one of the representatives of Paris in the 
constituent assembly. He projected a consti- 
tution in accordance with his own theories, 
which was rejected by the committee as too 
radical. For three years he protested by his 
silent vote against the course of events. After 
the coup tfetat of Dec. 2, 1851, he retired from 
public life, and -was occupied in his last years 
with translating Dante. At the news of his 
dangerous illness, priests, and even ladies of 
the highest rank, sought admission to his 
chamber to induce him to be reconciled to the 
church ; but by his express prohibition no one 
was received except those connected with his 
family. His obsequies were performed amid 


an immense concourse of people, and in ac- 
cordance with a direction in his will his body 
was borne directly to the cemetery without 
being taken to any church ; and no cross, nor 
even a stone, marks his grave. He was both 
one of the ablest defenders and one of the 
ablest opponents of the papacy in the present 
century. The constant element in his specu- 
lations was an ideal of democracy, which he 
sought to realize in the first part of his career 
by allying the people and the pope against 
the civil monarchy, and in the second part by 
exalting the people to supremacy in defiance 
alike of the pope and the civil monarchy. He 
initiated and gave life to the ultramontane 
movement, which, after being the object of his 
most ardent devotion, prevailed in the church 
of France in spite of his efforts and with his 
maledictions. Besides the works already men- 
tioned, he published Esquisse d'une philoso- 
pJiie (4 vols., 1840-'46). Its system is akin to 
Neoplatonism, and it traces the rise of all the 
arts to the plan of the Christian temple. His 
complete works have been twice collected (12 
vols., 1836-% and 11 vols., 1844 et seq). Sev- 
eral volumes of posthumous works, including 
Correspondance, were published under the care 
of Emile Forgues (1856 et seq.}. 

LA METTRIE, Jnlien Offray de, a French phy- 
sician and philosopher, born in St. Malo, Dec. 
25, 1709, died in Berlin, Nov. 11, 1751. He 
was the son of a rich merchant, received a lib- 
eral education, and was destined for the church, 
but preferred to devote himself to medicine. 
In 1733 he went to Leyden, where he placed 
himself under the direction of Boerhaave, sev- 
eral of whose works he translated into French. 
In 1742 he went to Paris, and was appointed 
physician to the gardes francaises, followed 
that regiment into Germany, and witnessed 
the battles of Dettingen and Fontenoy. In 
1745 he published his Histoire naturelle de 
Vdme, in which he denied the immateriality of 
the human soul. In consequence of this he 
lost his office, and the following year, having 
issued his Politique du medecin de Machiavel, 
ou le Chemin de la fortune ouvert aux mede- 
cins, a libellous attack upon his medical col- 
leagues, he was obliged to fly to Holland. 
There he wrote and printed his noted atheisti- 
cal work, L* Homme-macTiine (12mo, Leyden, 
1748), which was publicly burned by order of 
the authorities. Expelled from Holland, he 
was invited to Berlin by Frederick the Great, 
who made him his reader and a member of his 
academy. He lived on terms of familiarity 
with the king, and published several works of 
a similar tendency to his previous writings; 
among them were Z 1 " Homme-plante (Potsdam, 
1748), Reflexions sur Vorigine des animaux 
(Berlin, 1750), and Venus metapTiysique, ou 
Essai sur Vorigine de Vdme Jiumaine (Berlin, 
1752). He died of indigestion, caused by high 
living. Frederick wrote his eulogy. Several 
editions of his philosophical works have been 
published; the most complete in Berlin, 1796. 




LAMMAS DAY, in the calendar, the first day 
of August, so called perhaps from the custom 
which formerly prevailed among the tenants 
who held lands of the cathedral church in York, 
England, of bringing a live lamb into the 
church at high mass on that day. Some anti- 
quaries derive the term from a Saxon word 
signifying loaf mass or bread mass, which was 
a feast of thanksgiving to God for the first 
fruits of the harvest. It is said to have been 
even recently a custom for tenants to bring in 
new wheat to their lord on or before that day. 
In the Salisbury manuals of the 15th century 
it is called benedictio novorum fructuum, and 
on this day before the reformation Peter's 
pence were paid in England. Dr. Johnson 
thinks it is a corruption of "latter math," 
meaning a second mowing of the grass. Val- 
lancey, in his Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis, 
mentions that the 1st of August, Laithmas 
(pronounced La-ee-mas), was celebrated by 
the druids as the day of the oblation of grain. 
The proverb " at latter Lammas " is a euphe- 
mism for " never." 

LAMMERGEYER (Germ. Ldmmer, lambs, and 
G-eier, vulture), or BEARDED YULTUEE (gypae- 

Lammergeyer (Gypaetus barbatus). 

tus larlatus, Cuv.), the largest of European 
birds of prey. It is about 4 ft. long and 9 or 
10 ft. in extent of wings ; the head and neck 
are completely clothed with feathers, and the 
cere is entirely hidden by projecting bristles ; 
the bill is long and strong, straight, laterally 
compressed, with the tip curved and sharp ; a 
tuft of stiff bristles projects forward like a 
beard from the base of the lower mandible ; 
the wings are long, the second and third quills 
nearly equal and longest ; tail lengthened and 
wedge-shaped; tarsi short and covered with 
feathers; toes moderate, the anterior ones 
united at the base by a membrane; claws 
curved, especially those of the inner and hind 
toes, and not well adapted for seizing and de- 
stroying prey. In the adult, the upper part 
476 VOL. x. 9 

of the head, the neck, and the under parts are 
whitish tinged with orange, deepest on the 
breast ; the wings and tail are grayish black, 
the wing coverts dashed with orange white ; 
the back deep brown; the beard and space 
including the eye and cere black; bill horn- 
colored. There is only one well characterized 
species, which inhabits the mountains of Eu- 
rope, Asia, and northern Africa, especially the 
Alps and Pyrenees. Lammergeyers are "seen 
usually in pairs; they feed on lambs, goats, 
chamois, &c., which they attack in such a 
manner as to cause them to leap over preci- 
pices, when they descend and devour the man- 
gled carcasses ; they also eat carrion. The nest 
is made upon inaccessible rocks, rarely upon 
lofty trees, several feet in diameter and of 
coarse materials, and the number of eggs is 
two or three. This bird plays the same part in 
the old world as the condor does in the new, 
and is very destructive to the flocks of the Al- 
pine valleys; stories are numerous, though not 
well authenticated, of its having carried off 
children. It is not abundant anywhere, and 
is rarely seen in Europe north of Germany. 
The African bird (G. meridionalis, Brehm) and 
the Asiatic (0. Himalayanus, Hutt.) are prob- 
ably only varieties of the bearded vulture. 

LAMOILLE, a N. county of Vermont, drained 
by Lamoille river ; area, 420 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 12,448. The surface is hilly, the Green 
mountains traversing the county in a N. E. and 
S. W. direction. There is some excellent soil 
in the valleys, but the land is chiefly adapted to 
grazing. The chief productions in 1870 were 
18,257 bushels of wheat, 61,836 of Indian 
corn, 168,103 of oats, 333,185 of potatoes, 
50,022 Ibs. of wool, 68,233 of hops, 657,892 
of maple sugar, 984,378 of butter, 39,199 of 
cheese, and 41,570 tons of hay. There were 
2,703 horses, 8,886 milch cows, 1,375 work- 
ing oxen, 4,701 other cattle, 9,377 sheep, and 
2,480 swine; 8 manufactories of carriages, 1 
of hones and whetstones, 1 of paper boxes, 
10 of starch, 3 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron 
ware, 1 of woollen goods, 2 tanneries, and 9 
saw mills. Capital, Hyde Park. 

LAMORICIERE, Christophe Louis Leon Jnchanlt 
de, a French general, born in Nantes, Feb. 6, 
1806, died near Amiens, Sept. 10, 1865. He 
was educated at the polytechnic school of 
Paris, and at the academy for military engi- 
neers of Metz, on leaving which he joined 
the Algerian army and entered the corps of 
Zouaves at the time of its formation (Novem- 
ber, 1830). He was placed in 1833 at the head 
of the office (bureau arabe) organized by Gen. 
Avizard for facilitating the relations with the 
native population. He took an active part in 
the capture of Constantino. In 1839 he was 
recalled to Paris, but returned in 1840, and 
gained distinction at Mouzaia, in the Mascara 
expedition, and at Isly. The celebrity of the 
Zouaves was chiefly due to him. In Novem- 
ber, 1845, on the departure of Gen. Bugeaud, 
he became provisional governor general of Al- 



geria, but went to France in 1846, in the hope 
of exerting a favorable influence upon the des- 
tiny of the African colony by taking part in the 
parliamentary discussions on the subject. He 
was elected to the chamber in October, 1846. 
Keturning to Algeria soon after, he organized 
the expedition against Abd-el-Kader which 
finished the war. He made altogether 18 Afri- 
can campaigns, and rose to the rank of lieuten- 
ant general. He was reflected to the chamber 
of deputies in 1847, and when the revolution 
of February, 1848, broke out, he exerted him- 
self in favor of the formation of a new admin- 
istration under Louis Philippe, and as colonel 
of the national guard went among the people 
assembled on the boulevards to allay the public 
excitement. But he was not listened to, and 
after the abdication of Louis Philippe he was 
slightly wounded while on his way to the 
Palais Eoyal to proclaim the regency of the 
duchess of Orleans. On the same evening he 
tendered his allegiance to the provisional gov- 
ernment. He took his seat in the constitu- 
ent assembly as a member for Sarthe, and be- 
came prominent in the committee* on milita- 
ry affairs. During the bloody days of June, 
184.8, three horses were killed under him. 
He officiated as Gen. Cavaignac's minister of 
war until December, 1848, and was instrumen- 
tal in introducing various measures for the 
benefit of Algeria. He strenuously opposed 
the election of Louis Napoleon to the presi- 
dency, and even questioned his right to citi- 
zenship. Being elected to the legislative as- 
sembly, he became president of the constitu- 
tional committee, and opposed the projects of 
the ultra-radical party. In the course of the 
Hungarian struggle with Austria, he was in- 
trusted with a diplomatic mission to Russia ; 
but on his arrival there the Hungarians had 
already been crushed by the armed interference 
of the czar. On hearing of the overthrow of 
Odilon Barrot's administration (Oct. 31, 1849), 
he returned to France and resumed his seat in 
the legislative assembly. After the coup d'etat 
of Dec. 2, 1851, he was arrested and detained in 
the fortress of Ham until Jan. 9, 1852, when he 
was permitted to go to Prussia. A letter of 
his, refusing to recognize the government of 
Louis Napoleon, was published in May, 1852. 
He afterward resided in Germany, Belgium, 
and England. In 1857", on the sudden death 
of one of his children, he was allowed to re- 
turn to France ; and with the consent of the 
French government in April, 1860, he was ap- 
pointed by Pope Pius IX. commander-in-chief 
of the papal troops, mainly foreigners. The 
Sardinian government, completing the work 
begun by Garibaldi in the Neapolitan prov- 
inces, sent Gens. Oialdini and Fanti into Ro- 
man territory ; they took Perugia, annihilated 
Lamoriciere's army at Oastel Fidardo, Sept. 
18, besieged him in Ancona, and compelled a 
capitulation, Sept. 29. He published an ex 
tended report of his last campaign. 


LAMOTTE-VALOIS, Jeanne de Luz de St. Remy, 

countess de, a French adventuress, born in 
Champagne about 1756, died in London, Aug. 
23, 1791. After marrying a count de Lamotte, 
who was a spendthrift, she went to Paris, and 
succeeded in being introduced to Marie Antoi- 
nette, who took some interest in her, and to 
Cardinal de Rohan, grand almoner to the king. 
She persuaded the latter that she could concili- 
ate for him the affection of the queen, who she 
told him was desirous of getting a magnificent 
diamond necklace, then in the hands of the 
court jewellers, which was worth about 1,600,- 
000 francs. She induced a Mile. d'Oliva who 
resembled Marie Antoinette, to personate her 
at a midnight interview with Rohan in the 
gardens of Versailles. With the real signature 
of Rohan and a forged one of the queen, the 
countess got possession of the necklace (Feb. 
2, 1786), which she sold in London, but pre- 
tended that she had delivered it to the queen, 
and for several months concealed the robbery 
by producing forged notes apparently written 
by the latter. Finally a direct application of 
the jewellers to her majesty awoke suspicion, 
which resulted in a public trial before the 
parliament. All France was excited over the 
affair. The cardinal was discharged from all 
accusation, while the countess was sentenced 
to be whipped, branded on the shoulder, and 
imprisoned for life. After being incarcerated 
about two years at the Salp&triere, she es- 
caped, June 5, 1787, and fled to London, where 
she published libels against the queen. Her 
husband survived her, and twice wrote a com- 
plete history of the affair ; the first manuscript 
was taken from him by the French police ; the 
second was mutilated in its most important 
parts. This mutilated manuscript was printed 
in 1858, under the supervision of L. Lacour, 
with the title Affaire du collier: Memoires 
inedits du comte de Lamotte- Valois. The best 
account of the affair is to be found in Louis 
Blanc's Histoire de la revolution francaise. 

LAMOVRE, an E. central county of Dakota 
territory, recently formed and not included in 
the census of 1870; area, about 1,800 sq. m. 
It is intersected by the Dakota or James river. 

LAMP, a vessel employed for producing light, 
and sometimes also heat, by the combustion of 
inflammable fluids, grease, or wax. The simple 
form of these contrivances adopted by the an- 
cient Hebrews has continued in use down to 
the present day ; and until near the close of 
the last century this had hardly been improved 
upon among the most civilized nations. Even 
on the American continent may still be seen 
among the Canadian French the same low oval 
metallic vessel that was used by the ancient 
orientals and Europeans, furnished with a han- 
dle at one end and a beak at the other, through 
a hole on the upper surface of which pro- 
jects the wick from the reservoir of oil or 
grease below. Some are made to be carried 
in the hand and placed upon tables, and others 
are kept suspended by chains in the middle of 



rooms. They give a dim smoky light, in con- 
sequence of the carbonaceous matter not being 
sufficiently spread by an open wick to be reach- 
ed by the oxygen of the air before it is dis- 
sipated in sooty vapor. (See COMBUSTION, and 
FLAME.) The external form of the lamp was 
more of a study to the ancients than the prin- 
ciples of combustion. They gave to it the most 
graceful outlines, and ornamented it with gro- 
tesque figures and fanciful designs which were 
often of great beauty. They suspended their 
lamps from the ceiling or from the hands of or- 
namental figures of boys or men, or they were 
placed upon stands. As at the present day in 
Aleppo and Egypt, they were kept by the He- 
brews burning all night ; and to this much im- 
portance was attached, the putting out of the 
light being significant of the extinction of the 
family and desertion of the house. The first 
improvement in the construction of lamps was 
removing the beak by a long neck to a distance 
from the reservoir of oil, thus reducing the 
width of the shadow cast by the lamp. Be- 
sides this object, it was soon found by those 
who investigated the matter, that the following 
were subjects for improvement : 1, the wick, 
which as used presented a bundle of fibres, the 
inner portion of which, though saturated with 
oil, was removed from the reach of the air re- 
quired for its combustion ; 2, the level of the 
surface of the oil, that from first to last it 
should bear the same relation to the level of 
the burning part of the wick, thus securing 
uniformity in the supply of oil for combustion ; 
and 3, the concentration of the light by reflec- 
tors at points where it is wanted. The wick 
was first improved and much used in the coun- 
tries bordering on the Rhine by platting its 
fibres together to make it flat and ribbonlike; 
a flat socket was provided for it, and it was 
made to move up and down by a horizontal 
spindle and toothed wheel ; this is known as the 
Worms lamp. A greater improvement was that 
of the Argand burner, in which the wick was 
made in the form of a hollow cylinder, and so 
arranged that a current of air could pass up 
within it, as well as come to its external sur- 
face. The addition of a chimney of sheet 
iron, as originally made by Argand, increased 
the supply of air by producing an upward 
draught. The effect of the chimney was after- 
ward much increased by contracting its up- 
per portion and forming a shoulder, against 
which the ascending current impinges, and is 
turned inward upon the flame. The so-called 
astral lamps were provided with these wicks, 
and the reservoir for the oil was arranged in 
the form of a hollow ring encircling the hol- 
low central stand that supported the burner, 
and with which it was connected by one of 
the tubular braces that held it up. Thus the 
level of the oil in the shallow ring could not 
undergo much change, and it continued very 
nearly the same as that of the burning part 
of the wick until it was almost exhausted. In 
consequence of the thin and peculiar shape 

given to the ring, the lamp cast no shadow at 
a little distance off, and a vase of ground 
glass surrounding the flame served to render 
the light still more diffusive or scattered. In 
the year 1800 Carcel devised an ingenious piece 
of clockwork machinery for pumping the 
oil from a reservoir at the foot of the lamp 
up to the burner, and thus supplying this 
always from the same point, while the excess 
of oil flowed back into the reservoir. This 
being at the base of the stand and the flame 
at the top, there was consequently no shadow. 
The lamp, afterward slightly improved by 
other manufacturers, was in many respects the 
most perfect of these contrivances; but its 
great cost restricted its use to the wealthy. It 
was moreover so inconveniently large and 
heavy, that it could be moved only with diffi- 
culty ; and the complicated nature of its me- 
chanism required access to skilful workmen, 
such as can be found only in large cities, to 
keep it in repair. The attention directed in 
the early part of the present century to the 
subject of producing artificial light by con- 
venient and efficient methods caused many 
more forms of lamps to be introduced than can 
here be named. Some were designed to burn 
the crude whale oil, which on account of its 
viscidity requires to be heated before it can 
pass along the fibres of the wick. Parker's 
hot oil or economic lamp was especially adapt- 
ed for its use. The reservoir was a double 
cylinder of metal surrounding the upper por- 
tion of the chimney, which was also of metal, 
the lower part being of glass. It was support- 
ed by a side arm, which was made hollow to 
convey the oil to the burner below. A paper 
shade served to conceal the apparatus above the 
flame, and also to reflect the light downward. 
This lamp is very highly commended by Dr. 
Ure for its illuminating power and economy. 
The lamps of Benkler, constructed in Wiesba- 
den in 1840, introduced a peculiar contrivance 
in the form of the burner, which caused the 
draught of air to impinge at an angle upon the 
flame, making the combustion more vivid and 
the light more brilliant. It rendered prac- 
ticable the use of poor qualities of oil, such 
as in other lamps were very imperfectly con- 
sumed, and only with the production of much 
smoke and disagreeable smell. The so-called 
solar lamps, first made by Mr. Smith in Bir- 
mingham, depended on this principle; and 
it was essential to the excellent solar lamps 
made by Cornelius of Philadelphia, which, by 
means of a metallic cylinder passing from the 
burner down into the reservoir, permitted the 
use of lard instead of oil, sufficient heat being 
conveyed from the flame to keep it in a melt- 
ed state. The solar lamps, on account of the 
cheap materials they consume, have been very 
extensively used; but they require particular 
care to keep them clean. The wick must be 
frequently changed, and always freshly trim- 
med with every using ; and the reservoir also 
must be freshly filled at the same time. A re- 



port of comparative experiments made in 1844 
for the United States treasury department with 
the solar lard lamp, an Argand burner for rosin 
gas, and an Argand oil lamp such as was used 
in the lighthouses, by Prof. Walter K. John- 
son and others, is contained in " Senate Docu- 
ment No. 166," 28th congress, second session. 
The results are also given in the American 
edition of Knapp's "Chemical Technology" 
(1848), vol. i., p. 212. The results of the com- 
parative trials referred to were, that from the 
same weights of the materials employed the 
quantity of light afforded by lard was repre- 
sented by the figures 1068 ; by rosin gas, of 
specific gravity 0'8093, " or 43 per cent, su- 
perior in density to coal gas," by 956 ; and by 
sperm oil (two thirds summer and one third 
winter strained) by 711. The forms of lamps 
so far noticed are not adapted for being car- 
ried about in the hand, and their advantageous 
qualities depend on their being employed for 
several persons together. Little progress has 
been made in the production of economical, 
safe, and convenient small lamps. The vapor 
lamps, made for burning the vapors arising 
from a mixture of oil of turpentine and alcohol, 
which is kept sufficiently heated by a metallic 
tube passing down into the mixture from the 
flame, promised to meet this want ; but they 
proved expensive in use, and not altogether 
free from danger and the offensive smoke and 
smell of burning turpentine. Similar lamps 
were made for burning the volatile hydro- 
carbons obtained from the products of the dis- 
tillation of bituminous coals. To these suc- 
ceeded a variety of lamps for the burning of 
camphene, and of a mixture of camphene and 
alcohol called burning fluid, but which, to- 
gether with the material, have passed out of 
use, as being unsafe. The oils obtained by 
distillation of bituminous coals and petroleum 
have introduced new forms of lamps called 
kerosene lamps, and it is believed that these 
present all the advantages of cheapness, por- 
tability, and brilliancy of light that distin- 
guished the camphene lamps, while their en- 
tire safety gives to them a preference which 
has caused the use of the latter to be wholly 
abandoned. A multitude of burners have been 
contrived for these lamps, all made with ref- 
erence to effecting the most thorough combus- 
tion of the oil. One of these in very general 
use has a flat wick half an inch to two inch- 
es broad, which is moved up and down by a 
horizontal spindle. The wick tube is held by 
a cap which screws upon the top of the lamp, 
and over the cap is fitted tightly a brass ring 
or cylindrical piece perforated all around with 
holes to let in air to the wick ; and this ring 
carries a dome-shaped cover of thin brass in 
the top of which is a slit or elongated opening 
a little larger than the wick and directly over 
it, through which the flame passes up. The 
dome being of smaller diameter than the ring, 
there is room outside of it for the base of a 
glass chimney to stand, and this is moreover 

supported outside by the extension upward of 
the brass cylinder. Another row of holes per- 
forated at the base of this extension lets in 
air, which passes under the foot of the glass, 
and circulates up the outside of the dome, 
meeting the flame at the top. The dome with 
its opening is somewhat like the peculiar ar- 
rangement in the solar lamp. The chimney is 
enlarged immediately above the flame, and is 
then contracted to the same diameter as below. 
The student lamp, used for burning kerosene, 
has a construction similar to the Argand lamp, 
and is supplied with a reservoir which keeps 
the wick full at nearly a constant level. Lamps 
in chemical operations answer the purpose of 
small furnaces. They are made in a great va- 
riety of forms, adapted to special uses and the 
kinds of fuel employed. Some are oil lamps 
designed for the use of the blowpipe, and are 
furnished with a broad flat wick convenient for 
this purpose. Others are designed to consume 
alcohol ; and these are either plain vessels, com- 
monly of glass, furnished with a metallic tube 
for holding the wick and a closely fitting bell- 
shaped cover of glass for protecting the alco- 
hol from evaporation when the lamp is not in 
use ; or they are more elaborately constructed 
of metal, provided with an Argand burner, and 
made to slide upon an upright rod. This rod 
also supports movable rings adapted for holding 
crucibles and other vessels over the flame of the 
lamp. The heat is concentrated by the use of 
a metallic chimney ; and in some lamps it can 
be intensified by propelling a current of air of 
annular form and concentric with the Argand 
burner, so directed as to impinge across the 
flame. Safety Lamps. The explosive mixture 
of light carburetted hydrogen and atmospheric 
air which is often present in coal mines long 
made it desirable to procure some kind of de- 
vice by which the ignition of the compound 
might be avoided. Contrivances called steel 
mills were first used to give light in dangerous 
parts of the mines, a succession of sparks being 
constantly elicited by the rapid revolution of 
little wheels of steel against pieces of flint. 
In an explosive mixture of gas and air these 
however were not safe, as the sparks were lia- 
ble to produce explosion. Their greatly in- 
creased brilliancy in this served to indicate dan- 
ger; and where the gas predominated above 
the explosive proportion the sparks were of 
blood- red color or ceased entirely to be emitted. 
The necessity of more efficient protection led 
to the invention in 1813, by Dr. W. K. Clanny 
of Sunderland, England, of the first true safe- 
ty lamp. In this the communication with the 
external air was intercepted by water, through 
which the air was made to pass. This appa- 
ratus proved too cumbrous for general use. 
In 1815 George Stephenson and Sir Humph: 
Davy both invented safety lamps on other pri 
ciples. The former, noticing the effect of the 
gaseous products of combustion to extinguish 
the burning jets of inflammable gas called 
blowers, which issue from the crevices of coal 






FIG. 1. Davy's 
Safety Lamp. 

mines, contrived a lamp which was protected 
by a glass cylinder, and covered at top with a 
perforated metallic cap to allow the products 
of combustion to pass out. The air to support 
combustion was admitted through small open- 
ings in the bottom, and it was supposed that 
the velocity of the current en- 
tering the lamp would prevent 
the explosion passing backward ; 
but the protection the lamp af- 
forded was really owing to the 
smalmess of -the apertures, con- 
tinued through capillary tubes till 
they discharged all around and 
close against the circular burner. 
Davy's lamp is represented in 
fig. 1. The wire-gauze cylinder, 
through which the air was ad- 
mitted, served also for the pas- 
sage of the light, and when com- 
posed of wire -fa to -fa of an 
inch in diameter, and with 28 
wires or 784 apertures to the inch, 
proved a perfect obstruction to 
the flame in the most explosive 
mixtures, unless these were blown in currents 
through the gauze, or the lamp was carried 
rapidly through the gas. The wires might 
even be heated red hot, as sometimes happens 
in very foul air, by the flame leaving the wick 
and burning in the upper part of the cylinder, 
and no explosion take place; but if a glass 
cover became hot it might be broken by drops 
of water falling upon it ; and so fragile a ma- 
terial under any circumstances could not be 
regarded as a sure protection. Among the va- 
rious modifications of the Davy lamp, that 
known as Mackworth's 
safety lamp, which was 
contrived by one of the 
government inspectors 
of coal mines to meet 
the objections raised in 
resisting the general in- 
troduction of the Davy 
lamp into the fire-damp 
mines, is represented in 
fig. 2. The objections 
were the small light giv- 
en by the Davy, which 
is an inconvenience in 
working high seams of 
coal ; that its locks could 
be easily picked and 
opened by the work- 
men to obtain more 
light, or to light their 
pipes ; and also the dan- 
ger of breaking the glass 
already mentioned. The 
lamp has a thick outer glass, a a, and a thin 
inner chimney, fb. The air supplies the flame 
in the direction of the arrows through three 
wire gauzes : first the cylindrical gauze c ; then 
through the gauze d, which supports the brass 
cover e of the glass chimney b; and thirdly 

FIG. 2. Mackworth's 
Safety Lamp. 

through the conical wire gauze /, which with 
its frame acts as a support to the glass chim- 
ney 5. This conical frame throws the air on 
to the flame g so as to produce a more perfect 
combustion and a white light. This lamp 
burns with a steady flame in currents of air 
which extinguish other lamps. It is 1J Ib. 
heavier than the Davy, and \\ Ib. lighter than 
the Clanny lamp. The outside glass does not 
get so hot as in the latter, and if it breaks, 
there is still a perfect safety lamp inside. 

LAMPASAS, a central county of Texas, bound- 
ed W. by the Colorado river and drained by 
the Lampasas, a tributary of the Leon ; area, 
835 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,344, of whom 86 
were colored. The surface is much broken, 
and the soil is fertile ; much of the land is well 
adapted to grazing. There are white sulphur 
springs at the county seat. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 45,487 bushels of Indian 
corn and 26 bales of cotton. There were 713 
horses, 20,787 cattle, 1,241 sheep, and 4,320 
swine. Capital, Lampasas. 

LAMPBLACK, finely divided carbon, obtained 
by collecting the smoke produced in burning 
oils, fats, and resins, with a supply of air suffi- 
ciently reduced to prevent perfect combustion ; 
the aim being to consume all the constituents 

Lampblack Apparatus 

of the burning body except the carbon, and 
preserve as much of that as possible. Lamp- 
black is prepared in large quantities by the 
manufacturers of turpentine, from the impure 
resin and other refuse matters that remain 
after the distillation of the turpentine. These 



are burned in iron pots or furnaces with very 
limited access of air. The dense smoke pro- 
duced by the combustion is conveyed into 
chambers hung with sacking, upon the surface 
of which the lampblack is deposited. It is 
scraped or shaken off from time to time, and 
sent to market without further preparation. 
The illustration shows the arrangement of the 
apparatus generally used. A cylindrical brick 
chamber 10 or 15 ft. in diameter, with a conical 
roof, has a small opening at the top to main- 
tain a sufficient draught to cause the clouds of 
smoke to ascend toward the upper part of the 
chamber. A cone of sheet iron hangs within 
the cylinder, having a small hole in its apex, 
through which the gases pass upward. At the 
side and base of the chamber is a kind of fur- 
nace, above the fire in which is placed a pan 
containing resinous or fatty matters, which are 
heated to a point sufficient to convert them 
into vapor, and then the vapor undergoes suffi- 
cient combustion to be deprived of its hydro- 
gen, while most of the carbon is unconsumed. 
The smoke ascends into the chamber, and is 
mostly deposited upon the hanging canvas or 
sacking, and upon the inner surface of the iron 
cone, from which it falls after a certain thick- 
ness is collected. The cone is so held by a 
chain and pulley that it may be lowered, which 
operation scrapes the lampblack off the sack- 
ing. The lampblack thus prepared is not 
pure charcoal, as it is mingled with resinous 
and bituminous substances, with ammoniacal 
and other matters. By heating it to redness 
in a vessel permitting no access of air, the im- 
purities are driven off, and an almost pure im- 
palpable charcoal powder remains. Other kinds 
of black are used in the arts, such as Spanish 
black, which is made from cork ; vine black, 
made from vine tendrils ; and peach black, 
made from peach kernels, which has a bluish 
color. German or Frankfort black, used in 
making copperplate ink, is said to be made by 
carbonizing a mixture of grape and wine lees, 
peach kernels, and bone shavings. 

LAMPREY, a cyclostome or marsipobranch 
fish of the family petromyzonidcs (hyperoartia, 
Miiller), and genus petromyzon (Linn.). This 
order, with the myxinoids, constitutes the class 
of myzonts of Agassiz. The blood is red, the 
heart distinct, the branchial artery without a 
bulb and furnished at the base with two valves ; 
the body smooth, cylindrical, and vermiform ; 
mouth anterior, gills fixed, and eyes distinct ; 
the single olfactory cavity opens above by an 
external foramen, leading to a blind canal not 
communicating with the mouth through a per- 
forated palate as in the myxinoids ; thorax 
cartilaginous, sustaining the branchial appara- 
tus composed of rib-like strips descending on 
each side beneath the skin, with seven external 
spiracles, opening from the fauces into a sub- 
03sophageal tube, having a posterior caecal ex- 
tremity. These are the first fishes in which 
there is a distinct brain enclosed in a cartila- 
ginous cranium ; there are two dorsal fins, the 

posterior joined with the caudal, and mere 
folds of skin with scarcely perceptible rudi- 
mentary rays ; pectorals and ventrals absent ; 
the cephalic cartilage is undivided ; there is a 
spout hole on the head, and a spiral valve in 
the intestine ; there is no oviduct nor seminal 
duct. The jaws are absent, but the circular 
mouth, tongue, and pharynx are armed with 
conical or crescentic sharp teeth of indurated 
albumen. The gills are seven little fixed bags, 
each having its proper artery, its opening into 
the sub-oesophageal tube, and its external fora- 
men by which the water passes out. The old 
genus petromyzon has been subdivided into six, 
according to the shape and arrangement of the 
teeth. The common European lamprey, or 
lamprey eel as it is often called (P. marinus, 
Linn.), attains a length of more than 3 ft. ; 
the color is yellowish marbled with brown. 
Having no air bladder and being destitute of 
lateral fins, they are usually found near the bot- 
tom, and to avoid being carried away by the cur- 
rents they attach themselves to stones by means 
of the tongue, which acts like a sucking piston 
in the circular mouth, whence the names of 
petromyzon and cyclostomes ; in the same man- 
ner they attach themselves to larger fishes, 
which they devour ; by means of the apparatus 
above described, respiration may be carried on 
independently of the mouth, the branchial cur- 
rents passing from one series of openings to 
the other across the sub-oesophageal tube. The 
intestine is small and nearly straight ; the eggs 
are laid late in the spring, the milt and roe es- 
caping by a membranous sheath communica- 
ting with the abdominal cavity. They ascend 
rivers from the sea to spawn. They are very 
generally distributed in Europe from the Medi- 
terranean to the arctic waters, ascending the 
rivers in spring ; at this season great numbers are 
caught, their flesh being considered a delicacy. 
The food of the lamprey consists of any soft 
animal matter, especially the flesh of fishes to 
which they attach themselves. The river lam- 
prey or lampern (P. fluviatilis, Linn.) is a 
smaller fish, and confined to fresh or brackish 
water; the length is from 12 to 18 in., and the 
color bluish olive above and silvery below. 
Great numbers were formerly caught in the 
Thames, Severn, &c., and sold to the Dutch for 
bait in the turbot fishery. This and the pre- 
ceding species are very tenacious of life, living 
several days out of water. The most common 
of the American species is the P. America- 
nus (Lesueur), growing about 2 ft. long ; the 
color is olive brown above, with blackish 
brown confluent patches, and beneath uniform 
dull brown. This is not uncommon in the 
rivers of New England and New York, espe- 
cially near their mouths ; it likes best shallow 
rapid streams with pebbly bottoms, in which 
it builds circular nests 3 or 4 ft. in diameter 
and a foot or two high, bringing stones in 
the mouth varying from the size of a hen's 
egg to that of the fist. They ascend high falla 
by clinging to the rocks, after suddenly dart- 1 




ing forward ; though uncommon in rivers ob- 
structed by dams, they are abundant at their 
outlets, especially in the Merrimack near Low- 
ell. Several other species are described in Dr. 

Lamprey (Petromyzon Amerlcanus). 

Storer's " Synopsis of the Fishes of North 
America." The genus ammoccetes (Dumeril) 
has the same cylindrical body, branchial aper- 
tures, and fins as the lampreys ; the mouth is 
semicircular, without teeth, the posterior lip 
transverse and serrated within ; the branchial 
apertures open internally into the oasophagus 
itself ; the incomplete circle of the mouth pre- 
vents its adhering to rocks and other bodies ; 
the external branchial openings are placed in a 
longitudinal furrow. It is often called mud 
lamprey, from its being found in the mud and 
sand. The best known species in Europe is 
A. ~brancMalis (Cuv.), 6 or 7 in. long, about as 
thick as a goose quill, generally of a yellowish 
brown color above, darker on the head and 
back, lighter beneath ; the eyes are very small ; 
it spawns at the end of April, and feeds upon 
worms, insects, and dead matter, living in 
fresh water in many countries of Europe. Dr. 
Storer describes three species as occurring in 
North America, the A. bicolor (Lesueur), A. 
concolor (Kirtland), and A. unicolor (De Kay). 
From its resemblance to the lamprey, ammocce- 
tes was called petromyzon by the early writers. 
Aug. Mtiller (in his Archiv, 1856) maintains 
that ammoccetes is the larval form of petromy- 
zon, and does not attain the perfect state until 
the fourth year from the egg ; subsequent ob- 
servations confirm this view, which, if true, is 
a remarkable instance of partial metamorpho- 
sis in fish, and shows- upon what transitory 
characters genera may be founded. Accord- 
ing to Van der Hoeven, the cleavage of the yolk 
is entire, and in the first stage of development 
there is much analogy with that of the frog. 

LAMPSACUS, an ancient Greek city of Mysia 
in Asia Minor, situated on the Hellespont near 
where it expands into the Propontis. Its ori- 
ginal name was Pityusa, but it was colonized 
at an early period by lonians from Phoca3a and 
Miletus, who called the place Lampsacus. It 
had an excellent harbor, and acquired extensive 
commerce. Miltiades, son of Cypselus, who 
had established himself in the Thracian Cher- 

sonese, made war on the Lampsacenes, but was 
surprised and taken prisoner by them. Crcesus 
espousing his cause, they restored him to free- 
dom. After the rise of the Persian power, 
Lampsacus became subject to it. On the over- 
throw of the Persians at Mycale (479 B. C.), 
Lampsacus joined the Athenian confederacy, 
but it revolted when intelligence arrived of 
the destruction of the Athenian armament 
and army in Sicily (413). It was reduced by 
Strombichides, and remained dependent on 
Athens till the time of Alexander, when it was 
absorbed in the Macedonian, and subsequently 
in the Roman dominions. In the age of Stra- 
bo it was still a place of importance. Charon 
the historian, Anaximenes the rhetorician, and 
Metrodorus the philosopher, were natives of 
Lampsacus, which was also a chief seat of the 
worship of Priapus. Its territory was famous 
for wine. The name of Lampsacus is still pre- 
served in that of Lapsaki, a small village 5 m. 
S. of Gallipoli, near the probable site of the 
ancient city, of which no trace now remains. 


LANARK, the county town of Lanarkshire, 
Scotland, on the river Clyde, 656 ft. above the 
sea, 23 m. S. E. of Glasgow, and 31 S. W. of 
Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 5,099. It consists 
of one main and several smaller streets, is paved 
and supplied with gas and water, and has six 
churches and various public institutions. Its 
inhabitants are employed chiefly in hand-loom 
weaving for the Glasgow and Paisley manufac- 
turers. Shoes are also made. There are sev- 
eral breweries and flour mills. About 1 m. S. 
is the manufacturing village of NEW LANAEK, 
on the Clyde ; pop. about 1,700. This village 
owes its origin to David Dale, who erected a 
cotton factory there in 1784. He was suc- 
ceeded in the management by his son-in-law, 
Robert Owen, who in 1815 attempted an eco- 
nomical experiment among the workpeople. 
They numbered about 2,500, and were under 
his control till 1827, when he retired from the 
management of the works. The establishment 
was not successful, and no trace of its peculiar 
features now remains. 

LANARK, a N. E. county of Ontario, Canada ; 
area, 1,197 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 33,020, of 
whom 16,507 were of Irish, 11,873 of Scotch, 
and 3,220 of English origin or descent. It is 
watered by the Mississippi river, an affluent 
of the Ottawa, by the Rideau, and by several 
small lakes, and is traversed by the Brockville 
and Ottawa railway. Capital, Perth. 

LANARKSHIRE, or Clydesdale, an inland coun- 
ty of Scotland, bordering on the counties of 
Dumbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, 
Peebles, Dumfries, Ayr, and Renfrew ; area, 
888 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 769,339. The river 
Clyde traverses the county from S. S. E. to N. 
N. W., and with its tributaries is noted for 
beautiful river scenery. The falls of Bonning- 
ton, Corra Linn, and Stonebyres are much 
visited by lovers of the picturesque. The 
county is nominally divided into three wards, 




the upper or south ward, the middle, and the 
lower or north ward, the last containing the 
city of Glasgow; the upper is mountainous, 
the middle hilly, and the lower level. The 
Lowther hills, along the south, are from 2,000 
to 3,000 ft. high, but afford extensive ranges 
of pasturage. In these hills are valuable lead 
mines, consisting of four principal veins 4 to 
10 ft. thick, one of which has been wrought to 
a depth of 140 fathoms, the pure ore in one 
place having been found 14 ft. wide. Coal is 
however the most important of the mineral 
treasures of the county, the fields comprising 
55,000 acres. There are also important iron 
mines and immense fields of fire clay. Dairy 
husbandry is carried on with great success. 
Oats are the principal grain crop, but wheat 
and barley are extensively grown. Clydesdale 
is noted for its orchards, as well as for its 
breed of draught horses. It is the seat of 
vast manufacturing industry in collieries, iron 
works, and cotton, flax, silk, and woollen. In 
the time of James III. of Scotland gold was 
found in Lanarkshire, from which coins were 
struck called unicorns. Capital, Lanark. 

LANCASHIRE, or Lancaster, a N. W. county 
of England, bordering on Cumberland, West- 
moreland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and the Irish 
sea; area, 1,905 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 2,819,- 
495. The surface is nearly level, except in 
the north and east. The long ridge known 
as the " backbone of England " separates the 
county from Yorkshire on the east, and the N. 
district is broken by Coniston Fells (2,577 ft. 
high) and other considerable eminences. The 
Duddon, Lime, Wyre, Ribble, Mersey, and Ir- 
well are the principal rivers. The coast is 
deeply indented by bays and arms of the sea, 
of which Morecambe bay and the estuary of the 
Ribble are the most important. Morecambe 
bay and a part of Westmoreland detach the 
most northern part from the rest of the county. 
The prevailing geological formations are lime- 
stone and carboniferous and new red sand- 
stone. The Lancashire coal field covers 400 sq. 
m. of the south and southwest of the county, 
thus underlying the whole of the manufac- 
turing districts, and extending into Cheshire 
and North Wales on the one side, while on the 
other it is separated by but a brief interval 
from the coal fields of Yorkshire. Copper, 
iron, and lead are also found. Peat mosses 
form a remarkable feature of the surface. The 
principal of these swamps was formerly Chat- 
moss, about 5 m. long, once considered irre- 
claimable, but now mostly under cultivation. 
The climate is humid, but temperate, and the 
soil moderately fertile. Dairy and hay farms 
are numerous, and potatoes are more exten- 
sively grown than in any other English county. 
Lancashire owes its importance chiefly to its 
manufactures and commerce. The most im- 
portant manufactures are cotton, woollens, 
worsted, flax, and silk goods, hats, paper, and 
soap. The manufacturing districts are trav- 
ersed by a large number of canals and rail- 

ways, and include the towns of Manchester, 
Bolton, Preston, Blackburn, Oldham, Ashton, 
Stockport, Bury, Chorley, Wigan, and Roch- 
dale. Capital, Lancaster; chief commercial 
city, Liverpool. Lancashire was made a coun- 
ty palatine by Edward III. Riots took place 
in many parts of the county in 1826 for the de- 
struction of power looms. It suffered greatly 
from the cotton famine during the American 
civil war; in January, 1863, there were 228,- 
992 operatives unemployed, and 1,864,121 
was contributed for their relief. The duchy 
of Lancaster is annexed to the crown, and its 
net revenue is paid into the sovereign's privy 
purse. The receipts in 1870 were 53,868, 
and the expenditures 15,136. 

LANCASTER. I. A S. E. county of Pennsyl- 
vania, bounded S. W. by the Susquehanna 
river and S. E. by Octorara creek ; area, 928 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 121,340. The surface is 
uneven, South mountain extending along the 
N. W. frontier, and Mine ridge passing through 
the S. E. part. The surface between these 
mountains is undulating and traversed by many 
small streams. Blue limestone, roofing slate, 
marble, chrome, and magnesia are found in 
the county. The soil is a rich calcareous loam. 
The Reading and Columbia and the Pennsyl- 
vania Central railroads pass through it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 2,077,413 bush- 
els of wheat, 88,245 of rye, 2,820,825 of Indian 
corn, 1,943,577 of oats, 419,755 of Irish and 
33,821 of sweet potatoes, 2,692,584 Ibs. of 
tobacco, 20,092 of wool, 2,462,376 of butter, 
82,614 of cheese, and 124,185 tons of hay. 
There were 21,409 horses, 2,504 mules and 
asses, 31,368 milch cows, 1,142 working oxen, 
32,249 other cattle, 11,821 sheep, and 50,070 
swine; 1,616 manufacturing establishments, 
having an aggregate capital of $9,504,162, and 
an annual product of $14,034,180. The most 
important were 24 manufactories of agricul- 
tural implements, 31 of brick, 90 of carriages, 
9 of cotton goods, 13 of woollens, 32 of iron 
in various forms, 45 of lime, 13 of machinery, 
2 of printing paper, 6 of patent medicines, 47 
of saddlery and harness, 44 of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 143 flour mills, 26 tanneries, 
18 currying establishments, 12 breweries, 5 
planing mills, and 11 saw mills. Capital, 
Lancaster. II. An E. county of Virginia, on 
Chesapeake bay and on the N. side of Rap- 
pahannock river; area, 161 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 5,355, of whom 3,157 were colored. The 
surface is nearly level, and the soil is fertile. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 12,978 
bushels of wheat, 108,940 of Indian corn, and 
22,544 of oats. There were 560 horses, 716 
milch cows, 1,473 other cattle, 700 sheep, and 
2,913 swine. Capital, Lancaster Court House. 
III. A N. county of South Carolina, bordering 
on North Carolina, and bounded E. by Lynche's 
creek and W. by Catawba river ; area, 690 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 12,087, of whom 5,924 were 
colored. The surface is diversified. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 15,872 bushels of 



wheat, 100,113 of Indian corn, 16,135 of oats, 
7,933 of sweet potatoes, 30,292 Ibs. of butter, 
and 3,414 bales of cotton. There were 642 
horses, 725 mules and asses, 1,539 milch cows, 
2,848 other cattle, 2,366 sheep, and 4,247 
swine. Capital, Lancasterville. IV. A S. E. 
county of Nebraska, watered by Salt creek and 
the Little Nemaha river ; area, 864 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 7,074. The surface is diversified and 
the soil fertile. Salt springs are found. It is 
traversed by the Atchison and Nebraska, the 
Burlington and Missouri River, and the Midland 
Pacific railroads. The chief productions in 
1870 were 133,187 bushels of wheat, 134,400 
of Indian corn, 73,239 of oats, 32,118 of po- 
tatoes, 94,018 Ibs. of wool, and 7,974 tons of 
hay. There were 1,614 horses, 3,022 cattle, 
905 sheep, and 2,205 swine. Capital, Lincoln, 
which is also the state capital. 

LANCASTER, a city and the capital of Lancas- 
ter co., Pennsylvania, on the Conestoga river 
and the Pennsylvania Central railroad, in the 
midst of a rich agricultural region, 68 m. by 
rail and 60 m. in a straight line W. of Phila- 
delphia, and 34 m. S. E. of Harrisburg; pop. 
in 1850, 12,369; in 1860, 17,603; in 1870, 
20,233, of whom 3,375 were foreigners. The 
river from this point to where it enters the 
Susquehanna, at Safe Harbor, a distance of 19 
m., was in 1826 made navigable for small craft 
by means of dams and locks. By this route, as 
well as by the railroad to Columbia, 12 m. dis- 
tant, great quantities of coal and lumber are 
brought to Lancaster, the trade in these articles 
forming a considerable portion of the business 
of the place. The principal part of the town is 
elevated nearly 100 ft. above the Conestoga, 
from which the city is supplied with water, 
which is raised by machinery to two large 
reservoirs. The streets are generally straight, 
well paved, and lighted with gas, and cross 
one another at right angles ; the two principal 
ones, King and Queen, intersect in a wide 
central plaza, which is generally crowded on 
market days. In a bend of the river in the S. 
part of the city is Woodward Hill cemetery, a 
large and picturesque ground. Most of the 
city is substantially built of brick, many of the 
houses, particularly those erected recently, be- 
ing elegant and commodious. Among the 
public buildings, one of the most imposing is 
the court house, which is 160 ft. long, 70 ft. 
wide, two stories high, and surmounted by a 
dome. The county prison, a large castellated 
building of old red sandstone, contains 80 cells, 
and is kept on the solitary labor system. Its 
tower, 102 ft. high, is the first object which 
strikes the eye of a traveller approaching Lan- 
caster. The old jail, famous as the scene of 
the murder of the Conestoga Indians in 1763 
by the Paxton boys, was taken down in 1851, 
and Fulton hall, a large and elegant building, 
used for concerts and as a theatre, now oc- 
cupies its site. A handsome monument of 
New Hampshire granite has recently been 
erected in the central square in memory of 

the soldiers of Lancaster co. who fell in the 
civil war. There are several iron founderies 
and blast furnaces, extensive manufactories 
of locomotives, rifles, carriages, axes, &c., and 
three national banks, with an aggregate capital 
of $890,000. Lancaster is divided into nine 
wards, and is governed by a mayor with a 
select council of one and a common council 
of three from each ward. The valuation of 
property for the year ending June 1, 1873, 
was $4,744,000 ; expenditures, $91,878; debt, 
$369,353 96. The public schools are graded, 
including a boys' and a girls' high school, and 
are in a flourishing condition. Franklin and 
Marshall college was established here in 1853 
by the consolidation of Franklin college, which 
had existed for many years as a high school, 
with Marshall college, which was transferred 
from Mercersburg. It is under the control of 
the German Reformed church, and has a col- 
legiate and a preparatory course. In 1873-'4 
it had 11 professors (4 in the preparatory de- 
partment), 84 collegiate and 64 preparatory 
students, and libraries containing 12,000 vol- 
umes. The buildings, which stand on a com- 
manding eminence in the N. "W. corner of the 
city, are neat and substantial. In connection 
with the college, but under a separate board 
of trustees, is a theological seminary, organized 
in 1825, which in 1873-'4 had 3 professors, 34 
students, a library of 8,000 volumes, and an 
endowment of $80,000. Besides those of the 
college and theological seminary, there are five 
libraries, viz. : the Lancaster, with 2,000 vol- 
umes; Mechanics', 4,200; Athenseum, 2,000; 
law library association, 3,700; young men's 
Christian association, 2,500. Three daily and 
seven weekly (two German) newspapers and 
seven monthly (one German, and one English 
and German) periodicals are published, and 
there are 21 churches. Lancaster was founded 
about 1718, and for some years was called 
Hickory Town. On the organization of the 
county in 1729, and the removal of the seat 
of justice from Conestoga in 1730, it took its 
present name. In 1742 it was chartered as 
a borough, and in 1818 made a city. In 1777 
congress sat here for a few days. From 1799 
to 1812 it was the capital of the state, and 
from 1750 to 1825 was the largest inland town 
in the country. 

LANCASTER, a city and the capital of Fair- 
field co., Ohio, on Hocking river, the Hocking 
canal, and the Columbus and Hocking Valley 
and Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley rail- 
roads, 25 m. S. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 
4,725. The surrounding country is fertile, and 
contains many vineyards ; the scenery is beau- 
tiful. The city is well built, the streets being 
wide and handsome, and many of the public 
and other buildings attractive. The court 
house, of stone, erected at a cost of $150,000, 
is one of the finest in the country. The state 
reform school for boys, with 400 inmates and 
a farm of 1,400 acres mostly devoted to fruit 
raising, is 6 m. from Lancaster. The principal 




manufactories are three of agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery, one of shovels and mi- 
ners' tools, a woollen mill, two flouring mills, 
two planing mills, two breweries, a large wine 
cellar, and railroad machine shops. There are 
two national banks, six hotels, graded public 
schools, including a high school, two weekly 
newspapers, and 11 churches. 

LANCASTER, a municipal borough and river 
port of England, capital of Lancashire, on the 
left bank of the Lune, on the canal from Pres- 
ton to Kendal, and on the Preston, Lancaster, 
and Carlisle railway and a branch of the Great 
Northwestern, 44 m. N. by E. of Liverpool ; 
pop. in 1871, 17,248. It is built chiefly on the 
side of a hill, the summit of which is crowned 
by a church and castle. The older streets are 
narrow, but many of the houses are handsome, 
and there are several striking public buildings. 
The river is here crossed by a bridge of five 
arches and a magnificent aqueduct for the ca- 

Lancaster Castle. 

nal. The town hall, county lunatic asylum, 
baths, assembly rooms, custom house, church- 
es, and castle are the most interesting edifices. 
A commodious building, formerly the theatre, 
contains a music hall and the museum of the 
natural history society. The castle is remark- 
able for its size and elegance, and embraces the 
courts, jail, penitentiary, &c. The principal 
manufactures are furniture, cotton, sail cloth, 
and cordage. The foreign trade is mostly re- 
moved to Liverpool, but it has still consider- 
able commerce. 

LANCASTER, House of. See ENGLAND, vol 
vi., pp. 609-'ll. 

LANCASTER, Sir James, an English navigator, 
born about 1550, died in 1620. He sailed from 
Plymouth April 10, 1591, with three vessels, 
visited Ceylon and Sumatra, and dispossessed 
the Spanish and Portuguese trade. He was 
appointed to command the first expedition sent 
out by the English East India company, sailin^ 

from Torbay in 1601, with five vessels, and re- 
turned to England in 1603, having established 
commercial relations with the princes of Ban- 
tam in Java and Acheen in Sumatra. He en- 
tered warmly into the projects for discovering 
a N. W. passage to India, and strongly urged 
the government to attempt it. Baffin named 
after him a sound opening into Baffin bay. 
Lancaster was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. 

LANCASTER, Joseph, an English educator, born 
in London in 1771 or 1778, died in New York, 
Oct. 24, 1838. In 1798 he opened a school for 
poor children in Southwark on the principle 
of mutual instruction, first introduced in India 
by Dr. Andrew Bell. He taught almost gra- 
tuitously, and the number of his pupils gradu- 
ally increased to 300. His success attracted 
public attention, subscriptions poured in to 
him from all quarters, and numerous schools 
on the same plan were opened by him in differ- 
ent parts of the country. From 1807 to 1811 
he travelled through 
the country, lecturing 
on education. In 1812 
he attempted to found 
a school for children 
of opulent parents, but 
failed, and became in- 
solvent. He emigrated 
in 1818 to the United 
States, where he was 
well received, but in- 
jured his prospects by 
imprudence. In 1829 
he went to Canada, 
where the legislature 
made some pecuniary 
grants to enable him to 
give his system a fair 
trial. Again becoming 
embarrassed, some of 
his friends purchi 
for him a small anni 
ty, and he removed 
New York. He wi 
a work on " Improvement in Education 
(London, 1805), several elementary school 
books, and pamphlets in defence of his 
tern, which has been known by his name and 
successfully practised in many parts of Great 
Britain and other countries. 

LANCASTER SOUND, a channel leading from 
Baffin bay W. to Barrow strait, in the Ameri- 
can arctic regions. Its E. entrance lies be- 
tween Capes Horsburgh on the north and Liv- 
erpool on the south, in lat. 73 45' to 74 55' N., 
Ion. 79 W. On the west it opens into Princ< 
Regent inlet, Barrow strait, and Wellingtoi 
channel. It is the entrance to the N. W. pi 
sage, and was probably in the course of Sii 
John Franklin's last voyage. Its length is 
about 250 m., its central breadth about 65 m. 
The great island of North Devon forms its 
northern coast, and several islands formerly 
thought to be part of Cockburn island its 
southern. On the former side Croker bai 




opens into it ; on the latter it receives Navy 
Board and Admiralty inlets. It was discov- 
ered by Baffin in 1616. 

-LANCE, a weapon. See ARMS. 

LANCE, George, an English painter, born at 
Little Easton, near Colchester, March 24, 1802, 
died June 18, 1864. He studied with Haydon, 
and first exhibited at the academy in 1828. His 
favorite subjects were fruit, flowers, game, &c., 
arranged in picturesque and effective confu- 
sion, and executed with an elaborateness and a 
richness of color almost equalling the efforts 
of the old Dutch masters of still life. Some- 
times figures are introduced, as in his "Red 
Cap," in which a monkey is represented pre- 
siding over a table covered with fruits and 
festal appointments. He also painted histor- 
ical and imaginative pieces. He restored a 
large portion of the celebrated "Boar Hunt" 
of Velasquez in the British national gallery. 

LANCELET (branchiostoma or amphioxus), the 
lowest known of the vertebrate animals, con- 
stituting the order pharyngdbranchii of Hux- 
ley, the leptocardia of Haeckel, who regards it 
as a primary division of the branch of verte- 
brates. This anomalous fish has been found 
on the coasts of Great Britain and Sweden, in 
the Mediterranean, on our southern Atlantic 
coast, and in the Indian ocean. It is from 1 
to 2 in. long, tapering at each end, ribbon-like, 
translucent, and silvery white; it generally 
burrows in the sand in deep water, feeding on 
minute animalcules. Along the back runs a 
median fin, expanding at the tail into a lancet- 
shaped caudal ; there are no apparent pectorals 
and ventrals ; at the lower surface, extending 

Lancelet (Amphioxus lanceolatus). 

1. Upper side. 2. Lower side. 3. Anatomical diagram: 
A, notochord; B, spinal chord; C, mouth surrounded "by 
cirrhi ; D, greatly dilated pharynx perforated by ciliated 
clefts; E, intestine terminating in anua F; G, haemal 

forward from the anal and branchial apertures, 
are two lateral folds, which led Pallas to re- 
gard it as a gasteropod mollusk. The mouth is 
a longitudinal fissure, in the front of the head, 
without jaws, but surrounded by several car- 

tilaginous filaments. The mouth opens into a 
greatly developed pharynx or throat, the walls 
of which, strengthened by cartilaginous fila- 
ments, are perforated by transverse slits, the 
whole covered with a thickly ciliated or fringed 
membrane ; this is the respiratory sac, the 
water entering by the mouth, passing between 
the branchial slits and over the ciliary fringes 
filled with blood into the abdominal cavity, 
and escaping by an opening on the lower sur- 
face in front of the vent (porus abdominalis of 
Muller). From the branchial sac the intestine, 
having a liver-like organ attached, extends to 
an oval aperture under the tail. There is no 
single contractile cavity or heart, the only ex- 
ception in vertebrates, the circulation being 
effected by several contractile dilatations of 
the great blood vessels, as in the annelids ; the 
blood is colorless. There is no proper skele- 
ton ; the vertebral column, moto-chord or chor- 
da dorsalis, is a semi-gelatinous rod, enclosed 
in a sheath and supporting the spinal cord, and 
is composed of 60 to 70 fibrous laminae loosely 
attached to each other ; there is also a cartila- 
ginous apparatus supporting the mouth, and 
70 to 80 hair-like ribs surrounding the bran- 
chial cavity. There is no skull, and no ex- 
pansion of the spinal cord into a brain, though 
from its anterior extremity are given off nerves 
tc the rudimentary eyes, and perhaps other 
nerves of special sense. The arrangement of 
the muscles is fish-like ; the skin is thin, but 
tough and scaleless. The location of the re- 
spiratory system in the anterior portion of the 
intestinal canal is met with also in the cyclo- 
stome fishes. This most aberrant form is clear- 
ly a vertebrate, though it has no brain, and 
the respiration and circulation of an annelid. 
It has been believed by some to favor the idea 
of Kowalewsky and Kupffer, that the ascid- 
ians show a kinship to the vertebrates, and 
it certainly has some remarkable invertebrate 
features found in no other vertebrate animal. 
The common species is the B. lanceolatum. 

LANCELOT, Dom Claude, a French grammarian, 
born in Paris about 1615, died at Quimperle", 
April 15, 1695. In early life he attracted the 
attention of Duvergier de Hauranne, the cele- 
brated abbot of St. Cyran, and through his in- 
fluence he joined the recluses of Port Eoyal, 
whom he greatly assisted in the organization 
and management of their schools. He wrote 
grammars of the Latin, Greek, Italian, and 
Spanish languages, and a Grammaire generale 
et raisonnee, better known as Grammaire da 
Port Eoyal, which has been frequently reprint- 
ed. On the dispersion of the society of Port 
Royal in 1660, Lancelot became preceptor of 
the duke of Chevreuse's son, and from 1669 to 
1672 was attached in the same capacity to the 
two young princes of Conti. In 1673 he re- 
tired to the abbey of St. Cyran, where he led a 
life of austerity; and in 1680 was ordered to 
Quimperle", where his last years were spent in 
devotion. Besides his philological works, he 
left a manuscript memoir of the abbot of St. 


Cyran, which was published in Cologne in 1738, 
and an account of a tour in 1667 to La Grande 
Chartreuse and Alet (London, 1813). 

LANCELOT OF THE LAKE, a hero of British 
mythology, one of the knights of King Arthur's 
round table. He was brought up at the court 
of Vivien, the Lady of the Lake, whence his 
surname. He became Arthur's favorite knight ; 
and when the king was about to marry, he was 
sent to conduct the royal bride, Guinevere, to 
the court. Afterward he is represented as 
carrying on an intrigue with the queen, which 
is the origin of most of his adventures. He is 
the subject of a celebrated romance by an un- 
known author, which was originally written in 
Latin, and was translated into Anglo-Norman 
by Walter Mapes in the latter part of the 12th 
century. Tennyson has used the character of 
Lancelot more than any other modern poet, 
making him the hero of two of the " Idyls of 
the King," viz., "Elaine" and "Guinevere." 
Elaine, " the lily maid of Astolat," preserves 
his shield in her chamber, which he had ex- 
changed for her brother's when he went to tilt 
for the great diamond, dreaming ov^r it, and 
finally dies broken-hearted because her love 
for Lancelot is not returned. 

LANCEWOOD, a wood imported from the West 
India islands and South America in poles from 
15 to 20 ft. long and 3 to 6 in. in diameter. 
The tree is the Duguetia, Quitarensis, of the 
anonacece, the family to which our papaw be- 
longs. It resembles boxwood, but is of some- 
what paler yellow. It is remarkably stiff and 
elastic, and is consequently well adapted for 
the shafts of carriages, bows, and springs. It 
is largely employed for these, as well as for 
surveyors' rods, billiard cues, and rules, which 
ordinarily pass for boxwood, and for anglers' 
rods. Species of oxandra and cananga, of the 
same family, are called lancewood in Jamaica. 

LANCISI, Giovanni Maria, an Italian physician, 
born in Rome, Oct. 26, 1654, died there, Jan. 
21, 1720. He abandoned the study of theology 
for the natural sciences, and at 18 graduated 
doctor in medicine and philosophy at the Sa- 
pienza college in Rome. In 1676 he was ap- 
pointed assistant physician to one of the hospi- 
tals, and some time later was nominated to the 
chair of anatomy at the Sapienza, which he 
filled with great reputation for 13 years. In- 
nocent XI. in 1684 presented him with a can- 
onry. He filled various professional offices, 
and wrote a number of valuable works, chiefly 
relating to his favorite studies of anatomy, nat- 
ural philosophy, and mathematics. A collec- 
tion of them appeared in his lifetime (2 vols. 
4to, Geneva, 1718), and a complete edition in 
folio was published at Venice in 1739. 

LANDAU, a fortified town of Rhenish Bavaria, 
on the Queich, 18 m. N. W. of Carlsruhe, on 
the railway from Paris to Mentz ; pop. in 1871, 
6,921, exclusive of the garrison. The ground 
plan of the ramparts is an octagon, surrounded 
by moats. The barracks and casemates are 
bomb-proof. The town is regularly built, has 


two gates, a large parade, a church used by 
Protestants and Catholics in common, various 
public offices, and some manufactories. During 
the thirty years' war it was taken seven times 
by the troops of Count Mansfeld, by the Span- 
iards, Swedes, imperialists, and French. In 
1680 it was ceded to France and fortified by 
Vauban. It was taken in 1702 by Margrave 
Louis of Baden, but was recovered by the 
French in 1703, taken by the Austrians in 
1704, and held till 1713, when it was again 
ceded to France. It sustained a siege of 
nine months in 1793, when 30,000 shells were 
thrown into it. The treaty of Paris in 1814 
confirmed it to France, but the treaties of 1815 
gave it to Bavaria, as a fortress of the Ger- 
manic confederation. 

LANDEN, John, an English mathematician, 
born at Peakirk, near Peterborough, in Janu- 
ary, 1719, died Jan. 15, 1790. From 1762 to 
1788 he was agent for Earl Fitzwilliam. His 
earliest mathematical writings appeared in the 
" Ladies' Diary " for 1744, and most of his 
subsequent papers were contributed to the 
" Transactions " of the royal society of Lon- 
don, of which he was admitted a member in 
1766. He is best known by his "Residual 
Analysis " (London, 1764), in which he pro- 
posed a new form of fluxionary calculus, and 
invented a set of symbols. His plan has been 
thought an improvement on the method of ul- 
timate ratios, but it lacks simplicity, and was 
never in general use. The principal other 
works of Landen are: "Mathematical Lucu- 
brations" (4to, London, 1755); "Animadver- 
sions on Dr. Stewart's Computation of the 
Sun's Distance " (4to, 1771) ; " Observations 
on Converging Series " (4to, 1781) ; " Mathe- 
matical Memoirs" (2 vols. 4to, 1780-'89). 

LANDER, a N. county of Nevada, intersected 
by Humboldt river and watered by the Reese ; 
area, 10,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,815, of 
whom 218 were Chinese. The surface is di- 
versified with mountains, hills, and valleys, 
comprising mineral, agricultural, and grazing 
lands. S. of the Humboldt are high moun- 
tain ranges, enclosing extensive valleys, some 
of which are fertile. These mountains form 
the most important metal-bearing portion of the 
county. The Reese river region in the S. W. 
is one of the principal mining districts of the 
state. The Central Pacific railroad crosses the 
county from E. to W. In 1 873 the E. half, com- 
prising the Eureka district and other rich mining 
sections, was set off to form Eureka co., redu- 
cing the area given above. The principal metal 
is silver, but considerable lead and some gold 
are found. The shipments of bullion in 1871 
amounted to $3,800,000. The chief agricultu- 
ral productions in 1870 were 1,363 bushels of 
wheat, 2,062 of oats, 29,307 of barley, 17,599 
of potatoes, 4,600 Ibs. of wool, 20,950 of but- 
ter, and 2,245 tons of hay. There were 597 
horses, 570 milch cows, 7,695 other cattle, 
1,501 sheep, and 205 swine; 3 manufactories 
of pig lead and 1 quartz mill. Capital, Austin. 




LANDER, Richard, an English traveller, the 
discoverer of the course of the river Niger in 
Africa, born in Truro, Cornwall, in 1804, died 
on the island of Fernando Po in February, 1834. 
He was brought up as a printer, but in 1825 
accompanied Capt. Clapperton upon his second 
African expedition. After the death of Clap- 
perton he returned to England, and published 
" Records of Capt. Clapperton's Last Expedi- 
tion to Africa" (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1829-'30), 
prepared from Clapperton's papers and his 
own journal. In January, 1830, accompanied 
by his brother John, he sailed for Africa under 
government auspices to continue the explora- 
tions. Departing from Badagry near Cape Coast 
Castle, March 22, he reached Boossa on the 
Quorra, or Niger, June 17. Thence the brothers 
ascended the river 100 m. to Yaoorie, and re- 
turning to Boossa early in August, commenced 
the descent of the stream in canoes, Sept. 20. 
They reached the mouth of the river through 
its principal arm, the Nun, in the latter part 
of November, and in June, 1831, arrived in 
England. In the succeeding year a narrative 
of the expedition, prepared by Lieut. Becher 
from the account of the Landers, was pub- 
lished in 2 vols. with a map. They were the 
first to ascertain the confluence of the Niger 
with the Benoowe or Tchadda. In 1832 an 
expedition, consisting of a brig and two small 
steamers, organized by a company of Liverpool 
merchants for the purpose of opening a trade 
with the tribes along the Niger, and placed 
under the command of Richard Lander, ascend- 
ed that river to Boossa. The natives showed 
little disposition to trade with the Europeans, 
and Lander returned ill to the seacoast in the 
succeeding spring, with the loss of several of 
his men by sickness. In July he reascended 
the river ; but the expedition, as a commercial 
venture, was a failure. On this voyage he as- 
cended the Benoowe as far as the country .of 
Domah, 104 m. On Nov. 27 the expedition 
was again in motion up the river under the 
command of Dr. Oldfield. Richard Lander, 
following with supplies, was wounded, Jan. 
20, 1834, in a conflict with the natives of the 
Eboe country. He escaped in a canoe, and 
reached Fernando Po, where he died soon after. 
In 1835 an account of his last voyage was pub- 
lished under the title of "Narrative of the 
Expedition into the Interior of Africa by the 
River Niger, in the Steam Vessels Quorra and 
Alburkah, in 1832, 1833, and 1834, by McGregor 
Laird and R. A. K. Oldfield, surviving officers 
of the expedition." 

LANDERNEAF, a seaport of Brittany, France, 
in the department of Finistere, 14 m. E. N, 
E. of Brest; pop. in 1866, 7,853. The town 
is built on both sides of the filorn or Lander- 
neau, near its entrance into the roadstead of 
Brest, and has a good harbor. It contains a 
fine Gothic church, a communal college, a large 
convent, and extensive marine barracks. Lin- 
en, leather, glazed hats, and refined wax are 
manufactured. The streets are narrow, but 

the quays are lined with fine buildings. About 
700 vessels enter and clear annually. 

LANDES, Les, a S. W. department of France, 
in Gascony, bordering on the bay of Biscay 
and on the departments of Gironde, Lot-et- 
Garonne, Gers, and Basses - Pyrenees ; area, 
3,597 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 300,528. The 
name is derived from the sandy and marshy 
plains which compose the greater part of its sur- 
face, and which prevail generally in the interi- 
or, and in many places are covered with thorny 
shrubs over which the shepherds stalk on stilts. 
The only crops which the landes yield are 
maize and barley. The coast district is studded 
with numerous lagoons ; but toward the south, 
where the spurs of the Pyrenees break the 
continuity of the plain, and the tributaries of 
the Adour irrigate the soil, the country is fer- 
tile, and abounds in corn, wine, and various 
kinds of fruit. The other productions of this 
department are timber, coal, iron, and marble. 
The climate is mild, but unhealthy. Among 
the principal manufactures are glass, porcelain, 
earthenware, paper, and leather, employing 
about 6,000 persons. The chief rivers are the 
Adour, Leyre, and Gave-de-Pau. The depart- 
ment is divided into the arrondissements of 
Dax, Mont-de-Marsan, and St. Sever. Capi- 
tal, Mont-de-Marsan. 

LANDON, Letitia Elizabeth (MACLEAN), an Eng- 
lish authoress, born in Old Brompton, a sub- 
urb of London, in 1802, died at Cape Coast 
Castle, Africa, Oct. 15, 1838. At the age of 
13 she began to write poetry, and in 1820 she 
published in the "Literary Gazette" some 
short poems, signed " L. E. L.," which attracted 
considerable attention. She soon became a 
general contributor to the " Gazette " of re- 
views and miscellaneous articles, as well as 
original poems. Her father died in destitute 
circumstances when she was a child, and she 
became the chief support of her family, and 
for 15 years was a ready and prolific writer in 
prose and verse for the annuals and for a va- 
riety of periodicals. In 1821 she published a 
small collection entitled " The Fate of Adelaide, 
and other Poems," which was succeeded by 
"The Improvisatrice " (1824), "The Trouba- 
dour" (1825), "The Golden Violet" (1827), 
"The Venetian Bracelet" (1829), and "The 
Vow of the Peacock" (1835). Her poetry is 
mainly of the kind which is warmly admired 
by youthful readers, but is soon outgrown, full 
of sentiment and delicate fancies melodiously 
versified. She also published four novels. In 
June, 1838, she was married to George Maclean, 
governor of Cape Coast Castle in West Africa, 
and soon afterward sailed with him for her 
new home. She died in a few months after 
her arrival there, from an overdose of prussic 
acid, which she had been accustomed to take 
in small quantities for hysteric affections, and 
was discovered lying dead upon the floor of 
her chamber. " The Zenana, and Minor Po- 
ems," with a memoir, was published posthu- 
mously (1839). See "Life and Literary Re- 



mains of L. E. L.," by Laraan Blanchard (2 
vols., London, 1841). 

LANDOR, Walter Savage, an English author, 
born at Ipsley Court, Warwickshire, Jan. 30, 
1775, died in Florence, Italy, Sept. IT, 1864. 
His parents were very wealthy, and he was 
educated under private tutors and at Rugby 
and Oxford. Being rusticated for firing a gun 
in the quadrangle, he never returned to the 
university to take his degree. He was designed 
at first for the army and then for the bar, but 
ultimately devoted himself entirely to literary 
pursuits. On the death of his father he suc- 
ceeded to the family domains, and purchased 
other estates in Monmouthshire ; he expended 
7,000 in improving them, and built a mansion 
which cost 8,000 ; but in 1806, in disgust with 
some of his tenantry, one of whom had abscond- 
ed several thousand pounds in his debt, he sold 
off his entire property, a part of which had 
been in his family for 700 years, ordered the 
mansion to be demolished, and determined to 
live abroad. In 1808, at the outbreak of the 
insurrection in Spain against Napoleon, Landor 
raised a body of troops at his own* expense, 
conducted them to Gen. Blake in Galicia, pre- 
sented 20,000 reals to the cause, received the 
thanks of the supreme junta, and was appoint- 
ed a colonel in the Spanish army. He re- 
signed his commission on the restoration of 
King Ferdinand and the subversion of the con- 
stitution. In 1811 he married Julia Thuillier 
de Malaperte, of Bath, a daughter of the baron 
de Nieuveville. From 1815 to 1835 he resided 
in Italy, then returned to England and resided 
at Bath till 1858, when he removed again to 
Italy. For several years he occupied the pal- 
ace of the Medici at Florence, and then pur- 
chased the villa and garden of Count Gherar- 
desca at Fiesole. He published a small volume 
of poems in 1795, and " Gebir," a long poem, 
in 1798 ; but he first really became known as 
an author by the publication of " Count Julian," 
a tragedy (1812). In 1820 he published at Pisa 
his Latin Idyllia Heroica, with an appendix in 
Latin prose on the reasons why modern Latin 
poets are so little read. His literary reputa- 
tion was greatly increased by his prose work en- 
titled " Imaginary Conversations" (5 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1824-'9). These supposed dialogues 
between remarkable personages of past or pres- 
ent times illustrate the peculiarities of the dif- 
ferent interlocutors and of the periods in which 
they lived, and also abound in paradoxical 
and original opinions. They were followed 
by "Pericles and Aspasia" (1836), "A Satire 
on Satirists and Admonition to Detractors" 
(1836), the "Pentameron and Pentalogia" 
(1837), and the dramas " Andrea of Hungary 
and Giovanna of Naples" (1839). All these 
works were written in Italy. During his resi- 
dence at Bath he published the "Hellenics" 
(1847) ; " Popery, British and Foreign " (1851) ; 
"Last Fruit off an Old Tree" (1853); "Let- 
ters of an American " (1854), under the pseu- 
donyme of Pottinger; "Antony and Octavius" 


(1856); "Dry Sticks Fagoted" (1858); and 
frequent contributions to the "Examiner" 
newspaper. The last named book contained 
some most objectionable poems, libelling a 
lady of Bath to whom Landor had conceived 
an intense personal dislike, for which a judg- 
ment of 1,000 was obtained against him. An 
edition of his collected works was published in 
London in 1846 (2 vols. 8vo; reprinted in 1853). 
The first complete edition of his works was 
commenced in 1874 (7 vols. 8vo, London). His 
life has been written by John Forster (London, 
1869; new ed., 1874). All of Lander's wri- 
tings contain highly intellectual passages, but 
his poems especially display an effort to repro- 
duce the genius and style of Hellenic poetry, 
and seem foreign to modern habits of thought. 
His brother, the Rev. ROBEET EYKES LAN- 
DOR, is the author of several works, including 
two remarkable novels, "The Fawn of Ser- 
torius" (2 vols., 1846) and "The Fountain of 
Arethusa" (2 vols., 1848). 

LANDSBERG, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Brandenburg, on the Warthe, 40 m. 
N. E. of Frankf ort-on-the-Oder ; pop. in 1871, 
18,531. It is walled and well built, contains 
a gymnasium, a Realschule, three churches, an 
almshouse, and lunatic and orphan asylums. 
It has iron founderies and manufactories of 
woollen and linen cloth, hosiery, leather, pa- 
per, and machinery, and an important trade 
in wool, lumber, and corn. 



LANDSEER. I. John, an English engraver, 
born in Lincoln in 1769, died Feb. 29, 1852. 
His reputation was founded on the engravings 
furnished for Bowyer's edition of Hume's 
" History of England " and Moore's " Views 
in Scotland" toward the close of the last 
century, and on a series from the works of 
Rubens, Snyders, and other artists. In 1806 
he delivered a course of lectures on engraving 
at the royal institution, which were published 
in 1807. At the same time he was elected an 
associate engraver in the royal academy, an 
honor which he accepted for the purpose of 
removing the restrictions against the admission 
of engravers to full membership. Failing in 
this object, he devoted himself chiefly to liter- 
ary pursuits, and started at different periods 
two art journals, both of which speedily failed. 
He also published a quarto volume on engraved 
gems and hieroglyphics. His "Descriptive, 
Explanatory, and Critical Catalogue of five of 
the Earliest Pictures in the National Acade- 
my" (London, 1834) is full of amusing gossip. 
His best engraving is the "Dogs of Mount 
St. Bernard," from one of the earliest pictures 
of his son, Sir Edwin Landseer. II. Thomas, 
eldest son of the preceding, born about the 
close of the last century. He adopted his 
father's profession, and executed many en- 
gravings in mezzotint from his brother Ed- 
win's pictures. One of his best known works 
is an engraving of Rosa Bonheur's celebrated 




picture of the " Horse Fair " (1861). His best 
engravings are after his brother's pictures, of 
which he has caught the spirit and style. He 
has published the " Life and Letters of William 
Bewick" (2 vols., 1871). III. Charles, brother 
of the preceding, a genre painter, born in 1799. 
He received his first instructions in painting 
from Haydon, and entered the schools of the 
academy in 1816. He exhibited in the royal 
academy in 1828, and several times received 
the highest prize of the art union. Among his 
most popular pictures are " Pamela," " Clarissa 
Harlowe," " The Monks of Melrose," "The 
Departure in Disguise of Charles II.," and 
" The Keturn of the Dove to the Ark." He 
was elected a royal academician in 1845, and 
was appointed a keeper in 1851. IV. Sir 
Edwin, brother of the preceding, a painter of 
animals, born in London in 1803, died there, 
Oct. 1, 1873. While a child he was remarkable 
for skill in drawing. His father took him to 
the fields, and made him copy the ordinary 
domestic animals, at rest or in motion, from 
the life, and in the same way caused him to 
acquire his first notions of color ; and at the 
age of 14 he attracted attention by his spirited 
sketches. Two years later he exhibited his 
"Dogs Fighting," which was purchased by 
Sir George Beaumont, and shortly afterward 
a striking picture of two St. Bernard dogs 
rescuing a traveller from the snow, which was 
engraved by his father. About this time he 
received to a limited extent instruction and 
advice from Haydon, but never became a regu- 
lar pupil. He also drew in the schools of the 
royal academy, and from the Elgin marbles. 
In 1827 he was elected an associate member of 
the royal academy, having just reached the 
requisite age, and about the same time made a 
visit to the highlands of Scotland, the impres- 
sions derived from which have been reproduced 
in a series of characteristic works. In 1847 he 
was elected a member of the royal academy of 
Belgium ; in 1850 he was knighted ; and in 
1855 he received a gold medal at the universal 
position in Paris, being the only English 
artist so distinguished. Upon the death of Sir 
Charles Eastlake, in 1865, he was elected 
president of the royal academy, but declined 
the office. Among his best known pictures 
are: "The Return from Deer-Stalking," ex- 
ribited in 1827; "The Illicit Whiskey Still," 
1829; "Highland Music," 1830; "Poachers: 
Deer-Stalking," 1831 ; " Sir Walter Scott and 
his Dogs," 1833; "The Drover's Departure," 
1835; "A distinguished Member of the Hu- 
mane Society," 1838; "High Life and Low 
Life," 1840; "The Shepherd's Prayer," 1845; 
"The Stag at Bay," 1846; "The Random 
Shot," 1848; and "Night and Morning "and 
"The Children of the Mist," 1853. Among 
his more recent works are " The Connoisseurs," 
containing a portrait of himself ; " The Defeat 
of Comus ;" " Pen, Brush, and Chisel," a sketch 
of Chantrey's studio ; " The Sanctuary ;" 
" Taming the Shrew ;" and " Windsor Forest." 

From 1858 many of his works were drawings 
in chalk, which are much admired. For many 
years his pictures were regularly engraved, and 
for the copyright of some of them he received 
as much as 3,000 in addition to the price of 
the picture. A series has been published en- 
titled " The Forest," from drawings by Land- 
seer. Many of his finest sketches were pre- 
sented to the duchess of Bedford, between 
whom and himself a warm friendship existed 
for years, and are now in the possession of her 
daughter the duchess of Abercorn. He was 
incomparably the best animal painter of his 
time, and he also produced a number of ad- 
mirable etchings ; but it is generally conceded 
that in designing the lions for the base of 
Nelson's monument, London, unveiled in 1867, 
he failed as a sculptor. A sale of his works in 
London in 1874 realized 73,400. Landseer was 
noted for his wit and his genial social qualities. 
He never married. He was buried in St. Paul's 
cathedral, beside Reynolds and Turner. See 
"Early Works of Sir Edwin Landseer," by F. 
G. Stephens (London, 1868), and "Memoirs of 
Sir Edwin Landseer," by the same (1874). 

LAND'S END (anc. Bolerium Promontoriuni), 
a remarkable headland, the most western point 

Land's End. 

of Great Britain, projecting into the Atlantic 
at the W. extremity of Cornwall. It is formed 
of granite cliffs, whose summits are 60 ft. 
above the level of the sea. About a mile from 
it are the dangerous rocks called the Longships, 
on which is a lighthouse with a fixed light 88 
ft. above high water. On a peninsula near by 
is one of those natural curiosities called " log- 
ging" or "logan stones," so poised on a ful- 
crum that they can be made to rock. 

LiNDSHUT, a town of Bavaria, capital of the 
district of Lower Bavaria, on the Isar, 39 
m. N. E. of Munich ; pop. in 1871, 14,141. It 
has a Protestant and three Catholic churches, 
two convents, and a Franciscan monastery, a 



gymnasium with a Latin school, and an in- 
dustrial, an agricultural, and a commercial 
school. In 1800 the university of Ingolstadt 
was transferred to Landshut, where it remained 
till 1826, when it was removed to Munich. 
The castle of Trausnitz, which overlooks the 
town, was at one time the residence of the 
dukes of Lower Bavaria ; in it Conradin, the 
last of the Hohenstaufen, was born in 1252. 
In the latter half of the 14th century, and 
throughout the 15th, Landshut was the capital 
of the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut. 

LANDSHUT, or Landeshut, a town of Prussia, in 
the province of Silesia, on the Boher, 49 m. 
S. W. of Breslau; pop. in 1871, 5,673. It has 
several bleaching grounds and a considerable 
linen trade. The Lutheran church of the Holy 
Trinity, on a neighboring hill, was one of the 
six churches which the emperor Joseph I. 
allowed the Silesian Protestants to build. The 
Landshuter Kamm, a point of the Riesenge- 
birge near Landshut, is 3,000 ft. high. In June, 
1760, the Austrian general Laudon obtained 
here a great victory over the Prussians. 

LANDSKRONA, a fortified town and -seaport of 
Sweden, in the Ian of Malmo, 16 m. 1ST. N. E. of 
Copenhagen; pop. in 1869, 7,323. It is hand- 
somely built on a tongue of land projecting 
into the sound, and has a good harbor and a 
strong citadel. It contains a fine church, an 
assembly house, a large sugar refinery, an iron 
f oundery, a woollen mill, machine shops, tanne- 
ries, and ship yards. Corn, fish, pitch, timber, 
and alum are exported. Coal fields have re- 
cently been discovered in the vicinity. A mile 
from the shore is the island of Hven, formerly 
the residence of Tycho Brahe ; but nothing of 
the observatory now remains. 

LANE, a W. county of Oregon, bounded E. by 
the Cascade mountains, S. partly by the Sinslaw 
river, and W. by the Pacific ocean; area, 3,500 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,426. It embraces the 
head of the Willamette valley, that river being 
navigable eight months in the year to the 
county seat. The W. portion is mountainous ; 
the S. portion, forming the valley, is fertile. 
The Calapooya mountains separate it from the 
valley of the Umpqua. The Oregon and Cali- 
fornia railroad passes through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 294,771 bushels of 
wheat, 235,722 of oats, 24,687 of barley, 32,455 
of potatoes, 167,893 Ibs. of wool, 155,214 of 
butter, and 5,381 tons of hay. There were 
4,874 horses, 5,158 milch cows, 5,680 other 
cattle, 52,745 sheep, and 19,557 swine ; 1 flour 
mill and 3 saw mills. Capital, Eugene City. 

LANE, Edward William, an English orientalist, 
born in Hereford in 1801. The greater part 
of his life has been devoted to the study of the 
oriental languages, particularly Arabic, in which 
he is deeply learned ; and for many years he 
has been employed in preparing an Arabic 
lexicon and thesaurus, the first part of which 
appeared in 1863, and the second in 1865, but 
which is not yet completed. As an author 
he is widely known by his translation of the 


"Arabian Nights," published in three magnifi- 
cent volumes, with illustrations by W. Harvey 
(1840), and by his "Manners and Customs of 
the Modern Egyptians," published by the 
society for the diffusion of useful knowledge 
(3d ed., with additions, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 
1842), one of the most valuable works of the 
kind ever published, and the materials for 
which were procured during a lengthened 
residence in Cairo. He has also published 
" Arabian Tales and Anecdotes," and "Eastern 
Tales and Anecdotes." 

LANFRANC, archbishop of Canterbury, born 
in Pavia about 1005, died in Canterbury, Eng- 
land, May 24, 1089. He studied civil law in 
the university of Bologna, and after practising 
in Pavia established himself at Avranches in 
Normandy, where he taught jurisprudence. 
While on a journey to Rouen he was attacked 
by robbers, who left him for dead, but was 
rescued by the monks of the Benedictine abbey 
of Bee ; he entered that order, and in 1046 was 
chosen prior of Bee. He opened a school to 
which pupils resorted from England, France, 
Germany, Flanders, and even Italy. Among 
the learned men whom his reputation attracted 
thither was Berengarius, archdeacon of Angers, 
with whom he carried on a famous controversy 
on the subject of the eucharist. He denounced 
the illegal marriage of Duke William of Nor- 
mandy with his cousin, daughter of the count 
of Flanders, and was ordered to leave Nor- 
mandy; but he had an interview with the 
duke in 1053, became his friend, and procured 
for him a ' dispensation from the pope legali- 
zing the marriage. W T illiam appointed him a 
councillor of state, and in 1066 abbot of the 
newly erected monastery in Caen, where he 
established a school. In 1067 he declined the 
archbishopric of Rouen, to which he was 
chosen by the people ; but William caused him 
to be elected to the see of Canterbury, vacant 
by the deposition of Stigand, and he was con- 
secrated in 1070. He successfully established 
the claims of his see to the primacy of England, 
and gave proof of his attachment to William 
by placing in vacant bishoprics and over the 
chief religious houses ecclesiastics of known 
fidelity to the Norman interest. The chief 
direction of affairs both in church and state 
was committed to his hands whenever the king 
was absent in Normandy. He crowned William 
Rufus, on whose accession he was intrusted 
with the government. He improved the dis- 
cipline of the monastic bodies, enforced the 
celibacy of the priesthood, established schools, 
convents, and hospitals, and built churches and 
cathedrals. His works, consisting of com- 
mentaries on St. Paul's epistles, letters, sermons, 
and his treatise on the eucharist against Beren- 
garius, were published in Paris in 1648 (new 
ed. by Giles, 2 vols., Oxford, 1844-'5). 

LANFRANCO, Giovanni, an Italian painter, born 
in Parma in 1581, died in Rome in 1647. 
While a boy in the service of Count Orazio 
Scotti in Piacenza, he attracted the attention 




of his master by some designs executed upon 
a wall with charcoal. He was placed under 
Agostino Carracci, and subsequently studied at 
Rome with Annibale Carracci, whom he assist- 
ed in decorating the Farnese palace. His chief 
work is the cupola of S. Andrea della Valle in 
Rome, which is one of the most beautiful in 
the city, and was the result of four years 1 study 
and labor. The paintings at the angles are by 
Domenichino in his best style. Lanf ranco also 
painted the beautiful cupola of the church of 
Gesti Nuovo in Naples, which was destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1688. He executed many 
minor works, but his cupolas were most fa- 
mous. He adppted in them a bold, coarse style 
(even using a sponge, it was said, instead of a 
brush), which was well adapted to great heights, 
and made his figures stand out in fine relief. 

LANFREY, Pierre, a French historian, born in 
Chambe'ry in 1828. He completed his studies 
in Paris, and became known in 1857 by his 
fSJfiglise et les philosophies du 18 m< siecle, and in 
1858 published Essai stir la revolution fran- 
faise. In 1860 appeared his Histoire politique 
des papes, and in 1863 Le retablissement de la 
Pologne. His principal work is the Histoire 
de Napoleon l er (6 vols., Paris, 1867-'74 ; Eng- 
lish translation, London, 1867 et seq.}, which, 
like all his writings, is distinguished by a 
scrupulous statement of facts. It severely 
arraigns the moral and political character of 
the emperor. During the Franco-German war 
Lanfrey served with the mobiles 'of Savoy* 
In February, 1871, he was elected to the na- 
tional assembly, and in October was appoint- 
ed by Thiers minister at Bern, a position 
which he still holds (1874). 

LANG, Heinrieh, a German theologian, born 
at Frommern, Wiirtemberg, Nov. 14, 1826. 
He studied under Baur and Zeller in Tubingen, 
and in 1863 became pastor at Meilen, near Zu- 
rich, and in 1871 of St. Peter's church in that 
city. He established a periodical in the in- 
terest of liberal Christianity, and has published 
many works, the principal of which are : Ver- 
sucJi einer christlichen DogmatiJc (1857; 2d re- 
vised ed., 1868) ; Eingang durch die christliche 
Welt (1859;. 2d ed., 1870); Stunden der An- 
dacht (2 vols., 1862-'5) ; Religiose CMraUere 
(1862); Martin Luther (1870) ; xu&DasLeben 
Jesu und die Kirche der Zukunft (1872). 

LANG, Louis, an American artist, born at 
Waldsee, Wtirtemberg, March 29, 1814. At 16 
years of age he executed likenesses in pastel, 
and during a residence of four years on the 
lake of Constance he painted nearly 1,000 por- 
traits in pastel and oil. He went in 1834 to 
Paris, and about 1838 came to America. In 
1841 he went to Italy, and studied in Venice, 
Bologna, Florence, and Rome. In 1845 he re- 
turned to America, taking up his residence in 
New York, and for two years employed himself 
in the decoration of interiors and in modelling 
plaster figures for ornamental purposes. In 
1847 he again visited Rome, and remained there 
two years, returning to New York in 1849. 
477 VOL. 5. 10 

LANGBAINE. I. Gerard, an English scholar, 
born in Westmoreland about 1608, died in 1658. 
The greater part of his life was passed at Ox- 
ford, where he was provost of Queen's college, 
and keeper of the university archives. He 
was an industrious writer, and succeeded in 
avoiding the political troubles of the time. His 
chief work was an edition of Longinus, in addi- 
tion to which he published a number of minor 
treatises on church questions and miscellaneous 
topics. II. Gerard, son of the preceding, born 
in Oxford in 1656, died in 1692. He was edu- 
cated at University college, Oxford, and after 
a career of idleness and extravagance devoted 
himself to literary pursuits. He gave particu- 
lar attention to the history of dramatic litera- 
ture, and collected, it is said, about 1,000 old 
plays. He republished a catalogue of plays 
made by Kirkman, a bookseller, under the title 
of " Momus Triumphans " (1687). This work 
was speedily sold off, and was improved into 
" A New Catalogue of English Plays " (1688). 
Still further amendments and additions pro- 
duced his " Account of the English Dramatic 
Poets" (1691, 1699, and 1719). These cata- 
logues manifest little taste or judgment, but 
are valuable to the student of dramatic history 
from the accuracy with which facts are related 
and editions described. Commentators and 
others have borrowed copiously from Lang- 
baine, many of them without acknowledgment. 

LANGBEIN, August Friedrich Ernst, a German 
author, born near Dresden, Sept. 6, 1757, died 
in Berlin, Jan. 2, 1835. He studied law, filled 
various public offices, and from 1820 till his 
death was censor of belles-lettres publications 
for the Prussian government. His complete 
works were published in 31 vols. (Stuttgart, 
1835-'7), and comprise humorous poems, tales, 
and novels, some of which have been very 
popular. An edition in 8 vols. was published 
with a memoir by Gcdicke in 1839, and a 
new edition appeared in 1854. 

LANGDON, John, an American statesman, 
born in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1739, died 
there, Sept. 18, 1819. He received a com- 
mon school education, and entered a counting 
house. In 1774 he participated in the removal 
of the armament and military stores from 
Fort William and Mary in Portsmouth harbor. 
In 1775 he was a delegate to the continental 
congress, but resigned in June, 1776, on be- 
coming navy agent. In 1777, while speaker 
of the New Hampshire assembly, he pledged a 
large portion of his property for the purpose 
of equipping the brigade with which Stark de- 
feated the Hessians at Bennington. He served 
in command of a volunteer company at Ben- 
nington and Saratoga, and in Rhode Island. 
Subsequently he was a member and speaker of 
the state legislature, a member of the conti- 
nental congress, a delegate to the convention 
which framed the constitution of the United 
States, and president of New Hampshire. In 
1788 he was chosen governor of New Hamp- 
shire, and in 1789 was elected United States 



senator, which office he held till 1801. In 
politics he was a republican, and acted with 
Jefferson, who upon assuming office in 1801 
offered him the post of secretary of the navy, 
which he declined. From 1805 to 1812, with 
the exception of two years, he was governor 
of New Hampshire ; and in 1812 the repub- 
lican congressional caucus offered him the 
nomination for the office of vice president of 
the United States, which, on the score of age 
and infirmities, he declined. The remainder of 
his life was passed in retirement. 

LARGE, Johann Peter, a German theologian, 
born at Sonnborn, near Elberfeld, April 10, 
1802. Of humble origin, he seized occasional 
advantages for study, spent a year and a half 
at the gymnasium of Diisseldorf, and in 1822 
entered the university of Bonn. He studied 
theology under Lticke and Nitzsch, and after 
preaching at Langenberg and Duisburg, be- 
came in 1841 professor of church history and 
dogmatics at Zurich. In the beginning of 
1854 he was appointed professor of systematic 
theology at Bonn, and in 1860 counsellor of 
the consistory. He has published theological 
and exegetical works of great thoroughness 
and ability. The most celebrated are his 
Leben Jesu (3 vols., Heidelberg, 1844-'7 ; Eng- 
lish translation, "The Life of the Lord Jesus 
Christ," by Sophia Taylor and J. E. Ryland, 
Philadelphia, 1872), which appeared during 
the Strauss controversy, and is in some re- 
spects one of the ablest works on the subject ; 
Die christliche Dogmatik (3 vols., 1849-'62) ; 
Die Geschichte der KircJie (part i., Das aposto- 
liscJie Zeitalter, 2 vols., Brunswick, 1853-'4) ; 
and his great Theologisch-homiletisches Bibel- 
werk, forming the basis of what has been pub- 
lished in America as " Lange's Commentary," 
of which the plan and the treatment of the 
leading books of the Old and New Testaments 
are Lange's, and appeared in Germany from 
1853 to 1864, while portions are by other 
scholars. The American translation is edited 
by Prof. Philip Schaff (New York, 1865 et seq.). 

LANGE, Lndwig, a German archaeologist, born 
in Hanover, May 4, 1825. He graduated at 
Gottingen in 1849, and became professor there 
in 1853, at Prague in 1855, at Giessen in 1859, 
and at Leipsic in 1871. His principal work is 
Handbuch der romischen Alterthumer (3 vols., 
Berlin, 1856-74). In 1874 he published at 
Leipsic Die EpJieten und der Areopag vor Solon. 

LANGELAND, an island of Denmark, between 
the islands of Laaland and Funen, separated 
from the former by the Langeland Belt, and 
from the latter by a narrow channel of great 
depth, having the Great Belt on the north and 
the Baltic on the south ; length from N. to S. 
33 m., average breadth about 3 m. ; area, 106 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1864, 18,399. The E. coast is 
washed by a strong current, and has no har- 
bors ; the "W. coast is free from currents, is 
deeply indented, contains many excellent har- 
bors, and furnishes throughout one great road- 
stead with safe anchorage for the largest ves- 


sels. The island is fertile, yielding much grain 
and dairy produce. It is included in the bail- 
iwick of Svendborg. Capital, Rudkiobing, 
which is a port with considerable shipping. 

LAICGENSALZA, a town of Prussia, in the 
province of Saxony, on the Salza, near its en- 
trance into theUnstrut, 17 m. N. W. of Erfurt ; 
pop. in 1871, 9,484. It has four churches, a 
Realschule, a female school of a higher grade, 
and manufactories of linen and of machines. 
On June 27, 1866, a battle was fought here be- 
tween the Prussians and Hanoverians, in which 
the latter repulsed the Prussians, but on the 
following day surrendered to them. 

LANGER, Robert von, a German painter, born 
in Diisseldorf in 1783, died at Haidhausen, 
Oct. 6, 1846. He was a son of the historical 
painter Johann Peter von Langer (1756-1824), 
and became professor at the academy of Mu- 
nich and chief director of the national galle- 
ries, and organized the Pinakothek. He illus- 
trated Dante's Inferno, and his other works 
consist chiefly of frescoes from Biblical and 
ancient history. It was mainly through his 
efforts that Rubens's "Battle of the Amazons" 
and other works were restored. 

LANGHORNE, John, an English poet, born 
at Kirkby-Stephen, Westmoreland, in March, 
1735, died in Wells, Somersetshire, April 1, 
1779. He took orders, and went to Cambridge, 
where he supported himself by teaching in a 
gentleman's family. On account of an unfor- 
tunate attachment to the daughter of his em- 
ployer he left his situation and went to Lon- 
don, where he wrote for periodicals, obtained 
the curacy of St. John's, Clerkenwell, and was 
appointed assistant preacher of Lincoln's Inn. 
In 1765 he published a short poem entitled 
"Genius and Valor," to defend the Scotch 
against the aspersions of Churchill ; for this he 
received the degree of D. D. from the university 
of Edinburgh in 1766, and in 1767 he married 
the lady to whom he had previously paid un- 
successful suit. She belonged to a wealthy 
family, and the living of Blagden in Somerset- 
shire was purchased for her husband; but 
within a year she died in childbed. Langhorne 
then removed to Folkestone, where, in con- 
junction with his brother William, who held a 
curacy in that town, he wrote his translation 
of Plutarch's "Lives" (1771), the work by 
which he is best known. He married again, 
and lost his second wife also in childbed in 
1776. In 1777 he obtained a prebend in the 
cathedral of Wells. He was a voluminous 
writer of tales, short poems, and sermons, which 
are little valued. A collection of his poems 
with a memoir of the author was published by 
his son in 1802, in 3 vols. 8vo. 

LANGLANDE, Langelande, or Longland, Robert, 
the supposed author of the " Vision of Piers 
Ploughman," born at Cleobury Mortimer, 
Shropshire, in the first half of the 14th century. 
Nothing is known of him except from tradi- 
tions current at least as early as the 16th 
century, according to which he was educated 




at Oxford, and became a monk at Malvern. 
The familiarity of the author with the Scrip- 
tures and the church fathers indicates that he 
was an ecclesiastic ; several local allusions in 
the poem, and the fact that its scene is the 
" Malverne hilles," prove that it was composed 
on the borders of Wales; and internal evi- 
dence fixes its date at about 1362. It narrates 
the dreams of Piers Ploughman, who, weary 
of the world, falls asleep beside a stream in 
a vale among the Malvern hills; and while 
satirizing in vigorous allegorical descriptions 
the corruptions in church and state, and the 
vices incident to the various professions of life, 
and painting the obstacles which resist the 
amelioration of mankind, it presents the simple 
ploughman as the embodiment of virtue and 
truth, and the representative of the Saviour. 
Its ancient popularity appears from the large 
number of MS. copies still extant, most of them 
belonging to the latter part of the 14th century. 
It was a favorite of religious and political re- 
formers, and several imitations of it appeared, 
the most important of which was "Piers 
Ploughman's Orede," written about 1393 by 
some Wyclifiite, assailing the clergy, and es- 
pecially the monks. In 1550 the " Vision of 
Piers Ploughman " was printed by the reform- 
ers, and so favorably received that three edi- 
tions were sold within a year ; and the name 
of the ploughman is often introduced in the 
political tracts of the 16th and 17th centuries. 
This poem is a remarkable example of a system 
of verse derived from the Anglo-Saxons, and 
marked by a regular alliteration instead of 
rhyme. There are two classes of manuscripts, 
which give the text with considerable varia- 
tions. The best edition both of the " Vision " 
and the " Creed " is that of Thomas Wright 
(2d ed., 2 vols., London, 1856), with notes, a 
glossary, and variations. 

LANGLKS, Louis Mathien, a French orientalist, 
born near St. Didier, Aug. 23, 1763, died Jan. 
28, 1824. He studied Arabic and Persian un- 
der Sylvestre de Sacy, and in 1787 published a 
French translation from the Persian of Tam- 
erlane's "Political and Military Institutes," 
supposed to have been written by Tamerlane 
in the Mongol language. He was intrusted 
with the publication of the Mantchoo-French 
lexicon by Father Amiot, which he accomplish- 
ed with accuracy and success. He induced 
the French republican government to establish 
the special school of oriental languages, which 
is still in existence. He was its first adminis- 
trator, and professor of the Persian, Malay, and 
Mantchoo, but taught only the first of these 
languages. The geographical society of Paris 
was founded principally through his exertions. 
He published a great number of works relating 
to oriental literature, history, and geography, 
and by his enthusiasm and liberality contributed 
perhaps more than any other man of his time 
to the extension of oriental studies. But his 
learning was confused and inexact, and his 
works are of little authority. 

LANGLOIS, Jean Charles, a French painter, 
born at Beaumont-en- A uge, July 22, 1789, died 
in Paris in 1870. He was in the army more 
than 40 years, till 1849, and exhibited pano- 
ramas of the principal battles he had witnessed, 
his " Capture of the Malakoff " especially at- 
tracting great attention. He published several 
military and other narratives. 

LANGLOIS, Victor, a French orientalist, born 
in Dieppe, March 20, 1829, died May 14, 1869. 
He explored Cilicia and Little Armenia in 
1852-'3, and the terra cotta figures which he 
had found in his excavations in the necropolis 
of Tarsus were exhibited in the Louvre. He 
discovered more than 80 new Greek inscrip- 
tions, and published the results of his research- 
es in four works (1854-'61). In 1857 and in 
1861 he went to Italy in search of historical 
data as to the relations between France and 
Armenia during the crusades. His other works 
relate to Egyptian and -Georgian numismatics 
(1852), and to the convent of St. Lazarus and 
the Mekhitarist congregation, with an outline 
of Armenian history and literature (1862). In 
1867 appeared his Le mont Athos et ses monas- 
teres, with a photolithographic reproduction 
of the geography of Ptolemy, of which the 
Greek manuscript of the 17th century is pre- 
served in that monastery. The first volume 
of his Collection des Mstoriens anciens et mo- 
dernes de VArmenie, a translation from the 
Armenian, was published in 1868, under the 
auspices of the Egyptian prime minister Nubar 
Pasha, but he did not live to complete the work. 

LASGKKS. a fortified town of Champagne, 
France, in the department of Haute-Marne, on 
the left bank of the Marne, 145 m. S. E. of 
Paris ; pop. in 1866, 8,320. It has a commu- 
nal college, a commercial court, and a theologi- 
cal seminary. The town is on a steep hill, be- 
longing to the so-called plateau of Langres, and 
is the most elevated in northern France. The 
most important manufacture is cutlery. Lan- 
gres has been the see of a bishop since the 3d 
century. It is the birthplace of Diderot, to 
whom a monument has been erected. 

LANGTOFT, Peter, an English chronicler, so 
called from the parish of Langtoft in York- 
shire, flourished in the latter half of the 13th 
century and the commencement of the 14th. 
Little is known of his life beyond the fact that 
he was a canon regular of the order of St. 
Austin, and produced a translation from the 
Latin into French verse of Bosenham's "Life 
of Thomas a Becket," and a French metrical 
" Chronicle of England," from Trojan times to 
the end of the reign of Edward I. The manu- 
scripts of the latter are preserved in the Cot- 
tonian collection in the British museum, and 
among the Arundel manuscripts in the same 
repository. The "Chronicle" was rendered 
into English verse by Eobert de Brunne, 
whose version was edited by Hearne and pub- 
lished in 1725. 

LANGTOff, Stephen, an English prelate, born 
in Devonshire according to some authors, in 



Sussex according to others, about 1160, died in 
Slindon, Sussex, July 9, 1228. He was edu- 
cated at the university of Paris, where he had 
for a fellow student Innocent III., and eventu- 
ally became canon of Notre Dame and chancel- 
lor of the university. Visiting Kome in 1206, 
he was made a cardinal by Innocent III., and 
in< the succeeding year was consecrated by him 
archbishop of Canterbury, to which see he 
had been elected at the recommendation of the 
pope, and in opposition to the claims of John 
de Gray, whom King John had compelled the 
monks of Canterbury to elect. This circum- 
stance gave rise to the quarrel between John 
and Innocent, one of the consequences of 
which was that Langton was kept out of his 
see until the submission of the king to the 
pope in 1213. In the same year he joined 
the confederacy of barons opposed to the mis- 
government of John, and at a meeting of 
the heads of the revolt in London urged the 
restoration of the charter of Henry I. His 
name also stands first among the subscribing 
witnesses to Magna Charta. He adhered faith- 
fully to his party throughout the struggle, and 
for his refusal to excommunicate the barons, 
at the command of Innocent, was suspended 
from the exercise of his archiepiscopal func- 
tions ; but he was restored in February, 1216, 
and after the accession of Henry III., was al- 
lowed to resume the administration of his dio- 
cese. From that period he devoted his whole 
care to church discipline, and published a code 
of 42 canons in a synod at Oxford in 1222. 
He still continued to watch over the two char- 
ters with the attachment of a parent, and in 
1223, at the call of the barons, again placed 
himself at their head to demand from Henry 
III. the confirmation of their liberties. His 
writings have perished ; but to him is due the 
division of the Bible into chapters, since uni- 
versally adopted. 

LANGUAGE (Lat. lingua, tongue), in a general 
sense, any means of communicating thought. 
Man commonly accomplishes it through the or- 
gans of sight and hearing, and when these are 
impaired through the sense of touch. Visi- 
ble speech is mainly that of gestures and of wri- 
ting. Gestures are chiefly used by primitive 
races with whom language is but little devel- 
oped, and by cultured people to converse with 
those who cannot hear. The scientific forms 
of unspoken language have been described 
in the articles BLIND, and DEAF AND DUMB. 
For the unsystematic and pictorial represen- 
tations of thought, see HIEROGLYPHICS ; and 
for the various graphic systems, see WRITING. 
This article treats of language only in the nar- 
rower and ordinary sense of oral or articulate 
speech, and specially of the results of the the- 
oretical study of it. The character and func- 
tions of the organs of speech are discussed un- 
der VOICE. Language is most commonly stu- 
died for practical purposes only, to gain greater 
assurance and accuracy in the use of one's ver- 
nacular, or to acquire the use of other tongues 

which afford commercial, social, or literary 
advantages. The science of language, how- 
ever, is not simply the study of a language or 
of languages. Though in a measure grounded 
on, and to a high degree aided by, a practical 
knowledge of languages, the science does not 
include the art of acquiring and imparting lan- 
guages, to which the name of linguistics is 
properly confined. Hence it often happens 
that a great scholar in the science of language 
is not also a good linguist, or polyglot. There 
is another method of studying language which, 
in a narrower sense, does not come within the 
province of the science of language, namely, 
philology. In the narrower limitation of the 
term, as accepted by many recent writers, phi- 
lology comprehends only scientific researches 
into the relations of anything expressed by lan- 
guage. The study of language is not its object, 
but simply a means. It uses language only as 
a key to the social, moral, intellectual, and reli- 
gious history of mankind, as preserved in the 
literary monuments of given nations and ages. 
Thus classical philology inquires into the cul- 
ture of Greece and Rome only ; oriental philol- 
ogy investigates that of eastern peoples ; Ger- 
manic philology studies the Germanic or Teu- 
tonic races ; and so on. Philology, therefore, 
is thus not confined by the limits of purely lin- 
guistic investigation, and is in fact a historical 
discipline. Many scholars accordingly counsel 
the disuse of the term " comparative philol- 
ogy" as a designation for the science of lan- 
guage. The term "comparative grammar "is 
also considered inaccurate, as it indicates rather 
a division of the science of language. Thus 
linguistics, philology, and the science of lan- 
guage are conceived as three totally distinct 
sciences, though of necessity interdependent. 
Linguistics, as the practical study of languages, 
dead or living, cannot be treated here, but ref- 
erence must be made to the numerous articles 
on the separate languages. Philology, con- 
ceived as the science of the culture of a given 
racial or historical division of mankind, is 
also too vast and varied for detailed treatment 
here; and its multifarious subjects of study 
must be consulted in the articles devoted to each. 
The science of language inquires into the 
origin of language ; into the laws of the de- 
velopment of one, or several, or all languages ; 
into the reasons of the diversities or similari- 
ties of languages ; into the causes of the gram- 
matical and syntactical constructions peculiar 
to each ; and into the relations which various 
languages hold to each other. The results 
attained in these classes of inquiries form 
therefore the subject and order of this arti- 
cle. The origin of language is still, as Prof. 
Whitney has expressed it, an uncontrollable 
subject, and other scholars regard it even as an 
insoluble problem. Many adhere to the belief 
that language was specially given by God, and 
hence that there was originally a single perfect 
language. Some hold that the statements of 
the Bible do not require such inference, and 



maintain, like T. Hewitt Key in his "Language, 
its Origin and Development" (London, 1874), 
that " the Mosaic account expressly assigns the 
immediate invention to Adam." Steinthal's 
objection to the theory of the divine origin of 
language, namely, that if language had been 
created in' the first human beings, their children 
could not have gained possession of it, for the 
reason that what God gives to one as a special 
endowment no other is able to learn from him, 
is an argument beyond human reason either 
to accept or to refute. Benfey says (Geschich- 
te der Sprachwissenschaft, &c., Munich, 1869) 
that the question of the origin of language lies 
beyond the province of the science of language, 
and belongs to the natural sciences. He argues 
that if these establish that mankind is not the 
offspring of a single human couple, it will be 
impossible to uphold the doctrine of the ori- 
ginal unity of all human speech ; and that if 
they prove that man could not have appeared 
upon earth otherwise than as a single couple, 
it will be impossible to establish the original 
diversity of speech, unless it be assumed that 
the first human beings were speechless. Many 
authorities now hold that man was originally 
speechless, and Jager, Bleek, Schleicher, Fr. 
Mtiller, and others, have recently attempted to 
explain the origin of language after the Dar- 
winian theory of development. The fact that 
at least nineteen twentieths of speech is de- 
monstrably man's own work, has led Prof. 
Whitney to ask ("Language and the Study of 
Language," New York, 1867), "Why should 
the remaining twentieth be thought other- 
wise?" Those who consider language an art 
handed down and developed from generation 
to generation, and who hold that in retracing 
its history we must arrive at a generation 
which could not speak, nevertheless experience 
great difficulties in theorizing on the natural 
causes and the nature of the beginnings of 
language. The ancients held the theory that 
words were originally formed by imitations of 
natural sounds. They called this principle of 
coining words onomatopoeia, word-making. (See 
Lersch, Sprachphilosophie der Alten, Bonn, 
1838-'41.) It cannot be denied that every 
language has a stock of words which are imita- 
tions of sounds given out by certain things or 
animate beings. The cuckoo, the peewit, the 
whip-poor-will of North America, and the tuco- 
tuco of South America, are irresistible examples 
of this law. But, says Hewitt Key, here one is 
at once met by the objection that though such 
an origin is readily conceived in the case of 
giving names to living creatures, or to those 
acts which have their special, noise, as scratch- 
ing, thumping, hissing, yet how can provision 
be made for terms which belong to the other 
senses, as for example that of the eye, and still 
more for the conceptions of the mind? Such 
objections are not considered unanswerable. 
The noise whirr is believed to serve as a nat- 
ural symbol of the idea of revolution, and thus 
the German has wirren, to twist, the French 

mrer, the English veer, and to wear (of a ship). 
The same sound forms an important part of 
whirl, whorl, world (the round globe), warp, 
worm in the double sense of the wriggling 
creature so called and the helix of a screw, and 
wort in the sense of root, as spiderwort. It 
is also heard in the initial letters of writhe, 
wreath, wrench, wrest, wring, wrist, wriggle, 
wrap, wry. Similar examples of the recur- 
rence of natural sounds in numerous words 
expressive of abstract or concrete ideas, seem- 
ingly remote from the original ideas connected 
with such sounds, may be found in all known 
languages. Of course it is not maintained, as 
Blackie expressly says in his Iforce Hellenic, 
(London, 1874), that all current words are to 
be explained on this principle alone. It is 
maintained only that the original stock of 
which language was made up consisted of such 
roots, and that a large proportion of them, 
after the changes of thousands of years, bear 
-their origin distinctly on their face. Max Mtil- 
ler . ridiculed this view of language, generally 
known as the mimetic theory, as " the bow- 
wow theory," without being able to disprove 
the justice of its application. In his " Lectures ' 
on the Science of Language" (London, 1863), 
he advocates another theory, namely, that man 
was endowed with a creative faculty which 
gave to various conceptions phonetic expres- 
sions, and hence that there were at first only a 
few roots of words expressive of general ideas, 
under which man classified his particular or spe- 
cial ideas, so that such class of words retains in 
all languages some phonetic type. This mystic 
doctrine of " phonetic types," first propound- 
ed by Heyse, to which for a time, after Max 
Mtiller's elaboration, great favor was shown, 
has now been generally discarded, and even 
by Max Muller himself. It is evident to every 
sober thinker, says Wilkins in the " Essays and 
Addresses by Professors and Lecturers of the 
Owens College, Manchester " (London, 1874), 
that the solution of the problem of the origin- 
of language must reside "in some operation of 
the imitative principle, quickened in all proba- 
bility by circumstances which we are able to a 
certain extent to reconstruct, and aided, at first 
very largely, but always in lessening measure, 
by the language of sign and gesture." The 
onomatopoetic or mimetic theory is greatly 
assisted by, or rather includes, the interjec- 
tional or exclamatory theory, elaborated by 
Wedgwood in his " Origin of Language" (Lon- 
don, 1866). For example, the interjection jfo / 
pfui ! is in all probability the physical effect 
of disgust at an offensive smell, which makes 
us close the passage of the nose and breathe 
strongly through the compressed lips faugh ! 
and hence the Icelandic fui, putridity, with the 
adjective /M^, foul, and our secondary adjective 
fulsome. It has been justly observed that a 
considerable number of the so-called interjec- 
tions are but imperatives of verbs, often greatly 
abbreviated ; nevertheless, it must be acknowl- 
edged that the mimetic and exclamatory theories 



are as yet the only means attained of giving a 
rational account of the development of lan- 
guage. There remains, however, the difficulty 
of explaining how, prior to any knowledge of 
language, man was led to signify his concep- 
tions by spoken words, and to devise such mod- 
ulations for the purpose as to give rise to the 
same conceptions in the minds of others equally 
ignorant of language ; but, as Farrar attempts 
to prove in his work " On the Origin of Lan- 
guage" (London, 1860), it would seem that 
man is led instinctively to the articulate repro- 
duction of natural sounds, and that the con- 
ception that it was possible to express in sound 
the inward emotions arose from the felt signifi- 
cance of the instinctive and involuntary cries 
which are the germs of interjections. Simi- 
larly, says Bleek in his Ueber den Ursprung 
der Sprache (Weimar, 1868), the sounds of sen- 
sations and imitations are natural and involun- 
tary utterances of emotions which are excited 
by the play of the organs. The lately deceased 
Lazarus Geiger, in his Ursprung und Entwicke- 
lung der menschlichen Sprache und Vernunft 
(Stuttgart, 1868 and 1872), a work^of admi- 
rable learning and ingenuity, attempts to de- 
monstrate that all words were developed from 
a single primitive form, analogous to the evolu- 
tion of the organisms of animals and plants, 
and to the development of races and peoples. 
As German and Sanskrit, French and Italian, 
once formed a single language, and their diver- 
sities are due only to the prolonged separation 
of the peoples, he is led to believe that all the 
languages of the earth grew out of a single germ, 
and that the still greater diversities are owing 
only to more extended periods of separation. 
Without rejecting the proposition of the mi- 
metic and exclamatory theories that man be- 
gan to speak by imitating the sounds which he 
heard animate beings or inanimate objects pro- 
duce, Geiger is of opinion that man was guided 
in the selection of utterances by that which 
he saw, or that he grouped every new sound 
under some other sound with which he was 
familiar. He further holds that the use of lan- 
guage in a measure preceded and produced 
reasoning, or at least that thought without 
language must have been different from the 
present mode of thinking by means of and with 
language. He arrives consequently at the con- 
clusion that man could speak before he was 
in possession of tools and implements. The 
interdependence of thought and language, and 
the independence of the one from the other, 
have ever been subjects of philosophical dis- 
cussion, but unproductive of positive results. 
Hence, linguistic scholars have many theories 
in regard to the measure and degree of such 
relationships. Prof. Whitney, for example, 
holds fast to his conclusion that thought is an- 
terior to language, and independent of it, and 
that thought need not be internally or exter- 
nally expressed in order to be thought. This, 
however, lies beyond the sphere of the science 
of language proper. Only the development of 

language within more or less historical times, 
based on researches into the condition of real 
languages either of the present or the past, can 
admit of truly scientific study. Etymology 
is the science of tracing the history of words, 
and of determining the laws according to which 
words change form and meaning in the history 
of a single language, or in a group of related 
languages, and if possible through all languages, 
back to the germinal words of the beginnings 
of speech. Languages change very rapidly. 
The language spoken in Koine about A. D. 
1000 was widely different from the language 
of the ancient Komans or the modern Italians. 
The speech of the aborigines of Africa changes 
so rapidly that, according to the experience 
of missionaries, that of any particular tribe 
becomes entirely incomprehensible within a 
single generation. About 900 languages and 
5,000 dialects are now known. The difficul- 
ty of deducing for all certain laws of growth 
and change is therefore apparent. In all lan- 
guages words have been constructed by putting 
together previously existing forms of words. 
Thus, previous to the form irrevocability, 
there was irrevocable, which was preceded by 
revocable, which again was formed from re- 
voice (Fr. revoquer, Latin revocare), which, 
with evoke, invoke, and provoke, was com- 
posed from the Latin verb vocare, to call, 
whose element is toe. All the suffixes and 
prefixes employed in the composition of these 
words have their own distinct meaning and 
office, and some of them formed at one time 
independent words. When the final element 
of a word, like voc, in Sanskrit vak, has been 
found, which is the case when a combina- 
tion of letters has been reached which cannot 
be further stripped of formative parts, then 
the so-called root of a word has been obtained. 
Thus Chinese, though actually possessing about 
40,000 words, has only about 450 roots ; Hebrew 
and Sanskrit have about 500 roots ; and prob- 
ably no language has many more. Primary 
roots consist of only a vowel, as i, to go ; or of 
a vowel and consonant, as ed, to eat ; or of 
consonant and vowel, as da, to give. Secon- 
dary roots have a vowel enclosed by two con- 
sonants, as tud, to push. Tertiary roots have 
two consonants followed by a vowel, or one 
vowel followed by two consonants, or first 
two consonants, then a vowel followed by an- 
other consonant, or two consonants, a vow( 
and again two consonants; as plu, to flow; 
ard, to hurt ; spas, to spy ; spand, to trern^bh 
Out of such simple and few roots not only th< 
words of one but of numerous languages hav 
been formed. Thus from the Sanskrit root 
comes the Latin arare, Greek apovv, Irish ar, 
Lithuanian arti, Russian orati, Gothic arjan, 
Anglo-Saxon erjan, English ear (the verb), 
many other words in the same and other 
guages. Similar examples of the connection 
existing among the languages related to Eng- 
lish and ancient Sanskrit, as well as the law? 
which seem to regulate the changes of sounc" 



within this group, have been given in the ar- 
roots of the Semitic languages (Hebrew, Chal- 
dee, Aramaic, Arabic, and others) generally 
consist of three or more consonants. Chinese 
roots have generally but a single consonant 
followed by one or two vowels. Outside of 
the Indo-European languages little can be defi- 
nitely established, as it is requisite, in order 
to attain positive etymological results, that 
not a single link in the historical connection 
between a language discussed and the ancient 
mother language should be wanting. Rei- 
nisch, in his work, Der einlieitliche Ursprung 
der Sprachen der alien Welt (Vienna, 1873), 
has attempted to establish the intrinsic con- 
catenation of the languages of central Afri- 
ca, Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and the 
Aryan family of speech; but there are still 
many gaps to be filled up to render the subject 
entirely clear. F. Lenormant's endeavors, in 
jfitudes accadiennes (Paris, 1873 et seq.), and 
in La magie chez les Chaldeens et les origines 
accadiennes (1874), to develop Jules Oppert's 
opinion that at the basis of some of the oldest 
Semitic languages, as Elamitic and Assyrian, 
lie Finnic and Ugrian (or Turanian) strata of 
languages, are also far from conclusive. Hew- 
itt Key, in his recent work mentioned above, 
has expressed the opinion that the Indo-Eu- 
ropean languages are closely connected with 
the speech of the Finns and Lapps; but this 
opinion also can hardly be considered substan- 
tiated. Nevertheless these works and sim- 
ilar ones, as Delitzsch's Studien uber die in- 
dogermanisch-semitische Wurzelverwandtschaft 
(Leipsic, 1873), and Conner's VergleicJiendes 
Worterbuch der Finnisch- Ugrischen Sprachen 
(Helsingfors, 1874), indicate that many schol- 
ars perceive that the Indo-European, Semitic, 
and Turanian groups of languages may possibly 
have been derived from some one primitive 
form of speech. The opinions of Lazarus Gei- 
ger and other theorists on the origin of lan- 
guage may therefore be finally established by 
genuine etymological researches. But even if 
there is hope of an ultimate demonstration of 
the intrinsic oneness of all human speech, the 
difficulties still to be overcome are enormous. 
The phonetic changes which transform words 
of one language into almost unrecognizable 
sounds in another, somewhat distantly related, 
call for most searching examination of the 
conditions of speech in the various races. The 
laws of sound are circumscribed by physical 
conditions. Many languages are entirely de- 
void of certain sounds ; thus the Chinese can- 
not produce many European utterances, saying 
Yamelika for America ; and the aborigines of 
the Society islands say Tut instead of Cook. 
Friedrich von Schlegel asserts that the Aztec 
language has not the sounds of 5, d, /, g, r, , 
j, v; the Otomi lacks /, i, &, I, r, s; the To- 
tonaka lacks 5, d, /, r; the negroes have no 
r, the Australians no s ; most Polynesian lan- 
guages have no sibilants whatever, and others 

have only seven consonants, which is the lowest 
number known. These imperfections and dif- 
ferentiations of the organs of speech render 
etymological researches exceedingly difficult. 
The usual alphabets of from 20 to 26 letters 
admit of the construction of many billions of 
words, and these letters are far from sufficient 
to represent the sounds of all languages. The 
hopelessness of ever building up the complete 
laws of the phonetic changes occurring in the 
almost 6,000 languages and dialects known, is 
further increased by the fact that our knowl- 
edge of human speech is confined to historic 
periods, and that the beginnings of language 
in prehistoric times, of which no monuments 
have come down to us, are highly essential to 
the construction of a satisfactory etymological 
system. On examining the savage languages 
now spoken, which many regard as counter- 
parts of the forms of speech used in the child- 
hood of mankind, it is found that the simplest 
sounds often signify the very opposite in other 
languages of the same degree of development. 
The sounds most easily produced, 5#, pa, ma, 
and da, are generally expressions for father 
and mother ; but what signifies father in one 
language, signifies mother in another ; thus in 
^Georgian mama is father, and dada mother; 
and in Tuluva, amme father, and appe mother. 
It has long been evident that the mere compar- 
ison of words would not be productive of sat- 
isfactory results. In fact, the day that Bopp 
first conceived the idea of bringing the test of 
the method of inflection to bear upon the ques- 
tion of the affinity and development of tongues, 
was the real birthday of the science of lan- 
guage. Grammar is the scientific understand- 
ing and explanation of the sounds, forms, and 
functions of words and their parts, and of the 
construction of sentences. Comparative gram- 
mar seeks, by comparing the grammars of sev- 
eral languages, to reach the laws of inflection 
and construction common to them, and possi- 
bly to all languages. General or historic gram- 
mars attempt to explain the growth of language 
within a specified group of languages. "When 
languages are analyzed in any state already 
reached, and not in a state of transition, they 
become the subject of special grammars, be- 
longing to the province of linguistics. Com- 
parative and historical grammars have almost 
exclusively been written on the Aryan or Indo- 
European family of speech, enumerated below. 
It is generally held that the genealogical rela- 
tion and order of these languages has been 
demonstrated ; and, though conjecturally only, 
yet with a tolerable degree of certainty, the 
extinct and primitive languages spoken by the 
races before separating into new branches have 
been reconstructed. Johannes Schmidt, in Die 
Verwandtschaftsverhaltnisse der indogerma- 
nischen Sprachen (Weimar, 1872), objects to the 
idea of a genealogical tree of the Aryan or 
Indo-European languages, and proposes in its 
stead a kind of geographical basis of classifica- 
tion; saying: "You no sooner consign to the 



realms of myths the so-called original languages 
constructed in modern times, such as the Euro- 
pean, North-European, Slavo-Germanic, South- 
European, Graeco-Italic or Italo-Celtic, than the 
mathematical certainty disappears, which was 
believed to have been already attained for the 
work of reconstructing the Indo-Germanic 
mother speech." It is true that there is still 
much need of argument and illustration to 
prove the genealogical relationship of the Ary- 
an family of speech; and even August Tick, 
in Die ehemalige Spracheinheit der Indogerma- 
nenEuropas: eine spracJigeschichtliche Unter- 
suchung (Gottingen, 1873), seems, without sus- 
taining all of Schmidt's premises, to be in favor 
of revising the order of the branches of the 
Indo-European tree of languages. Yet with- 
out adopting the theory of the concatenation 
of the Aryan languages, it is impossible to 
present a just idea of the nature, methods, 
and results of comparative philology or gram- 
mar, or the theoretical study of language. The 
whole group of those languages is supposed 
to come from a primitive language of mono- 
syllabic structure; the reason being that all 
Aryan words can be reduced to roots of sin- 
gle syllables. Grammatically considered, there 
are -two classes of roots: demonstrative or 
pronominal roots, ultimately indicative of po- 
sition merely ; and predicative or verbal roots, 
indicative of quality or action. Pronominal 
roots give rise primarily to demonstrative, per- 
sonal, and interrogatory pronouns; secondari- 
ly to possessives and relatives, adverbs of po- 
sition and direction, and several minor classes 
of words. Their number is about 15, all consist- 
ing either of a vowel only, or of a vowel prece- 
ded by a consonant. The predicative or verbal 
roots number several hundred, of various com- 
positions of letters, but always forming a sin- 
gle syllable, and indicative of the properties, 
motions, sounds, &c., of natural objects. The 
combining of verbal with pronominal roots, 
for the sake of definiteness of expression, gradu- 
ally developed various parts of speech. Singu- 
lar, dual, and plural numbers were invented ; 
prefixes of adverbial elements and repetitions 
of roots served to render verbal forms, which 
at first were neither past, present, nor future, 
but according to connection expressive of ei- 
ther, capable of indicating the various tenses. 
Interposition of vowels formed the moods, 
and modifications of roots, compositions with 
others, or extensions of pronominal endings, 
produced intensives, desideratives, causatives, 
and reflexives. Certain derivatives of verbal 
roots were used as nouns, which again received 
distinctive suffixes, capable of designating va- 
rious relations, so-called case endings. On what 
principle the distinctions of gender were made 
(for in the oldest forms of language there are 
masculines, feminines, and neuters which do 
not depend on sex) is very obscure. In early 
language all words were either verbs or nouns. 
Adverbs and prepositions were generated by 
separating from verbs and nouns various in- 

flectional suffixes which served to indicate the 
relations of time, place, &c. Conjunctions 
also came very late into existence ; the definite 
articles came from demonstrative pronouns; 
the indefinite article from the numeral one ; 
and interjections, which should be merely 
ejaculations without verbal significance, were 
increased in number by using abbreviated or 
corrupted words or phrases. The great cause 
of the varied appearances or pronunciations of 
words originally the same in the speech of 
several races, is love of ease in utterance. To 
economize efforts of voice, long words are ab- 
breviated, and combinations of harsh or diffi- 
cult sounds are rendered more agreeable and 
easy by omitting, inserting, or assimilating the 
letters, or by putting the accent back or for- 
ward, or by modifying the tone and length of 
vowels. The reasons for preferring one form 
to another are not always exactly definable, 
but as a rule the linguistic laws of phonetic 
alteration conform to the physical laws of ar- 
ticulation. The sense or ideas of proportion, 
rhythm, harmony, euphony, varying in nations 
of different degrees of culture, are also impor- 
tant factors in the mutations of language. One 
race abandons elements of speech highly valued 
by another, makes compounds which another 
abhors, and retains and adopts what others 
reject. Thus, while some languages of the In- 
do-European family continue to conjugate by 
changes of vowels and consonants, and by 
affixes, infixes, and suffixes, other languages 
indicate tenses, moods, and voices in a great 
measure by separate words. The same is ob- 
servable in the declension of nouns. Then 
again words change meaning in the same lan- 
guage in the course of its development, and in 
passing from one language to another ; new 
words are coined ; other words are taken from 
foreign languages, and some of them are used 
in a sense they did not possess ; others again 
obtain more than one meaning ; some words 
of originally different significations become 
synonymous; and synonymes again become 
anonymes. The causes which produce in dif- 
ferent ages and races these numerous significa- 
tions of the same words, or of derivatives from 
the same root, have also been analyzed. Com- 
parative grammar goes still further. Various 
languages have various modes of constructing 
sentences; words are placed in various rela- 
tions to each other ; they govern various cases ; 
their order or sequence is changed ; they com- 
bine into so-called idiomatic expressions, which 
if verbally translated into another language 
would often appear entirely void of meaning; 
and these often purely psychological causes 
have also been investigated. Yet even the 
grouping of languages into families of speech 
is far from being conclusive. A. W. von 
Schlegel proposes, three divisions : languages 
without any grammatical structure, languages 
that make use of affixes, and inflectional lan- 
guages. The last he considers superior to the 
others, and he calls them organic languages, 



for the reason that, according to him, they 
contain a living principle of development and 
growth, and alone possess, so to speak, an 
abundant vegetation ; in other words, they 
have the wonderful faculty of forming an end- 
less variety of words, and of marking the con- 
nection of ideas which these words denote by 
means of an inconsiderable number of sylla- 
bles, which separately considered have no sig- 
nification, but which precisely define the mean- 
ing of the word to which they are attached. 
Friedrich von Schlegel, in the second place, 
contends for two main genera of languages, di- 
viding them into those which express secon- 
dary ideas by an'internal change of the root or 
inflection, and those which effect the same 
object by an added word which already in 
itself expresses the additional idea, whether of 
plurality, of past or future, or other relation. 
Bopp again demands three classes : first, mono- 
syllabic languages, which are incapable of com- 
position, and consequently without grammar 
and organism, as the Chinese ; secondly, lan- 
guages with monosyllabic roots admitting of 
composition, which are almost exclusively in- 
debted to this power for their organic devel- 
opment or grammar; thirdly, languages with 
dissyllabic verbal roots, containing three es- 
sential consonants on which the fundamental 
meaning rests, as the Hebrew and Arabic. By 
many writers, Prichard for example, in his 
" Eastern Origin of the Keltic Nations " (Lon- 
don, 1831), and Duponceau to whom he refers, 
the idioms of the American tribes are call- 
ed polysynthetic or polysyllabic, implying a 
marked difference from the so-called monosyl- 
labic languages of S. E. Asia. Other writers 
define some languages as synthetic, as opposed 
to those which are analytic. Steinthal, in his 
CharakteristiJc der hauptsachlichsten- Typen 
des Sprachbaues (Berlin, 1860), divides lan- 
guages into two great classes, culture languages 
and uncultivated languages, each with the sub- 
divisions, the isolating and the inflecting. Hew- 
itt Key, after stating these distinctions, rightly 
remarks that all of them seem to be ground- 
less. The assertion that Chinese has a peculiar 
monosyllabic character, and is devoid of gram- 
matical formation, is founded on a gross error, 
as is shown in our article CHINA, LANGUAGE 
AND LITERATURE OF. The alleged distinction 
between word-building by addition of affixes, 
and word-building by means of inflection, does 
not exist. Domini, domino, dominum are thus 
said to be formed from dominus by an inflec- 
tion of us into i, o, um respectively; but all 
four forms have proceeded from agglutination 
of what was a significant syllable in the first 
place, followed by a compression. Polysyn- 
thetic or polysyllabic, applied to the native 
American languages and the Basque, is an 
error similar to that committed in the case of 
GES OF THE.) To all appearance, groups of 
languages, though clearly and closely related, 
indicate more than a single type, and are not 

surely to be derived from a single primitive 
tongue, excepting perhaps the languages spoken 
by the Caffres and Malays, and, but less prob- 
ably, those of the Papuans and Australians. 
All other groups seem to be polyglottic, or de- 
rived from several root forms of speech in 
no manner related. It has therefore been at- 
tempted to attain a less objectionable classifi- 
cation by combining the results of linguistic 
and ethnological researches. "We have given 
under ETHNOLOGY (vol. vi., p. 756) the latest 
classification of racial distinctions, which is 
equally supported by the relations apparently 
existing among the various forms of speech. 
We shall therefore elaborate the same table, 
with special reference to the labors of the dis- 
tinguished linguist and ethnologist Friedrich 
Miiller, as given in part in the account of the 
travels of the Austrian frigate Novara around 
the world (Vienna, 1868), and in part in the 
independent work entitled Allgemeine Ethno- 
graphic (Vienna, 1873). Not in all cases, as 
will be seen on comparison with the ethnologi- 
cal table, are the linguistic groups entirely 
the same, and the various subdivisions may be 
considered as breaks in the line of connection. 

I. Papuan languages. The languages spoken in Papua, 
by the aborigines of the Sunda islands, and in the 

II. Hottentot languages. 1. Nama, Kora, Cape dialect. 
2. Bushman tongues. 

III. Caffre or Bantu languages. 1. Eastern group, a. Ka- 

fir languages: Kafir, Zulu. b. Zambesi languages, 
spoken by the Barotse, Bay eye, and Mashona. c. 
Zanzibar languages : Kisuaheli, Kikamba, Kinika, Ki- 
hiau. 2. Central group, a. Setchuana (Sesuto, Sero- 
long, Sehlapi). b. Tekeza, spoken by the Mankolosi, 
Matonga, and Mahloenga. 3. Western group, a. 
Bunda, Herero, Londa. b. Congo, Mpongwe, Dikele, 
Isubu, and Fernando Po. 

IV. Negro languages. 1. Mande languages: Mandingo, 

Bambara, Susu, Vei, Kono, Tere, Gbandi, Londoro, 
Mende, Gbese, Toma, and Mano. 2. Volof language. 
8. Felup languages: Felup, Filham, Bola, Sarrar, Pa- 
pel, Biafada, Pajade, Bagd, Kallum, Temme, Bullom, 
Sherbro, and Kisi. 4. Bijogo. 5. Banyum. 6. Nalu. 
7. Bulanda. 8. Limba. 9. Landoma. 10. Sonrhai. 
11. Houssa. 12. Borneo languages: Kanori, Teda, 
Munio, Nguru, and Kanem. 13. Kru languages : 
Kru and Grebo. 14. Eva languages: Eva, Yoruba, 
Oji, and Akra. 15. Ibo languages: Ibo and Nupe. 
16. Mbafu. 17. Mitchi. 18. Musgu languages: Batta, 
Musgu, and Logone. 19. Baghirmi. 20. Maba. 21. 
Nile languages : Bari, Dinka, Nuer, and Shilluk. 
Y. Australian languages. 1. Northern division. 2. South- 
ern division, a. Western group : languages spoken 
on the Swan river and King George's sound, b. Cen- 
tral group: the Parnkalla languages on the Murray 
river and Encounter bay. c. Eastern group: lan- 
guages near Lake Macquarie, Moreton bay, Kamilaroi, 
Viraturoi, Vailvun, Kokai, Pikumpul, Paiampa, King- 
ki, Turrupul, and Tippil. 3. Tasmanian languages. 
VI. Malayo - Polynesian languages. 1. Melanesian lan- 
guages: language of the Feeiee islands, Annatom, 
Erromango, Tana, Mallikolo, Lifu, Baladea, Bauro, 
Guadalcanar, &c. 2. Polynesian languages, a. Sa- 
moa, Tonga, Maori, Tahitian, and Earotonga. b. Lan- 
guage of the Marquesas islands, and Hawaiian. 3. 
Malayan languages, a. Tagala group: 1, languages 
spoken on the Philippines Tagala, Bisaya, Pampanga, 
Ilocana, and Bicol; 2, languages spoken on the La- 
drones ; 3, Malagas!. 4. Language of Formosa, b. 
Malayo- Javanese group: Malayan, with several dia- 
lects, Javanese, Sunda, Madurese, Bughis, Mankasar, 
Alfuric, Batak, and Dayak. 

VII. Turanian or Mongolian languages. 1. Uralo-Altaic 
languages, a. Samoyedic: Yurak, Tavgy, Ostiak- 
Samoyed, Yenisean, and Kamassin. b. Finnic: 1, 
Suomi and Laplandish; 2, Ostiak, Vogul, and Ma- 
gyar : 3, Sirian and Votiak ; 4, Tcheremiss and Mor- 
dvin. c. Tartaric: 1, Yakut; 2, Turkish and Tchtr 



vash ; 3, Nogai and Kumuk ; 4, Tchagata, Uigur, and 
Turkraene ; 5, Kirghiz, d. Mongolic : 1, eastern lan- 
guage; 2, western language (Kalmuck); 3, northern 
language (Buriat). e. Tungusic: 1, Mantchu; 2, La- 
mut; 3, Tchapogir. 2. Japanese. 3. Corean. 4. 
Monosyllabic languages (so named for convenience). 
a. Thibetic and Himalayan languages, b. Burmese, 
Eakhaing, and the Lohita languages, c. Siamese, 
Khamti, Khassia, and the language of the Miao-tse. 
d. Anamese. 6. Chinese : 1, Kwanhoa (dialect of Pe- 
king and Nanking) ; 2, Fukian ; 3, Kwangtung (Punti 
and Hakka dialects). /. Isolated languages: Indo- 
Chinese languages, Talaing, and the languages of the 
Khamen, Tsiampa, and Kwanto. 

VIII. Language of the Arctics. 1. Yukagir. 2. Koriak, 
Tchuktchi. 3. Languages of Kamtchatka and of the 
Kurile islands (Aino). 4. Languages of the Yenisei- 
Ostiaks and Kotts. 5. Language of the Esquimaux. 
6. Language of the Aleutians. 

IX. American languages. 1. Kenai languages. 2. Atha- 
bascan languages, a. Qualihoqua, Tlatskanai, Ump- 
qua, and Hoopa. 6. Language of the Apaches, Nava- 
jos, Lipans, &c. 3. Algonquin languages: Cree, Ot- 
tawa, Ojibway, Micmac, and Mohegan. 4. Iroquois 
languages: Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, Cayuga, and 
Tuscarora. 5. Dakota language. 6. Pani. 7. Appala- 
chee languages: Natchez, Muscogee, Choctaw, and 
Cherokee. 8. Languages on the N. W. coast : Kolo- 
shes and Nootka. 9. Oregon languages : Atna, Se- 
lish, Chinook, Calapooya, Wallawalla, and Sahaptin. 
10. Californian languages: Cochimi and Pericu. 11. 
Yuma languages. 12. Isolated languages of Sonora 
and Texas: language of the Pueblos. 18. Isolated 
languages of Mexican aborigines. 14. Aztec lan- 
guages: Mexican (Nahuatl) and Sonoma languages. 
15. Maya languages: Maya and Huasteca. 16. Iso- 
lated languages of Central America and the Antilles. 
IT. Caribbean languages: Caribbean and Arrawakan. 
18. Tupi languages : Tupi and Guaraui. 19. Isolated 
languages of the Andes. 20. Araucanian. 21. Guay- 
curu-Abiponian. 22. Puelche. 23. Tchuelhetic. 24. 
Pesharah. 25. Chibcha. 26. Quichua languages: 
Quichua and Aymara. 

X. Dravidian languages. 1. Munda languages : language 
of the Kol, Ho, Santals, &c. 2. Dravida languages: 
Tamil, Telugu, Tulu, Canarese, Malayalam, &c. 8. 
Cingalese (Elu). 

XI. Nubian languages. 1. Foolah languages: Futatoro, 
Foota-Jallon, Masena, Borgoo, and Sackatoo. 2. Nu- 
ba languages : Nubi, Dongolavi, Tumale, Koldagi, and 

XII. Languages of the Mediterranean races. I.Basque. 2. 
Caucasian languages, a. Lesghian, Avar, Kasiku- 
muk. 6. Circassian, Abkhasian. c. Kistie (Tush). 
d. Georgian, Lazish, Mingrelian, and Suanian. 3. Se- 
mitic languages, a. Hamitic languages : 1, Libyan 
group (Ta-Masheq) ; 2, Ethiopic group (Bedsha, So- 
mauli, Dankali, Galla); 3, Egyptian group (ancient 
and modern Egyptian or Coptic). 6. Semitic lan- 

fuages : 1, northern group Chaldee, Syriac, Hebrew, 
amaritan, Phoenician; 2, southern group Ethiopic, 
Tigre, Amharic, Himyaritic, Arabic. 4. Aryan or 
Indo-European languages, a. Indian group: 1, old 
Indie (Sanskrit), Pali, Prakrit; 2, modern Indian lan- 
guagesBengali, Assami, Oriya, Nepaulese, Cashme- 
rian, Sindhi, Punjaubi, Hindustani, Gujarati, Marathi; 
3, language of the Sijaposh, Dardu tribes, and gypsies. 
&. Iranian group : 1, old Persian, Pehlevi, Parsi, modern 
Persian and its dialects, Kurdish, Beluchi; 2, Zend, 
Afghan ; 3, Ossetian ; 4, Armenian, c. Celtic group : 
Welsh, Gaelic, d. Italic group: Etruscan (?), Um- 
bric, Oscan, Latin, and the Romance languages (Ital- 
ian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Rhaeto-Romanic, 
Rouman). e. Thraco-Illyrian group: Albanese. /. 
Greek group : ancient and modern Greek, g. Letto- 
Slavic group : 1, Slavic languages old Slavic, Bulga- 
rian, Serb, Slovenish, Russian, Polish, Polabic, Bohe- 
mian ; 2, old Prussian languages Lithuanian, Lettish. 
h. Germanic languages: Gothic, High German, Low 
German, Anglo-Saxon, English, Jrisian, Flemish 
Dutch, Icelandic, Swedish, and Danish. 

LAJTGUEDOC, an ancient province of southern 
France, bounded 1ST. by Lyonnais, E. by Dau- 
phiny and Provence, from which it was sepa- 
rated by the Rh6ne, S. E. by the Mediterra- 
nean, S. by Roussillon and Foix, W. by Gas- 
cony and Guienne, and N. W. by Auvergne. 
It was distinguished into Languedoc proper, 


comprising Haut-Languedoc, Bas-Languedoc, 
and the Cevennes, and the annexed provin- 
ces, Vivarais, Velay, Gevaudan, Albigeois, and 
part of Quercy. It nearly corresponds to the 
Gallia Narbonnensis of the Romans. The Visi- 
goths took possession of it in the 5th century, 
calling it the kingdom of Gothia, and in the 
8th it was occupied by the Saracens, who were 
expelled by Charles Martel and Pepin the 
Short. Charlemagne made of it the duchy of 
Septimania, the rulers of which made them- 
selves independent ; and in the 10th century it 
became the county of Toulouse. A part of it 
was ceded to the French crown in 1229, and 
the province was definitely united with France 
in 1271. The parliament sat at Toulouse, and 
the assembly of notables at Montpellier. The 
name Languedoc was formed from langue <Toc, 
oc being the word used by the inhabitants for 
oui, and distinguishing them from those N. 
of the Loire, who used oil (langue d'oil). It 
now forms the departments of Aude, Tarn, 
Herault, Lozere, Ardeche, and Gard, and parts 
of Haute-Garonne and Haute-Loire. 

LANIGAN, John, an Irish clergyman, born in 
Cashel in 1758, died at Finglas, near Dublin, 
July 7, 1828. About the age of 16 he entered 
the Irish college at Rome, where he took or- 
ders and received the degree of D. D. He 
was soon afterward appointed to the chair of 
Hebrew, divinity, and the Scriptures at Pavia ; 
and when the university was deserted in 1796 
in consequence of the war, he returned to Ire- 
land and was elected to a similar position in 
the college of Maynooth. His election having 
been opposed by the bishop of Cork, who sus- 
pected him of Gallicanism, he refused the pro- 
fessorship, and obtained an appointment in 
the record tower of Dublin castle, to which 
were added in 1799 the duties of librarian, edi- 
tor, and translator for the Dublin society. 
This place he retained till 1821, when his 
intellect became impaired, and he passed the 
rest of his life in a private lunatic asylum at 
Finglas. He left an " Introduction concerning 
the Nature, Present State, and True Interests 
of the Church of England, and on the Means 
of effecting a Reconciliation of the Churches," 
and an "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland" (4 
vols., 1822). He also published the Roman 
breviary in Irish, and an edition of Alban But- 
ler's " Moral Discourses," with a preface. 

LAJf JUINAIS, Jean Denis, count, a French states- 
man, born in Rennes, March 12, 1753, died in 
Paris, Jan. 13, 1827. When scarcely 22 years 
of age he won by public competition the pro- 
fessorship of ecclesiastical law in his native 
city. He acquired reputation as a lecturer and 
a barrister, was in 1789 elected a deputy to 
the states general, took an active part in near- 
ly all the great measures of the constituent as- 
sembly, framed the bill for the civil constitu- 
tion of the French clergy, and was the first 
mover of a plan afterward adopted and em- 
bodied in the civil code, by which the registra- 
tion of births, marriages, and deaths was to 




be transferred from ecclesiastics to municipal 
officers. In 1792, being sent to the convention, 
he resisted the extreme measures of the revo- 
lutionists, and opposed the proceedings against 
Louis XVI., and, being obliged to participate 
in the trial, voted for his confinement and 
subsequent banishment. He sided with the 
Girondists, and was arrested on June 2, 1793, 
but escaped to Rennes. He resumed his seat 
as a deputy in 1795, and became president of 
the convention. On the organization of the 
directory he was elected to the council of the 
ancients by 73 departments. After the 18th 
Brumaire he was appointed a member of the 
senate, opposed the consulate for life and the 
establishment of the empire, received never- 
theless the title of count from Napoleon, and 
was one of the members who voted for the 
deposition of the emperor in 1814. He was 
made a peer by Louis XVIII., submitted to 
Napoleon when he returned from Elba, pre- 
sided over the chamber of deputies during the 
hundred days, and on the second restoration 
resumed his seat in the chamber of peers. 
Here he advocated liberal opinions, opposing 
the reactionary measures of the Villle minis- 
try and the growing influence of the clergy. 
He was acquainted with the oriental languages, 
entered the academy of inscriptions in 1808, 
became afterward a member of the Asiatic 
society of Paris, and was elected associate 
of the philosophical society of Philadelphia. 
His works have been published in 4 vols. 8vo 
(Paris, 1832). 

LAMvKSTER, Edwin, an English physician, born 
at Melton, April 23, 1814, died in October, 1874. 
He studied in London and at Heidelberg, and 
was lecturer and professor at prominent insti- 
tutions from 1843 to 1862, when he became 
coroner for central Middlesex. His works, be- 
sides numerous contributions to scientific peri- 
odicals and cyclopedias, include "Vegetable 
Physiology" (1868), "A School Manual of 
Health" (1869), and "What shall we Teach? 
or Physiology in Schools " (1870). He edited 
in 1866 the " Journal of Social Science." 


LAMES, Jean, duke of Montebello, a marshal 
of France, born at Lectoure, Guienne, April 11, 
1769, died in Vienna, May 31, 1809. He was 
apprenticed at 15 years of age to a dyer, but 
in 1792 entered the army, and soon attained 
the rank of chef de brigade. In 1795 he was 
included among the officers whom the report 
of the committee charged with reorganizing 
the army recommended to be dropped from the 
service ; but disdaining an inactive life, he fol- 
lowed Bonaparte to Italy in 1796 as a volun- 
teer, and distinguished himself at Millesimo, at 
Fombio, at the bridge of Lodi, and at the assault 
of Pavia, and was made a brigadier general. 
At the beginning of the battle of Arcole, Nov. 
15, he was wounded; but learning that the 
combat had been renewed before the bridge, 
he mounted his horse, and plunging into the 
thickest of the fight was struck senseless by a 

ball while urging on the troops. In two 
months he was again in the field, and partici- 
pated in some of the most important achieve- 
ments of the campaign of 1797. He followed 
Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798, and fought with 
distinction at Gaza, Jaffa, St. Jean d'Acre, and 
Aboukir. At the last named place he was 
severely wounded while storming a redoubt. 
Returning to France, he contributed greatly to 
the success of the 18th Brumaire, and received 
the command of the consular guard ; and in 
the spring of 1800 he took command of the ad- 
vanced guard of the army with which Napo- 
leon entered Italy over the St. Bernard, and 
he ended a series of brilliant achievements by 
completely defeating the Austrians at Monte- 
bello, whence he subsequently received his du- 
cal title. At Marengo he sustained for seven 
hours the attacks of the Austrian army sup- 
ported by a powerful train of artillery, and 
was presented with a sword and selected to 
present to the French government the stand- 
ards taken from the Austrians. In 1801 he 
was sent to Lisbon as minister plenipotentiary, 
but showed in this capacity so arbitrary and 
rapacious a disposition and so little of diplo- 
matic finesse, that he was recalled. In 1804 
he was created a marshal of the empire, and in 

1805 accompanied Napoleon to the Austrian 
campaign. He was present at Wertingen, Ulm, 
and Braunau, and occupied Linz ; and at Aus- 
terlitz he had two aides killed by his side. He 
was actively employed in the campaign of 

1806 against the Prussians, and at the battle of 
Jena commanded the centre. He subsequently 
participated in the campaign against the Rus- 
sians, terminating at the battle of Friedland, 
June 14, 1807. In 1808 he accompanied the 
emperor into Spain, and, having defeated Cas- 
tafios and Palaf ox at Tudela, conducted the siege 
of Saragossa, which after a protracted defence, 
memorable alike for the heroic endurance of 
the inhabitants and the energy and skill of 
the French marshal, capitulated Feb. 21, 1809. 
He was almost immediately summoned to Ger- 
many, where the campaign of 1809 had already 
commenced. At Eckmuhl, April 22, his ser- 
vices mainly contributed to the successful issue 
of the battle; and at the assault on Ratisbon 
on the succeeding day he signalized himself 
by one of those daring acts for which he was 
conspicuous even among Napoleon's generals. 
Seeing that his men hesitated to enter the 
breach under a heavy fire from the ramparts, 
he seized a scaling ladder and led them in 
through a storm of shot, thereby carrying the 
place in a few minutes. The sanguinary bat- 
tles of Aspern and Essling, May 21 and 22, 
witnessed the termination of his career. On 
the 21st he held the village of Essling against 
the repeated attacks of the Austrians. On 
the succeeding day he led an immense column 
of infantry, artillery, and cavalry against the 
Austrian centre, but was forced back toward 
the bridge connecting the left bank of the 
Danube with the island of Lobau, whither the 



French, were soon in full retreat. To animate 
his men, he dismounted, and stationed himself 
in the front ranks. At that moment a cannon 
ball carried away his right leg, and the foot 
and ankle of his left. As he was borne from 
the field, he encountered the emperor, who, 
kneeling by his litter, embraced him with 
tears, and showed an unusual degree of emo- 
tion. After nine days he expired in Vienna, 
whither he had been removed soon after the 
battle. A statue of Lannes was erected in his 
native place after the revolution of July, 1830. 
duke, born July 30, 1801, was made a peer by 
Louis XVIII., but took his seat only after the 
accession of Louis Philippe, who employed 
him in the diplomatic service. In 1847 '8 
he was minister of marine. In 1849 he was 
elected to the legislative assembly, in 1858 sent 
as ambassador to Russia, and in 1864 made a 
senator. He died July 20, 1874. 

LA NOUE, Francois de, a French soldier, born 
near Nantes in 1531, died near Lamballe, Aug. 
4, 1591. He belonged to an illustrious family 
of Brittany, was converted to the reformed re- 
ligion by D'Andelot, a brother of Coligni, and 
became one of the most valiant soldiers of the 
Huguenot army tinder Conde, distinguishing 
himself at Dreux, Orleans, and Poitiers, and 
being captured for the second time at Moncon- 
tour (1569). The cardinal de Lorraine declined 
to exchange him for Strozzi, remarking that 
they had a number of Strozzis, but that the 
Protestants had only one La None. He was 
however soon released. At the siege of Fon- 
tenay-le-Comte, in 1570, he lost his left arm, 
which was replaced by one of iron, whence 
his sobriquet of bras de fer. He took Valen- 
ciennes in 1571, but was obliged to capitulate 
at Mons in the following year. After a futile 
attempt to negotiate with the inhabitants of 
La Rochelle in behalf of Charles IX., he was 
during four years at the head of the Protestant 
army. On the restoration of peace he went to 
Flanders (1578) as grand field marshal in the 
service of the Low Countries, where after va- 
rious successes he was captured by the Spaniards 
and held a prisoner five years. In 1585 he was 
exchanged for Philippe Egmont, on condition 
that his son should remain as a hostage in the 
custody of the duke of Lorraine. Subsequent- 
ly he distinguished himself by fresh exploits 
under Henry IV., who exclaimed, on hearing 
that La Noue had died of wounds received at 
the siege of Lamballe, that France had lost in 
him not only a great warrior, but a man who 
was still greater by his virtues and humanity ; 
and even a Roman Catholic historian compared 
him to the chevalier Bayard. He occupied an 
eminent place in French literature, as one of 
the finest prose writers of his day. His princi- 
pal work, Discours politiques et militaires (Ba- 
sel, 1587), has passed through many editions, 
and been translated into German and English. 
His correspondence was edited by Kervyn de 
Volkaersbeke (Ghent and Paris, 1854). 


LANSAC, Francois fi mile, a French painter, born 
at Tulle in 1 805. He studied under Langlois 
and Ary Scheffer, and excels in painting horses 
and equestrian pictures. His " Olivier de Clis- 
son " and " Napoleon I." are at Versailles. His 
other principal works are "Horses at Liberty" 
and " English Terrier " (1857), " The Death of 
Ravenswood" (1861), "Charles II." (1864), 
"The Broken Girth" (1868), and "A Russian 
Team " (1869). 

LANSDOWNE. I. William Petty, first marquis 
of, better known as the earl of Shelburne, a 
British statesman, born May 2, 1737, died May 
2, 1805. In early life he entered the army, and 
served with distinction under Prince Ferdinand 
in the seven years' war. Upon the death of 
his father in 1761, he took his seat in the house 
of lords ; and upon the formation of the Gren- 
ville ministry in April, 1763, he was appointed 
president of the board of trade, with a seat in 
the cabinet, although he was not then 26 years 
of age. In this capacity he distinguished him- 
self by a conciliatory policy toward America, 
and by his opposition to the plans proposed for 
taxing the colonies, thereby incurring the hos- 
tility of the king and of his colleagues. Upon 
the remodelling of the cabinet in September he 
resigned office, and thenceforth attached him- 
self to the policy and fortunes of Mr. Pitt, who, 
upon assuming the reins of government in 1766, 
made him secretary of state for the southern 
department, which included the colonies. He 
here renewed his endeavors to remove all caus- 
es of complaint between the colonies and the 
mother country, but was constantly thwarted by 
Townshend, the duke of Grafton, and others of 
his colleagues, who during the illness of Pitt, 
now become earl of Chatham, had acquired a 
predominating influence in the cabinet. Not 
choosing to resign until he could advise with 
Chatham, he was dismissed by the king in Octo- 
ber, 1768 ; and thenceforth, during the Grafton 
and North administrations, he proved himself 
one of the ablest and most active opponents of 
the ministry in the upper house. Upon the resig- 
nation of Lord North in March, 1782, he took 
office under the marquis of Rockingham : and 
upon the death of the latter in July of that 
year he was intrusted by the king with the for- 
mation of a new ministry. The new premier 
had to encounter the opposition of the Fox 
party, who were disappointed that the duke 
of Portland had not received office ; and the 
coalition between these and the adherents of 
Lord North compelled him to resign in Feb- 
ruary, 1783. But during the seven months 
that he held office the defence of Gibraltar and 
the victories of Hood and Rodney added lus- 
tre to the British arms; and the prelimina- 
ries for peace with America and for the ac- 
knowledgment of the independence of the 
United States were concluded, notwithstanding 
he had joined Lord Chatham in expressing the 
strongest disapprobation of the latter mea- 
sure. From this period he withdrew almost 
wholly from public life. In 1784 he was 



created marquis of Lansdowne. Lord Shel- 
burne was considered one of the most liberal 
and accomplished statesmen of his time, and 
probably carried out more fully than any of 
his contemporaries the principles inculcated 
by the elder Pitt. II. Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 
third marquis of, second son of the preceding, 
born July 2, 1T80, died Jan. 31, 1863. He 
was educated at Westminster, Edinburgh, and 
Trinity college, Cambridge, where he gradua- 
ted in 1801. Upon coming of age, being then 
known as Lord Henry Petty, he entered parlia- 
ment for the borough of Calne, succeeded to 
the representation of Cambridge university 
on the death of Mr. Pitt, and under Grenville 
and Fox (1806-"T) was chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. He supported the leading measures 
of the liberal party, but retired with his col- 
leagues in 1807 ; and succeeding to his title 
two years later, on the 
demise of his brother, he 
became one of the whig 
leaders in the house of 
lords. He was an ear- 
nest advocate of Cath- 
olic emancipation and 
the abolition of slavery, 
and was one of the first 
to urge the necessity 
of parliamentary reform 
and free trade. After 
20 years' exclusion from 
a participation in the 
administration of public 
affairs, he was in 1827 
home secretary both un- 
der Canning and in the 
short-lived cabinet of 
Viscount Goderich ; was 
president of the council 
in Earl Grey's ministry 
from November, 1830, 
till November, 1834, and 
in Melbourne's from 
April, 1835, till Septem- 
ber, 1841. He accepted 
the same office again un- 
der Lord John Russell's administration in 
July, 1846, and held it till February, 1852. 
Upon the formation of the Aberdeen cabinet 
in the succeeding December he accepted a 
seat in the cabinet without office, which he 
occupied till February, 1858, when he retired 
from public life. 

LANSING, a city and the capital of Michigan, in 
Ingham co., on Grand river, here spanned by an 
iron and two wooden bridges, 85 m. N. w. of 
Detroit ; lat. 42 46' 28" N., Ion. 84 32' 40" W. ; 
pop. in 1850, 1,229; in 1860, 3,074; in 1870, 
6,241; in 1874, 7,442. It is regularly laid out, 
with wide streets crossing each other at right 
angles and lighted with gas. The state house 
is a large, plain frame building, mostly erected 
in 1849 ; a three-story brick structure, for the 
temporary accommodation of some of the state 
officers, was built in 1871. A new state house, 

to be completed in 1877, at a cost of $1,200,000, 
is in course of construction. This edifice is to 
be of iron and stone, in the Palladian style of 
architecture, four stories high, with basement, 
345 ft. in length, not including the porticos, and 
191 ft. deep. The state reform school occupies 
a farm of 139 acres in the E. part of the city, 
and has about 200 inmates. It has four brick 
buildings, the central one being 48 ft. long, 56 
ft. deep, and four stories high, with two wings 
extending north and south, each 95 ft. long, 
33 ft. deep, and three stories high, and a third 
extending east, 83 ft. long, 30 ft. deep, and 
three stories high. The state agricultural col- 
lege occupies a farm of 676 acres, 3 m. E. of 
the city limits. The buildings, four in number, 
stand upon a slight eminence amid forest trees ; 
the grounds immediately around have been 
handsomely laid out. It was chartered in 

New State Capitol at Lansing, Michigan. 

1855, and subsequently received the congres- 
sional land grant to the state for an agricul- 
tural college. The number of students in 
1873 was 143. The odd fellows' institute, for 
the care and education of orphans of the or- 
der, in the N. W. extremity of the city, was 
organized in 1871. It occupies a tract of 45 
acres and a brick building (since enlarged) for- 
merly used as a female college, and has a library 
of 1,500 volumes. At the mouth of Cedar 
river in the southern portion of the city is an 
artesian well, yielding mineral water of medici- 
nal properties. Lansing is well supplied with 
railroads, four lines centring here, viz. : the 
Jackson, Lansing, and Saginaw; Detroit, Lan- 
sing, and Lake Michigan ; Peninsular ; and 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern. It is sur- 
rounded by a fertile country, abounding in 
timber and coal, and has an important and in- 




creasing trade. The river affords water power, 
which has as yet been but little utilized. The 
principal manufactories are three of sash, doors, 
and blinds, two of chairs, one of spokes, felloes, 
and bent work, two of barrels, three of iron 
work, including agricultural implements, sew- 
ing machines, and steam engines, several saw 
mills, a flouring mill, and a woollen mill. There 
are two national banks with a capital of $175,- 
000, and an insurance company with $100,000 
capital. The public schools are graded, in- 
cluding a high school department, and in 1873 
had 27 teachers and 1,050 pupils. The Michi- 
gan homo30pathic college, open to both sexes, 
is situated here. The state library has more 
than 20,000 volumes, the public school library 
about 500, and that of the Lansing library and 
literary association about 1,000. Two weekly 
newspapers are published, and there are 15 
churches, viz. : Baptist, Congregational, Epis- 
copal, Freewill Baptist, Lutheran, German 
Evangelical Lutheran, Methodist (5), Presbyte- 
rian (2), Roman Catholic, and Universalist. 
Lansing was made the seat of government in 
1847, when its settlement was barely begun, 
and was incorporated as a city in 1859. 

LANSINGBURGH, a village of Rensselaer co., 
New York, on the E. bank of the Hudson 
river, opposite the mouth of the Mohawk, and 
joining Troy on the south; pop. in 1870, 6,372. 
It has communication with Troy by the Troy 
and Boston railroad and by horse cars, and by 
the latter with Waterford, 1 m. N". on the other 
side of the river. It is handsomely laid out, 
with streets crossing each other at right angles 
and shaded with trees, and has an excellent 
fire department. Besides a large number of 
brush factories, for which Lansingburgh is par- 
ticularly noted, there are two manufactories of 
oil cloth, one of valves, two of crackers, and 
one of knit goods. It has a national bank, 
five hotels, three public schools, a female semi- 
nary, a Roman Catholic school, a weekly news- 
paper, and seven churches. 


LANTHANUM, or Lantannm (Gr. fave&vew, to 
lie hid), a metal discovered in 1841 by Mosan- 
der, who then separated it from the metal 
didymium, with which it was associated to- 
gether with cerium in the mineral cerite; 
symbol, La; chemical equivalent, 92. It forms 
only one oxide, which is buff-colored and free- 
ly soluble in diluted nitric acid. It forms 
colorless astringent salts, which give a white 
precipitate with the soluble oxalates. 

LANUVirM (now Cimta Lavigna), an ancient 
city of Italy, in Latium, 18 m. S. S. E. of Rome, 
about a mile from the Appian way. It was 
founded at a very remote period, and probably 
by a colony from Alba. It took part with 
Rome against the Volscians, but later, in the 
wars of the Latins, against the Romans. Sub- 
sequently it was celebrated for its temple of 
Juno Sospita. It suffered greatly in the civil 
wars. The emperor Antoninus Pius was born 
here. Few remains of the old city now exist. 

LANZA, Giovanni, an Italian statesman, born 
at Vignale, Piedmont, in 1815. He became a 
member of the Sardinian chamber in 1848, and 
of Cavour's cabinet as minister of education in 
1855, and of finance in 1858. He withdrew 
with Cavour in 1859, and was repeatedly presi- 
dent of the Sardinian chamber and the Italian 
parliament. In 1864-'5 he was minister of the 
interior under Lamarmora, and he executed 
the transfer of the capital of Italy to Florence. 
In 1867 he was again president of the parlia- 
ment, but resigned in consequence of his objec- 
tions to the financial measures of the govern- 
ment. His reelection to the presidency in 1869 
occasioned the resignation of the Menabrea 
cabinet, and the king called upon him to form 
a new one, in which he took the portfolio of 
the interior. The transfer of the capital to 
Rome, July 1, 1871, took place under his ad- 
ministration, and he projected beneficial finan- 
cial measures. His cabinet, resigning June 26, 
1873, was succeeded, after a protracted crisis, 
by that of Minghetti. 

LANZAROTE, the most K E. of the Canary 
islands, in lat. 29 2' N., Ion. 13 48' W., 90 m. 
from the African coast; length 36 m., average 
breadth 9 m. ; area, about 325 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1 867, 1 7,500. The mountains are all of volcanic 
origin, and the principal peak, Montana Blanca, 
is upward of 2,000 ft. high ; the most conspic- 
uous of the active volcanoes is Temanfay. 
Small rocky islands abound on the N. E. and 
E. coast. The decomposed lava which com- 
poses the soil of the low hills and large plains 
makes it exceedingly fertile in rainy years, but 
the generally prevailing drought is often fatal 
to vegetation. In good years the product of 
wine amounts to 1,500 pipes. The other staple 
articles are various cereals. Teguise is the 
residence of the governor, and Arecife is the 
principal port, free since 1852. The total value 
of imports in 1872 was 22,614, and 83 vessels 
entered and cleared, tonnage 16,947. The ex- 
ports to England amounted to 12,585. 

LANZI, Lnigi, an Italian author, born at 
Monte dell' Almo, near Fermo, June 14, 1732, 
died in Florence, March 30, 1810. He was 
educated by his father and at the Jesuit college 
in Fermo. He entered the order in 1749, and 
taught in their schools. After studying the- 
ology at Rome for four years, he was professor 
of the humanities in several colleges. Upon 
the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, he was 
appointed assistant director of the gallery of 
Florence. He studied the Etruscan language 
and antiquities, making several journeys to 
collect materials. In 1790 he was appointed 
archaeologist of the grand duke, in consequence 
of his Saggio di lingua etrusca. He now de- 
voted himself altogether to archaeological and 
artistic researches. Toward the close of his 
life he wrote several devotional books. His 
most important works are : Descrizione della 
galeria di Firenze (Pisa, 1782) ; Saggio di lingua 
etrusca (Rome, 1789) ; and Storia pittorica 
della Italia (6 vols., Florence, 1792), a work 




which he undertook at the suggestion of Tira- 
boschi, the historian of Italian literature. No 
general history of Italian painting had pre- 
viously appeared, and the histories of par- 
ticular schools were too strongly marked by 
bias and prejudice to be of any general value. 
Lanzi's work was the first comprehensive trea- 
tise in which the history of each school is given 
according to its several epochs, and the first 
written in a philosophical and impartial spirit. 
Several editions were published in the author's 
lifetime, each of which received numerous ad- 
ditions and revisions from his hand. It has 
been translated into various languages, and is 
familiar to English readers through the excel- 
lent version of Thomas Roscoe, which forms 
3*vols. of Bonn's " Standard Library." Lanzi 
also published a collection of dissertations on 
Etruscan vases ; a book of Latin poems written 
by himself ; a treatise on the ancient Italic 
languages; a translation of Hesiod's "Works 
and Days " in terza rima ; and Opere sacre, a 
series of treatises on spiritual subjects, to which 
he is said to have attached more importance 
than to any of his other writings. 

LAOCOOJV, a Trojan hero, generally repre- 
sented as the son of Antenor, and a priest of 
Apollo or Neptune. While the Trojans were 
assembled round the wooden horse of the 
Greeks, deliberating whether they should admit 
it into their city, Laocoon rushed forward, 
warned them not to receive it, and struck his 
spear into its side. As a punishment for his 
impiety toward an object consecrated to Mi- 
nerva, two monstrous serpents attacked him 

and his two sons while preparing to sacrifice 
in the temple of Neptune, and, coiling them- 
selves round the bodies of the three, crushed 
them to death. This legend was a favorite 
subject with the poets and artists of ancient 
Greece. The story is related by Virgil, and 
a celebrated group of sculpture representing 
Laocoon and his sons encoiled by the serpents, 
and suffering the agonies of strangulation, is 
still extant, and is said by Pliny to have been 
the work of the Rhodian statuaries, Agesander, 
Polydorus, and Athenodorus. It was discov- 
ered at Rome in 1506, and purchased by Pope 
Julius II., who placed it in the Vatican, where 
it still remains. The Laocoon group has been 
made the subject of admirable art criticism by 
both Winckelmann and Lessing ; by the latter 
in the celebrated work on art entitled Laotioon. 

LAODAMIA, a mythical Grecian princess, 
daughter of Acastus and wife of Protesilaus, 
a Thessalian hero, who, having led his warriors 
against Troy, was the first Greek slain on the 
Asian shore. His disconsolate spouse entreat- 
ed the gods to permit her to hold converse with 
her husband for only three hours. The request 
was granted, and Mercury conducted Protesi- 
laus back to the upper world ; but when he was 
forced to return, Laodamia, unable to endure 
separation from him, expired. The legend is 
embodied in one of Wordsworth's finest poems. 

LAODICEA, in ancient geography, the name 
of six Greek cities in Asia, situated in Phrygia, 
Syria, Lycaonia, Ccelesyria, Media, and Meso- 
potamia,- founded by Seleucus Nicator, the first 
king of Syria, and some of his successors. 

Euins of Laodicea. 

Two deserve particular notice. I. Laodicea on 
the Lycos, a tributary of the Masander in the 
S. W. corner of Phrygia, which, however, was 
claimed by some earlier writers as part of 
Lydia and Caria. It received its name from 
Laodice, the queen of Antiochus Theos, its 
founder. It passed from the kings of Syria to 
those of Pergamus, and under the Romans, 
though frequently visited by destructive earth- 
quakes, became one of the most flourishing and 

opulent cities of Asia Minor. It was destroy- 
ed in 1402 by Tamerlane. Its luxury in the 
early times of Christianity is attested by the 
severe rebuke addressed to its inhabitants in 
the Apocalypse. Paul addressed an epistle to 
the Christians of Laodicea. (See EPHESIANS, 
EPISTLE TO THE.) The town of Eski-Hissar 
was built by the Turks on its site. II. Lao- 
dicea on the Seacoast, a maritime city of Syria, 
50 m. S. by W. of Antioch, founded by Seleu- 




cus Nicator, and named after his mother. It 
was renowned for the fertility of its wine- 
growing environs, its splendor, and the ex- 
cellence of its harbor. In the later period 
of the Syrian empire it became almost in- 
dependent, and it suffered greatly during the 
civil war after the death of Caesar, when it 
stood a siege against the Cassians. It was 
rewarded by Antony with exemption from 
taxes, and adorned by Herod the Great with 
an aqueduct, the ruins of which, with other 
remnants of its ancient greatness, are still to 
be seen. During the middle ages it suffered 
from the attacks of the Moslems. Its site is 
now occupied by the Turkish city of Latakia. 


LAON (anc. Lugdunum Clavatum, %&.&Bibrax 
Suessonum ; mediaeval Lat. Laudunum), a forti- 
fied city of France, capital of the department 
of Aisne, 74 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 
10,268. It is mainly built on a steep isolated 
hill shaped like a V, and thought by many to 
be the Mons Bibrax mentioned by Caesar. On 
one arm of the V stand the modern citadel 
and the city proper enclosed by old* fortifica- 
tions ; on the other is a Jesuit residence, the 
remaining portion of the once magnificent 
monastery of St. Vincent. Of the populous 
suburbs which once extended all round the 
foot of the mountain, only two small villages 
now remain. The cathedral was burned about 
1112, and rebuilt in 1114. It formerly had 
six towers and a central dome over the tran- 
sept, of which only the two western towers 
and one at the S. E. angle of the transept re- 
main entire. The western front has recently 
been restored at an expense of 2,000,000 
francs. Of the four other churches within the 
walls, two are also of the 12th century, one 
being a church of the knights templars. The 
city has a library of 20,000 volumes, with a 
collect-ion of more than 2,000 rare autographs, 
a museum filled with Gallo-Roman and Celtic 
antiquities, a communal college, and a normal 
school. It is an emporium for the manufac- 
tures of St. Quentin, St. Gobain, and Folen- 
bray ; and has an active trade in nails, hats, 
woollen stuffs, and hosiery, besides corn, white 
poppy oil, and garden stuffs. In the suburbs 
are thriving potteries, tan yards, lime kilns, 
rope walks, and a manufactory of copperas. 
Laon became the residence of Queen Brune- 
haut in 575, and the French kings frequently 
resided there till the accession of the house 
of Capet in 987. It has a famous school, 
in which Anselm of Canterbury and Abelard 
taught for some time. During the middle ages 
the burgesses maintained a long and bloody 
struggle for communal rights with the bishop 
and chapter. Since the time of Caesar Laon 
has sustained many sieges. It held' out against 
Henry IV. in 1590, but was taken by him in 
1594; was alternately occupied by the allies 
and Napoleon in 1814 and 1815, its environs 
being the scene of important engagements in 

March of the former year (see BLUCHER, vol. 
ii., pp. 755-'6) ; and on Sept. 9, 1870, capitula- 
ted to the Germans. On the last occasion, just 
as the German troops were marching in, a 
French soldier blew up the powder magazine, 
killing and wounding several hundred persons. 

LAOS, a country of Asia, in Indo-China or 
Further India, bounded by China, Anam, Siam, 
and Burmah, and extending from about lat. 16 C 
to 23 N., though its limits are not closely d< 
fined ; pop. estimated at about 1,500,000. It is 
traversed by the Mekong or Cambodia river, am 
is separated from Burmah by the Salwen. The 
surface appears to be a valley lying between 
two nearly parallel ranges which run along the 
N. E. and S. W. frontiers. The soil is fertile, 
and produces rice, tobacco, the sugar cane, in- 
digo, benzoin, gums, teak, sapan and sandal 
woods, betel, and numerous fruits. Elephants 
and draught cattle are the principal animals, 
and valuable mines of tin and iron are said to 
exist, while gold is washed from the sands of 
the rivers, and copper, lead, emeralds, and 
rubies are also found. The Laos are an hon- 
est but indolent race, much addicted to the 
study of magic, and resembling in religion, 
customs, and language the Burmese. They 
are skilful workers in metal, and make mats, 
paper (from bark), leather, pottery, silk and 
woollen fabrics, sugar, and gunpowder. They 
have a trade with the British settlements in 
Indo-China, and with Tonquin. Most of the 
tribes are dependent upon Siam. The first 
Christian mission among the Laos was com- 
menced in 1867 at Chieng May, about 500 m. 
N. of Bangkok, by the Presbyterian church in 
the United States. 

LAO-TSE. See CHINA, vol. iv., p. 454. 

LA PAZ. I. A W. department of Bolivia, 
bordering on Peru ; area, 43,051 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1865, 519,465, about nine tenths of whom 
were Aymaras. The face of the country is 
extremely diversified, comprising some of the 
loftiest mountains (Illimani, Sorata, &c.) and 
deepest valleys on the American continent; 
while from the first descend most of the 
streams which unite to form the Rio Beni, one 
of the principal affluents of the Amazon. The 
soil is extremely fertile, and the vegetation 
varied and luxuriant. Fine timber and cabinet 
woods abound. Maize, wheat, and the other 
cereals are plentifully produced in almost all 
parts. Cotton, indigo, the sugar cane, tobacco, 
cacao, coffee, ginger, and pimento, with the 
several tropical fruits, are the chief produc- 
tions of the valleys ; while in the more elevated 
regions potatoes, chuflo (a species of potato 
brought to market frozen and dried), guinea 
(often used as a substitute for the two last), 
and the various fruits and many of the vege- 
tables of the temperate zone are very plen- 
tiful. The coca plant is everywhere culti- 
vated, and is the object of an extensive com- 
merce. Cattle, horses, mules, sheep, and hogs 
are raised in prodigious numbers ; vicuilas, 
alpacas, llamas, and guanacos are extremely 




abundant, as are also jaguars, pumas, foxes, 
vizcachas, and monkeys. The vampire is com- 
mon and destructive of cattle. Gold and sil- 
ver are found in several places ; but the chief 
mineral wealth of La Paz is derived from the 
copper mines of Corocoro. The celebrated 
Lake Titicaca is partly situated on the W. 
border of the department, a large portion of 
which is watered by the Rio Desaguadero, 
carrying the waters of this lake to that of Au- 
llagas in Oruro. The department is also re- 
markable for the ancient ruins of Tiaguanaco, 
near the village of that name on the borders 
of Titicaca, and attesting the high civilization 
of a people anterior to the incas (probably the 
Aymaras). II. La Paz de Ayacncho, a city, cap- 
ital of the department, in lat. 16 30' S., Ion. 
68 30' W., about 300 m. N. N. W. of Sucre; 
pop. in 1865, 83,092, nine tenths Aymaras. It 
is about 13,000 ft. above the sea level, built in 
amphitheatre in a deep valley formed by the 
Chuquiapo, a torrent which descends from the 
neighboring peak of Illimani, rising 8,000 ft. 
higher, and is here crossed by nine handsome 
bridges. The streets are not very regular, 
but the houses are substantially constructed, 
the lower part frequently of stone, and have a 
neat and agreeable appearance. The cathedral, 
fronting the principal square, is a beautiful 
edifice, tastefully decorated outside with bas- 
si rilievi, and possessing a magnificent image 
of the Virgin of the Pilar of Saragossa, the 
gift of Charles V. Of the 14 other churches, 
some have much architectural beauty. There 
is a monastery, the university of San An- 
dres, a school of medicine, and a number of 
other schools public and private, besides the 
college of law, sciences, and arts, and a semi- 
nary. The alameda is a delightful resort for 
promenading; and the cemetery or panteon 
is surpassed in beauty by very few in South 
America. La Paz is the chief commercial 
emporium of the republic, owing to its situa- 
tion almost due E. of the Peruvian port of 
Arica, which is in reality the most convenient 
for Bolivia. There is no industry of impor- 
tance, and the principal trade consists in the 
traffic in coca leaves, and the export of copper 
extracted from the extensive mines of Coro- 
coro in the vicinity. A curious commodity 
daily received in the markets is taquia, the 
dried excrements of the llama and its con- 
geners, constituting the chief fuel used in the 
country. The city was founded in 1548 by 
Alonzo de Mendoza, who named it Nuestra 
Sefiora de la Paz. In 1605 it was raised to a 
bishopric ; and in 1825 it received its present 
appellation of La Paz de Ayacucho, in memory 
of the battle fought in the plain of the last 
name, decisive of Bolivian independence. 

LA PAZ, a seaport of Mexico, capital of the 
territory of Lower California, on a bay of the 
same name, on the "WV shore of the gulf of Cali- 
fornia, 240 m. K W. of Mazatlan; lat. 24 15' 
N., Ion. 110 12' W. ; pop. about 500. Many of 
the houses show in their tasteful construction 


VOL. X. 11 

that the town was once the abode of luxury. 
The port is well sheltered, and easily defensible 
against attack from the sea. But the shipping 
is now almost insignificant; and the pearl 
fisheries, once very extensive and productive, 
have lost much of their importance. The climate 
is hot and insalubrious, and the surrounding 
country is for the most part barren ; yet there 
are numerous ranches at some distance in the 
interior, exporting fruits and animal products. 

LAPEER, a S. E. county of Michigan, drained 
by the sources of Flint and Belle rivers ; area, 
828 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 21,345. It has a 
rolling surface and a rich soil, and is well 
wooded. The Port Huron and Lake Michigan, 
and the Detroit and Bay City railroads pass 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 357,521 bushels of wheat, 241,266 of In- 
dian corn, 300,735 of oats, 37,585 of barley, 
152,984 of potatoes, 33,650 Ibs. of hops, 241,- 
179 of wool, 646,757 of butter, 29,365 of 
cheese, and 29,835 tons of hay. There were 
4,973 horses, 5,301 milch cows, 1,011 working 
oxen, 6,346 other cattle, 52,191 sheep, and 
6,793 swine ; 4 manufactories of carriages, 2 
of iron castings, 1 of engines and boilers, 7 of 
saddlery and harness, 3 of sash, doors, and 
blinds, 1 of woollen goods, 11 flour mills, and 
30 saw mills. Capital, Lapeer. 

LA PEROUSE, Jean Francois de Galanp, count 
de, a French navigator, born at Guo, near 
AIM, Languedoc, Aug. 22, 1741, perished prob- 
ably by shipwreck at Vanikoro, an island in 
the South Pacific, in 1788 or 1789. He en- 
tered the navy at the age of 15, and in 1759 
was wounded and taken prisoner in the en- 
gagement with Sir Edward Hawke off Belle 
Isle. Subsequently he served in the American 
war of independence, and in 1782 entered 
Hudson bay with a small fleet and destroyed 
the British trading establishments there. Upon 
the conclusion of the war Louis XVI., with a 
view of securing for the French people a share 
in the glory which the English were reaping 
from the discoveries of navigators like Cook, 
caused the frigates Astrolabe and Boussole to be 
fitted out under the command of La Pe>ouse for 
maritime explorations in the Pacific, and along 
the coasts of America, China, Japan, and Tar- 
tary. La Perouse, sailing from Brest, Aug. 1, 
1785, doubled Cape Horn and proceeded to 
the N. W. coast of America. From Mount St. 
Elias he explored the coast as far as Monterey, 
California, whence he crossed over to Asia. 
During the summer of 1787 he followed the 
coast from Manila to Petropavlovsk, at which 
place he arrived in September, having ex- 
amined the waters which separate the coast of 
Tartary from the Japanese group of islands, 
and discovered the straits between the islands 
of Saghalien and Yezo which bear his name. 
From Petropavlovsk he sent to France copies 
of his journals and charts and other data, from 
which an account of his voyage was subse- 
quently prepared. Sailing south in the latter 
part of September, he touched at Manua, one 




of the Navigator's islands, where De Langle, 
the commander of the Astrolabe, and a number 
of men were killed by the natives, and thence 
proceeded to Botany Bay. A letter from La 
Pe>ouse to the French minister of marine, 
dated Botany Bay, Feb. 7, 1788, announcing 
his intention of proceeding to the isle of 
France by the way of Van Diemen's Land, the 
Friendly isles, and New Guinea, was the last 
intelligence ever received from the expedition. 
In 1791 a squadron was despatched under Ad- 
miral D'Entrecasteaux in search of La Perouse, 
but failed of finding any trace of him. Du- 
mont d'Urville while at Hobart Town in 1828 
learned that fragments of a shipwrecked vessel 
and her equipments had been discovered in 
Yanikoro in the New Hebrides group, and 
sailing thither with his vessel the Astrolabe, 
ascertained that many years previous two 
ships had foundered on a reef off the W. coast 
of the island, and that such of the crews as had 
not been drowned or murdered by the savages 
had sailed from the island in a small vessel 
built by themselves, and never afterward been 
heard of. Believing that these weje the ships 
of La Perouse, he caused a cenotaph to be 
erected near the locality of the shipwreck. 

LAPHAM, Increase Allen, an American physicist, 
bora at Palmyra, N. Y., March 7, 1811. He 
was engaged as a civil engineer on the Welland 
canal, in Canada, and afterward on the canal 
around the falls of the Ohio at Louisville, Ky., 
where he began the collection of his herbarium, 
which now contains about 8,000 specimens. 
From 1833 to 1835 he was secretary of the 
Ohio board of canal commissioners. In 1836 he 
removed to Milwaukee, Wis., where he now 
resides, and where he has held several municipal 
and other offices. In 1862 he was elected 
president of the Wisconsin historical society. 
In 1873 he was appointed state geologist, and 
in 1874 was engaged in making a thorough 
geological and topographical survey of Wis- 
consin. He has been a frequent contributor 
to scientific periodicals, and was the first to 
demonstrate from minute personal observa- 
tions that there is a slight lunar tide in Lake 
Huron. Among his productions are : " Notice 
of the Louisville Canal, and of the Geology of 
the Vicinity" (in Silliman's "Journal," 1827); 
"Wisconsin: its Geography, Topography, His- 
tory, Geology, and Mineralogy" (1844; 2d ed., 
1855); a "Geological Map of Wisconsin" 
(1855); and "Antiquities of Wisconsin" (in 
the "Smithsonian Contributions," vol. vii., 
1855). ^ In 1867 he made a valuable report to 
the legislature of Wisconsin upon the disastrous 
effects of the destruction of forest trees ; and 
in 1869 he presented a memorial to congress 
suggesting that system of weather reports 
which has since been adopted. 

LAPIDARY (Lat. lapidarius, a stone cutter, 
from lapis, a stone), a workman whose trade 
is the cutting and polishing of small ornamen- 
tal stones. His apparatus consists almost ex- 
clusively of wheels or disks for grinding down, 

slitting, and polishing the faces of minerals. 
These are of a few inches diameter, made of 
lead, pewter, brass, or iron, and of various soft 
alloys, and some used for smoothing the soft- 
est minerals are of willow or mahogany. The 
metal wheels are called laps. The term mill is 
applied to them all, and some are distinguished 
as slitting mills, others as roughing, smoothing, 
or polishing mills, of all which there are varie- 
ties adapted to the different degrees of hard- 
ness of the minerals. The polishing mill for 
the softest stones is formed of a coil of list, 
wound with the edges outward ; it is also some- 
times made of bristles like a brush, or of wood 
covered with buff leather. For slitting pur- 
poses an iron disk is employed of 8 or 9 in. 
diameter and -gfa of an inch in thickness. The 
various disks used by the lapidary are adjusted 
to a vertical spindle, and one of them is set in 
the table or lapidary's bench, so as to revolve 
horizontally just above the surface. Its axis 
extends beneath the table, and is there connect- 
ed by a belt with a driving wheel attached to 
another vertical axis, which also passes through 
the table and terminates above in a winch 

Lapidary's Table. 

or crank. This is turned with the left hand 
while the stone is guided upon the mill with 
the right. The mills are fed with moistened 
diamond powder or emery and water ; and as 
the hard powder imbeds itself in the soft metal, 
this becomes merely the medium for holding 
the abrading material, and the softer substance 
apparently grinds and cuts the harder objects 
that are applied to it. A raised edge around 
the table prevents the dispersion of the diamond 
powder or emery. Close to the mill is a round 
iron rest set in the table, which can be turned 
nearer to or further from the disk. This is for 
supporting the arm of the workman in holding 
the stone to the wheel ; or, when its upright 
extremity is capped with a wooden socket, 
which is perforated with a number of holes, it 
serves to retain at any desired angle a stick 
upon the end of which is cemented the stone 
to be ground in facets. By this contrivance 
the exact inclination required is given to the 
faces of ornamental stones. Diamond powder 
for the mills is prepared by grinding the waste 
particles in steel mortars till they lose their 
sparkling appearance. It is applied mixed 
with olive or sperm oil. The slitting mill is 




charged with it around the extreme edge, and 
it is carefully renewed as required. It is more 
economical for this use, and applied to the sur- 
faces of other mills for grinding the facets of 
hard stones, than emery ; but the latter powder 
with water is employed for the more common 
class of stones. It is used of various degrees 
of fineness, and in such quantity that there 
shall always be a loose portion of it between 
the stone and the metallic surface of the lap. 
Polishing is effected by successively using finer 
and finer powders. The hardest small stones 
are finished on laps of copper or of pewter, 
and others on lead, and the powder used is 
rotten stone, which is plentifully applied with 
water. To make it adhere, the face of the 
metal is hacked in lines with the edge of a 
knife. For very soft stones, as alabaster, after 
these are smoothed upon a lead or wood mill 
with flour emery, the list mill is employed 
with pumice stone and water, and after this 
the buff leather disk with fine putty powder 
and water. The last polish is sometimes given 
with the hand and putty powder. In the East 
Indies, wheels and rubbers are made of corun- 
dum or emery imbedded in lac resin. For the 
former about one third of the bulk is lac resin 
and two thirds is the powder. This is carefully 
stirred, a little at a time, into the melted resin; 
the mass is then kneaded and rolled upon a 
stone slab upon which fine corundum powder 
is sprinkled, and finally it is flattened into a 
disk with an iron rolling pin. The wheels are 
made of different degrees of fineness, and when 
used are set upon a horizontal axis, which the 
workman, sitting on the ground, causes to re- 
volve with a spring bow, holding the stone in 
his left hand against the wheel, which is oc- 
casionally moistened and sprinkled with co- 
rundum powder. The rubbers contain a much 
smaller proportion of corundum ; and the finest 
have intermixed the grindings of agates, carne- 
lians, &c. Grindstones are used for giving 
shape to gems only in the works at Oberstein 
on the Nahe in Germany, where agates are 
fashioned into the form of various articles, as 
buttons, clasps, "stamps, paper weights, mortars 
for chemical purposes, &c. Stones of large 
size are run by water power, and the workmen 
lie down in front of them when at work, the 
body being supported by a sort of stool. They 
acquire wonderful dexterity in giving the shape 
they desire to the hard stones, and produce 
with extraordinary rapidity playing marbles 
of perfectly globular form. For full details 
of the processes of the lapidary, vol. iii. of 
Holtzapffel's " Mechanical Manipulations " may 
be consulted; also "A Popular Treatise on 
Gems" (New York, 1859-'67), by Dr. L. 
Feuchtwanger, and " Diamonds and Precious 
Stones" (frew York, 18Y4), translated from 
the French of Louis Dieulafait by F. Sanford. 
(See also DIAMOND, and GEM.) 

LAPIS LAZULI, Lazulite, Ultramarine, or Blue 
Spar, a mineral distinguished for its beautiful 
azure-blue color, highly esteemed as an orna- 











Carb. lime 

Sulphate lime. 

Oxide of iron. 




6-5 -j 



<>3-} 5-89 



Potash, 1-752 


Iron, 1-063 




Lime 0-021 






mental stone. It is commonly obtained of 
massive form, and of compact or granular 
structure. Crystals, which are rare, are 12- 
sided ; a fine specimen of the regular dode- 
cahedron with mirror-like faces is contained in 
the collection of the French school of mines. 
The mineral is a silicate of soda, lime, and 
alumina, with a sulphide, probably of iron and 
sodium. The analyses give variable results. 
That by Clement and Desormes, the first of 
those below, is regarded as giving the true 
composition; by following it, artificial ultra- 
marine, a pigment formerly prepared directly 
from the mineral, has been successfully manu- 
factured. The fourth, by Varrentrapp, is of 
an artificial ultramarine. The second analysis 
is by Klaproth, and the third by Varrentrapp, 
as given by Dufrenoy (Mineralogie) : 

The hardness of the mineral is 5-5 ; specific 
gravity 2*38, crystals 2'959. When melted by 
the blowpipe it loses its blue color; but a 
variety from Chili recovers it on cooling after 
calcination. Lapis lazuli occurs in calcareous 
rocks, associated and sometimes mixed with 
mica and iron pyrites. It is brought from 
Persia, China, Lake Baikal in Siberia, Bokhara, 
and recently from Chili and California. In 
trade it is known as the Armenian stone. The 
principal use of the stone has been for making 
the blue ultramarine pigment ; and as from the 
best stone only 2 to 3 per cent, can be obtain- 
ed, the cost of the purest article is sometimes 
over $100 an ounce. The artificial prepara- 
tions, however, are now very generally sub- 
stituted. (See ULTEAMAKINE.) Lapis lazuli was 
employed by the ancient gem engravers, and 
the fine specimens have ranked among choice 
jewels. The stones through which the mineral 
is disseminated are carved into many orna- 
mental objects, as vases, snuff boxes, cups, and 
even architectural ornaments. In the Orloff 
palace at St. Petersburg are apartments lined 
with lapis lazuli. Imitations of it are made of 
bone ashes colored with oxide of cobalt. 

LAPITHJE, in Grecian legends, a people of 
the mountains of Thessaly, descended from 
Lapithes, the son of Apollo and Stilbe. They 
were governed by Pirithous, the son of Ixion, 
and are famous for their battles with the 
centaurs, who, being likewise sons of Ixion, 
claimed a share in their father's kingdom. The 
wars having been closed by a peace, Pirithous 



invited the centaurs to a feast on occasion of 
his marriage with Hippodamia; but, heated 
with wine and urged on by Mars, they attempt- 
ed to carry off the bride and other women, 
whereupon a conflict ensued, in which the 
Lapithse were victorious. The story is related 
by Hesiod and Ovid. The Lapithse were prob- 
ably a Pelasgian people, whose conquest of 
some less civilized tribe originated the classic 
fable. To them is ascribed the invention of 
bits and bridles. 

LAPITO, Lonis Angnste, a French painter, born 
at St. Maur, near Paris, in 1805, died in Bou- 
logne, April 7, 1874. He studied in Paris un- 
der Watelet and Heim, and in foreign coun- 
tries, and became a distinguished landscape 
painter. Many of his works are in French, 
Belgian, and Dutch collections. One of the 
finest of them, in the Palais d'Orsay, was de- 
stroyed in the burning of that building during 
the commune (1871). 

LAPLACE, Cyrille Pierre Theodore, a French 
navigator, born at sea, Nov. 7, 1793. He early 
entered the navy, became captain in 1828, and 
commanded in two expeditions of circumnavi- 
gation, which he described in his Voyage au- 
tour du monde par les mers de VInde et de la 
Chine, execute sur la corvette de VEtat la Fa- 
write pendant les annees 1830, 1831 et 1832 
(5 vols., Paris, 1833-'9), and in his Campagne 
de circumnavigation de la fregate VArtemise 
pendant les annees 1837, 1838, 1839 et 1840 
(4 vols., 1845-'8). He was made vice admiral 
in 1853, and retired in 1858. 

LAPLACE, Pierre Simon, marquis de, a French 
astronomer and mathematician, born at Beau- 
mont-en-Auge, Lower Normandy, March 23, 
1749, died in Paris, March 5, 1827. Of the 
events of his early life he seldom spoke after 
he had attained rank and distinctions, but he is 
known to have been of humble origin, and to 
have been enabled by the assistance of rich 
friends to study at the college of Caen and at 
the military school of Beaumont, whence at 
the age of 18 he went to Paris with letters 
of introduction to D'Alembert and others. 
D'Alembert at first took no notice of him ; but 
receiving from him a remarkable paper on the 
general principles of mechanics, he at once in- 
terested himself in behalf of the young stran- 
ger, and by his influence procured him in 1768 
or 1769 a professorship of mathematics in the 
military school of Paris. Thenceforth for more 
than half a century Laplace devoted himself to 
the pursuit of science with an ardor and indus- 
try productive of the most beneficial results, 
and which his participation in public business 
and politics never seriously interrupted. In 
1773, when he was barely 24 years of age, his 
papers on the calculus and various astronomical 
questions, read before the academy of sciences, 
procured his admission into that body as an 
associate. A few years later he became ex- 
aminer of the pupils of the royal artillery corps, 
and in 1785 he was elected a member of the 
academy of sciences. He subsequently lec- 


tured on analysis at the normal school, served 
in the board of longitude, and presented to the 
council of 500 a report of the proceedings of 
the institute from its establishment. The rev- 
olution drew him into the sphere of politics, 
in which he accomplished nothing worthy of 
his fame, and in which the ignoble traits of 
his character were prominently displayed. At 
first he appears to have been a radical republi- 
can, and it is said that in 1796 he was one of a 
deputation who were presented at the bar of 
the council of 500 to swear eternal hatred to 
royalty. Two years later he paid his court to 
Gen. Bonaparte, fresh from his Italian cam- 
paigns, thus securing his election to the in- 
stitute ; and after the overthrow of the direc- 
tory he was intrusted by the first consul with 
the department of the interior. So little capa- 
city did he display in this office, however, that 
within six weeks he was superseded by Lucien 
Bonaparte, being appointed to a seat in the 
senate. Napoleon in his exile at St. Helena, 
with more point than justice, complained that 
Laplace " carried the spirit of the infinitesimal 
calculus into the management of business." 
In fact, the department was then one of the 
most difficult in France to manage, and a more 
experienced statesman than Laplace might have 
failed to discharge its functions properly. Un- 
der Napoleon he was made vice president and 
chancellor of the senate, a count of the empire, 
an officer of the legion of honor, and was the 
recipient of many other distinctions. He never- 
theless turned against his benefactor when mis- 
fortunes overtook him, voted for his deposition 
in 1814, and was rewarded by Louis XVIII. 
with the title of marquis. He also suppressed 
in the second edition of his Theorie des proba- 
Ulites (Paris, 1814) the dedication to "Na- 
poleon the Great," contained in the edition 
of 1812, in which, as in the dedication to vol. 
iii. of the Mecanique celeste, of which he did 
not live to publish a second edition, he had 
expressed himself under lasting obligations to 
Napoleon for numerous benefits. During the 
hundred days he refrained from presenting him- 
self at the Tuileries, and after the second resto- 
ration of the Bourbons his employments were 
chiefly of a scientific character, the most im- 
portant being the presidency of the commission 
for reorganizing the polytechnic school, and 
that of the academy of sciences. As a physi- 
cist Laplace occupies a position second to that 
of no mathematical philosopher since Newton, 
and to his labors the science of astronomy 
owes the discovery of the invariability of the 
major axes of the planetary orbits, and of the 
great inequality of the motions of Jupiter and 
Saturn, the settlement of the problem of the 
acceleration of the mean motion of the moon, 
the theory of Jupiter's satellites, and other 
important laws. In his knowledge of physi- 
cal principles he was probably superior to any 
contemporary analyst ; and his invention, in 
conjunction with Lavoisier, of the calorimeter 
for measuring the capacities of bodies for 


heat, his discovery of the cause of the discre- 
pancy between the theoretical and observed 
velocity of sound, his rules for barometrical 
measurement, and his theories regarding capil- 
lary attraction, tides, and atmospheric refrac- 
tion, show that in some of the most impor- 
tant branches of general physics his mind was 
not less actively and profitably employed than 
in mathematical analysis. The crowning glo- 
ry of his scientific career was his Mecanique 
celeste, a book which has been truly said to 
have had no predecessor, and which must wait 
for a second Laplace to arise ere it finds a rival. 
In it he sought to digest on a uniform scientific 
basis the abundant materials relating to the 
application of analysis to physical astronomy, 
which had been accumulating during nearly 
a century, and which, written in various lan- 
guages, with differing notations and in vari- 
ous stages of scientific progress, presented a 
mass of matter not only difficult of access, but 
almost incomprehensible to any but the most 
recondite student. The result of his labors 
appeared in 16 books, published in 5 vols. 
4to, with four supplements, between 1799 and 
1825, and arranged as follows : vol. i. : book 
i., " On the General Laws of the Equilibrium 
of Motion ;" book ii., " On the Law of Uni- 
versal Gravitation and the Motion of the Cen- 
tres of Gravity of the Heavenly Bodies ;" vol. 
ii. : book iii., " On the Figure of the Heavenly 
Bodies ;" book iv., " On the Oscillations of the 
Sea and the Atmosphere ;" book v., " On the 
Motions of the Heavenly Bodies around their 
Proper Centres of Gravity " (Paris, 1799 ; re- 
published in 1829-'30) ; vol. iii.: book vi., 
" On the Theory of the Planetary Motions ;" 
book vii., " On the Theory of the Moon," and 
supplement i., " On the two great Inequalities 
of Jupiter and Saturn " (Paris, 1804) ; vol. iv. : 
book viii., " On the Theory of the Satellites of 
Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus;" book ix., "On 
the Theory of Comets ;" book x., " On differ- 
ent Points relative to the System of the World," 
and supplements ii. and iii., comprising the 
"Theory of Capillary Action " (Paris, 1805); 
vol. v. : book xi., " On the Figure and Ro- 
tation of the Earth ;" book xii., " On the At- 
traction and Repulsion of Spheres, and the 
Laws of the Equilibrium and Motion of Elas- 
tic Fluids ;" book xiii., " On the Oscillation of 
the Fluids which cover the Planets;" book 
xiv., " On the Motions of the Heavenly Bodies 
around their Centres of Gravity ;" book xv., 
" On the Motions of the Planets and Comets ;" 
book xvi., " On the Motions of the Satellites," 
and supplement iv., " On the Development in 
Series of the Radical which expresses the Mu- 
tual Distance' of two Planets " (Paris, 1823-'5). 
" Within this immense programme," says Pro- 
fessor Nicol, "placed as if parenthetically, one 
finds the most striking notices on almost every 
important problem of mechanical physics, any 
one of which would have made the fortune of 
an ordinary mathematician." In consequence, 
however, of his almost total neglect to refer to 

the labors of his predecessors or contempora- 
ries in this, and indeed in all his works, it is 
difficult for the student to know how much of 
it belongs to Laplace and how much to oth- 
ers ; and he has therefore, not without appar- 
ent reason, been sometimes considered more 
of a compiler than a discoverer. The name of 
Lagrange, his great contemporary and friend, 
is rarely mentioned, and one of the latter's 
finest analytic discoveries is on one occasion 
cursorily referred to as " the formula No. 21 
of the second book of the Mecanique celeste.' 1 ' 1 
In like manner the claims of Taylor and Mac- 
laurin to the theorems passing under their 
names are ignored, while his references to him- 
self are innumerable. With all needful resto- 
rations and acknowledgments, however, almost 
any one of the original researches of Laplace 
contained in the Mecanique celeste is sufficient 
to stamp him as one of the greatest of mathe- 
maticians. The only translation of this work 
is that by Dr. Bowditch of Salem, Mass., with 
full commentaries, published at Boston. (See 
BOWDITCH, NATHANIEL.) Mrs. Somerville's 
" Mechanism of the Heavens " is a summary of 
a portion of the work. Laplace's remaining 
works consist of his Theorie analytique des 
prolabilites, the most mathematically profound 
treatise on the subject which has yet appeared, 
and containing his celebrated method for the 
approximation to the values of definite in- 
tegrals (Paris, 1812; 3d ed ; , 1820, with four 
supplements); his Exposition du systeme du 
monde (2 vols. 8vo, 1796 ; 6th ed., containing a 
eulogium on the author by Baron Fourier, 4to, 
1835), "a resume of all modern astronomy, un- 
surpassed for perspicuity and elegance in any 
scientific literature," translated by Prof. Pond; 
and over 40 important memoirs, principally on 
astronomical subjects, published between 1772 
and 1823. Of the three works above named, 
an edition in 7 vols. 4to (Paris, 1843-'7) was 
published under government auspices. He died 
after a short illness. It is commonly related 
that his last words were : " What we know is 
of small amount; what we do not know is 
enormous." But De Morgan states, apparently 
with authority, that the last words of the great 
astronomer were different. During his illness, 
says De Morgan, " he thought much on the great 
problems of existence, and often muttered to 
himself, Qu'est ce que c'est que tout cela ! Af- 
ter many alternations, he appeared at last so 
permanently prostrated that his family applied 
to his favorite pupil, Poisson, to try to get a 
word from him. Poisson paid a visit, and after 
a few words of salutation said : * I have good 
news for you. A letter has been received at 
the bureau of longitudes from Germany, an- 
nouncing that M. Bessel has verified by obser- 
vation your theoretical discoveries upon the 
satellites of Jupiter.' Laplace opened his eyes 
and answered with deep gravity : * Man pursues 
nothing but chimeras.' He never spoke again." 
He has been accused of holding materialistic 
views ; but his writings give no evidence of a 



tendency in that direction, and the subject is 
one which he is known to have avoided. As 
a scientific writer he was perspicuous and ele- 
gant, and his Systeme du monde, as a specimen 
of style, is called hy Arago " one of the most 
perfect monuments of the French language." 

LAPLAND (Lappish, Sameanda and Somella- 
da\ the land inhabited by the Lapps, the north- 
ernmost portion of the Scandinavian penin- 
sula and the European continent, comprised 
in Norway, Sweden, and Kussia. It consti- 
tutes portions of the Norwegian provinces of 
Tromso and Drontheim, of the Swedish lans of 
Norrbotten and Westerbotten, and of the Rus- 
sian governments of Uleaborg in Finland and 
Archangel. On the north is the Arctic ocean, 
east the White sea, and south the gulf of Both- 
nia. The coasts are indented with numerous 
bays, and faced with small islands. Near the 
gulf of Bothnia the surface of the country is 
a plain covered chiefly with forests of spruce 
and fir. The ground then rises gradually, ter- 
minating in lofty peaks of rock, exceeding in 
certain places 6,000 ft. in height. The descent 
from these ridges to the Arctic ocean is more 
abrupt than that toward the south. The limit 
of perpetual frost is 3,500 ft., so that there _are 
many summits half a mile above the snow line. 
The rest of the surface is generally rocky, and, 
except in a few favored spots like the valley 
of the Alten, displays little vegetation besides 
sturdy forests and a few stunted bushes and 
perennial moss. There are many lakes, among 
them the Enare and Imandra, connected with 
the sea by streams, which are inconsiderable in 
autumn and winter, but become large rivers in 
the spring. The most important watercourses 
are the Tornea, Kemi, Kalix, Lulea, Pitea, 
Umea, Tana, and Alten. The climate is much 
milder on the seacoast than in the interior, 
and owing to the Gulf stream many of the 
northern fiords never freeze. The mean annu- 
al temperature at Cape North is about 30 F. 
In winter the sun is for many weeks below 
the horizon, and in midsummer there are weeks 
of continuous day. Of the 160,000 inhabitants 
of Lapland, only about 15,000 or 20,000 are 
Lapps (in their own language, Sdbme or Sam), 
who form a subdivision of the Finnic race. 
(See FINNS.) They were originally inhabitants 
of Finland, but were gradually pushed by the 
Finns further north and west to their present 
territory. According as they are fishermen 
or reindeer herdsmen, they are distinguished 
as "sea Lapps" and "mountain Lapps," and 
either occupy settled habitations or lead a no- 
madic life. They are extremely small in stat- 
ure, and their hair is black and straight, pre- 
senting a great contrast to the tall and blond 
Norwegians and Swedes. Their skin is yel- 
low, the forehead broad, the head poised on a 
short and round neck, the nose well formed, 
the cheek bones protruding, the chin pointed, 
the cheeks hollow, and the lips straight and 
thin. They are agile, but quickly exhausted 
by labor, rather from bodily weakness than 

laziness. They dress in furs, with trousers 
and shoes of reindeer skin. They protect the 
head by means of a sort of cowl, but the 
Russian Lapps generally wear fur caps with 
ear covers. The dwellings of the mountain 
Lapps are small tents, consisting of a skeleton 
of bent sticks, covered with a coarse cloth. 
In the middle is a hole which serves as a flue 
for the fireplace underneath. The sea Lapps 
have better habitations, generally consisting of 
wooden huts with several apartments. They 
live exclusively on animal food ; bread, which 
they obtain of Russian tradesmen, is considered 
a delicacy. The women are very skilful in 
making garments, and the men cut out of wood 
with astonishing ingenuity, considering the im- 
perfect tools they employ, all the utensils they 
need. Many still hunt with bow and arrow, 
but some of them have gained possession of 
guns. Polygamy, though not prohibited by 
custom, is very rare on account of the high 
price which has to be paid for women. The 
daughter of a rich man costs sometimes as 
much as 100 reindeer, while a poor girl is sel- 
dom sold for less than 20. The price is consid- 
ered as a repayment of the expenses incurred 
in bringing up a daughter, and also as a remu- 
neration to the father for losing her services. 
The Lapps have been converted to Christian- 
ity, and belong to the Lutheran church in Nor- 
way and Sweden, and to the Greek church in 
Russia. When heathens, they worshipped five 
orders of divinities : supercelestial, celestial, at- 
mospheric, manes, and demons. Radien Ath- 
zie, the highest god, created everything ; he 
was assisted by Ruona Neid, the fruitful vir- 
gin; and his son Radien Kiedde kept the world 
in order. A great god was Storyunkare, the 
lord of beasts, of the chase, and of fishing. 
Tiermes brought sometimes weal, and some- 
times woe ; he carried the hammer ; his bow 
was the rainbow, and in his wrath he slew 
men and beasts with lightning. His symbol 
was a rude block of wood, which no female 
durst approach. The magicians of the Lapps 
prophesied by means of a drum, on which they 
painted the images of the gods and of things 
about which inquiry was made ; having slept 
with this under his head, the magician on 
awaking told what he had seen in his dreams. 
The Lappish language is related to Finnish, 
but has of late incorporated many Swedish 
words. There are several dialects of it. Nouns 
possess no grammatical gender, but the sin- 
gular and plural are distinguished, and in sev- 
eral cases also the dual number. There are 
11 cases, and the degrees of comparison for 
adjectives. The first ten numerals are akta,, 
kvekte, Tcolm, nelye, vita, kota, Tcyetya, TtakUe, 
dlctse, and lolclee. Ordinal numbers are formed 
by adding at. The verbs have causative, di- 
minutive, intensive, inchoative, and several 
other forms, as well as special forms for ne- 
gation. Postpositions take the place of pre- 
positions. See Henrik Helms, Lappland und 
die Lapplander (Leipsic, 1868); Pettersen, 




Lappland (Stockholm, 1871); and Hermann 
and Karl Aubel, Ein Polarsommer : Eeise nach 
Lappland (Leipsic, 1874). 

LA PLATA, a S. W. county of Colorado, form- 
ed in 1874 from portions of Conejos, Lake, 
and Saguache counties; area, about 7,000 sq. 
m. It borders on Utah and New Mexico, and 
is watered in the north by the Rio Dolores and 
the Eio San Miguel, and by the Uncompahgre 
river, a tributary of the Gunnison. In the 
south it is drained by the Mancos, La Plata, 
Las Animas, and Los Pinos, tributaries of the 
San Juan. The Rio Grande rises in the E. 
part. The county contains the Sierra San 
Miguel mountains, and is traversed from S. W. 
to N. E. by the Sierra La Plata range. A 
strip 20 m. wide along the Utah border, and 
15 m. wide along the New Mexico border, is oc- 
cupied by the Ute Indian reservation. Valua- 
ble gold mines have recently been discovered 
in this county, and large numbers of miners 
are resorting thither. Capital, Howardsville. 


LA PLATA, Rio de. See PLATA, Rio DE LA. 

LAPOMERAYE, Albert, a French historian, 
born in Tours, May 8, 1808, died in Marseilles 
in September, 1849. He established a school 
and a journal at Marseilles. The government 
became so alarmed at the popular effect of his 
lectures in 1831 on the history of the French 
revolution, that he was not permitted to con- 
tinue them, and he was several times arrested 
on account of his liberal writings. His works 
include Cours public d*7iistoire de France de- 
puis 1189 jusqu'en 1830 (1831-'4) ; Histoire de 
la revolution francaise depuis 1789 jusqu'en 
1840 (3 vols., 1840); an edition of Robes- 
pierre's writings (3 vols., 1842); and Histoire 
universelle depuis les premiers ages du monde 
(8 vols., 1845-'6), left unfinished. 

LA PORTE, a N. W. county of Indiana,' bor- 
dering on Michigan and Lake Michigan, and 
drained by Kankakee, Little Kankakee, and 
Gallien rivers; area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
27,062. The surface consists partly of rolling 
prairies, interspersed with groves of timber; 
the soil is generally fertile. It is traversed by 
five important railroads. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 519,018 bushels of wheat, 
394,294 of Indian corn, 148,311 of oats, 151,812 
of potatoes, 47,277 Ibs. of wool, 320,766 of but- 
ter, and 22,333 tons of hay. There were 7,297 
horses, 6,135 milch cows, 9,435 other cattle, 
15,031 sheep, and 15,386 swine; 3 manufac- 
tories of agricultural implements, 2 of brick, 8 
of carriages, 2 of iron castings, 6 of saddlery 
and harness, 6 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron 
ware, 2 of woollen goods, 2 breweries, 8 flour 
mills, and 12 saw mills. Capital, La Porte. 

LA PORTE, a city and the county seat of La 
Porte co., Indiana, situated on the border of a 
beautiful and fertile prairie, 12 m. from Lake 
Michigan and 135 m. N. by W. of Indianapolis; 
pop. in 1850, 1,824; in 1860, 5,028; in 1870, 
6,581. It is at the junction of the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern railroad with the In- 

dianapolis, Peru, and Chicago line, and is a 
place of considerable trade. It contains f oun- 
deries and machine shops, manufactories of agri- 
cultural implements, flouring, saw, and planing 
mills, &c., five banks, good public schools, a 
public library, a semi-weekly and two weekly 
newspapers, and 17 churches. A chain of sev- 
en beautiful lakes runs N. of the city, which 
from their facilities for boating and bathing are 
a favorite summer resort. 

LAPPENBERG, Johann Martin, a German his- 
torian, born in Hamburg, July 30, 1794, died 
Nov. 28, 1865. The son of a physician, he was 
sent to study medicine at Edinburgh, but ap- 
plied himself to historical and political re- 
searches. After visiting the highlands and the 
Hebrides, he went to London, where he studied 
the English government and constitution. He 
continued his legal studies at Berlin and Got- 
tingen, and received the degree of doctor in 
1816. He was sent by the senate of Hamburg 
during the congress of Troppau as minister 
resident to the Prussian court, and resided in 
Berlin till in 1823 he was appointed to the 
charge of the archives of Hamburg. In this 
office he discovered many valuable historical 
memoirs that were supposed to be lost, among 
which were the records of the old cathedral of 
Hamburg. He also made an important collec- 
tion of diplomatic notes in a journey through 
the north of Europe. In 1848 he became a 
member of the senate. In 1850 he took part 
as plenipotentiary in the negotiations at Frank- 
fort, whicb ended with the pacification of Ger- 
many by the convention of Olrntitz. Many of 
his historical works relate to the antiquities of 
the Hanse towns, especially Hamburg, and of 
northern Germany. Among them are: Ur- 
Icundliche GeschicJite des Ursprungs der Deu- 
tscTien Hansa (2 vols., Hamburg, 1830), a con- 
tinuation of the work of Sartorius; Die Ge- 
schichte Helgolands (1831) ; Hamburgisches Ur- 
kunderibuch (1842) ; Die Elblcarte des Melchi- 
or Lorichs (1847) ; and Hamburger Chronilcen 
(1852-'61). His most remarkable work is the 
Geschichte von England (2 vols., Hamburg, 
1834-'7), continued by Pauli (2 vols., 1853-'5), 
and translated into English by Benjamin 
Thorpe, under the title of "History of Eng- 
land under the Normans," with additions and 
comments by the translator (London, 1845-'57). 
He made valuable contributions to the Monu- 
menta of Pertz, and to the Encylclopadie of 
Ersch and Gruber, and published editions of 
several old authors. 


LAPRAIRIE, a S. W. county of Quebec, 
Canada, bounded N. by the St. Lawrence 
river, opposite the island of Montreal; area, 
173 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 11,861, of whom 
10,154 were of French origin or descent, and 
1,351 Indians. It is traversed by the Cham- 
plain and Province Line divisions of the Grand 
Trunk railway. Capital, Laprairie. 

LAPWIJVG, a plover of the genus vanellus 
(Linn.). The bill is shorter than the head, 




slender, and straight, vaulted and curved at the 
end of both mandibles; wings very long and 
pointed, with the second and third quills equal 
and longest; tail moderate, broad, and even; 
tarsi longer than the middle toe, rather slen- 
der ; anterior toes united at the base, hind toe 
not reaching the ground; claws short and 
slightly curved. About half a dozen species 
are described in Europe, South America, and 
northern Africa. They live in pairs in marshy 
moors and in dry or open districts, collecting 
in winter into flocks on the downs and sea- 
shore; their flight is rapid, and accompanied 
by a fanning noise, which has given them their 
name, and is performed with numerous singu- 
lar evolutions and often repeated notes ; they 
run with great speed on the ground. The food 
consists of worms, slugs, and insects ; the nest 
is made of dried grass, and is placed in a slight 
hollow in the ground, generally containing four 
eggs ; they adopt various stratagems to divert 

Lapwing (Vanellus cristatus). 

attention from the nest and young. The Eu- 
ropean lapwing ( V. cristatus, Meyer) is a very 
handsome bird, of about the size of a pigeon ; 
the upper parts are deep glossy green ; the top 
of the head, crest, fore part of the neck, and 
breast black ; sides of the neck, abdomen, and 
base of the tail white; a long delicate crest 
falls gracefully over the back ; the tail feathers, 
except the outer, terminate in a large black 
space. The females and young have less me- 
tallic lustre, and their tints are less black. It 
is rather shy, but the males are very pugna- 
cious in the love season ; the eggs are greenish, 
spotted with black ; incubation lasts 24 days. 
The flesh, though generally lean and dry, is 
esteemed as food, and the eggs are said to be 
delicious. It is widely distributed throughout 
Europe, northern Asia, and northern Africa. 
Some of the foreign species, as the V. Gaya- 
nensis (Grmel.), have a spur at the fold of the 
wing, but in other respects resemble the Eu- 
ropean lapwing; they are very noisy, like 

most of the plovers. Other lapwings of allied 
genera have fleshy appendages and caruncles 
at the base of the bill, as well as spurs on the 
wings, and defend themselves bravely against 
birds of prey. For characters of the family, 
see PLOVEE. 

LAB, a town of Persia, capital of the prov- 
ince of Laristan, 175 m. S. S. E. of Shiraz, on 
the road to Beloochistan ; pop. about 12,000. 
It contains good houses and one of the finest 
bazaars in Persia. The palace of the governor 
has strong walls and towers, and on an adjoin- 
ing hill are the ruins of a castle. Cotton goods, 
firearms, and powder are manufactured to a 
limited extent. 

LARAMIE, an E. county of Wyoming territory, 
bounded IN. by Montana, E. by Dakota and 
Nebraska, and S. by Colorado ; area, about 
14,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,957. It is in- 
tersected by the North Platte, and watered in 
the south by the South Platte and in the north, 
by the Big Cheyenne, a branch of the Missouri. 
The N. E. part is occupied by a portion of the 
Black Hills. The Union Pacific and Denver 
Pacific railroads traverse the S. part. In 1870 
there were 2 manufactories of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 1 of boots and shoes, 1 of 
jewelry, and 2 railroad repair shops. Capi- 
tal, Cheyenne, which is also the capital of the 

LARAMIE, a city and the county seat of Al- 
bany co., Wyoming territory, on the Union 
Pacific railroad, 7,122 ft. above the level of 
the sea, 57 m. by rail and 40 m. in a direct line 
W. N. W. of Cheyenne; pop. in 1870, 828 ; in 
1874, about 2,500. It is regularly laid out at 
right angles with the railroad. A stream of 
clear cold water, fed by a spring at the foot of 
the Black Hills a few miles E., runs through 
the principal streets. The railroad company 
has erected extensive machine shops, a depot, 
and a large hotel ; and there are also a court 
house and jail, a national bank with a capital 
of $50,000, two schools, five churches, and two 
daily newspapers. It was laid out in April, 
1868, when the railroad reached this point. 

LARASH, or Larache. See EL-AEAISH. 

LARCE1VY (Fr. larcin, Lat. latrocinium, 
theft), the taking and removing, by trespass, 
of personal property, which the trespasser 
knows to belong either generally or specially 
to another, with the intent of depriving him 
of his general or special ownership therein. 
To this definition some authorities, but not all, 
add the further element that the act must be 
done for the sake of some advantage to the 
wrong doer. It cannot indeed be doubted 
that the crime of theft may be fully committed 
although the act be done without any thought 
of one's own advantage, and exclusively for 
the benefit of another; as if he should steal 
bread or clothing for a hungry or a naked man. 
Circumstances like these might affect the moral 
character of the action, and might mitigate the 
punishment inflicted by the court; but they 
could not change the legal character of the 



case. At common law personal property alone 
could be the subject of this offence ; of lands 
there can plainly be no larceny; and as the 
law conceives that everything attached to the 
land or realty partakes of its character, it 
would not be larceny, independently of stat- 
utes, to sever and carry away with felonious 
intent standing grain, or growing grass, or 
fruits from trees; or lead or copper fixtures 
from a building. But if these things were 
severed at one time and carried away at an- 
other after an interval of time sufficient to 
render the two transactions distinctly separate, 
a larceny would be committed ; for the prop- 
erty would become by the severance the per- 
sonal property of the owner of the realty, and 
rest as such in his possession before the as- 
portation. The too narrow and technical con- 
struction of the common law in this respect 
has been remedied by legislative enactments. 
It is also essential to the offence that the 
thing stolen be of some value, though the 
smallest value, less even than that of the 
smallest coin, is sufficient. The common law 
recognizes no value in choses in action, so 
called, that is, in notes and other personal se- 
curities. It esteems them mere evidences 
of valuable rights ; and on the principle that 
their merely material worth is merged in 
their representative value, there can be no lar- 
ceny of such instruments, nor could a suit be 
maintained even for the value of the paper 
upon which they were written, unless they had 
been, by payment or otherwise, rendered void. 
This defect of the common law has also been 
remedied, and, by statutes, bank notes, books 
of account, notes and other valuable securities, 
are rendered subjects of larceny. The princi- 
ple of value is also applied in the case of ani- 
mals known to the law as ferce naturce. It is 
the rule of the law that animals wild by nature 
are not subjects of larceny until they are re- 
claimed, and then only when they are fit for 
food. By the common law therefore there can 
be no larceny of dogs and cats and many other 
animals, however the civil jurisprudence may 
recognize a right of property in them. A ta- 
king and a carrying away are also essential to 
constitute larceny, and an indictment for this 
crime must charge both these acts. If the par- 
ty accused have for only an instant of time 
perfect control over the property, any, even 
the slightest, removal of the whole of it is suf- 
ficient. Thus one was held guilty of larceny 
who had snatched a watch, the guard of which, 
though for an instant free from the person of 
the owner, was while being withdrawn by the 
thief caught and arrested by a button. But 
where a purse became entangled by its strings 
with keys in the owner's pocket, though it 
had been raised from its place and out of the 
pocket, yet there was not a perfect control of 
the purse, and consequently no such carrying 
away as is essential to complete the offence. 
The required ownership may be either general 
or special. Stolen goods restolen from a thief 

may be alleged in an indictment to be either 
his property or that of the true owner. And 
it is said that one may commit larceny of his 
own property, if he take it from the possession 
of his bailee, with the intent to charge him for 
its loss. It is further requisite to the constitu- 
tion of the crime of larceny that there be a co- 
incidence in point of time of two distinct in- 
tents, viz., an intent to trespass on another's 
personal property, and an intent to deprive him 
of his ownership therein. Therefore, if one 
too drunken to conceive an intent to steal take 
property, but surrender it before any such in- 
tent is entertained, there can be no conviction 
for larceny. Nor was this crime held to have 
been committed in a case where, though there 
was a trespass, the property was taken with 
the intention of converting only its use to the 
service of the trespasser. The rule is that the 
trespass must concur in time with the intent 
to steal. This rule may seem to be and perhaps 
is rather technical than reasonable ; but it is 
firmly fixed in criminal jurisprudence, and a 
clear apprehension of it is necessary to the 
right conception of the crime of larceny. 
Trespass is a wrongful act of force done to the 
possession of another. Therefore, in respect 
to larceny, there can be no trespass against an 
owner who has not the possession of the prop- 
erty taken. On this principle rests the famil- 
iar rule of law, that common carriers and oth- 
er bailees cannot commit larceny of the goods 
intrusted to them, so long as this relation ex- 
ists ; for under their contract of bailment they, 
and not the owners, have the legal possession 
of the property, and the essential trespass is 
therefore impossible. For example, the mas- 
ter of a ship, who steals one of several pack- 
ages delivered to him to carry, does not commit 
larceny ; but if he first break the package and 
then steal part of its contents, the offence of 
larceny is complete. The distinction between 
the two cases is clear. It is evident that the 
bailee must be first divested of his legal posses- 
sion before the trespass is possible. In the 
former of the cases proposed, although by 
stealing the package without breaking its bulk 
he destroys the privity of contract between 
himself and his bailor, still the act is commit- 
ted in respect of goods which at the time are 
in his legal possession ; the termination of the 
contract and the act of conversion are simul- 
taneous. But where the package is first broken, 
the act of breaking determines the contract of 
bailment and the right of the bailee to hold the 
property, for that is on the instant revested in 
the owner. Any act of conversion of the goods 
to the bailee's own use, after a trespass upon 
the owner's legal right has destroyed the tres- 
passer's right of possession, completes the of- 
fence of larceny. A distinction is to be ob- 
served between this legal possession and a mere 
custody. Thus servants who have a thing in 
their custody to keep, or clean, or carry, have 
no right of possession ; their possession is their 
master's possession, and he may at his own 



pleasure take the thing from their hands ; there- 
fore they may commit larceny of any goods 
in their custody which came to them by deliv- 
ery from the master, or were otherwise in his 
legal possession. In all cases in which the legal 
possession is rightfully acquired, it is plain that 
trespass and therefore larceny cannot be possi- 
ble. This principle may be practically illus- 
trated by the example of lost goods. The find- 
er may lawfully take such goods into his pos- 
session. He acquires a special property in 
them, defeasible only by the owner, and in vir- 
tue of this has the legal possession, so that, 
though he afterward ascertain who the owner 
is, and with felonious intent convert the goods 
to his own use, he is not guilty of larceny. To 
constitute the crime in such cases, the finder 
must at the time of the finding either know 
the owner, or have means of knowing him, or 
have reason to believe that he may be found, 
and must at that time have the felonious in- 
tent of appropriating the goods to his own use. 
The essential element and criterion of a tres- 
pass is the wrongful force. This force need 
not be exerted physically. It may consist in 
the unjust use of legal process. So it is a suf- 
ficient trespass to entice away an animal by the 
voice, or by offering food. A thief commits a 
trespass when he has gotten the control of an 
article by inspiring fear in the owner. In these 
cases the law refers the surrender of the own- 
ership to the thief's act of force. Not so, 
however, when one is induced by a fraud to 
part with his property. Whatever remedy the 
defrauded owner may have in such a case in 
civil jurisprudence, in the criminal law there 
is no larceny; and though the intent of the 
taker were ever so felonious, yet the owner's 
consent precludes the act of trespass without 
which, as we have seen, the offence is not com- 
plete. So, if one obtains goods by falsely per- 
sonating the party who had ordered them, he 
is not guilty of larceny, whatever be his in- 
tent, for the owner means to pass the property 
in the goods by the delivery. But, on the oth- 
er hand, if he gets the loan of an article, his 
concurrent intent being to steal it, the owner's 
consent avails him nothing, and he commits 
the crime. The same principle applies to those 
cases in which an owner delivers goods with 
the understanding that the property in them is 
to pass when the price is paid, but the taker's 
object is to get possession of them without any 
intention of performing this condition. The 
second intent essential to constitute the crime 
is the intent to deprive the owner of his own- 
ership, or of his whole right of property, in 
distinction from any mere particular interest in 
it. So that he is no thief who takes a horse, 
however wrongfully, with the intention of 
using and then returning him. The common 
law distinction between grand and petit lar- 
ceny, which was determined by the value of 
the thing stolen, is in the United States very 
generally abolished. Compound larceny is lar- 
ceny aggravated by taking the thing stolen 


from the house or person of the party against 
whom the theft is committed. 

LARCH (larix, the ancient name), a genus of 
deciduous coniferous trees, of the pine sub- 
family. They have at times been classed with 
the pines and the firs, from both of which they 
differ, principally in their deciduous clustered 
leaves and simple pollen grains. There are 
but few species, natives of mountainous coun- 
tries in the northern parts of both hemi- 
spheres. The American larch (L. Americana) 
extends from the mountains of Virginia north- 
ward to Hudson bay; in New England and 
Canada it is known as hackmatack, and in 
the southern and western states it is called 
tamarack. In the forests it reaches the height 
of YO ft., but is usually much smaller ; in its 
more northern localities it is found on uplands, 

American Larch (Larix Americana). 

but as it advances south it more frequently 
grows in moist soil ; in cultivation it succeeds 
on almost any soil, but makes the most rapid 
growth in a deep and moist one. It is a slen- 
der, erect tree, with horizontal branches ; the 
primary leaves are scattered ; the secondary 
ones are many in a fascicle, developed early 
in the spring from lateral, scaly, and globular 
buds ; they are linear, about an inch long, of a 
very soft texture, of a light bluish green, which 
becomes in autumn a soft yellow color. The 
sterile catkins are borne near the ends of the 
branches, erect, round, and about a quarter of 
an inch long ; the fertile ones, placed near the 
middle of the branches, are erect, half an inch 
long, of few scales, which at flowering time 
are of a crimson color ; the ripe cone is about 
three fourths of an inch long. Some make a 
distinction between the black and the red larch, 




but the only differences are those which may 
be produced by locality. The wood is very 
close-grained, compact, and remarkable for 
strength and durability ; it is very heavy, and 
almost incombustible except when splintered ; 
on account of these qualities it is valued in 
ship building. As an ornamental tree it is 
inferior to the European larch (L. Europcea), 
which differs mainly in its more pendulous 
branches and the shape and color of its cones, 
which are about one half larger. This species 
is found throughout central Europe, especially 
in the Alps, and is largely cultivated both as 
an ornamental and a timber tree. It is of re- 
markably rapid growth, and large plantations 
of it soon yield profitable returns. The planta- 
tions of the dukes of Athol in Scotland have be- 
come historical as illustrations of extensive and 

European Larch (Larix Europaea). 

profitable arboriculture ; previous to 1826 the 
duke and his predecessors had planted more 
than 14,000,000 larches, occupying over 10,000 
acres. Some plantations of moderate size have 
been set in our western states with prospects 
of success. A number of named varieties, in 
which there is a departure from the typical 
form, are offered in European nurseries. A 
very full account of the species, and of its cul- 
tivation and uses, is given in London's "Ar- 
boretum et Fruticetum," vol. iv. The western 
larch (L. occidentalis) was first discovered by 
Nuttall in the northwest ; it is found along the 
Columbia and other rivers of these regions, 
where it grows to the height of 150 ft. A 
few other species are enumerated, but little is 
known of them. The FALSE LARCH is pseudo- 
larix Kcempferi from China, where it is a favor- 
ite tree. It has an aspect between that of a 

cedar and a larch. Its much longer leaves and 
larger and differently shaped cones distinguish 
it from the larch. The few specimens that are 
in cultivation in this country give promise of 
its success. It is also called the golden pine, a 
translation of its Chinese name. 

L ARCHER, Pierre Henri, a French scholar and 
author, born in Dijon, Oct. 12, 1726, died in 
Paris, Dec. 22, 1812. He early distinguished 
himself by his proficiency in Greek and Eng- 
lish literature. In 1767 he wrote an able re- 
ply to Voltaire's Philosophic de Vhistoire. In 
1778 he was admitted a member of the acad- 
emy of belles-lettres, and on the establishment 
of the imperial university he was appointed 
professor of Greek in that institution ; but he 
was then over 80 years old, and had to discharge 
his duties by deputy. He died from a fall. 
His reputation chiefly rests on the translation 
of Herodotus (Paris, 1786), which is valuable 
for its geographical and chronological notes. 

LARD, the oily portion of hogs' fat, sepa- 
rated from the animal tissues by the process 
called rendering, which is melting it out at the 
temperature of boiling water, and commonly 
with the mixture of a small quantity of water. 
The best and firmest lard is obtained exclusive- 
ly from the fat which surrounds the kidneys ; 
but the common qualities of commerce are de- 
rived from the entire fat of the animal. To 
render this harder various adulterating sub- 
stances are added, as mutton suet, starch, po- 
tato flour, and even caustic lime. Alum also 
is often added with the view of increasing its 
whiteness ; and in England common salt and 
the carbonates of soda and potash have been 
detected in samples of it. The presence of 
water and its quantity may be determined by 
submitting a weighed portion to moderate heat ; 
it escapes in bubbles, and when these cease to 
appear the loss of weight indicates the propor- 
tion. If starch is present, it will cause a solu- 
tion of iodine with which a particle of the 
lard is mixed to turn blue or even black. The 
proportion of the adulterating ingredients 
sometimes amounts to more than 25 per cent., 
of which the chief article is some farinaceous 
substance. Water has been found to the ex- 
tent of 12 per cent. ; alum of 2 to 3 per cent. ; 
and quicklime of 1 per cent. Lard as prepared 
is run into kegs, but the best qualities are col- 
lected in England in bladders, and are distin- 
guished by the name of bladder lard. When 
pure, the article should be firm and white, and 
entirely free from taste or smell; it should 
melt at 212 F. without bubbling, and without 
depositing any sediment; the melted fluid 
should be nearly as clear and transparent as 
water. Its melting point varies from 78 -5 
to 87*5 F. Its composition in 100 parts, as 
given by Braconnet, is: stearine and marga- 
rine 38, oleine 62. Lard is extensively used 
in culinary operations as an article of food ; it 
enters into the composition of pastry, and is 
the material in which fish and other articles 
are commonly fried. In this operation the 




presence of flour is sometimes indicated by the 
substances fried adhering to the pan. In phar- 
macy lard is the material which forms the bulk 
of most of the ointments and cerates, and may 
be used alone as an ointment. A good article 
for this use, that contains no noxious ingre- 
dients, and is not liable to melt in warm 
climates, is difficult to be procured. The ten- 
dency to rancidity may be partly counteracted 
by adding to the melted lard a tincture of ben- 
zoin, of guaiacum, or of poplar buds. The oil 
of pimento and balsam of Peru are said to 
have the same preservative influence. The 
substance is also employed for lubricating ma- 
chinery, for which use it is particularly impor- 
tant that it should be free from glutinous adul- 
terants. By the separation of the stearine and 
margarine from lard the oily product called 
lard oil is obtained. The manufucture of this 
is carried on to an immense extent in Cincin- 
nati and Chicago. Of the stearine are made 
candles, and other portions of lard enter into 
the production of soap. A large portion of 
this oil is sent to France, where by the skill of 
the chemist it is incorporated witb olive oil 
to the amount of 60 or 70 per cent., the mix- 
ture then coming back to be sold as pure olive 
oil. Some interesting properties of lard when 
combined with rosin, in the proportion of 3 
parts by weight of lard to 1 of rosin, were 
communicated by Prof. Olmsted to the Ameri- 
can association at their meeting in New Haven 
in 1850. When melted together, the mixture 
is semi-fluid in cold weather. When applied 
to leather, it renders it very soft and imper- 
meable to air and moisture, and it is particularly 
well adapted for lubricating the pistons of air 
pumps, as it is found to protect the brass from 
corrosion, which the ordinary lubricants in- 
duce. The rosin appears to prevent the for- 
mation of an acid in the lard, and thus the 
compound is well adapted to protect the sur- 
face of any metal from rust. When used for 
iron, a little powdered graphite may be added. 
When the mixture is used instead of other oily 
substances for making soap, the tendency of 
this to become rancid when wet and remaining 
damp is checked. Other uses readily suggest 
themselves. As an illuminating agent in solar 
lamps, Prof. Olmsted found lard oil combined 
with rosin superior for a time to lard oil alone, 
but the wick after a time became clogged, less- 
ening the brilliancy of the light. In the year 
1878-'4, 191,139,000 Ibs. of lard were produced 
in ^the United States, chiefly in Illinois and 
Ohio ; the product in the preceding year was 
218,655,238 Ibs. The chief centres of this in- 
dustry are Chicago and Cincinnati. In 1873 
230,534,207 Ibs. of lard, valued at $21,245,815, 
were exported from the United States, chief- 
ly to Germany, England, and Belgium. The 
amount of lard oil exported was 388,836 gal- 
lons, valued at $298,731. According to the 
census of 1870, the total value of the lard oil 
produced in the United States in that year was 

LARDNER, Dionysins, a British writer on phys- 
ical science, born in Dublin, April 3, 1793, died 
in Paris, April 29, 1859. After four years' ex- 
perience in the office of his father, a solicitor, 
he entered Trinity college, Dublin, in 1812, 
and graduated in 1817. He continued a resi- 
dent member of the university till 1827. Du- 
ring his college career he evinced an extraor- 
dinary aptitude for mathematical studies, and 
gained between 15 and 20 prizes in metaphys- 
ics, pure mathematics, natural philosophy, as- 
tronomy, and moral philosophy. He took or- 
ders, and was for some time chaplain at his 
college ; but he subsequently desisted from all 
clerical functions. During his residence at the 
university he published various mathematical 
works, including an edition of the first six 
books of Euclid, with a commentary, and con- 
tributed a number of articles on mathematical 
subjects to the "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia" 
and the " Encyclopedia Metropolitan," and a 
series on various branches of natural philoso- 
phy to the "Library of Useful Knowledge." 
In 1828 appeared his "Popular Lectures on 
the Steam Engine," for which he received a 
gold medal from the royal Dublin society. 
Upon the establishment of the London univer- 
sity he accepted the professorship of natural 
philosophy and astronomy ; and fixing his resi- 
dence in London in 1828, he published in the 
same year a "Discourse on the Advantages of 
Natural Philosophy," and an " Analytical Trea- 
tise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry." 
This was followed by his " Cabinet Cyclopae- 
dia," commenced in 1830 and continued till 
1844, embracing 132 vols. 12ino. In this work 
he secured the cooperation of the most eminent 
authors of the day. His own contributions 
comprised treatises on arithmetic, geometry, 
heat, hydrostatics and pneumatics, and me- 
chanics. While engaged on this work he wrote 
occasional articles on physical science and its 
application to the useful arts for the periodi- 
cals, and was frequently before parliamentary 
committees as a witness in behalf of railway 
companies. In 1840 he eloped with the wife 
of Captain Heavyside, and came to the United 
States. He was sued for damages, and a ver- 
dict for 8,000 was entered against him. He 
married this lady after her husband's death. 
During five years' residence in America he de- 
livered in the chief cities a series of lectures, 
which were published and have passed through 
many editions. On his return to Europe in 
1845 he settled in Paris, where he resided until 
his death. Dr. Lardner's remaining works are : 
"Railway Economy " (1850) ; "Handbook of 
Natural Philosophy and Astronomy " (2 vols., 
1851-'2); "The Great Exhibition Reviewed" 
(1852); "The Museum of Science and Art," a 
series of popular treatises on the physical sci- 
ences and their application to the industrial 
arts, commenced in 1854, and completed in 12 
vols. 12mo; and handbooks of "Natural Phi- 
losophy and Hydrostatics," of "Pneumatics 
and Heat," of " Natural Philosophy and Me- 



chanics," of "Natural Philosophy, Electricity, 
Magnetism, and Acoustics," and of "Natural 
Philosophy and Optics " (1854-'6). 

LARDNER, Nathaniel, an English divine, born 
at Hawkshurst, Kent, in 1684, died there, July 
24, 1768. He belonged to the Presbyterian 
denomination, but entertained Unitarian opin- 
ions. He was educated at London, Utrecht, 
and Leyden, and was the author of many 
valuable theological works. That on which 
his fame chiefly rests is his " Credibility of the 
Gospel History" (5 vols. 8vo, 1727-'57), which 
is regarded as one of the ablest works upon 
that subject. There are two complete editions 
of Dr. Lardner's works, the last in 10 vols. 8vo 
(London, 1828), and the other in 5 vols. 4to 
(London, 1815). 

LARES, a class of inferior divinities or pro- 
tecting spirits in ancient Rome, domestic and 
public. Their worship was closely connected 
with that of the manes, but only the spirits of 
the good were honored as lares. The house- 
hold lares were headed by the lar familiarity 
who was revered as the founder of the family. 
When the latter changed abode, he followed 
them. The worship of the public lares is said 
to have been introduced by Servius Tullius ; it 
was renewed by Augustus. They were con- 
sidered as the protecting spirits of the city, and 
had a temple in the Via Sacra. There were 
others who were regarded as presiding over the 
several divisions of .the city, over the rural dis- 
tricts, high roads, &c. In great houses the im- 
ages of the household lares had their separate 
apartment, called cedicula or lararium. Their 
worship was simple ; they received offerings in 
patella, especially on the calends, nones, and 
ides of every month. On joyful occasions they 
were adorned with wreaths. (See PENATES.) 

LARIMER, a N. county of Colorado, border- 
ing on Wyoming territory, bounded W. by the 
Medicine Bow mountains, and intersected by 
the South Platte river ; area, about 1,200 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 838. The mountainous re- 
gion in the west abounds in pine timber, and 
numerous streams, among which is the Cache 
d la Poudre, furnish water power. The E. part 
is undulating and adapted to agriculture. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 12,923 bushels 
of wheat, 9,354 of Indian corn, 40,213 of oats, 
26,075 of potatoes, 34,190 Ibs. of butter, and 
3,174 tons of hay. There were 801 horses, 
1,301 milch cows, 3,292 other cattle, 611 sheep, 
and 113 swine; 1 flour mill, and 3 saw mills. 
Capital, Laporte. 

LARISSA (Turk. Yenishehr, new town), a 
town of European Turkey, in the vilayet and 
75 m. S. S. W. of the city of Salonica ; pop. 
about 20,000, more than half Turks, and the 
rest Greeks, Jews, &c. It is situated on a 
gently rising ground on the river Selembria 
(anc. Peneus), crossed here by a bridge of ten 
arches. It is the seat of a Greek archbishop 
and of a Turkish pasha, possesses some manu- 
facturing establishments, and trades in the 
products of the country. Larissa was an im- 

portant town in the ancient Grecian province 
of Thessaly, and celebrated for its bull fights. 
It is said to have been founded by Acrisius, 
king of Argos. In process of time its inhab- 
itants attained considerable power, and became 
lords of the surrounding plain, and the town 
the capital of Pelasgiotis. In the Peloponne- 
sian war they supported Athens against Spar- 
ta. They were afterward reduced to subjec- 
tion, in common with the other Thessalians, 
successively by the Macedonians, the Romans, 
and the Turks. 

LARISTAN, a S. province of Persia, bordering 
on the Persian gulf, and bounded landward by 
Kerman and Fars; area, about 23,000 sq. m. 
In antiquity it formed a part of Carmania. It 
is one of the poorest divisions of the empire, 
consisting mainly of an arid sandy waste, with 
salt steppes and several mountainous elevations, 
the highest of which are Mounts Tcharek, Kor, 
Khalatu, and Nabend. There is a scarcity of 
water, the principal river being the Div-rud, 
and there is little or no agriculture beyond the 
raising of small quantities of wheat, barley, and 
dates. The coast is occupied by Arabs, who 
live under their own sheik, and pay an insig- 
nificant sum for tribute. Capital, Lar. 

LA RIVE. I. Charles Gaspard de, a Swiss 
chemist, born in Geneva, March 14, 1770, died 
there, March 18, 1834. In 1794 he left Switzer- 
land on account of the political disturbances, 
and went to Edinburgh, where he studied 
medicine and chemistry and became president 
of the royal medical society. He returned to 
Geneva in 1799, took charge of an insane 
asylum, and in 1802 was made honorary pro- 
fessor of pharmaceutical chemistry. He also 
became prominent in politics, and was a mem- 
ber of the representative council. He founded 
the museum of natural history, a botanic gar- 
den, and courses of public lectures. He was the 
first on the continent to make known the dis- 
coveries of Davy and other English physicists, 
and to construct a large galvanic battery. Many 
of his writings were published in the Biblio- 
theque Britannique and the BibliotJieque uni- 
verselle of Geneva. II. Angnste de, son of the 
preceding, born in Geneva, Oct. 9, 1801, died in 
Marseilles, Nov. 27, 1873. He studied under his 
father, and became professor in the academy 
of Geneva, a correspondent of the French insti- 
tute, a member of the London royal society, 
and editor of the BibliotJieque universelle. He 
vindicated by his experiments the electro- 
chemical theory in respect to galvanic batter- 
ies. In 1842 he received the Monty on prize 
of 3,000 francs from the French academy of 
sciences for his inventions relating to galvano- 
plasty. In 1864 he was made one of the eight 
foreign associates of the French academy. His 
principal work is Traite d? electricite theorique 
appliquee (3 vols., Paris, 1854-'8). 

LARK, a conirostral bird of the family alau- 
didce, coming in many respects near the finches. 
The family characters are : a short and conical 
bill with the frontal feathers extending along 



the sides ; the first primary very short or want- 
ing ; the tarsi scutellate hefore and hehind ; the 
hind claw very long and nearly straight ; the 
tertials greatly elongated beyond the seconda- 
ries and nearly as long as the primaries. The 
genus alauda (Linn.) belongs to the old world, 

Sky Lark (Alauda arvensis). 

and is found on plains and cultivated lands, 
migrating to the south in winter ; many species 
sing while rising into the air in large circles or 
in a perpendicularly spiral manner to a very 
great height; the flight is undulating; they 
walk and run with ease. The food consists of 
grains, small seeds, grasshoppers, gnats, and 
small worms ; the nest is usually placed in the 
grass on the ground. The sky lark or field 
lark (A. arvensis, Linn.), so celebrated in poetry 
for its song, is very generally distributed over 
Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It is about 
Y| in. long and 15 in extent of wings; the 
general color of the upper parts in both sexes 
is light reddish brown with darker streaks, the 
fore neck the same with brownish black spots, 
the sides streaked with dusky, the lower parts 
dull white, an obscure brownish white band 
over the eye, the quills and the outer tail 
feathers edged with white, and the iris hazel. 
Though the plumage is dull, the form is elegant ; 
its song is not finely modulated nor mellow, 
but it is exceedingly cheerful and prolonged, 
and in early morning sounding from on high 
when the bird is entirely out of sight; this, 
combined with its extraordinary power of 
flight, has associated the lark with the most 
delightful recollections of rural life. It would 
be very difficult to imitate its song musically ; 
it is occasionally uttered when the bird is on 
the ground, but usually as it commences its 
flight ; the character of its different strains is 
such that it is said that one accustomed to 
the song can tell whether the bird be ascend- 
ing, stationary, or descending. When on the 
ground larks are in the habit of crouching, so 
as to be perceived with difficulty ; they rarely 
if ever alight on trees. They begin to pair in 
early spring, at which time their song begins, 

continuing until the middle of autumn; the 
four or five eggs are greenish gray, irregularly 
freckled with darker. The lark rests on the 
ground at night ; its principal enemies are wea- 
sels and the smaller hawks. Its flesh is eaten, 
though inferior to that of the thrushes. It is 
often kept as a cage bird, even in America, as 
it sings nearly as well in confinement as when 
at liberty ; to prevent injury from its soaring 
propensities, it is usual to pad the top of the 
cage. The wood lark (A. arlorea, Linn.) re- 
sembles the preceding in plumage, but is a 
smaller bird, being 6| in. long, with an extent 
of wings of 12 in. ; the habits are like those of 
the sky lark, except that it inhabits woody 
places and frequently perches on trees ; the 
song, though less diversified, is more melodious, 
and has been considered inferior only to that 
of the nightingale ; the eggs are pale yellowish 
brown, with darker lines and freckles. The 
only genus of the family found in North Ame- 
rica is eremophila (Boie), having no spurious 
first primary ; it has a pectoral crescent and 
cheek patches of black. The American sky 
lark or shore lark (E. alpestris, Boie; genus 
otocoris, Bonap.) is about Yi in. long, with an 
extent of wings of 14 in. ; the color above is 
pinkish brown, streaked with dusky on the 
back; a broad band across the crown, patch 
from bill below the eye, crescent on throat, 
and tail feathers black ; frontal band over eye, 
under parts, outer edge of wings, and tail white, 
and chin and throat yellow ; the colors are 
lighter in some specimens than in others, 
especially in winter. The principal peculiarity 
in the plumage consists in two erectile pointed 
tufts of feathers on the sides of the head, some- 
what resembling the ears of the owls. It is 
distributed from Labrador over the prairies 
and desert plains of North America, visiting 
the Atlantic states especially in winter, when 

American Sky Lark (Eremophila alpestris). 

it is very fat and much esteemed as food. Au- 
dubon found this lark breeding on the desolate 
shores of Labrador, making its nest in the 
mosses and lichens in the beginning of July; 
the eggs, four or five, are grayish, with nu- 
merous pale blue and brown spots ; it returns 




to the south in the early part of September. 
The song of the males on the wing is very 
sweet, though comparatively short. The food 
consists of seeds, insects, and larvae, and minute 
crustaceans on the seashore. Birds of the fam- 
ily sylvicolidce, of the genus anthus (Licht.), 

generally called larks, will be described under 

TITLARK; the red-breasted and meadow larks 
are starlings, of the family icteridcB, and will 
be noticed under STARLING and MEADOW LARK. 
LARNAKA, or Larnica (anc. Citium), the prin- 
cipal seaport town of the island of Cyprus, 
23 m. S. E. of Nicosia ; pop. about 10,000. In 
the lower town are the bazaars and the houses 
of the commercial classes, and in the upper 
town are a cathedral and a convent. Between 
these two parts are gardens and some relics 
of antiquity. Larnaka is filthy, like most Le- 
vantine towns, and the climate is unhealthy. 
The exports in 1872 were valued at 26,189, 
about one half madder, and the rest rags, cot- 
ton, sheep and goat skins, barley, and sumach. 
LARNED, Sylvester, an American clergyman, 
born in Pittsfield, Mass., Aug. 31, 1796, died 
in New Orleans, Aug. 31, 1820. He received 
his collegiate education at Middlebury, Yt., 
studied theology at Princeton, N. J., and was 
ordained in July, 1817. His earliest efforts 
showed rare gifts of eloquence. In the autumn 
and winter following his ordination he pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans by the way of Detroit, 
Louisville, and the Mississippi river, preaching 
whenever opportunity offered during the three 
months occupied in the journey. At New 
Orleans his eloquence made a profound im- 
pression. A church was soon organized, and 
a congregation collected, over which he was 
settled as pastor, and a large church edifice 
erected. In the summer of 1820 the yellow 
fever broke out with unusual violence, and he 
was urgently entreated to seek safety in flight ; 
but he refused to desert the post of duty, and 
fell a sacrifice to his fidelity. A memoir of his 

ife, with a collection of his sermons, was pub- 

" 'ied in 1844 by the Rev. R. R. Gurley. 

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Francois, duke de, prince 
of Marsillac, a French author, born in Paris, 
Dec. 15, 1613, died March 17, 1680. He was 
boyhood withdrawn from school to enter 
le military service, and at the age of 16 was 
igaged as an officer at the siege of Casale. 

)f a naturally timid, irresolute, and melancholy 
laracter, as he himself has recorded, and un- 

itted to be a political partisan, he was imme- 
diately involved in the intrigues which distract- 
ed the court. His father was banished to Blois 
in 1632 for some connection with the revolt 

)f Gaston of Orleans, and he himself shared his 
die, being suspected of hostility to Cardinal 
Richelieu on account of his intimacy with the 
friends of Queen Anne of Austria. At Tours 
he met in 1637 the duchess de Chevreuse, then 
in correspondence with the queen and the 
Spanish court. He entered with zeal into the 
intrigues against the cardinal; obtained per- 

mission to return to Paris at the moment when 
the queen, accused of communications with 
Spain, was subjected to a sort of judicial ex- 
amination ; and, in his devotion to her, accept- 
ed her proposal to guide her and Mile. d'Haute- 
f ort in flight to Brussels. He had made prepa- 
rations for this purpose, when he was discov- 
ered to have favored the flight of the duchess 
de Chevreuse into Spain, and was thrown into 
the Bastile. Released after eight days, he went 
into retirement at Yerteuil, where he lived as 
a country gentleman, at the same time corre- 
sponding with the enemies of Richelieu and 
participating in the projects of Cinq-Mars and 
De Thou. He returned to the court after the 
death of the cardinal (1642), and was received 
with kindness, but, being unrewarded by the 
queen and Mazarin, showed his resentment by 
attaching himself to the duke d'Enghien and 
forming a liaison with his sister, the duchess 
de Longueville, his devotion to whom for sev- 
eral years was merely a matter of interest and 
calculation. In the wars and intrigues of the 
Fronde he served the party of the parliament, 
in the defence of Bordeaux (1650), and in the 
faubourg St. Antoine of Paris, and on the con- 
clusion of peace abandoned the pursuits of am- 
bition for a life of repose and reflection. He 
described his occupations thus far as a " busi- 
ness for fools and wretches, with which honor- 
able and well-to-do persons should not mingle." 
To his relations with Mme. de Longueville suc- 
ceeded the friendship of Mme. de Sable", Mme. 
de S6vigne, and Mme. de Lafayette; and his 
house became a resort of those most distin- 
guished for wit and culture, including Boileau, 
Racine, and Moli6re. The first fruit of his 
leisure was his Memoires (Cologne, 1662; 3<J 
ed., 1664), which are among the most interest- 
ing records of the intrigues against Richelieu 
and of the period of the Fronde. Three years 
later he published his Reflexions, ou Sentences 
et maximes morales, a volume of 150 pages 
containing 360 detached thoughts; the first 
book, according to Voltaire, written in Europe 
after the revival of letters in a lively, precise, 
and delicate style, and which contributed more 
than any other to form the taste of the French 
nation. The fundamental and pervading 
thought, that self-love is the motive of all 
human actions, is presented under such various 
aspects and with so much acuteness of obser- 
vation, that every maxim is piquant and sug- 
gestive, though few of them may be true. 
Though his philosophy is not metaphysical, but 
founded on the ways of the world, and though 
his statements are rarely absolute, but applied 
only to the usual conduct of the greater number 
of persons, yet his persistent reduction of vir- 
tues into disguised vices justifies Rousseau in 
pronouncing it a " sad book." The only thing, 
La Rochefoucauld says, that is really injurious 
and justly condemned by men, is not vice, but 
crime. The Maximes passed through five edi- 
tions in the lifetime of the author, and have 
been frequently republished. An excellent 


edition, prepared by Gratel-Duplessis, and ed- 
ited by Sainte-Beuve, appeared in Paris in 1853. 
andra Frederic, duke de, a French statesman and 
philanthropist, born Jan. 11, 1747", died in Paris, 
March 27, 1827. Having fallen under the dis- 
pleasure of Mme. du Barry, he found little in- 
ducement to attend the court of Louis XV., 
but passed his time chiefly on his estate of 
Liancourt, where, under the influence of a visit 
to England in 1769, he established a model 
farm. He also established there a school of 
arts and trades, which became the parent of 
the institution bearing the same name at Cha- 
lons. After the destruction of the Bastile in 
July, 1T89, he was appointed president of the 
national assembly. His efforts to befriend the 
king, after the life of the latter had been men- 
aced, having brought him into danger, he took 
refuge in England, and subsequently travelled 
in the United States and Canada. He returned 
to France in 1799, and for some years lived in 
obscurity in Paris. Still busy with philanthro- 
pic plans, he aided in introducing vaccination 
into France, and inaugurated the system of dis- 
pensaries in Paris. Napoleon admitted him to 
the chamber of peers, under his hereditary title. 
After the restoration he became a member of 
the general council of hospitals, and president 
of the society of Christian morals, in which 
capacity he labored to abolish the slave trade, 
and to suppress lotteries and gaming houses. 
He was inspector general of the school of arts 
and trades at Chalons for 23 years, and a 
member of various public bodies of an indus- 
trial and philanthropic character, from most of 
which he was removed by the ministry in 1823 
in consequence of his liberal political views. 
The academy of sciences testified their disap- 

. probation of this persecution by admitting him 
a member, and the academy of medicine ap- 
pointed him on the commission destined to re- 
place the committee of vaccination, of which 
he had been president, and which had been 
suppressed by government. He subsequently 
inaugurated the system of schools for mutual 
instruction, and established the first savings 
bank in France. He was a voluminous writer, 
and among his publications are works on pau- 
perism, on public instruction, on savings banks, 
on prison discipline, &c. Among the fruits 
of his visit to America were an account of 

.the prisons of Philadelphia (Philadelphia and 
Paris, 1796), and Voyage dans les Etats-Unis 
de VAmerique (8 vols., Paris, 1800). 

LA ROUIKJAQIELELY. I. Henri dn Verger, 
count de, a French royalist, born in the chateau 
of La Durbeliere, near Chatillon-sur-Sevres, 
Poitou, in August, 1772, killed at Nouaille, 
March 4, 1794. He was educated at the mili- 
tary school of Soreze, and after the outbreak 
of the French revolution entered the constitu- 
tional guard of Louis XVI. ; but after the mas- 
sacre of the Swiss guards, Aug. 10, 1792, he 
retired to Poitou, and joined the marquis de 
Lescure in the movement organized among the 


people of La Vendee for the reestablishment 
of the monarchy. The peasantry having de- 
termined to select their leaders from the pro- 
vincial nobility, the parishes around Chatillon 
chose La Rochejaquelein, who joined his fol- 
lowers at St. Aubin in March, 1793, and ad- 
dressed them in a brief speech, ending with 
these words: "I am young and without expe- 
rience ; but I burn to show myself worthy to 
be your commander. Let us meet the enemy. 
If I advance, follow me ; if I retreat, kill me ; 
if I fall, avenge me ! " The peasants, animated 
by his example, on the succeeding day attacked 
the republicans at Aubiers with irresistible 
force ; and having effected a junction with the 
royalists of Anjou, they defeated the enemy in 
several encounters. At the attack upon Thou- 
ars, May 4, La Rochejaquelein, mounted upon 
the shoulders of Texier de Courlai, helped to 
detach with his own hands some of the stones 
from the wall, and was the. first to mount it. 
At the battle of Fontenay, May 16, and the 
siege of Saumur in June, he showed equal in- 
trepidity. In a short time the royalist troops 
had taken 80 pieces of cannon and 12,000 
prisoners, with the loss of fewer than 500 killed 
and wounded. In the less fortunate engage- 
ments at Lucon and Cholet, at which the chief 
Vendean leaders were killed or disabled, La 
Rochejaquelein performed prodigies of valor ; 
and upon the assembling of a new army at 
Varades, on the northern bank of the Loire, 
whither the Vendeans had fled after their de- 
feat at Cholet, he was chosen generalissimo, 
as the only one capable of reviving the spirits 
of the troops. Accepting with reluctance this 
responsible trust, which seemed incompatible 
with his extreme youth, he marched toward 
the coast of Brittany in the expectation of 
meeting there promised succors from England. 
In October he occupied Laval, driving out a 
large body of national guards, and immediately 
after sustained an attack by the republicans un- 
der Lechelle, which resulted in one of the most 
glorious victories for the Vendeans during the 
war. The enemy were driven in scattered par- 
ties as far as Nantes and Rennes, losing 12,000 
men and 19 pieces of cannon. Elated by their 
success, the royalists, 30,000 strong, attacked 
Granville, Nov. 14; but having no artillery 
with which to breach the ramparts, they re- 
ceived an unexpected check and were obliged 
to fall back with the loss of 1,800 men. This 
disaster disconcerted the plans of La Roche- 
jaquelein, who was about to advance to Caen ; 
and to add to his embarrassment a revolt broke 
out among his hastily assembled levies, whom 
it required all their commander's powers of 
persuasion to prevent from returning at once 
to their homes. As it was, a retrograde march 
toward the Loire had to be conceded to them. 
On their way they defeated a large body of 
republicans at Pontorson ; but the latter, hav- 
ing rallied at Dol, Nov. 21, where they were 
largely reenforced, opposed the royalists with 
35,900 men and a numerous park of artillery. 




The first attack of La Rochejaquelein's troops 
was irresistible, and the republicans were driv- 
en several leagues beyond the town. But here 
the left wing of the royalists, disordered in 
pursuit, was assailed in turn by the republican 
right and driven back in confusion into the 
town. A panic seized the whole royalist army, 
and their leader, after vain endeavors to stay 
their flight, threw himself in despair in front 
of a hostile battery in the hope of finding an 
honorable death. But a Yendean priest hold- 
ing a crucifix in his hand succeeded by an 
appeal to their religious enthusiasm in rally- 
ing 2,000 of the fugitives; the combat was re- 
newed, and the republicans were routed in 
all quarters and fled toward Rennes, leaving 
6,000 killed and wounded on the field. They, 
however, almost immediately concentrated at 
a strongly fortified position before Antrain, 
where another battle ensued, resulting in a 
complete victory for the Vendeans. On this 
occasion La Rochejaquelein interfered to pre- 
vent his troops from retaliating upon their 
prisoners the acts of cruelty perpetrated by the 
republicans. Again the Vendean leaders pro- 
jected an advance toward the coast for the pur- 
pose of opening communications with the Eng- 
lish, and again they were compelled by open 
mutiny among their followers to continue their 
march toward the Loire. Arriving at Angers 
Dec. 3, they made a desperate but unsuccessful 
attack upon the place ; and, wearied, disheart- 
ened, and encumbered by an immense and fast 
increasing train of sick and wounded, they re- 
treated toward La Fleche, which La Roche- 
jaquelein entered by a coup de main, and thence 
proceeded to Le Mans. Here they were at- 
tacked, Dec. 12, by 40,000 republicans under 
Marcean, Westermann, and Kleber, and, al- 
though reduced to about 12,000 men fit for 
duty, they confronted their enemies with un- 
flinching resolution. Owing to the skilful dis- 
positions of La Rochejaquelein, the republicans 
were for a long time held in check outside the 
walls ; but gradually they forced their way into 
the town, and for hours a terrible night con- 
flict was maintained within the streets. Final- 
ly the royalists were overpowered and forced 
out of the town in a confused mass. Their 
leader, who had two horses killed under him 
and was wounded and overturned in the tu- 
mult, endeavored in vain to bring them to a 
final stand, and was borne off with his follow- 
ers, who dispersed in various directions, leaving 
their baggage and almost all their artillery in 
the hands of the victors. La Rochejaquelein 
assembled the small remnant of his troops at 
Laval, Dec. 14, whence they moved to Ancenis 
to attempt the passage of the Loire. Here he 
embarked in a small boat with a few of his 
men for the purpose of seizing some large ves- 
sels on the opposite side of the river ; but be- 
ing tracked by a numerous party of republi- 
cans, his men were killed or dispersed, and he 
was obliged to gain refuge in a neighboring 
forest. Thenceforth he led the life of a parti- 
479 VOL. x. 12 

san chief, gathering around him a band of fol- 
lowers, with whom he frequently sallied forth 
from his lurking places upon the republican 
posts. On one of these occasions, his men be- 
ing about to fall upon two republican grena- 
diers, he ran forward exclaiming: " Surrender! 
I give you quarter," and was immediately shot 
dead by one of them. His comrades buried 
him upon the spot, but his body was afterward 
interred in the cemetery of St. Aubin. Al- 
though not 22 years of age at the time of his 
death, he was recognized as the main support 
of the royalist cause in western France. II. 
Lonis du Verger, marquis de, commander of the 
last Yendean army, brother of the preceding, 
born Oct. 30, 1777, killed at Pont-des-Mathis, 
June 4, 1815. He emigrated with his father, 
the marquis de La Rochejaquelein, at the com- 
mencement of the revolution, and, after being 
employed in the military service of Austria and 
England, returned in 1801 to France and mar- 
ried the widow of the marquis de Lescure, one 
of the bravest of the Yendean leaders. He 
aided in the restoration of the Bourbons in 
1814, and after protecting the flight of Louis 
XYIII. to Ghent in March, 1815, landed at St. 
Gilles on the Yendean coast, and aroused the 
ancient enthusiasm of the inhabitants in behalf 
of the royal cause. With a few thousand men 
he encountered an imperial division under Gen. 
Travot near the village of Mathis, and was 
killed at the commencement of the action. 
His son HENRI ATJGUSTE GEORGES (1805-'67) 
was conspicuous during the reign of Louis 
Philippe and the second republic as leader of 
the democratic legitimists, but abandoned his 
party after the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, and 
was made a senator by Napoleon III. III. 
Marie Louise Victoire de Donnissan, marchioness 
de, wife of the preceding, born in Yersailles, 
Oct. 3, 1772, died in Orleans, Feb. 15, 1857. 
With her first husband, the marquis de Les- 
cure, she shared in the horrors attending the 
war in La Yendee, and, after the final rout of 
the royalists at Savenay, escaped almost by a 
miracle. After the death of the marquis de 
La Rochejaquelein she resided in Orleans. Her 
Memoir es (Bordeaux, 1815) present a vivid pic- 
ture of the revolution in the west of France, 
derived from her personal experiences. 


LA ROM A IV A, Marquis. See ROMANA. 

LAROMIGFIERE, Pierre, a French philosopher, 
born at Livignac-le-Haut, Guienne, Nov. 3, 
1756, died in Paris, Aug. 12, 1837. He was a 
member of the congregation of doctrinaires, 
and from 1774 to 1783 taught the classics and 
philosophy in various colleges in the south of 
France. He held the chair of philosophy in 
the college of Toulouse from 1784 till the sup- 
pression of the religious communities in 1790. 
Removing to Paris, he became associated with 
Sieyes and other leaders of the national assem- 
bly. In 1795 he was appointed professor of 
philosophy in the Prytaneum (lyceum of Louis 
XIY.), and in the following year was elected a 



member of the academy of moral and political 
sciences. In 1811 he was called to the chair 
of philosophy in the faculty of letters at Paris. 
His professorship was filled by a deputy from 
1813, but he continued to be librarian of the 
university. His philosophical system is a modi- 
fication of that of Condillac. His principal 
work is the Lemons de philosophic (2 vols., 
1815-'18), which embraces the lectures deliv- 
ered by him in 1811 and 1812, and has been 
from its first appearance adopted for public in- 
struction in France. In later editions other 
important writings have been included. 

LARREY. I. Dominique Jean, baron, a French 
surgeon, born at Baude"an, near Bagnres-de- 
Bigorre, in July, 1766, died in Lyons, July 25, 
1842. He studied medicine and surgery at 
Toulouse, and in 1787 went to Paris, where he 
was appointed surgeon to a frigate, in which 
he visited America. After returning to France 
he became an army surgeon (1792), and served 
during the wars of the revolution. It was at 
this time that he invented the ambulances 
volantes, for which he was rewarded with pro- 
motion to the rank of surgeon-in-chief. In 
1798 he accompanied the French army to 
Egypt, where at Aboukir and Alexandria he 
displayed remarkable bravery. At Austerlitz 
he attended to the wounded under the heaviest 
fire; at Eylau he saved a great number of 
wounded by his daring ; at Essling he killed 
his own horses to make soup for the wounded 
when other food was wanting; on the battle 
field of Wagram he received the title of baron ; 
while in Spain and in Russia he extended the 
same care to the enemy's wounded as to those 
of the French. At the battle of Waterloo he 
was wounded, carried as a prisoner from post 
to post, and was about to be shot when he 
was recognized by a Prussian soldier and led 
to Bliicher, the life of whose son he had for- 
merly saved, and by whom he was sent under 
escort to Louvain. On the restoration he was 
summoned by the emperor Alexander to Paris. 
He was deprived of his pension, but was made 
surgeon-in-chief of the royal guard. His pen- 
sion was restored to him in 1818 by special res- 
olution of the chamber. Napoleon in his will 
left Larrey 100,000 francs. " If the army ever 
erect a monument of gratitude," said the em- 
peror, " it should be to Larrey." Two statues 
were afterward raised to him, one in 1850 in 
the court of the Val-de-Grace hospital, another 
in the hall of the academy of medicine. After 
the revolution of July he travelled in Belgium, 
southern France, and Italy, for the purpose of 
studying epidemics. In 1842 he was engaged 
in inspecting the hospitals in Algeria, where 
he was attacked by pneumonia ; he hastened 
to return to Paris, but died on the road. His 
discoveries relative to gun-shot wounds, chol- 
era, ophthalmia, tetanus, extraction of foreign 
bodies from the brain, and amputations, were 
all of the highest importance. There were 
few branches of surgery on which he did not 
advance new and valuable views. He was the 


author of a great number of medical works 
and memoirs, many of which have been trans- 
lated into foreign languages. II. Felix Hippo- 
lyte, baron, son of the preceding, born in Paris, 
Sept. 18, 1808. He served as a surgeon wi